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Sample records for anoxygenic photosynthesis modulated

  1. Anoxygenic Photosynthesis Controls Oxygenic Photosynthesis in a Cyanobacterium from a Sulfidic Spring

    KAUST Repository

    Klatt, Judith M.

    2015-03-15

    Before the Earth\\'s complete oxygenation (0.58 to 0.55 billion years [Ga] ago), the photic zone of the Proterozoic oceans was probably redox stratified, with a slightly aerobic, nutrient-limited upper layer above a light-limited layer that tended toward euxinia. In such oceans, cyanobacteria capable of both oxygenic and sulfide-driven anoxygenic photosynthesis played a fundamental role in the global carbon, oxygen, and sulfur cycle. We have isolated a cyanobacterium, Pseudanabaena strain FS39, in which this versatility is still conserved, and we show that the transition between the two photosynthetic modes follows a surprisingly simple kinetic regulation controlled by this organism\\'s affinity for H2S. Specifically, oxygenic photosynthesis is performed in addition to anoxygenic photosynthesis only when H2S becomes limiting and its concentration decreases below a threshold that increases predictably with the available ambient light. The carbon-based growth rates during oxygenic and anoxygenic photosynthesis were similar. However, Pseudanabaena FS39 additionally assimilated NO3 - during anoxygenic photosynthesis. Thus, the transition between anoxygenic and oxygenic photosynthesis was accompanied by a shift of the C/N ratio of the total bulk biomass. These mechanisms offer new insights into the way in which, despite nutrient limitation in the oxic photic zone in the mid-Proterozoic oceans, versatile cyanobacteria might have promoted oxygenic photosynthesis and total primary productivity, a key step that enabled the complete oxygenation of our planet and the subsequent diversification of life.

  2. Anthocyanin-dependent anoxygenic photosynthesis in coloured flower petals?

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimir Lysenko; Tatyana Varduny

    2013-01-01

    Chlorophylless flower petals are known to be composed of non-photosynthetic tissues. Here, we show that the light energy storage that can be photoacoustically measured in flower petals of Petunia hybrida is approximately 10-12%. We found that the supposed chlorophylless photosynthesis is an anoxygenic, anthocyanin-dependent process occurring in blue flower petals (ADAPFP), accompanied by non-respiratory light-dependent oxygen uptake and a 1.5-fold photoinduced increase in ATP levels. Using a ...

  3. Anthocyanin-dependent anoxygenic photosynthesis in coloured flower petals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysenko, Vladimir; Varduny, Tatyana

    2013-11-01

    Chlorophylless flower petals are known to be composed of non-photosynthetic tissues. Here, we show that the light energy storage that can be photoacoustically measured in flower petals of Petunia hybrida is approximately 10-12%. We found that the supposed chlorophylless photosynthesis is an anoxygenic, anthocyanin-dependent process occurring in blue flower petals (ADAPFP), accompanied by non-respiratory light-dependent oxygen uptake and a 1.5-fold photoinduced increase in ATP levels. Using a simple, adhesive tape stripping technique, we have obtained a backside image of an intact flower petal epidermis, revealing sword-shaped ingrowths connecting the cell wall and vacuole, which is of interest for the further study of possible vacuole-related photosynthesis. Approaches to the interpretations of ADAPFP are discussed, and we conclude that these results are not impossible in terms of the known photochemistry of anthocyanins.

  4. Anoxygenic Photosynthesis Controls Oxygenic Photosynthesis in a Cyanobacterium from a Sulfidic Spring

    OpenAIRE

    Klatt, Judith M.; Al-Najjar, Mohammad A. A.; Yilmaz, Pelin; Lavik, Gaute; Beer, Dirk de; Polerecky, Lubos

    2015-01-01

    Before the Earth's complete oxygenation (0.58 to 0.55 billion years [Ga] ago), the photic zone of the Proterozoic oceans was probably redox stratified, with a slightly aerobic, nutrient-limited upper layer above a light-limited layer that tended toward euxinia. In such oceans, cyanobacteria capable of both oxygenic and sulfide-driven anoxygenic photosynthesis played a fundamental role in the global carbon, oxygen, and sulfur cycle. We have isolated a cyanobacterium, Pseudanabaena strain FS39,...

  5. Dynamics of anoxygenic photosynthesis in an experimental green sulphur bacteria biofilm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pringault, Olivier; Epping, E.H.G.; Guyoneaud, Remy;

    1999-01-01

    procedure to solve the non-stationary general diffusion equation. A close agreement was found between the areal rates of anoxygenic photosynthesis during the cycling procedure and the steady state before the cycling experiment. For the different layers of the biofilm, the maximum activity was observed after...... 10–12 min of light exposure. After this maximum, sulphide oxidation decreased concomitantly with sulphide concentration, indicating sulphide limitation of anoxygenic photosynthesis. This lag time limits the application of the standard dark–light shift method with a brief light exposure of a few...... seconds and, therefore, the numerical procedure described in this study enables the depth distribution of anoxygenic photosynthesis rates in microbial mats to be determined more accurately....

  6. Evolutionary Divergence of Marine Aerobic Anoxygenic Phototrophic Bacteria as Seen from Diverse Organisations of Their Photosynthesis Gene Clusters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zheng, Q.; Koblížek, Michal; Beatty, J.T.; Jiao, N.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 2013 (2013), s. 359-383. ISSN 0065-2296 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP501/10/0221; GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0110 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria * photosynthesis * genome sequence Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.740, year: 2013

  7. Arsenic(III) fuels anoxygenic photosynthesis in hot spring biofilms from Mono Lake, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulp, T.R.; Hoeft, S.E.; Asao, M.; Madigan, M.T.; Hollibaugh, J.T.; Fisher, J.C.; Stolz, J.F.; Culbertson, C.W.; Miller, L.G.; Oremland, R.S.

    2008-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis indicates that microbial arsenic metabolism is ancient and probably extends back to the primordial Earth. In microbial biofilms growing on the rock surfaces of anoxic brine pools fed by hot springs containing arsenite and sulfide at high concentrations, we discovered light-dependent oxidation of arsenite [As(III)] to arsenate [As(V)] occurring under anoxic conditions. The communities were composed primarily of Ectothiorhodospira-like purple bacteria or Oscillatoria-like cyanobacteria. A pure culture of a photosynthetic bacterium grew as a photoautotroph when As(III) was used as the sole photosynthetic electron donor. The strain contained genes encoding a putative As(V) reductase but no detectable homologs of the As(III) oxidase genes of aerobic chemolithotrophs, suggesting a reverse functionality for the reductase. Production of As(V) by anoxygenic photosynthesis probably opened niches for primordial Earth's first As(V)-respiring prokaryotes.

  8. Seasonal occurrence of anoxygenic photosynthesis in Tillari and Selaulim reservoirs, Western India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kurian

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Phytoplankton and bacterial pigment compositions were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and liquid chromatography- mass spectrometry (LCMS in two freshwater reservoirs (Tillari Dam and Selaulim Dam, which are located at the foothills of the Western Ghats in India. These reservoirs experience anoxia in the hypolimnion during summer. Water samples were collected from both reservoirs during anoxic periods while one of them (Tillari Reservoir was also sampled in winter, when convective mixing results in well-oxygenated conditions throughout the water column. During the periods of anoxia (summer, bacteriochlorophyll (BChl e isomers and isoreneiratene, characteristic of brown sulfur bacteria, were dominant in the anoxic (sulfidic layer of the Tillari Reservoir under low light intensities. The winter observations showed the dominance of small cells of Chlorophyll-b containing green algae and cyanobacteria, with minor presence of fucoxanthin-containing diatoms and peridinin-containing dinoflagellates. Using total BChl-e concentration observed in June, the standing stock of brown sulfur bacteria carbon in the Tillari Reservoir was computed to be 2.4 gC m−2, which is much higher than the similar estimate for carbon derived from oxygenic photosynthesis (0.82 gC m−2. These results highlight the importance of anoxygenic photosynthetic biomass in tropical freshwater systems. The Selaulim Reservoir also displayed similar characteristics with the presence of BChl-e isomers and isorenieratene in the anoxic hypolimnion during summer. Although sulfidic conditions prevailed in the water column below the thermocline, the occurrence of photoautotrophic bacteria was restricted only to mid-depths (maximal concentration of BChl-e isomers was noted at 0.2 % of the surface incident light. This shows that the vertical distribution of photoautotrophic sulfur bacteria is primarily

  9. Seasonal occurrence of anoxygenic photosynthesis in Tillari and Selaulim reservoirs, Western India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kurian

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Phytoplankton and bacterial pigment compositions were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS in two freshwater reservoirs (Tillari Dam and Selaulim Dam, which are located at the foothills of the Western Ghats in India. These reservoirs experience anoxia in the hypolimnion during summer. Water samples were collected from both reservoirs during anoxic periods while one of them (Tillari Reservoir was also sampled in winter, when convective mixing results in well-oxygenated conditions throughout the water column. During the period of anoxia (summer, bacteriochlorophyll (BChl e isomers and isorenieratene, characteristic of brown sulfur bacteria, were dominant in the anoxic (sulfidic layer of the Tillari Reservoir under low light intensities. The winter observations showed the dominance of small cells of Chlorophyll b-containing green algae and cyanobacteria, with minor presence of fucoxanthin-containing diatoms and peridinin-containing dinoflagellates. Using total BChl e concentration observed in June, the standing stock of brown sulfur bacteria carbon in the anoxic compartment of Tillari Reservoir was estimated to be 2.27 gC m−2, which is much higher than the similar estimate for carbon derived from oxygenic photosynthesis (0.82 gC m−2. The Selaulim Reservoir also displayed similar characteristics with the presence of BChl e isomers and isorenieratene in the anoxic hypolimnion during summer. Although sulfidic conditions prevailed in the water column below the thermocline, the occurrence of photo-autotrophic bacteria was restricted only to mid-depths (maximal concentration of BChl e isomers was detected at 0.2% of the surface incident light. This shows that the vertical distribution of photo-autotrophic sulfur bacteria is primarily controlled by light penetration in the water column where the presence of H2

  10. Modulated Chlorophyll "a" Fluorescence: A Tool for Teaching Photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques da Silva, Jorge; Bernardes da Silva, Anabela; Padua, Mario

    2007-01-01

    "In vivo" chlorophyll "a" fluorescence is a key technique in photosynthesis research. The recent release of a low cost, commercial, modulated fluorometer enables this powerful technology to be used in education. Modulated chlorophyll a fluorescence measurement "in vivo" is here proposed as a tool to demonstrate basic photosynthesis phenomena to…

  11. Aerobic Anoxygenic Phototrophic Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Yurkov, Vladimir V.; Beatty, J. Thomas

    1998-01-01

    The aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria are a relatively recently discovered bacterial group. Although taxonomically and phylogenetically heterogeneous, these bacteria share the following distinguishing features: the presence of bacteriochlorophyll a incorporated into reaction center and light-harvesting complexes, low levels of the photosynthetic unit in cells, an abundance of carotenoids, a strong inhibition by light of bacteriochlorophyll synthesis, and the inability to grow photosynt...

  12. Bacterial anoxygenic photosynthesis on plant leaf surfaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Atamna-Ismaeel, N.; Finkel, O.; Glaser, F.; von Mering, Ch.; Vorholt, J. A.; Koblížek, Michal; Belkin, S.; Béja, O.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 2 (2012), s. 209-216. ISSN 1758-2229 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED2.1.00/03.0110; GA ČR GAP501/10/0221 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : phyllosphere * plant * phyllosphere Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.708, year: 2012

  13. Protein dynamics modulated electron transfer kinetics in early stage photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Prasanta; Dua, Arti

    2013-01-28

    A recent experiment has probed the electron transfer kinetics in the early stage of photosynthesis in Rhodobacter sphaeroides for the reaction center of wild type and different mutants [Science 316, 747 (2007)]. By monitoring the changes in the transient absorption of the donor-acceptor pair at 280 and 930 nm, both of which show non-exponential temporal decay, the experiment has provided a strong evidence that the initial electron transfer kinetics is modulated by the dynamics of protein backbone. In this work, we present a model where the electron transfer kinetics of the donor-acceptor pair is described along the reaction coordinate associated with the distance fluctuations in a protein backbone. The stochastic evolution of the reaction coordinate is described in terms of a non-Markovian generalized Langevin equation with a memory kernel and Gaussian colored noise, both of which are completely described in terms of the microscopics of the protein normal modes. This model provides excellent fits to the transient absorption signals at 280 and 930 nm associated with protein distance fluctuations and protein dynamics modulated electron transfer reaction, respectively. In contrast to previous models, the present work explains the microscopic origins of the non-exponential decay of the transient absorption curve at 280 nm in terms of multiple time scales of relaxation of the protein normal modes. Dynamic disorder in the reaction pathway due to protein conformational fluctuations which occur on time scales slower than or comparable to the electron transfer kinetics explains the microscopic origin of the non-exponential nature of the transient absorption decay at 930 nm. The theoretical estimates for the relative driving force for five different mutants are in close agreement with the experimental estimates obtained using electrochemical measurements. PMID:23387626

  14. Photosynthesis-Involvement in Modulation of Ascorbate and Glutathione in Euterpe oleracea Plants Exposed to Drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Antonia Machado BARBOSA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to determine if photosynthesis interferes with the modulation of antioxidant compounds in young Euterpe oleracea plants exposed to water deficiencies. A factorial, completely randomised experimental design was employed, and two water conditions (water deficit and control and four evaluation points (0, 6, 12 and 18 days were used, resulting in a total of eight measurements. The measured parameters included the water content and temperature of the leaf, gas exchange, electrolyte leakage, and antioxidant content. Compared to the control treatment, the net loss of photosynthesis due to water restriction increased by approximately 100% on the 18th day of drought. The ascorbate levels decreased due to water restriction, presenting significant differences on the 12th and 18th day. In some cases, the water deficit increased the glutathione content; however, significant effects were only observed on the 18th day after irrigation suspension. Water deficits had a negative impact on stomatal conductance, net photosynthesis rate, transpiration rate, and instantaneous carboxylation efficiency. Additionally, increases in the glutathione content, electrolyte leakage, and malondialdehyde content were observed; however, the ascorbate content decreased. Our results confirmed that the rate of photosynthesis interfered with the modulation of ascorbate and glutathione in young Euterpe oleracea plants exposed to drought.

  15. Competition for inorganic carbon between oxygenic and anoxygenic phototrophs in a hypersaline microbial mat, Guerrero Negro, Mexico

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finke, Niko; Hoehler, Tori M.; Polerecky, Lubos;

    2013-01-01

    While most oxygenic phototrophs harvest light only in the visible range (400-700 nm, VIS), anoxygenic phototrophs can harvest near infrared light (> 700 nm, NIR). To study interactions between the photosynthetic guilds we used microsensors to measure oxygen and gross oxygenic photosynthesis (gOP)...

  16. Complete Genome Sequence of the Filamentous Anoxygenic Phototrophic Bacterium Chloroflexus aurantiacus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Kuo-Hsiang [Washington University, St. Louis; Barry, Kerrie [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chertkov, Olga [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Dalin, Eileen [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Honchak, Barbara M [Washington University, St. Louis; Karbach, Lauren E [Washington University, St. Louis; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Lapidus, Alla L. [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Larimer, Frank W [ORNL; Mikhailova, Natalia [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pitluck, Sam [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Pierson, Beverly K [University of Puget Sound, Tacoma, WA

    2011-01-01

    Chloroflexus aurantiacus is a thermophilic filamentous anoxygenic phototrophic (FAP) bacterium, and can grow phototrophically under anaerobic conditions or chemotrophically under aerobic and dark conditions. According to 16S rRNA analysis, Chloroflexi species are the earliest branching bacteria capable of photosynthesis, and Cfl. aurantiacus has been long regarded as a key organism to resolve the obscurity of the origin and early evolution of photosynthesis. Cfl. aurantiacus contains a chimeric photosystem that comprises some characters of green sulfur bacteria and purple photosynthetic bacteria, and also has some unique electron transport proteins compared to other photosynthetic bacteria.

  17. Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria and their roles in marine ecosystems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria (AAPB) are characterized by the following physiological and ecological features. A mother AAPB cell can unusually divide into 3 daughter cells and looks like a "Y" during the division. AAPB cells sometimes adhere together forming a free-floating population. Most of the known AAPB species are obligately aerobic. Bacteriochlorophyll a (BChl a) is the only photosynthetic pigment in AAPB, and the number of BChl a molecules in an AAPB cell is much less than that in an anaerobic phototrophic bacterial cell, while the accessorial pigments carotenoids in AAPB are abundant in concentration and diverse in species. In addition to the common magnesium containing BChl a, a zinc-containing BChla was also seen in AAPB. AAPB have light harvesting complexⅠbut usually lack light harvesting complexⅡ. Although AAPB featur in photosynthesis, their growth is not necessarily light- dependent. There is a mechanism controlling the photosynthesis approach. AAPB are widely distributed in marine environments especially in oligotrophic oceans accounting for a substantial portion of the total biomass and playing a unique role in the cycle of carbon and other biogenic elements. Besides the contribution to primary production, AAPB also have great potentials in bioremediation of polluted environments. Studies on AAPB would be of great value in understanding the evolution of photosynthesis and the structure and function of marine ecosystems.

  18. Mixotrophic operation of photo-bioelectrocatalytic fuel cell under anoxygenic microenvironment enhances the light dependent bioelectrogenic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Rashmi; Venkata Subhash, G; Venkata Mohan, S

    2012-04-01

    Electrogenic activity of photo-bioelectrocatalytic /photo-biological fuel cell (PhFC) was evaluated in a mixotrophic mode under anoxygenic microenvironment using photosynthetic consortia as biocatalyst. An acetate rich wastewater was used as anolyte for harnessing energy along with additional treatment. Mixotrophic operation facilitated good electrogenic activity and wastewater treatment associated with biomass growth. PhFC operation documented feasible microenvironment for the growth of photosynthetic bacteria compared to algae which was supported by pigment (total chlorophyll and bacteriochlorophyll) and diversity analysis. Pigment data also illustrated the association between bacterial and algal species. The synergistic interaction between anoxygenic and oxygenic photosynthesis was found to be suitable for PhFC operation. Light dependent deposition of electrons at electrode was relatively higher compared to dark dependent electron deposition under anoxygenic condition. PhFC documented for good volatile fatty acids removal by utilizing them as electron donor. Bioelectrochemical behavior of PhFC was evaluated by voltammetric and chronoamperometry analysis. PMID:22297047

  19. Negative response of photosynthesis to natural and projected high seawater temperatures estimated by pulse amplitude modulation fluorometry in a temperate coral

    OpenAIRE

    Caroselli, Erik; Falini, Giuseppe; Goffredo, Stefano; Dubinsky, Zvy; Levy, Oren

    2015-01-01

    Balanophyllia europaea is a shallow water solitary zooxanthellate coral, endemic to the Mediterranean Sea. Extensive field studies across a latitudinal temperature gradient highlight detrimental effects of rising temperatures on its growth, demography, and skeletal characteristics, suggesting that depression of photosynthesis at high temperatures might cause these negative effects. Here we test this hypothesis by analyzing, by means of pulse amplitude modulation fluorometry, the photosyntheti...

  20. Complete genome sequence of the filamentous anoxygenic phototrophic bacterium Chloroflexus aurantiacus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larimer Frank W

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chloroflexus aurantiacus is a thermophilic filamentous anoxygenic phototrophic (FAP bacterium, and can grow phototrophically under anaerobic conditions or chemotrophically under aerobic and dark conditions. According to 16S rRNA analysis, Chloroflexi species are the earliest branching bacteria capable of photosynthesis, and Cfl. aurantiacus has been long regarded as a key organism to resolve the obscurity of the origin and early evolution of photosynthesis. Cfl. aurantiacus contains a chimeric photosystem that comprises some characters of green sulfur bacteria and purple photosynthetic bacteria, and also has some unique electron transport proteins compared to other photosynthetic bacteria. Methods The complete genomic sequence of Cfl. aurantiacus has been determined, analyzed and compared to the genomes of other photosynthetic bacteria. Results Abundant genomic evidence suggests that there have been numerous gene adaptations/replacements in Cfl. aurantiacus to facilitate life under both anaerobic and aerobic conditions, including duplicate genes and gene clusters for the alternative complex III (ACIII, auracyanin and NADH:quinone oxidoreductase; and several aerobic/anaerobic enzyme pairs in central carbon metabolism and tetrapyrroles and nucleic acids biosynthesis. Overall, genomic information is consistent with a high tolerance for oxygen that has been reported in the growth of Cfl. aurantiacus. Genes for the chimeric photosystem, photosynthetic electron transport chain, the 3-hydroxypropionate autotrophic carbon fixation cycle, CO2-anaplerotic pathways, glyoxylate cycle, and sulfur reduction pathway are present. The central carbon metabolism and sulfur assimilation pathways in Cfl. aurantiacus are discussed. Some features of the Cfl. aurantiacus genome are compared with those of the Roseiflexus castenholzii genome. Roseiflexus castenholzii is a recently characterized FAP bacterium and phylogenetically closely related to Cfl

  1. Interrelated modules in cyanobacterial photosynthesis: the carbon-concentrating mechanism, photorespiration, and light perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Beronda L; Lechno-Yossef, Sigal; Kerfeld, Cheryl A

    2016-05-01

    Here we consider the cyanobacterial carbon-concentrating mechanism (CCM) and photorespiration in the context of the regulation of light harvesting, using a conceptual framework borrowed from engineering: modularity. Broadly speaking, biological 'modules' are semi-autonomous functional units such as protein domains, operons, metabolic pathways, and (sub)cellular compartments. They are increasingly recognized as units of both evolution and engineering. Modules may be connected by metabolites, such as NADPH, ATP, and 2PG. While the Calvin-Benson-Bassham Cycle and photorespiratory salvage pathways can be considered as metabolic modules, the carboxysome, the core of the cyanobacterial CCM, is both a structural and a metabolic module. In photosynthetic organisms, which use light cues to adapt to the external environment and which tune the photosystems to provide the ATP and reducing power for carbon fixation, light-regulated modules are critical. The primary enzyme of carbon fixation, RuBisCO, uses CO2 as a substrate, which is accumulated via the CCM. However RuBisCO also has a secondary reaction in which it utilizes O2, a by-product of the photochemical modules, which leads to photorespiration. A complete understanding of the interplay among CCM and photorespiration is predicated on uncovering their connections to the light reactions and the regulatory factors and pathways that tune these modules to external cues. We probe this connection by investigating light inputs into the CCM and photorespiratory pathways in the chromatically acclimating cyanobacterium Fremyella diplosiphon. PMID:27117337

  2. Photosynthesis in Hydrogen-Dominated Atmospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Bains

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of extrasolar planets discovered in the last decade shows that we should not be constrained to look for life in environments similar to early or present-day Earth. Super-Earth exoplanets are being discovered with increasing frequency, and some will be able to retain a stable, hydrogen-dominated atmosphere. We explore the possibilities for photosynthesis on a rocky planet with a thin H2-dominated atmosphere. If a rocky, H2-dominated planet harbors life, then that life is likely to convert atmospheric carbon into methane. Outgassing may also build an atmosphere in which methane is the principal carbon species. We describe the possible chemical routes for photosynthesis starting from methane and show that less energy and lower energy photons could drive CH4-based photosynthesis as compared with CO2-based photosynthesis. We find that a by-product biosignature gas is likely to be H2, which is not distinct from the hydrogen already present in the environment. Ammonia is a potential biosignature gas of hydrogenic photosynthesis that is unlikely to be generated abiologically. We suggest that the evolution of methane-based photosynthesis is at least as likely as the evolution of anoxygenic photosynthesis on Earth and may support the evolution of complex life.

  3. Differential modulation of photosynthesis, signaling, and transcriptional regulation between tolerant and sensitive tomato genotypes under cold stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Liu

    Full Text Available The wild species Solanum habrochaites is more cold tolerant than the cultivated tomato (S. lycopersicum. To explore the mechanisms underlying cold tolerance of S. habrochaites, seedlings of S. habrochaites LA1777 introgression lines (ILs, as well as the two parents, were evaluated under low temperature (4°C. The IL LA3969 and its donor parent LA1777 were found to be more cold tolerant than the recurrent parent S. lycopersicum LA4024. The differences in physiology and global gene expression between cold-tolerant (LA1777 and LA3969 and -sensitive (LA4024 genotypes under cold stress were further investigated. Comparative transcriptome analysis identified 1613, 1456, and 1523 cold-responsive genes in LA1777, LA3969, and LA4024, respectively. Gene ontology (GO term enrichment analysis revealed that more GO biological process terms were significantly enriched among the up-regulated genes in the two tolerant genotypes, whereas more biological processes were significantly repressed by cold stress in the sensitive one. A total of 92 genes with significant differential expression between tolerant and sensitive genotypes under cold stress were identified. Among these, many stress-related GO terms were significantly enriched, such as 'response to stimulus' and 'response to stress'. Moreover, GO terms 'response to hormone stimulus', 'response to reactive oxygen species (ROS', and 'calcium-mediated signaling' were also overrepresented. Several transcripts involved in hormone or ROS homeostasis were also differentially expressed. ROS, hormones, and calcium as signaling molecules may play important roles in regulating gene expression in response to cold stress. Moreover, the expression of various transcription factors, post-translational proteins, metabolic enzymes, and photosynthesis-related genes was also specifically modulated. These specific modifications may play pivotal roles in conferring cold tolerance in tomato. These results not only provide new

  4. AsHSP17, a creeping bentgrass small heat shock protein modulates plant photosynthesis and ABA-dependent and independent signalling to attenuate plant response to abiotic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xinbo; Sun, Chunyu; Li, Zhigang; Hu, Qian; Han, Liebao; Luo, Hong

    2016-06-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are molecular chaperones that accumulate in response to heat and other abiotic stressors. Small HSPs (sHSPs) belong to the most ubiquitous HSP subgroup with molecular weights ranging from 12 to 42 kDa. We have cloned a new sHSP gene, AsHSP17 from creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera) and studied its role in plant response to environmental stress. AsHSP17 encodes a protein of 17 kDa. Its expression was strongly induced by heat in both leaf and root tissues, and by salt and abscisic acid (ABA) in roots. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants constitutively expressing AsHSP17 exhibited enhanced sensitivity to heat and salt stress accompanied by reduced leaf chlorophyll content and decreased photosynthesis under both normal and stressed conditions compared to wild type. Overexpression of AsHSP17 also led to hypersensitivity to exogenous ABA and salinity during germination and post-germinative growth. Gene expression analysis indicated that AsHSP17 modulates expression of photosynthesis-related genes and regulates ABA biosynthesis, metabolism and ABA signalling as well as ABA-independent stress signalling. Our results suggest that AsHSP17 may function as a protein chaperone to negatively regulate plant responses to adverse environmental stresses through modulating photosynthesis and ABA-dependent and independent signalling pathways. PMID:26610288

  5. Impact of elevated CO2 concentration on dynamics of leaf photosynthesis in Fagus sylvatica is modulated by sky conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been suggested that atmospheric CO2 concentration and frequency of cloud cover will increase in future. It remains unclear, however, how elevated CO2 influences photosynthesis under complex clear versus cloudy sky conditions. Accordingly, diurnal changes in photosynthetic responses among beech trees grown at ambient (AC) and doubled (EC) CO2 concentrations were studied under contrasting sky conditions. EC stimulated the daily sum of fixed CO2 and light use efficiency under clear sky. Meanwhile, both these parameters were reduced under cloudy sky as compared with AC treatment. Reduction in photosynthesis rate under cloudy sky was particularly associated with EC-stimulated, xanthophyll-dependent thermal dissipation of absorbed light energy. Under clear sky, a pronounced afternoon depression of CO2 assimilation rate was found in sun-adapted leaves under EC compared with AC conditions. This was caused in particular by stomata closure mediated by vapour pressure deficit. -- Highlights: • Sky conditions affect the relative impact of elevated CO2 on photosynthesis. • Cloudy skies reduce light use efficiency and carbon gain when CO2 is elevated. • Stimulation of photosynthesis by high CO2 may decline with increasing cloud cover. • High CO2 leads to marked afternoon photosynthesis depression in sun-adapted leaves. -- The stimulatory effect of elevated CO2 concentration on photosynthetic carbon assimilation can be expected to diminish as cloud cover increases

  6. Arsenic toxicity in the water weed Wolffia arrhiza measured using Pulse Amplitude Modulation Fluorometry (PAM) measurements of photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Raymond J; Mekjinda, Nutsara

    2016-10-01

    Accumulation of arsenic in plants is a serious South-east Asian environmental problem. Photosynthesis in the small aquatic angiosperm Wolffia arrhiza is very sensitive to arsenic toxicity, particularly in water below pH 7 where arsenite (As (OH)3) (AsIII) is the dominant form; at pH >7 AsO4(2-) (As(V) predominates). A blue-diode PAM (Pulse Amplitude Fluorometer) machine was used to monitor photosynthesis in Wolffia. Maximum gross photosynthesis (Pgmax) and not maximum yield (Ymax) is the most reliable indicator of arsenic toxicity. The toxicity of arsenite As(III) and arsenate (H2AsO4(2-)) As(V) vary with pH. As(V) was less toxic than As(III) at both pH 5 and pH 8 but both forms of arsenic were toxic (>90% inhibition) at below 0.1molm(-3) when incubated in arsenic for 24h. Arsenite toxicity was apparent after 1h based on Pgmax and gradually increased over 7h but there was no apparent effect on Ymax or photosynthetic efficiency (α0). PMID:27318559

  7. Distribution of aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs in temperate freshwater systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mašín, Michal; Nedoma, Jiří; Pechar, Libor; Koblížek, Michal

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 8 (2008), s. 1988-1996. ISSN 1462-2912 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/05/0307; GA ČR GA206/07/0241; GA AV ČR 1QS500200570; GA MŽP SL/1/6/04 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510; CEZ:AV0Z60870520; CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Keywords : anoxygenic phototrophs * lake čertovo * freshwater systems Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.707, year: 2008

  8. Method for quantification of aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yao; JIAO Nianzhi

    2004-01-01

    Accurate quantification of aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria (AAPB) is of crucial importance for estimation of the role of AAPB in the carbon cycling in marine ecosystems. The normally used method "epifiuorescence microscope-infrared photography (EFM-IRP)"is, however, subject to positive errors introduced by mistaking cyanobacteria as AAPB due to the visibility of cyanobacteria under infrared photographic conditions for AAPB. This error could be up to 30% in the coast of the East China Sea. Such bias should be avoided by either subtracting cyanobacteira from the total infrared counts or using a fiowcytometer equipped with specific detectors for discrimination between cyanobacteria and AAPB.

  9. Genomics of a phototrophic nitrite oxidizer: insights into the evolution of photosynthesis and nitrification

    OpenAIRE

    Hemp, James; Lücker, Sebastian; Schott, Joachim; Pace, Laura A.; Johnson, Jena E; Schink, Bernhard; Daims, Holger; Fischer, Woodward W.

    2016-01-01

    Oxygenic photosynthesis evolved from anoxygenic ancestors before the rise of oxygen ~2.32 billion years ago; however, little is known about this transition. A high redox potential reaction center is a prerequisite for the evolution of the water-oxidizing complex of photosystem II. Therefore, it is likely that high-potential phototrophy originally evolved to oxidize alternative electron donors that utilized simpler redox chemistry, such as nitrite or Mn. To determine whether nitrite could have...

  10. Seasonal occurrence of anoxygenic photosynthesis in Tillari and Selaulim reservoirs, Western India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kurian, S.; Roy, R.; Repeta, D.J.; Gauns, M.; Shenoy, D.M.; Suresh, T.; Sarkar, A.; Narenkar, G.; Johnson, C.G.; Naqvi, S.W.A.

    conditions prevailed in the water column below the thermocline, the occurrence of photo-autotrophic bacteria was restricted only to mid-depths (maximal concentration of BChl e isomers was detected at 0.2% of the surface incident light). This shows...

  11. Diversity of cultivated and metabolically active aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria along an oligotrophic gradient in the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanthon, C.; Boeuf, D.; Dahan, O.; Le Gall, F.; Garczarek, L.; Bendif, E. M.; Lehours, A.-C.

    2011-07-01

    Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic (AAP) bacteria play significant roles in the bacterioplankton productivity and biogeochemical cycles of the surface ocean. In this study, we applied both cultivation and mRNA-based molecular methods to explore the diversity of AAP bacteria along an oligotrophic gradient in the Mediterranean Sea in early summer 2008. Colony-forming units obtained on three different agar media were screened for the production of bacteriochlorophyll-a (BChl-a), the light-harvesting pigment of AAP bacteria. BChl-a-containing colonies represented a low part of the cultivable fraction. In total, 54 AAP strains were isolated and the phylogenetic analyses based on their 16S rRNA and pufM genes showed that they were all affiliated to the Alphaproteobacteria. The most frequently isolated strains belonged to Citromicrobium bathyomarinum, and Erythrobacter and Roseovarius species. Most other isolates were related to species not reported to produce BChl-a and/or may represent novel taxa. Direct extraction of RNA from seawater samples enabled the analysis of the expression of pufM, the gene coding for the M subunit of the reaction centre complex of aerobic anoxygenic photosynthesis. Clone libraries of pufM gene transcripts revealed that most phylotypes were highly similar to sequences previously recovered from the Mediterranean Sea and a large majority (~94 %) was affiliated to the Gammaproteobacteria. The most abundantly detected phylotypes occurred in the western and eastern Mediterranean basins. However, some were exclusively detected in the eastern basin, reflecting the highest diversity of pufM transcripts observed in this ultra-oligotrophic region. To our knowledge, this is the first study to document extensively the diversity of AAP isolates and to unveil the active AAP community in an oligotrophic marine environment. By pointing out the discrepancies between culture-based and molecular methods, this study highlights the existing gaps in the understanding

  12. Artificial photosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew C. Benniston; Anthony Harriman

    2008-01-01

    We raise here a series of critical issues regarding artificial photosynthesis with the intention of increasing awareness about what needs to be done to bring about a working prototype. Factors under consideration include energy and electron transfers, coupled redox reactions, repair mechanisms, and integrated photosystems.

  13. Reintroducing Photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila, F.; Sanz, A.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on conceptual difficulties related to photosynthesis and respiratory metabolism of a Plant Physiology course for undergraduate students that could hinder their better learning of metabolic processes. A survey of results obtained in this area during the last 10 academic years was performed, as well as a specific test, aimed to…

  14. Dramatic Photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Britta

    2003-01-01

    Presents a creative way to teach photosynthesis. Revolves around the growth of a lily planted and stored in the classroom. Combines the concepts of particle theory, transformation, and changes of phase and mass in a holistic approach. The six-step teaching sequence is founded on the notions of challenge, variation, and drama. (Author/NB)

  15. Fraxinus paxiana bark mediated photosynthesis of silver nanoparticles and their size modulation using swift heavy ion irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Hemant; Vendamani, V. S.; Pathak, Anand P.; Tiwari, Archana

    2015-12-01

    Photosynthesis of silver nanoparticles is presented using bark extracts of Fraxinus paxiana var. sikkimensis. The synthesized nanoparticles are characterised by UV-Vis absorption, photoluminescence, powder X-ray diffraction and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. In addition, the bark samples are irradiated with 100 MeV silver ions and the subsequent structural modifications are analyzed. The swift heavy ion irradiated Fraxinus paxiana var. sikkimensis bark is also used for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. It is illustrated that the irradiated bark assists in synthesizing smaller nanoparticles of homogenous size distribution as compared to when the pristine bark is used. The newly synthesized silver nanoparticles are also used to demonstrate the antimicrobial activities on Escherichia coli bacteria.

  16. Manganese and the Evolution of Photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Woodward W.; Hemp, James; Johnson, Jena E.

    2015-09-01

    Oxygenic photosynthesis is the most important bioenergetic event in the history of our planet—it evolved once within the Cyanobacteria, and remained largely unchanged as it was transferred to algae and plants via endosymbiosis. Manganese plays a fundamental role in this history because it lends the critical redox behavior of the water-oxidizing complex of photosystem II. Constraints from the photoassembly of the Mn-bearing water-oxidizing complex fuel the hypothesis that Mn(II) once played a key role as an electron donor for anoxygenic photosynthesis prior to the evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis. Here we review the growing body of geological and geochemical evidence from the Archean and Paleoproterozoic sedimentary records that supports this idea and demonstrates that the oxidative branch of the Mn cycle switched on prior to the rise of oxygen. This Mn-oxidizing phototrophy hypothesis also receives support from the biological record of extant phototrophs, and can be made more explicit by leveraging constraints from structural biology and biochemistry of photosystem II in Cyanobacteria. These observations highlight that water-splitting in photosystem II evolved independently from a homodimeric ancestral type II reaction center capable of high potential photosynthesis and Mn(II) oxidation, which is required by the presence of homologous redox-active tyrosines in the modern heterodimer. The ancestral homodimer reaction center also evolved a C-terminal extension that sterically precluded standard phototrophic electron donors like cytochrome c, cupredoxins, or high-potential iron-sulfur proteins, and could only complete direct oxidation of small molecules like Mn2+, and ultimately water.

  17. Thinking about the evolution of photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, John M; Blankenship, Robert E

    2004-01-01

    Photosynthesis is an ancient process on Earth. Chemical evidence and recent fossil finds indicate that cyanobacteria existed 2.5-2.6 billion years (Ga) ago, and these were certainly preceded by a variety of forms of anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria. Carbon isotope data suggest autotrophic carbon fixation was taking place at least a billion years earlier. However, the nature of the earliest photosynthetic organisms is not well understood. The major elements of the photosynthetic apparatus are the reaction centers, antenna complexes, electron transfer complexes and carbon fixation machinery. These parts almost certainly have not had the same evolutionary history in all organisms, so that the photosynthetic apparatus is best viewed as a mosaic made up of a number of substructures each with its own unique evolutionary history. There are two schools of thought concerning the origin of reaction centers and photosynthesis. One school pictures the evolution of reaction centers beginning in the prebiotic phase while the other school sees reaction centers evolving later from cytochrome b in bacteria. Two models have been put forth for the subsequent evolution of reaction centers in proteobacteria, green filamentous (non-sulfur) bacteria, cyanobacteria, heliobacteria and green sulfur bacteria. In the selective loss model the most recent common ancestor of all subsequent photosynthetic systems is postulated to have contained both RC1 and RC2. The evolution of reaction centers in proteobacteria and green filamentous bacteria resulted from the loss of RC1, while the evolution of reaction centers in heliobacteria and green sulfur bacteria resulted from the loss of RC2. Both RC1 and RC2 were retained in the cyanobacteria. In the fusion model the most recent common ancestor is postulated to have given rise to two lines, one containing RC1 and the other containing RC2. The RC1 line gave rise to the reaction centers of heliobacteria and green sulfur bacteria, and the RC2 line led

  18. Holographic Photosynthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Aref'eva, Irina

    2016-01-01

    There are successful applications of the holographic AdS/CFT correspondence to high energy and condensed matter physics. We apply the holographic approach to photosynthesis that is an important example of nontrivial quantum phenomena relevant for life which is being studied in the emerging field of quantum biology. Light harvesting complexes of photosynthetic organisms are many-body quantum systems, in which quantum coherence has recently been experimentally shown to survive for relatively long time scales even at the physiological temperature despite the decohering effects of their environments. We use the holographic approach to evaluate the time dependence of entanglement entropy and quantum mutual information in the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) protein-pigment complex in green sulfur bacteria during the transfer of an excitation from a chlorosome antenna to a reaction center. It is demonstrated that the time evolution of the mutual information simulating the Lindblad master equation in some cases can be obt...

  19. Diversity of cultivated and metabolically active aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria along an oligotrophic gradient in the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Jeanthon

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic (AAP bacteria play significant roles in the bacterioplankton productivity and biogeochemical cycles of the surface ocean. In this study, we applied both cultivation and mRNA-based molecular methods to explore the diversity of AAP bacteria along an oligotrophic gradient in the Mediterranean Sea in early summer 2008. Colony-forming units obtained on three different agar media were screened for the production of bacteriochlorophyll-a (BChl-a, the light-harvesting pigment of AAP bacteria. BChl-a-containing colonies represented a low part of the cultivable fraction. In total, 52 AAP strains were isolated and the phylogenetic analyses based on their 16S rRNA and pufM genes showed that they were all affiliated to the Alphaproteobacteria. The most frequently isolated strains belonged to Citromicrobium bathyomarinum, and Erythrobacter and Roseovarius species. Most other isolates were related to species not reported to produce BChl-a and/or may represent novel taxa. Direct extraction of RNA from seawater samples enabled the analysis of the expression of pufM, the gene coding for the M subunit of the reaction centre complex of aerobic anoxygenic photosynthesis. Clone libraries of pufM gene transcripts revealed that most phylotypes were highly similar to sequences previously recovered from the Mediterranean Sea and a large majority (~94% was affiliated with the Gammaproteobacteria. The most abundantly detected phylotypes occurred in the western and eastern Mediterranean basins. However, some were exclusively detected in the eastern basin, reflecting the highest diversity of pufM transcripts observed in this ultra-oligotrophic region. To our knowledge, this is the first study to document extensively the diversity of AAP isolates and to unveil the active AAP community in an oligotrophic marine environment. By pointing out the

  20. Diversity of cultivated and metabolically active aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria along an oligotrophic gradient in the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Jeanthon

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic (AAP bacteria play significant roles in the bacterioplankton productivity and biogeochemical cycles of the surface ocean. In this study, we applied both cultivation and mRNA-based molecular methods to explore the diversity of AAP bacteria along an oligotrophic gradient in the Mediterranean Sea in early summer 2008. Colony-forming units obtained on three different agar media were screened for the production of bacteriochlorophyll-a (BChl-a, the light-harvesting pigment of AAP bacteria. BChl-a-containing colonies represented a low part of the cultivable fraction. In total, 54 AAP strains were isolated and the phylogenetic analyses based on their 16S rRNA and pufM genes showed that they were all affiliated to the Alphaproteobacteria. The most frequently isolated strains belonged to Citromicrobium bathyomarinum, and Erythrobacter and Roseovarius species. Most other isolates were related to species not reported to produce BChl-a and/or may represent novel taxa. Direct extraction of RNA from seawater samples enabled the analysis of the expression of pufM, the gene coding for the M subunit of the reaction centre complex of aerobic anoxygenic photosynthesis. Clone libraries of pufM gene transcripts revealed that most phylotypes were highly similar to sequences previously recovered from the Mediterranean Sea and a large majority (~94 % was affiliated to the Gammaproteobacteria. The most abundantly detected phylotypes occurred in the western and eastern Mediterranean basins. However, some were exclusively detected in the eastern basin, reflecting the highest diversity of pufM transcripts observed in this ultra-oligotrophic region. To our knowledge, this is the first study to document extensively the diversity of AAP isolates and to unveil the active AAP community in an oligotrophic marine environment. By pointing out the discrepancies

  1. "The Evolution of Photosynthesis and the Transition from an Anaerobic to an Aerobic World"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankenship, Robert E.

    2005-01-01

    This project was focused on elucidating the evolution of photosynthesis, in particular the evolutionary developments that preceded and accompanied the transition from anoxygenic to oxygenic photosynthesis. Development of this process has clearly been of central importance to evolution of life on Earth. Photosynthesis is the mechanism that ultimately provides for the energy needs of most surface-dwelling organisms. Eukaryotic organisms are absolutely dependent on the molecular oxygen that has been produced by oxygenic photosynthesis. In this project we have employed a multidisciplinary approach to understand some of the processes that took place during the evolution of photosynthesis. In this project, we made excellent progress in the overall area of understanding the origin and evolution of photosynthesis. Particular progress has been made on several more specific research questions, including the molecular evolutionary analysis of photosynthetic components and biosynthetic pathways (2,3, 5, 7, 10), as well as biochemical characterization of electron transfer proteins related to photosynthesis and active oxygen protection (4,6,9). Finally, several review and commentary papers have been published (1, 8, 1 1). A total of twelve publications arose out of this grant, references to which are given below. Some specific areas of progress are highlighted and discussed in more detail.

  2. Picoplankton Bloom in Global South? A High Fraction of Aerobic Anoxygenic Phototrophic Bacteria in Metagenomes from a Coastal Bay (Arraial do Cabo--Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadrat, Rafael R C; Ferrera, Isabel; Grossart, Hans-Peter; Dávila, Alberto M R

    2016-02-01

    Marine habitats harbor a great diversity of microorganism from the three domains of life, only a small fraction of which can be cultivated. Metagenomic approaches are increasingly popular for addressing microbial diversity without culture, serving as sensitive and relatively unbiased methods for identifying and cataloging the diversity of nucleic acid sequences derived from organisms in environmental samples. Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria (AAP) play important roles in carbon and energy cycling in aquatic systems. In oceans, those bacteria are widely distributed; however, their abundance and importance are still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to estimate abundance and diversity of AAPs in metagenomes from an upwelling affected coastal bay in Arraial do Cabo, Brazil, using in silico screening for the anoxygenic photosynthesis core genes. Metagenomes from the Global Ocean Sample Expedition (GOS) were screened for comparative purposes. AAPs were highly abundant in the free-living bacterial fraction from Arraial do Cabo: 23.88% of total bacterial cells, compared with 15% in the GOS dataset. Of the ten most AAP abundant samples from GOS, eight were collected close to the Equator where solar irradiation is high year-round. We were able to assign most retrieved sequences to phylo-groups, with a particularly high abundance of Roseobacter in Arraial do Cabo samples. The high abundance of AAP in this tropical bay may be related to the upwelling phenomenon and subsequent picoplankton bloom. These results suggest a link between upwelling and light abundance and demonstrate AAP even in oligotrophic tropical and subtropical environments. Longitudinal studies in the Arraial do Cabo region are warranted to understand the dynamics of AAP at different locations and seasons, and the ecological role of these unique bacteria for biogeochemical and energy cycling in the ocean. PMID:26871866

  3. GC-MS structural characterization of fatty acids from marine aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rontani, J. F.; Christodoulou, S.; Koblížek, Michal

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 1 (2005), s. 97-108. ISSN 0024-4201 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/05/0307 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic * fatty acids Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.905, year: 2005

  4. Deep-water anoxygenic photosythesis in a ferruginous chemocline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crowe, Sean; Maresca, J. A.; Jones, CarriAyne;

    2014-01-01

    (OAB; 115-120 m in 2010). The size of this community is dependent on the mixing regime within the lake and the depth of the OAB-at ~117 m, the GSB live near their low-light limit. Slow growth and C-fixation rates suggest that the Lake Matano GSB can be supported by sulfide even though it only......, GSB would have contributed little to global ocean primary production, nutrient cycling, and banded iron formation (BIF) deposition in the Precambrian. Before the proliferation of oxygenic photosynthesis, shallower OABs and lower light absorption in the ocean's surface waters would have permitted...

  5. [Anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria from microbial communities of Goryachinsk Thermal Spring (Baikal Area, Russia)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalashnikov, A M; Gaĭsin, V A; Sukhacheva, M V; Namsaraeva, B B; Panteleeva, A N; Nuianzina-Boldareva, E N; Kuznetsov, B B; Gorlenko, V M

    2014-01-01

    Species composition of anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria in microbial mats of the Goryachinsk thermal spring was investigated along the temperature gradient. The spring belonging to nitrogenous alkaline hydrotherms is located at the shore of Lake Baikal 188 km north-east from Ulan-Ude. The water is of the sulfate-sodium type, contains trace amounts of sulfide, salinity does not exceed 0.64 g/L, pH 9.5. The temperature at the outlet of the spring may reach 54 degrees C. The cultures of filamentous anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria, nonsulfur and sulfur purple bacteria, and aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria were identified using the pufLM molecular marker. The fmoA marker was used for identification of green sulfur bacteria. Filamentous cyanobacteria predominated in the mats, with anoxygenic phototrophs comprising a minor component of the phototrophic communities. Thermophilic bacteria Chloroflexus aurantiacus were detected irn the samples from both the thermophilic and mesophilic mats. Cultures ofnonsulfur purple bacteria similar to Blastochloris sulfoviridis and Rhodomicrobium vannielii were isolatd from the mats developing at high (50.6-49.4 degrees C) and low temperatures (45-20 degrees C). Purple sulfur bacteria Allochromatium sp. and Thiocapsa sp., as well as green sulfur bacteria Chlorobium sp., were revealedin low-temperature mats. Truly thermophilic purple and gree sulfur bacteria were not found in the spring. Anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria found in the spring were typical of the sulfuret communities, for which the sulfur cycle is mandatory. The presence of aerobic bacteriochlorophylla-containing bacteria identified as Agrobacterium (Rhizobium) tumifaciens in the mesophilic (20 degrees C) mat is of interest. PMID:25844460

  6. The responses of photosynthesis and oxygen consumption to short-term changes in temperature and irradiance in a cyanobacterial mat (Ebro Delta, Spain)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Epping, E.H.G.; Kühl, Michael

    2000-01-01

    apparent from the areal rates of net oxygen production and point to the shift of M. chthonoplastes from anoxygenic to oxygenic photosynthesis and stimulation of sulphide production and oxidation rates at elevated temperatures. The rate of net oxygen production per unit area of mat at maximum irradiance, J0......We have evaluated the effects of short-term changes in incident irradiance and temperature on oxygenic photosynthesis and oxygen consumption in a hypersaline cyanobacterial mat from the Ebro Delta, Spain, in which Microcoleus chthonoplastes was the dominant phototrophic organism. The mat was...... incubated in the laboratory at 15, 20, 25 and 308C at incident irradiances ranging from 0 to 1000 mmol photons m22 s21. Oxygen microsensors were used to measure steady-state oxygen profiles and the rates of gross photosynthesis, which allowed the calculation of areal gross photosynthesis, areal net oxygen...

  7. Temporal Changes and Altitudinal Distribution of Aerobic Anoxygenic Phototrophs in Mountain Lakes

    OpenAIRE

    Čuperová, Zuzana; Holzer, Evelyn; Salka, Ivette; SOMMARUGA, RUBEN; Koblížek, Michal

    2013-01-01

    Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs (AAPs) are bacteriochlorophyll a-containing microorganisms that use organic substrates for growth but can supplement their energy requirements with light. They have been reported from various marine and limnic environments; however, their ecology remains largely unknown. Here infrared epifluorescence microscopy was used to monitor temporal changes in AAPs in the alpine lake Gossenköllesee, located in the Tyrolean Alps, Austria. AAP abundance was low (103 cells m...

  8. Temperature effects on Microalgal Photosynthesis-Light responses measured by O2 production, Pulse-Amplitude-Modulated Fluorescence, and 14C assimilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hancke, Kasper; Hancke, Torunn; Olsen, Lasse M.;

    2008-01-01

    Short-term temperature effects on photosynthesis were investigated by measuring O2 production, PSII-fluorescence kinetics, and 14C-incorporation rates in monocultures of the marine phytoplankton species Prorocentrum minimum (Pavill.) J. Schiller (Dinophyceae), Prymnesium parvum f. patelliferum ( J...... and 14C assimilation showed a species-specific correlation, with 1.2–3.3 times higher absolute values of PCmax and alfaC when calculated from PAM data for Pry. parvum and Ph. tricornutum but equivalent for Pro. minimum. The offset seemed to be temperature insensitive and could be explained by a lower...

  9. Diverse arrangement of photosynthetic gene clusters in aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Zheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Aerobic anoxygenic photototrophic (AAP bacteria represent an important group of marine microorganisms inhabiting the euphotic zone of the ocean. They harvest light using bacteriochlorophyll (BChl a and are thought to be important players in carbon cycling in the ocean. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic (AAP bacteria represent an important part of marine microbial communities. Their photosynthetic apparatus is encoded by a number of genes organized in a so-called photosynthetic gene cluster (PGC. In this study, the organization of PGCs was analyzed in ten AAP species belonging to the orders Rhodobacterales, Sphingomonadales and the NOR5/OM60 clade. Sphingomonadales contained comparatively smaller PGCs with an approximately size of 39 kb whereas the average size of PGCs in Rhodobacterales and NOR5/OM60 clade was about 45 kb. The distribution of four arrangements, based on the permutation and combination of the two conserved regions bchFNBHLM-LhaA-puhABC and crtF-bchCXYZ, does not correspond to the phylogenetic affiliation of individual AAP bacterial species. While PGCs of all analyzed species contained the same set of genes for bacteriochlorophyll synthesis and assembly of photosynthetic centers, they differed largely in the carotenoid biosynthetic genes. Spheroidenone, spirilloxanthin, and zeaxanthin biosynthetic pathways were found in each clade respectively. All of the carotenoid biosynthetic genes were found in the PGCs of Rhodobacterales, however Sphingomonadales and NOR5/OM60 strains contained some of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway genes outside of the PGC. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our investigations shed light on the evolution and functional implications in PGCs of marine aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs, and support the notion that AAP are a heterogenous physiological group phylogenetically scattered among Proteobacteria.

  10. Photosynthesis and Plant Productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelitch, Israel

    1979-01-01

    Research in photosynthesis is revealing a number of possible ways to increase the efficiency of carbon dioxide assimilation by crops and thus increase yields, a necessity in times of growing population and shrinking agricultural land. (Author/BB)

  11. Computation studies into architecture and energy transfer properties of photosynthetic units from filamentous anoxygenic phototrophs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linnanto, Juha Matti [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Riia 142, 51014 Tartu (Estonia); Freiberg, Arvi [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Riia 142, 51014 Tartu, Estonia and Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of Tartu, Riia 23, 51010 Tartu (Estonia)

    2014-10-06

    We have used different computational methods to study structural architecture, and light-harvesting and energy transfer properties of the photosynthetic unit of filamentous anoxygenic phototrophs. Due to the huge number of atoms in the photosynthetic unit, a combination of atomistic and coarse methods was used for electronic structure calculations. The calculations reveal that the light energy absorbed by the peripheral chlorosome antenna complex transfers efficiently via the baseplate and the core B808–866 antenna complexes to the reaction center complex, in general agreement with the present understanding of this complex system.

  12. Carbon isotopes in photosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficiency of photosynthesis continues to interest biochemists, biologists, and plant physiologists. Scientists interested in CO2 uptake are concerned about the extent to which the uptake rate is limited by such factors as stomatal diffusion and the chemistry of the CO2 absorption process. The fractionation of carbon isotopes that occurs during photosynthesis is one of the most useful techniques for investigating the efficiency of CO2 uptake

  13. Oxygenic photosynthesis without galactolipids

    OpenAIRE

    Awai, Koichiro; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Sato, Naoki

    2014-01-01

    Cyanobacteria, as well as chloroplasts of plants and algae, are the sites of photosynthesis that produces oxygen. Photosynthetic membranes, also known as thylakoid membranes, in these organisms contain galactolipids, without exception, as the major components. Galactolipids are thus believed to be important for photosynthesis or at least for the formation of the flattened shape of thylakoid membranes. The biosynthetic pathway of galactolipids is definitely different in plants and cyanobacteri...

  14. The Evolution of Photosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Review was written by Engelbert Broda, an Austrian Chemist and Physicist, on February the 10th 1976. The merits of the inductive and the deductive approach in tracing the pathways of evolution are discussed. Using the latter approach, it is concluded that photosynthesis followed fermentation as a method of obtaining energy-rich compounds, especially ATP. Photosynthesis probably arose by utilization of membranes for bioenergetic processes. Originally photosynthesis served photophosphorylation (ATP production), later reducing power was also made, either by open-ended, light-powered, electron flow or driven by ATP; ultimate electron donors were at first hydrogen or sulfur compounds, and later water, the last-named capability Was acquired by prokaryotic algae the earliest plants, similar to the recent blue-greens. When free oxygen entered the atmosphere for the first time, various forms of respiration (oxidative phosphorylation) became possible. Mechanistically, respiration evolved from photosynthesis (‘conversion hypotheses’). Prokaryotic algae are probably the ancestors of the chloroplasts in the eukaryotes, In the evolution of the eukaryotes, not much change in the basic processes of photosynthesis occurred.(author)

  15. Spectral Signatures of Photosynthesis. I. Review of Earth Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiang, Nancy Y.; Siefert, Janet; Govindjee; Blankenship, Robert E.

    2007-02-01

    above criteria. Key Words: Photosynthesis-Photosynthetic pigments-Leaf spectral reflectance-Oxygenic photosynthesis-Anoxygenic photosynthesis-Atmospheric radiative transfer-Chlorophyll-Bacteriochlorophyll-Red edge-Radiation spectrum-Photosynthetically active radiation-Light harvesting-Review-Virtual Planetary Laboratory. Astrobiology 7(1), 222-251.

