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Sample records for anomalous type iv

  1. Interplanetary Type IV Bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Hillaris, Alexander; Nindos, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    In this work we study the characteristics of moving type IV radio bursts which extend to the hectometric wavelengths (interplanetary type IV or type IV IP bursts) and their relationship with energetic phenomena on the Sun. Our dataset comprised 48 Interplanetary type IV bursts observed by the Wind/WAVES in the 13.825 MHz?20 KHz frequency range. The dynamic spec tra of the RSTN, DAM, ARTEMIS-IV, CULGOORA, Hiraiso and IZMIRAN Radio-spectrographs were used to track the evolution of the events in the low corona; these were supplemented with SXR ?ux recordings from GOES and CME data from LASCO. Positional information for the coronal bursts were obtained by the Nan\\c{c}ay radioheliograph (NRH). We examined the relationship of the type IV events with coronal radio bursts, CMEs and SXR ?ares. The majority of the events (45) were characterized as compact; their duration was on average 106 min. This type of events were, mostly, associated with M and X class ?ares (40 out of 45) and fast CMEs; 32 of these events had CME...

  2. Interplanetary Type IV Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillaris, A.; Bouratzis, C.; Nindos, A.

    2016-08-01

    We study the characteristics of moving type IV radio bursts that extend to hectometric wavelengths (interplanetary type IV or type {IV}_{{IP}} bursts) and their relationship with energetic phenomena on the Sun. Our dataset comprises 48 interplanetary type IV bursts observed with the Radio and Plasma Wave Investigation (WAVES) instrument onboard Wind in the 13.825 MHz - 20 kHz frequency range. The dynamic spectra of the Radio Solar Telescope Network (RSTN), the Nançay Decametric Array (DAM), the Appareil de Routine pour le Traitement et l' Enregistrement Magnetique de l' Information Spectral (ARTEMIS-IV), the Culgoora, Hiraso, and the Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation (IZMIRAN) Radio Spectrographs were used to track the evolution of the events in the low corona. These were supplemented with soft X-ray (SXR) flux-measurements from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) and coronal mass ejections (CME) data from the Large Angle and Spectroscopic Coronagraph (LASCO) onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). Positional information of the coronal bursts was obtained by the Nançay Radioheliograph (NRH). We examined the relationship of the type IV events with coronal radio bursts, CMEs, and SXR flares. The majority of the events (45) were characterized as compact, their duration was on average 106 minutes. This type of events was, mostly, associated with M- and X-class flares (40 out of 45) and fast CMEs, 32 of these events had CMEs faster than 1000 km s^{-1}. Furthermore, in 43 compact events the CME was possibly subjected to reduced aerodynamic drag as it was propagating in the wake of a previous CME. A minority (three) of long-lived type {IV}_{{IP}} bursts was detected, with durations from 960 minutes to 115 hours. These events are referred to as extended or long duration and appear to replenish their energetic electron content, possibly from electrons escaping from the corresponding coronal

  3. Observational properties of decameter type IV bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, Valentin; Brazhenko, Anatoly; Rucker, Helmut; Konovalenko, Alexander; Briand, Carine; Dorovskyy, Vladimir; Zarka, Philippe; Frantzusenko, Anatoly; Panchenko, Michael; Poedts, Stefan; Zaqarashvili, Teimuraz; Shergelashvili, Bidzina

    2013-04-01

    Oscillations of decameter type IV bursts were registered during observations of solar radio emission by UTR-2, URAN-2 and NDA in 2011-2012. Large majority of these bursts were accompanied by coronal mass ejections (CMEs), which were observed by SOHO and STEREO in the visible light. Only in some cases decameter type IV bursts were not associated with CMEs. The largest periods of oscillations P were some tens of minutes. There were some modes of long periods of oscillations simultaneously. Periods of oscillations in flux and in polarization profiles were close. Detailed properties of oscillations at different frequencies were analyzed on the example of two type IV bursts. One of them was observed on April 7, 2011 when a CME happened. Another one (August 1, 2011) was registered without any CME. The 7 April type IV burst had two periods in the frames 75-85 and 35-85 minutes. Interesting feature of these oscillations is decreasing periods with time. The observed decreasing rates dP/dt equaled 0.03-0.07. Concerning type IV burst observed on August 1, 2011 the period of its oscillations increases from 17 min. at 30 MHz to 44 min. at 10 MHz. Connection of type IV burst oscillations with oscillations of magnetic arches and CMEs at corresponding altitudes are discussed. The work is fulfilled in the frame of FP7 project "SOLSPANET".

  4. Type IV Wind Turbine Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anca Daniela; Margaris, Ioannis D.

    project to be incorporated in the wind power plant level. This document describes the Type 4 wind turbine simulation model, implemented in the EaseWind project. The implemented wind turbine model is one of the initial necessary steps toward integrating new control services in the wind power plant level....... In the project, this wind turbine model will be further incorporated in a wind power plant model together with the implementation in the wind power control level of the new control functionalities (inertial response, synchronising power and power system damping). For this purpose an aggregate wind power plant...... (WPP) will be considered. The aggregate WPP model, which will be based on the upscaling of the individual wind turbine model on the electrical part, will make use of an equivalent wind speed. The implemented model follows the basic structure of the generic standard Type 4 wind turbine model proposed...

  5. Fluctuations in type IV pilus retraction

    CERN Document Server

    Linden, M; Jonsson, A B; Wallin, M; Linden, Martin; Johansson, Emil; Jonsson, Ann-Beth; Wallin, Mats

    2005-01-01

    The type IV pilus retraction motor is found in many important bacterial pathogens. It is the strongest known linear motor protein and is required for bacterial infectivity. We characterize the dynamics of type IV pilus retraction in terms of a stochastic chemical reaction model. We find that a two state model can describe the experimental force velocity relation and qualitative dependence of ATP concentration. The results indicate that the dynamics is limited by an ATP-dependent step at low load and a force-dependent step at high load, and that at least one step is effectively irreversible in the measured range of forces. The irreversible nature of the sub-step(s) lead to interesting predictions for future experiments: We find different parameterizations with mathematically identical force velocity relations but different fluctuations (diffusion constant). We also find a longer elementary step compared to an earlier analysis, which agrees better with known facts about the structure of the pilus filament and e...

  6. Dual (type IV left anterior descending artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozdil Baskan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Congenital coronary artery anomalies are uncommon. Dual left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD is defined as the presence of two LADs within the anterior interventricular sulcus (AIVS, and is classified into four types. Type IV is a rarely reported subtype and differs from the others, with a long LAD originating from the right coronary artery (RCA. Dual LAD is a benign coronary artery anomaly, but should be recognised especially before interventional procedures. With the increasing use of multidedector computed tomography (MDCT, it is essential for radiologists to be aware of this entity and the cross-sectional findings.

  7. Quantitative neuroimaging in mucolipidosis type IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffmann, Raphael; Mayfield, Joan; Swift, Caren; Nestrasil, Igor

    2014-02-01

    Mucolipidosis type IV (MLIV) is an autosomal recessive disorder resulting from mutations in the MCOLN1 gene. This gene encodes the endosomal/lysosomal transient receptor potential channel protein mucolipin-1 (TRPML1). Affected patients suffer from neurodevelopmental abnormalities and progressive retinal dystrophy. In a prospective natural history study we hypothesized the presence of an additional slow cerebral neurodegenerative process. We have recruited 5 patients, tested their neurodevelopmental status, and measured cerebral regional volumes and white matter integrity using MRI yearly. Over a period of up to 3 years, MLIV patients remained neurologically stable. There was a trend for increased cortical and subcortical gray matter volumes and increased ventricular size, while white matter and cerebellar volumes decreased. Mean diffusivity (MD) was increased and fractional anisotropy (FA) values were below normal in all analyzed brain regions. There was a positive correlation between motor scores of the Vineland Scale and the FA values in the corticospinal tract (corr coef 0.39), and a negative correlation with the MD values (corr coef -0.50) in the same brain region. We conclude from these initial findings that deficiency in mucolipin-1 affects the entire brain but that there might be a selective regional cerebral neurodegenerative process in MLIV. In addition, these data suggest that diffusion-weighted imaging might be a good biomarker for following patients with MLIV. Therefore, our findings may be helpful for designing future clinical trials.

  8. Type IV collagen-degrading enzyme activity in human serum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashimoto,Noriaki

    1988-02-01

    Full Text Available Type IV collagen-degrading enzyme activity was detected in human serum. Serum was preincubated with 4-aminophenylmercuric acetate and trypsin to activate the enzyme prior to assay. Type IV collagen, purified from human placentas and radiolabeled with [1-14C] acetic anhydride, was used as the substrate. The enzyme activity was measured at pH 7.5 and inhibited by treatment with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid or heat. The assay of type IV collagen-degrading enzyme in human serum might be useful for estimating the degradation of type IV collagen.

  9. Type IV collagen-degrading enzyme activity in human serum.

    OpenAIRE

    Hashimoto, Noriaki; Kobayashi, Michio; Watanabe,Akiharu; Higashi, Toshiro; Tsuji, Takao

    1988-01-01

    Type IV collagen-degrading enzyme activity was detected in human serum. Serum was preincubated with 4-aminophenylmercuric acetate and trypsin to activate the enzyme prior to assay. Type IV collagen, purified from human placentas and radiolabeled with [1-14C] acetic anhydride, was used as the substrate. The enzyme activity was measured at pH 7.5 and inhibited by treatment with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid or heat. The assay of type IV collagen-degrading enzyme in human serum might be useful...

  10. Space Telescope and Optical Reverberation Mapping Project. IV. Anomalous behavior of the broad ultraviolet emission lines in NGC 5548

    CERN Document Server

    Goad, M R; De Rosa, G; Kriss, G A; Edelson, R; Barth, A J; Ferland, G J; Kochanek, C S; Netzer, H; Peterson, B M; Bentz, M C; Bisogni, S; Crenshaw, D M; Denney, K D; Ely, J; Fausnaugh, M M; Grier, C J; Gupta, A; Horne, K D; Kaastra, J; Pancoast, A; Pei, L; Pogge, R W; Skielboe, A; Starkey, D; Vestergaard, M; Zu, Y; Anderson, M D; Arevalo, P; Bazhaw, C; Borman, G A; Boroson, T A; Bottorff, M C; Brandt, W N; Breeveld, A A; Brewer, B J; Cackett, E M; Carini, M T; Croxall, K V; Bonta, E Dalla; de Lorenzo-Caceres, A; Dietrich, M; Efimova, N V; Evans, P A; Filippenko, A V; Flatland, K; Gehrels, N; Geier, S; Gelbord, G M; Gonzalez, L; Gorjian, V; Grupe, D; Hall, P B; Hicks, S; Horenstein, D; Hutchison, T; Im, M; Jensen, J J; Joner, M D; Jones, J; Kaspi, S; Kelly, B C; Kennea, J A; Kim, M; Kim, S C; Klimanov, S A; Larionov, V M; Lee, J C; Leonard, D C; Lira, P; MacInnis, F; Manne-Nicholas, E R; Mathur, S; McHardy, I M; Montouri, C; Musso, R; Nazarov, S V; Norris, R P; Nousek, J A; Okhmat, D N; Papadakis, I; Parks, J R; Pott, J -U; Rafter, S E; Rix, H -W; Saylor, D A; Schimoia, J S; Schnulle, K; Sergeev, S G; Siegel, M; Spencer, M; Sung, H -I; Teems, K G; Treu, T; Turner, C S; Uttley, P; Villforth, C; Weiss, Y; Woo, J -H; Yan, H; Young, S; Zheng, W -K

    2016-01-01

    During an intensive Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) UV monitoring campaign of the Seyfert~1 galaxy NGC 5548 performed from 2014 February to July, the normally highly correlated far-UV continuum and broad emission-line variations decorrelated for ~60 to 70 days, starting ~75 days after the first HST/COS observation. Following this anomalous state, the flux and variability of the broad emission lines returned to a more normal state. This transient behavior, characterised by significant deficits in flux and equivalent width of the strong broad UV emission lines, is the first of its kind to be unambiguously identified in an active galactic nucleus reverberation mapping campaign. The largest corresponding emission-line flux deficits occurred for the high-ionization collisionally excited lines, C IV and Si IV(+O IV]), and also He II(+O III]), while the anomaly in Ly-alpha was substantially smaller. This pattern of behavior indicates a depletion in the flux of photons with E_{\\rm ph} >...

  11. Anomalous delta-type electric and magnetic two-nucleon interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Mandache, Nicolae Bogdan

    2009-01-01

    Anomalous delta-type interactions, of both electric and magnetic nature, are introduced between the overlapping peripheral structures of the nucleons, which may explain the spin-triplet deuteron state and the absence of other nucleon-nucleon bound states.

  12. A case of hereditary sensory autonomic neuropathy type IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G P Prashanth

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary sensory autonomic neuropathy type IV (HSAN -IV, also known as congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis, is a very rare condition that presents in infancy with anhidrosis, absence of pain sensation and self -mutilation. Developmental delay and mental retardation are usually present. Ultrastructural study of the peripheral nerves demonstrates loss of the unmyelinated and small myelinated fibers. We here report a 8 year -old boy with HSAN IV with typical clinical features where the diagnosis was supported by nerve biopsy findings. However, our case was unusual since mental development was normal.

  13. Respiratory complications of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowton, S B; Pincott, S; Demmer, L

    1996-12-01

    Pulmonary complications are described in a case of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV, established by studies of collagen biosynthesis. At age 20.5 years the patient, who had previously suffered a spontaneous colonic perforation, developed intermittent recurrent hemoptysis and had a spontaneous hemopneumothorax. At presentation, imaging studies revealed multiple scattered cavitary lesions in both lungs. On separate occasions large parenchymal cysts ensued and subsequently regressed. Reviews of other reported patients indicate that pulmonary complications do occur in patients with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV but have not resulted directly in patient mortality.

  14. Archaeal type IV pili and their involvement in biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlschroder, Mechthild; Esquivel, Rianne N

    2015-01-01

    Type IV pili are ancient proteinaceous structures present on the cell surface of species in nearly all bacterial and archaeal phyla. These filaments, which are required for a diverse array of important cellular processes, are assembled employing a conserved set of core components. While type IV pilins, the structural subunits of pili, share little sequence homology, their signal peptides are structurally conserved allowing for in silico prediction. Recently, in vivo studies in model archaea representing the euryarchaeal and crenarchaeal kingdoms confirmed that several of these pilins are incorporated into type IV adhesion pili. In addition to facilitating surface adhesion, these in vivo studies also showed that several predicted pilins are required for additional functions that are critical to biofilm formation. Examples include the subunits of Sulfolobus acidocaldarius Ups pili, which are induced by exposure to UV light and promote cell aggregation and conjugation, and a subset of the Haloferax volcanii adhesion pilins, which play a critical role in microcolony formation while other pilins inhibit this process. The recent discovery of novel pilin functions such as the ability of haloarchaeal adhesion pilins to regulate swimming motility may point to novel regulatory pathways conserved across prokaryotic domains. In this review, we will discuss recent advances in our understanding of the functional roles played by archaeal type IV adhesion pili and their subunits, with particular emphasis on their involvement in biofilm formation.

  15. Biological role of prolyl 3-hydroxylation in type IV collagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokidysheva, Elena; Boudko, Sergei; Vranka, Janice; Zientek, Keith; Maddox, Kerry; Moser, Markus; Fässler, Reinhard; Ware, Jerry; Bächinger, Hans Peter

    2014-01-07

    Collagens constitute nearly 30% of all proteins in our body. Type IV collagen is a major and crucial component of basement membranes. Collagen chains undergo several posttranslational modifications that are indispensable for proper collagen function. One of these modifications, prolyl 3-hydroxylation, is accomplished by a family of prolyl 3-hydroxylases (P3H1, P3H2, and P3H3). The present study shows that P3H2-null mice are embryonic-lethal by embryonic day 8.5. The mechanism of the unexpectedly early lethality involves the interaction of non-3-hydroxylated embryonic type IV collagen with the maternal platelet-specific glycoprotein VI (GPVI). This interaction results in maternal platelet aggregation, thrombosis of the maternal blood, and death of the embryo. The phenotype is completely rescued by producing double KOs of P3H2 and GPVI. Double nulls are viable and fertile. Under normal conditions, subendothelial collagens bear the GPVI-binding sites that initiate platelet aggregation upon blood exposure during injuries. In type IV collagen, these sites are normally 3-hydroxylated. Thus, prolyl 3-hydroxylation of type IV collagen has an important function preventing maternal platelet aggregation in response to the early developing embryo. A unique link between blood coagulation and the ECM is established. The newly described mechanism may elucidate some unexplained fetal losses in humans, where thrombosis is often observed at the maternal/fetal interface. Moreover, epigenetic silencing of P3H2 in breast cancers implies that the interaction between GPVI and non-3-hydroxylated type IV collagen might also play a role in the progression of malignant tumors and metastasis.

  16. Archaeal type IV pili and their involvement in biofilm formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rianne eEsquivel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Type IV pili are ancient proteinaceous structures present on the cell surface of species in nearly all bacterial and archaeal phyla. These filaments are involved in a diverse array of critical cellular processes. While the core components of the pilus biosynthesis machinery are highly conserved, type IV pilins, the structural subunits of pili, share little sequence homology. However, the conserved structure of the signal peptides of these pilus subunits has allowed the development of prediction programs that accurately detect the processing sites recognized by bacterial and archaeal prepilin peptidases. Using these programs, the genomes of organisms from both prokaryotic domains have been shown to encode a diverse set of putative type IV pilins. Recently, in vivo studies in model archaea representing the euryarchaeal and crenarchaeal kingdoms confirmed that several of these pilins are incorporated into type IV adhesion pili. In addition to facilitating surface adhesion, these in vivo studies also showed that several predicted pilins are required for additional functions that are critical to biofilm formation. Examples include the subunits of Sulfolobus acidocaldarius Ups pili, which are induced by exposure to UV light and promote cell aggregation and conjugation, and a subset of the Haloferax volcanii adhesion pilins, which play a critical role in microcolony formation while other pilins inhibit this process. The recent discovery of novel pilin functions such as the ability of haloarchaeal adhesion pilins to regulate swimming motility rather than being unique to organisms that inhabit high salt environments may point to novel prokaryotic regulatory pathways. In this review, we will discuss recent advances in our understanding of the functional roles played by archaeal type IV adhesion pili and their subunits, with particular emphasis on their involvement in biofilm formation.

  17. UY Puppis A New Anomalous Z Cam Type Dwarf Nova

    CERN Document Server

    Stubbings, Rod

    2016-01-01

    The defining characteristic of Z Cam stars are standstills in their light curves. Some Z Cams exhibit atypical behaviour by going into outburst from a standstill. It has previously been suggested that UY Pup had been a Z Cam star, but it was ruled out due to its long-term light curve. However, in December 2015 UY Pup went into outburst and unexpectedly entered into a short standstill instead of returning to quiescence. Furthermore, UY Pup exhibited additional unusual behaviour with two outbursts detected during its standstill. After this standstill UY Pup made a brief excursion to a quiescence state and slowly rose to a longer and well-defined standstill, where it again went into another outburst. Through comparative analysis, researching and observational data of UY Pup it is evident and thus concluded that it is indeed a Z Cam star, in which renders it to be one of only four known anomalous Z Cam stars.

  18. Biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa wild type, flagella and type IV pili mutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, M.; Heydorn, Arne; Ragas, Paula Cornelia;

    2003-01-01

    Biofilm formation by Gfp-tagged Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 wild type, flagella and type IV pili mutants in flow chambers irrigated with citrate minimal medium was characterized by the use of confocal laser scanning microscopy and comstat image analysis. Flagella and type IV pili were not necessary...... for P. aeruginosa initial attachment or biofilm formation, but the cell appendages had roles in biofilm development, as wild type, flagella and type IV pili mutants formed biofilms with different structures. Dynamics and selection during biofilm formation were investigated by tagging the wild type...... and flagella/type IV mutants with Yfp and Cfp and performing time-lapse confocal laser scanning microscopy in mixed colour biofilms. The initial microcolony formation occurred by clonal growth, after which wild-type P. aeruginosa bacteria spread over the substratum by means of twitching motility. The wild-type...

  19. Outcome of surgical treatment of type IV capitellum frac-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Ajay Pal

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】 Objective: Fractures of the capitellum and trochlea constitute less than 1% of all elbow fractures and a shear fracture involving the capitellum and extending medially into most of the trochlea is rarely reported. Type IV capitellum fracture is still controversial in regard to its ra-diographic appearance, surgical approach and osteosynthesis. We report 10 cases of type IV capitellum fracture with a view to elucidating its clinical features and treatment outcome. Methods: We treated 10 patients of type IV capitellum fracture with a mean age of 32 years. A uniform surgical approach and postoperative rehabilitation were followed. Results: Nine patients presented to us after a mean of 4 days of injury and one patient was nonunion after 6 months of injury who had been treated conservatively by a bone setter. Double arc sign was absent in 6 cases. Intraopera-tively 6 capitellotrochlear fragments were devoid of soft Chin J Traumatol 2012;15(4:201-205 DOI: 10.3760/cma.j.issn.1008-1275.2012.04.002 Punjab Civil Medical Services-I Mukerian, Punjab, In-dia (Singh AP Department of Orthopaedics, UCMS & GTB Hospital, Delhi, India (Dhammi IK and Garg V Swami Premanand Hospital, Mukerian, Punjab, India (Singh AP *Corresponding author: Tel: 98-72069734, Email: docajaypal@gmail.com C oronal shear fractures of distal end of humeral articular surface involve the capitellum and trochlea. These fractures are difficult to assess accurately on plain radiographs and the limited amount of subchondral bone available for stable internal fixation makes the operative treatment equally difficult. 1 Joint stiffness, instability and osteoarthrosis are complications resulting from treatment failures. 2 The major classification systems are proposed by Bryan and Dubberley et al. 3,4 Type IV fracture is a fracture involving the capitellum and extends to more than lateral half of the trochlea. 1 We report an analysis of ten cases of type IV capi-tissue attachments. By

  20. Terminal ileum gangrene secondary to a type IV paraesophageal hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ching Tsai; Hsiao, Po Jen; Chiu, Chih Chien; Chan, Jenq Shyong; Lin, Yee Fung; Lo, Yuan Hung; Hsiao, Chia Jen

    2016-02-28

    Type IV paraesophageal hernia (PEH) is very rare, and is characterized by the intrathoracic herniation of the abdominal viscera other than the stomach into the chest. We describe a 78-year-old woman who presented at our emergency department because of epigastric pain that she had experienced over the past 24 h. On the day after admission, her pain became severe and was accompanied by right chest pain and dyspnea. Chest radiography revealed an intrathoracic intestinal gas bubble occupying the right lower lung field. Emergency explorative laparotomy identified a type IV PEH with herniation of only the terminal ileum through a hiatal defect into the right thoracic cavity. In this report, we also present a review of similar cases in the literature published between 1980 and 2015 in PubMed. There were four published cases of small bowel herniation into the thoracic cavity during this period. Our patient represents a rare case of an individual diagnosed with type IV PEH with incarceration of only the terminal ileum.

  1. Anomalous Spectral Types and Intrinsic Colors of Young Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecaut, Mark J.

    2016-01-01

    We highlight differences in spectral types and intrinsic colors observed in pre-main sequence (pre-MS) stars. Spectral types of pre-MS stars are wavelength-dependent, with near-infrared spectra being 3-5 spectral sub-classes later than the spectral types determined from optical spectra. In addition, the intrinsic colors of young stars differ from that of main-sequence stars at a given spectral type. We caution observers to adopt optical spectral types over near-infrared types, since Hertzsprung-Russell (H-R) diagram positions derived from optical spectral types provide consistency between dynamical masses and theoretical evolutionary tracks. We also urge observers to deredden pre-MS stars with tabulations of intrinsic colors specifically constructed for young stars, since their unreddened colors differ from that of main sequence dwarfs. Otherwise, V-band extinctions as much as ~0.6 mag erroneously higher than the true extinction may result, which would introduce systematic errors in the H-R diagram positions and thus bias the inferred ages.

  2. Anomalous Spectral Types and Intrinsic Colors of Young Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Pecaut, Mark J

    2016-01-01

    We highlight differences in spectral types and intrinsic colors observed in pre-main sequence (pre-MS) stars. Spectral types of pre-MS stars are wavelength-dependent, with near-infrared spectra being 3-5 spectral sub-classes later than the spectral types determined from optical spectra. In addition, the intrinsic colors of young stars differ from that of main-sequence stars at a given spectral type. We caution observers to adopt optical spectral types over near-infrared types, since Hertzsprung-Russell (H-R) diagram positions derived from optical spectral types provide consistency between dynamical masses and theoretical evolutionary tracks. We also urge observers to deredden pre-MS stars with tabulations of intrinsic colors specifically constructed for young stars, since their unreddened colors differ from that of main sequence dwarfs. Otherwise, V-band extinctions as much as ~0.6 mag erroneously higher than the true extinction may result, which would introduce systematic errors in the H-R diagram positions ...

  3. Association of systemic collagen type IV formation with survival among patients undergoing hemodialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leeming, Diana Julie; Karsdal, Morten A; Rasmussen, Lars M;

    2013-01-01

    The 7S domain of collagen type IV (P4NP_7S) assessed in plasma represents systemic collagen type IV formation. The objective of the study was to investigate the association of systemic collagen type IV formation with survival among patients undergoing hemodialysis.......The 7S domain of collagen type IV (P4NP_7S) assessed in plasma represents systemic collagen type IV formation. The objective of the study was to investigate the association of systemic collagen type IV formation with survival among patients undergoing hemodialysis....

  4. Symptomatic Type IV Dual Left Anterior Descending Coronary Artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyriacos Papadopoulos MD

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Dual left anterior descending coronary artery is a rare congenital anomaly with 4 subtypes. Double left anterior descending coronary artery originating from the left main stem and the right coronary artery (type IV dual left anterior descending artery has been reported to occur in 0.01% to 0.7% of patients undergoing cardiac catheterization. We report a case of a 49-year-old woman who was found to have this anomaly during coronary angiography. The patient had been complaining of chest pain that mimics angina pectoris and exercise tolerance test was positive for myocardial ischemia.

  5. Mechanical stability study of type IV cryomodule (ILC prototype)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGee, M.W.; Doremus, R.; Wands, C.R.; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    An ANSYS modal and harmonic finite element analysis (FEA) was performed in order to investigate cryomodule design mechanical stability for the proposed International Linear Collider (ILC). The current cryomodule, designated Type IV or (T4CM), closely follows the Type III TESLA Test Facility (TTF) version used at DESY, with the exception of a proposed location of the superconducting (SC) quadrupole at the center. This analysis considered the stringent stability criteria established for the ILC, where vertical motion for the SC quadrupole is limited to the micron range at a few Hz. Model validation was achieved through Type III cryomodule vibration measurement studies performed at DESY. The effect of support location, support stiffness and other important parameters were considered in a parametric sensitivity study. FEA results, fast motion investigations and stabilization techniques are discussed.

  6. Anomalous extinction behaviour towards the Type Ia SN 2003cg

    CERN Document Server

    Elias-Rosa, N; Benetti, S; Cappellaro, E; Harutyunyan, A; Hillebrandt, W; Kotak, R; Mazzali, P A; Meikle, W P S; Navasardyan, H; Pastorello, A; Patat, F; Pignata, G; Qiu, Y; Salvo, M E; Stehle, M; Turatto, M

    2006-01-01

    We present optical and near-infrared photometry and spectroscopy of the Type Ia SN 2003cg, which exploded in the nearby galaxy NGC 3169. The observations cover a period between -8.5 and +414 days post-maximum. SN 2003cg is a normal but highly-reddened Type Ia event. Its B magnitude at maximum B_max = 15.94+/-0.04 and Delta m_15(B)_obs = 1.12+/-0.04 (Delta m_15(B)_intrinsic = 1.25+/-0.05). Allowing R_v to become a free parameter within the Cardelli et al. (1989) extinction law, simultaneous matches to a range of colour curves of normal SNe Ia yielded E(B-V) = 1.33+/-0.11, and R_v = 1.80+/-0.19. While the value obtained for R_v is small, such values have been invoked in the past, and may imply a grain size which is small compared with the average value for the local ISM.

  7. Possible association of elevated serum collagen type IV level with skin sclerosis in systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motegi, Sei-Ichiro; Sekiguchi, Akiko; Fujiwara, Chisako; Toki, Sayaka; Ishikawa, Osamu

    2016-08-29

    Collagen type IV is the primary collagen in the basement membranes around blood vessels and in the dermoepidermal junction in the skin. Perivascular collagen type IV is synthesized by endothelial cells and pericytes, and contributes to the homeostasis and remodeling of blood vessels. It has been well recognized that elevated serum collagen type IV levels are associated with the liver fibrosis. The objective was to examine serum collagen type IV levels and their clinical associations in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc), and to examine the expression of collagen type IV in the fibrotic skin in SSc. Serum collagen type IV levels in SSc patients and diffuse cutaneous type SSc patients were significantly higher than those in healthy individuals. Serum collagen type IV levels were positively correlated with modified Rodnan total skin score. Serum collagen type IV levels in early stage (disease duration ≤3 years) diffuse cutaneous SSc patients were significantly elevated. Serum collagen type IV levels in SSc patients with digital ulcers (DU) were significantly elevated. In immunohistochemical staining, the expression of collagen type IV around dermal small vessels in the affected skin was reduced compared with those of normal individuals. These results suggest that elevated serum collagen type IV levels may be associated with the skin sclerosis in the early stage of SSc. The measurement of serum collagen type IV levels in SSc patients may be useful as a disease activity marker in skin sclerosis and DU.

  8. Named entity recognition for bacterial Type IV secretion systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananiadou, Sophia; Sullivan, Dan; Black, William; Levow, Gina-Anne; Gillespie, Joseph J; Mao, Chunhong; Pyysalo, Sampo; Kolluru, Balakrishna; Tsujii, Junichi; Sobral, Bruno

    2011-03-29

    Research on specialized biological systems is often hampered by a lack of consistent terminology, especially across species. In bacterial Type IV secretion systems genes within one set of orthologs may have over a dozen different names. Classifying research publications based on biological processes, cellular components, molecular functions, and microorganism species should improve the precision and recall of literature searches allowing researchers to keep up with the exponentially growing literature, through resources such as the Pathosystems Resource Integration Center (PATRIC, patricbrc.org). We developed named entity recognition (NER) tools for four entities related to Type IV secretion systems: 1) bacteria names, 2) biological processes, 3) molecular functions, and 4) cellular components. These four entities are important to pathogenesis and virulence research but have received less attention than other entities, e.g., genes and proteins. Based on an annotated corpus, large domain terminological resources, and machine learning techniques, we developed recognizers for these entities. High accuracy rates (>80%) are achieved for bacteria, biological processes, and molecular function. Contrastive experiments highlighted the effectiveness of alternate recognition strategies; results of term extraction on contrasting document sets demonstrated the utility of these classes for identifying T4SS-related documents.

  9. Named entity recognition for bacterial Type IV secretion systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia Ananiadou

    Full Text Available Research on specialized biological systems is often hampered by a lack of consistent terminology, especially across species. In bacterial Type IV secretion systems genes within one set of orthologs may have over a dozen different names. Classifying research publications based on biological processes, cellular components, molecular functions, and microorganism species should improve the precision and recall of literature searches allowing researchers to keep up with the exponentially growing literature, through resources such as the Pathosystems Resource Integration Center (PATRIC, patricbrc.org. We developed named entity recognition (NER tools for four entities related to Type IV secretion systems: 1 bacteria names, 2 biological processes, 3 molecular functions, and 4 cellular components. These four entities are important to pathogenesis and virulence research but have received less attention than other entities, e.g., genes and proteins. Based on an annotated corpus, large domain terminological resources, and machine learning techniques, we developed recognizers for these entities. High accuracy rates (>80% are achieved for bacteria, biological processes, and molecular function. Contrastive experiments highlighted the effectiveness of alternate recognition strategies; results of term extraction on contrasting document sets demonstrated the utility of these classes for identifying T4SS-related documents.

  10. Dynamics of gonococcal type IV pili during infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opitz, Dirk; Clausen, Martin; Maier, Berenike

    2009-07-13

    Type IV pili are important bacterial virulence factors that mediate attachment to mammalian host cells and elicit downstream signals. When adhered to abiotic surfaces, the human pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae generates force by retracting these polymeric cell appendages. We recently found that single pili generate stalling forces that exceed 100 pN, but it is unclear whether bacteria generate force once they adhere to their human host cells. Here, we report that pili retract very actively during infection of human epithelial cells. The retraction velocity is bimodal and the high velocity mode persisted at higher forces in contrast to an abiotic environment. Bacteria generate considerable force during infection, but the maximum force is reduced from 120+/-40 pN on abiotic surfaces to 70+/-20 pN on epithelial cells, most likely due to elastic effects. Velocity and maximum force of pilus retraction are largely independent of the infection period within 1 h and 24 h post-infection. Thus, the force generated by type IV pili during infection is high enough to induce cytoskeletal rearrangements in the host cell.

  11. Cross-reactivity of cell-mediated immunity between interstitial (type I) and basement membrane (type IV) collagens

    OpenAIRE

    1982-01-01

    In the present study, we demonstrate delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) to homologous type I collagen that cross-reacts with type IV collagen. Mice immunized with native or denatured type I collagens and challenged with these same antigens or native type IV collagen develop a peak DTH response on day 7. Challenge with denatured type IV collagen or collagenase-treated type IV collagen failed to elicit DTH in type I collagen-sensitized mice. Type I collagen-sensitized spleen cells adoptively t...

  12. Identification of Anaplasma marginale type IV secretion system effector proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Lockwood

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Anaplasma marginale, an obligate intracellular alphaproteobacterium in the order Rickettsiales, is a tick-borne pathogen and the leading cause of anaplasmosis in cattle worldwide. Complete genome sequencing of A. marginale revealed that it has a type IV secretion system (T4SS. The T4SS is one of seven known types of secretion systems utilized by bacteria, with the type III and IV secretion systems particularly prevalent among pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria. The T4SS is predicted to play an important role in the invasion and pathogenesis of A. marginale by translocating effector proteins across its membrane into eukaryotic target cells. However, T4SS effector proteins have not been identified and tested in the laboratory until now. RESULTS: By combining computational methods with phylogenetic analysis and sequence identity searches, we identified a subset of potential T4SS effectors in A. marginale strain St. Maries and chose six for laboratory testing. Four (AM185, AM470, AM705 [AnkA], and AM1141 of these six proteins were translocated in a T4SS-dependent manner using Legionella pneumophila as a reporter system. CONCLUSIONS: The algorithm employed to find T4SS effector proteins in A. marginale identified four such proteins that were verified by laboratory testing. L. pneumophila was shown to work as a model system for A. marginale and thus can be used as a screening tool for A. marginale effector proteins. The first T4SS effector proteins for A. marginale have been identified in this work.

  13. Supracardiac type total anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC) with oesophageal varices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ji Ae; Lee, Hyoung Doo; Ban, Ji Eun; Jo, Min Jung [Pusan National University School of Medicine, Department of Paediatrics, Medical Research Institute, Pusan National University Hospital, Busan (Korea); Sung, Si Chan; Chang, Yun Hee [Pusan National University School of Medicine, Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Medical Research Institute, Pusan National University Hospital, Busan (Korea); Choo, Ki Seok [Pusan National University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Medical Research Institute, Pusan National University Hospital, Busan (Korea)

    2008-10-15

    Oesophageal varices due to total anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC) is very rare. Additionally, the infradiaphragmatic type is the most common type of oesophageal varices due to TAPVC. Paraoesophageal varices due to stenosis of the vertical vein of supracardiac TAPVC has not previously been reported. We describe paraoesophageal varices developed as a result of a connection between the left lower pulmonary vein and the umbilicovitelline venous system because of stenosis of the proximal vertical vein in supracardiac type TAPVC in a 3-day-old female newborn who presented with general cyanosis, tachypnoea and dyspnoea. (orig.)

  14. Conservation of the Type IV secretion system throughout Wolbachia evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pichon, Samuel; Bouchon, Didier; Cordaux, Richard;

    2009-01-01

    The Type IV Secretion System (T4SS) is an efficient pathway with which bacteria can mediate the transfer of DNA and/or proteins to eukaryotic cells. In Wolbachia pipientis, a maternally inherited obligate endosymbiont of arthropods and nematodes, two operons of vir genes, virB3-B6 and virB8-D4......, encoding a T4SS were previously identified and characterized at two separate genomic loci. Using the largest data set of Wolbachia strains studied so far, we show that vir gene sequence and organization are strictly conserved among 37 Wolbachia strains inducing various phenotypes such as cytoplasmic...... incompatibility, feminization, or oogenesis in their arthropod hosts. In sharp contrast, extensive variation of genomic sequences flanking the virB8-D4 operon suggested its distinct location among Wolbachia genomes. Long term conservation of the T4SS may imply maintenance of a functional effector translocation...

  15. Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies: types II, III, and IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelrod, Felicia B; Gold-von Simson, Gabrielle

    2007-10-03

    The hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSAN) encompass a number of inherited disorders that are associated with sensory dysfunction (depressed reflexes, altered pain and temperature perception) and varying degrees of autonomic dysfunction (gastroesophageal reflux, postural hypotention, excessive sweating). Subsequent to the numerical classification of four distinct forms of HSAN that was proposed by Dyck and Ohta, additional entities continue to be described, so that identification and classification are ongoing. As a group, the HSAN are rare diseases that affect both sexes. HSAN III is almost exclusive to individuals of Eastern European Jewish extraction, with incidence of 1 per 3600 live births. Several hundred cases with HSAN IV have been reported. The worldwide prevalence of HSAN type II is very low. This review focuses on the description of three of the disorders, HSAN II through IV, that are characterized by autosomal recessive inheritance and onset at birth. These three forms of HSAN have been the most intensively studied, especially familial dysautonomia (Riley-Day syndrome or HSAN III), which is often used as a prototype for comparison to the other HSAN. Each HSAN disorder is likely caused by different genetic errors that affect specific aspects of small fiber neurodevelopment, which result in variable phenotypic expression. As genetic tests are routinely used for diagnostic confirmation of HSAN III only, other means of differentiating between the disorders is necessary. Diagnosis is based on the clinical features, the degree of both sensory and autonomic dysfunction, and biochemical evaluations, with pathologic examinations serving to further confirm differences. Treatments for all these disorders are supportive.

  16. Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies: types II, III, and IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axelrod Felicia B

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSAN encompass a number of inherited disorders that are associated with sensory dysfunction (depressed reflexes, altered pain and temperature perception and varying degrees of autonomic dysfunction (gastroesophageal reflux, postural hypotention, excessive sweating. Subsequent to the numerical classification of four distinct forms of HSAN that was proposed by Dyck and Ohta, additional entities continue to be described, so that identification and classification are ongoing. As a group, the HSAN are rare diseases that affect both sexes. HSAN III is almost exclusive to individuals of Eastern European Jewish extraction, with incidence of 1 per 3600 live births. Several hundred cases with HSAN IV have been reported. The worldwide prevalence of HSAN type II is very low. This review focuses on the description of three of the disorders, HSAN II through IV, that are characterized by autosomal recessive inheritance and onset at birth. These three forms of HSAN have been the most intensively studied, especially familial dysautonomia (Riley-Day syndrome or HSAN III, which is often used as a prototype for comparison to the other HSAN. Each HSAN disorder is likely caused by different genetic errors that affect specific aspects of small fiber neurodevelopment, which result in variable phenotypic expression. As genetic tests are routinely used for diagnostic confirmation of HSAN III only, other means of differentiating between the disorders is necessary. Diagnosis is based on the clinical features, the degree of both sensory and autonomic dysfunction, and biochemical evaluations, with pathologic examinations serving to further confirm differences. Treatments for all these disorders are supportive.

  17. Attachment of cells to basement membrane collagen type IV

    OpenAIRE

    1986-01-01

    Of ten different cell lines examined, three showed distinct attachment and spreading on collagen IV substrates, and neither attachment nor spreading was enhanced by adding soluble laminin or fibronectin. This reaction was not inhibited by cycloheximide or antibodies to laminin, indicating a direct attachment to collagen IV without the need of mediator proteins. Cell-binding sites were localized to the major triple-helical domain of collagen IV and required an intact triple helical conformatio...

  18. Type-IV Pilus Deformation Can Explain Retraction Behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Ranajay; Vaziri, Ashkan

    2014-01-01

    Polymeric filament like type IV Pilus (TFP) can transfer forces in excess of 100pN during their retraction before stalling, powering surface translocation(twitching). Single TFP level experiments have shown remarkable nonlinearity in the retraction behavior influenced by the external load as well as levels of PilT molecular motor protein. This includes reversal of motion near stall forces when the concentration of the PilT protein is lowered significantly. In order to explain this behavior, we analyze the coupling of TFP elasticity and interfacial behavior with PilT kinetics. We model retraction as reaction controlled and elongation as transport controlled process. The reaction rates vary with TFP deformation which is modeled as a compound elastic body consisting of multiple helical strands under axial load. Elongation is controlled by monomer transport which suffer entrapment due to excess PilT in the cell periplasm. Our analysis shows excellent agreement with a host of experimental observations and we prese...

  19. Mucolipidosis type IV and the mucolipins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Gideon; Zeevi, David A; Frumkin, Ayala; Kogot-Levin, Aviram

    2010-12-01

    MLIV (mucolipidosis type IV) is a neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorder caused by mutations in MCOLN1, a gene that encodes TRPML1 (mucolipin-1), a member of the TRPML (transient receptor potential mucolipin) cation channels. Two additional homologues are TRPML2 and TRPML3 comprising the TRPML subgroup in the TRP superfamily. The three proteins play apparently key roles along the endocytosis process, and thus their cellular localization varies among the different group members. Thus TRPML1 is localized exclusively to late endosomes and lysosomes, TRPML2 is primarily located in the recycling clathrin-independent GPI (glycosylphosphatidylinositol)-anchored proteins and early endosomes, and TRPML3 is primarily located in early endosomes. Apparently, all three proteins' main physiological function underlies Ca(2+) channelling, regulating the endocytosis process. Recent findings also indicate that the three TRPML proteins form heteromeric complexes at least in some of their cellular content. The physiological role of these complexes in lysosomal function remains to be elucidated, as well as their effect on the pathophysiology of MLIV. Another open question is whether any one of the TRPMLs bears additional function in channel activity.

  20. Distribution of basement membrane type IV collagen alpha chains in ameloblastoma: an immunofluorescence study

    OpenAIRE

    Nakano, K.; Siar, C. H.; Nagai, N.; Naito, I.; Sado, Y.; Nagatsuka, H; Hoh, C; Kurada, K.; Tsujigiwa, H; M. Gunduz

    2002-01-01

    Background: Type IV collagen, a heterotrimeric molecule that exists in six genetically distinct forms, alpha1(IV)-alpha6(IV) is a major structural component of basement membrane (BM) and acts as a scaffold for other BM constituents. Methods: Indirect immunofluorescence using alpha chain-specific monoclonal antibodies was employed to clarify basement membrane (BM) collagen IV distribution in two ameloblastoma, and for comparison, on oral mucosa and tooth germ. Results: Ameloblastoma BM express...

  1. Chaperone-mediated autophagy is defective in mucolipidosis type IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopal, Bhuvarahamurthy; Mesires, Nicholas T; Kennedy, John C; Curcio-Morelli, Cyntia; Laplante, Janice M; Dice, J Fred; Slaugenhaupt, Susan A

    2009-05-01

    Mucolipidosis type IV (MLIV) is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by mutations in the MCOLN1 gene, a member of the transient receptor potential (TRP) cation channel gene family. The encoded protein, transient receptor potential mucolipin-1 (TRPML1), has been localized to lysosomes and late endosomes but the pathogenic mechanism by which loss of TRPML1 leads to abnormal cellular storage and neuronal cell death is still poorly understood. Yeast two-hybrid and co-immunoprecipitation (coIP) experiments identified interactions between TRPML1 and Hsc70 as well as TRPML1 and Hsp40. Hsc70 and Hsp40 are members of a molecular chaperone complex required for protein transport into the lysosome during chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA). To determine the functional relevance of this interaction, we compared fibroblasts from MLIV patients to those from sex- and age-matched controls and show a defect in CMA in response to serum withdrawal. This defect in CMA was subsequently confirmed in purified lysosomes isolated from control and MLIV fibroblasts. We further show that the amount of lysosomal-associated membrane protein type 2A (LAMP-2A) is reduced in lysosomal membranes of MLIV fibroblasts. As a result of decreased CMA, MLIV fibroblasts have increased levels of oxidized proteins compared to control fibroblasts. We hypothesize that TRPML1 may act as a docking site for intralysosomal Hsc70 (ly-Hsc70) allowing it to more efficiently pull in substrates for CMA. It is also possible that TRPML1 channel activity may be required for CMA. Understanding the role of TRPML1 in CMA will undoubtedly help to characterize the pathogenesis of MLIV.

  2. Search for the Anomalous Interactions of Up-Type Heavy Quarks in γγ Collision at the LHC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Köksal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the anomalous interactions of heavy up-type quark t′ in a γγ collision at the LHC. We have obtained 95% confidence level (CL limit of t′qγ (q=u,c anomalous coupling by taking into account three forward detector acceptances: 0.0015<ξ<0.15, 0.0015<ξ<0.5, and 0.1<ξ<0.5.

  3. Evolution of conjugation and type IV secretion systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmini, Julien; de la Cruz, Fernando; Rocha, Eduardo P C

    2013-02-01

    Genetic exchange by conjugation is responsible for the spread of resistance, virulence, and social traits among prokaryotes. Recent works unraveled the functioning of the underlying type IV secretion systems (T4SS) and its distribution and recruitment for other biological processes (exaptation), notably pathogenesis. We analyzed the phylogeny of key conjugation proteins to infer the evolutionary history of conjugation and T4SS. We show that single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) conjugation, while both based on a key AAA(+) ATPase, diverged before the last common ancestor of bacteria. The two key ATPases of ssDNA conjugation are monophyletic, having diverged at an early stage from dsDNA translocases. Our data suggest that ssDNA conjugation arose first in diderm bacteria, possibly Proteobacteria, and then spread to other bacterial phyla, including bacterial monoderms and Archaea. Identifiable T4SS fall within the eight monophyletic groups, determined by both taxonomy and structure of the cell envelope. Transfer to monoderms might have occurred only once, but followed diverse adaptive paths. Remarkably, some Firmicutes developed a new conjugation system based on an atypical relaxase and an ATPase derived from a dsDNA translocase. The observed evolutionary rates and patterns of presence/absence of specific T4SS proteins show that conjugation systems are often and independently exapted for other functions. This work brings a natural basis for the classification of all kinds of conjugative systems, thus tackling a problem that is growing as fast as genomic databases. Our analysis provides the first global picture of the evolution of conjugation and shows how a self-transferrable complex multiprotein system has adapted to different taxa and often been recruited by the host. As conjugation systems became specific to certain clades and cell envelopes, they may have biased the rate and direction of gene transfer by conjugation within prokaryotes.

  4. Structural Characterization of Novel Pseudomonas aeruginosa Type IV Pilins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Y.; Jackson, S; Aidoo, F; Junop, M; Burrows, L

    2010-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa type IV pili, composed of PilA subunits, are used for attachment and twitching motility on surfaces. P. aeruginosa strains express one of five phylogenetically distinct PilA proteins, four of which are associated with accessory proteins that are involved either in pilin posttranslational modification or in modulation of pilus retraction dynamics. Full understanding of pilin diversity is crucial for the development of a broadly protective pilus-based vaccine. Here, we report the 1.6-{angstrom} X-ray crystal structure of an N-terminally truncated form of the novel PilA from strain Pa110594 (group V), which represents the first non-group II pilin structure solved. Although it maintains the typical T4a pilin fold, with a long N-terminal {alpha}-helix and four-stranded antiparallel {beta}-sheet connected to the C-terminus by a disulfide-bonded loop, the presence of an extra helix in the {alpha}{beta}-loop and a disulfide-bonded loop with helical character gives the structure T4b pilin characteristics. Despite the presence of T4b features, the structure of PilA from strain Pa110594 is most similar to the Neisseria gonorrhoeae pilin and is also predicted to assemble into a fiber similar to the GC pilus, based on our comparative pilus modeling. Interactions between surface-exposed areas of the pilin are suggested to contribute to pilus fiber stability. The non-synonymous sequence changes between group III and V pilins are clustered in the same surface-exposed areas, possibly having an effect on accessory protein interactions. However, based on our high-confidence model of group III PilA{sub PA14}, compensatory changes allow for maintenance of a similar shape.

  5. 7S Fragment of Type IV Collagen as a Serum Marker of Canine Liver Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glińska-Suchocka, K; Orłowska, A; Kubiak, K; Spużak, J; Jankowski, M

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether the serum levels of the 7S fragment of type IV collagen may aid in diagnosing liver fibrosis in dogs. The study was carried out on 20 dogs with liver disease. Serum levels of the 7S fragment of type IV collagen were measured in all dogs. The analysis showed that healthy dogs and dogs with type 1, 2 and 3 liver fibrosis had low serum concentrations of the 7S fragment of type IV collagen compared to dogs with type 4 liver fibrosis. The study revealed that the assessment of serum levels of the 7S fragment of type IV collagen is useful in the diagnosis of advanced liver fibrosis and cirrhosis.

