WorldWideScience

Sample records for anonymous nuclear markers

  1. Anonymous nuclear markers reveal taxonomic incongruence and long-term disjunction in a cactus species complex with continental-island distribution in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Manolo F; Carstens, Bryan C; Rodrigues, Gustavo L; Moraes, Evandro M

    2016-02-01

    The Pilosocereus aurisetus complex consists of eight cactus species with a fragmented distribution associated to xeric enclaves within the Cerrado biome in eastern South America. The phylogeny of these species is incompletely resolved, and this instability complicates evolutionary analyses. Previous analyses based on both plastid and microsatellite markers suggested that this complex contained species with inherent phylogeographic structure, which was attributed to recent diversification and recurring range shifts. However, limitations of the molecular markers used in these analyses prevented some questions from being properly addressed. In order to better understand the relationship among these species and make a preliminary assessment of the genetic structure within them, we developed anonymous nuclear loci from pyrosequencing data of 40 individuals from four species in the P. aurisetus complex. The data obtained from these loci were used to identify genetic clusters within species, and to investigate the phylogenetic relationship among these inferred clusters using a species tree methodology. Coupled with a palaeodistributional modelling, our results reveal a deep phylogenetic and climatic disjunction between two geographic lineages. Our results highlight the importance of sampling more regions from the genome to gain better insights on the evolution of species with an intricate evolutionary history. The methodology used here provides a feasible approach to develop numerous genealogical molecular markers throughout the genome for non-model species. These data provide a more robust hypothesis for the relationship among the lineages of the P. aurisetus complex.

  2. Genetic structure of wild emmer wheat populations as reflected by transcribed versus anonymous SSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, Zvi; Fahima, Tzion; Abbo, Shahal; Krugman, Tamar; Saranga, Yehoshua

    2008-03-01

    Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers have become a major tool in population genetic analyses. The anonymous genomic SSRs (gSSRs) have been recently supplemented with expressed sequence tag (EST) derived SSRs (eSSRs), which represent the transcribed regions of the genome. In the present study, we used 8 populations of wild emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum subsp. dicoccoides) to compare the usefulness of the two types of SSR markers in assessing allelic diversity and population structure. gSSRs revealed significantly higher diversity than eSSRs in terms of average number of alleles (14.92 vs. 7.4, respectively), polymorphic information content (0.87 vs. 0.68, respectively), and gene diversity (He; 0.55 vs. 0.38, respectively). Despite the overall differences in the level of diversity, Mantel tests for correlations between eSSR and gSSR pairwise genetic distances were found to be significant for each population as well as for all accessions jointly (RM=0.54, p=0.01). Various genetic structure analyses (AMOVA, PCoA, STRUCTURE, unrooted UPGMA tree) revealed a better capacity of eSSRs to distinguish between populations, while gSSRs showed a higher proportion of intrapopulation (among accessions) diversity. We conclude that eSSR and gSSR markers should be employed in conjunction to obtain a high inter- and intra-specific (or inter- and intra-varietal) distinctness.

  3. Anonymous Gossiping

    CERN Document Server

    Datta, Anwitaman

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a novel gossiping primitive to support privacy preserving data analytics (PPDA). In contrast to existing computational PPDA primitives such as secure multiparty computation and data randomization based approaches, the proposed primitive `anonymous gossiping' is a communication primitive for privacy preserving personalized information aggregation complementing such traditional computational analytics. We realize this novel primitive by composing existing gossiping mechanisms for peer sampling & information aggregation and onion routing technique for establishing anonymous communication. This is more an `ideas' paper, rather than providing concrete and quantified results.

  4. Anonymous Gossiping

    OpenAIRE

    Datta, Anwitaman

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a novel gossiping primitive to support privacy preserving data analytics (PPDA). In contrast to existing computational PPDA primitives such as secure multiparty computation and data randomization based approaches, the proposed primitive `anonymous gossiping' is a communication primitive for privacy preserving personalized information aggregation complementing such traditional computational analytics. We realize this novel primitive by composing existing gossiping me...

  5. Against anonymity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Robert

    2014-05-01

    In 'New Threats to Academic Freedom' Francesca Minerva argues that anonymity for the authors of controversial articles is a prerequisite for academic freedom in the Internet age. This argument draws its intellectual and emotional power from the author's account of the reaction to the on-line publication of ' After-birth abortion: why should the baby live?'--an article that provoked cascades of hostile postings and e-mails. Reflecting on these events, Minerva proposes that publishers should offer the authors of controversial articles the option of publishing their articles anonymously. This response reviews the history of anonymous publication and concludes that its reintroduction in the Internet era would recreate problems similar to those that led print journals to abandon the practice: corruption of scholarly discourse by invective and hate speech, masked conflicts of interest, and a diminution of editorial accountability. It also contends that Minerva misreads the intent of the hostile e-mails provoked by 'After-birth abortion,' and that ethicists who publish controversial articles should take responsibility by dialoguing with their critics--even those whose critiques are emotionally charged and hostile.

  6. Group Anonymity

    CERN Document Server

    Chertov, Oleg; 10.1007/978-3-642-14058-7_61

    2010-01-01

    In recent years the amount of digital data in the world has risen immensely. But, the more information exists, the greater is the possibility of its unwanted disclosure. Thus, the data privacy protection has become a pressing problem of the present time. The task of individual privacy-preserving is being thoroughly studied nowadays. At the same time, the problem of statistical disclosure control for collective (or group) data is still open. In this paper we propose an effective and relatively simple (wavelet-based) way to provide group anonymity in collective data. We also provide a real-life example to illustrate the method.

  7. Anonymous marker loci within 400 kb of HLA-A generate haplotypes in linkage disequilibrium with the hemochromatosis gene (HFE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaouanq, J.; Perichon, M.; Treut, A.L.; Kahloun, A.E.; Mauvieux, V.; Blayau, M.; Jouanolle, A.M.; Chauvel, B.; Le Gall, J.Y.; David, V. (Faculte de Medicine, Rennes (France)) (and others)

    1994-02-01

    The hemochromatosis gene (HFE) maps to 6p21.3 and is less than 1 cM from the HLA class I gene; however, the precise physical location of the gene has remained elusive and controversial. The unambiguous identification of a crossover event within hemochromatosis families is very difficult; it is particularly hampered by the variability of the phenotypic expression as well as by the sex- and age-related penetrance of the disease. For these considerations, traditional linkage analysis could prove of limited value in further refining the extrapolated physical position of HFE. The authors therefore embarked upon a linkage-disequilibrium analysis of HFE and normal chromosomes for the Brittany population. In this report, 66 hemochromatosis families yielding 151 hemochromatosis chromosomes and 182 normal chromosomes were RFLP-typed with a battery of probes, including two newly derived polymorphic markers from the 6.7 and HLA-F loci located 150 and 250 kb telomeric to HLA-A, respectively. The results suggest a strong peak of existing linkage disequilibrium focused within the i82-to-6.7 interval (approximately 250 kb). The zone of linkage disequilibrium is flanked by the i97 locus, positioned 30 kb proximal to i82, and the HLA-F gene, found 250 kb distal to HLA-A, markers of which display no significant association with HFE. These data support the possibility that HFE resides within the 400-kb expanse of DNA between i97 and HLA-F. Alternatively, the very tight association of HLA-A3 and allele 1 of the 6.7 locus, both of which are comprised by the major ancestral or founder HFE haplotype in Brittany, supports the possibility that the disease gene may reside immediately telomeric to the 6.7 locus within the linkage-disequilibrium zone. Additionally, hemochromatosis haplotypes possessing HLA-A11 and the low-frequency HLA-F polymorphism (allele 2) are supportive of a separate founder chromosome containing a second, independently arising mutant allele. 69 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  8. Anonymity in voting revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, Hugo; Pieters, Wolter; Chaum, David; Jakobsson, Markus; Rivest, Ronald L.; Ryan, Peter Y.A.; Benaloh, Josh; Kutylowski, Miroslaw; Adida, Ben

    2010-01-01

    According to international law, anonymity of the voter is a fundamental precondition for democratic elections. In electronic voting, several aspects of voter anonymity have been identified. In this paper, we re-examine anonymity with respect to voting, and generalise existing notions of anonymity in

  9. An overview of anonymity and anonymous communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koot, M.

    2008-01-01

    Privacy is becoming an increasingly important aspect in distributed systems. In anonymous communication, privacy is provided to communicating parties by hiding their identities from each other and/or from others. This paper discusses the problem of anonymous communication and clarifies the notion of

  10. Anonymity in Voting Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, Hugo; Pieters, Wolter

    According to international law, anonymity of the voter is a fundamental precondition for democratic elections. In electronic voting, several aspects of voter anonymity have been identified. In this paper, we re-examine anonymity with respect to voting, and generalise existing notions of anonymity in e-voting. First, we identify and categorise the types of attack that can be a threat to anonymity of the voter, including different types of vote buying and coercion. This analysis leads to a categorisation of anonymity in voting in terms of a) the strength of the anonymity achieved and b) the extent of interaction between voter and attacker. Some of the combinations, including weak and strong receipt-freeness, are formalised in epistemic logic.

  11. Anonymizing Unstructured Data

    CERN Document Server

    Motwani, Rajeev

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we consider the problem of anonymizing datasets in which each individual is associated with a set of items that constitute private information about the individual. Illustrative datasets include market-basket datasets and search engine query logs. We formalize the notion of k-anonymity for set-valued data as a variant of the k-anonymity model for traditional relational datasets. We define an optimization problem that arises from this definition of anonymity and provide a constant factor approximation algorithm for the same. We evaluate our algorithms on the America Online query log dataset.

  12. Anonymization of Court Orders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Povlsen, Claus; Jongejan, Bart; Hansen, Dorte Haltrup;

    We describe an anonymization tool that was commissioned by and specified together with Schultz, a publishing company specialized in Danish law related publications. Unavailability of training data and the need to guarantee compliance with pre-existing anonymization guidelines forced us to implement...

  13. Deniable Anonymous Group Authentication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-13

    electronic mail, return addresses, and digital pseudonyms. Communications of the ACM, 24:84–88, February 1981. [16] D. Chaum. Blind signatures for...ASIACRYPT, 2004. [59] P. P. Tsang and V. K. Wei. Short linkable ring signatures for e- voting , e-cash and attestation. In ’05 ISPEC, 2005. [60] D. I...which we term anonymity, proportionality, forward anonymity, and deniability. Like ring signatures [50], DAGA allows a user to au- thenticate as an

  14. Anonymous Mobile Payment Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alhaj Ali Jalila

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The evolution and increasing popularity of mobile handheld devices has led to the development of payment applications. The global acceptance of mobile payments is hindered by security and privacy concerns. One of the main problems evoked is the anonymity related with banking transactions. In this paper I propose a new secured architecture for mobile banking. Anonymity and privacy protection are the measures to be enhanced in order to satisfy people’s current needs. The banking platform must provide the highest level of security for messages exchanged between bank and the customer.

  15. Anonymous Quantum Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassard, Gilles; Broadbent, Anne; Fitzsimons, Joseph; Gambs, Sébastien; Tapp, Alain

    We introduce the first protocol for the anonymous transmission of a quantum state that is information-theoretically secure against an active adversary, without any assumption on the number of corrupt participants. The anonymity of the sender and receiver is perfectly preserved, and the privacy of the quantum state is protected except with exponentially small probability. Even though a single corrupt participant can cause the protocol to abort, the quantum state can only be destroyed with exponentially small probability: if the protocol succeeds, the state is transferred to the receiver and otherwise it remains in the hands of the sender (provided the receiver is honest).

  16. Anonymous Authentication for Smartcards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hajny

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an innovative solution in the field of RFID (Radio-Frequency IDentification smartcard authentication. Currently the smartcards are used for many purposes - e.g. employee identification, library cards, student cards or even identity credentials. Personal identity is revealed to untrustworthy entities every time we use these cards. Such information could later be used without our knowledge and for harmful reasons like shopping pattern scanning or even movement tracking. We present a communication scheme for keeping one’s identity private in this paper. Although our system provides anonymity, it does not allow users to abuse this feature. The system is based on strong cryptographic primitives that provide features never available before. Besides theoretical design of the anonymous authentication scheme and its analysis we also provide implementation results.

  17. The Metadata Anonymization Toolkit

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This document summarizes the experience of Julien Voisin during the 2011 edition of the well-known \\emph{Google Summer of Code}. This project is a first step in the domain of metadata anonymization in Free Software. This article is articulated in three parts. First, a state of the art and a categorization of usual metadata, then the privacy policy is exposed/discussed in order to find the right balance between information lost and privacy enhancement. Finally, the specification of the Metadat...

  18. RAD-seq derived genome-wide nuclear markers resolve the phylogeny of tunas

    KAUST Repository

    Díaz-Arce, Natalia

    2016-06-07

    Although species from the genus Thunnus include some of the most commercially important and most severely overexploited fishes, the phylogeny of this genus is still unresolved, hampering evolutionary and traceability studies that could help improve conservation and management strategies for these species. Previous attempts based on mitochondrial and nuclear markers were unsuccessful in inferring a congruent and reliable phylogeny, probably due to mitochondrial introgression events and lack of enough phylogenetically informative markers. Here we infer the first genome-wide nuclear marker-based phylogeny of tunas using restriction site associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) data. Our results, derived from phylogenomic inferences obtained from 128 nucleotide matrices constructed using alternative data assembly procedures, support a single Thunnus evolutionary history that challenges previous assumptions based on morphological and molecular data.

  19. Characterization of nuclear microsatellite markers for Rumex bucephalophorus (Polygonaceae) using 454 sequencing1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viruel, Juan; Ortiz, Pedro L.; Arista, Montserrat; Talavera, María

    2015-01-01

    Premise of the study: Nuclear microsatellite markers were developed in Rumex bucephalophorus subsp. canariensis (Polygonaceae) to investigate its genetic diversity and structure. Methods and Results: Sixteen polymorphic microsatellite markers were obtained using 454 next-generation sequencing with di-, tri-, and tetranucleotide repeats. The average number of alleles was 5.688 and 3.813 for R. bucephalophorus subsp. canariensis var. canariensis and var. fruticescens, respectively. Slightly higher levels of mean genetic diversity were found in var. canariensis (expected heterozygosity = 0.600) than in var. fruticescens (expected heterozygosity = 0.514). Cross-amplifications in related taxa within R. bucephalophorus showed good amplification and polymorphic patterns. Conclusions: These 16 novel nuclear microsatellite markers are the first in the genus Rumex and may serve as valuable tools to carry out studies on genetic diversity and structure as well as progeny studies. PMID:26697279

  20. Molecular phylogeny of elasmobranchs inferred from mitochondrial and nuclear markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavan-Kumar, A; Gireesh-Babu, P; Babu, P P Suresh; Jaiswar, A K; Hari Krishna, V; Prasasd, K Pani; Chaudhari, Aparna; Raje, S G; Chakraborty, S K; Krishna, Gopal; Lakra, W S

    2014-01-01

    The elasmobranchs (sharks, rays and skates) being the extant survivors of one of the earliest offshoots of the vertebrate evolutionary tree are good model organisms to study the primitive vertebrate conditions. They play a significant role in maintaining the ecological balance and have high economic value. Due to over-exploitation and illegal fishing worldwide, the elasmobranch stocks are being decimated at an alarming rate. Appropriate management measures are necessary for restoring depleted elasmobranch stocks. One approach for restoring stocks is implementation of conservation measures and these measures can be formulated effectively by knowing the evolutionary relationship among the elasmobranchs. In this study, a total of 30 species were chosen for molecular phylogeny studies using mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, 12S ribosomal RNA gene and nuclear Internal Transcribed Spacer 2. Among different genes, the combined dataset of COI and 12S rRNA resulted in a well resolved tree topology with significant bootstrap/posterior probabilities values. The results supported the reciprocal monophyly of sharks and batoids. Within Galeomorphii, Heterodontiformes (bullhead sharks) formed as a sister group to Lamniformes (mackerel sharks): Orectolobiformes (carpet sharks) and to Carcharhiniformes (ground sharks). Within batoids, the Myliobatiformes formed a monophyly group while Pristiformes (sawfishes) and Rhinobatiformes (guitar fishes) formed a sister group to all other batoids.

  1. On Backward-Style Anonymity Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabe, Yoshinobu; Mano, Ken; Sakurada, Hideki; Tsukada, Yasuyuki

    Many Internet services and protocols should guarantee anonymity; for example, an electronic voting system should guarantee to prevent the disclosure of who voted for which candidate. To prove trace anonymity, which is an extension of the formulation of anonymity by Schneider and Sidiropoulos, this paper presents an inductive method based on backward anonymous simulations. We show that the existence of an image-finite backward anonymous simulation implies trace anonymity. We also demonstrate the anonymity verification of an e-voting protocol (the FOO protocol) with our backward anonymous simulation technique. When proving the trace anonymity, this paper employs a computer-assisted verification tool based on a theorem prover.

  2. Anonymous Broadcast Messages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Lazic

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Dining Cryptographer network (or DC-net is a privacy preserving communication protocol devised by David Chaum for anonymous message publication. A very attractive feature of DC-nets is the strength of its security, which is inherent in the protocol and is not dependent on other schemes, like encryption. Unfortunately the DC-net protocol has a level of complexity that causes it to suffer from exceptional communication overhead and implementation difficulty that precludes its use in many real-world use-cases. We have designed and created a DC-net implementation that uses a pure client-server model, which successfully avoids much of the complexity inherent in the DC-net protocol. We describe the theory of DC-nets and our pure client-server implementation, as well as the compromises that were made to reduce the protocol’s level of complexity. Discussion centers around the details of our implementation of DC-net.

  3. Probabilistic Anonymity and Admissible Schedulers

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia, Flavio D; Sokolova, Ana

    2007-01-01

    When studying safety properties of (formal) protocol models, it is customary to view the scheduler as an adversary: an entity trying to falsify the safety property. We show that in the context of security protocols, and in particular of anonymizing protocols, this gives the adversary too much power; for instance, the contents of encrypted messages and internal computations by the parties should be considered invisible to the adversary. We restrict the class of schedulers to a class of admissible schedulers which better model adversarial behaviour. These admissible schedulers base their decision solely on the past behaviour of the system that is visible to the adversary. Using this, we propose a definition of anonymity: for all admissible schedulers the identity of the users and the observations of the adversary are independent stochastic variables. We also develop a proof technique for typical cases that can be used to proof anonymity: a system is anonymous if it is possible to `exchange' the behaviour of two...

  4. Introgression evidence and phylogenetic relationships among three (ParaMisgurnus species as revealed by mitochondrial and nuclear DNA markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakovlić I.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The taxonomy of (ParaMisgurnus genera is still debated. We therefore used mitochondrial and nuclear DNA markers to analyze the phylogenetic relationships among Misgurnus anguillicaudatus, Paramisgurnus dabryanus and Misgurnus fossilis. Differing phylogenetic signals from mitochondrial and nuclear marker data suggest an introgression event in the history of M. anguillicaudatus and M. mohoity. No substantial genetic evidence was found that Paramisgurnus dabryanus should be classified as a separate genus.

  5. Nuclear SSR markers for Miscanthus, Saccharum, and related grasses (Saccharinae, Poaceae)1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodkinson, Trevor R.; de Cesare, Mariateresa; Barth, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    • Premise of the study: We developed nuclear simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers for the characterization of the biomass crop Miscanthus, especially M. sacchariflorus, M. sinensis, and M. ×giganteus, and tested for cross-species amplification. • Methods and Results: Twenty-nine SSR markers (di- and tetranucleotide repeats) were developed from DNA sequences obtained from 192 clones from an enriched genomic library of M. sinensis. All markers were successfully amplified in M. sacchariflorus, M. sinensis, and M. ×giganteus, and 19 amplified across a broad range of Miscanthus species. Polymorphism information content and expected heterozygosity values (19 locus sample) were 0.88 and 0.89, respectively, for M. sinensis, 0.48 and 0.54 for M. sacchariflorus, and were the lowest in M. ×giganteus (0.33, 0.41). Thirteen out of 19 primer pairs showed cross-species amplification in non-Miscanthus sensu stricto taxa. • Conclusions: The new set of 29 SSR markers will be of high value for characterizing Miscanthus germplasm collections, for prebreeding, and for assessing variation in natural populations. PMID:25202497

  6. Nuclear SSR Markers for Miscanthus, Saccharum, and Related Grasses (Saccharinae, Poaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor R. Hodkinson

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: We developed nuclear simple sequence repeat (SSR markers for the characterization of the biomass crop Miscanthus, especially M. sacchariflorus, M. sinensis, and M. ×giganteus, and tested for cross-species amplification. Methods and Results: Twenty-nine SSR markers (di- and tetranucleotide repeats were developed from DNA sequences obtained from 192 clones from an enriched genomic library of M. sinensis. All markers were successfully amplified in M. sacchariflorus, M. sinensis, and M. ×giganteus, and 19 amplified across a broad range of Miscanthus species. Polymorphism information content and expected heterozygosity values (19 locus sample were 0.88 and 0.89, respectively, for M. sinensis, 0.48 and 0.54 for M. sacchariflorus, and were the lowest in M. ×giganteus (0.33, 0.41. Thirteen out of 19 primer pairs showed cross-species amplification in non-Miscanthus sensu stricto taxa. Conclusions: The new set of 29 SSR markers will be of high value for characterizing Miscanthus germplasm collections, for prebreeding, and for assessing variation in natural populations.

  7. Detection of cell type and marker specificity of nuclear binding sites for anionic carbohydrate ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chovanec, M; Smetana, K; Purkrábková, T; Holíková, Z; Dvoránková, B; André, S; Pytlík, R; Hozák, P; Plzák, J; Sedo, A; Vacík, J; Gabius, H

    2004-01-01

    The emerging functionality of glycosaminoglycan chains engenders interest in localizing specific binding sites using cytochemical tools. We investigated nuclear binding of labeled heparin, heparan sulfate, a sulfated fucan, chondroitin sulfate, and hyaluronic acid in epidermal keratinocytes, bone marrow stromal cells, 3T3 fibroblasts and glioma cells using chemically prepared biotinylated probes. Binding of the markers was cell-type specific and influenced by extraction of histones, but was not markedly affected by degree of proliferation, differentiation or malignancy. Cell uptake of labeled heparin and other selected probes and their transport into the nucleus also was monitored. Differences between keratinocytes and bone marrow stromal cells were found. Preincubation of permeabilized bone marrow stromal cells with label-free heparin reduced the binding of carrier-immobilized hydrocortisone to its nuclear receptors. Thus, these tools enabled binding sites for glycosaminoglycans to be monitored in routine assays.

  8. Nuclear translocation of glutathione transferase omega is a progression marker in Barrett's esophagus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piaggi, Simona; Marchi, Santino; Ciancia, Eugenio

    2009-01-01

    Barrett's esophagus (BE) represents a major risk factor for esophageal adenocarcinoma (AC). For this reason, patients with BE are subjected to a systematic endoscopic surveillance to detect initial evolution towards non-invasive neoplasia (NiN) and cancer, that eventually occurs only in a small f...... fraction of BE patients. This study was aimed to investigate the possible role of glutathione-S-transferase-omega 1 (GSTO1), a recently discovered member of the glutathione-S-transferase family, as a progression marker in the Barrett's disease in order to improve the diagnosis of Ni...... equally divided between nuclear, cytoplasmic and diffuse staining (2 each, respectively). Experiments in vitro showed that in human HeLa cancer cells, GSTO1 translocates into the nucleus as a consequence of heath shock. These findings suggested that the nuclear translocation of glutathione-S-transferase-omega...

  9. Transcriptome-mining for single-copy nuclear markers in ferns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl J Rothfels

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Molecular phylogenetic investigations have revolutionized our understanding of the evolutionary history of ferns-the second-most species-rich major group of vascular plants, and the sister clade to seed plants. The general absence of genomic resources available for this important group of plants, however, has resulted in the strong dependence of these studies on plastid data; nuclear or mitochondrial data have been rarely used. In this study, we utilize transcriptome data to design primers for nuclear markers for use in studies of fern evolutionary biology, and demonstrate the utility of these markers across the largest order of ferns, the Polypodiales. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We present 20 novel single-copy nuclear regions, across 10 distinct protein-coding genes: ApPEFP_C, cryptochrome 2, cryptochrome 4, DET1, gapCpSh, IBR3, pgiC, SQD1, TPLATE, and transducin. These loci, individually and in combination, show strong resolving power across the Polypodiales phylogeny, and are readily amplified and sequenced from our genomic DNA test set (from 15 diploid Polypodiales species. For each region, we also present transcriptome alignments of the focal locus and related paralogs-curated broadly across ferns-that will allow researchers to develop their own primer sets for fern taxa outside of the Polypodiales. Analyses of sequence data generated from our genomic DNA test set reveal strong effects of partitioning schemes on support levels and, to a much lesser extent, on topology. A model partitioned by codon position is strongly favored, and analyses of the combined data yield a Polypodiales phylogeny that is well-supported and consistent with earlier studies of this group. CONCLUSIONS: The 20 single-copy regions presented here more than triple the single-copy nuclear regions available for use in ferns. They provide a much-needed opportunity to assess plastid-derived hypotheses of relationships within the ferns, and increase our capacity to

  10. Mitochondrial Genome and Nuclear Markers Provide New Insight into the Evolutionary History of Macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Juan; Yu, Jianqiu; Li, Jing; Li, Peng; Fan, Zhenxin; Niu, Lili; Deng, Jiabo; Yue, Bisong; Li, Jing

    2016-01-01

    The evolutionary history of macaques, genus Macaca, has been under debate due to the short times of divergence. In this study, maternal, paternal, and biparental genetic systems were applied to infer phylogenetic relationships among macaques and to trace ancient hybridization events in their evolutionary history. Using a PCR display method, 17 newly phylogenetically informative Alu insertions were identified from M. assamensis. We combined presence/absence analysis of 84 Alu elements with mitochondrial genomes as well as nuclear sequences (five autosomal genes, two Y chromosomal genes, and one X chromosomal fragment) to reconstruct a robust macaque phylogeny. Topologies generated from different inherited markers were similar supporting six well defined species groups and a close relationship of M. assamensis and M. thibetana, but differed in the placing of M. arctoides. Both Alu elements and nuclear genes supported that M. arctoides was close to the sinica group, whereas the mitochondrial data clustered it into the fascicularis/mulatta lineage. Our results reveal that a sex-biased hybridization most likely occurred in the evolutionary history of M. arctoides, and suggest an introgressive pattern of male-mediated gene flow from the ancestors of M. arctoides to the M. mulatta population followed by nuclear swamping. According to the estimation of divergence dates, the hybridization occurred around 0.88~1.77 mya (nuclear data) or 1.38~2.56 mya (mitochondrial data). In general, our study indicates that a combination of various molecular markers could help explain complicated evolutionary relationships. Our results have provided new insights into the evolutionary history of macaques and emphasize that hybridization might play an important role in macaque evolution.

  11. How to Bootstrap Anonymous Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Sune K.; Orlandi, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    formal study in this direction. To solve this problem, we introduce the concept of anonymous steganography: think of a leaker Lea who wants to leak a large document to Joe the journalist. Using anonymous steganography Lea can embed this document in innocent looking communication on some popular website...... (such as cat videos on YouTube or funny memes on 9GAG). Then Lea provides Joe with a short key k which, when applied to the entire website, recovers the document while hiding the identity of Lea among the large number of users of the website. Our contributions include: { Introducing and formally dening...

  12. How to Bootstrap Anonymous Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Sune K.; Orlandi, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    formal study in this direction. To solve this problem, we introduce the concept of anonymous steganography: think of a leaker Lea who wants to leak a large document to Joe the journalist. Using anonymous steganography Lea can embed this document in innocent looking communication on some popular website...... (such as cat videos on YouTube or funny memes on 9GAG). Then Lea provides Joe with a short key $k$ which, when applied to the entire website, recovers the document while hiding the identity of Lea among the large number of users of the website. Our contributions include: - Introducing and formally...

  13. Ribonucleic acid stimulation of mammalian liver nuclear-envelope nucleoside triphosphatase. A possible enzymic marker for the nuclear envelope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agutter, P S; Harris, J R; Stevenson, I

    1977-03-15

    1. The specific activity of rat and pig liver nuclear-envelope nucleoside triphosphatase (EC 3.6.1.3) decreases when the system is depleted of RNA. The activity can be restored by adding high concentrations of yeast RNA to the assay medium. 2. Exogenous RNA also increases the activity of the enzyme in control envelopes (not RNA-depleted). The effect appears to be largely specific for poly(A) and poly(G); it is not stimulated by rRNA or tRNA preparations, ribonuclease-hydrolysed RNA, AMP, or double- or single-stranded DNA. 3. Inhibitors of the enzyme, in concentrations at which half-maximal inhibition of the enzyme is achieved, do not affect the percentage stimulation of the enzyme by yeast RNA. 4. The simulation is abolished by the inclusion of 150 mM-KCl or -NaCl in the assay medium, but not by increasing the assay pH to 8.5. 5. The results are discussed in the light of the possible role of the nucleoside triphosphatase in vivo in nucleo-cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein translocation. 6. It is proposed that poly(G)-stimulated Mg2+-activated adenosine triphosphatase activity should be adopted as an enzymic marker for the nuclear envelope.

  14. Iberian red deer: paraphyletic nature at mtDNA but nuclear markers support its genetic identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, Juan; Salinas, María; de Andrés, Damián; Pérez-González, Javier

    2016-02-01

    Red deer populations in the Iberian glacial refugium were the main source for postglacial recolonization and subspecific radiation in north-western Europe. However, the phylogenetic history of Iberian red deer (Cervus elaphus hispanicus) and its relationships with northern European populations remain uncertain. Here, we study DNA sequences at the mitochondrial control region along with STR markers for over 680 specimens from all the main red deer populations in Spain and other west European areas. Our results from mitochondrial and genomic DNA show contrasting patterns, likely related to the nature of these types of DNA markers and their specific processes of change over time. The results, taken together, bring support to two distinct, cryptic maternal lineages for Iberian red deer that predated the last glacial maximum and that have maintained geographically well differentiated until present. Haplotype relationships show that only one of them contributed to the northern postglacial recolonization. However, allele frequencies of nuclear markers evidenced one main differentiation between Iberian and northern European subspecies although also supported the structure of both matrilines within Iberia. Thus, our findings reveal a paraphyletic nature for Iberian red deer but also its genetic identity and differentiation with respect to northern subspecies. Finally, we suggest that maintaining the singularity of Iberian red deer requires preventing not only restocking practices with red deer specimens belonging to other European populations but also translocations between both Iberian lineages.

  15. Entropy-based adaptive nuclear texture features are independent prognostic markers in a total population of uterine sarcomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Birgitte; Hveem, Tarjei Sveinsgjerd; Kildal, Wanja; Abeler, Vera M; Kristensen, Gunnar B; Albregtsen, Fritz; Danielsen, Håvard E

    2015-04-01

    Nuclear texture analysis measures the spatial arrangement of the pixel gray levels in a digitized microscopic nuclear image and is a promising quantitative tool for prognosis of cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of entropy-based adaptive nuclear texture features in a total population of 354 uterine sarcomas. Isolated nuclei (monolayers) were prepared from 50 µm tissue sections and stained with Feulgen-Schiff. Local gray level entropy was measured within small windows of each nuclear image and stored in gray level entropy matrices, and two superior adaptive texture features were calculated from each matrix. The 5-year crude survival was significantly higher (P Entropy-based adaptive nuclear texture was an independent prognostic marker for crude survival in multivariate analysis including relevant clinicopathological features (HR = 2.1, P = 0.001), and should therefore be considered as a potential prognostic marker in uterine sarcomas.

  16. Are both sympatric species Ilex perado and Ilex canariensis secretly hybridizing? Indication from nuclear markers collected in Tenerife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manen Jean-François

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intra-specific and intra-individual polymorphism is frequently observed in nuclear markers of Ilex (Aquifoliaceae and discrepancy between plastid and nuclear phylogenies is the rule in this genus. These observations suggest that inter-specific plastid or/and nuclear introgression played an important role in the process of evolution of Ilex. With the aim of a precise understanding of the evolution of this genus, two distantly related sympatric species collected in Tenerife (Canary Islands, I. perado and I. canariensis, were studied in detail. Introgression between these two species was previously never reported. One plastid marker (the atpB-rbcL spacer and two nuclear markers, the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS and the nuclear encoded plastid glutamine synthetase (nepGS were analyzed for 13 and 27 individuals of I. perado and I. canariensis, respectively. Results The plastid marker is intra-specifically constant and correlated with species identity. On the other hand, whereas the nuclear markers are conserved in I. perado, they are highly polymorphic in I. canariensis. The presence of pseudogenes and recombination in ITS sequences of I. canariensis explain this polymorphism. Ancestral sequence polymorphism with incomplete lineage sorting, or past or recent hybridization with an unknown species could explain this polymorphism, not resolved by concerted evolution. However, as already reported for many other plants, past or recent introgression of an alien genotype seem the most probable explanation for such a tremendous polymorphism. Conclusions Data do not allow the determination with certitude of the putative species introgressing I. canariensis, but I. perado is suspected. The introgression would be unilateral, with I. perado as the male donor, and the paternal sequences would be rapidly converted in highly divergent and consequently unidentifiable pseudogenes. At least, this study allows the establishment of

  17. Movement Data Anonymity through Generalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Monreale

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Wireless networks and mobile devices, such as mobile phones and GPS receivers, sense and track the movements of people and vehicles, producing society-wide mobility databases. This is a challenging scenario for data analysis and mining. On the one hand, exciting opportunities arise out of discovering new knowledge about human mobile behavior, and thus fuel intelligent info-mobility applications. On other hand, new privacy concerns arise when mobility data are published. The risk is particularly high for GPS trajectories, which represent movement of a very high precision and spatio-temporal resolution: the de-identification of such trajectories (i.e., forgetting the ID of their associated owners is only a weak protection, as generally it is possible to re-identify a person by observing her routine movements. In this paper we propose a method for achieving true anonymity in a dataset of published trajectories, by defining a transformation of the original GPS trajectories based on spatial generalization and k-anonymity. The proposed method offers a formal data protection safeguard, quantified as a theoretical upper bound to the probability of re-identification. We conduct a thorough study on a real-life GPS trajectory dataset, and provide strong empirical evidence that the proposed anonymity techniques achieve the conflicting goals of data utility and data privacy. In practice, the achieved anonymity protection is much stronger than the theoretical worst case, while the quality of the cluster analysis on the trajectory data is preserved.

  18. Nuclear expression of β-catenin and stem cell markers as potential prognostic indicators in medulloblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Krishne Gowda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To study the prognostic role of β-catenin and stem cell markers in medulloblastoma (MB. Materials and Methods: Sixty cases of MB were retrospectively analyzed to study the expression of β-catenin, CD15, and CD133 by immunohistochemistry. Their expression was correlated with histological subtypes and event-free survival (EFS. Patients were divided into Group 1 and 2 based on non-occurrence and occurrence of events during the follow-up period. Results: Fifty of the 60 cases were of classic type of MB while nine were of desmoplastic subtype and one case showed chondroid and rhabdomyoblastic differentiation. Immunoreactivity for β-catenin was observed as nuclear and/or cytoplasmic positivity within the tumor cells. Forty-one (68.3% cases showed cytoplasmic positivity, while nuclear positivity was seen in 21 (35% cases. There was a significant correlation between nuclear expression of β-catenin and different histological subtypes by Chi-square test (P value<0.05. A statistically significant positive correlation of β-catenin nuclear positivity with EFS was observed. Among 60 cases, 37 cases (67.3% showed presence of CD15+ tumor cells with percentage of positivity varying between 0.1 to 17.1%. Overall, 42 of 60 (70% cases showed presence of CD133+ cells. The percentage of positivity varied between 0.1 to 16.5%. A statistically significant negative correlation of CD15 and CD133 positivity with EFS was observed. Conclusions: Nucleopositive β-catenin cases were associated with a favorable outcome on univariate analysis. Both CD15 and CD133 positivity were associated with a worse outcome on univariate analysis.

  19. Proliferating Cellular Nuclear Antigen Expression as a Marker of Perivascular Macrophages in Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Encephalitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kenneth; Schwartz, Annette; Corey, Sarah; Orandle, Marlene; Kennedy, William; Thompson, Brendon; Alvarez, Xavier; Brown, Charlie; Gartner, Suzanne; Lackner, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    Brain perivascular macrophages are a major target of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection in rhesus macaques and HIV infection in humans. Perivascular macrophages are distinct from parenchymal microglia in their location, morphology, expression of myeloid markers, and turnover in the CNS. In contrast to parenchymal microglia, perivascular macrophages are continuously repopulated by blood monocytes, which undergo maturation to macrophages on entering the central nervous system (CNS). We studied differences in monocyte/macrophages in vivo that might account for preferential infection of perivascular macrophages by SIV. In situ hybridization for SIV and proliferating cellular nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunohistochemistry demonstrated that SIV-infected and PCNA-positive cells were predominantly found in perivascular cuffs of viremic animals and in histopathological lesions that characterize SIV encephalitis (SIVE) in animals with AIDS. Multilabel techniques including double-label immunohistochemistry and combined in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence confocal microscopy revealed numerous infected perivascular macrophages that were PCNA-positive. Outside the CNS, SIV-infected, PCNA-expressing macrophage subpopulations were found in the small intestine and lung of animals with AIDS. While PCNA is used as a marker of cell proliferation it is also strongly expressed in non-dividing cells undergoing DNA synthesis and repair. Therefore, more specific markers for cell proliferation including Ki-67, topoisomerase IIα, and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation were used which indicated that PCNA-positive cells within SIVE lesions were not proliferating. These observations are consistent with perivascular macrophages as terminally differentiated, non-dividing cells and underscores biological differences that could potentially define mechanisms of preferential, productive infection of perivascular macrophages in the rhesus macaque model of neuroAIDS. These studies

  20. Anonymous Boh avatud kunsti maastikul / Raivo Kelomees

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kelomees, Raivo, 1960-

    2010-01-01

    Anonymous Bohi näitus Tartu Kunstimajas, avatud 30. juulini 2010. Anonymous Boh on koos Non Grataga läbi viinud performance´id Euroopas, Ameerikas ja Aasias. Anonymous Bohi vastused oma näituse ja loominguga seotud küsimustele

  1. Anonymous Credential Schemes with Encrypted Attributes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guajardo Merchan, J.; Mennink, B.; Schoenmakers, B.

    2011-01-01

    In anonymous credential schemes, users obtain credentials on certain attributes from an issuer, and later show these credentials to a relying party anonymously and without fully disclosing the attributes. In this paper, we introduce the notion of (anonymous) credential schemes with encrypted attribu

  2. Examining the phylogeny of the Australasian Lymnaeidae (Heterobranchia: Pulmonata: Gastropoda) using mitochondrial, nuclear and morphological markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puslednik, Louise; Ponder, Winston F; Dowton, Mark; Davis, Andrew R

    2009-09-01

    We examined the species groups relationships of the freshwater snail genus Austropeplea using mitochondrial, nuclear and morphological markers in addition to traditional methods of shell shape analysis. Based primarily on the results of a combined molecular and morphological analysis, samples of the nominal species A. tomentosa form distinct lineages. The New Zealand populations of A. tomentosa are a very distinct lineage from any of the Australian populations attributed to A. tomentosa. Furthermore, within the Australian group, three lineages, south Australia, Tasmania and eastern Australia, appear to have undergone recent and/or rapid speciation events. Samples assigned to A. lessoni were resolved as two distinct lineages, representing the eastern and northern Australian populations. Kutikina hispida was resolved within the Australian A. tomentosa clade. Molecular results for A. viridis suggests that it is also composed of at least two distinct lineages that could be treated as species. Incongruence observed between the single mitochondrial, nuclear and morphological topologies highlight the importance of using a number of different datasets in the delimitation of species-group taxa.

  3. A complete plastid phylogeny of Daucus – concordance to nuclear results, and markers necessary for phylogenetic resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premise of study: Our purposes were to (1) obtain a well-resolved plastid counterpart to the 94 gene nuclear ortholog gene phylogeny of Arbizu et al. (2014, Amer. J. Bot. 101:1666-1685; and Syst. Bot., in press), and (2) to investigate various classes and numbers of plastid markers necessary for a c...

  4. Computing on Anonymous Quantum Network

    CERN Document Server

    Kobayashi, Hirotada; Tani, Seiichiro

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers distributed computing on an anonymous quantum network, a network in which no party has a unique identifier and quantum communication and computation are available. It is proved that the leader election problem can exactly (i.e., without error in bounded time) be solved with at most the same complexity up to a constant factor as that of exactly computing symmetric functions (without intermediate measurements for a distributed and superposed input), if the number of parties is given to every party. A corollary of this result is a more efficient quantum leader election algorithm than existing ones: the new quantum algorithm runs in O(n) rounds with bit complexity O(mn^2), on an anonymous quantum network with n parties and m communication links. Another corollary is the first quantum algorithm that exactly computes any computable Boolean function with round complexity O(n) and with smaller bit complexity than that of existing classical algorithms in the worst case over all (computable) Boolea...

  5. Combined mitochondrial and nuclear markers revealed a deep vicariant history for Leopoldamys neilli, a cave-dwelling rodent of Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Latinne

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Historical biogeography and evolutionary processes of cave taxa have been widely studied in temperate regions. However, Southeast Asian cave ecosystems remain largely unexplored despite their high scientific interest. Here we studied the phylogeography of Leopoldamys neilli, a cave-dwelling murine rodent living in limestone karsts of Thailand, and compared the molecular signature of mitochondrial and nuclear markers. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used a large sampling (n = 225 from 28 localities in Thailand and a combination of mitochondrial and nuclear markers with various evolutionary rates (two intronic regions and 12 microsatellites. The evolutionary history of L. neilli and the relative role of vicariance and dispersal were investigated using ancestral range reconstruction analysis and Approximate Bayesian computation (ABC. Both mitochondrial and nuclear markers support a large-scale population structure of four main groups (west, centre, north and northeast and a strong finer structure within each of these groups. A deep genealogical divergence among geographically close lineages is observed and denotes a high population fragmentation. Our findings suggest that the current phylogeographic pattern of this species results from the fragmentation of a widespread ancestral population and that vicariance has played a significant role in the evolutionary history of L. neilli. These deep vicariant events that occurred during Plio-Pleistocene are related to the formation of the Central Plain of Thailand. Consequently, the western, central, northern and northeastern groups of populations were historically isolated and should be considered as four distinct Evolutionarily Significant Units (ESUs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study confirms the benefit of using several independent genetic markers to obtain a comprehensive and reliable picture of L. neilli evolutionary history at different levels of resolution. The complex genetic

  6. Investigation of nuclear nano-morphology marker as a biomarker for cancer risk assessment using a mouse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bista, Rajan K.; Uttam, Shikhar; Hartman, Douglas J.; Qiu, Wei; Yu, Jian; Zhang, Lin; Brand, Randall E.; Liu, Yang

    2012-06-01

    The development of accurate and clinically applicable tools to assess cancer risk is essential to define candidates to undergo screening for early-stage cancers at a curable stage or provide a novel method to monitor chemoprevention treatments. With the use of our recently developed optical technology--spatial-domain low-coherence quantitative phase microscopy (SL-QPM), we have derived a novel optical biomarker characterized by structure-derived optical path length (OPL) properties from the cell nucleus on the standard histology and cytology specimens, which quantifies the nano-structural alterations within the cell nucleus at the nanoscale sensitivity, referred to as nano-morphology marker. The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of the nuclear nano-morphology marker from histologically normal cells, extracted directly from the standard histology specimens, to detect early-stage carcinogenesis, assess cancer risk, and monitor the effect of chemopreventive treatment. We used a well-established mouse model of spontaneous carcinogenesis--ApcMin mice, which develop multiple intestinal adenomas (Min) due to a germline mutation in the adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc) gene. We found that the nuclear nano-morphology marker quantified by OPL detects the development of carcinogenesis from histologically normal intestinal epithelial cells, even at an early pre-adenomatous stage (six weeks). It also exhibits a good temporal correlation with the small intestine that parallels the development of carcinogenesis and cancer risk. To further assess its ability to monitor the efficacy of chemopreventive agents, we used an established chemopreventive agent, sulindac. The nuclear nano-morphology marker is reversed toward normal after a prolonged treatment. Therefore, our proof-of-concept study establishes the feasibility of the SL-QPM derived nuclear nano-morphology marker OPL as a promising, simple and clinically applicable biomarker for cancer risk assessment and

  7. Investigation of nuclear nano-morphology marker as a biomarker for cancer risk assessment using a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bista, Rajan K; Uttam, Shikhar; Hartman, Douglas J; Qiu, Wei; Yu, Jian; Zhang, Lin; Brand, Randall E; Liu, Yang

    2012-06-01

    The development of accurate and clinically applicable tools to assess cancer risk is essential to define candidates to undergo screening for early-stage cancers at a curable stage or provide a novel method to monitor chemoprevention treatments. With the use of our recently developed optical technology--spatial-domain low-coherence quantitative phase microscopy (SL-QPM), we have derived a novel optical biomarker characterized by structure-derived optical path length (OPL) properties from the cell nucleus on the standard histology and cytology specimens, which quantifies the nano-structural alterations within the cell nucleus at the nanoscale sensitivity, referred to as nano-morphology marker. The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of the nuclear nano-morphology marker from histologically normal cells, extracted directly from the standard histology specimens, to detect early-stage carcinogenesis, assess cancer risk, and monitor the effect of chemopreventive treatment. We used a well-established mouse model of spontaneous carcinogenesis--Apc(Min) mice, which develop multiple intestinal adenomas (Min) due to a germline mutation in the adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc) gene. We found that the nuclear nano-morphology marker quantified by OPL detects the development of carcinogenesis from histologically normal intestinal epithelial cells, even at an early pre-adenomatous stage (six weeks). It also exhibits a good temporal correlation with the small intestine that parallels the development of carcinogenesis and cancer risk. To further assess its ability to monitor the efficacy of chemopreventive agents, we used an established chemopreventive agent, sulindac. The nuclear nano-morphology marker is reversed toward normal after a prolonged treatment. Therefore, our proof-of-concept study establishes the feasibility of the SL-QPM derived nuclear nano-morphology marker OPL as a promising, simple and clinically applicable biomarker for cancer risk assessment and

  8. Octopus: A Secure and Anonymous DHT Lookup

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Qiyan

    2012-01-01

    Distributed Hash Table (DHT) lookup is a core technique in structured peer-to-peer (P2P) networks. Its decentralized nature introduces security and privacy vulnerabilities for applications built on top of them; we thus set out to design a lookup mechanism achieving both security and anonymity, heretofore an open problem. We present Octopus, a novel DHT lookup which provides strong guarantees for both security and anonymity. Octopus uses attacker identification mechanisms to discover and remove malicious nodes, severely limiting an adversary's ability to carry out active attacks, and splits lookup queries over separate anonymous paths and introduces dummy queries to achieve high levels of anonymity. We analyze the security of Octopus by developing an event-based simulator to show that the attacker discovery mechanisms can rapidly identify malicious nodes with low error rate. We calculate the anonymity of Octopus using probabilistic modeling and show that Octopus can achieve near-optimal anonymity. We evaluate ...

  9. Practical anonymity hiding in plain sight online

    CERN Document Server

    Loshin, Peter

    2013-01-01

    For those with legitimate reason to use the Internet anonymously--diplomats, military and other government agencies, journalists, political activists, IT professionals, law enforcement personnel, political refugees and others--anonymous networking provides an invaluable tool, and many good reasons that anonymity can serve a very important purpose. Anonymous use of the Internet is made difficult by the many websites that know everything about us, by the cookies and ad networks, IP-logging ISPs, even nosy officials may get involved. It is no longer possible to turn off browser cookies to be l

  10. Mapping of the nuclear fertility restorer gene for HL cytoplasmic male sterility in rice using microsatellite markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Bulked segregant analysis (BSA) of a BC1 population derived from Congguang 41A//Miyang 23/Congguang 41B was used to map the nuclear fertility restorer gene for Honglian (HL) cytoplasmic male sterility.One hundred and fifty-nine microsatellite primer pairs were screened for polymorphisms between the parents and between two bulks representing fertile and sterile plants.One microsatellite marker RM258 produced polymorphic products.The nuclear fertility restorer gene for HL cytoplasmic male sterility was mapped on chromosome 10,7.8cM from RM258.The restorer gene may be clustered on chromosome.

  11. Anonymous Web Browsing and Hosting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANOJ KUMAR

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In today’s high tech environment every organization, individual computer users use internet for accessing web data. To maintain high confidentiality and security of the data secure web solutions are required. In this paper we described dedicated anonymous web browsing solutions which makes our browsing faster and secure. Web application which play important role for transferring our secret information including like email need more and more security concerns. This paper also describes that how we can choose safe web hosting solutions and what the main functions are which provides more security over server data. With the browser security network security is also important which can be implemented using cryptography solutions, VPN and by implementing firewalls on the network. Hackers always try to steal our identity and data, they track our activities using the network application software’s and do harmful activities. So in this paper we described that how we can monitor them from security purposes.

  12. Evaluation of Anonymized ONS Queries

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Alfaro, Joaquin; Kranakis, Evangelos

    2009-01-01

    Electronic Product Code (EPC) is the basis of a pervasive infrastructure for the automatic identification of objects on supply chain applications (e.g., pharmaceutical or military applications). This infrastructure relies on the use of the (1) Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology to tag objects in motion and (2) distributed services providing information about objects via the Internet. A lookup service, called the Object Name Service (ONS) and based on the use of the Domain Name System (DNS), can be publicly accessed by EPC applications looking for information associated with tagged objects. Privacy issues may affect corporate infrastructures based on EPC technologies if their lookup service is not properly protected. A possible solution to mitigate these issues is the use of online anonymity. We present an evaluation experiment that compares the of use of Tor (The second generation Onion Router) on a global ONS/DNS setup, with respect to benefits, limitations, and latency.

  13. Origins of the amphiploid species Brassica napus L. investigated by chloroplast and nuclear molecular markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allender Charlotte J

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The amphiploid species Brassica napus (oilseed rape, Canola is a globally important oil crop yielding food, biofuels and industrial compounds such as lubricants and surfactants. Identification of the likely ancestors of each of the two genomes (designated A and C found in B. napus would facilitate incorporation of novel alleles from the wider Brassica genepool in oilseed rape crop genetic improvement programmes. Knowledge of the closest extant relatives of the genotypes involved in the initial formation of B. napus would also allow further investigation of the genetic factors required for the formation of a stable amphiploid and permit the more efficient creation of fully fertile re-synthesised B. napus. We have used a combination of chloroplast and nuclear genetic markers to investigate the closest extant relatives of the original maternal progenitors of B. napus. This was based on a comprehensive sampling of the relevant genepools, including 83 accessions of A genome B. rapa L. (both wild and cultivated types, 94 accessions of B. napus and 181 accessions of C genome wild and cultivated B. oleracea L. and related species. Results Three chloroplast haplotypes occurred in B. napus. The most prevalent haplotype (found in 79% of accessions was not present within the C genome accessions but was found at low frequencies in B. rapa. Chloroplast haplotypes characteristic of B. napus were found in a small number of wild and weedy B. rapa populations, and also in two accessions of cultivated B. rapa 'brocoletto'. Whilst introgression of the B. napus chloroplast type in the wild and weedy B. rapa populations has been proposed by other studies, the presence of this haplotype within the two brocoletto accessions is unexplained. Conclusions The distribution of chloroplast haplotypes eliminate any of the C genome species as being the maternal ancestor of the majority of the B. napus accessions. The presence of multiple chloroplast

  14. Is it OK to be an Anonymous?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serracino Inglott, P.

    2013-01-01

    Do the deviant acts carried out by the collective known as Anonymous qualify as vigilante activity, and if so, can they be justified? Addressing this question helps expose the difficulties of morally evaluating technologically enabled deviance. Anonymous is a complex, fluid actor but not as mysterio

  15. Anonymity-Preserving Public-Key Encryption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohlweiss, Markulf; Maurer, Ueli; Onete, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    A receiver-anonymous channel allows a sender to send a message to a receiver without an adversary learning for whom the message is intended. Wireless broadcast channels naturally provide receiver anonymity, as does multi-casting one message to a receiver population containing the intended receive...

  16. Anonymity in Classroom Voting and Debating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainsworth, Shaaron; Gelmini-Hornsby, Giulia; Threapleton, Kate; Crook, Charles; O'Malley, Claire; Buda, Marie

    2011-01-01

    The advent of networked environments into the classroom is changing classroom debates in many ways. This article addresses one key attribute of these environments, namely anonymity, to explore its consequences for co-present adolescents anonymous, by virtue of the computer system, to peers not to teachers. Three studies with 16-17 year-olds used a…

  17. Towards a Theory of Anonymous Networking

    CERN Document Server

    Ghaderi, J

    2009-01-01

    The problem of anonymous networking when an eavesdropper observes packet timings in a communication network is considered. The goal is to hide the identities of source-destination nodes, and paths of information flow in the network. One way to achieve such an anonymity is to use mixers. Mixers are nodes that receive packets from multiple sources and change the timing of packets, by mixing packets at the output links, to prevent the eavesdropper from finding sources of outgoing packets. In this paper, we consider two simple but fundamental scenarios: double input-single output mixer and double input-double output mixer. For the first case, we use the information-theoretic definition of the anonymity, based on average entropy per packet, and find an optimal mixing strategy under a strict latency constraint. For the second case, perfect anonymity is considered, and a maximal throughput strategy with perfect anonymity is found that minimizes the average delay.

  18. Purpose-restricted Anonymous Mobile Communications Using Anonymous Signatures in Online Credential Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fathi, Hanane; Shin, SeongHan; Kobara, Kazukuni

    2010-01-01

    To avoid the risk of long-term storage of secrets on a portable device, an online credential system supports the roaming user in retrieving securely at various locations his private key and other material to generate anonymous signatures. The protocol proposed here allows a roaming mobile user...... to access anonymously services such as whistle blowing and net-counselling. Our approach: (1) allows a mobile user, remembering a short password, to anonymously and securely retrieve the credentials necessary for his anonymous communication without assuming a pre-established anonymous channel...

  19. Anonymous-address-resolution model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang-jia SONG; Zhen-zhou JI

    2016-01-01

    Address-resolution protocol (ARP) is an important protocol of data link layers that aims to obtain the corresponding relationship between Internet Protocol (IP) and Media Access Control (MAC) addresses. Traditional ARPs (address-resolution and neighbor-discovery protocols) do not consider the existence of malicious nodes, which reveals destination addresses in the resolution process. Thus, these traditional protocols allow malicious nodes to easily carry out attacks, such as man-in-the-middle attack and denial-of-service attack. To overcome these weaknesses, we propose an anonymous-address-resolution (AS-AR) protocol. AS-AR does not publicize the destination address in the address-resolution process and hides the IP and MAC addresses of the source node. The malicious node cannot obtain the addresses of the destination and the node which initiates the address resolution; thus, it cannot attack. Analyses and experiments show that AS-AR has a higher security level than existing security methods, such as secure-neighbor discovery.

  20. Preserving Communities in Anonymized Social Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Campan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Social media and social networks are embedded in our society to a point that could not have been imagined only ten years ago. Facebook, LinkedIn, and Twitter are already well known social networks that have a large audience in all age groups. The amount of data that those social sites gather from their users is continually increasing and this data is very valuable for marketing, research, and various other purposes. At the same time, this data usually contain a significant amount of sensitive information which should be protected against unauthorized disclosure. To protect the privacy of individuals, this data must be anonymized such that the risk of re-identification of specific individuals is very low. In this paper we study if anonymized social networks preserve existing communities from the original social networks. To perform this study, we introduce two approaches to measure the community preservation between the initial network and its anonymized version. In the first approach we simply count how many nodes from the original communities remained in the same community after the processes of anonymization and de-anonymization. In the second approach we consider the community preservation for each node individually. Specifically, for each node, we compare the original and final communities to which the node belongs. To anonymize social networks we use two models, namely, k-anonymity for social networks and k-degree anonymity. To determine communities in social networks we use an existing community detection algorithm based on modularity quality function. Our experiments on publically available datasets show that anonymized social networks satisfactorily preserve the community structure of their original networks.

  1. Genome-assisted development of nuclear intergenic sequence markers for entomopathogenic fungi of the Metarhizium anisopliae species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepler, R M; Rehner, S A

    2013-03-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi in the genus Metarhizium are useful for biological control programmes against economically important arthropod pests worldwide. However, understanding the true diversity and ecology of these organisms is hampered by convergent morphologies between species. The application of molecular techniques has enabled greater resolution of species than allowed by morphology alone. In particular, the commonly used biocontrol agent M. anisopliae was found to be a species complex composed of nine species. This prior work was conducted with commonly used markers in fungal phylogenetics (BTUB, RPB1, RPB2 and TEF), which likely under-represent diversity in the M. anisopliae complex. Using sequence data from nuclear genomes of M. acridum and M. robertsii we identified regions of conserved gene synteny and developed primers to amplify intergenic regions of seven loci. Using ex-type and authenticated tissue specimens for species in the M. anisopliae complex, we demonstrate that sequence data derived from intergenic loci is more variable and phylogenetically informative than previously available markers. These new markers will facilitate investigations at or below the species level for the M. anisopliae complex. The method of marker development employed here should be extendable to any group with sufficiently divergent genome data available.