  16. Dynamic reorganization of photosynthetic supercomplexes during environmental acclimation of photosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Minagawa, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Plants and algae have acquired the ability to acclimate to ever-changing environments in order to survive. During photosynthesis, light energy is converted by several membrane protein supercomplexes into electrochemical energy, which is eventually used to assimilate CO2. The efficiency of photosynthesis is modulated by many environmental factors such as quality and quantity of light, temperature, drought, and CO2 concentration, among others. Accumulating evidence indicates that photosynthetic...

  17. Teaching Photosynthesis with ELL Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Susan; Shaw, Edward Lewis, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Although the teaching of photosynthesis occurs yearly in elementary classrooms, one thing that makes it challenging is the inclusion of English language learners (ELLs). This article presents several activities for teaching and assessing of photosynthesis in a third grade classroom. The activities incorporate the photosynthesis content, teaching…

  18. Leaf absorbance and photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurer, Kees

    1994-01-01

    The absorption spectrum of a leaf is often thought to contain some clues to the photosynthetic action spectrum of chlorophyll. Of course, absorption of photons is needed for photosynthesis, but the reverse, photosynthesis when there is absorption, is not necessarily true. As a check on the existence of absorption limits we measured spectra for a few different leaves. Two techniques for measuring absorption have been used, viz. the separate determination of the diffuse reflectance and the diffuse transmittance with the leaf at a port of an integrating sphere and the direct determination of the non-absorbed fraction with the leaf in the sphere. In a cross-check both methods yielded the same results for the absorption spectrum. The spectrum of a Fuchsia leaf, covering the short-wave region from 350 to 2500 nm, shows a high absorption in UV, blue and red, the well known dip in the green and a steep fall-off at 700 nm. Absorption drops to virtually zero in the near infrared, with subsequent absorptions, corresponding to the water absorption bands. In more detailed spectra, taken at 5 nm intervals with a 5 nm bandwidth, differences in chlorophyll content show in the different depths of the dip around 550 nm and in a small shift of the absorption edge at 700 nm. Spectra for Geranium (Pelargonium zonale) and Hibiscus (with a higher chlorophyll content) show that the upper limit for photosynthesis can not be much above 700 nm. No evidence, however, is to be seen of a lower limit for photosynthesis and, in fact, some experiments down to 300 nm still did not show a decrease of the absorption although it is well recognized that no photosynthesis results with 300 nm wavelengths.

  19. Origin of Bacteriochlorophyll a and the Early Diversification of Photosynthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanai Cardona

    Full Text Available Photosynthesis originated in the domain Bacteria billions of years ago; however, the identity of the last common ancestor to all phototrophic bacteria remains undetermined and speculative. Here I present the evolution of BchF or 3-vinyl-bacteriochlorophyll hydratase, an enzyme exclusively found in bacteria capable of synthetizing bacteriochlorophyll a. I show that BchF exists in two forms originating from an early divergence, one found in the phylum Chlorobi, including its paralogue BchV, and a second form that was ancestral to the enzyme found in the remaining anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria. The phylogeny of BchF is consistent with bacteriochlorophyll a evolving in an ancestral phototrophic bacterium that lived before the radiation event that gave rise to the phylum Chloroflexi, Chlorobi, Acidobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Gemmatimonadetes, but only after the divergence of Type I and Type II reaction centers. Consequently, it is suggested that the lack of phototrophy in many groups of extant bacteria is a derived trait.

  20. New Concept of Photosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komissarov Gennadiy Germanovich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The history of the formation of a new concept of photosynthesis proposed by the author is considered for the period since 1966 to 2013. Its essence consists in the following facts: the photosynthetic oxygen (hydrogen source is not water, but exo- and endogenous hydrogen peroxide; thermal energy is a necessary part of the photosynthetic process; along with the carbon dioxide the air (oxygen, inert gases is included in the photosynthetic equation. The mechanism of the photovoltaic (Becquerel effect in films of chlorophyll and its synthetic analogue - phthalocyanine are briefly touched upon in the article. The article presents the works on artificial photosynthesis performed in the laboratory of Photobionics of N.N. Semenov Institute of Chemical Physics, RAS.

  1. New Concept of Photosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Komissarov Gennadiy Germanovich

    2014-01-01

    The history of the formation of a new concept of photosynthesis proposed by the author is considered for the period since 1966 to 2013. Its essence consists in the following facts: the photosynthetic oxygen (hydrogen) source is not water, but exo- and endogenous hydrogen peroxide; thermal energy is a necessary part of the photosynthetic process; along with the carbon dioxide the air (oxygen, inert gases) is included in the photosynthetic equation. The mechanism of the photovoltaic (Becquerel)...

  2. Carotenoids and Photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Hideki; Uragami, Chiasa; Cogdell, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids are ubiquitous and essential pigments in photosynthesis. They absorb in the blue-green region of the solar spectrum and transfer the absorbed energy to (bacterio-)chlorophylls, and so expand the wavelength range of light that is able to drive photosynthesis. This is an example of singlet-singlet energy transfer, and so carotenoids serve to enhance the overall efficiency of photosynthetic light reactions. Carotenoids also act to protect photosynthetic organisms from the harmful effects of excess exposure to light. Triplet-triplet energy transfer from chlorophylls to carotenoids plays a key role in this photoprotective reaction. In the light-harvesting pigment-protein complexes from purple photosynthetic bacteria and chlorophytes, carotenoids have an additional role of structural stabilization of those complexes. In this article we review what is currently known about how carotenoids discharge these functions. The molecular architecture of photosynthetic systems will be outlined first to provide a basis from which to describe carotenoid photochemistry, which underlies most of their important functions in photosynthesis. PMID:27485220

  3. The dawn of photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennazio, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    Photosynthesis may be hold the most important process of plant nutrition, whose essential principles, viz. water, earth, and air, were stated by E. Mariotte and S. Hales between the second half of the seventeenth and the first half of the eighteenth centuries. Subsequently, the pneumatic chemistry demonstrated that the atmospheric air was composed of different kinds of gases. In this context, J. Priestley discovered, in 1772, that the unbreathable air containing high amount of "fixed air" (carbon dioxide) could be made breathable by plants. This English chemist perhaps sensed the importance of this discovery as for the physiology of plant, whilst such importance was clearly perceived by the Dutch physician Jan Ingenhouse. He collected, between 1779 and 1796, a series of experimental results into a reliable hypothesis whose protagonists were air, water and light. Ingenhousz's work was substantiated by the results of the Swiss physiologists Jean Senebier and, in particular, by those of Théodore de Saussure. This latter, in 1804, transformed the hypothesis into a true theory that defined the elaboration of carbon dioxide as nutritional process, and the release of oxygen as a by-product. This theory constituted the ground of photosynthesis for the two successive centuries, distinguished by exciting and splendid research which transformed photosynthesis research into a classic work of scientific genius. PMID:25095597

  4. Ecology of aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria along an oligotrophic gradient in the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Lamy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic (AAP bacteria are photoheterotrophic prokaryotes able to use both light and organic substrates for energy production. They are widely distributed in coastal and oceanic environments and may contribute significantly to the carbon cycle in the upper ocean. To better understand questions regarding links between the ecology of these photoheterotrophic bacteria and the trophic status of water masses, we examined their horizontal and vertical distribution and the effects of nutrient additions on their growth along an oligotrophic gradient in the Mediterranean Sea. Concentrations of bacteriochlorophyll-a (BChl-a and AAP bacterial abundance decreased from the western to the eastern basins of the Mediterranean Sea and were linked with concentrations of chlorophyll-a, nutrient and dissolved organic carbon. Inorganic nutrient and glucose additions to surface seawater samples along the oligotrophic gradient revealed that AAP bacteria were nitrogen- and carbon-limited in the ultra-oligotrophic eastern basin. The intensity of the AAP bacterial growth response generally differed from that of the total bacterial growth response. BChl-a quota of AAP bacterial communities was significantly higher in the eastern basin than in the western basin, suggesting that reliance on phototrophy varied along the oligotrophic gradient and that nutrient and/or carbon limitation favors BChl-a synthesis.

  5. Ecology of aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria along an oligotrophic gradient in the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Lamy

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic (AAP bacteria are photoheterotrophic prokaryotes able to use both light and organic substrates for energy production. They are widely distributed in coastal and oceanic environments and may contribute significantly to the carbon cycle in the upper ocean. To better understand questions regarding links between the ecology of these photoheterotrophic bacteria and the trophic status of water masses, we examined their horizontal and vertical distribution and the effects of nutrient additions on their growth along an oligotrophic gradient in the Mediterranean Sea. Concentrations of bacteriochlorophyll-a (BChl-a and AAP bacterial abundance decreased from the western to the eastern basin of the Mediterranean Sea and were linked with concentrations of chlorophyll-a, nutrient and dissolved organic carbon. Inorganic nutrient and glucose additions to surface seawater samples along the oligotrophic gradient revealed that AAP bacteria were nitrogen- and carbon-limited in the ultraoligotrophic eastern basin. The intensity of the AAP bacterial growth response generally differed from that of the total bacterial growth response. BChl-a quota of AAP bacterial communities was significantly higher in the eastern basin than in the western basin, suggesting that reliance on phototrophy varied along the oligotrophic gradient and that nutrient and/or carbon limitation favors BChl-a synthesis.

  6. Photosynthesis: 1900-1930.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennazio, Sergio

    2007-01-01

    During the second half of the 19th century Julius von Sachs established the main principles of the photosynthetic production of sugars. From then, a growing number of biochemists and physiologists attended to the process, that appeared like a "black box", in order to detect what came in and what went out of it. The English group of Frederick Blackman gave a remarkable contribution in individuating the close connection between temperature, light and CO2 concentration. Later, the great importance of light was stressed by Otto Warburg, who evaluated the radiant energy necessary to the process in terms of quantum theory. The biochemical mechanism of photosynthesis was interpreted by the main European schools on the basis of Adolf Baeyer's suggestion which posed formaldehyde as the core of the process. Formaldehyde's theory hold engaged the biochemists for about fifty years although some voices rose up against it. However, nobody could put forward more coherent theories until the 1940s, when Sam Ruben and Martin Kamen individuated the cyclic pattern of the process. Ultimately, the first thirty years of the 20th century must be seen as a preliminary stage studded with light and shade even if, in spite of controversial trends, several findings of remarkable interest became to disclose that "black box" as we know today chlorophyll photosynthesis. PMID:18278741

  7. Evolution of Oxygenic Photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Woodward W.; Hemp, James; Johnson, Jena E.

    2016-06-01

    The origin of oxygenic photosynthesis was the most important metabolic innovation in Earth history. It allowed life to generate energy and reducing power directly from sunlight and water, freeing it from the limited resources of geochemically derived reductants. This greatly increased global primary productivity and restructured ecosystems. The release of O2 as an end product of water oxidation led to the rise of oxygen, which dramatically altered the redox state of Earth's atmosphere and oceans and permanently changed all major biogeochemical cycles. Furthermore, the biological availability of O2 allowed for the evolution of aerobic respiration and novel biosynthetic pathways, facilitating much of the richness we associate with modern biology, including complex multicellularity. Here we critically review and synthesize information from the geological and biological records for the origin and evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis. Data from both of these archives illustrate that this metabolism first appeared in early Paleoproterozoic time and, despite its biogeochemical prominence, is a relatively late invention in the context of our planet's history.

  8. Fruit photosynthesis in Satsuma mandarin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiratsuka, Shin; Suzuki, Mayu; Nishimura, Hiroshi; Nada, Kazuyoshi

    2015-12-01

    To clarify detailed characteristics of fruit photosynthesis, possible gas exchange pathway and photosynthetic response to different environments were investigated in Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu). About 300 mm(-2) stomata were present on fruit surface during young stages (∼10-30 mm diameter fruit) and each stoma increased in size until approximately 88 days after full bloom (DAFB), while the stomata collapsed steadily thereafter; more than 50% stomata deformed at 153 DAFB. The transpiration rate of the fruit appeared to match with stoma development and its intactness rather than the density. Gross photosynthetic rate of the rind increased gradually with increasing CO2 up to 500 ppm but decreased at higher concentrations, which may resemble C4 photosynthesis. In contrast, leaf photosynthesis increased constantly with CO2 increment. Although both fruit and leaf photosynthesis were accelerated by rising photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD), fruit photosynthesis was greater under considerably lower PPFD from 13.5 to 68 μmolm(-2)s(-1). Thus, Satsuma mandarin fruit appears to incorporate CO2 through fully developed and non-collapsed stomata, and subject it to fruit photosynthesis, which may be characterized as intermediate status among C3, C4 and shade plant photosynthesis. The device of fruit photosynthesis may develop differently from its leaf to capture CO2 efficiently. PMID:26706059

  9. Principles of Natural Photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krewald, Vera; Retegan, Marius; Pantazis, Dimitrios A

    2016-01-01

    Nature relies on a unique and intricate biochemical setup to achieve sunlight-driven water splitting. Combined experimental and computational efforts have produced significant insights into the structural and functional principles governing the operation of the water-oxidizing enzyme Photosystem II in general, and of the oxygen-evolving manganese-calcium cluster at its active site in particular. Here we review the most important aspects of biological water oxidation, emphasizing current knowledge on the organization of the enzyme, the geometric and electronic structure of the catalyst, and the role of calcium and chloride cofactors. The combination of recent experimental work on the identification of possible substrate sites with computational modeling have considerably limited the possible mechanistic pathways for the critical O-O bond formation step. Taken together, the key features and principles of natural photosynthesis may serve as inspiration for the design, development, and implementation of artificial systems. PMID:26099285

  10. Carotenoid charge transfer states and their role in energy transfer processes in LH1-RC complexes from aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šlouf, V.; Fuciman, M.; Dulebo, A.; Kaftan, D.; Koblížek, Michal; Frank, H.A.; Polívka, Tomáš

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 117, č. 38 (2013), s. 10987-10999. ISSN 1520-6106 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP205/11/1164; GA ČR GBP501/12/G055; GA MŠk(CZ) ED2.1.00/03.0110 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : carotenoid * aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs * Roseobacter sp. Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.377, year: 2013

  11. The primary steps of photosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The two important initial steps of photosynthesis-electron transfer and energy transfer occur with great speed and efficiency. New techniques in laser optics and genetic engineering age helping us to understand why. (author). 24 refs. 8 figs

  12. Growth and photosynthesis of lettuce

    OpenAIRE

    Holsteijn, van, H.M.C.

    1981-01-01

    Butterhead lettuce is an important glass-house crop in the poor light period in The Netherlands. Fundamental data about the influence of temperature, light and CO 2 on growth and photosynthesis are important e.g. to facilitate selection criteria for new cultivars. In this study on lettuce emphasis has been given to light interception in the poor light period, the relationship of growth rate and relative growth rate with time, dry weight and soil cover, and to photosynthesis properties of the ...

  13. Modeling the protection of photosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Harbinson, J.

    2012-01-01

    It is hard to overstate the importance of photosynthesis for mankind and the biosphere. It produces the oxygen we breathe and the food we eat, and images of Earth from space show the green of terrestrial vegetation and swirls of marine phytoplankton. To meet our increasing demand for food and energy, it seems inevitable that we will need to increase the efficiency of photosynthesis in plants and algae. There is therefore some urgency in our drive to better understand the operation, regulation...

  14. Photosynthesis: From Natural Towards Artificial

    OpenAIRE

    Chow, W.S.

    2003-01-01

    Photosynthesis, the natural process that yields food, fuel and fibre, spans physical and biological sciences, spatially from atomic scales to the global and temporally from electronic transitions to the evolutionary time frame. Photosynthesis is highly efficient in its primary energy capture, but much less so in terms of conversion to crop yield. The natural photosynthetic system provides fertile ground for exploring and dissecting partial processes that may be mimicked inartificial systems f...

  15. Dark states in quantum photosynthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Kozyrev, S V

    2016-01-01

    We discuss a model of quantum photosynthesis with degeneracy in the light-harvesting system. We consider interaction of excitons in chromophores with light and phonons (vibrations of environment). These interactions have dipole form but are different (are related to non-parallel vectors of "bright" states). We show that this leads to excitation of non-decaying "dark" states. We discuss relation of this model to the known from spectroscopical experiments phenomenon of existence of photonic echo in quantum photosynthesis.

  16. Prokaryotic photosynthesis and phototrophy illuminated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bryant, Donald A; Frigaard, Niels-Ulrik

    2006-01-01

    Genome sequencing projects are revealing new information about the distribution and evolution of photosynthesis and phototrophy. Although coverage of the five phyla containing photosynthetic prokaryotes (Chlorobi, Chloroflexi, Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria and Firmicutes) is limited and uneven......, genome sequences are (or soon will be) available for >100 strains from these phyla. Present knowledge of photosynthesis is almost exclusively based on data derived from cultivated species but metagenomic studies can reveal new organisms with novel combinations of photosynthetic and phototrophic...

  17. Reconstructing the Origin of Oxygenic Photosynthesis: Do Assembly and Photoactivation Recapitulate Evolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, Tanai

    2016-01-01

    Due to the great abundance of genomes and protein structures that today span a broad diversity of organisms, now more than ever before, it is possible to reconstruct the molecular evolution of protein complexes at an incredible level of detail. Here, I recount the story of oxygenic photosynthesis or how an ancestral reaction center was transformed into a sophisticated photochemical machine capable of water oxidation. First, I review the evolution of all reaction center proteins in order to highlight that Photosystem II and Photosystem I, today only found in the phylum Cyanobacteria, branched out very early in the history of photosynthesis. Therefore, it is very unlikely that they were acquired via horizontal gene transfer from any of the described phyla of anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria. Second, I present a new evolutionary scenario for the origin of the CP43 and CP47 antenna of Photosystem II. I suggest that the antenna proteins originated from the remodeling of an entire Type I reaction center protein and not from the partial gene duplication of a Type I reaction center gene. Third, I highlight how Photosystem II and Photosystem I reaction center proteins interact with small peripheral subunits in remarkably similar patterns and hypothesize that some of this complexity may be traced back to the most ancestral reaction center. Fourth, I outline the sequence of events that led to the origin of the Mn4CaO5 cluster and show that the most ancestral Type II reaction center had some of the basic structural components that would become essential in the coordination of the water-oxidizing complex. Finally, I collect all these ideas, starting at the origin of the first reaction center proteins and ending with the emergence of the water-oxidizing cluster, to hypothesize that the complex and well-organized process of assembly and photoactivation of Photosystem II recapitulate evolutionary transitions in the path to oxygenic photosynthesis. PMID:26973693

  18. Community photosynthesis of aquatic macrophytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binzer, T.; Sand-Jensen, K.; Middelboe, A. L.

    2006-01-01

    We compared 190 photosynthesis-irradiance (P-E) experiments with single- and multispecies communities of macroalgae and vascular plants from freshwater and marine habitats. We found a typical hyperbolic P-E relation in all communities and no sign of photosaturation or photoinhibition of photosynt......We compared 190 photosynthesis-irradiance (P-E) experiments with single- and multispecies communities of macroalgae and vascular plants from freshwater and marine habitats. We found a typical hyperbolic P-E relation in all communities and no sign of photosaturation or photoinhibition of...... photosynthesis at the highest irradiances of about 2,000 mmol m22 s21. Macrophyte communities displayed much higher maximum gross production (GPmax), respiration, and light compensation point than separate phytoelements because of the multilayered structure and extensive self-shading in the communities, whereas...

  19. Techniques in studies of photosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of both stable and radioactive isotopes has led to major advances in the understanding of the basic mechanisms of photosynthesis. An early use of isotopic material in photosynthetic investigations was the demonstration using 18O, that O2 evolved in photosynthesis was derived from water rather than from CO2. When the long-lived isotope of carbon, 14C, became available in 1945, its use, coupled with two-dimensional chromatography developed a few years earlier, enabled Calvin and Benson (1948) to devise experiments to elucidate the pathway of photosynthetic 14CO2 fixation, 12 refs, 6 figs, 10 tabs

  20. Formation of the light-harvesting complex I (B870) of anoxygenic phototrophic purple bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drews, G

    1996-09-01

    The light-harvesting (LH) complex I (B870) of anoxygenic photosynthetic purple bacteria is the oligomeric form of its subunit B820 consisting of the low-molecular-weight polypeptides alpha, beta, bacteriochlorophyll (BChl), and carotenoids in the stoichiometric ratio [alpha1 beta1 (BChl2) Crt1-2]n. LHI surrounds the photochemical reaction center (RC). The major absorption band of the LHI complex is species-specific and is found at 870-890 nm; those of the subunit and the monomeric BChl a (dissolved in methanol) absorb at 820 and 770 nm, respectively. The isolated LHI complex can be reversibly dissociated to the B820 subunit or to the polypeptides and pigments by addition of detergents. Reconstitution of the B820 or the functional B870 complex is still possible after partial truncation of the N- or C-terminal regions of the alpha- or beta-polypeptide or of the beta-polypeptide only. The minimal structural requirements for reconstitution of a spectrally wild-type form after truncation of the polypeptides and/or modifications of the BChl molecule are described. The insertion of the LHIalpha- and LHIbeta-polypeptides into the membrane and the in vivo assembly of LHI, studied in a cell-free system and in whole cells of Rhodobacter capsulatus, depend on the primary structures of both polypeptides, BChl, the chaperones DnaK and GroEL, membrane-bound proteins, and energized membranes. Exchanges, deletions, or insertions of amino acyl residues, especially in the conserved region of the N-terminus of the LHIalpha-polypeptide, prevent or reduce the efficiency and stability of the LHI assembly. Therefore, reconstitution of LHI in a detergent micelle does not exactly reproduce the formation of the LHI complex in the photosynthetic membrane in vivo. The N-terminal domains play a crucial role in the formation of the oligomeric protein scaffold and of the pigment array. Facultatively phototrophic bacteria such as Rhodospirillum (Rsp.) rubrum or Rhodobacter (Rba.) capsulatus can

  1. The Path of Carbon in Photosynthesis VI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvin, M.

    1949-06-30

    This paper is a compilation of the essential results of our experimental work in the determination of the path of carbon in photosynthesis. There are discussions of the dark fixation of photosynthesis and methods of separation and identification including paper chromatography and radioautography. The definition of the path of carbon in photosynthesis by the distribution of radioactivity within the compounds is described.

  2. Growth and photosynthesis of lettuce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holsteijn, van H.M.C.

    1981-01-01

    Butterhead lettuce is an important glass-house crop in the poor light period in The Netherlands. Fundamental data about the influence of temperature, light and CO 2 on growth and photosynthesis are important e.g. to facilitate selection criteria for new cultivars. In this study on lettuce

  3. How carotenoids protect bacterial photosynthesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Cogdell, R J; Howard, T. D.; Bittl, R.; Schlodder, E; Geisenheimer, I; Lubitz, W.

    2000-01-01

    The essential function of carotenoids in photosynthesis is to act as photoprotective agents, preventing chlorophylls and bacteriochlorophylls from sensitizing harmful photodestructive reactions in the presence of oxygen. Based upon recent structural studies on reaction centres and antenna complexes from purple photosynthetic bacteria, the detailed organization of the carotenoids is described. Then with specific reference to bacterial antenna complexes the details of the photoprotective role, ...

  4. Chlorophylls, Symmetry, Chirality, and Photosynthesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Mathias O. Senge; Aoife A. Ryan; Kristie A. Letchford; Stuart A. MacGowan; Tamara Mielke

    2014-01-01

    Chlorophylls are a fundamental class of tetrapyrroles and function as the central reaction center, accessory and photoprotective pigments in photosynthesis. Their unique individual photochemical properties are a consequence of the tetrapyrrole macrocycle, the structural chemistry and coordination behavior of the phytochlorin system, and specific substituent pattern. They achieve their full potential in solar energy conversion by working in concert in highly complex, supramolecular structures ...

  5. Studying Photosynthesis by Measuring Fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Jose Francisco; Quiles, Maria Jose

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes an easy experiment to study the absorption and action spectrum of photosynthesis, as well as the inhibition by heat, high light intensity and the presence of the herbicide 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU) on the photosynthetic process. The method involves measuring the chlorophyll fluorescence emitted by intact…

  6. Assessing Photosynthesis by Fluorescence Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saura, Pedro; Quiles, Maria Jose

    2011-01-01

    This practical paper describes a novel fluorescence imaging experiment to study the three processes of photochemistry, fluorescence and thermal energy dissipation, which compete during the dissipation of excitation energy in photosynthesis. The technique represents a non-invasive tool for revealing and understanding the spatial heterogeneity in…

  7. Injecting Inquiry into Photosynthesis Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Irene; Smith, Rebecca; Nielsen, Katherine

    2008-01-01

    This is the story of how a typical middle school lab was transformed into an open-ended inquiry experience through a few small, but very powerful, changes. By allowing students to follow their own questions, the classroom filled with enthusiasm and students learned much more about photosynthesis, respiration, and the scientific processes. The…

  8. Vertical distribution of pelagic photosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngsgaard, Maren Moltke

    As phytoplankton photosynthesis is dependent on light, one might assume that all the phytoplankton activity occurs in the surface of our oceans. This assumption was, however, challenged early in the history of biological oceanography when chlorophyll sampling and fluorescence profiling showed deep...

  9. EPR study of thermally treated Archean microbial mats analogues and comparison with Archean cherts: towards a possible marker of oxygenic photosynthesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourbin, M.; Derenne, S.; Westall, F.; Gourier, D.; Gautret, P.; Rouzaud, J.-N.; Robert, F.

    2012-04-01

    The datation of photosynthesis apparition remains an open question nowadays: did oxygenic photosynthesis appear just before the Great Oxidation Event (GOE) of the atmosphere, 2.3 to 2.4 Gyr ago, or does it originate much earlier? It is therefore of uttermost interest to find markers of oxygenic photosynthesis, applicable to samples of archean age. In order to handle this problem, Microcoleus Chtonoplastes cyanobacteria and Chloroflexus-like non-oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria, were studied using Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, a high sensitivity technique for the study of organic radicals in mature geological samples (coals, cherts, meteorites...). M. chtonoplastes and Chloroflexus-like bacteria were sampled in mats from the hypersaline lake "La Salada de Chiprana" (Spain), an analogue to an Archean environment, and were submitted to accelerated ageing through cumulative thermal treatments. For thermal treatment temperatures higher than 620° C, a drastic increase in the EPR linewidth of the oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria (M. chtonoplastes) occurred, as compared with the anoxygenic photosynthetic one (Chloroflexus-like). The EPR study of a thermally treated mixture of the two bacteria evidences that this linewidth increase is driven by catalytic reaction at high temperatures on an element selectively fixed by M. chtonoplastes. Based on comparative EDS analyses, Mg is a potential candidate for this catalytic activity but its precise role and the nature of the reaction are still to be determined. The EPR study of organic radicals in chert rocks of ages ranging from 0.42 to 3.5 Gyr, from various localities and that underwent various metamorphisms, revealed a dispersion of the signal width for the most mature samples. This comparative approach between modern bacterial samples and Precambrian cherts leads to propose the EPR linewidth of mature organic matter in cherts as a potential marker of oxygenic photosynthesis. If confirmed, this marker

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of Chloroflexus sp. Strain isl-2, a Thermophilic Filamentous Anoxygenic Phototrophic Bacterium Isolated from the Strokkur Geyser, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaisin, Vasil A.; Ivanov, Timophey M.; Kuznetsov, Boris B.; Gorlenko, Vladimir M.

    2016-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequence of the thermophilic filamentous anoxygenic phototrophic bacterium Chloroflexus sp. strain isl-2, which was isolated from the Strokkur geyser, Iceland, and contains 5,222,563 bp with a G+C content of 59.65%. The annotated genome sequence offers the genetic basis for understanding the strain’s ecological role as a phototrophic bacterium within the bacterial community. PMID:27445390

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of Chloroflexus sp. Strain isl-2, a Thermophilic Filamentous Anoxygenic Phototrophic Bacterium Isolated from the Strokkur Geyser, Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaisin, Vasil A; Ivanov, Timophey M; Kuznetsov, Boris B; Gorlenko, Vladimir M; Grouzdev, Denis S

    2016-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequence of the thermophilic filamentous anoxygenic phototrophic bacterium Chloroflexus sp. strain isl-2, which was isolated from the Strokkur geyser, Iceland, and contains 5,222,563 bp with a G+C content of 59.65%. The annotated genome sequence offers the genetic basis for understanding the strain's ecological role as a phototrophic bacterium within the bacterial community. PMID:27445390

  12. A NEW CONCEPT OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS

    OpenAIRE

    Komissarov, Gennadiy

    2014-01-01

    The history of the formation of a new concept of photosynthesis proposed by the author is considered for the period since 1966 to 2013. Its essence consists in the following facts: the photosynthetic oxygen (hydrogen) source is not water, but exoand endogenous hydrogen peroxide; thermal energy is a necessary part of the photosynthetic process; along with the carbon dioxide the air (oxygen, inert gases) is included in the photosynthetic equation. The mechanism of the photovoltaic (Becquerel) e...

  13. Pectin Methylesterification Impacts the Relationship between Photosynthesis and Plant Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M Weraduwage, Sarathi; Kim, Sang-Jin; Renna, Luciana; C Anozie, Fransisca; D Sharkey, Thomas; Brandizzi, Federica

    2016-06-01

    Photosynthesis occurs in mesophyll cells of specialized organs such as leaves. The rigid cell wall encapsulating photosynthetic cells controls the expansion and distribution of cells within photosynthetic tissues. The relationship between photosynthesis and plant growth is affected by leaf area. However, the underlying genetic mechanisms affecting carbon partitioning to different aspects of leaf growth are not known. To fill this gap, we analyzed Arabidopsis plants with altered levels of pectin methylesterification, which is known to modulate cell wall plasticity and plant growth. Pectin methylesterification levels were varied through manipulation of cotton Golgi-related (CGR) 2 or 3 genes encoding two functionally redundant pectin methyltransferases. Increased levels of methylesterification in a line over-expressing CGR2 (CGR2OX) resulted in highly expanded leaves with enhanced intercellular air spaces; reduced methylesterification in a mutant lacking both CGR-genes 2 and 3 (cgr2/3) resulted in thin but dense leaf mesophyll that limited CO2 diffusion to chloroplasts. Leaf, root, and plant dry weight were enhanced in CGR2OX but decreased in cgr2/3. Differences in growth between wild type and the CGR-mutants can be explained by carbon partitioning but not by variations in area-based photosynthesis. Therefore, photosynthesis drives growth through alterations in carbon partitioning to new leaf area growth and leaf mass per unit leaf area; however, CGR-mediated pectin methylesterification acts as a primary factor in this relationship through modulation of the expansion and positioning of the cells in leaves, which in turn drive carbon partitioning by generating dynamic carbon demands in leaf area growth and leaf mass per unit leaf area. PMID:27208234

  14. BOOK REVIEW. Photosynthesis in the Marine Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Arthur Grossman

    2015-01-01

    Photosynthesis in the Marine Environment was written by three experienced marine biologists, Sven Beer, Mats Björk, and John Beardall, who have all worked for many years on photosynthesis and the utilization of inorganic carbon in the marine environment. They have published numerous papers dealing with photosynthesis and the fixation of inorganic carbon by various marine organisms, including seagrasses, macroalgae, and microalgae, and how the environment impacts their photosynthetic activity....

  15. Global Analysis of Photosynthesis Transcriptional Regulatory Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Imam, Saheed; Noguera, Daniel R.; Donohue, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    Photosynthesis is a crucial biological process that depends on the interplay of many components. This work analyzed the gene targets for 4 transcription factors: FnrL, PrrA, CrpK and MppG (RSP_2888), which are known or predicted to control photosynthesis in Rhodobacter sphaeroides. Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq) identified 52 operons under direct control of FnrL, illustrating its regulatory role in photosynthesis, iron homeostasis, nitrogen met...

  16. Global analysis of photosynthesis transcriptional regulatory networks.

    OpenAIRE

    Saheed Imam; Noguera, Daniel R.; Donohue, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    Photosynthesis is a crucial biological process that depends on the interplay of many components. This work analyzed the gene targets for 4 transcription factors: FnrL, PrrA, CrpK and MppG (RSP_2888), which are known or predicted to control photosynthesis in Rhodobacter sphaeroides. Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq) identified 52 operons under direct control of FnrL, illustrating its regulatory role in photosynthesis, iron homeostasis, nitrogen met...

  17. Photosynthesis for Food, Fuel and the Future

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Congming Lu

    2010-01-01

    @@ Photosynthesis is a process that converts solar energy to chemical energy in many different organisms, ranging from plants to bacteria. Photosynthesis provides all the food we eat and all the fossil fuel we use. Photosynthesis has long been studied in order to understand its underlying mechanisms and then to apply this knowledge to the production of energy and food for the needs of our society.

  18. Understanding of photosynthesis among primary school pupils

    OpenAIRE

    Murn, Špela

    2014-01-01

    Photosynthesis is considered one of the most difficult subjects for pupils. It is very complex topic, which is very difficult to understand. The goal of our research was to examine the knowledge on photosynthesis of the pupils of the primary school, their attitude towrds it, and whether there were any misconceptions about photosynthesis. The research was conducted on a sample of 120 pupils in Dolenjske Toplice primary school. The questionnaire consisted of 19 questions. In the first part o...

  19. MEASUREMENT AND MODELLING AVERAGE PHOTOSYNTHESIS OF MAIZE

    OpenAIRE

    ZS LÕKE

    2005-01-01

    The photosynthesis of fully developed maize was investigated in the Agrometeorological Research Station Keszthely, in 2000. We used LI-6400 type measurement equipment to locate measurement points where the intensity of photosynthesis mostly nears the average. So later we could obtain average photosynthetic activities featuring the crop, with only one measurement. To check average photosynthesis of maize we used Goudriaan’s simulation model (CMSM) as well to calculate values on cloudless sampl...

  20. Influence of selected environmental factors on the abundance of aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs in peat-bog lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, Sylwia; Lew, Marcin; Koblížek, Michal

    2016-07-01

    Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs (AAPs) are photoheterotrophic prokaryotes that are widespread in many limnic and marine environments. So far, little is known about their distribution in peat-bog lakes. Seventeen peat-bog lakes were sampled during three summer seasons 2009, 2011, and 2012, and the vertical distribution of AAPs was determined by infrared epifluorescence microscopy. The analysis demonstrated that in the surface layers of the studied lakes, AAP abundance ranged from 0.3 to 12.04 × 10(5) cells mL(-1), which represents water column with minimum numbers in the anoxic bottom waters. We have shown that the AAP abundance was significantly positively correlated with the water pH, and the highest proportion of photoheterotrophs was found in peat-bog lakes with a pH between 6.7 and 7.6. Our results demonstrated an influence of water acidity on the abundance of AAPs, which may reflect a fundamental difference in the microbial composition between acidic and pH neutral peat-bog lakes. PMID:27032635

  1. Carotenoid charge transfer states and their role in energy transfer processes in LH1-RC complexes from aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šlouf, Václav; Fuciman, Marcel; Dulebo, Alexander; Kaftan, David; Koblížek, Michal; Frank, Harry A; Polívka, Tomáš

    2013-09-26

    Light-harvesting complexes ensure necessary flow of excitation energy into photosynthetic reaction centers. In the present work, transient absorption measurements were performed on LH1-RC complexes isolated from two aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs (AAPs), Roseobacter sp. COL2P containing the carotenoid spheroidenone, and Erythrobacter sp. NAP1 which contains the carotenoids zeaxanthin and bacteriorubixanthinal. We show that the spectroscopic data from the LH1-RC complex of Roseobacter sp. COL2P are very similar to those previously reported for Rhodobacter sphaeroides, including the transient absorption spectrum originating from the intramolecular charge-transfer (ICT) state of spheroidenone. Although the ICT state is also populated in LH1-RC complexes of Erythrobacter sp. NAP1, its appearance is probably related to the polarity of the bacteriorubixanthinal environment rather than to the specific configuration of the carotenoid, which we hypothesize is responsible for populating the ICT state of spheroidenone in LH1-RC of Roseobacter sp. COL2P. The population of the ICT state enables efficient S1/ICT-to-bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) energy transfer which would otherwise be largely inhibited for spheroidenone and bacteriorubixanthinal due to their low energy S1 states. In addition, the triplet states of these carotenoids appear well-tuned for efficient quenching of singlet oxygen or BChl-a triplets, which is of vital importance for oxygen-dependent organisms such as AAPs. PMID:23130956

  2. General lighting requirements for photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Donald R.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents data that suggests some criteria for evaluating growth chamber and greenhouse lighting. A review of the general lighting requirements for photosynthesis reveals that four aspects of light are important: irradiance, quality, timing, and duration. Effective lighting should produce plants that perform according to the goals of the project. For example, for physiological studies the plants probably should exhibit morphology and physiology similar to that found in field-grown plants. For other projects the criteria will obviously be set according to the reason for raising the plants.

  3. Photochemistry and enzymology of photosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radmer, R.

    1979-07-30

    In the first task, a specially designed mass spectrometer system monitors the gas exchange occurring in response to single short flashes of light. This apparatus will be primarily used to study photosystem II donor reactions, such as the photooxidation of hydroxylamine, hydrazine, and hydrogen peroxide. This technique will also be used to study the light-induced exchange of O/sub 2/ and CO/sub 2/ in algae. The second task, biochemical studies, will focus on the role of chloroplast copper in photosynthesis. We propose to isolate, purify, and characterize the chloroplast copper enzyme polyphenol oxidase, and attempt to elucidate its role in photosynthesis. These studies will be integrated with a new program devoted to the biochemical response of the photosynthetic membrane to stress. The third task is a series of studies on the light-harvesting and electron-transport mechanisms of C/sub 4/ plants. This program will address three basic problems: (1) the effect of different preparative procedures on various photosynthetic reactions, with particular emphasis on photosystem II reactions in corn bundle sheath chloroplasts; (2) the development and testing of photosystem II assays; and (3) studies of the stoichiometry of electron carriers in bundle sheath chloroplasts, and whether cyclic phosphorylation could be a major pathway in this tissue.

  4. Chlorophylls, Symmetry, Chirality, and Photosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias O. Senge

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Chlorophylls are a fundamental class of tetrapyrroles and function as the central reaction center, accessory and photoprotective pigments in photosynthesis. Their unique individual photochemical properties are a consequence of the tetrapyrrole macrocycle, the structural chemistry and coordination behavior of the phytochlorin system, and specific substituent pattern. They achieve their full potential in solar energy conversion by working in concert in highly complex, supramolecular structures such as the reaction centers and light-harvesting complexes of photobiology. The biochemical function of these structures depends on the controlled interplay of structural and functional principles of the apoprotein and pigment cofactors. Chlorophylls and bacteriochlorophylls are optically active molecules with several chiral centers, which are necessary for their natural biological function and the assembly of their supramolecular complexes. However, in many cases the exact role of chromophore stereochemistry in the biological context is unknown. This review gives an overview of chlorophyll research in terms of basic function, biosynthesis and their functional and structural role in photosynthesis. It highlights aspects of chirality and symmetry of chlorophylls to elicit further interest in their role in nature.

  5. Photosynthesis: The Path of Carbon in Photosynthesis and the Primary Quantum Conversion Act of Photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvin, Melvin

    1952-11-22

    This constitutes a review of the path of carbon in photosynthesis as it has been elaborated through the summer of 1952, with particular attention focused on those aspects of carbon metabolism and its variation which have led to some direct information regarding the primary quantum conversion act. An introduction to the arguments which have been adduced in support of the idea that chlorophyll is a physical sensitizer handing its excitation on to thioctic acid, a compound containing a strained 1, 2 -dithiolcyclopentane ring, is given.

  6. Photosynthesis and Respiration in a Jar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttner, Joseph K.

    2000-01-01

    Describes an activity that reduces the biosphere to a water-filled jar to simulate the relationship between cellular respiration, photosynthesis, and energy. Allows students in high school biology and related courses to explore quantitatively cellular respiration and photosynthesis in almost any laboratory setting. (ASK)

  7. Modelling Photosynthesis to Increase Conceptual Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Pauline; Tronson, Deidre; Ritchie, Raymond J.

    2006-01-01

    Biology students in their first year at university have difficulty understanding the abstract concepts of photosynthesis. The traditional didactic lecture followed by practical exercises that show various macroscopic aspects of photosynthesis often do not help the students visualise or understand the submicroscopic (molecular-level) reactions that…

  8. Environmental and physiological control of dynamic photosynthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaiser, M.E.

    2016-01-01

    Irradiance is the main driver of photosynthesis. In natural conditions, irradiance incident on a leaf often fluctuates, due to the movement of leaves, clouds and the sun. These fluctuations force photosynthesis to respond dynamically, however with delays that are subject to rate constants of underly

  9. The Path of Carbon in Photosynthesis VII. Respiration and Photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, A. A.; Calvin, M.

    1949-07-21

    The relationship of respiration to photosynthesis in barley seedling leaves and the algae, Chlorella and Scenedesmus, has been investigated using radioactive carbon dioxide and the techniques of paper chromatography and radioautography. The plants are allowed to photosynthesize normally for thirty seconds in c{sup 14}O{sub 2} after which they are allowed to respire in air or helium in the light or dark. Respiration of photosynthetic intermediates as evidenced by the appearance of labeled glutomic, isocitric, fumaric and succinic acids is slower in the light than in the dark. Labeled glycolic acid is observed in barley and algae. It disappears rapidly in the dark and is maintained and increased in quantity in the light in C0{sub 2}-free air.

  10. Human Photosynthesis and Central Nervous System´s Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Solis HERRERA

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthesis in plants is considered the most important chemical reaction in the world because is the first step in the food chain. The first clues of the process were detected by Lavoisier and others during the XVIII century, but the exact nature of the chemical reactions involved remain poorly understood. Moreover, dissociation of the water molecule constitutes the very first reaction of photosynthesis in plants, and was unsuspected, even unthinkable in human beings, until we found it in human retina in 1990s. The discovery of the amazing capacity of our body to makes the dissociation of the water molecule, breaks the paradigm: Plants and human beings have the same very first reaction as the origin of life. The impact in the field of molecular biology is huge; therefore the role of the water and glucose must be redefined, glucose is just a source of biomass, instead water is the real source of energy of the eukaryotic cell, and neuron cell is not an exception. The main source of energy of the CNS is the CSF and therefore the ventricles and subarachnoid space. Blood vessels are merely source of biomass. By the analogy with the process in plants, our discovery was named human photosynthesis. Human being begin to lose the capacity to split the water molecule at 26 years old, ca. 10 % each decade, and after fifties goes into free fall. Our research along these 23 years thought us that medical modulation of human photosynthesis has extraordinary therapeutic results in CNS´s diseases.

  11. From natural to artificial photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, James; Tran, Phong D

    2013-04-01

    Demand for energy is projected to increase at least twofold by mid-century relative to the present global consumption because of predicted population and economic growth. This demand could be met, in principle, from fossil energy resources, particularly coal. However, the cumulative nature of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) emissions demands that stabilizing the atmospheric CO(2) levels to just twice their pre-anthropogenic values by mid-century will be extremely challenging, requiring invention, development and deployment of schemes for carbon-neutral energy production on a scale commensurate with, or larger than, the entire present-day energy supply from all sources combined. Among renewable and exploitable energy resources, nuclear fusion energy or solar energy are by far the largest. However, in both cases, technological breakthroughs are required with nuclear fusion being very difficult, if not impossible on the scale required. On the other hand, 1 h of sunlight falling on our planet is equivalent to all the energy consumed by humans in an entire year. If solar energy is to be a major primary energy source, then it must be stored and despatched on demand to the end user. An especially attractive approach is to store solar energy in the form of chemical bonds as occurs in natural photosynthesis. However, a technology is needed which has a year-round average conversion efficiency significantly higher than currently available by natural photosynthesis so as to reduce land-area requirements and to be independent of food production. Therefore, the scientific challenge is to construct an 'artificial leaf' able to efficiently capture and convert solar energy and then store it in the form of chemical bonds of a high-energy density fuel such as hydrogen while at the same time producing oxygen from water. Realistically, the efficiency target for such a technology must be 10 per cent or better. Here, we review the molecular details of the energy capturing reactions of natural

  12. Photosynthesis and photorespiration in algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, N D; Canvin, D T; Culver, D A

    1977-05-01

    The CO(2) exchange of several species of fresh water and marine algae was measured in the laboratory to determine whether photorespiration occurs in these organisms. The algae were positioned as thin layers on filter paper and the CO(2) exchange determined in an open gas exchange system. In either 21 or 1% O(2) there was little difference between (14)CO(2) and (12)CO(2) uptake. Apparent photosynthesis was the same in 2, 21, or 50% O(2). The compensation points of all algae were less than 10 mul 1(-1). CO(2) or (14)CO(2) evolution into CO(2)-free air in the light was always less than the corresponding evolution in darkness. These observations are inconsistent with the proposal that photorespiration exists in these algae. PMID:16659972

  13. Model systems in photosynthesis research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a general discussion of model studies in photosynthesis research, three recently developed model systems are described. The current status of covalently linked chlorophyll pairs as models for P700 and P865 is first briefly reviewed. Mg-tris(pyrochlorophyllide)1,1,1-tris(hydroxymethyl) ethane triester in its folded configuration is then discussed as a rudimentary antenna-photoreaction center model. Finally, self-assembled chlorophyll systems that contain a mixture of monomeric, oligomeric and special pair chlorophyll are shown to have fluorescence emission characteristics that resemble thoe of intact Tribonema aequale at room temperature in that both show fluorescence emission at 675 and 695 nm. In the self-assembled systems the wavelength of the emitted fluorescence depends on the wavelength of excitation, arguing that energy transfer between different chlorophyll species in these systems may be more complex than previously suspected

  14. The oldest records of photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awramik, S. M.

    1992-01-01

    There is diverse, yet controversial fossil evidence for the existence of photosynthesis 3500 million years ago. Among the most persuasive evidence is the stromatolites described from low grade metasedimentary rocks in Western Australia and South Africa. Based on the understanding of the paleobiology of stromatolites and using pertinent fossil and Recent analogs, these Early Archean stromatolites suggest that phototrophs evolved by 3500 million years ago. The evidence allows further interpretation that cyanobacteria were involved. Besides stromatolites, microbial and chemical fossils are also known from the same rock units. Some microfossils morphologically resemble cyanobacteria and thus complement the adduced cyanobacterial involvement in stromatolite construction. If cyanobacteria had evolved by 3500 million years ago, this would indicate that nearly all prokaryotic phyla had already evolved and that prokaryotes diversified rapidly on the early Earth.

  15. Dynamics of the anoxygenic phototrophic community in meromictic Fayetteville Green Lake (NY) and the associated sedimentary pigment record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, K. M.; Fulton, J. M.; Hunter, S.; Macalady, J. L.; Kump, L.; Freeman, K. H.

    2012-12-01

    Photosynthetic pigments and their diagenetic products in marine sedimentary rocks hold important clues about recent and ancient variability in the Earth's surface environment. The chemical relicts of carotenoids from anoxygenic sulfur bacteria are of particular interest to geoscientists because of their potential to signal episodes of marine photic-zone euxinia such as those proposed for extended periods in the Proterozoic as well as brief intervals during the Phanerozoic. It is therefore critical to constrain the environmental and physiological factors that influence carotenoid production and preservation in modern environments. Our work in redox stratified, microbially dominated Fayetteville Green Lake (New York) has spanned the past decade and included seasonal (2005-2006) and monthly (2011) pigment monitoring in the water column, as well as a coupled pigment and nucleic acid clone library analyses from planktonic and benthic samples in 2006. Populations of photosynthetic bacteria in the water column are dynamic on monthly and annual scales. In 2011, purple sulfur bacteria (PSB) and green sulfur bacteria (GSB) were most abundant in spring and fall, respectively, responding to environmental conditions. PSB are diverse both at the chemocline and in benthic mats below oxygenated shallow waters, with different PSB species inhabiting the two environments. Okenone (from PSB) is an abundant carotenoid in both the chemocline waters and in benthic mats. GSB and their primary pigment Bchl e are also represented in and below the chemocline. However, the water column and sediments contain only trace concentrations of the GSB carotenoid isorenieratene, with concentrations relative to Bchl e being at least two orders of magnitude lower than we have observed in other meromictic lakes. Sediments deposited over the past ~550 years also reveal decadal to centennial scale variability in pigment production in the water column, possibly associated with hypothesized climatic and

  16. Patterns in Abundance, Cell Size and Pigment Content of Aerobic Anoxygenic Phototrophic Bacteria along Environmental Gradients in Northern Lakes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Fauteux

    Full Text Available There is now evidence that aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic (AAP bacteria are widespread across aquatic systems, yet the factors that determine their abundance and activity are still not well understood, particularly in freshwaters. Here we describe the patterns in AAP abundance, cell size and pigment content across wide environmental gradients in 43 temperate and boreal lakes of Québec. AAP bacterial abundance varied from 1.51 to 5.49 x 105 cells mL-1, representing <1 to 37% of total bacterial abundance. AAP bacteria were present year-round, including the ice-cover period, but their abundance relative to total bacterial abundance was significantly lower in winter than in summer (2.6% and 7.7%, respectively. AAP bacterial cells were on average two-fold larger than the average bacterial cell size, thus AAP cells made a greater relative contribution to biomass than to abundance. Bacteriochlorophyll a (BChla concentration varied widely across lakes, and was not related to AAP bacterial abundance, suggesting a large intrinsic variability in the cellular pigment content. Absolute and relative AAP bacterial abundance increased with dissolved organic carbon (DOC, whereas cell-specific BChla content was negatively related to chlorophyll a (Chla. As a result, both the contribution of AAP bacteria to total prokaryotic abundance, and the cell-specific BChla pigment content were positively correlated with the DOC:Chla ratio, both peaking in highly colored, low-chlorophyll lakes. Our results suggest that photoheterotrophy might represent a significant ecological advantage in highly colored, low-chlorophyll lakes, where DOC pool is chemically and structurally more complex.

  17. INTERACTIVE ILUSTRATION FOR PHOTOSYNTHESIS TEACHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Pereira

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Computational resources became the major tool in the challenge of making high education moreeasy and motivating. Complex Biochemical pathways can now be presented in interactive and three-dimensional animations. One of the most complex (detailed and interesting metabolic pathway thatstudents must understand in biochemical courses is photosynthesis. The light-dependent reactionsare of special interest since they involve many dierent kinds of mechanisms, as light absorptionby membrane complexes, proteins movement inside membranes, reactions of water hydrolysis, andelectrons ow; making it dicult to understand by static bi-dimensional representations.The resources of animation and ActionScript programming were used to make an interactive ani-mation of photosynthesis, which at some times even simulates three-dimensionality. The animationbegins with a leaf and progressively zooms in, until we have a scheme of a tylakoyd membrane, whereeach of the dierent steps of the pathway can be clicked to reveal a more detailed scheme of it. Whereappropriate, the energy graphs are shown side by side with the reactions. The electron is representedwith a face, so it can be shown to be stressing while going up in the energy graphs. Finally, there isa simplied version of the whole pathway, to illustrate how it all goes together.The objective is to help professors on teaching the subject in regular classes, since currently allthe explanations are omitted. In a future version, texts will be added to each step so it can beself-explicative to the students, helping them even on home or on-line learning.

  18. Photosynthesis and Respiration in Leaf Slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Simon

    1998-01-01

    Demonstrates how leaf slices provide an inexpensive material for illustrating several fundamental points about the biochemistry of photosynthesis and respiration. Presents experiments that illustrate the effects of photon flux density and herbicides and carbon dioxide concentration. (DDR)

  19. Final report, Feedback limitations of photosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharkey, Thomas D.

    1999-07-22

    Final report of research on carbon metabolism of photosynthesis. The feedback from carbon metabolism to primary photosynthetic processes is summarized, and a comprehensive list of published scientific papers is provided.

  20. Chem 1 Supplement: Energy Interconversions in Photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bering, Charles L.

    1985-01-01

    Examines energy interconversions in photosynthesis, limiting the discussion to areas pertinent to chemistry (particularly the energetics of the light reactions). Topic areas considered include bioenergetics, photochemistry, conversion of light energy into electrical potential energy, the chemiosmotic hypothesis, and others. (JN)

  1. Using photosynthesis to detect plant stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Two Stennis Space Center scientists use a photosynthesis measuring system on a pine tree at the Harrison County Experimental Forest about 15 miles north of Gulfport, Miss. The scientists have discovered a new method of detecting plant stress.

  2. Photosynthesis in Antarctic sea ice diatoms

    OpenAIRE

    Mock, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    This thesis was conducted to apply new techniques for measuring photosynthesis in Antarctic sea ice diatoms. A systematic approach of investigations was applied to obtain precise measurements of photosynthesis under natural conditions in the field from which questions were derived for further analysis in the laboratory. In situ measurements with the tracer 14C through the entire thickness of a young sea ice floe revealed that algae are able to actively assimilate dissolved inorganic carbon un...

  3. Estimating phytoplankton photosynthesis by active fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falkowski, P.G.; Kolber, Z.

    1992-10-01

    Photosynthesis can be described by target theory, At low photon flux densities, photosynthesis is a linear function of irradiance (I), The number of reaction centers (n), their effective absorption capture cross section {sigma}, and a quantum yield {phi}. As photosynthesis becomes increasingly light saturated, an increased fraction of reaction centers close. At light saturation the maximum photosynthetic rate is given as the product of the number of reaction centers (n) and their maximum electron transport rate (I/{tau}). Using active fluorometry it is possible to measure non-destructively and in real time the fraction of open or closed reaction centers under ambient irradiance conditions in situ, as well as {sigma} and {phi} {tau} can be readily, calculated from knowledge of the light saturation parameter, I{sub k} (which can be deduced by in situ by active fluorescence measurements) and {sigma}. We built a pump and probe fluorometer, which is interfaced with a CTD. The instrument measures the fluorescence yield of a weak probe flash preceding (f{sub 0}) and succeeding (f{sub 0}) a saturating pump flash. Profiles of the these fluorescence yields are used to derive the instantaneous rate of gross photosynthesis in natural phytoplankton communities without any incubation. Correlations with short-term simulated in situ radiocarbon measurements are extremely high. The average slope between photosynthesis derived from fluorescence and that measured by radiocarbon is 1.15 and corresponds to the average photosynthetic quotient. The intercept is about 15% of the maximum radiocarbon uptake and corresponds to the average net community respiration. Profiles of photosynthesis and sections showing the variability in its composite parameters reveal a significant effect of nutrient availability on biomass specific rates of photosynthesis in the ocean.

  4. The many meanings of gross photosynthesis and their implication for photosynthesis research from leaf to globe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Lianghong; Wohlfahrt, Georg

    2015-04-01

    Gross photosynthesis is a key term and concept in carbon cycle science. It however turns out that this term has been and is used with different meanings by different communities - either with (historically referred to as apparent photosynthesis) or without (historically referred to as true photosynthesis) including photorespiration - which has been and still is causing confusion. Here we review the history of these terms and the underlying theory to clarify the terminology and make recommendations about a consistent use of terms. We further show that eddy covariance CO2 flux partitioning, due to an overestimation of daytime mitochondrial respiration and our inability to estimate photorespiration, yields estimates which are quantitatively closer to the definition of true photosynthesis (i.e. carboxylation only) despite aiming at estimating apparent photosynthesis (i.e. carboxylation minus photorespiration). The implications of this finding are discussed.