  6. Clinical significance of serum laminin and type-IV collagen levels in cutaneous melanoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tas, Faruk; Bilgin, Elif; Karabulut, Senem; Duranyildiz, Derya

    2016-07-01

    Laminin and type-IV collagen constitute a significant portion of the extracellular matrix. The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether the serum concentrations of laminin and type-IV collagen may serve as biomarkers for cutaneous melanoma. Sixty pathologically confirmed melanoma patients were enrolled in the study. Serum laminin and type-IV collagen levels were assessed using an ELISA. Thirty healthy controls were also examined. No significant differences in the baseline serum levels of laminin were identified between melanoma patients and healthy controls (P=0.45). However, the baseline serum levels of type-IV collagen were significantly elevated in melanoma patients compared with those in the control group (PIV collagen (P>0.05). Furthermore, the serum levels of laminin and type-IV collagen had no prognostic value regarding the outcome for melanoma patients (P=0.36 and P=0.26, respectively). While laminin levels showed no diagnostic value, the serum concentrations of type-IV collagen were indicated to serve as a diagnostic marker in patients with cutaneous melanoma. In conclusion, type-IV collagen levels may be used as a diagnostic marker for cutaneous melanoma, while being void of any prognostic value.

  7. Type IV collagen is a novel DEJ biomarker that is reduced by radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, J D; Gorski, J P; Dusevich, V; Wang, Y; Walker, M P

    2014-10-01

    The dental basement membrane (BM) is composed of collagen types IV, VI, VII, and XVII, fibronectin, and laminin and plays an inductive role in epithelial-mesenchymal interactions during tooth development. The BM is degraded and removed during later-stage tooth morphogenesis; however, its original position defines the location of the dentin-enamel junction (DEJ) in mature teeth. We recently demonstrated that type VII collagen is a novel component of the inner enamel organic matrix layer contiguous with the DEJ. Since it is frequently co-expressed with and forms functional complexes with type VII collagen, we hypothesized that type IV collagen should also be localized to the DEJ in mature human teeth. To identify collagen IV, we first evaluated defect-free erupted teeth from various donors. To investigate a possible stabilizing role, we also evaluated extracted teeth exposed to high-dose radiotherapy--teeth that manifest post-radiotherapy DEJ instability. We now show that type IV collagen is a component within the morphological DEJ of posterior and anterior teeth from individuals aged 18 to 80 yr. Confocal microscopy revealed that immunostained type IV collagen was restricted to the 5- to 10-µm-wide optical DEJ, while collagenase treatment or previous in vivo tooth-level exposure to > 60 Gray irradiation severely reduced immunoreactivity. This assignment was confirmed by Western blotting with whole-tooth crown and enamel extracts. Without reduction, type IV collagen contained macromolecular α-chains of 225 and 250 kDa. Compositionally, our results identify type IV collagen as the first macromolecular biomarker of the morphological DEJ of mature teeth. Given its network structure and propensity to stabilize the dermal-epidermal junction, we propose that a collagen-IV-enriched DEJ may, in part, explain its well-known fracture toughness, crack propagation resistance, and stability. In contrast, loss of type IV collagen may represent a biochemical rationale for the DEJ

  8. Type II and IV radio bursts in the active period October-November 2003

    CERN Document Server

    Petoussis, V; Kontogeorgos, A; Moussas, X; Preka-Papadema, P; Hillaris, A; Caroubalos, C; Alissandrakis, C E; Bougeret, J -L; Dumas, G; 10.1063/1.2347978

    2010-01-01

    In this report we present the Type II and IV radio bursts observed and analyzed by the radio spectrograph ARTEMIS IV1, in the 650-20MHz frequency range, during the active period October-November 2003. These bursts exhibit very rich fine structures such fibers, pulsations and zebra patterns which is associated with certain characteristics of the associated solar flares and CMEs.

  9. Modulation of C1-Inhibitor and Plasma Kallikrein Activities by Type IV Collagen

    OpenAIRE

    Sriram Ravindran; Marc Schapira; Patston, Philip A.

    2012-01-01

    The contact system of coagulation can be activated when in contact with biomaterials. As collagen is being tested in novel biomaterials in this study, we have investigated how type IV collagen affects plasma kallikrein and C1-inhibitor. Firstly, we showed C1-inhibitor binds to type IV collagen with a Kd of 0.86 μM. The effects of type IV collagen on plasma kallikrein, factor XIIa, and β-factor XIIa activity and on C1-inhibitor function were determined. Factor XIIa rapidly lost activity in the...

  10. Anomalous single production of fourth family up type quark associated with neutral gauge bosons at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Cakir, O; Senol, A; Tasci, A T

    2012-01-01

    From the present limits on the masses and mixings of fourth family quarks, they are expected to have mass larger than the top quark and allow a large range of mixing of the third family. They could also have different dynamics than the quarks of three families of the Standard Model. The single production of the fourth family up type quark t' has been studied via anomalous production process pp-> t'VX (where V=g,Z,\\gamma) at the LHC with the center of mass energy of 7 and 14 TeV. The signatures of such process are discussed within both the SM decay modes and anomalous decay modes of t' quarks. The sensitivity to anomalous coupling kappa/Lambda=0.004 TeV^(-1) can be reached at sqrt(s)=14 TeV and L_(int)=100 pb^(-1).

  11. Salter-Harris type-IV displaced distal radius fracture in a 5-year-old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntley, Samuel R; Summers, Spencer H; Stricker, Stephen J

    2016-03-01

    Displaced Salter-Harris type-IV fractures are rare in young children and can result in articular incongruity or premature physeal arrest. We describe a 5-year-old boy who sustained a displaced left distal radial Salter-Harris type-IV fracture. The patient had normal wrist function and physeal growth at the 3-year postoperative follow-up. Our patient is by far the youngest reported child with a displaced Salter-Harris type-IV fracture of the distal radius. Prompt anatomic reduction and fixation of a displaced distal radial Salter-Harris type-IV fracture can result in excellent short-term wrist motion with maintenance of physeal function.

  12. High resolution observations with Artemis-IV and the NRH. I. Type IV associated narrow-band bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Bouratzis, C; Alissandrakis, C E; Preka-Papadema, P; Moussas, X; Caroubalos, C; Tsitsipis, P; Kontogeorgos, A

    2016-01-01

    Narrow band bursts appear on dynamic spectra from microwave to decametric frequencies as fine structures with very small duration and bandwidth. They are thought to mark small scale magnetic reconnection. We analyzed 27 metric type-IV events with narrow band bursts observed by the ARTEMIS-IV radiospectrograph in 30/6/1999-1/8/2010. We examined the morphological characteristics of isolated narrow-band bursts and groups or chains of spikes. The events were recorded with the SAO (10 ms cadence) receiver of ARTEMIS-IV in the 270-450 MHz range. We measured the duration, spectral width, and frequency drift of ~12000 individual narrow-band bursts, groups, and chains. Spike sources were imaged with the NRH for the event of 21 April 2003. The mean duration of individual bursts at fixed frequency was ~100 ms, while the instantaneous relative bandwidth was ~2%. Some bursts had measurable frequency drift, positive or negative. Often spikes appeared in chains, which were closely spaced in time (column chains) or in freque...

  13. The spatial organization of Descemet's membrane-associated type IV collagen in the avian cornea

    OpenAIRE

    1990-01-01

    The organization of type IV collagen in the unconventional basement membrane of the corneal endothelium (Descemet's membrane) was investigated in developing chicken embryos using anti-collagen mAbs. Both immunofluorescence histochemistry and immunoelectron microscopy were performed. In mature embryos (greater than 15 d of development), the type IV collagen of Descemet's membrane was present as an array of discrete aggregates of amorphous material at the interface between Descemet's membrane a...

  14. Struggling with a Gastric Volvulus Secondary to a Type IV Hiatal Hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dafnomilis George

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Type IV hiatal hernias are characterized by herniation of the stomach along with associated viscera such as the spleen, colon, small bowel, and pancreas through the esophageal hiatus. They are relatively rare, representing only about 5%–7% of all hernias, and can be associated with severe complications. We report a 71-year-old veteran wrestler who presented to our department with a type IV paraesophageal hernia containing a gastric volvulus and treated successfully with emergency operation.

  15. Immunocytochemical Traits of Type IV Fibrocytes and Their Possible Relations to Cochlear Function and Pathology

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Joe C.

    2009-01-01

    One of the more consistent and least understood changes in the aging human cochlea is the progressive loss of fibrocytes within the spiral ligament. This report presents an animal model for type IV fibrocyte loss, along with immunocytochemical evidence that noise-induced loss of these cells may account for previously unexplained hearing losses. The remarkably low threshold for noise-induced loss of type IV fibrocytes, approximately 24 dB less than the threshold for adjacent hair cell destruct...

  16. Systematic Screens for Proteins That Interact with the Mucolipidosis Type IV Protein TRPML1

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Mucolipidosis type IV is a lysosomal storage disorder resulting from mutations in the MCOLN1 gene, which encodes the endosomal/lysosomal Transient Receptor Potential channel protein mucolipin-1/TRPML1. Cells isolated from Mucolipidosis type IV patients and grown in vitro and in in vivo models of this disease both show several lysosome-associated defects. However, it is still unclear how TRPML1 regulates the transport steps implicated by these defects. Identifying proteins that associate with ...

  17. Cells that emerge from embryonic explants produce fibers of type IV collagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J M; Little, C D

    1985-10-01

    Double immunofluorescence staining experiments designed to examine the synthesis and deposition of collagen types I and IV in cultured explants of embryonic mouse lung revealed the presence of connective tissue-like fibers that were immunoreactive with anti-type IV collagen antibodies. This observation is contrary to the widely accepted belief that type IV collagen is found only in sheet-like arrangements beneath epithelia or as a sheath-like layer enveloping bundles of nerve or muscle cells. The extracellular matrix produced by cells that migrate from embryonic mouse lung rudiments in vitro was examined by double indirect immunofluorescence microscopy. Affinity-purified monospecific polyclonal antibodies were used to examine cells after growth on glass or native collagen substrata. The data show that embryonic mesenchymal cells can produce organized fibers of type IV collagen that are not contained within a basement membrane, and that embryonic epithelial cells deposit fibers and strands of type IV collagen beneath their basal surface when grown on glass; however, when grown on a rat tail collagen substratum the epithelial cells produce a fine meshwork. To our knowledge this work represents the first report that type IV collagen can be organized by cells into a fibrous extracellular matrix that is not a basement membrane.

  18. Type-IV DCT, DST, and MDCT algorithms with reduced numbers of arithmetic operations

    CERN Document Server

    Shao, Xuancheng

    2007-01-01

    We present algorithms for the type-IV discrete cosine transform (DCT-IV) and discrete sine transform (DST-IV), as well as for the modified discrete cosine transform (MDCT) and its inverse, that achieve a lower count of real multiplications and additions than previously published algorithms, without sacrificing numerical accuracy. Asymptotically, the operation count is reduced from ~2NlogN to ~(17/9)NlogN for a power-of-two transform size N. These results are derived by considering the DCT to be a special case of a DFT of length 8N, with certain symmetries, and then pruning redundant operations from a recent improved fast Fourier transform algorithm (based on a recursive rescaling of the conjugate-pair split radix algorithm). The improved algorithms for DST-IV and MDCT follow immediately from the improved count for the DCT-IV.

  19. Properties and alignment of interstellar dust grains toward Type Ia Supernovae with anomalous polarization curves

    CERN Document Server

    Hoang, Thiem

    2015-01-01

    Recent photometric and polarimetric observations of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) show unusually low total-to-selective extinction ratio ($R_{V}<2$) and wavelength of maximum polarization ($\\lambda_{max}<0.4\\mu m$) for several SNe Ia, which indicates peculiar properties of interstellar (IS) dust in the SN hosted galaxies and/or the presence of circumstellar (CS) dust. In this paper, we use inversion technique to infer best-fit grain size distribution and alignment function of interstellar grains along the lines of sight toward four SNe Ia with anomalous extinction and polarization data (SNe 1986G, 2006X, 2008fp, and 2014J). We find that to reproduce low values of $R_{V}$, a significant enhancement in the mass of small grains of radius $a< 0.1\\mu m$ is required. For SN 2014J, a simultaneous fit to observed extinction and polarization data is unsuccessful if the entire data is attributed to IS dust (model 1), but a good fit is obtained when accounting for the contribution of CS dust (model 2). For SN 200...

  20. Oxyhydroxy Silicate Colloids: A New Type of Waterborne Actinide(IV) Colloids

    OpenAIRE

    Zänker, Harald; Weiss, Stephan; Hennig, Christoph; Brendler, Vinzenz; Ikeda‐Ohno, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract At the near‐neutral and reducing aquatic conditions expected in undisturbed ore deposits or in closed nuclear waste repositories, the actinides Th, U, Np, and Pu are primarily tetravalent. These tetravalent actinides (AnIV) are sparingly soluble in aquatic systems and, hence, are often assumed to be immobile. However, AnIV could become mobile if they occur as colloids. This review focuses on a new type of AnIV colloids, oxyhydroxy silicate colloids. We herein discuss the chemical cha...

  1. Angiogenesis and collagen type IV expression in different endothelial cell culture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahramsoltani, M; Slosarek, I; De Spiegelaere, W; Plendl, J

    2014-04-01

    In vitro angiogenesis assays constitute an important tool for studying the mechanisms of angiogenesis and for identification of pro- and anti-angiogenic substances. Therefore, endothelial cell and media systems used for in vitro angiogenesis assays are required to mimic the angiogenic process in vivo including endothelial capability to express collagen type IV as a component of the basement membrane. In this study, the expression of collagen type IV and its α chains (α1-6) was investigated in different endothelial cell culture systems in vitro qualitatively and quantitatively. These systems included four different batches of microvascular endothelial cells derived from the human skin, heart and lung, from which only two batches were found to be angiogenic and two batches were classified as non-angiogenic. Distribution of the transcripts of the α chains of collagen type IV was similar in all cell and media systems investigated. However, secretion and deposition of a stable extracellular network of collagen type IV could only be observed in the angiogenic cultures. In conclusion, the consecutive steps of the angiogenic cascade in vivo as well as in vitro depend on an increasing secretion and subsequent extracellular deposition of collagen type IV.

  2. The Role of Type IV Collagen in Developing Lens in Mouse Fetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Jalali

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective(sExtracellular matrix (ECM and basement membrane (BM play important roles in many developmental processes during development and after birth. Among the components of the BM, collagen fibers specially type IV are the most important parts. The aim of this study was to determine the time when collagen type IV appears in the BM of lens structure during mouse embryonic development.Materials and MethodsIn this experimental study, 22 female Balb/C mice were randomly selected and were kept under normal condition, finding vaginal plug was assumed as day zero of pregnancy. From embryonic day 10 to 20, all specimens were sacrificed by cervical dislocation and their heads were fixed, serially sectioned and immunohistochemistry study for tracing collagen type IV in lens were carried out.ResultsOur data revealed that collagen type IV appeared at the early stage of gestation day 12 in BM of anterior epithelial lens cells and the amount of this protein gradually increased until days 15-17 in ECM and posterior capsule epithelium. After this period, severe reaction was not observed in any part of the lens.ConclusionThese findings establish the important role of collagen IV in developing optic cup and any changes during critical period of pregnancy may be result in severe visual system defect

  3. Polyvalent type IV sensitizations to multiple fragrances and a skin protection cream in a metal worker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanko, Zita; Shab, Arna; Diepgen, Thomas Ludwig; Weisshaar, Elke

    2009-06-01

    Fragrances are very common in everyday products. A metalworker with chronic hand eczema and previously diagnosed type IV sensitizations to epoxy resin, balsam of Peru, fragrance mix and fragrance mix II was diagnosed with additional type IV sensitizations to geraniol, hydroxycitronellal, lilial, tree moss, oak moss absolute, citral, citronellol, farnesol, Lyral, fragrance mix II and fragrance mix (with sorbitan sesquioleate). In addition, a type IV sensitization to the skin protection cream containing geraniol and citronellol used at the workplace was detected, and deemed occupationally relevant in this case. The patient could have had contact to fragrances through private use of cosmetics and detergents. On the other hand, the fragrance-containing skin protection cream supports occupational exposure. This case report demonstrates that fragrance contact allergy has to be searched for and clarified individually, which requires a thorough history and a detailed analysis of the work place.

  4. Spontaneous Carotid-Cavernous Fistula in the Type IV Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong Gyun; Cho, Won-Sang; Kang, Hyun-Seung; Kim, Jeong Eun

    2014-02-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a rare inherited connective disease. Among several subgroups, type IV EDS is frequently associated with spontaneous catastrophic bleeding from a vascular fragility. We report on a case of carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF) in a patient with type IV EDS. A 46-year-old female presented with an ophthalmoplegia and chemosis in the right eye. Subsequently, seizure and cerebral infarction with micro-bleeds occurred. CCF was completely occluded with transvenous coil embolization without complications. Thereafter, the patient was completely recovered. Transvenous coil embolization can be a good treatment of choice for spontaneous CCF with type IV EDS. However, every caution should be kept during invasive procedure.

  5. The Prognostic and Predictive Value of Soluble Type IV Collagen in Colorectal Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolff, Hans Christian; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Vainer, Ben

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the prognostic and predictive biomarker value of type IV collagen in colorectal cancer. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Retrospective evaluation of two independent cohorts of patients with colorectal cancer included prospectively in 2004-2005 (training set) and 2006-2008 (validation...... set). Plasma samples were available from 297 (training set) and 482 (validation set) patients. Type IV collagen determinations were performed using an ELISA. From the training set, 222 tumors were available for IHC. Clinical and follow-up data were retrieved from patient files and national registries....... RESULTS: High levels of type IV collagen showed independent prognostic significance in both cohorts with hazard ratios (HRs; for a one-unit change on the log base 2 scale) of 2.25 [95% confidence intervals (CIs), 1.78-2.84; P

  6. Thyroid follicular adenoma with accumulation of collagen type IV in a common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasako, K; Doi, T; Kanno, T; Wako, Y; Hamamura, M; Tsuchitani, M

    2014-01-01

    A thyroid tumour was identified in a 10-year-old male common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). The tumour was encapsulated by fibrous connective tissue and compressed the adjacent normal thyroid. The tumour was composed of variably sized and irregularly shaped thyroid follicles lined by a single layer of columnar epithelial cells. Eosinophilic material at the base of the neoplastic cells stained black with periodic acid-methenamine silver and red with periodic acid-Schiff. Immunohistochemistry confirmed that this eosinophilic material was collagen type IV. Ultrastructurally, highly dense and amorphous material was observed at the base of the neoplastic cells. Small vesicles in the basolateral cytoplasm of the neoplastic cells contained similar material to that at the base of the cells. The tumour was diagnosed as a thyroid follicular adenoma with accumulation of collagen type IV. This is the first description of an endocrine tumour with accumulation of collagen type IV in animals.

  7. Arrangement of type IV collagen on NH₂ and COOH functionalized surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Nuno Miranda; González-García, Cristina; Salmerón-Sánchez, Manuel; Altankov, George

    2011-12-01

    Apart from the paradigm that cell-biomaterials interaction depends on the adsorption of soluble adhesive proteins we anticipate that upon distinct conditions also other, less soluble ECM proteins such as collagens, associate with the biomaterials interface with consequences for cellular response that might be of significant bioengineering interest. Using atomic force microscopy (AFM) we seek to follow the nanoscale behavior of adsorbed type IV collagen (Col IV)--a unique multifunctional matrix protein involved in the organization of basement membranes (BMs) including vascular ones. We have previously shown that substratum wettability significantly affects Col IV adsorption pattern, and in turn alters endothelial cells interaction. Here we introduce two new model surfaces based on self-assembled monolayers (SAMs), a positively charged -NH(2) , and negatively charged -COOH surface, to learn more about their particular effect on Col IV behavior. AFM studies revealed distinct pattern of Col IV assembly onto the two SAMs resembling different aspects of network-like structure or aggregates (suggesting altered protein conformation). Moreover, the amount of adsorbed FITC-labeled Col IV was quantified and showed about twice more protein on NH(2) substrata. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells attached less efficiently to Col IV adsorbed on negatively charged COOH surface judged by altered cell spreading, focal adhesions formation, and actin cytoskeleton development. Immunofluorescence studies also revealed better Col IV recognition by both α(1) and α(2) integrins on positively charged NH(2) substrata resulting in higher phosphorylated focal adhesion kinase recruitment in the focal adhesion complexes. On COOH surface, no integrin clustering was observed. Taken altogether these results, point to the possibility that combined NH(2) and Col IV functionalization may support endothelization of cardiovascular implants.

  8. Cardiac arrest after anesthetic management in a patient with hereditary sensory autonomic neuropathy type IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ergül Yakup

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary sensory autonomic neuropathy type IV is a rare disorder with an autosomal recessive transmission and characterized by self-mutilation due to a lack in pain and heat sensation. Recurrent hyperpyrexia and anhydrosis are seen in patients as a result of a lack of sweat gland innervation. Self-mutilation and insensitivity to pain result in orthopedic complications and patients undergone recurrent surgical interventions with anesthesia. However, these patients are prone to perioperative complications such as hyperthermia, hypothermia, and cardiac complications like bradycardia and hypotension. We report a 5-year-old boy with hereditary sensory autonomic neuropathy type IV, developing hyperpyrexia and cardiac arrest after anesthesia.

  9. Double-outlet technique for tetralogy of Fallot-type disease with an anomalous coronary artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, M; Saito, T; Nomura, N; Mishima, A

    2005-01-01

    To reduce the right ventricular (RV) pressure and the pressure gradient between the RV and the pulmonary artery (PA) in Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) with small pulmonary annulus, it is inevitable to enlarge the small annulus by incising and patching from RV to PA via PA annulus. If the anomalous coronary artery exists in the RV outflow tract, the procedure can not be done.

  10. Anomalous peak-effect in type-II superconductors: A competition between bulk pinning and a surface barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maksimov, I.L. [Department of Theoretical Physics, Nizhny Novgorod University, Gagarin Avenue 23, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Ainbinder, R.M. [Department of Theoretical Physics, Nizhny Novgorod University, Gagarin Avenue 23, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: romain@inbox.ru; Vodolazov, D.Yu. [Institute for Physics of Microstructures, GSP-105, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation)

    2007-01-15

    In this work, the joint influence of the surface barrier and bulk pinning on the magnetic-field dependence of the critical current I {sub c} for bulk type-II superconductors is investigated. It is shown that in the weak magnetic field H {sub 0}, there is a section in the dependence I {sub c}(H {sub 0}) in which I {sub c} increases with the growth of H {sub 0}; this increase results in a pronounced peak in the dependence I {sub c}(H {sub 0}) - the anomalous peak-effect. This effect is explained by the combined influence of the surface barrier and bulk pinning. Two well-known models - the Bean model and the Kim-Anderson model - of the critical state were analysed in order to describe the anomalous peak-effect quantitatively.

  11. Different assembly of type IV collagen on hydrophilic and hydrophobic substrata alters endothelial cells interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, N Miranda; González-García, C; Planell, J A; Salmerón-Sánchez, M; Altankov, G

    2010-06-09

    Considering the structural role of type IV collagen (Col IV) in the assembly of the basement membrane (BM) and the perspective of mimicking its organization for vascular tissue engineering purposes, we studied the adsorption pattern of this protein on model hydrophilic (clean glass) and hydrophobic trichloro(octadecyl)silane (ODS) surfaces known to strongly affect the behavior of other matrix proteins. The amount of fluorescently labeled Col IV was quantified showing saturation of the surface for concentration of the adsorbing solution of about 50microg/ml, but with approximately twice more adsorbed protein on ODS. AFM studies revealed a fine - nearly single molecular size - network arrangement of Col IV on hydrophilic glass, which turns into a prominent and growing polygonal network consisting of molecular aggregates on hydrophobic ODS. The protein layer forms within minutes in a concentration-dependent manner. We further found that human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) attach less efficiently to the aggregated Col IV (on ODS), as judged by the significantly altered cell spreading, focal adhesions formation and the development of actin cytoskeleton. Conversely, the immunofluorescence studies for integrins revealed that the fine Col IV network formed on hydrophilic substrata is better recognized by the cells via both alpha1 and alpha2 heterodimers which support cellular interaction, apart from these on hydrophobic ODS where almost no clustering of integrins was observed.

  12. Different assembly of type IV collagen on hydrophilic and hydrophobic substrata alters endothelial cells interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NM Coelho

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering the structural role of type IV collagen (Col IV in the assembly of the basement membrane (BM and the perspective of mimicking its organization for vascular tissue engineering purposes, we studied the adsorption pattern of this protein on model hydrophilic (clean glass and hydrophobic trichloro(octadecylsilane (ODS surfaces known to strongly affect the behavior of other matrix proteins. The amount of fluorescently labeled Col IV was quantified showing saturation of the surface for concentration of the adsorbing solution of about 50μg/ml, but with approximately twice more adsorbed protein on ODS. AFM studies revealed a fine – nearly single molecular size – network arrangement of Col IV on hydrophilic glass, which turns into a prominent and growing polygonal network consisting of molecular aggregates on hydrophobic ODS. The protein layer forms within minutes in a concentration-dependent manner. We further found that human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC attach less efficiently to the aggregated Col IV (on ODS, as judged by the significantly altered cell spreading, focal adhesions formation and the development of actin cytoskeleton. Conversely, the immunofluorescence studies for integrins revealed that the fine Col IV network formed on hydrophilic substrata is better recognized by the cells via both α1 and α2 heterodimers which support cellular interaction, apart from these on hydrophobic ODS where almost no clustering of integrins was observed.

  13. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitors: a promising new therapeutic approach for the management of type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deacon, Carolyn F; Holst, Jens J

    2005-01-01

    of appetite. Glucagon-like peptide-1 is, however, extremely rapidly inactivated by the serine peptidase, dipeptidyl peptidase IV, so that the native peptide is not useful clinically. A new approach to utilise the beneficial effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 in the treatment of type 2 diabetes has been......-12 months duration in patients with type 2 diabetes, dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitors have proved efficacious, both as monotherapy and when given in combination with metformin. Fasting and postprandial glucose concentrations were reduced, leading to reductions in glycosylated haemoglobin levels, while...... the development of orally active dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitors. Preclinical studies have demonstrated that this approach is effective in enhancing endogenous levels of glucagon-like peptide-1, resulting in improved glucose tolerance in glucose-intolerant and diabetic animal models. In recent studies of 3...

  14. Model tests on anomalous low friction and pendulum-type wave phenomena

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Wu; Qin Fang; Yusheng Lu; Yadong Zhang; Jinchun Liu

    2009-01-01

    The anomalous low friction (ALF) and pendulum-type wave (μwave) phenomena were two typical,nonlinear,geo-mechanical,and dynamic responses in deep-block rock mass discovered from in situ observations,which occurred from the movement of the geo-blocks under the impact of external pulses,such as deep confined explosion,earthquake,and rock bursts.With the aim to confirm the existence of the above two phenomena and study the variation laws of them experimentally,laboratory tests on the granite and cement mortar continuum and blocks models were conducted on the self-independently developed multipurpose testing system,respectively.The ALF phenomenon was realized under two loading schemes,the blocks model and working block were acted upon by the joint action of vertical impact and horizontal static force as well as the joint action of both vertical and horizontal impacts with different time intervals.It revealed that the discrete time delays corresponding to the local maximums and minimums of the horizontal displacement amplitudes and residual horizontal displacements of the working block satisfied the canonical sequences with the multiple of √2,most of which satisfied the quantitative expression (√2)~i △/V_p.Besides,the one-dimensional impact experiments were carried out on the blocks granite model,continuum,and blocks cement mortar models,respectively.Based on the comparison and analysis of the propagation properties (amplitudes and the Fourier spectrums of acceleration time histories of blocks) of the 1D stress wave in the above models,it is indicated that the fractures in rock mass have tremendous effect on the attenuation of acceleration amplitudes and high-frequency waves.By comparison of the model test data with the in situ measurement conclusions,the existence of the μ wave was confirmed experimentally in the cement mortar blocks model with larger dimensions,and the frequencies corresponding to the local maximums of spectral density curves of three

  15. Type-specific diagnosis and evaluation of longitudinal tumor extent of Borrmann type IV gastric cancer: CT versus gastroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Im [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Hoon; Lee, Kyung Ho; Kim, So Yeon; Lee, Yoon Jin; Park, Young Soo; Kim, Na Young; Lee, Dong Ho; Kim, Hyung; Ho; Park, Do Joong; Lee, Hye Seung [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-15

    To compare the accuracy of computed tomography (CT) with that of gastroscopy for the extent of evaluation of longitudinal tumor and type-specific diagnosis of Borrmann type IV gastric cancer. Fifty-nine patients (35 men with mean age of 60 years and 24 women with mean age of 55 years) who underwent surgical resection of Borrmann type IV gastric cancer were included in this study. Histopathological analysis data was used as a reference standard to confirm the clinical interpretations of gastroscopy and CT for the diagnosis of Borrmann type IV and evaluation of longitudinal tumor extent. For the evaluation of longitudinal extent, gastroscopic and CT results were classified as underestimated, accurate, or overestimated. The McNemar test was used to identify statistically significant differences in the accuracy between gastroscopy and CT. For the diagnosis of Borrmann type IV gastric cancer, the accuracy of CT was significantly higher than that of gastroscopy (74.6% [44/59] vs. 44.1% [26/59], p < 0.001). CT was significantly more accurate in assessing the overall tumor extent than gastroscopy (61.4% [35/57] vs. 28.1% [16/57], p < 0.001). The proximal (75.4% [43/57] vs. 50.9% [29/57], p = 0.003) and distal tumor extent (71.9% [41/57] vs. 43.9% [25/57], p < 0.05) were more accurately predicted by CT compared with gastroscopy. The underestimation of tumor extent was a major source of error in both examinations. CT was found to be more predictive than gastroscopy in type-specific diagnosis and the evaluation of longitudinal tumor extent in patients with Borrmann type IV gastric cancer.

  16. Examination of type IV pilus expression and pilus-associated phenotypes in Kingella kingae clinical isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehl-Fie, Thomas E; Porsch, Eric A; Yagupsky, Pablo; Grass, Elizabeth A; Obert, Caroline; Benjamin, Daniel K; St Geme, Joseph W

    2010-04-01

    Kingella kingae is a gram-negative bacterium that is being recognized increasingly as a cause of septic arthritis and osteomyelitis in young children. Previous work established that K. kingae expresses type IV pili that mediate adherence to respiratory epithelial and synovial cells. PilA1 is the major pilus subunit in K. kingae type IV pili and is essential for pilus assembly. To develop a better understanding of the role of K. kingae type IV pili during colonization and invasive disease, we examined a collection of clinical isolates for pilus expression and in vitro adherence. In addition, in a subset of isolates we performed nucleotide sequencing to assess the level of conservation of PilA1. The majority of respiratory and nonendocarditis blood isolates were piliated, while the majority of joint fluid, bone, and endocarditis blood isolates were nonpiliated. The piliated isolates formed either spreading/corroding or nonspreading/noncorroding colonies and were uniformly adherent, while the nonpiliated isolates formed domed colonies and were nonadherent. PilA1 sequence varied significantly from strain to strain, resulting in substantial variability in antibody reactivity. These results suggest that type IV pili may confer a selective advantage on K. kingae early in infection and a selective disadvantage on K. kingae at later stages in the pathogenic process. We speculate that PilA1 is immunogenic during natural infection and undergoes antigenic variation to escape the immune response.

  17. Examination of Type IV Pilus Expression and Pilus-Associated Phenotypes in Kingella kingae Clinical Isolates▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehl-Fie, Thomas E.; Porsch, Eric A.; Yagupsky, Pablo; Grass, Elizabeth A.; Obert, Caroline; Benjamin, Daniel K.; St. Geme, Joseph W.

    2010-01-01

    Kingella kingae is a gram-negative bacterium that is being recognized increasingly as a cause of septic arthritis and osteomyelitis in young children. Previous work established that K. kingae expresses type IV pili that mediate adherence to respiratory epithelial and synovial cells. PilA1 is the major pilus subunit in K. kingae type IV pili and is essential for pilus assembly. To develop a better understanding of the role of K. kingae type IV pili during colonization and invasive disease, we examined a collection of clinical isolates for pilus expression and in vitro adherence. In addition, in a subset of isolates we performed nucleotide sequencing to assess the level of conservation of PilA1. The majority of respiratory and nonendocarditis blood isolates were piliated, while the majority of joint fluid, bone, and endocarditis blood isolates were nonpiliated. The piliated isolates formed either spreading/corroding or nonspreading/noncorroding colonies and were uniformly adherent, while the nonpiliated isolates formed domed colonies and were nonadherent. PilA1 sequence varied significantly from strain to strain, resulting in substantial variability in antibody reactivity. These results suggest that type IV pili may confer a selective advantage on K. kingae early in infection and a selective disadvantage on K. kingae at later stages in the pathogenic process. We speculate that PilA1 is immunogenic during natural infection and undergoes antigenic variation to escape the immune response. PMID:20145101

  18. Serum type IV collagen level is predictive for esophageal varices in patients with severe alcoholic disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Satoshi Mamori; Yasuyuki Searashi; Masato Matsushima; Kenichi Hashimoto; Shinichiro Uetake; Hiroshi Matsudaira; Shuji Ito; Hisato Nakajima; Hisao Tajiri

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To determine factors predictive for esophageal varices in severe alcoholic disease (SAD).METHODS: Abdominal ultrasonography (US) was performed on 444 patients suffering from alcoholism. Forty-four patients found to have splenomegaly and/ or withering of the right liver lobe were defined as those with SAD. SAD patients were examined by upper gastrointestinal (UGI) endoscopy for the presence of esophageal varices. The existence of esophageal varices was then related to clinical variables.RESULTS: Twenty-five patients (56.8%) had esophageal varices. A univariate analysis revealed a significant difference in age and type IV collagen levels between patients with and without esophageal varices. A logistic regression analysis identified type IV collagen as the only independent variable predictive for esophageal varices (P = 0.017). The area under the curve (AUC) for type IV collagen as determined by the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) for predicting esophageal varices was 0.78.CONCLUSION: This study suggests that the level of type IV collagen has a high diagnostic accuracy for the detection of esophageal varices in SAD.

  19. Congenital massive hiatus hernia type IV; initial experience with laparoscopic repair in young infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bataineh, Z A; Rousan, L A; Abu Baker, A; Wahdow, H; Kiwan, R N; Saleem, M M

    2014-06-01

    Congenital massive hiatus hernia (CMHH) is an uncommon disorder during childhood. It can be associated with grave complications especially if presented in the highest grade; type IV, when the hernia contains other intra-peritoneal organ beside the stomach through a large hiatus defect. The insidious form of clinical presentation can be deceptive in diagnosis and may mimic congenital diaphragmatic hernia or other chest pathologies. The basic principle of surgical repair is to reduce the herniated organs, excise the hernia sac, and repair the crural defect and to add anti-reflux procedure with or without gastropexy. Traditionally, this has been done by open approach. Nowadays, the minimally invasive approach is the preferred method of treatment. A sixteen-month-old boy with history of recurrent respiratory symptoms was diagnosed with CMHH type IV for which laparoscopic repair was performed. Few reports in using minimally invasive technique in the management of CMHH in the pediatric age group are present in the literature, to the best of our knowledge type IV had never been described in young infants. We present a new case repaired by laparoscope in a young infant with CMHH type IV from the Middle East.

  20. UV-inducible DNA exchange in hyperthermophilic archaea mediated by type IV pili

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ajon, Malgorzata; Froels, Sabrina; van Wolferen, Marleen; Stoecker, Kilian; Teichmann, Daniela; Driessen, Arnold J. M.; Grogan, Dennis W.; Albers, Sonja-Verena; Schleper, Christa; Ajon, Małgorzata

    2011-01-01

    Archaea, like bacteria and eukaryotes, contain proteins involved in various mechanisms of DNA repair, highlighting the importance of these processes for all forms of life. Species of the order Sulfolobales of hyperthermophilic crenarchaeota are equipped with a strongly UV-inducible type IV pilus sys

  1. Liver transplantation for glycogen storage disease types I, III, and IV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matern, D; Starzl, TE; Arnaout, W; Barnard, J; Bynon, JS; Dhawan, A; Emond, J; Haagsma, EB; Hug, G; Lachaux, A; Smit, GPA; Chen, YT

    1999-01-01

    Glycogen storage disease (GSD) types I, III, and IV can be associated with severe liver disease. The possible development of hepatocellular carcinoma and/or hepatic failure make these GSDs potential candidates for liver transplantation. Early diagnosis and initiation of effective dietary therapy hav

  2. Campylobacter fetus subspecies contain conserved type IV secretion systems on multiple genomic islands and plasmids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf-Van Bloois, Van Der Linda; Miller, William G.; Yee, Emma; Wagenaar, Jaap A.

    2016-01-01

    The features contributing to differences in pathogenicity of the Campylobacter fetus subspecies are unknown. Putative factors involved in pathogenesis are located in genomic islands that encode a type IV secretion system (T4SS) and fic domain (filamentation induced by cyclic AMP) proteins, which

  3. Host Cell Contact-Induced Transcription of the Type IV Fimbria Gene Cluster of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekema, B.K.H.L.; Putten, J.P.M.; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, N.; Smith, H.E.

    2004-01-01

    Type IV pili (Tfp) of gram-negative species share many characteristics, including a common architecture and conserved biogenesis pathway. Much less is known about the regulation of Tfp expression in response to changing environmental conditions. We investigated the diversity of Tfp regulatory system

  4. Complete Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Podophage MPK7, Which Requires Type IV Pili for Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Hee-Won; Cho, You-Hee

    2013-10-10

    We report the complete genome sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa podophage MPK7. It displays synteny to the P. aeruginosa phages of the Phikmvlikevirus genus, which includes phiKMV and LKA1. MPK7 requires type IV pili (TFP) for infection, suggesting the role of functional TFP as the receptor for this phage genus.

  5. Sensing of Bacterial Type IV Secretion via the Unfolded Protein Response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Maarten F.; Starr, Tregei; Winter, Maria G.; den Hartigh, Andreas B.; Child, Robert; Knodler, Leigh A.; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Celli, Jean; Tsolis, Renee M.

    2013-01-01

    Host cytokine responses to Brucella abortus infection are elicited predominantly by the deployment of a type IV secretion system (T4SS). However, the mechanism by which the T4SS elicits inflammation remains unknown. Here we show that translocation of the T4SS substrate VceC into host cells induces p

  6. Immunocytochemical traits of type IV fibrocytes and their possible relations to cochlear function and pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Joe C

    2009-09-01

    One of the more consistent and least understood changes in the aging human cochlea is the progressive loss of fibrocytes within the spiral ligament. This report presents an animal model for type IV fibrocyte loss, along with immunocytochemical evidence that noise-induced loss of these cells may account for previously unexplained hearing losses. The remarkably low threshold for noise-induced loss of type IV fibrocytes, approximately 24 dB less than the threshold for adjacent hair cell destruction, may account for the prevalence of missing fibrocytes in humans. In mice, changes in the spectrum of traumatizing noise had little effect upon the site of loss of the fibrocytes, suggesting that the primary site of damage that induced the loss was the basal-most cochlear turn, a site expected to be damaged by all three noise bands. Type IV fibrocytes were found to immunostain for connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and for transforming growth factor beta receptor 3, a receptor that is known to activate CTGF expression. Type IV fibrocytes lack immunostaining for adenosine triphosphatase and connexins that are key players in potassium ion uptake and transmission, which suggests that they play little, if any, role in potassium recycling from perilymphatic space to the endolymphatic space. Consequently, their loss probably does not directly reduce this process. Immunostaining for a receptor for CTGF, low-density-lipoprotein-related protein 1, indicated that CTGF acts as an autocrine and a paracrine agent within the cochlea. The lack of CTGF paracrine effects following noise-induced loss of type IV fibrocytes may account for previously unexplained hearing losses.

  7. Elective reconstruction of thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm type IV by transabdominal approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanović Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm (TAAA type IV represents an aortic dilatation from the level of the diaphragmatic hiatus to the iliac arteries branches, including visceral branches of the aorta. In the traditional procedure of TAAA type IV repair, the body is opened using thoractomy and laparotomy in order to provide adequate exposure of the descending thoracic and abdominal aorta for safe aortic reconstruction. Case report. We reported a 71-yearold man with elective reconstruction of the TAAA type IV performed by transabdominal approach. Computed tomography scans angiography revealed a TAAA type IV with diameter of 62 mm in the region of celiac trunk and superior mesenteric artery branching, and the largest diameter of 75 mm in the infrarenal aortic level. The patient comorbidity included a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and hypertension, therefore he was treated for a prolonged period. In preparation for the planned aortic reconstruction asymptomatic carotid disease (occlusion of the left internal carotid artery and subtotal stenosis of the right internal carotid artery was diagnosed. Within the same intervention percutaneous transluminal angioplasty with stent placement in right internal carotid artery was made. In general, under endotracheal anesthesia and epidural analgesia, with transabdominal approach performed aortic reconstruction with tubular dakron graft 24 mm were, and reimplantation of visceral aortic branches into the graft performed. Postoperative course was uneventful, and the patient was discharged on the postoperative day 17. Control computed tomography scan angiography performed three months after the operation showed vascular state of the patient to be in order. Conclusion. Complete transabdominal approach to TAAA type IV represents an appropriate substitute for thoracoabdominal approach, without compromising safety of the patient. This approach is less traumatic, especially in patients with impaired

  8. Salter-Harris Type III and Type IV Combined Fracture of the Distal Femoral Epiphysis: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Aydin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Distal femoral physeal fractures are not common but have a high rate of complications. They generally follow one of the patterns described in the Salter-Harris classification. We present a case of combination of Salter-Harris type III and type IV injury. Our case was a 15-year-old boy who had a motor vehicle accident. There was swelling, ecchymosis, severe pain, and valgus deformity, because of medial proximal fracture fragment, on the left knee. We deemed that Salter-Harris type III and type IV combination fracture in our case has not been previously reported. We prepared this paper in consideration of its contribution to the literature.

  9. Influence of temprature moisture and time on dimensional change of stone type IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahebi.SM.

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Different temperature and moisture around Iran and wide usage of stone type IV in dental laboratories in our country were the reasons for us for doing this study. Purpose: In this survey the effect of temperature, moisture and time on dimensional change of dental stone type IV (Velmix were investigated. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study cube shape Metal models (10×10×10mm was made for Taking impression. We used special tray, which has ten holes (15×20×25mm and made impression with condensational silicone in two-step procedure, and poured it with stone type IV. stone cubes were divided to different groups. 3 groups holed in fix moisture and variable tempraure and 5 groups in fix temperature and variable moisture. After 2 hours, 24 hours and one-week dimension of stone cubes were measured. Then analysis was done with ANOVA and dauncan. Results: The following conclusions were achieved: 1-Time has no effect on dimensional changes. 2-Tempreture and moisture has some effect on dimensional changes in stone IV. Increasing of temperature result in stone contraction and increasing in moisture result in stone expansion. Conclusion: The best temperature for least dimensional change is 20C and the best moisture for a least dimensional change is 30 %.

  10. Light-by-light-type corrections to the muon anomalous magnetic moment at four-loop order

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurz, Alexander [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Teilchenphysik; Liu, Tao; Steinhauser, Matthias [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Teilchenphysik; Marquard, Peter [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Smirnov, Alexander V. [Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). Scientific Research Computing Center; Smirnov, Vladimir A. [Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). Skobeltsyn Inst. of Nuclear Physics

    2015-08-15

    The numerically dominant QED contributions to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon stem from Feynman diagrams with internal electron loops. We consider such corrections and present a calculation of the four-loop light-by-light-type corrections where the external photon couples to a closed electron or muon loop. We perform an asymptotic expansion in the ratio of electron and muon mass and reduce the resulting integrals to master integrals which we evaluate using analytical and numerical methods. We confirm the results present in the literature which are based on different computational methods.

  11. Light-by-light-type corrections to the muon anomalous magnetic moment at four-loop order

    CERN Document Server

    Kurz, Alexander; Marquard, Peter; Smirnov, Alexander V; Smirnov, Vladimir A; Steinhauser, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    The numerically dominant QED contributions to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon stem from Feynman diagrams with internal electron loops. We consider such corrections and present a calculation of the four-loop light-by-light-type corrections where the external photon couples to a closed electron or muon loop. We perform an asymptotic expansion in the ratio of electron and muon mass and reduce the resulting integrals to master integrals which we evaluate using analytical and numerical methods. We confirm the results present in the literature which are based on different computational methods.

  12. A type IV osteogenesis imperfecta family and pregnancy: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhao-yi; Chen, Qian; Shi, Chun-yan; Wen, Hong-wu; Ma, Ke; Yang, Hui-xia

    2012-04-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta is a group of inherited connective-tissue disorders in which synthesis or structure of type I collagen is defective and causes osseous fragility. Type IV osteogenesis imperfecta is dominant inheritance. Here, we report a case of type IV osteogenesis imperfecta family and their female member's pregnancy. Abnormal sonographic findings (marked bowing and shortening of long bones) and family history made the diagnosis of fetus with osteogenesis imperfecta. The parents decided to give up rescuing the infant and a caesarean section at 27 weeks of gestation was implemented. In conclusion, it is possible to make a prenatal diagnosis of osteogenesis imperfecta by ultrasound. For the pregnant women with osteogenesis imperfecta, management decision should be made on an individual basis.

  13. Anomalous circulation patterns in association with two types of daily precipitation extremes over southeastern China during boreal summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Minggang; Guan, Zhaoyong; Jin, Dachao; Han, Jie; Zhang, Qian

    2016-04-01

    Based on the daily rainfall data from China Meteorological Administration, the tropical cyclone (TC) best track data from Japan Meteorological Agency, and the NCEP-NCAR reanalysis data from NOAA, regional mean daily precipitation extreme (RDPE) events over southeastern China (specifically, the Fujian-Jiangxi region (FJR)) and the associated circulation anomalies are investigated. For the summers of 1979-2011, a total of 105 RDPE events are identified, among which 35 are TC-influenced (TCIn-RDPE) and 70 are TC-free events (TCFr-RDPE). Distinct differences between these two types of RDPEs are found in both their statistical features and the related circulation patterns. TCFr-RDPEs usually occur in June, while TCIn-RDPEs mainly take place during July-August. When TCFr-RDPEs happen, a center of the anomalous cyclonic circulation is observed over the FJR, with an anomalous anticyclonic circulation to the south of this region. The warm/moist air flows from the South China Sea (SCS) and western Pacific meet with colder air from the north, forming a narrow convergent belt of water vapor over the FJR. Simultaneously, positive diabatic forcing anomalies are observed over the FJR, whereas negative anomalies appear over both its south and north sides, facilitating the formation and maintenance of the cyclonic circulation anomaly, as well as the upward motion of the atmosphere, over the FJR. When TCIn-RDPEs occur, southeastern China is dominated by a TC-related stronger anomalous cyclonic circulation. An anomalous anticyclonic circulation in the mid and high latitudes north of the FJR exists in the mid and upper troposphere, opposite to the situation during TCFr-RDPE events. Abundant warm/wet air is carried into the FJR from both the Indian Ocean and the SCS, leading to a large amount of latent heat release over the FJR and inducing strong ascending motion there. Furthermore, large differences are also found in the manifestation of Rossby wave energy propagation between these

  14. Anomalous Circulation Patterns in Association with Two Types of Daily Precipitation Extremes over Southeastern China during Boreal Summer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明刚; 管亮勇; 金大超; 韩洁; 张茜

    2016-01-01

    Based on the daily rainfall data from China Meteorological Administration, the tropical cyclone (TC) best track data from Japan Meteorological Agency, and the NCEP-NCAR reanalysis data from NOAA, regional mean daily precipitation extreme (RDPE) events over southeastern China (specifically, the Fujian–Jiangxi region (FJR)) and the associated circulation anomalies are investigated. For the summers of 1979–2011, a total of 105 RDPE events are identified, among which 35 are TC-influenced (TCIn-RDPE) and 70 are TC-free events (TCFr-RDPE). Distinct differences between these two types of RDPEs are found in both their statistical features and the related circulation patterns. TCFr-RDPEs usually occur in June, while TCIn-RDPEs mainly take place during July–August. When TCFr-RDPEs happen, a center of the anomalous cyclonic circulation is observed over the FJR, with an anomalous anticyclonic circulation to the south of this region. The warm/moist air flows from the South China Sea (SCS) and western Pacific meet with colder air from the north, forming a narrow convergent belt of water vapor over the FJR. Simultaneously, positive diabatic forcing anomalies are observed over the FJR, whereas negative anomalies appear over both its south and north sides, facilitating the formation and maintenance of the cyclonic circulation anomaly, as well as the upward motion of the atmosphere, over the FJR. When TCIn-RDPEs occur, southeastern China is dominated by a TC-related stronger anomalous cyclonic circulation. An anomalous anticyclonic circulation in the mid and high latitudes north of the FJR exists in the mid and upper troposphere, opposite to the situation during TCFr-RDPE events. Abundant warm/wet air is carried into the FJR from both the Indian Ocean and the SCS, leading to a large amount of latent heat release over the FJR and inducing strong ascending motion there. Furthermore, large differences are also found in the manifestation of Rossby wave energy propagation between

  15. High-resolution structure of a type IV pilin from the metal-reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorgel, Manuela; Ulstrup, Jakob; Bøggild, Andreas;

    2015-01-01

    Background Type IV pili are widely expressed among Gram-negative bacteria, where they are involved in biofilm formation, serve in the transfer of DNA, motility and in the bacterial attachment to various surfaces. Type IV pili in Shewanella oneidensis are also supposed to play an important role...