  2. EpCAM nuclear localization identifies aggressive Thyroid Cancer and is a marker for poor prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacMillan Christina

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteolytic cleavage of the extracellular domain (EpEx of Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM and nuclear signaling by its intracellular oncogenic domain Ep-ICD has recently been implicated in increased proliferation of cancer cells. The clinical significance of Ep-ICD in human tumors remains an enigma. Methods EpEx, Ep-ICD and β-catenin immunohistochemistry using specific antibodies was conducted on 58 archived thyroid cancer (TC tissue blocks from 34 patients and correlated with survival analysis of these patients for up to 17 years. Results The anaplastic (ATC and aggressive thyroid cancers showed loss of EpEx and increased nuclear and cytoplasmic accumulation of Ep-ICD. In contrast, the low grade papillary thyroid cancers (PTC showed membranous EpEx and no detectable nuclear Ep-ICD. The ATC also showed concomitant nuclear expression of Ep-ICD and β-catenin. Kaplan-Meier Survival analysis revealed reduced overall survival (OS for TC patients showing nuclear Ep-ICD expression or loss of membranous EpEx (p Conclusion We report reciprocal loss of membrane EpEx but increased nuclear and cytoplasmic accumulation of Ep-ICD in aggressive TC; nuclear Ep-ICD correlated with poor OS of TC patients. Thus nuclear Ep-ICD localization may serve as a useful biomarker for aggressive TC and may represent a novel diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic target for aggressive TC.

  3. Identification of Gene Markers for Activation of the Nuclear Receptor Pregnane X Receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many environmentally-relevant chemicals and drugs activate the nuclear receptor pregnane X receptor (PXR). Activation of PXR in the mouse liver can lead to increases in liver weight in part through increased hepatocyte replication similar to chemicals that activate other nuclear ...

  4. Anonymous Agencies, Backstreet Businesses and Covert Collectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause Hansen, Hans; Schoeneborn, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Book review of: Anonymous Agencies, Backstreet Businesses and Covert Collectives: rethinking Organizations in the 21st Century, C. R. Scott. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2013. 272 pp. £45.90. ISBN 9780804781381......Book review of: Anonymous Agencies, Backstreet Businesses and Covert Collectives: rethinking Organizations in the 21st Century, C. R. Scott. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2013. 272 pp. £45.90. ISBN 9780804781381...

  5. Molecular markers of nuclear restoration gene Rf1 in sunflower using bulked segregant analysis-RAPD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季静; 王罡; E.Belhassen; H.Serieys; A.Berville

    1996-01-01

    Restoration of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in sunflower was demonstrated to be controlled by polygenes by analysing 982 effective crosses among 109 self-crossed lines and 16 CMS lines. Two self-crossed lines and one CMS line with distinct genotypes were applied to creation of segregating populations for DNA bulks of the target gene Rfl. Bulked DNA was prepared in order to investigate single gene Rfl and its gene marker among polygenic characters at the same genetic background. Using 80 10-mer operon primers, 620 RAPD reactions were carried out between fertile and sterile DNA bulks. In about 800 loci, primary results showed that 8 were related to the restoration genes. Furthermore. 2 were confirmed as RAPD markers for gene Rfl by examining 9 maintenance and 7 restoration lines. This method is the improvement for bulked segregant analysis[1] with which markers of single gene of target can be identified rapidly among polygenic characters.

  6. Hybrid Origins of Citrus Varieties Inferred from DNA Marker Analysis of Nuclear and Organelle Genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitajima, Akira; Nonaka, Keisuke; Yoshioka, Terutaka; Ohta, Satoshi; Goto, Shingo; Toyoda, Atsushi; Fujiyama, Asao; Mochizuki, Takako; Nagasaki, Hideki; Kaminuma, Eli; Nakamura, Yasukazu

    2016-01-01

    Most indigenous citrus varieties are assumed to be natural hybrids, but their parentage has so far been determined in only a few cases because of their wide genetic diversity and the low transferability of DNA markers. Here we infer the parentage of indigenous citrus varieties using simple sequence repeat and indel markers developed from various citrus genome sequence resources. Parentage tests with 122 known hybrids using the selected DNA markers certify their transferability among those hybrids. Identity tests confirm that most variant strains are selected mutants, but we find four types of kunenbo (Citrus nobilis) and three types of tachibana (Citrus tachibana) for which we suggest different origins. Structure analysis with DNA markers that are in Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium deduce three basic taxa coinciding with the current understanding of citrus ancestors. Genotyping analysis of 101 indigenous citrus varieties with 123 selected DNA markers infers the parentages of 22 indigenous citrus varieties including Satsuma, Temple, and iyo, and single parents of 45 indigenous citrus varieties, including kunenbo, C. ichangensis, and Ichang lemon by allele-sharing and parentage tests. Genotyping analysis of chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes using 11 DNA markers classifies their cytoplasmic genotypes into 18 categories and deduces the combination of seed and pollen parents. Likelihood ratio analysis verifies the inferred parentages with significant scores. The reconstructed genealogy identifies 12 types of varieties consisting of Kishu, kunenbo, yuzu, koji, sour orange, dancy, kobeni mikan, sweet orange, tachibana, Cleopatra, willowleaf mandarin, and pummelo, which have played pivotal roles in the occurrence of these indigenous varieties. The inferred parentage of the indigenous varieties confirms their hybrid origins, as found by recent studies. PMID:27902727

  7. Hybrid Origins of Citrus Varieties Inferred from DNA Marker Analysis of Nuclear and Organelle Genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Tokurou; Kitajima, Akira; Nonaka, Keisuke; Yoshioka, Terutaka; Ohta, Satoshi; Goto, Shingo; Toyoda, Atsushi; Fujiyama, Asao; Mochizuki, Takako; Nagasaki, Hideki; Kaminuma, Eli; Nakamura, Yasukazu

    2016-01-01

    Most indigenous citrus varieties are assumed to be natural hybrids, but their parentage has so far been determined in only a few cases because of their wide genetic diversity and the low transferability of DNA markers. Here we infer the parentage of indigenous citrus varieties using simple sequence repeat and indel markers developed from various citrus genome sequence resources. Parentage tests with 122 known hybrids using the selected DNA markers certify their transferability among those hybrids. Identity tests confirm that most variant strains are selected mutants, but we find four types of kunenbo (Citrus nobilis) and three types of tachibana (Citrus tachibana) for which we suggest different origins. Structure analysis with DNA markers that are in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium deduce three basic taxa coinciding with the current understanding of citrus ancestors. Genotyping analysis of 101 indigenous citrus varieties with 123 selected DNA markers infers the parentages of 22 indigenous citrus varieties including Satsuma, Temple, and iyo, and single parents of 45 indigenous citrus varieties, including kunenbo, C. ichangensis, and Ichang lemon by allele-sharing and parentage tests. Genotyping analysis of chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes using 11 DNA markers classifies their cytoplasmic genotypes into 18 categories and deduces the combination of seed and pollen parents. Likelihood ratio analysis verifies the inferred parentages with significant scores. The reconstructed genealogy identifies 12 types of varieties consisting of Kishu, kunenbo, yuzu, koji, sour orange, dancy, kobeni mikan, sweet orange, tachibana, Cleopatra, willowleaf mandarin, and pummelo, which have played pivotal roles in the occurrence of these indigenous varieties. The inferred parentage of the indigenous varieties confirms their hybrid origins, as found by recent studies.

  8. Nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region as a universal DNA barcode marker for Fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoch, C.L.; Seifert, K.A.; Huhndorf, S.; Robert, V.; Spouge, J.L.; Levesque, C.A.; Chen, W.; Crous, P.W.; Boekhout, T.; Damm, U.; Hoog, de G.S.; Eberhardt, U.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Groenewald, M.; Hagen, F.; Houbraken, J.; Quaedvlieg, W.; Stielow, B.; Vu, T.D.; Walther, G.

    2012-01-01

    Six DNA regions were evaluated as potential DNA barcodes for Fungi, the second largest kingdom of eukaryotic life, by a multinational, multilaboratory consortium. The region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 used as the animal barcode was excluded as a potential marker, because it

  9. Molecular authentication of the medicinal herb Ruta graveolens (Rutaceae) and an adulterant using nuclear and chloroplast DNA markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qurainy, F; Khan, S; Tarroum, M; Al-Hemaid, F M; Ali, M A

    2011-11-10

    Dried parts of different plant species often look alike, especially in powdered form, making them very difficult to identify. Ruta graveolens, sold as a dried medicinal herb, can be adulterated with Euphorbia dracunculoides. The genomic DNA was isolated from the leaf powder (100 mg each) using the modified CTAB method. Internal transcribed spacer sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA-ITS), and chloroplast spacer sequences (rpoB and rpoC1) are regarded as potential genes for plant DNA barcoding. We amplified and sequenced these spacer sequences and confirmed the sequences with a BLAST search. Sequence alignment was performed using ClustalX to look for differences in the sequences. A DNA marker was developed based on rpoB and rpoC1 of the nrDNA-ITS for the identification of the adulterant E. dracunculoides in samples of R. graveolens that are sold in local herbal markets. Sequence-characterized amplified region markers of 289 and 264 bp for R. graveolens and 424 bp for E. dracunculoides were developed from dissimilar sequences of this nrDNA-ITS to speed up the authentication process. This marker successfully distinguished these species in extracted samples with as little as 5 ng DNA/μL extract.

  10. A Parallelism-Based Approach to Network Anonymization

    CERN Document Server

    Margasinski, Igor

    2009-01-01

    Considering topologies of anonymous networks we used to organizing anonymous communication into hard to trace paths hiding its origin or destination. In anonymity the company is crucial, however the serial transportation imposes a costly tradeoff between a level of privacy and a speed of communication. This paper introduces a framework of a novel architecture for anonymous networks that hides initiators of communications by parallelization of anonymous links. The new approach, which is based on the grounds of the anonymous P2P network called P2Priv, does not require content forwarding via a chain of proxy nodes to assure high degree of anonymity. Contrary to P2Priv, the new architecture can be suited to anonymization of various network communications, including anonymous access to distributed as well as client-server services. In particular, it can be considered as an anonymization platform for these network applications where both privacy and low delays are required.

  11. Proliferating Cellular Nuclear Antigen Expression as a Marker of Perivascular Macrophages in Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Encephalitis

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    Brain perivascular macrophages are a major target of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection in rhesus macaques and HIV infection in humans. Perivascular macrophages are distinct from parenchymal microglia in their location, morphology, expression of myeloid markers, and turnover in the CNS. In contrast to parenchymal microglia, perivascular macrophages are continuously repopulated by blood monocytes, which undergo maturation to macrophages on entering the central nervous system (CNS). ...

  12. Secure Electronic Cash Scheme with Anonymity Revocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoyuan Kang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In a popular electronic cash scheme, there are three participants: the bank, the customer, and the merchant. First, a customer opens an account in a bank. Then, he withdraws an e-cash from his account and pays it to a merchant. After checking the electronic cash’s validity, the merchant accepts it and deposits it to the bank. There are a number of requirements for an electronic cash scheme, such as, anonymity, unforgeability, unreusability, divisibility, transferability, and portability. Anonymity property of electronic cash schemes can ensure the privacy of payers. However, this anonymity property is easily abused by criminals. In 2011, Chen et al. proposed a novel electronic cash system with trustee-based anonymity revocation from pairing. On demand, the trustee can disclose the identity for e-cash. But, in this paper we point out that Chen et al.’s scheme is subjected to some drawbacks. To contribute secure electronic cash schemes, we propose a new offline electronic cash scheme with anonymity revocation. We also provide the formally security proofs of the unlinkability and unforgeability. Furthermore, the proposed scheme ensures the property of avoiding merchant frauds.

  13. Performance evaluation of various K- anonymity techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheshwarkar, Nidhi; Pathak, Kshitij; Chourey, Vivekanand

    2011-12-01

    Today's advanced scenario where each information is available in one click, data security is the main aspect. Individual information which sometimes needs to be hiding is easily available using some tricks. Medical information, income details are needed to be kept away from adversaries and so, are stored in private tables. Some publicly released information contains zip code, sex, birth date. When this released information is linked with the private table, adversary can detect the whole confidential information of individuals or respondents, i.e. name, medical status. So to protect respondents identity, a new concept k-anonymity is used which means each released record has at least (k-1) other records in the release whose values are distinct over those fields that appear in the external data. K-anonymity can be achieved easily in case of single sensitive attributes i.e. name, salary, medical status, but it is quiet difficult when multiple sensitive attributes are present. Generalization and Suppression are used to achieve k-anonymity. This paper provides a formal introduction of k-anonymity and some techniques used with it l-diversity, t-closeness. This paper covers k-anonymity model and the comparative study of these concepts along with a new proposed concept for multiple sensitive attributes.

  14. Anonymous communication networks protecting privacy on the web

    CERN Document Server

    Peng, Kun

    2014-01-01

    In today's interactive network environment, where various types of organizations are eager to monitor and track Internet use, anonymity is one of the most powerful resources available to counterbalance the threat of unknown spectators and to ensure Internet privacy.Addressing the demand for authoritative information on anonymous Internet usage, Anonymous Communication Networks: Protecting Privacy on the Web examines anonymous communication networks as a solution to Internet privacy concerns. It explains how anonymous communication networks make it possible for participants to communicate with

  15. Is it OK to be an Anonymous?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Serracino-Inglott

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Do the deviant acts carried out by the collective known as Anonymous qualify as vigilante activity, and if so, can they be justified? Addressing this question helps expose the difficulties of morally evaluating technologically enabled deviance. Anonymous is a complex, fluid actor but not as mysterious as popularly portrayed. Under a definition of vigilantism that includes reprobative punishment rather than violence as a key element, Anonymous are vigilantes. Many of its Ops can be justified in view of the mismatch between formal norm enforcement practice and Internet natives’ experience of it. Anons are more like eco-warriors than terrorists. While their actions are contentious, their force is framed in a vision of common good that is not unreasonable. Engaging with online deviants is shown to be a productive way of identifying the weaknesses in concepts underpinning moral evaluation of Internet-enabled phenomena.

  16. Authentication Without Identification using Anonymous Credential System

    CERN Document Server

    Damodaram, A

    2009-01-01

    Privacy and security are often intertwined. For example, identity theft is rampant because we have become accustomed to authentication by identification. To obtain some service, we provide enough information about our identity for an unscrupulous person to steal it (for example, we give our credit card number to Amazon.com). One of the consequences is that many people avoid e-commerce entirely due to privacy and security concerns. The solution is to perform authentication without identification. In fact, all on-line actions should be as anonymous as possible, for this is the only way to guarantee security for the overall system. A credential system is a system in which users can obtain credentials from organizations and demonstrate possession of these credentials. Such a system is anonymous when transactions carried out by the same user cannot be linked. An anonymous credential system is of significant practical relevance because it is the best means of providing privacy for users.

  17. Deterministic Leader Election Among Disoriented Anonymous Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    dieudonné, Yoann; Petit, Franck; Villain, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    We address the Leader Election (LE) problem in networks of anonymous sensors sharing no kind of common coordinate system. Leader Election is a fundamental symmetry breaking problem in distributed computing. Its goal is to assign value 1 (leader) to one of the entities and value 0 (non-leader) to all others. In this paper, assuming n > 1 disoriented anonymous sensors, we provide a complete charac- terization on the sensors positions to deterministically elect a leader, provided that all the sensors' positions are known by every sensor. More precisely, our contribution is twofold: First, assuming n anonymous sensors agreeing on a common handedness (chirality) of their own coordinate system, we provide a complete characterization on the sensors positions to deterministically elect a leader. Second, we also provide such a complete chararacterization for sensors devoided of a common handedness. Both characterizations rely on a particular object from combinatorics on words, namely the Lyndon Words.

  18. Anonymous Fingerprinting Based on Electronic Cash

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENXiaofeng; ZHANGFangguo; WANGJilin; WANGYumin

    2003-01-01

    A new anonymous fingerprinting protocol based on the principle of electronic cash is proposed in this paper.Redistributing a data item is equal to doublespending electronic cash.Contrasting with the previous coin-based anonymous fingerprinting protocol,we use the real electronic cash to trace traitors instead of the "coins" which serve only as a cryptographic primitive and have no monetary value,so it is easily understood and the bank does not need key-distribution and registration to prepare the "coina".

  19. Community engagement research and dual diagnosis anonymous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roush, Sean; Monica, Corbett; Pavlovich, Danny; Drake, Robert E

    2015-01-01

    Community engagement research is widely discussed but rarely implemented. This article describes the implementation of a community engagement research project on Dual Diagnosis Anonymous, a rapidly spreading peer support program in Oregon for people with co-occurring mental illness and substance use disorders. After three years of discussions, overcoming barriers, and involving several institutions, this grassroots research project has been implemented and is expanding. Active participants in Dual Diagnosis Anonymous inspired and instructed policy makers, professionals, and students. Community engagement research requires frontline participants, community members, and professional collaborators to overcome multiple barriers with persistence and steadfastness. Building trust, collaboration, and structures for community engagement research takes time and a community effort.

  20. Human Homolog of Drosophila Ariadne (HHARI) is a marker of cellular proliferation associated with nuclear bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmehdawi, Fatima; Wheway, Gabrielle; Szymanska, Katarzyna [Division of Clinical Sciences, Leeds Institute of Molecular Medicine, Level 8, Wellcome Trust Brenner Building, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS9 7TF West Yorkshire (United Kingdom); Adams, Matthew [BioScreening Technology Group, Biomedical Health Research Center, Wellcome Trust Brenner Building, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS9 7TF West Yorkshire (United Kingdom); High, Alec S. [Department of Histopathology, Bexley Wing, St. James' s University Hospital, Beckett Street, Leeds, LS9 7TF West Yorkshire (United Kingdom); Johnson, Colin A., E-mail: c.johnson@leeds.ac.uk [Division of Clinical Sciences, Leeds Institute of Molecular Medicine, Level 8, Wellcome Trust Brenner Building, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS9 7TF West Yorkshire (United Kingdom); Robinson, Philip A. [Division of Clinical Sciences, Leeds Institute of Molecular Medicine, Level 8, Wellcome Trust Brenner Building, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS9 7TF West Yorkshire (United Kingdom)

    2013-02-01

    HHARI (also known as ARIH1) is an ubiquitin-protein ligase and is the cognate of the E2, UbcH7 (UBE2L3). To establish a functional role for HHARI in cellular proliferation processes, we performed a reverse genetics screen that identified n=86/522 (16.5%) ubiquitin conjugation components that have a statistically significant effect on cell proliferation, which included HHARI as a strong hit. We then produced and validated a panel of specific antibodies that establish HHARI as both a nuclear and cytoplasmic protein that is expressed in all cell types studied. HHARI was expressed at higher levels in nuclei, and co-localized with nuclear bodies including Cajal bodies (p80 coilin, NOPP140), PML and SC35 bodies. We confirmed reduced cellular proliferation after ARIH1 knockdown with individual siRNA duplexes, in addition to significantly increased levels of apoptosis, an increased proportion of cells in G2 phase of the cell cycle, and significant reductions in total cellular RNA levels. In head and neck squamous cell carcinoma biopsies, there are higher levels of HHARI expression associated with increased levels of proliferation, compared to healthy control tissues. We demonstrate that HHARI is associated with cellular proliferation, which may be mediated through its interaction with UbcH7 and modification of proteins in nuclear bodies. -- Highlights: ► We produce and validate new antibody reagents for the ubiquitin-protein ligase HHARI. ► HHARI colocalizes with nuclear bodies including Cajal, PML and SC35 bodies. ► We establish new functions in cell proliferation regulation for HHARI. ► Increased HHARI expression associates with squamous cell carcinoma and proliferation.

  1. Genome-Wide Survey of Nuclear Protein-Coding Markers for Beetle Phylogenetics and Their Application in Resolving both Deep and Shallow-Level Divergences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Li-Heng; Zhang, Shao-Qian; Li, Yun; Liang, Dan; Pang, Hong; Ślipiński, Adam; Zhang, Peng

    2017-03-03

    Beetles (Coleoptera) are the most diverse and species-rich insect group, representing an impressive explosive radiation in the evolutionary history of insects, and their evolutionary relationships are often difficult to resolve. The amount of "traditional markers" (e.g., mitochondrial genes and nuclear rDNAs) for beetle phylogenetics is small and these markers often lack sufficient signals in resolving relationships for such a rapidly radiating lineage. Here, based on the available genome data of beetles and other related insect species, we performed a genome-wide survey to search nuclear protein-coding (NPC) genes suitable for research on beetle phylogenetics. As a result, we identified 1470 candidate loci, which provided a valuable data resource to the beetle evolutionary research community for NPC marker development. We randomly chose 180 candidate loci from the database to design primers and successfully developed 95 NPC markers which can be PCR amplified from standard genomic DNA extracts. These new nuclear markers are universally applicable across Coleoptera, with an average amplification success rate of 90%. To test the phylogenetic utility, we used them to investigate the backbone phylogeny of Coleoptera (18 families sampled) and the family Coccinellidae (39 species sampled). Both phylogenies are well resolved (average bootstrap support > 95%), showing that our markers can be used to address phylogenetic questions of various evolutionary depth (from species level to family level). In general, the newly developed nuclear markers are much easier to use and more phylogenetically informative than the "traditional markers", and show great potential to expedite resolution of many parts in the Beetle Tree of Life. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Gene flow among different taxonomic units: evidence from nuclear and cytoplasmic markers in Cedrus plantation forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fady, B; Lefèvre, F; Reynaud, M; Vendramin, G G; Bou Dagher-Kharrat, M; Anzidei, M; Pastorelli, R; Savouré, A; Bariteau, M

    2003-10-01

    Hybridization and introgression are important natural evolutionary processes that can be successfully investigated using molecular markers and open- and controlled-pollinated progeny. In this study, we collected open-pollinated seeds from Cedrus atlantica, Cedrus libani and C. libani x C. atlantica hybrids from three French-plantation forests. We also used pollen from C. libani and Cedrus brevifolia to pollinate C. atlantica trees. The progeny were analyzed using three different types of molecular markers: RAPDs, AFLPs and cpSSRs. Chloroplast DNA was found to be paternally inherited in Cedrus from the progeny of controlled-crosses. Heteroplasmy, although possible, could not be undoubtedly detected. There was no indication of strong reproductive isolating barriers among the three Mediterranean Cedrus taxa. Gene flow between C. atlantica and C. libani accounted for 67 to 81% of viable open-pollinated seedlings in two plantation forests. We propose that Mediterranean Cedrus taxa should be considered as units of a single collective species comprising two regional groups, North Africa and the Middle East. We recommend the use of cpSSRs for monitoring gene flow between taxa in plantation forests, especially in areas where garden specimens of one species are planted in the vicinity of selected seed-stands and gene-conservation reserves of another species.

  3. Congruent signals of population history but radically different patterns of genetic diversity between mitochondrial and nuclear markers in a mountain lizard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferchaud, Anne-Laure; Eudeline, Rémy; Arnal, Véronique; Cheylan, Marc; Pottier, Gilles; Leblois, Raphaël; Crochet, Pierre-André

    2015-01-01

    Historical factors, current population size, population connectivity and selective processes at linked loci contribute to shaping contemporary patterns of neutral genetic diversity. It is now widely acknowledged that nuclear and mitochondrial markers react differently to current demography as well as to past history, so the use of both types of markers is often advocated to gain insight on both historical and contemporary processes. We used 12 microsatellite loci genotyped in 13 populations of a mountain lizard (Iberolacerta bonnali) to test whether the historical scenario favoured by a previous mitochondrial study was also supported by nuclear markers and thereby evaluated the consequences of postglacial range movements on nuclear diversity. Congruent signals of recent history were revealed by nuclear and mitochondrial markers using an Approximate Bayesian computation approach, but contemporary patterns of mtDNA and nuclear DNA diversity were radically different. Although dispersal in this species is probably highly restricted at all spatial scales, colonization abilities have been historically good, suggesting capability for reestablishment of locally extinct populations except in fully disconnected habitats.

  4. A versatile, bar-coded nuclear marker/reporter for live cell fluorescent and multiplexed high content imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Krylova

    Full Text Available The screening of large numbers of compounds or siRNAs is a mainstay of both academic and pharmaceutical research. Most screens test those interventions against a single biochemical or cellular output whereas recording multiple complementary outputs may be more biologically relevant. High throughput, multi-channel fluorescence microscopy permits multiple outputs to be quantified in specific cellular subcompartments. However, the number of distinct fluorescent outputs available remains limited. Here, we describe a cellular bar-code technology in which multiple cell-based assays are combined in one well after which each assay is distinguished by fluorescence microscopy. The technology uses the unique fluorescent properties of assay-specific markers comprised of distinct combinations of different 'red' fluorescent proteins sandwiched around a nuclear localization signal. The bar-code markers are excited by a common wavelength of light but distinguished ratiometrically by their differing relative fluorescence in two emission channels. Targeting the bar-code to cell nuclei enables individual cells expressing distinguishable markers to be readily separated by standard image analysis programs. We validated the method by showing that the unique responses of different cell-based assays to specific drugs are retained when three assays are co-plated and separated by the bar-code. Based upon those studies, we discuss a roadmap in which even more assays may be combined in a well. The ability to analyze multiple assays simultaneously will enable screens that better identify, characterize and distinguish hits according to multiple biologically or clinically relevant criteria. These capabilities also enable the re-creation of complex mixtures of cell types that is emerging as a central area of interest in many fields.

  5. Probabilistic Adaptive Anonymous Authentication in Vehicular Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Xi; Ke-Wei Sha; Wei-Song Shi; Loren Schwiebert; Tao Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Vehicular networks have attracted extensive attention in recent years for their promises in improving safety and enabling other value-added services. Most previous work focuses on designing the media access and physical layer protocols.Privacy issues in vehicular systems have not been well addressed. We argue that privacy is a user-specific concept, and a good privacy protection mechanism should allow users to select the levels of privacy they wish to have. To address this requirement, we propose an adaptive anonymous authentication mechanism that can trade off the anonymity level with computational and communication overheads (resource usage). This mechanism, to our knowledge, is the first effort on adaptive anonymous authentication. The resources used by our protocol are few. A high traffic volume of 2000 vehicles per hour consumes about 60kbps bandwidth, which is less than one percent of the bandwidth of DSRC (Dedicated Short Range Communications). By using adaptive anonymity, the protocol response time can further be improved 2~4 times with lessthan 20% bandwidth overheads.

  6. Anonymous publication of sensitive transactional data

    KAUST Repository

    Ghinita, Gabriel

    2011-02-01

    Existing research on privacy-preserving data publishing focuses on relational data: in this context, the objective is to enforce privacy-preserving paradigms, such as k-anonymity and ℓ-diversity, while minimizing the information loss incurred in the anonymizing process (i.e., maximize data utility). Existing techniques work well for fixed-schema data, with low dimensionality. Nevertheless, certain applications require privacy-preserving publishing of transactional data (or basket data), which involve hundreds or even thousands of dimensions, rendering existing methods unusable. We propose two categories of novel anonymization methods for sparse high-dimensional data. The first category is based on approximate nearest-neighbor (NN) search in high-dimensional spaces, which is efficiently performed through locality-sensitive hashing (LSH). In the second category, we propose two data transformations that capture the correlation in the underlying data: 1) reduction to a band matrix and 2) Gray encoding-based sorting. These representations facilitate the formation of anonymized groups with low information loss, through an efficient linear-time heuristic. We show experimentally, using real-life data sets, that all our methods clearly outperform existing state of the art. Among the proposed techniques, NN-search yields superior data utility compared to the band matrix transformation, but incurs higher computational overhead. The data transformation based on Gray code sorting performs best in terms of both data utility and execution time. © 2006 IEEE.

  7. Altruism and Anonymity: A Behavioral Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locey, Matthew L.; Rachlin, Howard

    2015-01-01

    The effect of anonymity on altruism was examined in a social discounting task with hypothetical rewards. Social discounting – the rate at which increases in social distance decrease value to the participant – was compared across three groups. Participants in the Anonymous group were told that recipients would not know who they were. Participants in the Observed group were asked to imagine that each of their choices was being observed by the recipient. Participants in the Standard group were given no special instructions with respect to anonymity or identity. Social discounting was measured at each of 7 social distances ranging from first closest friend or relative to the 100th closest. Social discount rates for all three groups were well described by hyperbolic functions. Participants in the Observed group were willing to forgo more money for the benefit of others (were more altruistic) than were those in the other two groups. Although participants in the Anonymous group, with no prospect of reciprocation, were willing to forgo less money for the sake of others than were those in the Observed group, they did express willingness to forgo significant amounts. This is some evidence that individual altruistic acts cannot be explained wholly by the possibility of reciprocation. PMID:26051191

  8. Dissent in Numbers: Making Strong Anonymity Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    transmit anonymously in each bit-time with- out colliding and yielding garbled output, an arbitration or scheduling mechanism is needed. Second, any misbe...http://www.nytimes.com/2010/05/ 14/technology/personaltech/14talk.html. [62] J. Wright, T. de Souza, and I. Brown. Fine-grained censorship mapping information sources, legality and ethics . In FOCI, Aug. 2011. 14

  9. ATF3 is a novel nuclear marker for migrating ependymal stem cells in the rat spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mladinic, Miranda; Bianchetti, Elena; Dekanic, Ana; Mazzone, Graciela L; Nistri, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    The present study identified ATF3 as a novel dynamic marker for ependymal stem/progenitor cells (nestin, vimentin and SOX2 positive) around the central canal of the neonatal or adult rat spinal cord. While quiescent ependymal cells showed cytoplasmic ATF3 expression, during 6-24h in vitro these cells mobilized and acquired intense nuclear ATF3 staining. Their migratory pattern followed a centrifugal pathway toward the dorsal and ventral funiculi, reminiscent of the rostral migratory stream of the brain subventricular stem cells. Thus, the chain cell formation was, by analogy, termed funicular migratory stream (FMS). The FMS process preceded the strong proliferation of ependymal cells occurring only after 24h in vitro. Pharmacological inhibition of MAPK-p38 and JNK/c-Jun (upstream effectors of ATF3 activation) prevented the FMS mobilization of ATF3 nuclear-positive cells. Excitotoxicity or ischemia-like conditions, reported to evoke neuronal and glial injury, did not further enhance migration of ependymal cells at 24h, suggesting that, at this early stage of damage, the FMS phenomenon had peaked and that more extensive repair processes are delayed beyond this time point. ATF3 is, therefore, useful to identify activation and migration of endogenous stem cells of the rat spinal cord in vitro.

  10. Orphan nuclear receptor Nurr1 as a potential novel marker for progression in human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Li; Gong, Chen; Ge, Liangyu; Song, Linping; Chen, Fenfen; Jin, Chunjing; Zhu, Hongyan; Zhou, Guoxiong

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear receptor related-1 protein (Nurr1) is a novel orphan member of the nuclear receptor superfamily (the NR4A family) involved in tumorigenesis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression and possible function of Nurr1 in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). The expression pattern of Nurr1 protein was determined using immunohistochemical staining in 138 patients with PDAC. Elevated Nurr1 expression was more commonly observed in PDAC tissues and cell lines compared with healthy controls. Elevated expression was significantly associated with histological differentiation (P=0.041), lymph node metastasis (P=0.021), TNM classification of malignant tumors stage (P=0.031) and poor survival (P=0.001). Further experiments demonstrated that suppression of endogenous Nurr1 expression attenuated cell proliferation, migration and invasion, and induced apoptosis of PDAC cells. In conclusion, these results suggest that Nurr1 has an important role in the progression of PDAC and may be used as a novel marker for therapeutic targets.

  11. Identification of species-specific nuclear insertions of mitochondrial DNA (numts) in gorillas and their potential as population genetic markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Calderón, Iván Darío; Clark, Nicholas Jonathan; Wildschutte, Julia Vera Halo; DiMattio, Kelly; Jensen-Seaman, Michael Ignatius; Anthony, Nicola Mary

    2014-12-01

    The first hyper-variable region (HV1) of the mitochondrial control region (MCR) has been widely used as a molecular tool in population genetics, but inadvertent amplification of nuclear translocated copies of mitochondrial DNA (numts) in gorillas has compromised the use of mitochondrial DNA in population genetic studies. At least three putative classes (I, II, III) of gorilla-specific HV1 MCR numts have been uncovered over the past decade. However, the number, size and location of numt loci in gorillas and other apes are completely unknown. Furthermore, little work to date has assessed the utility of numts as candidate population genetic markers. In the present study, we screened Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) genomic libraries in the chimpanzee and gorilla to compare patterns of mitochondrial-wide insertion in both taxa. We conducted an intensive BLAST search for numts in the gorilla genome and compared the prevalence of numt loci originating from the MCR with other great ape taxa. Additional gorilla-specific MCR numts were retrieved either through BAC library screens or using an anchored-PCR (A-PCR) amplification using genomic DNA from five unrelated gorillas. Locus-specific primers were designed to identify numt insertional polymorphisms and evaluate their potential as population genetic markers. Mitochondrial-wide surveys of chimpanzee and gorilla BACs showed that the number of numts does not differ between these two taxa. However, MCR numts are more abundant in chimpanzees than in other great apes. We identified and mapped 67 putative gorilla-specific numts, including two that contain the entire HV1 domain, cluster with sequences from two numt classes (I, IIb) and will likely co-amplify with mitochondrial sequences using most published HV1 primers. However, phylogenetic analysis coupled with post-hoc analysis of mitochondrial variation can successfully differentiate nuclear sequences. Insertional polymorphisms were evident in three out of five numts

  12. Prognostic value of cancer stem cell markers CD133, ALDH1 and nuclearβ-catenin in colon cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eman H.Abdelbary; Hayam E.Rashed; Eman I.Ismail; Mohamed Abdelgawad

    2014-01-01

    Colon cancer is one of the most common human malignancies. Cancer stem cells (CSCs), despite being only a smal subset of cancer cells, have the capability to self renew and sustain the tumor. They also have the ability to proliferate. Multiple CSCs associated markers have been identified in colon cancer including CD133, ALDH1 andβ catenin. The aim of the work was to study the prognostic value of CSCs markers (CD133, ALDH1 andβ catenin), as wel as their rela tionship to clinicopathological features of colon cancer. Methods:CD133, ALDH1 andβ catenin proteins expression was as sessed immunohistochemical y in a series of colon cancers and their prognostic significance was evaluated. Results:CD133 expression showed significant relationship to tumor stage and lymph node metastasis (P value 0.004&<0.001 respectively), and near significant relationship to liver metastasis (P value 0.092). ALDH1 was significantly associated with tumor grade, stage and nodal metastasis (P value 0.021, 0.001 and 0.026 respectively), but its relationship to liver metastasis was near sig nificant (P value 0.068). Nuclearβ catenin was significantly related to tumor grade, stage, nodal and liver metastasis (P value 0.001,<0.001,<0.001 and 0.008 respectively). Overal survival (OS) was associated inversely with CD133, ALDH1 positivity, and directly with nuclearβ catenin positivity (P value<0.001, 0.0001 and<0.001 respectively). Also recurrence free survival (RFS) was associated inversely with CD133, ALDH1 and directly with nuclearβ catenin positivity (P value 0.0001, 0.001 and<0.001 respectively). Conclusion:CD133, ALDH1 andβ catenin expressions of tumor cells have significant impact upon malignant progression of colon cancer and thus patient survival and tumor recurrence. Hence they can be used to predict outcome of colon cancer patients.

  13. A Novel Multi-Receiver Signcryption Scheme with Complete Anonymity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Liaojun; Yan, Xuxia; Zhao, Huiyang; Hu, Yufei; Li, Huixian

    2016-01-01

    Anonymity, which is more and more important to multi-receiver schemes, has been taken into consideration by many researchers recently. To protect the receiver anonymity, in 2010, the first multi-receiver scheme based on the Lagrange interpolating polynomial was proposed. To ensure the sender's anonymity, the concept of the ring signature was proposed in 2005, but afterwards, this scheme was proven to has some weakness and at the same time, a completely anonymous multi-receiver signcryption scheme is proposed. In this completely anonymous scheme, the sender anonymity is achieved by improving the ring signature, and the receiver anonymity is achieved by also using the Lagrange interpolating polynomial. Unfortunately, the Lagrange interpolation method was proven a failure to protect the anonymity of receivers, because each authorized receiver could judge whether anyone else is authorized or not. Therefore, the completely anonymous multi-receiver signcryption mentioned above can only protect the sender anonymity. In this paper, we propose a new completely anonymous multi-receiver signcryption scheme with a new polynomial technology used to replace the Lagrange interpolating polynomial, which can mix the identity information of receivers to save it as a ciphertext element and prevent the authorized receivers from verifying others. With the receiver anonymity, the proposed scheme also owns the anonymity of the sender at the same time. Meanwhile, the decryption fairness and public verification are also provided.

  14. Genetic diversity of Greek Aegilops species using different types of nuclear genome markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Konstantinos G; Bebeli, Penelope J

    2010-09-01

    Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) analyses were used to evaluate genetic variability and relationships of Greek Aegilops species. Thirty-eight accessions of seven Greek Aegilops species [Ae. triuncialis (genome UC), Ae. neglecta (UM), Ae. biuncialis (UM), Ae. caudata (C), Ae. comosa (M), Ae. geniculata (MU) and Ae. umbellulata (U)] as well as Triticum accessions were studied. Nineteen RAPD and ten ISSR primers yielded 344 and 170 polymorphic bands, respectively, that were used for the construction of dendrograms. Regardless of the similarity coefficient and marker type used, UPGMA placed 38 Aegilops accessions into one branch while the other branch consisted of wheat species. Within the Aegilops cluster, subgroups were identified that included species that shared the same genome or belonged to the same botanical section. Within the Triticum cluster, two robust subgroups were formed, one including diploid wheat and another including polyploid wheat. In conclusion, results showed that there is genetic diversity in the Greek Aegilops species studied, and clustering based on genetic similarities was in agreement with botanical classifications.

  15. Nuclear microsatellite markers for the date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.): characterization and utility across the genus Phoenix and in other palm genera.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Billotte, N.; Marseillac, P.; Brottier, P.; Noyer, J.L.; Jacquemoud, J.P.; Moreau, C.; Couvreur, T.L.P.; Chavallier, M.H.; Pintaud, J.C.; Risterucci, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    A (GA)n microsatellite-enriched library was constructed and 16 nuclear simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci were characterized in Phoenix dactylifera. Across-taxa amplification and genotyping tests showed the utility of most SSR markers in 11 other Phoenix species and the transferability of some of the

  16. Phylogeography of the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus: Marked population structure, Neotropical Pleistocene vicariance and incongruence between nuclear and mtDNA markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgante João S

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The common vampire bat Desmodus rotundus is an excellent model organism for studying ecological vicariance in the Neotropics due to its broad geographic range and its preference for forested areas as roosting sites. With the objective of testing for Pleistocene ecological vicariance, we sequenced a mitocondrial DNA (mtDNA marker and two nuclear markers (RAG2 and DRB to try to understand how Pleistocene glaciations affected the distribution of intraspecific lineages in this bat. Results Five reciprocally monophyletic clades were evident in the mitochondrial gene tree, and in most cases with high bootstrap support: Central America (CA, Amazon and Cerrado (AMC, Pantanal (PAN, Northern Atlantic Forest (NAF and Southern Atlantic Forest (SAF. The Atlantic forest clades formed a monophyletic clade with high bootstrap support, creating an east/west division for this species in South America. On the one hand, all coalescent and non-coalescent estimates point to a Pleistocene time of divergence between the clades. On the other hand, the nuclear markers showed extensive sharing of haplotypes between distant localities, a result compatible with male-biased gene flow. In order to test if the disparity between the mitochondrial and nuclear markers was due to the difference in mutation rate and effective size, we performed a coalescent simulation to examine the feasibility that, given the time of separation between the observed lineages, even with a gene flow rate close to zero, there would not be reciprocal monophyly for a neutral nuclear marker. We used the observed values of theta and an estimated mutation rate for the nuclear marker gene to perform 1000 iterations of the simulation. The results of this simulation were inconclusive: the number of iterations with and without reciprocal monophyly of one or more clades are similar. Conclusions We therefore conclude that the pattern exhibited by the common vampire bat, with marked

  17. Yahtzee: An Anonymized Group Level Matching Procedure

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Jason J; Fariss, Christopher J; Settle, Jaime E; Kramer, Adam; Marlow, Cameron; Fowler, James H

    2011-01-01

    Researchers often face the problem of needing to protect the privacy of subjects while also needing to integrate data that contains personal information from diverse data sources in order to conduct their research. The advent of computational social science and the enormous amount of data about people that is being collected makes protecting the privacy of research subjects evermore important. However, strict privacy procedures can make joining diverse sources of data that contain information about specific individual behaviors difficult. In this paper we present a procedure to keep information about specific individuals from being "leaked" or shared in either direction between two sources of data. To achieve this goal, we randomly assign individuals to anonymous groups before combining the anonymized information between the two sources of data. We refer to this method as the Yahtzee procedure, and show that it performs as expected theoretically when we apply it to data from Facebook and public voter records.

  18. An Internet Based Anonymous Electronic Cash System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israt Jahan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available There is an increase activity in research to improve the current electronic payment system which is parallel with the progress of internet. Electronic cash system is a cryptographic payment system which offers anonymity during withdrawal and purchase. Electronic cash displays serial numbers which can be recorded to allow further tracing. Contrary to their physical counterparts, e-cash have an inherent limitation; they are easy to copy and reuse (double-spending. An observer is a tamper-resistant device, issued by the Internet bank, which is incorporated with the Internet user’s computer that prevents double-spending physically, i.e., the user has no access to her e-cash and therefore he cannot copy them. In this paper, we shall present an anonymous electronic cash scheme on the internet which incorporates tamper-resistant device with user-module.

  19. Anonymity And Accountability In Web Based Transactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.Jayasree

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Decreased privacy is an unavoidable consequence in the drive to make the world a more secure, safer place, according to some analysts. In the on-line world, the conflict between privacy and security manifests itself in a debate between anonymity and accountability. Balance between Anonymity and Accountability is a major concern in web based transactions. The protection of users’ privacy when performing web-based transactions is an important factor in the acceptance and use of Internet and web services. There is a tremendous improvement in the automation of the way we pay for goods and services by the variety and growth of electronic banking services available to the consumers. Hence there is a need for the ultimate structure of the new electronic transaction system that has a substantial impact on the personal privacy as well as on the nature and extent of criminal use of E- transactions. This paper presents an approach for such structure.

  20. Structure Preserving Anonymization of Router Configuration Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    2009 IEEE Authorized licensed use limited to: Naval Postgraduate School. Downloaded on December 18, 2009 at 13:53 from IEEE Xplore . Restrictions apply... IEEE Xplore . Restrictions apply. MALTZ et al.: STRUCTURE PRESERVING ANONYMIZATION OF ROUTER CONFIGURATION DATA 351 1 hostname cr1.lax.foo.com 2 ! 3... IEEE Xplore . Restrictions apply. 352 IEEE JOURNAL ON SELECTED AREAS IN COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 27, NO. 3, APRIL 2009 lines 14 and 30 (255.255.255.252

  1. Remote Electronic Voting with Revocable Anonymity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Matt; Ritter, Eike

    We present a new remote, coercion-free electronic voting protocol which satisfies a number of properties previously considered contradictory. We introduce (and justify) the idea of revocable anonymity in electronic voting, on the grounds of it being a legal requirement in the United Kingdom, and show a method of proving the validity of a ballot to a verifier in zero knowledge, by extension of known two-candidate proofs.

  2. Anonymous electronic trading versus floor trading

    OpenAIRE

    Franke, Günter; Hess, Dieter

    1995-01-01

    This paper compares the attractiveness of floor trading and anonymous electronic trading systems. It is argued that in times of low information intensity the insight into the order book of the electronic trading system provides more valuable information than floor trading, but in times of high information intensity the reverse is true. Thus, the electronic system's market share in trading activity should decline in times of high information intensity. This hypothesis is tested by data on BUND...

  3. Universally composable anonymous Hash certification model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Fan; MA JianFeng; SangJae MOON

    2007-01-01

    Ideal function is the fundamental component in the universally composable security model. However, the certification ideal function defined in the universally composable security model realizes the identity authentication by binding identity to messages and the signature, which fails to characterize the special security requirements of anonymous authentication with other kind of certificate. Therefore,inspired by the work of Marten, an anonymous hash certification ideal function and a more universal certificate CA model are proposed in this paper. We define the security requirements and security notions for this model in the framework of universal composable security and prove in the plain model (not in the random-oracle model) that these security notions can be achieved using combinations of a secure digital signature scheme, a symmetrical encryption mechanism, a family of pseudorandom functions, and a family of one-way collision-free hash functions. Considering the limitation of wireless environment and computation ability of wireless devices, this anonymous Hash certification ideal function is realized by using symmetry primitives.

  4. Genetic diversity and phylogeny of Japanese sake-brewing rice as revealed by AFLP and nuclear and chloroplast SSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Z; Mori, N; Kawamura, M; Ishii, T; Yoshida, S; Ikegami, M; Takumi, S; Nakamura, C

    2004-11-01

    Japanese rice ( Oryza sativa L.) cultivars that are strictly used for the brewing of sake (Japanese rice wine) represent a unique and traditional group. These cultivars are characterized by common traits such as large grain size with low protein content and a large, central white-core structure. To understand the genetic diversity and phylogenetic characteristics of sake-brewing rice, we performed amplified fragment length polymorphism and simple sequence repeat analyses, using 95 cultivars of local and modern sake-brewing rice together with 76 cultivars of local and modern cooking rice. Our analysis of both nuclear and chloroplast genome polymorphisms showed that the genetic diversity in sake-brewing rice cultivars was much smaller than the diversity found in cooking rice cultivars. Interestingly, the genetic diversity within the modern sake-brewing cultivars was about twofold higher than the diversity within the local sake-brewing cultivars, which was in contrast to the cooking cultivars. This is most likely due to introgression of the modern cooking cultivars into the modern sake-brewing cultivars through breeding practices. Cluster analysis and chloroplast haplotype analysis suggested that the local sake-brewing cultivars originated monophyletically in the western regions of Japan. Analysis of variance tests showed that several markers were significantly associated with sake-brewing traits, particularly with the large white-core structure.

  5. Characterization of Fasciola spp. in Myanmar on the basis of spermatogenesis status and nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Madoka; Bawn, Saw; Maw, Ni Ni; Htun, Lat Lat; Thein, Myint; Gyi, Aung; Sunn, Kyaw; Katakura, Ken; Itagaki, Tadashi

    2011-12-01

    Fasciola spp. in Myanmar were characterized on the basis of spermatogenesis status and DNA markers of nuclear internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) and mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1). We collected 88 adult flukes from Yangon, Lashio, and Myitkyina. Spermatogenesis status was analyzed by the presence of sperm in the seminal vesicles, and 8 aspermic and 80 spermic flukes were detected. The flukes were identified on the basis of spermatogenesis status and ITS1 types which were analyzed by a PCR-RFLP method, and 80 spermic flukes were identified as F. gigantica. A very low detection rate of aspermic Fasciola sp. indicated that they are not established in Myanmar. In phylogenetic analyses, the 7 aspermic Fasciola sp. from Myitkyina displayed a haplotype in nad1 sequence, which was identical to that of aspermic Fasciola sp. from other Asian countries including China. Therefore, they were probably introduced from China through an infected domestic ruminant. On the other hand, 17 nad1 haplotypes detected in F. gigantica belonged to 2 clades unique to Myanmar, each with a distinct founder haplotype in a network analysis. This indicated a unique history of F. gigantica introduction into Myanmar involving ancient artificial movements of domestic ruminants.

  6. Privacy Preserving Quantum Anonymous Transmission via Entanglement Relay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Huang, Liusheng; Song, Fang

    2016-06-01

    Anonymous transmission is an interesting and crucial issue in computer communication area, which plays a supplementary role to data privacy. In this paper, we put forward a privacy preserving quantum anonymous transmission protocol based on entanglement relay, which constructs anonymous entanglement from EPR pairs instead of multi-particle entangled state, e.g. GHZ state. Our protocol achieves both sender anonymity and receiver anonymity against an active adversary and tolerates any number of corrupt participants. Meanwhile, our protocol obtains an improvement in efficiency compared to quantum schemes in previous literature.

  7. Nuclear factor XIIIa staining (clone AC-1A1 mouse monoclonal) is a sensitive and specific marker to discriminate sebaceous proliferations from other cutaneous clear cell neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlenhake, Elizabeth E; Clark, Lindsey N; Smoller, Bruce R; Shalin, Sara C; Gardner, Jerad M

    2016-08-01

    Sebaceous carcinoma is a rare but serious malignancy that may be difficult to diagnose when poorly differentiated. Other epithelial tumors with clear cell change may mimic sebaceous carcinoma. Few useful or specific immunohistochemical markers for sebaceous differentiation are available. Nuclear staining with factor XIIIa (clone AC-1A1) was recently found to be a highly sensitive marker of sebaceous differentiation. We evaluated nuclear factor XIIIa (AC-1A1) staining in sebaceous neoplasms vs. other cutaneous clear cell tumors. We stained 27 sebaceous proliferations: sebaceous hyperplasia (7), sebaceous adenoma (8), sebaceoma (5), sebaceous carcinoma (7). We also stained 67 tumors with clear cell change: basal cell carcinoma (8), squamous cell carcinoma (8), hidradenoma (7), desmoplastic trichilemmoma (2), trichilemmoma (10), trichilemmal carcinoma (3), clear cell acanthoma (9), atypical fibroxanthoma (1), syringoma (8), trichoepithelioma (1), metastatic renal cell carcinoma (2), and nevi with balloon cell change (8). Nuclear factor XIIIa (AC-1A1) staining was present in 100% of sebaceous proliferations; 96% displayed strong staining. Non-sebaceous clear cell tumors were negative or only weakly positive with factor XIIIa (AC-1A1) in 95.5%; only 4.5% showed strong staining. This suggests that strong nuclear factor XIIIa (AC-1A1) staining is a sensitive and specific marker of sebaceous neoplasms vs. other clear cell tumors.

  8. On the Anonymity of Identity-Based Encryption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Luo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Anonymity of identity-based encryption (IBE means that given a ciphertext, one cannot distinguish the target identity from a random identity. In this paper, we thoroughly discuss the anonymity of IBE systems. We found that the current definition of anonymity is obscure to describe some IBE systems, such as Gentry IBE system. Furthermore, current definition cannot express the degree of anonymity. So we divide the degree of anonymity into weak anonymity and strong anonymity based on indistinguishability between different games. For weakly anonymous IBE systems, the target identity in a ciphertext cannot be distinguished from a random identity. For strongly anonymous IBE systems, the whole ciphertext cannot be distinguished from a random tuple. We also discuss the type of anonymity and divide it into two types. Type 1 means that a random tuple can be seen as a valid ciphertext, while type 2 cannot. Based on our new definitions, we show that three famous IBE systems, Gentry IBE system, Boyen-Waters IBE system, and Lewko IBE system, have strong but different types of anonymity.

  9. No more time to stay 'single' in the detection of Anisakis pegreffii, A. simplex (s. s.) and hybridization events between them: a multi-marker nuclear genotyping approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattiucci, S; Acerra, V; Paoletti, M; Cipriani, P; Levsen, A; Webb, S C; Canestrelli, D; Nascetti, G

    2016-07-01

    A multi-marker nuclear genotyping approach was performed on larval and adult specimens of Anisakis spp. (N = 689) collected from fish and cetaceans in allopatric and sympatric areas of the two species Anisakis pegreffii and Anisakis simplex (s. s.), in order to: (1) identify specimens belonging to the parental taxa by using nuclear markers (allozymes loci) and sequence analysis of a new diagnostic nuclear DNA locus (i.e. partial sequence of the EF1 α-1 nDNA region) and (2) recognize hybrid categories. According to the Bayesian clustering algorithms, based on those markers, most of the individuals (N = 678) were identified as the parental species [i.e. A. pegreffii or A. simplex (s. s.)], whereas a smaller portion (N = 11) were recognized as F1 hybrids. Discordant results were obtained when using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphisms (PCR-RFLPs) of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) on the same specimens, which indicated the occurrence of a large number of 'hybrids' both in sympatry and allopatry. These findings raise the question of possible misidentification of specimens belonging to the two parental Anisakis and their hybrid categories derived from the application of that single marker (i.e. PCR-RFLPs analysis of the ITS of rDNA). Finally, Bayesian clustering, using allozymes and EF1 α-1 nDNA markers, has demonstrated that hybridization between A. pegreffii and A. simplex (s. s.) is a contemporary phenomenon in sympatric areas, while no introgressive hybridization takes place between the two species.

  10. Cytosine deaminase as a negative selectable marker for the microalgal chloroplast: a strategy for the isolation of nuclear mutations that affect chloroplast gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Rosanna E B; Purton, Saul

    2014-12-01

    Negative selectable markers are useful tools for forward-genetic screens aimed at identifying trans-acting factors that are required for expression of specific genes. Transgenic lines harbouring the marker fused to a gene element, such as a promoter, may be mutagenized to isolate loss-of-function mutants able to survive under selection. Such a strategy allows the molecular dissection of factors that are essential for expression of the gene. Expression of individual chloroplast genes in plants and algae typically requires one or more nuclear-encoded factors that act at the post-transcriptional level, often through interaction with the 5' UTR of the mRNA. To study such nuclear control further, we have developed the Escherichia coli cytosine deaminase gene codA as a conditional negative selectable marker for use in the model green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. We show that a codon-optimized variant of codA with three amino acid substitutions confers sensitivity to 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) when expressed in the chloroplast under the control of endogenous promoter/5' UTR elements from the photosynthetic genes psaA or petA. UV mutagenesis of the psaA transgenic line allowed recovery of 5-FC-resistant, photosynthetically deficient lines harbouring mutations in the nuclear gene for the factor TAA1 that is required for psaA translation. Similarly, the petA line was used to isolate mutants of the petA mRNA stability factor MCA1 and the translation factor TCA1. The codA marker may be used to identify critical residues in known nuclear factors and to aid the discovery of additional factors required for expression of chloroplast genes.

  11. Phylogeny and species delineation in European species of the genus Steganacarus (Acari, Oribatida) using mitochondrial and nuclear markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreipe, Victoria; Corral-Hernández, Elena; Scheu, Stefan; Schaefer, Ina; Maraun, Mark

    2015-06-01

    Species of the genus Steganacarus are soil-living oribatid mites (Acari, Phthiracaridae) with a ptychoid body. The phylogeny and species status of the species of Steganacarus are not resolved, some authors group all ten German species of Steganacarus within the genus Steganacarus whereas others split them into three subgenera, Steganacarus, Tropacarus and Atropacarus. Additionally, two species, S. magnus and T. carinatus, comprise morphotypes of questionable species status. We investigated the phylogeny and species status of ten European Steganacarus species, i.e. S. applicatus, S. herculeanus, S. magnus forma magna, S. magnus forma anomala, S. spinosus, Tropacarus brevipilus, T. carinatus forma carinata, T. carinatus forma pulcherrima, Atropacarus striculus and Rhacaplacarus ortizi. We used two molecular markers, a 251 bp fragment of the nuclear gene 28S rDNA (D3) and a 477 bp fragment of the mitochondrial COI region. The phylogeny based on a combined analysis of D3 and COI separated four subgenera (Steganacarus, Tropacarus and Atropacarus, Rhacaplacarus) indicating that they form monophyletic groups. The COI region separated all ten species of the genus Steganacarus and showed variation within some species often correlating with the geographic origin of the species. Resolution of the more conserved D3 region was limited, indicating that radiation events are rather recent. Overall, our results indicate that both genes alone cannot be used for phylogeny and barcoding since variation is too low in D3 and too high in COI. However, when used in combination these genes provide reliable insight into the phylogeny, radiation and species status of taxa of the genus Steganacarus.

  12. Complete Bipartite Anonymity for Location Privacy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董恺; 顾涛; 陶先平; 吕建

    2014-01-01

    Users are vulnerable to privacy risks when providing their location information to location-based services (LBS). Existing work sacrifices the quality of LBS by degrading spatial and temporal accuracy for ensuring user privacy. In this paper, we propose a novel approach, Complete Bipartite Anonymity (CBA), aiming to achieve both user privacy and quality of service. The theoretical basis of CBA is that: if the bipartite graph of k nearby users’ paths can be transformed into a complete bipartite graph, then these users achieve k-anonymity since the set of “end points connecting to a specific start point in a graph”is an equivalence class. To achieve CBA, we design a Collaborative Path Confusion (CPC) protocol which enables nearby users to discover and authenticate each other without knowing their real identities or accurate locations, predict the encounter location using users’ moving pattern information, and generate fake traces obfuscating the real ones. We evaluate CBA using a real-world dataset, and compare its privacy performance with existing path confusion approach. The results show that CBA enhances location privacy by increasing the chance for a user confusing his/her path with others by 4 to 16 times in low user density areas. We also demonstrate that CBA is secure under the trace identification attack.

  13. Yahtzee: an anonymized group level matching procedure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason J Jones

    Full Text Available Researchers often face the problem of needing to protect the privacy of subjects while also needing to integrate data that contains personal information from diverse data sources. The advent of computational social science and the enormous amount of data about people that is being collected makes protecting the privacy of research subjects ever more important. However, strict privacy procedures can hinder the process of joining diverse sources of data that contain information about specific individual behaviors. In this paper we present a procedure to keep information about specific individuals from being "leaked" or shared in either direction between two sources of data without need of a trusted third party. To achieve this goal, we randomly assign individuals to anonymous groups before combining the anonymized information between the two sources of data. We refer to this method as the Yahtzee procedure, and show that it performs as predicted by theoretical analysis when we apply it to data from Facebook and public voter records.