  5. Diversity and distribution of photosynthesis bacteria in the Black Sea

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koblížek, Michal; Falkowski, P. G.; Kolber, Z. S.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 53, 17-19 (2006), s. 1934-1944. ISSN 0967-0645 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/05/0307; GA MŽP SL/1/6/04 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : aerobic anoxygenic proto trophs * erythrobacter * roseobacter Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.358, year: 2006

  6. Do plastic particles affect microalgal photosynthesis and growth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjollema, Sascha B; Redondo-Hasselerharm, Paula; Leslie, Heather A; Kraak, Michiel H S; Vethaak, A Dick

    2016-01-01

    The unbridled increase in plastic pollution of the world's oceans raises concerns about potential effects these materials may have on microalgae, which are primary producers at the basis of the food chain and a major global source of oxygen. Our current understanding about the potential modes and mechanisms of toxic action that plastic particles exert on microalgae is extremely limited. How effects might vary with particle size and the physico-chemical properties of the specific plastic material in question are equally unelucidated, but may hold clues to how toxicity, if observed, is exerted. In this study we selected polystyrene particles, both negatively charged and uncharged, and three different sizes (0.05, 0.5 and 6μm) for testing the effects of size and material properties. Microalgae were exposed to different polystyrene particle sizes and surface charges for 72h. Effects on microalgal photosynthesis and growth were determined by pulse amplitude modulation fluorometry and flow cytometry, respectively. None of the treatments tested in these experiments had an effect on microalgal photosynthesis. Microalgal growth was negatively affected (up to 45%) by uncharged polystyrene particles, but only at high concentrations (250mg/L). Additionally, these adverse effects were demonstrated to increase with decreasing particle size. PMID:26675372

  7. Radiation and photosynthesis in kiwifruit canopies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inclination angles, incident radiation, and photosynthesis were measured for leaves of kiwifruit vines in the field. Soon after flowering, mean leaf inclination angles were 29.5° and 27.6° for vines on T-bar and pergola trellises respectively. The diurnal integral of incident radiation for the upward-facing part of a T-bar vine exceeded that for the inclined part, by 50–100%. The radiation saturated rate of photosynthesis increased from 8–10 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1 about 1 month after leaf emergence to about 16–17 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1 at 3–5 months after leaf emergence, before declining as leaves senesced in autumn. The quantum efficiency increased marginally with leaf age. Simulated canopy photosynthesis early in the season was strongly related to leaf area development. (author)

  8. Global analysis of photosynthesis transcriptional regulatory networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imam, Saheed; Noguera, Daniel R; Donohue, Timothy J

    2014-12-01

    Photosynthesis is a crucial biological process that depends on the interplay of many components. This work analyzed the gene targets for 4 transcription factors: FnrL, PrrA, CrpK and MppG (RSP_2888), which are known or predicted to control photosynthesis in Rhodobacter sphaeroides. Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq) identified 52 operons under direct control of FnrL, illustrating its regulatory role in photosynthesis, iron homeostasis, nitrogen metabolism and regulation of sRNA synthesis. Using global gene expression analysis combined with ChIP-seq, we mapped the regulons of PrrA, CrpK and MppG. PrrA regulates ∼34 operons encoding mainly photosynthesis and electron transport functions, while CrpK, a previously uncharacterized Crp-family protein, regulates genes involved in photosynthesis and maintenance of iron homeostasis. Furthermore, CrpK and FnrL share similar DNA binding determinants, possibly explaining our observation of the ability of CrpK to partially compensate for the growth defects of a ΔFnrL mutant. We show that the Rrf2 family protein, MppG, plays an important role in photopigment biosynthesis, as part of an incoherent feed-forward loop with PrrA. Our results reveal a previously unrealized, high degree of combinatorial regulation of photosynthetic genes and significant cross-talk between their transcriptional regulators, while illustrating previously unidentified links between photosynthesis and the maintenance of iron homeostasis. PMID:25503406

  9. Global analysis of photosynthesis transcriptional regulatory networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saheed Imam

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthesis is a crucial biological process that depends on the interplay of many components. This work analyzed the gene targets for 4 transcription factors: FnrL, PrrA, CrpK and MppG (RSP_2888, which are known or predicted to control photosynthesis in Rhodobacter sphaeroides. Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq identified 52 operons under direct control of FnrL, illustrating its regulatory role in photosynthesis, iron homeostasis, nitrogen metabolism and regulation of sRNA synthesis. Using global gene expression analysis combined with ChIP-seq, we mapped the regulons of PrrA, CrpK and MppG. PrrA regulates ∼34 operons encoding mainly photosynthesis and electron transport functions, while CrpK, a previously uncharacterized Crp-family protein, regulates genes involved in photosynthesis and maintenance of iron homeostasis. Furthermore, CrpK and FnrL share similar DNA binding determinants, possibly explaining our observation of the ability of CrpK to partially compensate for the growth defects of a ΔFnrL mutant. We show that the Rrf2 family protein, MppG, plays an important role in photopigment biosynthesis, as part of an incoherent feed-forward loop with PrrA. Our results reveal a previously unrealized, high degree of combinatorial regulation of photosynthetic genes and significant cross-talk between their transcriptional regulators, while illustrating previously unidentified links between photosynthesis and the maintenance of iron homeostasis.

  10. Photosynthesis and the world food problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Poskuta

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies in the field of photosynthesis are particularly predisposed to play an important role in the solving of the main problem of today food for the world's growing population. The article presents data on the rate of population increase, the size of food production and yields of the most important crop plants. The relationship between the photosynthetic productivity of C3 and C4 plants and their yields is discussed. The problem of the rising atmospheric CO2 concentration and its influence on photosynthesis, photorespiration and accumulation of plant biomass is presented.

  11. Can miscanthus C4 photosynthesis compete with festulolium C3 photosynthesis in a temperate climate?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiao, Xiurong; Sørensen, Kirsten Kørup; Andersen, Mathias Neumann;

    2016-01-01

    Miscanthus, a perennial grass with C4 photosynthesis, is regarded as a promising energy crop due to its high biomass productivity. Compared with other C4 species, most miscanthus genotypes have high cold tolerances at 14 °C. However, in temperate climates, temperatures below 14 °C are common and...... each temperature level and still maintained photosynthesis after growing for a longer period at 6/4 °C. Only two of five measured miscanthus genotypes increased photosynthesis immediately after the temperature was raised again. The photosynthetic capacity of festulolium was significantly higher at 10...

  12. Light respiratory processes and gross photosynthesis in two scleractinian corals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Schrameyer

    Full Text Available The light dependency of respiratory activity of two scleractinian corals was examined using O2 microsensors and CO2 exchange measurements. Light respiration increased strongly but asymptotically with elevated irradiance in both species. Light respiration in Pocillopora damicornis was higher than in Pavona decussata under low irradiance, indicating species-specific differences in light-dependent metabolic processes. Overall, the coral P. decussata exhibited higher CO2 uptake rates than P. damicornis over the experimental irradiance range. P. decussata also harboured twice as many algal symbionts and higher total protein biomass compared to P. damicornis, possibly resulting in self-shading of the symbionts and/or changes in host tissue specific light distribution. Differences in light respiration and CO2 availability could be due to host-specific characteristics that modulate the symbiont microenvironment, its photosynthesis, and hence the overall performance of the coral holobiont.

  13. Effect of serial irradiation of low dose gamma rays on the growth and photosynthesis of red pepper (capsicum annuum L.) plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Hong; Wi, Seung Gon; Chung, Byung Yeoup; Baek, Myung Hwa; Yang, Dae Hwa; Kim, Jae Sung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Ionizing radiation at several grays can induce growth stimulation in plants. This phenomenon has been called 'radiation hormesis'. Low dose radiation also modulates photosynthesis. Although an alteration in photosynthesis has been thought to involve in the growth stimulation of irradiated plants, no reports did clarify their relationship yet. In the present study, we attempted to reveal a possible relationship between them by comparing the effects of serial gamma-irradiation on the growth and photosynthesis of red pepper. Furthermore, something beyond the dose effect of ionizing radiation is discussed by this new experimental approach.

  14. Underwater Photosynthesis of Submerged Plants – Recent Advances and Methods

    OpenAIRE

    PEDERSEN, OLE; Colmer, Timothy D.; Sand-Jensen, Kaj

    2013-01-01

    We describe the general background and the recent advances in research on underwater photosynthesis of leaf segments, whole communities, and plant dominated aquatic ecosystems and present contemporary methods tailor made to quantify photosynthesis and carbon fixation under water. The majority of studies of aquatic photosynthesis have been carried out with detached leaves or thalli and this selectiveness influences the perception of the regulation of aquatic photosynthesis. We thus recommend a...

  15. Challenges in Understanding Photosynthesis in a University Introductory Biosciences Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Södervik, Ilona; Virtanen, Viivi; Mikkilä-Erdmann, Mirjamaija

    2015-01-01

    University students' understanding of photosynthesis was examined in a large introductory biosciences class. The focus of this study was to first examine the conceptions of photosynthesis among students in class and then to investigate how a certain type of text could enhance students' understanding of photosynthesis. The study was based on pre-…

  16. Ecological Understanding 1: Ways of Experiencing Photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Britta

    2002-01-01

    Investigates 10 student teachers' understanding of the different ways in which the function of the ecosystem could be experienced. Explores the functional aspects of the ecosystem using a system approach. Concludes that the idea of transformation is crucial to more complex ways of understanding photosynthesis. (Contains 62 references.) (Author/YDS)

  17. Scaling and Integration of Kinetic Models of Photosynthesis.Towards Comprehensive E-Photosynthesis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nedbal, Ladislav; Červený, Jan; Schmidt, H.

    Dordrecht: Springer, 2009 - (Laisk, A.; Nedbal, L.; Govindjee), s. 17-28 ISBN 978-1-4020-9236-7 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : complexity * mathematical models * photosynthesis * dimensionality reduction * silico Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  18. Predicting photosynthesis and transpiration responses to ozone: decoupling modeled photosynthesis and stomatal conductance

    OpenAIRE

    D. Lombardozzi; Levis, S.; G. Bonan; Sparks, J. P.

    2012-01-01

    Plants exchange carbon dioxide and water, two key greenhouse gases, with the atmosphere through the processes of photosynthesis and transpiration, making them essential in climate regulation. Carbon dioxide and water exchange are typically coupled through the control of stomatal conductance, and the parameterization in many models often predict conductance based on photosynthesis values. Some environmental conditions, like exposure to high ozone (O3) concentrations, alt...

  19. Toxicity of pesticides on photosynthesis of diatoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakistan being an agricultural country, a large amount of pesticides are used, including organophosphates and synthetic pyrethroids. These pesticides are released through rivers and other tributeries into the coastal environment, thus posing a contiguous threat to marine organisms. In the present study two species of diatoms Amphora and Navicula were selected for the assessment of impact of organ phosphate and pyrethroid toxicity on these primary producers. The study shows that rate of photosynthesis was inhibited in both Amphora and Navicula species exposed to pesticide. The acute toxicity of pesticide was determined by measuring IC50 of the test organisms. IC50 calculated for diatom species depicts that different pesticides had variable effects on the photosynthesis of microalgae. High sensitivity of marine organisms is alarming as it may have implications on the marine ecosystem and fisheries. The results are also useful in setting control limits for the release of these chemicals in nature. (author)

  20. Moessbauer spectroscopy in studies of photosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photosynthesis is a process occurring in certain species of bacteria, algae and higher plants. It transforms solar energy into various forms of energy-rich organic molecules. Photosystem II (PSII) is the 'heart' of the photosynthetic apparatus because it delivers electrons and protons for further steps of the light-driven phases of photosynthesis. There are two enigmatic iron binding structures within the core of photosynthetic apparatus, which play an important role in the electron transfer within PSII. Many investigations focus on the determination of their function which is the key to the understanding of the molecular mechanism of the energy and electron transfer within PSII. Among many methods used in this research field, the Moessbauer spectroscopy is a unique one, which gives the possibility to study changes of the valence and spin states of those two iron sites and the dynamical properties of their protein matrix in the presence of various physiological and stress conditions.

  1. A quantum protective mechanism in photosynthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Marais, Adriana; Petruccione, Francesco; van Grondelle, Rienk

    2016-01-01

    Since the emergence of oxygenic photosynthesis, living systems have developed protective mechanisms against reactive oxygen species. During charge separation in photosynthetic reaction centres, triplet states can react with molecular oxygen generating destructive singlet oxygen. The triplet product yield in bacteria is observed to be reduced by weak magnetic fields. Reaction centres from plants' photosystem II share many features with bacterial reaction centres, including a high-spin iron whose function has remained obscure. To explain observations that the magnetic field effect is reduced by the iron, we propose that its fast-relaxing spin plays a protective role in photosynthesis by generating an effective magnetic field. We consider a simple model of the system, derive an analytical expression for the effective magnetic field and analyse the resulting triplet yield reduction. The protective mechanism is robust for realistic parameter ranges, constituting a clear example of a quantum effect playing a macros...

  2. Photosynthesis/translocation studies in terrestrial ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this chapter, the basic methods of 14C use in plant science are presented with three examples of applications in the field of plant physiology and ecology. Since environmental factors play a major role in the rates of photosynthesis and translocation processes, a majority of the chapter is devoted to the description of methods and technologies involved to maintain normal growth conditions for the plants used for 14C experiments

  3. A quantum protective mechanism in photosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Marais; Ilya Sinayskiy; Francesco Petruccione; Rienk van Grondelle

    2015-01-01

    Since the emergence of oxygenic photosynthesis, living systems have developed protective mechanisms against reactive oxygen species. During charge separation in photosynthetic reaction centres, triplet states can react with molecular oxygen generating destructive singlet oxygen. The triplet product yield in bacteria is observed to be reduced by weak magnetic fields. Reaction centres from plants' photosystem II share many features with bacterial reaction centres, including a high-spin iron who...

  4. Energy Conversion in Natural and Artificial Photosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    McConnell, Iain; Li, Gonghu; Brudvig, Gary W.

    2010-01-01

    Modern civilization is dependent upon fossil fuels, a nonrenewable energy source originally provided by the storage of solar energy. Fossil fuel dependence has severe consequences including energy security issues and greenhouse gas emissions. The consequences of fossil fuel dependence could be avoided by fuel-producing artificial systems that mimic natural photosynthesis, directly converting solar energy to fuel. This review describes the three key components of solar energy conversion in pho...

  5. Modelling the fast fluorescence rise of photosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Baake, Ellen; Schlöder, Johannes P.

    1992-01-01

    We construct an ODE model for the fast fluorescence rise of photosynthesis by combining the current reaction scheme of the PS II two-electron-gate with a quasi steady-state description of the fast processes of excitation energy transfer and primary charge separation. The model is fitted to measured induction curves with a multiple shooting algorithm, and remarkably good approximations of the data are obtained. Model refinements are discussed focusing on PS II heterogeneity, and on PS I.

  6. Response of photosynthesis to ocean acidification

    OpenAIRE

    Mackey, KRM; Morris, JJ; Morel, FMM; Kranz, SA

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 by The Oceanography Society. All rights reserved. All phytoplankton and higher plants perform photosynthesis, where carbon dioxide is incorporated into biomass during cell growth. Ocean acidification (OA) has the potential to affect photosynthetic kinetics due to increasing seawater pCO2 levels and lower pH. The effects of increased CO2 are difficult to predict because some species utilize carbon concentrating mechanisms that buffer their sensitivity to ambient CO2 levels and require v...

  7. Response of Photosynthesis to Ocean Acidification

    OpenAIRE

    Katherine R.M. Mackey; J. Jeffrey Morris; Morel, François M. M.; Kranz, Sven A.

    2015-01-01

    All phytoplankton and higher plants perform photosynthesis, where carbon dioxide is incorporated into biomass during cell growth. Ocean acidification (OA) has the potential to affect photosynthetic kinetics due to increasing seawater pCO2 levels and lower pH. The effects of increased CO2 are difficult to predict because some species utilize carbon concentrating mechanisms that buffer their sensitivity to ambient CO2 levels and require variable energy investments. Here, we discuss the current ...

  8. Photosynthesis and the world food problem

    OpenAIRE

    Jerzy Poskuta

    2014-01-01

    Studies in the field of photosynthesis are particularly predisposed to play an important role in the solving of the main problem of today food for the world's growing population. The article presents data on the rate of population increase, the size of food production and yields of the most important crop plants. The relationship between the photosynthetic productivity of C3 and C4 plants and their yields is discussed. The problem of the rising atmospheric CO2 concentration and its influence ...

  9. Automated photosynthesis of 11C-glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glucose and fructose, labelled with 11C, were produced by passing 11CO2 into an evacuated chamber containing spinach leaves. Photosynthesis was carried out by day light lamp illumination. 75-95% of the 11CO2 was absorbed by the leaves and the radioactivity in the leaves was extracted in ethanol as sugars. Radiochemical purity was determined by HPLC. The automated system was controlled by timers. (U.K.)

  10. Ascorbic acid is a key participant during the interactions between chloroplasts and mitochondria to optimize photosynthesis and protect against photoinhibition

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Saikrishna Talla; Khateef Riazunnisa; Lolla Padmavathi; Pidakala Rajsheel; Agepati S Raghavendra

    2011-03-01

    The possible role of L-ascorbate (AsA) as a biochemical signal during the interactions between photosynthesis and respiration was examined in leaf discs of Arabidopsis thaliana. AsA content was either decreased as in AsA-deficient vtc1 mutants or increased by treatment with L-galactono-1, 4-lactone (L-GalL, a precursor of AsA; EC 1.3.2.3). In mutants, photosynthesis was extremely sensitive to both antimycin A (inhibitor of the cytochrome oxidase pathway [COX pathway]) and salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM, inhibitor of the alternative pathway [AOX pathway]), particularly at high light conditions. Mitochondrial inhibitors lowered the ratio of reduced AsA to total AsA, at high light, indicating oxidative stress in leaf discs. Elevation of AsA by L-GalL decreased the sensitivity of photosynthesis at high light to antimycin A or SHAM, sustained photosynthesis at supraoptimal light and relieved the extent of photoinhibition. High ratios of reduced AsA to total AsA in L-GalL-treated leaf discs suggests that L-GalL lowers oxidative stress. The protection by L-GalL of photosynthesis against the mitochondrial inhibitors and photoinhibition was quite pronounced in vtc1 mutants. Our results suggest that the levels and redox state of AsA modify the pattern of modulation of photosynthesis by mitochondrial metabolism. The extent of the AOX pathway as a percentage of the total respiration in Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplasts was much higher in vtc1 than in wild type. We suggest that the role of AsA becomes pronounced at high light and/or when the AOX pathway is inhibited. While acknowledging the importance of the COX pathway, we hypothesize that AsA and the AOX pathway may complement each other to protect photosynthesis against photoinhibition.

  11. Pectin Methylesterification Impacts the Relationship between Photosynthesis and Plant Growth1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Jin; Renna, Luciana; Brandizzi, Federica

    2016-01-01

    Photosynthesis occurs in mesophyll cells of specialized organs such as leaves. The rigid cell wall encapsulating photosynthetic cells controls the expansion and distribution of cells within photosynthetic tissues. The relationship between photosynthesis and plant growth is affected by leaf area. However, the underlying genetic mechanisms affecting carbon partitioning to different aspects of leaf growth are not known. To fill this gap, we analyzed Arabidopsis plants with altered levels of pectin methylesterification, which is known to modulate cell wall plasticity and plant growth. Pectin methylesterification levels were varied through manipulation of cotton Golgi-related (CGR) 2 or 3 genes encoding two functionally redundant pectin methyltransferases. Increased levels of methylesterification in a line over-expressing CGR2 (CGR2OX) resulted in highly expanded leaves with enhanced intercellular air spaces; reduced methylesterification in a mutant lacking both CGR-genes 2 and 3 (cgr2/3) resulted in thin but dense leaf mesophyll that limited CO2 diffusion to chloroplasts. Leaf, root, and plant dry weight were enhanced in CGR2OX but decreased in cgr2/3. Differences in growth between wild type and the CGR-mutants can be explained by carbon partitioning but not by variations in area-based photosynthesis. Therefore, photosynthesis drives growth through alterations in carbon partitioning to new leaf area growth and leaf mass per unit leaf area; however, CGR-mediated pectin methylesterification acts as a primary factor in this relationship through modulation of the expansion and positioning of the cells in leaves, which in turn drive carbon partitioning by generating dynamic carbon demands in leaf area growth and leaf mass per unit leaf area. PMID:27208234

  12. Wild Manihot Species Do Not Possess C4 Photosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    CALATAYUD, P.‐A.; BARÓN, C. H.; VELÁSQUEZ, H.; ARROYAVE, J. A.; LAMAZE, T.

    2002-01-01

    Cultivated cassava (Manihot esculenta) has a higher rate of photosynthesis than is usual for C3 plants and photosynthesis is not light saturated. For these reasons it has been suggested that cultivated cassava could be derived from wild species possessing C4 photosynthesis. The natural abundance of 13C and activities of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and phosphoglycolate phosphatase were measured in leaves of 20 wild cassava species to test this hypothesis. All the species studied, including...

  13. Can the photosynthesis first step quantum mechanism be explained?

    OpenAIRE

    Sacilotti, Marco; Almeida, Euclides; Mota, Claudia C. B. O.; Nunes, Frederico Dias; Anderson S. L. Gomes

    2010-01-01

    Photosynthesis first step mechanism concerns the sunlight absorption and both negative and positive charges separation. Recent and important photosynthesis literature claims that this mechanism is quantum mechanics controlled, however without presenting qualitative or quantitative scientifically based mechanism. The present accepted and old-fashioned photosynthesis mechanism model suffers from few drawbacks and an important issue is the absence of driving force for negative and positive charg...

  14. Artificial photosynthesis and the splitting of water to generate hydrogen

    OpenAIRE

    Maitra, Urmimala; Lingampalli, SR; Rao, CNR

    2014-01-01

    It is no exaggeration to state that the energy crisis is the most serious challenge that we face today. Among the strategies to gain access to reliable, renewable energy, the use of solar energy has clearly emerged as the most viable option. A promising direction in this context is artificial photosynthesis. In this article, we briefly describe the essential features of artificial photosynthesis in comparison with natural photosynthesis and point out the modest success that we have had in spl...

  15. Electrical signaling and photosynthesis: Can they co-exist together?

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlovič, Andrej; Mancuso, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    Mechanical irritation of trigger hairs and subsequent generation of action potentials have significant impact on photosynthesis and respiration in carnivorous Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula). Action potential-mediated inhibition of photosynthesis and stimulation of respiration is confined only to the trap and was not recorded in adjacent photosynthetic lamina. We showed that the main primary target of electrical signals on assimilation is in the dark enzymatic reaction of photosynthesis. Wi...

  16. EFFECT OF AIR TEMPERATURE ON LEAF PHOTOSYNTHESIS IN ELDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Popescu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Temperature with solar radiation intensity is the main external factor affecting photosynthesis process. Measurements were collected in the 2011 growing season. Photosynthesis and respiration measurements were made at Sambucus nigra leaves with a CO2 analyzer. The aim was to develop a model of photosynthesis in relation to temperature (which is in close relationship with air humidity. Photosynthesis of Sambucus nigra leaves is sensitive to temperature with an optimum around 25-28oC and rates declining by 18% with air temperature around 33-35oC.

  17. A Simple Thermodynamic Analysis of Photosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Angulo-Brown

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a comparative study of nine photosynthetic pathways bymeans of their thermodynamic performance. The comparison is made by using the thermalefficiency of light-to-chemical energy conversion and the so-called ecological criterionarising from finite-time thermodynamics. The application of both criteria leads tophotosynthesis made by metaphytes and non sulfur purple bacteria as those of bestthermodynamic performance. In spite of the simplicity of our thermodynamic approachsome insights over the low overall efficiency of photosynthesis is suggested.

  18. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN NITROGEN METABOLISM AND PHOTOSYNTHESIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassham, James A.; Larsen, Peder O.; Lawyer, Arthur L.; Cornwell, Karen L.

    1980-11-01

    This discussion addresses three issues under which investigators in our laboratory can provide some information. These issues are first, the keto acid and amino acid biosynthetic capabilities of the chloroplast; second, the bidirectionality of the glycine-serine interconversion associated with photorespiration or its absence; and third, the complex issue of the regulation of carbon flow from photosynthesis to biosynthesis of starch and sucrose as compared with synthesis of amino acids in the photosynthetic cell. In particular, we will discuss the profound regulatory effects of the addition of low levels of ammonium ion to cell media.

  19. Design of molecular architectures to mimic photosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our researches on photo-induced energy or electron transfer for artificial photosynthesis relies on the utilization of conjugated spacers to perform these two processes over long distance. This article describes the synthesis and the characterization of dyads composed of a tris-bipyridine ruthenium complex as sensitizer, a fullerene or a naphthalene bis-imide as acceptor and a oligo(phenylene-ethynylene) as spacer. These systems exhibit electron or energy transfer from the excited state of the ruthenium complex to the acceptor. (authors)

  20. Engineering photosynthesis in plants and synthetic microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurino, Veronica G; Weber, Andreas P M

    2013-01-01

    Photosynthetic organisms, such as cyanobacteria, algae, and plants, sustain life on earth by converting light energy, water, and CO(2) into chemical energy. However, due to global change and a growing human population, arable land is becoming scarce and resources, including water and fertilizers, are becoming exhausted. It will therefore be crucial to design innovative strategies for sustainable plant production to maintain the food and energy bases of human civilization. Several different strategies for engineering improved photosynthesis in crop plants and introducing novel photosynthetic capacity into microorganisms have been reviewed. PMID:23028016

  1. Photosynthesis in Hydrogen-Dominated Atmospheres

    OpenAIRE

    William Bains; Sara Seager; Andras Zsom

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of extrasolar planets discovered in the last decade shows that we should not be constrained to look for life in environments similar to early or present-day Earth. Super-Earth exoplanets are being discovered with increasing frequency, and some will be able to retain a stable, hydrogen-dominated atmosphere. We explore the possibilities for photosynthesis on a rocky planet with a thin H[subscript 2]-dominated atmosphere. If a rocky, H[subscript 2]-dominated planet harbors life, th...

  2. The Path of Carbon in Photosynthesis XIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvin, Melvin; Bassham, J. A.; Benson, A. A.; Kawaguchi, S.; Lynch, V. H.; Stepka, W.; Tolbert, N. E.

    1951-06-30

    It seems hardly necessary to repeat to an audience of this kind the importance of the process known as photosynthesis in the interaction and the interdependence of organisms and in the very existence of life as we know it. This process by which green plants are able to capture electromagnetic energy in the form of sunlight and transform it into stored chemical energy in the form of a wide variety of reduced (relative to carbon dioxide) carbon compounds provides the only major source of energy for the maintenance and propagation of all life.

  3. Photosynthesis and obtaining hydrogen. Photosynthese und Wasserstoffgewinnung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohlhoff, J.

    1989-01-01

    The individual processes of photo synthesis can be divided into groups of primary and secondary reactions. The primary reactions include the processes due to the effect of light and lead to splitting of water to form oxygen and to instituting both and hydrogen store and an energy store. Chlorophyl acts as an absorber and transmitter of light energy. The photolysis of water can only occur with the photons of visible light of relatively low energy, because the photosynthesis reaction centres have membranes which catch the light, collect it (by using its energy to separate electric charges) and this makes a multi-quantum process possible. (orig.).

  4. Photosynthesis "In Silico". Overcoming the Challenges of Photosynthesis Education Using a Multimedia CD-ROM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, A. W.; Netherwood, G. M. A.; Robinson, S. A.

    2004-01-01

    Photosynthesis is a central topic in biology education. It remains one of the most challenging, largely because of a) its conceptual difficulty, leading to lack of interest and misconceptions among students; b) the difficulties students have in visualising the process, or relating it to things they can see, especially when the topic is presented…

  5. Scaling and Integration of Kinetic Models of Photosynthesis.Towards Comprehensive E-Photosynthesis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nedbal, Ladislav; Červený, Jan; Schmidt, H.

    Dordrecht: Springer, 2009 - (Laisk, A.; Nedbal, L.; Govindjee), s. 17-29 ISBN 978-1-4020-9236-7 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Complexity * Mathematical models * Photosynthesis * in silico * Dimensionality reduction Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  6. Ways of improving photosynthesis by induced mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three ways of increasing photosynthetic efficiency in C3 plants by induced mutation are described. In the first procedure, using the crucifer Arabidopsis thaliana as a model organism, several single recessive nuclear mutations have been recovered in enzymes of the photorespiratory pathway. These mutations render photorespiration a conditionally lethal characteristic. The mutant strains are then used to select for second-site revertants which survive the lethal conditions. Such revertants would be unable to initiate the photorespiratory pathway, and therefore possess enhanced photosynthetic activity. In a second approach, designed to determine the feasibility of altering the two activities of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco), the enzyme which regulates carbon flow between photosynthesis and photorespiration, uniparental mutants of Chlamydomonas reinhardii have been recovered which possess defective Rubisco. These mutants, lacking the ability to fix CO2, cannot survive phototrophically. Phototrophic revertants are then recovered and the Rubisco enzyme is examined. A search is being made for revertants with an increased carboxylation/oxygenation ratio, indicating increased photosynthetic efficiency. Finally, unicellular algae such as C. reinhardii are able to increase the in-vivo carboxylation efficiency of Rubisco by concentrating CO2 internally. To elucidate the nature of this CO2 concentrating system, and to determine whether such a system might be incorporated into higher plant species with C3 photosynthesis, induced mutants which are not capable of concentrating CO2 have been sought. Mutants with the expected phenotype, a high CO2 growth requirement, have been recovered and partially characterized. (author)

  7. Carbon dioxide fixation by artificial photosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibusuki, Takashi; Koike, Kazuhide; Ishitani, Osamu [National Inst. for Resources and Environment, AIST, MITI, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1993-12-31

    Green plants can absorb atmospheric CO{sub 2} and transform it to sugars, carbohydrates through their photosynthetic systems, but they become the source of CO{sub 2} when they are dead. This is the reason why artificial leaves which can be alive forever should be developed to meet with global warming due to the increase of CO{sub 2} concentration. The goal of artificial photosynthesis is not to construct the same system as the photosynthetic one, but to mimic the ability of green plants to utilize solar energy to make high energy chemicals. Needless to say, the artificial photosynthetic system is desired to be as simple as possible and to be as efficient as possible. From the knowledge on photosynthesis and the results of previous investigations, the critical components of artificial photosynthetic system are understood as follows: (1) light harvesting chromophore, (2) a center for electron transfer and charge separation, (3) catalytic sites for converting small molecules like water and CO{sub 2} (mutilelectron reactions) which are schematically described.

  8. THE PATH OF CARBON IN PHOTOSYNTHESIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassham, J.A.; Calvin, Melvin

    1960-10-01

    Biosynthesis begins with photosynthesis. Green plants and other photosynthetic organisms use the energy of absorbed visible light to make organic compounds from inorganic compounds. These organic compounds are the starting point for all other biosynthetic pathways. The products of photosynthesis provide not only the substrate material but also chemical energy for all subsequent biosynthesis. For example, nonphotosynthetic organisms making fats from sugars would first break down the sugars to smaller organic molecules. Some of the smaller molecules might be oxidized with O{sub 2} to CO{sub 2} and water. These reactions are accompanied by a release of chemical energy because O{sub 2} and sugar have a high chemical potential energy towards conversion to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. In a biochemical system only part of this energy would be released as heat. The heat would be used to bring about the conversion of certain enzymic cofactors to their more energetic forms. These cofactors would then enter into specific enzymic reactions in such a way as to supply energy to drive reactions in the direction of fat synthesis. Fats would be formed from the small organic molecules resulting from the breakdown of sugars. Thus sugar, a photosynthetic product, can supply both the energy and the material for the biosynthesis of fats.

  9. The Path of Carbon in Photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassham, J. A.; Calvin, Melvin

    1960-10-01

    Biosynthesis begins with photosynthesis. Green plants and other photosynthetic organisms use the energy of absorbed visible light to make organic compounds from inorganic compounds. These organic compounds are the starting point for all other biosynthetic pathways. The products of photosynthesis provide not only the substrate material but also chemical energy for all subsequent biosynthesis. For example, nonphotosynthetic organisms making fats from sugars would first break down the sugars to smaller organic molecules. Some of the smaller molecules might be oxidized with O{sub 2} to CO{sub 2} and water. These reactions are accompanied by a release of chemical energy because O{sub 2} and sugar have a high chemical potential energy towards conversion to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. In a biochemical system only part of this energy would be released as heat. The heat would be used to bring about the conversion of certain enzymic cofactors to their more energetic forms. These cofactors would then enter into specific enzymic reactions in such a way as to supply energy to drive reactions in the direction of fat synthesis. Fats would be formed from the small organic molecules resulting from the breakdown of sugars. Thus sugar, a photosynthetic product, can supply both the energy and the material for the biosynthesis of fats.

  10. The regulatory interplay between photorespiration and photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timm, Stefan; Florian, Alexandra; Fernie, Alisdair R; Bauwe, Hermann

    2016-05-01

    The Calvin-Benson cycle and the photorespiratory pathway form the photosynthetic-photorespiratory supercycle that is responsible for nearly all biological CO2 fixation on Earth. In essence, supplementation with the photorespiratory pathway is necessary because the CO2-fixing enzyme of the Calvin-Benson cycle, ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco), catalyses several side reactions including the oxygenation of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate, which produces the noxious metabolite phosphoglycolate. The photorespiratory pathway recycles the phosphoglycolate to 3-phosphoglycerate and in this way allows the Calvin-Benson cycle to operate in the presence of molecular oxygen generated by oxygenic photosynthesis. While the carbon flow through the individual and combined subprocesses is well known, information on their regulatory interaction is very limited. Regulatory feedback from the photorespiratory pathway to the Calvin-Benson cycle can be presumed from numerous inhibitor experiments and was demonstrated in recent studies with transgenic plants. This complexity illustrates that we are not yet ready to rationally engineer photosynthesis by altering photorespiration since despite massive understanding of the core photorespiratory pathway our understanding of its interaction with other pathways and processes remains fragmentary. PMID:26969745

  11. Cyanobacterial Oxygenic Photosynthesis is Protected by Flavodiiron Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yagut Allahverdiyeva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Flavodiiron proteins (FDPs, also called flavoproteins, Flvs are modular enzymes widely present in Bacteria and Archaea. The evolution of cyanobacteria and oxygenic photosynthesis occurred in concert with the modulation of typical bacterial FDPs. Present cyanobacterial FDPs are composed of three domains, the β-lactamase-like, flavodoxin-like and flavin-reductase like domains. Cyanobacterial FDPs function as hetero- and homodimers and are involved in the regulation of photosynthetic electron transport. Whilst Flv2 and Flv4 proteins are limited to specific cyanobacterial species (β-cyanobacteria and function in photoprotection of Photosystem II, Flv1 and Flv3 proteins, functioning in the “Mehler-like” reaction and safeguarding Photosystem I under fluctuating light conditions, occur in nearly all cyanobacteria and additionally in green algae, mosses and lycophytes. Filamentous cyanobacteria have additional FDPs in heterocyst cells, ensuring a microaerobic environment for the function of the nitrogenase enzyme under the light. Here, the evolution, occurrence and functional mechanisms of various FDPs in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms are discussed.

  12. Electrochromism: a useful probe to study algal photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailleul, Benjamin; Cardol, Pierre; Breyton, Cécile; Finazzi, Giovanni

    2010-11-01

    In photosynthesis, electron transfer along the photosynthetic chain results in a vectorial transfer of protons from the stroma to the lumenal space of the thylakoids. This promotes the generation of an electrochemical proton gradient (Δμ(H)(+)), which comprises a gradient of electric potential (ΔΨ) and of proton concentration (ΔpH). The Δμ(H)(+) has a central role in the photosynthetic process, providing the energy source for ATP synthesis. It is also involved in many regulatory mechanisms. The ΔpH modulates the rate of electron transfer and triggers deexcitation of excess energy within the light harvesting complexes. The ΔΨ is required for metabolite and protein transport across the membranes. Its presence also induces a shift in the absorption spectra of some photosynthetic pigments, resulting in the so-called ElectroChromic Shift (ECS). In this review, we discuss the characteristic features of the ECS, and illustrate possible applications for the study of photosynthetic processes in vivo. PMID:20632109

  13. Exploring Photosynthesis and Plant Stress Using Inexpensive Chlorophyll Fluorometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cessna, Stephen; Demmig-Adams, Barbara; Adams, William W., III

    2010-01-01

    Mastering the concept of photosynthesis is of critical importance to learning plant physiology and its applications, but seems to be one of the more challenging concepts in biology. This teaching challenge is no doubt compounded by the complexity by which plants alter photosynthesis in different environments. Here we suggest the use of chlorophyll…

  14. A model for chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthesis at leaf scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, van der C.; Verhoef, W.; Rosema, A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a leaf biochemical model for steady-state chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthesis of C3 and C4 vegetation. The model is a tool to study the relationship between passively measured steady-state chlorophyll fluorescence and actual photosynthesis, and its evolution during the da

  15. Chlorophyll Fluorescence Analysis of Cyanobacterial Photosynthesis and Acclimation

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, Douglas; Hurry, Vaughan; Adrian K Clarke; Gustafsson, Petter; Öquist, Gunnar

    1998-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are ecologically important photosynthetic prokaryotes that also serve as popular model organisms for studies of photosynthesis and gene regulation. Both molecular and ecological studies of cyanobacteria benefit from real-time information on photosynthesis and acclimation. Monitoring in vivo chlorophyll fluorescence can provide noninvasive measures of photosynthetic physiology in a wide range of cyanobacteria and cyanolichens and requires only small samples. Cyanobacterial fluore...

  16. Secondary Students' Interpretations of Photosynthesis and Plant Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozay, Esra; Oztas, Haydar

    2003-01-01

    Studies misconceptions held by grade 9 students (14-15-years old) in Turkey about photosynthesis and plant nutrition. Uses a questionnaire to test students' conceptions and reports conflicting and often incorrect ideas about photosynthesis, respiration, and energy flow in plants. Suggests that there are difficulties in changing students' prior…

  17. Modelling C₃ photosynthesis from the chloroplast to the ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernacchi, Carl J; Bagley, Justin E; Serbin, Shawn P; Ruiz-Vera, Ursula M; Rosenthal, David M; Vanloocke, Andy

    2013-09-01

    Globally, photosynthesis accounts for the largest flux of CO₂ from the atmosphere into ecosystems and is the driving process for terrestrial ecosystem function. The importance of accurate predictions of photosynthesis over a range of plant growth conditions led to the development of a C₃ photosynthesis model by Farquhar, von Caemmerer & Berry that has become increasingly important as society places greater pressures on vegetation. The photosynthesis model has played a major role in defining the path towards scientific understanding of photosynthetic carbon uptake and the role of photosynthesis on regulating the earth's climate and biogeochemical systems. In this review, we summarize the photosynthesis model, including its continued development and applications. We also review the implications these developments have on quantifying photosynthesis at a wide range of spatial and temporal scales, and discuss the model's role in determining photosynthetic responses to changes in environmental conditions. Finally, the review includes a discussion of the larger-scale modelling and remote-sensing applications that rely on the leaf photosynthesis model and are likely to open new scientific avenues to address the increasing challenges to plant productivity over the next century. PMID:23590343

  18. Exploring Undergraduates' Understanding of Photosynthesis Using Diagnostic Question Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Joyce M.; Anderson, Charles W.; Heidemann, Merle; Merrill, John; Merritt, Brett; Richmond, Gail; Urban-Lurain, Mark

    2012-01-01

    We present a diagnostic question cluster (DQC) that assesses undergraduates' thinking about photosynthesis. This assessment tool is not designed to identify individual misconceptions. Rather, it is focused on students' abilities to apply basic concepts about photosynthesis by reasoning with a coordinated set of practices based on a few scientific…

  19. Photosynthesis sensitivity to climate change in land surface models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manrique-Sunen, Andrea; Black, Emily; Verhoef, Anne; Balsamo, Gianpaolo

    2016-04-01

    Accurate representation of vegetation processes within land surface models is key to reproducing surface carbon, water and energy fluxes. Photosynthesis determines the amount of CO2 fixated by plants as well as the water lost in transpiration through the stomata. Photosynthesis is calculated in land surface models using empirical equations based on plant physiological research. It is assumed that CO2 assimilation is either CO2 -limited, radiation -limited ; and in some models export-limited (the speed at which the products of photosynthesis are used by the plant) . Increased levels of atmospheric CO2 concentration tend to enhance photosynthetic activity, but the effectiveness of this fertilization effect is regulated by environmental conditions and the limiting factor in the photosynthesis reaction. The photosynthesis schemes at the 'leaf level' used by land surface models JULES and CTESSEL have been evaluated against field photosynthesis observations. Also, the response of photosynthesis to radiation, atmospheric CO2 and temperature has been analysed for each model, as this is key to understanding the vegetation response that climate models using these schemes are able to reproduce. Particular emphasis is put on the limiting factor as conditions vary. It is found that while at present day CO2 concentrations export-limitation is only relevant at low temperatures, as CO2 levels rise it becomes an increasingly important restriction on photosynthesis.

  20. On the relation between phototaxis and photosynthesis in Rhodospirillum Rubrum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, J.B.; Nijenhuis, L.E.

    1950-01-01

    The relation between phototaxis and photosynthesis in Rhodospirillum rubrum has been studied. The light intensity at which saturation is reached in photosynthesis proved to coincide with that at which the contrast sensitivity starts to decrease. Potassium cyanide, which preferably inhibits the Bla

  1. Can the photosynthesis first step quantum mechanism be explained?

    CERN Document Server

    Sacilotti, Marco; Mota, Claudia C B O; Nunes, Frederico Dias; Gomes, Anderson S L

    2010-01-01

    Photosynthesis first step mechanism concerns the sunlight absorption and both negative and positive charges separation. Recent and important photosynthesis literature claims that this mechanism is quantum mechanics controlled, however without presenting qualitative or quantitative scientifically based mechanism. The present accepted and old-fashioned photosynthesis mechanism model suffers from few drawbacks and an important issue is the absence of driving force for negative and positive charges separation. This article presents a new qualitative model for this first step mechanism in natural catalytic systems such as photosynthesis in green leaves. The model uses a concept of semiconductor band gap engineering, such as the staggered energy band gap line-up in semiconductors. To explain the primary mechanism in natural photosynthesis the proposal is the following: incident light is absorbed inside the leaves causing charges separation. The only energetic configuration that allows charges separation under illum...

  2. Solar fuels production by artificial photosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A practical method to use sunlight to generate storable chemical energy could dramatically change the landscape of global energy generation. One of the fundamental requirements of such an “artificial photosynthesis” scheme is a light capture and conversion approach capable of generating the required chemical potentials (e.g. >1.23 V for splitting water into H2 and O2). An approach based on inorganic light absorbers coupled directly to oxidation and reduction catalysts is being developed in the Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis (JCAP). P-type III-V semiconductors with a high surface area can be used as high current density photocathodes. The longevity under operation of these photocathodes can be improved by the use of conformal metal oxides deposited by atomic layer deposition

  3. Chloroplast transformation for engineering of photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Maureen R; Gray, Benjamin N; Ahner, Beth A

    2013-01-01

    Many efforts are underway to engineer improvements in photosynthesis to meet the challenges of increasing demands for food and fuel in rapidly changing environmental conditions. Various transgenes have been introduced into either the nuclear or plastid genomes in attempts to increase photosynthetic efficiency. We examine the current knowledge of the critical features that affect levels of expression of plastid transgenes and protein accumulation in transplastomic plants, such as promoters, 5' and 3' untranslated regions, RNA-processing sites, translation signals and amino acid sequences that affect protein turnover. We review the prior attempts to manipulate the properties of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase (Rubisco) through plastid transformation. We illustrate how plastid operons could be created for expression of the multiple genes needed to introduce new pathways or enzymes to enhance photosynthetic rates or reduce photorespiration. We describe here the past accomplishments and future prospects for manipulating plant enzymes and pathways to enhance carbon assimilation through plastid transformation. PMID:23162121

  4. ENERGY RECEPTION AND TRANSFER IN PHOTOSYNTHESIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvin, Melvin

    1958-09-23

    The basic information about the path of carbon in photosynthesis is reviewed together with the methods that were used to discover it. This has led to the knowledge of what is required of the photochemical reaction in the form of chemical species. Attention is then directed to the structure of the photochemical apparatus itself insofar as it is viewable by electron microscopy, and some principoles of ordered structure are devised for the types of molecules to be found in the chloroplasts. From the combination of these, a structure for the grana lamella is suggested and a mode of function proposed. Experimental test for this mode of function is underway; one method is to examine photoproduced unpaired electrons. This is discussed.

  5. Measurements of photosynthesis and respiration in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Stephen

    2003-03-01

    Methods for measuring the rates of photosynthesis and respiration in plants are reviewed. Closed systems that involve manometric techniques, 14CO2 fixation, O2 electrodes and other methods for measuring dissolved and gas phase O2 are described. These methods typically provide time-integrated rate measurements, and limitations to their use are discussed. Open gas exchange systems that use infra-red CO2 gas analysers and differential O2 analysers for measuring instantaneous rates of CO2 and O2 exchange are described. Important features of the analysers, design features of gas exchange systems, and sources of potential error are considered. The analysis of chlorophyll fluorescence parameters for estimating the quantum yield for O2 evolution and CO2 fixation is described in relation to new fluorescence imaging systems for large scale screening of photosynthetic phenotypes, and the microimaging of individual chloroplasts. PMID:12654031

  6. Functional quantum biology in photosynthesis and magnetoreception

    CERN Document Server

    Lambert, Neill; Cheng, Yuan-Chung; Li, Che-Ming; Chen, Guang-Yin; Nori, Franco

    2012-01-01

    Is there a functional role for quantum mechanics or coherent quantum effects in biological processes? While this question is as old as quantum theory, only recently have measurements on biological systems on ultra-fast time-scales shed light on a possible answer. In this review we give an overview of the two main candidates for biological systems which may harness such functional quantum effects: photosynthesis and magnetoreception. We discuss some of the latest evidence both for and against room temperature quantum coherence, and consider whether there is truly a functional role for coherence in these biological mechanisms. Finally, we give a brief overview of some more speculative examples of functional quantum biology including the sense of smell, long-range quantum tunneling in proteins, biological photoreceptors, and the flow of ions across a cell membrane.

  7. Does coherence enhance transport in photosynthesis?

    CERN Document Server

    Kassal, Ivan; Rahimi-Keshari, Saleh

    2012-01-01

    Recent observations of coherence in photosynthetic complexes have led to the question of whether quantum effects can occur in vivo, not under femtosecond laser pulses but in incoherent sunlight and at steady state, and, if so, whether the coherence explains the high exciton transfer efficiency. We distinguish several types of coherence and show that although some photosynthetic pathways are partially coherent processes, photosynthesis in nature proceeds through stationary states. This distinction allows us to rule out several mechanisms of transport enhancement in sunlight. In particular, although they are crucial for understanding exciton transport, neither wavelike motion nor microscopic coherence, on their own, enhance the efficiency. By contrast, two partially coherent mechanisms---ENAQT and supertransfer---can enhance transport even in sunlight and thus constitute motifs for the optimisation of artificial sunlight harvesting. Finally, we clarify the importance of ultrafast spectroscopy in understanding i...

  8. The many meanings of gross photosynthesis and their implication for photosynthesis research from leaf to globe

    OpenAIRE

    Wohlfahrt, Georg; Gu, Lianhong

    2015-01-01

    (1)  Gross photosynthesis is a key term in plant biology and carbon cycle science, however has been used with different meanings by different communities (2)  We review the history of this term and associated concepts to clarify the terminology and make recommendations about a consistent use of terms in accordance with photosynthetic theory. (3)  We show that a widely used eddy covariance CO2 flux partitioning approach yields estimates which are quantitatively closer to the definition of true...

  9. Photosynthesis and fish production in culture ponds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szyper, J.P.

    1995-12-31

    The widely-cultured Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, has been the major species used in standardized experiments by the Pond Dynamics/Aquaculture Collaborative Research Support Program (PD/ACRSP). Yields of Nile Tilapia from fertilized, unfed ponds have served as a bioassay for effectiveness of pond management protocols developed during worldwide tropical experiments. Yield rates near 10 T/ha/y can be achieved without feed inputs in ponds which maintain high standing stocks of phytoplankton and exhibit high rates near 10 T/ha/y can be achieved without feed inputs in ponds which maintain high standing stocks of phytoplankton and exhibit high rates of primary production. Fish production is related to daytime net photosynthetic production, but it is not clear whether production of food materials or oxygen is the more direct influence. Excessively high standing stocks of phytoplankton are not the best net producers, and increase and risk of nighttime oxygen depletion. Fish readily grow to individual sizes of 200-300 g/fish in fertilized ponds, which is sufficient market size in many locations. Supplemental feeding of caged or free-ranging fish greatly accelerates growth beyond 300 g and potentiates high areal yields; the PD/A CRSP has also developed efficient feeding regimes and shown that supplemental feeding need not begin before fish reach 200 g weight. High standing stocks of phytoplankton and high photosynthetic rates in eutrophic ponds make study of photosynthesis possible without radioisotopes. Such ponds also exhibit complete extinction of incident solar radiation within shallow depths, and vertical temperature structure resembling that of deeper bodies of water. These characteristics make ponds useful as microcosms for study of some aspects of photosynthesis in natural waters.

  10. Making Authentic Data Accessible: The Sensing the Environment Inquiry Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffis, Kathy; Thadani, Vandana; Wise, Joe

    2008-01-01

    We report on the development of a middle school life sciences inquiry module, Sensing the Environment. This "data-enriched" inquiry module includes a series of activities exploring the nature of science, photosynthesis, transpiration, and natural selection, which culminates in students' querying authentic environmental data to support a scientific…

  11. Unique communities of anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria in saline lakes of Salar de Atacama (Chile): evidence for a new phylogenetic lineage of phototrophic Gammaproteobacteria from pufLM gene analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, Vera; Tank, Marcus; Neulinger, Sven C; Gehrmann, Linda; Dorador, Cristina; Imhoff, Johannes F

    2010-12-01

    Phototrophic bacteria are important primary producers of salt lakes in the Salar de Atacama and at times form visible mass developments within and on top of the lake sediments. The communities of phototrophic bacteria from two of these lakes were characterized by molecular genetic approaches using key genes for the biosynthesis of the photosynthetic apparatus in phototrophic purple bacteria (pufLM) and in green sulfur bacteria (fmoA). Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism of the pufLM genes indicated high variability of the community composition between the two lakes and subsamples thereof. The communities were characterized by the dominance of a novel, so far undescribed lineage of pufLM containing bacteria and the presence of representatives related to known halophilic Chromatiaceae and Ectothiorhodospiraceae. In addition, the presence of BChl b-containing anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria and of aerobic anoxygenic bacteria was indicated. Green sulfur bacteria were not detected in the environmental samples, although a bacterium related to Prosthecochloris indicum was identified in an enrichment culture. This is the first comprehensive description of phototrophic bacterial communities in a salt lake of South America made possible only due to the application of the functional pufLM genes. PMID:20868378

  12. CAM Photosynthesis in Submerged Aquatic Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) is a CO2-concentrating mechanism selected in response to aridity in terrestrial habitats, and, in aquatic environments, to ambient limitations of carbon. Evidence is reviewed for its presence in five genera of aquatic vascular plants, including Isoe??tes, Sagittaria, Vallisneria, Crassula, and Littorella. Initially, aquatic CAM was considered by some to be an oxymoron, but some aquatic species have been studied in sufficient detail to say definitively that they possess CAM photosynthesis. CO2-concentrating mechanisms in photosynthetic organs require a barrier to leakage; e.g., terrestrial C4 plants have suberized bundle sheath cells and terrestrial CAM plants high stomatal resistance. In aquatic CAM plants the primary barrier to CO2 leakage is the extremely high diffusional resistance of water. This, coupled with the sink provided by extensive intercellular gas space, generates daytime CO2(Pi) comparable to terrestrial CAM plants. CAM contributes to the carbon budget by both net carbon gain and carbon recycling, and the magnitude of each is environmentally influenced. Aquatic CAM plants inhabit sites where photosynthesis is potentially limited by carbon. Many occupy moderately fertile shallow temporary pools that experience extreme diel fluctuations in carbon availability. CAM plants are able to take advantage of elevated nighttime CO2 levels in these habitats. This gives them a competitive advantage over non-CAM species that are carbon starved during the day and an advantage over species that expend energy in membrane transport of bicarbonate. Some aquatic CAM plants are distributed in highly infertile lakes, where extreme carbon limitation and light are important selective factors. Compilation of reports on diel changes in titratable acidity and malate show 69 out of 180 species have significant overnight accumulation, although evidence is presented discounting CAM in some. It is concluded that similar proportions of the aquatic

  13. Oxygenic photosynthesis: translation to solar fuel technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian David Janna Olmos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mitigation of man-made climate change, rapid depletion of readily available fossil fuel reserves and facing the growing energy demand that faces mankind in the near future drive the rapid development of economically viable, renewable energy production technologies. It is very likely that greenhouse gas emissions will lead to the significant climate change over the next fifty years. World energy consumption has doubled over the last twenty-five years, and is expected to double again in the next quarter of the 21st century. Our biosphere is at the verge of a severe energy crisis that can no longer be overlooked. Solar radiation represents the most abundant source of clean, renewable energy that is readily available for conversion to solar fuels. Developing clean technologies that utilize practically inexhaustible solar energy that reaches our planet and convert it into the high energy density solar fuels provides an attractive solution to resolving the global energy crisis that mankind faces in the not too distant future. Nature’s oxygenic photosynthesis is the most fundamental process that has sustained life on Earth for more than 3.5 billion years through conversion of solar energy into energy of chemical bonds captured in biomass, food and fossil fuels. It is this process that has led to evolution of various forms of life as we know them today. Recent advances in imitating the natural process of photosynthesis by developing biohybrid and synthetic “artificial leaves” capable of solar energy conversion into clean fuels and other high value products, as well as advances in the mechanistic and structural aspects of the natural solar energy converters, photosystem I and photosystem II, allow to address the main challenges: how to maximize solar-to-fuel conversion efficiency, and most importantly: how to store the energy efficiently and use it without significant losses. Last but not least, the question of how to make the process of solar

  14. Hydrogen peroxide and the evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckay, C. P.; Hartman, H.

    1991-01-01

    Possible pathways for the evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis in the early reducing atmosphere of the earth are discussed. It is suggested that the abiotic production of atmospheric oxidants could have provided a mechanism by which locally oxidizing conditions were sustained within spatially confined habitats thus removing the available reductants and forcing photosynthetic organisms to utilize water (rather than ferrous or sulfide ions) as the electron donor. It is argued that atmospheric H2O2 played the key role in inducing oxygenic photosynthesis, because, as peroxide concentrations local environments increased, primitive organisms would not only be faced with a loss of a reductant, but would be also forced to develop a biochemical apparatus (such as catalase) that would protect them against the products of oxygenic photosynthesis. This scenario allows for the early evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis at the time when global conditions were still anaerobic.

  15. Effect of Bradyrhizobium photosynthesis on stem nodulation of Aeschynomene sensitiva

    OpenAIRE

    Giraud, Eric; Hannibal, Laure; Fardoux, Joel; Verméglio, Andre; Dreyfus, Bernard

    2000-01-01

    Some leguminous species of the genus #Aeschynomene$ are specifically stem-nodulated by photosynthetic bradyrhizobia. To study the effect of bacterial photosynthesis during symbiosis, we generated a photosynthesis-negative mutant of the #Bradyrhizobium$ sp. strain ORS278 symbiont of #Aeschynomene sensitiva$. The presence of a functional photosynthetic unit in bacterioids and the high expression of the photosynthetic genes observed in stem nodules demonstrate that the bacteria are photosyntheti...

  16. Oxygen requirement and inhibition of C4 photosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Maroco, João; Ku, Maurice S. B.; Peter J. Lea; Dever, Louisa V.; Leegood, Richard C.; Furbank, Robert T.; Edwards, Gerald E.

    1998-01-01

    The basis for O2 sensitivity of C4 photosynthesis was evaluated using a C4-cycle-limited mutant of Amaranthus edulis (a phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase-deficient mutant), and a C3-cyclelimited transformant of Flaveria bidentis (an antisense ribulose-1,5- bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase [Rubisco] small subunit transformant). Data obtained with the C4-cycle-limited mutant showed that atmospheric levels of O2 (20 kPa) caused increased inhibition of photosynthesis as a res...

  17. DETERMINATION OF SENSITIVE SITES IN PHOTOSYNTHESIS DURING LONGTERM PLANT DEHYDRATION

    OpenAIRE

    BRESTIČ, M.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this work was to measure the net CO2 assimilation, O2 evolution, Rubisco activity, 13C content, actual photochemical PSII efficiency, stomatal conductance, water and osmotic potentials as well as relative water content during increasing plant dehydration. The measurements allowed to determine vulnerability of individual segments of complex process of photosynthesis and characterise the stomatal and non-stomatal responses to dehydration and resistance of mechanisms of photosynthesis...

  18. From molecules to materials pathways to artificial photosynthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Rozhkova, Elena A

    2015-01-01

    This interdisciplinary book focuses on the various aspects transformation of the energy from sunlight into the chemical bonds of a fuel, known as the artificial photosynthesis, and addresses the emergent challenges connected with growing societal demands for clean and sustainable energy technologies. The editors assemble the research of world-recognized experts in the field of both molecular and materials artificial systems for energy production. Contributors cover the full scope of research on photosynthesis and related energy processes.