  16. Active-Site Residues in the Type IV Prepilin Peptidase Homologue PibD from the Archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szabo, Zalan; Albers, Sonja-Verena; Driessen, Arnold J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Archaeal preflagellin peptidases and bacterial type IV prepilin peptidases belong to a family of aspartic acid proteases that cleave the leader peptides of precursor proteins with type IV prepilin signal sequences. The substrate repertoire of PibD from the crenarchaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus is unu

  17. On the Directivity of Low-Frequency Type IV Radio Bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Gopalswamy, Nat; Mäkelä, Pertti; Yashiro, Seiji; Cairns, Iver H

    2016-01-01

    An intense type IV radio burst was observed by the STEREO Behind (STB) spacecraft located about 144 degres behind Earth. The burst was associated with a large solar eruption that occurred on the backside of the Sun (N05E151) close to the disk center in the STB view. The eruption was also observed by the STEREO Ahead (STA) spacecraft (located at 149 degrees ahead of Earth) as an eruption close to the west limb (N05W60) in that view. The type IV burst was complete in STB observations in that the envelope reached the lowest frequency and then receded to higher frequencies. The burst was partial viewed from STA, revealing only the edge coming down to the lowest frequency. The type IV burst was not observed at all near Earth because the source was 61 degrees behind the east limb. The eruption was associated with a low-frequency type II burst observed in all three views, although it was not very intense. Solar energetic particles were also observed at both STEREOs and at SOHO, suggesting that the shock was much ext...

  18. A Qualitative Analysis of The Bianchi Type IV Viscous Fluid Model

    CERN Document Server

    Kohli, Ikjyot Singh

    2012-01-01

    We are interested in formulating a viscous model of the universe based on The Bianchi Type IV algebra. We first begin by considering a congruence of fluid lines in spacetime, upon which, analyzing their propagation behaviour, we derive the famous Raychaudhuri equation, but, in the context of viscous fluids. We will then go through in great detail the topological and algebraic structure of a Bianchi Type IV algebra, by which we will derive the corresponding structure and constraint equations. From this, we will look at The Einstein field equations in the context of orthonormal frames, and derive the resulting dynamical equations: The Raychaudhuri Equation, generalized Friedmann equation, shear propagation equations, and a set of non-trivial constraint equations. We show that for cases in which the bulk viscous pressure is significantly larger than the shear viscosity, this cosmological model isotropizes asymptotically.

  19. Renal tubular acidosis type IV as a complication of lupus nephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Marcos, C; Hoffman, V; Prieto-González, S; Hernández-Rodríguez, J; Espinosa, G

    2016-03-01

    Renal tubular acidosis (RTA) is a rare complication of renal involvement of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We describe a 24-year-old male with type IV lupus nephropathy as a presenting manifestation of SLE. He presented with improvement of renal function following induction therapy with three pulses of methylprednisolone and 500 mg biweekly pulses of cyclophosphamide. However, a week after the first pulse of cyclophosphamide, the patient presented with a significant increase in legs edema and severe hyperkalemia. Type IV RTA associated with hyporeninemic hypoaldosteronism was suspected in the presence of metabolic acidosis with a normal anion gap, severe hyperkalemia without worsening renal function, and urinary pH of 5. RTA was confirmed with a transtubular potassium concentration gradient of 2 and low levels of plasma aldosterone, renin, angiotensin II, and cortisol. Intravenous bicarbonate, high-dose furosemide, and fludrocortisone were administered with normalization of potassium levels and renal function.

  20. Effects of type IV collagen on myogenic characteristics of IGF-I gene-engineered myoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Akira; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Ikeda, Kazushi; Sato, Masanori; Kawabe, Yoshinori; Kamihira, Masamichi

    2015-05-01

    Skeletal muscle regeneration requires migration, proliferation and fusion of myoblasts to form multinucleated myotubes. In our previous study, we showed that insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I gene delivery stimulates the proliferation and differentiation of mouse myoblast C2C12 cells and promotes the contractile force generated by tissue-engineered skeletal muscles. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the extracellular matrix on IGF-I gene-engineered C2C12 cells in vitro. Retroviral vectors for doxycycline (Dox)-inducible expression of the IGF-I gene were transduced into C2C12 cells. When cultured on a type IV collagen-coated surface, we observed significant increases in the migration speed and number of IGF-I gene-engineered C2C12 cells with Dox addition, designated as C2C12/IGF (+) cells. Co-culture of C2C12/IGF (+) cells and parental C2C12 cells, which had been cultured in differentiation medium for 3 days, greatly enhanced myotube formation. Moreover, type IV collagen supplementation promoted the fusion of C2C12/IGF (+) cells with differentiated C2C12 cells and increased the number of myotubes with striations. Myotubes formed by C2C12/IGF (+) cells cultured on type IV collagen showed a dynamic contractile activity in response to electrical pulse stimulation. These findings indicate that type IV collagen promotes skeletal muscle regeneration mediated by IGF-I-expressing myoblasts, which may have important clinical implications in the design of myoblast-based therapies.

  1. Outcome of surgical treatment of type IV capitellum fractures in adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ajay Pal Singh; Ish Kumar Dhammi; Vipul Garg; Arun Pal Singh

    2012-01-01

    Objective:Fractures of the capitellum and trochlea constitute less than 1% of all elbow fractures and a shear fracture involving the capitellum and extending medially into most of the trochlea is rarely reported.Type IV capitellum fracture is still controversial in regard to its radiographic appearance,surgical approach and osteosynthesis.We report 10 cases of type IV capitellum fracture with a view to elucidating its clinical features and treatment outcome.Methods:We treated 10 patients of type IV capitellum fracture with a mean age of 32 years.A uniform surgical approach and postoperative rehabilitation were followed.Results:Nine patients presented to us after a mean of 4 days of injury and one patient was nonunion after 6 months of injury who had been treated conservatively by a bone setter.Double arc sign was absent in 6 cases.Intraoperatively 6 capitellotrochlear fragments were devoid of soft tissue attachments.By Mayo Elbow Performance Score evaluation,7 patients got excellent,2 good and l fair results.One patient with associated elbow dislocation developed heterotopic ossification.There was no case of avascular necrosis,osteoarthrosis or fixation failures.Conclusions:Type IV capitellum fractures are rare and belong to complex articular injuries.A good functional outcome can only be achieved with open reduction and stable internal fixation followed by early mobilization.Preoperative radiographic assessment and computed tomography help surgeons in choosing the right surgical approach and implants.Good surgical technique and stable internal fixation are the keys to early mobilization and good functional outcome.

  2. Irradiation Alters MMP-2/TIMP-2 System and Collagen Type IV Degradation in Brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Won Hee [School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia (United States); Warrington, Junie P.; Sonntag, William E. [Reynolds Oklahoma Center on Aging, Department of Geriatric Medicine, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma (United States); Lee, Yong Woo, E-mail: ywlee@vt.edu [School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia (United States); Department of Biomedical Sciences and Pathobiology, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: Blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption is one of the major consequences of radiation-induced normal tissue injury in the central nervous system. We examined the effects of whole-brain irradiation on matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)/tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) and extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation in the brain. Methods and Materials: Animals received either whole-brain irradiation (a single dose of 10 Gy {gamma}-rays or a fractionated dose of 40 Gy {gamma}-rays, total) or sham-irradiation and were maintained for 4, 8, and 24 h following irradiation. mRNA expression levels of MMPs and TIMPs in the brain were analyzed by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The functional activity of MMPs was measured by in situ zymography, and degradation of ECM was visualized by collagen type IV immunofluorescent staining. Results: A significant increase in mRNA expression levels of MMP-2, MMP-9, and TIMP-1 was observed in irradiated brains compared to that in sham-irradiated controls. In situ zymography revealed a strong gelatinolytic activity in the brain 24 h postirradiation, and the enhanced gelatinolytic activity mediated by irradiation was significantly attenuated in the presence of anti-MMP-2 antibody. A significant reduction in collagen type IV immunoreactivity was also detected in the brain at 24 h after irradiation. In contrast, the levels of collagen type IV were not significantly changed at 4 and 8 h after irradiation compared with the sham-irradiated controls. Conclusions: The present study demonstrates for the first time that radiation induces an imbalance between MMP-2 and TIMP-2 levels and suggests that degradation of collagen type IV, a major ECM component of BBB basement membrane, may have a role in the pathogenesis of brain injury.

  3. Alogliptin, a potent and selective dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitor for the treatment of type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deacon, Carolyn F

    2008-01-01

    Takeda San Diego Inc is developing alogliptin, a small-molecule, orally available dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV) inhibitor, for the potential treatment of type 2 diabetes. In January 2008, Takeda announced that an NDA for alogliptin had been submitted to the FDA.......Takeda San Diego Inc is developing alogliptin, a small-molecule, orally available dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV) inhibitor, for the potential treatment of type 2 diabetes. In January 2008, Takeda announced that an NDA for alogliptin had been submitted to the FDA....

  4. Pathological personality traits can capture DSM-IV personality disorder types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joshua D; Few, Lauren R; Lynam, Donald R; MacKillop, James

    2015-01-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) includes an alternative diagnostic approach to the assessment of personality disorders (PDs) in Section III with the aim of stimulating further research. Diagnosis of a PD using this approach is predicated on the presence of personality impairment and pathological personality traits. The types of traits present (e.g., callousness vs. emotional lability) are used to derive DSM-IV PD scores. Concerns have been raised, however, that such a trait-based approach will yield PD constructs that differ substantially from those generated using the approaches articulated in previous iterations of the DSM. We empirically examined this issue in a sample of 109 adults who were currently receiving mental health treatment. More specifically, we examined the correlations between interview-based PD scores derived from DSM-IV to DSM-5 PD trait counts, and tested them in relation to the 30 specific facets of the five-factor model, as well as internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Overall, the DSM-IV PD scores and DSM-5 PD trait counts correlated significantly with one another (Mr = .63), demonstrated similar patterns of interrelations among the PDs, and manifested highly similar patterns of correlations with general personality traits and symptoms of psychopathology. These results indicate that the DSM-5 PD trait counts specified in the alternative DSM-5 PD diagnostic approach capture the same constructs as those measured using the more traditional DSM-IV diagnostic system.

  5. Structure and function of the adhesive type IV pilus of Sulfolobus acidocaldarius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henche, Anna-Lena; Ghosh, Abhrajyoti; Yu, Xiong; Jeske, Torsten; Egelman, Edward; Albers, Sonja-Verena

    2012-12-01

    Archaea display a variety of type IV pili on their surface and employ them in different physiological functions. In the crenarchaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius the most abundant surface structure is the aap pilus (archaeal adhesive pilus). The construction of in frame deletions of the aap genes revealed that all the five genes (aapA, aapX, aapE, aapF, aapB) are indispensible for assembly of the pilus and an impact on surface motility and biofilm formation was observed. Our analyses revealed that there exists a regulatory cross-talk between the expression of aap genes and archaella (formerly archaeal flagella) genes during different growth phases. The structure of the aap pilus is entirely different from the known bacterial type IV pili as well as other archaeal type IV pili. An aap pilus displayed 3 stranded helices where there is a rotation per subunit of ∼138° and a rise per subunit of ∼5.7 Å. The filaments have a diameter of ∼110 Å and the resolution was judged to be ∼9 Å. We concluded that small changes in sequence might be amplified by large changes in higher-order packing. Our finding of an extraordinary stability of aap pili possibly represents an adaptation to harsh environments that S. acidocaldarius encounters.

  6. Craniodentofacial Manifestations in a Rare Syndrome: Orofaciodigital Type IV (Mohr-Majewski Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem Ozdemir-Karatas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The orofaciodigital syndromes (OFDS are a heterogeneous group of syndromes that affect the face, oral cavity, and the digits. OFDS type IV (OMIM %258860 is rare and characterized by broad nasal root and tip, orbital hypertelorism or telecanthus, micrognathia, hypoplastic mandible, and low-set ears. Oral symptoms may include cleft lip, cleft or highly arched palate, bifid uvula, cleft or hypoplastic maxillary and mandibular alveolar ridge, oral frenula, lingual hamartoma, and absent or hypoplastic epiglottis. Dental anomalies are common and generally include disturbances in the number of teeth. Case Report. This report presents a six-year-old girl, referred with the chief complaint of missing teeth. She was diagnosed as having OFDS type IV based on clinical findings. Her parents reported three deceased children and two fetuses that had the same phenotype. She was the seventh child of consanguineous parents who were first cousins. Conclusion. This is a very rare syndrome. Many reported OFDS type IV cases have consanguineous parents, consistent with an autosomal recessive trait. Manifestation of cleft palate in the healthy sibling may be mild expression of the disorder or an unrelated isolated cleft.

  7. Laminin and type IV collagen isoform substitutions occur in temporally and spatially distinct patterns in developing kidney glomerular basement membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamson, Dale R; St John, Patricia L; Stroganova, Larysa; Zelenchuk, Adrian; Steenhard, Brooke M

    2013-10-01

    Kidney glomerular basement membranes (GBMs) undergo laminin and type IV collagen isoform substitutions during glomerular development, which are believed to be required for maturation of the filtration barrier. Specifically, GBMs of earliest glomeruli contain laminin α1β1γ1 and collagen α1α2α1(IV), whereas mature glomeruli contain laminin α5β2γ1 and collagen α3α4α5(IV). Here, we used confocal microscopy to simultaneously evaluate expression of different laminin and collagen IV isoforms in newborn mouse GBMs. Our results show loss of laminin α1 from GBMs in early capillary loop stages and continuous linear deposition of laminin bearing the α5 chain thereafter. In contrast, collagen α1α2α1(IV) persisted in linear patterns into late capillary loop stages, when collagen α3α4α5(IV) first appeared in discontinuous, non-linear patterns. This patchy pattern for collagen α3α4α5(IV) continued into maturing glomeruli where there were lengths of linear, laminin α5-positive GBM entirely lacking either isoform of collagen IV. Relative abundance of laminin and collagen IV mRNAs in newborn and 5-week-old mouse kidneys also differed, with those encoding laminin α1, α5, β1, β2, and γ1, and collagen α1(IV) and α2(IV) chains all significantly declining at 5 weeks, but α3(IV) and α4(IV) were significantly upregulated. We conclude that different biosynthetic mechanisms control laminin and type IV collagen expression in developing glomeruli.

  8. Implementation of GLP-1 based therapy of type 2 diabetes mellitus using DPP-IV inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holst, Jens Juul

    2003-01-01

    GLP-1 is a peptide hormone from the intestinal mucosa. It is secreted in response to meal ingestion and normally functions in the so-called ileal brake i. e. inhibition of upper gastrointestinal motility and secretion when nutrients are present in the distal small intestine. It also induces satiety and promotes tissue deposition of ingested glucose by stimulating insulin secretion. Thus, it is an essential incretin hormone. In addition, the hormone has been demonstrated to promote insulin biosynthesis and insulin gene expression and to have trophic effects on the beta cells. The trophic effects include proliferation of existing beta cells, maturation of new cells from duct progenitor cells and inhibition of apoptosis. Furthermore glucagon secretion is inhibited. Because of these effects, the hormone effectively improves metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, continuous administration of the peptide is necessary because of an exceptionally rapid rate of degradation catalyzed the enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase IV. With inhibitors of this enzyme, it is possible to protect the endogenous hormone and thereby elevate both fasting and postprandial levels of the active hormone. This leads to enhanced insulin secretion and glucose turnover. But will DPP-IV inhibition enhance all effects of the endogenous peptide? The mode of action of GLP-1 is complex involving also interactions with sensory neurons and the central nervous system, where a DPP-IV mediated degradation does not seem to occur. Therefore, it is as yet uncertain wether DDP-IV inhibitors will affect gastrointestinal motility, appetite and food intake. Even the effects of GLP-1 effects on the pancreatic islets may be partly neurally mediated and therefore uninfluenced by DPP-IV inhibition.

  9. Dissemination of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus SCCmec type IV and SCCmec type V epidemic clones in a tertiary hospital: challenge to infection control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhawan, B; Rao, C; Udo, E E; Gadepalli, R; Vishnubhatla, S; Kapil, A

    2015-01-01

    Two-hundred MRSA strains from inpatients with healthcare-associated (HA) and 100 MRSA strains from outpatients with community-associated (CA) skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing, Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL) toxin, seh and arcA genes. Based on SCCmec typing, HA-MRSA isolates were further divided into HA-SCCmec I/II/III MRSA and HA-SCCmec IV/V MRSA, and CA-MRSA isolates into CA-SCCmec I/II/III MRSA and CA-SCCmec IV/V MRSA. SCCmec types were further characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, spa typing and multi-locus sequence typing. Seventy-five (37·5%) HA-MRSA isolates and 83/100 CA-MRSA isolates were SCCmec IV/V genotype. HA-SCCmec IV/V MRSA was associated with malignancy (P = 0·03) and bone fractures (P = 0·02) compared to CA-SCCmec IV/V MRSA. HA-SCCmec IV/V MRSA was associated with PVL gene carriage compared to HA-SCCmec I/II/III MRSA (P IV (EMRSA-15), ST772-MRSA-V, and ST36-MRSA-IV and ST239:EMRSA-I:III were the major clones identified. Our study documents the emergence of SCCmec IV and SCCmec V MRSA clones in an Indian hospital.

  10. ANOMALOUS MAGNETIC FILMS,

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three types of anomalous nickel-iron magnetic films characterized by hysteresigraph and torque-magnetometer measurements; bitter-pattern observations; reprint from ’ Journal of Applied Physics .’

  11. EHLERS-DANLOS SYNDROME TYPE-IV - PHENOTYPIC CONSEQUENCES OF A SPLICING MUTATION IN ONE COL3A1 ALLELE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SILLENCE, DO; CHIODO, AA; CAMPBELL, PE; COLE, WG

    1991-01-01

    The features of a child with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV (EDS IV) resulting from a mutation in one COL3A1 allele were studied. The child was heterozygous for a G- to A-transition at the splice donor site of intron 41. It resulted in the splicing out of the exon 41 encoded sequence from alpha-1(II

  12. Laminin and Type IV Collagen Isoform Substitutions Occur in Temporally and Spatially Distinct Patterns in Developing Kidney Glomerular Basement Membranes

    OpenAIRE

    Abrahamson, Dale R.; St. John, Patricia L.; Stroganova, Larysa; Zelenchuk, Adrian; Steenhard, Brooke M.

    2013-01-01

    Kidney glomerular basement membranes (GBMs) undergo laminin and type IV collagen isoform substitutions during glomerular development, which are believed to be required for maturation of the filtration barrier. Specifically, GBMs of earliest glomeruli contain laminin α1β1γ1 and collagen α1α2α1(IV), whereas mature glomeruli contain laminin α5β2γ1 and collagen α3α4α5(IV). Here, we used confocal microscopy to simultaneously evaluate expression of different laminin and collagen IV isoforms in newb...

  13. Kingella kingae expresses type IV pili that mediate adherence to respiratory epithelial and synovial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehl-Fie, Thomas E; Miller, Sara E; St Geme, Joseph W

    2008-11-01

    Kingella kingae is a gram-negative bacterium that colonizes the respiratory tract and is a common cause of septic arthritis and osteomyelitis. Despite the increasing frequency of K. kingae disease, little is known about the mechanism by which this organism adheres to respiratory epithelium and seeds joints and bones. Previous work showed that K. kingae expresses long surface fibers that vary in surface density. In the current study, we found that these fibers are type IV pili and are necessary for efficient adherence to respiratory epithelial and synovial cells and that the number of pili expressed by the bacterium correlates with the level of adherence to synovial cells but not with the level of adherence to respiratory cells. In addition, we established that the major pilin subunit is encoded by a pilA homolog in a conserved region of the chromosome that also contains a second pilin gene and a type IV pilus accessory gene, both of which are dispensable for pilus assembly and pilus-mediated adherence. Upon examination of the K. kingae genome, we identified two genes in physically separate locations on the chromosome that encode homologs of the Neisseria PilC proteins and that have only a low level homology to each other. Examination of mutant strains revealed that both of the K. kingae PilC homologs are essential for a wild-type level of adherence to both respiratory epithelial and synovial cells. Taken together, these results demonstrate that type IV pili and the two PilC homologs play important roles in mediating K. kingae adherence.

  14. Kingella kingae Expresses Type IV Pili That Mediate Adherence to Respiratory Epithelial and Synovial Cells▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehl-Fie, Thomas E.; Miller, Sara E.; St. Geme, Joseph W.

    2008-01-01

    Kingella kingae is a gram-negative bacterium that colonizes the respiratory tract and is a common cause of septic arthritis and osteomyelitis. Despite the increasing frequency of K. kingae disease, little is known about the mechanism by which this organism adheres to respiratory epithelium and seeds joints and bones. Previous work showed that K. kingae expresses long surface fibers that vary in surface density. In the current study, we found that these fibers are type IV pili and are necessary for efficient adherence to respiratory epithelial and synovial cells and that the number of pili expressed by the bacterium correlates with the level of adherence to synovial cells but not with the level of adherence to respiratory cells. In addition, we established that the major pilin subunit is encoded by a pilA homolog in a conserved region of the chromosome that also contains a second pilin gene and a type IV pilus accessory gene, both of which are dispensable for pilus assembly and pilus-mediated adherence. Upon examination of the K. kingae genome, we identified two genes in physically separate locations on the chromosome that encode homologs of the Neisseria PilC proteins and that have only a low level homology to each other. Examination of mutant strains revealed that both of the K. kingae PilC homologs are essential for a wild-type level of adherence to both respiratory epithelial and synovial cells. Taken together, these results demonstrate that type IV pili and the two PilC homologs play important roles in mediating K. kingae adherence. PMID:18757541

  15. On the Source of the Dust Extinction in Type Ia Supernovae and the Discovery of Anomalously Strong Na I Absorption

    CERN Document Server

    Phillips, M M; Morrell, Nidia; Burns, Christopher R; Cox, Nick L J; Foley, Ryan J; Karakas, Amanda I; Patat, F; Sternberg, A; Williams, R E; Gal-Yam, A; Hsiao, E Y; Leonard, D C; Persson, Sven E; Stritzinger, Maximilian; Thompson, I B; Campillay, Abdo; Contreras, Carlos; Folatelli, Gastón; Freedman, Wendy L; Hamuy, Mario; Roth, Miguel; Shields, Gregory A; Suntzeff, Nicholas B; Chomiuk, Laura; Ivans, Inese I; Madore, Barry F; Penprase, B E; Perley, Daniel; Preston, G Pignata G; Soderberg, Alicia M

    2013-01-01

    High-dispersion observations of the Na I D 5890, 5896 and K I 7665, 7699 interstellar lines, and the diffuse interstellar band at 5780 Angstroms in the spectra of 32 Type Ia supernovae are used as an independent means of probing dust extinction. We show that the dust extinction of the objects where the diffuse interstellar band at 5780 Angstroms is detected is consistent with the visual extinction derived from the supernova colors. This strongly suggests that the dust producing the extinction is predominantly located in the interstellar medium of the host galaxies and not in circumstellar material associated with the progenitor system. One quarter of the supernovae display anomalously large Na I column densities in comparison to the amount of dust extinction derived from their colors. Remarkably, all of the cases of unusually strong Na I D absorption correspond to "Blueshifted" profiles in the classification scheme of Sternberg et al. (2011). This coincidence suggests that outflowing circumstellar gas is resp...

  16. Rerouting surgery of cardiac type total anomalous pulmonary venous return in a premature newborn with very low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, En-Ting; Huang, Shu-Chien; Wu, Mei-Hwan; Wang, Jou-Kou; Chang, Chung-I

    2007-02-01

    Intracardiac repair for complex congenital heart defects in premature neonates with very low birth weight (VLBW) is still a challenge to pediatric cardiac surgeons. We report the successful rerouting of cardiac type total anomalous pulmonary venous return (TAPVR) in a premature newborn (36th gestational week) with VLBW (1250 g). She had severe hypoxemia and low cardiac output despite medical treatment. Rerouting surgery of TAPVR was performed under deep hypothermia circulatory arrest at the age of 20 days. The sternum was left open and approximated 2 days later. Follow-up echocardiography showed good ventricular function without pulmonary venous obstruction. The endotracheal tube was removed 7 days postoperatively. She was then discharged without complication. In conclusion, with improved cardiopulmonary bypass technique and perioperative care, open heart surgery can be performed in premature newborns with VLBW.

  17. The gonococcal genetic island and type IV secretion in the pathogenic Neisseria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan E Ramsey

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Eighty percent of Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains and some Neisseria meningitidis strains encode a 57 kb gonococcal genetic island (GGI. The GGI was horizontally acquired and is inserted in the chromosome at the replication terminus. The GGI is flanked by direct repeats, and site-specific recombination at these sites results in excision of the GGI and may be responsible for its original acquisition. Although the role of the GGI in N. meningitidis is unclear, the GGI in N. gonorrhoeae encodes a type IV secretion system (T4SS. Type IV secretion systems are versatile multi-protein complexes and include both conjugation systems as well as effector systems that translocate either proteins or DNA-protein complexes. In N. gonorrhoeae, the T4SS secretes single-stranded chromosomal DNA into the extracellular milieu in a contact-independent manner. Importantly, the DNA secreted through the T4SS is effective in natural transformation and therefore contributes to the spread of genetic information through Neisseria populations. Mutagenesis experiments have identified genes for DNA secretion including those encoding putative structural components of the apparatus, peptidoglycanases which may act in assembly, and relaxosome components for processing the DNA and delivering it to the apparatus. The T4SS may also play a role in infection by N. gonorrhoeae. During intracellular infection, N. gonorrhoeae requires the Ton complex for iron acquisition and survival. However, N. gonorrhoeae strains that do not express the Ton complex can survive intracellularly if they express structural components of the T4SS. These data provide evidence that the T4SS is expressed during intracellular infection and suggest that the T4SS may provide an advantage for intracellular survival. Here we review our current understanding of how the GGI and type IV secretion affect natural transformation and pathogenesis in N. gonorrhoeae and N. meningitidis.

  18. Type IV acromioclavicular joint dislocation associated with a mid-shaft clavicle malunion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid D Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This reports presents the case of a combined clavicle fracture malunion and chronic Type IV acromioclavicular (AC joint dislocation. The patient was seen acutely in the emergency department following a mountain bike accident at which time the clavicle fracture was identified and managed conservatively however the AC dislocation was not diagnosed. The patient presented 25 months following the injury with persistent pain and disability and was treated with clavicle osteotomy and AC stabilization. We document the clinical details, surgical treatment and outcome.

  19. Bright but slow - Type II supernovae from OGLE-IV - Implications for magnitude limited surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Poznanski, Dovi; Kostrzewa-Rutkowska, Zuzanna; Wyrzykowski, Lukasz; Blagorodnova, Nadejda

    2015-01-01

    We study a sample of 11 Type II supernovae (SNe) discovered by the OGLE-IV survey. All objects have well sampled I-band light curves, and at least one spectrum. We find that 2 or 3 of the 11 SNe have a declining light curve, and spectra consistent with other SNe II-L, while the rest have plateaus that can be as short as 70d, unlike the 100d typically found in nearby galaxies. The OGLE SNe are also brighter, and show that magnitude limited surveys find SNe that are different than usually found...

  20. Surface detail reproduction of Type IV dental stones with selected polyvinyl siloxane impression materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelb, E; Cavazos, E; Troendle, K B; Prihoda, T J

    1991-01-01

    Four polyvinyl siloxane impression materials and 14 modified Type IV dental stones were evaluated for their abilities to reproduce surface detail. Each combination of impression material and dental stone was used to duplicate a 20-microns-wide line. Surface detail reproduction was observed by two paired-rater groups. The line was reproduced in all impression material specimens, but in only 32% of the stone cast specimens. Some combinations of impression material/dental stone reproduced the line all or most of the time, but 12 combinations did not reproduce the line at all.

  1. Two types of lanthanide selenidostannates(IV) first prepared under the same solvothermal conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jian; Xiao, Hong; Xiao, Hong-Ping; Yang, Tao; Zou, Hua-Hong; Liu, Xing; Zhao, Rong-Qing; Tang, Qiuling

    2015-01-21

    Two types of lanthanide selenidostannates(iv) [Ln2(tepa)2(μ-OH)2Sn2Se6] {Ln = Y(), Pr (), Dy (), Er (), Tm (); tepa = tetraethylenepentamine} and [Ln2(tepa)2(μ2-OH)2Cl2]2[Sn4Se10]·4H2O {Ln = Y (), Dy (), Er (), Tm ()} have been synthesized under identical solvothermal conditions and characterized structurally. Type I (, , , and ) displays 1-D neutral chains [Ln2(tepa)2(μ-OH)2Sn2Se6]n, while type II (, , and ) contains discrete adamantane-like [Sn4Se10](4-) ions with binuclear lanthanide complex [Ln2(tepa)2(μ-OH)2Cl2](2+) ions as counterions. Although the solvothermal synthetic methods could result in the formation of various transition-metal chalcogenidometalates, such identical experimental conditions usually result in the only stable phases of lanthanide chalcogenidometalates. Hence, two different lanthanide selenidostannates(iv), obtained under same solvothermal conditions and starting materials, have been first observed in this work. The optical properties of all the compounds have been investigated by UV-vis spectra.

  2. Structural characterization of outer membrane components of the type IV pili system in pathogenic Neisseria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samta Jain

    Full Text Available Structures of the type IV pili secretin complexes from Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Neisseria meningitidis, embedded in outer membranes were investigated by transmission electron microscopy. Single particle averaging revealed additional domains not observed previously. Secretin complexes of N. gonorrhoeae showed a double ring structure with a 14-15-fold symmetry in the central ring, and a 14-fold symmetry of the peripheral ring with 7 spikes protruding. In secretin complexes of N. meningitidis, the spikes were absent and the peripheral ring was partly or completely lacking. When present, it had a 19-fold symmetry. The structures of the complexes in several pil mutants were determined. Structures obtained from the pilC1/C2 adhesin and the pilW minor pilin deletion strains were similar to wild-type, whereas deletion of the homologue of N. meningitidis PilW resulted in the absence of secretin structures. Remarkably, the pilE pilin subunit and pilP lipoprotein deletion mutants showed a change in the symmetry of the peripheral ring from 14 to 19 and loss of spikes. The pilF ATPase mutant also lost the spikes, but maintained 14-fold symmetry. These results show that secretin complexes contain previously unidentified large and flexible extra domains with a probable role in stabilization or assembly of type IV pili.

  3. Poly stock project: development and studies on new Type IV tanks for hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barral, K.; Hembert, C.; Gerard, J. F.; Mazabraud, P.

    2005-07-01

    The Project Polystock (2003-2005) project aimed at developing new type IV tanks compatible with H2 use and at studying hydrogen fast compression in tanks. It was sponsored by the French Network PACo and partly financed by the French Research Ministry (MENSR). This paper deals mainly with the liner developments and tank qualification, but results on fast filling will be mentioned. For example, a short time calculation fast filling modelling tool was developed for type III and type IV composite pressure tanks and validated up to 350 bar with hydrogen. This modelling tool allows us to compare fast filling for various scenario : high ambient temperature / type of the tank / 350 or 7800 bar filling.... Within the Polystock project, liner polymeric materials were developed with a view to having a low permeability to hydrogen, good mechanical properties and low process cost. These three parameters : specific H2 performance / type IV tank viability / tank final cost, were determined as being essential for type IV tank liner development. Many polymeric materials were studied : polyethylene, polyamide 6, EVOH multi-layers, nanoclay-doped polymers Mechanic and permeability behaviours were characterized and materials were screened. For instance, it appeared that EVOH multi-layers were very good material towards permeation ; on the other hand, industrial process-ability was not cost efficient and this polymeric material becomes brittle at low temperature, which is not compatible with a H2 Energy tank application. A novel rotomolding process, named reactive rotomolding, was developed for the polyamide liner. Polyamide material, depending on the grade, can have good performance for both mechanical and permeation properties. Compared to the standard melt rotomolding, the reactive rotomolding allows an easier automation of the industrial rotomolding step, and opens the perspective of decreasing the liner manufacturing time by a factor 5 to 10, whence the final liner cost. This

  4. Commercial Application of the CTV-IV Type Catalyst for Synthesis of Vinyl Acetate Developed by Shanghai Petrochemical Research Instit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The CTV-IV type catalyst for synthesis of vinyl acetate developed by the SINOPEC Shanghai Petrochemical Research Institute (SPRI) has been successfully applied on the #2 vinyl acetate unit at SINOPEC's Shanghai Petrochemical Company.

  5. Internal carotid artery dissection in a patient with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV: diagnosis and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Nasser

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS type IV, also known as vascular EDS, is an inherited connective tissue disorder with an estimated prevalence of 1/100,000 to 1/250,000. In EDS type IV, vascular complications may affect all anatomical areas, with a preference for large- and medium-sized arteries. Dissections of the vertebral and carotid arteries in their extra- and intra-cranial segments are typical. The authors report the case of a patient with EDS type IV for whom the diagnosis was established based on clinical signs and who developed internal carotid artery dissection at the age of 44 years. In the absence of a specific treatment for EDS type IV, medical interventions should focus on symptomatic relief, prophylactic measures, and genetic counseling. Invasive imaging techniques are contraindicated, and a conservative approach to vascular complications is usually recommended.

  6. Glycosylation modulates melanoma cell α2β1 and α3β1 integrin interactions with type IV collagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stawikowski, Maciej J; Aukszi, Beatrix; Stawikowska, Roma; Cudic, Mare; Fields, Gregg B

    2014-08-01

    Although type IV collagen is heavily glycosylated, the influence of this post-translational modification on integrin binding has not been investigated. In the present study, galactosylated and nongalactosylated triple-helical peptides have been constructed containing the α1(IV)382-393 and α1(IV)531-543 sequences, which are binding sites for the α2β1 and α3β1 integrins, respectively. All peptides had triple-helical stabilities of 37 °C or greater. The galactosylation of Hyl(393) in α1(IV)382-393 and Hyl(540) and Hyl(543) in α1(IV)531-543 had a dose-dependent influence on melanoma cell adhesion that was much more pronounced in the case of α3β1 integrin binding. Molecular modeling indicated that galactosylation occurred on the periphery of α2β1 integrin interaction with α1(IV)382-393 but right in the middle of α3β1 integrin interaction with α1(IV)531-543. The possibility of extracellular deglycosylation of type IV collagen was investigated, but no β-galactosidase-like activity capable of collagen modification was found. Thus, glycosylation of collagen can modulate integrin binding, and levels of glycosylation could be altered by reduction in expression of glycosylation enzymes but most likely not by extracellular deglycosylation activity.

  7. On the source of the dust extinction in type Ia supernovae and the discovery of anomalously strong Na I absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, M. M.; Morrell, Nidia; Hsiao, E. Y.; Campillay, Abdo; Contreras, Carlos [Carnegie Observatories, Las Campanas Observatory, Casilla 601, La Serena (Chile); Simon, Joshua D.; Burns, Christopher R.; Persson, Sven E.; Thompson, I. B.; Freedman, Wendy L. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara St., Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Cox, Nick L. J. [Instituut voor Sterrenkunde, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D bus 2401, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Foley, Ryan J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Karakas, Amanda I. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Weston, ACT 2611 (Australia); Patat, F. [European Southern Observatory (ESO), Karl Schwarschild Strasse 2, D-85748, Garching bei München (Germany); Sternberg, A. [Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics, Karl Schwarzschild Strasse 1, D-85741 Garching bei München (Germany); Williams, R. E. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Gal-Yam, A. [Benoziyo Center for Astrophysics, Faculty of Physics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Leonard, D. C. [Department of Astronomy, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92182 (United States); Stritzinger, Maximilian [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Folatelli, Gastón, E-mail: mmp@lco.cl [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, the University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8583 (Japan); and others

    2013-12-10

    High-dispersion observations of the Na I D λλ5890, 5896 and K I λλ7665, 7699 interstellar lines, and the diffuse interstellar band at 5780 Å in the spectra of 32 Type Ia supernovae are used as an independent means of probing dust extinction. We show that the dust extinction of the objects where the diffuse interstellar band at 5780 Å is detected is consistent with the visual extinction derived from the supernova colors. This strongly suggests that the dust producing the extinction is predominantly located in the interstellar medium of the host galaxies and not in circumstellar material associated with the progenitor system. One quarter of the supernovae display anomalously large Na I column densities in comparison to the amount of dust extinction derived from their colors. Remarkably, all of the cases of unusually strong Na I D absorption correspond to 'Blueshifted' profiles in the classification scheme of Sternberg et al. This coincidence suggests that outflowing circumstellar gas is responsible for at least some of the cases of anomalously large Na I column densities. Two supernovae with unusually strong Na I D absorption showed essentially normal K I column densities for the dust extinction implied by their colors, but this does not appear to be a universal characteristic. Overall, we find the most accurate predictor of individual supernova extinction to be the equivalent width of the diffuse interstellar band at 5780 Å, and provide an empirical relation for its use. Finally, we identify ways of producing significant enhancements of the Na abundance of circumstellar material in both the single-degenerate and double-degenerate scenarios for the progenitor system.

  8. Decameter Stationary Type IV Burst in Imaging Observations on the 6th of September 2014

    CERN Document Server

    Koval, Artem; Chen, Yao; Feng, Shiwei; Konovalenko, Aleksander; Volvach, Yaroslav

    2016-01-01

    First-of-its-kind radio imaging of decameter solar stationary type IV radio burst has been presented in this paper. On 6 September 2014 the observations of type IV burst radio emission have been carried out with the two-dimensional heliograph based on the Ukrainian T-shaped radio telescope (UTR-2) together with other telescope arrays. Starting at 09:55 UT and throughout 3 hours, the radio emission was kept within the observational session of UTR-2. The interesting observation covered the full evolution of this burst, "from birth to death". During the event lifetime, two C-class solar X-ray flares with peak times 11:29 UT and 12:24 UT took place. The time profile of this burst in radio has a double-humped shape that can be explained by injection of energetic electrons, accelerated by the two flares, into the burst source. According to the heliographic observations we suggest the burst source was confined within a high coronal loop, which was a part of a relatively slow coronal mass ejection. The latter has bee...

  9. Open angle glaucoma in a case of Type IV Ehler Danlos syndrome: A rarely reported association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arijit Mitra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 26-year-old male presented to us with defective vision in the left eye. He had best corrected visual acuity (BCVA of hand movement (HM in right eye and 6/9 in left eye. He had ptosis with ectropion in both eyes and relative afferent pupillary defect (RAPD in right eye. Intraocular pressure (IOP was 46 and 44 mmHg in right and left eye, respectively. Fundus showed glaucomatous optic atrophy (GOA in right eye and cup disc ratio (CDR of 0.75 with bipolar rim thinning in left eye. Systemic examination showed hyperextensible skin and joints, acrogeria, hypodontia, high arched palate, and varicose veins. He gave history of easy bruising and tendency to fall and history of intestinal rupture 5 years ago for which he had undergone surgery. He was diagnosed as a case of Type IV Ehler-Danlos syndrome (EDS with open angle glaucoma. He underwent trabeculectomy in both eyes. This is a rare case that shows glaucoma in a patient of EDS Type IV. Very few such cases have been reported in literature.

  10. Open angle glaucoma in a case of Type IV Ehler Danlos syndrome: a rarely reported association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Arijit; Ramakrishnan, R; Kader, Mohideen Abdul

    2014-08-01

    A 26-year-old male presented to us with defective vision in the left eye. He had best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of hand movement (HM) in right eye and 6/9 in left eye. He had ptosis with ectropion in both eyes and relative afferent pupillary defect (RAPD) in right eye. Intraocular pressure (IOP) was 46 and 44 mmHg in right and left eye, respectively. Fundus showed glaucomatous optic atrophy (GOA) in right eye and cup disc ratio (CDR) of 0.75 with bipolar rim thinning in left eye. Systemic examination showed hyperextensible skin and joints, acrogeria, hypodontia, high arched palate, and varicose veins. He gave history of easy bruising and tendency to fall and history of intestinal rupture 5 years ago for which he had undergone surgery. He was diagnosed as a case of Type IV Ehler-Danlos syndrome (EDS) with open angle glaucoma. He underwent trabeculectomy in both eyes. This is a rare case that shows glaucoma in a patient of EDS Type IV. Very few such cases have been reported in literature.

  11. Earthworm symbiont Verminephrobacter eiseniae mediates natural transformation within the host egg capsules using type IV pili

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEANA Kelyn DAVIDSON

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The dense microbial communities commonly associated with plants and animals should offer many opportunities for horizontal gene transfer (HGT through described mechanisms of DNA exchange including natural transformation. However, studies of the significance of natural transformation have focused primarily on pathogens. The study presented here demonstrates highly efficient DNA exchange by natural transformation in a common symbiont of earthworms. The obligate bacterial symbiont Verminephrobacter eiseniae is a member of a microbial consortium of the earthworm Eisenia fetida that is transmitted into the egg capsules to colonize the embryonic worms. In the study presented here, by testing for transformants under different conditions in culture, we demonstrate that V. eiseniae can incorporate free DNA from the environment, that competency is regulated by environmental factors, and that it is sequence specific. Mutations in the type IV pili of V. eiseniae resulted in loss of DNA uptake, implicating the type IV pilus (TFP apparatus in DNA uptake. Furthermore, injection of DNA carrying antibiotic-resistance genes into egg capsules resulted in transformants within the capsule, demonstrating the relevance of DNA uptake within the earthworm system. The ability to take up species-specific DNA from the environment may explain the maintenance of the relatively large, intact genome of this long-associated obligate symbiont, and provides a mechanism for acquisition of foreign genes within the earthworm system.

  12. Systematic screens for proteins that interact with the mucolipidosis type IV protein TRPML1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spooner, Ellen; McLaughlin, Brooke M; Lepow, Talya; Durns, Tyler A; Randall, Justin; Upchurch, Cameron; Miller, Katherine; Campbell, Erin M; Fares, Hanna

    2013-01-01

    Mucolipidosis type IV is a lysosomal storage disorder resulting from mutations in the MCOLN1 gene, which encodes the endosomal/lysosomal Transient Receptor Potential channel protein mucolipin-1/TRPML1. Cells isolated from Mucolipidosis type IV patients and grown in vitro and in in vivo models of this disease both show several lysosome-associated defects. However, it is still unclear how TRPML1 regulates the transport steps implicated by these defects. Identifying proteins that associate with TRPML1 will facilitate the elucidation of its cellular and biochemical functions. We report here two saturation screens for proteins that interact with TRPML1: one that is based on immunoprecipitation/mass spectrometry and the other using a genetic yeast two-hybrid approach. From these screens, we identified largely non-overlapping proteins, which represent potential TRPML1-interactors., Using additional interaction assays on some of the potential interactors from each screen, we validated some proteins as candidate TRPML1 interactors In addition, our analysis indicates that each of the two screens not only identified some false-positive interactors, as expected from any screen, but also failed to uncover potential TRPML1 interactors. Future studies on the true interactors, first identified in these screens, will help elucidate the structure and function of protein complexes containing TRPML1.

  13. Systematic screens for proteins that interact with the mucolipidosis type IV protein TRPML1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Spooner

    Full Text Available Mucolipidosis type IV is a lysosomal storage disorder resulting from mutations in the MCOLN1 gene, which encodes the endosomal/lysosomal Transient Receptor Potential channel protein mucolipin-1/TRPML1. Cells isolated from Mucolipidosis type IV patients and grown in vitro and in in vivo models of this disease both show several lysosome-associated defects. However, it is still unclear how TRPML1 regulates the transport steps implicated by these defects. Identifying proteins that associate with TRPML1 will facilitate the elucidation of its cellular and biochemical functions. We report here two saturation screens for proteins that interact with TRPML1: one that is based on immunoprecipitation/mass spectrometry and the other using a genetic yeast two-hybrid approach. From these screens, we identified largely non-overlapping proteins, which represent potential TRPML1-interactors., Using additional interaction assays on some of the potential interactors from each screen, we validated some proteins as candidate TRPML1 interactors In addition, our analysis indicates that each of the two screens not only identified some false-positive interactors, as expected from any screen, but also failed to uncover potential TRPML1 interactors. Future studies on the true interactors, first identified in these screens, will help elucidate the structure and function of protein complexes containing TRPML1.

  14. Distinct activities of Bartonella henselae type IV secretion effector proteins modulate capillary-like sprout formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidegger, F; Ellner, Y; Guye, P; Rhomberg, T A; Weber, H; Augustin, H G; Dehio, C

    2009-07-01

    The zoonotic pathogen Bartonella henselae (Bh) can lead to vasoproliferative tumour lesions in the skin and inner organs known as bacillary angiomatosis and bacillary peliosis. The knowledge on the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in this pathogen-triggered angiogenic process is confined by the lack of a suitable animal model and a physiologically relevant cell culture model of angiogenesis. Here we employed a three-dimensional in vitro angiogenesis assay of collagen gel-embedded endothelial cell (EC) spheroids to study the angiogenic properties of Bh. Spheroids generated from Bh-infected ECs displayed a high capacity to form sprouts, which represent capillary-like projections into the collagen gel. The VirB/VirD4 type IV secretion system and a subset of its translocated Bartonella effector proteins (Beps) were found to profoundly modulate this Bh-induced sprouting activity. BepA, known to protect ECs from apoptosis, strongly promoted sprout formation. In contrast, BepG, triggering cytoskeletal rearrangements, potently inhibited sprouting. Hence, the here established in vitro model of Bartonella- induced angiogenesis revealed distinct and opposing activities of type IV secretion system effector proteins, which together with a VirB/VirD4-independent effect may control the angiogenic activity of Bh during chronic infection of the vasculature.

  15. IMPROVEMENT OF TYPE IV CRACKING RESISTANCE OF 9Cr HEAT RESISTING STEEL WELDMENT BY BORON ADDITION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.Tabuchi; M.Kondo; T.Watanabe; H.Hongo; F.Yin; F.Abe

    2004-01-01

    Creep lives of high Cr ferritic heat resisting steel weldments decrease due to Type IV fracture, which occurs as a result of formation and growth of creep voids and cracks on grain boundaries in fine-grained heat affected zone (HAZ). Because boron is considered to suppress the coarsening of grain boundary precipitates and growth of creep voids, we have investigated the effect of boron addition on the creep properties of 9Cr steel weldments. Four kinds of 9Cr3W3CoVNb steels with boron content varying from 4.7×10-5 to 1.8×10-4 and with nitrogen as low as 2.0×10-5 were prepared.The steel plates were welded by gas tungsten arc welding and crept at 923K. It was found that the microstructures of HAZ were quite different from those of conventional high Cr steels such as P91 and P92, namely the fine-grained HAZ did not exist in the present steel weldments. Boron addition also has the effect to suppress coarsening of grain boundary carbides in HAZ during creep. As a result of these phenomena,the welded joints of present steels showed no Type IV fractures and much better creep lives than those of conventional steels.

  16. Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clonal complex 80 type IV (CC80-MRSA-IV isolated from the Middle East: a heterogeneous expanding clonal lineage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houda H Harastani

    Full Text Available The emergence of community-associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA has caused a change in MRSA epidemiology worldwide. In the Middle East, the persistent spread of CA-MRSA isolates that were associated with multilocus sequence type (MLST clonal complex 80 and with staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec type IV (CC80-MRSA-IV, calls for novel approaches for infection control that would limit its spread.In this study, the epidemiology of CC80-MRSA-IV was investigated in Jordan and Lebanon retrospectively covering the period from 2000 to 2011. Ninety-four S. aureus isolates, 63 (67% collected from Lebanon and 31 (33% collected from Jordan were included in this study. More than half of the isolates (56% were associated with skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs, and 73 (78% were Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL positive. Majority of the isolates (84% carried the gene for exofoliative toxin d (etd, 19% had the Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxin-1 gene (tst, and seven isolates from Jordan had a rare combination being positive for both tst and PVL genes. spa typing showed the prevalence of type t044 (85% and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE recognized 21 different patterns. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed the prevalence (36% of a unique resistant profile, which included resistance to streptomycin, kanamycin, and fusidic acid (SKF profile.The genetic diversity among the CC80 isolates observed in this study poses an additional challenge to infection control of CA-MRSA epidemics. CA-MRSA related to ST80 in the Middle East was distinguished in this study from the ones described in other countries. Genetic diversity observed, which may be due to mutations and differences in the antibiotic regimens between countries may have led to the development of heterogeneous strains. Hence, it is difficult to maintain "the European CA-MRSA clone" as a uniform clone and it is better to designate as CC80-MRSA-IV isolates.

  17. Homozygous factor V Leiden mutation in type IV Ehlers-Danlos patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refaat, Marwan; Hotait, Mostafa; Winston, Brion

    2014-01-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a group of inherited connective tissue disorders caused by collagen synthesis defects. Several hemostatic abnormalities have been described in EDS patients that increase the bleeding tendencies of these patients. This case report illustrates a patient with an unusual presentation of a patient with type IV EDS, platelet δ-storage pool disease and factor V Leiden mutation. Young woman having previous bilateral deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary emboli coexisting with ruptured splenic aneurysm and multiple other aneurysms now presented with myocardial infarction. Presence of factor V Leiden mutation raises the possibility that the infarct was due to acute coronary thrombosis, although coronary artery aneurysm and dissection with myocardial infarction is known to occur in vascular type EDS. This is the first report in the medical literature of factor V Leiden mutation in an EDS patient which made the management of our patient challenging with propensity to both bleeding and clotting. PMID:24653990

  18. Bifurcations in a Seasonally Forced Predator-Prey Model with Generalized Holling Type IV Functional Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jingli; Li, Xueping

    A seasonally forced predator-prey system with generalized Holling type IV functional response is considered in this paper. The influence of seasonal forcing on the system is investigated via numerical bifurcation analysis. Bifurcation diagrams for periodic solutions of periods one and two, containing bifurcation curves of codimension one and bifurcation points of codimension two, are obtained by means of a continuation technique, corresponding to different bifurcation cases of the unforced system illustrated in five bifurcation diagrams. The seasonally forced model exhibits more complex dynamics than the unforced one, such as stable and unstable periodic solutions of various periods, stable and unstable quasiperiodic solutions, and chaotic motions through torus destruction or cascade of period doublings. Finally, some phase portraits and corresponding Poincaré map portraits are given to illustrate these different types of solutions.