  14. Browsing the Internet: good-bye anonymity!

    CERN Multimedia

    Computer Security Team

    2012-01-01

    Do you consider browsing the Internet to be your private business? When visiting random web-sites, how far do you assume you are anonymous? Would it matter to you that Google or Facebook can profile your browsing behaviour in order to better target you with advertisements? Did you notice that you already get targeted ads when you are logged on to Google or Facebook even if you are visiting completely different websites? If matters to you, note that browsing anonymously on the Internet is far from easy.   When you are connected to the Internet, you give away a variety of information: your PC’s IP address, some browser settings like language or screen size, and, probably, your login information. So how private is private? You might argue that your current IP address has been picked from a pool of addresses and therefore regularly changes, so it does not necessarily always pinpoint you. On the other hand, with the dawn of IPv6 there is no need any more for shared IP addresses as the...

  15. How To Break Anonymity of the Netflix Prize Dataset

    OpenAIRE

    Narayanan, Arvind; Shmatikov, Vitaly

    2006-01-01

    We present a new class of statistical de-anonymization attacks against high-dimensional micro-data, such as individual preferences, recommendations, transaction records and so on. Our techniques are robust to perturbation in the data and tolerate some mistakes in the adversary's background knowledge. We apply our de-anonymization methodology to the Netflix Prize dataset, which contains anonymous movie ratings of 500,000 subscribers of Netflix, the world's largest online movie rental service. ...

  16. Anonymity and Openness in Donor Conception: the New Danish Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Janne Rothmar

    2013-01-01

    model in donor conception which offers women/couples a choice of anonymity or openness in donation.This paper is based on my talk on June 20, 2013 at London School of Economics at the conference “New Families and Genetic Identities: Developments in law, policy and research” organised by the Morgan...... bank is based in Denmark and consequently anonymous sperm is also exported abroad, even into jurisdictions where anonymity is banned illegal. This commentary traces the raison d’être of anonymity in Danish law, accounts for the legal framework for the internet sale of sperm and examines the new Danish...

  17. The Effect of Pleistocene Climate Fluctuations on Distribution of European Abalone (Haliotis tuberculata), Revealed by Combined Mitochondrial and Nuclear Marker Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussel, Valérie; Van Wormhoudt, Alain

    2017-04-01

    The genetic differentiation among the populations of the European abalone Haliotis tuberculata was investigated using different markers to better understand the evolutionary history and exchanges between populations. Three markers were used: mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI), the sperm lysin nuclear gene, and eight nuclear microsatellites. These markers present different characteristics concerning mutation rate and inheritance, which provided complementary information about abalone history and gene diversity. Genetic diversity and relationships among subspecies were calculated from a sample of approximately 500 individuals, collected from 17 different locations in the north-eastern Atlantic Ocean, Macaronesia, and Mediterranean Sea. COI marker was used to explore the phylogeny of the species with a network analysis and two phylogenetic methods. The analysis revealed 18 major haplotypes grouped into two distinct clades with a pairwise sequence divergence up to 3.5 %. These clades do not correspond to subspecies but revealed many contacts along Atlantic coast during the Pleistocene interglaciations. The sperm lysin gene analysis separated two different subtaxa: one associated to Macaronesian islands, and the other to all other populations. Moreover, a small population of the northern subtaxon was isolated in the Adriatic Sea-probably before the separation of the two lineages-and evolved independently. Microsatellites were analyzed by different genetics methods, including the Bayesian clustering method and migration patterns analysis. It revealed genetically distinct microsatellite patterns among populations from Mediterranean Sea, Brittany and Normandy, Morocco, and Canary and Balearic islands. Gene flow is asymmetric among the regions; the Azores and the Canary Islands are particularly isolated and have low effective population sizes. Our results support the hypothesis that climate changes since the Pleistocene glaciations have played a major role in the

  18. Gregory Bateson, Alcoholics Anonymous, and stoicism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brundage, V

    1985-02-01

    In 1971 Gregory Bateson put forward an "entirely new epistemology," or view of the world, that he described as cybernetic. In a very influential article, which appeared in this journal, Bateson claimed that his cybernetic epistemology "coincides closely" with the epistemology of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), for which he claimed "the only outstanding record of success" in the treatment of alcoholism (1971, p. 310). However, Bateson's discussion of AA dealt with only four of the Twelve Steps of AA's program. Although the epistemology of cybernetics and AA congrue in some respects, they contradict each other in many others. Common ground is found in the ancient philosophical tradition of Stoicism. In Stoicism the contradictions between the two are sources for an ethics and psychology of great power. Stoicism offers the cybernetic epistemologist a solid base for theory. It offers the clinician who deals with chemical dependency practical insights into the process of recovery.

  19. Classification via Clustering for Anonymization Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sridhar Mandapati

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to the exponential growth of hardware technology particularly in the field of electronic data storage media and processing such data, has raised serious issues related in order to protect the individual privacy like ethical, philosophical and legal. Data mining techniques are employed to ensure the privacy. Privacy Preserving Data Mining (PPDM techniques aim at protecting the sensitive data and mining results. In this study, the different Clustering techniques via classification with and without anonymization data using mining tool WEKA is presented. The aim of this study is to investigate the performance of different clustering methods for the diabetic data set and to compare the efficiency of privacy preserving mining. The accuracy of classification via clustering is evaluated using K-means, Expectation-Maximization (EM and Density based clustering methods.

  20. Design of Anonymous Attribute Authentication Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyomoto, Shinsaku; Fukushima, Kazuhide; Tanaka, Toshiaki

    Privacy remains an issue for IT services. Users are concerned that their history of service use may be traceable since each user is assigned a single identifier as a means of authentication.In this paper, we propose a perfectly anonymous attribute authentication scheme that is both unidentifiable and untraceable. Then, we present the evaluation results of a prototype system using a PC and mobile phone with the scheme. The proposed scheme employs a self-blindable certificate that a user can change randomly; thus the certificate is modified for each authentication, and the authentication scheme is unidentifiable and untraceable. Furthermore, our scheme can revoke self-blindable certificates without leaks of confidential private information and check the revocation status without online access.

  1. Prognostic value of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B (RANK marker in patients with breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Zabroda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite notable progress made in studying breast cancer (BC, the mechanisms of metastases, in view of the classification into molecular subtypes, in patients with BC remain to be fully uninvestigated, in the presence of a good prognosis in particular. To study novel diagnostic and predictive markers in a new way presents current problems in the pathology of BC. This investigation deals with the expression of osteoprotegerin (OPG in the tumor cells of patients with BC. It enrolled 83 patients with locally advanced BC (T2–4N0–3M0 who had been treated in 2003 to 2010. The inclusion criterion was a histologically verified diagnosis of invasive BC. To study the level of OPG, the investigators conducted an immunohistochemical study of biopsy sections according to the standard protocol. The mean expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B (RANK in the BC cells was 18.7 %; itsmedian was 5 % (range, 0–90 %. The patients were divided into 2 groups according to the level of RANK expression: 1 high (higher than the median; 2 low (lower than the median. The high RANK group included 39 patients; the low RANK group comprised 44 patients. Analysis of the clinical and pathological characteristics of BC patients with regard RANK expression did not show any statistically significant differences in the presence or absence of affected regional lymph nodes, T category, and Ki-67 index. The analysis of clinical and pathomorphological and immunohistochemical characteristics in patients with breast cancer, taking into consideration RANK expression level, did not show any statistically significant differences with respect to presence or absence of affected regional lymph nodes, age, T category and Ki-67 index (р > 0.05. However, it revealed the following pattern: the high expression of RANK was more common in patients positive for estrogen and progesterone receptors than in those for negative receptors (p = 0.04.

  2. Genetic introgression and hybridization in Antillean freshwater turtles (Trachemys) revealed by coalescent analyses of mitochondrial and cloned nuclear markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parham, James F; Papenfuss, Theodore J; Dijk, Peter Paul van; Wilson, Byron S; Marte, Cristian; Schettino, Lourdes Rodriguez; Brian Simison, W

    2013-04-01

    Determining whether a conflict between gene trees and species trees represents incomplete lineage sorting (ILS) or hybridization involving native and/or invasive species has implications for reconstructing evolutionary relationships and guiding conservation decisions. Among vertebrates, turtles represent an exceptional case for exploring these issues because of the propensity for even distantly related lineages to hybridize. In this study we investigate a group of freshwater turtles (Trachemys) from a part of its range (the Greater Antilles) where it is purported to have undergone reticulation events from both natural and anthropogenic processes. We sequenced mtDNA for 83 samples, sequenced three nuDNA markers for 45 samples, and cloned 29 polymorphic sequences, to identify species boundaries, hybridization, and intergrade zones for Antillean Trachemys and nearby mainland populations. Initial coalescent analyses of phased nuclear alleles (using (*)BEAST) recovered a Bayesian species tree that strongly conflicted with the mtDNA phylogeny and traditional taxonomy, and appeared to be confounded by hybridization. Therefore, we undertook exploratory phylogenetic analyses of mismatched alleles from the "coestimated" gene trees (Heled and Drummond, 2010) in order to identify potential hybrid origins. The geography, morphology, and sampling context of most samples with potential introgressed alleles suggest hybridization over ILS. We identify contact zones between different species on Jamaica (T. decussata × T. terrapen), on Hispaniola (T. decorata × T. stejnegeri), and in Central America (T. emolli × T. venusta). We are unable to determine whether the distribution of T. decussata on Jamaica is natural or the result of prehistoric introduction by Native Americans. This uncertainty means that the conservation status of the Jamaican T. decussata populations and contact zone with T. terrapen are unresolved. Human-mediated dispersal events were more conclusively implicated

  3. Genetic differentiation of the pine processionary moth at the southern edge of its range: contrasting patterns between mitochondrial and nuclear markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Mokhefi, M'hamed; Kerdelhué, Carole; Burban, Christian; Battisti, Andrea; Chakali, Gahdab; Simonato, Mauro

    2016-07-01

    The pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pityocampa) is an important pest of coniferous forests at the southern edge of its range in Maghreb. Based on mitochondrial markers, a strong genetic differentiation was previously found in this species between western (pityocampa clade) and eastern Maghreb populations (ENA clade), with the contact zone between the clades located in Algeria. We focused on the moth range in Algeria, using both mitochondrial (a 648 bp fragment of the tRNA-cox2) and nuclear (11 microsatellite loci) markers. A further analysis using a shorter mtDNA fragment and the same microsatellite loci was carried out on a transect in the contact zone between the mitochondrial clades. Mitochondrial diversity showed a strong geographical structure and a well-defined contact zone between the two clades. In particular, in the pityocampa clade, two inner subclades were found whereas ENA did not show any further structure. Microsatellite analysis outlined a different pattern of differentiation, with two main groups not overlapping with the mitochondrial clades. The inconsistency between mitochondrial and nuclear markers is probably explained by sex-biased dispersal and recent afforestation efforts that have bridged isolated populations.

  4. An Applet-based Anonymous Distributed Computing System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, David; Wills, Craig E.; Ciaraldi, Michael J.; Amorin, Kevin; Covati, Adam; Lee, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Defines anonymous distributed computing systems and focuses on the specifics of a Java, applet-based approach for large-scale, anonymous, distributed computing on the Internet. Explains the possibility of a large number of computers participating in a single computation and describes a test of the functionality of the system. (Author/LRW)

  5. On the Utility of Anonymized Flow Traces for Anomaly Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Burkhart, Martin; May, Martin

    2008-01-01

    The sharing of network traces is an important prerequisite for the development and evaluation of efficient anomaly detection mechanisms. Unfortunately, privacy concerns and data protection laws prevent network operators from sharing these data. Anonymization is a promising solution in this context; however, it is unclear if the sanitization of data preserves the traffic characteristics or introduces artifacts that may falsify traffic analysis results. In this paper, we examine the utility of anonymized flow traces for anomaly detection. We quantitatively evaluate the impact of IP address anonymization, namely variations of permutation and truncation, on the detectability of large-scale anomalies. Specifically, we analyze three weeks of un-sampled and non-anonymized network traces from a medium-sized backbone network. We find that all anonymization techniques, except prefix-preserving permutation, degrade the utility of data for anomaly detection. We show that the degree of degradation depends to a large exten...

  6. Identification of molecular markers linked to a new nuclear male-sterility gene ms7 in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuclear male sterility (NMS) is an important alternative system to the cytoplasm male sterility (CMS) in hybrid breeding programs because of its stable male sterility and abundant available restorer resources. For sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), NMS 89-552, a nuclear male-sterile mutant induced by...

  7. Humoral markers of active Epstein-Barr virus infection associate with anti-extractable nuclear antigen autoantibodies and plasma galectin-3 binding protein in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, N S; Nielsen, C T; Houen, G; Jacobsen, S

    2016-12-01

    We investigated if signs of active Epstein-Barr virus and cytomegalovirus infections associate with certain autoantibodies and a marker of type I interferon activity in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. IgM and IgG plasma levels against Epstein-Barr virus early antigen diffuse and cytomegalovirus pp52 were applied as humoral markers of ongoing/recently active Epstein-Barr virus and cytomegalovirus infections, respectively. Plasma galectin-3 binding protein served as a surrogate marker of type I interferon activity. The measurements were conducted in 57 systemic lupus erythematosus patients and 29 healthy controls using ELISAs. Regression analyses and univariate comparisons were performed for associative evaluation between virus serology, plasma galectin-3 binding protein and autoantibodies, along with other clinical and demographic parameters. Plasma galectin-3 binding protein concentrations were significantly higher in systemic lupus erythematosus patients (P = 0.009) and associated positively with Epstein-Barr virus early antigen diffuse-directed antibodies and the presence of autoantibodies against extractable nuclear antigens in adjusted linear regressions (B = 2.02 and 2.02, P = 0.02 and P = 0.002, respectively). Furthermore, systemic lupus erythematosus patients with anti-extractable nuclear antigens had significantly higher antibody levels against Epstein-Barr virus early antigen diffuse (P = 0.02). Our study supports a link between active Epstein-Barr virus infections, positivity for anti-extractable nuclear antigens and increased plasma galectin-3 binding protein concentrations/type I interferon activity in systemic lupus erythematosus patients.

  8. “We are Anonymous.” Anonymity in the Public Sphere – Challenges of Free and Open Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia Sell

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Anonymity, the stealth mode of public communication, challenges different actors who deal with freedom of communication issues in their day to day life – be it professional journalists, information and communication scientists, technicians or political activists. This article aims to deliver theoretical background on the concept of anonymity on the macro-level, as well as to shed light on how different communicators deal with anonymity on the micro-level. Based on the example of the Anonymous movement, communicative actions are put in relation to media technological artifacts and their surrounding media environment with a focus on journalistic practice and public response to the phenomenon. The analysis concludes with the need for a preservation of options for anonymous public communication as a dimension of freedom of communication after carefully considering both the advantages and the potential risks connected to that mode of private-public communication.

  9. A new technique for the quantitative assessment of 8-oxoguanine in nuclear DNA as a marker of oxidative stress. Application to dystrophin-deficient DMD skeletal muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakae, Yoshiko; Stoward, Peter J; Bespalov, Ivan A; Melamede, Robert J; Wallace, Susan S

    2005-09-01

    This is the first report on the development of an immunohistochemical technique, combined with quantitative image analysis, for the assessment of oxidative stress quantitatively in nuclear DNA in situ, and its application to measure DNA damage in Duchenne muscular dystrophic (DMD) muscles. Three sequential staining procedures for cell nuclei, a cell marker, and a product of oxidative DNA damage, 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG), were performed. First, the nuclei in muscle sections were stained with Neutral Red followed by the capture of their images with an image analysis system used for absorbance measurements. Second, the same sections were then immunostained for laminin in basement membranes as the cell marker. Next, the sections were treated with 2 N HCl to remove the bound Neutral Red and to denature tissue DNA. Third, the sections were immunostained for 8-oxoG in DNA, using diaminobenzidine (DAB) to reveal the antibody complex. This was followed by capture of the images of the immunostained sections as previously. The absorbances at 451.2 nm of bound Neutral Red and DAB polymer oxides, the final product of 8-oxoG immunostaining, were measured in the same myonuclei in the sections. Analysis of these absorbances permitted indices of the 8-oxoG content, independent of the nuclear densities, to be determined in nuclear DNA in single myofibres and myosatellite cells surrounded by basement membranes. We found that the mean index for the myonuclei in biceps brachii muscles of 2- to 7-year-old patients was 14% higher than that in age-matched normal controls. This finding of the increased oxidative stress in the myonuclei in young DMD muscles agrees with the previous reports of increased oxidative stress in the cytoplasm in the DMD myofibres and myosatellite cells. The present technique for the quantitative assessment of oxidative stress in nuclear DNA in situ is applicable not only in biomedical research but also in the development of effective drugs for degenerative diseases

  10. Survey on Anonymity in Unstructured Peer-to-Peer Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren-Yi Xiao

    2008-01-01

    Although anonymizing Peer-to-Peer (P2P) networks often means extra cost in terms of transfer efficiency, many systems try to mask the identities of their users for privacy consideration. By comparison and analysis of existing approaches,we investigate the properties of unstructured P2P anonymity, and summarize current attack models on these designs. Most of these approaches are path-based, which require peers to pre-construct anonymous paths before transmission, thus suffering significant overhead and poor reliability. We also discuss the open problems in this field and propose several future research directions.

  11. Constructions for Anonymous Secret Sharing Schemes Using Combinatorial Designs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying-pu Deng; Li-feng Guo; Mu-lan Liu

    2007-01-01

    In an anonymous secret sharing scheme the secret can be reconstructed without knowledge of which participants hold which shares. In this paper some constructions of anonymous secret sharing schemes with 2 thresholds by using combinatorial designs are given. Let υ(t, ω, q) denote the minimum size of the set of shares of a perfect anonymous (t, ω) threshold secret sharing scheme with q secrets. In this paper we prove that υ(t, ω, q) = Θ(q) if t and ω are fixed and that the lower bound of the size of the set of shares in [4] is not optimal under certain condition.

  12. A NEW ANONYMITY CONTROLLED E-CASH SCHEME

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Fangguo; Wang Changjie; Wang Yumin

    2002-01-01

    E-cash is a type of very important electronic payment systems. The complete anonymity of E-cash can be used for criminal activities, so E-cash should be anonymity controlled.Moreover, Elliptic Curve Cryptography(ECC) has been regard as the mainstream of current public cryptography . In this paper, a new anonymity controlled E-cash scheme based on ECC for the first time and using a new technology-one-time key pairs digital signature is designed, and its security and efficiency are analyzed. In our scheme, the coin tracing and owner tracing can be implemented.

  13. Design and analysis of two-layer anonymous communication system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei-ping; WANG Jian-xin

    2007-01-01

    A new architecture for scalable anonymous communication system(SACS) was proposed. The users were divided into several subgroups managed by different sub-blenders, and all sub-blenders were managed by the main-blender using two layers management scheme. The identity information of members are distributed on different sub-blenders, which makes each member keep much less information and network overload greatly reduce. The anonymity and the overhead of the new scheme were analyzed and compared with that of Crowds, which shows the cost of storage and network overhead for the new scheme largely decreases while the anonymity is little degraded. The experiment results also show that the new system architecture is well scalable. The ratio of management cost of SACS to that of Crowds is about 1:25 while the value of P(I|H1+) only increases by 0.001-0.020, which shows that SACS keeps almost the same anonymity with Crowds.

  14. Measuring Perceived Anonymity: The Development of a Context Independent Instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwight M. Hite

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess relationships between perceptions of anonymity and behaviors, a context independent instrument is required for measuring the perceptions of anonymity held by individuals.  To date, no such measurement instrument exists that has been shown to be reliable and valid.  The authors employ a rigorous design methodology to develop, test, and substantiate a reliable and valid instrument for measuring perceptions of anonymity across different contexts. The PA measure presented is a five item Likert scale designed to measure perceptions of anonymity across multiple contexts. Results from two separate EFA pilot tests (n=61 and n=60, a test-retest, and a CFA final test (n=292 indicate that the PA measure has good internal consistency reliability (a=.82, test-retest reliability, factorial validity, and a single factor structure. DOI: 10.2458/azu_jmmss.v5i1.18305

  15. Anonymity and verifiability in multi-attribute reverse auction

    CERN Document Server

    Srinath, T R; Pais, Alwyn Roshan; 10.5121/ijitcs.2011.1401

    2011-01-01

    The use of e-Auction services has been increasing in recent years. Security requirements in conducting e-Auctions are mainly bid privacy, anonymity and public verifiability. Most of the secure protocols concentrate on privacy and anonymity, which are achieved through bidder-resolved multi-party computation, assuming two or more trusted third parties, either through numerous auctioneers or with asymmetric models in which the commercial entity of an auction issuer or registration manager is assumed in addition to the auctioneer. Multi-attribute reverse auctions promise higher market efficiency and effective information exchange. This work extends and uses the existing schemes. This scheme uses scoring function, winner determination in multi-attribute auctions to implement public verifiability. Anonymity is achieved through bidder side pseudonym generation. By results and analysis we say this is very simple and effective scheme. This scheme ensures public verifiability and anonymity in multi-attribute auctions w...

  16. Theoretical Results on De-Anonymization via Linkage Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin M. Merener

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Consider a database D with records containing history of individuals' transactions, that has been de-identified, i.e., the variables that uniquely associate records with individuals have been removed from the data. An adversary de-anonymizes D via a linkage attack if using some auxiliary information about a certain individual in the database, it can determine which record of D corresponds to such individual. One example of this is given in the article Robust De-anonymization of Large Sparse Datasets, by Narayanan and Shmatikov [19], which shows that an anonymized database containing records with ratings of different movies rented by customers of Netflix, could in fact be de-anonymized using very little auxiliary information, even with errors. Besides the heuristic de-anonymization of the Netflix database, Narayanan and Shmatikov provide interesting theoretical results about database de-anonymization that an adversary can produce under general conditions. In this article we revisit these theoretical results, and work them further. Our first contribution is to exhibit different simple cases in which the algorithm Scoreboard, meant to produce the theoretical de-anonymization in [19], fails to do so. By requiring 1-sim to be a pseudo-metric, and that the algorithm producing the de-anonymization outputs a record with minimum support among the candidates, we obtain and prove deanonymization results similar to those described in [19]. We then consider a new hypothesis, motivated by the fact (observed in heuristic de-anonymizations that when the auxiliary information contains values corresponding to rare attributes, the de-anonymization achieved is stronger. We formalize this using the notion on long tail [4], and give new theorems expressing the level of de-anonymization in terms of the parameters of the tail of the database D. The improvement in the deanonymization is reflected in the fact that when at least one value in the auxiliary information

  17. Nuclear species-diagnostic SNP markers mined from 454 amplicon sequencing reveal admixture genomic structure of modern citrus varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curk, Franck; Ancillo, Gema; Ollitrault, Frédérique; Perrier, Xavier; Jacquemoud-Collet, Jean-Pierre; Garcia-Lor, Andres; Navarro, Luis; Ollitrault, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Most cultivated Citrus species originated from interspecific hybridisation between four ancestral taxa (C. reticulata, C. maxima, C. medica, and C. micrantha) with limited further interspecific recombination due to vegetative propagation. This evolution resulted in admixture genomes with frequent interspecific heterozygosity. Moreover, a major part of the phenotypic diversity of edible citrus results from the initial differentiation between these taxa. Deciphering the phylogenomic structure of citrus germplasm is therefore essential for an efficient utilization of citrus biodiversity in breeding schemes. The objective of this work was to develop a set of species-diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for the four Citrus ancestral taxa covering the nine chromosomes, and to use these markers to infer the phylogenomic structure of secondary species and modern cultivars. Species-diagnostic SNPs were mined from 454 amplicon sequencing of 57 gene fragments from 26 genotypes of the four basic taxa. Of the 1,053 SNPs mined from 28,507 kb sequence, 273 were found to be highly diagnostic for a single basic taxon. Species-diagnostic SNP markers (105) were used to analyse the admixture structure of varieties and rootstocks. This revealed C. maxima introgressions in most of the old and in all recent selections of mandarins, and suggested that C. reticulata × C. maxima reticulation and introgression processes were important in edible mandarin domestication. The large range of phylogenomic constitutions between C. reticulata and C. maxima revealed in mandarins, tangelos, tangors, sweet oranges, sour oranges, grapefruits, and orangelos is favourable for genetic association studies based on phylogenomic structures of the germplasm. Inferred admixture structures were in agreement with previous hypotheses regarding the origin of several secondary species and also revealed the probable origin of several acid citrus varieties. The developed species-diagnostic SNP

  18. Security Analysis of Accountable Anonymous Group Communication in Dissent

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    providing stronger anonymity, such as mix-networks (Chaum 1981; Adida 2006), onion rout - ing (Goldschlag, Reed, and Syverson 1999; Dingledine, Mathewson...every member knows when another should send a message, and thus gossip techniques such as those used in PeerReview (Haeberlen, Kouznetsov, and Druschel...onion routing (Goldschlag, Reed, and Syverson 1999; Dingledine, Mathewson, and Syverson 2004), a well-known and practical approach to general anonymous

  19. Unraveling an Old Cloak: k-anonymity for Location Privacy

    OpenAIRE

    Shokri, Reza; Troncoso, Carmela; Diaz, Claudia; Freudiger, Julien; Hubaux, Jean-Pierre

    2010-01-01

    There is a rich collection of literature that aims at protecting the privacy of users querying location-based services. One of the most popular location privacy techniques consists in cloaking users' locations such that k users appear as potential senders of a query, thus achieving k-anonymity. This paper analyzes the effectiveness of k-anonymity approaches for protecting location privacy in the presence of various types of adversaries. The unraveling of the scheme unfolds the inconsistency b...

  20. An Anonymous Payment Protocol with Mobile Agents in Hostile Environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yi; XIANG Ming-sen; WANG Yu-min

    2005-01-01

    By using Pedersen' s verifiable secret sharing scheme and the theory of cross validation, we propose an anonymous payment protocol which have following features:protecting the confidentiality of sensitive payment information from spying by malicious hosts; using a trusted third party in a minimal way; verifying the validity of the share by the merchant; allowing agent to verify that the product which it is about to receive is the one it is paying for; keeping the customer anonymous.

  1. Alcohol & drug abuse: Dual Diagnosis Anonymous of Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monica, Corbett; Nikkel, Robert E; Drake, Robert E

    2010-08-01

    Many people with addictions report that support from peer groups fosters recovery. For people with co-occurring mental illnesses, dual-diagnosis peer support groups are considered helpful, but they are often unavailable. Recently, Dual Diagnosis Anonymous peer support groups have spread widely throughout Oregon as a complement to integrated dual diagnosis treatments. This column describes Dual Diagnosis Anonymous and its rapid implementation in Oregon.

  2. Nuclear Import Analysis of Two Different Fluorescent Marker Proteins into Hepatocyte Cell Lines (HuH-7 Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aris Haryanto

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The application of fluorescent proteins as expression markers and protein fusion partners has provedimmensely valuable for resolving the organization of biological events in living cells. EGFP and DsRed2 arecommonly fluorescent marker protein which is used for biotechnology and cell biology research. The presentstudy was designed to identify the expression vector that suitable to ligate with DNA encoding HBV coreprotein for intracellular localization study in hepatocyte cell, which were expressed as fusion proteins. We alsocompared and quantified the expressed fluorescent protein which predominantly localized in the cellcompartment. The results indicated that DsRed2 shown as less than ideal for intracellular localization study ofthan EGFP, because of its tetrameric structure of the fluorescent protein and when fused to a protein of interest,the fusion protein often forms aggregates in the living cells. In contrast, EGFP fluorescent protein shown a muchhigher proportion of cytoplasmic localization, thus being more suitable for analysis of intracellular localizationthan DsRed2 fluorescent protein. EGFP fluorescent protein is also capable to produce a strong green fluorescencewhen excited by blue light, without any exogenously added substrate or cofactor, events inside living cell canthus be visualized in a non-invasive way. Based on our present quantitative data and some reasons above shownthat EGFP is more suitable than DsRed2 as a fluorescent marker protein for intracellular localization study intoHuH-7 cell.Keywords: EGFP, DsRed2 fluorescent protein , HuH-7 cell, HBV, intracellular localization

  3. Towards a respondent-preferred ki-anonymity model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kok-Seng WONG; Myung Ho KIM

    2015-01-01

    Recently, privacy concerns about data collection have received an increasing amount of attention. In data collection process, a data collector (an agency) assumed that all respondents would be comfortable with submitting their data if the published data was anonymous. We believe that this assumption is not realistic because the increase in privacy concerns causes some re-spondents to refuse participation or to submit inaccurate data to such agencies. If respondents submit inaccurate data, then the usefulness of the results from analysis of the collected data cannot be guaranteed. Furthermore, we note that the level of anonymity (i.e., k-anonymity) guaranteed by an agency cannot be verified by respondents since they generally do not have access to all of the data that is released. Therefore, we introduce the notion of ki-anonymity, where ki is the level of anonymity preferred by each respondent i. Instead of placing full trust in an agency, our solution increases respondent confidence by allowing each to decide the preferred level of protection. As such, our protocol ensures that respondents achieve their preferred ki-anonymity during data collection and guarantees that the collected records are genuine and useful for data analysis.

  4. Concordance of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers in detecting a founder event in Lake Clark sockeye salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramstad, Kristina M.; Woody, Carol Ann; Habicht, Chris; Sage, G. Kevin; Seeb, James E.; Allendorf, Fred W.

    2007-01-01

    Genetic bottleneck effects can reduce genetic variation, persistence probability, and evolutionary potential of populations. Previous microsatellite analysis suggested a bottleneck associated with a common founding of sock-eye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka populations of Lake Clark, Alaska, about 100 to 400 generations ago. The common foundingevent occurred after the last glacial recession and resulted in reduced allelic diversity and strong divergence of Lake Clarksockeye salmon relative to neighboring Six Mile Lake and LakeIliamna populations. Here we used two additional genetic marker types (allozymes and mtDNA) to examine these patterns further. Allozyme and mtDNA results were congruent with the microsatellite data in suggesting a common founder event in LakeClark sockeye salmon and confirmed the divergence of Lake Clarkpopulations from neighboring Six Mile Lake and Lake Iliamna populations. The use of multiple marker types provided better understanding of the bottleneck in Lake Clark. For example, the Sucker Bay Lake population had an exceptionally severe reduction in allelic diversity at microsatellite loci, but not at mtDNA. This suggests that the reduced microsatellite variation in Sucker Bay Lake fish is due to consistently smaller effective population size than other Lake Clark populations, rather than a more acute or additional bottleneck since founding. Caution is urged in using reduced heterozygosity as a measure of genetic bottleneck effects because stochastic variance among loci resulted in an overall increase in allozyme heterozygosity within bottlenecked Lake Clark populations. However, heterozygosity excess, which assesses heterozygosity relative to allelic variation, detected genetic bottleneck effects in both allozyme and microsatellite loci. 

  5. Nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers in traceability of retail beef samples Marcadores de DNA nuclear e mitocondrial para rastreabilidade da carne bovina comercializada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline S.M. Cesar

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Several characteristics are important in a traceability system of animal products, such as age at slaughter, breed composition, besides information of the productive chain. In general, the certification agent records information about the animals and the system which it came from, although cannot guarantee that the slaughtering, meat processing and distribution are error proof. Besides, there is a differential price, at least at the international market, based on sex and breed composition of the animals. Genetic markers allow identification of characteristics controlled in the beef cattle traceability program, as sex and breed composition, in order to correctly identify and appraise the final product for the consumer. The hypothesis of this study was that the majority beef samples retailed in the local market originate from female with a great participation of zebu breeds. Therefore, the objective of this work was to characterize retail beef samples with DNA markers that identify cattle sex and breed composition. Within 10 beef shops localized in Pirassununga, SP, Brazil, 61 samples were collected, all were genotyped as harboring Bos taurus mitochondrial DNA and 18 were positive for the Y chromosome amplification (male. For the marker sat1711b-Msp I the frequency of the allele A was 0.278 and for the marker Lhr-Hha I the frequency of the allele T was 0.417. The results of sat1711b-Msp I and Lhr-Hha I allelic frequencies are suggestive that the proportion of indicus genome compared with the taurine genome in the market meat is smaller than the observed in the Nellore breed. The procedure described in this study identified sex and subspecies characteristics of beef meat samples, with potential application in meat products certification in special as an auxiliary tool in beef cattle traceability programs.Várias características são importantes no sistema de rastreabilidade, como o sexo, a idade, a raça e/ou a composição racial dos animais, al

  6. Restricted common data in anonymous E-cash system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiang-jun; CHEN Ke-fei

    2006-01-01

    Discuss the problem of infinite increasing coin list in anonymous E-cash systems, which reduce the efficiency of whole system greatly. Though some methods are suggested, no one can solve the problem with high efficiency and flexibility. Here, we use the technique of adding information in blind signatures to deal with this problem. Through adding timestamp in signatures, we can separate the valid period of all used coins into pieces. Only the coins in the last stage are recorded. So the scale of the coins list is controlled. We also analyze the anonymity of these data, and add some indispensable restrictions to them. These restrictions can ensure that the imported data don't break the anonymity of the customers. In order to fulfill these qualifications, we lead to the concept of restricted common data (RCD). Furthermore, we propose two schemes to add RCD in the blind signature. The simple one is easy to implement, while the complex one can note the value of the coin. The usage of RCD leads to little additional cost, as well as maintaining the anonymity of customers. This method fits for most kinds of anonymous E-cash systems.

  7. Persona: Network Layer Anonymity and Accountability for Next Generation Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallios, Yannis; Modi, Sudeep; Agarwala, Aditya; Johns, Christina

    Individual privacy has become a major concern, due to the intrusive nature of the services and websites that collect increasing amounts of private information. One of the notions that can lead towards privacy protection is that of anonymity. Unfortunately, anonymity can also be maliciously exploited by attackers to hide their actions and identity. Thus some sort of accountability is also required. The current Internet has failed to provide both properties, as anonymity techniques are difficult to fully deploy and thus are easily attacked, while the Internet provides limited level of accountability. The Next Generation Internet (NGI) provides us with the opportunity to examine how these conflicting properties could be efficiently applied and thus protect users’ privacy while holding malicious users accountable. In this paper we present the design of a scheme, called Persona that can provide anonymity and accountability in the network layer of NGI. More specifically, our design requirements are to combine these two conflicting desires in a stateless manner within routers. Persona allows users to choose different levels of anonymity, while it allows the discovery of malicious nodes.

  8. Genetic analysis of the Saimiri breeding colony of the Pasteur Institute (French Guiana): development of a molecular typing method using a combination of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavergne, Anne; Catzeflis, François; Lacôte, Sandra; Barnaud, Antoine; Bordier, Marion; Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile; Contamin, Hugues

    2003-12-01

    Saimiri (Cebidae) groups a complex of species and subspecies, which present a large morphological plasticity. Genetic analysis is complicated by the absence of consensus on classification criteria and the paucity of molecular tools available for the genus. As the squirrel monkey is widely used in biomedical research, breeding centers have been established, but the genetic make up and diversity of many of the existing colonies is unknown precluding a rationale breeding policy. To develop a genetic typing strategy for the Saimiri breeding colony of Pasteur Institute of French Guiana, we have used Cytochrome b, a mitochondrial marker, and nuclear microsatellites. Cytochrome b sequences from wild-caught Saimiri boliviensis, Saimiri sciureus sciureus and S. s. collinsi reference specimens and captive animals identified 11 haplotypes, grouped into three distinct clades. An estimate of genetic variability within each captive morphotype, and of the extent of molecular divergence between the Bolivian, Guyanese and Brazilian breeds was obtained from the analysis of three nuclear microsatellites. Taxon-specific microsatellites enabled typing of F0-F3 animals, but did not differentiate Brazilian from Guyanese animals. Three locus microsatellite analysis of a representative sample from each generation showed no trend for loss of heterozygosity, and identified hybrid animals between Bolivian and the two others sub-species. These data provide novel evidence for taxonomic classification and a rationale strategy to further type the whole colony.

  9. Nuclear and mitochondrial markers reveal evidence for genetically segregated cryptic speciation in giant Pacific octopuses from Prince William Sound, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussaint, Rebecca K.; Scheel, David; Sage, G.K.; Talbot, S.L.

    2012-01-01

    Multiple species of large octopus are known from the north Pacific waters around Japan, however only one large species is known in the Gulf of Alaska (the giant Pacific octopus, Enteroctopus dofleini). Current taxonomy of E. dofleini is based on geographic and morphological characteristics, although with advances in genetic technology that is changing. Here, we used two mitochondrial genes (cytochrome b and cytochrome oxidase I), three nuclear genes (rhodopsin, octopine dehydrogenase, and paired-box 6), and 18 microsatellite loci for phylogeographic and phylogenetic analyses of octopuses collected from across southcentral and the eastern Aleutian Islands (Dutch Harbor), Alaska. Our results suggest the presence of a cryptic Enteroctopus species that is allied to, but distinguished from E. dofleini in Prince William Sound, Alaska. Existence of an undescribed and previously unrecognized taxon raises important questions about the taxonomy of octopus in southcentral Alaska waters.

  10. Structure and Anonymity of the Bitcoin Transaction Graph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kay Hamacher

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Bitcoin network of decentralized payment transactions has attracted a lot of attention from both Internet users and researchers in recent years. Bitcoin utilizes a peer-to-peer network to issue anonymous payment transactions between different users. In the currently used Bitcoin clients, the full transaction history is available at each node of the network to prevent double spending without the need for a central authority, forming a valuable source for empirical research on network structure, network dynamics, and the implied anonymity challenges, as well as guidance on the future evolution of complex payment systems. We found dynamical effects of which some increase anonymity while others decrease it. Most importantly, several parameters of the Bitcoin transaction graph seem to have become stationary over the last 12–18 months. We discuss the implications.

  11. Application of Steganography for Anonymity through the Internet

    CERN Document Server

    Bahi, Jacques M; Friot, Nicolas; Guyeux, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a novel steganographic scheme based on chaotic iterations is proposed. This research work takes place into the information hiding security framework. The applications for anonymity and privacy through the Internet are regarded too. To guarantee such an anonymity, it should be possible to set up a secret communication channel into a web page, being both secure and robust. To achieve this goal, we propose an information hiding scheme being stego-secure, which is the highest level of security in a well defined and studied category of attacks called "watermark-only attack". This category of attacks is the best context to study steganography-based anonymity through the Internet. The steganalysis of our steganographic process is also studied in order to show it security in a real test framework.

  12. Completely anonymous multi-recipient signcryption scheme with public verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Liaojun; Li, Huixian; Gao, Lu; Wang, Yumin

    2013-01-01

    Most of the existing multi-recipient signcryption schemes do not take the anonymity of recipients into consideration because the list of the identities of all recipients must be included in the ciphertext as a necessary element for decryption. Although the signer's anonymity has been taken into account in several alternative schemes, these schemes often suffer from the cross-comparison attack and joint conspiracy attack. That is to say, there are few schemes that can achieve complete anonymity for both the signer and the recipient. However, in many practical applications, such as network conference, both the signer's and the recipient's anonymity should be considered carefully. Motivated by these concerns, we propose a novel multi-recipient signcryption scheme with complete anonymity. The new scheme can achieve both the signer's and the recipient's anonymity at the same time. Each recipient can easily judge whether the received ciphertext is from an authorized source, but cannot determine the real identity of the sender, and at the same time, each participant can easily check decryption permission, but cannot determine the identity of any other recipient. The scheme also provides a public verification method which enables anyone to publicly verify the validity of the ciphertext. Analyses show that the proposed scheme is more efficient in terms of computation complexity and ciphertext length and possesses more advantages than existing schemes, which makes it suitable for practical applications. The proposed scheme could be used for network conferences, paid-TV or DVD broadcasting applications to solve the secure communication problem without violating the privacy of each participant.

  13. Completely anonymous multi-recipient signcryption scheme with public verification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liaojun Pang

    Full Text Available Most of the existing multi-recipient signcryption schemes do not take the anonymity of recipients into consideration because the list of the identities of all recipients must be included in the ciphertext as a necessary element for decryption. Although the signer's anonymity has been taken into account in several alternative schemes, these schemes often suffer from the cross-comparison attack and joint conspiracy attack. That is to say, there are few schemes that can achieve complete anonymity for both the signer and the recipient. However, in many practical applications, such as network conference, both the signer's and the recipient's anonymity should be considered carefully. Motivated by these concerns, we propose a novel multi-recipient signcryption scheme with complete anonymity. The new scheme can achieve both the signer's and the recipient's anonymity at the same time. Each recipient can easily judge whether the received ciphertext is from an authorized source, but cannot determine the real identity of the sender, and at the same time, each participant can easily check decryption permission, but cannot determine the identity of any other recipient. The scheme also provides a public verification method which enables anyone to publicly verify the validity of the ciphertext. Analyses show that the proposed scheme is more efficient in terms of computation complexity and ciphertext length and possesses more advantages than existing schemes, which makes it suitable for practical applications. The proposed scheme could be used for network conferences, paid-TV or DVD broadcasting applications to solve the secure communication problem without violating the privacy of each participant.

  14. Collecting substance use data with an anonymous mailed survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinkoff, A M; Storr, C L

    1997-10-25

    Because mailed surveys minimize personal contact, they are useful for collecting sensitive data on substance use, as long as the problems of achieving adequate response rates can be conquered. To address these issues, we report on an anonymous mailed survey of substance use with a 78% response rate, including data collection and survey methods. Analysis of sociodemographic effects on responding found certain groups required additional contacts. Substance use estimates were not affected by non-response bias, suggesting that anonymous mailed surveys can be a feasible means of collecting data on substance use.

  15. Authority and Hierarchy within Anonymous Internet Relay Chat Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart Kenton Bertram

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available 'The protest group Anonymous has emerged as one of the most significant social movements of recent years, announcing their arrival as a globally recognized brand with regular disruptive cyber attacks and the leak of large volumes of sensitive data. Despite the obvious significance of Anonymous, to date, little academic research has been focused on what role hierarchy and internal authority play (if any within the group. Bespoke software was used to structure over 5000 examples of IRC log files, so that a base line descriptive statistical picture could be drawn, as well as a more granular enumeration of the privileges associated with individual users.'

  16. Impact of Knowledge on Election Time in Anonymous Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Dieudonné, Yoann; Pelc, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Leader election is one of the basic problems in distributed computing. For anonymous networks, the task of leader election is formulated as follows: every node v of the network must output a simple path, which is coded as a sequence of port numbers, such that all these paths end at a common node, the leader. In this paper, we study deterministic leader election in arbitrary anonymous networks. It is well known that leader election is impossible in some networks, regardless of the allocated am...

  17. Conserved genetic regions across angiosperms as tools to develop single-copy nuclear markers in gymnosperms: an example using cycads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Leiva, Dayana E; Meerow, Alan W; Francisco-Ortega, Javier; Calonje, Michael; Griffith, M Patrick; Stevenson, Dennis W; Nakamura, Kyoko

    2014-07-01

    Several individuals of the Caribbean Zamia clade and other cycad genera were used to identify single-copy nuclear genes for phylogeographic and phylogenetic studies in Cycadales. Two strategies were employed to select target loci: (i) a tblastX search of Arabidopsis conserved ortholog sequence (COS) set and (ii) a tblastX search of Arabidopsis-Populus-Vitis-Oryza Shared Single-Copy genes (APVO SSC) against the EST Zamia databases in GenBank. From the first strategy, 30 loci were selected, and from the second, 16 loci. In both cases, the matching GenBank accessions of Zamia were used as a query for retrieving highly similar sequences from Cycas, Picea, Pinus species or Ginkgo biloba. After retrieving and aligning all the sequences in each locus, intron predictions were completed to assist in primer design. PCR was carried out in three rounds to detect paralogous loci. A total of 29 loci were successfully amplified as a single band of which 20 were likely single-copy loci. These loci showed different diversity and divergence levels. A preliminary screening allowed us to select 8 promising loci (40S, ATG2, BG, GroES, GTP, LiSH, PEX4 and TR) for the Zamia pumila complex and 4 loci (COS26, GroES, GTP and HTS) for all other cycad genera.

  18. Social distance and anonymity modulate fairness consideration: An ERP study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Rongjun; Hu, Pan; Zhang, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Previous research indicated that fairness consideration can be influenced by social distance. However, it is not clear whether social distance and anonymity have an interactive impact on fairness evaluation during asset distribution and whether these processes can be documented in brain activity. Using a modified ultimatum game combined with measures of event related potential (ERP), we examined how social distance and anonymity modulate brain response to inequality. At the behavior level, we found that acceptance rate and reaction time can be substantially modified by social distance and anonymity. Feedback-related negativity, an ERP component associated with conflict between cognitive and emotion motives, was more negative in response to unfairness than fairness from strangers; however, it showed an opposite trend for unfair offers provided by friends, suggesting that the influence of social distance on fairness perception is relatively fast. The P300 in response to fair offers was more positive when the proposers made offers when uncertain about partner identity than when certain about partner identity. These results suggest that unfairness is evaluated in a fast conflict detection stage and a slower stage that integrates more complex social contextual factors such as anonymity. PMID:26293456

  19. Effects of Help, Anonymity, and Privacy on Children's Academic Expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Lisa

    This study examined the effect of three aspects of the testing context--physical privacy, anonymity, and offers of help from a tester--on children's expectations. Performance of 96 11-year-old boys and girls on a pictorial recall memory task in a simulated test was evaluated. The subjects were divided into eight different groups varying on the…

  20. Visibility and anonymity effects on attraction and group cohesiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lea, Martin; Spears, Russell; Watt, Susan E.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated attraction and group cohesiveness under different visibility and anonymity conditions for social categories that differed in their capacity to be visually cued. Using computer-mediated communication in 36 mixed gender (visually cued category) and nationality (non-visually cue

  1. Father-Daughter Incest: Data from an Anonymous Computerized Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroebel, Sandra S.; O'Keefe, Stephen L.; Beard, Keith W.; Kuo, Shih-Ya; Swindell, Samuel V. S.; Kommor, Martin J.

    2012-01-01

    Retrospective data were entered anonymously by 1,521 adult women using computer-assisted self-interview. Nineteen were classified as victims of father-daughter incest, and 241 were classified as victims of sexual abuse by an adult other than their father before reaching 18 years of age. The remaining 1,261 served as controls. Incest victims were…

  2. Anonymity versus Perceived Patron Identity in Virtual Reference Transcripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper, Kristin Grabarek; Sobel, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Librarians who provide virtual reference services often perceive that their patrons self-identify to some degree, even when transactions are anonymous. They also develop a sense of patrons' greatest research-related needs over time. In this article, two librarians analyze two years' worth of virtual reference transcripts to determine what patrons…

  3. Student Feedback, Anonymity, Observable Change and Course Barometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, David

    A Course Barometer is a method for addressing the loss of informal feedback in a distance education setting. Originally proposed and used at the University of Trollhattan Uddevella this paper describes how the idea of a course barometer has been adopted by Central Queensland University. The paper suggests connections between anonymity, observable…

  4. Anonymous pastoral care for problems pertaining to sexuality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van Drie; R.R. Ganzevoort; M. Spiering

    2013-01-01

    Anonymous pastoral care is one of the options for help in problems pertaining to sexuality. This paper explores the topics they seek help for, the religious aspects involved, and the relation between the normativity of their church tradition on the one hand and sexual and spiritual health criteria o

  5. ANONYMOUS OFF-LINE ELECTRONIC PAYMENT SYSTEM WITH MULTIPLE BANKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Jian; Ao Qingyun; Chen Ying

    2001-01-01

    This letter presents an anonymous off-line electronic payment model with multiple issuing-banks and gives an implementation scheme based on the discrete logarithm problem and the random oracle model. Comparing with previous works, the proposed scheme benefits from no involvement of customer group authority and its security depends on the known difficulty of resolving general discrete logarithm problem.

  6. A reciprocal framework for spatial K-anonymity

    KAUST Repository

    Ghinita, Gabriel

    2010-05-01

    Spatial K-anonymity (SKA) exploits the concept of K-anonymity in order to protect the identity of users from location-based attacks. The main idea of SKA is to replace the exact location of a user U with an anonymizing spatial region (ASR) that contains at least K-1 other users, so that an attacker can pinpoint U with probability at most 1/K. Simply generating an ASR that includes K users does not guarantee SKA. Previous work defined the reciprocity property as a sufficient condition for SKA. However, the only existing reciprocal method, Hilbert Cloak, relies on a specialized data structure. In contrast, we propose a general framework for implementing reciprocal algorithms using any existing spatial index on the user locations. We discuss ASR construction methods with different tradeoffs on effectiveness (i.e., ASR size) and efficiency (i.e., construction cost). Then, we present case studies of applying our framework on top of two popular spatial indices (namely, R*-trees and Quad-trees). Finally, we consider the case where the attacker knows the query patterns of each user. The experimental results verify that our methods outperform Hilbert Cloak. Moreover, since we employ general-purpose spatial indices, the proposed system is not limited to anonymization, but supports conventional spatial queries as well. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Anonymously Productive and Socially Engaged While Learning at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magni, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Many concurrent variables appear to influence people when they interact anonymously, either face-to-face (F2F) or in computer-mediated communications (CMC).This paper presents the results of a small exploratory research, conducted in a medical company in Italy, to investigate how the use of pseudonyms influences CMC behaviours. The study involved…

  8. Anonymous pastoral care for problems pertaining to sexuality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Drie, A.; Ganzevoort, R.R.; Spiering, M.

    2014-01-01

    Anonymous pastoral care is one of the options for help in problems pertaining to sexuality. This paper explores the topics they seek help for, the religious aspects involved, and the relation between the normativity of their church tradition on the one hand and sexual and spiritual health criteria o

  9. Role Engagement and Anonymity in Synchronous Online Role Play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Cornelius

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Role play activities provide opportunities for learners to adopt unfamiliar roles, engage in interactions with others, and get involved in realistic tasks. They are often recommended to foster the development of soft skills and a wider perspective of the world. Such activities are widely used as an online teaching approach, with examples ranging from the simple use of email to the employment of virtual worlds and Web 2.0 technologies.This paper provides a case study of a role play activity which employs real-time anonymous discussion forums and aims to improve our understanding of effective role play and the impact of anonymity. This role play has been effective in educating learners about different perspectives on the issue of Quality in Further Education. The context and implementation of the role play are outlined, and the learners’ interactions and experiences are explored using an investigative analysis of discussion transcripts and semi-structured interviews with participants. The findings suggest that role engagement and anonymity are important components for success in synchronous online role play. Evidence is presented that provides an insight into the factors which encourage role engagement, including prior experiences and contributions from peers. The impact of anonymity is also explored since many participants did not regard the study environment as real and attempted to identify their peers.

  10. Social distance and anonymity modulate fairness consideration: An ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Rongjun; Hu, Pan; Zhang, Ping

    2015-08-21

    Previous research indicated that fairness consideration can be influenced by social distance. However, it is not clear whether social distance and anonymity have an interactive impact on fairness evaluation during asset distribution and whether these processes can be documented in brain activity. Using a modified ultimatum game combined with measures of event related potential (ERP), we examined how social distance and anonymity modulate brain response to inequality. At the behavior level, we found that acceptance rate and reaction time can be substantially modified by social distance and anonymity. Feedback-related negativity, an ERP component associated with conflict between cognitive and emotion motives, was more negative in response to unfairness than fairness from strangers; however, it showed an opposite trend for unfair offers provided by friends, suggesting that the influence of social distance on fairness perception is relatively fast. The P300 in response to fair offers was more positive when the proposers made offers when uncertain about partner identity than when certain about partner identity. These results suggest that unfairness is evaluated in a fast conflict detection stage and a slower stage that integrates more complex social contextual factors such as anonymity.

  11. A Generic Framework for Anonymous Authentication in Mobile Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Xu; Wen-Tao Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Designing an anonymous user authentication scheme in global mobility networks is a non-trivial task because wireless networks are susceptible to attacks and mobile devices powered by batteries have limited communication,processing and storage capabilities.In this paper,we present a generic construction that converts any existing secure password authentication scheme based on a smart card into an anonymous authentication scheme for roaming services.The security proof of our construction can be derived from the underlying password authentication scheme employing the same assumptions.Compared with the original password authentication scheme,the transformed scheme does not sacrifice the authentication efficiency,and additionally,an agreed session key can be securely established between an anonymous mobile user and the foreign agent in charge of the network being visited.Furthermore,we present an instantiation of the proposed generic construction.The performance analysis shows that compared with other related anonymous authentication schemes,our instantiation is more efficient.

  12. Leader election in anonymous rings: Franklin goes probabilistic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakhshi, R.; Fokkink, W.J.; Pang, J.; Pol, J.C. van de; Ausiello, G.

    2008-01-01

    We present a probabilistic leader election algorithm for anonymous, bidirectional, asynchronous rings. It is based on an algorithm from Franklin, augmented with random identity selection, hop counters to detect identity clashes, and round numbers modulo 2. As a result, the algorithm is finite-state,

  13. Leader Election in Anonymous Rings: Franklin Goes Probabilistic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakhshi, Rena; Fokkink, Wan; Pang, Jun; Pol, van de Jaco; Ausiello, G.; Karhumäki, J.; Mauri, G.; Ong, L.

    2008-01-01

    We present a probabilistic leader election algorithm for anonymous, bidirectional, asynchronous rings. It is based on an algorithm from Franklin, augmented with random identity selection, hop counters to detect identity clashes, and round numbers modulo 2. As a result, the algorithm is finite-state,

  14. Predictors of anonymous cyber aggression: the role of adolescents' beliefs about anonymity, aggression, and the permanency of digital content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Michelle F

    2014-07-01

    Little attention has been given to whether adolescents' beliefs about anonymity and their normative beliefs about cyber aggression jointly increase their perpetration of cyber aggression. To this end, the present longitudinal study examined the moderating influence of these variables on the relationships among adolescents' attitudes toward the permanency of digital content, confidence with not getting caught, and anonymous cyber aggression (ACA) assessed 1 year later (Time 2). These associations were examined among 274 7th and 8th graders and through five technologies, including social networking sites (SNS), e-mail, instant messenger (IM), mobile phones, and chatrooms. Findings indicated that increases in Time 2 ACA and attitudes toward the permanency of digital content were more strongly related when adolescents reported greater confidence with not getting caught and higher normative beliefs concerning cyber aggression through SNS and mobile phones. In addition, higher levels of attitudes toward the permanency of digital content, confidence with not getting caught, beliefs about anonymity, and normative beliefs regarding cyber aggression were related to greater Time 2 ACA through e-mail, IM, and chatrooms. All findings are discussed in the context of adolescents' positive attitudes toward ACA, and an appeal for additional research is made to understand more about anonymity in cyberspace.

  15. Efficient expression of nuclear transgenes in the green alga Chlamydomonas: synthesis of an HIV antigen and development of a new selectable marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barahimipour, Rouhollah; Neupert, Juliane; Bock, Ralph

    2016-03-01

    The unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has become an invaluable model system in plant biology. There is also considerable interest in developing this microalga into an efficient production platform for biofuels, pharmaceuticals, green chemicals and industrial enzymes. However, the production of foreign proteins in the nucleocytosolic compartment of Chlamydomonas is greatly hampered by the inefficiency of transgene expression from the nuclear genome. We have recently addressed this limitation by isolating mutant algal strains that permit high-level transgene expression and by determining the contributions of GC content and codon usage to gene expression efficiency. Here we have applied these new tools and explored the potential of Chlamydomonas to produce a recombinant biopharmaceutical, the HIV antigen P24. We show that a codon-optimized P24 gene variant introduced into our algal expression strains give rise to recombinant protein accumulation levels of up to 0.25% of the total cellular protein. Moreover, in combination with an expression strain, a resynthesized nptII gene becomes a highly efficient selectable marker gene that facilitates the selection of transgenic algal clones at high frequency. By establishing simple principles of successful transgene expression, our data open up new possibilities for biotechnological research in Chlamydomonas.

  16. Expression of papillary thyroid carcinoma-associated molecular markers and their significance in follicular epithelial dysplasia with papillary thyroid carcinoma-like nuclear alterations in Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Heng; Yan, Jin; Zhang, Chao; Qin, Shenghui; Qin, Lingzhi; Liu, Liwei; Wang, Xi; Li, Naping

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC)-associated tumor markers in follicular epithelial dysplasia showing PTC-like nuclear alterations (FED) in Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) and to explore the relationship between HT and PTC. In this study, 43 PTC, 18 HT with FED and 16 peritumoral benign thyroid tissues were immunohistochemically analyzed for CK19, galectin-3, HBME-1, CD56, claudin-1 and NGAL expression. Our research revealed that in HT, the expression of CK19, galectin-3, HBME-1, claudin-1 and NGAL was focal and limited to FED, while CD56 was strongly positive in FED and most Hürthle cells. The stain intensity of CK19, claudin-1 and NGAL in FED decreased compared with PTC, but were significantly higher than that in peritumoral benign thyroid tissues (all P 0.05). In conclusion, In HT, FED might be a precancerous condition closely associated with PTC development as they have overlaps in cytological and immunomarker profiles, indicating that in patients with HT, under prolonged stimuli from chronic inflammation, part of follicular epithelia may show regeneration, hyperplasia, Hürthle cell metaplasia and dysplasia, eventually malignant transformation. Hence, long term follow-up and regular inspection would be necessary for Hashimoto's thyroiditis with FED.