  19. Manganese and the II system in photosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evolution during greening of some components of system II of photosynthesis has been followed in plastids extracted from Zea mays grown in the dark. Manganese studies were done by means of neutron activation, electron spin resonance (ESR) was also used in some experiments. Oxygen evolution of isolated plastids was followed by polarography (with a membrane electrode). The evolution of manganese/carotenoids ratio can be divided in three parts. During the first hour of greening, the increase shows an input of Mn in the plastids; then, whereas carotenoids content of those plastids presents no changes, Mn is released in the medium; at last, carotenoids synthesis is parallel to Mn fixation in the plastids, the ratio being constant after 24 hours of greening. From various measurements on chloroplastic manganese, it is shown that the development of system II can be divided in two main phases: during the first one (that is during the first day of light) the components are not yet bound together but the relations become more and more strong. Then, during the last period of the development, the organisation of system II is complete and the transformations of the plastids are parallel to the raise of their activity. (author)

  20. Biosynthetic porphyrins and the origin of photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauzerall, D.; Ley, A.; Mercer-Smith, J. A.

    1986-01-01

    Since the prebiotic atmosphere was anaerobic, if not reducing, a useful function of primordial photosynthesis would have been to photooxidize reduced substrates such as Fe(+2), S(-2) or reduced organic molecules and to emit hydrogen. Experiments have shown that the early biogenic pigments uroporphyrin and coproporphyrin do photooxidize organic compounds and emit hydrogen in the presence of a platinum catalyst. These experiments were carried out in dilute aqueous solution near neutral pH under anaerobic atmosphere, and quantum yields near 10-2 were obtained. Thus relevant prebiotic conditions were maintained. Rather then to further optimize conditions, attempts were made to replace the platinum catalyst by a more prebiotically suitable catalyst. Trials with an Fe4S4(SR)4 cluster, in analogy to the present hydrogenase and nitrogenase, were not successful. However, experiments using cobalt complexes to catalyze the formation of hydrogen are promising. In analogy with biological photosynthetic systems which group pigments, electron transfer molecules and enzymes in clusters for efficiency, it was found that binding the biogenic porphyrins to the polyvinyl alcohol used to support the platinum catalyst did increase the quantum yield of the reaction. It was also found that ultraviolet light can serve to photo-oxidize porphyrinogens to porphyrins under anaerobic conditions. Thus the formation of the colorless porphyriogens by the extraordinarily simple biosynthetic pathway would not be a problem because of the prevalence of UV light in the prebiotic, anoxic atmosphere.

  1. Origin and early evolution of photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankenship, R. E.

    1992-01-01

    Photosynthesis was well-established on the earth at least 3.5 thousand million years ago, and it is widely believed that these ancient organisms had similar metabolic capabilities to modern cyanobacteria. This requires that development of two photosystems and the oxygen evolution capability occurred very early in the earth's history, and that a presumed phase of evolution involving non-oxygen evolving photosynthetic organisms took place even earlier. The evolutionary relationships of the reaction center complexes found in all the classes of currently existing organisms have been analyzed using sequence analysis and biophysical measurements. The results indicate that all reaction centers fall into two basic groups, those with pheophytin and a pair of quinones as early acceptors, and those with iron sulfur clusters as early acceptors. No simple linear branching evolutionary scheme can account for the distribution patterns of reaction centers in existing photosynthetic organisms, and lateral transfer of genetic information is considered as a likely possibility. Possible scenarios for the development of primitive reaction centers into the heterodimeric protein structures found in existing reaction centers and for the development of organisms with two linked photosystems are presented.

  2. Applications of Satellite Fluorescence to Constrain Global Photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parazoo, Nicholas

    2016-07-01

    Terrestrial gross primary production (GPP) by plant photosynthesis is the largest flux component of the global carbon budget and primary conduit for biological sequestration of atmospheric carbon dioxide. While much is known about the functioning of photosynthesis at the leave-level, gross photosynthetic fluxes are still only loosely constrained at ecosystem, regional, and global scales. Uncertainty in the response of photosynthesis to the environment at these scales is a major source of uncertainty in prediction of biosphere-atmosphere feedbacks under climate change, and thus novel methods are needed to push the boundaries of carbon cycle science beyond leaf-level. Chlorophyll fluorescence has been a major tool for basic research in photosynthesis for nearly a century. It was recently discovered that solar induced fluorescence (SIF) can be accurately retrieved from space using high spectral resolution radiances, providing a new way to study photosynthesis at scales ranging from the ecosystem to the globe. Over the last 5-10 years, satellite based measurements of SIF have provided key new insights into the global distribution and functioning of plant photosynthesis, providing new ways to quantify global GPP, detect regional-scale changes in plant productivity in relation to light use efficiency and environmental controls, disentangle biological contributions to atmospheric carbon dioxide mole fractions, and refine process understanding in terrestrial biosphere models. Here, we highlight some of the key research advances emerging from satellite SIF.

  3. Path of Carbon in Photosynthesis III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, A. A.; Calvin, M.

    1948-06-01

    Although the overall reaction of photosynthesis can be specified with some degree of certainty (CO{sub 2} + H{sub 2}O + light {yields} sugars + possibly other reduced substances), the intermediates through which the carbon passes during the course of this reduction have, until now, been largely a matter of conjecture. The availability of isotopic carbon, that is, a method of labeling the carbon dioxide, provides the possibility of some very direct experiments designed to recognize these intermediates and, perhaps, help to understand the complex sequence and interplay of reactions which must constitute the photochemical process itself. The general design of such experiments is an obvious one, namely the exposure of the green plant to radioactive carbon dioxide and light under a variety of conditions and for continually decreasing lengths of time, followed by the identification of the compounds into which the radioactive carbon is incorporated under each condition and time period. From such data it is clear that in principle, at least, it should be possible to establish the sequence of compounds in time through which the carbon passes on its path from carbon dioxide to the final products. In the course of shortening the photosynthetic times, one times, one ultimately arrives at the condition of exposing the plants to the radioactive carbon dioxide with a zero illumination time, that is, in the dark. Actually, in the work the systematic order of events was reversed, and they have begun by studying first the dark fixation and then the shorter photosynthetic times. The results of the beginnings of this sort of a systematic investigation are given in Table I which includes three sets of experiments, namely a dark fixation experiment and two photosynthetic experiments, one of 30 seconds duration and the other of 60 seconds duration.

  4. Exploring photosynthesis evolution by comparative analysis of metabolic networks between chloroplasts and photosynthetic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou Jing

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chloroplasts descended from cyanobacteria and have a drastically reduced genome following an endosymbiotic event. Many genes of the ancestral cyanobacterial genome have been transferred to the plant nuclear genome by horizontal gene transfer. However, a selective set of metabolism pathways is maintained in chloroplasts using both chloroplast genome encoded and nuclear genome encoded enzymes. As an organelle specialized for carrying out photosynthesis, does the chloroplast metabolic network have properties adapted for higher efficiency of photosynthesis? We compared metabolic network properties of chloroplasts and prokaryotic photosynthetic organisms, mostly cyanobacteria, based on metabolic maps derived from genome data to identify features of chloroplast network properties that are different from cyanobacteria and to analyze possible functional significance of those features. Results The properties of the entire metabolic network and the sub-network that consists of reactions directly connected to the Calvin Cycle have been analyzed using hypergraph representation. Results showed that the whole metabolic networks in chloroplast and cyanobacteria both possess small-world network properties. Although the number of compounds and reactions in chloroplasts is less than that in cyanobacteria, the chloroplast's metabolic network has longer average path length, a larger diameter, and is Calvin Cycle -centered, indicating an overall less-dense network structure with specific and local high density areas in chloroplasts. Moreover, chloroplast metabolic network exhibits a better modular organization than cyanobacterial ones. Enzymes involved in the same metabolic processes tend to cluster into the same module in chloroplasts. Conclusion In summary, the differences in metabolic network properties may reflect the evolutionary changes during endosymbiosis that led to the improvement of the photosynthesis efficiency in higher plants. Our

  5. [Effects of Litchi chinensis Defoliation on Growth and Photosynthesis of Microcystis aeruginosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-xiong; Jiang, Chen-chun; Li, Jin-weiz; Wang, Xiao-ju

    2015-05-01

    The growth and physiology of bloom-forming cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa were determined by the pulse amplitude modulated fluorimetry when exposed to different concentrations of Litchi chinensis defoliation extract for 15 d. The growth, maximal efficiency (Fv/Fm), effective quantum yield (YII) of PSII photochemistry, photosynthesis efficiency (α) , maximum electron transport rate (rETRmax) and light saturation coefficient (Ik) were used to evaluate the growth and photosynthesis in M. aeruginosa. It was found that the extract of L. chinensis defoliation stored for 5 days significantly inhibited the growth of M. aeruginosa in a concentration-dependent way. After a long time of exposure, stimulation effect disappeared gradually. Fv/Fm fluorescence parameters, YII and alpha changed from negative correlation to positive correlation or kept positive correlation with the extract of L. chinensis defoliation, which might affect the photosynthesis of M. aeruginosa at early time or help the cyanobacterium to survive in the stress environment by improving the efficiency of light energy. Ik, rETRmax and the content of algal chlorophyll-a changed from negative to significant negative correlation with the extract. Three-dimensional fluorescence spectra showed that the peak intensities of tryptophan and tyrosine fluorescence were only about one third in 2.0 g · L(-1) extract treatment when compared to the 1.2 g · L(-1) extract treatment on day 15. At the same time, the peak intensity of humic acid fluorescence was weaker than that on day 1. Further study showed that the EC50 of algal growth was smaller than that of the traditional crops straw, which might achieve good effect to control the growth of algae with lower concentration of L. chinensis defoliation extract due to its strong allelopathy. PMID:26314111

  6. Ecology and ecophysiology of tree stems: corticular and wood photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfanz, H.; Aschan, G.; Langenfeld-Heyser, R.; Wittmann, C.; Loose, M.

    2002-03-01

    Below the outer peridermal or rhytidomal layers, most stems of woody plants possess greenish tissues. These chlorophyll-containing tissues (the chlorenchymes) within the stems are able to use the stem internal CO2 and the light penetrating the rhytidome to photoassimilate and produce sugars and starch. Although net photosynthetic uptake of CO2 is rarely found, stem internal re-fixation of CO2 in young twigs and branches may compensate for 60-90% of the potential respiratory carbon loss. Isolated chlorenchymal tissues reveal rather high rates of net photosynthesis (being up to 75% of the respective rates for leaf photosynthesis). Corticular photosynthesis is thus thought to be an effective mechanism for recapturing respiratory carbon dioxide before it diffuses out of the stem. Furthermore, chloroplasts of the proper wood or pith fraction also take part in stem internal photosynthesis. Although there has been no strong experimental evidence until now, we suggest that the oxygen evolved during wood or pith photosynthesis may play a decisive role in avoiding/reducing stem internal anaerobiosis.

  7. Photosynthesis 2008 Gordon Research Conferences - June 22-27, 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willem Vermaas

    2009-08-28

    Photosynthesis is the most prevalent, natural way to convert solar energy to chemical energy in living systems, and is a major mechanism to ameliorate rising CO2 levels in the atmosphere and to contribute to sustainable biofuels production. Photosynthesis is a particularly interdisciplinary field of research, with contributions from plant and microbial physiology, biochemistry, spectroscopy, etc. The Photosynthesis GRC is a venue by which scientists with expertise in complementary approaches such as solar energy conversion, molecular mechanisms of electron transfer, and 'systems biology' (molecular physiology) of photosynthetic organisms come together to exchange data and ideas and to forge new collaborations. The 2008 Photosynthesis GRC will focus on important new findings related to, for example: (1) function, structure, assembly, degradation, motility and regulation of photosynthetic complexes; (2) energy and electron transfer in photosynthetic systems; regulation and rate limitations; (3) synthesis, degradation and regulation of cofactors (pigments, etc.); (4) functional, structural and regulatory interactions between photosynthesis and the physiology of the organism; (5) organisms with unusual photosynthetic properties, and insights from metagenomics and evolution; and (6) bioenergy strategies involving solar energy conversion, and practical applications for photosynthetic organisms.

  8. An Investigation of the Afternoon Decline in Tropical Forest Photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, C.; Goulden, M. L.; Miller, S. D.; Menton, M. C.; da Rocha, H.; Freitas, H.; Figueira, M. A.; da Sousa, C. A.; Maia, A.

    2002-12-01

    The recent use of eddy covariance to measure the net exchange of CO2 between the atmosphere and a tropical forest in Santarem Para, Brazil, has indicated a substantial decline in forest photosynthesis in the afternoon, even after taking light differences into account. Afternoon declines in leaf-level gas exchange have been reported for many ecosystems, including tropical forests. Potential causes for this decline include stomatal responses to VPD, low leaf water potential, changes in biochemistry due to elevated temperature, photoinhibition, photorespiration, or intrinsic circadian rhythm. This study attempts to understand this decline by using leaf gas exchange to measure photosynthesis while canopy leaves are kept under constant light, humidity, and temperature conditions for 24 to 36 hours hours.At constant light levels of 100 PAR æmol~m-2s-1, 7 of 12 species tested showed a substantial decline photosynthesis at night, and a subsequent recovery in photosynthesis during the next day. In most cases, the internal CO2 of these plants increased at night, indicating that this diel cycle was not simply an effect of a circadian rhythm in stomatal conductance. Rather, the photosynthesis of a significant fraction of the plants surveyed appears to be under the direct control of a circadian oscillator.

  9. Observed and predicted measurements of photosynthesis in a phytoplankton culture exposed to natural irradiance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photosynthesis-irradiance (P-I) curves were produced (using artificial illumination) from samples taken at one or more times per day from a continuous culture illuminated with sunlight. The continuous culture housed an oxygen electrode used to measure photosynthesis semi-continuously. Rates of photosynthesis predicted from P-I curves agreed with photosynthesis observed in the culture only for days of low irradiance. For sunny days or for days of variable irradiance, P-I curves predicted neither the morning photosynthesis maximum nor the afternoon depression. Daily integrals of predicted and observed photosynthesis, however, were probably within the possible errors of measurement. (orig.)

  10. SIMPLE SIMULATION OF THE ANNUAL VARIATION OF THE SPECIFIC PHOTOSYNTHESIS RATE IN JIAOZHOU BAY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A simple diagnostic simulation of the annual cycling of the surface specific photosynthesis rate (SPR) in Jiaozhou Bay is described in this paper. Light intensity, temperature and nutrients (nitrate + ammonia, phosphate) were considered as main factors controlling photosynthesis of phytoplankton and were introduced into the model by different function equations. The simulated variation of specific photosynthesis rate coincided with the measured data. Analysis of the effect of every factor on photosynthesis indicated that the variation of photosynthesis rate was controlled by all these three factors, while temperature showed good correlation with SPR as measurement showed. This diagnostic simulation yielded the values of some parameter relating with the photosynthesis in Jiaozhou Bay.

  11. The Path of Carbon in Photosynthesis XVI. Kinetic Relationships of the Intermediates in Steady State Photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, A. A.; Kawaguchi, S.; Hayes, P.; Calvin, M.

    1952-06-05

    A kinetic study of the accumulation of C{sup 14} in the intermediates of steady state photosynthesis in C{sup 14}O{sub 2} provides information regarding the sequence of reactions involved. The work described applied the radio-chromatographic technique for analysis of the labeled early products. The simultaneous carboxylation reaction resulting in malic acid as well as phosphoglycerate is demonstrated in experiments at high light intensity. A comparison of radioactivities in a number of phosphorylated sugars as a function of time reveals concurrent synthesis of fructose and sedoheptulose phosphates followed by that of ribulose phosphates and later by that of glucose phosphates. The possibility that the cleavage of C{sub 4} compounds to C{sub 2} carbon dioxide acceptors may involve C{sub 7} and C{sub 5} sugars and evidence for this mechanism is presented.

  12. Method and apparatus for nondestructive in vivo measurement of photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, Elias

    1988-01-01

    A device for in situ, nondestructive measurement of photosynthesis in live plants and photosynthetic microorganisms is disclosed which comprises a Clark-type oxygen electrode having a substantially transparent cathode comprised of an optical fiber having a metallic grid microetched onto its front face and sides, an anode, a substantially transparent electrolyte film, and a substantially transparent oxygen permeable membrane. The device is designed to be placed in direct contact with a photosynthetic portion of a living plant, and nondestructive, noninvasive measurement of photosynthetic oxygen production from the plant can be taken by passing light through the fiber-optic cathode, transparent electroyte and transparent membrane, and onto the plant so that photosynthesis occurs. The oxygen thus produced by the plant is measured polargraphically by the electrode. The present invention allows for rapid, nondestructive measurements of photosynthesis in living plants in a manner heretofore impossible using prior art methods.

  13. DETERMINATION OF SENSITIVE SITES IN PHOTOSYNTHESIS DURING LONGTERM PLANT DEHYDRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M BRESTIČ

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to measure the net CO2 assimilation, O2 evolution, Rubisco activity, 13C content, actual photochemical PSII efficiency, stomatal conductance, water and osmotic potentials as well as relative water content during increasing plant dehydration. The measurements allowed to determine vulnerability of individual segments of complex process of photosynthesis and characterise the stomatal and non-stomatal responses to dehydration and resistance of mechanisms of photosynthesis to gradual water stress. The sensitiveness of stomata, osmoprotection and isotopic 13C discrimination seem to be the most interesting parameters which act dynamically in plant acclimation to drought. They may be successfully used in screening new genotypes with efficient water and carbon use and in quantification of threshold of deleterious environmental effect to photosynthesis.

  14. Cadmium stress in wheat seedlings: growth, cadmium accumulation and photosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ci, Dunwei; Jiang, Dong; Wollenweber, Bernd;

    2010-01-01

    parameters were generally depressed by Cd stress, especially under the high Cd concentrations. Cd concentration and accumulation in both shoots and roots increased with increasing external Cd concentrations. Relationships between corrected parameters of growth, photosynthesis and fluorescence and corrected...... Cd concentrations in shoots and roots could be explained by the regression model Y = K/(1 + exp(a + bX)). Jing 411 was found to be Cd tolerant considering parameters of chlorophyll content, photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence in which less Cd translocation was from roots into shoots. The high...

  15. CARBON DIOXIDE MITIGATION THROUGH CONTROLLED PHOTOSYNTHESIS; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research was undertaken to meet the need for a robust portfolio of carbon management options to ensure continued use of coal in electrical power generation. In response to this need, the Ohio Coal Research Center at Ohio University developed a novel technique to control the emissions of CO(sub 2) from fossil-fired power plants by growing organisms capable of converting CO(sub 2) to complex sugars through the process of photosynthesis. Once harvested, the organisms could be used in the production of fertilizer, as a biomass fuel, or fermented to produce alcohols. In this work, a mesophilic organism, Nostoc 86-3, was examined with respect to the use of thermophilic algae to recycle CO(sub 2) from scrubbed stack gases. The organisms were grown on stationary surfaces to facilitate algal stability and promote light distribution. The testing done throughout the year examined properties of CO(sub 2) concentration, temperature, light intensity, and light duration on process viability and the growth of the Nostoc. The results indicate that the Nostoc species is suitable only in a temperature range below 125 F, which may be practical given flue gas cooling. Further, results indicate that high lighting levels are not suitable for this organism, as bleaching occurs and growth rates are inhibited. Similarly, the organisms do not respond well to extended lighting durations, requiring a significant (greater than eight hour) dark cycle on a consistent basis. Other results indicate a relative insensitivity to CO(sub 2) levels between 7-12% and CO levels as high as 800 ppm. Other significant results alluded to previously, relate to the development of the overall process. Two processes developed during the year offer tremendous potential to enhance process viability. First, integration of solar collection and distribution technology from Oak Ridge laboratories could provide a significant space savings and enhanced use of solar energy. Second, the use of translating slug flow

  16. CARBON DIOXIDE MITIGATION THROUGH CONTROLLED PHOTOSYNTHESIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2000-10-01

    This research was undertaken to meet the need for a robust portfolio of carbon management options to ensure continued use of coal in electrical power generation. In response to this need, the Ohio Coal Research Center at Ohio University developed a novel technique to control the emissions of CO{sub 2} from fossil-fired power plants by growing organisms capable of converting CO{sub 2} to complex sugars through the process of photosynthesis. Once harvested, the organisms could be used in the production of fertilizer, as a biomass fuel, or fermented to produce alcohols. In this work, a mesophilic organism, Nostoc 86-3, was examined with respect to the use of thermophilic algae to recycle CO{sub 2} from scrubbed stack gases. The organisms were grown on stationary surfaces to facilitate algal stability and promote light distribution. The testing done throughout the year examined properties of CO{sub 2} concentration, temperature, light intensity, and light duration on process viability and the growth of the Nostoc. The results indicate that the Nostoc species is suitable only in a temperature range below 125 F, which may be practical given flue gas cooling. Further, results indicate that high lighting levels are not suitable for this organism, as bleaching occurs and growth rates are inhibited. Similarly, the organisms do not respond well to extended lighting durations, requiring a significant (greater than eight hour) dark cycle on a consistent basis. Other results indicate a relative insensitivity to CO{sub 2} levels between 7-12% and CO levels as high as 800 ppm. Other significant results alluded to previously, relate to the development of the overall process. Two processes developed during the year offer tremendous potential to enhance process viability. First, integration of solar collection and distribution technology from Oak Ridge laboratories could provide a significant space savings and enhanced use of solar energy. Second, the use of translating slug flow

  17. A submersible magnetic stirrer for use in measuring photosynthesis in a biofloc technology production system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measuring photosynthesis or primary productivity in biofloc technology production systems is challenging because the biofloc must be maintained in suspension constantly. Photosynthesis can be measured in external incubators designed to keep the biofloc suspended in the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD...

  18. Application of microbial photosynthesis to energy production and CO2 fixation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents different applications of microbial photosynthesis for energy production and carbon dioxide fixation. The authors discuss about energetic aspects of photosynthesis and features of biological way for solar energy conversion. (TEC). 4 figs., 12 refs

  19. Power Module

    OpenAIRE

    Gang Fang

    2009-01-01

    Abstract: In this paper, we discuss the upgrade problem of module, and introduce the concepts of the power module, regular power module and uniform power module. We give some results of them. Key words: power group; power module; regular power module; uniform power module

  20. Coordinate changes in photosynthesis, sugar accumulation and antioxidative enzymes improve the performance of Jatropha curcas plants under drought stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationships between photosynthesis, sugars and photo-oxidative protection mechanisms in Jatropha curcas under drought stress. Leaf CO2 assimilation rate (PN) and instantaneous carboxylation efficiency decreased progressively as the water deficit increased. The sucrose and reducing sugar concentrations were negatively and highly correlated with photosynthesis indicating a modulation by negative feedback mechanism. The alternative electron sinks (ETRs'/PN), relative excess of light energy (EXC) and non-photochemical quenching were strongly increased by drought, indicating effective mechanisms of energy excess dissipation. The photochemistry data indicate partial preservation of photosystem II integrity and function even under severe drought. EXC was positively correlated with superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities evidencing an effective role of these enzymes in the oxidative protection against excess of reactive oxygen species in chloroplasts. Leaf H2O2 content and lipid peroxidation were inversely and highly correlated with catalase (CAT) activity indicating that drought-induced inhibition of this enzyme might have allowed oxidative damage. Our data suggest that drought triggers a coordinate down-regulation in photosynthesis through sucrose and reducing sugar accumulation and an energy excess dissipation at PSII level by non-photochemical mechanisms associate with enhancement in photorespiration, restricting photo-damages. In parallel, drought up-regulates SOD and APX activities avoiding accumulation of reactive oxygen species, while CAT activity is not able to avoid H2O2 accumulation in drought-stressed J. curcas leaves. -- Highlights: ► Drought triggers a down-regulation in photosynthesis by sucrose and reducing sugar. ► Drought induces energy dissipation at PSII level and increase in photorespiration. ► Drought up-regulates SOD and APX activities avoiding accumulation of ROS. ► CAT

  1. Measurement of Solar Spectra Relating to Photosynthesis and Solar Cells: An Inquiry Lab for Secondary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggirello, Rachel M.; Balcerzak, Phyllis; May, Victoria L.; Blankenship, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    The process of photosynthesis is central to science curriculum at all levels. This article describes an inquiry-based laboratory investigation developed to explore the impact of light quality on photosynthesis and to connect this process to current research on harvesting solar energy, including bioenergy, artificial photosynthesis, and solar…

  2. Identification and characterization of nuclear genes involved in photosynthesis in Populus

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Bowen; Du, Qingzhang; Yang, Xiaohui; Zhang, Deqiang

    2014-01-01

    Background The gap between the real and potential photosynthetic rate under field conditions suggests that photosynthesis could potentially be improved. Nuclear genes provide possible targets for improving photosynthetic efficiency. Hence, genome-wide identification and characterization of the nuclear genes affecting photosynthetic traits in woody plants would provide key insights on genetic regulation of photosynthesis and identify candidate processes for improvement of photosynthesis. Resul...

  3. Overcoming Student Misconceptions about Photosynthesis: A Model- and Inquiry-Based Approach Using Aquatic Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Andrew M.; Beardsley, Paul M.

    2008-01-01

    Even though photosynthesis is an obligatory part of the science curriculum, research has shown that students often have a poor understanding of it. The authors advocate that classroom coverage of the topic of photosynthesis should include not only its biochemical properties but also the role of photosynthesis or photosynthetic organisms in matter…

  4. Bibliography of reviews and methods of photosynthesis - 88

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šesták, Zdeněk; Čatský, Jiří

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 4 (2004), s. 619-640. ISSN 0300-3604 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/97/0120 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : Bibliographic survey * processes of photosynthesis * accumulation of energy Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.734, year: 2004

  5. Photorespiration and Oxygen Inhibition of Photosynthesis in Chlorella pyrenoidosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelp, B J; Canvin, D T

    1980-05-01

    The inhibition of photosynthesis by O(2) in air-grown Chlorella pyrenoidosa was investigated using three experimental techniques (artificial leaf, aqueous method, and O(2) electrode) to measure carbon assimilation. CO(2) response curves were determined under different O(2), pH, and temperature conditions. Regardless of the experimental technique and condition, O(2) inhibition was not evident until a concentration of 50% was reached; V(max) values were reduced whereas K(m) (CO(2)) values were unaffected by the increasing O(2) concentration. The response of photosynthesis to O(2) was independent of CO(2) and HCO(3) (-) concentrations as well as temperature. Relative rates of photosynthesis showed a 4 to 5% stimulation in 2% O(2), a 12% inhibition in 50% O(2), and a 24% inhibition in 100% O(2). The inhibition by 50% O(2) was still reversible after 20 minutes exposure whereas 100% O(2) caused irreversible inhibition after only 4 minutes.The O(2) inhibition is discussed in terms of the oxygenase reaction and a Mehler reaction supporting pseudocyclic electron flow. The results are inconsistent with the proposals that photorespiration exists in these algae and that a CO(2)-concentrating mechanism suppresses the O(2) inhibition of photosynthesis. PMID:16661282

  6. ‘Direct Conversion’: Artificial Photosynthesis With Cyanobacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Q. Chen; D. Montesarchio; K.J. Hellingwerf

    2016-01-01

    Cyanobacteria, the only bacteria that can carry out oxygenic, (ie, plant-type) photosynthesis, can be engineered with the methods of synthetic biology so that they acquire the ability to convert CO2 directly into biofuel and/or commodity chemicals. In such an approach one bypasses the formation of t

  7. Light dependence of carboxylation capacity for C3 photosynthesis models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Photosynthesis at high light is often modelled by assuming limitation by the maximum capacity of Rubisco carboxylation at low carbon dioxide concentrations, by electron transport capacity at higher concentrations, and sometimes by triose-phosphate utilization rate at the highest concentrations. Pho...

  8. PRELIMINARY PHOTOSYNTHESIS EXAMINATIONS OF THERMOFIL EVERGREEN ORNAMENTAL SHRUBS IN HUNGARY

    OpenAIRE

    MARÁCZI, Kata; Gáspár, László; BARACSI, Eva

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the climatic- ecological demand of thermofil broadleaf evergreen ornamental shrubs. On three different habitats: in field conditions, in container and on hillside was investigated the fluorescence induction experiments with PAM-2000 chlorophyll-fluorimetry, which was used to measure the photosynthesis 2 quantum yield of the plant.

  9. Photosynthesis in Relation to Reproductive Success of Cypripedium flavum

    OpenAIRE

    ZHANG, SHIBAO; Hu, Hong; Zhou, Zhekun; Xu, Kun; YAN, NING; LI, SHUYUN

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims Cypripedium flavum is a rare, endemic alpine slipper orchid of China, which is under threat from excessive collection and habitat changes. Conservation and re-introduction of C. flavum is restricted by lack of knowledge of the plant's photosynthesis and how that affects reproductive success. The hypothesis is tested that reproductive success is determined by photosynthetic production.

  10. Iron is essential for photosynthesis and respiration : iron deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    HEUVELINK, E.; Kierkels, T.

    2016-01-01

    Iron plays a major role in photosynthesis. That’s why a shortage directly affects the production capacity of the plant. The application of chelates has made iron much more easy to absorb. Nevertheless it’s an element that we have to keep an eye on.

  11. Photosynthesis of Digitaria ciliaris during repeated soil drought and rewatering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YaYong Luo; XueYong Zhao; JingHui Zhang; YuLin Li; XiaoAn Zuo; DianChao Sun

    2015-01-01

    The ability of psammophyte photosynthesis to withstand and recover from severe droughts is crucial for vegetation sta-bility in semi-arid sandy lands. The responses of gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence of an annual grass, Digitaria ciliaris, were measured through three soil drought and rewatering cycles. Results showed that the net photosynthesis rate (Pn) decreased by 92%, 95%, and 63%at end of the three drought periods, respectively, water use efficiency (WUE) de-creased by 67%, 54%, and 48%, while the constant intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) increased by 1.08, 0.88, and 0.45 times. During those three cycles, the trapping probability with no dark adaptation (Fv′/Fm′) decreased by 55%, 51%, and 9%, the electron transport per cross section (ET0′/CS0′) decreased by 63%, 42%, and 18%, and the dissipation per cross section (DI0′/CS0′) increased by 97%, 96%, and 21%. These results indicated that D. ciliaris was subjected to photoinhi-bition and some non-stomatal limitation of photosynthesis under drought. However, after four days of rewatering, its photosynthetic characteristics were restored to control values. This capability to recover from drought may contribute to making the plant's use of water as efficient as possible. Furthermore, the photosynthesis decreased more slowly in the subsequent drought cycles than in the first cycle, allowing D. ciliaris to enhance its future drought tolerance after drought hardening. Thus, it acclimatizes itself to repeated soil drought.

  12. Photosynthesis in Plants with Non-Green Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartak, Rehka

    2006-01-01

    Enquiry based learning is an important tool in science teaching. Students of Class XI (16-17 years old) were asked to hypothesise on the role of different pigments found in plants with non-green leaves. The majority hypothesised that these plants were devoid of chlorophylls and some other pigments performed the function of photosynthesis. Their…

  13. Future Elementary School Teachers' Conceptual Change Concerning Photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahopelto, Ilona; Mikkila-Erdmann, Mirjamaija; Anto, Erkki; Penttinen, Marjaana

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine conceptual change among future elementary school teachers while studying a scientific text concerning photosynthesis. Students' learning goals in relation to their learning outcomes were also examined. The participants were future elementary school teachers. The design consisted of pre- and post-tests. The…

  14. Connecting Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration: Preservice Teachers' Conceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Mary H.; Schwartz, Renee S.

    2009-01-01

    The biological processes of photosynthesis and plant cellular respiration include multiple biochemical steps, occur simultaneously within plant cells, and share common molecular components. Yet, learners often compartmentalize functions and specialization of cell organelles relevant to these two processes, without considering the interconnections…

  15. Plants and Photosynthesis: Peer Assessment to Help Students Learn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Lucy; Winterbottom, Mark

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates how peer assessment can help students to learn about photosynthesis in a "high attaining," year nine class in a UK 11-18 comprehensive school. There is limited research on how peer assessment can influence the learning of "high attaining students"; most existing research focuses on how formative assessment can benefit…

  16. Photoinduced electron transfer in model systems of photosynthesis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstra, U.

    1988-01-01

    This Thesis describes Investigations on photoinduced electron transfer (ET) for several compounds, serving as model systems of the natural photosynthesis. In addition, the properties of the systems, e.g. the conformation in solution and the electronic properties of the photoexcited states are treate

  17. C4 Photosynthesis (The CO2-Concentrating Mechanism and Photorespiration).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Z.; Ku, MSB.; Edwards, G. E.

    1993-09-01

    Despite previous reports of no apparent photorespiration in C4 plants based on measurements of gas exchange under 2 versus 21% O2 at varying [CO2], photosynthesis in maize (Zea mays) shows a dual response to varying [O2]. The maximum rate of photosynthesis in maize is dependent on O2 (approximately 10%). This O2 dependence is not related to stomatal conductance, because measurements were made at constant intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci); it may be linked to respiration or pseudocyclic electron flow. At a given Ci, increasing [O2] above 10% inhibits both the rate of photosynthesis, measured under high light, and the maximum quantum yield, measured under limiting light ([phi]CO2). The dual effect of O2 is masked if measurements are made under only 2 versus 21% O2. The inhibition of both photosynthesis and [phi]CO2 by O2 (measured above 10% O2) with decreasing Ci increases in a very similar manner, characteristically of O2 inhibition due to photorespiration. There is a sharp increase in O2 inhibition when the Ci decreases below 50 [mu]bar of CO2. Also, increasing temperature, which favors photorespiration, causes a decrease in [phi]CO2 under limiting CO2 and 40% O2. By comparing the degree of inhibition of photosynthesis in maize with that in the C3 species wheat (Triticum aestivum) at varying Ci, the effectiveness of C4 photosynthesis in concentrating CO2 in the leaf was evaluated. Under high light, 30[deg]C, and atmospheric levels of CO2 (340 [mu]bar), where there is little inhibition of photosynthesis in maize by O2, the estimated level of CO2 around ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) in the bundle sheath compartment was 900 [mu]bar, which is about 3 times higher than the value around Rubisco in mesophyll cells of wheat. A high [CO2] is maintained in the bundle sheath compartment in maize until Ci decreases below approximately 100 [mu]bar. The results from these gas exchange measurements indicate that photorespiration occurs in maize but

  18. 2009 Photosynthesis to be held June 28 - July 3, 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doug Bruce

    2009-07-06

    The capture of solar energy by photosynthesis has had a most profound influence on the development and sustenance of life on earth. It is the engine that has driven the proliferation of life and, as the source of both energy and oxygen, has had a major hand in shaping the forms that life has taken. Both ancient and present day photosynthetic carbon fixation is intimately tied to issues of immediate human concern, global energy and global warming. Decreasing our reliance on fossil fuels by tapping photosynthesis in a more direct way is an attractive goal for sustainable energy. Meeting this challenge means understanding photosynthetic energy conversion at a molecular level, a task requiring perspectives ranging through all disciplines of science. Researchers in photosynthesis have a strong history of working across conventional boundaries and engaging in multidisciplinary collaborations. The Gordon conference in photosynthesis has been a key focal point for the dissemination of new results and the establishment of powerful research collaborations. In this spirit the 2009 Gordon conference on biophysical aspects of photosynthesis will bring together top international researchers from diverse and complementary disciplines, all working towards understanding how photosynthesis converts light into the stable chemical energy that powers so much of our world. Focal points for talks and discussions will include: (1) Watersplitting, structure and function of the oxygen evolving complex; (2) Antenna, the diversity, optimization and regulation of energy capture and transfer; (3) Reaction center structure and function, including functional roles for the protein; (4) Electron transport, proton transport and energy coupling; (5) Photoprotection mechanisms, including secondary electron transport pathways; (6) Biofuels, hydrogen production; and (7) Artificial photosynthesis and solar energy conversion strategies. The 2009 conference will have a close eye on practical applications

  19. Scale dependence in the effects of leaf ecophysiological traits on photosynthesis: Bayesian parameterization of photosynthesis models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaohui; Dietze, Michael

    2013-12-01

    Relationships between leaf traits and carbon assimilation rates are commonly used to predict primary productivity at scales from the leaf to the globe. We addressed how the shape and magnitude of these relationships vary across temporal, spatial and taxonomic scales to improve estimates of carbon dynamics. Photosynthetic CO2 and light response curves, leaf nitrogen (N), chlorophyll (Chl) concentration and specific leaf area (SLA) of 25 grassland species were measured. In addition, C3 and C4 photosynthesis models were parameterized using a novel hierarchical Bayesian approach to quantify the effects of leaf traits on photosynthetic capacity and parameters at different scales. The effects of plant physiological traits on photosynthetic capacity and parameters varied among species, plant functional types and taxonomic scales. Relationships in the grassland biome were significantly different from the global average. Within-species variability in photosynthetic parameters through the growing season could be attributed to the seasonal changes of leaf traits, especially leaf N and Chl, but these responses followed qualitatively different relationships from the across-species relationship. The results suggest that one broad-scale relationship is not sufficient to characterize ecosystem condition and change at multiple scales. Applying trait relationships without articulating the scales may cause substantial carbon flux estimation errors. PMID:23952643

  20. Photosynthesis Activates Plasma Membrane H+-ATPase via Sugar Accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Masaki; Inoue, Shin-Ichiro; Kuwata, Keiko; Kinoshita, Toshinori

    2016-05-01

    Plant plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase acts as a primary transporter via proton pumping and regulates diverse physiological responses by controlling secondary solute transport, pH homeostasis, and membrane potential. Phosphorylation of the penultimate threonine and the subsequent binding of 14-3-3 proteins in the carboxyl terminus of the enzyme are required for H(+)-ATPase activation. We showed previously that photosynthesis induces phosphorylation of the penultimate threonine in the nonvascular bryophyte Marchantia polymorpha However, (1) whether this response is conserved in vascular plants and (2) the process by which photosynthesis regulates H(+)-ATPase phosphorylation at the plasma membrane remain unresolved issues. Here, we report that photosynthesis induced the phosphorylation and activation of H(+)-ATPase in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaves via sugar accumulation. Light reversibly phosphorylated leaf H(+)-ATPase, and this process was inhibited by pharmacological and genetic suppression of photosynthesis. Immunohistochemical and biochemical analyses indicated that light-induced phosphorylation of H(+)-ATPase occurred autonomously in mesophyll cells. We also show that the phosphorylation status of H(+)-ATPase and photosynthetic sugar accumulation in leaves were positively correlated and that sugar treatment promoted phosphorylation. Furthermore, light-induced phosphorylation of H(+)-ATPase was strongly suppressed in a double mutant defective in ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and triose phosphate/phosphate translocator (adg1-1 tpt-2); these mutations strongly inhibited endogenous sugar accumulation. Overall, we show that photosynthesis activated H(+)-ATPase via sugar production in the mesophyll cells of vascular plants. Our work provides new insight into signaling from chloroplasts to the plasma membrane ion transport mechanism. PMID:27016447

  1. Evolution of Photosynthesis and Biospheric Oxygenation Contingent Upon Nitrogen Fixation?

    CERN Document Server

    Grula, J W

    2006-01-01

    How photosynthesis by Precambrian cyanobacteria oxygenated Earth's biosphere remains incompletely understood. Here it is argued that the oxic transition, which took place between approximately 2.3 and 0.5 Gyr ago, required a great proliferation of cyanobacteria, and this in turn depended on their ability to fix nitrogen via the nitrogenase enzyme system. However, the ability to fix nitrogen was not a panacea, and the rate of biospheric oxygenation may still have been affected by nitrogen constraints on cyanobacterial expansion. Evidence is presented for why cyanobacteria probably have a great need for fixed nitrogen than other prokaryotes, underscoring the importance of their ability to fix nitrogen. The connection between nitrogen fixation and the evolution of photosynthesis is demonstrated by the similarities between nitrogenase and enzymes critical for the biosynthesis of (bacterio)chlorophyll. It is hypothesized that biospheric oxygenation would not have occurred if the emergence of cyanobacteria had not ...

  2. Spectral signatures of photosynthesis I: Review of Earth organisms

    CERN Document Server

    Kiang, N Y; Blankenship, R E; Kiang, Nancy Y.; Siefert, Janet; Blankenship, Robert E.

    2007-01-01

    Why do plants reflect in the green and have a 'red edge' in the red, and should extrasolar photosynthesis be the same? We provide: 1) a brief review of how photosynthesis works; 2) an overview of the diversity of photosynthetic organisms, their light harvesting systems, and environmental ranges; 3) a synthesis of photosynthetic surface spectral signatures; 4) evolutionary rationales for photosynthetic surface reflectance spectra with regard to utilization of photon energy and the planetary light environment. Given the surface incident photon flux density spectrum and resonance transfer in light harvesting, we propose some rules with regard to where photosynthetic pigments will peak in absorbance: a) the wavelength of peak incident photon flux; b) the longest available wavelength for core antenna or reaction center pigments; and c) the shortest wavelengths within an atmospheric window for accessory pigments. That plants absorb less green light may not be an inefficient legacy of evolutionary history, but may a...

  3. Photochemistry of porphyrins: a model for the origin of photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer-Smith, J. A.; Mauzerall, D. C.

    1984-01-01

    A series of porphyrins and catalysts has been prepared as a model for the origin of photosynthesis on the primordial earth. These compounds have been used to test the hypotheses that (1) the biosynthetic pathway to chlorophyll recapitulates the evolutionary history of photosynthesis, and (2) the proto-photosythetic function of biogenetic porphyrins (biosynthetic chlorophyll precursors) was the oxidation of organic molecules by photoexcited porphyrins with the attendant emission of molecular hydrogen. This paper describes experiments in which photoexcited biogenetic porphyrins oxidize ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA). The concomitant reduction of protons to hydrogen gas occurs in the presence of a colloidal platinum catalyst. The addition of methyl viologen, a one-electron shuttle, increases the amount of molecular hydrogen generated during long irradiations and the quantum yield of hydrogen production. When the porphyrin and catalyst are held in association by molecular complexes, the increased efficiency of electron transfer produces higher yields of hydrogen gas.

  4. Ecosystem respiration depends strongly on photosynthesis in a temperate heath

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Klaus Steenberg; Ibrom, Andreas; Beier, Claus;

    2007-01-01

    We measured net ecosystem CO2 flux (F-n) and ecosystem respiration (R-E), and estimated gross ecosystem photosynthesis (P-g) by difference, for two years in a temperate heath ecosystem using a chamber method. The exchange rates of carbon were high and of similar magnitude as for productive forest...... ecosystems with a net ecosystem carbon gain during the second year of 293 +/- 11 g C m(-2) year(-1) showing that the carbon sink strength of heather-dominated ecosystems may be considerable when C. vulgaris is in the building phase of its life cycle. The estimated gross ecosystem photosynthesis and ecosystem...... respiration from October to March was 22% and 30% of annual flux, respectively, suggesting that both cold-season carbon gain and loss were important in the annual carbon cycle of the ecosystem. Model fit of R-E of a classic, first-order exponential equation related to temperature ( second year; R-2 = 0...

  5. Photorespiration connects C3 and C4 photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bräutigam, Andrea; Gowik, Udo

    2016-05-01

    C4 plants evolved independently more than 60 times from C3 ancestors. C4 photosynthesis is a complex trait and its evolution from the ancestral C3 photosynthetic pathway involved the modification of the leaf anatomy and the leaf physiology accompanied by changes in the expression of thousands of genes. Under high temperature, high light, and the current CO2 concentration in the atmosphere, the C4 pathway is more efficient than C3 photosynthesis because it increases the CO2 concentration around the major CO2 fixating enzyme Rubisco. The oxygenase reaction and, accordingly, photorespiration are largely suppressed. In the present review we describe a scenario for C4 evolution that not only includes the avoidance of photorespiration as the major driving force for C4 evolution but also highlights the relevance of changes in the expression of photorespiratory genes in inducing and establishing important phases on the path from C3 to C4. PMID:26912798

  6. Timescales of Oxygenation Following the Evolution of Oxygenic Photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Lewis M.; Kirschvink, Joseph L.; Fischer, Woodward W.

    2016-03-01

    Among the most important bioenergetic innovations in the history of life was the invention of oxygenic photosynthesis—autotrophic growth by splitting water with sunlight—by Cyanobacteria. It is widely accepted that the invention of oxygenic photosynthesis ultimately resulted in the rise of oxygen by ca. 2.35 Gya, but it is debated whether this occurred more or less immediately as a proximal result of the evolution of oxygenic Cyanobacteria or whether they originated several hundred million to more than one billion years earlier in Earth history. The latter hypothesis involves a prolonged period during which oxygen production rates were insufficient to oxidize the atmosphere, potentially due to redox buffering by reduced species such as higher concentrations of ferrous iron in seawater. To examine the characteristic timescales for environmental oxygenation following the evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis, we applied a simple mathematical approach that captures many of the salient features of the major biogeochemical fluxes and reservoirs present in Archean and early Paleoproterozoic surface environments. Calculations illustrate that oxygenation would have overwhelmed redox buffers within ~100 kyr following the emergence of oxygenic photosynthesis, a geologically short amount of time unless rates of primary production were far lower than commonly expected. Fundamentally, this result arises because of the multiscale nature of the carbon and oxygen cycles: rates of gross primary production are orders of magnitude too fast for oxygen to be masked by Earth's geological buffers, and can only be effectively matched by respiration at non-negligible O2 concentrations. These results suggest that oxygenic photosynthesis arose shortly before the rise of oxygen, not hundreds of millions of years before it.

  7. From leaf to tree: upscaling of artificial photosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Turan, Bugra; Becker, Jan-Philipp; Urbain, Felix; Finger, Friedhelm; Rau, Uwe; Haas, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Energy storage becomes crucial for energy systems with an increasing share of renewable energy sources. Artificial photosynthesis, in particular photovoltaic water splitting, provides both sustainable energy generation and energy storage in the form of hydrogen. However, only a few concepts for scalable devices were reported in the literature. Here, we introduce a new concept which, by design, is scalable and compatible with every thin-film photovoltaic technology. The concept allows for inde...

  8. Photosynthesis in lightfleck areas of homobaric and heterobaric leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Pieruschka, R.; Chavarria-Krauser, A.; Schurr, U.; Jahnke, S.

    2009-01-01

    Leaves within a canopy are exposed to a spatially and temporally fluctuating light environment which may cause lateral gradients in leaf internal CO(2) concentration and diffusion between shaded and illuminated areas. In previous studies it was hypothesized that lateral CO(2) diffusion may support leaf photosynthesis, but the magnitude of this effect is still not well understood. In the present study homobaric leaves of Vicia faba or heterobaric leaves of Glycine max were illuminated with lig...

  9. Quantum coherence in photosynthesis for efficient solar-energy conversion

    OpenAIRE

    Romero, Elisabet; Augulis, Ramunas; Novoderezhkin, Vladimir I.; Ferretti, Marco; Thieme, Jos; Zigmantas, Donatas; van Grondelle, Rienk

    2014-01-01

    The crucial step in the conversion of solar to chemical energy in Photosynthesis takes place in the reaction center where the absorbed excitation energy is converted into a stable charge separated state by ultrafast electron transfer events. However, the fundamental mechanism responsible for the near unity quantum efficiency of this process is unknown. Here we elucidate the role of coherence in determining the efficiency of charge separation in the plant photosystem II reaction centre (PSII R...

  10. A perspective on underwater photosynthesis in submerged terrestrial wetland plants

    OpenAIRE

    Colmer, Timothy D.; Winkel, Anders; PEDERSEN, OLE

    2011-01-01

    Background and aims Wetland plants inhabit flood-prone areas and therefore can experience episodes of complete submergence. Submergence impedes exchange of O2 and CO2 between leaves and the environment, and light availability is also reduced. The present review examines limitations to underwater net photosynthesis (P N) by terrestrial (i.e. usually emergent) wetland plants, as compared with submerged aquatic plants, with focus on leaf traits for enhanced CO2 acquisition. Scope Floodwaters are...

  11. Photosynthesis and respiration of some marine benthic algae from Spitsbergen

    OpenAIRE

    Latala, Adam

    1990-01-01

    Light-photosynthesis curves for 9 species of benthic algae from the Hornsund fiord were determined. As a result of adaptation to the conditions in the Arctic, benthic algae from Spitsbergen have a low requirement of light. Saturation and compensation points are low and within a range typical for shadow-tolerant plants.The values for gas exchange rates indicate that Arctic algae have lower photosynthctic capacity than temperate species.

  12. Mimicking the antenna-electron transfer properties of photosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Sykora, Milan; Maxwell, Kimberly A.; DeSimone, Joseph M.; Meyer, Thomas J.

    2000-01-01

    A molecular assembly based on derivatized polystyrene is described, which mimics both the light-harvesting and energy-conversion steps of photosynthesis. The system is unique in that the two key parts of a photosynthetic system are incorporated in a functional assembly constructed from polypyridine complexes of RuII. This system is truly artificial, as none of the components used in construction of the assembly are present in a natural photosynthetic system. Quanti...

  13. Efficient energy transport in photosynthesis: roles of coherence and entanglement

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Apoorva D

    2011-01-01

    Recently it has been discovered---contrary to expectations of physicists as well as biologists---that the energy transport during photosynthesis, from the chlorophyll pigment that captures the photon to the reaction centre where glucose is synthesised from carbon dioxide and water, is highly coherent even at ambient temperature and in the cellular environment. This process and the key molecular ingredients that it depends on are described. By looking at the process from the computer science v...

  14. Photosynthesis at the forefront of a sustainable life

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, Paul J. D.; Lambreva, Maya D.; Plumeré, Nicolas; Bartolucci, Cecilia; Antonacci, Amina; Buonasera, Katia; Frese, Raoul N.; Scognamiglio, Viviana; Rea, Giuseppina

    2014-01-01

    The development of a sustainable bio-based economy has drawn much attention in recent years, and research to find smart solutions to the many inherent challenges has intensified. In nature, perhaps the best example of an authentic sustainable system is oxygenic photosynthesis. The biochemistry of this intricate process is empowered by solar radiation influx and performed by hierarchically organized complexes composed by photoreceptors, inorganic catalysts, and enzymes which define specific ni...

  15. Evolution of the extended LHC protein superfamily in photosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Engelken, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    In photosynthesis, sunlight interacts with colorful photosynthetic pigments like the chlorophylls, carotenoids and phycobilines. The first two of these pigments can be bound by members of the extended light-harvesting complex (LHC) protein superfamily and are organised in order to take on functions in the collection of or in the defense against sunlight. The extended LHC superfamily comprises several protein families, like the LHCs, the photosystem II subunit S (PSBS), the red algal lineage c...

  16. The Path of Carbon in Photosynthesis XV. Ribulose and Sedoheptulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, A. A.; Bassham, J. A.; Calvin, M.; Hall, A. G.; Hirsch, H.; Kawaguchi, S.; Lynch, V.; Tolbert, N. E.

    1952-01-01

    The intermediates of carbon dioxide reduction by plants include phosphorylated derivatives of hydroxy acids and sugars. Their identification became possible when the use of labeled carbon dioxide permitted discrimination between the earliest products and the many other components of photosynthetic tissues. A number of compounds were identified by virtue of the chemical and physical properties of the radioactive compounds in tracer amounts and by direct comparison of these properties with those of suspected known metabolic intermediates. It became apparent that several labeled compounds found in short exposures to radioactive carbon dioxide were not substances previously identified as metabolic intermediates. Two phosphate esters in particular were observed in the products of the first few seconds of steady-state photosynthesis by all the photosynthetic microorganisms and higher plants examined in this laboratory. These esters have been isolated by paper chromatography in tracer quantities and enzymatically hydrolyzed to give two sugars, ribulose and sedoheptulose. This paper contains a description of the chemical identification of these sugars and some observations and suggestions regarding the function of their esters. The general importance of these compounds in photosynthesis was summarized before their identification. The products of photosynthesis with C{sup 14}O{sub 2} by each plant included phosphate esters of the same two then unknown compounds in addition to those of the expected glucose, fructose, dihydroxyacetone and glyceric acid. As the time of steady-state photosynthesis in C{sup 14}O{sub 2} decreased, the fractions of total fixed radiocarbon in the esters of the two unidentified compounds increased.

  17. Seasonality of temperate forest photosynthesis and daytime respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehr, R; Munger, J W; McManus, J B; Nelson, D D; Zahniser, M S; Davidson, E A; Wofsy, S C; Saleska, S R

    2016-06-30

    Terrestrial ecosystems currently offset one-quarter of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions because of a slight imbalance between global terrestrial photosynthesis and respiration. Understanding what controls these two biological fluxes is therefore crucial to predicting climate change. Yet there is no way of directly measuring the photosynthesis or daytime respiration of a whole ecosystem of interacting organisms; instead, these fluxes are generally inferred from measurements of net ecosystem-atmosphere CO2 exchange (NEE), in a way that is based on assumed ecosystem-scale responses to the environment. The consequent view of temperate deciduous forests (an important CO2 sink) is that, first, ecosystem respiration is greater during the day than at night; and second, ecosystem photosynthetic light-use efficiency peaks after leaf expansion in spring and then declines, presumably because of leaf ageing or water stress. This view has underlain the development of terrestrial biosphere models used in climate prediction and of remote sensing indices of global biosphere productivity. Here, we use new isotopic instrumentation to determine ecosystem photosynthesis and daytime respiration in a temperate deciduous forest over a three-year period. We find that ecosystem respiration is lower during the day than at night-the first robust evidence of the inhibition of leaf respiration by light at the ecosystem scale. Because they do not capture this effect, standard approaches overestimate ecosystem photosynthesis and daytime respiration in the first half of the growing season at our site, and inaccurately portray ecosystem photosynthetic light-use efficiency. These findings revise our understanding of forest-atmosphere carbon exchange, and provide a basis for investigating how leaf-level physiological dynamics manifest at the canopy scale in other ecosystems. PMID:27357794

  18. Seasonality of temperate forest photosynthesis and daytime respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehr, R.; Munger, J. W.; McManus, J. B.; Nelson, D. D.; Zahniser, M. S.; Davidson, E. A.; Wofsy, S. C.; Saleska, S. R.

    2016-06-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems currently offset one-quarter of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions because of a slight imbalance between global terrestrial photosynthesis and respiration. Understanding what controls these two biological fluxes is therefore crucial to predicting climate change. Yet there is no way of directly measuring the photosynthesis or daytime respiration of a whole ecosystem of interacting organisms; instead, these fluxes are generally inferred from measurements of net ecosystem–atmosphere CO2 exchange (NEE), in a way that is based on assumed ecosystem-scale responses to the environment. The consequent view of temperate deciduous forests (an important CO2 sink) is that, first, ecosystem respiration is greater during the day than at night; and second, ecosystem photosynthetic light-use efficiency peaks after leaf expansion in spring and then declines, presumably because of leaf ageing or water stress. This view has underlain the development of terrestrial biosphere models used in climate prediction and of remote sensing indices of global biosphere productivity. Here, we use new isotopic instrumentation to determine ecosystem photosynthesis and daytime respiration in a temperate deciduous forest over a three-year period. We find that ecosystem respiration is lower during the day than at night—the first robust evidence of the inhibition of leaf respiration by light at the ecosystem scale. Because they do not capture this effect, standard approaches overestimate ecosystem photosynthesis and daytime respiration in the first half of the growing season at our site, and inaccurately portray ecosystem photosynthetic light-use efficiency. These findings revise our understanding of forest–atmosphere carbon exchange, and provide a basis for investigating how leaf-level physiological dynamics manifest at the canopy scale in other ecosystems.

  19. Understanding of photosynthesis among pupils of technical secondary schools

    OpenAIRE

    Pavić, Petra

    2014-01-01

    The goal of our research was to examine the knowledge on photosynthesis of the students of the Secondary Technical schools, and their attitude towards it, and whether they have misconceptions about it. The research was conducted on a sample of 466 students in Vegova Secondary Technical and Grammar School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science in Ljubljana in the first, second and third year of electrical engineering and computer science programme. The test contained 27 closed-ended qu...

  20. Regressive Evolution of Photosynthesis in the Roseobacter Clade

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koblížek, Michal; Zeng, Yonghui; Horák, A.; Oborník, Miroslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 2013 (2013), s. 385-405. ISSN 0065-2296 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP501/10/0221; GA ČR GBP501/12/G055; GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0110 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : roseobacter clade * photosynthesis * marine microbial communities Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.740, year: 2013

  1. Photosynthesis of ground vegetation in boreal Scots pine forests

    OpenAIRE

    Kulmala, Liisa

    2011-01-01

    Research on carbon uptake in boreal forests has mainly focused on mature trees, even though ground vegetation species are effective assimilators and can substantially contribute to the CO2 uptake of forests. Here, I examine the photosynthesis of the most common species of ground vegetation in a series of differently aged Scots pine stands, and at two clear-cut sites with substantial differences in fertility. In general, the biomass of evergreen species was highest at poor sites and below cano...