  19. Bright but slow - Type II supernovae from OGLE-IV & magnitude limited surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Poznanski, Dovi; Wyrzykowski, Lukasz; Blagorodnova, Nadejda

    2015-01-01

    We study a sample of 11 Type II supernovae (SNe) discovered by the OGLE-IV survey. All objects have well sampled I-band light curves, and at least one spectrum. We find that 3 or 4 of the 11 SNe have a declining light curve, making them SNe II-L, while the rest have plateaus that can be as short as 70d, unlike the 100d typically found in nearby galaxies. These SNe are also brighter than found in the local Universe, and show that magnitude limited surveys find SNe that are different than found in nearby galaxies. We discuss this sample in the context of understanding Type II SNe as a class and their suggested use as standard candles.

  20. Central nervous system infection caused by vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (SCCmec type IV, ST8).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kino, Hiroyoshi; Suzuki, Hiromichi; Yamaguchi, Tetsuo; Notake, Shigeyuki; Oishi, Tsuyoshi; Ito, Yoshiro; Nakamura, Kazuhiro; Miyazaki, Haruko; Matsumoto, Tetsuya; Uemura, Kazuya; Matsumura, Akira

    2014-10-01

    A 77-year-old Japanese man with a history of surgical treatment of chronic subdural hemorrhage was hospitalized for drainage of a subdural abscess and brain abscess in the right occipital area. Pus obtained from both the subdural abscess and brain abscess grew vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (VISA) (minimum inhibitory concentration = 4 μg/mL), which was confirmed by population analysis. The SCCmec type and sequence type were subsequently identified as IV and ST8, respectively. The VISA strains were both sensitive to levofloxacin, clindamycin, minocycline, and linezolid. The patient was successfully treated with linezolid and discharged on day 51 after admission. We herein describe the first reported case of a brain abscess and subdural abscess caused by VISA in Japan.

  1. A rationalization of the Type IV loading dependence in the Kärger-Pfeifer classification of self-diffusivities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krishna, R.; van Baten, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Kärger and Pfeifer (1987) [1] have listed five different types of dependencies of the self-diffusivities, Di,self, on the loading, Θi, of guest molecules in zeolites. Of these five types, the Type IV dependence is particularly intriguing because it displays a maximum in the Di,self − Θi dependence f

  2. Identification of a Novel Conjugative Plasmid in Mycobacteria That Requires Both Type IV and Type VII Secretion

    KAUST Repository

    Ummels, R.

    2014-09-23

    Conjugative plasmids have been identified in a wide variety of different bacteria, ranging from proteobacteria to firmicutes, and conjugation is one of the most efficient routes for horizontal gene transfer. The most widespread mechanism of plasmid conjugation relies on different variants of the type IV secretion pathway. Here, we describe the identification of a novel type of conjugative plasmid that seems to be unique for mycobacteria. Interestingly, while this plasmid is efficiently exchanged between different species of slow-growing mycobacteria, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, it could not be transferred to any of the fast-growing mycobacteria tested. Genetic analysis of the conjugative plasmid showed the presence of a locus containing homologues of three type IV secretion system components and a relaxase. In addition, a new type VII secretion locus was present. Using transposon insertion mutagenesis, we show that in fact both these secretion systems are essential for conjugation, indicating that this plasmid represents a new class of conjugative plasmids requiring two secretion machineries. This plasmid could form a useful new tool to exchange or introduce DNA in slow-growing mycobacteria. IMPORTANCE: Conjugative plasmids play an important role in horizontal gene transfer between different bacteria and, as such, in their adaptation and evolution. This effect is most obvious in the spread of antibiotic resistance genes. Thus far, conjugation of natural plasmids has been described only rarely for mycobacterial species. In fact, it is generally accepted that M. tuberculosis does not show any recent sign of horizontal gene transfer. In this study, we describe the identification of a new widespread conjugative plasmid that can also be efficiently transferred to M. tuberculosis. This plasmid therefore poses both a threat and an opportunity. The threat is that, through the acquisition of antibiotic resistance markers, this plasmid could start a rapid spread of

  3. Arthroscopically assisted treatment for Schatzker type I-V tibial plateau fractures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Xiao-jun; YANG Liu; GUO Lin; CHEN Guang-xing; DAI Gang

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To report the clinical outcome of arthroscopically assisted treatment for tibial plateau fractures.Methods: A total of 39 patients with tibial plateau fractures were treated by arthroscopic fixation from February 2002 to December 2005,including 11 patients with bony avulsion of the anterior cruciate ligament and 19 with meniscal injury.There were 4 cases of type I fracture,12 type II,9 type III,12 type IV and 2 type V according to Schatzker criteria.Firstly,the combined injuries were treated.Then the plateau fractures with the displacement over 3 mm or more were reduced and fixed.Finally,the internal fixation was observed by X-ray equipment.Postoperative management was early motion and delayed weight bearing.Results: All the fractures healed in 3 or 4 months.All patients were followed up for 1 to 5 years after operation.No case had severe complications,such as poor wound healing,infection,osteofascial compartment syndrome and osteoarthritis.According to the Rasmussen scoring system,36 cases obtained excellent or good results and the other 3 cases had moderate clinical results.The average score was 26 ± 3.Conclusions: As an adjuvant treatment of intraarticular fractures such as tibial plateau fracture,arthroscopy has many advantages.It can treat associated intraarticular soft tissue components,visualize the chondral surface reduction,lavage the hematoma and smaller loose fragments,decrease soft tissue dissection,reduce the risk of scarring and promote rapid recovery.

  4. Drosophila type IV collagen mutation associates with immune system activation and intestinal dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Márton; Kiss, András A; Radics, Monika; Popovics, Nikoletta; Hermesz, Edit; Csiszár, Katalin; Mink, Mátyás

    2016-01-01

    The basal lamina (BM) contains numerous components with a predominance of type IV collagens. Clinical manifestations associated with mutations of the human COL4A1 gene include perinatal cerebral hemorrhage and porencephaly, hereditary angiopathy, nephropathy, aneurysms and muscle cramps (HANAC), ocular dysgenesis, myopathy, Walker–Warburg syndrome and systemic tissue degeneration. In Drosophila, the phenotype associated with dominant temperature sensitive mutations of col4a1 include severe myopathy resulting from massive degradation of striated muscle fibers, and in the gut, degeneration of circular visceral muscle cells and epithelial cells following detachment from the BM. In order to determine the consequences of altered BMfunctions due to aberrant COL4A1 protein, we have carried out a series of tests using Drosophila DTS-L3 mutants from our allelic series of col4a1 mutations with confirmed degeneration of various cell types and lowest survival rate among the col4a1 mutant lines at restrictive temperature. Results demonstrated epithelial cell degeneration in the gut, shortened gut, enlarged midgut with multiple diverticulae, intestinal dysfunction and shortened life span. Midgut immunohistochemistry analyses confirmed altered expression and distribution of BM components integrin PSI and PSII alpha subunits, laminin gamma 1, and COL4A1 both in larvae and adults. Global gene expression analysis revealed activation of the effector AMP genes of the primary innate immune system including Metchnikowin, Diptericin, Diptericin B, and edin that preceded morphological changes. Attacin::GFP midgut expression pattern further supported these changes. An increase in ROS production and changes in gut bacterial flora were also noted and may have further enhanced an immune response. The phenotypic features of Drosophila col4a1 mutants confirmed an essential role for type IV collagen in maintaining epithelial integrity, gut morphology and intestinal function and suggest that

  5. The Che4 pathway of Myxococcus xanthus regulates type IV pilus-mediated motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlamakis, Hera C; Kirby, John R; Zusman, David R

    2004-06-01

    Myxococcus xanthus co-ordinates cell movement during its complex life cycle using multiple chemotaxis-like signal transduction pathways. These pathways regulate both type IV pilus-mediated social (S) motility and adventurous (A) motility. During a search for new chemoreceptors, we identified the che4 operon, which encodes homologues to a MCP (methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein), two CheWs, a hybrid CheA-CheY, a response regulator and a CheR. Deletion of the che4 operon did not cause swarming or developmental defects in either the wild-type (A(+)S(+)) strain or in a strain sustaining only A motility (A(+)S(-)). However, in a strain displaying only S motility (A(-)S(+)), deletion of the che4 operon or the gene encoding the response regulator, cheY4, caused enhanced vegetative swarming and prevented aggregation and sporulation. In contrast, deletion of mcp4 caused reduced vegetative swarming and enhanced development compared with the parent strain. Single-cell analysis of the motility of the A(-)S(+) parent strain revealed a previously unknown inverse correlation between velocity and reversal frequency. Thus, cells that moved at higher velocities showed a reduced reversal frequency. This co-ordination of reversal frequency and velocity was lost in the mcp4 and cheY4 mutants. The structural components of the S motility apparatus were unaffected in the che4 mutants, suggesting that the Che4 system affects reversal frequency of cells by modulating the function of the type IV pilus.

  6. A widespread bacteriophage abortive infection system functions through a Type IV toxin-antitoxin mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dy, Ron L; Przybilski, Rita; Semeijn, Koen; Salmond, George P C; Fineran, Peter C

    2014-04-01

    Bacterial abortive infection (Abi) systems are 'altruistic' cell death systems that are activated by phage infection and limit viral replication, thereby providing protection to the bacterial population. Here, we have used a novel approach of screening Abi systems as a tool to identify and characterize toxin-antitoxin (TA)-acting Abi systems. We show that AbiE systems are encoded by bicistronic operons and function via a non-interacting (Type IV) bacteriostatic TA mechanism. The abiE operon was negatively autoregulated by the antitoxin, AbiEi, a member of a widespread family of putative transcriptional regulators. AbiEi has an N-terminal winged-helix-turn-helix domain that is required for repression of abiE transcription, and an uncharacterized bi-functional C-terminal domain, which is necessary for transcriptional repression and sufficient for toxin neutralization. The cognate toxin, AbiEii, is a predicted nucleotidyltransferase (NTase) and member of the DNA polymerase β family. AbiEii specifically bound GTP, and mutations in conserved NTase motifs (I-III) and a newly identified motif (IV), abolished GTP binding and subsequent toxicity. The AbiE systems can provide phage resistance and enable stabilization of mobile genetic elements, such as plasmids. Our study reveals molecular insights into the regulation and function of the widespread bi-functional AbiE Abi-TA systems and the biochemical properties of both toxin and antitoxin proteins.

  7. A new multiplex PCR for easy screening of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus SCCmec types I-V

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boye, Kit; Bartels, Mette Damkjær; Andersen, Ina S;

    2007-01-01

    A multiplex PCR with four primer-pairs was designed to identify the five main known SCCmec types. A clear and easily discriminated band pattern was obtained for all five types. The SCCmec type was identified for 98% of 312 clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). S......). SCCmec type IV was by far the most common SCCmec type among both hospital- and community-acquired MRSA isolates in Denmark....

  8. Characteristics of type IV collagen unfolding under various pH conditions as a model of pathological disorder in tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Akio; Kawai, Kenichi; Yanagino, Miki; Wakiyama, Toshiko; Machida, Minoru; Kameyama, Kohji; Naito, Zenya

    2007-07-01

    The overall structure of type IV collagen is the same at neutral and acidic pH, as determined by circular dichroism spectra. The heating rate dependence of denaturation midpoint temperature (T(m)) shows that type IV collagen is unstable at body temperature, similarly to type I collagen. The heating rate dependence of T(m) at neutral pH has two phases, but that at acidic pH apparently has a single phase. The T(m) of the first phase (lower T(m)) at neutral pH is consistent with that at acidic pH, and the activation energy of these phases is consistent, within experimental error. The triple helix region of type IV collagen corresponding to the second phase (higher T(m)) at neutral pH is thermally stable when compared to the triple helical structure at acidic pH. At acidic pH, as the loosely packed and unstable region has spread throughout the whole molecule, the thermal transition is thought to be cooperative and is observed as a single phase. Structural flexibility is related to protein function and assembly; therefore, the unstable structure and increased flexibility of type IV collagen induced at acidic pH may affect diseases accompanied by type IV collagen disorder.

  9. Longevity of dental implants in type IV bone: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goiato, M C; dos Santos, D M; Santiago, J F; Moreno, A; Pellizzer, E P

    2014-09-01

    Bone quality and quantity are important factors with regard to the survival rate of dental implants. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of dental implants inserted in low-density bone and to determine the survival rate of dental implants with surface treatments over time. A systematic review of the literature was undertaken by two independent individuals; the Medline/PubMed database was searched for the period July 1975 to March 2013. Relevant reports on bone quality and osseointegration of dental implants were selected. The search retrieved 1018 references, and after inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied, 19 studies were selected for review. A total of 3937 patients, who had received a total of 12,465 dental implants, were analyzed. The survival rates of dental implants according to the bone density were: type I, 97.6%; type II, 96.2%; type III, 96.5%; and type IV, 88.8%. The survival rate of treated surface implants inserted in low-density bone was higher (97.1%) than that of machined surface implants (91.6%). Surface-treated dental implants inserted in low-density bone have a high survival rate and may be indicated for oral rehabilitation. However, more randomized studies are required to better evaluate this issue.

  10. Type IV secretion system in Helicobacter pylori: a new insight into pathogenicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Qiao; SHAO Shi-he; CUI Lei-lei; MU Run-hong; JU Xiao-li; DONG Su-rong

    2007-01-01

    Objective To review the research progress on Type IV secretion system (T4SS) in Helicobacter pylori.Data sources The data used in this review were identified by searching of PUBMED (1995-2007) online resources Study selection Mainly original articles and critical reviews written by major pioneer investigators of this field were selected.Results The research progress on T4SS in Helicobacter pylori was summarized.The structure and function was discussed.Conclusions T4SS is not only involved in toxin secretion and injection of virulence factors into eukaryotic host target cells,but also involved in horizontal DNA transfer to other bacteria and eukaryotic cells,through DNA uptake from or release into the extracellular milieu.It provides a new insight into the pathogenicity of Helicobacter pylori and a novel target for antimicrobials development.However,many challenges remain for us in understanding the biological role of T4SS in Helicobacter pylori.

  11. Composition, structure and function of the Helicobacter pylori cag pathogenicity island encoded type IV secretion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backert, Steffen; Tegtmeyer, Nicole; Fischer, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Many Gram-negative pathogens harbor type IV secretion systems (T4SS) that translocate bacterial virulence factors into host cells to hijack cellular processes. The pathology of the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori strongly depends on a T4SS encoded by the cag pathogenicity island. This T4SS forms a needle-like pilus, and its assembly is accomplished by multiple protein-protein interactions and various pilus-associated factors that bind to integrins followed by delivery of the CagA oncoprotein into gastric epithelial cells. Recent studies revealed the crystal structures of six T4SS proteins and pilus formation is modulated by iron and zinc availability. All these T4SS interactions are crucial for deregulating host signaling events and disease progression. New developments in T4SS functions and their importance for pathogenesis are discussed.

  12. New type IV pili-related genes involved in early stages of Ralstonia solanacearum potato infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siri, María Inés; Sanabria, Analía; Boucher, Christian; Pianzzola, María Julia

    2014-07-01

    This study provides insights into the pathogenesis of Ralstonia solanacearum, in particular with regards to strains belonging to phylotype IIB, sequevar 1 (IIB-1) and their interaction with potato, its natural host. We performed a comparative genomic analysis among IIB-1 R. solanacearum strains with different levels of virulence in order to identify candidate virulence genes. With this approach, we identified a 33.7-kb deletion in a strain showing reduced virulence on potato. This region contains a cluster of six genes putatively involved in type IV pili (Tfp) biogenesis. Functional analysis suggests that these proteins contribute to several Tfp-related functions such as twitching motility and biofilm formation. In addition, this genetic cluster was found to contribute to early bacterial wilt pathogenesis and colonization fitness of potato roots.

  13. A type IV pilus mediates DNA binding during natural transformation in Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphaël Laurenceau

    Full Text Available Natural genetic transformation is widely distributed in bacteria and generally occurs during a genetically programmed differentiated state called competence. This process promotes genome plasticity and adaptability in Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Transformation requires the binding and internalization of exogenous DNA, the mechanisms of which are unclear. Here, we report the discovery of a transformation pilus at the surface of competent Streptococcus pneumoniae cells. This Type IV-like pilus, which is primarily composed of the ComGC pilin, is required for transformation. We provide evidence that it directly binds DNA and propose that the transformation pilus is the primary DNA receptor on the bacterial cell during transformation in S. pneumoniae. Being a central component of the transformation apparatus, the transformation pilus enables S. pneumoniae, a major Gram-positive human pathogen, to acquire resistance to antibiotics and to escape vaccines through the binding and incorporation of new genetic material.

  14. Type IV hiatal hernia post laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication: report of a case.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Awad, Z T

    2001-01-01

    A postoperative hiatal hernia is a rare but serious complication of fundoplication. We report herein a 62-year-old female who presented with abdominal pain and vomiting 2 years following laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication. At laparotomy, the stomach and the transverse colon were intrathoracic (type IV hiatal hernia); the esophageal hiatus was markedly dilated with no evidence that they had been approximated. At 18 months follow-up, she is doing very well apart from occasional heartburn. A high index of suspicion is needed to diagnose postoperative hiatal hernias. A routine closure of the crura with nonabsorbable suture material and an avoidance of iatrogenic pneumothorax may help to reduce the occurrence of this problem.

  15. Apical leakage in maxillary type IV premolars with three different endodontic treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staribratova-Reister, K; Reister, J P; Attin, T; Martus, P; Kielbassa, A M

    2003-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the sealing ability in orthogradely filled, apicoectomised and retrogradely filled maxillary premolars with two canals and two separate apical foramina. The root canals of 51 extracted maxillary premolars of type IV were uniformly shaped and filled by means of lateral condensation and subsequently randomly divided into three groups of 17 teeth each. The teeth of groups II and III received an apicoectomy. In group III an additional retrograde seal (Ketac Fil) was applied. Group I served as control. All specimens were immersed in a methylene blue solution for 24 h. The teeth were cross-sectioned and the maximal dye-penetration was measured. The significantly least dye-penetration was observed in group II (apicoectomy only), followed by group I and group III. The differences among all groups were statistically significant (pFil must be considered critically.

  16. Reassessing the role of DotF in the Legionella pneumophila type IV secretion system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly C Sutherland

    Full Text Available Legionella pneumophila, the causative agent of a severe pneumonia termed Legionnaires' Disease, survives and replicates within both protozoan hosts and human alveolar macrophages. Intracellular survival is dependent upon secretion of a plethora of protein effectors that function to form a replicative vacuole, evade the endocytic pathway and subvert host immune defenses. Export of these factors requires a type IV secretion system (T4SS called Dot/Icm that is composed of twenty-seven proteins. This report focuses on the DotF protein, which was previously postulated to have several different functions, one of which centered on binding Dot/Icm substrates. In this report, we examined if DotF functions as the T4SS inner membrane receptor for Dot/Icm substrates. Although we were able to recapitulate the previously published bacterial two-hybrid interaction between DotF and several substrates, the interaction was not dependent on the Dot/Icm substrates' signal sequences as predicted for a substrate:receptor interaction. In addition, binding did not require the cytoplasmic domain of DotF, which was anticipated to be involved in recognizing substrates in the cytoplasm. Finally, inactivation of dotF did not abolish intracellular growth of L. pneumophila or translocation of substrates, two phenotypes dependent on the T4SS receptor. These data strongly suggest that DotF does not act as the major receptor for Dot/Icm substrates and therefore likely performs an accessory function within the core-transmembrane subcomplex of the L. pneumophila Dot/Icm type IV secretion system.

  17. A Decameter Stationary Type IV Burst in Imaging Observations on 2014 September 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koval, Artem; Stanislavsky, Aleksander; Chen, Yao; Feng, Shiwei; Konovalenko, Aleksander; Volvach, Yaroslav

    2016-08-01

    First-of-its-kind radio imaging of a decameter solar stationary type IV radio burst has been presented in this paper. On 2014 September 6 the observations of type IV burst radio emission were carried out with the two-dimensional heliograph based on the Ukrainian T-shaped radio telescope (UTR-2), together with other telescope arrays. Starting at ˜09:55 UT and for ˜3 hr, the radio emission was kept within the observational session of UTR-2. The interesting observation covered the full evolution of this burst, “from birth to death.” During the event lifetime, two C-class solar X-ray flares with peak times 11:29 UT and 12:24 UT took place. The time profile of this burst in radio has a double-humped shape that can be explained by injection of energetic electrons, accelerated by the two flares, into the burst source. According to the heliographic observations, we suggest that the burst source was confined within a high coronal loop, which was part of a relatively slow coronal mass ejection. The latter has been developed for several hours before the onset of the event. Through analysis of about 1.5 × 106 heliograms (3700 temporal frames with 4096 images in each frame that correspond to the number of frequency channels), the radio burst source imaging shows a fascinating dynamical evolution. Both space-based (GOES, SDO, SOHO, STEREO) data and various ground-based instrumentation (ORFEES, NDA, RSTO, NRH) records have been used for this study.

  18. Chronic inflammation of the prostate type IV with respect to risk of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio B. Porcaro

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic inflammatory infiltrate (CII might be involved in prostate cancer (PCA and benign hyperplasia (BPH; however, its significance is controversial. Chronic inflammatory prostatitis type IV is the most common non cancer diagnosis in men undergoing biopsy because of suspected PCA. Objective: To evaluate potential associations of coexistent CII and PCA in biopsy specimens after prostate assessment. Design, setting, and participants: Between January 2007 and December 2008, 415 consecutive patients who underwent prostate biopsy were retrospectively evaluated. The investigated variables included Age (years and PSA (ug/l; moreover, CII+, glandular atrophy (GA+, glandular hyperplasia (GH+, prostate Intraepithelial neoplasm (PIN+, atypical small acinar cell proliferation (ASAP+ and PCA positive cores (P+ were evaluated as categorical and continuous (proportion of positive cores. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis: Associations of CII+ and PCA risk were assessed by statistical methods. Results and limitations: In the patient population, a biopsy core positive for PCA was detected in 34.2% of cases and the rate of high grade PCA (HGPCA: bGS ! 8 resulted 4.82%. CII+ significantly and inversely associated with a positive biopsy core P+ (P < 0.0001; OR = 0.26 and HGPCA (P = 0.0005; OR = 0.05. Moreover, the associations indicated that patients with coexistent CII+ on needle biopsy were 74% less likely to have coexistent PCA than men without CII+ as well as 95% less likely to have HGPCA in the biopsy core than men without coexistent CII+. There were limits in our study which was single centre and included only one dedicated pathologist. Conclusions: There was an inverse association of chronic inflammation of the prostate type IV and risk of PCA; moreover, HGPCA was less likely to be detected in cancers associated with coexistent CII. In prostate microenvironment, prostate chronic inflammation may be protective; however, its role in

  19. Evaluation of the Various Drying Methods on Surface Hardness of Type IV Dental Stone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhakar, A; Srivatsa, G; Shetty, Rohit; Rajeswari, C L; Manvi, Supriya

    2015-01-01

    Background: Studies regarding the effect of various methods to increase the surface hardness of Type IV dental stone are not conclusive. Therefore, this study was carried out to evaluate the effect of air drying, micro oven drying and die hardener on surface hardness of Type IV dental stone. Materials and Methods: A standard metal die was fabricated; polyvinyl siloxane impression material was used to make the molds of metal die. A total of 120 specimens were obtained from two different die stones and were grouped as Group A (kalrock) and Group B (pearl stone), and were subjected to air drying for 24 h, micro oven drying and application of die hardener. These models were then subjected to surface hardness testing using the knoop hardness instrument. The obtained data were subjected to statistical analysis. Results: The hardness of Group A specimens was 64 ± 0.54 Knoop hardness number (KHN) after application of die hardener, 60.47 ± 0.41 KHN after 24 h air drying, 58.2 ± 0.88 after microwave oven drying and 24.6 ± 0.4 after 1 h air drying. The hardness of Group B specimens was 45.59 ± 0.63 KHN after application of die hardener, 40.2 ± 0.63 KHN after 24 h air drying, 38.28 ± 0.55 KHN after microwave oven drying and 19.91 ± 0.64 KHN after 1 h air drying. Conclusion: Group A showed better results than Group B at all times. Application of the die hardener showed highest hardness values followed in the order by 24 h air drying, microwave oven drying and 1 h air drying in both groups. The study showed that air drying the dies for 24 h followed by application of a single layer of the die hardener produced the best surface hardness and is recommended to be followed in practice. PMID:26124610

  20. AtlasT4SS: A curated database for type IV secretion systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza Rangel C

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The type IV secretion system (T4SS can be classified as a large family of macromolecule transporter systems, divided into three recognized sub-families, according to the well-known functions. The major sub-family is the conjugation system, which allows transfer of genetic material, such as a nucleoprotein, via cell contact among bacteria. Also, the conjugation system can transfer genetic material from bacteria to eukaryotic cells; such is the case with the T-DNA transfer of Agrobacterium tumefaciens to host plant cells. The system of effector protein transport constitutes the second sub-family, and the third one corresponds to the DNA uptake/release system. Genome analyses have revealed numerous T4SS in Bacteria and Archaea. The purpose of this work was to organize, classify, and integrate the T4SS data into a single database, called AtlasT4SS - the first public database devoted exclusively to this prokaryotic secretion system. Description The AtlasT4SS is a manual curated database that describes a large number of proteins related to the type IV secretion system reported so far in Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, as well as in Archaea. The database was created using the RDBMS MySQL and the Catalyst Framework based in the Perl programming language and using the Model-View-Controller (MVC design pattern for Web. The current version holds a comprehensive collection of 1,617 T4SS proteins from 58 Bacteria (49 Gram-negative and 9 Gram-Positive, one Archaea and 11 plasmids. By applying the bi-directional best hit (BBH relationship in pairwise genome comparison, it was possible to obtain a core set of 134 clusters of orthologous genes encoding T4SS proteins. Conclusions In our database we present one way of classifying orthologous groups of T4SSs in a hierarchical classification scheme with three levels. The first level comprises four classes that are based on the organization of genetic determinants, shared homologies, and

  1. Type IV collagen is an activating ligand for the adhesion G protein-coupled receptor GPR126.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paavola, Kevin J; Sidik, Harwin; Zuchero, J Bradley; Eckart, Michael; Talbot, William S

    2014-08-12

    GPR126 is an orphan heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptor (GPCR) that is essential for the development of diverse organs. We found that type IV collagen, a major constituent of the basement membrane, binds to Gpr126 and activates its signaling function. Type IV collagen stimulated the production of cyclic adenosine monophosphate in rodent Schwann cells, which require Gpr126 activity to differentiate, and in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells expressing exogenous Gpr126. Type IV collagen specifically bound to the extracellular amino-terminal region of Gpr126 containing the CUB (complement, Uegf, Bmp1) and pentraxin domains. Gpr126 derivatives lacking the entire amino-terminal region were constitutively active, suggesting that this region inhibits signaling and that ligand binding relieves this inhibition to stimulate receptor activity. A new zebrafish mutation that truncates Gpr126 after the CUB and pentraxin domains disrupted development of peripheral nerves and the inner ear. Thus, our findings identify type IV collagen as an activating ligand for GPR126, define its mechanism of activation, and highlight a previously unrecognized signaling function of type IV collagen in basement membranes.

  2. Role of 17 beta-estradiol on type IV collagen fibers volumetric density in the basement membrane of bladder wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fraga, Rogerio; Dambros, Miriam; Miyaoka, Ricardo; Riccetto, Cássio Luís Zanettini; Palma, Paulo César Rodrigues

    2007-10-01

    The authors quantified the type IV collagen fibers volumetric density in the basement membrane of bladder wall of ovariectomized rats with and without estradiol replacement. This study was conducted on 40 Wistar rats (3 months old) randomly divided in 4 groups: group 1, remained intact (control); group 2, submitted to bilateral oophorectomy and daily replacement 4 weeks later of 17 beta-estradiol for 12 weeks; group 3, sham operated and daily replacement 4 weeks later of sesame oil for 12 weeks; and group 4, submitted to bilateral oophorectomy and killed after 12 weeks. It was used in immunohistochemistry evaluation using type IV collagen polyclonal antibody to stain the fibers on paraffin rat bladder sections. The M-42 stereological grid system was used to analyze the fibers. Ovariectomy had an increase effect on the volumetric density of the type IV collagen fibers in the basement membrane of rat bladder wall. Estradiol replacement in castrated animals demonstrated a significative difference in the stereological parameters when compared to the castrated group without hormonal replacement. Surgical castration performed on rats induced an increasing volumetric density of type IV collagen fibers in the basement membrane of rats bladder wall and the estradiol treatment had a significant effect in keeping a low volumetric density of type IV collagen fibers in the basement membrane of rats bladder wall.

  3. Anomalous radial and angular strain relaxation around dilute p-, isoelectronic-, and n-type dopants in Si crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mingshu; Dong, Juncai; Chen, Dongliang

    2017-02-01

    Doping is widely applied in yielding desirable properties and functions in silicon technology; thus, fully understanding the relaxation mechanism for lattice-mismatch strain is of fundamental importance. Here we systematically study the local lattice distortion near dilute IIIA-, IVA-, and VA-group substitutional dopants in Si crystal using density functional theory, and anomalous radial and angular strain relaxation modes are first revealed. Both the nearest-neighbor (NN) bond-distances and the tetrahedral bond-angles are found to exhibit completely opposite dependence on the electronic configurations for the low Z (Z26) dopants. More surprisingly, negative and positive angular shifts for the second NN twelve Si2 atoms are unveiled surrounding the p- and n-type dopants, respectively. While electron localization function shows that the doped hole and electron are highly localized near the dopants, hence being responsible for the abnormal angular shifts, a universal radial strain relaxation mechanism dominated by a competition of the Coulomb interactions among the ion-core, bond-charge, and the localized hole or electron is also proposed. These findings may prove to be instrumental in precise design of silicon-based solotronics.

  4. Active-site residues in the type IV prepilin peptidase homologue PibD from the archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szabo, Z; Albers, SV; Driessen, AJM

    2006-01-01

    Archaeal preflagellin peptidases and bacterial type IV prepilin peptidases belong to a family of aspartic acid proteases that cleave the leader peptides of precursor proteins with type W prepilin signal sequences. The substrate repertoire of PibD from the crenarchaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus is unus

  5. Bifurcation of Codimension 3 in a Predator-Prey System of Leslie Type with Simplified Holling Type IV Functional Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jicai; Xia, Xiaojing; Zhang, Xinan; Ruan, Shigui

    It was shown in [Li & Xiao, 2007] that in a predator-prey model of Leslie type with simplified Holling type IV functional response some complex bifurcations can occur simultaneously for some values of parameters, such as codimension 1 subcritical Hopf bifurcation and codimension 2 Bogdanov-Takens bifurcation. In this paper, we show that for the same model there exists a unique degenerate positive equilibrium which is a degenerate Bogdanov-Takens singularity (focus case) of codimension 3 for other values of parameters. We prove that the model exhibits degenerate focus type Bogdanov-Takens bifurcation of codimension 3 around the unique degenerate positive equilibrium. Numerical simulations, including the coexistence of three hyperbolic positive equilibria, two limit cycles, bistability states (one stable equilibrium and one stable limit cycle, or two stable equilibria), tristability states (two stable equilibria and one stable limit cycle), a stable limit cycle enclosing a homoclinic loop, a homoclinic loop enclosing an unstable limit cycle, or a stable limit cycle enclosing three unstable hyperbolic positive equilibria for various parameter values, confirm the theoretical results.

  6. Properties and Alignment of Interstellar Dust Grains toward Type Ia Supernovae with Anomalous Polarization Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Thiem

    2017-02-01

    Recent photometric and polarimetric observations of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) show unusually low total-to-selective extinction ratios (R V data (SN 1986G, SN 2006X, SN 2008fp, and SN 2014J). We find that to reproduce low values of R V , a significant enhancement in the mass of small grains of radius a data are attributed to IS dust (model 1), but a good fit is obtained when accounting for the contribution of CS dust (model 2). For SN 2008fp, our best-fit results for model 1 show that in order to reproduce an extreme value of λ max ∼ 0.15 μm, small silicate grains must be aligned as efficiently as big grains. For this case, we suggest that strong radiation from the SN can induce efficient alignment of small grains in a nearby intervening molecular cloud via the radiative torque (RAT) mechanism. The resulting time dependence polarization from this RAT alignment model can be tested by observing at ultraviolet wavelengths.

  7. Distinctive tomographic abnormalities of the craniocervical region in a patient with osteogenesis imperfecta type IV B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaissi, Ali Al; Klaushofer, Klaus, E-mail: ali.alkaissi@osteologie.a [Ludwig Boltzmann Institute of Osteology, Vienna (Austria); Grill, Franz [Orthopaedic Hospital of Speising, Vienna (Austria). Paediatric Dept.

    2010-07-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of heritable disorders of connective tissue characterized by reduced bone mass (osteopenia) with associated bone fragility. The resulting skeletal manifestations are due to a generalized deficiency in the development of both membranous and endochondral bone and include markedly thin calvarium with delayed closure of the fontanelles and the sutures and excessive Wormian bone formation. Sillence et al. developed a classification system of OI subtypes: OI type I, which is characterised by blue sclerae; perinatal lethal OI type II, also known as congenital OI; OI type III, a progressively deforming subtype with normal sclera; and OI type IV, which is characterized by a normal sclera. Levin et al. have suggested that OI subtypes could be further divided into type A and B based on the absence or presence of dentinogenesis imperfecta. Basilar impression involves the upward (vertical) migration of the odontoid process into the foramen magnum with a depression in the cranium. Basilar impression is a developmental defect and refers to the infolding of the occipital condyles, an elevation of the clivus, and the posterior cranial fossa of the skull. The soft bones of the skull base allow for progressive infolding of the dysplastic clivus and translocation of the odontoid into the posterior fossa. The combination of platybasia and basilar impression can lead to severe distortion of the spinal cord and the anterior brain stem. The specific structures that can be involved include the upper cervical cord, medulla, pons, mid-brain, cerebellum, as well as the vertebrobasilar system. (author)

  8. Expression and purification of recombinant type IV fimbrial subunit protein of Pasteurella multocida serogroup B:2 in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivachandra, Sathish B; Yogisharadhya, Revanaiah; Ahuja, Anuj; Bhanuprakash, Veerakyathappa

    2012-12-01

    Pasteurella multocida serogroup B:2, a causative agent of haemorrhagic secpticaemia (HS) in cattle and buffalo especially in tropical regions of Asia and African countries, is known to possess a type IV fimbriae (pili) as one of the virulent factors. In the present study, ptfA gene encoding for type IV fimbrial subunit of P. multocida serogroup B:2 (strain p52), an Indian HS vaccine strain, has been cloned and over-expressed in recombinant Escherichia coli. The recombinant type IV fimbrial subunit protein (∼31 kDa) including N-terminus histidine tag was purified under denaturing condition and confirmed by western blotting. A homology model of HS causing P. multocida serogroup B:2 fimbrial subunit has also been discussed. The study indicated the potential possibilities to use the recombinant fimbrial protein in developing HS subunit vaccine along with suitable adjuvant.

  9. Anomalous Type I Error Rates for Identifying One Type of Differential Item Functioning in the Presence of the Other

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, W. Holmes; French, Brian F.

    2008-01-01

    A number of statistical methods exist for the detection of differential item functioning (DIF). The performance of DIF methods has been widely studied and generally found to be effective in the detection of both uniform and nonuniform DIF. Anecdotal reports suggest that these techniques may too often incorrectly detect the presence of one type of…

  10. AN ASSESSMENT OF THE SERVICE HISTORY AND CORROSION SUSCEPTIBILITY OF TYPE IV WASTE TANKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiersma, B

    2008-09-18

    Type IV waste tanks were designed and built to store waste that does not require auxiliary cooling. Each Type IV tank is a single-shell tank constructed of a steel-lined pre-stressed concrete tank in the form of a vertical cylinder with a concrete domed roof. There are four such tanks in F-area, Tanks 17-20F, and four in H-Area, Tanks 21-24H. Leak sites were discovered in the liners for Tanks 19 and 20F in the 1980's. Although these leaks were visually observed, the investigation to determine the mechanism by which the leaks had occurred was not completed at that time. Therefore, a concern was raised that the same mechanism which caused the leak sites in the Tanks in F-area may also be operable in the H-Area tanks. Data from the construction of the tanks (i.e., certified mill test reports for the steel, no stress-relief), the service history (i.e., waste sample data, temperature data), laboratory tests on actual wastes and simulants (i.e., electrochemical testing), and the results of the visual inspections were reviewed. The following observations and conclusions were made: (1) Comparison of the compositional and microstructural features indicate that the A212 material utilized for construction of the H-Area tanks are far more resistant to SCC than the A285 materials used for construction of the F-Area tanks. (2) A review of the materials of construction, temperature history, service histories concluded that F-Area tanks likely failed by caustic stress corrosion cracking. (3) The environment in the F-Area tanks was more aggressive than that experienced by the H-Area tanks. (4) Based on a review of the service history, the H-Area tanks have not been exposed to an environment that would render the tanks susceptible to either nitrate stress corrosion cracking (i.e., the cause of failures in the Type I and II tanks) or caustic stress corrosion cracking. (5) Due to the very dilute and uninhibited solutions that have been stored in Tank 23H, vapor space corrosion

  11. Altered stress fibers and integrin expression in the Malpighian epithelium of Drosophila type IV collagen mutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    András A. Kiss

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Basement membranes (BMs are highly specialized extracellular matrices (ECMs that provide support and polarization cues for epithelial cells. Proper adhesion to the BM is pivotal in epithelial cell function and survival. Type IV collagens are the predominant components of all types of BMs, that form an irregular, polygonal lattice and serve as a scaffold for numerous other BM components and BM-associated cells. Mutations in the ubiquitous human BM components COL4A1 and COL4A2 cause a multisystem disorder involving nephropathy. Affected patients develop renal dysfunction and chronic kidney failure with or without hematuria. Mouse Col4a1 and Col4a2 mutants recapitulate the human symptoms. In vertebrates, excretion is accomplished by the kidneys and by the Malpighian tubules in insects, including the fruit fly Drosophila. Our present results with dominant, temperature-sensitive mutation of the Drosophila col4a1 gene demonstrate altered integrin expression and amplified effects of mechanical stress on the Malpighian epithelial cytoskeleton.

  12. Type IV Secretion System Is Not Involved in Infection Process in Citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Tiago Rinaldi; de Laia, Marcelo Luiz; Moreira, Leandro Marcio; Gonçalves, Janaína Fernandes; Carvalho, Flavia Maria de Souza; Ferro, Maria Inês Tiraboschi; Ferro, Jesus Aparecido

    2014-01-01

    The type IV secretion system (T4SS) is used by Gram-negative bacteria to translocate protein and DNA substrates across the cell envelope and into target cells. Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri contains two copies of the T4SS, one in the chromosome and the other is plasmid-encoded. To understand the conditions that induce expression of the T4SS in Xcc, we analyzed, in vitro and in planta, the expression of 18 ORFs from the T4SS and 7 hypothetical flanking genes by RT-qPCR. As a positive control, we also evaluated the expression of 29 ORFs from the type III secretion system (T3SS), since these genes are known to be expressed during plant infection condition, but not necessarily in standard culture medium. From the 29 T3SS genes analyzed by qPCR, only hrpA was downregulated at 72 h after inoculation. All genes associated with the T4SS were downregulated on Citrus leaves 72 h after inoculation. Our results showed that unlike the T3SS, the T4SS is not induced during the infection process.

  13. c-Type cytochrome-dependent formation of U(IV nanoparticles by Shewanella oneidensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Marshall

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Modern approaches for bioremediation of radionuclide contaminated environments are based on the ability of microorganisms to effectively catalyze changes in the oxidation states of metals that in turn influence their solubility. Although microbial metal reduction has been identified as an effective means for immobilizing highly-soluble uranium(VI complexes in situ, the biomolecular mechanisms of U(VI reduction are not well understood. Here, we show that c-type cytochromes of a dissimilatory metal-reducing bacterium, Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, are essential for the reduction of U(VI and formation of extracellular UO(2 nanoparticles. In particular, the outer membrane (OM decaheme cytochrome MtrC (metal reduction, previously implicated in Mn(IV and Fe(III reduction, directly transferred electrons to U(VI. Additionally, deletions of mtrC and/or omcA significantly affected the in vivo U(VI reduction rate relative to wild-type MR-1. Similar to the wild-type, the mutants accumulated UO(2 nanoparticles extracellularly to high densities in association with an extracellular polymeric substance (EPS. In wild-type cells, this UO(2-EPS matrix exhibited glycocalyx-like properties and contained multiple elements of the OM, polysaccharide, and heme-containing proteins. Using a novel combination of methods including synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence microscopy and high-resolution immune-electron microscopy, we demonstrate a close association of the extracellular UO(2 nanoparticles with MtrC and OmcA (outer membrane cytochrome. This is the first study to our knowledge to directly localize the OM-associated cytochromes with EPS, which contains biogenic UO(2 nanoparticles. In the environment, such association of UO(2 nanoparticles with biopolymers may exert a strong influence on subsequent behavior including susceptibility to oxidation by O(2 or transport in soils and sediments.

  14. Using General Anesthesia plus Muscle Relaxant in a Patient with Spinal Muscular Atrophy Type IV: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiu-Fen; Wang, Dong-Xin; Ma, Daqing

    2011-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a rare genetic disease characterized by degeneration of spinal cord motor neurons, which results in hypotonia and muscle weakness. Patients with type IV SMA often have onset of weakness from adulthood. Anesthetic management is often difficult in these patients as a result of muscle weakness and hypersensitivity to neuromuscular blocking agents as shown by (Lunn and Wang; 2008, Simic; 2008, and Cifuentes-Diaz et al.; 2002). Herein we report a case of anesthetic management of a patient with SMA type IV for mammectomy and review some other cases of SMA patients receiving different kinds of anesthesia.

  15. Type IV pili in Francisella – A virulence trait in an intracellular pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emelie eNäslund Salomonsson

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Francisella tularensis is a highly virulent intracellular human pathogen that is capable of rapid proliferation in the infected host. Mutants affected in intracellular survival and growth are highly attenuated which highlights the importance of the intracellular phase of the infection. Genomic analysis has revealed that Francisella encodes all genes required for expression of functional type IV pili (Tfp, and in this focused review we summarise recent findings regarding this system in the pathogenesis of tularemia. Tfp are dynamic adhesive structures that have been identified as major virulence determinants in several human pathogens, but it is not obvious what role these structures could have in an intracellular pathogen like Francisella. In the human pathogenic strains, genes required for secretion and assembly of Tfp and one pilin, PilA, have shown to be required for full virulence. Importantly, specific genetic differences have been identified between the different Francisella subspecies where in the most pathogenic type A variants all genes are intact while several Tfp genes are pseudogenes in the less pathogenic type B strains. This suggests that there has been a selection for expression of Tfp with different properties in the different subspecies. There is also a possibility that the genetic differences reflect adaption to different environmental niches of the subspecies and plays a role in transmission of tularemia. This is also in line with recent findings where Tfp pilins are found to be glycosylated which could reflect a role for Tfp in the environment to promote survival and transmission. We are still far from understanding the role of Tfp in virulence and transmission of tularemia, but with the genomic information and genetic tools available we are in a good position to address these issues in the future.

  16. Phorbol esters enhance attachment of NIH/3T3 cells to laminin and type IV collagen substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Shigemi; Ben, T.L.; De Luca, L.M. (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1988-11-01

    The effect of phorbol esters on the adhesive properties of NIH/3T3 mouse fibroblasts was investigated using plastic substrates precoated with the extracellular matrix proteins fibronectin, collagen, and laminin. Treatment with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) enhanced NIH/3T3 cell attachment to laminin and type IV collagen substrates but had little or no effect on attachment to fibronectin and type I collagen substrates. The effect of PMA in enhancing cell attachment to laminin and type IV collagen substrates was dose dependent between 10{sup {minus}9} and 10{sup {minus}7} M. PMA was effective as early as 30 min; the effect reached a maximum at 2 h and decreased gradually. Phorbol 12, 13-dibenzoate and phorbol 12, 13-diacetate were effective but to a lesser extent and phorbol 12-myristate and phorbol 13-acetate showed little or no effect. These results suggest that PMA may enhance NIH/3T3 cell adhesion through effects on laminin and type IV collagen receptors. Retinoic acid, which itself requires at least 6 h to show an effect on attachment, did not have any effect on cell attachment in 2 h and, if anything, slightly inhibited PMA-enhanced cell attachment to laminin and type IV collagen substrates.

  17. Cyclic di-GMP riboswitch-regulated type IV pili contribute to aggregation of Clostridium difficile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordeleau, Eric; Purcell, Erin B; Lafontaine, Daniel A; Fortier, Louis-Charles; Tamayo, Rita; Burrus, Vincent

    2015-03-01

    Clostridium difficile is an anaerobic Gram-positive bacterium that causes intestinal infections with symptoms ranging from mild diarrhea to fulminant colitis. Cyclic diguanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) is a bacterial second messenger that typically regulates the switch from motile, free-living to sessile and multicellular behaviors in Gram-negative bacteria. Increased intracellular c-di-GMP concentration in C. difficile was recently shown to reduce flagellar motility and to increase cell aggregation. In this work, we investigated the role of the primary type IV pilus (T4P) locus in c-di-GMP-dependent cell aggregation. Inactivation of two T4P genes, pilA1 (CD3513) and pilB1 (CD3512), abolished pilus formation and significantly reduced cell aggregation under high c-di-GMP conditions. pilA1 is preceded by a putative c-di-GMP riboswitch, predicted to be transcriptionally active upon c-di-GMP binding. Consistent with our prediction, high intracellular c-di-GMP concentration increased transcript levels of T4P genes. In addition, single-round in vitro transcription assays confirmed that transcription downstream of the predicted transcription terminator was dose dependent and specific to c-di-GMP binding to the riboswitch aptamer. These results support a model in which T4P gene transcription is upregulated by c-di-GMP as a result of its binding to an upstream transcriptionally activating riboswitch, promoting cell aggregation in C. difficile.

  18. Crystal structure of Legionella pneumophila type IV secretion system effector LegAS4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Jonghyeon; Jo, Chang Hwa; Murugan, Ravichandran N; Bang, Jeong Kyu; Hwang, Kwang Yeon; Lee, Woo Cheol

    2015-10-02

    The SET domain of LegAS4, a type IV secretion system effector of Legionella pneumophila, is a eukaryotic protein motif involved in histone methylation and epigenetic modulation. The SET domain of LegAS4 is involved in the modification of Lys4 of histone H3 (H3K4) in the nucleolus of the host cell, thereby enhancing heterochromatic rDNA transcription. Moreover, LegAS4 contains an ankyrin repeat domain of unknown function at its C-terminal region. Here, we report the crystal structure of LegAS4 in complex with S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM). Our data indicate that the ankyrin repeats interact extensively with the SET domain, especially with the SAM-binding amino acids, through conserved residues. Conserved surface analysis marks Glu159, Glu203, and Glu206 on the SET domain serve as candidate residues involved in interaction with the positively charged histone tail. Conserved surface residues on the ankyrin repeat domain surround a small pocket, which is suspected to serve as a binding site for an unknown ligand.

  19. FREQUENCY DEPENDENCE OF POLARIZATION OF ZEBRA PATTERN IN TYPE-IV SOLAR RADIO BURSTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneda, Kazutaka; Misawa, H.; Tsuchiya, F.; Obara, T. [Planetary Plasma and Atmospheric Research Center, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Iwai, K., E-mail: k.kaneda@pparc.gp.tohoku.ac.jp [National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, 4-2-1, Nukui-Kitamachi, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8795 (Japan)

    2015-08-01

    We investigated the polarization characteristics of a zebra pattern (ZP) in a type-IV solar radio burst observed with AMATERAS on 2011 June 21 for the purpose of evaluating the generation processes of ZPs. Analyzing highly resolved spectral and polarization data revealed the frequency dependence of the degree of circular polarization and the delay between two polarized components for the first time. The degree of circular polarization was 50%–70% right-handed and it varied little as a function of frequency. Cross-correlation analysis determined that the left-handed circularly polarized component was delayed by 50–70 ms relative to the right-handed component over the entire frequency range of the ZP and this delay increased with the frequency. We examined the obtained polarization characteristics by using pre-existing ZP models and concluded that the ZP was generated by the double-plasma-resonance process. Our results suggest that the ZP emission was originally generated in a completely polarized state in the O-mode and was partly converted into the X-mode near the source. Subsequently, the difference between the group velocities of the O-mode and X-mode caused the temporal delay.

  20. Influence of direct laser fabrication implant topography on type IV bone: a histomorphometric study in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibli, Jamil Awad; Mangano, Carlo; D'avila, Susana; Piattelli, Adriano; Pecora, Gabriele E; Mangano, Francesco; Onuma, Tatiana; Cardoso, Luciana A; Ferrari, Daniel Sanchez; Aguiar, Kelly C; Iezzi, Giovanna

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this histologic study was to evaluate the influence of the direct laser fabrication (DFL) surface topography on bone-to-implant contact (BIC%), on bone density in the threaded area (BA%) as well as bone density outside the threaded area (BD%) in type IV bone after 8 weeks of unloaded healing. Thirty patients (mean age 51.34 +/- 3.06 years) received 1 micro-implant (2.5-mm diameter and 6-mm length) each during conventional implant surgery in the posterior maxilla. Thirty micro-implants with three topographies were evaluated: 10 machined (cpTi); 10 sandblasted and acid etched surface (SAE) and 10 DFL micro-implants. After 8 weeks, the micro-implants and the surrounding tissue were removed and prepared for histomorphometric analysis. Four micro-implants (2 cpTi, 1 SAE and 1DLF) showed no osseointegration after the healing period. Histometric evaluation indicated that the mean BIC% was higher for the DFL and SAE surfaces (p = 0.0002). The BA% was higher for the DFL surface, although there was no difference with the SAE surface. The BD% was similar for all topographies (p > 0.05). Data suggest that the DFL and SAE surfaces presented a higher bone-to-implant contact rate compared with cpTi surfaces under unloaded conditions, after a healing period of 8 weeks.