  17. Differential diagnosis and molecular characterization of Hymenolepis nana and Hymenolepis diminuta (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea: Hymenolepididae) based on nuclear rDNA ITS2 gene marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sunil; Lyngdoh, Damanbha; Roy, Bishnupada; Tandon, Veena

    2016-11-01

    Given the widespread distribution and medical implication of members of the genus Hymenolepis, specific identification of the aetiological agent becomes imperative. For precise diagnosis of the species, molecular techniques such as PCR and RFLP of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 2 (rDNA-ITS2) gene marker were carried out. The results showed distinct restriction patterns for both Hymenolepis nana and Hymenolepis diminuta when digested with either of the enzymes RsaI, HaeIII or HhaI. The annotated rDNA-ITS2 sequences from the two species revealed differences in the length; the folded secondary structure also depicted clear demarcation between the two species with variations in length of the helices, pyrimidine-pyrimidine mismatches and sites where motifs occur. In phylogenetic analysis of the evolutionary relationship between the two species as well as with other members of the family Hymenolepididae, the species causing human hymenolepiasis were found to be distantly related as they diverged independently from the ancestral lineage.

  18. Admixture, one-source colonization or long-term persistence of maritime pine in the Castilian Plateau? Insights from nuclear micro satellite markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, A. I. de; Gonzalez Martinez, S. C.; Hidalgo, E.; Bravo, F.; Heuertz, M.

    2009-07-01

    Atlantic and Mediterranean populations of maritime pine are very different in quantitative and adaptive traits, even to be considered different subspecies. Different authors have suggested the existence of glacial refuge for this species both in Portugal and eastern Spain based on molecular markers and supported by pollen and fossil records. In addition, based on the existence of high levels of haplotypic variation in this region, the Castilian Plateau is suggested as a contact zone between Atlantic and Mediterranean gene pools of the species. This hypothesis is tested using Bayesian clustering methods and exclusion tests based on multi locus genotypes obtained by geno typing 13 populations with three highly polymorphic nuclear micro satellites. The results show that Castilian Plateau populations constitute a different gene pool by itself that can not be fully originated from the Mediterranean or the Atlantic gene pools, or from a mixture of both. Therefore, three different hypotheses have been considered as plausible causes to give rise to Castilian Plateau maritime pine populations: i) fast colonization of the region from one or more Mediterranean refugial areas, ii) existence of cryptic refugia for the species in the zone, and iii) introduction of exotic material by humans. (Author) 55 refs.

  19. Comparative population genetic analysis of bocaccio rockfish Sebastes paucispinis using anonymous and gene-associated simple sequence repeat loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonaccorsi, Vincent P; Kimbrell, Carol A; Lynn, Eric A; Hyde, John R

    2012-01-01

    Comparative population genetic analyses of traditional and emergent molecular markers aid in determining appropriate use of new technologies. The bocaccio rockfish Sebastes paucispinis is a high gene-flow marine species off the west coast of North America that experienced strong population decline over the past 3 decades. We used 18 anonymous and 13 gene-associated simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci (expressed sequence tag [EST]-SSRs) to characterize range-wide population structure with temporal replicates. No F(ST)-outliers were detected using the LOSITAN program, suggesting that neither balancing nor divergent selection affected the loci surveyed. Consistent hierarchical structuring of populations by geography or year class was not detected regardless of marker class. The EST-SSRs were less variable than the anonymous SSRs, but no correlation between F(ST) and variation or marker class was observed. General linear model analysis showed that low EST-SSR variation was attributable to low mean repeat number. Comparative genomic analysis with Gasterosteus aculeatus, Takifugu rubripes, and Oryzias latipes showed consistently lower repeat number in EST-SSRs than SSR loci that were not in ESTs. Purifying selection likely imposed functional constraints on EST-SSRs resulting in low repeat numbers that affected diversity estimates but did not affect the observed pattern of population structure.

  20. Time Lag and Anonymity as Variables in Student Evaluation of Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Walter D.; Getz, Howard G.

    1975-01-01

    The major concern of this study was the effect on evaluation data of anonymity and differing time spans between completion of specific programs by students and their responses to anonymous questionnaires. (Author)

  1. Estimation of Anonymous Email Network Characteristics through Statistical Disclosure Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portela, Javier; García Villalba, Luis Javier; Silva Trujillo, Alejandra Guadalupe; Sandoval Orozco, Ana Lucila; Kim, Tai-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Social network analysis aims to obtain relational data from social systems to identify leaders, roles, and communities in order to model profiles or predict a specific behavior in users’ network. Preserving anonymity in social networks is a subject of major concern. Anonymity can be compromised by disclosing senders’ or receivers’ identity, message content, or sender-receiver relationships. Under strongly incomplete information, a statistical disclosure attack is used to estimate the network and node characteristics such as centrality and clustering measures, degree distribution, and small-world-ness. A database of email networks in 29 university faculties is used to study the method. A research on the small-world-ness and Power law characteristics of these email networks is also developed, helping to understand the behavior of small email networks. PMID:27809275

  2. Compromising Tor Anonymity Exploiting P2P Information Leakage

    CERN Document Server

    Manils, Pere; Blond, Stevens Le; Kaafar, Mohamed Ali; Castelluccia, Claude; Legout, Arnaud; Dabbous, Walid

    2010-01-01

    Privacy of users in P2P networks goes far beyond their current usage and is a fundamental requirement to the adoption of P2P protocols for legal usage. In a climate of cold war between these users and anti-piracy groups, more and more users are moving to anonymizing networks in an attempt to hide their identity. However, when not designed to protect users information, a P2P protocol would leak information that may compromise the identity of its users. In this paper, we first present three attacks targeting BitTorrent users on top of Tor that reveal their real IP addresses. In a second step, we analyze the Tor usage by BitTorrent users and compare it to its usage outside of Tor. Finally, we depict the risks induced by this de-anonymization and show that users' privacy violation goes beyond BitTorrent traffic and contaminates other protocols such as HTTP.

  3. Anonymous Card Shuffling and its Applications to Parallel Mixnets

    CERN Document Server

    Goodrich, Michael T

    2012-01-01

    We study the question of how to shuffle $n$ cards when faced with an opponent who knows the initial position of all the cards {\\em and} can track every card when permuted, {\\em except} when one takes $K< n$ cards at a time and shuffles them in a private buffer "behind your back," which we call {\\em buffer shuffling}. The problem arises naturally in the context of parallel mixnet servers as well as other security applications. Our analysis is based on related analyses of load-balancing processes. We include extensions to variations that involve corrupted servers and adversarially injected messages, which correspond to an opponent who can peek at some shuffles in the buffer and who can mark some number of the cards. In addition, our analysis makes novel use of a sum-of-squares metric for anonymity, which leads to improved performance bounds for parallel mixnets and can also be used to bound well-known existing anonymity measures.

  4. Secure Web Transaction with Anonymous Mobile Agent over Internet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG ChangJie(王常杰); ZHANG FangGuo(张方国); WANG YuMin(王育民)

    2003-01-01

    A major problem of mobile agents is their apparent inability to authenticate transactions in hostile environments. In this paper, a new secure anonymous mobile agent scheme is proposed for the prevention of agent tempering without compromising the mobility or autonomy of the agent. In the scheme, a mobile agent can produce valid signature on website's bid (it means to transact a contact with the web site) on behalf of its customer, without revealing the customer's real private key. In addition, the anonymity of the customer is also achieved when its agent transacts with the websites. Furthermore, the customer who issues a malicious agent or denies the transaction can be identified and detected by Agent Management Center (AMC). Therefore, the scheme is practical in the future electronic commerce over Internet.

  5. Reexamination of the Association between Anonymity and Self-Interested Unethical Behavior in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogami, Tatsuya

    2009-01-01

    The well-established notion that the frequency of self-interested unethical behavior increases among anonymous people was reexamined employing a more strict definition of anonymity, voluntary unethical behavior, and adult individuals. Anonymity was defined as nonassociability of the participant's traits with respect to unethical behavior. The…

  6. Forensic linguistics: Applications of forensic linguistics methods to anonymous letters

    OpenAIRE

    NOVÁKOVÁ, Veronika

    2011-01-01

    The title of my bachelor work is ?Forensic linguistics: Applications of forensic linguistics methods to anonymous letters?. Forensic linguistics is young and not very known branch of applied linguistics. This bachelor work wants to introduce forensic linguistics and its method. The bachelor work has two parts ? theory and practice. The theoretical part informs about forensic linguistics in general. Its two basic aspects utilized in forensic science and respective methods. The practical part t...

  7. "Un-Googling” publications: The ethics and problems of anonymization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shklovski, Irina; Vertesi, Janet

    2013-01-01

    to the ethics of exposure of our research participants. We present one approach to anonymization of research results with search engines in mind, which we call un-Googling, that we have developed to minimize risk to our participants. We discuss the considerations that this approach raises and pose a challenge...... to the HCI community to take up this discussion not only as an ethical consideration but also as a socio-technical research and design opportunity....

  8. Mobile Anonymous Trust Based Routing Using Ant Colony Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kalpana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Ad hoc networks are susceptible to malicious attacks through denial of services, traffic analysis and spoofing. The security of the ad hoc routing protocol depends upon encryption, authentication, anonymity and trust factors. End-to-end security of data is provided by encryption and authentication, topology information of the nodes can be obtained by studying traffic and routing data. This security problem of ad hoc network is addressed by the use of anonymity mechanisms and trust levels. Identification information like traffic flow, network topology, paths from malicious attackers is hidden in anonymous networks. Similarly, trust plays a very important role in the intermediate node selection in ad hoc networks. Trust is essential as selfish and malicious nodes not only pose a security issue but also decreases the Quality of Service. Approach: In this study, a routing to address anonymous routing with a trust which improves the overall security of the ad hoc network was proposed. A new approach for an on demand ad-hoc routing algorithm, which was based on swarm intelligence. Ant colony algorithms were a subset of swarm intelligence and considered the ability of simple ants to solve complex problems by cooperation. The interesting point was, that the ants do not need any direct communication for the solution process, instead they communicate by stigmergy. The notion of stigmergy means the indirect communication of individuals through modifying their environment. Several algorithms which were based on ant colony problems were introduced in recent years to solve different problems, e.g., optimization problems. Results and Conclusion: It is observed that the overall security in the network improves when the trust factor is considered. It is seen that non performing nodes are not considered due to the proposed ACO technique.

  9. Efficient and Anonymous Authentication Scheme for Wireless Body Area Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Libing; Zhang, Yubo; Li, Li; Shen, Jian

    2016-06-01

    As a significant part of the Internet of Things (IoT), Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) has attract much attention in this years. In WBANs, sensors placed in or around the human body collect the sensitive data of the body and transmit it through an open wireless channel in which the messages may be intercepted, modified, etc. Recently, Wang et al. presented a new anonymous authentication scheme for WBANs and claimed that their scheme can solve the security problems in the previous schemes. Unfortunately, we demonstrate that their scheme cannot withstand impersonation attack. Either an adversary or a malicious legal client could impersonate another legal client to the application provider. In this paper, we give the detailed weakness analysis of Wang et al.'s scheme at first. Then we present a novel anonymous authentication scheme for WBANs and prove that it's secure under a random oracle model. At last, we demonstrate that our presented anonymous authentication scheme for WBANs is more suitable for practical application than Wang et al.'s scheme due to better security and performance. Compared with Wang et al.'s scheme, the computation cost of our scheme in WBANs has reduced by about 31.58%.

  10. An Analysis of Anonymity in the Bitcoin System

    CERN Document Server

    Reid, Fergal

    2011-01-01

    Anonymity in Bitcoin, a peer-to-peer electronic currency system, is a complicated issue. Within the system, users are identified by public-keys only. An attacker wishing to de-anonymize its users will attempt to construct the oneto- many mapping between users and public-keys and associate information external to the system with the users. Bitcoin frustrates this attack by storing the mapping of a user to his or her public-keys on that user's node only and by allowing each user to generate as many public-keys as required. In this paper we consider the topological structure of two networks derived from Bitcoin's public transaction history. We show that the two networks have a non-trivial topological structure, provide complementary views of the Bitcoin system and have implications for anonymity. We combine these structures with external information and techniques such as context discovery and flow analysis to investigate an alleged theft of Bitcoins, which, at the time of the theft, had a market value of approx...

  11. AATCT: Anonymously Authenticated Transmission on the Cloud with Traceability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maged Hamada Ibrahim

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In Cloud computing, anonymous authentication is an important service that must be available to users in the Cloud. Users have the right to remain anonymous as long as they behave honestly. However, in case a malicious behavior is detected, the system – under court order – must be able to trace the user to his clear identity. Most of the proposed authentication schemes for the Cloud are either password-based authentication schemes that are vulnerable to offline dictionary attacks, or biometric-based authentication schemes that take a long time of execution specially in case of high security requirements. In this paper, we propose an efficient and secure scheme to non-interactively authenticate the users on the Cloud to the remote servers while preserving their anonymity. In case of accusations, the registration authority is able to trace any user to his clear identity. We avoid using low entropy passwords or biometric mechanisms, instead, we employ pseudonym systems in our design. The computation complexity and storage requirements are efficient and suitable to be implemented on smart cards/devices. Our proposed scheme withstands challenging adversarial attacks such as, stolen databases attacks, databases insertion attacks, impersonation attacks, replay attacks and malicious users/servers collaboration attacks.

  12. Reversible Anonymization of DICOM Images using Cryptography and Digital Watermarking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lhoussain ELFADIL

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM is a standard for handling, storing, printing, and transmitting information in medical images. The DICOM file contains the image data and a number of attributes such as identified patient data (name, age, insurance ID card,…, and non-identified patient data (doctor’s interpretation, image type,…. Medical images serve not only for examination, but can also be used for research and education purposes. For research they are used to prevent illegal use of information; before authorizing researchers to use these images, the medical staff deletes all the data which would reveal the patient identity to prevent patient privacy. This manipulation is called anonymization. In this paper, we propose a reversible anonymization of DICOM images. Identifying patient data with image digest, computed by the well-known SHA-256 hash function, are encrypted using the proposed probabilistic public key crypto-system. After compressing the Least Significant Bit (LSB bitplan of the image using Hofmann coding algorithm, the encrypted data is inserted into a liberated zone of the LSB bitplan of the image. The proposed method allows researchers to use anonymous DICOM images and keep to authorized staff -if necessary- the possibility to return to the original image with all related patient data.

  13. Utility-guided Clustering-based Transaction Data Anonymization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aris Gkoulalas-Divanis

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Transaction data about individuals are increasingly collected to support a plethora of applications, spanning from marketing to biomedical studies. Publishing these data is required by many organizations, but may result in privacy breaches, if an attacker exploits potentially identifying information to link individuals to their records in the published data. Algorithms that prevent this threat by transforming transaction data prior to their release have been proposed recently, but they may incur significant utility loss due to their inability to: (i accommodate a range of different privacy requirements that data owners often have, and (ii guarantee that the produced data will satisfy data owners’ utility requirements. To address this issue, we propose a novel clustering-based framework to anonymizing transaction data, which provides the basis for designing algorithms that better preserve data utility. Based on this framework, we develop two anonymization algorithms which explore a larger solution space than existing methods and can satisfy a wide range of privacy requirements. Additionally, the second algorithm allows the specification and enforcement of utility requirements, thereby ensuring that the anonymized data remain useful in intended tasks. Experiments with both benchmark and real medical datasets verify that our algorithms significantly outperform the current state-of-the-art algorithms in terms of data utility, while being comparable in terms of efficiency.

  14. The implications of stigma and anonymity for self-disclosure in health blogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rains, Stephen A

    2014-01-01

    The reported study examines the implications of anonymity and stigma in the form of illness-related embarrassment for self-disclosure in the context of health blogging. Drawing from theorizing about anonymous communication and stigma, anonymity is argued to be strategically used by individuals who are embarrassed by their illness and to moderate the relationship between embarrassment and self-disclosure. Data from 114 individuals who blog about their experiences coping with a health condition were examined to test study hypotheses. Illness-related embarrassment was positively associated with anonymity. Additionally, anonymity moderated the relationship between embarrassment and self-disclosure. Among bloggers with relatively higher levels of anonymity, illness-related embarrassment was positively associated with self-disclosure. The results suggest that anonymity is strategically used and fosters self-disclosure among individuals who are embarrassed by their illness.

  15. Marker development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, M.R.

    1987-05-01

    This report is to discuss the marker development for radioactive waste disposal sites. The markers must be designed to last 10,000 years, and place no undue burdens on the future generations. Barriers cannot be constructed that preclude human intrusion. Design specifications for surface markers will be discussed, also marker pictograms will also be covered.

  16. Quantum election scheme based on anonymous quantum key distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Rui-Rui; Yang Li

    2012-01-01

    An unconditionally secure authority-certified anonymous quantum key distribution scheme using conjugate coding is presented,based on which we construct a quantum election scheme without the help of an entanglement state.We show that this election scheme ensures the completeness,soundness,privacy,eligibility,unreusability,fairness,and verifiability of a large-scale election in which the administrator and counter are semi-honest.This election scheme can work even if there exist loss and errors in quantum channels.In addition,any irregularity in this scheme is sensible.

  17. A MULTIPLE BALLOTS ELECTION SCHEME USING ANONYMOUS DISTRIBUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manabu Okamoto

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Electronic voting is an important application for security protocols. Most existing voting schemes aredesigned for elections in which each voter has only one ballot. However, some elections permit voters tocast multiple ballots. In this paper, we present a new voting scheme in which each voter can havemultiple ballots, and can vote for multiple candidates. The proposed scheme allows the voter to simplypick their candidates and post a single encrypted message. Anonymous distribution of secret informationis used so that no one knows which information is being passed to whom.

  18. Quantum anonymous voting with unweighted continuous-variable graph states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ying; Feng, Yanyan; Zeng, Guihua

    2016-08-01

    Motivated by the revealing topological structures of continuous-variable graph state (CVGS), we investigate the design of quantum voting scheme, which has serious advantages over the conventional ones in terms of efficiency and graphicness. Three phases are included, i.e., the preparing phase, the voting phase and the counting phase, together with three parties, i.e., the voters, the tallyman and the ballot agency. Two major voting operations are performed on the yielded CVGS in the voting process, namely the local rotation transformation and the displacement operation. The voting information is carried by the CVGS established before hand, whose persistent entanglement is deployed to keep the privacy of votes and the anonymity of legal voters. For practical applications, two CVGS-based quantum ballots, i.e., comparative ballot and anonymous survey, are specially designed, followed by the extended ballot schemes for the binary-valued and multi-valued ballots under some constraints for the voting design. Security is ensured by entanglement of the CVGS, the voting operations and the laws of quantum mechanics. The proposed schemes can be implemented using the standard off-the-shelf components when compared to discrete-variable quantum voting schemes attributing to the characteristics of the CV-based quantum cryptography.

  19. Keeping mum about dad: "contracts" to protect gamete donor anonymity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Anne

    2012-06-01

    This article considers the legal status of so-called contracts for anonymity between fertility clinics and donors of gametes that were made in the period before legislation authorising disclosure. It notes that while clinics frequently cite the existence of these "contracts" to argue against retrospective legislation authorising disclosure of the donor's identity, they may be nothing more than one-sided statements of informed consent. However, the article notes that even if an agreement between a donor and a clinic is not contractual, it does not follow that a person conceived through assisted reproductive technology has any right of access to the identity of the donor. The writer has not been able to locate examples of written promises by the clinics promising anonymity. There are written promises by the donors not to seek the identity of the recipients. These promises do not bind the resulting offspring nor do they appear to be supported by consideration. The article suggests that the basis for any individual donor to restrain a clinic from revealing their identity may be found in promissory estoppel. Nevertheless, there is no real issue in Australia concerning clinics revealing these details absent legislative authority. The issue is whether parliaments will legislate to authorise the disclosure. The article notes that it would be rare for parliaments to legislate to overturn existing legal contracts but suggests that the contract argument may not be as strong as has been thought.

  20. IdentiDroid: Android can finally Wear its Anonymous Suit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Shebaro

    2014-04-01

    from applications when the smartphone is used under the anonymous modality. They are re-instated back when the smartphone returns to work in the normal modality. In addition, both solutions offer protection from applications that identify their users through traces left in the application's data storage or through exchanging identifying data messages. We developed IdentiDroid, a customized Android operating system, to deploy these solutions and built IdentiDroid Profile Manager, a profile-based configuration tool that allows one to set different configurations for each installed Android application. With this tool, applications running within the same device are configured to be given different identifications and privileges to limit the uniqueness of device and user information. We analyzed 250 Android applications to determine what information, services, and permissions can identify users and devices. Our experiments show that when IdentiDroid is deployed and properly configured on Android devices, users' anonymity is better guaranteed by either of the proposed solutions with no significant impact on most device applications.

  1. Nonexposure Accurate Location K-Anonymity Algorithm in LBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinying Jia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper tackles location privacy protection in current location-based services (LBS where mobile users have to report their exact location information to an LBS provider in order to obtain their desired services. Location cloaking has been proposed and well studied to protect user privacy. It blurs the user’s accurate coordinate and replaces it with a well-shaped cloaked region. However, to obtain such an anonymous spatial region (ASR, nearly all existent cloaking algorithms require knowing the accurate locations of all users. Therefore, location cloaking without exposing the user’s accurate location to any party is urgently needed. In this paper, we present such two nonexposure accurate location cloaking algorithms. They are designed for K-anonymity, and cloaking is performed based on the identifications (IDs of the grid areas which were reported by all the users, instead of directly on their accurate coordinates. Experimental results show that our algorithms are more secure than the existent cloaking algorithms, need not have all the users reporting their locations all the time, and can generate smaller ASR.

  2. Nonexposure accurate location K-anonymity algorithm in LBS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Jinying; Zhang, Fengli

    2014-01-01

    This paper tackles location privacy protection in current location-based services (LBS) where mobile users have to report their exact location information to an LBS provider in order to obtain their desired services. Location cloaking has been proposed and well studied to protect user privacy. It blurs the user's accurate coordinate and replaces it with a well-shaped cloaked region. However, to obtain such an anonymous spatial region (ASR), nearly all existent cloaking algorithms require knowing the accurate locations of all users. Therefore, location cloaking without exposing the user's accurate location to any party is urgently needed. In this paper, we present such two nonexposure accurate location cloaking algorithms. They are designed for K-anonymity, and cloaking is performed based on the identifications (IDs) of the grid areas which were reported by all the users, instead of directly on their accurate coordinates. Experimental results show that our algorithms are more secure than the existent cloaking algorithms, need not have all the users reporting their locations all the time, and can generate smaller ASR.

  3. Applying Stylometric Analysis Techniques to Counter Anonymity in Cyberspace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianwen Sun

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to the ubiquitous nature and anonymity abuses in cyberspace, it’s difficult to make criminal identity tracing in cybercrime investigation. Writeprint identification offers a valuable tool to counter anonymity by applying stylometric analysis technique to help identify individuals based on textual traces. In this study, a framework for online writeprint identification is proposed. Variable length character n-gram is used to represent the author’s writing style. The technique of IG seeded GA based feature selection for Ensemble (IGAE is also developed to build an identification model based on individual author level features. Several specific components for dealing with the individual feature set are integrated to improve the performance. The proposed feature and technique are evaluated on a real world data set encompassing reviews posted by 50 Amazon customers. The experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed framework, with accuracy over 94% for 20 authors and over 80% for 50 ones. Compared with the baseline technique (Support Vector Machine, a higher performance is achieved by using IGAE, resulting in a 2% and 8% improvement over SVM for 20 and 50 authors respectively. Moreover, it has been shown that IGAE is more scalable in terms of the number of authors, than author group level based methods.

  4. Private anonymous fingerprinting for color images in the wavelet domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul, W.; Gaborit, P.; Carré, P.

    2010-01-01

    An online buyer of multimedia content does not want to reveal his identity or his choice of multimedia content whereas the seller or owner of the content does not want the buyer to further distribute the content illegally. To address these issues we present a new private anonymous fingerprinting protocol. It is based on superposed sending for communication security, group signature for anonymity and traceability and single database private information retrieval (PIR) to allow the user to get an element of the database without giving any information about the acquired element. In the presence of a semi-honest model, the protocol is implemented using a blind, wavelet based color image watermarking scheme. The main advantage of the proposed protocol is that both the user identity and the acquired database element are unknown to any third party and in the case of piracy, the pirate can be identified using the group signature scheme. The robustness of the watermarking scheme against Additive White Gaussian Noise is also shown.

  5. Marker chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Kiran Prabhaker; Belogolovkin, Victoria

    2013-04-01

    Marker chromosomes are a morphologically heterogeneous group of structurally abnormal chromosomes that pose a significant challenge in prenatal diagnosis. Phenotypes associated with marker chromosomes are highly variable and range from normal to severely abnormal. Clinical outcomes are very difficult to predict when marker chromosomes are detected prenatally. In this review, we outline the classification, etiology, cytogenetic characterization, and clinical consequences of marker chromosomes, as well as practical approaches to prenatal diagnosis and genetic counseling.

  6. A Self-Encryption Remote User Anonymous Authentication Scheme Using Smart Cards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Rong-xing; CAO Zhen-fu; SU Ren-wang

    2006-01-01

    Remote user authentication is essential in distributed network environment to protect unauthorized access of a networked system. However, most of those existing remote user authentication schemes have not provided the user identity anonymity, while user anonymity is particularly important in some practical applications.Therefore, based on self-encryption mechanism, a new remote user authentication scheme was proposed. The scheme not only has no need of maintaining a password table at the remote server, but also can protect the user's anonymity.

  7. Selfrando: Securing the Tor Browser against De-anonymization Exploits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conti Mauro

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Tor is a well-known anonymous communication system used by millions of users, including journalists and civil rights activists all over the world. The Tor Browser gives non-technical users an easy way to access the Tor Network. However, many government organizations are actively trying to compromise Tor not only in regions with repressive regimes but also in the free world, as the recent FBI incidents clearly demonstrate. Exploiting software vulnerabilities in general, and browser vulnerabilities in particular, constitutes a clear and present threat to the Tor software. The Tor Browser shares a large part of its attack surface with the Firefox browser. Therefore, Firefox vulnerabilities (even patched ones are highly valuable to attackers trying to monitor users of the Tor Browser.

  8. ANDaNA: Anonymous Named Data Networking Application

    CERN Document Server

    DiBenedetto, Steven; Tsudik, Gene; Uzun, Ersin

    2011-01-01

    Content-centric networking -- also known as information-centric networking (ICN) -- shifts emphasis from hosts and interfaces (as in today's Internet) to data. Named data becomes addressable and routable, while locations that currently store that data become irrelevant to applications. Named Data Networking (NDN) is a large collaborative research effort that exemplifies the content-centric approach to networking. NDN has some innate privacy-friendly features, such as lack of source and destination addresses on packets. However, as discussed in this paper, NDN architecture prompts some privacy concerns mainly stemming from the semantic richness of names. We examine privacy-relevant characteristics of NDN and present an initial attempt to achieve communication privacy. Specifically, we design an NDN add-on tool, called ANDaNA, that borrows a number of features from Tor. As we demonstrate via experiments, it provides comparable anonymity with lower relative overhead.

  9. Anonymization of Electronic Medical Records to Support Clinical Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Gkoulalas-Divanis, Aris

    2013-01-01

    Anonymization of Electronic Medical Records to Support Clinical Analysis closely examines the privacy threats that may arise from medical data sharing, and surveys the state-of-the-art methods developed to safeguard data against these threats. To motivate the need for computational methods, the book first explores the main challenges facing the privacy-protection of medical data using the existing policies, practices and regulations. Then, it takes an in-depth look at the popular computational privacy-preserving methods that have been developed for demographic, clinical and genomic data sharing, and closely analyzes the privacy principles behind these methods, as well as the optimization and algorithmic strategies that they employ. Finally, through a series of in-depth case studies that highlight data from the US Census as well as the Vanderbilt University Medical Center, the book outlines a new, innovative class of privacy-preserving methods designed to ensure the integrity of transferred medical data for su...

  10. Talking about suicide: confidentiality and anonymity in qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Susanne; Benson, Outi; Brand, Sarah L

    2013-02-01

    While it is acknowledged that there is a need for more qualitative research on suicide, it is also clear that the ethics of undertaking such research need to be addressed. This article uses the case study of the authors' experience of gaining ethics approval for a research project that asks people what it is like to feel suicidal to (a) analyse the limits of confidentiality and anonymity and (b) consider the ways in which the process of ethics review can shape and constrain suicide research. This leads to a discussion of the ways in which ethics committees assess and monitor qualitative research more generally and some preliminary suggestions for how this might be improved.

  11. The anonymity paradox in patient engagement: reputation, risk and web-based public feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speed, Ewen; Davison, Charlie; Gunnell, Caroline

    2016-06-01

    The UK National Health Service (NHS) has long espoused patient and public engagement. Recent years have seen increasing use of internet-based methods of collecting feedback about patient experience and public and staff views about NHS services and priorities. Often hailed as a means of facilitating participative democratic patient engagement, these processes raise a number of complex issues. A key aspect of it is the opportunity for comment to be made anonymously. Our research reveals an anonymity paradox whereby patients clearly demonstrate a perception that anonymity is a prerequisite for effective use of these feedback processes, whereas professionals demonstrate a perception that patient anonymity is a barrier to effective use. The risks of anonymity are constructed very differently by patients and professionals. Patient concerns around anonymity were not motivated by a general concern about a loss of privacy, but more that a positive identification might compromise future care. For professionals, concerns were voiced more around risks of reputational damage for specific practitioners or practices (in that anyone could say anything) and also that this anonymous feedback was available publicly and that it might go against the medical opinion of the professional. These concerns pointed to important differences in perceptions of patient and professional vulnerability. In the qualitative analysis that follows the key finding was that while anonymity makes service users feel less vulnerable, it can have the opposite effect on managers and clinical staff. This raises important implications for the use and utility of internet-based methods of collecting patient feedback.

  12. Highly informative single-copy nuclear microsatellite DNA markers developed using an AFLP-SSR approach in black spruce (Picea mariana and red spruce (P. rubens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Zhong Shi

    Full Text Available Microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSRs are highly informative molecular markers for various biological studies in plants. In spruce (Picea and other conifers, the development of single-copy polymorphic genomic microsatellite markers is quite difficult, owing primarily to the large genome size and predominance of repetitive DNA sequences throughout the genome. We have developed highly informative single-locus genomic microsatellite markers in black spruce (Picea mariana and red spruce (Picea rubens using a simple but efficient method based on a combination of AFLP and microsatellite technologies.A microsatellite-enriched library was constructed from genomic AFLP DNA fragments of black spruce. Sequencing of the 108 putative SSR-containing clones provided 94 unique sequences with microsatellites. Twenty-two of the designed 34 primer pairs yielded scorable amplicons, with single-locus patterns. Fourteen of these microsatellite markers were characterized in 30 black spruce and 30 red spruce individuals drawn from many populations. The number of alleles at a polymorphic locus ranged from 2 to 18, with a mean of 9.3 in black spruce, and from 3 to 15, with a mean of 6.2 alleles in red spruce. The polymorphic information content or expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.340 to 0.909 (mean = 0.67 in black spruce and from 0.161 to 0.851 (mean = 0.62 in red spruce. Ten SSR markers showing inter-parental polymorphism inherited in a single-locus Mendelian mode, with two cases of distorted segregation. Primer pairs for almost all polymorphic SSR loci resolved microsatellites of comparable size in Picea glauca, P. engelmannii, P. sitchensis, and P. abies.The AFLP-based microsatellite-enriched library appears to be a rapid, cost-effective approach for isolating and developing single-locus informative genomic microsatellite markers in black spruce. The markers developed should be useful in black spruce, red spruce and other Picea species for

  13. Hacktivism 1-2-3: how privacy enhancing technologies change the face of anonymous hacktivism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balázs Bodó

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This short essay explores how the notion of hacktivism changes due to easily accessible, military grade Privacy Enhancing Technologies (PETs. Privacy Enhancing Technologies, technological tools which provide anonymous communications and protect users from online surveillance enable new forms of online political activism. Through the short summary of the ad-hoc vigilante group Anonymous, this article describes hacktivism 1.0 as electronic civil disobedience conducted by outsiders. Through the analysis of Wikileaks, the anonymous whistleblowing website, it describes how strong PETs enable the development of hacktivism 2.0, where the source of threat is shifted from outsiders to insiders. Insiders have access to documents with which power can be exposed, and who, by using PETs, can anonymously engage in political action. We also describe the emergence of a third generation of hacktivists who use PETs to disengage and create their own autonomous spaces rather than to engage with power through anonymous whistleblowing.

  14. Hybridization and massive mtDNA unidirectional introgression between the closely related Neotropical toads Rhinella marina and R. schneideri inferred from mtDNA and nuclear markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneider Horacio

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The classical perspective that interspecific hybridization in animals is rare has been changing due to a growing list of empirical examples showing the occurrence of gene flow between closely related species. Using sequence data from cyt b mitochondrial gene and three intron nuclear genes (RPL9, c-myc, and RPL3 we investigated patterns of nucleotide polymorphism and divergence between two closely related toad species R. marina and R. schneideri. By comparing levels of differentiation at nuclear and mtDNA levels we were able to describe patterns of introgression and infer the history of hybridization between these species. Results All nuclear loci are essentially concordant in revealing two well differentiated groups of haplotypes, corresponding to the morphologically-defined species R. marina and R. schneideri. Mitochondrial DNA analysis also revealed two well-differentiated groups of haplotypes but, in stark contrast with the nuclear genealogies, all R. schneideri sequences are clustered with sequences of R. marina from the right Amazon bank (RAB, while R. marina sequences from the left Amazon bank (LAB are monophyletic. An Isolation-with-Migration (IM analysis using nuclear data showed that R. marina and R. schneideri diverged at ≈ 1.69 Myr (early Pleistocene, while R. marina populations from LAB and RAB diverged at ≈ 0.33 Myr (middle Pleistocene. This time of divergence is not consistent with the split between LAB and RAB populations obtained with mtDNA data (≈ 1.59 Myr, which is notably similar to the estimate obtained with nuclear genes between R. marina and R. schneideri. Coalescent simulations of mtDNA phylogeny under the speciation history inferred from nuclear genes rejected the hypothesis of incomplete lineage sorting to explain the conflicting signal between mtDNA and nuclear-based phylogenies. Conclusions The cytonuclear discordance seems to reflect the occurrence of interspecific hybridization between these

  15. Summarized data to achieve population-wide anonymized wellness measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Andrew; Steele, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The growth in smartphone market share has seen the increasing emergence of individuals collecting quantitative wellness data. Beyond the potential health benefits for the individual in regards to managing their own health, the data is highly related to preventative and risk factors for a number of lifestyle related diseases. This data has often been a component of public health data collection and epidemiological studies due to its large impact on the health system with chronic and lifestyle diseases increasingly being a major burden for the health service. However, collection of this kind of information from large segments of the community in a usable fashion has not been specifically explored in previous work. In this paper we discuss some of the technologies that increase the ease and capability of gathering quantitative wellness data via smartphones, how specific and detailed this data needs to be for public health use and the challenges of such anonymized data collection for public health. Additionally, we propose a conceptual architecture that includes the necessary components to support this approach to data collection.

  16. Deterministic gathering of anonymous agents in arbitrary networks

    CERN Document Server

    Dieudonné, Yoann

    2011-01-01

    A team consisting of an unknown number of mobile agents, starting from different nodes of an unknown network, possibly at different times, have to meet at the same node. Agents are anonymous (identical), execute the same deterministic algorithm and move in synchronous rounds along links of the network. Which configurations are gatherable and how to gather all of them deterministically by the same algorithm? We give a complete solution of this gathering problem in arbitrary networks. We characterize all gatherable configurations and give two universal deterministic gathering algorithms, i.e., algorithms that gather all gatherable configurations. The first algorithm works under the assumption that an upper bound n on the size of the network is known. In this case our algorithm guarantees gathering with detection, i.e., the existence of a round for any gatherable configuration, such that all agents are at the same node and all declare that gathering is accomplished. If no upper bound on the size of the network i...

  17. Parameterized Complexity of the k-anonymity Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Bonizzoni, Paola; Dondi, Riccardo; Pirola, Yuri

    2009-01-01

    The problem of publishing personal data without giving up privacy is becoming increasingly important. An interesting formalization that has been recently proposed is the $k$-anonymity. This approach requires that the rows of a table are partitioned in clusters of size at least $k$ and that all the rows in a cluster become the same tuple, after the suppression of some entries. The natural optimization problem, where the goal is to minimize the number of suppressed entries, is known to be APX-hard even when the records values are over a binary alphabet and $k=3$, and when the records have length at most 8 and $k=4$ . In this paper we study how the complexity of the problem is influenced by different parameters. In this paper we follow this direction of research, first showing that the problem is W[1]-hard when parameterized by the size of the solution (and the value $k$). Then we exhibit a fixed parameter algorithm, when the problem is parameterized by the size of the alphabet and the number of columns. Finally...

  18. Delineating social network data anonymization via random edge perturbation

    KAUST Repository

    Xue, Mingqiang

    2012-01-01

    Social network data analysis raises concerns about the privacy of related entities or individuals. To address this issue, organizations can publish data after simply replacing the identities of individuals with pseudonyms, leaving the overall structure of the social network unchanged. However, it has been shown that attacks based on structural identification (e.g., a walk-based attack) enable an adversary to re-identify selected individuals in an anonymized network. In this paper we explore the capacity of techniques based on random edge perturbation to thwart such attacks. We theoretically establish that any kind of structural identification attack can effectively be prevented using random edge perturbation and show that, surprisingly, important properties of the whole network, as well as of subgraphs thereof, can be accurately calculated and hence data analysis tasks performed on the perturbed data, given that the legitimate data recipient knows the perturbation probability as well. Yet we also examine ways to enhance the walk-based attack, proposing a variant we call probabilistic attack. Nevertheless, we demonstrate that such probabilistic attacks can also be prevented under sufficient perturbation. Eventually, we conduct a thorough theoretical study of the probability of success of any}structural attack as a function of the perturbation probability. Our analysis provides a powerful tool for delineating the identification risk of perturbed social network data; our extensive experiments with synthetic and real datasets confirm our expectations. © 2012 ACM.

  19. Sister-sister incest: data from an anonymous computerized survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroebel, Sandra S; O'Keefe, Stephen L; Griffee, Karen; Kuo, Shih-Ya; Beard, Keith W; Kommor, Martin J

    2013-01-01

    Retrospective data were entered anonymously by 1,521 adult women using a computer-assisted self-interview. Thirty-one participants were victims of sister-sister incest, 40 were victims of brother-sister incest, 19 were victims of father-daughter incest, 8 were victims of sexual abuse by an adult female (including one mother), and 232 were victims of sexual abuse by an adult male other than their father before reaching 18 years of age. The rest (1,203) served as controls. The victims of sister-sister incest had significantly more problematic outcomes than controls on many measures as adults. Victims of sister-sister incest were more depressed and more likely than controls to be distant from the perpetrator-sister and to have traded sex for money, experienced an unplanned pregnancy, engaged in four different types of masturbation, and engaged in 13 different same-sex behaviors. Our findings were consistent with other reports of early eroticization and persistent hypereroticization of incest victims.

  20. Anonymous birth law saves babies--optimization, sustainability and public awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grylli, Chryssa; Brockington, Ian; Fiala, Christian; Huscsava, Mercedes; Waldhoer, Thomas; Klier, Claudia M

    2016-04-01

    The aims of this study are to assess the impact of Austria's anonymous birth law from the time relevant statistical records are available and to evaluate the use of hatches versus anonymous hospital delivery. This study is a complete census of police-reported neonaticides (1975-2012) as well as anonymous births including baby hatches in Austria during 2002-2012. The time trends of neonaticide rates, anonymous births and baby hatches were analysed by means of Poisson and logistic regression model. Predicted and observed rates were derived and compared using a Bayesian Poisson regression model. Predicted numbers of neonaticides for the period of the active awareness campaign, 2002-2004, were more than three times larger than the observed number (p = 0.0067). Of the 365 women who benefitted from this legislation, only 11.5% chose to put their babies in a baby hatch. Since the law was introduced, a significant decreasing tendency of numbers of anonymous births (p = 047) was observed, while there was significant increase of neonaticide rates (p = 0.0001). The implementation of the anonymous delivery law is associated with a decrease in the number of police-reported neonaticides. The subsequent significantly decreasing numbers of anonymous births with an accompanying increase of neonaticides represents additional evidence for the effectiveness of the measure.

  1. Bone Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... markers may be seen in conditions such as: Osteoporosis Paget disease Cancer that has spread to the bone (metastatic bone disease) Hyperparathyroidism Hyperthyroidism Osteomalacia in adults and rickets in children—lack of bone mineralization, ...

  2. Hacktivism 1-2-3: how privacy enhancing technologies change the face of anonymous hacktivism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodó, B.

    2014-01-01

    This short essay explores how the notion of hacktivism changes due to easily accessible, military grade Privacy Enhancing Technologies (PETs). Privacy Enhancing Technologies, technological tools which provide anonymous communications and protect users from online surveillance enable new forms of onl

  3. The Role of the Anonymous Voice in Post-Publication Peer Review Versus Traditional Peer Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime A. Teixeira da Silva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional peer review (TPR has several limitations and weaknesses. Post-publication peer review is one practical way to repair the ills of TPR and reinforce it. A literature that is marked by errors is unhealthy and should, if given the opportunity, be corrected or further improved. The anonymous voice is one source of critique and differs from the blind peer review in TPR in which the reviewer remains anonymous to the authors and/or vice versa, but the identity is known to the editor. If unregulated, the anonymous voice can pose a threat to established editorial norms in TPR, to one of the most important criteria of science publishing, i.e., transparency, and to worthwhile discussion. Yet, if the anonymous voice is not heard, then a vast and potentially valuable pool of untapped opinions may be lost, opinions that may provide valuable solutions to improving TPR.

  4. PHENOMENAL EXPLORATION INTO IMPACT OF ANONYMITY ON LAW AND ORDER IN CYBERSPACE

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xingan

    2015-01-01

    While information systems provide modern society with great convenience, it also poses new problems in maintaining social order. One of its negative influences is the anonymity of cyberspace, which makes identity tracing a noteworthy predicament which poses obstacles in detection and investigations. It has been found that cyber anonymity has critical impacts on criminal motivation, and the phenomena of victimization, and should be tackled on different layers including technology and law enfor...

  5. To Speak or Not to Speak: Developing Legal Standards for Anonymous Speech on the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas A. Lipinski

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores recent developments in the regulation of Internet speech, in specific, injurious or defamatory speech and the impact such speech has on the rights of anonymous speakers to remain anonymous as opposed to having their identity revealed to plaintiffs or other third parties. The paper proceeds in four sections.  First, a brief history of the legal attempts to regulate defamatory Internet speech in the United States is presented. As discussed below this regulation has altered the traditional legal paradigm of responsibility and as a result creates potential problems for the future of anonymous speech on the Internet.  As a result plaintiffs are no longer pursuing litigation against service providers but taking their dispute directly to the anonymous speaker. Second, several cases have arisen in the United States where plaintiffs have requested that the identity of an anonymous Internet speaker be revealed.  These cases are surveyed.  Third, the cases are analyzed in order to determine the factors that courts require to be present before the identity of an anonymous speaker will be revealed.  The release is typically accomplished by the enforcement of a discovery subpoena instigated by the party seeking the identity of the anonymous speaker. The factors courts have used are as follows: jurisdiction, good faith (both internal and external, necessity (basic and sometimes absolute, and at times proprietary interest. Finally, these factors are applied in three scenarios--e-commerce, education, and employment--to guide institutions when adopting policies that regulate when the identity of an anonymous speaker--a customer, a student or an employee--would be released as part of an internal initiative, but would nonetheless be consistent with developing legal standards.

  6. Verbal Venting in the Social Web: Effects of Anonymity and Group Norms on Aggressive Language Use in Online Comments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonie Rösner

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Scholars often blame the occurrence of aggressive behavior in online discussions on the anonymity of the Internet; however, even on today’s less anonymous platforms, such as social networking sites, users write plenty of aggressive comments, which can elicit a whole wave of negative remarks. Drawing on the social identity and deindividuation effects (SIDE model, this research conducts a laboratory experiment with a 2 (anonymity vs. no anonymity × 2 (aggressive norm vs. non-aggressive norm between-subjects design in order to disentangle the effects of anonymity, social group norms, and their interactions on aggressive language use in online comments. Results reveal that participants used more aggressive expressions in their comments when peer comments on a blog included aggressive wording (i.e., the social group norm was aggressive. Anonymity had no direct effect; however, we found a tendency that users’ conformity to an aggressive social norm of commenting is stronger in an anonymous environment.

  7. Link Prediction by De-anonymization: How We Won the Kaggle Social Network Challenge

    CERN Document Server

    Narayanan, Arvind; Rubinstein, Benjamin I P

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the winning entry to the IJCNN 2011 Social Network Challenge run by Kaggle.com. The goal of the contest was to promote research on real-world link prediction, and the dataset was a graph obtained by crawling the popular Flickr social photo sharing website, with user identities scrubbed. By de-anonymizing much of the competition test set using our own Flickr crawl, we were able to effectively game the competition. Our attack represents a new application of de-anonymization to gaming machine learning contests, suggesting changes in how future competitions should be run. We introduce a new simulated annealing-based weighted graph matching algorithm for the seeding step of de-anonymization. We also show how to combine de-anonymization with link prediction---the latter is required to achieve good performance on the portion of the test set not de-anonymized---for example by training the predictor on the de-anonymized portion of the test set, and combining probabilistic predictions from de-anony...

  8. An Enhanced Lightweight Anonymous Authentication Scheme for a Scalable Localization Roaming Service in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Youngseok; Choi, Seokjin; Lee, Youngsook; Park, Namje; Won, Dongho

    2016-10-07

    More security concerns and complicated requirements arise in wireless sensor networks than in wired networks, due to the vulnerability caused by their openness. To address this vulnerability, anonymous authentication is an essential security mechanism for preserving privacy and providing security. Over recent years, various anonymous authentication schemes have been proposed. Most of them reveal both strengths and weaknesses in terms of security and efficiency. Recently, Farash et al. proposed a lightweight anonymous authentication scheme in ubiquitous networks, which remedies the security faults of previous schemes. However, their scheme still suffers from certain weaknesses. In this paper, we prove that Farash et al.'s scheme fails to provide anonymity, authentication, or password replacement. In addition, we propose an enhanced scheme that provides efficiency, as well as anonymity and security. Considering the limited capability of sensor nodes, we utilize only low-cost functions, such as one-way hash functions and bit-wise exclusive-OR operations. The security and lightness of the proposed scheme mean that it can be applied to roaming service in localized domains of wireless sensor networks, to provide anonymous authentication of sensor nodes.

  9. Simultaneous cytoplasmic and nuclear protein expression of melanoma antigen-A family and NY-ESO-1 cancer-testis antigens represents an independent marker for poor survival in head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laban, Simon; Atanackovic, Djordje; Luetkens, Tim; Knecht, Rainald; Busch, Chia-Jung; Freytag, Marcus; Spagnoli, Giulio; Ritter, Gerd; Hoffmann, Thomas K; Knuth, Alexander; Sauter, Guido; Wilczak, Waldemar; Blessmann, Marco; Borgmann, Kerstin; Muenscher, Adrian; Clauditz, Till S

    2014-09-01

    The prognosis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients remains poor. The identification of high-risk subgroups is needed for the development of custom-tailored therapies. The expression of cancer-testis antigens (CTAs) has been linked to a worse prognosis in other cancer types; however, their prognostic value in HNSCC is unclear because only few patients have been examined and data on CTA protein expression are sparse. A tissue microarray consisting of tumor samples from 453 HNSCC patients was evaluated for the expression of CTA proteins using immunohistochemistry. Frequency of expression and the subcellular expression pattern (nuclear, cytoplasmic, or both) was recorded. Protein expression of melanoma antigen (MAGE)-A family CTA, MAGE-C family CTA and NY-ESO-1 was found in approximately 30, 7 and 4% of tumors, respectively. The subcellular expression pattern in particular had a marked impact on the patients' prognosis. Median overall survival (OS) of patients with (i) simultaneous cytoplasmic and nuclear expression compared to (ii) either cytoplasmic or nuclear expression and (iii) negative patients was 23.0 versus 109.0 versus 102.5 months, for pan-MAGE (p < 0.0001), 46.6 versus 50.0 versus 109.0 for MAGE-A3/A4 (p = 0.0074) and 13.3 versus 50.0 versus 100.2 months for NY-ESO-1 (p = 0.0019). By multivariate analysis, these factors were confirmed as independent markers for poor survival. HNSCC patients showing protein expression of MAGE-A family members or NY-ESO-1 represent a subgroup with an extraordinarily poor survival. The development of immunotherapeutic strategies targeting these CTA may, therefore, be a promising approach to improve the outcome of HNSCC patients.

  10. Risk factors for father-daughter incest: data from an anonymous computerized survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroebel, Sandra S; Kuo, Shih-Ya; O'Keefe, Stephen L; Beard, Keith W; Swindell, Sam; Kommor, Martin J

    2013-12-01

    Retrospective data from 2,034 female participants, provided anonymously using a computer-assisted self-interview, were used to identify risk factors for father-daughter incest (FDI). A total of 51 participants had reported having experienced FDI. The risk factors identified within the nuclear family by the multiple logistic regression analysis included the following: (a) Having parents whose relationship included verbal or physical fighting or brutality increased the likelihood of FDI by approximately 5 times; (b) families accepting father-daughter nudity as measured by a scale with values ranging from 0 to 4 increased the likelihood of FDI by approximately 2 times for each unit value increase of 1 above 0; (c) demonstrating maternal affection protected against FDI. The likelihood of being a victim of FDI was highest if the participant's mother never kissed or hugged her; it decreased by 0.44 for a 1-unit increase in affection and by 0.19 times for a 2-unit increase; and (d) being in homes headed by single-parent mothers or where divorce or death of the father had resulted in a man other than the biological father living in the home increased the risk of FDI by approximately 3.2 times. The results were consistent with the idea that FDI in many families was the cumulative result of a circular pattern of interactions, a finding that has implications for treatment of the perpetrator, the victim, and the families. The data also suggested it may be possible to design an information program for parents that will result in reducing the risk of FDI in families implementing the program's recommendations.

  11. Etiological Risk Factors for Sibling Incest: Data From an Anonymous Computer-Assisted Self-Interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffee, Karen; Swindell, Sam; O'Keefe, Stephen L; Stroebel, Sandra S; Beard, Keith W; Kuo, Shih-Ya; Stroupe, Walter

    2016-10-01

    Retrospective data from 1,821 women and 1,064 men with one or more siblings, provided anonymously using a computer-assisted self-interview, were used to identify risk factors for sibling incest (SI); 137 were participants in SI. In order of decreasing predictive power, the risk factors identified by the multiple logistic regression analysis included ever having shared a bed for sleeping with a sibling, parent-child incest (PCI), family nudity, low levels of maternal affection, and ever having shared a tub bath with a sibling. The results were consistent with the idea that SI in many families was the cumulative result of four types of parental behaviors: (a) factors that lower external barriers to sexual behavior (e.g., permitting co-sleeping or co-bathing of sibling dyads), (b) factors that encourage nudity of children within the nuclear family and permit children to see the parent's genitals, (c) factors that lead to the siblings relying on one another for affection (e.g., diminished maternal affection), and (d) factors that eroticize young children (e.g., child sexual abuse [CSA] by a parent). Thirty-eight of the 137 SI participants were participants in coerced sibling incest (CSI). In order of decreasing predictive power, risk factors for CSI identified by multiple logistic regression analysis included ever having shared a bed for sleeping with a brother, PCI, witnessing parental physical fighting, and family nudity. SI was more likely to have been reported as CSI if the sibling had touched the reporting sibling's genitals, and less likely to have been reported as CSI if the siblings had shared a bed.

  12. Serbs in the poetry of Theodore Prodromos and anonymous Manganeios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Vlada

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous rhetorical writings of the Comnenian period constitute a fruitful field of research, both with respect to historical data, i.e. hard historical facts hidden, though still recognizable, behind the peculiar and somewhat abstract mode of expression of the authors of the twelfth century, and with regard to the poetics of the literary works themselves, i.e. the internal elements characteristic not only for the genre chosen, but also for each particular author. A comparative, historical and literary approach to these works renders their sense clearer and their complex allusions more readily understood. This is a matter of some importance, since allusions constitute one of the basic elements of historical rhetoric, which reached its peak at the time of Emperor Manuel Komnenos (1143-1180, especially during the first half of his reign, i.e. till the end of the fifties of the twelfth century. The poetry of Theodore Prodromes and of the somewhat younger Anonymous ('Prodromos' Manganeios is an excellent example of this intertwining of historical and literary elements, i.e. of the presentation of historical data through rhetorical patterns. One has to concentrate on individual works attempting to determine, as far as possible, the date of composition, the circumstances of writing and the purpose of a particular poem, the occasion for which it was written and the character of the expected audience, in order to better understand both the poetry written by these two rhetoricians and the individual features of the authors, as well as their respective positions in the circle around Emperor Manuel Komnenos. The poems dealt with in the present paper stand out for calling the Serbs by their real name. This naming practice was invariably employed by both rhetoricians in cases when new achievements of the basileus were to be announced and proclaimed immediately after the event, on the occasions of first reports, first celebrations of the new victories and

  13. Potential role of nuclear PD-L1 expression in cell-surface vimentin positive circulating tumor cells as a prognostic marker in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satelli, Arun; Batth, Izhar Singh; Brownlee, Zachary; Rojas, Christina; Meng, Qing H; Kopetz, Scott; Li, Shulin

    2016-07-01

    Although circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have potential as diagnostic biomarkers for cancer, determining their prognostic role in cancer patients undergoing treatment is a challenge. We evaluated the prognostic value of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression in CTCs in colorectal and prostate cancer patients undergoing treatment. Peripheral blood samples were collected from 62 metastatic colorectal cancer patients and 30 metastatic prostate cancer patients. CTCs were isolated from the samples using magnetic separation with the cell-surface vimentin(CSV)-specific 84-1 monoclonal antibody that detects epithelial-mesenchymal transitioned (EMT) CTCs. CTCs were enumerated and analyzed for PD-L1 expression using confocal microscopy. PD-L1 expression was detectable in CTCs and was localized in the membrane and/or cytoplasm and nucleus. CTC detection alone was not associated with poor progression-free or overall survival in colorectal cancer or prostate cancer patients, but nuclear PD-L1 (nPD-L1) expression in these patients was significantly associated with short survival durations. These results demonstrated that nPD-L1 has potential as a clinically relevant prognostic biomarker for colorectal and prostate cancer. Our data thus suggested that use of CTC-based models of cancer for risk assessment can improve the standard cancer staging criteria and supported the incorporation of nPD-L1 expression detection in CTCs detection in such models.

  14. Genetic diversity within and between European pig breeds using microsatellite markers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SanCristobal, M.; Chevalet, C.; Haley, C.S.; Joosten, R.; Rattink, A.P.; Harlizius, B.; Groenen, M.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    An important prerequisite for a conservation programme is a comprehensive description of genetic diversity. The aim of this study was to use anonymous genetic markers to assess the between- and the within-population components of genetic diversity for European pig breeds at the scale of the whole co

  15. Single nucleotide polymorphisms and indel markers from the transcriptome of garlic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is cultivated world-wide and widely appreciated for its culinary uses. In spite of primarily being asexually propagated, garlic shows great diversity for adaptation to diverse production environments and bulb phenotypes. Anonymous molecular markers have been used to assess...

  16. Re-identification of home addresses from spatial locations anonymized by Gaussian skew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassa Christopher A

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge of the geographical locations of individuals is fundamental to the practice of spatial epidemiology. One approach to preserving the privacy of individual-level addresses in a data set is to de-identify the data using a non-deterministic blurring algorithm that shifts the geocoded values. We investigate a vulnerability in this approach which enables an adversary to re-identify individuals using multiple anonymized versions of the original data set. If several such versions are available, each can be used to incrementally refine estimates of the original geocoded location. Results We produce multiple anonymized data sets using a single set of addresses and then progressively average the anonymized results related to each address, characterizing the steep decline in distance from the re-identified point to the original location, (and the reduction in privacy. With ten anonymized copies of an original data set, we find a substantial decrease in average distance from 0.7 km to 0.2 km between the estimated, re-identified address and the original address. With fifty anonymized copies of an original data set, we find a decrease in average distance from 0.7 km to 0.1 km. Conclusion We demonstrate that multiple versions of the same data, each anonymized by non-deterministic Gaussian skew, can be used to ascertain original geographic locations. We explore solutions to this problem that include infrastructure to support the safe disclosure of anonymized medical data to prevent inference or re-identification of original address data, and the use of a Markov-process based algorithm to mitigate this risk.

  17. Comparison of two methods for measuring γ-H2AX nuclear fluorescence as a marker of DNA damage in cultured human cells: applications for microbeam radiation therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D.; Andrais, B.; Mirzayans, R.; Siegbahn, E. A.; Fallone, B. G.; Warkentin, B.