  2. PHOTOSYNTHESIS AT THE FOREFRONT OF A SUSTAINABLE LIFE

    OpenAIRE

    GiuseppinaRea; PaulJ.D.Janssen; NicolasPlumeré; RaoulN.Frese

    2014-01-01

    The development of a sustainable bio-based economy has drawn much attention in recent years, and research to find smart solutions to the many inherent challenges has intensified. In nature, perhaps the best example of an authentic sustainable system is oxygenic photosynthesis. The biochemistry of this intricate process is empowered by solar radiation influx and performed by hierarchically organized complexes composed by photoreceptors, inorganic catalysts, and enzymes which define specific ni...

  3. Radiation balance, transpiration and photosynthesis of an isolated tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation balance of an isolated walnut tree was measured using an experimental Whirligig device. The total amount of all-wave radiation absorbed by the tree canopy was used to estimate transpiration rates using a Penman-Monteith model. The results compared favourably with tree water use, measured by the heat-pulse technique. The total amount of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) absorbed by the tree canopy was combined with a photosynthetic light response curve to estimate net photosynthesis rates. The results compare favourably with published data from other tree canopies. Daily energy balance calculations showed that on average, about two-thirds of the total radiant energy absorbed by the tree canopy was dissipated as latent heat in the form of transpiration. The dominant environmental variable influencing transpiration was the vapour pressure deficit of the air. Almost two-thirds of the net latent heat flux was attributable to the vapour pressure deficit component, with the remainder owing to the radiation component. Daily transpiration-assimilation ratios varied from day to day in response to changing environmental conditions, but generally decreased with increasing net photosynthesis and with increasing transpiration. This appears to be the first time that such a direct measurement of the energy balance and photosynthesis of a single tree has been made. (author)

  4. On the variation of alkalinity during phytoplankton photosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The alkalinity of the organic constituents of marine phytoplankton and their participation in the total alkalinity (TA change of seawater during photosynthesis are carefully assessed. Quantification of the contribution of phytoplankton chlorophyll, proteins and phosphorus compounds to the hydrogen ion balance of seawater in terms of total inorganic nitrogen (∆[NT] = ∆[NH4 +] + ∆[N2] + ∆[NO2 –] + ∆[NO3 –] and total inorganic phosphorus (∆[PT] changes during photosynthesis yielded that the organic components of marine phytoplankton are alkaline by –0.06 × ∆[NT] – 0.49 × ∆[PT], and that the potential total alkalinity (TAP during photosynthesis is TAP = TA – [NH4 –] + 0.93 × [NO2 –] + [NO3 –] + 0.08 × [NT] + 0.23 × [PT] for unfiltered seawater samples and TAP = TA – [NH4 –] + 0.93 × [NO2 –] + [NO3 –] + 0.02 × [NT] + 0.26 × [PT] for filtered seawater samples. These equations correct the traditionally used expression TAP = TA + [NO3 –]. The TAP anomalies are produced, in order of increasing importance, by N2 fixation, DMSP production and CaCO3 fixation.

  5. PHOTOSYNTHESIS AT THE FOREFRONT OF A SUSTAINABLE LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J.D. Janssen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of a sustainable bio-based economy has drawn much attention in recent years, and research to find smart solutions to the many inherent challenges has intensified. In nature, perhaps the best example of an authentic sustainable system is oxygenic photosynthesis. The biochemistry of this intricate process is empowered by solar radiation influx and performed by hierarchically organized complexes composed by photoreceptors, inorganic catalysts, and enzymes which define specific niches for optimizing light-to-energy conversion. The success of this process relies on its capability to exploit the almost inexhaustible reservoirs of sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide to transform photonic energy into chemical energy such as stored in adenosine triphosphate. Oxygenic photosynthesis is responsible for most of the oxygen, fossil fuels, and biomass on our planet. So, even after a few billion years of evolution, this process unceasingly supports life on earth, and probably soon also in outer-space, and inspires the development of enabling technologies for a sustainable global economy and ecosystem. The following review covers some of the major milestones reached in photosynthesis research, each reflecting lasting routes of innovation in agriculture, environmental protection, and clean energy production.

  6. The social acceptance of artificial photosynthesis: towards a conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K; Gross, Allan

    2015-06-01

    Advancements in artificial photosynthesis have the potential to radically transform how societies convert and use energy. Their successful development, however, hinges not only on technical breakthroughs, but also acceptance and adoption by energy users. This article introduces a conceptual framework enabling analysts, planners and even investors to determine environments where artificial photosynthesis may thrive, and those where it may struggle. Drawn from work looking at the barriers and acceptance of solar photovoltaic and wind energy systems, the article proposes that social acceptance has multiple dimensions-socio-political, community and market-that must be met holistically in order for investors and users to embrace new technologies. The article argues that any future market acceptance for artificial photosynthesis will depend upon the prevalence of nine factors, which create conducive environments; the lack of the conditions engenders environments where they will likely be rejected. The conditions are (i) strong institutional capacity; (ii) political commitment; (iii) favourable legal and regulatory frameworks; (iv) competitive installation and/or production costs; (v) mechanisms for information and feedback; (vi) access to financing; (vii) prolific community and/or individual ownership and use; (viii) participatory project siting; and (ix) recognition of externalities or positive public image. PMID:26052424

  7. On oxygenic photosynthesis in planets of Red Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandel, Amri; Gale, Joseph

    2015-08-01

    The results of the Kepler mission indicate that Earthlike planets are common not only around solar-type stars but also among planets orbiting Red Dwarf (RD) stars, the most numerous stellar type in the Milky Way galaxy. Early considerations indicated that conditions on RD planets would be inimical to life, as their Habitable Zones would be so close as to make planets tidally locked to their star. This was thought to cause an erratic climate and expose life forms to flares of ionizing electro-magnetic radiation and charged particles. It has also been argued that the lesser photon energy of the radiation of the relatively cool RDs would not suffice for oxygenic photosynthesis. However, recent calculations show that these negative factors are less severe than originally estimated, hence conditions for photosynthesis could exist on RD planets. Furthermore, the huge number and the long Main-Sequence lifetime of RDs could make photosynthesis and biotic life on RD planets statistically even more abundant than on planets of solar type stars.

  8. NDH-1 and NDH-2 Plastoquinone Reductases in Oxygenic Photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, Gilles; Aro, Eva-Mari; Shikanai, Toshiharu

    2016-04-29

    Oxygenic photosynthesis converts solar energy into chemical energy in the chloroplasts of plants and microalgae as well as in prokaryotic cyanobacteria using a complex machinery composed of two photosystems and both membrane-bound and soluble electron carriers. In addition to the major photosynthetic complexes photosystem II (PSII), cytochrome b6f, and photosystem I (PSI), chloroplasts also contain minor components, including a well-conserved type I NADH dehydrogenase (NDH-1) complex that functions in close relationship with photosynthesis and likewise originated from the endosymbiotic cyanobacterial ancestor. Some plants and many microalgal species have lost plastidial ndh genes and a functional NDH-1 complex during evolution, and studies have suggested that a plastidial type II NADH dehydrogenase (NDH-2) complex substitutes for the electron transport activity of NDH-1. However, although NDH-1 was initially thought to use NAD(P)H as an electron donor, recent research has demonstrated that both chloroplast and cyanobacterial NDH-1s oxidize reduced ferredoxin. We discuss more recent findings related to the biochemical composition and activity of NDH-1 and NDH-2 in relation to the physiology and regulation of photosynthesis, particularly focusing on their roles in cyclic electron flow around PSI, chlororespiration, and acclimation to changing environments. PMID:26735062

  9. The Path of Carbon in Photosynthesis. XX. The Steady State

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvin, M.; Massini, Peter

    1952-09-01

    The separation of the phenomenon of photosynthesis in green plants into a photochemical reaction and into the light-dependent reduction of carbon dioxide is discussed, The reduction of carbon dioxide and the fate of the assimilated carbon were investigated with the help of the tracer technique (exposure of the planks to the radioactive C{sup 14}O{sub 2}) and of paper chromatography. A reaction cycle is proposed in which phosphoglyceric acid is the first isolable assimilations product. Analyses of the algal extracts which had assimilated radioactive carbon dioxide in a stationary condition ('steady-state' photosynthesis) for a long time provided further information concerning the proposed cycle and permitted the approximate estimation, for a number of compounds of what fraction of each compound was taking part in the cycle. The earlier supposition that light influences the respiration cycle was confirmed. The possibility of the assistance of {alpha}-lipoic acid, or of a related substance, in this influence and in the photosynthesis cycle, is discussed.

  10. C4 photosynthesis evolution: the conditional Mt. Fuji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckmann, David

    2016-06-01

    C4 photosynthesis implements a biochemical carbon pump to suppress photorespiration. While this mechanism allows for increased photosynthetic efficiency, it requires the ancestral C3 state to be modified in terms of leaf anatomy, expression of metabolic genes, and enzyme kinetics. Despite the complexity of the C4 syndrome, it evolved in more than 60 independent lineages. Because the phylogenetic distribution of these origins appears to be non-random, enabling factors that are initially unrelated to C4 photosynthesis are assumed to be acting in certain C3 lineages. In recent years, substantial progress has been made on firstly, the nature of enabling events and finally, quantitative models of C4 evolution that are based on C3-C4 intermediate species. I discuss the synthesis of these approaches as a consensus trajectory towards C4 photosynthesis and hypothesize on the effect of enabling factors on the fitness landscape of C4 evolution. A complete understanding of these mechanisms will require both further experimental studies and improved quantitative models of leaf physiology. PMID:27153468

  11. Ecosystem respiration depends strongly on photosynthesis in a temperate heath

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Klaus Steenberg; Ibrom, A.; Beier, C.;

    2007-01-01

    We measured net ecosystem CO2 flux (F-n) and ecosystem respiration (R-E), and estimated gross ecosystem photosynthesis (P-g) by difference, for two years in a temperate heath ecosystem using a chamber method. The exchange rates of carbon were high and of similar magnitude as for productive forest...... ecosystems with a net ecosystem carbon gain during the second year of 293 +/- 11 g C m(-2) year(-1) showing that the carbon sink strength of heather-dominated ecosystems may be considerable when C. vulgaris is in the building phase of its life cycle. The estimated gross ecosystem photosynthesis and ecosystem.......65) was improved when the P-g rate was incorporated into the model (second year; R-2 = 0.79), suggesting that daytime R-E increased with increasing photosynthesis. Furthermore, the temperature sensitivity of R-E decreased from apparent Q(10) values of 3.3 to 3.9 by the classic equation to a more realistic...

  12. Photosynthesis at the forefront of a sustainable life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Paul J D; Lambreva, Maya D; Plumeré, Nicolas; Bartolucci, Cecilia; Antonacci, Amina; Buonasera, Katia; Frese, Raoul N; Scognamiglio, Viviana; Rea, Giuseppina

    2014-01-01

    The development of a sustainable bio-based economy has drawn much attention in recent years, and research to find smart solutions to the many inherent challenges has intensified. In nature, perhaps the best example of an authentic sustainable system is oxygenic photosynthesis. The biochemistry of this intricate process is empowered by solar radiation influx and performed by hierarchically organized complexes composed by photoreceptors, inorganic catalysts, and enzymes which define specific niches for optimizing light-to-energy conversion. The success of this process relies on its capability to exploit the almost inexhaustible reservoirs of sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide to transform photonic energy into chemical energy such as stored in adenosine triphosphate. Oxygenic photosynthesis is responsible for most of the oxygen, fossil fuels, and biomass on our planet. So, even after a few billion years of evolution, this process unceasingly supports life on earth, and probably soon also in outer-space, and inspires the development of enabling technologies for a sustainable global economy and ecosystem. The following review covers some of the major milestones reached in photosynthesis research, each reflecting lasting routes of innovation in agriculture, environmental protection, and clean energy production. PMID:24971306

  13. Rising CO2 widens the transpiration-photosynthesis optimality space

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Hugo J.; Eppinga, Maarten B.; Dekker, Stefan C.

    2016-04-01

    Stomatal conductance (gs) and photosynthetic biochemistry, typically expressed by the temperature-adjusted maximum rates of carboxylation (V cmax) and electron transport (Jmax), are key traits in land ecosystem models. Contrary to the many approaches available for simulating gs responses, the biochemical parameters V cmax and Jmax are often treated as static traits in ecosystem models. However, observational evidence indicates that V cmax and Jmax respond to persistent changes in atmospheric CO2. Hence, ecosystem models may be improved by incorporating coordinated responses of photosynthetic biochemistry and gs to atmospheric CO2. Recently, Prentice et al. (2014) proposed an optimality framework (referred to as the Prentice framework from here on) to predict relationships between V cmax and gs based on Fick's law, Rubisco-limited photosynthesis and the carbon costs of transpiration and photosynthesis. Here we show that this framework is, in principle, suited to predict CO2-induced changes in the V cmax ‑gs relationships. The framework predicts an increase in the V cmax:gs-ratio with higher atmospheric CO2, whereby the slope of this relationship is determined by the carbon costs of transpiration and photosynthesis. For our empirical analyses we consider that the carbon cost of transpiration is positively related to the plant's Huber value (sapwood area/leaf area), while the carbon cost of photosynthesis is positively related to the maintenance cost of the photosynthetic proteins. We empirically tested the predicted effect of CO2 on the V cmax:gs-ratio in two genotypes of Solanum dulcamara (bittersweet) that were grown from seeds to maturity under 200, 400 and 800 ppm CO2 in walk-in growth chambers with tight control on light, temperature and humidity. Seeds of the two Solanum genotypes were obtained from two distinct natural populations; one adapted to well-drained sandy soil (the 'dry' genotype) and one adapted to poorly-drained clayey soil (the 'wet' genotype

  14. Arabidopsis gene co-expression network and its functional modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dash Sudhansu

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biological networks characterize the interactions of biomolecules at a systems-level. One important property of biological networks is the modular structure, in which nodes are densely connected with each other, but between which there are only sparse connections. In this report, we attempted to find the relationship between the network topology and formation of modular structure by comparing gene co-expression networks with random networks. The organization of gene functional modules was also investigated. Results We constructed a genome-wide Arabidopsis gene co-expression network (AGCN by using 1094 microarrays. We then analyzed the topological properties of AGCN and partitioned the network into modules by using an efficient graph clustering algorithm. In the AGCN, 382 hub genes formed a clique, and they were densely connected only to a small subset of the network. At the module level, the network clustering results provide a systems-level understanding of the gene modules that coordinate multiple biological processes to carry out specific biological functions. For instance, the photosynthesis module in AGCN involves a very large number (> 1000 of genes which participate in various biological processes including photosynthesis, electron transport, pigment metabolism, chloroplast organization and biogenesis, cofactor metabolism, protein biosynthesis, and vitamin metabolism. The cell cycle module orchestrated the coordinated expression of hundreds of genes involved in cell cycle, DNA metabolism, and cytoskeleton organization and biogenesis. We also compared the AGCN constructed in this study with a graphical Gaussian model (GGM based Arabidopsis gene network. The photosynthesis, protein biosynthesis, and cell cycle modules identified from the GGM network had much smaller module sizes compared with the modules found in the AGCN, respectively. Conclusion This study reveals new insight into the topological properties of

  15. Calcification and photosynthesis of the coral acropora cervicornis under calcium limited conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathfon, Megan; Brewer, Debbie

    1997-01-01

    Differing hypothesis about the function of calcification are based on an interesting dilemma. Is the purpose of calcification mainly a structural and protective one or does calcification serve other functions? Does photosynthesis increase carbonate ion activity and cause calcification or does calcification increase CO2 levels and stimulate photsynthesis? It is proposed that calcification in corals is not dependent upon photosynthesis but upon calcium levels in the water. Under normal ocean conditions, corals convert a certain percentage of energy to photosynthesis and respiration and another percentage to calcification. As corals become nutrient stressed, particularly calcium limited, the ratio of photosynthesis to calcification shifts towards calcification in order to generate protons. The protons generated during calcification may stimulate photosynthesis and aid in the uptake of nutrients and biocarbonates. The results of the calcification experiment show a trend towards increased calcification and decreased photosynthesis when the coral Acropora cervicornis is calcium limited, but the data are inconclusive and further research is needed.

  16. Temperature response of mesophyll conductance. Implications for the determination of Rubisco enzyme kinetics and for limitations to photosynthesis in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernacchi, Carl J; Portis, Archie R; Nakano, Hiromi; von Caemmerer, Susanne; Long, Stephen P

    2002-12-01

    CO(2) transfer conductance from the intercellular airspaces of the leaf into the chloroplast, defined as mesophyll conductance (g(m)), is finite. Therefore, it will limit photosynthesis when CO(2) is not saturating, as in C3 leaves in the present atmosphere. Little is known about the processes that determine the magnitude of g(m). The process dominating g(m) is uncertain, though carbonic anhydrase, aquaporins, and the diffusivity of CO(2) in water have all been suggested. The response of g(m) to temperature (10 degrees C-40 degrees C) in mature leaves of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv W38) was determined using measurements of leaf carbon dioxide and water vapor exchange, coupled with modulated chlorophyll fluorescence. These measurements revealed a temperature coefficient (Q(10)) of approximately 2.2 for g(m), suggesting control by a protein-facilitated process because the Q(10) for diffusion of CO(2) in water is about 1.25. Further, g(m) values are maximal at 35 degrees C to 37.5 degrees C, again suggesting a protein-facilitated process, but with a lower energy of deactivation than Rubisco. Using the temperature response of g(m) to calculate CO(2) at Rubisco, the kinetic parameters of Rubisco were calculated in vivo from 10 degrees C to 40 degrees C. Using these parameters, we determined the limitation imposed on photosynthesis by g(m). Despite an exponential rise with temperature, g(m) does not keep pace with increased capacity for CO(2) uptake at the site of Rubisco. The fraction of the total limitations to CO(2) uptake within the leaf attributable to g(m) rose from 0.10 at 10 degrees C to 0.22 at 40 degrees C. This shows that transfer of CO(2) from the intercellular air space to Rubisco is a very substantial limitation on photosynthesis, especially at high temperature. PMID:12481082

  17. Water relations and photosynthesis along an elevation gradient for Artemisia tridentata during an historic drought.

    OpenAIRE

    Reed, CC; Loik, ME

    2016-01-01

    Quantifying the variation in plant-water relations and photosynthesis over environmental gradients and during unique events can provide a better understanding of vegetation patterns in a future climate. We evaluated the hypotheses that photosynthesis and plant water potential would correspond to gradients in precipitation and soil moisture during a lengthy drought, and that experimental water additions would increase photosynthesis for the widespread evergreen shrub Artemisia tridentata ssp. ...

  18. A review on modeling of responses of photosynthesis to light and CO2

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Zi-Piao

    2010-01-01

    The light and CO2 response curve of photosynthesis is an important tool to study plant physiology and plant ecology that can provide a scientific basis for the response of plant photosynthetic properties to environmental factors. This review considered the progress and potential weaknesses of light and CO2 response models of photosynthesis and discussed research trends. Photosynthesis, which involves energy of light, absorption, energy conversion, electron transfer, ATP synthesis, CO2 fixatio...

  19. Estimating Photosynthetic Radiation Use Efficiency Using Incident Light and Photosynthesis of Individual Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    A. Rosati; DeJong, T M

    2003-01-01

    It has been theorized that photosynthetic radiation use efficiency (PhRUE) over the course of a day is constant for leaves throughout a canopy if leaf nitrogen content and photosynthetic properties are adapted to local light so that canopy photosynthesis over a day is optimized. To test this hypothesis, ‘daily’ photosynthesis of individual leaves of Solanum melongena plants was calculated from instantaneous rates of photosynthesis integrated over the daylight hours. Instantaneous photosynthes...

  20. Manganese-based Materials Inspired by Photosynthesis for Water-Splitting

    OpenAIRE

    Hou, Harvey J.M.

    2011-01-01

    In nature, the water-splitting reaction via photosynthesis driven by sunlight in plants, algae, and cyanobacteria stores the vast solar energy and provides vital oxygen to life on earth. The recent advances in elucidating the structures and functions of natural photosynthesis has provided firm framework and solid foundation in applying the knowledge to transform the carbon-based energy to renewable solar energy into our energy systems. In this review, inspired by photosynthesis robust photo w...

  1. A Coupled Model of Photosynthesis, Stomatal Conductance and Transpiration for a Rose Leaf (Rosa hybrida L.)

    OpenAIRE

    KIM, SOO‐HYUNG; LIETH, J. HEINRICH

    2003-01-01

    The following three models were combined to predict simultaneously photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, transpiration and leaf temperature of a rose leaf: the biochemical model of photosynthesis of Farquhar, von Caemmerer and Berry (1980, Planta 149: 78–90), the stomatal conductance model of Ball, Woodrow and Berry (In: Biggens J, ed. Progress in photosynthesis research. The Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers), and an energy balance model. The photosynthetic parameters: maximum carb...

  2. Growth in elevated CO2 enhances temperature response of photosynthesis in wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso, Aitor; Pérez, P.; Martínez-Carrasco, R.

    2008-01-01

    The temperature dependence of C3 photosynthesis may be altered by the growth environment. The effects of long-term growth in elevated CO2 on photosynthesis temperature response have been investigated in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grown in controlled chambers with 370 or 700 µmol mol-1 CO2 from sowing through to anthesis. Gas exchange was measured in flag leaves at ear emergence, and the parameters of a biochemical photosynthesis model were determined along with their temperat...

  3. The effect of elevated CO{sub 2} concentration on photosynthesis of Sphagnum fuscum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jauhiainen, J.; Silvola, J. [Joensuu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Biology

    1996-12-31

    The objectives of the research were to measure photosynthesis of Sphagnum fuscum in long term exposure to four CO{sub 2} levels at semi-natural conditions, to find out if there is an acclimation of net photosynthesis into prevailing CO{sub 2} concentrations and to measure the moisture dependent net photosynthesis at various CO{sub 2} concentrations of samples grown at different CO{sub 2} concentrations

  4. Broad-Scale Comparison of Photosynthesis in Terrestrial and Aquatic Plant Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sand-Jensen, Kaj; Krause-Jensen, D.

    1997-01-01

    Comparisons of photosynthesis in terrestrial and aquatic habitats have been impaired by differences in methods and time-scales of measurements. We compiled information on gross photosynthesis at high irradiance and photosynthetic efficiency at low irradiance from 109 published terrestrial studies...... of forests, grasslands and crops and 319 aquatic studies of phytoplankton, macrophyte and attached microalgal communities to test if specific differences existed between the communities. Maximum gross photosynthesis and photosynthetic efficiency were systematically higher in terrestrial than in...

  5. The Path of Carbon in Photosynthesis VIII. The Role of Malic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassham, James A.; Benson, Andrew A.; Calvin, Melvin

    1950-01-25

    Malonate has been found to inhibit the formation of malic acid during short periods of photosynthesis with radioactive carbon dioxide. This result, together with studies which show the photosynthetic cycle to be operating normally at the same time, indicates that malic acid is not an intermediate in photosynthesis but is probably closely related to some intermediate of the cycle. Absence of labeled succinic and fumaric acids in these experiments, in addition to the failure of malonate to inhibit photosynthesis, precludes the participation of these acids as intermediates in photosynthesis.

  6. The pineapple genome and the evolution of CAM photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Ray; VanBuren, Robert; Wai, Ching Man; Tang, Haibao; Schatz, Michael C.; Bowers, John E.; Lyons, Eric; Wang, Ming-Li; Chen, Jung; Biggers, Eric; Zhang, Jisen; Huang, Lixian; Zhang, Lingmao; Miao, Wenjing; Zhang, Jian; Ye, Zhangyao; Miao, Chenyong; Lin, Zhicong; Wang, Hao; Zhou, Hongye; Yim, Won C.; Priest, Henry D.; Zheng, Chunfang; Woodhouse, Margaret; Edger, Patrick P.; Guyot, Romain; Guo, Hao-Bo; Guo, Hong; Zheng, Guangyong; Singh, Ratnesh; Sharma, Anupma; Min, Xiangjia; Zheng, Yun; Lee, Hayan; Gurtowski, James; Sedlazeck, Fritz J.; Harkess, Alex; McKain, Michael R.; Liao, Zhenyang; Fang, Jingping; Liu, Juan; Zhang, Xiaodan; Zhang, Qing; Hu, Weichang; Qin, Yuan; Wang, Kai; Chen, Li-Yu; Shirley, Neil; Lin, Yann-Rong; Liu, Li-Yu; Hernandez, Alvaro G.; Wright, Chris L.; Bulone, Vincent; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Heath, Katy; Zee, Francis; Moore, Paul H.; Sunkar, Ramanjulu; Leebens-Mack, James H.; Mockler, Todd; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L.; Freeling, Michael; Sankoff, David; Paterson, Andrew H.; Zhu, Xinguang; Yang, Xiaohan; Smith, J. Andrew C.; Cushman, John C.; Paull, Robert E.; Yu, Qingyi

    2016-01-01

    Pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.) is the most economically valuable crop possessing crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), a photosynthetic carbon assimilation pathway with high water use efficiency, and the second most important tropical fruit after banana in terms of international trade. We sequenced the genomes of pineapple varieties ‘F153’ and ‘MD2’, and a wild pineapple relative A. bracteatus accession CB5. The pineapple genome has one fewer ancient whole genome duplications than sequenced grass genomes and, therefore, provides an important reference for elucidating gene content and structure in the last common ancestor of extant members of the grass family (Poaceae). Pineapple has a conserved karyotype with seven pre rho duplication chromosomes that are ancestral to extant grass karyotypes. The pineapple lineage has transitioned from C3 photosynthesis to CAM with CAM-related genes exhibiting a diel expression pattern in photosynthetic tissues using beta-carbonic anhydrase (βCA) for initial capture of CO2. Promoter regions of all three βCA genes contain a CCA1 binding site that can bind circadian core oscillators. CAM pathway genes were enriched with cis-regulatory elements including the morning (CCACAC) and evening (AAAATATC) elements associated with regulation of circadian-clock genes, providing the first link between CAM and the circadian clock regulation. Gene-interaction network analysis revealed both activation and repression of regulatory elements that control key enzymes in CAM photosynthesis, indicating that CAM evolved by reconfiguration of pathways preexisting in C3 plants. Pineapple CAM photosynthesis is the result of regulatory neofunctionalization of preexisting gene copies and not acquisition of neofunctionalized genes via whole genome or tandem gene duplication. PMID:26523774

  7. Abelian modules

    OpenAIRE

    S. Halıcıoğlu; Harmanci, A.; GÜNGÖROĞLU, G.; N. Agayev

    2009-01-01

    In this note, we introduce abelian modules as a generalization of abelian rings. Let R be an arbitrary ring with identity. A module M is called abelian if, for any m Î M and any a Î R, any idempotent e Î R, mae=mea. We prove that every reduced module, every symmetric module, every semicommutative module and every Armendariz module is abelian. For an abelian ring R, we show that the module MR is abelian iff M[x]R[x] is abelian. We produce an example to show that M[x, α] need not be abe...

  8. Efficient Energy Transport in Photosynthesis: Roles of Coherence and Entanglement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Apoorva D.

    2011-09-01

    Recently it has been discovered—contrary to expectations of physicists as well as biologists—that the energy transport during photosynthesis, from the chlorophyll pigment that captures the photon to the reaction centre where glucose is synthesised from carbon dioxide and water, is highly coherent even at ambient temperature and in the cellular environment. This process and the key molecular ingredients that it depends on are described. By looking at the process from the computer science view-point, we can study what has been optimised and how. A spatial search algorithmic model based on robust features of wave dynamics is presented.

  9. Efficient Energy Transport in Photosynthesis: Roles of Coherence and Entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently it has been discovered - contrary to expectations of physicists as well as biologists - that the energy transport during photosynthesis, from the chlorophyll pigment that captures the photon to the reaction centre where glucose is synthesised from carbon dioxide and water, is highly coherent even at ambient temperature and in the cellular environment. This process and the key molecular ingredients that it depends on are described. By looking at the process from the computer science view-point, we can study what has been optimised and how. A spatial search algorithmic model based on robust features of wave dynamics is presented.

  10. Enhancement of photosynthesis in Sorghum bicolor by ultraviolet radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We assessed the influence of ultraviolet radiation (UV) on net photosynthetic CO2 assimilation rate (Pn) in Sorghum bicolor, with particular attention to examining whether UV can enhance Pn via direct absorption of UV and absorption of UV-induced blue fluorescence by photosynthetic pigments. A polychromatic UV response spectrum of leaves was constructed by measuring Pn under different UV supplements using filters that had sharp transmission cut-offs from 280 to 382 nm, against a background of non-saturating visible light. When the abaxial surface was irradiated, Pn averaged 4.6% higher with the UV supplement that cut-off UV at 311 nm, compared to lower and higher UV wavelength supplements. This former supplement differed from higher wavelength supplements by primarily providing more UV between 320 and 350 nm. To assess the possibility of direct absorption of UV by photosynthetic pigments, we measured the absorbance of extracted chlorophylls. Chlorophyll a had absorbance peaks at 340 and 389 nm that were 49 and 72% of that at the sorét peak. Chlorophyll b had absorbance peaks at 315 and 346 nm that were both 35% of that at the sorét peak. Since the epidermis transmits some UV, the strong UV absorbance of chlorophyll implies a potential role for irradiance beyond the bounds of the conventionally defined photosynthetically active radiation waveband (400–700 nm). To assess the role of absorption of UV-induced blue fluorescence, we measured the UV-induced fluorescence excitation and emission spectra of leaves. Abaxial excitation peaked at 328 nm, while emission peaked at 446 nm. In this analysis, we used our abaxial fluorescence excitation spectrum and the UV photosynthetic inhibition spectrum of Caldwell et al. (1986) to weight the UV irradiance with each cut-off filter, thereby estimating the potential contribution of UV-induced blue fluorescence to photosynthesis and the inhibitory effects of UV irradiance on photosynthesis, respectively. With a non

  11. Efficient Energy Transport in Photosynthesis: Roles of Coherence and Entanglement

    CERN Document Server

    Patel, Apoorva D

    2011-01-01

    Recently it has been discovered---contrary to expectations of physicists as well as biologists---that the energy transport during photosynthesis, from the chlorophyll pigment that captures the photon to the reaction centre where glucose is synthesised from carbon dioxide and water, is highly coherent even at ambient temperature and in the cellular environment. This process and the key molecular ingredients that it depends on are described. By looking at the process from the computer science view-point, we can study what has been optimised and how. A spatial search algorithmic model based on robust features of wave dynamics is presented.

  12. Following the path of carbon in photosynthesis: a personal story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Andrew A

    2002-01-01

    Chronological recognition of the intermediates and mechanisms involved in photosynthetic carbon dioxide fixation is delineated. Sam Ruben and Martin Kamen's development of application of radioactive carbon for the study of carbon dioxide fixation provided impetus and techniques for following the path of carbon in photosynthesis. Discovery The identity of the primary carboxylation enzyme and its identity with the major protein of photosynthetic tissues ('Fraction 1' protein of Sam Wildman) is reviewed. Memories are dimmed by sixty years of exciting discoveries exploration in newer fields [see Benson 2002 (Annu Rev Plant Biol 53: 1-25), for research and perspectives beyond the early Berkeley days]. PMID:16245101

  13. Big bang photosynthesis and pregalactic nucleosynthesis of light elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audouze, J.; Lindley, D.; Silk, J.

    1985-01-01

    Two nonstandard scenarios for pregalactic synthesis of the light elements (H-2, He-3, He-4, and Li-7) are developed. Big bang photosynthesis occurs if energetic photons, produced by the decay of massive neutrinos or gravitinos, partially photodisintegrate He-4 (formed in the standard hot big bang) to produce H-2 and He-3. In this case, primordial nucleosynthesis no longer constrains the baryon density of the universe, or the number of neutrino species. Alternatively, one may dispense partially or completely with the hot big bang and produce the light elements by bombardment of primordial gas, provided that He-4 is synthesized by a later generation of massive stars.

  14. Carbon use efficiency in optimal environments. [for photosynthesis in CELSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugbee, Bruce

    1989-01-01

    The short- and long-term effects of environmental changes on plant productivity are studied using a model in which yield is determined by four factors: absorption of photosynthetic photon flux, photosynthetic efficiency, respiratory carbon use efficiency, and harvest index. The characteristics of the model are reviewed. Emphasis is given to the relationship between carbon use efficiency and yield. The biochemical pathways resulting in CO2 efflux are examined, including photorespiration, cyanide-resistant respiration, and dark respiration. The possibility of measuring photosynthesis and respiration in a CELSS is discussed.

  15. Photosynthesis-dependent Isoprene Emission from Leaf to Planet in a Global Carbon-chemistry-climate Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, N.; Harper, K.; Zeng, Y.; Kiang, N. Y.; Alienov, I.; Arneth, A.; Schurgers, G.; Amelynck, C.; Goldstein, A.; Guenther, A.; Heinesch, B.; Hewitt, C. N.; Karl, T.; Laffineur, Q.; Langford, B.; McKinney, K. A.; Misztal, P.; Potosnak, M.; Rinne, J.; Pressley, S.; Schoon, N.; Serca, D.

    2013-01-01

    We describe the implementation of a biochemical model of isoprene emission that depends on the electron requirement for isoprene synthesis into the FarquharBallBerry leaf model of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance that is embedded within a global chemistry-climate simulation framework. The isoprene production is calculated as a function of electron transport-limited photosynthesis, intercellular and atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, and canopy temperature. The vegetation biophysics module computes the photosynthetic uptake of carbon dioxide coupled with the transpiration of water vapor and the isoprene emission rate at the 30 min physical integration time step of the global chemistry-climate model. In the model, the rate of carbon assimilation provides the dominant control on isoprene emission variability over canopy temperature. A control simulation representative of the present-day climatic state that uses 8 plant functional types (PFTs), prescribed phenology and generic PFT-specific isoprene emission potentials (fraction of electrons available for isoprene synthesis) reproduces 50 of the variability across different ecosystems and seasons in a global database of 28 measured campaign-average fluxes. Compared to time-varying isoprene flux measurements at 9 select sites, the model authentically captures the observed variability in the 30 min average diurnal cycle (R2 6496) and simulates the flux magnitude to within a factor of 2. The control run yields a global isoprene source strength of 451 TgC yr1 that increases by 30 in the artificial absence of plant water stress and by 55 for potential natural vegetation.

  16. Photosynthesis-dependent isoprene emission from leaf to planet in a global carbon–chemistry–climate model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Unger

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We describe the implementation of a biochemical model of isoprene emission that depends on the electron requirement for isoprene synthesis into the Farquhar/Ball–Berry leaf model of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance that is embedded within a global chemistry–climate simulation framework. The isoprene production is calculated as a function of electron transport-limited photosynthesis, intercellular carbon dioxide concentration, and canopy temperature. The vegetation biophysics module computes the photosynthetic uptake of carbon dioxide coupled with the transpiration of water vapor and the isoprene emission rate at the 30 min physical integration time step of the global chemistry–climate model. In the model, the rate of carbon assimilation provides the dominant control on isoprene emission variability over canopy temperature. A control simulation representative of the present day climatic state that uses 8 plant functional types (PFTs, prescribed phenology and generic PFT-specific isoprene emission potentials (fraction of electrons available for isoprene synthesis reproduces 50% of the variability across different ecosystems and seasons in a global database of 28 measured campaign-average fluxes. Compared to time-varying isoprene flux measurements at 9 select sites, the model authentically captures the observed variability in the 30 min average diurnal cycle (R2= 64–96% and simulates the flux magnitude to within a factor of 2. The control run yields a global isoprene source strength of 451 Tg C yr-1 that increases by 30% in the artificial absence of plant water stress and by 55% for potential natural vegetation.

  17. The Path of Carbon in Photosynthesis IX. Photosynthesis, Photoreduction, and the Hydrogen-Oxygen-Carbon Dioxide Dark Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badin, E. J.; Calvin, M.

    1950-02-01

    A comparison of the rates of fixation of Carbon 14 dioxide in algae for the processes of photosynthesis, photoreduction and the hydrogen-oxygen-carbon dioxide dark reaction has been made. For the same series of experiments, rates of incorporation of tracer carbon into the separate soluble components using the radiogram method have been determined. The mechanism of carbon dioxide uptake has been shown to occur via two distinct paths. In all cases studied, essentially the same compounds appear radioactive. The distribution with time, however, differs markedly.

  18. Structure and energy transfer in photosystems of oxygenic photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Nathan; Junge, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Oxygenic photosynthesis is the principal converter of sunlight into chemical energy on Earth. Cyanobacteria and plants provide the oxygen, food, fuel, fibers, and platform chemicals for life on Earth. The conversion of solar energy into chemical energy is catalyzed by two multisubunit membrane protein complexes, photosystem I (PSI) and photosystem II (PSII). Light is absorbed by the pigment cofactors, and excitation energy is transferred among the antennae pigments and converted into chemical energy at very high efficiency. Oxygenic photosynthesis has existed for more than three billion years, during which its molecular machinery was perfected to minimize wasteful reactions. Light excitation transfer and singlet trapping won over fluorescence, radiation-less decay, and triplet formation. Photosynthetic reaction centers operate in organisms ranging from bacteria to higher plants. They are all evolutionarily linked. The crystal structure determination of photosynthetic protein complexes sheds light on the various partial reactions and explains how they are protected against wasteful pathways and why their function is robust. This review discusses the efficiency of photosynthetic solar energy conversion. PMID:25747397

  19. Quantifying the effects of ultraviolet radiation on aquatic photosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stratospheric ozone depletion is occurring world-wide, most severely in the Antarctic ''ozone hole'' (58). Accordingly, phytoplankton communities are receiving higher exposures to UVB2 (280-320 nm) as a proportion of total irradiance (37, 55, 57). Because phytoplankton form the base of most aquatic food webs and because UVB is harmful to many biological processes (5, 14, 28,61), a great deal of interest and concern has been expressed about the impact of increased UVB on phytoplankton in particular and marine ecosystems in general(19). Ecosystem function is complex, and it is likely that more than one direct effect of UVB will influence the species composition and productivity of aquatic systems (17, 19, 55, 64). Nonetheless, it is important to characterize the direct effect of UV on phytoplankton photosynthesis in order to estimate its importance to ecosystem response. With this in mind, we describe an approach to quantifying the acute effects of UV on aquatic photosynthesis

  20. Effects of ammonia from livestock farming on lichen photosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paoli, Luca [Department of Environmental Science ' G. Sarfatti' , University of Siena, via Mattioli 4, I-53100 Siena (Italy); Department of Biology, University of Crete, 71409 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Pirintsos, Stergios Arg.; Kotzabasis, Kiriakos [Department of Biology, University of Crete, 71409 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Pisani, Tommaso [Department of Environmental Science ' G. Sarfatti' , University of Siena, via Mattioli 4, I-53100 Siena (Italy); Navakoudis, Eleni [Department of Biology, University of Crete, 71409 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Loppi, Stefano, E-mail: loppi@unisi.i [Department of Environmental Science ' G. Sarfatti' , University of Siena, via Mattioli 4, I-53100 Siena (Italy)

    2010-06-15

    This study investigated if atmospheric ammonia (NH{sub 3}) pollution around a sheep farm influences the photosynthetic performance of the lichens Evernia prunastri and Pseudevernia furfuracea. Thalli of both species were transplanted for up to 30 days in a semi-arid region (Crete, Greece), at sites with concentrations of atmospheric ammonia of ca. 60 mug/m{sup 3} (at a sheep farm), ca. 15 mug/m{sup 3} (60 m from the sheep farm) and ca. 2 mug/m{sup 3} (a remote area 5 km away). Lichen photosynthesis was analysed by the chlorophyll a fluorescence emission to identify targets of ammonia pollution. The results indicated that the photosystem II of the two lichens exposed to NH{sub 3} is susceptible to this pollutant in the gas-phase. The parameter PI{sub ABS}, a global index of photosynthetic performance that combines in a single expression the three functional steps of the photosynthetic activity (light absorption, excitation energy trapping, and conversion of excitation energy to electron transport) was much more sensitive to NH{sub 3} than the F{sub V}/F{sub M} ratio, one of the most commonly used stress indicators. - Ammonia from livestock farming affects lichen photosynthesis.

  1. Spatio-temporal resolution of primary processes of photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junge, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Technical progress in laser-sources and detectors has allowed the temporal and spatial resolution of chemical reactions down to femtoseconds and Å-units. In photon-excitable systems the key to chemical kinetics, trajectories across the vibrational saddle landscape, are experimentally accessible. Simple and thus well-defined chemical compounds are preferred objects for calibrating new methodologies and carving out paradigms of chemical dynamics, as shown in several contributions to this Faraday Discussion. Aerobic life on earth is powered by solar energy, which is captured by microorganisms and plants. Oxygenic photosynthesis relies on a three billion year old molecular machinery which is as well defined as simpler chemical constructs. It has been analysed to a very high precision. The transfer of excitation between pigments in antennae proteins, of electrons between redox-cofactors in reaction centres, and the oxidation of water by a Mn4Ca-cluster are solid state reactions. ATP, the general energy currency of the cell, is synthesized by a most agile, rotary molecular machine. While the efficiency of photosynthesis competes well with photovoltaics at the time scale of nanoseconds, it is lower by an order of magnitude for crops and again lower for bio-fuels. The enormous energy demand of mankind calls for engineered (bio-mimetic or bio-inspired) solar-electric and solar-fuel devices. PMID:25824647

  2. Photoluminescence of Si nanocrystals formed by the photosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photosynthesis, which could control the size and position of Si nanocrystals being formed, as a novel nanofabrication technique making the best use of the strong interaction between photons and nanoparticles, is discussed in great detail. A nanocrystal growth is self-limited to the laser power and the laser-exposure time. The model is proposed to explain the self-limited growth and luminescence from the Si-rich oxide which was exposed to the laser. When the balance between the formation and loss of small amorphous Si clusters on the nanocrystal surface is maintained at a certain size, the nanocrystal growth will stop, and the final average size of the Si nanocrystals is achieved for each laser wavelength. The photoluminescence (PL) is observed when the Si nanocrystals are formed. The origin of the PL is associated with the small amorphous Si clusters, and its intensity increases with the increasing density of the Si clusters or photosynthesized Si nanocrystals. These small amorphous Si clusters remain particularly in the SiO nanopowder, which was made by thermal CVD using SiH4 and O2, even when the final average size is reached. The PL peak wavelength is well determined by the laser wavelength, which affects the structure of the small amorphous Si clusters and their light-emission energy. The photosynthesis is found to not only selectively form Si nanocrystals at low temperature, but also controls their size and even light-emission energy

  3. Effects of ammonia from livestock farming on lichen photosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigated if atmospheric ammonia (NH3) pollution around a sheep farm influences the photosynthetic performance of the lichens Evernia prunastri and Pseudevernia furfuracea. Thalli of both species were transplanted for up to 30 days in a semi-arid region (Crete, Greece), at sites with concentrations of atmospheric ammonia of ca. 60 μg/m3 (at a sheep farm), ca. 15 μg/m3 (60 m from the sheep farm) and ca. 2 μg/m3 (a remote area 5 km away). Lichen photosynthesis was analysed by the chlorophyll a fluorescence emission to identify targets of ammonia pollution. The results indicated that the photosystem II of the two lichens exposed to NH3 is susceptible to this pollutant in the gas-phase. The parameter PIABS, a global index of photosynthetic performance that combines in a single expression the three functional steps of the photosynthetic activity (light absorption, excitation energy trapping, and conversion of excitation energy to electron transport) was much more sensitive to NH3 than the FV/FM ratio, one of the most commonly used stress indicators. - Ammonia from livestock farming affects lichen photosynthesis.

  4. New evidence for grain specific C4 photosynthesis in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangan, Parimalan; Furtado, Agnelo; Henry, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    The C4 photosynthetic pathway evolved to allow efficient CO2 capture by plants where effective carbon supply may be limiting as in hot or dry environments, explaining the high growth rates of C4 plants such as maize. Important crops such as wheat and rice are C3 plants resulting in efforts to engineer them to use the C4 pathway. Here we show the presence of a C4 photosynthetic pathway in the developing wheat grain that is absent in the leaves. Genes specific for C4 photosynthesis were identified in the wheat genome and found to be preferentially expressed in the photosynthetic pericarp tissue (cross- and tube-cell layers) of the wheat caryopsis. The chloroplasts exhibit dimorphism that corresponds to chloroplasts of mesophyll- and bundle sheath-cells in leaves of classical C4 plants. Breeding to optimize the relative contributions of C3 and C4 photosynthesis may adapt wheat to climate change, contributing to wheat food security. PMID:27530078

  5. Plastid ultrastructure and photosynthesis in greening petaloid hypsophylls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidner, M; Franz, A; Napp-Zinn, K

    1985-02-01

    The ultrastructural and biochemicalphysiological aspects of postfloral greening have been studied in hypsophylls of Heliconia aurantiaca Ghiesbr., Guzmania cf. x magnifica Richter and Spathiphyllum wallisii Regel. In all three species the greening of the hypsophylls is due to plastid transformation, chloroplast formation proceeding from the initially different types of plastids. The degradation process of the original plastid structures and the mode of thylakoid formation are distinct in each case. In none of the species do the transformed plastids look identical to the chloroplasts of the corresponding foliage leaves. On a chlorophyll basis, the rate of photosynthesis of the greened hypsophylls surpasses the rate of the leaves considerably in Spathiphyllum, but is much lower in Heliconia (no data for Guzmania). In all species, anatomy, plastid structure, pigments, 77° K-fluorescence emission, ribulose-1,5-bis-phosphate carboxylase activities and short-term photosynthesis (14)CO2-assimilation patterns prove the greened hypsophylls to be capable of providing additional carbon to the developing fruits, thus supplementing the import of organic matter from the foliage leaves. PMID:24249334

  6. Hydrogen production from water: Recent advances in photosynthesis research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenbaum, E.; Lee, J.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Chemical Technology Div.

    1997-12-31

    The great potential of hydrogen production by microalgal water splitting is predicated on quantitative measurement of the algae`s hydrogen-producing capability, which is based on the following: (1) the photosynthetic unit size of hydrogen production; (2) the turnover time of photosynthetic hydrogen production; (3) thermodynamic efficiencies of conversion of light energy into the Gibbs free energy of molecular hydrogen; (4) photosynthetic hydrogen production from sea water using marine algae; (5) the potential for research advances using modern methods of molecular biology and genetic engineering to maximize hydrogen production. ORNL has shown that sustained simultaneous photoevolution of molecular hydrogen and oxygen can be performed with mutants of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii that lack a detectable level of the Photosystem I light reaction. This result is surprising in view of the standard two-light reaction model of photosynthesis and has interesting scientific and technological implications. This ORNL discovery also has potentially important implications for maximum thermodynamic conversion efficiency of light energy into chemical energy by green plant photosynthesis. Hydrogen production performed by a single light reaction, as opposed to two, implies a doubling of the theoretically maximum thermodynamic conversion efficiency from {approx}10% to {approx}20%.

  7. Aquatic CAM photosynthesis: a brief history of its discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Jon E.

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic CAM (Crassulacean Acid Metabolism) photosynthesis was discovered while investigating an unrelated biochemical pathway concerned with anaerobic metabolism. George Bowes was a significant contributor to this project early in its infancy. Not only did he provide me with some valuable perspectives on peer review rejections, but by working with his gas exchange system I was able to take our initial observations of diel fluctuations in malic acid to the next level, showing this aquatic plant exhibited dark CO2 uptake. CAM is universal in all aquatic species of the worldwide Lycophyta genus Isoetes and non-existent in terrestrial Isoetes. Outside of this genus aquatic CAM has a limited occurrence in three other families, including the Crassulaceae. This discovery led to fascinating adventures in the highlands of the Peruvian Andes in search of Stylites, a terrestrial relative of Isoetes. Stylites is a plant that is hermetically sealed from the atmosphere and obtains all of its carbon from terrestrial sources and recycles carbon through CAM. Considering the Mesozoic origin of Isoetes in shallow pools, coupled with the fact that aquatic Isoetes universally possess CAM, suggests the earliest evolution of CAM photosynthesis was most likely not in terrestrial plants.

  8. Varietal differences in photosynthesis and productivity of chickpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 12 genotypes of chickpea (Cicer arietinum Linn.) there was considerable variability in the activity of RuDPC, and PEPC, and in the net photosynthetic rate, photorespiration, leaf area index (LAI), biological yield, sink components and seed yield, with little diversity in CO2-compensation point. The net photosynthetic rate did not have significant correlations with RuDPC or PEPC activity and photorespiration, but it was correlated positively with PEPC activity at flowering and negatively with photorespiration at flower-bud initiation. Assimilate production seemed to determine seed yield, as high photosynthetic rate at the stage of flower-bud initiation increased pods/plant. The net photosynthesis during grain development and the LAI at the full-bloom stage determined the differences in biological yield, which was positively correlated with 1,000 seed weight. Seed number/pod, however, was not related to assimilate production. 14CO2 was used in the study to estimate the rate of photosynthesis. (auth.)

  9. Diurnal photosynthesis and stomatal resistance in field-grown soybeans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The process of photosynthesis in green plants is the major determinant of crop yield. Although the effects of air pollutants, such as sulfur dioxide, on photosynthesis has been studied, many unsolved questions remain. This is especially true with regard to reduction of photosynthetic rate under conditions of chronic exposure causing little or no visible injury. It was the purpose of these studies to develop techniques suitable for measuring photosynthetic rates of field-grown plants without dramatically altering the microenvironment of the plants. Gross photosynthetic rates of soybeans (Glycine max. cv. Wayne) in the field were measured by exposing a small section of representative leaves for 30 seconds to 14CO2 in a normal atmospheric mixture by a technique similar to that of Incoll and Wright. A 1-cm2 section of the area exposed to 14CO2 is punched from the leaf and processed for liquid scintillation counting. Since the treatment period is of such short duration, there is little photorespiratory loss of 14CO2, and thus, the amount of 14C fixed in the leaf can be related to the gross photosynthetic rate. Other parameters measured during the course of these experiments were stomatal resistance, light intensity, leaf water potential, and air temperature

  10. Regulation of Light Energy Utilization and Distribution of Photosynthesis in Five Subtropical Woody Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nan Liu; Chang-Lian Peng; Zhi-Fang Lin; Gui-Zhu Lin; Xiao-Ping Pan

    2007-01-01

    The adaptations and responses of photosynthesis to long- and short-term growth light gradient treatments were investigated in five subtropical forest plants, namely Pinus massoniana Lamb., Schima superba Gardn. et Champ.,Castanopsis fissa (Champ. ex Benth.) Rehd. et Wils., Acmena acuminatissima (BI.) Merr et Perry, and Cryptocarya concinna Hance. With diurnal changes in sunlight and air temperature, the de-epoxidation state and lutein content in the five woody plants under three light intensifies first increased and then decreased during the day. However,maximal photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm; where Fm is the maximum fluorescence yield and Fv is variable fluorescence) and the photochemical quantum yields of photosystem (PS) Ⅱ (ΦPSII) of the species examined changed in the opposite manner, with those in plants grown under 100% natural light changing the most. After long-term treatment (21 months), anti-oxidant capacity (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH·)-scavenging capacity) and utilization of excitation energy showed differences in modulation by different light intensities. It was shown that A.acuminatissima and C. concinna, as dominant species in the late succession stage of a subtropical forest in Dinghu mountain, South China, were better able to adapt to different light environments. However, P. massoniana, the pioneer species of this forest, exhibited less adaptation to Iow light intensity and was definitely eliminated by the forest successlon process.

  11. Comparative effects of herbicides on photosynthesis and growth of tropical estuarine microalgae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) fluorometry is ideally suited to measure the sub-lethal impacts of photosystem II (PSII)-inhibiting herbicides on microalgae, but key relationships between effective quantum yield [Y(II)] and the traditional endpoints growth rate (μ) and biomass increase are unknown. The effects of three PSII-inhibiting herbicides; diuron, hexazinone and atrazine, were examined on two tropical benthic microalgae; Navicula sp. (Heterokontophyta) and Nephroselmis pyriformis (Chlorophyta). The relationships between Y(II), μ and biomass increase were consistent (r2 ≥ 0.90) and linear (1:1), validating the utility of PAM fluorometry as a rapid and reliable technique to measure sub-lethal toxicity thresholds of PSII-inhibiting herbicides in these microalgae. The order of toxicity (EC50 range) was: diuron (16-33 nM) > hexazinone (25-110 nM) > atrazine (130-620 nm) for both algal species. Growth rate and photosynthesis were affected at diuron concentrations that have been detected in coastal areas of the Great Barrier Reef

  12. Impacts of rising tropospheric ozone on photosynthesis and metabolite levels on field grown soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    The response of leaf photosynthesis and metabolite profiles to ozone (O3) exposure ranging from 37 to 116 nL L-1 was investigated in two soybean cultivars Dwight and IA3010 in the field under fully open-air conditions. Leaf photosynthesis, total non-structural carbohydrates (TNC) and total free amin...

  13. Effects of iron limitation on photosynthesis and carbohydrate metabolism in the Antarctic diatom Chaetoceros brevis (Bacillariophyceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oijen, T; van Leeuwe, MA; Gieskes, WWC; de Baar, HJW

    2004-01-01

    Iron, one of the structural elements of organic components that play an essential role in photosynthesis and nitrogen assimilation of plants, is available at extremely low concentrations in large parts of the Southern Ocean's surface waters. We tested the hypothesis that photosynthesis is the primar

  14. Glyphosate effects on photosynthesis, nutrient accumulation, and nodulation in glyphosate-resistant soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies demonstrated that the photosynthesis of some cultivars of first (GR1) and second generation (GR2) glyphosate-resistant soybean was reduced by glyphosate. The reduction in photosynthesis caused by glyphosate might affect nutrient uptake and lead to lower plant biomass production and ...

  15. Gaseous NO2 effects on stomatal behavior, photosynthesis and respiration of hybrid poplar leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, we used poplar as a model plant and investigated the effects of gaseous nitrogen dioxide (NO2, 4 microliter per liter) on stomatal conductance, photosynthesis, dark- and photorespiration of Populus alba x Populus berolinensis hybrid leaves using the photosynthesis system and scanning...

  16. Photosynthesis. Plant Life in Action[TM]. Schlessinger Science Library. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000

    Plants play an important role in the survival of every living thing; in fact, they are responsible for our very existence! In Photosynthesis, find out what makes plants so unique by studying the chemical process of photosynthesis - the amazing method of making food and oxygen from sunlight. Diagrams & microscopic photography illustrate the parts…

  17. An apparatus for field measurement of photosynthesis activity in plants using radioactive carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An apparatus was designed for rapid and accurate determination of photosynthesis rates in the field. It was standardised with respect to exposure time during which maize leaf was exposed to 14 CO2 labelled air and the photosynthesis rates were measured

  18. Modeling photosynthesis of discontinuous plant canopies by linking Geometric Optical Radiative Transfer model with biochemical processes

    OpenAIRE

    Xin, Q; P. Gong; Li, W.

    2015-01-01

    Modeling vegetation photosynthesis is essential for understanding carbon exchanges between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. The radiative transfer process within plant canopies is one of the key drivers that regulate canopy photosynthesis. Most vegetation cover consists of discrete plant crowns, of which the physical observation departs from the underlying assumption of a homogenous and uniform medium in classic radiative transfer theory. Here we a...

  19. Enhancing Students' Understanding of Photosynthesis and Respiration in Plant through Conceptual Change Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenilmez, Ayse; Tekkaya, Ceren

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of combining conceptual change text and discussion web strategies on students' understanding of photosynthesis and respiration in plants. Students' conceptual understanding of photosynthesis and respiration in plants was measured using the two-tier diagnostic test developed by Haslam and Treagust (1987,…

  20. Self-assembled light-harvesting peptide nanotubes for mimicking natural photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Hong; Lee, Minah; Lee, Joon Seok; Park, Chan Beum

    2012-01-01

    Light-harvesting peptide nanotubes are synthesized by the self-assembly of diphenylalanine with THPP and platinum nanoparticles (nPt; see picture; TEOA = triethanolamine). The light-harvesting peptide nanotubes are suitable for mimicking photosynthesis because of their structure and electrochemical properties that are similar to the ones of photosystem I in natural photosynthesis. PMID:21976303

  1. The Path of Carbon in Photosynthesis V. Paper Chromatography and Radioautography of the Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, A. A.; Bassham, J. A.; Calvin, M.; Goodale, T. C.; Haas, V. A.; Stepka, W.