  1. Energy–momentum localization for Bianchi type-IV Universe in general relativity and teleparallel gravity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sezgin Aygün; İsmail Tarhan

    2012-04-01

    In this study we have investigated the energy–momentum distributions for homogeneous and anisotropic Bianchi type-IV in B class Universe. For this purpose, we have used energy–momentum complexes of Einstein, Bergmann–Thomson, Landau–Lifshitz (LL), Papapetrou, Tolman and Møller in general relativity (GR) as also Einstein, Bergmann–Thomson, Landau–Lifshitz and Møller in teleparallel gravity (TG). From the obtained results we have found that Einstein and Bergmann–Thomson distributions are exactly giving the same results in GR and TG but the Landau–Lifshitz, Papapetrou Tolman and Møller energy–momentum distributions do not provide the same results with Einstein and Bergmann–Thomson in GR and TG. Furthermore, Einstein, Bergmann–Thomson and LL results are the same in different gravitation theories and we get that both GR and TG are equivalent theories for these prescriptions. From the obtained solutions, we could say that these are equivalent theories. Also, Møller energy–momentum distributions do not give the same results in GR and TG. However, we have found that all energy prescriptions are negative and our results agree with Nester et al.

  2. Crystal structure of the type IV secretion system component CagX from Helicobacter pylori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin; Fan, Fei; Zhao, Yanhe; Sun, Lifang; Liu, Yadan; Wu, Yunkun

    2017-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori, a Gram-negative bacterial pathogen prevalent in the human population, is the causative agent of severe gastric diseases. An H. pylori type IV secretion (T4S) system encoded by the cytotoxin-associated gene pathogenicity island (cagPAI) is responsible for communication with host cells. As a component of the cagPAI T4S system core complex, CagX plays an important role in virulence-protein translocation into the host cells. In this work, the crystal structure of the C-terminal domain of CagX (CagXct), which is a homologue of the VirB9 protein from the VirB/D4 T4S system, is presented. CagXct is only the second three-dimensional structure to be elucidated of a VirB9-like protein. Another homologue, TraO, which is encoded on the Escherichia coli conjugative plasmid pKM101, shares only 19% sequence identity with CagXct; however, there is a remarkable similarity in tertiary structure between these two β-sandwich protein domains. Most of the residues that are conserved between CagXct and TraO are located within the protein core and appear to be responsible for the preservation of this domain fold. The studies presented here will contribute to our understanding of different bacterial T4S systems. PMID:28291753

  3. Neisseria cinerea isolates can adhere to human epithelial cells by type IV pilus-independent mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wörmann, Mirka E; Horien, Corey L; Johnson, Errin; Liu, Guangyu; Aho, Ellen; Tang, Christoph M; Exley, Rachel M

    2016-03-01

    In pathogenic Neisseria species the type IV pili (Tfp) are of primary importance in host-pathogen interactions. Tfp mediate initial bacterial attachment to cell surfaces and formation of microcolonies via pilus-pilus interactions. Based on genome analysis, many non-pathogenic Neisseria species are predicted to express Tfp, but aside from studies on Neisseria elongata, relatively little is known about the formation and function of pili in these organisms. Here, we have analysed pilin expression and the role of Tfp in Neisseria cinerea. This non-pathogenic species shares a close taxonomic relationship to the pathogen Neisseria meningitidis and also colonizes the human oropharyngeal cavity. Through analysis of non-pathogenic Neisseria genomes we identified two genes with homology to pilE, which encodes the major pilin of N. meningitidis. We show which of the two genes is required for Tfp expression in N. cinerea and that Tfp in this species are required for DNA competence, similar to other Neisseria. However, in contrast to the meningococcus, deletion of the pilin gene did not impact the association of N. cinerea to human epithelial cells, demonstrating that N. cinerea isolates can adhere to human epithelial cells by Tfp-independent mechanisms.

  4. A small molecule restores function to TRPML1 mutant isoforms responsible for mucolipidosis type IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng-Chang; Keller, Marco; Hess, Martin; Schiffmann, Raphael; Urban, Nicole; Wolfgardt, Annette; Schaefer, Michael; Bracher, Franz; Biel, Martin; Wahl-Schott, Christian; Grimm, Christian

    2014-08-14

    Mucolipidosis type IV (MLIV) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder often characterized by severe neurodevelopmental abnormalities and neuro-retinal degeneration. Mutations in the TRPML1 gene are causative for MLIV. We used lead optimization strategies to identify--and MLIV patient fibroblasts to test--small-molecule activators for their potential to restore TRPML1 mutant channel function. Using the whole-lysosome planar patch-clamp technique, we found that activation of MLIV mutant isoforms by the endogenous ligand PI(3,5)P2 is strongly reduced, while activity can be increased using synthetic ligands. We also found that the F465L mutation renders TRPML1 pH insensitive, while F408Δ impacts synthetic ligand binding. Trafficking defects and accumulation of zinc in lysosomes of MLIV mutant fibroblasts can be rescued by the small molecule treatment. Collectively, our data demonstrate that small molecules can be used to restore channel function and rescue disease associated abnormalities in patient cells expressing specific MLIV point mutations.

  5. Mucolipidosis type IV: the effect of increased lysosomal pH on the abnormal lysosomal storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogot-Levin, Aviram; Zeigler, Marsha; Ornoy, Asher; Bach, Gideon

    2009-06-01

    Mucolipidosis type IV (MLIV) is a neurodegenerative channelopathy that is caused by the deficiency of TRPML1 activity, a nonselective cation channel. TRPML1 is a lysosomal membrane protein, and thus, MLIV is a lysosomal storage disorder. The basic, specific function of TRPML1 has not been yet clarified. A recent report (Soyombo AA, Tjon-Kon-Sang S, Rbaibi Y, Bashllari E, Bisceglia J, Muallem S, Kiselyov K: J Biol Chem 281:7294-7301, 2006) indicated that TRPML1 functions as an outwardly proton channel whose function is the prevention of overacidification of these organelles. Thus, in MLIV the lysosomal pH is lower than normal. Furthermore, attempts by these investigators to increase slightly the lysososmal pH with either Nigericin or Chloroquine suggested corrective effect of the abnormal storage in MLIV cells. We investigated this approach using these agents with cultured fibroblasts from severely affected and milder patients. Our data indicated that there was no reduction in the total number of storage vesicles by either agent, although Nigericin resulted in a change in the nature of the storage materials, reducing the presence of lamellated substances (lipids) so that the storage vesicles contained predominantly granulated substances. On the other hand, transfection with the normal MCOLN1 cDNA (the gene coding for TRPML1) resulted in the removal of almost all the storage materials.

  6. Mechanism and Function of Type IV Secretion During Infection of the Human Host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Rivera, Christian; Bhatty, Minny; Christie, Peter J

    2016-06-01

    Bacterial pathogens employ type IV secretion systems (T4SSs) for various purposes to aid in survival and proliferation in eukaryotic hosts. One large T4SS subfamily, the conjugation systems, confers a selective advantage to the invading pathogen in clinical settings through dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes and virulence traits. Besides their intrinsic importance as principle contributors to the emergence of multiply drug-resistant "superbugs," detailed studies of these highly tractable systems have generated important new insights into the mode of action and architectures of paradigmatic T4SSs as a foundation for future efforts aimed at suppressing T4SS machine function. Over the past decade, extensive work on the second large T4SS subfamily, the effector translocators, has identified a myriad of mechanisms employed by pathogens to subvert, subdue, or bypass cellular processes and signaling pathways of the host cell. An overarching theme in the evolution of many effectors is that of molecular mimicry. These effectors carry domains similar to those of eukaryotic proteins and exert their effects through stealthy interdigitation of cellular pathways, often with the outcome not of inducing irreversible cell damage but rather of reversibly modulating cellular functions. This article summarizes the major developments for the actively studied pathogens with an emphasis on the structural and functional diversity of the T4SSs and the emerging common themes surrounding effector function in the human host.

  7. Pseudoaneurysm Accompanied by Crowe Type IV Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotake Yo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 72-year-old woman whose pseudoaneurysm was difficult to diagnose and treat. The patient had a history of congenital dislocated hip and was undergoing anticoagulation therapy with warfarin due to the mitral valve replacement. Her chief complaint was pain and enlargement of the left buttock, and the laboratory tests revealed severe anemia. However, her elderly depression confused her chief complaint, and she was transferred to a psychiatric hospital. Two months after the onset of the symptoms, she was finally diagnosed with a pseudoaneurysm by contrast-enhanced CT and angiography. IDC coils were used for embolization. A plain CT showed hemostasis as well as a reduced hematoma at 2 months after the embolization. The possible contributing factors for the pseudoaneurysm included bleeding due to warfarin combined with an intramuscular hematoma accompanied by Crowe type IV developmental dysplasia of the hip that led to an arterial rupture by impingement between pelvis and femoral head. Since the warfarin treatment could not be halted due to the valve replacement, embolization was chosen for her treatment, and the treatment outcome was favorable.

  8. Cloning-independent markerless gene editing in Streptococcus sanguinis: novel insights in type IV pilus biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurung, Ishwori; Berry, Jamie-Lee; Hall, Alexander M J; Pelicic, Vladimir

    2016-11-29

    Streptococcus sanguinis, a naturally competent opportunistic human pathogen, is a Gram-positive workhorse for genomics. It has recently emerged as a model for the study of type IV pili (Tfp)-exceptionally widespread and important prokaryotic filaments. To enhance genetic manipulation of Streptococcus sanguinis, we have developed a cloning-independent methodology, which uses a counterselectable marker and allows sophisticated markerless gene editing in situ We illustrate the utility of this methodology by answering several questions regarding Tfp biology by (i) deleting single or mutiple genes, (ii) altering specific bases in genes of interest, and (iii) engineering genes to encode proteins with appended affinity tags. We show that (i) the last six genes in the pil locus harbouring all the genes dedicated to Tfp biology play no role in piliation or Tfp-mediated motility, (ii) two highly conserved Asp residues are crucial for enzymatic activity of the prepilin peptidase PilD and (iii) that pilin subunits with a C-terminally appended hexa-histidine (6His) tag are still assembled into functional Tfp. The methodology for genetic manipulation we describe here should be broadly applicable.

  9. Type IV Collagens and Basement Membrane Diseases: Cell Biology and Pathogenic Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Mao; Alavi, Marcel V; Labelle-Dumais, Cassandre; Gould, Douglas B

    2015-01-01

    Basement membranes are highly specialized extracellular matrices. Once considered inert scaffolds, basement membranes are now viewed as dynamic and versatile environments that modulate cellular behaviors to regulate tissue development, function, and repair. Increasing evidence suggests that, in addition to providing structural support to neighboring cells, basement membranes serve as reservoirs of growth factors that direct and fine-tune cellular functions. Type IV collagens are a major component of all basement membranes. They evolved along with the earliest multicellular organisms and have been integrated into diverse fundamental biological processes as time and evolution shaped the animal kingdom. The roles of basement membranes in humans are as complex and diverse as their distributions and molecular composition. As a result, basement membrane defects result in multisystem disorders with ambiguous and overlapping boundaries that likely reflect the simultaneous interplay and integration of multiple cellular pathways and processes. Consequently, there will be no single treatment for basement membrane disorders, and therapies are likely to be as varied as the phenotypes. Understanding tissue-specific pathology and the underlying molecular mechanism is the present challenge; personalized medicine will rely upon understanding how a given mutation impacts diverse cellular functions.

  10. Frequency Dependence of Polarization of Zebra Pattern in Type-IV Solar Radio Bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Kaneda, Kazutaka; Iwai, Kazumasa; Tsuchiya, Fuminori; Obara, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the polarization characteristics of a zebra pattern (ZP) in a type-IV solar radio burst observed with AMATERAS on 2011 June 21 for the purpose of evaluating the generation processes of ZP. Analyzing highly resolved spectral and polarization data revealed the frequency dependence of the degree of circular polarization and the delay between two polarized components for the first time. The degree of circular polarization was 50-70 percent right-handed and it varied little as a function of frequency. Cross-correlation analysis determined that the left-handed circularly polarized component was delayed by 50-70 ms relative to the right-handed component over the entire frequency range of the ZP and this delay increased with the frequency. We examined the obtained polarization characteristics by using pre-existing ZP models and concluded that the ZP was generated by the double plasma resonance process. Our results suggest that the ZP emission was originally generated in a completely polarized state in...

  11. Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteriophage PA1Ø requires type IV pili for infection and shows broad bactericidal and biofilm removal activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Shukho; Rahman, Marzia; Seol, Sung Yong; Yoon, Sang Sun; Kim, Jungmin

    2012-09-01

    We isolated a new lytic Pseudomonas aeruginosa phage that requires type IV pili for infection. PA1Ø has a broad bactericidal spectrum, covering Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and can eradicate biofilm cells. PA1Ø may be developed as a therapeutic agent for biofilm-related mixed infections with P. aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus.

  12. Attenuation of the Type IV Pilus Retraction Motor Influences Neisseria gonorrhoeae Social and Infection Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchens, Danielle M.; Agellon, Al

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Retraction of the type IV pilus (Tfp) mediates DNA uptake, motility, and social and infection behavior in a wide variety of prokaryotes. To date, investigations into Tfp retraction-dependent activities have used a mutant deleted of PilT, the ATPase motor protein that causes the pilus fiber to retract. ΔpilT cells are nontransformable, nonmotile, and cannot aggregate into microcolonies. We tested the hypothesis that these retraction-dependent activities are sensitive to the strength of PilT enzymatic activity by using the pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae as a model. We constructed an N. gonorrhoeae mutant with an amino acid substitution in the PilT Walker B box (a substitution of cysteine for leucine at position 201, encoded by pilTL201C). Purified PilTL201C forms a native hexamer, but mutant hexamers hydrolyze ATP at half the maximal rate. N. gonorrhoeae pilTL201C cells produce Tfp fibers, crawl at the same speed as the wild-type (wt) parent, and are equally transformable. However, the social behavior of pilTL201C cells is intermediate between the behaviors of wt and ΔpilT cells. The infection behavior of pilTL201C is also defective, due to its failure to activate the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) pathway. Our study indicates that pilus retraction, per se, is not sufficient for N. gonorrhoeae microcolony formation or infectivity; rather, these activities are sensitive to the strength of PilT enzymatic activity. We discuss the implications of these findings for Neisseria pathogenesis in the context of mechanobiology. PMID:27923924

  13. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Pore-Forming Exolysin and Type IV Pili Cooperate To Induce Host Cell Lysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Pauline; Ragno, Michel; Elsen, Sylvie; Reboud, Emeline; Golovkine, Guillaume; Bouillot, Stephanie; Huber, Philippe; Lory, Stephen; Faudry, Eric

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT   Clinical strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa lacking the type III secretion system genes employ a toxin, exolysin (ExlA), for host cell membrane disruption. Here, we demonstrated that ExlA export requires a predicted outer membrane protein, ExlB, showing that ExlA and ExlB define a new active two-partner secretion (TPS) system of P. aeruginosa. In addition to the TPS signals, ExlA harbors several distinct domains, which include one hemagglutinin domain, five arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) motifs, and a C-terminal region lacking any identifiable sequence motifs. However, this C-terminal region is important for the toxic activity, since its deletion abolishes host cell lysis. Using lipid vesicles and eukaryotic cells, including red blood cells, we demonstrated that ExlA has a pore-forming activity which precedes cell membrane disruption of nucleated cells. Finally, we developed a high-throughput cell-based live-dead assay and used it to screen a transposon mutant library of an ExlA-producing P. aeruginosa clinical strain for bacterial factors required for ExlA-mediated toxicity. The screen resulted in the identification of proteins involved in the formation of type IV pili as being required for ExlA to exert its cytotoxic activity by promoting close contact between bacteria and the host cell. These findings represent the first example of cooperation between a pore-forming toxin of the TPS family and surface appendages in host cell intoxication. PMID:28119472

  14. Anomalous law of cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapas, Luciano C.; Ferreira, Rogelma M. S.; Rubí, J. Miguel; Oliveira, Fernando A.

    2015-03-01

    We analyze the temperature relaxation phenomena of systems in contact with a thermal reservoir that undergoes a non-Markovian diffusion process. From a generalized Langevin equation, we show that the temperature is governed by a law of cooling of the Newton's law type in which the relaxation time depends on the velocity autocorrelation and is then characterized by the memory function. The analysis of the temperature decay reveals the existence of an anomalous cooling in which the temperature may oscillate. Despite this anomalous behavior, we show that the variation of entropy remains always positive in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics.

  15. Anomalous law of cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapas, Luciano C; Ferreira, Rogelma M S; Rubí, J Miguel; Oliveira, Fernando A

    2015-03-14

    We analyze the temperature relaxation phenomena of systems in contact with a thermal reservoir that undergoes a non-Markovian diffusion process. From a generalized Langevin equation, we show that the temperature is governed by a law of cooling of the Newton's law type in which the relaxation time depends on the velocity autocorrelation and is then characterized by the memory function. The analysis of the temperature decay reveals the existence of an anomalous cooling in which the temperature may oscillate. Despite this anomalous behavior, we show that the variation of entropy remains always positive in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics.

  16. Streptocollin, a type IV lanthipeptide produced by Streptomyces collinus Tü 365

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftime, Dumitrita; Jasyk, Martin; Kulik, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Lanthipeptides are ribosomally synthesized and posttranslationally modified microbial secondary metabolites. Here, we report the identification and isolation of streptocollin from Streptomyces collinus Tü 365, a new member of the class IV lanthipeptides. Insertion of the constitutive ermE* promot...

  17. Colonoscopic perforation leading to a diagnosis of Ehlers Danlos syndrome type IV: a case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfe John

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Colonoscopic perforation is a rare but serious complication of colonoscopy. Factors known to increase the risk of perforation include colonic strictures, extensive diverticulosis, and friable tissues. We describe the case of a man who was found to have perforation of the sigmoid colon secondary to an undiagnosed connective tissue disorder (Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV while undergoing surveillance for hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer. Case presentation A 33-year-old Caucasian man presented to our hospital with an acute abdomen following a colonoscopy five days earlier as part of hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer screening. His medical history included bilateral clubfoot. His physical examination findings suggested left iliac fossa peritonitis. A computed tomographic scan revealed perforation of the sigmoid colon and incidentally a right common iliac artery aneurysm as well. Hartmann's procedure was performed during laparotomy. The patient recovered well post-operatively and was discharged. Reversal of the Hartmann's procedure was performed six months later. This procedure was challenging because of dense adhesions and friable bowel. The histology of bowel specimens from this surgery revealed thinning and fibrosis of the muscularis externa. The patient was subsequently noted to have transparency of truncal skin with easily visible vessels. An underlying collagen vascular disorder was suspected, and genetic testing revealed a mutation in the collagen type III, α1 (COL3A1 gene, which is consistent with a diagnosis of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV. Conclusions Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV, the vascular type, is a rare disorder caused by mutations in the COL3A1 gene on chromosome 2q31. It is characterized by translucent skin, clubfoot, and the potentially fatal complications of spontaneous large vessel rupture, although spontaneous uterine and colonic perforations have also been reported in the

  18. Knockdown of DNA ligase IV/XRCC4 by RNA interference inhibits herpes simplex virus type I DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muylaert, Isabella; Elias, Per

    2007-04-13

    Herpes simplex virus has a linear double-stranded DNA genome with directly repeated terminal sequences needed for cleavage and packaging of replicated DNA. In infected cells, linear genomes rapidly become endless. It is currently a matter of discussion whether the endless genomes are circles supporting rolling circle replication or arise by recombination of linear genomes forming concatemers. Here, we have examined the role of mammalian DNA ligases in the herpes simplex virus, type I (HSV-1) life cycle by employing RNA interference (RNAi) in human 1BR.3.N fibroblasts. We find that RNAi-mediated knockdown of DNA ligase IV and its co-factor XRCC4 causes a hundred-fold reduction of virus yield, a small plaque phenotype, and reduced DNA synthesis. The effect is specific because RNAi against DNA ligase I or DNA ligase III fail to reduce HSV-1 replication. Furthermore, RNAi against DNA ligase IV and XRCC4 does not affect replication of adenovirus. In addition, high multiplicity infections of HSV-1 in human DNA ligase IV-deficient cells reveal a pronounced delay of production of infectious virus. Finally, we demonstrate that formation of endless genomes is inhibited by RNAi-mediated depletion of DNA ligase IV and XRCC4. Our results suggests that DNA ligase IV/XRCC4 serves an important role in the replication cycle of herpes viruses and is likely to be required for the formation of the endless genomes early during productive infection.

  19. Enrichment of putative human epidermal stem cells based on cell size and collagen type IV adhesiveness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juxue Li; Enkui Duan; Chenglin Miao; Weixiang Guo; Liwei Jia; Jiaxi Zhou; Baohua Ma; Sha Peng; Shuang Liu; Yujing Cao

    2008-01-01

    The enrichment and identification of human epidermal stem cells (EpSCs) are of paramount importance for both basic research and clinical application. Although several approaches for the enrichment of EpSCs have been established, enriching a pure population of viable EpSCs is still a challenging task. An improved approach is worth developing to enhance the purity and viability of EpSCs. Here we report that cell size combined with collagen type IV adhesiveness can be used in an improved approach to enrich pure and viable human EpSCs. We separated the rapidly adherent keratinocytes into three populations that range in size from 5-7 μm (population A), to 7-9 μm (population B), to >9 μm (population C) in diameter, and found that human putative EpSCs could be further enriched in population A with the smallest size. Among the three populations, population A displayed the highest density of βl-integrin receptor, contained the highest percentage of cells in G0/G1 phase, showed the highest nucleus to cytoplasm ratio, and possessed the highest colony formation efficiency (CFE). When injected into murine blastocysts, these cells participated in multi-tissue formation. More significantly, compared with a previous approach that sorted putative EpSCs according to pl-integrin antibody staining, the viability of the EpSCs enriched by the improved approach was significantly enhanced. Our results provide a putative strategy for the enrichment of human EpSCs, and encourage further study into the role of cell size in stem cell biology.

  20. Properties of type IV plaster considering variation in the mold/model position during setting stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarcisio José de Arruda Paes Junior

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the influence of the position of the mold during the setting stage of type IV stone plaster Durone (Dentsply Ind. Com., Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, on the following properties: surface hardness and roughness. Methods: For the roughness test, two groups (n=6 in the form of pellets were prepared. In the first group, the surface of the base of the device was turned down during the plaster setting stage (N, in the second group this position was inverted, which has been described as an act of capsize it (E. For analysis, a roughness meter with reading precision of 0.01 μm was used. With regard to the hardness analysis, two groups with conical-shaped samples were obtained. The plasters were left to set under the same conditions of the mold/model position described for the previous experiment. Hardness measurement was performed in a durometer with a spherical penetrating tip for Rockwell readout. Three measurements were performed for each test specimen in both tests. Results: The hardness (N - 39.8, standard deviation = 3.3, E - 30.8, standard deviation = 5.6 and roughness data (N - 0.67, standard deviation = 0.17, E - 0.74, standard deviation = 0.13 submitted to the Student’s-t test (5% showed no statistically significant differences for the roughness test (0.489, but showed statistically significant differences for the hardness test (0.014. Conclusion: The variation in the mold/model position influenced the final characteristics of the specimens in terms of hardness, since those obtained with the capsize technique showed lower surface hardness, whereas for roughness these differences were not statistically significant.

  1. Peptidomimetic Small Molecules Disrupt Type IV Secretion System Activity in Diverse Bacterial Pathogens

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    Carrie L. Shaffer

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria utilize complex type IV secretion systems (T4SSs to translocate diverse effector proteins or DNA into target cells. Despite the importance of T4SSs in bacterial pathogenesis, the mechanism by which these translocation machineries deliver cargo across the bacterial envelope remains poorly understood, and very few studies have investigated the use of synthetic molecules to disrupt T4SS-mediated transport. Here, we describe two synthetic small molecules (C10 and KSK85 that disrupt T4SS-dependent processes in multiple bacterial pathogens. Helicobacter pylori exploits a pilus appendage associated with the cag T4SS to inject an oncogenic effector protein (CagA and peptidoglycan into gastric epithelial cells. In H. pylori, KSK85 impedes biogenesis of the pilus appendage associated with the cag T4SS, while C10 disrupts cag T4SS activity without perturbing pilus assembly. In addition to the effects in H. pylori, we demonstrate that these compounds disrupt interbacterial DNA transfer by conjugative T4SSs in Escherichia coli and impede vir T4SS-mediated DNA delivery by Agrobacterium tumefaciens in a plant model of infection. Of note, C10 effectively disarmed dissemination of a derepressed IncF plasmid into a recipient bacterial population, thus demonstrating the potential of these compounds in mitigating the spread of antibiotic resistance determinants driven by conjugation. To our knowledge, this study is the first report of synthetic small molecules that impair delivery of both effector protein and DNA cargos by diverse T4SSs.

  2. A type IV translocated Legionella cysteine phytase counteracts intracellular growth restriction by phytate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Stephen; Stirnimann, Christian U; Wieser, Mara; Frey, Daniel; Meier, Roger; Engelhardt, Sabrina; Li, Xiaodan; Capitani, Guido; Kammerer, Richard A; Hilbi, Hubert

    2014-12-05

    The causative agent of Legionnaires' pneumonia, Legionella pneumophila, colonizes diverse environmental niches, including biofilms, plant material, and protozoa. In these habitats, myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (phytate) is prevalent and used as a phosphate storage compound or as a siderophore. L. pneumophila replicates in protozoa and mammalian phagocytes within a unique "Legionella-containing vacuole." The bacteria govern host cell interactions through the Icm/Dot type IV secretion system (T4SS) and ∼300 different "effector" proteins. Here we characterize a hitherto unrecognized Icm/Dot substrate, LppA, as a phytate phosphatase (phytase). Phytase activity of recombinant LppA required catalytically essential cysteine (Cys(231)) and arginine (Arg(237)) residues. The structure of LppA at 1.4 Å resolution revealed a mainly α-helical globular protein stabilized by four antiparallel β-sheets that binds two phosphate moieties. The phosphates localize to a P-loop active site characteristic of dual specificity phosphatases or to a non-catalytic site, respectively. Phytate reversibly abolished growth of L. pneumophila in broth, and growth inhibition was relieved by overproduction of LppA or by metal ion titration. L. pneumophila lacking lppA replicated less efficiently in phytate-loaded Acanthamoeba castellanii or Dictyostelium discoideum, and the intracellular growth defect was complemented by the phytase gene. These findings identify the chelator phytate as an intracellular bacteriostatic component of cell-autonomous host immunity and reveal a T4SS-translocated L. pneumophila phytase that counteracts intracellular bacterial growth restriction by phytate. Thus, bacterial phytases might represent therapeutic targets to combat intracellular pathogens.

  3. Cooperative retraction of bundled type IV pili enables nanonewton force generation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Biais

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The causative agent of gonorrhea, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, bears retractable filamentous appendages called type IV pili (Tfp. Tfp are used by many pathogenic and nonpathogenic bacteria to carry out a number of vital functions, including DNA uptake, twitching motility (crawling over surfaces, and attachment to host cells. In N. gonorrhoeae, Tfp binding to epithelial cells and the mechanical forces associated with this binding stimulate signaling cascades and gene expression that enhance infection. Retraction of a single Tfp filament generates forces of 50-100 piconewtons, but nothing is known, thus far, on the retraction force ability of multiple Tfp filaments, even though each bacterium expresses multiple Tfp and multiple bacteria interact during infection. We designed a micropillar assay system to measure Tfp retraction forces. This system consists of an array of force sensors made of elastic pillars that allow quantification of retraction forces from adherent N. gonorrhoeae bacteria. Electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy were used in combination with this novel assay to assess the structures of Tfp. We show that Tfp can form bundles, which contain up to 8-10 Tfp filaments, that act as coordinated retractable units with forces up to 10 times greater than single filament retraction forces. Furthermore, single filament retraction forces are transient, whereas bundled filaments produce retraction forces that can be sustained. Alterations of noncovalent protein-protein interactions between Tfp can inhibit both bundle formation and high-amplitude retraction forces. Retraction forces build over time through the recruitment and bundling of multiple Tfp that pull cooperatively to generate forces in the nanonewton range. We propose that Tfp retraction can be synchronized through bundling, that Tfp bundle retraction can generate forces in the nanonewton range in vivo, and that such high forces could affect infection.

  4. The Trw type IV secretion system of Bartonella mediates host-specific adhesion to erythrocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriel Vayssier-Taussat

    Full Text Available Bacterial pathogens typically infect only a limited range of hosts; however, the genetic mechanisms governing host-specificity are poorly understood. The alpha-proteobacterial genus Bartonella comprises 21 species that cause host-specific intraerythrocytic bacteremia as hallmark of infection in their respective mammalian reservoirs, including the human-specific pathogens Bartonella quintana and Bartonella bacilliformis that cause trench fever and Oroya fever, respectively. Here, we have identified bacterial factors that mediate host-specific erythrocyte colonization in the mammalian reservoirs. Using mouse-specific Bartonella birtlesii, human-specific Bartonella quintana, cat-specific Bartonella henselae and rat-specific Bartonella tribocorum, we established in vitro adhesion and invasion assays with isolated erythrocytes that fully reproduce the host-specificity of erythrocyte infection as observed in vivo. By signature-tagged mutagenesis of B. birtlesii and mutant selection in a mouse infection model we identified mutants impaired in establishing intraerythrocytic bacteremia. Among 45 abacteremic mutants, five failed to adhere to and invade mouse erythrocytes in vitro. The corresponding genes encode components of the type IV secretion system (T4SS Trw, demonstrating that this virulence factor laterally acquired by the Bartonella lineage is directly involved in adherence to erythrocytes. Strikingly, ectopic expression of Trw of rat-specific B. tribocorum in cat-specific B. henselae or human-specific B. quintana expanded their host range for erythrocyte infection to rat, demonstrating that Trw mediates host-specific erythrocyte infection. A molecular evolutionary analysis of the trw locus further indicated that the variable, surface-located TrwL and TrwJ might represent the T4SS components that determine host-specificity of erythrocyte parasitism. In conclusion, we show that the laterally acquired Trw T4SS diversified in the Bartonella lineage

  5. Spine deformities in patients with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, type IV - late results of surgical treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tesiorowski Maciej

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spinal deformities in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome are usually progressive and may require operative treatment. There is limited number of studies describing late results of surgery in this disease. Methods This is a retrospective study of the records of 11 patients with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV, treated surgically between 1990 and 2007. All patients underwent surgical treatment for spinal deformity. Duration of operation, type of instrumentation, intraoperative blood loss, complications and number of additional surgeries were noted. Radiographic measurement was performed on standing AP and lateral radiographs acquired before surgery, just after and at final follow up. Results The mean follow up period was 5.5 ± 2.9 years (range 1-10 years. The mean preoperative thoracic and lumbar curve were 109.5 ± 19.9° (range 83° - 142° and 75.6 ± 26.7° (range 40° - 108° respectively. Posterior spine fusion alone was performed on 6 patients and combined anterior and posterior fusion (one- or two stage on 5 cases. Posterior segmental spinal instrumentation was applied with use of hooks, screws and wires. The mean postoperative thoracic and lumbar curve improved to 79.3 ± 16.1° (range 56° - 105° and 58.5 ± 27.7° (range 10° - 95° respectively, with a slight loss of correction during follow up. The average thoracic and lumbar correction was 26.4 ± 14.9% (range 5.3 - 50.4% and 26.3 ± 21.2% (range 7.9 - 75%. Postoperatively, the mean kyphosis was 79.5 ± 40.3° (range 21° -170°, and lordosis was 50.8 ± 18.6° (range 20° -79°. Hyperkyphosis increased during follow up while lordosis remained stable. Mean Th12-L2 angle was -3.5 ±9.9° (range -19° - 15° postoperatively and did not change significantly during follow up. Conclusions Huge spinal deformities in patients with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome require complex and extensive surgery. There is a big risk of sagittal imbalance in this group.

  6. Modulation of tumor cell stiffness and migration by type IV collagen through direct activation of integrin signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sheng-Yi; Lin, Jo-Shi; Yang, Bei-Chang

    2014-08-01

    Excessive collagen deposition plays a critical role in tumor progression and metastasis. To understand how type IV collagen affects mechanical stiffness and migration, low-collagen-IV-expressing transfectants of B16F10, U118MG, and Huh7 (denoted shCol cells) were established by the lentiviral-mediated delivery of small interfering RNA against type IV-α1 collagen (Col4A1). Although having similar growth rates, shCol cells showed a flatter morphology compared to that of the corresponding controls. Notably, knocking down the Col4A1 gene conferred the cells with higher levels of elasticity and lower motility. Exposure to blocking antibodies against human β1 integrin or α2β1 integrin or the pharmacological inhibition of Src and ERK activity by PP1 and U0126, respectively, effectively reduced cell motility and raised cell stiffness. Reduced Src and ERK activities in shCol cells indicate the involvement of a collagen IV/integrin signaling pathway. The forced expression of β1 integrin significantly stimulated Src and ERK phosphorylation, reduced cell stiffness, and accelerated cell motility. In an experimental metastasis assay using C57BL/6 mice, B16F10 shCol cells formed significantly fewer and smaller lung nodules, confirming the contribution of collagen to metastasis. In summary, the integrin signaling pathway activated in a tumor environment with collagen deposition is responsible for low cell elasticity and high metastatic ability.

  7. A New Type of Compositive Information Entropy for IvIFS and Its Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjun Mao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We first show the interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy entropy which reflects intuitionism and fuzziness of interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy set (IvIFS based on interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy cross-entropy. As for intuitionism and fuzziness of IvIFS, we propose interval-valued intuitionistic entropy and interval-valued fuzzy entropy, respectively. Furthermore, we establish the interval-valued span entropy describing the uncertainty of membership degree and nonmembership degree and show some concrete measure formulas. Combining intuitionistic factor, fuzzy factor, and span factor, we ultimately put forward the axiomatic definition of the compositive entropy and give a measure formula of compositive entropy. In addition, the effectiveness of the compositive entropy measure is illuminated by comparison with other entropy measures. Furthermore, the compositive entropy is applied to multiple attributes’ decision-making by using the weighted correlation coefficient between IvIFSs and pattern recognition by a similarity measure transformed from the compositive entropy.

  8. A distinct and divergent lineage of genomic island-associated Type IV Secretion Systems in Legionella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Bryan A; Woolfit, Megan; Beatson, Scott A; Petty, Nicola K

    2013-01-01

    Legionella encodes multiple classes of Type IV Secretion Systems (T4SSs), including the Dot/Icm protein secretion system that is essential for intracellular multiplication in amoebal and human hosts. Other T4SSs not essential for virulence are thought to facilitate the acquisition of niche-specific adaptation genes including the numerous effector genes that are a hallmark of this genus. Previously, we identified two novel gene clusters in the draft genome of Legionella pneumophila strain 130b that encode homologues of a subtype of T4SS, the genomic island-associated T4SS (GI-T4SS), usually associated with integrative and conjugative elements (ICE). In this study, we performed genomic analyses of 14 homologous GI-T4SS clusters found in eight publicly available Legionella genomes and show that this cluster is unusually well conserved in a region of high plasticity. Phylogenetic analyses show that Legionella GI-T4SSs are substantially divergent from other members of this subtype of T4SS and represent a novel clade of GI-T4SSs only found in this genus. The GI-T4SS was found to be under purifying selection, suggesting it is functional and may play an important role in the evolution and adaptation of Legionella. Like other GI-T4SSs, the Legionella clusters are also associated with ICEs, but lack the typical integration and replication modules of related ICEs. The absence of complete replication and DNA pre-processing modules, together with the presence of Legionella-specific regulatory elements, suggest the Legionella GI-T4SS-associated ICE is unique and may employ novel mechanisms of regulation, maintenance and excision. The Legionella GI-T4SS cluster was found to be associated with several cargo genes, including numerous antibiotic resistance and virulence factors, which may confer a fitness benefit to the organism. The in-silico characterisation of this new T4SS furthers our understanding of the diversity of secretion systems involved in the frequent horizontal gene

  9. Placement of ¹²⁵I seed strands and stents for a type IV Klatskin tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen; Yang, Zheng-Qiang; Shi, Hai-Bin; Liu, Shen; Zhou, Wei-Zhong; Zhao, Lin-Bo

    2015-01-07

    Herein, we report a new technique that consists of placing two (125)I seed strands and two stents in the right and left intrahepatic bile ducts for the treatment of hilar cholangiocarcinoma. A 75-year-old man presented with jaundice and was diagnosed with Bismuth type IV Klatskin tumor. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) showed intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile duct dilatation and a soft tissue mass in the hepatic hilum. Because curative surgical resection was not possible, we placed (125)I seed strands and stents in the right and left intrahepatic bile ducts. Three months later, abdominal CT showed less intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile duct dilatation than before the procedure. This technique was feasible and could be considered for the treatment of patients with Bismuth type IV tumors.

  10. Endodontic Treatment of a Mandibular Second Premolar with Type IV Wiene’s Root Canal: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noushad Matavan Chalil

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report describes an endodontic treatment of a mandibular second premolar with type IV root canal. A 26-year-old male patient reported pain in right mandibular second premolar. Clinical examination showed a large carious lesion with pulp exposure. Radiographs showed minimal periapical changes and slight widening of periodontal ligament space. Mandibular second premolars usually have one canal. The mandibular second premolar may present large number of anatomic variations. The clinician should be aware of the configuration of the pulp system. This case presents the diagnosis and clinical management of a mandibular second premolar with two distinct canals in the apical third of root (Type IV Wiene’s canal configuration, drawing particular attention to tactile examination of all the canal walls and obturating it with calamus 3D obturation system.

  11. Type IV Collagen Controls the Axogenesis of Cerebellar Granule Cells by Regulating Basement Membrane Integrity in Zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Miki; Yamaguchi, Shingo; Yonemura, Shigenobu; Kakiguchi, Kisa; Sato, Yoshikatsu; Higashiyama, Tetsuya; Shimizu, Takashi; Hibi, Masahiko

    2015-10-01

    Granule cells (GCs) are the major glutamatergic neurons in the cerebellum, and GC axon formation is an initial step in establishing functional cerebellar circuits. In the zebrafish cerebellum, GCs can be classified into rostromedial and caudolateral groups, according to the locations of their somata in the corresponding cerebellar lobes. The axons of the GCs in the caudolateral lobes terminate on crest cells in the dorsal hindbrain, as well as forming en passant synapses with Purkinje cells in the cerebellum. In the zebrafish mutant shiomaneki, the caudolateral GCs extend aberrant axons. Positional cloning revealed that the shiomaneki (sio) gene locus encodes Col4a6, a subunit of type IV collagen, which, in a complex with Col4a5, is a basement membrane (BM) component. Both col4a5 and col4a6 mutants displayed similar abnormalities in the axogenesis of GCs and retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Although type IV collagen is reported to control axon targeting by regulating the concentration gradient of an axonal guidance molecule Slit, Slit overexpression did not affect the GC axons. The structure of the BM surrounding the tectum and dorsal hindbrain was disorganized in the col4a5 and col4a6 mutants. Moreover, the abnormal axogenesis of the caudolateral GCs and the RGCs was coupled with aberrant BM structures in the type IV collagen mutants. The regrowth of GC axons after experimental ablation revealed that the original and newly formed axons displayed similar branching and extension abnormalities in the col4a6 mutants. These results collectively suggest that type IV collagen controls GC axon formation by regulating the integrity of the BM, which provides axons with the correct path to their targets.

  12. Steered molecular dynamics simulations of a type IV pilus probe initial stages of a force-induced conformational transition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph L Baker

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Type IV pili are long, protein filaments built from a repeating subunit that protrudes from the surface of a wide variety of infectious bacteria. They are implicated in a vast array of functions, ranging from bacterial motility to microcolony formation to infection. One of the most well-studied type IV filaments is the gonococcal type IV pilus (GC-T4P from Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the causative agent of gonorrhea. Cryo-electron microscopy has been used to construct a model of this filament, offering insights into the structure of type IV pili. In addition, experiments have demonstrated that GC-T4P can withstand very large tension forces, and transition to a force-induced conformation. However, the details of force-generation, and the atomic-level characteristics of the force-induced conformation, are unknown. Here, steered molecular dynamics (SMD simulation was used to exert a force in silico on an 18 subunit segment of GC-T4P to address questions regarding the nature of the interactions that lead to the extraordinary strength of bacterial pili. SMD simulations revealed that the buried pilin α1 domains maintain hydrophobic contacts with one another within the core of the filament, leading to GC-T4P's structural stability. At the filament surface, gaps between pilin globular head domains in both the native and pulled states provide water accessible routes between the external environment and the interior of the filament, allowing water to access the pilin α1 domains as reported for VC-T4P in deuterium exchange experiments. Results were also compared to the experimentally observed force-induced conformation. In particular, an exposed amino acid sequence in the experimentally stretched filament was also found to become exposed during the SMD simulations, suggesting that initial stages of the force induced transition are well captured. Furthermore, a second sequence was shown to be initially hidden in the native filament and became exposed upon

  13. Type IV Collagen Controls the Axogenesis of Cerebellar Granule Cells by Regulating Basement Membrane Integrity in Zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miki Takeuchi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Granule cells (GCs are the major glutamatergic neurons in the cerebellum, and GC axon formation is an initial step in establishing functional cerebellar circuits. In the zebrafish cerebellum, GCs can be classified into rostromedial and caudolateral groups, according to the locations of their somata in the corresponding cerebellar lobes. The axons of the GCs in the caudolateral lobes terminate on crest cells in the dorsal hindbrain, as well as forming en passant synapses with Purkinje cells in the cerebellum. In the zebrafish mutant shiomaneki, the caudolateral GCs extend aberrant axons. Positional cloning revealed that the shiomaneki (sio gene locus encodes Col4a6, a subunit of type IV collagen, which, in a complex with Col4a5, is a basement membrane (BM component. Both col4a5 and col4a6 mutants displayed similar abnormalities in the axogenesis of GCs and retinal ganglion cells (RGCs. Although type IV collagen is reported to control axon targeting by regulating the concentration gradient of an axonal guidance molecule Slit, Slit overexpression did not affect the GC axons. The structure of the BM surrounding the tectum and dorsal hindbrain was disorganized in the col4a5 and col4a6 mutants. Moreover, the abnormal axogenesis of the caudolateral GCs and the RGCs was coupled with aberrant BM structures in the type IV collagen mutants. The regrowth of GC axons after experimental ablation revealed that the original and newly formed axons displayed similar branching and extension abnormalities in the col4a6 mutants. These results collectively suggest that type IV collagen controls GC axon formation by regulating the integrity of the BM, which provides axons with the correct path to their targets.

  14. biochemistry physiological effects and the role of DDP-IV inhibitors in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Andreani, Tatiana; Silva, Amélia M.; Souza, Ana Luiza R. de

    2010-01-01

    Type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a metabolic disease characterized mainly by hyperglycemia, resulting from defects in β-cell function and/or insulin resistance. Treatment approaches include diet, exercise, and pharmacological agents these however can produce adverse effects such as weight gain and hypoglycemia. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a peptide hormone that controls glycaemia and preserves β-cell mass and function. Currently dipeptidyl peptidase (DDP-IV) inhibitors...

  15. Anomalous output characteristic shift for the n-type lateral diffused metal-oxide-semiconductor transistor with floating P-top layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Siyang; Zhang, Chunwei; Sun, Weifeng, E-mail: swffrog@seu.edu.cn [National ASIC System Engineering Research Center, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Su, Wei; Wang, Shaorong; Ma, Shulang; Huang, Yu [CSMC Technologies Corporation, Wuxi 214061 (China)

    2014-04-14

    Anomalous output characteristic shift of the n-type lateral diffused metal-oxide-semiconductor transistor with floating P-top layer is investigated. It shows that the linear drain current has obvious decrease when the output characteristic of fresh device is measured for two consecutive times. The charge pumping experiments demonstrate that the decrease is not from hot-carrier degradation. The reduction of cross section area for the current flowing, which results from the squeezing of the depletion region surrounding the P-top layer, is responsible for the shift. Consequently, the current capability of this special device should be evaluated by the second measured output characteristic.

  16. An Eruptive Hot-Channel Structure Observed at Metric Wavelength as a Moving Type-IV Solar Radio Burst

    CERN Document Server

    Vasanth, V; Feng, Shiwei; Ma, Suli; Du, Guohui; Song, Hongqiang; Kong, Xiangliang; Wang, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Hot channel (HC) structure, observed in the high-temperature passbands of the AIA/SDO, is regarded as one candidate of coronal flux rope which is an essential element of solar eruptions. Here we present the first radio imaging study of an HC structure in the metric wavelength. The associated radio emission manifests as a moving type-IV (t-IVm) burst. We show that the radio sources co-move outwards with the HC, indicating that the t-IV emitting energetic electrons are efficiently trapped within the structure. The t-IV sources at different frequencies present no considerable spatial dispersion during the early stage of the event, while the sources spread gradually along the eruptive HC structure at later stage with significant spatial dispersion. The t-IV bursts are characterized by a relatively-high brightness temperature ($\\sim$ 10$^{7}$ $-$ 10$^{9}$ K), a moderate polarization, and a spectral shape that evolves considerably with time. This study demonstrates the possibility of imaging the eruptive HC structu...

  17. Type IV secretion-dependent activation of host MAP kinases induces an increased proinflammatory cytokine response to Legionella pneumophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunny Shin

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The immune system must discriminate between pathogenic and nonpathogenic microbes in order to initiate an appropriate response. Toll-like receptors (TLRs detect microbial components common to both pathogenic and nonpathogenic bacteria, whereas Nod-like receptors (NLRs sense microbial components introduced into the host cytosol by the specialized secretion systems or pore-forming toxins of bacterial pathogens. The host signaling pathways that respond to bacterial secretion systems remain poorly understood. Infection with the pathogen Legionella pneumophila, which utilizes a type IV secretion system (T4SS, induced an increased proinflammatory cytokine response compared to avirulent bacteria in which the T4SS was inactivated. This enhanced response involved NF-kappaB activation by TLR signaling as well as Nod1 and Nod2 detection of type IV secretion. Furthermore, a TLR- and RIP2-independent pathway leading to p38 and SAPK/JNK MAPK activation was found to play an equally important role in the host response to virulent L. pneumophila. Activation of this MAPK pathway was T4SS-dependent and coordinated with TLR signaling to mount a robust proinflammatory cytokine response to virulent L. pneumophila. These findings define a previously uncharacterized host response to bacterial type IV secretion that activates MAPK signaling and demonstrate that coincident detection of multiple bacterial components enables immune discrimination between virulent and avirulent bacteria.

  18. S-ROM modular arthroplasty combined with transverse subtrochanteric shortening for Crowe type IV congenital dislocation of hip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Cheng; CAI Xun-zi; YAN Shi-gui; HE Rong-xin

    2011-01-01

    Background This work was carried out to evaluate the clinical efficacy and the complications of S-ROM modular hip arthroplasty combined with transverse subtrochanteric shortening for Crowe type IV congenital dislocation of the hip (CDH).Methods A totoal of 28 consecutive patients with Crowe type IV CDH received treatment using this surgical technique from June 2003 to June 2010.The follow-up was conducted at 3 days,1,6,and 12 months after the operation and later annually at the outpatient of our hospital.Sequential pelvic plain film and normotopia film of the affected hip joint were taken.The limp and the Trendelenburg sign were also assessed,the ischiadic nerve injury was also evaluated by electromyogram,and Harris hip scores were recorded.Results After operation,both the alignment and the position of the transverse osteotomies were good.None of the patients had presented complications of joint infection,prosthesis loosening,joint dislocation,or nerve injury.Conclusions S-ROM modular hip arthroplasty combined with transverse subtrochanteric shortening was a satisfactory and safe technique for the Crowe type IV congenital hip dislocation within a mean follow up of 53 months.Transverse subtrochanteric shortening could effectively prevent the distraction injury of sciatic nerve.

  19. Genomic and Gene-Expression Comparisons among Phage-Resistant Type-IV Pilus Mutants of Pseudomonas syringae pathovar phaseolicola.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Sistrom

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola (Pph is a significant bacterial pathogen of agricultural crops, and phage Φ6 and other members of the dsRNA virus family Cystoviridae undergo lytic (virulent infection of Pph, using the type IV pilus as the initial site of cellular attachment. Despite the popularity of Pph/phage Φ6 as a model system in evolutionary biology, Pph resistance to phage Φ6 remains poorly characterized. To investigate differences between phage Φ6 resistant Pph strains, we examined genomic and gene expression variation among three bacterial genotypes that differ in the number of type IV pili expressed per cell: ordinary (wild-type, non-piliated, and super-piliated. Genome sequencing of non-piliated and super-piliated Pph identified few mutations that separate these genotypes from wild type Pph--and none present in genes known to be directly involved in type IV pilus expression. Expression analysis revealed that 81.1% of gene ontology (GO terms up-regulated in the non-piliated strain were down-regulated in the super-piliated strain. This differential expression is particularly prevalent in genes associated with respiration--specifically genes in the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle, aerobic respiration, and acetyl-CoA metabolism. The expression patterns of the TCA pathway appear to be generally up and down-regulated, in non-piliated and super-piliated Pph respectively. As pilus retraction is mediated by an ATP motor, loss of retraction ability might lead to a lower energy draw on the bacterial cell, leading to a different energy balance than wild type. The lower metabolic rate of the super-piliated strain is potentially a result of its loss of ability to retract.