    2013-06-01

    Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) delivers single fractions of very high doses of synchrotron x-rays using arrays of microbeams. In animal experiments, MRT has achieved higher tumour control and less normal tissue toxicity compared to single-fraction broad beam irradiations of much lower dose. The mechanism behind the normal tissue sparing of MRT has yet to be fully explained. An accurate method for evaluating DNA damage, such as the γ-H2AX immunofluorescence assay, will be important for understanding the role of cellular communication in the radiobiological response of normal and cancerous cell types to MRT. We compare two methods of quantifying γ-H2AX nuclear fluorescence for uniformly irradiated cell cultures: manual counting of γ-H2AX foci by eye, and an automated, MATLAB-based fluorescence intensity measurement. We also demonstrate the automated analysis of cell cultures irradiated with an array of microbeams. In addition to offering a relatively high dynamic range of γ-H2AX signal versus irradiation dose ( > 10 Gy), our automated method provides speed, robustness, and objectivity when examining a series of images. Our in-house analysis facilitates the automated extraction of the spatial distribution of the γ-H2AX intensity with respect to the microbeam array — for example, the intensities in the peak (high dose area) and valley (area between two microbeams) regions. The automated analysis is particularly beneficial when processing a large number of samples, as is needed to systematically study the relationship between the numerous dosimetric and geometric parameters involved with MRT (e.g., microbeam width, microbeam spacing, microbeam array dimensions, peak dose, valley dose, and geometric arrangement of multiple arrays) and the resulting DNA damage.

  18. An E-Cash Based Implementation Model for Facilitating Anonymous Purchasing of Information Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Kim, K. H. (Kane); Kang, Myeong-Ho; Zhou, Tianran; Chung, Byung-Ho; Kim, Shin-Hyo; Lee, Seok-Joon

    The rapid growing of online purchasing of information products poses challenges of how to preserve the customer's privacy during the online transactions. The current widely used way of online shopping does not consider the customer's privacy protection. It exposes the customer's sensitive information unnecessarily. We propose a new five-party implementation model called 5PAPS that provides much enhanced protection of the customer's privacy. The model combines the advantages of the e-cash techniques, the mix technique, the anonymous-honoring merchant model, and the anonymity-protecting payment gateway model. It is aimed for protecting the customer's anonymity in all applicable aspects. Security and anonymity issues of the model have been analyzed. The results show that the model is robust against varieties of common attacks and the customer's anonymity can be protected even in the presence of some collusion among the parties involved in the transactions. Experimental prototyping of the essential parts yields partial validation of the practical nature of the 5PAPS model, and it has also produced reliable estimates of the storage and messaging volume requirements present in sizable purchasing systems.

  19. 可追踪的匿名证书%The Traceable Anonymous Certificate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兵

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the traceable anonymous certificate, and analyzes the proposed traceable anonymous certificate is⁃suing and tracing protocol in detail, the traceable anonymous certificate should possess two core characteristics: anonymity and non-repudiation, the two features ensure that users can prove the identity himself but without revealing his true identity, this certificate can be used to provide anonymous service in network application.%该文介绍了可追踪匿名证书,并对提出的可追踪匿名证书的发布和追踪协议进行了详细的分析,可追踪匿名证书应该具有匿名性和不可否认性两个核心特点,这两个特点保证了用户可以在不泄露自己的真实身份的情况下来证明用户的身份,这样的证书可以被用于需要提供匿名服务的网络应用中。

  20. Formal Security-Proved Mobile Anonymous Authentication Protocols with Credit-Based Chargeability and Controllable Privacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-I Fan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Smart mobile phones are widely popularized and advanced mobile communication services are provided increasingly often, such that ubiquitous computing environments will soon be a reality. However, there are many security threats to mobile networks and their impact on security is more serious than that in wireline networks owing to the features of wireless transmissions and the ubiquity property. The secret information which mobile users carry may be stolen by malicious entities. To guarantee the quality of advanced services, security and privacy would be important issues when users roam within various mobile networks. In this manuscript, an anonymous authentication scheme will be proposed to protect the security of the network system and the privacy of users. Not only does the proposed scheme provide mutual authentication between each user and the system, but also each user’s identity is kept secret against anyone else, including the system. Although the system anonymously authenticates the users, it can still generate correct bills to charge these anonymous users via a credit-based solution instead of debit-based ones. Furthermore, our protocols also achieve fair privacy which allows the judge to revoke the anonymity and trace the illegal users when they have misused the anonymity property, for example, if they have committed crimes. Finally, in this paper, we also carry out complete theoretical proofs on each claimed security property.

  1. A bilinear pairing based anonymous authentication scheme in wireless body area networks for mHealth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qi; Lian, Xinxin; Yang, Chao; Ma, Jianfeng; Tian, Youliang; Yang, Yuanyuan

    2016-11-01

    Wireless body area networks (WBANs) have become one of the key components of mobile health (mHealth) which provides 24/7 health monitoring service and greatly improves the quality and efficiency of healthcare. However, users' concern about the security and privacy of their health information has become one of the major obstacles that impede the wide adoption of WBANs. Anonymous and unlinkable authentication is critical to protect the security and privacy of sensitive physiological information in transit from the client to the application provider. We first show that the anonymous authentication scheme of Wang and Zhang based on bilinear pairing is prone to client impersonation attack. Then, we propose an enhanced anonymous authentication scheme to remedy the flaw in Wang and Zhang's scheme. We give the security analysis to demonstrate that the enhanced scheme achieves the desired security features and withstands various known attacks.

  2. RSSI-Based User Centric Anonymization for Location Privacy in Vehicular Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yu-Chih; Chen, Yi-Ming; Shan, Hwai-Ling

    In Vehicular Networks, for enhancing driving safety as well as supporting other applications, vehicles periodically broadcast safety messages with their precise position information to neighbors. However, these broadcast messages make it easy to track specific vehicles and will likely lead to compromise of personal privacy. Unfortunately, current location privacy enhancement methodologies in VANET, including Pseudonymization, K-anonymity, Random silent period, Mix-zones and path confusion, all suffer some shortcomings. In this paper, we propose a RSSI (Received Signal Strength Indicator)-based user centric anonymization model, which can significantly enhance the location privacy and at the same time ensure traffic safety. Simulations are performed to show the advantages of the proposed method. In comparison with traditional random silent period method, our method can increase at least 47% of anonymity in both simple and correlation tracking.

  3. Employee Anonymous Online Dissent: Dynamics and Ethical Challenges for Employees, Targeted Organisations, Online Outlets and Audiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravazzani, Silvia; Mazzei, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    ethical challenges that take into consideration the perspectives of employees, targeted organisations, online outlet administrators and audiences. The ethical challenge for employees is to disclose problems for organisational and societal changes in a safe context and supported by a large audience, while......This paper aims to enhance understanding of dissent expressive acts that employees voice via anonymous online public contexts. Based on literature on organisational dissent, anonymity and online disclosure, we first point out key dynamics of employee anonymous online dissent, and then present...... remaining accountable for them and avoiding emotion-focused and defensive disclosure. Targeted organisations need to prevent external disclosure while ensuring freedom of speech and employee privacy, and to respond effectively when overt criticism is found online. Other tensions concern online outlet...

  4. Anonymity and informed consent in artificial procreation: a report from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebech, Anne Mette

    1997-01-01

    a problem concerning its application when dealing with people having a serious mental, social or even physical disability. Within the field of artificial procreation there are even more problems. Informed written consent is often demanded from anonymous donors of gametes in order to ensure their consent...... to the legal and moral consequences of their anonymity. The child resulting from the artificial procreation, on the contrary, cannot consent to, nor be informed before being conceived, of the secrecy laid on the identity of its genetic parents. Some countries resolve this problem by allowing the children, when...... be regarded as invalid. The paper will argue that a law ensuring the complete anonymity of the parents is disregarding the informed consent and the interests of the children resulting from artificial procreation, and is thus doing more damage to society than good....

  5. Between control and hacker activism: the political actions of Anonymous Brasil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Murilo Bansi

    2015-12-01

    This paper addresses the political actions of Anonymous, the principal expression of current hacker activism, arguing that hacktivism is a form of political resistance in control societies. To this end, it focuses on studying the Brazilian, hacktivist facet of the collective. In order to stress its political character, it scrutinizes the principal expressions of hacking in the literature. It describes motivations, methods and the ethics of its political actions, based on a comparative analysis of two operations carried out by Brazilian Anonymous adherents in 2012: #OpWeeksPayment and #OpGlobo. And it finishes by identifying four of its main forms of political engagement: promotion of anonymity; "evangelization;" the formation of distributed networks; and the fact that the collective carries out and facilitates several types of political actions.

  6. Endemic North African Quercus afares Pomel originates from hybridisation between two genetically very distant oak species (Q. suber L. and Q. canariensis Willd.): evidence from nuclear and cytoplasmic markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, C; Toumi, L; Jarne, P; Sarda, V; Di Giusto, F; Lumaret, R

    2006-02-01

    Hybridisation is a potent force in plant evolution, although there are few reported examples of stabilised species that have been created through homoploid hybridisation. We focus here on Quercus afares, an endemic North African species that combines morphological, physiological and ecological traits of both Q. suber and Q. canariensis, two phylogenetically distant species. These two species are sympatric with Q. afares over most of its distribution. We studied two Q. afares populations (one from Algeria and one from Tunisia), as well as several populations of both Q. suber and Q. canariensis sampled both within and outside areas where these species overlap with Q. afares. A genetic analysis was conducted using both nuclear (allozymes) and chloroplastic markers, which shows that Q. afares originates from a Q. suber x Q. canariensis hybridisation. At most loci, Q. afares predominantly possesses alleles from Q. suber, suggesting that the initial cross between Q. suber and Q. canariensis was followed by backcrossing with Q. suber. Other hypotheses that can account for this result, including genetic drift, gene silencing, gene conversion and selection, are discussed. A single Q. suber chlorotype was detected, and all Q. afares individuals displayed this chlorotype, indicating that Q. suber was the maternal parent. Q. afares is genetically, morphologically and ecologically differentiated from its parental species, and can therefore be considered as a stabilised hybrid species.

  7. 电子投票匿名性分析%Anonymity Analysis of Electronic Voting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄福人; 屈玉贵

    2011-01-01

    电子投票公布计票结果会影响投票者的匿名性.针对该问题,定义匿名性为投票选择的不确定度,利用熵衡量投票系统的投票者匿名性,比较计票结果公布前后投票者的匿名性变化.分析结果表明,投票规模越小,投票者匿名性在结果公布后受到的损失越大;在小规模电子投票情况下,计票结果应该选择只公布获胜者,不公布具体得票数,以减少投票者匿名的损失.%The disclosure of the number of votes can compromise the voters' anonymity of the electronic voting. Aiming at this problem, this paper defines anonymity by using the uncertainty of the voting choices and measures the anonymity of the whole voting system by entropy. It compares the anonymity after the release of the voting results with that before releasing the voting results. Analysis result shows that the smaller the voting scale is, the more the voters' anonymity loses. In the design of small-scale electronic-voting scheme, releasing the winner instead of the number of votes that candidates gained decreases the loss of anonymity.

  8. Source Anonymity in WSNs against Global Adversary Utilizing Low Transmission Rates with Delay Constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushnag, Anas; Abuzneid, Abdelshakour; Mahmood, Ausif

    2016-06-27

    Wireless sensor networks (WSN) are deployed for many applications such as tracking and monitoring of endangered species, military applications, etc. which require anonymity of the origin, known as Source Location Privacy (SLP). The aim in SLP is to prevent unauthorized observers from tracing the source of a real event by analyzing the traffic in the network. Previous approaches to SLP such as Fortified Anonymous Communication Protocol (FACP) employ transmission of real or fake packets in every time slot, which is inefficient. To overcome this shortcoming, we developed three different techniques presented in this paper. Dummy Uniform Distribution (DUD), Dummy Adaptive Distribution (DAD) and Controlled Dummy Adaptive Distribution (CAD) were developed to overcome the anonymity problem against a global adversary (which has the capability of analyzing and monitoring the entire network). Most of the current techniques try to prevent the adversary from perceiving the location and time of the real event whereas our proposed techniques confuse the adversary about the existence of the real event by introducing low rate fake messages, which subsequently lead to location and time privacy. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed techniques provide reasonable delivery ratio, delay, and overhead of a real event's packets while keeping a high level of anonymity. Three different analysis models are conducted to verify the performance of our techniques. A visualization of the simulation data is performed to confirm anonymity. Further, neural network models are developed to ensure that the introduced techniques preserve SLP. Finally, a steganography model based on probability is implemented to prove the anonymity of the techniques.

  9. Source Anonymity in WSNs against Global Adversary Utilizing Low Transmission Rates with Delay Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anas Bushnag

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSN are deployed for many applications such as tracking and monitoring of endangered species, military applications, etc. which require anonymity of the origin, known as Source Location Privacy (SLP. The aim in SLP is to prevent unauthorized observers from tracing the source of a real event by analyzing the traffic in the network. Previous approaches to SLP such as Fortified Anonymous Communication Protocol (FACP employ transmission of real or fake packets in every time slot, which is inefficient. To overcome this shortcoming, we developed three different techniques presented in this paper. Dummy Uniform Distribution (DUD, Dummy Adaptive Distribution (DAD and Controlled Dummy Adaptive Distribution (CAD were developed to overcome the anonymity problem against a global adversary (which has the capability of analyzing and monitoring the entire network. Most of the current techniques try to prevent the adversary from perceiving the location and time of the real event whereas our proposed techniques confuse the adversary about the existence of the real event by introducing low rate fake messages, which subsequently lead to location and time privacy. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed techniques provide reasonable delivery ratio, delay, and overhead of a real event's packets while keeping a high level of anonymity. Three different analysis models are conducted to verify the performance of our techniques. A visualization of the simulation data is performed to confirm anonymity. Further, neural network models are developed to ensure that the introduced techniques preserve SLP. Finally, a steganography model based on probability is implemented to prove the anonymity of the techniques.

  10. Recipient screening in IVF: First data from women undergoing anonymous oocyte donation in Dublin

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Anthony PH

    2011-04-20

    Abstract Background Guidelines for safe gamete donation have emphasised donor screening, although none exist specifically for testing oocyte recipients. Pre-treatment assessment of anonymous donor oocyte IVF treatment in Ireland must comply with the European Union Tissues and Cells Directive (Directive 2004\\/23\\/EC). To determine the effectiveness of this Directive when applied to anonymous oocyte recipients in IVF, we reviewed data derived from selected screening tests performed in this clinical setting. Methods Data from tests conducted at baseline for all women enrolling as recipients (n = 225) in the anonymous oocyte donor IVF programme at an urban IVF referral centre during a 24-month period were analysed. Patient age at programme entry and clinical pregnancy rate were also tabulated. All recipients had at least one prior negative test for HIV, Hepatitis B\\/C, chlamydia, gonorrhoea and syphilis performed by her GP or other primary care provider before reproductive endocrinology consultation. Results Mean (±SD) age for donor egg IVF recipients was 40.7 ± 4.2 yrs. No baseline positive chlamydia, gonorrhoea or syphilis screening results were identified among recipients for anonymous oocyte donation IVF during the assessment interval. Mean pregnancy rate (per embryo transfer) in this group was 50.5%. Conclusion When tests for HIV, Hepatitis B\\/C, chlamydia, gonorrhoea and syphilis already have been confirmed to be negative before starting the anonymous donor oocyte IVF sequence, additional (repeat) testing on the recipient contributes no new clinical information that would influence treatment in this setting. Patient safety does not appear to be enhanced by application of Directive 2004\\/23\\/EC to recipients of anonymous donor oocyte IVF treatment. Given the absence of evidence to quantify risk, this practice is difficult to justify when applied to this low-risk population.

  11. Darknet and bitcoin, the obscure and anonymous side of the internet in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoni, Marco; Guelfi, Maria Renza; Gensini, Gian Franco

    2016-11-14

    Illegal activities prosecutable by law in the real life can be committed on the internet alike. In the healthcare domain, we refer mainly to selling of illegal and counterfeit drugs, exchange of pedo-pornographic material and marketing of stolen medical records. These illegal activities are made easier by recent developments of the Internet that medical community must be aware of: darknet and bitcoin. The first allows anonymous surfing and the last anonymous financial transactions. After discussing which healthcare areas are affected by these technological developments of the Internet and the deriving consequences, then the Authors express their opinion on what actions can be taken to protect internet community.

  12. Searchable Encryption Revisited: Consistency Properties, Relation to Anonymous IBE, and Extensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdalla, Michel; Bellare, Mihir; Catalano, Dario

    2005-01-01

    ] is computationally consistent, and provide a new scheme that is statistically consistent. We also provide a transform of an anonymous IBE scheme to a secure PEKS scheme that, unlike the previous one, guarantees consistency. Finally we suggest three extensions of the basic notions considered here, namely anonymous......We identify and fill some gaps with regard to consistency (the extent to which false positives are produced) for public-key encryption with keyword search (PEKS). We define computational and statistical relaxations of the existing notion of perfect consistency, show that the scheme of [7...

  13. Social influence in computer-mediated communication : The effects of anonymity on group behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postmes, T; Spears, R; Sakhel, K; de Groot, D

    2001-01-01

    Two studies examined hypotheses derived from a Social Identity model of Deindividuation Effects (SIDE) as applied to social influence in computer-mediated communication (CMC) in groups. This model predicts that anonymity can increase social influence if a common group identity is salient. In a first

  14. Knowing me, knowing you : Anonymity effects on social identity processes within groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lea, M; Spears, R; de Groot, D

    2001-01-01

    The Social Identity Model of Deindividuation Effects (SIDE) proposes that depersonalization of self and others is responsible for the effects of visual anonymity on group behavior The authors investigated these mediating processes by assessing the effects of group-based self-categorization and stere

  15. Anonymous Multi-Receiver Identity-Based Authenticated Encryption with CCA Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-I Fan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In a multi-receiver encryption system, a sender chooses a set of authorized receivers and sends them a message securely and efficiently, as the message is well encrypted and only one ciphertext corresponding to the message is generated no matter how many receivers the sender has chosen. It can be applied to video conferencing systems, pay-per-view channels, remote education, and so forth. Due to privacy considerations, an authorized receiver may not expect that his identity is revealed. In 2010, anonymous multi-receiver identity-based (ID-based encryption was first discussed, and furthermore, many works on the topic have been presented so far. Unfortunately, we find that all of those schemes fail to prove the chosen ciphertext attacks (CCA security in either confidentiality or anonymity. In this manuscript, we propose the first anonymous multi-receiver ID-based authenticated encryption scheme with CCA security in both confidentiality and anonymity. In the proposed scheme, the identity of the sender of a ciphertext can be authenticated by the receivers after a successful decryption. In addition, the proposed scheme also is the first CCA-secure one against insider attacks. Moreover, only one pairing computation is required in decryption.

  16. A Novel Mobile Communications Authentication Scheme with Roaming Service and User Anonymity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Chain

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Many novel, effective, and efficient applications and networking services are being developed for the Social Internet of Things. Recently, Li proposed a more secure and efficient authentication scheme with roaming service and user anonymity for mobile communications. The security analysis and discussion of the agreement phase is sufficiently safe; however, an attacker can intercept the identity of a mobile user’s home agent in the authentication phase. By using this information, the attacker can mount distributed denial-of-service attacks in the roaming phase through replay attacks targeting the network’s foreign agent and mobile user’s home agent by using their corresponding session keys. Li’s method also has some shortcomings regarding anonymity that we aim to address. To overcome these issues, this study proposes an elliptic curve–based wireless roaming anonymous login method for the authentication phase. The problems faced in the roaming phase are resolved, and this approach provides balanced session key computation between senders and receivers. Burrows-Abadi-Needham logic (BAN-logic is used to verify the security of the proposed scheme. The proposed scheme affords good security, efficiency, and integrity and maintains anonymity.

  17. The Rationality of Alcoholics Anonymous and the Spirituality of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velten, Emmett

    1996-01-01

    Argues that Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) share important rational objectives and numerous cognitive-behavioral methods. Both emphasize a philosophical shift as a principal ingredient for change. Provides definitions of rationality and spirituality and explains how REBT and smart recovery are spiritual…

  18. Extended K-Anonymity Model for Privacy Preserving on Micro Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Rahimi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Today, information collectors, particularly statistical organizations, are faced with two conflicting issues. On one hand, according to their natural responsibilities and the increasing demand for the collected data, they are committed to propagate the information more extensively and with higher quality and on the other hand, due to the public concern about the privacy of personal information and the legal responsibility of these organizations in protecting the private information of their users, they should guarantee that while providing all the information to the population, the privacy is reasonably preserved. This issue becomes more crucial when the datasets published by data mining methods are at risk of attribute and identity disclosure attacks. In order to overcome this problem, several approaches, called p-sensitive k-anonymity, p+-sensitive k-anonymity, and (p, α-sensitive k-anonymity, were proposed. The drawbacks of these methods include the inability to protect micro datasets against attribute disclosure and the high value of the distortion ratio. In order to eliminate these drawbacks, this paper proposes an algorithm that fully protects the propagated micro data against identity and attribute disclosure and significantly reduces the distortion ratio during the anonymity process.

  19. Anonymity in giving in a natural context : an economic field experiment in thirty churches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soetevent, Adriaan R.

    2003-01-01

    The role of anonymity in giving is examined in a field experiment performed in thirty Dutch churches. For a period of 29 weeks, the means by which offerings are gathered is determined by chance, prescribing for each offering the use of either `closed' collection bags or open collection baskets. When

  20. Peer Feedback in Anonymous Peer Review in an EFL Writing Class in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coté, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    The present study reports the results of a process of peer feedback through anonymous peer review in an EFL writing class. Numerous studies have reported on the benefits of peer review (PR) in the ESL/EFL writing classroom. However, the literature also identifies social issues that can negatively affect the outcome of face-to-face PR. In this…

  1. Towards an anonymous access control and accountability scheme for cloud computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Meiko; Schäge, Sven; Schwenk, Jörg

    2010-01-01

    An important aspect of trust in cloud computing consists in preventing the cloud provider from misusing the user's data. In this work-in-progress paper, we propose the approach of data anonymization to solve this problem. As this directly leads to problems of cloud usage accounting, we also propose...

  2. Sexuality Information Needs of Latino and African American Ninth Graders: A Content Analysis of Anonymous Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo-Olaiz, Francisca; Goldfarb, Eva S.; Constantine, Norman A.

    2014-01-01

    This study used qualitative content analysis to examine anonymous questions about sex and sexuality submitted by Latino and African American adolescents in Los Angeles, California, classrooms. The majority of questions asked about sexuality and sexual behavior, or anatomy and physiology, with fewer questions about pregnancy and pregnancy…

  3. Brother-Sister Incest: Data from Anonymous Computer-Assisted Self Interviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroebel, Sandra S.; O'Keefe, Stephen L.; Beard, Keith W.; Kuo, Shih-Ya; Swindell, Samuel; Stroupe, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Retrospective data were entered anonymously by 1,521 adult women using computer-assisted self interview. Forty were classified as victims of brother-sister incest, 19 were classified as victims of father-daughter incest, and 232 were classified as victims of sexual abuse by an adult other than their father before reaching 18 years of age. The…

  4. Open and Anonymous Peer Review in a Digital Online Environment Compared in Academic Writing Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razi, Salim

    2016-01-01

    This study compares the impact of "open" and "anonymous" peer feedback as an adjunct to teacher-mediated feedback in a digital online environment utilising data gathered on an academic writing course at a Turkish university. Students were divided into two groups with similar writing proficiencies. Students peer reviewed papers…

  5. Security enhanced anonymous multiserver authenticated key agreement scheme using smart cards and biometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Younsung; Nam, Junghyun; Lee, Donghoon; Kim, Jiye; Jung, Jaewook; Won, Dongho

    2014-01-01

    An anonymous user authentication scheme allows a user, who wants to access a remote application server, to achieve mutual authentication and session key establishment with the server in an anonymous manner. To enhance the security of such authentication schemes, recent researches combined user's biometrics with a password. However, these authentication schemes are designed for single server environment. So when a user wants to access different application servers, the user has to register many times. To solve this problem, Chuang and Chen proposed an anonymous multiserver authenticated key agreement scheme using smart cards together with passwords and biometrics. Chuang and Chen claimed that their scheme not only supports multiple servers but also achieves various security requirements. However, we show that this scheme is vulnerable to a masquerade attack, a smart card attack, a user impersonation attack, and a DoS attack and does not achieve perfect forward secrecy. We also propose a security enhanced anonymous multiserver authenticated key agreement scheme which addresses all the weaknesses identified in Chuang and Chen's scheme.

  6. Bayesian modeling of consumer behavior in the presence of anonymous visits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Julie Esther

    Tailoring content to consumers has become a hallmark of marketing and digital media, particularly as it has become easier to identify customers across usage or purchase occasions. However, across a wide variety of contexts, companies find that customers do not consistently identify themselves, leaving a substantial fraction of anonymous visits. We develop a Bayesian hierarchical model that allows us to probabilistically assign anonymous sessions to users. These probabilistic assignments take into account a customer's demographic information, frequency of visitation, activities taken when visiting, and times of arrival. We present two studies, one with synthetic and one with real data, where we demonstrate improved performance over two popular practices (nearest-neighbor matching and deleting the anonymous visits) due to increased efficiency and reduced bias driven by the non-ignorability of which types of events are more likely to be anonymous. Using our proposed model, we avoid potential bias in understanding the effect of a firm's marketing on its customers, improve inference about the total number of customers in the dataset, and provide more precise targeted marketing to both previously observed and unobserved customers.

  7. Anonymous Search Histories Featuring Personalized Advertisement - Balancing Privacy with Economic Interests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorben Burghardt

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Search engines are key to finding information on the web. Search presently is free for users financed by targeted advertisement. Today, the current search terms determine the ad placement. In the near future, search-engine providers will make use of detailed user profiles for better ad placement. This puts user privacy at risk. Anonymizing search histories, which is a solution in principle, gives way to a trade-off between privacy and the usability of the data for ad placement. This paper studies this tradeoff systematically. To this end, we implement an algorithm for the anonymization of search histories which is flexible regarding the target function. It can retain frequent terms or terms where corresponding ads are clicked with a high probability, keep up the number of users it can derive interests for, etc. We quantify the usefulness of the anonymized log for ad placement in a broad way, e.g., by estimating the number of ad clicks or of ad impressions, based on marketing data from Yahoo! As a result, anonymized search logs are still useful for ad placement, but this very much depends on the target function.

  8. Personal Construct Theory and the Transformation of Identity in Alcoholics Anonymous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Lance Brendan

    2011-01-01

    The dominant theoretical approach to alcoholism research presumes linear, causal relationships between individual cognitions and behavioral outcomes. This approach has largely failed to account for the recovery some alcoholics achieve in Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) because AA emphasizes the transformation of identity, framed in terms of…

  9. HOP: Achieving Efficient Anonymity in MANETs by Combining HIP, OLSR, and Pseudonyms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campos Javier

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Offering secure and anonymous communications in mobile ad hoc networking environments is essential to achieve confidence and privacy, thus promoting widespread adoption of this kind of networks. In addition, some minimum performance levels must be achieved for any solution to be practical and become widely adopted. In this paper, we propose and implement HOP, a novel solution based on cryptographic Host Identity Protocol (HIP that offers security and user-level anonymity in MANET environments while maintaining good performance levels. In particular, we introduce enhancements to the authentication process to achieve Host Identity Tag (HIT relationship anonymity, along with source/destination HIT anonymity when combined with multihoming. Afterward we detail how we integrate our improved version of HIP with the OLSR routing protocol to achieve efficient support for pseudonyms. We implemented our proposal in an experimental testbed, and the results obtained show that performance levels achieved are quite good, and that the integration with OLSR is achieved with a low overhead.

  10. Modernist Ruins, Filmic Archaeologies. Jane and Louise Wilson’s 'A Free and Anonymous Monument'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliana Bruno

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Translation of the text originally published in Bruno, Giuliana. 2007. “Modernist Ruins, Filmic Archaeologies. Jane and Louise Wilson’s A Free and Anonymous Monument.” In Public Intimacy: Architecture and the Visual Arts, 43-86. Cambridge: MIT Press.

  11. Pursuing the Anonymous User: Privacy Rights and Mandatory Registration of Prepaid Mobile Phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gow, Gordon A.; Parisi, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    In recent years there has been concern among law enforcement and national security organizations about the use of "anonymous" prepaid mobile phone service and its purported role in supporting criminal and terrorist activities. As a result, a number of countries have implemented registration requirements for such service. Privacy rights advocates…

  12. Maintaining the anonymity of cadavers in medical education: Historic relic or educational and ethical necessity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D Gareth; King, Mike R

    2017-01-01

    Throughout the modern history of anatomical dissection by medical and other health science students, cadavers have been anonymized. This has meant that students have been provided with limited, if any, information on the identities or medical histories of those they are dissecting. While there was little way around this when the bodies were unclaimed, this need not be the case when the bodies have been donated. However, with a few exceptions, no efforts have been made to change this model. Recent attempts to move anatomy teaching in a more humanistic direction, by emphasizing the cadaver as the students' first patient and with the growth of commemoration services following the dissecting process, raise the question of whether cadavers should continue to be anonymized. In laying a basis for discussion of this matter, we outline what appear to be the virtues of anonymity, and the form that alternatives to anonymity might take. The options identified are nonidentification, low information; nonidentification, moderate information; and identification, full information. The virtues and drawbacks of each of these possibilities are assessed by analyzing their value for students, and also for donors and their families. Policy issues raised by alternatives are also considered. This article provides a basis for continued discussion and suggestions for further research in this area. Anat Sci Educ 10: 87-97. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  13. Unison as a Self-Stabilizing Wave Stream Algorithm in Asynchronous Anonymous Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Boulinier, Christian

    2007-01-01

    How to pass from local to global scales in anonymous networks? How to organize a selfstabilizing propagation of information with feedback. From the Angluin impossibility results, we cannot elect a leader in a general anonymous network. Thus, it is impossible to build a rooted spanning tree. Many problems can only be solved by probabilistic methods. In this paper we show how to use Unison to design a self-stabilizing barrier synchronization in an anonymous network. We show that the commuication structure of this barrier synchronization designs a self-stabilizing wave-stream, or pipelining wave, in anonymous networks. We introduce two variants of Wave: the strong waves and the wavelets. A strong wave can be used to solve the idempotent r-operator parametrized computation problem. A wavelet deals with k-distance computation. We show how to use Unison to design a self-stabilizing wave stream, a self-stabilizing strong wave stream and a self-stabilizing wavelet stream.

  14. Emergence of Informal Educative Space out of an Anonymous Online Bulletin Board in Korea during the Global Economic Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Dae Joong; Choi, Seon Joo; Lee, SeungHyeop

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to understand how people learn and teach informally in an anonymous online bulletin board, the primary purpose of which is not learning and teaching. We conducted a qualitative analysis of comments and replies tagged to the most popular postings of an anonymous online bulletin board, during the global economic crisis in 2008-2009.…

  15. The long path to pregnancy: early experience with dual anonymous gamete donation in a European in vitro fertilisation referral centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sills Eric

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This investigation describes features of patients undergoing in vitro fertilisation (IVF and embryo transfer (ET where both gametes were obtained from anonymous donors. Methods Gamete unsuitability or loss was confirmed in both members of seven otherwise healthy couples presenting for reproductive endocrinology consultation over a 12-month interval in Ireland. IVF was undertaken with fresh oocytes provided by anonymous donors in Ukraine; frozen sperm (anonymous donor was obtained from a licensed tissue establishment. For recipients, saline-enhanced sonography was used to assess intrauterine contour with endometrial preparation via transdermal estrogen. Results Among commissioning couples, mean±SD female and male age was 41.9 ± 3.7 and 44.6 ± 3.5 yrs, respectively. During this period, female age for non dual anonymous gamete donation IVF patients was 37.9 ± 3 yrs (p Conclusions Mean age of females undergoing dual anonymous donor gamete donation with IVF is significantly higher than the background IVF patient population. Even when neither partner is able to contribute any gametes for IVF, the clinical pregnancy rate per transfer can be satisfactory if both anonymous egg and sperm donation are used concurrently. Our report emphasises the role of pre-treatment counselling in dual anonymous gamete donation, and presents a coordinated screening and treatment approach in IVF where this option may be contemplated.

  16. Distributed anonymous data perturbation method for privacy-preserving data mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng LI; Jin MA; Jian-hua LI

    2009-01-01

    Privacy is a critical requirement in distributed data mining. Cryptography-based secure multiparty computation is a main approach for privacy preserving. However, it shows poor performance in large scale distributed systems. Meanwhile, data perturbation techniques are comparatively efficient but are mainly used in centralized privacy-preserving data mining (PPDM). In this paper, we propose a light-weight anonymous data perturbation method for efficient privacy preserving in distributed data mining. We first define the privacy constraints for data perturbation based PPDM in a semi-honest distributed environment. Two protocols are proposed to address these constraints and protect data statistics and the randomization process against collusion attacks: the adaptive privacy-preserving summary protocol and the anonymous exchange protocol. Finally, a distributed data perturbation framework based on these protocols is proposed to realize distributed PPDM. Experiment results show that our approach achieves a high security level and is very efficient in a large scale distributed environment.

  17. Design on PKI-Based Anonymous Mobile Agent Security in E-Commerce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Xiangsong; HAN Fengwu

    2006-01-01

    The security of mobile agent directly decides its usage width in e-commerce. Especially, to protect users' private information is becoming more important now and future. So an anonymous mobile agent security mechanism with the secure authentication infrastructure based on PKI(public key infrastructure) is proposed in the paper. The multi-agent system is programmed by java language and every agent must register itself in CA(certificate authority) before working in the net and express his legit identity which is temptly produced and used only once. The CA ensures the legal of all agents' identity which take part in communicaiton or trade. And every user agent identity only is used once which makes other agents cannot decipher users' private information. The security mechanism of the multi-agent system implements anonymity, integrity, data confidentiality of mobile agent based on the MH(multiple hop) integrity protection regard to PKI limit.

  18. Applying LU Decomposition of Matrices to Design Anonymity Bilateral Remote User Authentication Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We apply LU decomposition of matrices to present an anonymous bilateral authentication scheme. This paper aims at improving security and providing more excellent performances for remote user authentication scheme. The proposed scheme can provide bilateral authentication and session key agreement, can quickly check the validity of the input password, and can really protect the user anonymity. The security of the proposed scheme is based on the discrete logarithm problem (DLP, Diffie-Hellman problem (DHP, and the one-way hash function. It can resist various attacks such as insider attack, impersonation attack, server spoofing attack, and stolen smart card attack. Moreover, the presented scheme is computationally efficient for real-life implementation.

  19. THE WIKILEAKS´S CASE AND ANONYMITY: EFFECTS ON THE INFORMATION FREEDOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlus Heriberto Arns de Oliveira

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Constitution of the Federative Republic of Brazil, enacted in 1988 during the democratization process of the country after the end of an authoritarian regime preceded by several others that show a non-democratic tradition in the Brazilian Republic, remained still remnants an authoritarian Patronizing and Paternalist state, the example of the final part of the Article 5, item IV, which claims to be the free expression of thought, but forbids anonymity, prohibition which deserves to be rethought, especially on the internet, where the navigation data of people deserve protection, as well as their rights to remain anonymous, a fact which entails the need for reflection on the scope and how best to interpret the constitutional provision cited, a debate that, in the proposed article will deal think the ideas of paternalism, authoritarianism and freedom, whose focus will be about within the Internet, social networks and the Knowledge Society.

  20. Anonymous-key quantum cryptography and unconditionally secure quantum bit commitment

    CERN Document Server

    Yuen, H P

    2000-01-01

    A new cryptographic tool, anonymous quantum key technique, is introduced that leads to unconditionally secure key distribution and encryption schemes that can be readily implemented experimentally in a realistic environment. If quantum memory is available, the technique would have many features of public-key cryptography; an identification protocol that does not require a shared secret key is provided as an illustration. The possibility is also indicated for obtaining unconditionally secure quantum bit commitment protocols with this technique.

  1. Lessons in Fluidity: Anonymous and the Communicative Formation of Organizational Identity

    OpenAIRE

    Schoeneborn, Dennis; Dobusch, Leonhard

    2013-01-01

    Most research on organizational identity tends to take an essentialist perspective, differentiating between an identity construed internally by members of the organization and an image construed by external actors. However, the duality of identity and image struggles with capturing more fluid, open, or partial organizational arrangements, where it is difficult to uphold this distinction. Looking at the case of the hacker collective Anonymous as an extreme example of organization, this paper p...

  2. Mutual support and recovery in the Russian Alcoholics Anonymous online community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyytikäinen Laura

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available AIMS – In Russia the paradigm of alcoholism as a disease is still in contrast to the general perception of alcoholics as weak-willed. This article studies alcoholism and recovery in Russia through the case study of the Russian Alcoholics Anonymous online group. It studies how people who are seeking help for their drinking problems in this online community come to incorporate a new self-understanding of being ill with alcoholism.

  3. ZEA-TDMA: design and system level implementation of a TDMA protocol for anonymous wireless networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Debasmit; Dong, Bo; Biswas, Subir

    2013-05-01

    Wireless sensor network used in military applications may be deployed in hostile environments, where privacy and security is of primary concern. This can lead to the formation of a trust-based sub-network among mutually-trusting nodes. However, designing a TDMA MAC protocol is very challenging in situations where such multiple sub-networks coexist, since TDMA protocols require node identity information for slot assignments. This paper introduces a novel distributed TDMA MAC protocol, ZEA-TDMA (Zero Exposure Anonymous TDMA), for anonymous wireless networks. ZEA-TDMA achieves slot allocation with strict anonymity constraints, i.e. without nodes having to exchange any identity revealing information. By using just the relative time of arrival of packets and a novel technique of wireless collision-detection and resolution for fixed packetsizes, ZEA-TDMA is able to achieve MAC slot-allocation which is described as follows. Initially, a newly joined node listens to its one-hop neighborhood channel usage and creates a slot allocation table based on its own relative time, and finally, selects a slot that is collision free within its one-hop neighborhood. The selected slot can however cause hidden collisions with a two-hop neighbor of the node. These collisions are resolved by a common neighbor of the colliding nodes, which first detects the collision, and then resolve them using an interrupt packet. ZEA-TDMA provides the following features: a) it is a TDMA protocol ideally suited for highly secure or strictly anonymous environments b) it can be used in heterogeneous environments where devices use different packet structures c) it does not require network time-synchronization, and d) it is insensitive to channel errors. We have implemented ZEA-TDMA on the MICA2 hardware platform running TinyOS and evaluated the protocol functionality and performance on a MICA2 test-bed.

  4. Local and global recoding methods for anonymizing set-valued data

    KAUST Repository

    Terrovitis, Manolis

    2010-06-10

    In this paper, we study the problem of protecting privacy in the publication of set-valued data. Consider a collection of supermarket transactions that contains detailed information about items bought together by individuals. Even after removing all personal characteristics of the buyer, which can serve as links to his identity, the publication of such data is still subject to privacy attacks from adversaries who have partial knowledge about the set. Unlike most previous works, we do not distinguish data as sensitive and non-sensitive, but we consider them both as potential quasi-identifiers and potential sensitive data, depending on the knowledge of the adversary. We define a new version of the k-anonymity guarantee, the k m-anonymity, to limit the effects of the data dimensionality, and we propose efficient algorithms to transform the database. Our anonymization model relies on generalization instead of suppression, which is the most common practice in related works on such data. We develop an algorithm that finds the optimal solution, however, at a high cost that makes it inapplicable for large, realistic problems. Then, we propose a greedy heuristic, which performs generalizations in an Apriori, level-wise fashion. The heuristic scales much better and in most of the cases finds a solution close to the optimal. Finally, we investigate the application of techniques that partition the database and perform anonymization locally, aiming at the reduction of the memory consumption and further scalability. A thorough experimental evaluation with real datasets shows that a vertical partitioning approach achieves excellent results in practice. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  5. A Secure Anonymous Internet Electronic Voting Scheme Based on the Polynomial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Feng; CAO Zhenfu

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we use the polynomial function and Chaum's RSA (Rivest, Shamir, Adleman) blind signature scheme to construct a secure anonymous internet electronic voting scheme. In our scheme, each vote does not need to be revealed in the tallying phase. The ballot number of each candidate gets is counted by computing the degrees of two polynomials' greatest common divisor. Our scheme does not require a special voting channel and communication can occur entirely over the current internet.

  6. Peripheral blood mitochondrial DNA/nuclear DNA (mtDNA/nDNA) ratio as a marker of mitochondrial toxicities of stavudine containing antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected Malawian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampira, Elizabeth; Dzobo, Kevin; Kumwenda, Johnstone; van Oosterhout, Joep J; Parker, M Iqbal; Dandara, Collet

    2014-07-01

    Mitochondrial toxicity is a major concern related to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Common manifestations are peripheral neuropathy and lipodystrophy. Depletion of mitochondria has been associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. We investigated whether mitochondria DNA (mtDNA) levels in peripheral blood can be used as biomarker of stavudine-associated mitochondrial toxicities. We enrolled 203 HIV-infected Malawian adult patients on stavudine-containing ART and 64 healthy controls of Bantu origin in a cross-sectional study. Total DNA was extracted from whole blood.The glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene was used to estimate nuclear DNA (nDNA) levels and the ATP synthase-8 mitochondrial DNA gene to estimate mtDNA levels, from which mtDNA/nDNA ratios were determined. MtDNA subhaplogroups were established by sequencing. Among patients, peripheral neuropathy was present in 21% (43/203), lipodystrophy in 18% (20/112), elevated lactate level (>2.5 mmol/L) in 17% (19/113). Healthy controls had a higher median mtDNA/nDNA ratio when compared to HIV/AIDS patients (6.64 vs. 5.08; p=0.05), patients presenting with peripheral neuropathy (6.64 vs. 3.40, p=0.039), and patients with high lactate levels (6.64 vs. 0.68, p=0.024), respectively. Significant differences in median mtDNA/nDNA ratios were observed between patients with high and normal lactate levels (5.88 vs. 0.68, p=0.018). The median mtDNA/nDNA ratio of patients in subhaplogroup L0a2 was much lower (0.62 vs. 8.50, p=0.01) than that of those in subhaplogroup L2a. Our data indicate that peripheral blood mtDNA/nDNA ratio is a marker of mitochondrial toxicities of stavudine and is associated with elevated lactate levels and mtDNA subhaplogroups. This could open the prospect to select a substantial group of patients who will not have problematic side effects from stavudine, an affordable and effective antiretroviral drug that is being phased out in Africa due to its toxicity.

  7. On Enhancing Data Utility in K-Anonymization for Data without Hierarchical Taxonomies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rasool Sarrafi Aghdam

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available K-anonymity is the model that is widely used to protect the privacy of individuals in publishing micro-data. It could be defined as clustering with constrain of minimum k tuples in each group. K-anonymity cuts down the linking confidence between sensitive information and specific individual by the ration of 1/k. However, the accuracy of the data in k-anonymous dataset decreases due to information loss. Moreover, most of the current approaches are for numerical attributes or in case of categorical attributes they require extra information such as attribute hierarchical taxonomies which often do not exist. In this paper we propose a new model, based on clustering, defining the distance between tuples including numerical and categorical attributes which does not require extra information and present the SpatialDistance (SD heuristic algorithm. Comparisons of experimental results on real datasets between SD algorithm and existing well-known algorithms show that SD performs the best and offers much higher data utility and reduces the information loss significantly.

  8. Fortified anonymous communication protocol for location privacy in WSN: a modular approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuzneid, Abdel-Shakour; Sobh, Tarek; Faezipour, Miad; Mahmood, Ausif; James, John

    2015-03-10

    Wireless sensor network (WSN) consists of many hosts called sensors. These sensors can sense a phenomenon (motion, temperature, humidity, average, max, min, etc.) and represent what they sense in a form of data. There are many applications for WSNs including object tracking and monitoring where in most of the cases these objects need protection. In these applications, data privacy itself might not be as important as the privacy of source location. In addition to the source location privacy, sink location privacy should also be provided. Providing an efficient end-to-end privacy solution would be a challenging task to achieve due to the open nature of the WSN. The key schemes needed for end-to-end location privacy are anonymity, observability, capture likelihood, and safety period. We extend this work to allow for countermeasures against multi-local and global adversaries. We present a network model protected against a sophisticated threat model: passive /active and local/multi-local/global attacks. This work provides a solution for end-to-end anonymity and location privacy as well. We will introduce a framework called fortified anonymous communication (FAC) protocol for WSN.

  9. Fortified Anonymous Communication Protocol for Location Privacy in WSN: A Modular Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Shakour Abuzneid

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor network (WSN consists of many hosts called sensors. These sensors can sense a phenomenon (motion, temperature, humidity, average, max, min, etc. and represent what they sense in a form of data. There are many applications for WSNs including object tracking and monitoring where in most of the cases these objects need protection. In these applications, data privacy itself might not be as important as the privacy of source location. In addition to the source location privacy, sink location privacy should also be provided. Providing an efficient end-to-end privacy solution would be a challenging task to achieve due to the open nature of the WSN. The key schemes needed for end-to-end location privacy are anonymity, observability, capture likelihood, and safety period. We extend this work to allow for countermeasures against multi-local and global adversaries. We present a network model protected against a sophisticated threat model: passive /active and local/multi-local/global attacks. This work provides a solution for end-to-end anonymity and location privacy as well. We will introduce a framework called fortified anonymous communication (FAC protocol for WSN.

  10. Apriori-based algorithms for k m-anonymizing trajectory data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgos Poulis

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The proliferation of GPS-enabled devices (e.g., smartphones and tablets and locationbased social networks has resulted in the abundance of trajectory data. The publication of such data opens up new directions in analyzing, studying and understanding human behavior. However, it should be performed in a privacy-preserving way, because the identities of individuals, whose movement is recorded in trajectories, can be disclosed even after removing identifying information. Existing trajectory data anonymization approaches offer privacy but at a high data utility cost, since they either do not produce truthful data (an important requirement of several applications, or are limited in their privacy specification component. In this work, we propose a novel approach that overcomes these shortcomings by adapting km-anonymity to trajectory data. To realize our approach, we develop three efficient and effective anonymization algorithms that are based on the apriori principle. These algorithms aim at preserving different data characteristics, including location distance and semantic similarity, as well as user-specified utility requirements, which must be satisfied to ensure that the released data can be meaningfully analyzed. Our extensive experiments using synthetic and real datasets verify that the proposed algorithms are efficient and effective at preserving data utility.

  11. There is no ``I'' in referee: Why referees should be anonymous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ucko, Daniel

    2015-03-01

    From the early days of modern science, it has been recognized that scientific claims must be verified by someone who is not the maker of those claims, and who furthermore has no stake in the matter. In other words, claims need to be evaluated objectively, by the community. The way in which this tends to be done is by peer review conducted by journals. Peer review as currently practiced touches on the themes of trust, where the trust is in institutions and procedures that emerge from expert communities. The practice of peer review is viewed as a citizenly duty of scientists in the scientific community, because all scientists take turns serving either as authors, referees, and editors in the peer review process We lack the resources to have a work evaluated by the entire community, so we substitute with a representative. Yet, in most examples of scientific review, the referee or referees are anonymous. This question is particularly important when the peer review process is brought to bear in order to evaluate matters beyond scientific validity, more ``subjective'' criteria such as relative importance, broadness of interest - criteria that do not appear to have an objective standard of comparison and validation. I will show that the anonymity of referees, far from endangering this trust, actually strengthens it. I will show that this anonymity is crucial in order to maintain any objectivity in scientific peer review, and why authors should not try to unmask the referee. Also at American Physical Society (APS).

  12. Alcoholics Anonymous

    Science.gov (United States)

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  13. 基于匿名化流表的网络数据分组实时匿名方法%Online trace anonymization based on anonymous flow table

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩春静; 葛敬国; 谢高岗; 李亮雄; 李佟; 刘韵洁

    2016-01-01

    A real-time network packet anonymous method named Fad-Pan (online trace anonymization based on the anonymous flow table) was proposed. The Fad-Pan algorithm was studied and an online trace anonymization prototype system based on DPDK library was developed. The experimental results prove that the Fad-Pan algorithm is faster more than 20 times than the existing method, and a single server can handle the real-time IPv4 and IPv6 traffic of the 10 Gbit/s link used by the Fad-Pan.%提出了基于匿名化流表的网络数据分组实时匿名方法(Fad-Pan,online trace anonymization based on the anonymous flow table),主要研究Fad-Pan算法以及研发基于DPDK的Fad-Pan原型系统。实验结果表明,Fad-Pan算法比已有的方法在匿名化速度上提高了20倍以上,单个普通服务器可以实时处理万兆链路的IPv4和IPv6流量数据。

  14. Current status and features of the T-2 Nuclear Information Service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacFarlane, R.E.

    1998-04-24

    This service is run by Group T-2 (Nuclear Theory and Applications) of the Theoretical Division of the Los Alamos National Laboratory, which is operated by the University of California for the US Department of Energy. The author works on nuclear modeling, nuclear data, cross sections, nuclear masses, ENDF, NJOY data processing, nuclear astrophysics, radioactivity, radiation shielding, data for medical radiotherapy, data for high-energy accelerator applications, data and codes for fission and fusion systems, and more. For an introduction to the field of nuclear data and his site, take his Guided Tour. Much of this information can also be accessed using anonymous ftp t2.lanl.gov.

  15. Probability-based location anonymity algorithm%利用概率的位置匿名算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫玉双; 谭示崇; 赵大为

    2015-01-01

    k匿名模型是一种有效的位置隐私保护技术,通过构造包含需要保护的用户在内的 k 个正在发送请求的用户的匿名区域,达到保护用户位置的目的。但是现有的 k匿名模型仅能利用当前正在发送请求的用户,当同时发送请求用户较少时,就会导致匿名区域过大。为此,提出一种利用概率的位置匿名算法来保护路网中的移动用户的位置,利用当前时刻的不活跃用户的历史位置轨迹,计算出进入匿名路段的概率,可明显减小匿名路段长度。实验结果证明,基于概率的位置匿名算法与一般的 k 匿名模型相比较,提高了匿名效率。%As one of the most effective location privacy preservation technologies , the k‐anonymity model provides safeguards for location privacy of the mobile client against vulnerabilities for abuse by constructing an anonymous area of k users including the protected one . However , most existing k‐anonymity models only utilize the users who are sending requests at recent time . If there are not enough requesting users , the generated anonymous area of the k‐anonymity model will be larger than expected . In this paper , a Probability‐based Location Anonymity ( PLA ) algorithm is proposed for protecting location privacy of the mobile users in a road network . The PLA model takes advantage of the historical path track of the users who are not sending the request currently , and then computes the probability into the anonymous section so that it can greatly reduce the size of the anonymous area . Experimental results show that the PLA algorithm is superior to the k‐anonymity and it increases its anonymous efficiency enormously .

  16. Blinded Anonymization: a method for evaluating cancer prevention programs under restrictive data protection regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomäus, Sebastian; Hense, Hans Werner; Heidinger, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Evaluating cancer prevention programs requires collecting and linking data on a case specific level from multiple sources of the healthcare system. Therefore, one has to comply with data protection regulations which are restrictive in Germany and will likely become stricter in Europe in general. To facilitate the mortality evaluation of the German mammography screening program, with more than 10 Million eligible women, we developed a method that does not require written individual consent and is compliant to existing privacy regulations. Our setup is composed of different data owners, a data collection center (DCC) and an evaluation center (EC). Each data owner uses a dedicated software that preprocesses plain-text personal identifiers (IDAT) and plaintext evaluation data (EDAT) in such a way that only irreversibly encrypted record assignment numbers (RAN) and pre-aggregated, reversibly encrypted EDAT are transmitted to the DCC. The DCC uses the RANs to perform a probabilistic record linkage which is based on an established and evaluated algorithm. For potentially identifying attributes within the EDAT ('quasi-identifiers'), we developed a novel process, named 'blinded anonymization'. It allows selecting a specific generalization from the pre-processed and encrypted attribute aggregations, to create a new data set with assured k-anonymity, without using any plain-text information. The anonymized data is transferred to the EC where the EDAT is decrypted and used for evaluation. Our concept was approved by German data protection authorities. We implemented a prototype and tested it with more than 1.5 Million simulated records, containing realistically distributed IDAT. The core processes worked well with regard to performance parameters. We created different generalizations and calculated the respective suppression rates. We discuss modalities, implications and limitations for large data sets in the cancer registry domain, as well as approaches for further

  17. An arbitrated quantum signature scheme based on entanglement swapping with signer anonymity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Fan, Ming-Yu; Wang, Guang-Wei

    2012-12-01

    In this paper an arbitrated quantum signature scheme based on entanglement swapping is proposed. In this scheme a message to be signed is coded with unitary operators. Combining quantum measurement with quantum encryption, the signer can generate the signature for a given message. Combining the entangled states generated by the TTP's Bell measurement with the signature information, the verifier can verify the authentication of a signature through a single quantum state measurement. Compared with previous schemes, our scheme is more efficient and less complex, furthermore, our scheme can ensure the anonymity of the signer.

  18. SAM: Secure Access of Media Independent Information Service with User Anonymity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Guangsong

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Seamless handover across different access technologies is very important in the future wireless networks. To optimize vertical handover in heterogeneous networks, IEEE 802.21 standard defines Media Independent Handover (MIH services. The MIH services can be a new target to attackers, which will be the main concern for equipment vendors and service providers. In this paper, we focus specifically on security of Media Independent Information Service (MIIS and present a new access authentication scheme with user anonymity for MIIS. The protocol can be used to establish a secure channel between the mobile node and the information server. Security and performance of the protocol are also analyzed in this paper.

  19. An improved biometrics-based remote user authentication scheme with user anonymity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Khurram; Kumari, Saru

    2013-01-01

    The authors review the biometrics-based user authentication scheme proposed by An in 2012. The authors show that there exist loopholes in the scheme which are detrimental for its security. Therefore the authors propose an improved scheme eradicating the flaws of An's scheme. Then a detailed security analysis of the proposed scheme is presented followed by its efficiency comparison. The proposed scheme not only withstands security problems found in An's scheme but also provides some extra features with mere addition of only two hash operations. The proposed scheme allows user to freely change his password and also provides user anonymity with untraceability.

  20. Anonymous One-Time Broadcast Using Non-interactive Dining Cryptographer Nets with Applications to Voting

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Graaf, Jeroen

    All voting protocols proposed so far, with the exception of a few, have the property that the privacy of the ballot is only computational. In this paper we outline a new and conceptually simple approach allowing us to construct a protocol in which the privacy of the ballot is unconditional. Our basic idea is to modify the protocol of Fujioka, Okamoto and Ohta[1], which uses blind signatures so that the voter can obtain a valid ballot. However, instead of using a MIX net, we use a new broadcast protocol for anonymously publishing the vote, a Non-Interactive variation of the Dining Cryptographer Net.

  1. The long path to pregnancy: early experience with dual anonymous gamete donation in a European in vitro fertilisation referral centre

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sills, Eric Scott

    2010-08-11

    Abstract Background This investigation describes features of patients undergoing in vitro fertilisation (IVF) and embryo transfer (ET) where both gametes were obtained from anonymous donors. Methods Gamete unsuitability or loss was confirmed in both members of seven otherwise healthy couples presenting for reproductive endocrinology consultation over a 12-month interval in Ireland. IVF was undertaken with fresh oocytes provided by anonymous donors in Ukraine; frozen sperm (anonymous donor) was obtained from a licensed tissue establishment. For recipients, saline-enhanced sonography was used to assess intrauterine contour with endometrial preparation via transdermal estrogen. Results Among commissioning couples, mean±SD female and male age was 41.9 ± 3.7 and 44.6 ± 3.5 yrs, respectively. During this period, female age for non dual anonymous gamete donation IVF patients was 37.9 ± 3 yrs (p < 0.001). Infertility duration was ≥3 yrs for couples enrolling in dual gamete donation, and each had ≥2 prior failed fertility treatments using native oocytes. All seven recipient couples proceeded to embryo transfer, although one patient had two transfers. Clinical pregnancy was achieved for 5\\/7 (71.4%) patients. Non-transferred cryopreserved embryos were available for all seven couples. Conclusions Mean age of females undergoing dual anonymous donor gamete donation with IVF is significantly higher than the background IVF patient population. Even when neither partner is able to contribute any gametes for IVF, the clinical pregnancy rate per transfer can be satisfactory if both anonymous egg and sperm donation are used concurrently. Our report emphasises the role of pre-treatment counselling in dual anonymous gamete donation, and presents a coordinated screening and treatment approach in IVF where this option may be contemplated.

  2. Implementation of Fair-exchange and Anonymous Online E-cash Protocol for E-commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshita

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the world of internet, e-commerce is one of the most prominent sectors where user wants to shop and pay online for online products. E-cash is one of these payment methods. In e-cash, every time a unique string is generated for user so that user uses that string to pay for any online product. At the time of online purchasing a trust should be maintain between customers and merchant such that the product price which is going to pay by customer is fair or not, the merchant is indeed genuine to deliver the product after getting online payment or not. Trust issues are resolved by using fair exchange concept at the time of online purchasing. Anonymity is also a major concern; it means that true identity of users must be hidden from merchant. By keeping these issues in mind we proposed a protocol which ensures users anonymity by using e-cash payment method and fair exchange by using off-line TTP which invokes by customer when any dispute occur from merchant side. In this paper, we implement our proposed protocol and also analyze its performance and compare it with other protocol.