    1949-06-13

    Detailed procedure and results for the separation and identification of labeled carboxylic acids and phosphate esters, formed during photosynthesis in C{sup 14}O{sub 2}; the first observed product of CO{sub 2} assimilation during photosynthesis was isolated and shown to be phosphoglyceric acid; tracer use of P{sup 32} and C{sup 14}.

  2. How A. N. Terenin's works helped me in understanding the mechanism of photosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact of A. N. Terenin's works upon the formation of the new concept of photosynthesis proposed by the author is traced. According to it, exo- and endogenic hydrogen peroxide subjected to thermal and/or photochemical decomposition rather than water is the source of oxygen (hydrogen) in photosynthesis

  3. Acclimation of Photosynthesis to Light and Canopy Nitrogen Distribution: an Interpretation

    OpenAIRE

    Thornley, J. H. M.

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims Acclimation of photosynthesis to light and its connection with canopy nitrogen (N) distribution are considered. An interpretation of a proportionality between light‐saturated photosynthesis and local averaged leaf irradiance is proposed by means of a simple model.

  4. Promoting the Understanding of Photosynthesis among Elementary School Student Teachers through Text Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Södervik, Ilona; Mikkilä-Erdmann, Mirjamaija; Vilppu, Henna

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate elementary school pre-service teachers' understanding of photosynthesis and to examine if a refutational text can support understanding of photosynthesis better than a non-refutational text. A total of 91 elementary school pre-service teachers read either a refutational or a non-refutational text…

  5. A Forgotten Application of the Starch Test: C[subscript 4] Photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, Suzanne M.

    2013-01-01

    In many labs on photosynthesis, the presence of starch in leaves is used as an indirect indicator of photosynthetic activity. Students do starch tests on leaves from plants that have been kept under a variety of conditions in order to check parameters for photosynthesis. The starch test can also be used to enable students to discover differences…

  6. Utility of Concept Cartoons in Diagnosing and Overcoming Misconceptions Related to Photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekici, Fatma; Ekici, Erhan; Aydin, Fatih

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the effectiveness of concept cartoons in diagnosing and overcoming students' misconceptions related to photosynthesis subject was examined. Firstly, the literature has been thoroughly examined and misconceptions about photosynthesis subject have been listed and then grouped. Concept cartoons related to these groups have been…

  7. Powered by light: Phototrophy and photosynthesis in prokaryotes and its evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowicka, Beatrycze; Kruk, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    Photosynthesis is a complex metabolic process enabling photosynthetic organisms to use solar energy for the reduction of carbon dioxide into biomass. This ancient pathway has revolutionized life on Earth. The most important event was the development of oxygenic photosynthesis. It had a tremendous impact on the Earth's geochemistry and the evolution of living beings, as the rise of atmospheric molecular oxygen enabled the development of a highly efficient aerobic metabolism, which later led to the evolution of complex multicellular organisms. The mechanism of photosynthesis has been the subject of intensive research and a great body of data has been accumulated. However, the evolution of this process is not fully understood, and the development of photosynthesis in prokaryota in particular remains an unresolved question. This review is devoted to the occurrence and main features of phototrophy and photosynthesis in prokaryotes. Hypotheses concerning the origin and spread of photosynthetic traits in bacteria are also discussed. PMID:27242148

  8. Gas exchange measurements, what can they tell us about the underlying limitations to photosynthesis? Procedures and sources of error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, S P; Bernacchi, C J

    2003-11-01

    The principles, equipment and procedures for measuring leaf and canopy gas exchange have been described previously as has chlorophyll fluorescence. Simultaneous measurement of the responses of leaf gas exchange and modulated chlorophyll fluorescence to light and CO2 concentration now provide a means to determine a wide range of key biochemical and biophysical limitations on photo synthesis in vivo. Here the mathematical frameworks and practical procedures for determining these parameters in vivo are consolidated. Leaf CO2 uptake (A) versus intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) curves may now be routinely obtained from commercial gas exchange systems. The potential pitfalls, and means to avoid these, are examined. Calculation of in vivo maximum rates of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) carboxylation (Vc,max), electron transport driving regeneration of RuBP (Jmax), and triose-phosphate utilization (VTPU) are explained; these three parameters are now widely assumed to represent the major limitations to light-saturated photosynthesis. Precision in determining these in intact leaves is improved by the simultaneous measurement of electron transport via modulated chlorophyll fluorescence. The A/Ci response also provides a simple practical method for quantifying the limitation that stomata impose on CO2 assimilation. Determining the rate of photorespiratory release of oxygen (Rl) has previously only been possible by isotopic methods, now, by combining gas exchange and fluorescence measurements, Rl may be determined simply and routinely in the field. The physical diffusion of CO2 from the intercellular air space to the site of Rubisco in C3 leaves has long been suspected of being a limitation on photosynthesis, but it has commonly been ignored because of the lack of a practical method for its determination. Again combining gas exchange and fluorescence provides a means to determine mesophyll conductance. This method is described and provides

  9. A thirty percent increase in UV-B has no impact on photosynthesis in well-watered and droughted pea plants in the field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been suggested that field experiments which increase UV-B irradiation by a fixed amount irrespective of ambient light conditions (‘square-wave’), may overestimate the response of photosynthesis to UV-B irradiation. In this study, pea (Pisum sativum L.) plants were grown in the field and subjected to a modulated 30% increase in ambient UK summer UV-B radiation (weighted with an erythemal action spectrum) and a mild drought treatment. UV-A and ambient UV control treatments were also studied. There were no significant effects of the UV-B treatment on the in situ CO2 assimilation rate throughout the day or on the light-saturated steady-state photosynthesis. This was confirmed by an absence of UV-B effects on the major components contributing to CO2 assimilation; photosystem II electron transport, ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate regeneration, ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase carboxylation, and stomatal conductance. In addition to the absence of an effect on photosynthetic activities, UV-B had no significant impact on plant biomass, leaf area or partitioning. UV-B exposure increased leaf flavonoid content. The UV-A treatment had no observable effect on photosynthesis or productivity. Mild drought resulted in reduced biomass, a change in partitioning away from shoots to roots whilst maintaining leaf area, but had no observable effect on photosynthetic competence. No UV-B and drought treatment interactions were observed on photosynthesis or plant biomass. In conclusion, a 30% increase in UV-B had no effects on photosynthetic performance or productivity in well-watered or droughted pea plants in the field. (author)

  10. Guard cell photosynthesis is critical for stomatal turgor production, yet does not directly mediate CO2 - and ABA-induced stomatal closing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azoulay-Shemer, Tamar; Palomares, Axxell; Bagheri, Andisheh; Israelsson-Nordstrom, Maria; Engineer, Cawas B; Bargmann, Bastiaan O R; Stephan, Aaron B; Schroeder, Julian I

    2015-08-01

    Stomata mediate gas exchange between the inter-cellular spaces of leaves and the atmosphere. CO2 levels in leaves (Ci) are determined by respiration, photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and atmospheric [CO2 ]. [CO2 ] in leaves mediates stomatal movements. The role of guard cell photosynthesis in stomatal conductance responses is a matter of debate, and genetic approaches are needed. We have generated transgenic Arabidopsis plants that are chlorophyll-deficient in guard cells only, expressing a constitutively active chlorophyllase in a guard cell specific enhancer trap line. Our data show that more than 90% of guard cells were chlorophyll-deficient. Interestingly, approximately 45% of stomata had an unusual, previously not-described, morphology of thin-shaped chlorophyll-less stomata. Nevertheless, stomatal size, stomatal index, plant morphology, and whole-leaf photosynthetic parameters (PSII, qP, qN, FV '/FM' ) were comparable with wild-type plants. Time-resolved intact leaf gas-exchange analyses showed a reduction in stomatal conductance and CO2 -assimilation rates of the transgenic plants. Normalization of CO2 responses showed that stomata of transgenic plants respond to [CO2 ] shifts. Detailed stomatal aperture measurements of normal kidney-shaped stomata, which lack chlorophyll, showed stomatal closing responses to [CO2 ] elevation and abscisic acid (ABA), while thin-shaped stomata were continuously closed. Our present findings show that stomatal movement responses to [CO2 ] and ABA are functional in guard cells that lack chlorophyll. These data suggest that guard cell CO2 and ABA signal transduction are not directly modulated by guard cell photosynthesis/electron transport. Moreover, the finding that chlorophyll-less stomata cause a 'deflated' thin-shaped phenotype, suggests that photosynthesis in guard cells is critical for energization and guard cell turgor production. PMID:26096271

  11. A natural variant of NAL1, selected in high-yield rice breeding programs, pleiotropically increases photosynthesis rate

    OpenAIRE

    Takai, Toshiyuki; Adachi, Shunsuke; Taguchi-Shiobara, Fumio; Sanoh-Arai, Yumiko; Iwasawa, Norio; Yoshinaga, Satoshi; Hirose, Sakiko; Taniguchi, Yojiro; Yamanouchi, Utako; Wu, Jianzhong; Matsumoto, Takashi; Sugimoto, Kazuhiko; Kondo, Katsuhiko; Ikka, Takashi; Ando, Tsuyu

    2013-01-01

    Improvement of leaf photosynthesis is an important strategy for greater crop productivity. Here we show that the quantitative trait locus GPS (GREEN FOR PHOTOSYNTHESIS) in rice (Oryza sativa L.) controls photosynthesis rate by regulating carboxylation efficiency. Map-based cloning revealed that GPS is identical to NAL1 (NARROW LEAF1), a gene previously reported to control lateral leaf growth. The high-photosynthesis allele of GPS was found to be a partial loss-of-function allele of NAL1. This...

  12. Effect of Drought Stress on Photosynthesis and Leaf Gas Exchange of Rice Grown in Nutrient Film Technique (NFT)

    OpenAIRE

    K. P. Halder; S. W Burrage

    2004-01-01

    Rice plants grown in nutrient film technique (NFT) to evaluate the effect of intermittent water stress on net photosynthesis rate and leaf gas exchange. Stomatal conductance, net photosynthesis rate and mesophyll conductance decreased with increasing water stress. Internal CO2 concentration was not affected by water stress. A weak relationship (R2= 0.60) between net photosynthesis rate and stomatal conductance suggested that non-stomatal limitations to photosynthesis

  13. 2011 Photosynthesis Gordon Research Conference & Seminar (June 11-17, 2011, Davidson College, Davidson, North Carolina)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prof. Krishna Niyogi

    2011-06-17

    Photosynthesis is the biological process that converts solar energy into chemical energy. Elucidation of the mechanisms of photosynthetic energy conversion at a molecular level is fundamentally important for understanding the biology of photosynthetic organisms, for optimizing biological solar fuels production, and for developing biologically inspired approaches to solar energy conversion. The 2011 Gordon Conference on Photosynthesis will present cutting-edge research focusing on the biochemical aspects of photosynthesis, including: (1) structure, assembly, and function of photosynthetic complexes; (2) the mechanism of water splitting by PSII; (3) light harvesting and quenching; (4) alternative electron transport pathways; (5) biosynthesis of pigments and cofactors; and (6) improvement of photosynthesis for bioenergy and food production. Reflecting the interdisciplinary nature of photosynthesis research, a diverse group of invited speakers will represent a variety of scientific approaches to investigate photosynthesis, such as biochemistry, molecular genetics, structural biology, systems biology, and spectroscopy. Highly interactive poster sessions provide opportunities for graduate students and postdocs to present their work and exchange ideas with leaders in the field. One of the highlights of the Conference is a session featuring short talks by junior investigators selected from the poster presentations. The collegial atmosphere of the Photosynthesis GRC, with programmed discussion sessions as well as informal gatherings in the afternoons and evenings, enables participants to brainstorm, exchange ideas, and forge new collaborations. For the second time, this Conference will be immediately preceded by a Gordon Research Seminar on Photosynthesis (June 11-12, 2011, at the same location), with a focus on 'Photosynthesis, Bioenergy, and the Environment.' The GRS provides an additional opportunity for graduate students and postdocs to present their research

  14. Living Systems Energy Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-26

    The Living Systems Energy Module, renamed Voyage from the Sun, is a twenty-lesson curriculum designed to introduce students to the major ways in which energy is important in living systems. Voyage from the Sun tells the story of energy, describing its solar origins, how it is incorporated into living terrestrial systems through photosynthesis, how it flows from plants to herbivorous animals, and from herbivores to carnivores. A significant part of the unit is devoted to examining how humans use energy, and how human impact on natural habitats affects ecosystems. As students proceed through the unit, they read chapters of Voyage from the Sun, a comic book that describes the flow of energy in story form (Appendix A). During the course of the unit, an ``Energy Pyramid`` is erected in the classroom. This three-dimensional structure serves as a classroom exhibit, reminding students daily of the importance of energy and of the fragile nature of our living planet. Interactive activities teach students about adaptations that allow plants and animals to acquire, to use and to conserve energy. A complete list of curricular materials and copies of all activity sheets appear in Appendix B.

  15. Modeling the onset of photosynthesis after the Chicxulub asteroid impact

    CERN Document Server

    Perez, Noel; Martin, Osmel; Rojas, Reinaldo

    2012-01-01

    We do a preliminary modelling of the photosynthetic rates of phytoplankton at the very beginning of the Paleogene, just after the impact of the Chicxulub asteroid, which decisively contributed to the last known mass extinction of the Phanerozoic eon. We assume the worst possible scenario from the photobiological point of view: an already clear atmosphere with no ozone, as the timescale for soot and dust settling (years) is smaller than that of the full ozone regeneration (decades). Even in these conditions we show that most phytoplankton species would have had reasonable potential for photosynthesis in all the three main optical ocean water types. This modelling could help explain why the recovery of phytoplankton was relatively rapid after the huge environmental stress of that asteroid impact. In a more general scope, it also reminds us of the great resilience of the unicellular biosphere against huge environmental perturbations.

  16. Effect of mitochondrial ascorbic acid synthesis on photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senn, M E; Gergoff Grozeff, G E; Alegre, M L; Barrile, F; De Tullio, M C; Bartoli, C G

    2016-07-01

    Ascorbic acid (AA) is synthesized in plant mitochondria through the oxidation of l-galactono-1,4-lactone (l-GalL) and then distributed to different cell compartments. AA-deficient Arabidopsis thaliana mutants (vtc2) and exogenous applications of l-GalL were used to generate plants with different AA content in their leaves. This experimental approach allows determining specific AA-dependent effects on carbon metabolism. No differences in O2 uptake, malic and citric acid and NADH content suggest that AA synthesis or accumulation did not affect mitochondrial activity; however, l-GalL treatment increased CO2 assimilation and photosynthetic electron transport rate in vtc2 (but not wt) leaves demonstrating a stimulation of photosynthesis after l-GalL treatment. Increased CO2 assimilation correlated with increased leaf stomatal conductance observed in l-GalL-treated vtc2 plants. PMID:27010742

  17. The Energy Budget of Steady-State Photosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, David

    2007-06-30

    Our work developed a unique set of in vivo spectroscopic tools that have allowed us to probe the importance of 1) The effects of storage of proton motive force (pmf ) in the form of both electric field (Δψ) and pH difference (ΔpH); 2) alteration in the stoichiometry of proton pumping to electron transfer at key steps; 3) the influence of changes in the conductivity for proton efflux from the thylakoid of the ATP synthase; 4) the mechanisms of steps of the electron transfer process that pump protons; and 5) the mechanisms by which reactive O{sub 2} is generated as a side reaction to photosynthesis, and how these processes are minimized.

  18. Characterizing photosynthesis and transpiration of plant communities in controlled environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monje, O.; Bugbee, B.

    1996-01-01

    CO2 and water vapor fluxes of hydroponically grown wheat and soybean canopies were measured continuously in several environments with an open gas exchange system. Canopy CO2 fluxes reflect the photosynthetic efficiency of a plant community, and provide a record of plant growth and health. There were significant diurnal fluctuations in root and shoot CO2 fluxes, and in shoot water vapor fluxes. Canopy stomatal conductance (Gc) to water vapor was calculated from simultaneous measurements of canopy temperature (Tcan) and transpiration rates (Tr). Tr in the dark was substantial, and there were large diurnal fluctuations in both Gc and Tr. Canopy net Photosynthesis (Pnet), Tr, and Gc increased with increasing net radiation. Gc increased with Tr, suggesting that the stomata of plants in controlled environments (CEs) behave differently from field-grown plants. A transpiration model based on measurements of Gc was developed for CEs. The model accurately predicted Tr from a soybean canopy.

  19. Quantum Coherence in Photosynthesis for Efficient Solar Energy Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Elisabet; Augulis, Ramunas; Novoderezhkin, Vladimir I.; Ferretti, Marco; Thieme, Jos; Zigmantas, Donatas; van Grondelle, Rienk

    2014-01-01

    The crucial step in the conversion of solar to chemical energy in Photosynthesis takes place in the reaction center where the absorbed excitation energy is converted into a stable charge separated state by ultrafast electron transfer events. However, the fundamental mechanism responsible for the near unity quantum efficiency of this process is unknown. Here we elucidate the role of coherence in determining the efficiency of charge separation in the plant photosystem II reaction centre (PSII RC) by comprehensively combining experiment (two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy) and theory (Redfield theory). We reveal the presence of electronic coherence between excitons as well as between exciton and charge transfer states which we argue to be maintained by vibrational modes. Furthermore, we present evidence for the strong correlation between the degree of electronic coherence and efficient and ultrafast charge separation. We propose that this coherent mechanism will inspire the development of new energy technologies. PMID:26870153

  20. Plant densities and modulation of symbiotic nitrogen fixation in soybean

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Javier de Luca; Mariangela Hungría

    2014-01-01

    Soybean nitrogen (N) demands can be supplied to a large extent via biological nitrogen fixation, but the mechanisms of source/sink regulating photosynthesis/nitrogen fixation in high yielding cultivars and current crop management arrangements need to be investigated. We investigated the modulation of symbiotic nitrogen fixation in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] at different plant densities. A field trial was performed in southern Brazil with six treatments, including non-inoculated contro...

  1. Spectral signatures of photosynthesis. I. Review of Earth organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiang, Nancy Y; Siefert, Janet; Govindjee; Blankenship, Robert E

    2007-02-01

    Why do plants reflect in the green and have a "red edge" in the red, and should extrasolar photosynthesis be the same? We provide (1) a brief review of how photosynthesis works, (2) an overview of the diversity of photosynthetic organisms, their light harvesting systems, and environmental ranges, (3) a synthesis of photosynthetic surface spectral signatures, and (4) evolutionary rationales for photosynthetic surface reflectance spectra with regard to utilization of photon energy and the planetary light environment. We found the "near-infrared (NIR) end" of the red edge to trend from blue-shifted to reddest for (in order) snow algae, temperate algae, lichens, mosses, aquatic plants, and finally terrestrial vascular plants. The red edge is weak or sloping in lichens. Purple bacteria exhibit possibly a sloping edge in the NIR. More studies are needed on pigment-protein complexes, membrane composition, and measurements of bacteria before firm conclusions can be drawn about the role of the NIR reflectance. Pigment absorbance features are strongly correlated with features of atmospheric spectral transmittance: P680 in Photosystem II with the peak surface incident photon flux density at approximately 685 nm, just before an oxygen band at 687.5 nm; the NIR end of the red edge with water absorbance bands and the oxygen A-band at 761 nm; and bacteriochlorophyll reaction center wavelengths with local maxima in atmospheric and water transmittance spectra. Given the surface incident photon flux density spectrum and resonance transfer in light harvesting, we propose some rules with regard to where photosynthetic pigments will peak in absorbance: (1) the wavelength of peak incident photon flux; (2) the longest available wavelength for core antenna or reaction center pigments; and (3) the shortest wavelengths within an atmospheric window for accessory pigments. That plants absorb less green light may not be an inefficient legacy of evolutionary history, but may actually satisfy

  2. Unraveling Vital Effects: Photosynthesis of Symbiotic Algae in Foraminifera Hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, C.; Phelps, S. R.; Goes, J. I.; Hoenisch, B.

    2015-12-01

    B/Ca and boron isotope proxies recorded in the calcium carbonate shells of planktic foraminifera are sensitive to seawater acidity. We seek to understand how the biology of the organism affects the geochemical signals, as planktic foraminifera shells differ in their chemical composition from inorganic calcite and also between foraminifer species. These differences are most likely related to physiological processes like respiration, calcification, and photosynthesis in symbiont-bearing foraminifera. The modifications of geochemical signals by these biological parameters are termed vital effects. Our study is based on the hypothesis that the B/Ca and δ11B offsets observed in planktic foraminifer shells are primarily due to the photosynthetic activity of their symbionts, which may elevate the microenvironmental pH to different degrees in different foraminifer species. Using fast repetition rate fluorometry, chlorophyll α analyses and symbiont counts, we investigated the symbiont-photosynthetic activity associated with three foraminifera species - Globigerinoides ruber, G. sacculifer, and Orbulina universa. Boron proxy systematics in these species suggest that photosynthetic activity should be greater in G. ruber compared to G. sacculifer and O. universa, but this is not confirmed by our study. While symbiont photosynthesis undoubtedly explains microenvironmental pH-elevation and boron proxy systematics in symbiont-bearing compared to symbiont-barren foraminifer species, additional processes must be responsible for the boron geochemical offsets between symbiont-bearing species. Respiration of the symbiont-host association and the calcification process are most likely candidates that require further analysis. Our study highlights the potential danger of misinterpreting geochemical signals in biological organisms when the biology of the organism in question is not entirely understood.

  3. Photosynthesis: a short history of some modern experimental approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennazio, Sergio

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a personal interpretation of a chapter of plant physiology beginning from the early 1930s to the early 1940s, when plant physiologists tried to find the missing link between the two (dark and light) phases of photosynthesis. As initially inferred by Richard Willstätter and Arthur Stoll in the 1910s, and then stated by Robert Emerson and William Arnold in 1932, the most accredited theory proposed that carbon dioxide must combine with chlorophyll in the dark. Successive light flashes activated the complex chlorophyll-carbon dioxide with oxygen evolution, and carbon dioxide was reduced to formaldehyde and successively polymerised into hexose. Arthur Stool in 1932 and Cornelius v. Niel in 1935 gave the first stroke to this theory suggesting that carbon dioxide must be reduced and assimilated by means of a process of water oxidation. Robert Hill showed the existence of an indissoluble link between the light phase, water oxidation and possibly oxygen evolution. Two physicists, Sam Ruben and Martin Kamen proposed the assembly of photosynthesis into a unitary process occurring as a sequence of several steps in the first 1940s. By utilising for the first time radioactive carbon (11C), they elaborated a new theory according to which carbon dioxide reduction was a repeated "cyclic" mechanism. This "heretical" view abolished the old, but still considered, theory of formaldehyde. Hill, Ruben and Kamen were able to exploit at best the possibility offered by a very advanced technology, thus confirming once again that ideas stand upon the powerful legs of technology. PMID:12852175

  4. Photosynthesis via Mineral Fluorescence in Harsh UV Radiation Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barge, L. M.; Nealson, K.

    2005-12-01

    Before the development of a protective ozone layer about two billion years ago, the surface ultraviolet flux on Earth would have restricted ancient life to environments that offered some protection from direct solar radiation, such as the deep ocean or under or within rocks. In environments where the visible solar radiation would have been reduced to levels too low for photosynthesis, visible fluorescence resulting from UV irradiation of minerals may have provided a useable energy source. We are investigating the possibility that photosynthesis can occur without direct sunlight, if certain minerals are present that can absorb UV radiation and fluoresce in the visible. There are several common minerals(e.g. fluorite, calcite) that emit strong visible radiation under both short- and long-wave UV light, as well as some that only emit visible radiation under specific UV wavelengths. We will test a variety of minerals that fluoresce at wavelengths utilized by microbial chlorophylls and accessory pigments, and by simulating endolithic communities living under a few centimeters or millimeters of rock, we will measure the intensity of fluorescence and UV radiation received at various depths. We plan to simulate a variety of environments where the surface UV radiation may have a significant impact on the survival of life. These include the early Earth and present-day Mars(where the atmosphere would offer little to no protection against biologically damaging UV radiation), as well as extrasolar planets(a terrestrial planet in the habitable zone around an M-type star, for example, would be subject to an intense UV flux due to high flare activity). If mineral fluorescence proves to be a viable survival mechanism for photosynthetic organisms in harsh radiation environments, there are many implications for the study of ancient life on Earth as well as the search for life elsewhere.

  5. Modelling basin-wide variations in Amazon forest photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado, Lina; Lloyd, Jon; Domingues, Tomas; Fyllas, Nikolaos; Patino, Sandra; Dolman, Han; Sitch, Stephen

    2010-05-01

    Given the importance of Amazon rainforest in the global carbon and hydrological cycles, there is a need to use parameterized and validated ecosystem gas exchange and vegetation models for this region in order to adequately simulate present and future carbon and water balances. Recent research has found major differences in above-ground net primary productivity (ANPP), above ground biomass and tree dynamics across Amazonia. West Amazonia is more dynamic, with younger trees, higher stem growth rates and lower biomass than central and eastern Amazon (Baker et al. 2004; Malhi et al. 2004; Phillips et al. 2004). A factor of three variation in above-ground net primary productivity has been estimated across Amazonia by Malhi et al. (2004). Different hypotheses have been proposed to explain the observed spatial variability in ANPP (Malhi et al. 2004). First, due to the proximity to the Andes, sites from western Amazonia tend to have richer soils than central and eastern Amazon and therefore soil fertility could possibly be highly related to the high wood productivity found in western sites. Second, if GPP does not vary across the Amazon basin then different patterns of carbon allocation to respiration could also explain the observed ANPP gradient. However since plant growth depends on the interaction between photosynthesis, transport of assimilates, plant respiration, water relations and mineral nutrition, variations in plant gross photosynthesis (GPP) could also explain the observed variations in ANPP. In this study we investigate whether Amazon GPP can explain variations of observed ANPP. We use a sun and shade canopy gas exchange model that has been calibrated and evaluated at five rainforest sites (Mercado et al. 2009) to simulate gross primary productivity of 50 sites across the Amazon basin during the period 1980-2001. Such simulation differs from the ones performed with global vegetation models (Cox et al. 1998; Sitch et al. 2003) where i) single plant functional

  6. Effects of high CO2 levels on dynamic photosynthesis: carbon gain, mechanisms, and environmental interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomimatsu, Hajime; Tang, Yanhong

    2016-05-01

    Understanding the photosynthetic responses of terrestrial plants to environments with high levels of CO2 is essential to address the ecological effects of elevated atmospheric CO2. Most photosynthetic models used for global carbon issues are based on steady-state photosynthesis, whereby photosynthesis is measured under constant environmental conditions; however, terrestrial plant photosynthesis under natural conditions is highly dynamic, and photosynthetic rates change in response to rapid changes in environmental factors. To predict future contributions of photosynthesis to the global carbon cycle, it is necessary to understand the dynamic nature of photosynthesis in relation to high CO2 levels. In this review, we summarize the current body of knowledge on the photosynthetic response to changes in light intensity under experimentally elevated CO2 conditions. We found that short-term exposure to high CO2 enhances photosynthetic rate, reduces photosynthetic induction time, and reduces post-illumination CO2 burst, resulting in increased leaf carbon gain during dynamic photosynthesis. However, long-term exposure to high CO2 during plant growth has varying effects on dynamic photosynthesis. High levels of CO2 increase the carbon gain in photosynthetic induction in some species, but have no significant effects in other species. Some studies have shown that high CO2 levels reduce the biochemical limitation on RuBP regeneration and Rubisco activation during photosynthetic induction, whereas the effects of high levels of CO2 on stomatal conductance differ among species. Few studies have examined the influence of environmental factors on effects of high levels of CO2 on dynamic photosynthesis. We identified several knowledge gaps that should be addressed to aid future predictions of photosynthesis in high-CO2 environments. PMID:27094437

  7. The distribution of leaf area, radiation, photosynthesis and transpiration in a Shamouti orange hedgerow orchard, part 2: photosynthesis, transpiration and the effect of row shape and direction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of the distribution of radiation in an orange canopy on transpiration and photosynthesis was examined by developing a model of these processes. The leaf energy balance, microclimate relationships and climatic data are combined with radiation, leaf conductance, and leaf carbon uptake models to simulate orchard photosynthesis and transpiration over 2 days. Calculated hourly values of transpiration showed good agreement with measured values of sap flow in the orange orchard. Calculated carbon uptake during the six summer months was 22 kg CO2 per tree; however, experimental estimates of annual dry matter production yield 55 kg CO2 per tree. The calculated figure is therefore considerably in error and indicates that present information used in carbon balance modeling of Citrus is inadequate. Even so, it is shown that radiation levels deep in the canopy, where a significant amount of leaf area and transpiration is located, are too low for significant carbon uptake to occur. As an example of the usefulness of the model, the distributions of photosynthesis, transpiration and photosynthetic radiation were simulated in hedgerow canopies of three different shapes following current pruning practices in Israel. The distribution of foliage inside the given hedgerow cross-section was calculated based on the relationship of average measured foliage density to calculated diffuse photosynthetic irradiance in the canopy. The simulation was run for rows oriented north-south and east-west and for climatic conditions of midsummer. The results of the simulation indicated that: (a) The highest photosynthesis in citrus orchards is obtained by covering the largest ground areas possible with a thick canopy, i.e., maximum leaf area index (LAI). Under such conditions most photosynthesis occurs in the upper 1 m of the canopy. (b) Although rows with slanted walls do not have the highest photosynthesis, they allow more light penetration into the canopy and have productive regions on

  8. Radio photosynthesis of some 14 C-labelled sugars using the unicellular green alga scenedesmus ACUTUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiosynthesis has been carried out using the unicellular green alga scenedesmus acutus together with Na H 14 CO3 solution as a carbon-14 source, in an ordinary photosynthesis chamber. The process is more easier and less laborious than the techniques involving the use of gaseous 14 CO2 in a tight photosynthesis chamber. Uniformly labelled 14 C-glucose, 14 C-fructose and 14 C-sucrose have been prepared with specific activities of several micro curies per milli mole. The specific activity of the products was found to increase on increasing the photosynthesis time or the initial activity of the Na H 14 CO3 solution used. 3 tabs

  9. Effect of gamma radiation on chlorophylls contents, net photosynthesis and respiration of chlorella pyrenoidosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of five doses of gamma radiation: 10, 100, 500, 1000 and 5000 Gy on chlorophylls content, net photosynthesis and respiration of chlorella pyrenoidosa has been studied. A decrease in chlorophylls levels is produced after irradiation at 500, 1000 and 5000 Gy, being, at first 'b' chlorophyll affected to a greater extent than 'a' chlorophyll. Net photosynthesis and respiration decline throughout the time of the observations after irradiation, this depressing effect being much more remarkable for the first one. Net photosynthesis inhibition levels of about 30% have got only five hours post irradiation at a dose of 5000 Gy. (author)

  10. Conference Support, 23rd Western Photosynthesis Conference 2014, Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wachter, Rebekka [Arizona State University

    2015-01-12

    The Western Photosynthesis Conference is a regional conference that is held on an annual basis to bring together researchers primarily from the Western United States to share their newest research advances on photosynthetic processes. The 23rd conference was focused on both fundamental and more applied research on the biological conversion of solar energy to various energy storage forms. Several particular areas of solar energy conversion were emphasized in this conference (see below). Some of these topics, such as carbon limitations on photosynthesis, biomimicry and phenotyping, have traditionally not been incorporated extensively in the Western Photosynthesis Conference. We found that these topics have substantially broadened of the scope of this meeting.

  11. The importance of micrometeorological variations for photosynthesis and transpiration in a boreal coniferous forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schurgers, Guy; Lagergren, F.; Molder, M.;

    2015-01-01

    the importance of vertical variations in light, temperature, CO2 concentration and humidity within the canopy for fluxes of photosynthesis and transpiration of a boreal coniferous forest in central Sweden. A leaf-level photosynthesis-stomatal conductance model was used for aggregating these processes...... between abovecanopy and within-canopy humidity, and despite large gradients in CO2 concentration during early morning hours after nights with stable conditions, neither humidity nor CO2 played an important role for vertical heterogeneity of photosynthesis and transpiration....

  12. Phytoplankton photosynthesis and carbon-specific growth: light-saturated rates in a nutrient-rich environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Light-saturated photosynthesis from short term and daily measurements were correlated in phytoplankton of two size fractions, net plankton dominated by diatoms and nanoplankton dominated by chlorophytes. Diurnal variations in short term photosynthesis were characterized by a midday maximum and tended to be of a greater amplitude in net plankton than in nanoplankton populations. Nanoplankton photosynthesis varied on a seasonal scale while net plankton photosynthesis varied on a daily scale - a phenomenon which appeared to be reflected in the relationship between short term photosynthesis and growth. The latter, calculated from daily photosynthesis, increased exponentially with temperature and was more closely coupled to short term photosynthesis in nanoplankton than in net plankton populations. These differences seem to be related to the way in which the two size fractions are distributed in time and space as a consequence of interactions between physical process and time-dependent growth

  13. Phytoplankton photosynthesis and carbon-specific growth: light-saturated rates in a nutrient-rich environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Light-saturated photosynthesis from short term (2 h) and daily (24 h) measurements were correlated in phytoplankton of two size fractions, net plankton dominated by diatoms and nanoplankton dominated by chlorophytes. Diurnal variations in short term photosynthesis were characterized by a midday maximum and tended to be a greater amplitude in net plankton than in nanoplankton populations. Nanoplankton photosynthesis varied on a seasonal scale while net plankton photosynthesis varied on a daily scale-a phenomenon which appeared to be reflected in the relationship between short term photosynthesis and growth. The latter, calculated from daily photosynthesis, increased exponentially with temperature and was more closely coupled to short term photosynthesis in nanoplankton than in net plankton populations. These differences seem to be related to the way in which the two size fractions are distributed in time and space as a consequence of interactions between physical process and time-dependent growth

  14. Plant densities and modulation of symbiotic nitrogen fixation in soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Javier de Luca

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Soybean nitrogen (N demands can be supplied to a large extent via biological nitrogen fixation, but the mechanisms of source/sink regulating photosynthesis/nitrogen fixation in high yielding cultivars and current crop management arrangements need to be investigated. We investigated the modulation of symbiotic nitrogen fixation in soybean [Glycine max (L. Merrill] at different plant densities. A field trial was performed in southern Brazil with six treatments, including non-inoculated controls without and with N-fertilizer, both at a density of 320,000 plants ha−1, and plants inoculated with Bradyrhizobium elkanii at four densities, ranging from 40,000 to 320,000 plants ha−1. Differences in nodulation, biomass production, N accumulation and partition were observed at stage R5, but not at stage V4, indicating that quantitative and qualitative factors (such as sunlight infrared/red ratio assume increasing importance during the later stages of plant growth. Decreases in density in the inoculated treatments stimulated photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation per plant. Similar yields were obtained at the different plant densities, with decreases only at the very low density level of 40,000 plants ha−1, which was also the only treatment to show differences in seed protein and oil contents. Results confirm a fine tuning of the mechanisms of source/sink, photosynthesis/nitrogen fixation under lower plant densities. Higher photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation rates are capable of sustaining increased plant growth.

  15. The Roles of Organic Acids in C4 Photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Martha

    2016-01-01

    Organic acids are involved in numerous metabolic pathways in all plants. The finding that some plants, known as C4 plants, have four-carbon dicarboxylic acids as the first product of carbon fixation showed these organic acids play essential roles as photosynthetic intermediates. Oxaloacetate (OAA), malate, and aspartate (Asp) are substrates for the C4 acid cycle that underpins the CO2 concentrating mechanism of C4 photosynthesis. In this cycle, OAA is the immediate, short-lived, product of the initial CO2 fixation step in C4 leaf mesophyll cells. The malate and Asp, resulting from the rapid conversion of OAA, are the organic acids delivered to the sites of carbon reduction in the bundle-sheath cells of the leaf, where they are decarboxylated, with the released CO2 used to make carbohydrates. The three-carbon organic acids resulting from the decarboxylation reactions are returned to the mesophyll cells where they are used to regenerate the CO2 acceptor pool. NADP-malic enzyme-type, NAD-malic enzyme-type, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase-type C4 plants were identified, based on the most abundant decarboxylating enzyme in the leaf tissue. The genes encoding these C4 pathway-associated decarboxylases were co-opted from ancestral C3 plant genes during the evolution of C4 photosynthesis. Malate was recognized as the major organic acid transferred in NADP-malic enzyme-type C4 species, while Asp fills this role in NAD-malic enzyme-type and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase-type plants. However, accumulating evidence indicates that many C4 plants use a combination of organic acids and decarboxylases during CO2 fixation, and the C4-type categories are not rigid. The ability to transfer multiple organic acid species and utilize different decarboxylases has been suggested to give C4 plants advantages in changing and stressful environments, as well as during development, by facilitating the balance of energy between the two cell types involved in the C4 pathway of CO2

  16. UV-B sensitivity of plant photosynthesis as influenced by visible irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments were made to separate the effects of preconditioning and concomitant visible irradiation and to investigate this with respect to both light-limited and light-saturated photosynthesis. (orig./AJ)

  17. Photosynthesis tests as an alternative to growth tests for hazard assessment of toxicant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, S.; Kusk, Kresten Ole

    2000-01-01

    Acute (3- and 6-h) toxic responses toward Cu, linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS), and tributyltin (TBT) of lightsaturated and unsaturated photosynthesis were investigated for Rhodomonas salina and Skeletonema costatum obtained from exponentially growing batch cultures and from chemostat cultures...

  18. Pattern of photosynthesis in saline indica var. of rice Kala Rata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present investigation on Kala Rata deals with the pattern of photosynthesis and the salt stress effect on the photosynthetic efficiency in rice. It is evident from the investigation that chlorophyll synthesis is enhanced with the increasing concentration of NaCl in the bathing medium. However, the efficiency of photosynthesis does not increase with increased chlorophyll production. All ions in leaves can stimulate CO2 incorporation but inhibit at higher concentration. Analysis of short term products of photosynthesis revealed that aspartate is the major product to be heavily labelled which is evident from autoradiogram. PGA has also appreciable label, where as, malate has the least. It appears therefore, that in rice, both, Calvin as well as C4 type of pathways are operating. 'Aspartate former' type of rice does not seem to be efficient in photosynthesis as it has C3 pathway also in operation. (author)

  19. Ozone depletion and increased UV-B radiation: is there a real threat to photosynthesis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This critical review of recent literature questions earlier predictions that photosynthetic productivity of higher plants is vulnerable to increased ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation as a result of stratospheric ozone (O3) depletion. Direct UV-B-induced inhibition of photosynthetic competence is observed only at high UV-B irradiances and primarily involves the loss of soluble Calvin cycle enzymes and adaxial stomatal closure in amphistomatous plants. However, even under these extreme UV-B exposures, acclimation (e.g. induction of UV-B absorbing flavonoids) can protect the photosynthetic processes. In plants irradiated with UV-B throughout development a reduction in productivity is usually associated with a reduced ability to intercept light (i.e. smaller leaf area) and not an inhibition of photosynthetic competence. Finally, a review of field experiments utilizing realistic UV-B enhancement is made to evaluate whether the mechanisms involved in UV-B-induced depressions of photosynthesis are likely to impact on the photosynthetic productivity of crops and natural vegetation in the future. Predictions of plant responses to O3 depletion are suspect from squarewave irradiance experiments in the field and controlled environments due to the increased sensitivity of plants to UV-B at relatively low photosynthetically-active photon flux densities (PPFD) and ultraviolet-A (UV-A) irradiances. Realistic modulated UV-B irradiances in the field do not appear to have any significant effects on photosynthetic competence or light-interception. It is concluded that O3 depletion and the concurrent rise in UV-B irradiance is not a direct threat to photosynthetic productivity of crops and natural vegetation. (author)

  20. Photosynthesis-dependent isoprene emission from leaf to planet in a global carbon-chemistry-climate model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Unger

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe the implementation of a biochemical model of isoprene emission that depends on the electron requirement for isoprene synthesis into the Farquhar–Ball–Berry leaf model of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance that is embedded within a global chemistry-climate simulation framework. The isoprene production is calculated as a function of electron transport-limited photosynthesis, intercellular and atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, and canopy temperature. The vegetation biophysics module computes the photosynthetic uptake of carbon dioxide coupled with the transpiration of water vapor and the isoprene emission rate at the 30 min physical integration time step of the global chemistry-climate model. In the model, the rate of carbon assimilation provides the dominant control on isoprene emission variability over canopy temperature. A control simulation representative of the present-day climatic state that uses 8 plant functional types (PFTs, prescribed phenology and generic PFT-specific isoprene emission potentials (fraction of electrons available for isoprene synthesis reproduces 50% of the variability across different ecosystems and seasons in a global database of 28 measured campaign-average fluxes. Compared to time-varying isoprene flux measurements at 9 select sites, the model authentically captures the observed variability in the 30 min average diurnal cycle (R2 = 64–96% and simulates the flux magnitude to within a factor of 2. The control run yields a global isoprene source strength of 451 TgC yr−1 that increases by 30% in the artificial absence of plant water stress and by 55% for potential natural vegetation.

  1. Photosynthesis-dependent isoprene emission from leaf to planet in a global carbon-chemistry-climate model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unger, N.; Harper, K.; Zheng, Y.; Kiang, N. Y.; Aleinov, I.; Arneth, Almut; Schurgers, G.; Amelynck, C.; Goldstein, Allen H.; Guenther, Alex B.; Heinesch, B.; Hewitt, C. N.; Karl, T.; Laffineur, Q.; Langford, B.; McKinney, Karena A.; Misztal, P.; Potosnak, M.; Rinne, J.; Pressley, S.; Schoon, N.; Serca, D.

    2013-10-22

    We describe the implementation of a biochemical model of isoprene emission that depends on the electron requirement for isoprene synthesis into the Farquhar/Ball- Berry leaf model of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance that is embedded within a global chemistry-climate simulation framework. The isoprene production is calculated as a function of electron transport-limited photosynthesis, intercellular carbon dioxide concentration, and canopy temperature. The vegetation biophysics module computes the photosynthetic uptake of carbon dioxide coupled with the transpiration of water vapor and the isoprene emission rate at the 30 min physical integration time step of the global chemistry-climate model. In the model, the rate of carbon assimilation provides the dominant control on isoprene emission variability over canopy temperature. A control simulation representative of the present day climatic state that uses plant functional types (PFTs), prescribed phenology and generic PFT-specific isoprene emission potentials (fraction of electrons available for isoprene synthesis) reproduces 50% of the variability across different ecosystems and seasons in a global database of measured campaign-average fluxes. Compared to time-varying isoprene flux measurements at select sites, the model authentically captures the observed variability in the 30 min average diurnal cycle (R2 = 64-96 %) and simulates the flux magnitude to within a factor of 2. The control run yields a global isoprene source strength of 451 TgC yr-1 that increases by 30% in the artificial absence of plant water stress and by 55% for potential natural vegetation.

  2. The Effect of Different Doses of Blue Light on the Biometric Traits and Photosynthesis of Dill Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara FRĄSZCZAK

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The supplementation of blue light to red light enhanced plant growth compared with the use of red alone. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of different doses of blue light on the biometric traits and photosynthesis of dill plants. The plants were grown in pots in a growth chamber. They were grown in red light (100 μmol m-2 s-1 and blue light (from 10 to 50 μmol m-2 s-1 in five combinations. Light emitting diode modules were the source of light. The plants were evaluated every 7 days during vegetation, for the first time - seven days after germination and later on the 14th, 21st and 28th day after germination. The share of blue light in the spectrum significantly influenced the biometric traits of the dill plants. It significantly inhibited the elongation growth of the plants and negatively affected the increase in fresh weight. A small dose of blue light (20% had positive effect on the plants’ area. The research did not reveal a simple relationship between the amount of blue light and dry weight yield. The value of physiological indexes depended both on the combination and measurement time. The plants from the combination with 30% blue light were characterised by the greatest photosynthesis intensity. An effective share of blue light in the spectrum may range from 10 to 30% in relation to red light and depends on the plant’s development phase and on the result we want to achieve in the cultivation of plants.

  3. Artificial photosynthesis of oxalate and oxalate-based polymer by a photovoltaic reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Nong, Guangzai; Chen, Shan; Xu, Yuanjin; Huang, Lijie; Zou, Qingsong; Li, Shiqiang; Mo, Haitao; Zhu, Pingchuan; Cen, Weijian; Wang, Shuangfei

    2014-01-01

    A photovoltaic reactor was designed for artificial photosynthesis, based on the reactions involved in high energy hydrogen atoms, which were produced from water electrolysis. Water and CO2, under the conditions studied, were converted to oxalate (H2C2O4) and a polymer. This was the first time that the oxalates and oxalate-based polymer were produced from the artificial photosynthesis process.

  4. Light and oxygenic photosynthesis: energy dissipation as a protection mechanism against photo-oxidation

    OpenAIRE

    Szabó, Ildikó; Bergantino, Elisabetta; Giacometti, Giorgio Mario

    2005-01-01

    Efficient photosynthesis is of fundamental importance for plant survival and fitness. However, in oxygenic photosynthesis, the complex apparatus responsible for the conversion of light into chemical energy is susceptible to photodamage. Oxygenic photosynthetic organisms have therefore evolved several protective mechanisms to deal with light energy. Rapidly inducible non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) is a short-term response by which plants and eukaryotic algae dissipate excitation energy as h...

  5. Daily canopy photosynthesis model through temporal and spatial scaling for remote sensing applications

    OpenAIRE

    J. M. Chen; J. Liu; Cihlar, J; Goulden, M. L.

    1999-01-01

    Because Farquhar’s photosynthesis model is only directly applicable to individual leaves instantaneously, considerable skill is needed to use this model for regional plant growth and carbon budget estimations. In many published models, Farquhar’s equations were applied directly to plant canopies by assuming a plant canopy to function like a big-leaf. This big-leaf approximation is found to be acceptable for estimating seasonal trends of canopy photosynthesis but inadequate for simulating its ...

  6. THE GENESIS OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS TYPES AS THE BASIS OF ECOLOGICAL EXPANSION OF HALOPHYTIC PLANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Pyurko O. Ye.

    2011-01-01

    The C3, C4, and CAM photosynthesis types are considerably differed by CO2 absorption intensity, its biochemistry, saturation level, water productivity, biological productivity, and other different features, which secure the plants survival at stress and extreme conditions. The aim of current research was to discover the photosynthesis peculiarities at halophytic plants species (Salicornia europaea L., Halimione pedunculata, Artemisia santonica L., Plantago lanceolata L.) by salinity at model ...

  7. Dorsoventral variations in dark chilling effects on photosynthesis and stomatal function in Paspalum dilatatum leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Soares-Cordeiro, Ana Sofia; Driscoll, Simon P.; Arrabaça, Maria Celeste; Foyer, Christine H.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of dark chilling on the leaf-side-specific regulation of photosynthesis were characterized in the C4 grass Paspalum dilatatum. CO2- and light-response curves for photosynthesis and associated parameters were measured on whole leaves and on each leaf side independently under adaxial and abaxial illumination before and after plants were exposed to dark chilling for one or two consecutive nights. The stomata closed on the adaxial sides of the leaves under abaxial illumination and no ...

  8. Future CO2 concentrations, though not warmer temperatures, enhance wheat photosynthesis temperature responses

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso, Aitor; Pérez, P.; Morcuende, R.; Martínez-Carrasco, R.

    2008-01-01

    The temperature dependence of C3 photosynthesis is known to vary according to the growth environment. Atmospheric CO2 concentration and temperature are predicted to increase with climate change. To test whether long-term growth in elevated CO2 and temperature modifies photosynthesis temperature response, wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was grown in ambient CO2 (370 µmol mol-1) and elevated CO2 (700 µmol mol-1)combined with ambient and 4 ºC warmer temperatures, using temperature gradient ch...

  9. Stomatal conductance is the main limitation to photosynthesis in sugar beet plants treated with Zn excess

    OpenAIRE

    Sagardoy, Ruth; Flexas, Jaume; Ribas-Carbó, Miquel; Morales, Fermín; Abadia, Javier

    2009-01-01

    The effects of high Zn concentrations in growth and photosynthetic parameters of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) plants grown in hydroponics were investigated. Zinc toxicity (100 and 300 µM) resulted in large reductions in biomass accumulation (>50%) and photosynthetic rates (40-50%). It was known that high Zn concentrations usually lead to decreases in net photosynthesis, but the effects of excess Zn on each of the possible factors limiting photosynthesis, including photochemistry, stomatal co...

  10. Understanding of photosynthesis among pupils in vocational and professional secondary education

    OpenAIRE

    Brković, Nikolina

    2014-01-01

    Photosynthesis is one of the hardest topics that pupils have to learn. Mainly because the topic is so abstract and has different levels of perception. We decided to check pupils knowledge of photosynthesis in vocational and professional secondary education, if they have any misconceptions as it is recorded in different ages of population and different education level in population. The research involved 287 pupils. After the data was analysed, we came to the conclusion that the knowledge of p...

  11. Greenness indices from digital cameras predict the timing and seasonal dynamics of canopy-scale photosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Toomey, Michael; Friedl, Mark; Frolking, Steve; Hufkens, Koen; Klosterman, Stephen; Sonnentag, Oliver; Baldocchi, Dennis; Bernacchi, Carl; Biraud, Sebastien; Bohrer, Gil; Brzostek, Edward; Burns, Sean P.; Coursolle, Carole; Hollinger, David Y.; Margolis, Hank A.

    2014-01-01

    The proliferation of digital cameras co-located with eddy covariance instrumentation provides new opportunities to better understand the relationship between canopy phenology and the seasonality of canopy photosynthesis. In this paper we analyze the abilities and limitations of canopy color metrics measured by digital repeat photography to track seasonal canopy development and photosynthesis, determine phenological transition dates, and estimate intra-annual and interannual variability in can...

  12. THE CERTAINTY PRINCIPLE AND PHYSICAL NATURE OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS MECHANISMS INITIATION AND BIOENERGY SYSTEMS FUNCTIONING

    OpenAIRE

    Lokhov, R.

    2009-01-01

    The article represents additional experimental results of certainty principle discovery on the examples of double-stranded DNA (RNA) replication and the translation of genetic data of DNA → RNA → Protein, the genealogy of homogeneous and isotropic geometric structures formation both in thylakoid membrane during photosynthesis and in chloroplasts, mitochondria and photosynthetic bacteria. It was shown that physical nature of photosynthesis initiation and energy-synthesizing systems functioning...

  13. Efficient photosynthesis of carbon monoxide from CO2 using perovskite photovoltaics

    OpenAIRE

    Schreier, Marcel; Curvat, Laura; Giordano, Fabrizio; Steier, Ludmilla; Abate, Antonio; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M.; Luo, Jingshan; Mayer, Matthew T.; Grätzel, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Artificial photosynthesis, mimicking nature in its efforts to store solar energy, has received considerable attention from the research community. Most of these attempts target the production of H2 as a fuel and our group recently demonstrated solar-to-hydrogen conversion at 12.3% efficiency. Here, in an effort to take this approach closer to real photosynthesis, which is based on the conversion of CO2, we demonstrate the efficient reduction of CO2 to carbon monoxide driven solely by simulate...

  14. Coordinated regulation of photosynthesis in rice increases yield and tolerance to environmental stress

    OpenAIRE

    Ambavaram, Madana M. R.; Basu, Supratim; Krishnan, Arjun; Ramegowda, Venkategowda; Batlang, Utlwang; Rahman, Lutfor; Baisakh, Niranjan; Pereira, Andy

    2014-01-01

    Plants capture solar energy and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) through photosynthesis, which is the primary component of crop yield, and needs to be increased considerably to meet the growing global demand for food. Environmental stresses, which are increasing with climate change, adversely affect photosynthetic carbon metabolism (PCM) and limit yield of cereals such as rice (Oryza sativa) that feeds half the world. To study the regulation of photosynthesis, we developed a rice gene regulat...

  15. Synthesis of Sugar and fixation of CO2 through Artificial Photosynthesis driving by Hydrogen or Electricity

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Weidong

    2010-01-01

    The overall process of photosynthesis consists of two main phases, the so-called light and dark eactions: light energy is absorbed by chlorophyll molecules and transferred to regenerate NADH and ATP, then drive Calvin-Benson cycle to synthesize sugar. In order to synthesize sugar through artificial photosynthesis, one of the key is to regenerate ATP economically and improve the efficiency of dark reactions. Here 9 kinds of dark reaction pathways are proposed, which only NADH is regenearated f...

  16. Models of fluorescence and photosynthesis for interpreting measurements of solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence

    OpenAIRE

    van der Tol, C.; Berry, J. A.; P. K. E. Campbell; Rascher, U.

    2014-01-01

    We have extended a conventional photosynthesis model to simulate field and laboratory measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence at the leaf scale. The fluorescence paramaterization is based on a close nonlinear relationship between the relative light saturation of photosynthesis and nonradiative energy dissipation in plants of different species. This relationship diverged only among examined data sets under stressed (strongly light saturated) conditions, possibly caused by differences in xanth...

  17. The role of photorespiration during the evolution of C4 photosynthesis in the genus Flaveria

    OpenAIRE

    Mallmann, Julia; Heckmann, David; Bräutigam, Andrea; Martin J Lercher; Weber, Andreas PM; Westhoff, Peter; Gowik, Udo

    2014-01-01

    eLife digest Environmental pressures sometimes cause different organisms to independently evolve the same traits. A dramatic example of this phenomenon, which is called convergent evolution, can be seen in the modes used by plants to convert carbon dioxide from the air into starch during photosynthesis. Early plants existed in an environment with high levels of carbon dioxide in the air. Over time, carbon dioxide levels decreased, so plants evolved more efficient types of photosynthesis to co...

  18. A 2d in vivo approach to study photosynthesis in grape berry

    OpenAIRE

    Breia, Richard; Vieira, S.; Silva, J. Marques da; Serôdio, J.; Gerós, H.; Cunha, Ana

    2011-01-01

    Is argued that fruit photosynthesis serves mainly as a respiratory CO2 refixation mechanism [1] but its contribution to growth and metabolism, localization and dynamics during fruit development are poorly known. Unlike the leaves, fruit volume imposes a constraint to photosynthesis by limiting light penetration. However, the patterns of chlorophyll distribution are apparently independent of a light intensity gradient. Microscopic observations of transversal slices of green stage grape berries...

  19. Stratospheric sulfate geoengineering could enhance the terrestrial photosynthesis rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, L.; Robock, A.; Tilmes, S.; Neely, R. R., III

    2016-02-01

    Stratospheric sulfate geoengineering could impact the terrestrial carbon cycle by enhancing the carbon sink. With an 8 Tg yr-1 injection of SO2 to produce a stratospheric aerosol cloud to balance anthropogenic radiative forcing from the Representative Concentration Pathway 6.0 (RCP6.0) scenario, we conducted climate model simulations with the Community Earth System Model - the Community Atmospheric Model 4 fully coupled to tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry (CAM4-chem). During the geoengineering period, as compared to RCP6.0, land-averaged downward visible (300-700 nm) diffuse radiation increased 3.2 W m-2 (11 %). The enhanced diffuse radiation combined with the cooling increased plant photosynthesis by 0.07 ± 0.02 µmol C m-2 s-1, which could contribute to an additional 3.8 ± 1.1 Gt C yr-1 global gross primary productivity without explicit nutrient limitation. This increase could potentially increase the land carbon sink. Suppressed plant and soil respiration due to the cooling would reduce natural land carbon emission and therefore further enhance the terrestrial carbon sink during the geoengineering period. This potentially beneficial impact of stratospheric sulfate geoengineering would need to be balanced by a large number of potential risks in any future decisions about the implementation of geoengineering.