  20. A novel arctigenin-containing latex glove prevents latex allergy by inhibiting type I/IV allergic reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong-Xin; Xue, Dan-Ting; Liu, Meng; Zhou, Zheng-Min; Shang, Jing

    2016-03-01

    The present study aimed at developing a natural compound with anti-allergic effect and stability under latex glove manufacturing conditions and investigating whether its anti-allergic effect is maintained after its addition into the latex. The effects of nine natural compounds on growth of the RBL-2H3 cells and mouse primary spleen lymphocytes were determined using MTT assay. The compounds included glycyrrhizin, osthole, tetrandrine, tea polyphenol, catechin, arctigenin, oleanolic acid, baicalin and oxymatrine. An ELISA assay was used for the in vitro anti-type I/IV allergy screening; in this process β-hexosaminidase, histamine, and IL-4 released from RBL-2H3 cell lines and IFN-γ and IL-2 released from mouse primary spleen lymphocytes were taken as screening indices. The physical stability of eight natural compounds and the dissolubility of arctigenin, selected based on the in vitro pharnacodynamaic screening and the stability evaluation, were detected by HPLC. The in vivo pharmacodynamic confirmation of arctigenin and final latex product was evaluated with a passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) model and an allergen-specific skin response model. Nine natural compounds showed minor growth inhibition on RBL-2H3 cells and mouse primary spleen lymphocytes. Baicalin and arctigenin had the best anti-type I and IV allergic effects among the natural compounds based on the in vitro pharmacodynamic screening. Arctigenin and catechin had the best physical stability under different manufacturing conditions. Arctigenin was the selected for further evaluation and proven to have anti-type I and IV allergic effects in vivo in a dose-dependent manner. The final product of the arctigenin-containing latex glove had anti-type I and IV allergic effects in vivo which were mainly attributed to arctigenin as proved from the dissolubility results. Arctigenin showed anti-type I and IV allergic effects in vitro and in vivo, with a good stability under latex glove manufacturing conditions

  1. Anomalous law of cooling

    OpenAIRE

    Lapas, Luciano C.; Ferreira, Rogelma M. S.; Oliveira, Fernando A.; Rubí, J. Miguel

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the temperature relaxation phenomena of systems in contact with a thermal reservoir that undergo a non-Markovian diffusion process. From a generalized Langevin equation, we show that the temperature is governed by a law of cooling of the Newton's law type in which the relaxation time depends on the velocity autocorrelation and is then characterized by the memory function. The analysis of the temperature decay reveals the existence of an anomalous cooling in which the temperature ma...

  2. Combination of monoclonal antibodies and DPP-IV inhibitors in the treatment of type 1 diabetes: a plausible treatment modality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubala, Anil; Gupta, Ankur; Samanta, Malay K

    2014-07-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are crucial for the maintenance of immunological tolerance. Type 1 diabetes (T1D) occurs when the immune-regulatory mechanism fails. In fact, T1D is reversed by islet transplantation but is associated with hostile effects of persistent immune suppression. T1D is believed to be dependent on the activation of type-1 helper T (Th1) cells. Immune tolerance is liable for the activation of the Th1 cells. The important role of Th1 cells in pathology of T1D entails the depletion of CD4(+) T cells, which initiated the use of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against CD4(+) T cells to interfere with induction of T1D. Prevention of autoimmunity is not only a step forward for the treatment of T1D, but could also restore the β-cell mass. Glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 stimulates β-cell proliferation and also has anti-apoptotic effects on them. However, the potential use of GLP-1 as a possible method to restore pancreatic β-cells is limited due to rapid degradation by dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-IV. We hypothesize that treatment with combination of CD4 mAbs and DPP-IV inhibitors could prevent/reverse T1D. CD4 mAbs have the ability to induce immune tolerance, thereby arresting further progression of T1D; DPP-IV inhibitors have the capability to regenerate the β-cell mass. Consequently, the combination of CD4 mAbs and DPP-IV inhibitor could avoid or at least minimize the constraints of intensive subcutaneous insulin therapy. We presume that if this hypothesis proves correct, it may become one of the plausible therapeutic options for T1D.

  3. 布鲁氏菌的IV型分泌系统%Type IV secretion system of Brucella

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘倩宏

    2012-01-01

    Brucellosis, which is caused by Brucella, is one of the most important bacterial zoonoses. It brings serious harm to stock raising, human health and animal-derived food security. Type IV secretion system of Brucella is essential for survival and multiplication within the host cells, which also play an important role in pathogenicity of Brucella. Type IV secretion system that is encoded by the virB operon is described as a family of multi-protein and crossing-envelope complex, and regulated by the same promoter. Type IV secretion system is also affected by multi-factor, which may be PH, temperature, nutrition and the type of the cells infected and it plays an important role in regulation intracellular and extracellular survival of Brucella.%布鲁氏菌病是由布鲁氏菌引起的人兽共患病,给养殖业、人类健康和动物源性食品安全带来很大威胁.布鲁氏菌的IV型分泌系统在布鲁氏菌的致病力上发挥重要作用,与布鲁氏菌在宿主细胞内生存、复制有密切关系.IV型分泌系统由virB操纵子编码,由同一启动子调控,是一个多蛋白的跨膜复合物,受感染宿主细胞类型、生长温度、营养条件、pH值等多因素调控;并且对布鲁氏菌的胞内、胞外的生存产生重要影响.

  4. Role of α1 and α2 chains of type IV collagen in early fibrotic lesions of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias and migration of lung fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urushiyama, Hirokazu; Terasaki, Yasuhiro; Nagasaka, Shinya; Terasaki, Mika; Kunugi, Shinobu; Nagase, Takahide; Fukuda, Yuh; Shimizu, Akira

    2015-08-01

    Early fibrotic lesions are thought to be the initial findings of fibrogenesis in idiopathic interstitial pneumonias, but little is known about their properties. Type IV collagen comprises six gene products, α1-α6, and although it is known as a major basement membrane component, its abnormal deposition is seen in fibrotic lesions of certain organs. We studied the expression of type I and III collagen and all α chains of type IV collagen in lung specimens from patients with usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) or organizing pneumonia (OP) via immunohistochemistry. With cultured lung fibroblasts, we analyzed the expression and function of all α chains of type IV collagen via immunohistochemistry, western blotting, real-time quantitative PCR, and a Boyden chamber migration assay after the knockdown of α1 and α2 chains. Although we observed type I and III collagens in early fibrotic lesions of both UIP and OP, we found type IV collagen, especially α1 and α2 chains, in early fibrotic lesions of UIP but not OP. Fibroblasts enhanced the expression of α1 and α2 chains of type IV collagen after transforming growth factor-β1 stimulation. Small interfering RNA against α1 and α2 chains increased fibroblast migration, with upregulated phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), and adding medium containing fibroblast-produced α1 and α2 chains reduced the increased levels of fibroblast migration and phosphorylation of FAK. Fibroblasts in OP were positive for phosphorylated FAK but fibroblasts in UIP were not. These results suggest that fibroblasts in UIP with type IV collagen deposition, especially α1 and α2 chains, have less ability to migrate from early fibrotic lesions than fibroblasts in OP without type IV collagen deposition. Thus, type IV collagen deposition in early fibrotic lesions of UIP may be implicated in refractory pathophysiology including migration of lesion fibroblasts via a FAK pathway.

  5. High serum laminin and type IV collagen levels in schistosomiasis mansoni Elevação dos níveis séricos de laminina e colágeno tipo IV na esquistossomose mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozangela Maria de Almeida Fernandes Wyszomirska

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fibrosis is the process of excessive deposition of collagen and other extra cellular matrix components and large amounts of these components have been shown in periovular schistosomal granulomas, especially in the liver. Laminin and type IV collagen have been investigated in various hepatic disorders but their accuracy in fibrosis detection and in the evaluation of its progression in schistosomiasis have not been fully explained. AIM: To measure the serum levels of two markers of fibrosis, laminin and type IV collagen in schistosomiasis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Sixty-four patients with different clinical forms of schistosomiasis mansoni: intestinal (group I, hepatointestinal (group II, compensated (group III and decompensated hepatosplenic (group IV and 18 healthy volunteers were included. RESULTS: Serum type IV collagen and laminin levels were significantly increased in patients compared to controls. At about clinical forms, serum type IV collagen was increased in groups II and IV, compared to controls and was significantly higher in group IV than in group I. Serum laminin was significantly increased in groups II, III and IV and was significantly higher in group IV than in group II. Serum type IV collagen was closely correlated with serum laminin in groups II and IV. CONCLUSIONS: Connective tissue marker levels did not correlate with periportal thickness. In schistosomiasis mansoni there is an increase of type IV collagen and laminin levels at the initial stage of the disease, as well as in advanced forms. We also suggest that these markers may be a useful predictor of disease progression.RACIONAL: A fibrose hepática é caracterizada por um aumento progressivo na quantidade do tecido conjuntivo hepático, que é formado pelo aumento na deposição de componentes da matriz extracelular, tendo sido encontrada grande quantidade desses componentes no fígado de pacientes com esquistossomose mansoni. A laminina e o colágeno tipo IV t

  6. Long-pulsed Nd:YAG laser-assisted hair removal in Fitzpatrick skin types IV-VI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Krishna; Sankar, Thangasamy K

    2011-09-01

    Unwanted hair is a common problem for which a variety of laser treatments is available. Laser treatment in dark-skinned individuals carries a higher risk of complications like hyperpigmentation and burn. The objective of this study was to evaluate efficacy and safety profile of laser-assisted hair removal in individuals with Fitzpatrick type IV-VI skin using long-pulsed Nd:YAG laser. Retrospective data was collected from 150 individuals with Fitzpatrick type IV-VI skin who underwent laser-assisted hair removal. This included area treated, fluence, number of treatments, and outcome. Data was also gathered on patient satisfaction and complications. The most common phototype was type IV (94%). The most frequently treated area was the face (84.7%) followed by the underarms and legs. Among the facial areas, the chin was the most frequently treated area followed by the upper lip and jaw line. The mean number of treatments was 8.9 (range 4-22). The maximum fluence averaged 26.8 Joules/cm(2) and was significantly higher for facial hair. Of the patients, 78.7% felt that their treatment was good or satisfactory. Mean hair reduction was 54.3%. Satisfaction from the treatment was significantly higher in individuals undergoing treatment of non-facial areas. Subsequent hair growth was slower and finer in 79.3% of the patients. There were no complications in 86% of the patients. All the complications were transient, with hyperpigmentation being the most frequent complication. Our results show that laser hair removal using the long-pulsed Nd:YAG laser is safe and effective in dark-skinned individuals with satisfactory results in most patients.

  7. Biological roles of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae type IV pilus proteins encoded by the pil and com operons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruthers, Michael D; Tracy, Erin N; Dickson, Amanda C; Ganser, Kara B; Munson, Robert S; Bakaletz, Lauren O

    2012-04-01

    We previously demonstrated that one or more products of the genes in the pil and com gene clusters of the opportunistic human respiratory pathogen nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) are required for type IV pilus (Tfp) biogenesis and function. Here, we have now demonstrated that the pilABCD and comABCDEF gene clusters are operons and that the product of each gene is essential for normal pilus function. Mutants with nonpolar deletions in each of the 10 pil and com genes had an adherence defect when primary human airway cells were used as the target. These mutants were also diminished in their ability to form a biofilm in vitro and, additionally, were deficient in natural transformation. Collectively, our data demonstrate that the product of each gene within these operons is required for the normal biogenesis and/or function of NTHI Tfp. Based on the similarity of PilA to other type IV pilins, we further predicted that the product of the pilA gene would be the major pilin subunit. Toward that end, we also demonstrated by immunogold labeling and mass spectrometry that PilA is indeed the majority type IV pilin protein expressed by NTHI. These new observations set the stage for experiments designed to dissect the function of each of the proteins encoded by genes within the pil and com gene clusters. The ability to characterize individual proteins with vital roles in NTHI colonization or pathogenesis has the potential to reduce the burden of NTHI-induced diseases through development of a Tfp-derived vaccine or a pilus-directed therapeutic.

  8. De Novo and Inherited Mutations in COL4A2, Encoding the Type IV Collagen α2 Chain Cause Porencephaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneda, Yuriko; Haginoya, Kazuhiro; Arai, Hiroshi; Yamaoka, Shigeo; Tsurusaki, Yoshinori; Doi, Hiroshi; Miyake, Noriko; Yokochi, Kenji; Osaka, Hitoshi; Kato, Mitsuhiro; Matsumoto, Naomichi; Saitsu, Hirotomo

    2012-01-01

    Porencephaly is a neurological disorder characterized by fluid-filled cysts or cavities in the brain that often cause hemiplegia. It has been suggested that porencephalic cavities result from focal cerebral degeneration involving hemorrhages. De novo or inherited heterozygous mutations in COL4A1, which encodes the type IV α1 collagen chain that is essential for structural integrity for vascular basement membranes, have been reported in individuals with porencephaly. Most mutations occurred at conserved Gly residues in the Gly-Xaa-Yaa repeats of the triple-helical domain, leading to alterations of the α1α1α2 heterotrimers. Here we report on two individuals with porencephaly caused by a heterozygous missense mutation in COL4A2, which encodes the type IV α2 collagen chain. Mutations c.3455G>A and c.3110G>A, one in each of the individuals, cause Gly residues in the Gly-Xaa-Yaa repeat to be substituted as p.Gly1152Asp and p.Gly1037Glu, respectively, probably resulting in alterations of the α1α1α2 heterotrimers. The c.3455G>A mutation was found in the proband's mother, who showed very mild monoparesis of the left upper extremity, and the maternal elder uncle, who had congenital hemiplegia. The maternal grandfather harboring the mutation is asymptomatic. The c.3110G>A mutation occurred de novo. Our study confirmed that abnormalities of the α1α1α2 heterotrimers of type IV collagen cause porencephaly and stresses the importance of screening for COL4A2 as well as for COL4A1. PMID:22209246

  9. Formation Mechanism of Type IV Failure in High Cr Ferritic Heat-Resistant Steel-Welded Joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Tsukamoto, S.; Shirane, T.; Abe, F.

    2013-10-01

    The mechanism of type IV failure has been investigated by using a conventional 9Cr ferritic heat-resistant steel Gr.92. In order to clarify the main cause of type IV failure, different heat treatments were performed on the base metal in order to change the prior austenite grain (PAG) size and precipitate distribution after applying the heat-affected zone (HAZ) simulated thermal cycle at the peak temperature of around A c3 ( A c3 HAZ thermal cycle) and postweld heat treatment (PWHT). The microstructural evolution during the A c3 HAZ thermal cycle and PWHT was investigated by means of scanning electron microscope (SEM), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), and transmission electron microscope (TEM). It was found that M23C6 carbides were scarcely precipitated at the newly formed fine PAG, block, and lath boundaries in A c3 HAZ-simulated Gr.92, because the carbide forming elements such as Cr and C were segregated at the former PAG and block boundaries of the base metal. On the other hand, if all the boundaries were covered by sufficient M23C6 carbides by homogenization of the alloying elements prior to applying the HAZ thermal cycle, the creep strength was much improved even if the fine PAG was formed. From these results, it is concluded that fine-grained microstructure cannot account for the occurrence of type IV failure, and it only has a small effect during long-term creep. The most important factor is the precipitate formation behavior at various boundaries. Without sufficient boundary strengthening by precipitates, the microstructure of A c3 HAZ undergoes severe changes even during PWHT and causes premature failure during creep.

  10. Dynamics of a delayed discrete semi-ratio-dependent predator-prey system with Holling type IV functional response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Hongying

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A discrete semi-ratio-dependent predator-prey system with Holling type IV functional response and time delay is investigated. It is proved the general nonautonomous system is permanent and globally attractive under some appropriate conditions. Furthermore, if the system is periodic one, some sufficient conditions are established, which guarantee the existence and global attractivity of positive periodic solutions. We show that the conditions for the permanence of the system and the global attractivity of positive periodic solutions depend on the delay, so, we call it profitless.

  11. CagY Is an Immune-Sensitive Regulator of the Helicobacter pylori Type IV Secretion System.

    OpenAIRE

    Barrozo, RM; Hansen, LM; Lam, AM; Skoog, EC; Martin, ME; Cai, LP; Lin, Y; Latoscha, A; Suerbaum, S; Canfield, DR; Solnick, JV

    2016-01-01

    Peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer are caused most often by Helicobacter pylori strains that harbor the cag pathogenicity island, which encodes a type IV secretion system (T4SS) that injects the CagA oncoprotein into host cells. cagY is an essential gene in the T4SS and has an unusual DNA repeat structure that predicts in-frame insertions and deletions. These cagY recombination events typically lead to a reduction in T4SS function in mouse and primate models. We examined the role of the ...

  12. Characterization and transcriptional analysis of two gene clusters for type IV secretion machinery in Wolbachia of Armadillidium vulgare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Félix, Christine; Pichon, Samuel; Braquart-Varnier, Christine;

    2008-01-01

    Wolbachia are maternally inherited alpha-proteobacteria that induce feminization of genetic males in most terrestrial crustacean isopods. Two clusters of vir genes for a type IV secretion machinery have been identified at two separate loci and characterized for the first time in a feminizing...... Wolbachia. Furthermore, we demonstrated that these operons are transcriptionally active in ovaries and in all other tissues tested, suggesting that T4SS has a significant role in Wolbachia biology. These observations and the identification of homologous vir genes in Wolbachia strains infecting insects...... or nematodes show that vir genes are conserved among Wolbachia strains whatever the phenotype induced by the bacteria....

  13. Induction of rat yolk sac carcinomas with consistent pattern of laminin, entactin, and type IV collagen biosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, U

    1984-01-01

    Twenty-four yolk sac carcinomas in Lewis rats were experimentally induced by puncturing the pregnant uterine wall with a hypodermic needle at day 9-13 of gestation. Morphologically, the tumours were composed of parietal- and visceral yolk sac carcinoma and to a less degree of trophoblastic giant ...... to their biosynthesis of the basement membrane components laminin, entactin, and type IV collagen. This model system offers a simple approach to inducing rat yolk sac carcinomas for further morphological and biochemical characterization of the basement membrane....

  14. Evidence that a modified type IV pilus-like system powers gliding motility and polysaccharide secretion in filamentous cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khayatan, Behzad; Meeks, John C; Risser, Douglas D

    2015-12-01

    In filamentous cyanobacteria, the mechanism of gliding motility is undefined but posited to be driven by a polysaccharide secretion system known as the junctional pore complex (JPC). Recent evidence implies that the JPC is a modified type IV pilus-like structure encoded for in part by genes in the hps locus. To test this hypothesis, we conducted genetic, cytological and comparative genomics studies on hps and pil genes in Nostoc punctiforme, a species in which motility is restricted to transiently differentiated filaments called hormogonia. Inactivation of most hps and pil genes abolished motility and abolished or drastically reduced secretion of hormogonium polysaccharide, and the subcellular localization of several Pil proteins in motile hormogonia corresponds to the site of the junctional pore complex. The non-motile ΔhpsE-G strain, which lacks three glycosyltransferases that synthesize hormogonium polysaccharide, could be complemented to motility by the addition of medium conditioned by wild-type hormogonia. Based on this result, we speculate that secretion of hormogonium polysaccharide facilitates but does not provide the motive force for gliding. Both the Hps and Pil homologs characterized in this study are almost universally conserved among filamentous cyanobacteria, with the Hps homologs rarely found in unicellular strains. These results support the theory that Hps and Pil proteins compose the JPC, a type IV pilus-like nanomotor that drives motility and polysaccharide secretion in filamentous cyanobacteria.

  15. ABNORMAL TYPE-III COLLAGEN PRODUCED BY AN EXON-17-SKIPPING MUTATION OF THE COL3A1 GENE IN EHLERS-DANLOS SYNDROME TYPE-IV IS NOT INCORPORATED INTO THE EXTRACELLULAR-MATRIX

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    CHIODO, AA; SILLENCE, DO; COLE, WG; BATEMAN, JF

    1995-01-01

    A novel heterozygous mutation of the COL3Al gene that encodes the alpha 1(III) chains of type III collagen was identified in a family with the: acrogeric form of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV (EDS-IV). Cultured dermal fibroblasts produced normal and shortened alpha 1(III) chains. The triple helix o

  16. In silico identification of potential chaperone genes that belong to type III and type IV secretion systems in Xanthomonas axonopodis pv citri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Khater

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The secretion of bacterial virulence factors and flagellar components requires the assistance of specific type III and flagellar chaperones. Standard computational annotation of the genome of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv citri, a plant pathogen that causes citrus canker, initially did not identify any genes belonging to these chaperone categories since the primary sequence homology between them was very low. However, in a search for hypothetical proteins with characteristics similar to these chaperones, we have now identified 30 chromosomal and 10 plasmidial potential genes encoding chaperones belonging to types III/IV, and flagellar secretion systems in this organism. The significance of these findings is discussed.

  17. T346Hunter: a novel web-based tool for the prediction of type III, type IV and type VI secretion systems in bacterial genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Manuel Martínez-García

    Full Text Available T346Hunter (Type Three, Four and Six secretion system Hunter is a web-based tool for the identification and localisation of type III, type IV and type VI secretion systems (T3SS, T4SS and T6SS, respectively clusters in bacterial genomes. Non-flagellar T3SS (NF-T3SS and T6SS are complex molecular machines that deliver effector proteins from bacterial cells into the environment or into other eukaryotic or prokaryotic cells, with significant implications for pathogenesis of the strains encoding them. Meanwhile, T4SS is a more functionally diverse system, which is involved in not only effector translocation but also conjugation and DNA uptake/release. Development of control strategies against bacterial-mediated diseases requires genomic identification of the virulence arsenal of pathogenic bacteria, with T3SS, T4SS and T6SS being major determinants in this regard. Therefore, computational methods for systematic identification of these specialised machines are of particular interest. With the aim of facilitating this task, T346Hunter provides a user-friendly web-based tool for the prediction of T3SS, T4SS and T6SS clusters in newly sequenced bacterial genomes. After inspection of the available scientific literature, we constructed a database of hidden Markov model (HMM protein profiles and sequences representing the various components of T3SS, T4SS and T6SS. T346Hunter performs searches of such a database against user-supplied bacterial sequences and localises enriched regions in any of these three types of secretion systems. Moreover, through the T346Hunter server, users can visualise the predicted clusters obtained for approximately 1700 bacterial chromosomes and plasmids. T346Hunter offers great help to researchers in advancing their understanding of the biological mechanisms in which these sophisticated molecular machines are involved. T346Hunter is freely available at http://bacterial-virulence-factors.cbgp.upm.es/T346Hunter.

  18. Hierarchical assembly of helicate-type dinuclear titanium(IV) complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Markus; Mirtschin, Sebastian; de Groot, Marita; Janser, Ingo; Runsink, Jan; Raabe, Gerhard; Kogej, Michael; Schalley, Christoph A; Fröhlich, Roland

    2005-07-27

    The ligands 4-7-H(2) were used in coordination studies with titanium(IV) and gallium(III) ions to obtain dimeric complexes Li(4)[(4-7)(6)Ti(2)] and Li(6)[(4/5a)(6)Ga(2)]. The X-ray crystal structures of Li(4)[(4)(6)Ti(2)], Li(4)[(5b)(6)Ti(2)], and Li(4)[(7a)(6)Ti(2)] could be obtained. While these complexes are triply lithium-bridged dimers in the solid state, a monomer/dimer equilibrium is observed in solution by NMR spectroscopy and ESI FT-ICR MS. The stability of the dimer is enhanced by high negative charges (Ti(IV) versus Ga(III)) of the monomers, when the carbonyl units are good donors (aldehydes versus ketones and esters), when the solvent does not efficiently solvate the bridging lithium ions (DMSO versus acetone), and when sterical hindrance is minimized (methyl versus primary and secondary carbon substituents). The dimer is thermodynamically favored by enthalpy as well as entropy. ESI FT-ICR mass spectrometry provides detailed insight into the mechanisms with which monomeric triscatecholate complexes as well as single catechol ligands exchange in the dimers. Tandem mass spectrometric experiments in the gas phase show the dimers to decompose either in a symmetric (Ti) or in an unsymmetric (Ga) fashion when collisionally activated. The differences between the Ti and Ga complexes can be attributed to different electronic properties and a charge-controlled reactivity of the ions in the gas phase. The complexes represent an excellent example for hierarchical self-assembly, in which two different noncovalent interactions of well balanced strengths bring together eleven individual components into one well-defined aggregate.

  19. AB152. The concomitant increase or decrease of several cytokines in prostatic secretion of patients with type-IIIA and type-IV prostatitis: the two subtypes of prostatitis may have a similar pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chunlei; Mo, Zengnan

    2014-01-01

    Background Because the prevalence of chronic prostatitis (CP) subgroup can not be determined by routine epidemiologic methods (questionnaires), little research has been done with regard to each subtype of CP. In addition, further description of prostate cytokines may help to characterize the different types of prostatitis, and improve our understanding of the prostate immune responses in patients with type-IIIA, type-IIIB and type-IV CP. Methods and findings The study population comprised 2,887 men aged 18-78 years at second phase recruitment of a population-based cohort in China. The CP patients and healthy controls were defined by the National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index. Meanwhile, EPS specimens were collected and the leukocyte in EPS was counted. We analyzed the levels of 47 cytokines in the EPS in 118 individuals (30/health, 30/type-IIIB, 29/type-IIIA, 29/type-III IV) randomly selected from present population. Prevalence of CP (26.78%/total, 1.49%/type-IIIA, 6.27%/type-IIIB and 19.02%/type-IV) is prevalent in China, and the prevalence of prostate inflammation (type-IIIA or type-IV CP) between the symptomatic men (type-IIIA/type-IIIA + IIIB, 19.20%) and asymptomatic men (type-IV/type-IV + health, 20.62%) is similar. While IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-15, IL-17, basic FGF, G-CSF, MCP-1, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, TNF-α, IL-1α, IL-16 and IL-18 levels were much higher in the type-IIIA and type-IV patient groups than in the type-IIIB and control groups, the levels of GM-CSF, PDGF-BB, SCGF-β and TNF-β was significantly lower in the type-IIIA and type-IV groups. The level of IL-1ra was clearly lower in the type-IIIB group, but LIF and β-NGF were elevated in type-IIIB groups of patients compared to controls type-IIIA and type-IV groups. Conclusions We think that type-IIIA and type-IV CP may have a similar pathogenesis, but type-IIIB CP may be a different disease with different pathogenesis.

  20. Comparative analysis of the noncollagenous NC1 domain of type IV collagen: identification of structural features important for assembly, function, and pathogenesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Netzer, K. O.; Suzuki, K; Itoh, Y.; Hudson, B.G.; Khalifah, R. G.

    1998-01-01

    Type IV collagen alpha1-alpha6 chains have important roles in the assembly of basement membranes and are implicated in the pathogenesis of Goodpasture syndrome, an autoimmune disorder, and Alport syndrome, a hereditary renal disease. We report comparative sequence analyses and structural predictions of the noncollagenous C-terminal globular NC1 domain (28 sequences). The inferred tree verified that type IV collagen sequences fall into two groups, alpha1-like and alpha2-like, and suggested tha...

  1. Investigation of enhanced hemocompatibility and tissue compatibility associated with multi-functional coating based on hyaluronic acid and Type IV collagen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingan; Zhang, Kun; Ma, Wenyong; Wu, Feng; Yang, Ping; He, Zikun; Huang, Nan

    2016-01-01

    The biocompatibility of cardiovascular devices has always been considered crucial for their clinical efficacy. Therefore, a biofunctional coating composed of Type IV collagen (CoIV) and hyaluronan (HA) was previously fabricated onto the titanium (Ti) substrate for the application of promoting vascular smooth muscle cell contractile phenotype and improving surface endothelialization. However, the anti-inflammation property, blood compatibility and in vivo tissue compatibility of the HA/CoIV coating, as paramount consideration of cardiovascular materials surface coating, have not been investigated. Thus, in this study, the three crucial properties of the HA/CoIV coating were tested. The platelet adhesion/activation test and the dynamic whole blood experiment implied that the HA/CoIV coating had better blood compatibility compared with Ti substrate and pure CoIV coating. The macrophage adhesion/activation and inflammatory cytokine release (tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1) results indicated that the HA/CoIV coating could significantly improve the anti-inflammation property of the Ti substrate. The in vivo implantation of SD rats for 3 weeks’ results demonstrated that the HA/CoIV coating caused milder tissue response. All these results suggested that the multi-functional HA/CoIV coating possessed good biocompatibility. This research is anticipated to be potentially applied for the surface modification of cardiovascular stents. PMID:27252884

  2. The type IV pilin, PilA, is required for full virulence of Francisella tularensis subspecies tularensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forslund Anna-Lena

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background All four Francisella tularensis subspecies possess gene clusters with potential to express type IV pili (Tfp. These clusters include putative pilin genes, as well as pilB, pilC and pilQ, required for secretion and assembly of Tfp. A hallmark of Tfp is the ability to retract the pilus upon surface contact, a property mediated by the ATPase PilT. Interestingly, out of the two major human pathogenic subspecies only the highly virulent type A strains have a functional pilT gene. Results In a previous study, we were able to show that one pilin gene, pilA, was essential for virulence of a type B strain in a mouse infection model. In this work we have examined the role of several Tfp genes in the virulence of the pathogenic type A strain SCHU S4. pilA, pilC, pilQ, and pilT were mutated by in-frame deletion mutagenesis. Interestingly, when mice were infected with a mixture of each mutant strain and the wild-type strain, the pilA, pilC and pilQ mutants were out-competed, while the pilT mutant was equally competitive as the wild-type. Conclusions This suggests that expression and surface localisation of PilA contribute to virulence in the highly virulent type A strain, while PilT was dispensable for virulence in the mouse infection model.

  3. Loss of Col3a1, the gene for Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV, results in neocortical dyslamination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Jin Jeong

    Full Text Available It has recently been discovered that Collagen III, the encoded protein of the type IV Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (EDS gene, is one of the major constituents of the pial basement membrane (BM and serves as the ligand for GPR56. Mutations in GPR56 cause a severe human brain malformation called bilateral frontoparietal polymicrogyria, in which neurons transmigrate through the BM causing severe mental retardation and frequent seizures. To further characterize the brain phenotype of Col3a1 knockout mice, we performed a detailed histological analysis. We observed a cobblestone-like cortical malformation, with BM breakdown and marginal zone heterotopias in Col3a1⁻/⁻ mouse brains. Surprisingly, the pial BM appeared intact at early stages of development but starting as early as embryonic day (E 11.5, prominent BM defects were observed and accompanied by neuronal overmigration. Although collagen III is expressed in meningeal fibroblasts (MFs, Col3a1⁻/⁻ MFs present no obvious defects. Furthermore, the expression and posttranslational modification of α-dystroglycan was undisturbed in Col3a1⁻/⁻ mice. Based on the previous finding that mutations in COL3A1 cause type IV EDS, our study indicates a possible common pathological pathway linking connective tissue diseases and brain malformations.

  4. A type IV modification-dependent restriction enzyme SauUSI from Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus USA300.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shuang-Yong; Corvaglia, Anna R; Chan, Siu-Hong; Zheng, Yu; Linder, Patrick

    2011-07-01

    A gene encoding a putative DNA helicase from Staphylococcus aureus USA300 was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The protein was purified to over 90% purity by chromatography. The purified enzyme, SauUSI, predominantly cleaves modified DNA containing 5mC and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine. Cleavage of 5mC-modified plasmids indicated that the sites S5mCNGS (S = C or G) are preferentially digested. The endonuclease activity requires the presence of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) or dATP whereas the non-hydrolyzable γ-S-ATP does not support activity. SauUSI activity was inhibited by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. It is most active in Mg(++) buffers. No companion methylase gene was found near the SauUSI restriction gene. The absence of a cognate methylase and cleavage of modified DNA indicate that SauUSI belongs to type IV restriction endonucleases, a group that includes EcoK McrBC and Mrr. SauUSI belongs to a family of highly similar homologs found in other sequenced S. aureus, S. epidermidis and S. carnosus genomes. More distant SauUSI orthologs can be found in over 150 sequenced bacterial/archaea genomes. Finally, we demonstrated the biological function of the type IV REase in restricting 5mC-modified plasmid DNA by transformation into clinical S. aureus strain SA564, and in restricting phage λ infection when the endonuclease is expressed in E. coli.

  5. ESCRT-Dependent Cell Death in a Caenorhabditis elegans Model of the Lysosomal Storage Disorder Mucolipidosis Type IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Julie M; Dang, Hope; Munoz-Tucker, Isabel A; O'Ketch, Marvin; Liu, Ian T; Perno, Savannah; Bhuyan, Natasha; Crain, Allison; Borbon, Ivan; Fares, Hanna

    2016-02-01

    Mutations in MCOLN1, which encodes the cation channel protein TRPML1, result in the neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorder Mucolipidosis type IV. Mucolipidosis type IV patients show lysosomal dysfunction in many tissues and neuronal cell death. The ortholog of TRPML1 in Caenorhabditis elegans is CUP-5; loss of CUP-5 results in lysosomal dysfunction in many tissues and death of developing intestinal cells that results in embryonic lethality. We previously showed that a null mutation in the ATP-Binding Cassette transporter MRP-4 rescues the lysosomal defect and embryonic lethality of cup-5(null) worms. Here we show that reducing levels of the Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport (ESCRT)-associated proteins DID-2, USP-50, and ALX-1/EGO-2, which mediate the final de-ubiquitination step of integral membrane proteins being sequestered into late endosomes, also almost fully suppresses cup-5(null) mutant lysosomal defects and embryonic lethality. Indeed, we show that MRP-4 protein is hypo-ubiquitinated in the absence of CUP-5 and that reducing levels of ESCRT-associated proteins suppresses this hypo-ubiquitination. Thus, increased ESCRT-associated de-ubiquitinating activity mediates the lysosomal defects and corresponding cell death phenotypes in the absence of CUP-5.

  6. Cementless total hip arthroplasty with modified oblique femoral shortening osteotomy in Crowe type IV congenital hip dislocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiliçoğlu, Onder İ; Türker, Mehmet; Akgül, Turgut; Yazicioğlu, Onder

    2013-01-01

    Midterm results of cementless total hip arthroplasty in patients with Crowe type IV congenital dislocation of the hip were evaluated. A modified oblique subtrochanteric shortening osteotomy was used in all patients. A cylindrical femoral stem was used in all patients to stabilize the osteotomy. Mean follow-up was 82 months in 20 hips of 16 patients. Mean Merle D'Aubigné pain score increased from 2.52 to 5.65 points, function score improved from 4.0 to 5.3 points, and mobility score improved from 3.95 to 5.35. Mean greater trochanter height relative to the estimated hip center was 6.8 ± 2.0 cm preoperatively and -1 ± 0.2 cm postoperatively. Complications were dislocations in 3 patients, which were successfully managed without redislocation and fracture of greater trochanter in 3 patients, which healed uneventfully in 2 but with residual Trendelenburg gait in one. Total hip arthroplasty with modified oblique subtrochanteric shortening osteotomy is an effective technique for the treatment for Crowe type IV hip dislocation.

  7. Analyses of Bifurcations and Stability in a Predator-prey System with Holling Type-IV Functional Response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji-cai Huang; Dong-mei Xiao

    2004-01-01

    In this paper the dynamical behaviors of a predator-prey system with Holling Type-IV functional response are investigated in detail by using the analyses of qualitative method,bifurcation theory,and numerical simulation.The qualitative analyses and numerical simulation for the model indicate that it has a unique stable limit cycle.The bifurcation analyses of the system exhibit static and dynamical bifurcations including saddlenode bifurcation,Hopf bifurcation,homoclinic bifurcation and bifurcation of cusp-type with codimension two(ie,the Bogdanov-Takens bifurcation),and we show the existence of codimension three degenerated equilibrium and the existence of homoclinic orbit by using numerical simulation.

  8. [Myocardial infarction by spontaneous dissection of coronary arteries in a subject with type IV Ehlers-Danlos syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catanese, V; Venot, P; Lemesle, F; Delille, F; Runge, I; Kuchly, B

    1995-10-07

    Acute myocardial infarction with spontaneous coronary dissection was fatal in a 33-years-old man. Autopsy and family history revealed type IV Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. In this disease, conjunctive tissue is fragilized due to a deficit in type III collagen which leads to spontaneous ruptures in large and medium sized arteries. The present case is the first with a proven rupture of the coronary arteries. This disease should be entertained in young people with no atherogenous risk factor and an acute coronary disorder since peripheral skin and joint syndromes may be discreet or missing. Treatment is difficult in case of spontaneous coronary dissection. Thrombolysis is not possible and diagnosis may require angiography which is in itself dangerous due to the fragility of the coronary vessels.

  9. The involvement of the PilQ secretin of type IV pili in phage infection in Ralstonia solanacearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narulita, Erlia; Addy, Hardian Susilo; Kawasaki, Takeru; Fujie, Makoto; Yamada, Takashi

    2016-01-22

    PilQ is a member of the secretin family of outer membrane proteins and specifically involved in type IV secretion. Here we report the effects of pilQ mutation in Ralstonia solanacearum on the host physiology including susceptibility to several phage types (Inoviridae, Podoviridae and Myoviridae). With three lines of cells, namely wild type, ΔpilQ and pilQ-complemented cells, the cell surface proteins, twitching motility and sensitivity to phages were compared. SDS-PAGE analysis revealed that the major TFP pilin (PilA) was specifically lost in pilQ mutants and was recovered in the complemented cells. Drastically inactivated twitching motility in pilQ mutants was recovered to the wild type level in the complemented cells. Several phages of different types including those of Inoviridae, Podoviridae, and Myoviridae that infect wild type cells could not form plaques on pilQ mutants but showed infectivity to pilQ-complemented cells. These results indicate that PilQ function is generally required for phage infection in R. solanacearum.

  10. The extracellular matrix of Gadus morhua muscle contains types III, V, VI and IV collagens in addition to type I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brüggemann, Dagmar Adeline; Lawson, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    Confocal microscopy and immuno‐histochemistry were used to examine collagens in the extracellular matrix of cod Gadus morhua swimming muscle. In addition to the well known presence of type I fibrous collagen, types III and VI were also found in the myocommata and the endomysium. The beaded collagen...

  11. Altered spatiotemporal expression of collagen types I, III, IV, and VI in Lpar3-deficient peri-implantation mouse uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Honglu; Aplin, John D; Xiao, Shuo; Chun, Jerold; Li, Zuguo; Chen, Shiyou; Ye, Xiaoqin

    2011-02-01

    Lpar3 is upregulated in the preimplantation uterus, and deletion of Lpar3 leads to delayed uterine receptivity in mice. Microarray analysis revealed that there was higher expression of Col3a1 and Col6a3 in the Preimplantation Day 3.5 Lpar3(-/-) uterus compared to Day 3.5 wild-type (WT) uterus. Since extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling is indispensable during embryo implantation, and dynamic spatiotemporal alteration of specific collagen types is part of this process, this study aimed to characterize the expression of four main uterine collagen types: fibril-forming collagen (COL) I and COL III, basement membrane COL IV, and microfibrillar COL VI in the peri-implantation WT and Lpar3(-/-) uterus. An observed delay of COL III and COL VI clearance in the Lpar3(-/-) uterus may be associated with higher preimplantation expression of Col3a1 and Col6a3. There was also delayed clearance of COL I and delayed deposition of COL IV in the decidual zone in the Lpar3(-/-) uterus. These changes were different from the effects of 17beta-estradiol and progesterone on uterine collagen expression in ovariectomized WT uterus, indicating that the altered collagen expression in Lpar3(-/-) uterus is unlikely to be a result of alterations in ovarian hormones. Decreased expression of several genes encoding matrix-degrading metallo- and serine proteinases was observed in the Lpar3(-/-) uterus. These results demonstrate that pathways downstream of LPA3 are involved in the dynamic remodeling of ECM in the peri-implantation uterus.

  12. A type IV osteogenesis imperfecta family and pregnancy: a case report and literature review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Zhao-yi; CHEN Qian; SHI Chun-yan; WEN Hong-wu; MA Ke; YANG Hui-xia

    2012-01-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta is a group of inherited connective-tissue disorders in which synthesis or structure of type Ⅰ collagen is defective and causes osseous fragility.Type Ⅳ osteogenesis imperfecta is dominant inheritance.Here,we report a case of type Ⅳ osteogenesis imperfecta family and their female member's pregnancy.Abnormal sonographic findings (marked bowing and shortening of long bones) and family history made the diagnosis of fetus with osteogenesis imperfecta.The parents decided to give up rescuing the infant and a caesarean section at 27 weeks of gestation was implemented.n conclusion,it is possible to make a prenatal diagnosis of osteogenesis imperfecta by ultrasound.For the pregnant women with osteogenesis imperfecta,management decision should be made on an individual basis.

  13. Massive stars exploding in a He-rich circumstellar medium - IV. Transitional Type Ibn supernovae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pastorello, A.; Benetti, S.; Brown, P. J.

    2015-01-01

    We present ultraviolet, optical and near-infrared data of the Type Ibn supernovae (SNe) 2010al and 2011hw. SN 2010al reaches an absolute magnitude at peak of M-R = -18.86 +/- 0.21. Its early light curve shows similarities with normal SNe Ib, with a rise to maximum slower than most SNe Ibn. The sp...

  14. Physeal fractures of the distal tibia and fibula (Salter-Harris Type I, II, III, and IV fractures).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podeszwa, David A; Mubarak, Scott J

    2012-06-01

    Physeal fractures of the distal tibia and fibula are common and can be seen at any age, although most are seen in the adolescent. An understanding of the unique anatomy of the skeletally immature ankle in relation to the mechanism of injury will help one understand the injury patterns seen in this population. A thorough clinical exam is critical to the diagnosis and treatment of these injuries and the avoidance of potentially catastrophic complications. Nondisplaced physeal fractures of the distal tibia and fibula can be safely treated nonoperatively. Displaced fractures should undergo a gentle reduction with appropriate anesthesia while multiple reduction attempts should be avoided. Gapping of the physis >3 mm after reduction should raise the suspicion of entrapped periosteum that will increase the risk of premature physeal closure. Open reduction of displaced Salter-Harris type III and IV fractures is critical to maintain joint congruity and minimize the risk of physeal arrest.

  15. The BID Domain of Type IV Secretion Substrates Forms a Conserved Four-Helix Bundle Topped with a Hook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanger, Frédéric V; de Beer, Tjaart A P; Dranow, David M; Schirmer, Tilman; Phan, Isabelle; Dehio, Christoph

    2017-01-03

    The BID (Bep intracellular delivery) domain functions as secretion signal in a subfamily of protein substrates of bacterial type IV secretion (T4S) systems. It mediates transfer of (1) relaxases and the attached DNA during bacterial conjugation, and (2) numerous Bartonella effector proteins (Beps) during protein transfer into host cells infected by pathogenic Bartonella species. Furthermore, BID domains of Beps have often evolved secondary effector functions within host cells. Here, we provide crystal structures for three representative BID domains and describe a novel conserved fold characterized by a compact, antiparallel four-helix bundle topped with a hook. The conserved hydrophobic core provides a rigid scaffold to a surface that, despite a few conserved exposed residues and similarities in charge distribution, displays significant variability. We propose that the genuine function of BID domains as T4S signal may primarily depend on their rigid structure, while the plasticity of their surface may facilitate adaptation to secondary effector functions.

  16. Intimal aortic sarcoma mimicking ruptured thoracoabdominal type IV aneurysm. a rare case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedeilias Panagiotis

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Primary intimal aortic sarcoma represents a very rare and highly lethal medical entity. Diagnosis is made either by embolic events caused by the tumor or by surrounding tissue symptoms such as pain. Herein we report an extremely rare case of a 51-year-old man previously operated for ascending aortic aneurysm, who presented with clinical and radiological findings suggestive of a ruptured thoracoabdominal type IV aneurysm. The patient underwent radical resection of the aorta and surrounding tissue with placement of a composite 4-branched graft. The diagnosis was made by frozen section and regular histopathologic examination of the specimen and the patient received adjuvant chemotherapy. Nine months after surgery the patient is still alive and has no signs of recurrence. We review the literature and discuss the option of postoperative chemotherapy.

  17. Diagnostic value of serum type IV collagen in hepatic fibrosis%血清IV型胶原在肝纤维化诊断中的意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小维; 苌新明

    2000-01-01

    目的研究血清IV型胶原(IV-C)在诊断肝纤维化中的意义。方法以放免分析法检测正常对照者(NC)及慢性肝病患者血清IV-C浓度,并与Ⅲ型前胶原(PCⅢ)比较。结果各慢性肝病组血清IV-C、PCⅢ浓度均显著高于NC组(P均<0.01)。血清IV-C浓度在重度慢性肝炎(CH)组显著高于轻、中度CH组(P均<0.01),活动性肝硬变(LC)组显著高于静止性LC组(P<0.05)。血清IV-C与PCⅢ在CH组及LC组中均呈显著性正相关(CH组γ=0.7023,LC组γ=0.5878,P均<0.001)。结论血清IV-C浓度可反映肝纤维化的活动程度。%Objective To study the diagnostic value of serum type IV collagen(IV-C) in hepatic fibrosis. Methods Serum IV-C levels were detected by using radioimmunoassay(RIA) and were compared with serum type Ⅲ procollagen(PCⅢ ) levels in normal controls(NC) and patients with chronic liver diseases. Results Serum IV-C and PCⅢ levels in patients with chronic liver diseases were all much higher than those in NC(P < 0.01, totally). Serum IV-C level in severe chronic hepa titis(CH) group was significantly higher than those in mild and median CH groups (P<0.01 total ly), and that in active liver cirrhosis(LC) group was significantly higher than that in static LC group (P<0.05). There were significant positive correlation between serum IV-C level and serum PcⅢ level both in CH group and in LC group ( in CH γ=0.7023, in LC γ=0. 5878, P<0. 001).Conclusion Serum IV-C level could reflect the activity of hepatic fibrogenesis.

  18. Effect of immobilized collagen type IV on biological properties of endothelial cells for the enhanced endothelialization of synthetic vascular graft materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Yunhoe; Shin, Young Min; Lee, Yu Bin; Lim, Youn Mook; Shin, Heungsoo

    2015-10-01

    Regeneration of healthy endothelium onto vascular graft materials is imperative for prevention of intimal hyperplasia and thrombogenesis. In this study, we investigated the effect of collagen type IV (COL-IV) immobilized onto electrospun nanofibers on modulation of endothelial cell (EC) function, as a potential signal to rapid endothelialization of vascular grafts. COL-IV is assembled in basement membrane underneath intimal layer and regulates morphogenesis of blood vessels. For immobilization of COL-IV, poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) nanofibers (PL) were prepared as a model vascular graft substrate, onto which acrylic acid (AAc) was then grafted by using gamma-ray irradiation. AAc graft was dependent on irradiation doses and AAc concentrations, which allowed us to select the condition of 5% (v/v) AAc and 10 kGy for further conjugation of COL-IV. COL-IV immobilization was proportionally controlled as a function of its concentration. Atomic force microscope (AFM) analysis qualitatively supported immobilization of COL-IV, demonstrating increase in root mean square roughness of the PL from 665.37 ± 13.20 nm to 1440.74 ± 33.24. However, the Young's modulus of nanofibers was retained as approximately 1 MPa, regardless of surface modification. The number of ECs attached on the nanofibers with immobilized COL-IV was significantly increased by 5 times (1052 ± 138 cells/mm(2)) from pristine PL (234 ± 41 cells/mm(2)). In addition, the effect of immobilized COL-IV was profound for enhancing proliferation and up-regulation of markers implicated in rapid endothelialization. Collectively, our results suggest that COL-IV immobilized onto electrospun PLLA nanofibers may serve as a promising instructive cue used in vascular graft materials.

  19. Implementation of GLP-1 based therapy of type 2 diabetes mellitus using DPP-IV inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jens Juul

    2003-01-01

    proliferation of existing beta cells, maturation of new cells from duct progenitor cells and inhibition of apoptosis. Furthermore glucagon secretion is inhibited. Because of these effects, the hormone effectively improves metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, continuous administration...... and promotes tissue deposition of ingested glucose by stimulating insulin secretion. Thus, it is an essential incretin hormone. In addition, the hormone has been demonstrated to promote insulin biosynthesis and insulin gene expression and to have trophic effects on the beta cells. The trophic effects include...

  20. Calcitonin gene-related peptide regulates type IV hypersensitivity through dendritic cell functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norihisa Mikami

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs play essential roles in both innate and adaptive immune responses. In addition, mutual regulation of the nervous system and immune system is well studied. One of neuropeptides, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP, is a potent regulator in immune responses; in particular, it has anti-inflammatory effects in innate immunity. For instance, a deficiency of the CGRP receptor component RAMP 1 (receptor activity-modifying protein 1 results in higher cytokine production in response to LPS (lipopolysaccharide. On the other hand, how CGRP affects DCs in adaptive immunity is largely unknown. In this study, we show that CGRP suppressed Th1 cell differentiation via inhibition of IL-12 production in DCs using an in vitro co-culture system and an in vivo ovalbumin-induced delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH model. CGRP also down-regulated the expressions of chemokine receptor CCR2 and its ligands CCL2 and CCL12 in DCs. Intriguingly, the frequency of migrating CCR2(+ DCs in draining lymph nodes of RAMP1-deficient mice was higher after DTH immunization. Moreover, these CCR2(+ DCs highly expressed IL-12 and CD80, resulting in more effective induction of Th1 differentiation compared with CCR2(- DCs. These results indicate that CGRP regulates Th1 type reactions by regulating expression of cytokines, chemokines, and chemokine receptors in DCs.