  3. Stealthy Traffic Analysis of Low-Latency Anonymous Communication Using Throughput Fingerprinting

    CERN Document Server

    Mittal, Prateek; Juen, Joshua; Caesar, Matthew; Borisov, Nikita

    2011-01-01

    Anonymity systems such as Tor aim to enable users to communicate in a manner that is untraceable by adversaries that control a small number of machines. To provide efficient service to users, these anonymity systems make full use of forwarding capacity when sending traffic between intermediate relays. In this paper, we show that doing this leaks information about the set of Tor relays in a circuit (path). We present attacks that, with high confidence and based solely on throughput information, can (a) reduce the attacker's uncertainty about the bottleneck relay of any Tor circuit whose throughput can be observed, (b) exactly identify the guard relay(s) of a Tor user when circuit throughput can be observed over multiple connections, and (c) identify whether two concurrent TCP connections belong to the same Tor user, breaking unlinkability. Our attacks are stealthy, and cannot be readily detected by a user or by Tor relays. We validate our attacks using experiments over the live Tor network. We find that the at...

  4. A Novel Fair Anonymous Contract Signing Protocol for E-Commerce Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Damodaram

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available With the economy developing and popular Internet, the general concept of contract signing has changed.In the past, people usually sign a contract at the same time and same place face to face, but actually eachparty involved in contract may live in different part of earth, they want to sign something for business orsome other things in economic, efficient, secure and fairway. A fair contract signing protocol allows twopotentially mis-trusted parities to exchange their commitments (i.e., digital signatures to an agreedcontract over the Internet in a fair way, so that either each of them obtains the other’s signature, orneither party does. Based on the LUCAS signature scheme, a new digital anonymous contract signingprotocol is proposed in this paper. Like the existing LUCAS-based solutions for the same problem, ourprotocol is fair, anonymous and optimistic. Furthermore, the proposed protocol satisfied a newproperty, i.e., it is abuse-free. That is, if the protocol is executed unsuccessfully, either of the two partiescan not show the validity of intermediate results to others.

  5. No Evidence for Moral Reward and Punishment in an Anonymous Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavien, Christine; Mersch, Danielle P; Chapuisat, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Human social interactions are regulated by moral norms that define individual obligations and rights. These norms are enforced by punishment of transgressors and reward of followers. Yet, the generality and strength of this drive to punish or reward is unclear, especially when people are not personally involved in the situation and when the actual impact of their sanction is only indirect, i.e., when it diminishes or promotes the social status of the punished or rewarded individual. In a real-life study, we investigated if people are inclined to anonymously punish or reward a person for her past deeds in a different social context. Participants from three socio-professional categories voted anonymously for early career violinists in an important violin competition. We found that participants did not punish an immoral violin candidate, nor did they reward another hyper-moral candidate. On the contrary, one socio-professional category sanctioned hyper-morality. Hence, salient moral information about past behavior did not elicit punishment or reward in an impersonal situation where the impact of the sanction was indirect. We conclude that contextual features play an important role in human motivation to enforce moral norms.

  6. No Evidence for Moral Reward and Punishment in an Anonymous Context.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Clavien

    Full Text Available Human social interactions are regulated by moral norms that define individual obligations and rights. These norms are enforced by punishment of transgressors and reward of followers. Yet, the generality and strength of this drive to punish or reward is unclear, especially when people are not personally involved in the situation and when the actual impact of their sanction is only indirect, i.e., when it diminishes or promotes the social status of the punished or rewarded individual. In a real-life study, we investigated if people are inclined to anonymously punish or reward a person for her past deeds in a different social context. Participants from three socio-professional categories voted anonymously for early career violinists in an important violin competition. We found that participants did not punish an immoral violin candidate, nor did they reward another hyper-moral candidate. On the contrary, one socio-professional category sanctioned hyper-morality. Hence, salient moral information about past behavior did not elicit punishment or reward in an impersonal situation where the impact of the sanction was indirect. We conclude that contextual features play an important role in human motivation to enforce moral norms.

  7. CRYPTOGRAPHIC SECURE CLOUD STORAGE MODEL WITH ANONYMOUS AUTHENTICATION AND AUTOMATIC FILE RECOVERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowmiya Murthy

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We propose a secure cloud storage model that addresses security and storage issues for cloud computing environments. Security is achieved by anonymous authentication which ensures that cloud users remain anonymous while getting duly authenticated. For achieving this goal, we propose a digital signature based authentication scheme with a decentralized architecture for distributed key management with multiple Key Distribution Centers. Homomorphic encryption scheme using Paillier public key cryptosystem is used for encrypting the data that is stored in the cloud. We incorporate a query driven approach for validating the access policies defined by an individual user for his/her data i.e. the access is granted to a requester only if his credentials matches with the hidden access policy. Further, since data is vulnerable to losses or damages due to the vagaries of the network, we propose an automatic retrieval mechanism where lost data is recovered by data replication and file replacement with string matching algorithm. We describe a prototype implementation of our proposed model.

  8. The Anonymous Plotter in the Routines of Renaissance Theatre and Drama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Pugliatti

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Renaissance theatre, both in England and Italy, was a commercial enterprise and, therefore, it utilized procedures of division of labour to meet the challenge of the market. One of these procedures was the compilation of preparatory texts of various kinds. But, while about one thousand scenari of the commedia dell’arte (some anonymous, some with the author’s name survive, of the ‘plots’ compiled by the English ‘plotters’ in preparation of plays to be written only one incomplete specimen and a few fragments have been preserved; their nature, therefore, remains dubious. Furthermore, anonymous documents of a different nature, also confusingly called ‘plots’, but compiled as reminders for the actors’ entrances during performance, have survived in six, mostly fragmentary, manuscripts. This article discusses these three kinds of preparatory texts in order to characterize their different nature and argues that, although suggestive, the idea of a derivation of the two kinds of English ‘plots’ from the scenari appears unconvincing; indeed, the compilation, in both contexts, of preparatory texts was simply an obvious and necessary measure in order to speed up procedures.

  9. Ceramic subsurface marker prototypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukens, C.E. [Rockwell International Corp., Richland, WA (United States). Rockwell Hanford Operations

    1985-05-02

    The client submitted 5 sets of porcelain and stoneware subsurface (radioactive site) marker prototypes (31 markers each set). The following were determined: compressive strength, thermal shock resistance, thermal crazing resistance, alkali resistance, color retention, and chemical resistance.

  10. Nuclear Confidence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The Fukushima nuclear accident provides valuable lessons for China national nuclear Corp.as it continues to expand its operations AS Japan’s Fukushima nuclear crisis sparks a global debate over nuclear safety,China National Nuclear Corp. (CNNC),the country’s largest nuclear plant operator, comes under the spotlight.

  11. Philopatry of male marine turtles inferred from mitochondrial DNA markers

    OpenAIRE

    FitzSimmons, Nancy N.; Limpus, Colin J.; Norman, Janette A; Goldizen, Alan R.; Jeffrey D. Miller; Moritz, Craig

    1997-01-01

    Recent studies of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation among marine turtle populations are consistent with the hypothesis that females return to beaches in their natal region to nest as adults. In contrast, less is known about breeding migrations of male marine turtles and whether they too are philopatric to natal regions. Studies of geographic structuring of restriction fragment and microsatellite polymorphisms at anonymous nuclear loci in green turtle (Chelonia mydas) populations indicate th...

  12. CREATION A MATHEMATICAL MODEL, THAT PROVIDES A SUFFICIENT LEVEL OF ANONYMITY IN E-VOTING SYSTEM WITH THE INTEGRITY AND PRIVACY OF TRANSMITTED DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugryumov D. V.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of an analytical review of existing methods to ensure anonymity, the study of the system architecture of the electronic voting, and presented the author’s idea to improve the client's anonymity in such systems. The result is a mathematical model, that provides a sufficient level of anonymity in electronic voting system to preserve the integrity and confidentiality of transmitted data

  13. Apoptotic markers in protozoan parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fasel Nicolas

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The execution of the apoptotic death program in metazoans is characterized by a sequence of morphological and biochemical changes that include cell shrinkage, presentation of phosphatidylserine at the cell surface, mitochondrial alterations, chromatin condensation, nuclear fragmentation, membrane blebbing and the formation of apoptotic bodies. Methodologies for measuring apoptosis are based on these markers. Except for membrane blebbing and formation of apoptotic bodies, all other events have been observed in most protozoan parasites undergoing cell death. However, while techniques exist to detect these markers, they are often optimised for metazoan cells and therefore may not pick up subtle differences between the events occurring in unicellular organisms and multi-cellular organisms. In this review we discuss the markers most frequently used to analyze cell death in protozoan parasites, paying special attention to changes in cell morphology, mitochondrial activity, chromatin structure and plasma membrane structure/permeability. Regarding classical regulators/executors of apoptosis, we have reviewed the present knowledge of caspase-like and nuclease activities.

  14. Apoptotic markers in protozoan parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Ruiz, Antonio; Alzate, Juan Fernando; Macleod, Ewan Thomas; Lüder, Carsten Günter Kurt; Fasel, Nicolas; Hurd, Hilary

    2010-11-09

    The execution of the apoptotic death program in metazoans is characterized by a sequence of morphological and biochemical changes that include cell shrinkage, presentation of phosphatidylserine at the cell surface, mitochondrial alterations, chromatin condensation, nuclear fragmentation, membrane blebbing and the formation of apoptotic bodies. Methodologies for measuring apoptosis are based on these markers. Except for membrane blebbing and formation of apoptotic bodies, all other events have been observed in most protozoan parasites undergoing cell death. However, while techniques exist to detect these markers, they are often optimised for metazoan cells and therefore may not pick up subtle differences between the events occurring in unicellular organisms and multi-cellular organisms.In this review we discuss the markers most frequently used to analyze cell death in protozoan parasites, paying special attention to changes in cell morphology, mitochondrial activity, chromatin structure and plasma membrane structure/permeability. Regarding classical regulators/executors of apoptosis, we have reviewed the present knowledge of caspase-like and nuclease activities.

  15. Design and Implement of the Anonymous Communications in the Mobile IP Networks%移动IP中通信匿名技术的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康凯; 郭伟; 吴诗其

    2002-01-01

    One of the key problems in the mobile communication is the anonymous communication. The mobile userwants to hide his real identifying information to the visiting domain and the public network which he does not trust,and prevent from being tracked and located. In this paper, we have discoursed the anonymous communications in themobile IP, and presented a novel strategy of the dynamic address allocation and the routing with anonymity. The sug-gested method enables any identifying information can be carried over the anonymous and secure connections, andprovide end-to-end security. The implements of the mobile host and the mobile subnet are also presented.

  16. Anonymous HIV workplace surveys as an advocacy tool for affordable private health insurance in Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Beer Ingrid

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With an estimated adult HIV prevalence of 15%, Namibia is in need of innovative health financing strategies that can alleviate the burden on the public sector. Affordable and private health insurances were recently developed in Namibia, and they include coverage for HIV/AIDS. This article reports on the efficacy of HIV workplace surveys as a tool to increase uptake of these insurances by employees in the Namibian formal business sector. In addition, the burden of HIV among this population was examined by sector. Methods Cross-sectional anonymous HIV prevalence surveys were conducted in 24 private companies in Namibia between November 2006 and December 2007. Non-invasive oral fluid-based HIV antibody rapid tests were used. Anonymous test results were provided to the companies in a confidential report and through presentations to their management, during which the advantages of affordable private health insurance and the available insurance products were discussed. Impact assessment was conducted in October 2008, when new health insurance uptake by these companies was evaluated. Results Of 8500 targeted employees, 6521 were screened for HIV; mean participation rate was 78.6%. Overall 15.0% (95% CI 14.2-15.9% of employees tested HIV positive (range 3.0-23.9% across companies. The mining sector had the highest percentage of HIV-positive employees (21.0%; the information technology (IT sector had the lowest percentage (4.0%. Out of 6205 previously uninsured employees, 61% had enrolled in private health insurance by October 2008. The majority of these new insurances (78% covered HIV/AIDS only. Conclusion The proportion of HIV-positive formal sector employees in Namibia is in line with national prevalence estimates and varies widely by employment sector. Following the surveys, there was a considerable increase in private health insurance uptake. This suggests that anonymous HIV workplace surveys can serve as a tool to motivate

  17. Nuclear moments

    CERN Document Server

    Kopferman, H; Massey, H S W

    1958-01-01

    Nuclear Moments focuses on the processes, methodologies, reactions, and transformations of molecules and atoms, including magnetic resonance and nuclear moments. The book first offers information on nuclear moments in free atoms and molecules, including theoretical foundations of hyperfine structure, isotope shift, spectra of diatomic molecules, and vector model of molecules. The manuscript then takes a look at nuclear moments in liquids and crystals. Discussions focus on nuclear paramagnetic and magnetic resonance and nuclear quadrupole resonance. The text discusses nuclear moments and nucl

  18. Nuclear safeguards; Salvaguardias nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zurron, O.

    2015-07-01

    Safeguards control at the Juzbado Plant is implemented through the joint IAEA/EURATOM partnership approach in force within the European Union for all nuclear facilities. this verification agreement is designed to minimize burden on the operators whilst ensuring that both inspectorate achieve the objectives related to their respective safeguards regimes. This paper outlines the safeguards approaches followed by the inspectorate and the particularities of the Juzbado Plants nuclear material accountancy and control system. (Authors)

  19. An efficient and secure anonymous authentication scheme for mobile satellite communication systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoo Kee-Young

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper proposes a new efficient and secure anonymous authentication scheme for mobile satellite communication systems. Compared with the related schemes, the proposed scheme achieves the following three main advantages: (1 It is just based on a secure one-way hash function for avoiding complex computations for both mobile users and network control center (NCC, (2 it does not require sensitive verification table which may cause NCC to become an attractive target for numerous attacks (e.g., insertion attacks and stolen-verifier attacks, and (3 it provides higher security level (e.g., secure mutual authentication and key establishment, confidential communication, user's privacy, simple key management, and session key independence. As a result, the proposed scheme is very suitable for lightweight-device environments because of very low computation overload on the part of both mobile user and NCC.

  20. Effects of anonymous peer observation on adolescents' preference for immediate rewards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigard, Alexander; Chein, Jason; Albert, Dustin; Smith, Ashley; Steinberg, Laurence

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that the presence of peers influences adolescent risk-taking by increasing the perceived reward value of risky decisions. While prior work has involved observation of participants by their friends, the current study examined whether observation by an anonymous peer could elicit similarly increased reward sensitivity. Late adolescent participants completed a delay discounting task either alone or under the belief that performance was being observed from a neighboring room by an unknown viewer of the same gender and age. Even in this limited social context, participants demonstrated a significantly increased preference for smaller, immediate rewards when they believed that they were being watched. This outcome challenges several intuitive accounts of the peer effect on adolescent risk-taking, and indicates that the peer influence on reward sensitivity during late adolescence is not dependent on familiarity with the observer. The findings have both theoretical and practical implications for our understanding of social influences on adolescents' risky behavior.

  1. Inseminação artificial e anonimato do doador Artificial insemination and donor anonymity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Demasi Wanssa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Através desse trabalho, objetiva-se abordar o tema de doação de gametas e do anonimato envolvendo este ato na reprodução medicamente assistida. Analisando rapidamente o caráter técnico da doação e seleção dos gametas e a necessidade de uma legislação específica sobre o assunto nos diferentes países do mundo que adotaram esse método, diante da pluralidade social existente. Consideram-se os aspectos éticos e legais vigentes no Brasil ditados pela Resolução do Conselho Federal de Medicina n° 1.358/93 que determina as condutas dos médicos brasileiros e define, dentre outros aspectos, o da doação e do anonimato, envolvendo o aspecto autonomia. A necessidade de proteção dos sujeitos através do termo de consentimento informado ou de recusa informada, permitindo garantir a informação e esclarecimento necessário ao casal que decide submeter-se aos planos de reprodução medicamente assistida assim como ao doador que, por sua vez, também deve dar garantias escritas quanto à espontaneidade e à alienação dos direitos sobre os gametas à instituição que se torna a responsável por estes. Tudo isso, aliado à veracidade e confidencialidade, compõe os elementos fundamentais para a manutenção do anonimato entre o doador e o receptor. Anonimato este, ainda muito discutido pelos estudiosos de diversas áreas e países.This article aims to address the issue of the donation of gametes and the anonymity involved in this act of medically-assisted reproduction. It briefly discusses the technical aspects of the donation and selection of gametes and the need for specific legislation on the issue in various countries that have adopted this method, in view of the plurality of different social systems in the world today. The article addresses the legal and ethical issues that are currently being aired in Brazil, and the rulings contained in the Federal Medical Council Resolution 1,358/93, which rules on the conduct of physicians in

  2. LOPP: A Location Privacy Protected Anonymous Routing Protocol for Disruption Tolerant Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaofeng; Hui, Pan; Towsley, Don; Pu, Juhua; Xiong, Zhang

    In this paper, we propose an anonymous routing protocol, LOPP, to protect the originator's location privacy in Delay/Disruption Tolerant Network (DTN). The goals of our study are to minimize the originator's probability of being localized (Pl) and maximize the destination's probability of receiving the message (Pr). The idea of LOPP is to divide a sensitive message into k segments and send each of them to n different neighbors. Although message fragmentation could reduce the destination's probability to receive a complete message, LOPP can decrease the originator's Pl. We validate LOPP on a real-world human mobility dataset. The simulation results show that LOPP can decrease the originator's Pl by over 54% with only 5.7% decrease in destination's Pr. We address the physical localization issue of DTN, which was not studied in the literature.

  3. DEVELOPING AND MODELING A NEW E-LOTTERY SYSTEM USING ANONYMOUS SIGNATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLORIN MEDELEANU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In traditional lottery systems, the players choose some numbers on a ticket, enroll it to the lottery organizer and pay an amount of money for it. But this perspective offers no guarantee to the players that the lottery organizer doesn’t manipulate the number selection in order to pay the least. This suspicion could be avoided if the lottery organizer didn’t know the numbers selected by the players before the draw. Such a system is possible to be realized by using anonymous signatures, but the design should also guarantee that forging lottery tickets after the moment of the draw or claim of a different ticket is not possible. This paper will propose and analyze a model in order to fulfill all requirement described before, using several cryptographic primitives

  4. Finding God through the Spirituality of the 12 Steps of Alcoholics Anonymous

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Sandoz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The 12 Step program of Alcoholics Anonymous has provided relief for individuals recovering from alcoholism for over 75 years. The key to the recovery process is a spiritual experience as the result of practicing the daily discipline of the 12 Steps, a process which evokes a psychic change sufficient to recover from this disease. Although a relatively new spiritual discipline, the 12 Step program is built upon a foundation of much older and more traditional paths to God including devotion, understanding, service and meditation. Recent research provides insights into the 12 Step program. Specifically, the path of recovery is highlighted by the reduction of resentment and the promotion of forgiveness which are key factors of recovery.

  5. A Comparison of the Effects of K-Anonymity on Machine Learning Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayden Wimmer

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available While research has been conducted in machine learning algorithms and in privacy preserving in data mining (PPDM, a gap in the literature exists which combines the aforementioned areas to determine how PPDM affects common machine learning algorithms. The aim of this research is to narrow this literature gap by investigating how a common PPDM algorithm, K-Anonymity, affects common machine learning and data mining algorithms, namely neural networks, logistic regression, decision trees, and Bayesian classifiers. This applied research reveals practical implications for applying PPDM to data mining and machine learning and serves as a critical first step learning how to apply PPDM to machine learning algorithms and the effects of PPDM on machine learning. Results indicate that certain machine learning algorithms are more suited for use with PPDM techniques.

  6. ANONYMIZATION BASED ON NESTED CLUSTERING FOR PRIVACY PRESERVATION IN DATA MINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Rajalakshmi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Privacy Preservation in data mining protects the data from revealing unauthorized extraction of information. Data Anonymization techniques implement this by modifying the data, so that the original values cannot be acquired easily. Perturbation techniques are variedly used which will greatly affect the quality of data,since there is a trade-off between privacy preservation and information loss which will subsequently affect the result of data mining. The method that is proposed in this paper is based on nested clustering of data andperturbation on each cluster. The size of clusters is kept optimal to reduce the information loss. The paper explains the methodology, implementation and results of nested clustering. Various metrics are also provided to explicate that this method overcomes the disadvantages of other perturbation methods.

  7. Molecular marker databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Kaitao; Lorenc, Michał Tadeusz; Edwards, David

    2015-01-01

    The detection and analysis of genetic variation plays an important role in plant breeding and this role is increasing with the continued development of genome sequencing technologies. Molecular genetic markers are important tools to characterize genetic variation and assist with genomic breeding. Processing and storing the growing abundance of molecular marker data being produced requires the development of specific bioinformatics tools and advanced databases. Molecular marker databases range from species specific through to organism wide and often host a variety of additional related genetic, genomic, or phenotypic information. In this chapter, we will present some of the features of plant molecular genetic marker databases, highlight the various types of marker resources, and predict the potential future direction of crop marker databases.

  8. Nuclear ventriculography

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ventriculography (RNV); Multiple gate acquisition scan (MUGA); Nuclear cardiology; Cardiomyopathy - nuclear ventriculography ... 56. Udelson JE, Dilsizian V, Bonow RO. Nuclear cardiology. In: Bonow RO, Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby ...

  9. Nuclear Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawi, Ramsey D.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the use of nuclear medicine techniques in diagnosis and therapy. Describes instrumentation in diagnostic nuclear medicine and predicts future trends in nuclear medicine imaging technology. (Author/MM)

  10. An Anonymous Survey of Psychosomatic Medicine Fellowship Directors regarding Breaches of Contracts and a Proposal for Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenson, James L.; Bialer, Philip

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors studied how often applicants accept positions at more than one program, or programs offer positions to applicants who have already signed contracts with other programs. Methods: An anonymous survey was distributed to all psychosomatic medicine fellowship program directors. Results: It is fairly common for applicants to sign…

  11. Increasing Anonymity in Peer Assessment by Using Classroom Response Technology within Face-to-Face Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raes, Annelies; Vanderhoven, Ellen; Schellens, Tammy

    2015-01-01

    Peer assessment is becoming more popular in higher education, however it often goes together with undesirable social effects like peer pressure and favoritism, especially when students need to evaluate peers in a face-to-face setting. The present study was set up to investigate increased anonymity in peer assessment to counter these undesirable…

  12. Attachment Styles and Changes among Women Members of Overeaters Anonymous Who Have Recovered from Binge-Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz, Pnina; Addad, Moshe; Ronel, Natti

    2012-01-01

    In Overeaters Anonymous (OA), the 12-step self-help program for compulsive overeaters, binge eating is regarded as a physical, spiritual, and emotional disorder. Consequently, the program proposes recovery through the adoption of a lifestyle that leads to physical, spiritual, and emotional well-being. A qualitative phenomenological study that…

  13. Development of EST-SSR markers for the study of population structure in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simko, Ivan

    2009-01-01

    A set of 61 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers was developed from the 19,523 Lactuca sativa and Lactuca serriola unigenes. Approximately 4.5% of the unigenes contained a perfect SSR at least 20 bp long, corresponding to roughly 1 perfect SSR per 14.7 kb. Marker polymorphism was tested on a set comprising 96 accessions representing all major horticultural types and 3 wild species (L. serriola, Lactuca saligna, and Lactuca virosa). Both the average marker heterozygosity (UHe = 0.32) and the number of different alleles per locus (Na = 3.56) were significantly reduced in expressed sequence tag (EST)-SSRs as compared with anonymous SSRs (UHe = 0.59, Na = 5.53). Marker transfer rate to the wild species corresponded to the decreasing sexual compatibility with L. sativa and was higher for EST-SSRs (100% L. serriola, 87% L. saligna, and 75% L. virosa) than for anonymous SSRs (93%, 66%, and 42%, respectively). Assessment of population structure among 90 L. sativa cultivars with SSRs was in good agreement with classification into the horticultural types. The average marker heterozygosity was smallest in iceberg (0.097), Latin (0.140), and romaine-type (0.151) cultivars while highest in leaf (green leaf 0.208 and red leaf 0.240) lettuces. The level of marker heterozygosity is in accord with morphological variability observed in different horticultural types.

  14. Morphology and molecules on opposite sides of the diversity gradient: four cryptic species of the Cliona celata (Porifera, Demospongiae) complex in South America revealed by mitochondrial and nuclear markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula, Thiago Silva; Zilberberg, Carla; Hajdu, Eduardo; Lôbo-Hajdu, Gisele

    2012-01-01

    A great number of marine organisms lack proper morphologic characters for identification and species description. This could promote a wide distributional pattern for a species morphotype, potentially generating many morphologically similar albeit evolutionarily independent worldwide lineages. This work aimed to estimate the genetic variation of South America populations of the Cliona celata species complex. We used COI mtDNA and ITS rDNA as molecular markers and tylostyle length and width as morphological characters to try to distinguish among species. Four distinct clades were found within the South American C. celata complex using both genetic markers. The genetic distances comparisons revealed that scores among those clades were comparable to distances between each clade and series of previously described clionaid species, some of which belong to different genera. Our results also suggest that one of the clades has a broad discontinuous distribution in the Atlantic Ocean, while another presents high gene flow between the southern Atlantic and Pacific coasts of South America. Conversely, spicule morphology was not able to distinguish each clade, due to the high degree of overlap among them. Therefore, we considered that each recovered clade correspond, in fact, to different species that cannot be differentiated via morphological characters, which are often used to describe species within the C. celata species complex.

  15. Nuclear medicine; La medecine nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sibille, L. [Hopital Lapeyronie CHU Montpellier, Medecine Nucleaire, 34 - Montpellier (France); Nalda, E.; Collombier, L.; Kotzki, P.O.; Boudousq, V. [CHU de Nimes, Service de Medecine Nucleaire et de biophysique, 30 - Nimes (France)

    2011-05-15

    Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty using the properties of radioactivity. Radioactive markers associated with vectors are used as a tracer or radiopharmaceutical for diagnostic purposes and/or therapy. Since its birth more than half a century ago, it has become essential in the care of many patients, particularly in oncology. After some definitions, this paper presents the main nuclear techniques - imaging for diagnostic, radiopharmaceuticals as therapeutic agents, intra-operative detection, technique of radioimmunoassay - and the future of this field. (authors)

  16. Nuclear Theory - Nuclear Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svenne, J. P.; Canton, L.; Kozier, K. S.

    2008-01-01

    The results from modern nuclear theory are accurate and reliable enough to be used for practical applications, in particular for scattering that involves few-nucleon systems of importance to nuclear power. Using well-established nucleon-nucleon (NN) interactions that fit well the NN scattering data, and the AGS form of the three-body theory, we have performed precise calculations of low-energy neutron-deuteron (n+d) scattering. We show that three-nucleon force effects that have impact on the low-energy vector analyzing powers have no practical effects on the angular distribution of the n+d cross-section. There appear to be problems for this scattering in the evaluated nuclear data file (ENDF) libraries, at the incident neutron energies less than 3.2 MeV. Supporting experimental data in this energy region are rather old (>25 years), sparse and often inconsistent. Our three-body results at low energies, 50 keV to 10.0 MeV, are compared to the ENDF/B-VII.0 and JENDL (Japanese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library) -3.3 evaluated angular distributions. The impact of these results on the calculated reactivity for various critical systems involving heavy water is shown.

  17. From anonymity to “open doors”: IRB responses to tensions with researchers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klitzman Robert

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tensions between IRBs and researchers in the US and elsewhere have increased, and may affect whether, how, and to what degree researchers comply with ethical guidelines. Yet whether, how, when, and why IRBs respond to these conflicts have received little systematic attention. Findings I contacted 60 US IRBs (every fourth one in the list of the top 240 institutions by NIH funding, and interviewed leaders from 34 (response rate = 55% and an additional 12 members and administrators. IRBs often try to respond to tensions with researchers and improve relationships in several ways, but range widely in how, when, and to what degree (e.g., in formal and informal structure, content, and tone of interactions. IRBs varied from open and accessible to more distant and anonymous, and in the amount and type of “PR work” and outreach they do. Many boards seek to improve the quantity, quality, and helpfulness of communication with PIs, but differ in how. IRBs range in meetings from open to closed, and may have clinics and newsletters. Memos can vary in helpfulness and tone (e.g., using “charm”. IRBs range considerably, too, in the degrees to which they seek to educate PIs, showing them the underlying ethical principles. But these efforts take time and resources, and IRBs thus vary in degrees of responses to PI complaints. Conclusions This study, the first to explore the mechanisms through which IRBs respond to tensions and interactions with PIs, suggests that these committees seek to respond to conflicts with PIs in varying ways – both formal and informal, involving both the form and content of communications. This study has important implications for future practice, research, and policy, suggesting needs for increased attention to not only what IRBs communicate to PIs, but how (i.e., the tone and the nature of interactions. IRBs can potentially improve relationships with PIs in several ways: using more “open doors” rather

  18. [Immunological markers of rheumatoid arthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matuszewska, Agnieszka; Madej, Marta; Wiland, Piotr

    2016-03-25

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the most common connective tissue disease of autoimmune origin. The disease is characterized by chronic inflammation leading to bone erosions and organ involvement. RA is a progressive disease. It affects the quality of life, leading to disability and death mainly due to premature cardiovascular disease. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are essential for prognosis and quality of life improvement. In 2010 the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) and The European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) established new RA classification criteria. Besides clinical symptoms it includes two immunologic criteria: rheumatoid factor (RF) and anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (anti-CCP antibodies). RF is the first well-known RA immunologic marker. It is observed in 80-85% of patients with RA. Elevated serum level of RF has been associated with increased disease activity, radiographic progression, and the presence of extraarticular manifestations. The sensitivity of RF is 50-90%, and specificity is 50-95%. Anti-CCP antibodies appear to be a more specific marker than RF. They are often present at the very beginning of the disease, or even years before the first symptoms. The prognostic value of anti-CCP antibodies is well established. High serum level of anti-CCP correlates with poor prognosis and early erosions of the joints. The sensitivity of anti-CCP2 is 48-80%, and specificity is 96-98%. New immunologic markers include anti-carbamylated protein antibodies (anti-CarP) and antibodies against heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (anti-hnRNP A2/B1, RA33). Scientists aim to identify a highly sensitive and specific biomarker of the disease that not only has diagnostic and prognostic value but also may predict the response to treatment.

  19. Embryonic Stem Cell Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Ma

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Embryonic stem cell (ESC markers are molecules specifically expressed in ES cells. Understanding of the functions of these markers is critical for characterization and elucidation for the mechanism of ESC pluripotent maintenance and self-renewal, therefore helping to accelerate the clinical application of ES cells. Unfortunately, different cell types can share single or sometimes multiple markers; thus the main obstacle in the clinical application of ESC is to purify ES cells from other types of cells, especially tumor cells. Currently, the marker-based flow cytometry (FCM technique and magnetic cell sorting (MACS are the most effective cell isolating methods, and a detailed maker list will help to initially identify, as well as isolate ESCs using these methods. In the current review, we discuss a wide range of cell surface and generic molecular markers that are indicative of the undifferentiated ESCs. Other types of molecules, such as lectins and peptides, which bind to ESC via affinity and specificity, are also summarized. In addition, we review several markers that overlap with tumor stem cells (TSCs, which suggest that uncertainty still exists regarding the benefits of using these markers alone or in various combinations when identifying and isolating cells.

  20. Marker development in ornamental plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heusden, van A.W.; Arens, P.

    2009-01-01

    Development of markers for a new crop or development of additional markers for a crop where markers have been developed in the past raises the question of the intended use of the markers. Depending on the different objectives in mind one marker type may be better suited then another. In general one

  1. Assessment Role of Participation in Narcotic Anonymous in Opiate Dependents during Abstinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossien Zare

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The activity level of Narcotics Anonymous group (NA is expanding in many countries, including Iran. Some research has confessed the benefits of 12-step NA approach compared with similar methods. In the present study, the role of regular participation of opioid addicts in the NA group was studied in terms of abstinence rate and compared with routine program of detoxification centers of the person Welfare Organization and Medical Sciences University. Materials and Methods: All addicts who attempted to quit in self-introducer clinical centers of Medical Sciences University and the Welfare Organization of Rafsanjan were suggested to participate and not to participate in NA, based on even and odd numbers, respectively. Among them, two equal 120-person (NA and control groups were selected, then evaluated every three months and followed up for 12 months. Their status was assessed through questionnaires, interviews, and morphine tests.Results: The purity rate of NA group with 8.49 months was significantly different with normal addicts in 5.19 months (p=0.001. The recurrence rate at 12 months was significantly lower in the NA group compared with the control group, calculated through independent t-test (p=0.001. Quitting history and addiction duration in the NA group was significantly higher than control group.Conclusion: The findings of the research support a better prognosis for participants of NA group. Further researches are recommended to provide useful clinical information for patients and professionals.

  2. LPPS: A Distributed Cache Pushing Based K-Anonymity Location Privacy Preserving Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have witnessed the rapid growth of location-based services (LBSs for mobile social network applications. To enable location-based services, mobile users are required to report their location information to the LBS servers and receive answers of location-based queries. Location privacy leak happens when such servers are compromised, which has been a primary concern for information security. To address this issue, we propose the Location Privacy Preservation Scheme (LPPS based on distributed cache pushing. Unlike existing solutions, LPPS deploys distributed cache proxies to cover users mostly visited locations and proactively push cache content to mobile users, which can reduce the risk of leaking users’ location information. The proposed LPPS includes three major process. First, we propose an algorithm to find the optimal deployment of proxies to cover popular locations. Second, we present cache strategies for location-based queries based on the Markov chain model and propose update and replacement strategies for cache content maintenance. Third, we introduce a privacy protection scheme which is proved to achieve k-anonymity guarantee for location-based services. Extensive experiments illustrate that the proposed LPPS achieves decent service coverage ratio and cache hit ratio with lower communication overhead compared to existing solutions.

  3. Private Queries and Trajectory Anonymization: a Dual Perspective on Location Privacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Ghinita

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of mobile devices with Internet connectivity (e.g., Wi-Fi and global positioning capabilities (e.g., GPS have triggered the widespread development of location-based applications. For instance, users are able to ask queries about points of interest in their proximity. Furthermore, users can act as mobile sensors to monitor traffic flow, or levels of air pollution. However, such applications require users to disclose their locations, which raises serious privacy concerns. With knowledge of user locations, a malicious attacker can infer sensitive information, such as alternative lifestyles or political affiliations. Preserving location privacy is an essential requirement towards the successful deployment of location-based services (LBS. Currently, two main LBS use scenarios exist: in the first one, users send location-based queries to an un-trusted server, and the privacy objective is to protect the location of the querying user. In the second setting, a trusted entity, such as a telephone company, gathers large amounts of location data (i.e., trajectory traces and wishes to publish them for data mining (e.g., alleviating traffic congestion. In this case, it is crucial to prevent an adversary from associating trajectories to user identities. In this survey paper, we give an overview of the state-of-the-art in location privacy protection from the dual perspective of query privacy and trajectory anonymization. We review the most prominent design choices and technical solutions, and highlight their relative strengths and weaknesses.

  4. A uniqueness-and-anonymity-preserving remote user authentication scheme for connected health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ya-Fen; Yu, Shih-Hui; Shiao, Ding-Rui

    2013-04-01

    Connected health care provides new opportunities for improving financial and clinical performance. Many connected health care applications such as telecare medicine information system, personally controlled health records system, and patient monitoring have been proposed. Correct and quality care is the goal of connected heath care, and user authentication can ensure the legality of patients. After reviewing authentication schemes for connected health care applications, we find that many of them cannot protect patient privacy such that others can trace users/patients by the transmitted data. And the verification tokens used by these authentication schemes to authenticate users or servers are only password, smart card and RFID tag. Actually, these verification tokens are not unique and easy to copy. On the other hand, biometric characteristics, such as iris, face, voiceprint, fingerprint and so on, are unique, easy to be verified, and hard to be copied. In this paper, a biometrics-based user authentication scheme will be proposed to ensure uniqueness and anonymity at the same time. With the proposed scheme, only the legal user/patient himself/herself can access the remote server, and no one can trace him/her according to transmitted data.

  5. Identification of genes in anonymous DNA sequences. Annual performance report, February 1, 1991--January 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fields, C.A.

    1996-06-01

    The objective of this project is the development of practical software to automate the identification of genes in anonymous DNA sequences from the human, and other higher eukaryotic genomes. A software system for automated sequence analysis, gm (gene modeler) has been designed, implemented, tested, and distributed to several dozen laboratories worldwide. A significantly faster, more robust, and more flexible version of this software, gm 2.0 has now been completed, and is being tested by operational use to analyze human cosmid sequence data. A range of efforts to further understand the features of eukaryoyic gene sequences are also underway. This progress report also contains papers coming out of the project including the following: gm: a Tool for Exploratory Analysis of DNA Sequence Data; The Human THE-LTR(O) and MstII Interspersed Repeats are subfamilies of a single widely distruted highly variable repeat family; Information contents and dinucleotide compostions of plant intron sequences vary with evolutionary origin; Splicing signals in Drosophila: intron size, information content, and consensus sequences; Integration of automated sequence analysis into mapping and sequencing projects; Software for the C. elegans genome project.

  6. Prospective parents' intentions regarding disclosure following the removal of donor anonymity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawshaw, Marilyn

    2008-06-01

    This short survey of UK infertility counsellors was designed to determine whether the removal of donor anonymity resulted in noticeable changes in prospective parents' stated intentions regarding disclosure of their origins to any children conceived through donor conception. Members of the British Infertility Counselling Association working in Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA) -- licensed centres, before and after the legal changes, were sent a short questionnaire that included space for free comments (take-up: 62%). Three-quarters reported changes. Of these, two-thirds said prospective parents were more likely to say they would disclose, while less than a tenth said prospective parents were less likely do so. Where no changes were noted, this was primarily because the majority of prospective parents had stated their intention to be open even prior to the legal changes. Possible influences on intentions included: the culture within the centre, moves towards openness within the wider society, and parents' lack of confidence regarding how to go about disclosure. Follow-up studies are needed to improve understanding of whether influences on decision making carry through to patterns of actual disclosure; whether involvement in counselling affects outcomes; and whether access to professional assistance at the time of planned disclosure is helpful.

  7. Trusted Anonymous Authentication Scheme for Trusted Network Connection in Mobile Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-jun Wu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Technologies make the mobile terminals such as smart phones, PDAs and handsets much more powerful to access mobile network in recent years. Especially with the widely use of mobile terminals, mobile network now becomes a primary tool for daily and business interactions. However, the proliferation of mobile terminals also draws mobile malware’s attention which will do damage to the mobile terminal and further affect the security of mobile network. But the traditional access control and authentication mechanism cannot resolve such security issues. On the basis of trusted computing technology, we proposed a mobile trusted network architecture by extending the trusted network connection in mobile environment. And an improvement EAP-EHash method is used in the proposed architecture to implement authentication. We defined two service scenarios in the authentication scheme, home network authentication and roaming network authentication. The process of each scenario is described in detail. By introducing the pseudonym mechanism, our scheme can protect user identity. And the connection status not only depends on the identification process, but also the trust status of the platform. The analysis shows that our scheme benefits the properties of user identity anonymity, mutual authentication, fake agent resistance, platform integrity verification, EAP and TNC Compatible. And the ciphersuite negotiation makes our scheme more suitable for resource limited mobile terminals.

  8. Parents' perception of self-advocacy of children with myositis: an anonymous online survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huber Adam M

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children with complex medical issues experience barriers to the transition of care from pediatric to adult providers. We sought to identify these barriers by elucidating the experiences of patients with idiopathic inflammatory muscle disorders. Methods We collected anonymous survey data using an online website. Patients and their families were solicited from the US and Canada through established clinics for children with idiopathic inflammatory muscle diseases as well as with the aid of a nonprofit organization for the benefit of such individuals. The parents of 45 older children/young adults suffering from idiopathic inflammatory muscle diseases were surveyed. As a basis of comparison, we similarly collected data from the parents of 207 younger children with inflammatory muscle diseases. The survey assessed transition of care issues confronting families of children and young adults with chronic juvenile myositis. Results Regardless of age of the patient, respondents were unlikely to have a designated health care provider assigned to aid in transition of care and were unlikely to be aware of a posted policy concerning transition of care at their pediatrician's office. Additionally, regardless of age, patients and their families were unlikely to have a written plan for moving to adult care. Conclusions We identified deficiencies in the health care experiences of families as pertain to knowledge, self-advocacy, policy, and vocational readiness. Moreover, as children with complex medical issues grow up, parents attribute less self-advocacy to their children's level of independence.

  9. E-APSAR:Enhanced Anonymous Position Based Security Aware Routing Protocol For Manets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Malgi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the past few years, we have seen a rapid expansion in the field of mobile computing due to the pro- liferation of inexpensive, widely available wireless devices or networks.However, all these networks are conventional wireless networks as they require a fixed network infrastructure with cen- tralised administration for their operation, potentially consuming a lot of time and money for set-up and maintenance.Drawbacks of conventional wireless networks are driving a new alternative way for mobile communication, in which mobile devices form a selfcreating, self-organising and self-administering wireless network, called a mobile ad hoc network.In mobile ad-hoc networking (MANETs, nodes communicate to each other based on public identities. In this paper,for a position based routing[22] an innovative packet forwarding mechanism is proposed in which source node generates route request packet and broadcast packet to other neighbor nodes to locate destination by implementing black hole attack[8]. Proposed E-APSAR (Enhanced Anonymous Position Based security aware routing protocol is implemented on NS-2 and results shown significant improvement over original DSR in terms of various performance metrics. It has been found that on dense network certain numbers of malicious nodes are supportive to reducing communication overhead and because of density negative effect of malicious attacks which is proposed E-APSAR that is able to reduce. Hence result shows proposed E-APSAR will be helpful to decrease communication overhead.

  10. Intuitive presentation of clinical forensic data using anonymous and person-specific 3D reference manikins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urschler, Martin; Höller, Johannes; Bornik, Alexander; Paul, Tobias; Giretzlehner, Michael; Bischof, Horst; Yen, Kathrin; Scheurer, Eva

    2014-08-01

    The increasing use of CT/MR devices in forensic analysis motivates the need to present forensic findings from different sources in an intuitive reference visualization, with the aim of combining 3D volumetric images along with digital photographs of external findings into a 3D computer graphics model. This model allows a comprehensive presentation of forensic findings in court and enables comparative evaluation studies correlating data sources. The goal of this work was to investigate different methods to generate anonymous and patient-specific 3D models which may be used as reference visualizations. The issue of registering 3D volumetric as well as 2D photographic data to such 3D models is addressed to provide an intuitive context for injury documentation from arbitrary modalities. We present an image processing and visualization work-flow, discuss the major parts of this work-flow, compare the different investigated reference models, and show a number of cases studies that underline the suitability of the proposed work-flow for presenting forensically relevant information in 3D visualizations.

  11. Personality Patterns in Narcotics Anonymous Members versus Individuals with Addiction Receiving Methadone Maintenance Therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Akhondzadeh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Therapeutic interventions can be classified into two distinct approaches: abstinent and maintenance method. Currently, there are no clear criteria for referring addicted patients to one of these modalities. We aimed to compare the personality characteristics of individuals with addiction who attended narcotics anonymous sessions with those who received methadone maintenance therapy.This was a cross- sectional study. The participants were NA members and patients who were undergoing methadone maintenance treatment in outpatient clinics. Using the randomized cluster sampling method, 200 individuals with opioid dependence were selected (each group 100 persons. Data were collected through a demographic questionnaire and the five-factor personality inventory (NEO-FFI. Comparison of the mean scores of NEO-PPI in the two groups was performed by independent t test, and qualitative variables were compared using the Chi-square test.We found a significant difference between the MMT and NA groups with respect to neuroticism, extroversion, and agreeableness. No significant difference was found in the subscales of conscientious and openness.People who regularly attended the NA sessions had lower neuroticism and higher agreeableness than patients who were under the maintenance modality. Whether this is the cause or effect of attending NA sessions requires future large-scale cohort studies.

  12. Anonyme, "L’autrier cuidai aber druda" (BdT 461.146

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Billy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available "L’autrier cuidai aber druda" is one of a small group of texts written in a mixed linguistic variety that has both French and Occitan features and which includes the lais "Markiol" and "Nompar," that are moreover transmitted by the same French manuscript, the so-called Chansonnier du Roi, among a collection of troubadour poems, most of which are also copied in a mixed variety. The accommodation of this kind of text in trouvère songbooks would seem to point to a specific tradition in which troubadour songs would circulate not in their original language, but in a gallicized version, which allowed for the prestige of the source language to be retained as well as maintaining the most important formal features of the poem: versification and sophisticated rhyme schemes. This tradition seems to have encouraged some trouvères – who remain anonymous – to compose poetry directly in this mixed variety, in forms that tend to be characteristic of trouvère poetry. The present text is a lyric adaptation of a parody of Ovid’s "Amores", known as "De Vetula", the interpretation of which has given rise to different opinions, which will be discussed here along with a closer study of the language.

  13. Nuclear control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Wan Kee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-02-01

    International cooperation in nuclear industries requires nuclear control as prerequisites. The concept of nuclear control is based on the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapon (NPT). The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) plays central role in implementing nuclear control. Nuclear control consists of nuclear safeguards, physical protection, and export/import control. Each member state of NPT is subject to the IAEA`s safeguards by concluding safeguards agreements with the IAEA. IAEA recommends member states to implement physical protection on nuclear materials by `The Physical Protection of Nuclear Material` and `The Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material` of IAEA. Export/Import Control is to deter development of nuclear weapons by controlling international trade on nuclear materials, nuclear equipments and technology. Current status of domestic and foreign nuclear control implementation including recent induction of national inspection system in Korea is described and functions of recently set-up Technology Center for Nuclear Control (TCNC) under the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) are also explained. 6 tabs., 11 refs. (Author).

  14. Fiducial Marker Placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Media Computed Tomography (CT) - Body General Ultrasound Ultrasound - Prostate Introduction to Cancer Therapy (Radiation Oncology) Proton Therapy Stereotactic Radiosurgery (SRS) and Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT) Images related to Fiducial Marker Placement Sponsored by ...

  15. Marker development in ornamental plants

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Development of markers for a new crop or development of additional markers for a crop where markers have been developed in the past raises the question of the intended use of the markers. Depending on the different objectives in mind one marker type may be better suited then another. In general one can think of two main objectives for the use of markers; variety identification and breeding applications. In view of recent developments in molecular genetics, and sequencing technologies in parti...

  16. Simple Algorithms for Distributed Leader Election in Anonymous Synchronous Rings and Complete Networks Inspired by Neural Development in Fruit Flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lei; Jeavons, Peter

    2015-11-01

    Leader election in anonymous rings and complete networks is a very practical problem in distributed computing. Previous algorithms for this problem are generally designed for a classical message passing model where complex messages are exchanged. However, the need to send and receive complex messages makes such algorithms less practical for some real applications. We present some simple synchronous algorithms for distributed leader election in anonymous rings and complete networks that are inspired by the development of the neural system of the fruit fly. Our leader election algorithms all assume that only one-bit messages are broadcast by nodes in the network and processors are only able to distinguish between silence and the arrival of one or more messages. These restrictions allow implementations to use a simpler message-passing architecture. Even with these harsh restrictions our algorithms are shown to achieve good time and message complexity both analytically and experimentally.

  17. More than addiction: Examining the role of anonymity, endless narrative, and socialization in prolonged gaming and instant messaging practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishonna Gray

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This ethnographic study explores a user’s prolonged engagement within virtual gaming communities. Likening prolonged engagement with addiction, this research provides an alternative perspective into virtual addiction focusing on three interrelated themes: 1 anonymity, 2 endless narrative, and 3 socialization. By employing narrative interviews and virtual observations, the researchers examine two different cultural, racial and age groups’ user experience within console and computer-based multiplayer environments. More specifically, they explore how the three factors (i.e., anonymity; endless narrative; socialization relate to the prolonged and extended use within these virtual communities and highlight the multifaceted uses of traditional chat services, social media, and the convergence of media existing within these chat communities.

  18. Preserving Smart Objects Privacy through Anonymous and Accountable Access Control for a M2M-Enabled Internet of Things.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Ramos, José L; Bernabe, Jorge Bernal; Moreno, M Victoria; Skarmeta, Antonio F

    2015-07-01

    As we get into the Internet of Things era, security and privacy concerns remain as the main obstacles in the development of innovative and valuable services to be exploited by society. Given the Machine-to-Machine (M2M) nature of these emerging scenarios, the application of current privacy-friendly technologies needs to be reconsidered and adapted to be deployed in such global ecosystem. This work proposes different privacy-preserving mechanisms through the application of anonymous credential systems and certificateless public key cryptography. The resulting alternatives are intended to enable an anonymous and accountable access control approach to be deployed on large-scale scenarios, such as Smart Cities. Furthermore, the proposed mechanisms have been deployed on constrained devices, in order to assess their suitability for a secure and privacy-preserving M2M-enabled Internet of Things.

  19. AN EFFECTIVE MULTI-CLUSTERING ANONYMIZATION APPROACH USING DISCRETE COMPONENT TASK FOR NON-BINARY HIGH DIMENSIONAL DATA SPACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Arun Shalin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Clustering is a process of grouping elements together, designed in such a way that the elements assigned to similar data points in a cluster are more comparable to each other than the remaining data points in a cluster. During clustering certain difficulties related when dealing with high dimensional data are ubiquitous and abundant. Works concentrated using anonymization method for high dimensional data spaces failed to address the problem related to dimensionality reduction during the inclusion of non-binary databases. In this work we study methods for dimensionality reduction for non-binary database. By analyzing the behavior of dimensionality reduction for non-binary database, results in performance improvement with the help of tag based feature. An effective multi-clustering anonymization approach called Discrete Component Task Specific Multi-Clustering (DCTSM is presented for dimensionality reduction on non-binary database. To start with we present the analysis of attribute in the non-binary database and cluster projection identifies the sparseness degree of dimensions. Additionally with the quantum distribution on multi-cluster dimension, the solution for relevancy of attribute and redundancy on non-binary data spaces is provided resulting in performance improvement on the basis of tag based feature. Multi-clustering tag based feature reduction extracts individual features and are correspondingly replaced by the equivalent feature clusters (i.e. tag clusters. During training, the DCTSM approach uses multi-clusters instead of individual tag features and then during decoding individual features is replaced by corresponding multi-clusters. To measure the effectiveness of the method, experiments are conducted on existing anonymization method for high dimensional data spaces and compared with the DCTSM approach using Statlog German Credit Data Set. Improved tag feature extraction and minimum error rate compared to conventional anonymization

  20. Was ist das Hidden Web? Die Entstehung, Eigenschaften und gesellschaftliche Bedeutung von anonymer Kommunikation im Hidden Web.

    OpenAIRE

    Papsdorf, Christian

    2016-01-01

    More than two-and-a-half million people currently use the Tor network to communicate anonymously via the Internet and gain access to online media that are not accessible using standard Internet technology. This sphere of communication can be described as the hidden web. In part because this phenomenon is very recent, the subject has scarcely been studied in the social sciences. It is therefore the purpose of this paper to answer four fundamental questions: What is the hidden web? What charact...

  1. Ambivalências éticas do Anonymous Brasil: discursos políticos sobre liberdade e o Marco Civil da Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Moraes, André de Nardi Senna

    2016-01-01

    O presente trabalho busca uma reflexão sobre a identidade moral do net-ativismo e do hacktivismo Anonymous no Brasil. Questiona-se como tal reflexão ilustra as disputas discursivas no âmbito de políticas na rede. A investigação propõe ilustrar as relações entre a ética hacker do Anonymous Brasil e suas posições políticas sobre liberdade na internet. Os Anonymous tratam-se de uma ideia, um coletivo, que se inspiram nos arquétipos da comunidade hacker para reivindicar certos ideais de direitos ...

  2. An Extended Chaotic Maps-Based Three-Party Password-Authenticated Key Agreement with User Anonymity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yanrong; Li, Lixiang; Zhang, Hao; Yang, Yixian

    2016-01-01

    User anonymity is one of the key security features of an authenticated key agreement especially for communicating messages via an insecure network. Owing to the better properties and higher performance of chaotic theory, the chaotic maps have been introduced into the security schemes, and hence numerous key agreement schemes have been put forward under chaotic-maps. Recently, Xie et al. released an enhanced scheme under Farash et al.'s scheme and claimed their improvements could withstand the security loopholes pointed out in the scheme of Farash et al., i.e., resistance to the off-line password guessing and user impersonation attacks. Nevertheless, through our careful analysis, the improvements were released by Xie et al. still could not solve the problems troubled in Farash et al‥ Besides, Xie et al.'s improvements failed to achieve the user anonymity and the session key security. With the purpose of eliminating the security risks of the scheme of Xie et al., we design an anonymous password-based three-party authenticated key agreement under chaotic maps. Both the formal analysis and the formal security verification using AVISPA are presented. Also, BAN logic is used to show the correctness of the enhancements. Furthermore, we also demonstrate that the design thwarts most of the common attacks. We also make a comparison between the recent chaotic-maps based schemes and our enhancements in terms of performance.

  3. A robust anonymous biometric-based remote user authentication scheme using smart cards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar Das

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Several biometric-based remote user authentication schemes using smart cards have been proposed in the literature in order to improve the security weaknesses in user authentication system. In 2012, An proposed an enhanced biometric-based remote user authentication scheme using smart cards. It was claimed that the proposed scheme is secure against the user impersonation attack, the server masquerading attack, the password guessing attack, and the insider attack and provides mutual authentication between the user and the server. In this paper, we first analyze the security of An’s scheme and we show that this scheme has three serious security flaws in the design of the scheme: (i flaw in user’s biometric verification during the login phase, (ii flaw in user’s password verification during the login and authentication phases, and (iii flaw in user’s password change locally at any time by the user. Due to these security flaws, An’s scheme cannot support mutual authentication between the user and the server. Further, we show that An’s scheme cannot prevent insider attack. In order to remedy the security weaknesses found in An’s scheme, we propose a new robust and secure anonymous biometric-based remote user authentication scheme using smart cards. Through the informal and formal security analysis, we show that our scheme is secure against all possible known attacks including the attacks found in An’s scheme. The simulation results of our scheme using the widely-accepted AVISPA (Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications tool ensure that our scheme is secure against passive and active attacks. In addition, our scheme is also comparable in terms of the communication and computational overheads with An’s scheme and other related existing schemes. As a result, our scheme is more appropriate for practical applications compared to other approaches.

  4. Anonymity Preserving Routing In Location Privacy Schemes In Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Regin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Location privacy measures need to be developed to prevent the opponent from determining the physical locations of source sensors and sinks. An opponent can easily intercept network traffic due to the use of a broadcast medium for routing packets and get detailed information such as packet transmission time and frequency to perform traffic analysis and infer the locations of monitored objects and data sinks. On the other hand, sensors usually have limited processing speed and energy supplies. It is very expensive to apply traditional anonymous communication techniques for hiding the communication between sensor nodes and sinks. The existing source-location privacy protects the location of monitored objects to increase the number of messages sent by the source before the object is located by the attacker. The flooding technique has the source node send each packet through numerous paths to a sink making it difficult for an opponent to trace the source. The locations of sinks can be protected from a local eavesdropper by hashing the ID field in the packet header. But opponent can track sinks by carrying out time correlation and rate monitoring attacks. Besides protection some source nodes are transferring relatively large amounts of data in existing system. As a result, these nodes run out of battery faster due to improper position of nodes and sinks. Thus in the proposed system the sinks should be located as optimally as possible to reduce traffic flow and energy consumption for sensor nodes. Hence Sink placement problem is resolved for minimizing the delay as well as maximizing the lifetime of a WSN. Thus proposed system is efficient in terms of overhead and functionality when compared to existing system.

  5. The genetic structure of adders (Vipera berus) in Fennoscandia: congruence between different kinds of genetic markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, M; Söderberg, L; Tegelström, H

    2004-10-01

    In order to elucidate the colonization history of Fennoscandian adders (Vipera berus), the phylogeographical patterns of two nuclear sets of DNA markers (random amplified polymorphic DNA and microsatellite) are compared with that previously obtained from mitochondrial DNA. An eastern and a western lineage within Fennoscandian adders is readily distinguishable using both sets of nuclear markers, corroborating the hypothesis that the lineages stem from separate glacial refugia. Moreover, the same contact zones as were derived from mitochondrial data are clearly identifiable. Both sets of nuclear markers detect a high level of admixture across one zone in northern Finland, with introgression reaching far west into Sweden.

  6. Nuclear Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Provides a brief review of the latest developments in nuclear chemistry. Nuclear research today is directed toward increased activity in radiopharmaceuticals and formation of new isotopes by high-energy, heavy-ion collisions. (Author/BB)

  7. Nuclear Scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuclear scans use radioactive substances to see structures and functions inside your body. They use a special ... images. Most scans take 20 to 45 minutes. Nuclear scans can help doctors diagnose many conditions, including ...