  20. The chlorosome: a prototype for efficient light harvesting in photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oostergetel, Gert T; van Amerongen, Herbert; Boekema, Egbert J

    2010-06-01

    Three phyla of bacteria include phototrophs that contain unique antenna systems, chlorosomes, as the principal light-harvesting apparatus. Chlorosomes are the largest known supramolecular antenna systems and contain hundreds of thousands of BChl c/d/e molecules enclosed by a single membrane leaflet and a baseplate. The BChl pigments are organized via self-assembly and do not require proteins to provide a scaffold for efficient light harvesting. Their excitation energy flows via a small protein, CsmA embedded in the baseplate to the photosynthetic reaction centres. Chlorosomes allow for photosynthesis at very low light intensities by ultra-rapid transfer of excitations to reaction centres and enable organisms with chlorosomes to live at extraordinarily low light intensities under which no other phototrophic organisms can grow. This article reviews several aspects of chlorosomes: the supramolecular and molecular organizations and the light-harvesting and spectroscopic properties. In addition, it provides some novel information about the organization of the baseplate. PMID:20130996

  1. Assessment of Photosynthesis Regulation in Mixotrophically Cultured Microalga Chlorella sorokiniana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Tingting; Kirchhoff, Helmut; Gargouri, Mahmoud; Feng, Jie; Cousins, Asaph B.; Pienkos, Philip T.; Gang, David R.; Chen, Shulin

    2016-11-01

    Mixotrophic growth of microalgae offers great potential as an efficient strategy for biofuel production. In this study, photosynthetic regulation of mixotrophically cultured Chlorella sorokiniana cells was systematically evaluated. Mixotrophic cells in the exponential growth phase showed the highest photosynthetic activity, where maximum photosynthetic O2 evolution was approximately 3- and 4-fold higher than cells in the same phase grown photoautotrophically in 1% CO2 (in air) and air, respectively. Additionally, characteristic chlorophyll fluorescence parameters demonstrated that no limitation in electron transport downstream of PSII was detected in mixotrophic cells. Up-regulation of photosynthetic activity was associated with high total ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) carboxylase activity and expression level of phosphoribulokinase (PRK). After 3 days, photosynthetic O2 evolution of mixotrophic cells that went to the stationary phase, was strongly reduced, with reduced photochemical efficiency and reorganization of the PSII complex. Simultaneously, enzymatic activity for Rubisco carboxylase and mRNA levels of Rubisco and PRK diminished. Importantly, there was almost no non-photochemical quenching for mixotrophic cells, whether grown in log or stationary phase. A decline in the quantum efficiency of PSII and an oxidized plastoquinone pool (PQ pool) was observed under N-depleted conditions during mixotrophic growth. These results demonstrate that photosynthesis is regulated differently in mixotrophically cultured C. sorokiniana cells than in cells grown under photoautotrophic conditions, with a particularly strong impact by nitrogen levels in the cells.

  2. Redesigning photosynthesis to sustainably meet global food and bioenergy demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ort, Donald R; Merchant, Sabeeha S; Alric, Jean; Barkan, Alice; Blankenship, Robert E; Bock, Ralph; Croce, Roberta; Hanson, Maureen R; Hibberd, Julian M; Long, Stephen P; Moore, Thomas A; Moroney, James; Niyogi, Krishna K; Parry, Martin A J; Peralta-Yahya, Pamela P; Prince, Roger C; Redding, Kevin E; Spalding, Martin H; van Wijk, Klaas J; Vermaas, Wim F J; von Caemmerer, Susanne; Weber, Andreas P M; Yeates, Todd O; Yuan, Joshua S; Zhu, Xin Guang

    2015-07-14

    The world's crop productivity is stagnating whereas population growth, rising affluence, and mandates for biofuels put increasing demands on agriculture. Meanwhile, demand for increasing cropland competes with equally crucial global sustainability and environmental protection needs. Addressing this looming agricultural crisis will be one of our greatest scientific challenges in the coming decades, and success will require substantial improvements at many levels. We assert that increasing the efficiency and productivity of photosynthesis in crop plants will be essential if this grand challenge is to be met. Here, we explore an array of prospective redesigns of plant systems at various scales, all aimed at increasing crop yields through improved photosynthetic efficiency and performance. Prospects range from straightforward alterations, already supported by preliminary evidence of feasibility, to substantial redesigns that are currently only conceptual, but that may be enabled by new developments in synthetic biology. Although some proposed redesigns are certain to face obstacles that will require alternate routes, the efforts should lead to new discoveries and technical advances with important impacts on the global problem of crop productivity and bioenergy production. PMID:26124102

  3. Methane oxidation coupled to oxygenic photosynthesis in anoxic waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milucka, Jana; Kirf, Mathias; Lu, Lu; Krupke, Andreas; Lam, Phyllis; Littmann, Sten; Kuypers, Marcel M M; Schubert, Carsten J

    2015-09-01

    Freshwater lakes represent large methane sources that, in contrast to the Ocean, significantly contribute to non-anthropogenic methane emissions to the atmosphere. Particularly mixed lakes are major methane emitters, while permanently and seasonally stratified lakes with anoxic bottom waters are often characterized by strongly reduced methane emissions. The causes for this reduced methane flux from anoxic lake waters are not fully understood. Here we identified the microorganisms and processes responsible for the near complete consumption of methane in the anoxic waters of a permanently stratified lake, Lago di Cadagno. Interestingly, known anaerobic methanotrophs could not be detected in these waters. Instead, we found abundant gamma-proteobacterial aerobic methane-oxidizing bacteria active in the anoxic waters. In vitro incubations revealed that, among all the tested potential electron acceptors, only the addition of oxygen enhanced the rates of methane oxidation. An equally pronounced stimulation was also observed when the anoxic water samples were incubated in the light. Our combined results from molecular, biogeochemical and single-cell analyses indicate that methane removal at the anoxic chemocline of Lago di Cadagno is due to true aerobic oxidation of methane fuelled by in situ oxygen production by photosynthetic algae. A similar mechanism could be active in seasonally stratified lakes and marine basins such as the Black Sea, where light penetrates to the anoxic chemocline. Given the widespread occurrence of seasonally stratified anoxic lakes, aerobic methane oxidation coupled to oxygenic photosynthesis might have an important but so far neglected role in methane emissions from lakes. PMID:25679533

  4. Transport Across Chloroplast Membranes: Optimizing Photosynthesis for Adverse Environmental Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottosin, Igor; Shabala, Sergey

    2016-03-01

    Chloroplasts are central to solar light harvesting and photosynthesis. Optimal chloroplast functioning is vitally dependent on a very intensive traffic of metabolites and ions between the cytosol and stroma, and should be attuned for adverse environmental conditions. This is achieved by an orchestrated regulation of a variety of transport systems located at chloroplast membranes such as porines, solute channels, ion-specific cation and anion channels, and various primary and secondary active transport systems. In this review we describe the molecular nature and functional properties of the inner and outer envelope and thylakoid membrane channels and transporters. We then discuss how their orchestrated regulation affects thylakoid structure, electron transport and excitation energy transfer, proton-motive force partition, ion homeostasis, stromal pH regulation, and volume regulation. We link the activity of key cation and anion transport systems with stress-specific signaling processes in chloroplasts, and discuss how these signals interact with the signals generated in other organelles to optimize the cell performance, with a special emphasis on Ca(2+) and reactive oxygen species signaling. PMID:26597501

  5. Modeling photosynthesis in sea ice-covered waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Matthew C.; Lindsay, Keith; Holland, Marika M.

    2015-09-01

    The lower trophic levels of marine ecosystems play a critical role in the Earth System mediating fluxes of carbon to the ocean interior. Many of the functional relationships describing biological rate processes, such as primary productivity, in marine ecosystem models are nonlinear functions of environmental state variables. As a result of nonlinearity, rate processes computed from mean fields at coarse resolution will differ from similar computations that incorporate small-scale heterogeneity. Here we examine how subgrid-scale variability in sea ice thickness impacts simulated net primary productivity (NPP) in a 1°×1° configuration of the Community Earth System Model (CESM). CESM simulates a subgrid-scale ice thickness distribution and computes shortwave penetration independently for each ice thickness category. However, the default model formulation uses grid-cell mean irradiance to compute NPP. We demonstrate that accounting for subgrid-scale shortwave heterogeneity by computing light limitation terms under each ice category then averaging the result is a more accurate invocation of the photosynthesis equations. Moreover, this change delays seasonal bloom onset and increases interannual variability in NPP in the sea ice zone in the model. The new treatment reduces annual production by about 32% in the Arctic and 19% in the Antarctic. Our results highlight the importance of considering heterogeneity in physical fields when integrating nonlinear biogeochemical reactions.

  6. Manganese-oxidizing photosynthesis before the rise of cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jena E; Webb, Samuel M; Thomas, Katherine; Ono, Shuhei; Kirschvink, Joseph L; Fischer, Woodward W

    2013-07-01

    The emergence of oxygen-producing (oxygenic) photosynthesis fundamentally transformed our planet; however, the processes that led to the evolution of biological water splitting have remained largely unknown. To illuminate this history, we examined the behavior of the ancient Mn cycle using newly obtained scientific drill cores through an early Paleoproterozoic succession (2.415 Ga) preserved in South Africa. These strata contain substantial Mn enrichments (up to ∼17 wt %) well before those associated with the rise of oxygen such as the ∼2.2 Ga Kalahari Mn deposit. Using microscale X-ray spectroscopic techniques coupled to optical and electron microscopy and carbon isotope ratios, we demonstrate that the Mn is hosted exclusively in carbonate mineral phases derived from reduction of Mn oxides during diagenesis of primary sediments. Additional observations of independent proxies for O2--multiple S isotopes (measured by isotope-ratio mass spectrometry and secondary ion mass spectrometry) and redox-sensitive detrital grains--reveal that the original Mn-oxide phases were not produced by reactions with O2, which points to a different high-potential oxidant. These results show that the oxidative branch of the Mn cycle predates the rise of oxygen, and provide strong support for the hypothesis that the water-oxidizing complex of photosystem II evolved from a former transitional photosystem capable of single-electron oxidation reactions of Mn. PMID:23798417

  7. Effect of Nd3+ on Photosynthesis of Spinach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘超; 洪法水; 王玲; 郑蕾

    2004-01-01

    The effect of Nd3+ on the photosynthesis and the growth of spinach was studied.The results show that Nd3+ improves the growth of spinach and increases chlorophyll content and photosynthetic rate.UV-Vis spectrum indicates that the Soret band of chl-a in spinach with NdCl3 treatment is blue shifted by 2 nm,and the Q band is red shifted by 1 nm,and the ratio of Soret band intensity and Q band intensity increases.FT-IR spectra show that the peak of porphyrin ring in chl-a of spinach with NdCl3 treatment is widened,suggesting that the formation of Nd3+-chl-a.Treated by NdCl3,the fluorescence emission peak of PSⅡ in spinach leaves is blue shifted by 12 nm and the intensity declines obviously,indicating that Nd3+ is bound to the PSⅡ protein-pigment complex and the electron transfer rate increases.

  8. Carbon isotopes in biological carbonates: Respiration and photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnaughey, T.A.; Burdett, J.; Whelan, J.F.; Paull, C.K.

    1997-01-01

    Respired carbon dioxide is an important constituent in the carbonates of most air breathing animals but is much less important in the carbonates of most aquatic animals. This difference is illustrated using carbon isotope data from freshwater and terrestrial snails, ahermatypic corals, and chemoautotrophic and methanotrophic pelecypods. Literature data from fish otoliths and bird and mammal shell and bone carbonates are also considered. Environmental CO2/O2 ratios appear to be the major controlling variable. Atmospheric CO2/O2 ratios are about thirty times lower than in most natural waters, hence air breathing animals absorb less environmental CO2 in the course of obtaining O2. Tissue CO2 therefore, does not isotopically equilibrate with environmental CO2 as thoroughly in air breathers as in aquatic animals, and this is reflected in skeletal carbonates. Animals having efficient oxygen transport systems, such as vertebrates, also accumulate more respired CO2 in their tissues. Photosynthetic corals calcify mainly during the daytime when photosynthetic CO2 uptake is several times faster than respiratory CO2 release. Photosynthesis, therefore, affects skeletal ??13C more strongly than does respiration. Corals also illustrate how "metabolic" effects on skeletal isotopic composition can be estimated, despite the presence of much larger "kinetic" isotope effects. Copyright ?? 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  9. Effect of cadmium on growth and photosynthesis of tomato seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A hydroponic experiment carried out to study the effect of five Cd levels on growth and photosynthesis of two tomato cultivars showed that the addition of 0.1 μmol/L Cd induced a slight increase in plant height of Hezuo 903 and the SPAD (the Soil-Plant Analyses Development) value of the 2 cultivars. However, at higher Cd levels, i.e., 1 and 10 μmol/L, root length and volume, plant height, and SPAD value were all significantly reduced. On an average of the 2 cultivars, exposure to 1 and 10μmol/L Cd for 33 d reduced plant height by 18.9% and 46.4% and SPAD value by 11.2% and 31.6%, compared with control,respectively. Similarly, root length was reduced by 41.1% and 25.8% and root volume by 45.2% and 63.7%, respectively. The addition of Cd in the growth medium also had significant deleterious effect on net photosynthetic rate (Pn) and intracellular CO2concentration (Ci), with Pn being reduced by 27.2% and 62.1% at 1 μmol/L and 10 μmol/L Cd treatments compared to the control,respectively, while Ci increased correspondingly by 28.4% and 39.3%.

  10. Auxin transport in leafy pea stem cuttings is partially driven by photosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumpula, C.L.; Potter, J.R.

    1987-04-01

    When /sup 14/C-IAA was applied to the apex of disbudded leafy pea stem cuttings (15 cm long), the movement of /sup 14/C-IAA to the base of the cuttings after 24 h was influenced by the photosynthetic rate. In the absence of photosynthesis, light did not influence /sup 14/C-IAA movement. Photosynthesis was altered by varying light, CO/sub 2/ concentration, or stomatal aperature (blocked with an antitranspirant). Radioactivity (identified by co-chromatography) was 25, 60, and 5% IAA, IAA-aspartate, and indolealdehyde respectively regardless of treatment. Adventitious root formation was reduced 50 to 95% and movement of IAA was inhibited 50 to 70% by decreasing gross photosynthesis 90 to 100%. Apparently, photosynthesis partially drives the movement of IAA from the apex to the base where roots arise. This gives a probably role of photosynthesis in rooting, because in this system virtually no rooting will take place without exogenous auxin and at least a low level of gross photosynthesis.

  11. O2-insensitive photosynthesis in C3 plants: its occurrence and a possible explanation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leaves of C3 plants which exhibit a normal O2 inhibition of CO2 fixation at less than saturating light intensity were found to exhibit O2-insensitive photosynthesis at high light. This behavior was observed in Phaseolus vulgaris L., Xanthium strumarium L., and Scrophularia desertorum (Shaw.) Munz. O2-insensitive photosynthesis has been reported in nine other C3 species and usually occurred when the intercellular CO2 pressure was about double the normal pressure. A lack of O2 inhibition of photosynthesis was always accompanied by a failure of increased CO2 pressure to stimulate photosynthesis to the expected degree. O2-insensitive photosynthesis also occurred after plants had been water stressed. Under such conditions, however, photosynthesis became O2 and CO2 insensitive at physiological CO2 pressures. Postillumination CO2 exchange kinetics showed that O2 and CO2 insensitivity was not the result of elimination of photorespiration. It is proposed that O2 and CO2 insensitivity occurs when the concentration of phosphate in the chloroplast stroma cannot be both high enough to allow photophosphorylation and low enough to allow starch and sucrose synthesis at the rates required by the rest of the photosynthetic component processes. Under these conditions, the energy diverted to photorespiration does not adversely affect the potential for CO2 assimilation

  12. Photoacclimation of marine aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Prášil, Ondřej; Koblížek, Michal

    Santa Fe : Springer, 2007, s. 147-147. [ASLO 2007 Aquatic Sciences Meeting. Santa Fe (US), 04.02.2007-09.02.2007] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1QS500200570 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : photoheterotrophic bakteria Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  13. Photosynthesis efficiency for different wavelengths; Fotosynthese-efficiency bij verschillende golflengten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snel, J.F.H.; Meinen, E.; Bruins, M.A.; Van Ieperen, W.; Hogewoning, S.W.; Marcelis, L.F.M. [Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2012-04-15

    LED lighting has recently been introduced into Dutch horticulture. LED development so far indicates that in the near future LED's will be more energy efficient than high pressure sodium lamps. Crop light interception and photosynthesis efficiency are wavelength dependent. Therefore, LED colours for maximum crop photosynthesis, growth and development should be identified. Wageningen UR has investigated light interception and photosynthesis at different wavelengths for tomato, cucumber and rose. Measuring protocols and equipment were developed for leaf photosynthesis measurements in the laboratory and in greenhouses. A crop simulation model was used for up-scaling the leaf level results to crop level photosynthesis. For the vegetable crops the photosynthesis spectra are very similar to the generalised photosynthesis spectrum. Red light is most efficient for leaf photosynthesis. Light from red (ca. 645nm) LED's was maximally 13% more efficient than High Pressure Sodium light. For reddish leaves of the rose cultivar Prestige, red LED light was up to 35% more efficient. These figures apply to the momentary efficiency of leaf photosynthesis at 100 {mu}mol.m{sup -2}.s{sup -1} (PAR) and suggest that use of red light can lead to higher photosynthesis, especially for certain rose cultivars [Dutch] LED verlichting heeft zijn intrede gedaan in de Nederlandse glastuinbouw. De LED ontwikkeling laat zien dat in de nabije toekomst LED's efficiënter zijn dan SON-T verlichting. Lichtonderschepping en fotosynthese efficiëntie zijn afhankelijk van de kleur van het licht. Voor optimale fotosynthese, groei en ontwikkeling zouden de beste LED kleuren uitgezocht moeten worden. Wageningen UR heeft lichtonderschepping en fotosynthese bij verschillende lichtkleuren onderzocht bij tomaat, komkommer en roos. Protocollen en apparatuur werden ontwikkeld voor meting van bladfotosynthese en lichtonderschepping in het laboratorium en in de kas. Met een gewassimulatiemodel werd de

  14. Effect of selenate on growth and photosynthesis of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algal communities play a crucial role in aquatic food webs by facilitating the transfer of dissolved inorganic selenium (both an essential trace element and a toxic compound for a wide variety of organisms) to higher trophic levels. The dominant inorganic chemical species of selenium in freshwaters are selenite (SeO32-) and selenate (SeO42-). At environmental concentrations, selenite is not likely to have direct toxic effects on phytoplankton growth [Morlon, H., Fortin, C., Floriani, M., Adam, C., Garnier-Laplace, J., Boudou, A., 2005a. Toxicity of selenite in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinharditii: comparison between effects at the population and sub-cellular level. Aquat. Toxicol. 73(1), 65-78]. The effects of selenate, on the other hand, are poorly documented. We studied the effects of selenate on Chlamydomonas reinhardtii growth (a common parameter in phytotoxicity tests). Growth inhibition (96-h IC50) was observed at 4.5 ± 0.2 μM selenate (p < 0.001), an effective concentration which is low compared to environmental concentrations. Growth inhibition at high selenium concentrations may result from impaired photosynthesis. This is why we also studied the effects of selenate on the photosynthetic process (not previously assessed in this species to our knowledge) as well as selenate's effects on cell ultrastructure. The observed ultrastructural damage (chloroplast alterations, loss of appressed domains) confirmed that chloroplasts are important targets in the mechanism of selenium toxicity. Furthermore, the inhibition of photosynthetic electron transport evaluated by chlorophyll fluorescence induction confirmed this hypothesis and demonstrated that selenate disrupts the photosynthetic electron chain. Compared to the classical 'growth inhibition' parameter used in phytotoxicity tests, cell diameter and operational photosynthetic yield were more sensitive and may be convenient tools for selenate toxicity assessment in non-target plants

  15. Photosynthesis energy factory: analysis, synthesis, and demonstration. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-11-01

    This quantitative assessment of the potential of a combined dry-land Energy Plantation, wood-fired power plant, and algae wastewater treatment system demonstrates the cost-effectiveness of recycling certain by-products and effluents from one subsystem to another. Designed to produce algae up to the limit of the amount of carbon in municipal wastewater, the algae pond provides a positive cash credit, resulting mainly from the wastewater treatment credit, which may be used to reduce the cost of the Photosynthesis Energy Factory (PEF)-generated electricity. The algae pond also produces fertilizer, which reduces the cost of the biomass produced on the Energy Plantation, and some gas. The cost of electricity was as low as 35 mills per kilowatt-hour for a typical municipally-owned PEF consisting of a 65-MWe power plant, a 144-acre algae pond, and a 33,000-acre Energy Plantation. Using only conventional or near-term technology, the most cost-effective algae pond for a PEF is the carbon-limited secondary treatment system. This system does not recycle CO/sub 2/ from the flue gas. Analysis of the Energy Plantation subsystem at 15 sites revealed that plantations of 24,000 to 36,000 acres produce biomass at the lowest cost per ton. The following sites are recommended for more detailed evaluation as potential demonstration sites: Pensacola, Florida; Jamestown, New York; Knoxville, Tennessee; Martinsville, Virginia, and Greenwood, South Carolina. A major possible extension of the PEF concept is to include the possibility for irrigation.

  16. Correlation between photosynthesis and the transthylakoid proton gradient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slovacek, R.E.; Hind, G.

    1981-01-01

    In isolated intact chloroplasts, maximal rates of photosynthetic O/sub 2/ evolution (in saturating HCO/sup -//sub 3/) are associated with a critical transthylakoid proton gradient as a result of the stoichiometric consumption of 2 mol NADPH and 3 mol ATP/mol CO/sub 2/ fixed. Studies with the fluorescent probe 9-aminoacridine reveal that in the illuminated steady state the critical ..delta..pH is 3.9. CO/sub 2/-dependent O/sub 2/ evolution is inhibited by increases of 0.1 to 0.2 in ..delta..pH that occur when catalase is omitted from the medium, NO/sup -//sub 2/ is included as an electron acceptor, or when chloroplasts are illuminated under low partial pressures of O/sub 2/. Low concentrations of antimycin (0.33 ..mu..M) or NH/sub 4/Cl (0.33 mM) decrease ..delta..pH and relieve this inhibition of electron flow. The energy transfer inhibitor quercetin lowers the high ATP/ADP ratio associated with these conditions, but does not lower ..delta..pH or relieve the inhibition. A decrease of ..delta..pH below 3.9 by weaker illumination, millimolar levels of NH/sub 4/Cl or micromolar levels of antimycin, results in lower rates of photosynthesis owing to limitation by the phosphorylation rate. These findings show that in absence of rate limitation by the carbon cycle, the extent of thylakoid energization is related to the ratio of ATP to NADPH production and in turn, the rate of CO/sub 2/ assimilation.

  17. Legumes are different: Leaf nitrogen, photosynthesis, and water use efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Mark Andrew; Turnbull, Tarryn L; Sprent, Janet I; Buchmann, Nina

    2016-04-12

    Using robust, pairwise comparisons and a global dataset, we show that nitrogen concentration per unit leaf mass for nitrogen-fixing plants (N2FP; mainly legumes plus some actinorhizal species) in nonagricultural ecosystems is universally greater (43-100%) than that for other plants (OP). This difference is maintained across Koppen climate zones and growth forms and strongest in the wet tropics and within deciduous angiosperms. N2FP mostly show a similar advantage over OP in nitrogen per leaf area (Narea), even in arid climates, despite diazotrophy being sensitive to drought. We also show that, for most N2FP, carbon fixation by photosynthesis (Asat) and stomatal conductance (gs) are not related to Narea-in distinct challenge to current theories that place the leaf nitrogen-Asat relationship at the center of explanations of plant fitness and competitive ability. Among N2FP, only forbs displayed an Narea-gs relationship similar to that for OP, whereas intrinsic water use efficiency (WUEi; Asat/gs) was positively related to Narea for woody N2FP. Enhanced foliar nitrogen (relative to OP) contributes strongly to other evolutionarily advantageous attributes of legumes, such as seed nitrogen and herbivore defense. These alternate explanations of clear differences in leaf N between N2FP and OP have significant implications (e.g., for global models of carbon fluxes based on relationships between leaf N and Asat). Combined, greater WUE and leaf nitrogen-in a variety of forms-enhance fitness and survival of genomes of N2FP, particularly in arid and semiarid climates. PMID:27035971

  18. Water relations and photosynthesis along an elevation gradient for Artemisia tridentata during an historic drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Charlotte C; Loik, Michael E

    2016-05-01

    Quantifying the variation in plant-water relations and photosynthesis over environmental gradients and during unique events can provide a better understanding of vegetation patterns in a future climate. We evaluated the hypotheses that photosynthesis and plant water potential would correspond to gradients in precipitation and soil moisture during a lengthy drought, and that experimental water additions would increase photosynthesis for the widespread evergreen shrub Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana. We quantified abiotic conditions and physiological characteristics for control and watered plants at 2135, 2315, and 2835 m near Mammoth Lakes, CA, USA, at the ecotone of the Sierra Nevada and Great Basin ecoregions. Snowfall, total precipitation, and soil moisture increased with elevation, but air temperature and soil N content did not. Plant water potential (Ψ), stomatal conductance (g s), maximum photosynthetic rate (A max), carboxylation rate (V cmax), and electron transport rate (J max) all significantly increased with elevations. Addition of water increased Ψ, g s, J max, and A max only at the lowest elevation; g s contributed about 30 % of the constraints on photosynthesis at the lowest elevation and 23 % at the other two elevations. The physiology of this foundational shrub species was quite resilient to this 1-in-1200 year drought. However, plant water potential and photosynthesis corresponded to differences in soil moisture across the gradient. Soil re-wetting in early summer increased water potential and photosynthesis at the lowest elevation. Effects on water relations and photosynthesis of this widespread, cold desert shrub species may be disproportionate at lower elevations as drought length increases in a future climate. PMID:26822944

  19. The use of drawing method for diagnosing students' misconception about plant structure in relation to photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurbaety, Desty; Rustaman, Nuryani Y.; Sanjaya, Yayan

    2016-02-01

    A descriptive study of diagnosing students' misconception about plant structure in relation to photosynthesis among middle school students using drawing method was conducted to identify and analyze the causes of students' misconception concerning this important concept. A number of eighth grade students (n=32) were participated in this research. Purposive sampling was applied as the sampling technique of this study. Data was gathered from thirty two students' drawings, interview, and questionnaire. These drawings were analyzed and categorized based on five levels of drawings criteria by Köse. The result showed that the students intensify on Level 4 in which students' drawings mostly demonstrate partial understanding and various misconceptions found in the concept of plant structure in relation to photosynthesis. From the drawings, it has been detected that there were 25% students identified with misconception on plant structure and it was followed by 40,63% drawings with misconception for photosynthesis concept. These findings were supported by interview result which shows that the students mostly held misconception on determining time when photosynthesis occur, location of photosynthesis occurred, as well as structure and function of plant that related with photosynthesis concept. Besides other interesting facts showed that the students cannot grasp the idea of the root system, shoot system, and photosynthesis as interrelated concept in science. The main causes of students' misconception come from students themselves and their interaction with environment. Drawing method and interview has been applied to explore students' misconception in this topic well and it provides valuable information that can be used as a mirror of students' representational world.

  20. Interactive effects of elevated CO2, temperature and nitrogen on photosynthesis of wheat grown under temperature gradient tunnels.

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Carrasco, R.; Pérez, P.; Morcuende, R.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of increased CO2, temperature and nitrogen on leaf photosynthesis of wheat were investigated in two field experiments under temperature gradient tunnels in a Mediterranean environment. Ambient and 700 μmol mol-1 CO2, ambient and 4 ºC warmer temperatures, and 80 and 120 kg nitrogen ha-1 were compared. Although rising CO2 concentrations increased photosynthesis, measurements at the same CO2 concentration showed decreased photosynthesis and stomatal conductance in plan...

  1. The Influence of Photosynthesis on the Number of Metamers per Growth Unit in GreenLab Model

    OpenAIRE

    Mathieu, Amelie; Cournède, Paul-Henry; de Reffye, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    GreenLab Model is a functional-structural plant growth model that combines both organogenesis (at each cycle, new organs are created with respect to genetic rules) and photosynthesis (organs are filled with the biomass produced by the leaves photosynthesis). Our new developments of the model concern the retroaction of photosynthesis on organogenesis. We present here the first step towards the total representation of this retroaction, where the influence of available biomass on the number of m...

  2. Growth but Not Photosynthesis Response of a Host Plant to Infection by a Holoparasitic Plant Depends on Nitrogen Supply

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Hao; Xu, Shu-Jun; Hong, Lan; Wang, Zhang-Ming; Ye, Wan-Hui

    2013-01-01

    Parasitic plants can adversely influence the growth of their hosts by removing resources and by affecting photosynthesis. Such negative effects depend on resource availability. However, at varied resource levels, to what extent the negative effects on growth are attributed to the effects on photosynthesis has not been well elucidated. Here, we examined the influence of nitrogen supply on the growth and photosynthesis responses of the host plant Mikania micrantha to infection by the holoparasi...

  3. Effects of light intensity, oxygen concentration, and carbon dioxide concentration on photosynthesis in algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, D H

    1975-03-01

    The effects of various combinations of light intensity, oxygen concentration, and CO2 concentration on photosynthesis and growth in several algal types were studied. The results suggest the following. (1) Different algae show different responses to high oxygen concentrations and high light intensities. (2) Inhibition of photosynthesis (CO2 fixation and growth), if seen, increases with increasing oxygen concentration and with increasing light intensity (at light intensities greater than saturation). (3) The inhibition of net photosynthesis observed cannot be attributed to high light intensity alone. (4) The inhibition cannot be attributed to increased rates of excretion of organic materials under conditions of high oxygen concentration and high light intensity. (5) Increased concentrations of CO2 can decrease the effect of high oxygen and light in some algae. (6) The decrease in net photosynthesis observed is probably the result of photorespiration. (7) The effect of light intensity, oxygen concentration, or CO2 concentration on algal photosynthesis should not be studied without considering the effect of the other factors. Some implications of these results, as related to primary productivity measurements, are also discussed. PMID:24241158

  4. Differential effects of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) on photosynthesis and chlorophyll metabolism in willow plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Marcelo Pedrosa; Le Manac'h, Sarah Gingras; Maccario, Sophie; Labrecque, Michel; Lucotte, Marc; Juneau, Philippe

    2016-06-01

    We used a willow species (Salix miyabeana cultivar SX64) to examine the differential secondary-effects of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), the principal glyphosate by-product, on chlorophyll metabolism and photosynthesis. Willow plants were treated with different concentrations of glyphosate (equivalent to 0, 1.4, 2.1 and 2.8kgha(-1)) and AMPA (equivalent to 0, 0.28, 1.4 and 2.8kgha(-1)) and evaluations of pigment contents, chlorophyll fluorescence, and oxidative stress markers (hydrogen peroxide content and antioxidant enzyme activities) in leaves were performed after 12h of exposure. We observed that AMPA and glyphosate trigger different mechanisms leading to decreases in chlorophyll content and photosynthesis rates in willow plants. Both chemicals induced ROS accumulation in willow leaves although only glyphosate-induced oxidative damage through lipid peroxidation. By disturbing chlorophyll biosynthesis, AMPA induced decreases in chlorophyll contents, with consequent effects on photosynthesis. With glyphosate, ROS increases were higher than the ROS-sensitive threshold, provoking chlorophyll degradation (as seen by pheophytin accumulation) and invariable decreases in photosynthesis. Peroxide accumulation in both AMPA and glyphosate-treated plants was due to the inhibition of antioxidant enzyme activities. The different effects of glyphosate on chlorophyll contents and photosynthesis as described in the literature may be due to various glyphosate:AMPA ratios in those plants. PMID:27155486

  5. Impact of folivory on photosynthesis is greater than the sum of its holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangerl, A R; Hamilton, J G; Miller, T J; Crofts, A R; Oxborough, K; Berenbaum, M R; de Lucia, E H

    2002-01-22

    The effects of herbivores on plant production and fitness may not relate directly to the quantity of biomass removed because folivory may alter photosynthetic rates at a considerable distance from the damaged tissue [Welter, S. C. (1989) in Insect-Plant Interactions, ed. Bernays, E. A. (CRC, Boca Raton), pp. 135-151.]. An impediment to understanding the effects of leaf damage on photosynthesis has been an inability to map photosynthetic function within a single leaf. We developed an instrument for imaging chlorophyll fluorescence and used it to map the effects of caterpillar feeding on whole-leaf photosynthesis in wild parsnip. The adverse effects of caterpillar feeding on photosynthesis were found to extend well beyond the areas of the leaflet in which caterpillars removed tissue. These "indirectly" affected areas remained impaired for at least 3 days after the caterpillars were removed and were six times as large as the area directly damaged by the caterpillars. Although photosynthesis in indirectly affected areas was reduced and not eliminated, these areas accounted for three times as much of the overall reduction in photosynthesis as the area removed by the caterpillars. The size of the indirect effects was positively correlated with defense-related synthesis of furanocoumarins, suggesting that costs of chemical defense may be one factor that accounts for the indirect effects of herbivory on plants. PMID:11792866

  6. Photosynthesis: an interactive didactic model’s use to the learning and teaching process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Liesenfeld

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthesis is a complex process that involves the implementation of several reactions which, many times, makes this content difficult for students to understand. The objective of this study was to investigate if an interactive didactic model, crafted with simple materials, could facilitate the understanding and learning of students on photosynthesis. Initially students of first year high school class from a public school Western of Paraná were asked to diagram what they knew about photosynthesis and respond to a questionnaire. It was concluded that many of the students’ prior concepts were general or inaccurate, such as the idea of photosynthesis being the process of respiration in plants, and O2 coming from the CO2, not from the photo-oxidation of water. These prior conceptions were important for planning the approach to the subject. The process of photosynthesis was then covered in lecture and dialogued, using the interactive didactic model to highlight the explanations. A new questionnaire was completed by the students, and concluded that the use of the interactive didactic model was efficient, since it helped to consolidate correct concepts and simultaneously, introduced new ones as well it shook the equivocal relations.

  7. THE GENESIS OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS TYPES AS THE BASIS OF ECOLOGICAL EXPANSION OF HALOPHYTIC PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pyurko O.Ye.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The C3, C4, and CAM photosynthesis types are considerably differed by CO2 absorption intensity, its biochemistry, saturation level, water productivity, biological productivity, and other different features, which secure the plants survival at stress and extreme conditions. The aim of current research was to discover the photosynthesis peculiarities at halophytic plants species (Salicornia europaea L., Halimione pedunculata, Artemisia santonica L., Plantago lanceolata L. by salinity at model and natural conditions, and to generalize data in historical aspect. It was constituted that S. europaea L. was characterized by C3 photosynthesis passage which was switched on CAM CO2 fixation under soil salinity conditions till 4-4,5 %, but glycophyte A.santonica was immanent C4assimilation way of aspartate type.Analysis of literature data and own research allows to find out that in majority the C3photosynthesis dependence from environmental factors described by determinate curve with matched mathematical expression. It was suggested to generalize the data by Lagrange polynomial. The obtained results proved that the pattern of photosynthesis evolution is: C3 → C4 → CAM with commute possibilities: C3 → CAM; C4 → CAM.

  8. Rubisco catalytic properties of wild and domesticated relatives provide scope for improving wheat photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prins, Anneke; Orr, Douglas J; Andralojc, P John; Reynolds, Matthew P; Carmo-Silva, Elizabete; Parry, Martin A J

    2016-04-01

    Rubisco is a major target for improving crop photosynthesis and yield, yet natural diversity in catalytic properties of this enzyme is poorly understood. Rubisco from 25 genotypes of the Triticeae tribe, including wild relatives of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum), were surveyed to identify superior enzymes for improving photosynthesis in this crop. In vitro Rubisco carboxylation velocity (V c), Michaelis-Menten constants for CO2 (K c) and O2 (K o) and specificity factor (S c/o) were measured at 25 and 35 °C. V c and K c correlated positively, while V c and S c/o were inversely related. Rubisco large subunit genes (rbcL) were sequenced, and predicted corresponding amino acid differences analysed in relation to the corresponding catalytic properties. The effect of replacing native wheat Rubisco with counterparts from closely related species was analysed by modelling the response of photosynthesis to varying CO2 concentrations. The model predicted that two Rubisco enzymes would increase photosynthetic performance at 25 °C while only one of these also increased photosynthesis at 35 °C. Thus, under otherwise identical conditions, catalytic variation in the Rubiscos analysed is predicted to improve photosynthetic rates at physiological CO2 concentrations. Naturally occurring Rubiscos with superior properties amongst the Triticeae tribe can be exploited to improve wheat photosynthesis and crop productivity. PMID:26798025

  9. Modeling photosynthesis of discontinuous plant canopies by linking Geometric Optical Radiative Transfer model with biochemical processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Q.; Gong, P.; Li, W.

    2015-02-01

    Modeling vegetation photosynthesis is essential for understanding carbon exchanges between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. The radiative transfer process within plant canopies is one of the key drivers that regulate canopy photosynthesis. Most vegetation cover consists of discrete plant crowns, of which the physical observation departs from the underlying assumption of a homogenous and uniform medium in classic radiative transfer theory. Here we advance the Geometric Optical Radiative Transfer (GORT) model to simulate photosynthesis activities for discontinuous plant canopies. We separate radiation absorption into two components that are absorbed by sunlit and shaded leaves, and derive analytical solutions by integrating over the canopy layer. To model leaf-level and canopy-level photosynthesis, leaf light absorption is then linked to the biochemical process of gas diffusion through leaf stomata. The canopy gap probability derived from GORT differs from classic radiative transfer theory, especially when the leaf area index is high, due to leaf clumping effects. Tree characteristics such as tree density, crown shape, and canopy length affect leaf clumping and regulate radiation interception. Modeled gross primary production (GPP) for two deciduous forest stands could explain more than 80% of the variance of flux tower measurements at both near hourly and daily time scales. We also demonstrate that the ambient CO2 concentration influences daytime vegetation photosynthesis, which needs to be considered in state-of-the-art biogeochemical models. The proposed model is complementary to classic radiative transfer theory and shows promise in modeling the radiative transfer process and photosynthetic activities over discontinuous forest canopies.

  10. Impact of photosynthesis and transpiration on nitrogen removal in constructed wetlands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Weiguo; WANG Shihe; HUANG Juan; YAN Lu; HUANG Jun

    2007-01-01

    To determine the impact of photosynthesis and transpiration on nitrogen removal in wetlands,an artificial wetland planted with reeds was constructed to treat highly concentrated domestic wastewater.Under different meteorological and hydraulic conditions,the daily changes of photosynthesis and transpiration of reeds,as well as nitrogen removal efficiency were measured.It was found that net photosynthesis rate per unit leaf area was maintained on a high Photon Flux Density was high during the day.Meanwhile,TN and NH4+-N removal efficiency rose to 79.6% and 89.6%,respectively-the maximum values observed in the test.Correlation coefficient analysis demonstrated a positive correlation among photon flux density,net photosynthetic rate,transpiration rate,and TN and NH4+-N removal efficiency.In contrast,there was a negative correlation between stomatal conductance and TN and NH4+-N removal efficiency.Results suggest that the photosynthesis and transpiration of wetland plants have a great impact on nitrogen removal efficiency of wetlands,which can be enhanced by an increase in the photosynthesis and transpiration rate.In addition,the efficiency of water usage by reeds and nitrogen removal efficiency could be affected by the water level in wetlands;a higher level boosts nitrogen removal efficiency.

  11. Diffusive boundary layers and photosynthesis of the epilithic algal community of coral reefs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larkum, Anthony W.D.; Koch, Eva-Maria W.; Kühl, Michael

    2003-01-01

    The effects of mass transfer resistance due to the presence of a diffusive boundary layer on the photosynthesis of the epilithic algal community (EAC) of a coral reef were studied. Photosynthesis and respiration of the EAC of dead coral surfaces were investigated for samples from two locations: the......) and >2,000 µm under quasi-stagnant conditions. Under light saturation the oxygen concentration at the EAC surface rose within a few minutes to 200–550% air saturation levels under moderate flow and to 600–700% under quasi-stagnant conditions. High maximal rates of net photosynthesis of 8–25 mmol O2 m......-2 h-1 were calculated from measured O2 concentration gradients, and dark respiration was 1.3–3.3 mmol O2 m-2 h-1. From light–dark shifts, the maximal rates of gross photosynthesis at the EAC surface were calculated to be 16.5 nmol O2 cm-3 s-1. Irradiance at the onset of saturation of photosynthesis...

  12. Overexpression of OsSAP16 Regulates Photosynthesis and the Expression of a Broad Range of Stress Response Genes in Rice (Oryza sativa L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Wang

    Full Text Available This study set out to identify and characterize transcription factors regulating photosynthesis in rice. Screening populations of rice T-DNA activation lines led to the identification of a T-DNA mutant with an increase in intrinsic water use efficiency (iWUE under well-watered conditions. Flanking sequence analysis showed that the T-DNA construct was located upstream of LOC_Os07g38240 (OsSAP16 encoding for a stress-associated protein (SAP. A second mutant identified with activation in the same gene exhibited the same phenotype; expression of OsSAP16 was shown to be enhanced in both lines. There were no differences in stomatal development or morphology in either of these mutants, although overexpression of OsSAP16 reduced stomatal conductance. This phenotype limited CO2 uptake and the rate of photosynthesis, which resulted in the accumulation of less biomass in the two mutants. Whole transcriptome analysis showed that overexpression of OsSAP16 led to global changes in gene expression consistent with the function of zinc-finger transcription factors. These results show that the gene is involved in modulating the response of rice to drought stress through regulation of the expression of a set of stress-associated genes.

  13. Overexpression of OsSAP16 Regulates Photosynthesis and the Expression of a Broad Range of Stress Response Genes in Rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Coe, Robert A; Karki, Shanta; Wanchana, Samart; Thakur, Vivek; Henry, Amelia; Lin, Hsiang-Chun; Huang, Jianliang; Peng, Shaobing; Quick, William Paul

    2016-01-01

    This study set out to identify and characterize transcription factors regulating photosynthesis in rice. Screening populations of rice T-DNA activation lines led to the identification of a T-DNA mutant with an increase in intrinsic water use efficiency (iWUE) under well-watered conditions. Flanking sequence analysis showed that the T-DNA construct was located upstream of LOC_Os07g38240 (OsSAP16) encoding for a stress-associated protein (SAP). A second mutant identified with activation in the same gene exhibited the same phenotype; expression of OsSAP16 was shown to be enhanced in both lines. There were no differences in stomatal development or morphology in either of these mutants, although overexpression of OsSAP16 reduced stomatal conductance. This phenotype limited CO2 uptake and the rate of photosynthesis, which resulted in the accumulation of less biomass in the two mutants. Whole transcriptome analysis showed that overexpression of OsSAP16 led to global changes in gene expression consistent with the function of zinc-finger transcription factors. These results show that the gene is involved in modulating the response of rice to drought stress through regulation of the expression of a set of stress-associated genes. PMID:27303811

  14. Effects of space environment on chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthesis characteristics of wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of the space environment on the chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and photosynthesis characteristics of wheat cultivars, Xinong 1043 M1 and Shaan253 M1, were studied. The results showed that the decrement of contents of PS II primary photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), potential activity (Fv/F0), photochemical quenching coefficient (qP) and photosynthesis rate (Pn) were less than that of control, increment of non-photochemical quenching coefficient (qN) were more than that of control. The results suggested that photosynthetic apparatus were damaged, photosynthetic electron transport, photosynthetic primary reaction were inhibited, rate of photosynthesis decreased and growth of M1 plant were retarded, which leading to thousand kernel weights decreased. (authors)

  15. Effect of gamma radiation on chlorophylls content, net photosynthesis and respiration of Chlorella pyrenoidosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of five doses of gamma radiation: 10, 100, 500, 1000 and 5000 Gy on chlorophylls content, net photosynthesis and respiration of Chlorella pyrenoidosa has been studied. A decrease in chlorophylls levels is produced after irradiation at 500, 1000 and 5000 Gy, being, at first b chlorophyll affected to a greater extent than a chlorophyll. Net photosynthesis and respiration decline throughout the time of the observation after irradiation, this depressing effect being much more remarkable for the first one. Met photosynthesis inhibition levels of about 30% are got only five hours post irradiation at a dose of 5000 Gy. Radio estimation by low doses, although obtained in some cases for tho 10 Gy dose, has not been statistically confirmed. (Author) 23 refs

  16. Temperature acclimation of growth, photosynthesis and respiration in two mesophilic phytoplankton species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stæhr, P. A.; Birkeland, M. J.

    2006-01-01

    Temperature acclimation in two mesophilic microalgae, Microcystis aeruginosa (Cyanobacteriales) and Scenedesmus acutus (Chlorococcales), was studied by measuring growth rate, photosynthesis, respiration, cell size, cellular pigment content and Chl a-specific light absorption. Phytoplankton were...... grown as nutrient-replete semicontinuous cultures for 2 weeks at 5, 15 and 25°C, during which growth rate was determined from changes in Chl a. Gross photosynthesis (GP) was measured as 14C assimilation at saturating light and respiration (R) was measured as O2 uptake along a temperature gradient from 0...... to 40°C. Net photosynthesis (NP) was determined as the difference between GP and R. For both species, acclimation to increasing growth temperatures resulted in increasing growth rate, cellular pigment content and decreasing cell size and Chl a-specific light absorption. Scenedesmus acutus and M...

  17. Phytoremediation capacity of poplar (Populus spp. and willow (Salix spp. clonesin relation to photosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajević Slobodanka

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Good photosynthetic features and a favorable water regimes of woody plants improve their survival and remediation potential under unfavorable ecological conditions. Accordingly, we here present results of testing plant tolerance of Pb, Cd, Ni, and diesel fuel based on gas exchange parameters and WUE of four poplar and two willow clones grown in a greenhouse on soil culture. Photosynthesis and transpiration of plants grown on soils with individually applied heavy metals decreased significantly, but this was less obvious in the case of Cd treatment. A heavy metal mixture in the soil induced significant reduction in photosynthesis (by more than 50%. Diesel fuel as the only pollutant in soil caused very strong and significant inhibition of photosynthesis and transpiration of willow clones. The results indicate genotypic specificity of all investigated physiological parameters and mark poplar clones as very useful in phytoextraction technology for the bio-cleaning of chemically polluted soils.

  18. Nano-TiO(2) improve the photosynthesis of tomato leaves under mild heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Mingfang; Liu, Yufeng; Li, Tianlai

    2013-12-01

    Nano-TiO(2) has been reported to promote photosynthesis in some crops; however, the mechanism behind this action remains unknown. In this research, the effects of nano-TiO(2) on leaf photosynthesis under mild heat stress were investigated. Results showed that the net photosynthetic rate, conductance to H2O, and transpiration rate of tomato leaves increased after application of an appropriate concentration of nano-TiO(2). Nano-TiO(2) also significantly decreased the minimum chlorophyll fluorescence and relative electron transport in leaves. Under mild heat stress, Nano-TiO(2) increased regulated photosystem II (PS II) energy dissipation and decreased non-regulated PS II energy dissipation. These results indicate that nano-TiO(2) plays a positive role in promoting photosynthesis in tomato leaves under mild heat stress. PMID:24214855

  19. Chloroplastic and stomatal aspects of ozone-induced reduction of net photosynthesis in plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torsethaugen, Gro

    1998-09-01

    The present thesis relates to ozone-induced reduction of photosynthesis in plants. As a photochemical oxidant O{sub 3} is formed by the interaction of hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides and oxygen in sunlight. Ozone (O{sub 3}) is the most phytotoxic of all the air pollutants and is known to reduce plant growth and net photosynthesis, cause stomatal closure, induce visible injury, accelerate senescence and induce or inhibit transcription of a variety of genes with a corresponding increase/decrease in protein products. The underlying cellular mechanisms for many of these changes are unknown. Following fields are investigated: Ozone-induced reduction of net photosynthesis; ozone and the photosynthetic apparatus in the chloroplasts; ozone and stomata; ozone effects on plant membranes; protection against ozone injury in plants. 249 refs., 22 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Enhancement in wheat leaf photophosphorylation and photosynthesis by spraying low concentration of NaHSO3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Spraying 1-2 mmol/L NaHSO3 on the leaf of wheat results in enhancement of photosynthesis in leaves for about 3 d. The amount of ATP has been increased and the millisecond delayed light emission of the leaves has been enhanced, showing that the transmembrane proton motive force related to photophosphorylation is increased. Spraying PMS (a cofactor catalyzing cycle photophosphorylation) and NaHSO3 separately or together on the leaves, 20% increase in photosynthesis has been observed in all the treatments. There is no additive effect when a mixture is applied, suggesting that the mechanism for NaHSO3 promotion of photosynthesis is similar to PMS, and both of them enhance the supply of ATP.

  1. Characteristics of photosynthesis in rice plants transformed with an antisense Rubisco activase gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金松恒; 蒋德安; 李雪芹; 孙骏威

    2004-01-01

    Transgenic rice plants with an antisense gene inserted via Agrobacterium tumefaciens were used to explore the impact of the reduction of Rubisco activase (RCA) on Rubisco and photosynthesis. In this study, transformants containing 15% to 35% wild type Rubisco activase were selected, which could survive in ambient CO2 concentration but grew slowly compared with wild type controls. Gas exchange measurements indicated that the rate of photosynthesis decreased sig-nificantly, while stomatal conductance and transpiration rate did not change; and that the intercellular CO2 concentration even increased. Rubisco determination showed that these plants had approximately twice as much Rubisco as the wild types,although they showed 70% lower rate of photosynthesis, whichRubsico activase and/or the reduction in carbamylation.was likely an acclimation response to the reduction in Rubsico activase and/or the reduction in carbamylation.

  2. Characteristics of photosynthesis in rice plants transformed with an antisense Rubisco activase gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金松恒; 蒋德安; 李雪芹; 孙骏威

    2004-01-01

    Transgenic rice plants with an antisense gene inserted via Agrobacterium tumefaciens were used to explore the impact of the reduction of Rubisco activase (RCA) on Rubisco and photosynthesis. In this study, transformants containing 15% to 35% wild type Rubisco activase were selected, which could survive in ambient CO2 concentration but grew slowly compared with wild type controls. Gas exchange measurements indicated that the rate of photosynthesis decreased significantly, while stomatal conductance and transpiration rate did not change; and that the intercellular CO2 concentration even increased. Rubisco determination showed that these plants had approximately twice as much Rubisco as the wild types,although they showed 70% lower rate of photosynthesis, which was likely an acclimation response to the reduction inRubsico activase and/or the reduction in carbamylation.

  3. Ambient UV-B radiation decreases photosynthesis in high arctic Vaccinium uliginosum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, Kristian Rost; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Ro-Poulsen, H.

    2008-01-01

    ). Leaf area, biomass, carbon, nitrogen and UV-B-absorbing compounds were determined from a late season harvest. Compared with the reduced UV-B treatment, the plants in ambient UV-B were found to have a higher content of UV-B-absorbing compounds, and canopy net photosynthesis was as an average 23% lower...... during the season. By means of the JIP-test, it was found that the potential of processing light energy through the photosynthetic machinery was slightly reduced in ambient UV-B. This indicates that not only the UV-B effects on PSII may be responsible for some of the observed reduction of photosynthesis...... photosynthesis clearly indicates that V. uliginosum is negatively affected by the current level of UV-B....

  4. Temperature effects on respiration and photosynthesis in three diatom-dominated benthic communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hancke, Kasper; Glud, Ronnie N.

    2004-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Short-term temperature effects on respiration and photosynthesis were investigated in intact diatom-dominated benthic communities, collected at 2 temperate and 1 high-arctic subtidal sites. Areal rates of total (TOE) and diffusive (DOE) O2 exchange were determined from O2-microsensor...... measurements. This can be ascribed to changes in physical and biological controls during resuspension. Gross photosynthesis was measured with the light-dark shift method at the 2 temperate sites. Both areal (Pgross) and volumetric (Pgross,vol) rates increased with temperature to an optimum temperature at 12...... and 15°C, with a Q10 for Pgross of 2.2 and 2.6 for the 2 sites, respectively. The gross photosynthesis response could be categorised as psychrotrophic for both sites and no temperature adaptation was observed between the 2 sites. Our measurements document that temperature stimulates heterotrophic...

  5. Microenvironmental changes support evidence of photosynthesis and calcification inhibition in Halimeda under ocean acidification and warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinutok, S.; Hill, R.; Doblin, M. A.; Kühl, M.; Ralph, P. J.

    2012-12-01

    The effects of elevated CO2 and temperature on photosynthesis and calcification of two important calcifying reef algae ( Halimeda macroloba and Halimeda cylindracea) were investigated with O2 microsensors and chlorophyll a fluorometry through a combination of two pCO2 (400 and 1,200 μatm) and two temperature treatments (28 and 32 °C) equivalent to the present and predicted conditions during the 2100 austral summer. Combined exposure to pCO2 and elevated temperature impaired calcification and photosynthesis in the two Halimeda species due to changes in the microenvironment around the algal segments and a reduction in physiological performance. There were no significant changes in controls over the 5-week experiment, but there was a 50-70 % decrease in photochemical efficiency (maximum quantum yield), a 70-80 % decrease in O2 production and a threefold reduction in calcification rate in the elevated CO2 and high temperature treatment. Calcification in these species is closely coupled with photosynthesis, such that a decrease in photosynthetic efficiency leads to a decrease in calcification. Although pH seems to be the main factor affecting Halimeda species, heat stress also has an impact on their photosystem II photochemical efficiency. There was a strong combined effect of elevated CO2 and temperature in both species, where exposure to elevated CO2 or temperature alone decreased photosynthesis and calcification, but exposure to both elevated CO2 and temperature caused a greater decline in photosynthesis and calcification than in each stress individually. Our study shows that ocean acidification and ocean warming are drivers of calcification and photosynthesis inhibition in Halimeda. Predicted climate change scenarios for 2100 would therefore severely affect the fitness of Halimeda, which can result in a strongly reduced production of carbonate sediments on coral reefs under such changed climate conditions.

  6. Cadmium against higher plant photosynthesis - a variety of effects and where do they possibly come from?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The complexity of in vivo toxic effects of Cd on higher plants makes almost impossible an accurate distinction between direct and indirect mechanisms of its action on the photosynthetic apparatus. We, therefore, postulate that multiple Cd effects on plant physiological and metabolic processes may finally be focused on photosynthesis. This would also explain the phenomenon that only a small fraction of Cd entering chloroplasts may cause such disastrous changes in their structure and function. In return, the inhibition of photosynthesis affects numerous metabolic pathways dependent on the primary carbon metabolism. (orig.)

  7. Phenotypic landscape inference reveals multiple evolutionary paths to C$_4$ photosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Ben P.; Johnston, Iain G; Covshoff, Sarah; Hibberd, Julian M.

    2014-01-01

    eLife digest Plants rely on carbon for their growth and survival: in a process called photosynthesis, they use energy from sunlight to convert carbon dioxide and water into carbohydrates and oxygen gas. The chemical reactions that make up photosynthesis are powered by a chain of enzymes, and plants must ensure that these enzymes—which are in the leaves of the plant—are supplied with enough carbon dioxide and water. Carbon dioxide from the atmosphere enters plants through pores in their leaves...

  8. Response of wheat to combined high temperature and osmotic stresses during maturation. Plant photosynthesis and productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Nazeer Hussain Shah; G.M. Paulsen

    1999-01-01

    High temperature and drought are usually investigated singly, although they frequently occur simultaneously in nature.Our objectives were to compare effects of high temperature and osmotic injury on photosynthesis and productivity of wheat during grain filling and to ascertain interactions between the combined stresses. Plants (cv. Len) were grown uniformly until anthesis, and treatments of 15/10, 25/20, and 35/30oC and -0.01 or -0.41 MPa were imposed until maturity. Photosynthesis, leaf area...

  9. Understanding plant responses to drought: how important is woody tissue photosynthesis?

    OpenAIRE

    Bloemen, Jasper; Overlaet-Michiels, Lander; STEPPE, Kathy

    2013-01-01

    Within trees, it is known that a part of the respired CO2 is assimilated in chlorophyll-containing stem and branch tissues. However, the role of this woody tissue photosynthesis in tree functioning remains unclear, in particular under drought stress conditions. In this study, stem diameter and leaf photosynthesis were measured for one-year-old cutting-derived plants of Populus nigra 'Monviso' under both well-watered and drought stress conditions. Half of the plants were subjected to a stem an...

  10. On the Mechanism of the Primary Charge Separation in Bacterial Photosynthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Mak, C H; Egger, Reinhold

    1994-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the mechanism of the primary charge separation process in bacterial photosynthesis using real-time path integrals. Direct computer simulations as well as an approximate analytical theory have been employed to map out the dynamics of the charge separation process in many regions of the parameter space relevant to bacterial photosynthesis. Two distinct parameter regions, one characteristic of sequential transfer and the other characteristic of superexchange, have been found to yield charge separation dynamics in agreement with experiments. Nonadiabatic theory provides accurate rate estimates for low-lying and very high-lying bacteriochlorophyll state energies, but it breaks down in between these two regimes.