  1. Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV inhibitors and glycemic control in type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lokendra Bahadur Sapkota

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is a progressive disease, characterized by insulin resistance, impaired glucose-induced insulin secretion, inappropriately elevated glucagon concentrations, and hyperglycemia. Many patients cannot obtain satisfactory glycemic control with current therapies. New and more effective agents, targeted not only at treatment, but also at prevention of the disease, its progression, and its associated complications, are, therefore, required. The dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4 inhibitors are a newer class of oral drugs for the treatment of T2DM. They inhibit the breakdown of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP thereby increasing the incretin effect in patients with T2DM. In clinical practice they are associated with significant reductions in HbA1c, no weight gain and a low risk of hypoglycemia. Since incretin response is markedly diminished in Asian populations, these agents can be used to achieve satisfactory glycemic control in Nepalese T2DM patients.JCMS Nepal. 2016;12(1:28-32.

  2. IFU spectroscopy of 10 early-type galactic nuclei - IV. Properties of the circumnuclear stellar kinematics

    CERN Document Server

    Ricci, T V; Menezes, R B

    2016-01-01

    The study of stellar kinematic properties may provide hints on the formation and evolution of elliptical and lenticular galaxies. Although most previous studies have focused on the large scale of these galaxies, their central regions (scales of $\\sim$ 100 pc) may contain important clues about their structure, such as kinematically decoupled cores. This is the fourth paper on a sample of 10 massive ($\\sigma$ $>$ 200 km s$^{-1}$) and nearby ($d$ $<$ 31 Mpc) early-type galaxies, observed with the integral field unit of the Gemini South Multi Object Spectrograph. Here, we analyse the properties of the stellar kinematics in the circumnuclear region. We fitted the line-of-sight velocity distribution with a Gauss-Hermite function. In seven galaxies of the sample, we detected a rotation pattern in their radial velocity maps that are anti-correlated with $h_3$. We interpret this as stellar structures in rotation embedded in the bulges of the objects. Comparing the stellar kinematic results with the PCA Tomography r...

  3. SVBR-100 module-type fast reactor of the IV generation for regional power industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zrodnikov, A. V.; Toshinsky, G. I.; Komlev, O. G.; Stepanov, V. S.; Klimov, N. N.

    2011-08-01

    In the report the following is presented: basic conceptual provisions of the innovative nuclear power technology (NPT) based on modular fast reactors (FR) SVBR-100, summarized results of calculations of the reactor, analysis of the opportunities of multi-purpose application of such reactor facilities (RF) including export potentials with due account of nonproliferation requirements. The most important features of the proposed NPT analyzed in the report are as follows: (1) integral (monoblock) arrangement of the primary circuit equipment with entire elimination of the primary circuit pipelines and valves that considerably reduces the construction and assembly works period and coupling with high boiling point of lead-bismuth coolant (LBC) deterministically eliminates accidents of the LOCA type, (2) option for 100 MWe power and dimensions of the reactor provide: on the one hand, an opportunity to transport the reactor monoblock in factory-readiness by railway as well as other kinds of transport, on the other hand, core breeding ratio (CBR) exceeds 1 while MOX-fuel is used. The preferable area of application of RF SVBR-100 is regional and small power requiring power-units of electric power in a range of (100-600) MW, which could be used for cogeneration-based district heating while locating them nearby cities as well as for generation of electric power in a mode of load tracking in the regions with low network systems.

  4. Early-type galaxies at z~1.3. IV. Scaling relations in different environments

    CERN Document Server

    Raichoor, A; Stanford, S A; Holden, B P; Nakata, F; Rosati, P; Shankar, F; Ford, H; Huertas-Company, M; Illingworth, G; Kodama, T; Postman, M; Rettura, A; Blakeslee, J P; Demarco, R; Jee, M J; Tanaka, M; White, R L

    2011-01-01

    We present the Kormendy and mass-size relations for early-type galaxies (ETGs) as a function of environment at z ~ 1.3. Our sample includes 76 ETGs in the Lynx supercluster and in the GOODS/CDF-S field, 31 ETGs in clusters, 18 in groups and 27 in the field, all with multi-wavelength photometry and HST/ACS observations and masses in the range 10^10 < M/Msun < 10^11.5. The Kormendy relation, in place at z ~ 1.3, does not depend on the environment. The mass-size relation reveals that ETGs overall appear to be more compact in denser environments: cluster ETGs have sizes on average twice as smaller than in the local universe, whereas field ETGs show a mass-size relation with a similar distribution than the local one. Our results imply that (1) the mass-size relation in the field did not evolve overall from z ~ 1.3 to present; (2) in denser environments, either ETGs sizes have evolved on average to twice their size, or more ETGs have been formed within the dense environment from not ETG progenitors or larger ...

  5. EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES AT z {approx} 1.3. IV. SCALING RELATIONS IN DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raichoor, A.; Mei, S.; Huertas-Company, M. [GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, Section de Meudon, 92190 Meudon Cedex (France); Stanford, S. A.; Rettura, A.; Jee, M. J. [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Holden, B. P.; Illingworth, G. [UCO/Lick Observatories, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95065 (United States); Nakata, F.; Kodama, T. [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Rosati, P. [European South Observatory, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Shankar, F. [Max-Planck-Instituet fuer Astrophysik, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Tanaka, M. [Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, The University of Tokyo, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Ford, H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Postman, M.; White, R. L. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Blakeslee, J. P. [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council of Canada, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Demarco, R., E-mail: anand.raichoor@brera.inaf.it [Department of Astronomy, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion (Chile)

    2012-02-01

    We present the Kormendy and mass-size relations (MSR) for early-type galaxies (ETGs) as a function of environment at z {approx} 1.3. Our sample includes 76 visually classified ETGs with masses 10{sup 10} < M/M{sub Sun} < 10{sup 11.5}, selected in the Lynx supercluster and in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey/Chandra Deep Field South field; 31 ETGs in clusters, 18 in groups, and 27 in the field, all with multi-wavelength photometry and Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys observations. The Kormendy relation, in place at z {approx} 1.3, does not depend on the environment. The MSR reveals that ETGs overall appear to be more compact in denser environments: cluster ETGs have sizes on average around 30%-50% smaller than those of the local universe and a distribution with a smaller scatter, whereas field ETGs show an MSR with a similar distribution to the local one. Our results imply that (1) the MSR in the field did not evolve overall from z {approx} 1.3 to present; this is interesting and in contrast to the trend found at higher masses from previous works; (2) in denser environments, either ETGs have increased in size by 30%-50% on average and spread their distributions, or more ETGs have been formed within the dense environment from non-ETG progenitors, or larger galaxies have been accreted to a pristine compact population to reproduce the MSR observed in the local universe. Our results are driven by galaxies with masses M {approx}< 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} M{sub Sun} and those with masses M {approx} 10{sup 11} M{sub Sun} follow the same trends as that of the entire sample. Following the Valentinuzzi et al. definition of superdense ETGs, {approx}35%-45% of our cluster sample is made up of superdense ETGs.

  6. Photometric Properties for Selected Algol-type Binaries. IV. AV Hydrae and DZ Cassiopeiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.-G.; Li, L.-H.; Dai, H.-F.

    2012-08-01

    We present BVR photometric observations and several eclipsing times for AV Hya and DZ Cas from 2004 to 2011. Using the Wilson-Devinney method, the photometric solutions with hot spots were deduced from their asymmetric light curves. The results indicate that both stars are Algol-type binaries, whose mass ratio, q ph, and fill-out factor of the primary, f 1, are q ph = 0.255(± 0.002) and f 1 = 81.2(± 0.2)% for AV Hya, and q ph = 0.093(± 0.003) and f 1 = 98.7(± 0.3)% for DZ Cas. Based on all available light minimum times, it is discovered that the O - C curve of each star could be described by a light-time orbit overlying on a downward parabola. Their periods and amplitudes are P 3 = 37.2(± 0.7) yr and A = 0fd0095(±0fd0006) for AV Hya, and P 3 = 62.5(± 1.0) yr and A = 0fd0183(±0fd0007) for DZ Cas. Cyclic variations may result from the light-time effect due to the third body. The secular period decrease rates are dP/dt = -1.47(± 0.04) × 10-7 days yr-1 for AV Hya and dP/dt = -0.92(± 0.04) × 10-7 days yr-1 for DZ Cas. This may be interpreted using mass and angular momentum loss from the system. With decreasing period, the fill-out factor of the primary increases and it may finally fill its inner Roche lobe. Therefore, AV Hya and DZ Cas with a secular period decrease will evolve from semi-detached configurations into contact ones.

  7. PHOTOMETRIC PROPERTIES FOR SELECTED ALGOL-TYPE BINARIES. IV. AV HYDRAE AND DZ CASSIOPEIAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Y.-G.; Dai, H.-F. [School of Physics and Electronic Information, Huaibei Normal University, 235000 Huaibei, Anhui Province (China); Li, L.-H., E-mail: yygcn@163.com [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100012 Beijing (China)

    2012-08-15

    We present BVR photometric observations and several eclipsing times for AV Hya and DZ Cas from 2004 to 2011. Using the Wilson-Devinney method, the photometric solutions with hot spots were deduced from their asymmetric light curves. The results indicate that both stars are Algol-type binaries, whose mass ratio, q{sub ph}, and fill-out factor of the primary, f{sub 1}, are q{sub ph} = 0.255({+-} 0.002) and f{sub 1} = 81.2({+-} 0.2)% for AV Hya, and q{sub ph} = 0.093({+-} 0.003) and f{sub 1} = 98.7({+-} 0.3)% for DZ Cas. Based on all available light minimum times, it is discovered that the O - C curve of each star could be described by a light-time orbit overlying on a downward parabola. Their periods and amplitudes are P{sub 3} = 37.2({+-} 0.7) yr and A = 0fd0095({+-}0fd0006) for AV Hya, and P{sub 3} = 62.5({+-} 1.0) yr and A = 0fd0183({+-}0fd0007) for DZ Cas. Cyclic variations may result from the light-time effect due to the third body. The secular period decrease rates are dP/dt = -1.47({+-} 0.04) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} days yr{sup -1} for AV Hya and dP/dt = -0.92({+-} 0.04) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} days yr{sup -1} for DZ Cas. This may be interpreted using mass and angular momentum loss from the system. With decreasing period, the fill-out factor of the primary increases and it may finally fill its inner Roche lobe. Therefore, AV Hya and DZ Cas with a secular period decrease will evolve from semi-detached configurations into contact ones.

  8. Lack of association of the HMGA1 IVS5-13insC variant with type 2 diabetes in an ethnically diverse hypertensive case control cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karnes Jason H

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, the high-mobility group A1 gene (HMGA1 variant IVS5-13insC has been associated with type 2 diabetes, but reported associations are inconsistent and data are lacking in Hispanic and African American populations. We sought to investigate the HMGA1-diabetes association and to characterize IVS5-13insC allele frequencies and linkage disequilibrium (LD in 3,070 Caucasian, Hispanic, and African American patients from the INternational VErapamil SR-Trandolapril STudy (INVEST. Methods INVEST was a randomized, multicenter trial comparing two antihypertensive treatment strategies in an ethnically diverse cohort of hypertensive, coronary artery disease patients. Controls, who were diabetes-free throughout the study, and type 2 diabetes cases, either prevalent or incident, were genotyped for IVS5-13insC using Taqman®, confirmed with Pyrosequencing and Sanger sequencing. For LD analysis, genotyping for eight additional HMGA1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs was performed using the Illumina® HumanCVD BeadChip. We used logistic regression to test association of the HMGA1 IVS5-13insC and diabetes, adjusted for age, gender, body mass index, and percentage European, African, and Native American ancestry. Results We observed IVS5-13insC minor allele frequencies consistent with previous literature in Caucasians and African Americans (0.03 in cases and 0.04 in controls for both race/ethnic groups, and higher frequencies in Hispanics (0.07 in cases and 0.07 in controls. The IVS5-13insC was not associated with type 2 diabetes overall (odds ratio 0.98 [0.76-1.26], p=0.88 or in any race/ethnic group. Pairwise LD (r2 of IVS5-13insC and rs9394200, a SNP previously used as a tag SNP for IVS5-13insC, was low (r2=0.47 in Caucasians, r2=0.25 in Hispanics, and r2=0.06 in African Americans. Furthermore, in silico analysis suggested a lack of functional consequences for the IVS5-13insC variant. Conclusions Our results suggest that IVS5-13ins

  9. Arctigenin, a phenylpropanoid dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan, inhibits type I-IV allergic inflammation and pro-inflammatory enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Yun; Kim, Chang Jong

    2010-06-01

    We previously reported that arctigenin, a phenylpropanoid dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan isolated from Forsythia koreana, exhibits anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and analgesic effects in animal models. In addition, arctigenin inhibited eosinophil peroxidase and activated myeloperoxidase in inflamed tissues. In this study, we tested the effects of arctigenin on type I-IV allergic inflammation and pro-inflammatory enzymes in vitro and in vivo. Arctigenin significantly inhibited the heterologous passive cutaneous anaphylaxis induced by ovalbumin in mice at 15 mg/kg, p.o., and compound 48/80-induced histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells at 10 microM. Arctigenin (15 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly inhibited reversed cutaneous anaphylaxis. Further, arctigenin (15 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly inhibited the Arthus reaction to sheep's red blood cells, decreasing the hemolysis titer, the hemagglutination titer, and the plaque-forming cell number for SRBCs. In addition, arctigenin significantly inhibited delayed type hypersensitivity at 15 mg/kg, p.o. and the formation of rosette-forming cells at 45 mg/kg, p.o. Contact dermatitis induced by picrylchloride and dinitrofluorobenzene was significantly (p arctigenin (0.3 mg/ear). Furthermore, arctigenin dose-dependently inhibited pro-inflammatory enzymes, such as cyclooxygenase-1 and 2, 5-lipoxygenase, phospholipase A2, and phosphodiesterase. Our results show that arctigenin significantly inhibited B- and T-cell mediated allergic inflammation as well as pro-inflammatory enzymes.

  10. Fusion of lysosomes with secretory organelles leads to uncontrolled exocytosis in the lysosomal storage disease mucolipidosis type IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soonhong; Ahuja, Malini; Kim, Min Seuk; Brailoiu, G Cristina; Jha, Archana; Zeng, Mei; Baydyuk, Maryna; Wu, Ling-Gang; Wassif, Christopher A; Porter, Forbes D; Zerfas, Patricia M; Eckhaus, Michael A; Brailoiu, Eugen; Shin, Dong Min; Muallem, Shmuel

    2016-02-01

    Mutations in TRPML1 cause the lysosomal storage disease mucolipidosis type IV (MLIV). The role of TRPML1 in cell function and how the mutations cause the disease are not well understood. Most studies focus on the role of TRPML1 in constitutive membrane trafficking to and from the lysosomes. However, this cannot explain impaired neuromuscular and secretory cells' functions that mediate regulated exocytosis. Here, we analyzed several forms of regulated exocytosis in a mouse model of MLIV and, opposite to expectations, we found enhanced exocytosis in secretory glands due to enlargement of secretory granules in part due to fusion with lysosomes. Preliminary exploration of synaptic vesicle size, spontaneous mEPSCs, and glutamate secretion in neurons provided further evidence for enhanced exocytosis that was rescued by re-expression of TRPML1 in neurons. These features were not observed in Niemann-Pick type C1. These findings suggest that TRPML1 may guard against pathological fusion of lysosomes with secretory organelles and suggest a new approach toward developing treatment for MLIV.

  11. MMP Mediated Degradation of Type IV Collagen Alpha 1 and Alpha 3 Chains Reflects Basement Membrane Remodeling in Experimental and Clinical Fibrosis - Validation of Two Novel Biomarker Assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sand, Jannie Marie; Larsen, Lise Skakkebæk; Hogaboam, Cory;

    2013-01-01

    Fibrosis is characterized by excessive tissue remodeling resulting from altered expression of various growth factors, cytokines and proteases. We hypothesized that matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) mediated degradation of type IV collagen, a main component of the basement membrane, will release...... peptide fragments (neo-epitopes) into the circulation. Here we present the development of two competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for assessing the levels of specific fragments of type IV collagen α1 (C4M12a1) and α3 (C4M12a3) chains in serum as indicators of fibrosis....

  12. Y-configured metallic stent combined with (125)I seed strands cavity brachytherapy for a patient with type IV Klatskin tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechao, Jiao; Han, Xinwei; Yanli, Wang; Zhen, Li

    2016-08-01

    We report a case in an inoperable patient with type IV Klatskin tumor treated by the use of a novel, two piece, Y-configured self-expandable metallic stent (SEMS) combined with two (125)I seed strands via bilateral approach. The placement of the Y-shaped SEMS was successful and resulted in adequate biliary drainage. After 2 months of intraluminal brachytherapy (ILBT), both (125)I seed strands and temporary drainage catheter were removed after patency of the expanded stents was confirmed by the cholangiogram. This technique was feasible and could be considered for the treatment of patients with Bismuth type IV Klatskin tumors.

  13. Y-configured metallic stent combined with 125I seed strands cavity brachytherapy for a patient with type IV Klatskin tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechao, Jiao; Yanli, Wang; Zhen, Li

    2016-01-01

    We report a case in an inoperable patient with type IV Klatskin tumor treated by the use of a novel, two piece, Y-configured self-expandable metallic stent (SEMS) combined with two 125I seed strands via bilateral approach. The placement of the Y-shaped SEMS was successful and resulted in adequate biliary drainage. After 2 months of intraluminal brachytherapy (ILBT), both 125I seed strands and temporary drainage catheter were removed after patency of the expanded stents was confirmed by the cholangiogram. This technique was feasible and could be considered for the treatment of patients with Bismuth type IV Klatskin tumors. PMID:27648091

  14. Assessment of proteolytic degradation of the basement membrane: a fragment of type IV collagen as a biochemical marker for liver fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veidal, Sanne S.; Karsdal, Morten A.; Nawrocki, Arkadiusz

    2011-01-01

    by proteases produces small fragments, so-called neoepitopes, which are released systemically. Technologies investigating MMP-generated fragments of collagens may provide more useful information than traditional serological assays that crudely measure total protein. In the present study, we developed an ELISA......Collagen deposition and an altered matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression profile are hallmarks of fibrosis. Type IV collagen is the most abundant structural basement membrane component of tissue, which increases 14-fold during fibrogenesis in the liver. Proteolytic degradation of collagens...... for the quantification of a neoepitope generated by MMP degradation of type IV collagen and evaluated the association of this neoepitope with liver fibrosis in two animal models....

  15. Displacement of the predominant dengue virus from type 2 to type 1 with a subsequent genotype shift from IV to I in Surabaya, Indonesia 2008-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Yamanaka

    Full Text Available Indonesia has annually experienced approximately 100,000 reported cases of dengue fever (DF and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF in recent years. However, epidemiological surveys of dengue viruses (DENVs have been limited in this country. In Surabaya, the second largest city, a single report indicated that dengue virus type 2 (DENV2 was the predominant circulating virus in 2003-2005. We conducted three surveys in Surabaya during: (i April 2007, (ii June 2008 to April 2009, and (iii September 2009 to December 2010. A total of 231 isolates were obtained from dengue patients and examined by PCR typing. We found that the predominant DENV shifted from type 2 to type 1 between October and November 2008. Another survey using wild-caught mosquitoes in April 2009 confirmed that dengue type 1 virus (DENV1 was the predominant type in Surabaya. Phylogenetic analyses of the nucleotide sequences of the complete envelope gene of DENV1 indicated that all 22 selected isolates in the second survey belonged to genotype IV and all 17 selected isolates in the third survey belonged to genotype I, indicating a genotype shift between April and September 2009. Furthermore, in December 2010, isolates were grouped into a new clade of DENV1 genotype I, suggesting clade shift between September and December 2010. According to statistics reported by the Surabaya Health Office, the proportion of DHF cases among the total number of dengue cases increased about three times after the type shift in 2008. In addition, the subsequent genotype shift in 2009 was associated with the increased number of total dengue cases. This indicates the need for continuous surveillance of circulating viruses to predict the risk of DHF and DF.

  16. NMR studies demonstrate a unique AAB composition and chain register for a heterotrimeric type IV collagen model peptide containing a natural interruption site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jianxi; Sun, Xiuxia; Madhan, Balaraman; Brodsky, Barbara; Baum, Jean

    2015-10-02

    All non-fibrillar collagens contain interruptions in the (Gly-X-Y)n repeating sequence, such as the more than 20 interruptions found in chains of basement membrane type IV collagen. Two selectively doubly labeled peptides are designed to model a site in type IV collagen with a GVG interruption in the α1(IV) and a corresponding GISLK sequence within the α2(IV) chain. CD and NMR studies on a 2:1 mixture of these two peptides support the formation of a single-component heterotrimer that maintains the one-residue staggering in the triple-helix, has a unique chain register, and contains hydrogen bonds at the interruption site. Formation of hydrogen bonds at interruption sites may provide a driving force for self-assembly and chain register in type IV and other non-fibrillar collagens. This study illustrates the potential role of interruptions in the structure, dynamics, and folding of natural collagen heterotrimers and forms a basis for understanding their biological role.

  17. Enhanced discrimination of highly clonal ST22-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus IV isolates achieved by combining spa, dru, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis typing data.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shore, Anna C

    2010-05-01

    ST22-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus type IV (ST22-MRSA-IV) is endemic in Irish hospitals and is designated antibiogram-resistogram type-pulsed-field group (AR-PFG) 06-01. Isolates of this highly clonal strain exhibit limited numbers of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns and spa types. This study investigated whether combining PFGE and spa typing with DNA sequencing of the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec element (SCCmec)-associated direct repeat unit (dru typing) would improve isolate discrimination. A total of 173 MRSA isolates recovered in one Irish hospital during periods in 2007 and 2008 were investigated using antibiogram-resistogram (AR), PFGE, spa, dru, and SCCmec typing. Isolates representative of each of the 17 pulsed-field group 01 (PFG-01) spa types identified underwent multilocus sequence typing, and all isolates were ST22. Ninety-seven percent of isolates (168 of 173) exhibited AR-PFG 06-01 or closely related AR patterns, and 163 of these isolates harbored SCCmec type IVh. The combination of PFGE, spa, and dru typing methods significantly improved discrimination of the 168 PFG-01 isolates, yielding 65 type combinations with a Simpson\\'s index of diversity (SID) of 96.53, compared to (i) pairwise combinations of spa and dru typing, spa and PFGE typing, and dru and PFGE typing, which yielded 37, 44, and 43 type combinations with SIDs of 90.84, 91.00, and 93.57, respectively, or (ii) individual spa, dru, and PFGE typing methods, which yielded 17, 17, and 21 types with SIDs of 66.9, 77.83, and 81.34, respectively. Analysis of epidemiological information for a subset of PFG-01 isolates validated the relationships inferred using combined PFGE, spa, and dru typing data. This approach significantly enhances discrimination of ST22-MRSA-IV isolates and could be applied to epidemiological investigations of other highly clonal MRSA strains.

  18. Pea Broth Enhances the Biocontrol Efficacy of Lysobacter capsici AZ78 by Triggering Cell Motility Associated with Biogenesis of Type IV Pilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomada, Selena; Puopolo, Gerardo; Perazzolli, Michele; Musetti, Rita; Loi, Nazia; Pertot, Ilaria

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial cells can display different types of motility, due to the presence of external appendages such as flagella and type IV pili. To date, little information on the mechanisms involved in the motility of the Lysobacter species has been available. Recently, L. capsici AZ78, a biocontrol agent of phytopathogenic oomycetes, showed the ability to move on jellified pea broth. Pea broth medium improved also the biocontrol activity of L. capsici AZ78 against Plasmopara viticola under greenhouse conditions. Noteworthy, the quantity of pea residues remaining on grapevine leaves fostered cell motility in L. capsici AZ78. Based on these results, this unusual motility related to the composition of the growth medium was investigated in bacterial strains belonging to several Lysobacter species. The six L. capsici strains tested developed dendrite-like colonies when grown on jellified pea broth, while the development of dendrite-like colonies was not recorded in the media commonly used in motility assays. To determine the presence of genes responsible for biogenesis of the flagellum and type IV pili, the genome of L. capsici AZ78 was mined. Genes encoding structural components and regulatory factors of type IV pili were upregulated in L. capsici AZ78 cells grown on the above-mentioned medium, as compared with the other tested media. These results provide new insight into the motility mechanism of L. capsici members and the role of type IV pili and pea compounds on the epiphytic fitness and biocontrol features of L. capsici AZ78.

  19. Pea broth enhances the biocontrol efficacy of Lysobacter capsici AZ78 by triggering cell motility associated with biogenesis of type IV pilus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selena Tomada

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial cells can display different types of motility, due to the presence of external appendages such as flagella and type IV pili. To date, little information on the mechanisms involved in the motility of the Lysobacter species has been available. Recently, L. capsici AZ78, a biocontrol agent of phytopathogenic oomycetes, showed the ability to move on jellified pea broth. Pea broth medium improved also the biocontrol activity of L. capsici AZ78 against Plasmopara viticola under greenhouse conditions. Noteworthy, the quantity of pea residues remaining on grapevine leaves fostered cell motility in L. capsici AZ78. Based on these results, this unusual motility related to the composition of the growth medium was investigated in bacterial strains belonging to several Lysobacter species. The six L. capsici strains tested developed dendrite-like colonies when grown on jellified pea broth, while the development of dendrite-like colonies was not recorded in the media commonly used in motility assays. To determine the presence of genes responsible for biogenesis of the flagellum and type IV pili, the genome of L. capsici AZ78 was mined. Genes encoding structural components an d regulatory factors of type IV pili were upregulated in L. capsici AZ78 cells grown on the above-mentioned medium, as compared with the other tested media. These results provide new insight into the motility mechanism of L. capsici members and the role of type IV pili and pea compounds on the epiphytic fitness and biocontrol features of L. capsici AZ78.

  20. Computational prediction of secretion systems and secretomes of Brucella: identification of novel type IV effectors and their interaction with the host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankarasubramanian, Jagadesan; Vishnu, Udayakumar S; Dinakaran, Vasudevan; Sridhar, Jayavel; Gunasekaran, Paramasamy; Rajendhran, Jeyaprakash

    2016-01-01

    Brucella spp. are facultative intracellular pathogens that cause brucellosis in various mammals including humans. Brucella survive inside the host cells by forming vacuoles and subverting host defence systems. This study was aimed to predict the secretion systems and the secretomes of Brucella spp. from 39 complete genome sequences available in the databases. Furthermore, an attempt was made to identify the type IV secretion effectors and their interactions with host proteins. We predicted the secretion systems of Brucella by the KEGG pathway and SecReT4. Brucella secretomes and type IV effectors (T4SEs) were predicted through genome-wide screening using JVirGel and S4TE, respectively. Protein-protein interactions of Brucella T4SEs with their hosts were analyzed by HPIDB 2.0. Genes coding for Sec and Tat pathways of secretion and type I (T1SS), type IV (T4SS) and type V (T5SS) secretion systems were identified and they are conserved in all the species of Brucella. In addition to the well-known VirB operon coding for the type IV secretion system (T4SS), we have identified the presence of additional genes showing homology with T4SS of other organisms. On the whole, 10.26 to 14.94% of total proteomes were found to be either secreted (secretome) or membrane associated (membrane proteome). Approximately, 1.7 to 3.0% of total proteomes were identified as type IV secretion effectors (T4SEs). Prediction of protein-protein interactions showed 29 and 36 host-pathogen specific interactions between Bos taurus (cattle)-B. abortus and Ovis aries (sheep)-B. melitensis, respectively. Functional characterization of the predicted T4SEs and their interactions with their respective hosts may reveal the secrets of host specificity of Brucella.

  1. Substitution of cysteine for glycine at residue 415 of one allele of the alpha 1(I) chain of type I procollagen in type III/IV osteogenesis imperfecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, A C; Oliver, J; Renouf, D V; Keston, M; Pope, F M

    1991-01-01

    We have examined the type I collagen in a patient with type III/IV osteogenesis imperfecta. Two forms of alpha 1(I) chain were produced, one normal and the other containing a cysteine residue within the triple helical domain of the molecule. Cysteine is not normally present in this domain of type I collagen. Peptide mapping experiments localised the mutation to peptide alpha 1(I)CB3 which spans residues 403 to 551 of the triple helix. Subsequent PCR amplification of cDNA covering this region followed by sequencing showed a G to T single base change in the GGC codon for glycine 415 generating TGC, the codon for cysteine. The effect of the mutation on the protein is to delay secretion from the cell, reduce the thermal stability of the molecule by 2 degrees C, and cause excessive post-translational modification of all chains in molecules containing one or more mutant alpha 1(I) chains. The clinical phenotype observed in this patient and the position of the mutation conform to the recent prediction of Starman et al that Gly----Cys mutations in the alpha 1(I) chain have a gradient of severity decreasing from the C-terminus to the N-terminus. Images PMID:1770532

  2. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin enhances production and secretion of type IV collagenases in peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, Y; Kawakami, S; Fujii, Y; Kihara, K; Oshima, H

    1997-03-01

    Intravesical administration of bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is an effective and widely accepted treatment for superficial bladder cancer. Rapid progression of the disease after BCG therapy, however, has been reported in some cases refractory to the treatment. We examined whether BCG treatment and coexistence of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) alter the invasive potential of bladder cancer cells. Production and secretion of two type IV collagenases, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 2 and MMP 9, by PBMCs from five healthy donors or bladder cancer cells (T24, JTC 30, and JTC 32) were evaluated by gelatin zymography, western blot analysis, and northern blot analysis. Invasion of bladder cancer cells was also examined using reconstituted basement membrane (Matrigel). BCG (5, 50, and 500 micrograms/ml) had no effect on secretion of MMP 2 and MMP 9 by bladder cancer cells, but increased the production and secretion of MMP 9 by PBMCs in a dose-dependent manner. The coexistence of PBMCs increased invasion of T24 cells and BCG further enhanced the invasion. Thus, BCG promotes invasion of bladder cancer cells under certain conditions. An increase in the secretion of MMP 9 by PBMCs may account in part for the effect.

  3. Molecular characterization and polyclonal antibody generation against core component CagX protein of Helicobacter pylori type IV secretion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal, Gopal Jee; Kumar, Awanish; Pal, Jagannath; Mukhopadhyay, Gauranga

    2014-01-01

    Gram-negative bacteria Helicobacter pylori cause gastric ulcer, duodenal cancer, and found in almost half of the world’s residents. The protein responsible for this disease is secreted through type IV secretion system (TFSS) of H. pylori. TFSS is encoded by 40-kb region of chromosomal DNA known as cag-pathogenicity island (PAI). TFSS comprises of three major components: cytoplasmic/inner membrane ATPase, transmembrane core-complex and outer membranous pilli, and associated subunits. Core complex consists of CagX, CagT, CagM, and Cag3(δ) proteins as per existing knowledge. In this study, we have characterized one of the important component of core-complex forming sub-unit protein, i.e., CagX. Complete ORF of CagX except signal peptide coding region was cloned and expressed in pET28a vector. Purification of CagX protein was performed, and polyclonal anti-sera against full-length recombinant CagX were raised in rabbit model. We obtained a very specific and high titer, CagX anti-sera that were utilized to characterize endogenous CagX. Surface localization of CagX was also seen by immunofluorescence microscopy. In short for the first time a full-length CagX was characterized, and we showed that CagX is the part of high molecular weight core complex, which is important for assembly and function of H. pylori TFSS. PMID:24637488

  4. Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 serves as a primary cognate receptor for the Type IV pilus of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotny, Laura A; Bakaletz, Lauren O

    2016-08-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) utilizes the Type IV pilus (Tfp) to adhere to respiratory tract epithelial cells thus colonizing its human host; however, the host cell receptor to which this adhesive protein binds is unknown. From a panel of receptors engaged by Tfp expressed by other bacterial species, we showed that the majority subunit of NTHI Tfp, PilA, bound to intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM1) and that this interaction was both specific and of high affinity. Further, Tfp-expressing NTHI inoculated on to polarized respiratory tract epithelial cells that expressed ICAM1 were significantly more adherent compared to Tfp-deficient NTHI or NTHI inoculated on to epithelial cells to which ICAM1 gene expression was silenced. Moreover, pre-incubation of epithelial cells with recombinant soluble PilA (rsPilA) blocked adherence of NTHI, an outcome that was abrogated by admixing rsPilA with ICAM1 prior to application on to the target cells. Epithelial cells infected with adenovirus or respiratory syncytial virus showed increased expression of ICAM1; this outcome supported augmented adherence of Tfp-expressing NTHI. Collectively, these data revealed the cognate receptor for NTHI Tfp as ICAM1 and promote continued development of a Tfp-targeted vaccine for NTHI-induced diseases of the airway wherein upper respiratory tract viruses play a key predisposing role.

  5. Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV : unusual congenital anomalies in a mother and son with a COL3A1 mutation and a normal collagen III protein profile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroes, HY; Pals, G; van Essen, AJ

    2003-01-01

    A mother and son with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) type IV and unusual congenital anomalies are described. The congenital anomalies include, in the mother, amniotic band-like constrictions on one hand, a unilateral clubfoot, and macrocephaly owing to normal-pressure hydrocephaly and, in the son, an

  6. Is nickel allergy an occupational disease? Discussion of the occupational relevance of a type IV allergy to nickel (II) sulfate using case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanko, Zita; Diepgen, Thomas L; Weisshaar, Elke

    2008-05-01

    Type IV sensitization to nickel (II) sulfate is common in the general population. Nickel can be found in different metals leading to occupational exposition in industrial professions. The individual clinical relevance of nickel allergy can easily be identified but it can be difficult to assess if nickel allergy was acquired privately or occupationally. The problem if nickel allergy fulfills the criteria of an occupational skin disease is presented in three case reports. The occupational relevance of a type IV sensitization to nickel in a chemical laboratory assistant, a flight attendant and a cashier are discussed. Important conditions for acquiring nickel allergy are contact with nickel-plated and nickel-releasing materials, the kind of skin contact, the status of the epidermal barrier, and the individual working conditions with an increased bioavailability of nickel. In cases of type IV sensitization to nickel, the affected person cannot continue to work in metal plating or with contact to nickel-plated metals. The causal relationship between the type IV sensitization to nickel and the occupation needs to be clarified in each individual case. In general, occupationally caused nickel allergy is rare and the occupational relevance of nickel allergy is often overestimated.

  7. Intracellular expression of a single-chain antibody directed against type IV collagenase inhibits the growth of lung cancer xenografts in nude mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    It was documented that type IV collagenase with two subtypes of 72 ku/MMP-2 and 92 ku/MMP-9 plays an important role in tumor invasion and metastasis. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER)- retained, single chain Fv antibody fragment (scFv) was used to inhibit the function of type IV collagenase. For expression in mammalian cells, the assembled scFv M97 gene with ER retention signal encoding 6 additional amino acids (SEKDEL) was reamplified by PCR. The amplified fragments were cloned into the pcDNA3.1 vector. The resulting plasmid was sequenced and then introduced into PG cells, a highly metastatic human lung cancer cell line, by lipofectAMINE method. The result of intrabody gene therapy showed that type IV collegenase expression was down regulated significantly as measured by ELISA. The biological behavior of PG cell, such as the ability of in vitro invasion through Matrigel, colony formation on soft agar, was also inhibited by scFv M97 transfection. Animal experiments in a xenograft model of human lung cancer showed that scFv M97 transfection significantly prolonged the survival time of nude mice. The results indicate that intracellular antibody technology represents a novel and efficient way to abrogate selectively the activity of type IV collagenase.

  8. A novel method for measuring carrier lifetime and capture cross-section by using the negative resistance I-V characteristics of a barrier-type thyristor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Hairong; Li Siyuan, E-mail: hrli@lzu.edu.c [Institute of Microelectronics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2010-08-15

    A brand new and feasible method for measuring the carrier lifetime and capture cross-section of a barrier by using the negative resistance segment of the I-V characteristics of a barrier-type thyristor (BTH) is put forward. The measuring principle and calculation method are given. The BTH samples are experimentally measured and the results are analyzed in detail. (semiconductor devices)

  9. The dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor vildagliptin suppresses endogenous glucose production and enhances islet function after single-dose administration in type 2 diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balas, Bogdan; Baig, Muhammad R; Watson, Catherine;

    2007-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Vildagliptin is a selective dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor that augments meal-stimulated levels of biologically active glucagon-like peptide-1. Chronic vildagliptin treatment decreases postprandial glucose levels and reduces hemoglobin A1c in type 2 diabetic patients. However,...

  10. Parallel evolution of a type IV secretion system in radiating lineages of the host-restricted bacterial pathogen Bartonella.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Engel

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive radiation is the rapid origination of multiple species from a single ancestor as the result of concurrent adaptation to disparate environments. This fundamental evolutionary process is considered to be responsible for the genesis of a great portion of the diversity of life. Bacteria have evolved enormous biological diversity by exploiting an exceptional range of environments, yet diversification of bacteria via adaptive radiation has been documented in a few cases only and the underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. Here we show a compelling example of adaptive radiation in pathogenic bacteria and reveal their genetic basis. Our evolutionary genomic analyses of the α-proteobacterial genus Bartonella uncover two parallel adaptive radiations within these host-restricted mammalian pathogens. We identify a horizontally-acquired protein secretion system, which has evolved to target specific bacterial effector proteins into host cells as the evolutionary key innovation triggering these parallel adaptive radiations. We show that the functional versatility and adaptive potential of the VirB type IV secretion system (T4SS, and thereby translocated Bartonella effector proteins (Beps, evolved in parallel in the two lineages prior to their radiations. Independent chromosomal fixation of the virB operon and consecutive rounds of lineage-specific bep gene duplications followed by their functional diversification characterize these parallel evolutionary trajectories. Whereas most Beps maintained their ancestral domain constitution, strikingly, a novel type of effector protein emerged convergently in both lineages. This resulted in similar arrays of host cell-targeted effector proteins in the two lineages of Bartonella as the basis of their independent radiation. The parallel molecular evolution of the VirB/Bep system displays a striking example of a key innovation involved in independent adaptive processes and the emergence of bacterial

  11. Parallel evolution of a type IV secretion system in radiating lineages of the host-restricted bacterial pathogen Bartonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Philipp; Salzburger, Walter; Liesch, Marius; Chang, Chao-Chin; Maruyama, Soichi; Lanz, Christa; Calteau, Alexandra; Lajus, Aurélie; Médigue, Claudine; Schuster, Stephan C; Dehio, Christoph

    2011-02-10

    Adaptive radiation is the rapid origination of multiple species from a single ancestor as the result of concurrent adaptation to disparate environments. This fundamental evolutionary process is considered to be responsible for the genesis of a great portion of the diversity of life. Bacteria have evolved enormous biological diversity by exploiting an exceptional range of environments, yet diversification of bacteria via adaptive radiation has been documented in a few cases only and the underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. Here we show a compelling example of adaptive radiation in pathogenic bacteria and reveal their genetic basis. Our evolutionary genomic analyses of the α-proteobacterial genus Bartonella uncover two parallel adaptive radiations within these host-restricted mammalian pathogens. We identify a horizontally-acquired protein secretion system, which has evolved to target specific bacterial effector proteins into host cells as the evolutionary key innovation triggering these parallel adaptive radiations. We show that the functional versatility and adaptive potential of the VirB type IV secretion system (T4SS), and thereby translocated Bartonella effector proteins (Beps), evolved in parallel in the two lineages prior to their radiations. Independent chromosomal fixation of the virB operon and consecutive rounds of lineage-specific bep gene duplications followed by their functional diversification characterize these parallel evolutionary trajectories. Whereas most Beps maintained their ancestral domain constitution, strikingly, a novel type of effector protein emerged convergently in both lineages. This resulted in similar arrays of host cell-targeted effector proteins in the two lineages of Bartonella as the basis of their independent radiation. The parallel molecular evolution of the VirB/Bep system displays a striking example of a key innovation involved in independent adaptive processes and the emergence of bacterial pathogens

  12. Advanced Gastric Cancer: Differentiation of Borrmann Type IV versus Borrmann Type III by Two-Phased Dynamic Multi-Detector Row CT with Use of the Water Filling Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dae Jung; Yu, Jeong Sik; Lee, Sang Min; Kim, Joo Hee; Chung, Jae Joon; Kim, Ki Whang [Dept. of Radiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Hae Youn [CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-02-15

    To characterize Borrmann type IV from Borrmann type III advanced gastric cancer (AGC) by two-phased multi-detector row computed tomography (MDCT) using the water filling method. A total of 143 patients (pathologically confirmed Borrmann type III and IV - 100 and 43 patients), who underwent preoperative MDCT, were enrolled. Two radiologists, retrospectively and independently, determined tumor enhancement pattern using a 5-grade scale without clinical information. A weighted kappa test was applied for interobserver variability. The score of tumor enhancement pattern correlated with Borrmann type as determined by Spearman's correlation coefficient. The accuracy of differentiation of Borrmann type using MDCT was determined by receiver operating characteristic curves. Interobserver agreement (weighted kappa = 0.683) was substantial. The tumor enhancement pattern score showed a significant correlation with Borrmann type (reviewer 1, r = 0.591, p < 0.001; reviewer 2, r = 0.616, p < 0.001). The accuracy for differentiation of Borrmann type on MDCT was 0.86 (p < 0.001) in both reviewers. The sensitivity and specificity of the diagnosis of Borrmann type IV were 79% and 82% in reviewer 1, and 88% and 78% in reviewer 2, respectively. Dual-phased MDCT using the water filling method can differentiate between Borrmann type IV and III AGC with high accuracy.

  13. Differential Contribution of Transmembrane Domains IV, V, VI, and VII to Human Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Homomer Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Brent M; Nguyen, Elaine; Chedrawe, Matthew A J; Rainey, Jan K; Dupré, Denis J

    2017-02-24

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) play an important role in drug therapy and represent one of the largest families of drug targets. The angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) is notable as it has a central role in the treatment of cardiovascular disease. Blockade of AT1R signaling has been shown to alleviate hypertension and improve outcomes in patients with heart failure. Despite this, it has become apparent that our initial understanding of AT1R signaling is oversimplified. There is considerable evidence to suggest that AT1R signaling is highly modified in the presence of receptor-receptor interactions, but there is very little structural data available to explain this phenomenon even with the recent elucidation of the AT1R crystal structure. The current study investigates the involvement of transmembrane domains in AT1R homomer assembly with the goal of identifying hydrophobic interfaces that contribute to receptor-receptor affinity. A recently published crystal structure of the AT1R was used to guide site-directed mutagenesis of outward-facing hydrophobic residues within the transmembrane region of the AT1R. Bioluminescence resonance energy transfer was employed to analyze how receptor mutation affects the assembly of AT1R homomers with a specific focus on hydrophobic residues. Mutations within transmembrane domains IV, V, VI, and VII had no effect on angiotensin-mediated β-arrestin1 recruitment; however, they exhibited differential effects on the assembly of AT1R into oligomeric complexes. Our results demonstrate the importance of hydrophobic amino acids at the AT1R transmembrane interface and provide the first glimpse of the requirements for AT1R complex assembly.

  14. The Legionella pneumophila IcmSW complex interacts with multiple Dot/Icm effectors to facilitate type IV translocation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric D Cambronne

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Many gram-negative pathogens use a type IV secretion system (T4SS to deliver effector proteins into eukaryotic host cells. The fidelity of protein translocation depends on the efficient recognition of effector proteins by the T4SS. Legionella pneumophila delivers a large number of effector proteins into eukaryotic cells using the Dot/Icm T4SS. How the Dot/Icm system is able to recognize and control the delivery of effectors is poorly understood. Recent studies suggest that the IcmS and IcmW proteins interact to form a stable complex that facilitates translocation of effector proteins by the Dot/Icm system by an unknown mechanism. Here we demonstrate that the IcmSW complex is necessary for the productive translocation of multiple Dot/Icm effector proteins. Effector proteins that were able to bind IcmSW in vitro required icmS and icmW for efficient translocation into eukaryotic cells during L. pneumophila infection. We identified regions in the effector protein SidG involved in icmSW-dependent translocation. Although the full-length SidG protein was translocated by an icmSW-dependent mechanism, deletion of amino terminal regions in the SidG protein resulted in icmSW-independent translocation, indicating that the IcmSW complex is not contributing directly to recognition of effector proteins by the Dot/Icm system. Biochemical and genetic studies showed that the IcmSW complex interacts with a central region of the SidG protein. The IcmSW interaction resulted in a conformational change in the SidG protein as determined by differences in protease sensitivity in vitro. These data suggest that IcmSW binding to effectors could enhance effector protein delivery by mediating a conformational change that facilitates T4SS recognition of a translocation domain located in the carboxyl region of the effector protein.

  15. Evidence of transfer by conjugation of type IV secretion system genes between Bartonella species and Rhizobium radiobacter in amoeba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watcharee Saisongkorh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bartonella species cospeciate with mammals and live within erythrocytes. Even in these specific niches, it has been recently suggested by bioinformatic analysis of full genome sequences that Lateral Gene Transfer (LGT may occur but this has never been demonstrated biologically. Here we describe the sequence of the B. rattaustraliani (AUST/NH4(T circular plasmid (pNH4 that encodes the tra cluster of the Type IV secretion system (T4SS and we eventually provide evidence that Bartonella species may conjugate and exchange this plasmid inside amoeba. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The T4SS of pNH4 is critical for intracellular viability of bacterial pathogens, exhibits bioinformatic evidence of LGT among bacteria living in phagocytic protists. For instance, 3 out of 4 T4SS encoding genes from pNH4 appear to be closely related to Rhizobiales, suggesting that gene exchange occurs between intracellular bacteria from mammals (bartonellae and plants (Rhizobiales. We show that B. rattaustraliani and Rhizobium radiobacter both survived within the amoeba Acanthamoeba polyphaga and can conjugate together. Our findings further support the hypothesis that tra genes might also move into and out of bacterial communities by conjugation, which might be the primary means of genomic evolution for intracellular adaptation by cross-talk of interchangeable genes between Bartonella species and plant pathogens. CONCLUSIONS: Based on this, we speculate that amoeba favor the transfer of genes as phagocytic protists, which allows for intraphagocytic survival and, as a consequence, promotes the creation of potential pathogenic organisms.

  16. Loss of TRPML1 promotes production of reactive oxygen species: is oxidative damage a factor in mucolipidosis type IV?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coblentz, Jessica; St Croix, Claudette; Kiselyov, Kirill

    2014-01-15

    TRPML1 (transient receptor potential mucolipin 1) is a lysosomal ion channel permeable to cations, including Fe2+. Mutations in MCOLN1, the gene coding for TRPML1, cause the LSD (lysosomal storage disease) MLIV (mucolipidosis type IV). The role of TRPML1 in the cell is disputed and the mechanisms of cell deterioration in MLIV are unclear. The demonstration of Fe2+ buildup in MLIV cells raised the possibility that TRPML1 dissipates lysosomal Fe2+ and prevents its accumulation. Since Fe2+ catalyses the production of ROS (reactive oxygen species), we set out to test whether or not the loss of TRPML1 promotes ROS production by Fe2+ trapped in lysosomes. Our data show that RPE1 (retinal pigmented epithelial 1) cells develop a punctate mitochondrial phenotype within 48 h of siRNA-induced TRPML1-KD (knockdown). This mitochondrial fragmentation was aggravated by Fe2+ exposure, but was reversed by incubation with the ROS chelator α-Toc (α-tocopherol). The exposure of TRPML1-KD cells to Fe2+ led to loss of ΔΨm (mitochondrial membrane potential), ROS buildup, lipid peroxidation and increased transcription of genes responsive to cytotoxic oxidative stress in TRPML1-KD cells. These data suggest that TRPML1 redistributes Fe2+ between the lysosomes and the cytoplasm. Fe2+ buildup caused by TRPML1 loss potentiates ROS production and leads to mitochondrial deterioration. Beyond suggesting a new model for MLIV pathogenesis, these data show that TRPML1's role in the cell extends outside lysosomes.

  17. Interaction of human dipeptidyl peptidase IV and human immunodeficiency virus type-1 transcription transactivator in Sf9 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reutter Werner

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV also known as the T cell activation marker CD26 is a multifunctional protein which is involved in various biological processes. The association of human-DPPIV with components of the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV1 is well documented and raised some discussions. Several reports implicated the interaction of human-DPPIV with the HIV1 transcription transactivator protein (HIV1-Tat and the inhibition of the dipeptidyl peptidase activity of DPPIV by the HIV1-Tat protein. Furthermore, enzyme kinetic data implied another binding site for the HIV1-Tat other than the active centre of DPPIV. However, the biological significance of this interaction of the HIV1-Tat protein and human-DPPIV has not been studied, yet. Therefore, we focused on the interaction of HIV1-Tat protein with DPPIV and investigated the subsequent biological consequences of this interaction in Spodoptera frugiperda cells, using the BAC-TO-BAC baculovirus system. Results The HIV1-Tat protein (Tat-BRU co-localized and co-immunoprecipitated with human-DPPIV protein, following co-expression in the baculovirus-driven Sf9 cell expression system. Furthermore, tyrosine phosphorylation of DPPIV protein was up-regulated in Tat/DPPIV-co-expressing cells after 72 h culturing and also in DPPIV-expressing Sf9 cells after application of purified recombinant Tat protein. As opposed to the expression of Tat alone, serine phosphorylation of the Tat protein was decreased when co-expressed with human-DPPIV protein. Conclusions We show for the first time that human-DPPIV and HIV1-Tat co-immunoprecipitate. Furthermore, our findings indicate that the interaction of HIV1-Tat and human-DPPIV may be involved in signalling platforms that regulate the biological function of both human-DPPIV and HIV1-Tat.