  8. Markers of erectile dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelvin P Davies

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development and marketing of oral pharmacotherapy that is both noninvasive and successful in treating erectile dysfunction (ED, the quest to identify markers of organic ED lost ground. Indeed, the multi-factorial nature of ED may have led many researchers to conclude that searching for a universal marker of ED was futile. However, the realization that ED is strongly correlated with the overall health of men, and may act as a predictor for the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD and diabetes, has stimulated interest in identifying genes that can distinguish organic ED. In addition, the potential ability to suggest to the patient that ED is reversible (i.e., psychogenic with a simple test would be of significance to both the physician and patient, as well as for reimbursement issues for therapy by insurance companies. Such a marker may also act as a non-subjective measure of the degree of ED and the efficacy of treatment. This review discusses the importance of identifying such markers and recent work identifying potential markers in human patients.

  9. Nuclear weapons, nuclear effects, nuclear war

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bing, G.F.

    1991-08-20

    This paper provides a brief and mostly non-technical description of the militarily important features of nuclear weapons, of the physical phenomena associated with individual explosions, and of the expected or possible results of the use of many weapons in a nuclear war. Most emphasis is on the effects of so-called ``strategic exchanges.``

  10. Nuclear structure

    CERN Document Server

    Nazarewicz, W

    1999-01-01

    Current developments in nuclear structure are discussed from a theoretical perspective. The studies of the nuclear many-body system provide us with invaluable information about the nature of the nuclear interaction, nucleonic correlations at various energy-distance scales, and the modes of the nucleonic matter.

  11. Nuclear Ambitions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    China will begin to build the world’s first third-generation nuclear power plant at the Sanmen Nuclear Power Project in Sanmen City, coastal Zhejiang Province, in March 2009, accord-ing to the State Nuclear Power Technology Corp.

  12. Spatial and temporal population genetic structure of four northeastern Pacific littorinid gastropods: the effect of mode of larval development on variation at one mitochondrial and two nuclear DNA markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyuk Je; Boulding, Elizabeth G

    2009-05-01

    We investigated the effect of development mode on the spatial and temporal population genetic structure of four littorinid gastropod species. Snails were collected from the same three sites on the west coast of Vancouver Island, Canada in 1997 and again in 2007. DNA sequences were obtained for one mitochondrial gene, cytochrome b (Cyt b), and for up to two nuclear genes, heat shock cognate 70 (HSC70) and aminopeptidase N intron (APN54). We found that the mean level of genetic diversity and long-term effective population sizes (N(e)) were significantly greater for two species, Littorina scutulata and L. plena, that had a planktotrophic larval stage than for two species, Littorina sitkana and L. subrotundata, that laid benthic egg masses which hatched directly into crawl-away juveniles. Predictably, two poorly dispersing species, L. sitkana and L. subrotundata, showed significant spatial genetic structure at an 11- to 65-km geographical scale that was not observed in the two planktotrophic species. Conversely, the two planktotrophic species had more temporal genetic structure over a 10-year interval than did the two direct-developing species and showed highly significant temporal structure for spatially pooled samples. The greater temporal genetic variation of the two planktotrophic species may have been caused by their high fecundity, high larval dispersal, and low but spatially correlated early survivorship. The sweepstakes-like reproductive success of the planktotrophic species could allow a few related females to populate hundreds of kilometres of coastline and may explain their substantially larger temporal genetic variance but lower spatial genetic variance relative to the direct-developing species.

  13. Study of the impact of radionuclides discharges from nuclear industry in the northern Cotentin area on the oyster Crassostrea gigas: expression of cellular stress molecular markers; Etude de l'impact des radionucleides rejetes par les installations nucleaires du Nord Cotentin sur l'huitre creuse Crassostrea gigas: analyse de l'expression de marqueurs moleculaires de stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farcy, E

    2006-11-15

    This thesis explores the potential radiological impact of radionuclide discharges from the nuclear industry on the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas. One of the major goals of this research was to identify markers that could be used to monitor the effects of low-level chronic irradiation. We decided to focalize on the expression of stress-induced genes involved in the regulation of cellular stress, focusing on transcription. First, homology cloning was used to identify four new cDNAs encoding stress markers. Then data collected at various sites enabled to evidence that mRNA levels for each of the genes of interest naturally vary to a significant degree, based on individual differences and seasonal factors. Comparing oysters from exposed sites with those from a reference site located on the Atlantic coast did not suggest any relationship between mRNA levels changes and the oysters exposure to liquid radioactive waste from the A.R.E.V.A. reprocessing plant. In the environment, we found that those radionuclide releases resulted in a very small increase in radioactivity in oysters, especially compared with their natural radioactivity. In the laboratory, by exposing the oysters to higher radionuclide concentrations than those found in the environment, we were able to identify two genes as potential candidates for studying the effects of chronic exposure to low doses of ionizing radiations in the oyster: genes encoding MT and MXR. We confirmed that transcriptional induction of these two genes occurs in response to high doses of acute irradiation. Finally, the comparison between environmental results and the laboratory results underlined the complementarity of these two approaches. In particular, it revealed that seasonal variations in mRNA levels probably have a significant effect on the stress response. (author)

  14. Alcoholics anonymous and twelve steps%AA与戒酒的十二个步骤--访美国嗜酒者互诫协会札记

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭崧; 李冰

    2003-01-01

    @@ AA(Alcoholics Anonymous)的戒酒方案见诸于几乎所有有关药物依赖的教科书.在世界范围内,采纳AA十二个步骤的治疗原则来实现戒除成瘾性障碍的组织(如NA:Narcotics Anonymous,CA:CocaineAnonymous等)已超过250个.

  15. Survey of Anonymous Routing Protocols for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks%移动自组网的匿名路由协议研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦丰林; 葛连升; 刘琚; 段海新

    2009-01-01

    移动自组网中的恶意节点对路由协议的安全和隐匿具有严重威胁.现在针对安全路由协议的研究很多,但是很少有人涉及匿名性问题,匿名路由协议能够实现节点身份、位置和通信关系的隐匿,在军事和其它机密通信领域中具有重要意义.首先对匿名路由协议面临的攻击行为进行分析,介绍其定义、分类和匿名性评价方法,然后概括性的介绍已有的典型匿名路由协议,比较其匿名性和安全性,最后对以后研究的问题和方向作了总结和展望.%Malicious nodes in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) impose great threat on the security and anonymity of routing protocols. Although there is a huge amount of work in secure routing protocols, few focuses on anonymity problems recent years. Anonymous routing protocols are significantly important in military and other confidential areas because of their capability of hiding the node's identity, location and communication relations. In this paper, a detailed survey of existing literature on anonymous routing protocols is presented. Attack behaviois in anonymous routing protocols are first identified, and the strict definition, taxonomy and anonymity evaluation metrics are also introduced. Then several typical anonymous routing protocols are generally described and their performance on security and anonymity are analyzed and compared as well. At last, some main problems and possible directions for future research are summarized and discussed.

  16. Is cyberbullying worse than traditional bullying? Examining the differential roles of medium, publicity, and anonymity for the perceived severity of bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sticca, Fabio; Perren, Sonja

    2013-05-01

    Cyberbullying, a modern form of bullying performed using electronic forms of contact (e.g., SMS, MMS, Facebook, YouTube), has been considered as being worse than traditional bullying in its consequences for the victim. This difference was mainly attributed to some specific aspect that are believed to distinguish cyberbullying from traditional bullying: an increased potential for a large audience, an increased potential for anonymous bullying, lower levels of direct feedback, decreased time and space limits, and lower levels of supervision. The present studies investigated the relative importance of medium (traditional vs. cyber), publicity (public vs. private), and bully's anonymity (anonymous vs. not anonymous) for the perceived severity of hypothetical bullying scenarios among a sample of Swiss seventh- and eight-graders (study 1: 49% female, mean age = 13.7; study 2: 49% female, mean age = 14.2). Participants ranked a set of hypothetical bullying scenarios from the most severe one to the least severe one. The scenarios were experimentally manipulated based on the aspect of medium and publicity (study 1), and medium and anonymity (study 2). Results showed that public scenarios were perceived as worse than private ones, and that anonymous scenarios were perceived as worse than not anonymous ones. Cyber scenarios generally were perceived as worse than traditional ones, although effect sizes were found to be small. These results suggest that the role of medium is secondary to the role of publicity and anonymity when it comes to evaluating bullying severity. Therefore, cyberbullying is not a priori perceived as worse than traditional bullying. Implications of the results for cyberbullying prevention and intervention are discussed.

  17. Molecular characterization of a new Babesia bovis thrombospondin-related anonymous protein (BbTRAP2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Alaa Terkawi

    Full Text Available A gene encoding a Babesia bovis protein that shares significant degree of similarity to other apicomplexan thrombospondin-related anonymous proteins (TRAPs was found in the genomic database and designated as BbTRAP2. Recombinant protein containing a conserved region of BbTRAP2 was produced in E. coli. A high antigenicity of recombinant BbTRAP2 (rBbTRAP2 was observed with field B. bovis-infected bovine sera collected from geographically different regions of the world. Moreover, antiserum against rBbTRAP2 specifically reacted with the authentic protein by Western blot analysis and an indirect fluorescent antibody test. Three bands corresponding to 104-, 76-, and 44-kDa proteins were identified in the parasite lysates and two bands of 76- and 44-kDa proteins were detected in the supernatant of cultivated parasites, indicating that BbTRAP2 was proteolytically processed and shed into the culture. Apical and surface localizations of BbTRAP2 were observed in the intracellular and extracellular parasites, respectively, by confocal laser microscopic examination. Moreover, native BbTRAP2 was precipitated by bovine erythrocytes, suggesting its role in the attachment to erythrocytes. Furthermore, the specific antibody to rBbTRAP2 inhibited the growth of B. bovis in a concentration-dependent manner. Consistently, pre-incubation of the free merozoites with the antibody to rBbTRAP2 resulted in an inhibition of the parasite invasion into host erythrocytes. Interestingly, the antibody to rBbTRAP2 was the most inhibitive for the parasite's growth as compared to those of a set of antisera produced against different recombinant proteins, including merozoite surface antigen 2c (BbMSA-2c, rhoptry-associated protein 1 C-terminal (BbRAP-1CT, and spherical body protein 1 (BbSBP-1. These results suggest that BbTRAP2 might be a potential candidate for development of a subunit vaccine against B. bovis infection.

  18. Latent Feature Models for Uncovering Human Mobility Patterns from Anonymized User Location Traces with Metadata

    KAUST Repository

    Alharbi, Basma Mohammed

    2017-04-10

    In the mobile era, data capturing individuals’ locations have become unprecedentedly available. Data from Location-Based Social Networks is one example of large-scale user-location data. Such data provide a valuable source for understanding patterns governing human mobility, and thus enable a wide range of research. However, mining and utilizing raw user-location data is a challenging task. This is mainly due to the sparsity of data (at the user level), the imbalance of data with power-law users and locations check-ins degree (at the global level), and more importantly the lack of a uniform low-dimensional feature space describing users. Three latent feature models are proposed in this dissertation. Each proposed model takes as an input a collection of user-location check-ins, and outputs a new representation space for users and locations respectively. To avoid invading users privacy, the proposed models are designed to learn from anonymized location data where only IDs - not geophysical positioning or category - of locations are utilized. To enrich the inferred mobility patterns, the proposed models incorporate metadata, often associated with user-location data, into the inference process. In this dissertation, two types of metadata are utilized to enrich the inferred patterns, timestamps and social ties. Time adds context to the inferred patterns, while social ties amplifies incomplete user-location check-ins. The first proposed model incorporates timestamps by learning from collections of users’ locations sharing the same discretized time. The second proposed model also incorporates time into the learning model, yet takes a further step by considering time at different scales (hour of a day, day of a week, month, and so on). This change in modeling time allows for capturing meaningful patterns over different times scales. The last proposed model incorporates social ties into the learning process to compensate for inactive users who contribute a large volume

  19. The Swift Turbidity Marker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Ahmad Fairuz; MatJafri, Mohd Zubir

    2011-01-01

    The Swift Turbidity Marker is an optical instrument developed to measure the level of water turbidity. The components and configuration selected for the system are based on common turbidity meter design concepts but use a simplified methodology to produce rapid turbidity measurements. This work is aimed at high school physics students and is the…

  20. Magik Markers Trehvis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Müra-rock'i viljelevast USA duost Magik Markers (ansambel osaleb režissöör Veiko Õunapuu uue mängufilmi "Püha Tõnu kiusamine" võtetel, kontsert 15. nov. Tartus klubis Trehv, vt. www.magikmarkers.audiosport.org.)

  1. A Mixed Anonymous System based on Tor%基于Tor的混合匿名转发系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑光; 薛质

    2011-01-01

    随着互联网应用的不断增加,人们对网络通信的保密性也越来越重视。Tor匿名通信系统具有低时延、数据加密传输,安全信道等优点,能够有效保护通信者的信息安全,目前正成为一种流行的匿名通信系统。但随着Tor系统使用和研究的人增多,Tor系统本身的一些缺陷给其安全带来了隐患。为此,在现有Tor系统分析的基础上,文中提出了一种安全新型的混合匿名转发系统H—Tor。该系统由Hordes和Tor有效级联组合,充分发挥了两者的优势。分析表明,H—Tor可以抵御通信流攻击和端对端攻击,有效保护通信者的匿名安全。%With the continuous increase of lnternet applications, people pay much attention to the confidentiality of network communications. Tor anonymous communication system, with low latency, data eneryption transmission, secure channel, etc., could effectively protect the information security of the correspondents, and thus becomes a popular anonymous communication system. However, with in-depth study wide use of the Tor system, Tor presents some defects in security risks. Currently, a new system called H-Tor is proposed upon the analysis of Tor. The system combines Hordes with Tor and gives full play to their advantages. Analysis shows that the H-Tor integration can effectively protect the anonymity of the correspondents.

  2. Atypical parakeratosis: a marker of dysplasia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voytek, T M; Kannan, V; Kline, T S

    1996-11-01

    The Bethesda System categorizes atypical parakeratosis (APK) as "ASCUS or SIL depending on the degree of cellular abnormalities." APK, however, is not well-defined. We retrospectively reviewed 68 cervicovaginal specimens with follow-up material to identify specific criteria and clinical significance of APK. APK cells were small cells, 2-3 times the diameter of neutrophil, with dense, orangeophilic cytoplasm, high nuclear cytoplasmic ratio, dense, often uneven chromatin, and irregular nuclear contour. Of 62 cases with APK, 37 had accompanying dysplastic cells. Of 25 cases with APK alone, follow-up revealed 12 with squamous intraepithelial lesion (5 HSIL and 7 LSIL) and 13 with benign changes. A major diagnostic pitfall of APK was inflammation with degeneration. Abundant APK cells, minimal inflammation and degeneration, and previous history of dysplasia frequently were associated with follow-up SIL. The findings of this study identify APK as an important marker for dysplasia that warrants careful evaluation and follow-up.

  3. Molecular markers for biodiversity analysis of wildlife animals: a brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif, I. A.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Molecular markers are indis­pensable tools for determining the genetic variation and biodiversity with high levels of accuracy and repro­ducibility. These markers are mainly classified into two types; mitochondrial and nuclear markers. The widely used mitochondrial DNA markers with decreasing order of conserved sequences are 12S rDNA > 16S rDNA > cytochrome b > control region (CR; thus the 12S rDNA is highly conserved and the CR is highly variable. The most commonly used nuclear markers for DNA fingerprinting include random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP and microsatellites. This short review narrates the application of these molecular markers for biodiversity analysis of wildlife animals.

  4. STR MARKERS. GENOTYPING APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Sirbu

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available STR (short tandem repeats loci consist of short, repetitive sequence elements of 2-8 bp in length. These abundant repeats are well distributed throughout the human genome and are rich source of highly polymorphic markers. There are literally hundreds of STR systems which have been mapped throughout the human genome. Several dozen have been investigated for application to human identity testing. These STR loci are found on almost every chromosome in the genome. They may be amplified using a variety of PCR primers. Tetranucleotide repeats have been most popular among forensic scientists due to their fidelity in PCR amplification although some tri- and pentanucleotide repeats are also in use. In this paper we intend (far from being exhaustive to present a synthesis of the characteristics of these genetic markers and their applications in genotyping, giving as an example the use of the STRs in a paternity testing case.

  5. The urine marker test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elbe, Anne-Marie; Jensen, Stine Nylandsted; Elsborg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Urine sample collection for doping control tests is a key component of the World Anti-Doping Agency's fight against doping in sport. However, a substantial number of athletes experience difficulty when having to urinate under supervision. Furthermore, it cannot always be ensured...... that athletes are actually delivering their own urine. A method that can be used to alleviate the negative impact of a supervised urination procedure and which can also identify urine as coming from a specific athlete is the urine marker test. Monodisperse low molecular weight polyethylene glycols (PEGs......) are given orally prior to urination. Urine samples can be traced to the donor by analysis of the PEGs previously given. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the use of the urine marker during urine doping control testing. METHODS: Two studies investigated athletes' acceptance...

  6. Alcoholism: Current Marker Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-01

    mongolism are high-risk candidates for certain types of leukemia. Similarly, hemophiliacs have a correspondingly high incidence of color blindness . (4...genetically determined characteristics such as color blindness and blood type. GENETIC MARKER STUDIES In 1966 Dr. Cruz-Coke and Dr. Varela reported that...their study had linked color blindness , cirrhosis of the liver and alcoholism. They further hypothesized the existence of a sex-linked carrier gene

  7. The International Atomic Energy Agency: orientations for the 21. century. Nuclear facilities exploitation: three questions to Remy Carle. The civil nuclear and the electric power generation in Germany. Usa: the electric power marker deregulation and the perspective of the nuclear energy. The situation of nuclear energy in Japan. Finland.. debate about the 5. reactor. The electronuclear development in China. The last act of the swedish nuclear saga. The Korean nuclear programme. The civil nuclear energy in Eastern Europe... in brief; L'Agence Internationale de l'Energie Atomique: orientations pour le 21. siecle. Exploitation des centrales nucleaires: trois questions a Remy Carle. Le nucleaire civil et la production d'electricite en Allemagne. Etats-Unis: la deregulation du marche de l'electricite et les perspectives du nucleaire. La situation du nucleaire au Japon. Finlande... sur fond de debat a propos du 5. reacteur. Le developpement electronucleaire de la Chine.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carle, R.; Thiebaud, Ph. [CEA, Direction des Relations Interantionales, 75 - Paris (France); Heuraux, Ch.; Tinturier, B.; Lavergne, B. de [EDF, 75 - Paris (France); Forum Atomique Allemand, Bonn (Germany); Lavigne, J.J. [Ambassade de France au Japon (Japan); Soyer, B. [Ambassade de Chine en France (France); Edin, K.A. [Institut Politique et Social de Stockholm (Sweden); Chaucheprat, P. [Ambassade de France en Coree (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-04-01

    This issue is dedicated to nuclear programmes throughout the world. A few articles give an overview of the major trends of nuclear industry, from the standpoints of economy, industry, environment and international regulations. A few articles give an overview of the major trends of nuclear industry, from the standpoints of economy, industry, environment and international regulations. A few specific countries or groups of countries are then highlighted, together with a typical economic and political backgrounds. The countries dealt with are Germany, China, Korea, the U.S., Finland, Japan and Sweden. Some specific data are given on nuclear industry in Eastern Europe. (author)

  8. Nuclear Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drago, Alessandro

    2005-04-01

    The activity of the Italian nuclear physicists community in the field of Nuclear Astrophysics is reported. The researches here described have been performed within the project "Fisica teorica del nucleo e dei sistemi a multi corpi", supported by the Ministero dell'Istruzione, dell'Università e della Ricerca.

  9. Chaotic maps and biometrics-based anonymous three-party authenticated key exchange protocol without using passwords

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qi; Hu, Bin; Chen, Ke-Fei; Liu, Wen-Hao; Tan, Xiao

    2015-11-01

    In three-party password authenticated key exchange (AKE) protocol, since two users use their passwords to establish a secure session key over an insecure communication channel with the help of the trusted server, such a protocol may suffer the password guessing attacks and the server has to maintain the password table. To eliminate the shortages of password-based AKE protocol, very recently, according to chaotic maps, Lee et al. [2015 Nonlinear Dyn. 79 2485] proposed a first three-party-authenticated key exchange scheme without using passwords, and claimed its security by providing a well-organized BAN logic test. Unfortunately, their protocol cannot resist impersonation attack, which is demonstrated in the present paper. To overcome their security weakness, by using chaotic maps, we propose a biometrics-based anonymous three-party AKE protocol with the same advantages. Further, we use the pi calculus-based formal verification tool ProVerif to show that our AKE protocol achieves authentication, security and anonymity, and an acceptable efficiency. Project supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Zhejiang Province, China (Grant No. LZ12F02005), the Major State Basic Research Development Program of China (Grant No. 2013CB834205), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61070153).

  10. Anonymization of Court Decisions: Are Restrictions on the Right to Information in “Accordance with the Law”?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gruodytė Edita

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In Lithuania rules for the anonymization of court decisions were introduced in 2005. These rules require automatic anonymization of all court decisions, which in the opinion of the authors violates the public interest to know and freedom of expression is unjustifiably restricted on behalf of the right to privacy. This issue covers two diametrically opposed human rights: the right to privacy and the right to information. The first question is how the balance between two equivalent rights could be reached. The second question is whether this regulation is in accordance with the law as it is established in the national Constitution and revealed by the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Lithuania and developed by the jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights. The authors conclude that the legislator is not empowered to delegate to the Judicial Council issues which are a matter of legal regulation and suggest possible solutions evaluating practice of the Court of Justice of the European Union, the European Court of Human Rights, and selected EU countries.

  11. A quality improvement project to tackle under-reporting of hazards by doctors by using an anonymous telephone hotline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    An anonymous hazard reporting hotline was established for doctors to use on two general medical wards at Weston General Hospital (WGH) in North Somerset in England during an eight day period in July/August 2014. Doctors were encouraged to report hazards and near misses or just start a conversation about a concern. The existing computer based significant event system remained alongside the hotline and was to be used where actual harm had come to a patient. A team of consultants and quality improvement administrators monitored the hotline on a daily basis, categorized the level of risk being reported and ensured, where possible, that action was taken to address the doctors' concerns. The hotline increased reporting rates from two per month to 25 in eight days. The system identified 13 amber (medium risk) and five red (high risk) hazards which would otherwise not have been known about. This author believes these five high risk reports alone make the case for a new, quicker, easier, and anonymous reporting system for doctors at WGH urgent and irrefutable.

  12. Factors associated with failure to return for HIV test results in a free and anonymous screening centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laanani, Moussa; Dozol, Adrien; Meyer, Laurence; David, Stéphane; Camara, Sékou; Segouin, Christophe; Troude, Pénélope

    2015-07-01

    Free and anonymous screening centres (CDAG: Centres de Depistage Anononyme et Gratuit) are public facilities set up for HIV infection diagnosis in France. Some people visiting CDAG fail to return for test results and are not informed of their serology. This study aimed to assess factors associated with failure to return for HIV test results. Patients visiting the Fernand-Widal CDAG (Paris) for an HIV test in January-February 2011 were eligible to take part in the study. Data were collected with an anonymous self-administered questionnaire. Factors associated with failure to return were assessed using logistic regression models. Of the 710 participants (participation rate 88%), 46 patients failed to return. Not specifying birthplace and not living in the region of Paris were associated with failure to return. Those who perceived no risk of HIV infection and those who felt they were more at risk than other people were both statistically associated with failure to return. Self-perceived risk seemed to be of chief concern for failure to return for HIV test results and should be considered during pre-test counselling.

  13. Entre o controle e o ativismo hacker: a ação política dos Anonymous Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo Bansi Machado

    Full Text Available Resumo Este trabalho trata da ação política dos Anonymous, principal expressão do ativismo hacker atual, argumentando que o hacktivismo se configura como uma forma de resistência política nas sociedades de controle. Para isso, centra-se no estudo da faceta brasileira e hacktivista do coletivo. A fim de ressaltar seu caráter político, recorre às principais expressões dohacking na literatura. Descreve motivações, métodos e a ética de sua ação política, tendo como base uma análise comparativa de duas operações deflagradas por Anonymous brasileiros em 2012: #OpWeeksPayment e #OpGlobo. Por fim, identifica quatro de suas principais formas de engajamento político: promoção do anonimato; “evangelização”; formação de redes distribuídas; e o fato de o coletivo exibir e possibilitar várias formas de ações políticas.

  14. An Anonymous User Authentication and Key Agreement Scheme Based on a Symmetric Cryptosystem in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaewook Jung

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In wireless sensor networks (WSNs, a registered user can login to the network and use a user authentication protocol to access data collected from the sensor nodes. Since WSNs are typically deployed in unattended environments and sensor nodes have limited resources, many researchers have made considerable efforts to design a secure and efficient user authentication process. Recently, Chen et al. proposed a secure user authentication scheme using symmetric key techniques for WSNs. They claim that their scheme assures high efficiency and security against different types of attacks. After careful analysis, however, we find that Chen et al.’s scheme is still vulnerable to smart card loss attack and is susceptible to denial of service attack, since it is invalid for verification to simply compare an entered ID and a stored ID in smart card. In addition, we also observe that their scheme cannot preserve user anonymity. Furthermore, their scheme cannot quickly detect an incorrect password during login phase, and this flaw wastes both communication and computational overheads. In this paper, we describe how these attacks work, and propose an enhanced anonymous user authentication and key agreement scheme based on a symmetric cryptosystem in WSNs to address all of the aforementioned vulnerabilities in Chen et al.’s scheme. Our analysis shows that the proposed scheme improves the level of security, and is also more efficient relative to other related schemes.

  15. An Anonymous User Authentication and Key Agreement Scheme Based on a Symmetric Cryptosystem in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jaewook; Kim, Jiye; Choi, Younsung; Won, Dongho

    2016-01-01

    In wireless sensor networks (WSNs), a registered user can login to the network and use a user authentication protocol to access data collected from the sensor nodes. Since WSNs are typically deployed in unattended environments and sensor nodes have limited resources, many researchers have made considerable efforts to design a secure and efficient user authentication process. Recently, Chen et al. proposed a secure user authentication scheme using symmetric key techniques for WSNs. They claim that their scheme assures high efficiency and security against different types of attacks. After careful analysis, however, we find that Chen et al.’s scheme is still vulnerable to smart card loss attack and is susceptible to denial of service attack, since it is invalid for verification to simply compare an entered ID and a stored ID in smart card. In addition, we also observe that their scheme cannot preserve user anonymity. Furthermore, their scheme cannot quickly detect an incorrect password during login phase, and this flaw wastes both communication and computational overheads. In this paper, we describe how these attacks work, and propose an enhanced anonymous user authentication and key agreement scheme based on a symmetric cryptosystem in WSNs to address all of the aforementioned vulnerabilities in Chen et al.’s scheme. Our analysis shows that the proposed scheme improves the level of security, and is also more efficient relative to other related schemes. PMID:27537890

  16. Chaotic maps and biometrics-based anonymous three-party authenticated key exchange protocol without using passwords

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢琪; 胡斌; 陈克非; 刘文浩; 谭肖

    2015-01-01

    In three-party password authenticated key exchange (AKE) protocol, since two users use their passwords to establish a secure session key over an insecure communication channel with the help of the trusted server, such a protocol may suffer the password guessing attacks and the server has to maintain the password table. To eliminate the shortages of password-based AKE protocol, very recently, according to chaotic maps, Lee et al. [2015 Nonlinear Dyn. 79 2485] proposed a first three-party-authenticated key exchange scheme without using passwords, and claimed its security by providing a well-organized BAN logic test. Unfortunately, their protocol cannot resist impersonation attack, which is demonstrated in the present paper. To overcome their security weakness, by using chaotic maps, we propose a biometrics-based anonymous three-party AKE protocol with the same advantages. Further, we use the pi calculus-based formal verification tool ProVerif to show that our AKE protocol achieves authentication, security and anonymity, and an acceptable efficiency.

  17. An Anonymous User Authentication and Key Agreement Scheme Based on a Symmetric Cryptosystem in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jaewook; Kim, Jiye; Choi, Younsung; Won, Dongho

    2016-08-16

    In wireless sensor networks (WSNs), a registered user can login to the network and use a user authentication protocol to access data collected from the sensor nodes. Since WSNs are typically deployed in unattended environments and sensor nodes have limited resources, many researchers have made considerable efforts to design a secure and efficient user authentication process. Recently, Chen et al. proposed a secure user authentication scheme using symmetric key techniques for WSNs. They claim that their scheme assures high efficiency and security against different types of attacks. After careful analysis, however, we find that Chen et al.'s scheme is still vulnerable to smart card loss attack and is susceptible to denial of service attack, since it is invalid for verification to simply compare an entered ID and a stored ID in smart card. In addition, we also observe that their scheme cannot preserve user anonymity. Furthermore, their scheme cannot quickly detect an incorrect password during login phase, and this flaw wastes both communication and computational overheads. In this paper, we describe how these attacks work, and propose an enhanced anonymous user authentication and key agreement scheme based on a symmetric cryptosystem in WSNs to address all of the aforementioned vulnerabilities in Chen et al.'s scheme. Our analysis shows that the proposed scheme improves the level of security, and is also more efficient relative to other related schemes.

  18. Nuclear stress test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Persantine stress test; Thallium stress test; Stress test - nuclear; Adenosine stress test; Regadenoson stress test; CAD - nuclear stress; Coronary artery disease - nuclear stress; Angina - nuclear ...

  19. Nuclear questions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durrani, M. [Physics World (United Kingdom)

    2006-01-01

    The future of nuclear power has returned to centre stage. Freezing weather on both sides of the Atlantic and last month's climate-change talks in Montreal have helped to put energy and the future of nuclear power right back on the political agenda. The issue is particularly pressing for those countries where existing nuclear stations are reaching the end of their lives. In the UK, prime minister Tony Blair has commissioned a review of energy, with a view to deciding later this year whether to build new nuclear power plants. The review comes just four years after the Labour government published a White Paper on energy that said the country should keep the nuclear option open but did not follow this up with any concrete action. In Germany, new chancellor and former physicist Angela Merkel is a fan of nuclear energy and had said she would extend the lifetime of its nuclear plants beyond 2020, when they are due to close. However, that commitment has had to be abandoned, at least for the time being, following negotiations with her left-wing coalition partners. The arguments in favour of nuclear power will be familiar to all physicists - it emits almost no carbon dioxide and can play a vital role in maintaining a diverse energy supply. To over-rely on imported supplies of oil and gas can leave a nation hostage to fortune. The arguments against are equally easy to list - the public is scared of nuclear power, it generates dangerous waste with potentially huge clean-up costs, and it is not necessarily cheap. Nuclear plants could also be a target for terrorist attacks. Given political will, many of these problems can be resolved, or at least tackled. China certainly sees the benefits of nuclear power, as does Finland, which is building a new 1600 MW station - the world's most powerful - that is set to open in 2009. Physicists, of course, are essential to such developments. They play a vital role in ensuring the safety of such plants and developing new types of

  20. Object Markers in Ikalanga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Letsholo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an on-going debate amongst linguists regarding the status of the object marker (OM. Some scholars argue that OMs are agreement morphology (Baker 2010, Riedel 2009 while others argue that OMs are pronominal and not agreement morphology (Nevins 2010, Kramer, under review, Labelle 2007, Demuth and Johnson 1990, Mchombo 2002. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to this debate using data from Ikalanga to support the view that OMs are pronominal clitics. I discuss evidence in favor of the agreement analysis as well as that in favor of the pronominal analysis. OMs in Ikalanga behave like agreement morphology in that they attach only to the verbal stem, only one OM occurs in a clause, and they share grammatical features (person, gender and number with the lexical NP with which they co-refer. However, there are many ways in which OMs behave like pronominals. For example, OMs do not vary in form according to the mood of a sentence or negation while subject markers, which I analyze as agreement morphemes do. They are not obligatory in Ikalanga sentences while subject markers are. OMs are not subject to locality constraints while agreement is. They can be bound by the subject (backward pronominalization, something unexpected of agreement and there is ample evidence to show that the lexical NP with which the OM co-refers is an adjunct, a fact which has been used in the literature to argue that the OM is pronominal in such a set up. The evidence in favor of the pronominal analysis however, is more compelling and therefore I conclude that OMs are pronominal clitics and not agreement morphology.

  1. Bone Remodelling Markers in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice Fardellone

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone loss in rheumatoid arthritis (RA patients results from chronic inflammation and can lead to osteoporosis and fractures. A few bone remodeling markers have been studied in RA witnessing bone formation (osteocalcin, serum aminoterminal propeptide of type I collagen (PINP, serum carboxyterminal propeptide of type I collagen (ICTP, bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP, osteocalcin (OC, and bone resorption: C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (I-CTX, N-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (I-NTX, pyridinolines (DPD and PYD, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP. Bone resorption can be seen either in periarticular bone (demineralization and erosion or in the total skeleton (osteoporosis. Whatever the location, bone resorption results from activation of osteoclasts when the ratio between osteoprotegerin and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (OPG/RANKL is decreased under influence of various proinflammatory cytokines. Bone remodeling markers also allow physicians to evaluate the effect of drugs used in RA like biologic agents, which reduce inflammation and exert a protecting effect on bone. We will discuss in this review changes in bone markers remodeling in patients with RA treated with biologics.

  2. Nuclear Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Savage, Martin J

    2016-01-01

    Lattice QCD is making good progress toward calculating the structure and properties of light nuclei and the forces between nucleons. These calculations will ultimately refine the nuclear forces, particularly in the three- and four-nucleon sector and the short-distance interactions of nucleons with electroweak currents, and allow for a reduction of uncertainties in nuclear many-body calculations of nuclei and their reactions. After highlighting their importance, particularly to the Nuclear Physics and High-Energy Physics experimental programs, I discuss the progress that has been made toward achieving these goals and the challenges that remain.

  3. Characterization of nuclear microsatellite markers from Agrostis species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrostis stolonifera L. (creeping bentgrass) is a widely distributed, out-crossing, wind-pollinated, perennial grass that has been genetically engineered for a variety of traits including herbicide, disease and insect resistance. This allotetraploid species (A2A2A3A3 genomic comp...

  4. Multidimensional profiling of cell surface proteins and nuclear markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Ju; Chang, Hang; Andarawewa, Kumari; Yaswen, Paul; Helen Barcellos-Hoff, Mary; Parvin, Bahram

    2009-01-30

    Cell membrane proteins play an important role in tissue architecture and cell-cell communication. We hypothesize that segmentation and multidimensional characterization of the distribution of cell membrane proteins, on a cell-by-cell basis, enable improved classification of treatment groups and identify important characteristics that can otherwise be hidden. We have developed a series of computational steps to (i) delineate cell membrane protein signals and associate them with a specific nucleus; (ii) compute a coupled representation of the multiplexed DNA content with membrane proteins; (iii) rank computed features associated with such a multidimensional representation; (iv) visualize selected features for comparative evaluation through heatmaps; and (v) discriminate between treatment groups in an optimal fashion. The novelty of our method is in the segmentation of the membrane signal and the multidimensional representation of phenotypic signature on a cell-by-cell basis. To test the utility of this method, the proposed computational steps were applied to images of cells that have been irradiated with different radiation qualities in the presence and absence of other small molecules. These samples are labeled for their DNA content and E-cadherin membrane proteins. We demonstrate that multidimensional representations of cell-by-cell phenotypes improve predictive and visualization capabilities among different treatment groups, and identify hidden variables.

  5. Prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis C virus, hepatitis B virus and syphilis among individuals attending anonymous testing for HIV in Luanda, Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães Nebenzahl, H; Lopes, A; Castro, R; Pereira, F

    2013-01-24

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and syphilis remain major infections around the world. In Angola there are about 166 000 individuals living with HIV, representing a prevalence of 1.98% in adults between 15 and 49 years of age. In a 2003 study in Luanda, 4.5% of pregnant women had antibodies to HIV and 8.1% to HBV, and 5.4% were infected with Treponema pallidum. Objectives. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of HIV-1 and 2, HBV, HCV and T. pallidum serological markers, and hence the prevalence of these infections, in individuals attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic in Luanda, Angola, and the burden of these infections in the Angolan population. Methods. Individuals attending a centre for anonymous testing for HIV were randomly included in the study. All samples were tested for HBV surface antigen (HBsAg), anti-HCV and anti-HIV-1 and 2 antibodies and antibodies to T. pallidum. Results. A total of 431 individuals (262 women and 169 men) were studied, of whom 10.0% (43/431) were seropositive for T. pallidum and 4.6% had active syphilis; 8.8% (38/431) were seropositive for HIV-1 and/or HIV-2 (of these, 78.9% were HIV-1-positive, 2.6% HIV-2-positive and 18.4% co-infected); 9.3% (40/431) were HBsAg-positive, while 8.1% (35/431) had antibodies to HCV. Of 102 patients with positive results, 26 (25.5%, or 6.0% of the total of 431 patients) were positive for more than one of the organisms studied. Rates of co-infection were as follows: 2.3% (10/431) for HIV/HBV, 0.9% (4/431) for HIV/HCV, and 0.9% (4/431) for HCV/HBV. Three individuals with active syphilis had viral co-infection, hepatitis B in 1 case and HIV in 2. Five individuals (1.2% of the total) were seropositive for three infections, HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C in 3 cases and HIV, hepatitis C and syphilis in 2. Conclusions. A high prevalence of co-infection with the infections studied was found in this population, including HIV

  6. DIAGNOSTIC IMPLICATIONS OF IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL MARKERS IN UTERINE SMOOTH MUSCLE TUMORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱雪琼; 石一复; 陈晓端; 吴裕中

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic implications of immunohistochemical markers in uterine smooth muscle tumors. Methods: Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue blocks were selected from 17 uterine leiomyosarcomas, 40 uterine unusual leiomyomas and 25 uterine usual leiomyomas. Utilizing immunohistochemical techniques with antigen retrieval, serial sections of each tumor for immunoreactivity with myogenic markers, ovarian steroid receptors, CD44v3, proliferating cell nuclear antigen and mast cells were assessed. Results: Although the myogenic markers and CD44v3 showed less frequent positivity in uterine leiomyosarcomas than those in unusual leiomyomas, they were not reliable markers for differentiating leiomyosarcoma from leiomyoma. Uterine leiomyosarcoma tended to have lower ovarian steroid receptors immunoreactivity rates than leiomyoma. Leiomyoma tended to have a higher quantity of intratumoral mast cells than leiomyosarcoma, while the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen was lower in them. Conclusion: Because the estimation of mitotic count was subject to significant variation, the immunohistochemical expression of ovarian steroid receptors, mast cells and proliferating cell nuclear antigen seemed to be helpful for the discrimination of unusual leiomyoma from leiomyosarcoma.

  7. Exon-primed intron-crossing (EPIC markers as a tool for ant phylogeography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia R. Ströher

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Exon-primed intron-crossing (EPIC markers as a tool for ant phylogeography. Due to their local abundance, diversity of adaptations and worldwide distribution, ants are a classic example of adaptive radiation. Despite this evolutionary and ecological importance, phylogeographical studies on ants have relied largely on mitochondrial markers. In this study we design and test exon-primed intron-crossing (EPIC markers, which can be widely used to uncover ant intraspecific variation. Candidate markers were obtained through screening the available ant genomes for unlinked conserved exonic regions interspersed with introns. A subset of 15 markers was tested in vitro and showed successful amplification in several phylogenetically distant ant species. These markers represent an important step forward in ant phylogeography and population genetics, allowing for more extensive characterization of variation in ant nuclear DNA without the need to develop species-specific markers.

  8. Nuclear Disarmament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher

    1982-01-01

    Material about nuclear disarmament and the arms race should be included in secondary school curricula. Teachers can present this technical, controversial, and frightening material in a balanced and comprehensible way. Resources for instructional materials are listed. (PP)

  9. Nuclear reaction

    CERN Multimedia

    Penwarden, C

    2001-01-01

    At the European Research Organization for Nuclear Research, Nobel laureates delve into the mysteries of particle physics. But when they invited artists from across the continent to visit their site in Geneva, they wanted a new kind of experiment.

  10. Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... here Home » Science Education » Science Topics » Nuclear Medicine SCIENCE EDUCATION SCIENCE EDUCATION Science Topics Resource Links for ... administered by inhalation, by oral ingestion, or by direct injection into an organ. The mode of tracer ...

  11. Nuclear astrophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnould, M. [Institut d' Astronomie et d' Astrophysique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Bruxelles (Belgium); Takahashi, K. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Garching (Germany)

    1999-03-01

    Nuclear astrophysics is that branch of astrophysics which helps understanding of the Universe, or at least some of its many faces, through the knowledge of the microcosm of the atomic nucleus. It attempts to find as many nuclear physics imprints as possible in the macrocosm, and to decipher what those messages are telling us about the varied constituent objects in the Universe at present and in the past. In the last decades much advance has been made in nuclear astrophysics thanks to the sometimes spectacular progress made in the modelling of the structure and evolution of the stars, in the quality and diversity of the astronomical observations, as well as in the experimental and theoretical understanding of the atomic nucleus and of its spontaneous or induced transformations. Developments in other subfields of physics and chemistry have also contributed to that advance. Notwithstanding the accomplishment, many long-standing problems remain to be solved, and the theoretical understanding of a large variety of observational facts needs to be put on safer grounds. In addition, new questions are continuously emerging, and new facts endangering old ideas. This review shows that astrophysics has been, and still is, highly demanding to nuclear physics in both its experimental and theoretical components. On top of the fact that large varieties of nuclei have to be dealt with, these nuclei are immersed in highly unusual environments which may have a significant impact on their static properties, the diversity of their transmutation modes, and on the probabilities of these modes. In order to have a chance of solving some of the problems nuclear astrophysics is facing, the astrophysicists and nuclear physicists are obviously bound to put their competence in common, and have sometimes to benefit from the help of other fields of physics, like particle physics, plasma physics or solid-state physics. Given the highly varied and complex aspects, we pick here some specific nuclear

  12. Nuclear astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnould, M.; Takahashi, K.

    1999-03-01

    Nuclear astrophysics is that branch of astrophysics which helps understanding of the Universe, or at least some of its many faces, through the knowledge of the microcosm of the atomic nucleus. It attempts to find as many nuclear physics imprints as possible in the macrocosm, and to decipher what those messages are telling us about the varied constituent objects in the Universe at present and in the past. In the last decades much advance has been made in nuclear astrophysics thanks to the sometimes spectacular progress made in the modelling of the structure and evolution of the stars, in the quality and diversity of the astronomical observations, as well as in the experimental and theoretical understanding of the atomic nucleus and of its spontaneous or induced transformations. Developments in other subfields of physics and chemistry have also contributed to that advance. Notwithstanding the accomplishment, many long-standing problems remain to be solved, and the theoretical understanding of a large variety of observational facts needs to be put on safer grounds. In addition, new questions are continuously emerging, and new facts endangering old ideas. This review shows that astrophysics has been, and still is, highly demanding to nuclear physics in both its experimental and theoretical components. On top of the fact that large varieties of nuclei have to be dealt with, these nuclei are immersed in highly unusual environments which may have a significant impact on their static properties, the diversity of their transmutation modes, and on the probabilities of these modes. In order to have a chance of solving some of the problems nuclear astrophysics is facing, the astrophysicists and nuclear physicists are obviously bound to put their competence in common, and have sometimes to benefit from the help of other fields of physics, like particle physics, plasma physics or solid-state physics. Given the highly varied and complex aspects, we pick here some specific nuclear

  13. Nuclear Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Morgan C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-01-23

    PowerPoint presentation targeted for educational use. Nuclear data comes from a variety of sources and in many flavors. Understanding where the data you use comes from and what flavor it is can be essential to understand and interpret your results. This talk will discuss the nuclear data pipeline with particular emphasis on providing links to additional resources that can be used to explore the issues you will encounter.

  14. Nuclear Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargano, Angela

    2003-04-01

    An account of recent studies in the field of theoretical nuclear structure is reported. These studies concern essentially research activities performed under the Italian project "Fisica Teorica del Nucleo e dei Sistemi a Molti Corpi". Special attention is addressed to results obtained during the last two years as regards the development of new many-body techniques as well as the interpretation of new experimental aspects of nuclear structure.

  15. Foreword for the special issue of selected papers from the 7th EDBT/ICDT Workshop on Privacy and Anonymity in Information Society (PAIS 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traian Marius Truta

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The seventh Workshop on Privacy and Anonymity in Information Society (PAIS 2014 was held in conjunction with the International Conference on Extending Database Technology (EDBT and International Conference on Database Theory (ICDT in Athens, Greece. The PAIS 2014 workshop provided an open yet focused platform for researchers and practitioners from fields such as computer science, statistics, healthcare informatics, and law to discuss and present current research challenges and advances in data privacy and anonymity research. The present special issue contains three extended papers that have been selected as the best three papers presented at PAIS 2014 workshop.

  16. Humility and 12-Step Recovery: A Prolegomenon for the Empirical Investigation of a Cardinal Virtue in Alcoholics Anonymous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Stephen G; Pagano, Maria E; Lee, Matthew T; Johnson, Byron R

    Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) offers a live stage to study how humility is worn by thousands for another day of sobriety and more freedom from the bondage of self. It has been the coauthors' intent to emphasize the significance of humility as a cardinal virtue across the 12-Step program and as essential to all its key elements. The coauthors have placed this emphasis in the context of a wider theological history of thought as this converged on Bill W. and AA. In addition, the coauthors have offered a constructive developmental interpretation of the 12 Steps that relies on a model of four modulations of humility. Finally, the coauthors have reviewed in brief some approaches to the measurement of humility in this context, and suggest several aims for future research.

  17. Analysis of Drugs of Abuse in Anonymously Collected Urine and Soil samples from a Music Festival in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardal, Marie; Ramin, Pedram; Plósz, Benedek G.

    Aim: Pooled human urine and soil from urinating spots were collected anonymously at a Scandinavian music festival. Samples should be screened for drugs of abuse, particularly novel psychoactive substances (NPS), but also therapeutic drugs and ethanol. Methods: Twenty-one urine samples were......, sertraline, and loperamide could be detected. 9-carboxy-THC was detected in most samples by immunoassay and confirmed by GC-MS; six thereof with immunoassay concentrations >50 ng/mL. The average ethanol concentration was 0.60 g/L ± 0.12 (α=0.05, n=21). In the soil samples, the following drugs of abuse could...... side or chemical instability. Soil samples could be proved to be useful for investigating consumption of drugs of abuse as a supplement to urine samples...

  18. Entre o controle e o ativismo hacker: a ação política dos Anonymous Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Murilo Bansi Machado

    2015-01-01

    Resumo Este trabalho trata da ação política dos Anonymous, principal expressão do ativismo hacker atual, argumentando que o hacktivismo se configura como uma forma de resistência política nas sociedades de controle. Para isso, centra-se no estudo da faceta brasileira e hacktivista do coletivo. A fim de ressaltar seu caráter político, recorre às principais expressões dohacking na literatura. Descreve motivações, métodos e a ética de sua ação política, tendo como base uma análise comparativa de...

  19. A Policy Based Approach for the Management of Web Browser Resources to Prevent Anonymity Attacks in Tor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Arribas, Guillermo; Garcia-Alfaro, Joaquin

    Web browsers are becoming the universal interface to reach applications and services related with these systems. Different browsing contexts may be required in order to reach them, e.g., use of VPN tunnels, corporate proxies, anonymisers, etc. By browsing context we mean how the user browsers the Web, including mainly the concrete configuration of its browser. When the context of the browser changes, its security requirements also change. In this work, we present the use of authorisation policies to automatise the process of controlling the resources of a Web browser when its context changes. The objective of our proposal is oriented towards easing the adaptation to the security requirements of the new context and enforce them in the browser without the need for user intervention. We present a concrete application of our work as a plug-in for the adaption of security requirements in Mozilla/Firefox browser when a context of anonymous navigation through the Tor network is enabled.

  20. A secure user anonymity-preserving three-factor remote user authentication scheme for the telecare medicine information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Ashok Kumar

    2015-03-01

    Recent advanced technology enables the telecare medicine information system (TMIS) for the patients to gain the health monitoring facility at home and also to access medical services over the Internet of mobile networks. Several remote user authentication schemes have been proposed in the literature for TMIS. However, most of them are either insecure against various known attacks or they are inefficient. Recently, Tan proposed an efficient user anonymity preserving three-factor authentication scheme for TMIS. In this paper, we show that though Tan's scheme is efficient, it has several security drawbacks such as (1) it fails to provide proper authentication during the login phase, (2) it fails to provide correct updation of password and biometric of a user during the password and biometric update phase, and (3) it fails to protect against replay attack. In addition, Tan's scheme lacks the formal security analysis and verification. Later, Arshad and Nikooghadam also pointed out some security flaws in Tan's scheme and then presented an improvement on Tan's s scheme. However, we show that Arshad and Nikooghadam's scheme is still insecure against the privileged-insider attack through the stolen smart-card attack, and it also lacks the formal security analysis and verification. In order to withstand those security loopholes found in both Tan's scheme, and Arshad and Nikooghadam's scheme, we aim to propose an effective and more secure three-factor remote user authentication scheme for TMIS. Our scheme provides the user anonymity property. Through the rigorous informal and formal security analysis using random oracle models and the widely-accepted AVISPA (Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications) tool, we show that our scheme is secure against various known attacks, including the replay and man-in-the-middle attacks. Furthermore, our scheme is also efficient as compared to other related schemes.

  1. Comparing Acceptance and Commitment Group Therapy and 12-Steps Narcotics Anonymous in Addict's Rehabilitation Process: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azkhosh, Manoochehr; Farhoudianm, Ali; Saadati, Hemn; Shoaee, Fateme; Lashani, Leila

    2016-10-01

    Objective: Substance abuse is a socio-psychological disorder. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy with 12-steps Narcotics Anonymous on psychological well-being of opiate dependent individuals in addiction treatment centers in Shiraz, Iran. Method: This was a randomized controlled trial. Data were collected at entry into the study and at post-test and follow-up visits. The participants were selected from opiate addicted individuals who referred to addiction treatment centers in Shiraz. Sixty individuals were evaluated according to inclusion/ exclusion criteria and were divided into three equal groups randomly (20 participants per group). One group received acceptance and commitment group therapy (Twelve 90-minute sessions) and the other group was provided with the 12-steps Narcotics Anonymous program and the control group received the usual methadone maintenance treatment. During the treatment process, seven participants dropped out. Data were collected using the psychological well-being questionnaire and AAQ questionnaire in the three groups at pre-test, post-test and follow-up visits. Data were analyzed using repeated measure analysis of variance. Results: Repeated measure analysis of variance revealed that the mean difference between the three groups was significant (Pacceptance and commitment therapy group showed improvement relative to the NA and control groups on psychological well-being and psychological flexibility. Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that acceptance and commitment therapy can be helpful in enhancing positive emotions and increasing psychological well-being of addicts who seek treatment.

  2. Duke Surgery Patient Safety: an open-source application for anonymous reporting of adverse and near-miss surgical events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCready Mariana

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have shown that 4% of hospitalized patients suffer from an adverse event caused by the medical treatment administered. Some institutions have created systems to encourage medical workers to report these adverse events. However, these systems often prove to be inadequate and/or ineffective for reviewing the data collected and improving the outcomes in patient safety. Objective To describe the Web-application Duke Surgery Patient Safety, designed for the anonymous reporting of adverse and near-miss events as well as scheduled reporting to surgeons and hospital administration. Software architecture DSPS was developed primarily using Java language running on a Tomcat server and with MySQL database as its backend. Results Formal and field usability tests were used to aid in development of DSPS. Extensive experience with DSPS at our institution indicate that DSPS is easy to learn and use, has good speed, provides needed functionality, and is well received by both adverse-event reporters and administrators. Discussion This is the first description of an open-source application for reporting patient safety, which allows the distribution of the application to other institutions in addition for its ability to adapt to the needs of different departments. DSPS provides a mechanism for anonymous reporting of adverse events and helps to administer Patient Safety initiatives. Conclusion The modifiable framework of DSPS allows adherence to evolving national data standards. The open-source design of DSPS permits surgical departments with existing reporting mechanisms to integrate them with DSPS. The DSPS application is distributed under the GNU General Public License.

  3. General Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z General Nuclear Medicine Nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts of ... limitations of General Nuclear Medicine? What is General Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical ...

  4. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small ... of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical ...

  5. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts ... Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging ...

  6. Molecular marker applications in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Alice C; Tollenaere, Reece; Dalton-Morgan, Jessica; Batley, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Individuals within a population of a sexually reproducing species will have some degree of heritable genomic variation caused by mutations, insertion/deletions (INDELS), inversions, duplications, and translocations. Such variation can be detected and screened using molecular, or genetic, markers. By definition, molecular markers are genetic loci that can be easily tracked and quantified in a population and may be associated with a particular gene or trait of interest. This chapter will review the current major applications of molecular markers in plants.

  7. ASSESSMENT OF THE FUKUSIMA NUCLEAR POWER PLANT ACCIDENT CONSEQUENCES BY THE POPULATION IN THE FAR EAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Arkhangelskaya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the attitude of the population in the five regions of the Far East to the consequences of the accident at the Fukushimai nuclear power plant, as well as the issues of informing about the accident. The analysis of public opinion is based on the data obtained by anonymous questionnaire survey performed in November 2011. In spite of the rather active informing and objective information on the absence of the contamination, most of the population of the Russian Far East believes that radioactive contamination is presented in the areas of their residence, and the main cause of this contamination is the nuclear accident in Japan.

  8. Biochemical markers of bone turnover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Deog Yoon [College of Medicine, Kyunghee Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-08-01

    Biochemical markers of bone turnover has received increasing attention over the past few years, because of the need for sensitivity and specific tool in the clinical investigation of osteoporosis. Bone markers should be unique to bone, reflect changes of bone less, and should be correlated with radiocalcium kinetics, histomorphometry, or changes in bone mass. The markers also should be useful in monitoring treatment efficacy. Although no bone marker has been established to meet all these criteria, currently osteocalcin and pyridinium crosslinks are the most efficient markers to assess the level of bone turnover in the menopausal and senile osteoporosis. Recently, N-terminal telopeptide (NTX), C-terminal telopeptide (CTX) and bone specific alkaline phosphatase are considered as new valid markers of bone turnover. Recent data suggest that CTX and free deoxypyridinoline could predict the subsequent risk of hip fracture of elderly women. Treatment of postmenopausal women with estrogen, calcitonin and bisphosphonates demonstrated rapid decrease of the levels of bone markers that correlated with the long-term increase of bone mass. Factors such as circadian rhythms, diet, age, sex, bone mass and renal function affect the results of biochemical markers and should be appropriately adjusted whenever possible. Each biochemical markers of bone turnover may have its own specific advantages and limitations. Recent advances in research will provide more sensitive and specific assays.

  9. Nuclear astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Arnould, M

    1999-01-01

    Nuclear astrophysics is that branch of astrophysics which helps understanding some of the many facets of the Universe through the knowledge of the microcosm of the atomic nucleus. In the last decades much advance has been made in nuclear astrophysics thanks to the sometimes spectacular progress in the modelling of the structure and evolution of the stars, in the quality and diversity of the astronomical observations, as well as in the experimental and theoretical understanding of the atomic nucleus and of its spontaneous or induced transformations. Developments in other sub-fields of physics and chemistry have also contributed to that advance. Many long-standing problems remain to be solved, however, and the theoretical understanding of a large variety of observational facts needs to be put on safer grounds. In addition, new questions are continuously emerging, and new facts endanger old ideas. This review shows that astrophysics has been, and still is, highly demanding to nuclear physics in both its experime...

  10. Nuclear Scales

    CERN Document Server

    Friar, J L

    1998-01-01

    Nuclear scales are discussed from the nuclear physics viewpoint. The conventional nuclear potential is characterized as a black box that interpolates nucleon-nucleon (NN) data, while being constrained by the best possible theoretical input. The latter consists of the longer-range parts of the NN force (e.g., OPEP, TPEP, the $\\pi$-$\\gamma$ force), which can be calculated using chiral perturbation theory and gauged using modern phase-shift analyses. The shorter-range parts of the force are effectively parameterized by moments of the interaction that are independent of the details of the force model, in analogy to chiral perturbation theory. Results of GFMC calculations in light nuclei are interpreted in terms of fundamental scales, which are in good agreement with expectations from chiral effective field theories. Problems with spin-orbit-type observables are noted.

  11. Nuclear scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friar, J.L.

    1998-12-01

    Nuclear scales are discussed from the nuclear physics viewpoint. The conventional nuclear potential is characterized as a black box that interpolates nucleon-nucleon (NN) data, while being constrained by the best possible theoretical input. The latter consists of the longer-range parts of the NN force (e.g., OPEP, TPEP, the {pi}-{gamma} force), which can be calculated using chiral perturbation theory and gauged using modern phase-shift analyses. The shorter-range parts of the force are effectively parameterized by moments of the interaction that are independent of the details of the force model, in analogy to chiral perturbation theory. Results of GFMC calculations in light nuclei are interpreted in terms of fundamental scales, which are in good agreement with expectations from chiral effective field theories. Problems with spin-orbit-type observables are noted.