  11. Solar fuels via artificial photosynthesis: From homogeneous photocatalysis in solution to a photoelectrochemical cell

    OpenAIRE

    Brouwer, A.M.; Reek, J.N.H.; Williams, R.M.; Chen, H.-C.

    2016-01-01

    The conversion and storage of solar energy into fuels provides a valuable solution for the future energy demand of our society. Making fuels via artificial photosynthesis, the so-called solar-to-fuel approach, is viewed as one of the most promising ways to produce clean and renewable energy. Solar-driven splitting of water into O2 and H2 via artificial photosynthesis is the key challenge in this field. The obtained hydrogen can be further processed to create other fuels such as formic acid, m...

  12. Synthesis of Phenolics and Flavonoids in Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe and Their Effects on Photosynthesis Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmah Rahmat

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between phenolics and flavonoids synthesis/accumulation and photosynthesis rate was investigated for two Malaysian ginger (Zingiber officinale varieties grown under four levels of glasshouse light intensity, namely 310, 460, 630 and 790 μmol m−2s−1. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was employed to identify and quantify the polyphenolic components. The results of HPLC analysis indicated that synthesis and partitioning of quercetin, rutin, catechin, epicatechin and naringenin were high in plants grown under 310 µmol m−2s−1. The average value of flavonoids synthesis in leaves for both varieties increased (Halia Bentong 26.1%; Halia Bara 19.5% when light intensity decreased. Photosynthetic rate and plant biomass increased in both varieties with increasing light intensity. More specifically, a high photosynthesis rate (12.25 µmol CO2 m−2s−1 in Halia Bara and plant biomass (79.47 g in Halia Bentong were observed at 790 µmol m−2s−1. Furthermore, plants with the lowest rate of photosynthesis had highest flavonoids content. Previous studies have shown that quercetin inhibits and salicylic acid induces the electron transport rate in photosynthesis photosystems. In the current study, quercetin was an abundant flavonoid in both ginger varieties. Moreover, higher concentration of quercetin (1.12 mg/g dry weight was found in Halia Bara leaves grown under 310 µmol m−2s−1 with a low photosynthesis rate. Furthermore, a high content of salicylic acid (0.673 mg/g dry weight was detected in Halia Bara leaves exposed under 790 µmol m−2s−1 with a high photosynthesis rate. No salicylic acid was detected in gingers grown under 310 µmol m−2s−1. Ginger is a semi-shade loving plant that does not require high light intensity for photosynthesis. Different photosynthesis rates at different light intensities may be related to the absence or presence of some flavonoid and phenolic compounds.

  13. Simulation of leaf photosynthesis of C3 plants under fluctuating light and different temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Öztürk, Isik; Holst, Niels; Ottosen, Carl-Otto

    2012-01-01

    An induction-dependent empirical model was developed to simulate the C3 leaf photosynthesis under fluctuating light and different temperatures. The model also takes into account the stomatal conductance when the light intensity just exceeds the compensation point after a prolonged period of...... partial cloud cover and varying temperatures. The temporal course of observed photosynthesis rate and the carbon gain was compared to the simulation. The ability of the current model to predict the carbon assimilation rate was assessed using different statistical indexes. The model predictions were...

  14. Salinity-dependent limitation of photosynthesis and oxygen exchange in microbial mats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Pichel, F.; Kühl, Michael; Nübel, U.;

    1999-01-01

    specific for each community and in accordance with optimal performance at the respective salinity of origin. This pattern was lost after long-term exposure to varying salinities when responses to salinity were found to approach a general pattern of decreasing photosynthesis and oxygen exchange capacity...... with increasing salinity. Exhaustive measurements of oxygen export in the light, oxygen consumption in the dark and gross photosynthesis indicated that a salinity-dependent limitation of all three parameters occurred. Maximal values for all three parameters decreased exponentially with increasing...

  15. Time-resolved X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy of a Cobalt-Based Hydrogen Evolution System for Artificial Photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moonshiram, Dooshaye; Gimbert, Carolina; Lehmann, Carl; Southworth, Stephen; Llobet, Antoni; Argonne National Laboratory Team; Institut Català d'Investigació Química Collaboration

    2015-03-01

    Production of cost-effective hydrogen gas through solar power is an important challenge of the Department of Energy among other global industry initiatives. In natural photosynthesis, the oxygen evolving complex(OEC) can carry out four-electron water splitting to hydrogen with an efficiency of around 60%. Although, much progress has been carried out in determining mechanistic pathways of the OEC, biomimetic approaches have not duplicated Nature's efficiency in function. Over the past years, we have witnessed progress in developments of light harvesting modules, so called chromophore/catalytic assemblies. In spite of reportedly high catalytic activity of these systems, quantum yields of hydrogen production are below 40 % when using monochromatic light. Proper understanding of kinetics and bond making/breaking steps has to be achieved to improve efficiency of hydrogen evolution systems. This project shows the timing implementation of ultrafast X-ray absorption spectroscopy to visualize in ``real time'' the photo-induced kinetics accompanying a sequence of redox reactions in a cobalt-based molecular photocatalytic system. Formation of a Co(I) species followed by a Co(III) hydride species all the way towards hydrogen evolution is shown through time-resolved XANES.

  16. Instantaneous Canopy Photosynthesis: Analytical Expressions for Sun and Shade Leaves Based on Exponential Light Decay Down the Canopy and an Acclimated Non‐rectangular Hyperbola for Leaf Photosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    THORNLEY, J. H. M.

    2002-01-01

    Analytical expressions for the contributions of sun and shade leaves to instantaneous canopy photosynthesis are derived. The analysis is based on four assumptions. First, that the canopy is closed in the sense that it is horizontally uniform. Secondly, that there is an exponential profile of light down the canopy with the same decay constant for light from different parts of the sky. Thirdly, that the leaf photosynthetic response to incident irradiance can be described by a three‐parameter no...

  17. Estimation of effects of photosynthesis response functions on rice yields and seasonal variation of CO2 fixation using a photosynthesis-sterility type of crop yield model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study presents a crop production model improvement: the previously adopted Michaelis-Menten (MM) type photosynthesis response function (fsub(rad-MM)) was replaced with a Prioul-Chartier (PC) type function (fsub(rad-PC)). The authors' analysis reflects concerns regarding the background effect of global warming, under simultaneous conditions of high air temperature and strong solar radiation. The MM type function fsub(rad-MM) can give excessive values leading to an overestimate of photosynthesis rate (PSN) and grain yield for paddy-rice. The MM model is applicable to many plants whose (PSN) increases concomitant with increased insolation: wheat, maize, soybean, etc. For paddy rice, the PSN apparently shows a maximum PSN. This paper proves that the MM model overestimated the PSN for paddy rice for sufficient solar radiation: the PSN using the PC model yields 10% lower values. However, the unit crop production index (CPIsub(U)) is almost independent of the MM and PC models because of respective standardization of both PSN and crop production index using average PSNsub(0) and CPIsub(0). The authors improved the estimation method using a photosynthesis-and-sterility based crop situation index (CSIsub(E)) to produce a crop yield index (CYIsub(E)), which is used to estimate rice yields in place of the crop situation index (CSI); the CSI gives a percentage of rice yields compared to normal annual production. The model calculates PSN including biomass effects, low-temperature sterility, and high-temperature injury by incorporating insolation, effective air temperature, the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and effects of temperature on photosynthesis. Based on routine observation data, the method enables automated crop-production monitoring in remote regions without special observations. This method can quantify grain production early to raise an alarm in Southeast Asian countries, which must confront climate fluctuation through this era of global

  18. Tomato response to legume cover crop and nitrogen: differing enhancement patterns of fruit yield, photosynthesis and gene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomatoes responded to soil and residue from a hairy vetch cover crop differently on many levels than tomato response to inorganic nitrogen. Tomato fruit production, plant biomass parameters, and photosynthesis were higher in plants grown in vetch than bare soil. Tomato growth and photosynthesis metr...

  19. Toxic effects of chlorinated organic compounds and potassium dichromate on growth rate and photosynthesis of marine phytoplankton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusk, Kresten Ole; Nyholm, Niels

    1992-01-01

    The toxic effects of potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7), 3,4-dichloroaniline (DCA) and 2,4-dichlorophenol (DCP) on the photosynthesis of natural marine phytoplankton and five species of marine microalgae were investigated. Effect concentrations corresponding to a 50 % depression of photosynthesis (6h...

  20. Effects of elevated carbon dioxide on photosynthesis and productivity of alfalfa in relation to seasonal changes in temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfalfa was grown at ambient and elevated (ambient + 350 ppm) carbon dioxide concentrations at Beltsville, Maryland, using open top chambers in field plots. Periodic harvests and measurements of leaf photosynthesis were used to test the hypothesis that the stimulation of yield and photosynthesis by...

  1. Salt deliquescence drives photosynthesis in the hyperarid Atacama Desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila, Alfonso F; Hawes, Ian; Ascaso, Carmen; Wierzchos, Jacek

    2013-08-01

    Endolithic cyanobacteria are found in halite nodules in the hyperarid core of the Atacama Desert. Using Pulse Amplitude Modulated Fluorometry, we show here that photosynthetic systems of these cyanobacteria become active when the relative humidity rises above 70% and the salt becomes wet by way of deliquescence. This is the first evidence of active metabolism in the hyperarid core of the Atacama, and supports the view of a microbial community sustained by deliquescence. Our results expand the water activity envelope of life on Earth. PMID:23864573

  2. Modeling photosynthesis of Spartina alterniflora (smooth cordgrass) impacted by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill using Bayesian inference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study the impact of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill on photosynthesis of coastal salt marsh plants in Mississippi, we developed a hierarchical Bayesian (HB) model based on field measurements collected from July 2010 to November 2011. We sampled three locations in Davis Bayou, Mississippi (30.375°N, 88.790°W) representative of a range of oil spill impacts. Measured photosynthesis was negative (respiration only) at the heavily oiled location in July 2010 only, and rates started to increase by August 2010. Photosynthesis at the medium oiling location was lower than at the control location in July 2010 and it continued to decrease in September 2010. During winter 2010–2011, the contrast between the control and the two impacted locations was not as obvious as in the growing season of 2010. Photosynthesis increased through spring 2011 at the three locations and decreased starting with October at the control location and a month earlier (September) at the impacted locations. Using the field data, we developed an HB model. The model simulations agreed well with the measured photosynthesis, capturing most of the variability of the measured data. On the basis of the posteriors of the parameters, we found that air temperature and photosynthetic active radiation positively influenced photosynthesis whereas the leaf stress level negatively affected photosynthesis. The photosynthesis rates at the heavily impacted location had recovered to the status of the control location about 140 days after the initial impact, while the impact at the medium impact location was never severe enough to make photosynthesis significantly lower than that at the control location over the study period. The uncertainty in modeling photosynthesis rates mainly came from the individual and micro-site scales, and to a lesser extent from the leaf scale. (letter)

  3. Estimating photosynthesis and concurrent export rates in C3 and C4 species at ambient and elevated CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ability of 21 C3 and C4 monocot and dicot species to rapidly export newly fixed C in the light at both ambient and enriched CO2 levels was compared. Photosynthesis and concurrent export rates were estimated during isotopic equilibrium of the transport sugars using a steady-state 14CO2-labeling procedure. At ambient CO2 photosynthesis and export rates for C3 species were 5 to 15 and 1 to 10 micromole C m-2 s-1, respectively, and 20 to 30 and 15 to 22 micromole C m-2 s-1, respectively, for C4 species. A linear regression plot of export on photosynthesis rate of all species had a correlation coefficient of 0.87. When concurrent export was expressed as a percentage of photosynthesis, several C3 dicots that produced transport sugars other than Suc had high efflux rates relative to photosynthesis, comparable to those of C4 species. At high CO2 photosynthetic and export rates were only slightly altered in C4 species, and photosynthesis increased but export rates did not in all C3 species. The C3 species that had high efflux rates relative to photosynthesis at ambient CO2 exported at rates comparable to those of C4 species on both an absolute basis and as a percentage of photosynthesis. At ambient CO2 there were strong linear relationships between photosynthesis, sugar synthesis, and concurrent export. However, at high CO2 the relationships between photosynthesis and export rate and between sugar synthesis and export rate were not as strong because sugars and starch were accumulated

  4. Synthesis of Sugar and fixation of CO2 through Artificial Photosynthesis driving by Hydrogen or Electricity

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Weidong

    2010-01-01

    The overall process of photosynthesis consists of two main phases, the so-called light and dark eactions: light energy is absorbed by chlorophyll molecules and transferred to regenerate NADH and ATP, then drive Calvin-Benson cycle to synthesize sugar. In order to synthesize sugar through artificial photosynthesis, one of the key is to regenerate ATP economically and improve the efficiency of dark reactions. Here 9 kinds of dark reaction pathways are proposed, which only NADH is regenearated from hydrogen or electricity for driving, the efficiency of dark reactions is improved, combined with solar photovoltaic or solar hydrogen technology, the total efficiency of artificial photosynthesis can reach 30%, several ten times more than natural photosynthesis. One of them, to use chemical synthesis of formaldehyde from CO2 and H2, no NADH and ATP is need, to synthesize sugar efficiently through 9 enzymes, so it will be easier to produce in large scale, and the sugar will be a good energy carrier as the sugar can be ...

  5. Solar fuels via artificial photosynthesis: From homogeneous photocatalysis in solution to a photoelectrochemical cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.-C. Chen

    2016-01-01

    The conversion and storage of solar energy into fuels provides a valuable solution for the future energy demand of our society. Making fuels via artificial photosynthesis, the so-called solar-to-fuel approach, is viewed as one of the most promising ways to produce clean and renewable energy. Solar-d

  6. Relationship between radiation interception and photosynthesis in forest canopies: effect of stand structure and latitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interception of radiation and the consequent potential photosynthesis was studied, by sing a simulation model, in structurally different forest stands at latitudes 40° and 60°. The studied stands were of two different types with respect to the leaf-area distribution: horizontally homogenous canopies and canopies with an aggregation of leaves into individual crowns. The effect of canopy structure on interception of radiation and photosynthesis was studied by varying leaf area index, stand density, and crown size and shape. In none of the studied cases was the relationship between accumulated radiation interception and photosynthesis strictly linear, but on a longer time-scale (one growing season) this non-linearity was not very pronounced. Neither canopy structure nor latitude substantially affected the slope of the relationship. In conclusion, while properties of canopy structure and incoming radiation determine the actual amount of radiation intercepted by the canopy, the conversion efficiency between intercepted radiation and photosynthesis appeared to be rather insensitive to differences in canopy structure and in properties of incoming radiation. (author)

  7. Biomass production, water use and photosynthesis of Salix clones grown in a wastewater purification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An objective of the study was to identify leaf morphophysiological characteristics indicative of high aboveground woody biomass production of Salix clones growing in the vegetation filter of a wastewater purification system. It was hypothesized, that in these extra irrigated stands, the characteristics of photosynthesis are stronger determinants of the production than the characteristics of leaf water relations. The biomass production of the clones was correlated with numerous characteristics of leaf water relations and photosynthesis. Significant correlation was found between the biomass production and the following characteristics of top foliage leaves: daily decrease in water potential, stomatal conductance, stomatal sensitivity to increase in light intensity, and hydraulic conductance (positive); daily minimum and maximum water potentials, instantaneous water use efficiency, and stomatal sensitivity to decrease in leaf water potential (negative); maximum rate of photosynthetic electron transport, chlorophyll content, and the partitioning coefficient for leaf nitrogen into bioenergetics associated with electron transport (positive). In the most productive clones, the vertical gradient (through foliage) of values of almost all the characteristics was the smallest. The biomass correlated more strongly with the characteristics of photosynthesis light stage than with the characteristics of water relations. We conclude that the characteristics of photosynthesis light stage - high maximum rate of photosynthetic electron transport, high chlorophyll content, and also flat vertical gradient (through foliage) in values of the characteristics could be the strongest indicators of high biomass production of Salix clones growing in vegetation filter.

  8. A cereal crop canopy light distribution and photosynthesis model based on multiple factors - modeling and simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canopy light distribution and photosynthesis modeling is fundamental to cereal crop cultivation, breeding and crop informatics. It also has a great theoretical and practical significance for the evaluation and optimization of plant types and computer simulations of crop growth. This study has developed a cereal crop canopy photosynthesis model based on the improved stratified-clipping method, which combines morphology, physiology and optics. This model includes a canopy shape model, a single leaf photosynthesis rate model, a canopy light distribution model and a photosynthetic rate model. In this study we carried out a numerical simulation of the photosynthetic rates of the 15625 rice plant types. The numerical results showed that the photosynthesis rate was closely related to the following five factors: leaf density, leaf nitrogen content, leaf length, leaf width and leaf angle. The model led us to the conclusion that the ideal rice plant type has large values around the vectors for the five factors in the upper part of the canopy, but should decreases downwardly along the canopy. (author)

  9. Significance of cold-season respiration and photosynthesis in a subarctic heath ecosystem in Northern Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Klaus Steenberg; Ibrom, A.; Jonasson, S.;

    2007-01-01

    .85. As expected, estimated cold-season (October, November, April and May) respiration was significant and accounted for at least 22% of the annual respiratory CO2 flux. More surprisingly, estimated photosynthesis during this period accounted for up to 19% of the annual gross CO2 uptake, suggesting that cold...

  10. Effect of Methanol on Photosynthesis and Chlorophyll Fluorescence of Flag Leaves of Winter Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Yue-jin; YANG Yue-qin; LIANG Shan-shan; YI Xian-feng

    2008-01-01

    Photosynthesis and chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters, photochemical efficiency of PS II (Fv/Fm), photochemical quenching of PS II (qP), nonphotochemical quenching of PS II (NPQ), maximum activity of PS II (Fv/Fo) as well as electron transport rate (ETR), and quantum yield of PS II (ΦPS II) were measured on flag leaves of the winter wheat treated by methanol at different concentrations. The results revealed that photosynthesis was greatly improved by methanol, as indicated by higher photosynthetic rates and stomatal conductance. The enhancement effect of methanol on photosynthesis was maintained for 3-4 days. Different methanol concentration treatments also increased intercellular CO2 concentration and transpiration rates. No significant decline was found in Fv/Fm, Fv/Fo, and ΦPS II, which revealed no photoinhibition during methanol application in different methanol concentrations. Methanol showing no apparent inhibitory effects indicated higher potential photosynthetic capacity of flag leaves of winter wheat. However, the increase in photosynthesis was not followed by an increase in the photosynthetic activity (Fv/Fm), and fluorescence parameters did not indicate an improvement in intercellular CO2 concentration and PS II photochemical efficiency compared with the control, thereby encouraging us to propose that lower leaf temperatures caused by applied methanol would reduce both dark respiration and photorespiration (most importantly), thus, increasing net CO2 uptake and photosynthetic rates.

  11. Can chilling tolerance of C4 photosynthesis in Miscanthus be transferred to sugarcane?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this study was to investigate if chilling tolerance of C4 photosynthesis in Miscanthus can be transferred to sugarcane. Net leaf CO2 uptake (Asat) and the maximum operating efficiency of photosystem II ('PSII) were measured in warm conditions (25 °C/20 °C), and then during and following ...

  12. E-photosynthesis: Web-based platform for modeling of complex photosynthetic processes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šafránek, D.; Červený, Jan; Klement, M.; Pospíšilová, J.; Brim, L.; Lazár, D.; Nedbal, Ladislav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 103, č. 2 (2011), s. 115-124. ISSN 0303-2647 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/1284 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : biomodels repository * computational models * photosynthesis Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.784, year: 2011

  13. In situ autumn ozone fumigation of mature Norway spruce - Effects on net photosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Ro-Poulsen, H.

    2002-01-01

    concentration. The experiment was conducted during 70 days during the autumn. Our system could not detect any ozone effects on dark respiration, but eventually effects on dark respiration could be masked in signal noise. An inhibition of daily net photosynthesis in ozone treated shoots was apparent, and it is...

  14. A montane Mediterranean climate supports year-round photosynthesis and high forest biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Anne E; Goulden, Michael L

    2016-04-01

    The mid-elevation forest of California's Sierra Nevada poses a bioclimatic paradox. Mid-elevation trees experience a montane Mediterranean climate, with near-freezing winter days and rain-free summers. The asynchrony between warmth and water input suggests low primary production, limited by photosynthetic dormancy in winter cold, and again in summer and early autumn with drought, yet this forest is characterized by tall trees and high biomass. We used eddy covariance in a mid-elevation Sierra stand to understand how winter cold and summer drought limit canopy photosynthesis and production. The trees exhibited canopy photosynthesis year-round. Trees avoided winter dormancy, and daytime CO2uptake continued despite a deep snowpack and near-freezing temperatures. Photosynthesis on sunny days continued at half of maximum rates when air temperature was 0 °C. Likewise, the vegetation avoided summer drought dormancy, and high rates of daytime CO2uptake and transpiration continued despite a 5-month period with only negligible water input. We attribute this drought avoidance to deep rooting and availability of deep soil water. Year-round photosynthesis helps explain the large biomass observed in the Sierra Nevada, and implies adaptive strategies that may contribute to the resiliency or vulnerability of Sierran vegetation to climate change. PMID:26764269

  15. Association of activase with chaperonin-60 beta: a possible mechanism for protecting photosynthesis during heat stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies have shown that inhibition of photosynthesis by moderate heat stress is a consequence of Rubisco deactivation, caused in part by the thermal instability of activase. This involvement of activase was confirmed in heat stress and recovery experiments using transgenic Arabidopsis plan...

  16. The Response of Photosynthesis and Stomatal Conductance to Rising [CO2]: Molecular Mechanisms and Environmental Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plants directly sense and respond to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]) in two ways, decreased stomatal conductance (gs) and increased photosynthesis (A). First, this review summarizes the molecular and biochemical bases for these responses. Second, it examines how downstream ...

  17. Mathematical review of the energy transduction stoichiometries of C4 leaf photosynthesis under limiting light

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, X.; Struik, P.C.

    2012-01-01

    A generalized model for electron (e-) transport limited C4 photosynthesis of NAD–malic enzyme and NADP–malic enzyme subtypes is presented. The model is used to review the thylakoid stoichiometries in vivo under strictly limiting light conditions, using published data on photosynthetic quantum yield

  18. Incorporation of leaf nitrogen observations for biochemical and environmental modeling of photosynthesis and evapotranspiration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boegh, E; Gjetterman, B; Abrahamsen, P;

    2007-01-01

    . While most canopy photosynthesis models assume an exponential vertical profile of leaf N contents in the canopy, the field measurements showed that well-fertilized fields may have a uniform or exponential profile, and senescent canopies have reduced levels of N contents in upper leaves. The sensitivity...

  19. Respiration and Photosynthesis of Bladders and Leaves of Aquatic Utricularia Species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adamec, Lubomír

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 8, - (2006), s. 765-769. ISSN 1435-8603 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : respiration * photosynthesis * Utricularia Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.059, year: 2006

  20. Influence of the inorganic carbon addition on photosynthesis of algae and some macrophytes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Albay, M.; Pokorný, Jan

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 5 (2002), s. 395-401. ISSN 1300-008X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : KHCO 3 - algal photosynthesis * pH * alkalinity * oxygen production * fish pond Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  1. Photosynthesis: the foundation al all production : Greenhouse plants are chemical factories

    OpenAIRE

    HEUVELINK, E.

    2012-01-01

    All plants in the greenhouse are actually chemical factories. Photosynthesis, the foundation of all production is a complex system of processes. It's fascinating because man cannot match many of these processes, in terms of efficiency. Ironically, an important substance - an enzyme - would be trown out of most factories on grounds of inefficiency. But nature has found something fot thast too.

  2. C4 photosynthesis boosts growth by altering physiology, allocation and size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Rebecca R L; Mockford, Emily J; Bennett, Christopher; Christin, Pascal-Antoine; Spriggs, Elizabeth L; Freckleton, Robert P; Thompson, Ken; Rees, Mark; Osborne, Colin P

    2016-01-01

    C4 photosynthesis is a complex set of leaf anatomical and biochemical adaptations that have evolved more than 60 times to boost carbon uptake compared with the ancestral C3 photosynthetic type(1-3). Although C4 photosynthesis has the potential to drive faster growth rates(4,5), experiments directly comparing C3 and C4 plants have not shown consistent effects(1,6,7). This is problematic because differential growth is a crucial element of ecological theory(8,9) explaining C4 savannah responses to global change(10,11), and research to increase C3 crop productivity by introducing C4 photosynthesis(12). Here, we resolve this long-standing issue by comparing growth across 382 grass species, accounting for ecological diversity and evolutionary history. C4 photosynthesis causes a 19-88% daily growth enhancement. Unexpectedly, during the critical seedling establishment stage, this enhancement is driven largely by a high ratio of leaf area to mass, rather than fast growth per unit leaf area. C4 leaves have less dense tissues, allowing more leaves to be produced for the same carbon cost. Consequently, C4 plants invest more in roots than C3 species. Our data demonstrate a general suite of functional trait divergences between C3 and C4 species, which simultaneously drive faster growth and greater investment in water and nutrient acquisition, with important ecological and agronomic implications. PMID:27243645

  3. The very low ionization potentials of porphyrins and the possible role of Rydberg states in photosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The very low ionization potentials of porphyrins lead to the prediction that in addition to bands due to (π,πsup(*)) transitions, bands due to Rydberg transitions should exist in their visible spectra. The suggestion is made that Rydberg excited states could be important in photosynthesis. (orig.)

  4. Submergence tolerance in Hordeum marinum: dissolved CO(2) determines underwater photosynthesis and growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, O.; Malik, Aneeka; Colmer, T.D.

    2010-01-01

    Floodwaters differ markedly in dissolved CO(2), yet the effects of CO(2) on submergence responses of terrestrial plants have rarely been examined. The influence of dissolved CO(2) on underwater photosynthesis and growth was evaluated for three accessions of the wetland plant Hordeum marinum Huds....

  5. Mathematical-statistical model for analysis of Ulva algal net photosynthesis in Venice lagoon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The algal net photosynthesis, an important factor for the characterization of water quality in Venice lagoon, has been studied experimentally providing a mathematical model, validated by using statistical methods. This model relates oxygen production with irradiance, according to a well known law in biological literature. Its observed an inverted proportion between algal oxygen production and temperature, thus seasonality

  6. What is the maximum efficiency with which photosynthesis can convert solar energy into biomass?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current photosynthesis is directly or indirectly the source of all of our food and fiber and is increasingly looked on as a potential source of renewable fuels. Increasing world population, improving economic status of portions of the developing world, and limited scope for recruitment of additional...

  7. Insistence on Teaching about Photosynthesis of Plants by Their Green Colour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çeken, Ramazan

    2014-01-01

    "Green" has a common use among the public. Both natural and social environment have an important effect on this expression. People tend to explain the scientific concepts using well-known situations which they intensively see around the living area. In this sense, photosynthesis is one of the most important biological concepts including…

  8. An Analysis of Students' Misconceptions Concerning Photosynthesis and Respiration in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capa, Yesim; Yildirim, Ali; Ozden, M. Yasar

    The aims of this study were to diagnose students' misconceptions concerning photosynthesis and respiration in plants, and to investigate reasons behind these misconceptions. The subjects were 45 ninth grade high school students and 11 high school teachers. Data were collected by interview technique. All of the interviews were audiotaped and…

  9. Secondary School Students' Misconceptions about Photosynthesis and Plant Respiration: Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svandova, Katerina

    2014-01-01

    The study investigated the common misconceptions of lower secondary school students regarding the concepts of photosynthesis and plant respiration. These are abstract concepts which are difficult to comprehend for adults let alone for lower secondary school students. Research of the students misconceptions are conducted worldwide. The researches…

  10. The Effect of Group Works and Demonstrative Experiments Based on Conceptual Change Approach: Photosynthesis and Respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibik, Ayse Sert; Diken, Emine Hatun; Darcin, Emine Selcen

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of the use of group works and demonstration experiments based on conceptual change approach in the elimination of misconception about the subject of photosynthesis and respiration in plants in pre-service science teachers. This study was conducted with 78 pre-service science teachers including…

  11. Effects of kinetics of light-induced stomatal responses on photosynthesis and water-use efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAusland, Lorna; Vialet-Chabrand, Silvère; Davey, Philip; Baker, Neil R; Brendel, Oliver; Lawson, Tracy

    2016-09-01

    Both photosynthesis (A) and stomatal conductance (gs ) respond to changing irradiance, yet stomatal responses are an order of magnitude slower than photosynthesis, resulting in noncoordination between A and gs in dynamic light environments. Infrared gas exchange analysis was used to examine the temporal responses and coordination of A and gs to a step increase and decrease in light in a range of different species, and the impact on intrinsic water use efficiency was evaluated. The temporal responses revealed a large range of strategies to save water or maximize photosynthesis in the different species used in this study but also displayed an uncoupling of A and gs in most of the species. The shape of the guard cells influenced the rapidity of response and the overall gs values achieved, with different impacts on A and Wi . The rapidity of gs in dumbbell-shaped guard cells could be attributed to size, whilst in elliptical-shaped guard cells features other than anatomy were more important for kinetics. Our findings suggest significant variation in the rapidity of stomatal responses amongst species, providing a novel target for improving photosynthesis and water use. PMID:27214387

  12. An Action-Research Programme with Secondary Education Teachers on Teaching and Learning Photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingos-Grilo, Paula; Reis-Grilo, Carlos; Ruiz, Constantino; Mellado, Vicente

    2012-01-01

    We describe part of an action-research programme in Spain which was based on metacognitive reflection. The participants were four science teachers in a secondary school during the 2004-05 and 2005-06 academic years. During the study, they each analysed their own pupils' alternative ideas on photosynthesis and their teaching methods as recorded in…

  13. Influence of Content Knowledge on Pedagogical Content Knowledge: The Case of Teaching Photosynthesis and Plant Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapyla, Markku; Heikkinen, Jussi-Pekka; Asunta, Tuula

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the research was to investigate the effect of the amount and quality of content knowledge on pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). The biological content photosynthesis and plant growth was used as an example. The research sample consisted of 10 primary and 10 secondary (biology) teacher students. Questionnaires, lesson preparation task…

  14. Inservice Elementary and Middle School Teachers' Conceptions of Photosynthesis and Respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krall, Rebecca McNall; Lott, Kimberly H.; Wymer, Carol L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive study was to investigate inservice elementary and middle school teachers' conceptions of photosynthesis and respiration, basic concepts they are expected to teach. A forced-choice instrument assessing selected standards-based life science concepts with non-scientific conceptions embedded in distracter options was…

  15. Teacher Tensions when Adopting a New Approach to Teaching about Photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijkuakul, Sirinapa; Yutakom, Naruemon; Roadrangka, Vantipa

    2008-01-01

    This study examined a Thai biology teacher's creative tensions when she was challenged to adopt a new teaching approach to photosynthesis with her class. The teacher was purposively selected on her need of professional growth. Data from observations and interviews documented the tensions. The data indicated that the biology teacher experienced…

  16. The Teaching of Photosynthesis in Secondary School: A History of the Science Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Métioui, Abdeljalil; Matoussi, Fathi; Trudel, Louis

    2016-01-01

    In this article we present a synthesis of the research affecting pupils' conceptions of photosynthesis and plant nutrition. The main false conceptions of the pupils identified in this literature review are: that green plants find their food in the soil; that water and mineral salts are sufficient to the growth of a plant; the role of chlorophyll,…

  17. Problems Encountered in Teaching/Learning Integrated Photosynthesis: A Case of Ineffective Pedagogical Practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panijpan, Bhinyo; Ruenwongsa, Pintip; Sriwattanarothai, Namkang

    2008-01-01

    In this article we recount our experiences of teaching photosynthesis in an integrated way to secondary school students and teachers, science undergraduates and postgraduates. Conceptual questions were posed to investigate learners' fundamental understanding of simple light-dependent and light-independent processes taught to most students at…

  18. Diffusive boundary layers, photosynthesis, and respiration of the colony-forming plankton algae, Phaeocystis sp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, H.; Stolte, W.; Epping, EHG;

    1999-01-01

    Diffusive boundary layers, photosynthesis, and respiration in Phaeocystis colonies were studied by the use of microelectrodes for oxygen and pH during a bloom in the Barents Sea, 1993, and in the Marsdiep, Dutch North Sea, 1994. The oxygen microenvironment of a Phaeocystis colony with a mean diam...

  19. In situ impact of solar ultraviolet radiation on photosynthesis and DNA in temperate marine phytoplankton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helbling, E.W; Buma, A.G.J.; de Boer, M.K.; Villafane, V

    2001-01-01

    In situ experiments were conducted at various depths in the water column to determine the impact of solar UV radiation (280 to 400 nm) upon photosynthesis and DNA of natural phytoplankton assemblages from mid-latitudes of Patagonia (Bahia Bustamante, Chubut, Argentina; 45 degreesS, 66.5 degreesW). T

  20. The role of photosynthesis and food uptake for the growth of marine mixotrophic dinoflagellates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per Juel

    2011-01-01

    Mixotrophy (i.e. combined use of photosynthesis and food uptake for growth) is widespread among marine dinoflagellates. Species with permanent chloroplasts generally display a growth response towards irradiance like an ordinary autotrophic alga. However, some species cannot grow in the light on a...

  1. Growth in elevated CO{sub 2} enhances temperature response of photosynthesis in wheat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, A.; Perez, P.; Martinez-Carrasco, R. (Inst. of Natural Resources and Agrobiology of Salamanca, CSIC (Spain))

    2009-07-01

    The temperature dependence of C{sub 3} photosynthesis may be altered by the growth environment. The effects of long-term growth in elevated CO{sub 2} on photosynthesis temperature response have been investigated in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grown in controlled chambers with 370 or 700 mumol mol-1 CO{sub 2} from sowing through to anthesis. Gas exchange was measured in flag leaves at ear emergence, and the parameters of a biochemical photosynthesis model were determined along with their temperature responses. Elevated CO{sub 2} slightly decreased the CO{sub 2} compensation point and increased the rate of respiration in the light and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) V{sub cmax}, although the latter effect was reversed at 15 degrees C. With elevated CO{sub 2}, J{sub max} decreased in the 15-25 degrees C temperature range and increased at 30 and 35 degrees C. The temperature response (activation energy) of V{sub cmax} and J{sub max} increased with growth in elevated CO{sub 2}. CO{sub 2} enrichment decreased the ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP)-limited photosynthesis rates at lower temperatures and increased Rubisco- and RuBP-limited rates at higher temperatures. The results show that the photosynthesis temperature response is enhanced by growth in elevated CO{sub 2}. We conclude that if temperature acclimation and factors such as nutrients or water availability do not modify or negate this enhancement, the effects of future increases in air CO{sub 2} on photosynthetic electron transport and Rubisco kinetics may improve the photosynthetic response of wheat to global warming. (au)

  2. Intraspecific variation in thermal acclimation of photosynthesis across a range of temperatures in a perennial crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaka, Serge; Frak, Ela; Julier, Bernadette; Gastal, François; Louarn, Gaëtan

    2016-01-01

    Interest in the thermal acclimation of photosynthesis has been stimulated by the increasing relevance of climate change. However, little is known about intra-specific variations in thermal acclimation and its potential for breeding. In this article, we examined the difference in thermal acclimation between alfalfa (Medicago sativa) cultivars originating from contrasting origins, and sought to analyze the mechanisms in play. A series of experiments was carried out at seven growth temperatures between 5 and 35 °C using four cultivars from temperate and Mediterranean origin. Leaf traits, the photosynthetic rate at 25 °C (A400 (25)), the photosynthetic rate at optimal temperature (A400 (opt)), the thermal optimum of photosynthesis (Topt), and the photosynthetic parameters from the Farqhuar model were determined. Irrespective of cultivar origin, a clear shift in the temperature responses of photosynthesis was observed as a function of growth temperature, affecting thermal optimum of photosynthesis, photosynthetic rate at optimal temperature and photosynthetic rate at 25 °C. For both cultivars, Topt values increased linearly in leaves grown between 5 and 35 °C. Relative homeostasis of A400 (25) and A400 (opt) was found between 10 °C and 30 °C growth temperatures, but sharp declines were recorded at 5 and 35 °C. This homeostasis was achieved in part through modifications to leaf nitrogen content, which increased at extreme temperatures. Significant changes were also recorded regarding nitrogen partitioning in the photosynthetic apparatus and in the temperature dependence of photosynthetic parameters. The cultivars differed only in terms of the temperature response of photosynthetic parameters, with Mediterranean genotypes displaying a greater sensitivity of the maximum rate of Rubisco carboxylation to elevated temperatures. It was concluded that intra-specific variations in the temperature acclimation of photosynthesis exist among alfalfa cultivars

  3. Suppression of nighttime sap flux with lower stem photosynthesis in Eucalyptus trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jianguo; Zhou, Juan; Sun, Zhenwei; Niu, Junfeng; Zhou, Cuiming; Gu, Daxing; Huang, Yuqing; Zhao, Ping

    2016-04-01

    It is widely accepted that substantial nighttime sap flux ( J s,n) or transpiration ( E) occurs in most plants, but the physiological implications are poorly known. It has been hypothesized that J s,n or E serves to enhance nitrogen uptake or deliver oxygen; however, no clear evidence is currently available. In this study, sap flux ( J s) in Eucalyptus grandis × urophylla with apparent stem photosynthesis was measured, including control trees which were covered by aluminum foil (approximately 1/3 of tree height) to block stem photosynthesis. We hypothesized that the nighttime water flux would be suppressed in trees with lower stem photosynthesis. The results showed that the green tissue degraded after 3 months, demonstrating a decrease in stem photosynthesis. The daytime J s decreased by 21.47 %, while J s,n decreased by 12.03 % in covered trees as compared to that of control, and the difference was statistically significant ( P photosynthesis in covered trees. Predawn ( ψ pd) of covered trees was marginally higher than that of control while lower at predawn stomatal conductance ( g s), indicating a suppressed water flux in covered trees. There was no difference in leaf carbon content and δ13C between the two groups, while leaf nitrogen content and δ15N were significantly higher in covered trees than that of the control ( P < 0.05), indicating that J s,n was not used for nitrogen uptake. These results suggest that J s,n may act as an oxygen pathway since green tissue has a higher respiration or oxygen demand than non-green tissue. Thus, this study demonstrated the physiological implications of J s,n and the possible benefits of nighttime water use or E by the tree.

  4. Photosynthesis Activates Plasma Membrane H+-ATPase via Sugar Accumulation1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Masaki; Inoue, Shin-ichiro; Kuwata, Keiko

    2016-01-01

    Plant plasma membrane H+-ATPase acts as a primary transporter via proton pumping and regulates diverse physiological responses by controlling secondary solute transport, pH homeostasis, and membrane potential. Phosphorylation of the penultimate threonine and the subsequent binding of 14-3-3 proteins in the carboxyl terminus of the enzyme are required for H+-ATPase activation. We showed previously that photosynthesis induces phosphorylation of the penultimate threonine in the nonvascular bryophyte Marchantia polymorpha. However, (1) whether this response is conserved in vascular plants and (2) the process by which photosynthesis regulates H+-ATPase phosphorylation at the plasma membrane remain unresolved issues. Here, we report that photosynthesis induced the phosphorylation and activation of H+-ATPase in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaves via sugar accumulation. Light reversibly phosphorylated leaf H+-ATPase, and this process was inhibited by pharmacological and genetic suppression of photosynthesis. Immunohistochemical and biochemical analyses indicated that light-induced phosphorylation of H+-ATPase occurred autonomously in mesophyll cells. We also show that the phosphorylation status of H+-ATPase and photosynthetic sugar accumulation in leaves were positively correlated and that sugar treatment promoted phosphorylation. Furthermore, light-induced phosphorylation of H+-ATPase was strongly suppressed in a double mutant defective in ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and triose phosphate/phosphate translocator (adg1-1 tpt-2); these mutations strongly inhibited endogenous sugar accumulation. Overall, we show that photosynthesis activated H+-ATPase via sugar production in the mesophyll cells of vascular plants. Our work provides new insight into signaling from chloroplasts to the plasma membrane ion transport mechanism. PMID:27016447

  5. Interactions between Photosynthesis and Respiration in the Green Alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Characterization of Light-Enhanced Dark Respiration).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, X.; Gauthier, D. A.; Turpin, D. H.; Weger, H. G.

    1996-11-01

    The rate of respiratory O2 consumption by Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cell suspensions was greater after a period of photosynthesis than in the preceding dark period. This "light-enhanced dark respiration" (LEDR) was a function of both the duration of illumination and the photon fluence rate. Mass spectrometric measurements of gas exchange indicated that the rate of gross respiratory O2 consumption increased during photosynthesis, whereas gross respiratory CO2 production decreased in a photon fluence rate-dependent manner. The rate of postillumination O2 consumption provided a good measure of the O2 consumption rate in the light. LEDR was substantially decreased by the presence of 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea or glycolaldehyde, suggesting that LEDR was photosynthesis-dependent. The onset of photosynthesis resulted in an increase in the cellular levels of phosphoglycerate, malate, and phosphoenolpyruvate, and a decrease in whole-cell ATP and citrate levels; all of these changes were rapidly reversed upon darkening. These results are consistent with a decrease in the rate of respiratory carbon flow during photosynthesis, whereas the increase in respiratory O2 consumption during photosynthesis may be mediated by the export of photogenerated reductant from the chloroplast. We suggest that photosynthesis interacts with respiration at more than one level, simultaneously decreasing the rate of respiratory carbon flow while increasing the rate of respiratory O2 consumption. PMID:12226429

  6. Changes in leaf area, nitrogen content and canopy photosynthesis in soybean exposed to an ozone concentration gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikawa, Shimpei; Ainsworth, Elizabeth A

    2016-08-01

    Influences of ozone (O3) on light-saturated rates of photosynthesis in crop leaves have been well documented. To increase our understanding of O3 effects on individual- or stand level productivity, a mechanistic understanding of factors determining canopy photosynthesis is necessary. We used a canopy model to scale photosynthesis from leaf to canopy, and analyzed the importance of canopy structural and leaf ecophysiological characteristics in determining canopy photosynthesis in soybean stands exposed to 9 concentrations of [O3] (37-116 ppb; 9-h mean). Light intensity and N content peaked in upper canopy layers, and sharply decreased through the lower canopy. Plant leaf area decreased with increasing [O3] allowing for greater light intensity to reach lower canopy levels. At the leaf level, light-saturated photosynthesis decreased and dark respiration increased with increasing [O3]. These data were used to calculate daily net canopy photosynthesis (Pc). Pc decreased with increasing [O3] with an average decrease of 10% for an increase in [O3] of 10 ppb, and which was similar to changes in above-ground dry mass production of the stands. Absolute daily net photosynthesis of lower layers was very low and thus the decrease in photosynthesis in the lower canopy caused by elevated [O3] had only minor significance for total canopy photosynthesis. Sensitivity analyses revealed that the decrease in Pc was associated with changes in leaf ecophysiology but not with decrease in leaf area. The soybean stands were very crowded, the leaves were highly mutually shaded, and sufficient light for positive carbon balance did not penetrate to lower canopy leaves, even under elevated [O3]. PMID:27261884

  7. Influence of metabolites from the glycolate on the intensity of photosynthesis in C3 and C4-plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experiments described are the result of the influence of photorespiratory metabolites on the intensity of photosynthesis in leaf discs from pisum (C3) and maize (C4) plants. Pisum protoplasts are also used. The discs are dried and exposed in a closed system in an atmosphere of 14CO2. Fixation of 14CO2 is determined in the reaction medium. The total radioactivity is measured. The inhibition of glycolate synthesis, photorespiration is accompanied by a rise in net photosynthesis. The positive effect of glycolic acid on photosynthesis is undoubtedly determined by the established stimulating action on the enzyme RuBPC (ribulosediphosphate carboxylase). (author)

  8. Relationship between stomatal behavior and characteristics of photosynthesis and transpiration of Adenophora Iobophylla and A. potaninii at different altitudes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Shu rong; Yan Xiufeng; Zu Yuangang

    1999-01-01

    The photosynthesis and transpiration characteristics ofAdenophora Iobophylla and A. potaninii, as well as stomatal behavior such as stomatal size, stomatal density, stomatal open and stomatal conductivity were measured at different altitudes. The relationship between the photosynthesis and transpiration characteristics and the stomatal behavior was analysed by correlation coefficient and path coefficient analysis with altitude changes.The results showed that the influences of stomatal behavior were not evident on the photosynthesis and transpiration characteristics of A. Lobophylla, but evident on that of A. potaninii.

  9. Biosolar cells: global artificial photosynthesis needs responsive matrices with quantum coherent kinetic control for high yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purchase, R L; de Groot, H J M

    2015-06-01

    This contribution discusses why we should consider developing artificial photosynthesis with the tandem approach followed by the Dutch BioSolar Cells consortium, a current operational paradigm for a global artificial photosynthesis project. We weigh the advantages and disadvantages of a tandem converter against other approaches, including biomass. Owing to the low density of solar energy per unit area, artificial photosynthetic systems must operate at high efficiency to minimize the land (or sea) area required. In particular, tandem converters are a much better option than biomass for densely populated countries and use two photons per electron extracted from water as the raw material into chemical conversion to hydrogen, or carbon-based fuel when CO2 is also used. For the average total light sum of 40 mol m(-2) d(-1) for The Netherlands, the upper limits are many tons of hydrogen or carbon-based fuel per hectare per year. A principal challenge is to forge materials for quantitative conversion of photons to chemical products within the physical limitation of an internal potential of ca 2.9 V. When going from electric charge in the tandem to hydrogen and back to electricity, only the energy equivalent to 1.23 V can be stored in the fuel and regained. A critical step is then to learn from nature how to use the remaining difference of ca 1.7 V effectively by triple use of one overpotential for preventing recombination, kinetic stabilization of catalytic intermediates and finally generating targeted heat for the release of oxygen. Probably the only way to achieve this is by using bioinspired responsive matrices that have quantum-classical pathways for a coherent conversion of photons to fuels, similar to what has been achieved by natural selection in evolution. In appendix A for the expert, we derive a propagator that describes how catalytic reactions can proceed coherently by a convergence of time scales of quantum electron dynamics and classical nuclear dynamics. We

  10. Intramolecular isotope distributions reveal lower than expected increases in photosynthesis over the past 200 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Ina; Augusti, Angela; Köhler, Iris; Zuidema, Pieter; Robertson, Iain; Nilsson, Mats; Schleucher, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    The ability of the biosphere to act as CO2 sink through photosynthesis strongly influences future atmospheric CO2 concentrations and crop productivity. However, plant responses to increasing atmospheric CO2 are poorly understood, in particular on time scales of decades that are most relevant for the global carbon cycle. Most plants in the global terrestrial vegetation and most crops use the C3 photosynthetic pathway. Photorespiration is a side reaction of C3 photosynthesis that reduces CO2 assimilation in all C3 plants. By studying intramolecular isotope distributions (isotopomer abundances) in century-long archives of plant material, we reconstruct how the atmospheric CO2 increase since industrialization has changed the ratio of photorespiration to photosynthesis. For 12 tree species from five continents, we observe that the CO2 increase has reduced the photorespiration / photosynthesis ratio. However, the observed reduction is on average 50 % smaller than expected from CO2 manipulation experiments. This apparent discrepancy is explained by results from a factorial CO2 / temperature manipulation experiment, which shows that isotopomers reflect the integrated effect of CO2 and temperature on the photorespiration / photosynthesis ratio. Thus, the 50 % smaller suppression of photorespiration in trees is explained by increases in leaf temperature of 2 ° C, due to global warming and a possible contribution of reduced transpirational cooling due to stomatal closure. Previous studies of long-term effects of increasing CO2 on trees have measured 13C fractionation of leaf gas exchange (Δ13C) in tree-ring series. In several studies a discrepancy was observed: strong historic increases in photosynthesis are estimated, but increases in biomass are not observed. The temperature influence revealed by our isotopomer data resolves this discrepancy; the lower estimate of CO2 fertilization has major implications for the future role of forests as CO2 sink and for vegetation

  11. Effects of UV-B radiation on photosynthesis and transpiration in leaves and pods of two yellow lupine varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changes in the rates of photosynthesis and transpiration, and the greenness index (SPAD) were studied in a pot experiment performed on leaves of two morphological types of yellow lupine, under conditions of differentiated UV-B radiation. The rates of photosynthesis and transpiration, stomatal conductance, and concentration of intercellular CO2 were also measured in pods of two yellow lupine varieties tested in the study. It was found that the intensity of UV-B irradiation, in a range from 1.8 to 4.5 W/square m, administered over the entire vegetation season, did not reduce the level of leaf photosynthesis in the two yellow lupine varieties. It was also reported that photosynthesis rate in yellow lupine pods, measured as a level of CO2 assimilation, assumed negative values, which indicates that the amount of gas liberated to the atmosphere was higher than its uptake

  12. Role of food uptake for photosynthesis, growth and survival of the mixotrophic dinoflagellate Dinophysis acuminata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgaard, Karen; Hansen, Per Juel

    2009-01-01

    Dinophysis acuminata is a mixotrophic dinoflagellate frequently causing diarrhetic shellfish poisoning. D. acuminata was isolated from Danish coastal waters and cultivated using the mixotrophic ciliate Mesodinium rubrum as prey. The roles of food uptake and photosynthesis for the growth and...

  13. Impact of elevated CO2 concentration on dynamics of leaf photosynthesis in Fagus sylvatica is modulated by sky conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Urban, Otmar; Klem, Karel; Holišová, Petra; Šigut, Ladislav; Šprtová, Miroslava; Teslová-Navrátilová, P.; Zitová, Martina; Špunda, Vladimír; Marek, Michal V.; Grace, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 185, FEB 2014 (2014), s. 271-280. ISSN 0269-7491 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2010007; GA ČR(CZ) GAP501/10/0340 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : diurnal dynamics * DEPS * european beech * fluorescence * photorespiration * stomatal conductance * xanthophylls Subject RIV: GK - Forestry Impact factor: 4.143, year: 2014

  14. Photon-blockade as protection in photosynthesis Antenna with cyclic structures

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Hui; Yi, Zhenhuan; Agarwal, Girish S; Scully, Marlan O

    2016-01-01

    Excess energy absorbed by the light-harvesting antennas could be potentially harmful to the photosynthesis complexes. The biological system has developed various mechanisms, e.g. non-photon chemical quenching, to prevent these damages by dissipating energy into the surrounding environment. In additional to this well-known mechanism, we hypothesise a new protection mechanism of suppressing the probability of double excitation in photosynthesis system, where pigment-protein complexes form cyclic structures with dipole-dipole interaction between adjacent chlorophylls. We also demonstrate robustness of the photon blockade against the disorder in the ring structures. The photon blockade can explain the recent observation on the suppression of simultaneous emission of two photons in natural photosynthetic antennas.

  15. Photosynthesis and growth responses of pea Pisum sativum L. under heavy metals stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sabrine Hattab; Boutheina Dridi; Lassad Chouba; Mohamed Ben Kheder; Hamadi Bousetta

    2009-01-01

    The present work aims to study the physiological effects of cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) in pea (Pisum sativum).Pea plants were exposed to increasing doses of cadmium chloride (CdCl_2) and copper chloride (CuCl_2) for 20 d.The examined parameters,namely root and shoot lengths,the concentration of photosynthetic pigments and the rate of photosynthesis were affected by the treatments especially with high metals concentrations.The analysis of heavy metals accumulation shows that leaves significantly accumulate cadmium for all the tested concentrations.However,copper was significantly accumulated only with the highest tested dose.This may explain the higher inhibitory effects of cadmium on photosynthesis and growth in pea plants.These results are valuable for understanding the biological consequences of heavy metals contamination particularly in soils devoted to organic agriculture.

  16. Photoinhibition of photosynthesis in a sun and a shade species of the red algal genus Porphyra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbert, S.K.; Waaland, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    Gametophytes of two species of Porphyra collected around San Juan Island, Washington in 1986 and acclimated to low light conditions in culture showed different resistances to photoinhibition of photosynthesis. The intertidal species P. perforata J. Agardh exhibited photoinhibition at onethird the rate exhibited by the subtidal species P. nereocystis Anderson following treatments at 2000 ..mu..mol photons m/sup -2/ s/sup -1/ under conditions of full hydration and optimal temperature. The greater resistance of P. perforata to photoinhibition could not be attributed to reduced photosynthetic pigment concentration, higher photosynthetic capacity, avoidance of light by chloroplast movement or to enhanced rates of photorespiration. Total carotenoid concentrations were similar in the two species. It is probable that the mechanisms of this resistance are operating at the level of the thylakoid membranes. Resistance to photoinhibition represents an adaption of photosynthesis in P. perforata which may contribute to its persistance in the extreme environment of its intertidal habitat.

  17. Merging metabolism and power: development of a novel photobioelectric device driven by photosynthesis and respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Ryan J; White, Ryan; Hill, Russell T

    2014-01-01

    Generation of renewable energy is one of the grand challenges facing our society. We present a new bio-electric technology driven by chemical gradients generated by photosynthesis and respiration. The system does not require pure cultures nor particular species as it works with the core metabolic principles that define phototrophs and heterotrophs. The biology is interfaced with electrochemistry with an alkaline aluminum oxide cell design. In field trials we show the system is robust and can work with an undefined natural microbial community. Power generated is light and photosynthesis dependent. It achieved a peak power output of 33 watts/m(2) electrode. The design is simple, low cost and works with the biological processes driving the system by removing waste products that can impede growth. This system is a new class of bio-electric device and may have practical implications for algal biofuel production and powering remote sensing devices. PMID:24466132

  18. Direct measurement and characterization of active photosynthesis zones inside biofuel producing and wastewater remediating microalgal biofilms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, Hans C.; Kesaano, Maureen; Moll, Karen; Smith, Terence; Gerlach, Robin; Carlson, Ross; Miller, Charles D.; Peyton, Brent; Cooksey, Keith; Gardner, Robert D.; Sims, Ronald C.

    2014-03-01

    Abstract: Microalgal biofilm based technologies are of keen interest due to their high biomass concentrations and ability to utilize renewable resources, such as light and CO2. While photoautotrophic biofilms have long been used for wastewater remediation applications, biofuel production represents a relatively new and under-represented focus area. However, the direct measurement and characterization of fundamental parameters required for physiological analyses are challenging due to biofilm heterogeneity. This study evaluated oxygenic photosynthesis and biofuel precursor molecule production using a novel rotating algal biofilm reactor (RABR) operated at field- and laboratory-scales for wastewater remediation and biofuel production, respectively. Clear differences in oxygenic-photosynthesis, respiration and biofuel-precursor capacities were observed between the two systems and different conditions based on light and nitrogen availability. Nitrogen depletion was not found to have the same effect on lipid accumulation compared to prior planktonic studies. Physiological characterizations of these microalgal biofilms identify potential areas for future process optimization.

  19. Computational Research Needs for Renewable and Alternative Energy: Studies of Natural and Artificial Photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Victor

    2009-03-01

    The atomspheric oxygen that sustains life on earth has been generated by plants during the light period of photosynthesis. At the molecular level, the reaction involves catalytic water splitting into dioxygen, protons and electrons in the subunit D1 of photosystem II (a transmembrane complex of about 20 proteins found in the thylakoid membranes of green plant chloroplasts). Both the reaction mechanism and the structure of the catalytic center responsible for this important reaction remain poorly understood. This talk will present recent advances in experimental and computational studies towards the development of rigorous models of the oxomangenese catalytic complex and the catalytic cycle responsible for oxygen evolution, as well as recent progress on studies of biomimetic systems for artificial photosynthesis.

  20. Chlorophyll fluorescence, Orbital and Photosynthesis: practical activities integrating concepts of Chemistry, Physics and Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elgion Lucio da Silva Loreto

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available These laboratory activities explore the relationship between the reserve of energy that occur during photosynthesis and the chlorophyll fluorescence emission when in solution as opposed to absence of fluorescence when the chlorophyll are in intact chloroplasts. This proposal can be used as short demo or as  activities with longer duration, to show chlorophyll's properties associated with the photosynthesis. The materials proposed for the implementation of the activities are simple, and possible to building it by the students, enabling the development of various skills and experimental proposals. The protocols are based on observations and record key questions to continue the execution. During the activities, questions promotes pauses for moments of reflection and review of concepts. At the end are presented and discussed proposals for development of interdisciplinary projects.