  12. Nuclear Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossión, Rubén

    2010-09-01

    The atomic nucleus is a typical example of a many-body problem. On the one hand, the number of nucleons (protons and neutrons) that constitute the nucleus is too large to allow for exact calculations. On the other hand, the number of constituent particles is too small for the individual nuclear excitation states to be explained by statistical methods. Another problem, particular for the atomic nucleus, is that the nucleon-nucleon (n-n) interaction is not one of the fundamental forces of Nature, and is hard to put in a single closed equation. The nucleon-nucleon interaction also behaves differently between two free nucleons (bare interaction) and between two nucleons in the nuclear medium (dressed interaction). Because of the above reasons, specific nuclear many-body models have been devised of which each one sheds light on some selected aspects of nuclear structure. Only combining the viewpoints of different models, a global insight of the atomic nucleus can be gained. In this chapter, we revise the the Nuclear Shell Model as an example of the microscopic approach, and the Collective Model as an example of the geometric approach. Finally, we study the statistical properties of nuclear spectra, basing on symmetry principles, to find out whether there is quantum chaos in the atomic nucleus. All three major approaches have been rewarded with the Nobel Prize of Physics. In the text, we will stress how each approach introduces its own series of approximations to reduce the prohibitingly large number of degrees of freedom of the full many-body problem to a smaller manageable number of effective degrees of freedom.

  13. Nuclear Assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHARLES K.EBINGER; JOHN P.BANKS

    2010-01-01

    @@ In President Barack Obama's State of the Union address in January 2009,he called for the building of "a new generation of safe,clean nuclear power plants" This was followed by his highprofile speech in Prague in April 2009,in which he noted the need "to harness the power of nuclear energy on behalf of our efforts to combat climate change."In December 2009 in Copenhagen,he pledged the United States will reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions 17 percent from 2005 levels by 2020.

  14. Location Anonymity Method for Continuous LBS Requests%一种连续LBS请求下的位置匿名方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨磊; 魏磊; 叶剑; 史红周

    2011-01-01

    为避免不同时刻来自同一用户的连续位置服务(LBS)请求之间的相关攻击,提出一种改进的k-匿名模型,设计一种连续LBS请求下的位置匿名方法.在满足用户隐私要求的前提下,利用位置采样寻找最优的匿名集,使用户平均匿名区域最小.分析结果表明,该方法能合理利用系统计算资源,提高在多用户请求下系统的响应速度.%Location cloaking in terms of continuous Location-Based Services(LBS) request need to consider how to avoid the attack by correlating anonymity areas of different requests from the same user. In term of this privacy problem, this paper proposes an improved k-anonymity model on basis of the traditional k-anonymity model, and designs a state-of-art location anonymity framework and algorithms for continuous LBS requests.This framework guarantees the best Quality of Service(QoS) and good response time of system as well as meeting the privacy requirement. Analysis results show that the method can make better use of the system resources and thus decrease the response time of user's requests.

  15. A Comparison of Anonymous versus Identifiable e-Peer Review on College Student Writing Performance and the Extent of Critical Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ruiling; Bol, Linda

    2007-01-01

    Peer review has become commonplace in composition courses and is increasingly employed in the context of telecommunication technology. The purpose of this experiment was to compare the effects of anonymous and identifiable electronic peer (e-peer) review on college student writing performance and the extent of critical peer feedback. Participants…

  16. Becoming a morther by non-anonymous egg donation: secrecy and the relationship between egg recipient, egg donor and egg donation child

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkel, D.A.M. van; Candido, A.; Pijffers, W.H.

    2007-01-01

    The object of the study was to investigate secrecy in non-anonymous egg donation, to explore some characteristics of this kind of egg donation arrangement and the relationship of the recipient with her non-genetic child. Forty-four egg recipients and 62 IVF patients with a child conceived through eg

  17. Marker Detection in Aerial Images

    KAUST Repository

    Alharbi, Yazeed

    2017-04-09

    The problem that the thesis is trying to solve is the detection of small markers in high-resolution aerial images. Given a high-resolution image, the goal is to return the pixel coordinates corresponding to the center of the marker in the image. The marker has the shape of two triangles sharing a vertex in the middle, and it occupies no more than 0.01% of the image size. An improvement on the Histogram of Oriented Gradients (HOG) is proposed, eliminating the majority of baseline HOG false positives for marker detection. The improvement is guided by the observation that standard HOG description struggles to separate markers from negatives patches containing an X shape. The proposed method alters intensities with the aim of altering gradients. The intensity-dependent gradient alteration leads to more separation between filled and unfilled shapes. The improvement is used in a two-stage algorithm to achieve high recall and high precision in detection of markers in aerial images. In the first stage, two classifiers are used: one to quickly eliminate most of the uninteresting parts of the image, and one to carefully select the marker among the remaining interesting regions. Interesting regions are selected by scanning the image with a fast classifier trained on the HOG features of markers in all rotations and scales. The next classifier is more precise and uses our method to eliminate the majority of the false positives of standard HOG. In the second stage, detected markers are tracked forward and backward in time. Tracking is needed to detect extremely blurred or distorted markers that are missed by the previous stage. The algorithm achieves 94% recall with minimal user guidance. An average of 30 guesses are given per image; the user verifies for each whether it is a marker or not. The brute force approach would return 100,000 guesses per image.

  18. Tor匿名通信流量在线识别方法∗%Online Identification of Tor Anonymous Communication Traffic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何高峰; 杨明; 罗军舟; 张璐

    2013-01-01

      匿名通信技术的滥用给网络监管带来了新的挑战。有效识别出匿名通信流量,是阻止该类技术滥用的前提,具有重要的研究意义和应用价值。现有研究工作侧重于匿名通信关系的确认,无法用于匿名通信流量的识别和阻塞。针对这个问题,围绕广泛使用的 Tor 匿名通信系统,深入分析运行机制,归纳总结其流量特征。在此基础上,分别提出基于 TLS指纹和基于报文长度分布的 Tor 匿名通信流量识别方法。对两种识别方法的优缺点和适用性进行了详细分析和讨论,并通过CAIDA数据集和在线部署对识别方法进行了验证。实验结果表明,基于TLS指纹和基于报文长度分布的识别方法均能有效识别出Tor匿名通信流量。%Abuse of anonymous communication systems has introduced new challenges into network administration. The effective identification of anonymous communication traffic is a prerequisite to prevent such abuse;thus, this is fundamentally important for both theoretical researches and practical applications. Existing researches mainly focus on the confirmation of anonymous communication relationship and cannot be used to identify and block anonymous communication traffic. To solve this problem, the operation mechanism is deeply analyzed and traffic characteristics are summarized for the widely used Tor anonymous communication system. On this basis, a TLS fingerprint-based and packet-size distributions based methods are proposed to identify Tor anonymous communication traffic, respectively. The advantages, disadvantages and applicability of these two methods are analyzed and discussed in detail, and are validated by CAIDA dataset and online deployment. Experimental results prove that both methods are effective in identifying Tor anonymous communication traffic.

  19. Anonymization of big data based on hybrid tree%基于混合式子树算法的大数据匿名化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙炯宁

    2015-01-01

    The top-down specialization( TDS) and the bottom-up generalization( BUG) are two ways to fulfill the sub-tree anonymization. However,existing approaches for sub-tree anonymization fall short of parallelization capability,thereby lacking scalability in handling big data on cloud. Still,both the TDS and the BUG suffer from poor performances for certain value of the K anonymity parameter when they are utilized individually. In view of that,a hybrid approach combining the TDS and the BUG for efficient sub-tree anonymization over big data is proposed. Further,the MapReduce is designed based algorithms for two components ( TDS and BUG ) to gain the high scalability by exploiting powerful computation capability of cloud. Experiment evaluations demonstrate that the hybrid approach significantly improves the scalability and the efficiency of the sub-tree anonymization scheme over existing approaches.%自顶而下具体化( TDS)和自底向上泛化( BUG)是子树匿名化的主要方法,但其并行能力不足,易导致在云数据处理中缺乏可扩展性。当TDS和BUG分开使用时,很难准确确定K匿名参数。针对这一问题,该文提出一种在大数据中进行有效数据匿名化的基于TDS和BUG的混合方法,设计了基于该混合方法的MapReduce模型,以提高云计算能力的可扩展性。实验表明,与现有方法相比,该混合法可以显著提高扩展性和子树匿名化的效率。

  20. Nuclear Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg. Bureau of Curriculum Services.

    This document is a report on a course in nuclear science for the high school curriculum. The course is designed to provide a basic but comprehensive understanding of the atom in the light of modern knowledge, and to show how people attempt to harness the tremendous energy liberated through fission and fusion reactions. The course crosses what are…

  1. Nuclear Assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHARLES; K.; EBINGER; JOHN; P.; BANKS

    2010-01-01

    The United States needs a comprehensive policy and market-based solutions to address the challenges and demands of energy provision in President Barack Obama’s State of the Union address in January 2009, he called for the building of "a new generation of safe, clean nuclear power plants." This was followed by his high- profile speech in Prague in April 2009,

  2. SSR markers for Quercus suber tree identification and embryo analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, A; Pintos, B; Aguiriano, E; Manzanera, J A; Bueno, M A

    2001-01-01

    Three Quercus simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from nuclear DNA extracts of trees and in vitro-induced haploid embryos from anther cultures of Quercus suber L. These markers were sufficiently polymorphic to identify 10 of 12 trees located in two Spanish natural areas. The same loci have been analyzed in anther-derived haploid embryos showing the parental tree allele segregation. All the alleles were present in the haploid progeny. The presence of diverse alleles in embryos derived from the same anther demonstrated that they were induced on multiple microspores or pollen grains and they were not clonally propagated. Also, diploid cultures and mixtures of haploid-diploid tissues were obtained. The origin of such cultures, either somatic or gametic, was elucidated by SSR markers. All the embryos showed only one allele, corroborating a haploid origin. Allelic composition of the haploid progeny permitted parental identification among all analyzed trees.

  3. Markers of renal function tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivaraj Gowda

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The markers of renal function test assess the normal functioning of kidneys. These markers may be radioactive and non radioactive. They indicate the glomerular filtration rate, concentrating and diluting capacity of kidneys (tubular function. If there is an increase or decrease in the valves of these markers it indicates dysfunction of kidney. Aim: The aim of this review is to compare and analyze the present and newer markers of renal function tests which help in diagnosis of clinical disorders. Material & Methods: An extensive literature survey was done aiming to compare and compile renal function tests makers required in diagnosis of diseases. Results: Creatinine, urea, uric acid and electrolytes are makers for routine analysis whereas several studies have confirmed and consolidated the usefulness of markers such as cystatin C and β-Trace Protein. Conclusion: We conclude that further investigation is necessary to define these biomarkers in terms of usefulness in assessing renal function.

  4. Simple parametric survival analysis with anonymized register data: A cohort study with truncated and interval censored event and censoring times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristiansen Ivar S

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To preserve patient anonymity, health register data may be provided as binned data only. Here we consider as example, how to estimate mean survival time after a diagnosis of metastatic colorectal cancer from Norwegian register data on time to death or censoring binned into 30 day intervals. All events occurring in the first three months (90 days after diagnosis were removed to achieve comparability with a clinical trial. The aim of the paper is to develop and implement a simple, and yet flexible method for analyzing such interval censored and truncated data. Methods Considering interval censoring a missing data problem, we implement a simple multiple imputation strategy that allows flexible sensitivity analyses with respect to the shape of the censoring distribution. To allow identification of appropriate parametric models, a χ2-goodness-of-fit test--also imputation based--is derived and supplemented with diagnostic plots. Uncertainty estimates for mean survival times are obtained via a simulation strategy. The validity and statistical efficiency of the proposed method for varying interval lengths is investigated in a simulation study and compared with simpler alternatives. Results Mean survival times estimated from the register data ranged from 1.2 (SE = 0.09 to 3.2 (0.31 years depending on period of diagnosis and choice of parametric model. The shape of the censoring distribution within intervals did generally not influence results, whereas the choice of parametric model did, even when different models fit the data equally well. In simulation studies both simple midpoint imputation and multiple imputation yielded nearly unbiased analyses (relative biases of -0.6% to 9.4% and confidence intervals with near-nominal coverage probabilities (93.4% to 95.7% for censoring intervals shorter than six months. For 12 month censoring intervals, multiple imputation provided better protection against bias, and coverage probabilities

  5. Nuclear Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contents: V Dinucleons, published in The Physical Review , v93 n4 p908-909, 15 Feb 1954; Concentration of a Cyclotron Beam by Strong Focusing Lenses...published in The Review of Scientific Instruments, v25 n4 p365-367, Apr 1954; and Photon Splitting in a Nuclear Electrostatic Field, published in The Physical Review , v94 n2 p367-368, 15 Apr 1954.

  6. Nuclear Waffles

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, A S; Briggs, C M; Caplan, M E; Horowitz, C J

    2014-01-01

    The dense neutron-rich matter found in supernovae and neutron stars is expected to form complex nonuniform phases referred to as nuclear pasta. The pasta shapes depend on density, temperature and proton fraction and determine many transport properties in supernovae and neutron star crusts. We use two recently developed hybrid CPU/GPU codes to perform large scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with $51200$ and $409600$ nucleons of nuclear pasta. From the output of the MD simulations we characterize the topology and compute two observables, the radial distribution function $g(r)$ and the structure factor $S(q)$, for systems with proton fractions $Y_p=0.10, 0.20, 0.30$ and $0.40$ at about one third of nuclear saturation density and temperatures near $1.0$ MeV. We observe that the two lowest proton fraction systems simulated, $Y_p=0.10$ and $0.20$, equilibrate quickly and form liquid-like structures. Meanwhile, the two higher proton fraction systems, $Y_p=0.30$ and $0.40$, take a longer time to equilibrate a...

  7. Adaptation et réélaboration des sources dans la Crónica Troyana anonyme de 1490

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric ALCHALABI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available L’article revient sur l’écriture et les conditions de réception de la Crónica troyana anonyme de 1490. Le chroniqueur ne se contente pas de commenter ou de traduire ses sources, les Sumas de historia troyana de Leomarte et la Historia destructionis troiae de Guido delle Colonne. Au contraire, il les enrichit de références à la littérature chevaleresque. Comment interpréter ses modifications ?El artículo vuelve sobre la escritura y las condiciones de recepción de la Crónica troyana anónima de 1490. El cronista no se contenta con comentar o traducir pasajes enteros de sus fuentes, las Sumas de historia troyana de Leomarte y la Historia destructionis troiae de Guido delle Colonne. Muy al contrario, el autor enriquece sus fuentes gracias a referencias a la literatura caballeresca. ¿ Cómo tenemos que interpretar sus modificaciones ?

  8. The Comparison of Attention Biases to Opiates in Substance Dependent and Treated Clients of Therapeutic Clinics and Narcotics Anonymous Memberships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Enayat

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to compare the attention bias about tempting incentives related to opium materials in treated, addicted and normal people. Duration of consumption and treating were also considered. Method: In this causal-comparative study population was all addicted people who were referred to the rehabilitation offices, addiction treatment clinic, rebirthing centers and Narcotics Anonymous of East Azerbaijan. This study consisted of five groups of men, including addicted to opium materials which are divided into two groups namely: long consumption period and people with short consumption period, also, treated people including long term treated and short term treated, and a normal control group. Altogether, 103 selected people were studied. Sample groups were similar in terms of age, education, and sex. For measuring attention bias towards tempting stimuli related opiates, a words recognition test was used. This test included three subtests and one recognition test. The recognition scores for the three categories of words were measured. Results: The findings indicated that there was a difference in attention against opium material incentives between control group and the mild and severe consumers groups. Also there were significant differences between treated people with the short time distance and control group, and control group had less temptation and biases in comparison to the other groups. Finally, those who have mild consumption are threatened more in comparison with the control group. Conclusion: The findings have applied implications.

  9. VANETs中通信有效的门限匿名认证方案%Communication-efficient Threshold Anonymous Authentication Scheme in VANETs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨菁菁; 卢建朱; 江俊晖

    2015-01-01

    在保证可靠性、匿名性和可审核性的同时,提高执行效率和降低通信成本是车载自组织网络( VANETs)的研究热点。针对现有匿名认证方案计算量较大和通信成本较高的问题,提出一种通信有效的门限匿名认证方案。采用基于身份的签名算法提高执行效率,使原始信息可从签名中恢复,从而降低通信成本,利用门限转发机制实现信息的可靠性,使用假名保证发送者的匿名性,通过追踪和撤销机制实现可审核性。分析结果表明,与已有的门限匿名认证方案相比,该方案在保证安全性的同时,具有较低的通信成本和较高的执行效率。%How to improve the computational efficiency and how to reduce the communication cost while achieving the goals of reliability, anonymity and auditability are becoming important research issues of Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs). Due to computational efficiency and communication cost of existing anonymous authentication schemes,a communication-efficient threshold anonymous authentication scheme is proposed in this paper. It signs the message by using an identity-based signature algorithm and the original message can be recovered from the signature, which can improve the computational efficiency and reduce the communication cost. The threshold-based forwarding mechanism ensures reliability of information. The anonymity of the message sender is achieved by using pseudonym. In order to achieve auditability,this system is able to track and revoke malicious nodes. Analysis result indicates that the proposed scheme not only satisfies reliability, anonymity and auditability, but also has lower communication cost and better computational efficiency compared with the existing threshold anonymous announcement in VANETs.

  10. Nuclear photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habs, D.; Günther, M. M.; Jentschel, M.; Thirolf, P. G.

    2012-07-01

    With the planned new γ-beam facilities like MEGa-ray at LLNL (USA) or ELI-NP at Bucharest (Romania) with 1013 γ/s and a band width of ΔEγ/Eγ≈10-3, a new era of γ beams with energies up to 20MeV comes into operation, compared to the present world-leading HIγS facility at Duke University (USA) with 108 γ/s and ΔEγ/Eγ≈3ṡ10-2. In the long run even a seeded quantum FEL for γ beams may become possible, with much higher brilliance and spectral flux. At the same time new exciting possibilities open up for focused γ beams. Here we describe a new experiment at the γ beam of the ILL reactor (Grenoble, France), where we observed for the first time that the index of refraction for γ beams is determined by virtual pair creation. Using a combination of refractive and reflective optics, efficient monochromators for γ beams are being developed. Thus, we have to optimize the total system: the γ-beam facility, the γ-beam optics and γ detectors. We can trade γ intensity for band width, going down to ΔEγ/Eγ≈10-6 and address individual nuclear levels. The term "nuclear photonics" stresses the importance of nuclear applications. We can address with γ-beams individual nuclear isotopes and not just elements like with X-ray beams. Compared to X rays, γ beams can penetrate much deeper into big samples like radioactive waste barrels, motors or batteries. We can perform tomography and microscopy studies by focusing down to μm resolution using Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence (NRF) for detection with eV resolution and high spatial resolution at the same time. We discuss the dominating M1 and E1 excitations like the scissors mode, two-phonon quadrupole octupole excitations, pygmy dipole excitations or giant dipole excitations under the new facet of applications. We find many new applications in biomedicine, green energy, radioactive waste management or homeland security. Also more brilliant secondary beams of neutrons and positrons can be produced.

  11. [Tumor markers for hepatocellular carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateishi, Ryosuke; Enooku, Kenichiro; Shiina, Shuichiro; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2012-05-01

    Three tumor markers for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are available in Japan: alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonists-II (PIVKA-II), and Lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive fraction of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP-L3). Although AFP has drawbacks in its specificity, it is widely utilized in treatment evaluation and prognosis prediction. PIVKA-II is a unique marker that does not correlate with AFP value and can predict microvascular invasion. AFP-L3 is a highly specific marker and strong predictor of poor prognosis. These three markers are indispensable in every aspect of clinical practice of hepatocellular carcinoma including surveillance, diagnosis, treatment evaluation, and prognosis prediction.

  12. NABIC marker database: A molecular markers information network of agricultural crops

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    In 2013, National Agricultural Biotechnology Information Center (NABIC) reconstructs a molecular marker database for useful genetic resources. The web-based marker database consists of three major functional categories: map viewer, RSN marker and gene annotation. It provides 7250 marker locations, 3301 RSN marker property, 3280 molecular marker annotation information in agricultural plants. The individual molecular marker provides information such as marker name, expressed sequence tag number...

  13. Serotonin, neural markers, and memory

    OpenAIRE

    Alfredo eMeneses

    2015-01-01

    Diverse neuropsychiatric disorders present dysfunctional memory and no effective treatment exits for them; likely as result of the absence of neural markers associated to memory. Neurotransmitter systems and signaling pathways have been implicated in memory and dysfunctional memory; however, their role is poorly understood. Hence, neural markers and cerebral functions and dysfunctions are revised. To our knowledge no previous systematic works have been published addressing these issues. The i...

  14. Serum markers of liver fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veidal, Sanne Skovgård; Bay-Jensen, Anne-Christine; Tougas, Gervais

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fibrosis is a central histological feature of chronic liver diseases and is characterized by the accumulation and reorganization of the extracellular matrix. The gold standard for assessment of fibrosis is histological evaluation of a percutaneous liver biopsy. Albeit a considerable......-epitopes, may be targeted for novel biochemical marker development in fibrosis. We used the recently proposed BIPED system (Burden of disease, Investigative, Prognostic, Efficacy and Diagnostic) to characterise present serological markers. METHODS: Pubmed was search for keywords; Liver fibrosis, neo...

  15. Screening and characterization of RAPD markers in viscerotropic Leishmania parasites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imen Mkada-Driss

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is mainly due to the Leishmania donovani complex. VL is endemic in many countries worldwide including East Africa and the Mediterranean region where the epidemiology is complex. Taxonomy of these pathogens is under controversy but there is a correlation between their genetic diversity and geographical origin. With steady increase in genome knowledge, RAPD is still a useful approach to identify and characterize novel DNA markers. Our aim was to identify and characterize polymorphic DNA markers in VL Leishmania parasites in diverse geographic regions using RAPD in order to constitute a pool of PCR targets having the potential to differentiate among the VL parasites. 100 different oligonucleotide decamers having arbitrary DNA sequences were screened for reproducible amplification and a selection of 28 was used to amplify DNA from 12 L. donovani, L. archibaldi and L. infantum strains having diverse origins. A total of 155 bands were amplified of which 60.65% appeared polymorphic. 7 out of 28 primers provided monomorphic patterns. Phenetic analysis allowed clustering the parasites according to their geographical origin. Differentially amplified bands were selected, among them 22 RAPD products were successfully cloned and sequenced. Bioinformatic analysis allowed mapping of the markers and sequences and priming sites analysis. This study was complemented with Southern-blot to confirm assignment of markers to the kDNA. The bioinformatic analysis identified 16 nuclear and 3 minicircle markers. Analysis of these markers highlighted polymorphisms at RAPD priming sites with mainly 5' end transversions, and presence of inter- and intra- taxonomic complex sequence and microsatellites variations; a bias in transitions over transversions and indels between the different sequences compared is observed, which is however less marked between L. infantum and L. donovani. The study delivers a pool of well-documented polymorphic DNA markers

  16. Nuclear tele medicine; Telemedicina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas, L.; Hernandez, F.; Fernandez, R. [Departamento de Medicina Nuclear, Imagenologia Diagnostica, Xalapa, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The great majority of the digital images of nuclear medicine are susceptible of being sent through internet. This has allowed that the work in diagnosis cabinets by image it can benefit of this modern technology. We have presented in previous congresses works related with tele medicine, however, due to the speed in the evolution of the computer programs and the internet, becomes necessary to make a current position in this modality of work. (Author)

  17. The nuclear arsenals and nuclear disarmament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnaby, F

    1998-01-01

    Current world stockpiles of nuclear weapons and the status of treaties for nuclear disarmament and the ultimate elimination of nuclear weapons are summarised. The need for including stockpiles of civil plutonium in a programme for ending production and disposing of fissile materials is emphasized, and the ultimate difficulty of disposing of the last few nuclear weapons discussed.

  18. Nuclear energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandin, Karl; Jagers, Peter; Kullander, Sven

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear energy can play a role in carbon free production of electrical energy, thus making it interesting for tomorrow's energy mix. However, several issues have to be addressed. In fission technology, the design of so-called fourth generation reactors show great promise, in particular in addressing materials efficiency and safety issues. If successfully developed, such reactors may have an important and sustainable part in future energy production. Working fusion reactors may be even more materials efficient and environmental friendly, but also need more development and research. The roadmap for development of fourth generation fission and fusion reactors, therefore, asks for attention and research in these fields must be strengthened.

  19. 基于隐私决策度的改进k-匿名算法%Improved Algorithm of k-anonymity Based on Degree of Privacy Preservation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申艳光; 闫晶星; 刘永红; 郭高尚

    2015-01-01

    现有的匿名化隐私保护技术在进行数据发布和数据共享前对于敏感属性的个性化隐私保护的支持存在不足,为了实现更为合理的个性化隐私保护,结合粒计算粗糙集理论和k-匿名理论的最新研究成果,针对电子商务中隐私保护个性化决策选择度的不同,从粒化角度出发,提出一种基于隐私决策度的改进k-匿名算法。经实验验证,该算法更好的实现了隐私保护的个性化,同时其隐私保护精度方面优于已有的p-Sensitive k-匿名算法。%In the existing anonymous privacy protection technology, there is a shortage of personalized privacy protection support for sensitive attributes before data release and sharing. In order to achieve more reasonable personalized privacy preservation and improve the precision of privacy preservation, this paper reviewed the latest researches in granular computing theory, rough set theory and k-anonymity theory, and presented an improved algorithm of k-anonymity based on the personalized decision degree of privacy preservation, in view of different personalized granularity decision selectivity of privacy preservation in E-business.The experimental results show that the novel algorithm can achieve privacy preservation with more reasonable personalization, and its accuracy of privacy preservation is superior to p-sensitive k-anonymity algorithm.

  20. RESEARCH ON ANONYMOUS COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES IN AD HOC NETWORKS%无线 Ad hoc 网络匿名通信技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀芝; 石志东; 房卫东; 张小珑; 单联海

    2016-01-01

    无线 Ad hoc 网络(MANET)的多跳、自组织、无固定设施以及运算资源有限等特性,使得传统网络中复杂度高的安全算法难以应用于其中。而采用与匿名技术相结合的安全机制,可较好地解决节点隐私和通信关系保密的安全问题。针对现有的匿名技术,采用对比分析的方法,对传统网络的匿名技术进行分析,总结技术上的优缺点,研究 Ad hoc 网络的匿名技术,并对比分析各种匿名通信协议的安全性能,为后续的研究与应用提供帮助。%Due to the features of Ad hoc networks such as multi-hop,self-organisation,non-infrastructure and limited resource,the security algorithms with high complexity in traditional networks are hard to be used in it.However to use the security mechanism combining with anonymous technology can well solve the security problem in regard to nodes’privacy and communication relationship secret.In this paper,targeted at existing anonymous technologies,we analyse their use in traditional networks with the method of comparative analysis, summarise the advantages and disadvantages in terms of technology,and meanwhile study the anonymous technologies used in Ad hoc networks,as well as compare and analyse the security performances of various anonymous communication protocol,these provide the help for subsequent researches and applications.

  1. 一种低运算量Ad-hoc网络匿名路由协议%Low Computational Load Anonymous Routing Protocol for Ad-hoc Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘方斌; 张琨; 张宏

    2011-01-01

    Nodes in Ad-hoc networks are limited in energy, have poor computational ability and move fast, and public key encryptions have heavy computational load,consume a lot of energy and have long computational cycle time,so pub lic key encryptions are adapted for the Ad-hoc networks. The proposed anonymous routing protocols have a lot of public key encryptions. To reduces public key encryptions, we applied bilinear pairing and Zero Knowledge Proofs into anony mous routing protocol,and proposed a new anonymous routing protocol----an low computational load anonymous rou ting protocol for Ad-hoc networks(LCAR), which reduces public key encryptions heavily. Our analysis and simulation study verify that our protocol is much better than existing anonymous routing protocols on the aspects of energy effi ciency and end-end delay.%Ad-hoc网络节点运算能力差,能量有限且移动速度高,而公钥运算量大,能耗高,运算周期长,所以公钥运算不适合于Ad-hoc网络.已提出的匿名路由协议却含有大量的公钥运算.为了降低公钥运算量,将双线性对和零知识证明应用于匿名路由协议中,提出一种新的匿名路由协议—低运算量的Ad-hoc网络匿名路由协议,该协议大幅降低了公钥运算量.实验结果表明,该协议建立匿名路由所消耗的能量少,时延低.

  2. Anonymous Proxy Signcryption Scheme Based on Quadratic Residue%基于二次剩余的匿名代理者签密方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘祯; 杨启良; 杨波

    2015-01-01

    由于现有签密方案大多基于双线性对,配对运算计算量较大,且实现效率不高,不能满足对代理签密者的匿名要求,因此无需配对的签密方案是密码学的研究方向。而基于二次剩余的签名方案不仅具有描述简单,能够抵抗选择密文攻击的优点,且相较于基于配对的签名方案具有更高的实现效率。为此,将二次剩余的方法应用到签密方案中,并结合匿名性,提出一种基于二次剩余的匿名代理者签密方案。分析结果表明,该方案具有匿名性与公开验证性。%Most of the existing signcryptions are based on bilinear pairing,but the signcryption without bilinear pairing is a research of cryptography,because the pairing operation requires a lot of computations,and it can not anonymous the proxy signcrypter. The signature scheme based on quadratic residue is widely used with its advantages such as simple description,resistance of chosen ciphertext attack and high efficiency. Its efficient is higher compared with signcryption schemes based on bilinear pairing. This paper adds anonymity to the scheme based on quadratic residue to realize anonymous proxy signcryption. Analysis results show that the scheme not only provides anonymity, but also provides public verifiability.

  3. Is cyberbullying worse than traditional bullying? Examining the differential roles of medium, publicity, and anonymity for the perceived severity of bullying

    OpenAIRE

    Sticca, Fabio; Perren, Sonja

    2013-01-01

    Cyberbullying, a modern form of bullying performed using electronic forms of contact (e.g., SMS, MMS, Facebook, YouTube), has been considered as being worse than traditional bullying in its consequences for the victim. This difference was mainly attributed to some specific aspect that are believed to distinguish cyberbully- ing from traditional bullying: an increased potential for a large audience, an increased potential for anonymous bul- lying, lower...

  4. Applications of nuclear physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, A. C.

    2017-02-01

    Today the applications of nuclear physics span a very broad range of topics and fields. This review discusses a number of aspects of these applications, including selected topics and concepts in nuclear reactor physics, nuclear fusion, nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear-geophysics, and nuclear medicine. The review begins with a historic summary of the early years in applied nuclear physics, with an emphasis on the huge developments that took place around the time of World War II, and that underlie the physics involved in designs of nuclear explosions, controlled nuclear energy, and nuclear fusion. The review then moves to focus on modern applications of these concepts, including the basic concepts and diagnostics developed for the forensics of nuclear explosions, the nuclear diagnostics at the National Ignition Facility, nuclear reactor safeguards, and the detection of nuclear material production and trafficking. The review also summarizes recent developments in nuclear geophysics and nuclear medicine. The nuclear geophysics areas discussed include geo-chronology, nuclear logging for industry, the Oklo reactor, and geo-neutrinos. The section on nuclear medicine summarizes the critical advances in nuclear imaging, including PET and SPECT imaging, targeted radionuclide therapy, and the nuclear physics of medical isotope production. Each subfield discussed requires a review article unto itself, which is not the intention of the current review; rather, the current review is intended for readers who wish to get a broad understanding of applied nuclear physics.

  5. Imaging markers for Alzheimer disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocchetta, Martina; Chételat, Gael; Rabinovici, Gil D.; de Leon, Mony J.; Kaye, Jeffrey; Reiman, Eric M.; Scheltens, Philip; Barkhof, Frederik; Black, Sandra E.; Brooks, David J.; Carrillo, Maria C.; Fox, Nick C.; Herholz, Karl; Nordberg, Agneta; Jack, Clifford R.; Jagust, William J.; Johnson, Keith A.; Rowe, Christopher C.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Thies, William; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Weiner, Michael W.; Pasqualetti, Patrizio; DeCarli, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Revised diagnostic criteria for Alzheimer disease (AD) acknowledge a key role of imaging biomarkers for early diagnosis. Diagnostic accuracy depends on which marker (i.e., amyloid imaging, 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose [FDG]-PET, SPECT, MRI) as well as how it is measured (“metric”: visual, manual, semiautomated, or automated segmentation/computation). We evaluated diagnostic accuracy of marker vs metric in separating AD from healthy and prognostic accuracy to predict progression in mild cognitive impairment. The outcome measure was positive (negative) likelihood ratio, LR+ (LR−), defined as the ratio between the probability of positive (negative) test outcome in patients and the probability of positive (negative) test outcome in healthy controls. Diagnostic LR+ of markers was between 4.4 and 9.4 and LR− between 0.25 and 0.08, whereas prognostic LR+ and LR− were between 1.7 and 7.5, and 0.50 and 0.11, respectively. Within metrics, LRs varied up to 100-fold: LR+ from approximately 1 to 100; LR− from approximately 1.00 to 0.01. Markers accounted for 11% and 18% of diagnostic and prognostic variance of LR+ and 16% and 24% of LR−. Across all markers, metrics accounted for an equal or larger amount of variance than markers: 13% and 62% of diagnostic and prognostic variance of LR+, and 29% and 18% of LR−. Within markers, the largest proportion of diagnostic LR+ and LR− variability was within 18F-FDG-PET and MRI metrics, respectively. Diagnostic and prognostic accuracy of imaging AD biomarkers is at least as dependent on how the biomarker is measured as on the biomarker itself. Standard operating procedures are key to biomarker use in the clinical routine and drug trials. PMID:23897875

  6. Anonymous Authentication Scheme Based on Role Model of PMI%基于PMI角色模型的匿名认证方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺靖靖; 刘景森; 史强; 傅慧明

    2012-01-01

    隐私保护是当前网络应用中最受关注的问题之一,越来越多的用户希望加强隐私保护,在不泄露个人敏感信息的情况下实现资源访问.针对匿名访问控制提出了一种基于PKI/PMI证书的认证方案,即在用户和服务提供者之间引入可信第三方,利用角色说明属性证书RS-AC和角色分配属性证书RA-AC,实现匿名认证.理论分析证明,该方案具有安全性、匿名性和不关联性.%Nowadays,the privacy protection is one of the most concerned problems. More and more users want to strengthen their own privacy preservation and hope that they can access the resources without providing personal sensitive informations. An anonymous access control scheme is proposed which is based on PKI/PMI certificates. The trusted third party is introduced between users and the service provider. The role stated-attribute certificate(RS-AC) and role assigned attribute certificate(RA-AC) are used to implement the anonymous authentication. Theoretical analysis shows that this solution provides the security,anonymity and no relevance.

  7. Nuclear Photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Habs, D; Jentschel, M; Thirolf, P G

    2012-01-01

    With new gamma-beam facilities like MEGa-ray at LLNL (USA) or ELI-NP at Bucharest with 10^13 g/s and a bandwidth of Delta E_g/E_g ~10^-3, a new era of g-beams with energies <=20 MeV comes into operation, compared to the present world-leading HIGS facility (Duke Univ., USA) with 10^8 g/s and Delta E_g/E_g~0.03. Even a seeded quantum FEL for g-beams may become possible, with much higher brilliance and spectral flux. At the same time new exciting possibilities open up for focused g-beams. We describe a new experiment at the g-beam of the ILL reactor (Grenoble), where we observed for the first time that the index of refraction for g-beams is determined by virtual pair creation. Using a combination of refractive and reflective optics, efficient monochromators for g-beams are being developed. Thus we have to optimize the system of the g-beam facility, the g-beam optics and g-detectors. We can trade g-intensity for band width, going down to Delta E_g/E_g ~ 10^-6 and address individual nuclear levels. 'Nuclear pho...

  8. Dictionary of nuclear engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sube, R.

    1985-01-01

    Ralf Sube, an experienced compiler of three wellknown four-language reference works has now prepared this glossary of nuclear engineering terms in English, German, French and Russian. Based on the proven lexicography of the Technik-Worterbuch series, it comprises about 30,000 terms in each language covering the following: Nuclear and Atomic Physics; Nuclear Radiation and Isotopes; Nuclear Materials; Nuclear Facilties; Nuclear Power Industry; Nuclear Weapons.

  9. Tumour markers in gastrointestinal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamerz, R.

    1988-02-01

    For non-endocrine gastrointestinal tumours the following tumour markers are of clinical interest: For esophageal cancer CEA (sensitivity, s: 40-60%) and SCC (squamous cell carcinoma antigen, x: 20-50%); for gastric cancer CEA (s: 30-40%) as well as CA 19-9 (s: 30-40%) because of complementary results (additive s: 50-60); for hepatocellular cancer AFP (first choice, s: 70-90%; second choice CA 19-9, s: 50-70%); for cholangiocellular cancer CA 19-9 (s: 40-70%); for secondary liver cancer in general CEA; for biliary tract cancer CA 19-9 (s: 40-70%) as well as for excretory pancreatic cancer (s: 70-90%); for colorectal cancer CEA (s: 40-70%) as a first choice marker, and CA 19-9 (s: 20-60%) as a second choice marker, and for anal cancer SCC. The frequency of tumour marker determinations depends on follow-up care recommendations for different tumour diseases (e.g. 1-3 monthly during the 1st and 2nd postoperative year, following chemotherapy courses, on change of therapy, on restaging and at unclear alteration of the clinical state). Tumour markers are only valuable adjuncts to the medical care of tumour patients and therefore useless as solitary findings or on missing therapeutic consequence.

  10. Tracing anonymity with coalgebras

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hasuo, Ichiro

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to obtain better understanding of the nature of computer systems, that is, to develop a mathematical theory of computer systems. By computer systems we mean information-processing systems consisting of computers. We cannot overemphasize their important roles in the modern w

  11. Anonymous in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MATTHEW; MACDONALD

    2008-01-01

    In my neighborhood,there are many restaurants.Some are big,but most are little mom & pop places that serve cheap food and take up nar- row storefronts going back much further than you might expect.Of these,there

  12. The Identity of Anonymous

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobusch, Leonhard; Schoeneborn, Dennis

    Paper presented at the Conference Panel, "Challenges of Creating Inclusivity and Exclusivity: Insights Into the Communicative Constitution of Organizational Boundaries in Various Cultural Contexts"....

  13. An Anonymous Referee Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobin, J. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-06-08

    This is a combined experimental and theoretical study of the compound UO2, UO2(NO3)2(H20)6 and UO0.75Pu0.25O2, using resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RXIS), high resolution x-ray absorption (XAS) and LDA and LDA-U calculations.

  14. Anonymous authenticated communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaver, Cheryl L.; Schroeppel, Richard C.; Snyder, Lillian A.

    2007-06-19

    A method of performing electronic communications between members of a group wherein the communications are authenticated as being from a member of the group and have not been altered, comprising: generating a plurality of random numbers; distributing in a digital medium the plurality of random numbers to the members of the group; publishing a hash value of contents of the digital medium; distributing to the members of the group public-key-encrypted messages each containing a same token comprising a random number; and encrypting a message with a key generated from the token and the plurality of random numbers.

  15. Expert judgment on markers to deter inadvertent human intrusion into the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trauth, K.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hora, S.C. [Hawaii Univ., Hilo, HI (United States); Guzowski, R.V. [Science Applications International Corp., San Diego, CA (United States)

    1993-11-01

    The expert panel identified basic principles to guide current and future marker development efforts: (1) the site must be marked, (2) message(s) must be truthful and informative, (3) multiple components within a marker system, (4) multiple means of communication (e.g., language, pictographs, scientific diagrams), (5) multiple levels of complexity within individual messages on individual marker system elements, (6) use of materials with little recycle value, and (7) international effort to maintain knowledge of the locations and contents of nuclear waste repositories. The efficacy of the markers in deterring inadvertent human intrusion was estimated to decrease with time, with the probability function varying with the mode of intrusion (who is intruding and for what purpose) and the level of technological development of the society. The development of a permanent, passive marker system capable of surviving and remaining interpretable for 10,000 years will require further study prior to implementation.

  16. Nuclear "waffles"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, A. S.; Berry, D. K.; Briggs, C. M.; Caplan, M. E.; Horowitz, C. J.

    2014-11-01

    Background: The dense neutron-rich matter found in supernovae and inside neutron stars is expected to form complex nonuniform phases, often referred to as nuclear pasta. The pasta shapes depend on density, temperature and proton fraction and determine many transport properties in supernovae and neutron star crusts. Purpose: To characterize the topology and compute two observables, the radial distribution function (RDF) g (r ) and the structure factor S (q ) , for systems with proton fractions Yp=0.10 ,0.20 ,0.30 , and 0.40 at about one-third of nuclear saturation density, n =0.050 fm-3 , and temperatures near k T =1 MeV . Methods: We use two recently developed hybrid CPU/GPU codes to perform large scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with 51 200 and 409 600 nucleons. From the output of the MD simulations we obtain the two desired observables. Results: We compute and discuss the differences in topology and observables for each simulation. We observe that the two lowest proton fraction systems simulated, Yp=0.10 and 0.20 , equilibrate quickly and form liquidlike structures. Meanwhile, the two higher proton fraction systems, Yp=0.30 and 0.40 , take a longer time to equilibrate and organize themselves in solidlike periodic structures. Furthermore, the Yp=0.40 system is made up of slabs, lasagna phase, interconnected by defects while the Yp=0.30 systems consist of a stack of perforated plates, the nuclear waffle phase. Conclusions: The periodic configurations observed in our MD simulations for proton fractions Yp≥0.30 have important consequences for the structure factors S (q ) of protons and neutrons, which relate to many transport properties of supernovae and neutron star crust. A detailed study of the waffle phase and how its structure depends on temperature, size of the simulation, and the screening length showed that finite-size effects appear to be under control and, also, that the plates in the waffle phase merge at temperatures slightly above 1.0 MeV and

  17. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, H.I.; Smith, R.C.

    1958-01-21

    This patent relates to nuclear reactors of the type which use a liquid fuel, such as a solution of uranyl sulfate in ordinary water which acts as the moderator. The reactor is comprised of a spherical vessel having a diameter of about 12 inches substantially surrounded by a reflector of beryllium oxide. Conventionnl control rods and safety rods are operated in slots in the reflector outside the vessel to control the operation of the reactor. An additional means for increasing the safety factor of the reactor by raising the ratio of delayed neutrons to prompt neutrons, is provided and consists of a soluble sulfate salt of beryllium dissolved in the liquid fuel in the proper proportion to obtain the result desired.

  18. Biological Markers and Salivary Cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Gunnarsson, Lars-Gunnar; Harris, Anette

    2011-01-01

    This chapter focuses on salivary cortisol in relation to biological markers. Specifically, associations with conventional cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic abnormalities (body mass index, waist circumference, waist/hip ratio, lipid status, glucose, blood pressure, heart rate and heart rate...... variations and pharmacological interventions were also excluded. After meeting all exclusion criteria, 42 papers remained. In total, 273 associations between salivary cortisol and any of the markers mentioned were studied, comprising 241 associations on metabolic abnormalities, 30 on inflammation, and 2...... on stress hormones. Of the salivary cortisol measures reported for evaluations of all markers tested were 136 (49%) single time points, 100 (37%) deviations, 36 (13%) AUC, and 1 (1%) dexamethasone test. Of these, 72 (26%) were statistically significant, and 201 (74%) indicated non-significant findings...

  19. Nuclear exoticism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penionzhkevich, Yu. E.

    2016-07-01

    Extreme states of nuclearmatter (such that feature high spins, large deformations, high density and temperature, or a large excess of neutrons and protons) play an important role in studying fundamental properties of nuclei and are helpful in solving the problem of constructing the equation of state for nuclear matter. The synthesis of neutron-rich nuclei near the nucleon drip lines and investigation of their properties permit drawing conclusions about the positions of these boundaries and deducing information about unusual states of such nuclei and about their decays. At the present time, experimental investigations along these lines can only be performed via the cooperation of leading research centers that possess powerful heavy-ion accelerators, such as the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN and the heavy-ion cyclotrons at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR, Dubna), where respective experiments are being conducted by physicists from about 20 JINR member countries. The present article gives a survey of the most recent results in the realms of super neutron-rich nuclei. Implications of the change in the structure of such nuclei near the nucleon drip lines are discussed. Information about the results obtained by measuring the masses (binding energies) of exotic nuclei, the nucleon-distribution radii (neutron halo) and momentum distributions in them, and their deformations and quantum properties is presented. It is shown that the properties of nuclei lying near the stability boundaries differ strongly from the properties of other nuclei. The problem of the stability of nuclei that is associated with the magic numbers of 20 and 28 is discussed along with the effect of new magic numbers.

  20. Reconversion of nuclear weapons

    CERN Document Server

    Kapitza, Sergei P

    1993-01-01

    The nuclear predicament or nuclear option. Synopsis of three lectures : 1- The physical basis of nuclear technology. Physics of fission. Chain reaction in reactors and weapons. Fission fragments. Separration of isotopes. Radiochemistry.2- Nuclear reactors with slow and fast neutrons. Power, size, fuel and waste. Plutonium production. Dose rate, shielding and health hazard. The lessons of Chernobyl3- Nuclear weapons. Types, energy, blast and fallout. Fusion and hydrogen bombs. What to do with nuclear weapons when you cannot use them? Testing. Nonmilittary use. Can we get rid of the nuclear weapon? Nuclear proliferation. Is there a nuclear future?

  1. No Nuclear Worries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China National Nuclear Corp.will learn lessons from the Fukushima accident while expanding its operations As Japan’s Fukushima nuclear crisis sparks a global debate over nuclear safety,China National Nuclear Corp.(CNNC),the country’s largest nuclear power operator,comes under

  2. Trends in Nuclear Astrophysics

    OpenAIRE

    Schatz, Hendrik

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear Astrophysics is a vibrant field at the intersection of nuclear physics and astrophysics that encompasses research in nuclear physics, astrophysics, astronomy, and computational science. This paper is not a review. It is intended to provide an incomplete personal perspective on current trends in nuclear astrophysics and the specific role of nuclear physics in this field.

  3. Discovery of Infection Associated Metabolic Markers in Human African Trypanosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamour, Sabrina D; Gomez-Romero, Maria; Vorkas, Panagiotis A; Alibu, Vincent P; Saric, Jasmina; Holmes, Elaine; Sternberg, Jeremy M

    2015-01-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) remains a major neglected tropical disease in Sub-Saharan Africa. As clinical symptoms are usually non-specific, new diagnostic and prognostic markers are urgently needed to enhance the number of identified cases and optimise treatment. This is particularly important for disease caused by Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, where indirect immunodiagnostic approaches have to date been unsuccessful. We have conducted global metabolic profiling of plasma from T.b.rhodesiense HAT patients and endemic controls, using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and ultra-performance liquid chromatography, coupled with mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) and identified differences in the lipid, amino acid and metabolite profiles. Altogether 16 significantly disease discriminatory metabolite markers were found using NMR, and a further 37 lipid markers via UPLC-MS. These included significantly higher levels of phenylalanine, formate, creatinine, N-acetylated glycoprotein and triglycerides in patients relative to controls. HAT patients also displayed lower concentrations of histidine, sphingomyelins, lysophosphatidylcholines, and several polyunsaturated phosphatidylcholines. While the disease metabolite profile was partially consistent with previous data published in experimental rodent infection, we also found unique lipid and amino acid profile markers highlighting subtle but important differences between the host response to trypanosome infections between animal models and natural human infections. Our results demonstrate the potential of metabolic profiling in the identification of novel diagnostic biomarkers and the elucidation of pathogenetic mechanisms in this disease.

  4. Intermediate filament genes as differentiation markers in the leech Helobdella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Dian-Han; Weisblat, David A

    2011-10-01

    The intermediate filament (IF) cytoskeleton is a general feature of differentiated cells. Its molecular components, IF proteins, constitute a large family including the evolutionarily conserved nuclear lamins and the more diverse collection of cytoplasmic intermediate filament (CIF) proteins. In vertebrates, genes encoding CIFs exhibit cell/tissue type-specific expression profiles and are thus useful as differentiation markers. The expression of invertebrate CIFs, however, is not well documented. Here, we report a whole-genome survey of IF genes and their developmental expression patterns in the leech Helobdella, a lophotrochozoan model for developmental biology research. We found that, as in vertebrates, each of the leech CIF genes is expressed in a specific set of cell/tissue types. This allows us to detect earliest points of differentiation for multiple cell types in leech development and to use CIFs as molecular markers for studying cell fate specification in leech embryos. In addition, to determine the feasibility of using CIFs as universal metazoan differentiation markers, we examined phylogenetic relationships of IF genes from various species. Our results suggest that CIFs, and thus their cell/tissue-specific expression patterns, have expanded several times independently during metazoan evolution. Moreover, comparing the expression patterns of CIF orthologs between two leech species suggests that rapid evolutionary changes in the cell or tissue specificity of CIFs have occurred among leeches. Hence, CIFs are not suitable for identifying cell or tissue homology except among very closely related species, but they are nevertheless useful species-specific differentiation markers.

  5. (Somatic mutations in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    The study is concerned the design of new assays that may detect rare somatic mutations in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA, which may increase upon exposure to mutagens, and thus become a marker of human exposure to such mutagens. Two assays for somatic mutation were presented, one for mitochondrial DNA deletions which was developed by the author, and one for deletions of the ADA gene which resides in the nucleus.

  6. Nuclear analytical chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brune, D.; Forkman, B.; Persson, B.

    1984-01-01

    This book covers the general theories and techniques of nuclear chemical analysis, directed at applications in analytical chemistry, nuclear medicine, radiophysics, agriculture, environmental sciences, geological exploration, industrial process control, etc. The main principles of nuclear physics and nuclear detection on which the analysis is based are briefly outlined. An attempt is made to emphasise the fundamentals of activation analysis, detection and activation methods, as well as their applications. The book provides guidance in analytical chemistry, agriculture, environmental and biomedical sciences, etc. The contents include: the nuclear periodic system; nuclear decay; nuclear reactions; nuclear radiation sources; interaction of radiation with matter; principles of radiation detectors; nuclear electronics; statistical methods and spectral analysis; methods of radiation detection; neutron activation analysis; charged particle activation analysis; photon activation analysis; sample preparation and chemical separation; nuclear chemical analysis in biological and medical research; the use of nuclear chemical analysis in the field of criminology; nuclear chemical analysis in environmental sciences, geology and mineral exploration; and radiation protection.

  7. Mean nuclear volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, O.; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Bichel, P.

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated the following nine parameters with respect to their prognostic value in females with endometrial cancer: four stereologic parameters [mean nuclear volume (MNV), nuclear volume fraction, nuclear index and mitotic index], the immunohistochemical expression of cancer antigen (CA125...

  8. Nuclear Quadrupole Moments and Nuclear Shell Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townes, C. H.; Foley, H. M.; Low, W.

    1950-06-23

    Describes a simple model, based on nuclear shell considerations, which leads to the proper behavior of known nuclear quadrupole moments, although predictions of the magnitudes of some quadrupole moments are seriously in error.

  9. Microsatellite Markers for the Yam Bean Pachyrhizus (Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Delêtre

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Microsatellite loci were developed for the understudied root crop yam bean (Pachyrhizus spp. to investigate intraspecific diversity and interspecific relationships within the genus Pachyrhizus. Methods and Results: Seventeen nuclear simple sequence repeat (SSR markers with perfect di- and trinucleotide repeats were developed from 454 pyrosequencing of SSR-enriched genomic libraries. Loci were characterized in P. ahipa and wild and cultivated populations of four closely related species. All loci successfully cross-amplified and showed high levels of polymorphism, with number of alleles ranging from three to 12 and expected heterozygosity ranging from 0.095 to 0.831 across the genus. Conclusions: By enabling rapid assessment of genetic diversity in three native neotropical crops, P. ahipa, P. erosus, and P. tuberosus, and two wild relatives, P. ferrugineus and P. panamensis, these markers will allow exploration of the genetic diversity and evolutionary history of the genus Pachyrhizus.

  10. EasyClone-MarkerFree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabre, Mathew Malcolm Jessop; Jakociunas, Tadas; Stovicek, Vratislav

    2016-01-01

    Clone-MarkerFree. The integration of linearized expression cassettes into defined genomic loci is facilitated by CRISPR/Cas9. Cas9 is recruited to the chromosomal location by specific guide RNAs (gRNAs) expressed from a set of gRNA helper vectors. Using our genome engineering vector suite, single and triple insertions are obtained...

  11. Testing theories about ethnic markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Holm; Petersen, Michael Bang; Høgh-Olesen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, evolutionary psychologists and anthropologists have debated whether ethnic markers have evolved to solve adaptive problems related to interpersonal coordination or to interpersonal cooperation. In the present study, we add to this debate by exploring how individuals living in a m...

  12. Prognostic markers of canine pyometra

    OpenAIRE

    M.C. Sant'Anna; Giordano,L.G.P.; Flaiban,K.K.M.C.; E.E. Muller; M.I.M. Martins

    2014-01-01

    The pyometra is a disease that affects middle age and elderly female dogs during diestrus. Hormonal, microbiological, biochemical and hematological aspects are well described. However, few studies have evaluated the role of each in the prognosis of canine pyometra. The aim of this study was to identify markers associated with clinical worsening of dogs with pyometra. We prospectively evaluated 80 dogs with pyometra tre...

  13. Literature Review of Discourse Marker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵蕴萱; 王孝伟

    2011-01-01

    This paper is devoted to supplying theoretical foundation for discourse markers(DMs),introducing the relevant definitions as well as the previous classifications of DMs.The functions of discourse markers are also added so as to provide a deep insight into

  14. Material Culture As Cosmological Marker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriades, G.

    2009-08-01

    The present paper aims to spot out which kind of cosmological markers could be detect by the study of material culture. Ground for such cognitive approach is the ``comet'' pattern impressed on a Neolithic north Italian ceramic (Valcamonica, Italy) and its correlation with a ``comet'' rock-art configuration from the same geographical area.

  15. PREFACE: XXXV Symposium on Nuclear Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Rodal, E.; Bijker, R.

    2012-09-01

    for Mexican students to present their current research and interact with the visiting scientists. The present volume contains 21 research articles based on invited talks presented at the symposium. We cannot thank enough to all the authors for their enthusiastic contribution, to the anonymous referees for the time they devoted to the review process, which helped us to maintain the high standard of the Conference Proceedings. Finally we would like to thank the International Advisory Committee and the Sponsoring Organizations that made this event possible. E Padilla-Rodal and R Bijker Editors Conference photograph International Advisory Committee Osvaldo Civitarese, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Argentina Jerry P Draayer, Louisiana State University, USA Alfredo Galindo-Uribarri, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, USA Paulo Gomes, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Brazil Piet Van Isacker, GANIL, France James J Kolata, University of Notre Dame, USA Reiner Krücken, TRIUMF, Canada Jorge López, The University of Texas at El Paso, USA Stuart Pittel, University of Delaware, USA W Michael Snow, Indiana University, USA Adam Szczepaniak, Indiana University, USA Michael Wiescher, University of Notre Dame, USA Organizing Committee Elizabeth Padilla-Rodal (Chair), Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, UNAM, Mexico Roelof Bijker, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, UNAM, Mexico Sponsoring Organizations División de Física Nuclear, SMF Dirección General de Asuntos de Personal Académico, UNAM Centro Latino-Americano de Física Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, UNAM Instituto de Física, UNAM Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares

  16. Nuclear energy data 2010

    CERN Document Server

    2010-01-01

    This 2010 edition of Nuclear Energy Data , the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency's annual compilation of official statistics and country reports on nuclear energy, provides key information on plans for new nuclear plant construction, nuclear fuel cycle developments as well as current and projected nuclear generating capacity to 2035 in OECD member countries. This comprehensive overview provides authoritative information for policy makers, experts and other interested stakeholders.

  17. Nuclear Fuel Cycle & Vulnerabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, Brian D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-18

    The objective of safeguards is the timely detection of diversion of significant quantities of nuclear material from peaceful nuclear activities to the manufacture of nuclear weapons or of other nuclear explosive devices or for purposes unknown, and deterrence of such diversion by the risk of early detection. The safeguards system should be designed to provide credible assurances that there has been no diversion of declared nuclear material and no undeclared nuclear material and activities.

  18. Nuclear Entalpies

    CERN Document Server

    Rozynek, J

    2013-01-01

    In a compressed Nuclear Matter (NM) an increasing pressure between the nucleons starts to increase the ratio of a nucleon Fermi to average single particle energy and in accordance with the Hugenholtz-van Hove theorem the longitudinal Momentum Sum Rule (MSR) is broken in a Relativistic Mean Field (RMF) approach. We propose to benefit from the concept of enthalpy in order to show how to fulfill the MSR above a saturation density with pressure corrections. As a result a nucleon mass can decrease with density, making the Equation of State (EoS) softer. The course of the EoS in our modified RMF model is close to a semi-empirical estimate and to results obtained from extensive DBHF calculations with a Bonn A potential, which produce the EoS stiff enough to describe neutron star properties (mass-radius constraint), especially the most massive known neutron star. The presented model has proper saturation properties, including good values of a compressibility and a spin-orbit term.

  19. Nuclear Data and Nuclear Model Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Developing nuclear data needs towards to sustainable development on fission reactor design and many nuclear applications out the field of fission reactor technology that are growing economicsignificance and that have substantial data requirements are introduced. International standard codes used in nuclear data evaluations and calculations are introduced and compared each other. Generally

  20. Nuclear energy data 2011

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

     . Nuclear Energy Data, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency's annual compilation of statistics and country reports on nuclear energy, contains official information provided by OECD member country governments on plans for new nuclear plant construction, nuclear fuel cycle developments as well as current and projected nuclear generating capacity to 2035. For the first time, it includes data for Chile, Estonia, Israel and Slovenia, which recently became OECD members. Key elements of this edition show a 2% increase in nuclear and total electricity production and a 0.5% increase in nuclear generating ca