  18. Intervalence charge transfer luminescence: Interplay between anomalous and 5d − 4f emissions in Yb-doped fluorite-type crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barandiarán, Zoila, E-mail: zoila.barandiaran@uam.es; Seijo, Luis [Departamento de Química, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Instituto Universitario de Ciencia de Materiales Nicolás Cabrera, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-12-21

    In this paper, we report the existence of intervalence charge transfer (IVCT) luminescence in Yb-doped fluorite-type crystals associated with Yb{sup 2+}–Yb{sup 3+} mixed valence pairs. By means of embedded cluster, wave function theory ab initio calculations, we show that the widely studied, very broad band, anomalous emission of Yb{sup 2+}-doped CaF{sub 2} and SrF{sub 2}, usually associated with impurity-trapped excitons, is, rather, an IVCT luminescence associated with Yb{sup 2+}–Yb{sup 3+} mixed valence pairs. The IVCT luminescence is very efficiently excited by a two-photon upconversion mechanism where each photon provokes the same strong 4f{sup 14}–1A{sub 1g}→ 4f{sup 13}({sup 2}F{sub 7/2})5de{sub g}–1T{sub 1u} absorption in the Yb{sup 2+} part of the pair: the first one, from the pair ground state; the second one, from an excited state of the pair whose Yb{sup 3+} moiety is in the higher 4f{sup 13}({sup 2}F{sub 5/2}) multiplet. The Yb{sup 2+}–Yb{sup 3+} → Yb{sup 3+}–Yb{sup 2+} IVCT emission consists of an Yb{sup 2+} 5de{sub g} → Yb{sup 3+} 4f{sub 7/2} charge transfer accompanied by a 4f{sub 7/2} → 4f{sub 5/2} deexcitation within the Yb{sup 2+} 4f{sup 13} subshell: [{sup 2}F{sub 5/2}5de{sub g},{sup 2}F{sub 7/2}] → [{sup 2}F{sub 7/2},4f{sup 14}]. The IVCT vertical transition leaves the oxidized and reduced moieties of the pair after electron transfer very far from their equilibrium structures; this explains the unexpectedly large band width of the emission band and its low peak energy, because the large reorganization energies are subtracted from the normal emission. The IVCT energy diagrams resulting from the quantum mechanical calculations explain the different luminescent properties of Yb-doped CaF{sub 2}, SrF{sub 2}, BaF{sub 2}, and SrCl{sub 2}: the presence of IVCT luminescence in Yb-doped CaF{sub 2} and SrF{sub 2}; its coexistence with regular 5d-4f emission in SrF{sub 2}; its absence in BaF{sub 2} and SrCl{sub 2}; the quenching of

  19. Spectroscopic Studies of Abiotic and Biological Nanomaterials: Silver Nanoparticles, Rhodamine 6G Adsorbed on Graphene, and c-Type Cytochromes and Type IV Pili in Geobacter sulfurreducens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrall, Elizabeth S.

    This thesis describes spectroscopic studies of three different systems: silver nanoparticles, the dye molecule rhodamine 6G adsorbed on graphene, and the type IV pili and c-type cytochromes produced by the dissimilatory metal-reducing bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens. Although these systems are quite different in some ways, they can all be considered examples of nanomaterials. A nanomaterial is generally defined as having at least one dimension below 100 nm in size. Silver nanoparticles, with sub-100 nm size in all dimensions, are examples of zero-dimensional nanomaterials. Graphene, a single atomic layer of carbon atoms, is the paradigmatic two-dimensional nanomaterial. And although bacterial cells are on the order of 1 μm in size, the type IV pili and multiheme c-type cytochromes produced by G. sulfurreducens can be considered to be one- and zero-dimensional nanomaterials respectively. A further connection between these systems is their strong interaction with visible light, allowing us to study them using similar spectroscopic tools. The first chapter of this thesis describes research on the plasmon-mediated photochemistry of silver nanoparticles. Silver nanoparticles support coherent electron oscillations, known as localized surface plasmons, at resonance frequencies that depend on the particle size and shape and the local dielectric environment. Nanoparticle absorption and scattering cross-sections are maximized at surface plasmon resonance frequencies, and the electromagnetic field is amplified near the particle surface. Plasmonic effects can enhance the photochemistry of silver particles alone or in conjunction with semiconductors according to several mechanisms. We study the photooxidation of citrate by silver nanoparticles in a photoelectrochemical cell, focusing on the wavelength-dependence of the reaction rate and the role of the semiconductor substrate. We find that the citrate photooxidation rate does not track the plasmon resonance of the silver

  20. Helicobacter pylori type IV secretion apparatus exploits beta1 integrin in a novel RGD-independent manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa F Jiménez-Soto

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Translocation of the Helicobacter pylori (Hp cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA effector protein via the cag-Type IV Secretion System (T4SS into host cells is a major risk factor for severe gastric diseases, including gastric cancer. However, the mechanism of translocation and the requirements from the host cell for that event are not well understood. The T4SS consists of inner- and outer membrane-spanning Cag protein complexes and a surface-located pilus. Previously an arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD-dependent typical integrin/ligand type interaction of CagL with alpha5beta1 integrin was reported to be essential for CagA translocation. Here we report a specific binding of the T4SS-pilus-associated components CagY and the effector protein CagA to the host cell beta1 Integrin receptor. Surface plasmon resonance measurements revealed that CagA binding to alpha5beta1 integrin is rather strong (dissociation constant, K(D of 0.15 nM, in comparison to the reported RGD-dependent integrin/fibronectin interaction (K(D of 15 nM. For CagA translocation the extracellular part of the beta1 integrin subunit is necessary, but not its cytoplasmic domain, nor downstream signalling via integrin-linked kinase. A set of beta1 integrin-specific monoclonal antibodies directed against various defined beta1 integrin epitopes, such as the PSI, the I-like, the EGF or the beta-tail domain, were unable to interfere with CagA translocation. However, a specific antibody (9EG7, which stabilises the open active conformation of beta1 integrin heterodimers, efficiently blocked CagA translocation. Our data support a novel model in which the cag-T4SS exploits the beta1 integrin receptor by an RGD-independent interaction that involves a conformational switch from the open (extended to the closed (bent conformation, to initiate effector protein translocation.

  1. CagI is an essential component of the Helicobacter pylori Cag type IV secretion system and forms a complex with CagL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kieu Thuy Pham

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori, the causative agent of type B gastritis, peptic ulcers, gastric adenocarcinoma and MALT lymphoma, uses the Cag type IV secretion system to induce a strong proinflammatory response in the gastric mucosa and to inject its effector protein CagA into gastric cells. CagA translocation results in altered host cell gene expression profiles and cytoskeletal rearrangements, and it is considered as a major bacterial virulence trait. Recently, it has been shown that binding of the type IV secretion apparatus to integrin receptors on target cells is a crucial step in the translocation process. Several bacterial proteins, including the Cag-specific components CagL and CagI, have been involved in this interaction. Here, we have examined the localization and interactions of CagI in the bacterial cell. Since the cagI gene overlaps and is co-transcribed with the cagL gene, the role of CagI for type IV secretion system function has been difficult to assess, and conflicting results have been reported regarding its involvement in the proinflammatory response. Using a marker-free gene deletion approach and genetic complementation, we show now that CagI is an essential component of the Cag type IV secretion apparatus for both CagA translocation and interleukin-8 induction. CagI is distributed over soluble and membrane-associated pools and seems to be partly surface-exposed. Deletion of several genes encoding essential Cag components has an impact on protein levels of CagI and CagL, suggesting that both proteins require partial assembly of the secretion apparatus. Finally, we show by co-immunoprecipitation that CagI and CagL interact with each other. Taken together, our results indicate that CagI and CagL form a functional complex which is formed at a late stage of secretion apparatus assembly.

  2. Functional interactions of VirB11 traffic ATPases with VirB4 and VirD4 molecular motors in type IV secretion systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripoll-Rozada, Jorge; Zunzunegui, Sandra; de la Cruz, Fernando; Arechaga, Ignacio; Cabezón, Elena

    2013-09-01

    Pilus biogenesis and substrate transport by type IV secretion systems require energy, which is provided by three molecular motors localized at the base of the secretion channel. One of these motors, VirB11, belongs to the superfamily of traffic ATPases, which includes members of the type II secretion system and the type IV pilus and archaeal flagellar assembly apparatus. Here, we report the functional interactions between TrwD, the VirB11 homolog of the conjugative plasmid R388, and TrwK and TrwB, the motors involved in pilus biogenesis and DNA transport, respectively. Although these interactions remained standing upon replacement of the traffic ATPase by a homolog from a phylogenetically related conjugative system, namely, TraG of plasmid pKM101, this homolog could not replace the TrwD function for DNA transfer. This result suggests that VirB11 works as a switch between pilus biogenesis and DNA transport and reinforces a mechanistic model in which VirB11 proteins act as traffic ATPases by regulating both events in type IV secretion systems.

  3. T4SP Database 2.0: An Improved Database for Type IV Secretion Systems in Bacterial Genomes with New Online Analysis Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Na; Yu, Weiwen; Qiang, Yujun

    2016-01-01

    Type IV secretion system (T4SS) can mediate the passage of macromolecules across cellular membranes and is essential for virulent and genetic material exchange among bacterial species. The Type IV Secretion Project 2.0 (T4SP 2.0) database is an improved and extended version of the platform released in 2013 aimed at assisting with the detection of Type IV secretion systems (T4SS) in bacterial genomes. This advanced version provides users with web server tools for detecting the existence and variations of T4SS genes online. The new interface for the genome browser provides a user-friendly access to the most complete and accurate resource of T4SS gene information (e.g., gene number, name, type, position, sequence, related articles, and quick links to other webs). Currently, this online database includes T4SS information of 5239 bacterial strains. Conclusions. T4SS is one of the most versatile secretion systems necessary for the virulence and survival of bacteria and the secretion of protein and/or DNA substrates from a donor to a recipient cell. This database on virB/D genes of the T4SS system will help scientists worldwide to improve their knowledge on secretion systems and also identify potential pathogenic mechanisms of various microbial species.

  4. Characterization of transcription factors that regulate the type IV secretion system and riboflavin biosynthesis in Wolbachia of Brugia malayi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiru Li

    Full Text Available The human filarial parasite Brugia malayi harbors an endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia (wBm that is required for parasite survival. Consequently, targeting wBm is a promising approach for anti-filarial drug development. The Type IV secretion system (T4SS plays an important role in bacteria-host interactions and is under stringent regulation by transcription factors. In wBm, most T4SS genes are contained in two operons. We show the wBm is active since the essential assembly factor virB8-1, is transcribed in adult worms and larval stages, and VirB8-1 is present in parasite lysates. We also identify two transcription factors (wBmxR1 and wBmxR2 that bind to the promoter region of several genes of the T4SS. Gel shift assays show binding of wBmxR1 to regions upstream of the virB9-2 and wBmxR2 genes, whereas wBmxR2 binds to virB4-2 and wBmxR1 promoter regions. Interestingly, both transcription factors bind to the promoter of the ribA gene that precedes virB8-1, the first gene in operon 1 of the wBm T4SS. RT-PCR reveals ribA and virB8-1 genes are co-transcribed as one operon, indicating the ribA gene and T4SS operon 1 are co-regulated by both wBmxR1 and wBmxR2. RibA encodes a bi-functional enzyme that catalyzes two essential steps in riboflavin (Vitamin B2 biosynthesis. Importantly, the riboflavin pathway is absent in B. malayi. We demonstrate the pathway is functional in wBm, and observe vitamin B2 supplementation partially rescues filarial parasites treated with doxycycline, indicating Wolbachia may supply the essential vitamin to its worm host. This is the first characterization of a transcription factor(s from wBm and first report of co-regulation of genes of the T4SS and riboflavin biosynthesis pathway. In addition, our results demonstrate a requirement of vitamin B2 for worm health and fertility, and imply a nutritional role of the symbiont for the filarial parasite host.

  5. Characterization of transcription factors that regulate the type IV secretion system and riboflavin biosynthesis in Wolbachia of Brugia malayi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiru; Carlow, Clotilde K S

    2012-01-01

    The human filarial parasite Brugia malayi harbors an endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia (wBm) that is required for parasite survival. Consequently, targeting wBm is a promising approach for anti-filarial drug development. The Type IV secretion system (T4SS) plays an important role in bacteria-host interactions and is under stringent regulation by transcription factors. In wBm, most T4SS genes are contained in two operons. We show the wBm is active since the essential assembly factor virB8-1, is transcribed in adult worms and larval stages, and VirB8-1 is present in parasite lysates. We also identify two transcription factors (wBmxR1 and wBmxR2) that bind to the promoter region of several genes of the T4SS. Gel shift assays show binding of wBmxR1 to regions upstream of the virB9-2 and wBmxR2 genes, whereas wBmxR2 binds to virB4-2 and wBmxR1 promoter regions. Interestingly, both transcription factors bind to the promoter of the ribA gene that precedes virB8-1, the first gene in operon 1 of the wBm T4SS. RT-PCR reveals ribA and virB8-1 genes are co-transcribed as one operon, indicating the ribA gene and T4SS operon 1 are co-regulated by both wBmxR1 and wBmxR2. RibA encodes a bi-functional enzyme that catalyzes two essential steps in riboflavin (Vitamin B2) biosynthesis. Importantly, the riboflavin pathway is absent in B. malayi. We demonstrate the pathway is functional in wBm, and observe vitamin B2 supplementation partially rescues filarial parasites treated with doxycycline, indicating Wolbachia may supply the essential vitamin to its worm host. This is the first characterization of a transcription factor(s) from wBm and first report of co-regulation of genes of the T4SS and riboflavin biosynthesis pathway. In addition, our results demonstrate a requirement of vitamin B2 for worm health and fertility, and imply a nutritional role of the symbiont for the filarial parasite host.

  6. Treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus with agonists of the GLP-1 receptor or DPP-IV inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jens Juul

    2004-01-01

    analogues of the hormone (or agonists of the GLP-1 receptor) are in development, along with DPP-IV inhibitors, which have been demonstrated to protect the endogenous hormone and enhance its activity. Agonists include both albumin-bound analogues of GLP-1 and exendin-4, a lizard peptide. Clinical studies...

  7. THE LIMIT CYCLES AND HOPF BIFURCATION OF A CLASS OF SIMPLIFIED HOLLING TYPE-IV PREDATOR-PREY SYSTEM WITH LINEAR STATE FEEDBACK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a class of simplified Type-IV predator-prey system with linear state feedback is investigated. We prove the boundedness of the positive solutions to this system, and analyze the quality of the equilibria and the existence of limit cycles of the system surrounding the positive equilibra. By Hopf bifurcation theory, the result of having two limit cycles to the system is obtained.

  8. Comparative analysis of the noncollagenous NC1 domain of type IV collagen: identification of structural features important for assembly, function, and pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netzer, K O; Suzuki, K; Itoh, Y; Hudson, B G; Khalifah, R G

    1998-06-01

    Type IV collagen alpha1-alpha6 chains have important roles in the assembly of basement membranes and are implicated in the pathogenesis of Goodpasture syndrome, an autoimmune disorder, and Alport syndrome, a hereditary renal disease. We report comparative sequence analyses and structural predictions of the noncollagenous C-terminal globular NC1 domain (28 sequences). The inferred tree verified that type IV collagen sequences fall into two groups, alpha1-like and alpha2-like, and suggested that vertebrate alpha3/alpha4 sequences evolved before alpha1/alpha2 and alpha5/alpha6. About one fifth of NC1 residues were identified to confer either the alpha1 or alpha2 group-specificity. These residues accumulate opposite charge in subdomain B of alpha1 (positive) and alpha2 (negative) sequences and may play a role in the stoichiometric chain selection upon type IV collagen assembly. Neural network secondary structure prediction on multiple aligned sequences revealed a subdomain core structure consisting of six hydrophobic beta-strands and one short alpha-helix with a significant hydrophobic moment. The existence of opposite charges in the alpha-helices may carry implications for intersubdomain interactions. The results provide a rationale for defining the epitope that binds Goodpasture autoantibodies and a framework for understanding how certain NC1 mutations may lead to Alport syndrome. A search algorithm, based entirely on amino acid properties, yielded a possible similarity of NC1 to tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP) and prompted an investigation of a possible functional relationship. The results indicate that NC1 preparations decrease the activity of matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 3 (MMP-2, MMP-3) toward a peptide substrate, though not to [14C]-gelatin. We suggest that an ancestral NC1 may have been incorporated into type IV collagen as an evolutionarily mobile domain carrying proteinase inhibitor function.

  9. VirB7 and VirB9 Interactions Are Required for the Assembly and Antibacterial Activity of a Type IV Secretion System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliveira, Luciana Coutinho; Souza, Diorge Paulo; Oka, Gabriel Umaji; Lima, Filipe da Silva; Oliveira, Ronaldo Junio; Favaro, Denize Cristina; Wienk, Hans; Boelens, Rolf; Farah, Chuck Shaker; Salinas, Roberto Kopke

    2016-01-01

    The type IV secretion system (T4SS) from the phytopathogen Xanthomonas citri (Xac) is a bactericidal nanomachine. The T4SS core complex is a ring composed of multiple copies of VirB7-VirB9-VirB10 subunits. Xac-VirB7 contains a disordered N-terminal tail (VirB7(NT)) that recognizes VirB9, and a C-ter

  10. Endovenous surgery for recurrent varicose veins with a one-year follow up in a patient with Ehlers Danlos syndrome type IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteley, Mark S; Holdstock, Judith M

    2015-08-01

    We present a woman with severe symptomatic recurrent varicose veins who was treated with endovenous laser ablation and transluminal occlusion of perforator with attempted phlebectomies for extensive varices. The phlebectomies turned out to be near impossible due to friability of the veins. Her treatment was completed with post-operative ultrasound guided foam sclerotherapy seven months later. She was subsequently diagnosed as Ehlers Danlos syndrome type IV. A duplex ultrasound scan 18 months post-endovenous laser ablation and transluminal occlusion of perforator and 11 months after ultrasound guided foam sclerotherapy confirmed successful closure with virtual atrophy of all treated veins. She was found to be reflux free and only showed a few scattered cosmetic reticular veins. Open varicose vein surgery has been reported as being hazardous in the past in a patient with Ehlers Danlos syndrome type IV. Our experience has shown that endovenous laser ablation, transluminal occlusion of perforator and ultrasound guided foam sclerotherapy appear to be effective in treating this patient with Ehlers Danlos syndrome type IV, although phlebectomies were technically impossible.

  11. Intracellular expression of a single-chain antibody directed against type IV collagenase inhibits the growth of lung cancer xenografts in nude mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王维刚[1; 张胜华[2; 李毅[3; 徐琳娜[4; 周京华[5; 甄永苏[6

    2000-01-01

    It was documented that type IV collagenase with two subtypes of 72 ku/MMP-2 and 92 ku/MMP-9 plays an important role in tumor invasion and metastasis. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER)- retained, single chain Fv antibody fragment (scFv) was used to inhibit the function of type IV collagenase. For expression in mammalian cells, the assembled scFv M97 gene with ER retention signal encoding 6 additional amino acids (SEKDEL) was reamplified by PCR. The amplified fragments were cloned into the pcDNA3.1 vector. The resulting plasmid was sequenced and then introduced into PG cells, a highly metastatic human lung cancer cell line, by lipofectAMINE method. The result of intrabody gene therapy showed that type IV collegenase expression was down regulated significantly as measured by ELISA. The biological behavior of PG cell, such as the ability of in vitro invasion through Matrigel, colony formation on soft agar, was also inhibited by scFv M97 transfection. Animal experiments in a xenograft model of human lung cancer

  12. The charmonium dissociation in an "anomalous wind"

    CERN Document Server

    Sadofyev, Andrey V

    2016-01-01

    We study the charmonium dissociation in a strongly coupled chiral plasma in the presence of magnetic field and axial charge imbalance. This type of plasma carries ``anomalous flow" induced by the chiral anomaly and exhibits novel transport phenomena such as chiral magnetic effect. We found that the ``anomalous flow" would modify the charmonium color screening length by using the gauge/gravity correspondence. We derive an analytical expression quantifying the ``anomalous flow" experienced by a charmonium for a large class of chiral plasma with a gravity dual. We elaborate on the similarity and {\\it qualitative} difference between anomalous effects on the charmonium color screening length which are {\\it model-dependent} and those on the heavy quark drag force which are fixed by the second law of thermodynamics. We speculate on the possible charmonium dissociation induced by chiral anomaly in heavy ion collisions.

  13. Transmission of endemic ST22-MRSA-IV on four acute hospital wards investigated using a combination of spa, dru and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis typing.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Creamer, E

    2012-11-01

    The transmission of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) between individual patients is difficult to track in institutions where MRSA is endemic. We investigated the transmission of MRSA where ST22-MRSA-IV is endemic on four wards using demographic data, patient and environmental screening, and molecular typing of isolates. A total of 939 patients were screened, 636 within 72 h of admission (on admission) and 303 >72 h after admission, and 1,252 environmental samples were obtained. Isolates were typed by spa, dru and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing. A composite dendrogram generated from the three sets of typing data was used to divide isolates into \\'dendrogram groups\\' (DGs). Ten percent of patients (92\\/939) were MRSA-positive; 7 % (44\\/636) on admission and 16 % (48\\/303) >72 h after admission (p = 0.0007). MRSA was recovered from 5 % of environmental specimens (65\\/1,252). Most isolates from patients (97 %, 85\\/88) and the environment (97 %, 63\\/65) exhibited the ST22-MRSA-IV genotype. Four DGs (DG1, DG4, DG16 and DG17) accounted for 58 % of ST22-MRSA-IV isolates from patients. Epidemiological evidence suggested cross-transmission among 44\\/92 patients (48 %) but molecular typing confirmed probable cross-transmission in only 11 instances (13 %, 11\\/88), with the majority of cross-transmission (64 %; 7\\/11) occurring on one ward. In the setting of highly clonal endemic MRSA, the combination of local epidemiology, PFGE, spa and dru typing provided valuable insights into MRSA transmission.

  14. Antitumor effects of the molecule-downsized immunoconjugate composed of lidamycin and Fab' fragment of monoclonal antibody directed against type IV collagenase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Fengqiang; SHANG; Boyang; ZHEN; Yongsu

    2004-01-01

    Type IV collagenase plays an important role in tumor invasion and metastasis through cleaving type IV collagen in the basement membrane and extracellular matrix. In this study a molecule-downsized immunoconjugate (Fab′-LDM) was constructed by linking lidamycin (LDM), a highly potent antitumor antibiotic, to the Fab′ fragment of a monoclonal antibody directed against type IV collagenase and its antitumor effect was investigated. As assayed in 10% SDS-PAGE gel, the molecular weight of Fab′-LDM conjugate was 65 kD with a 1:1 molecular ratio of Fab′ and LDM. The Fab′-LDM conjugate maintained most part of the immunoreactivity of Fab′ fragment to both type IV collagense and mouse hepatoma 22 cells by ELISA. By MTT assay, Fab′-LDM conjugate showed more potent cytotoxicity to hepatoma 22 cells than that of LDM. Administered intravenously, Fab′-LDM conjugate proved to be more effective against the growth of subcutaneously transplanted hepatoma 22 in mice than free LDM in two experiment settings. In Experiment I, the drugs were given intravenously on day 1 and day 8. Fab′-LDM at the doses of 0.025 mg/kg, 0.05 mg/kg and 0.1 mg/kg inhibited tumor growth by 76.7%, 93.3% and 94.8%, while free LDM at 0.05 mg/kg inhibited tumor growth by 76.1%, respectively. In experiment II, the drugs were given intravenously on day 4 and day 11, Fab′-LDM at the doses of 0.025 mg/kg and 0.05 mg/kg inhibited tumor growth by 74.2%, 80.9%, while free LDM at 0.05 mg/kg inhibited tumor growth by 60.5%, respectively. In terms of survival time, Fab′-LDM was more effective than free LDM. The results suggest that the molecule-downsized immunoconjugate directed against type IV collagenase is of high efficacy in experimental cancer therapy.

  15. Sec61alpha synthesis is enhanced during translocation of nascent chains of collagen type IV in F9 teratocarcinoma cells after retinoic acid treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.R. Ferreira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Nascent procollagen peptides and other secretory proteins are transported across the endoplasmic reticulum (ER membrane through a protein-conducting channel called translocon. Sec61alpha, a multispanning membrane translocon protein, has been implicated as being essential for translocation of polypeptide chains into the cisterns of the ER. Sec61alpha forms a protein complex with collagen and Hsp47, an ER-resident heat shock protein that binds specifically to collagen. However, it is not known whether Sec61alpha is ubiquitously produced in collagen-producing F9 teratocarcinoma cells or under heat shock treatment. Furthermore, the production and utilization of Sec61alpha may depend on the stage of cell differentiation. Cultured F9 teratocarcinoma cells are capable of differentiation in response to low concentrations of retinoic acid. This differentiation results in loss of tumorigenicity. Mouse F9 cells were grown in culture medium at 37ºC and 43ºC (heat shock treatment treated or not with retinoic acid, and labeled in certain instances with 35S-methionine. Membrane-bound polysomes of procollagen IV were then isolated. Immunoprecipitation and Western blot analysis were performed using polyclonal antibodies against collagen IV, Hsp47 and Sec61alpha. Under retinoic acid-untreated conditions, F9 cells produced undetectable amounts of Sec61alpha. Sec61alpha, Hsp47 and type IV collagen levels were increased after retinoic acid treatment. Heat shock treatment did not alter Sec61alpha levels, suggesting that Sec61alpha production is probably not affected by heat shock. These data indicate that the enhanced production of Sec61alpha in retinoic acid-induced F9 teratocarcinoma cells parallels the increased synthesis of Hsp47 and collagen type IV.

  16. Anomalous pulmonary venous return: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Gyeong Min; Kang, MinJin; Lee, Han Bee; Bae, Kyung Eun; Lee, Jaehe; Kim, Jae Hyung; Jeong, Myeong Ja; Kang, Tae Kyung [Sanggye Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Partial anomalous pulmonary venous return is a type of congenital pulmonary venous anomaly. We present a rare type of partial pulmonary venous return, subaortic vertical vein drains left lung to superior vena cava, accompanying hypoplasia of the ipsilateral lung and pulmonary artery. We also review the previous report and relationship of these structures.

  17. 一罕见成骨不全IV型的基因诊断%Gene diagnosis of a rare case with osteogenesis imperfecta type IV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭奕斌; 艾阳; 蒋玮莹

    2013-01-01

    Objective The gene diagnosis of a child with suspected OI-IV (Osteogenesis Imperfecta type IV) or other types of diseases was made to reveal the internal cause of morbidity and frequent bone fracture, which creates the indispensable precondition for the prenatal gene diagnosis and symptomatic treatment in the future. Methods According to the observation of symptoms, signs and X-ray testing, the child was diagnosed preliminarily with OI-IV or other types. Then extracting DNA from peripheral blood, PCR-DNA direct sequencing were applied to detect the COL1A1 gene, and the mutation was analyzed and identified. Results A classical missense mutation (c.823G>C/p.G275R) was found in the coding region of COL1A1 gene, which was confirmed a known mutation leading to OI-IV by HGMD. Conclusion The proband is a rare patient child suffered with OI-IV. The mutation of p.G275R is a pathological mutation first reported in China.%  目的对一疑似成骨不全IV型或其他类型的患儿实施基因诊断,以揭示患儿发病及频繁骨折的内在原因,为今后实施对症治疗和产前基因诊断创造必要的前提条件.方法对经症状、体征观察和X线检查初诊为成骨不全IV型或其他类型的患儿,在抽取外周血制备DNA模板后,采用PCR、DNA直接测序法,对患儿的COL1A1基因进行突变检测,然后对所发现的突变进行分析和鉴定.结果在COL1A1基因的编码区内发现一典型的错义突变(c.823G>C1/p.G275R),经查HGMD数据库证实为成骨不全IV型的致病性突变.结论先证者为一罕见的成骨不全IV型患儿,所发现的p.G275R突变为中国人群首次报道的病理性突变.

  18. A catalogue of the Coelenterate type specimens of the Zoological Museum of Amsterdam. IV. Gorgonacea, Actiniaria, Scleractinia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soest, van R.W.M.

    1979-01-01

    This final part of the Coelenterate type catalogue lists 274 nominal types (183 Gorgonacea, 9 Actiniaria and 82 Scleractinia). Six not previously depicted types are represented by photographic illustrations of their habit. Furthermore lists are provided of schizotypes, i.e. fragments of types housed

  19. Modification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Pa5196 type IV Pilins at multiple sites with D-Araf by a novel GT-C family Arabinosyltransferase, TfpW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kus, Julianne V; Kelly, John; Tessier, Luc; Harvey, Hanjeong; Cvitkovitch, Dennis G; Burrows, Lori L

    2008-11-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa Pa5196 produces type IV pilins modified with unusual alpha1,5-linked d-arabinofuranose (alpha1,5-D-Araf) glycans, identical to those in the lipoarabinomannan and arabinogalactan cell wall polymers from Mycobacterium spp. In this work, we identify a second strain of P. aeruginosa, PA7, capable of expressing arabinosylated pilins and use a combination of site-directed mutagenesis, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (MS), and electron transfer dissociation MS to identify the exact sites and extent of pilin modification in strain Pa5196. Unlike previously characterized type IV pilins that are glycosylated at a single position, those from strain Pa5196 were modified at multiple sites, with modifications of alphabeta-loop residues Thr64 and Thr66 being important for normal pilus assembly. Trisaccharides of alpha1,5-D-Araf were the principal modifications at Thr64 and Thr66, with additional mono- and disaccharides identified on Ser residues within the antiparallel beta sheet region of the pilin. TfpW was hypothesized to encode the pilin glycosyltransferase based on its genetic linkage to the pilin, weak similarity to membrane-bound GT-C family glycosyltransferases (which include the Mycobacterium arabinosyltransferases EmbA/B/C), and the presence of characteristic motifs. Loss of TfpW or mutation of key residues within the signature GT-C glycosyltransferase motif completely abrogated pilin glycosylation, confirming its involvement in this process. A Pa5196 pilA mutant complemented with other Pseudomonas pilins containing potential sites of modification expressed nonglycosylated pilins, showing that TfpW's pilin substrate specificity is restricted. TfpW is the prototype of a new type IV pilin posttranslational modification system and the first reported gram-negative member of the GT-C glycosyltransferase family.

  20. Morphological and chemical diversity in the Type IV glandular trichomes of Solananeae (S. sisymbrifolium and N. glauca) as germplasm resources for agricultural and food uses

    OpenAIRE

    Cesio, Verónica; Dutra,Carmelo; Moyna,Patrick; Heinzen, Horacio

    2006-01-01

    Morphological variation in type IV trichomes in Ss and Ng was studied through SEM. The differences can be related to chemical differences in the excreted sugar esters. Ng trichomes exude two fractions, one of glucose tri-esters and the other one of sucrose tetra-esters, in a 3:7 ratio. The main acid found forming these esthers, is 3-methylvalerianic acid, in consonance to those secreted by other Solanaceae. Esters from Ss are novel structures, which can also be separated into three fractions,...

  1. Highly Isospecific Polymerization of Silyl-Protected ω-Alkenols Using an [OSSO]-Type Bis(phenolato) Dichloro Zirconium(IV) Precatalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Yusuke; Nakata, Norio; Ishii, Akihiko

    2016-06-01

    The coordination polymerization of silyl-protected ω-alkenols such as ω-alken-α-oxytriisopropylsilanes 1 provides poly(ω-alkenyl-α-oxytriisopropylsilalne)s with a highly isospecific microstructure ([mmmm] > 95%) when a combination of [OSSO]-type bis(phenolato) dichloro zirconium(IV) complex 2 and dried methylaluminoxane is used as the precatalyst and activator, respectively. The resulting siloxy-substituted polymers could be efficiently transformed into the corresponding functionalized polyolefins, which contained up to 90% acetyl groups and ≈7% hydroxy groups in the terminal side chains.

  2. Tips for a physician in getting the right job, part IV: types of interviews for a clinical position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harolds, Jay A

    2013-11-01

    Most physicians interviewing for a job are seeking a clinical position. There are many different types of interviews for such employment, and this article enumerates the types of interviews and some characteristics of each.

  3. Salter-Harris type IV fracture of the proximal phalanx of the thumb with rotation of the epiphysis: Outcome 10 years following open reduction and K-wire fixation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad M. Al-Qattan

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: We present a rare case of Salter-Harris type IV fracture of the proximal phalanx of the thumb with rotation of the epiphysis. Long term outcome was satisfactory but there was diaphyseal constriction leading to a narrower thumb.

  4. In vivo efficacy of azithromycin in treatment of systemic infection and septic arthritis induced by type IV group B Streptococcus strains in mice: comparative study with erythromycin and penicillin G.

    OpenAIRE

    Tissi, L; von Hunolstein, C; Mosci, P; Campanelli, C; Bistoni, F.; Orefici, G

    1995-01-01

    We compared the activities of azithromycin, erythromycin, and penicillin G in a mouse model of systemic infection and septic arthritis induced by type IV group B streptococci (GBS). The in vitro and in vivo efficacy data for these drugs were analyzed relative to the pharmacokinetics of the drugs in sera, joints, and kidneys. Adult CD-1 mice were infected intravenously with 10(7) CFU of type IV GBS. Intraperitoneal drug administration was initiated with different dose regimens at different tim...

  5. Anomalous chiral superfluidity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lublinsky, Michael, E-mail: lublinsky@phys.uconn.ed [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States); Physics Department, Ben-Gurion University, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel); Zahed, Ismail [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States)

    2010-02-08

    We discuss both the anomalous Cartan currents and the energy-momentum tensor in a left chiral theory with flavor anomalies as an effective theory for flavored chiral phonons in a chiral superfluid with the gauged Wess-Zumino-Witten term. In the mean-field (leading tadpole) approximation the anomalous Cartan currents and the energy-momentum tensor take the form of constitutive currents in the chiral superfluid state. The pertinence of higher order corrections and the Adler-Bardeen theorem is briefly noted.

  6. Crystallographic parameters of magnetic Pr2Fe14-xCoxB-type alloys determined using anomalous x-ray diffraction with synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galego, E.; Serna, M. M.; Ramanathan, L. V.; Faria, R. N.

    2017-02-01

    Anomalous x-ray synchrotron diffraction was used to determine the crystallographic parameters of PrFeCoB-based magnetic alloys. The effect of cobalt concentration on the crystallographic parameters of the magnetically hard Pr2Fe14-xCoxB phase was studied. The results indicate that addition of cobalt has a marked effect on crystal structure. Variation of the c parameter decreased twice as much as the a parameter with increase in Co content. The positions of inequivalent atoms of the magnetically hard matrix phase ϕ in the Pr-based alloys were determined using Rietveld refinement. This permitted determination of the relative distance of each inequivalent atom from its nearest neighbors. Cobalt occupied the 16k2 site and Fe had a tendency to occupy the 8j2 sites located between the Kagomé layers.

  7. Anomalous physical properties of Heusler-type Co2Cr (Ga,Si) alloys and thermodynamic study on reentrant martensitic transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao; Nagasako, Makoto; Kataoka, Mitsuo; Umetsu, Rie Y.; Omori, Toshihiro; Kanomata, Takeshi; Kainuma, Ryosuke

    2015-03-01

    Electronic, magnetic, and thermodynamic properties of Co2Cr(Ga,Si) -based shape-memory alloys, which exhibit reentrant martensitic transformation (RMT) behavior, were studied experimentally. For electric resistivity (ER), an inverse (semiconductor-like) temperature dependence in the parent phase was found, along with anomalous behavior below its Curie temperature. A pseudobinary phase diagram was determined, which gives a "martensite loop" clearly showing the reentrant behavior. Differential scanning calorimetry and specific-heat measurements were used to derive the entropy change Δ S between martensite and parent phases. The temperature dependence of the derived Δ S was analyzed thermodynamically to confirm the appearances of both the RMT and normal martensitic transformation. Detailed studies on the specific heat in martensite and parent phases at low temperatures were also conducted.

  8. Secondary flow structures in the presence of Type-IV stent fractures through a bent tube model for curved arteries: Effect of circulation thresholding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Shadman; Bulusu, Kartik V.; Plesniak, Michael W.

    2013-11-01

    A common treatment for atherosclerosis is the opening of narrowed arteries resulting from obstructive lesions by angioplasty and stent implantation to restore unrestricted blood flow. ``Type-IV'' stent fractures involve complete transverse, linear fracture of stent struts, along with displacement of the stent fragments. Experimental data pertaining to secondary flows in the presence of stents that underwent ``Type-IV'' fractures in a bent artery model under physiological inflow conditions were obtained through a two-component, two-dimensional (2C-2D) PIV technique. Concomitant stent-induced flow perturbations result in secondary flow structures with complex, multi-scale morphologies and varying size-strength characteristics. Ultimately, these flow structures may have a role to play in restenosis and progression of atherosclerotic plaque. Vortex circulation thresholds were established with the goal of resolving and tracking iso-circulation secondary flow vortical structures and their morphological changes. This allowed for a parametric evaluation and quantitative representation of secondary flow structures undergoing deformation and spatial reorganization. Supported by NSF Grant No. CBET- 0828903 and GW Center for Biomimetics and Bioinspired Engineering.

  9. Type-IV pili spectroscopic markers: applications in the quantification of piliation levels in Moraxella bovis cells by a FT-IR ANN-based model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Alejandra; Prieto, Claudia; Serra, Diego Omar; Martina, Pablo; Stämmbler, Maren; Naumann, Dieter; Schmitt, Jürgen; Yantorno, Osvaldo

    2010-08-01

    Type-IV pili are cell surface organelles found in a wide variety of Gram-negative bacteria. They have traditionally been detected by electron microscopy and ELISA techniques. However, these methodologies are not appropriate for the rapid discrimination and quantification of piliated and nonpiliated cells in industrial or field conditions. Here, the analysis of FT-IR spectra of piliated, nonpiliated and sheared Moraxella bovis cells, together with purified pili suspensions spectra, allowed the identification of 3 IR regions associated to spectroscopic markers of Type-IV pili: 1750-1600, 1450-1350 and 1280-950 cm(-1). Such IR-specific markers were found for piliated cells grown in different culture systems (liquid or solid media), independently of the strain or pili serotype. They were also sensitive to pili expression levels. Therefore, on the bases of these specific spectral features, an FT-IR ANN-based model was developed to classify piliation levels in 5 distinct groups. An overall classification rate of almost 90% demonstrates the strong potential of the ANN system developed to monitor M. bovis cultures in vaccine production.

  10. The study of pinch regimes based on radiation-enhanced compression and anomalous resistivity phenomena and their effects on hard x-ray emission in a Mather type dense plasma focus device (SABALAN2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piriaei, D.; Javadi, S.; Ghoranneviss, M. [Plasma Physics Research Center, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran 1477893855 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mahabadi, T. D., E-mail: tadavari@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Biophysics, Tehran Medical Sciences Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran 1916893813 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Saw, S. H. [INTI International University, Nilai 71800 (Malaysia); Institute for Plasma Focus Studies, 32 Oak Park Drive, Victoria 3148 (Australia); Lee, S. [INTI International University, Nilai 71800 (Malaysia); Institute for Plasma Focus Studies, 32 Oak Park Drive, Victoria 3148 (Australia); Universty of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia)

    2015-12-15

    In this study, by using argon and nitrogen as the filling gases in a Mather type dense plasma focus device at different values of pressure and charging voltage, two different kinds of pinch regimes were observed for each of the gases. The physics of the pinch regimes could be explained by using the two versions of the Lee's computational model which predicted each of the scenarios and clarified their differences between the two gases according to the radiation-enhanced compression and, additionally, predicted the pinch regimes through the anomalous resistivity effect during the pinch time. This was accomplished through the fitting process (simulation) on the current signal. Moreover, the characteristic amplitude and time scales of the anomalous resistances were obtained. The correlations between the features of the plasma current dip and the emitted hard x-ray pulses were observed. The starting time, intensity, duration, and the multiple or single feature of the emitted hard x-ray strongly correlated to the same respective features of the current dip.

  11. Anomalous pion decay revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Battistel, O A; Nemes, M C; Hiller, B

    1999-01-01

    An implicit four dimensional regularization is applied to calculate the axial-vector-vector anomalous amplitude. The present technique always complies with results of Dimensional Regularization and can be easily applied to processes involving odd numbers of $\\gamma_5$ matrices. This is illustrated explicitely in the example of this letter.

  12. Plasma dipeptidyl peptidase-IV activity in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus correlates positively with HbAlc levels, but is not acutely affected by food intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryskjaer, Jakob; Deacon, Carolyn F.; Carr, Richard D;

    2006-01-01

    a standard meal test (566 kcal) was estimated. RESULTS: Mean fasting plasma DPP-IV activity (expressed as degradation of GLP-1) was significantly higher in this patient group compared with the control subjects (67.5 +/- 1.9 vs 56.8 +/- 2.2 fmol GLP-1/h (mean +/- s.e.m.); P=0.001). In the type-2 diabetic...... patients and control subjects. DESIGN: The study included two protocols. Protocol one involved 40 fasting type-2 diabetic patients (28 men); age 61 +/- 1.4 (mean +/- s.e.m.) years; body mass index (BMI) 31 +/- 0.6 kg/m(2); HbAlc 7.2 +/- 0.2%; and 20 matched control subjects (14 men) were studied. Protocol...

  13. Salter-Harris type III and IV displaced fracture of the hallux in young gymnasts: A series of four cases at 1-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perugia, Dario; Fabbri, Mattia; Guidi, Marco; Lepri, Marco; Masi, Vincenzo

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe four exceptional cases of Salter-Harris type III and IV fractures of the proximal phalanx of the hallux in young high-level gymnasts. All gymnasts underwent the same mechanism of injury of hyperadduction, which indicates a role of the abductor hallucis muscle in the genesis and displacement of these fractures. An open reduction and internal fixation was performed to achieve an anatomical reduction and avoid chronic disability. At 1-year follow-up, all patients had an excellent American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) score (100 points), and there was no shortening or angulation of the first ray and no evidence of degenerative joint disease on X-ray. Moreover, all the gymnasts had returned to pre-injury levels of sporting activity. To our knowledge, there are no previous studies that address these types of injuries and how they are handled in gymnasts.

  14. A Posteriorly Displaced Distal Metaphyseal Clavicular Fracture (Type IV AC Joint Dislocation-Like in Children: A Case Report and Literature Review Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Kotb

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fractures of the lateral end of the clavicle are common in pediatric patients; most of these fractures occur at the physeal level representing Salter Harris injuries. The vast majority of fractures of the lateral end of the clavicle are managed nonoperatively. In this report, we describe a unique type of fracture of the distal end of the clavicle in the pediatric patients in which the fracture occurs in the metaphyseal lateral clavicle with the proximal edge of the fracture displaced posteriorly through the trapezius muscle causing obvious deformity. It is similar in pathology to type IV AC joint dislocation. In this study we report this injury in eleven-year-old boy. Literature review showed that similar injuries were described before three times (two of them in pediatric patients. Due to the significant clinical deformity of this category with entrapment of the bone through the trapezius muscle, reduction (open or closed of the fracture is the recommended treatment.

  15. Early Diagnosis and Treatment of Coronary Heart Disease in Symptomatic Subjects With Advanced Vascular Atherosclerosis of the Carotid Artery (Type III and IV b Findings Using Ultrasound)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Ansgar; Bojara, Waldemar; Schunk, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Background A study was conducted as to whether the early diagnosis of coronary heart disease (CHD) in symptomatic patients with advanced atherosclerosis of the carotid artery was more successful using ultrasound technology than exercise electrocardiography (ECG). Methods Within the scope of an occupational screening program using subjects from diverse employment sectors, people were given the opportunity to determine their risk of heart attack. During the study, the total plaque area (TPA), the maximum plaque thickness in the carotid artery and the PROCAM scores of 3,513 healthy men and 2,088 healthy women between the ages of 20 and 65 were determined. During the subsequent follow-up study, 36 subjects developed symptoms such as exertional dyspnea, atypical angina pectoris (AP) or typical AP. Four patients displayed no symptoms. The initial cardiac diagnostic testing was conducted on 31 patients using an exercise ECG, four patients were assessed using a coronary angiogram, and five further patients were assessed using a computed tomography (CT) coronary angiogram. An ultrasound examination of the carotid artery of 39 patients revealed a type IV b finding and in one patient, the examination revealed a type III finding. Results In 17 patients, the PROCAM score was 20%. In the final analysis, only two patients had entirely smooth coronary arteries, seven had coronary sclerosis, seven had a 30% stenosis, one had a 30-40% stenosis, one had a 40% stenosis, and 22 patients had a stenosis ≥ 50%, and in extreme cases, a left main coronary artery stenosis with three-vessel disease was shown. The exercise ECG only achieved a true positive result in four patients, and in 21 patients, the result was false negative. Conclusions Symptomatic patients with advanced atherosclerosis of the carotid artery (type III and type IV b findings) had a high risk for CHD. The diagnosis of CHD is better achieved by using carotid duplex than with an exercise ECG. Early treatment of the disease

  16. Anomalous Feeding of the Left Upper Lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazzard, Christopher; Itagaki, Shinobu; Lajam, Fouad; Flores, Raja M

    2016-09-01

    We report the case of a 53-year-old woman who presented with massive hemoptysis. Computed tomographic angiography revealed an anomalous vessel arising from the abdominal aorta, coursing anteriorly and through the diaphragm, and feeding the left upper lobe. At operation the vessel was found to anastomose to the left upper lobe lingula, which contained multiple vascular abnormalities and arteriovenous fistulas. The vessel was ligated, and the affected portion of the left upper lobe was resected. Anomalous systemic arterial supply of an upper lobe is an especially rare form of a Pryce type 1 abnormality. Recognition of these unusual anatomic variants is crucial to successful treatment and avoidance of adverse events.

  17. Minimal flavour violation and anomalous top decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faller, Sven; Mannel, Thomas [Theoretische Physik 1, Department Physik, Universitaet Siegen, D-57068 Siegen (Germany); Gadatsch, Stefan [Nikhef, National Institute for Subatomatic Physics, P.O. Box 41882, 1009 Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-07-01

    Any experimental evidence of anomalous top-quark couplings will open a window to study physics beyond the standard model (SM). However, all current flavour data indicate that nature is close to ''minimal flavour violation'', i.e. the pattern of flavour violation is given by the CKM matrix, including the hierarchy of parameters. In this talk we present results of the conceptual test of minimal flavour violation for the anomalous charged as well as flavour changing top-quark couplings. Our analysis is embedded in two-Higgs doublet model of type II (2HDM-II). Including renormalization effects, we calculate the top decay rates taking into account anomalous couplings constrained by minimal flavour violation.

  18. Characterization of type I, II, III, IV, and V collagens by time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcu, Laura; Cohen, David; Maarek, Jean-Michel I.; Grundfest, Warren S.

    2000-04-01

    The relative proportions of genetically distinct collagen types in connective tissues vary with tissue type and change during disease progression, development, wound healing, aging. This study aims to 1) characterize the spectro- temporal fluorescence emission of fiber different types of collagen and 2) assess the ability of time-resolved laser- induced fluorescence spectroscopy to distinguish between collagen types. Fluorescence emission of commercially available purified samples was induced with nitrogen laser excitation pulses and detected with a MCP-PMT connected to a digital storage oscilloscope. The recorded time-resolved emission spectra displayed distinct fluorescence emission characteristics for each collagen type. The time domain information complemented the spectral domain intensity data for improved discrimination between different collagen types. Our results reveal that analysis of the fluorescence emission can be used to characterize different species of collagen. Also, the results suggest that time-resolved spectroscopy can be used for monitoring of connective tissue matrix composition changes due to various pathological and non-pathological conditions.

  19. Genetic and mechanistic evaluation for the mixed-field agglutination in B3 blood type with IVS3+5G>A ABO gene mutation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding-Ping Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The ABO blood type B(3 is the most common B subtype in the Chinese population with a frequency of 1/900. Although IVS3+5G>A (rs55852701 mutation of B gene has been shown to associate with the development of B(3 blood type, genetic and mechanistic evaluation for the unique mixed-field agglutination phenotype has not yet been completely addressed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we analyzed 16 cases of confirmed B(3 individuals and found that IVS3+5G>A attributes to all cases of B(3. RT-PCR analyses revealed the presence of at least 7 types of aberrant B(3 splicing transcripts with most of the transcripts causing early termination and producing non-functional protein during translation. The splicing transcript without exon 3 that was predicted to generate functional B(3 glycosyltransferase lacking 19 amino acids at the N-terminal segment constituted only 0.9% of the splicing transcripts. Expression of the B(3 cDNA with exon 3 deletion in the K562 erythroleukemia cells revealed that the B(3 glycosyltransferase had only 40% of B(1 activity in converting H antigen to B antigen. Notably, the typical mixed-field agglutination of B(3-RBCs can be mimicked by adding anti-B antibody to the K562-B(3 cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study thereby demonstrates that both aberrant splicing of B transcripts and the reduced B(3 glycosyltransferase activity contribute to weak B expression and the mixed-field agglutination of B(3, adding to the complexity for the regulatory mechanisms of ABO gene expression.

  20. Intervalence Charge Transfer Luminescence: Interplay between anomalous and 5d-4f emissions in Yb-doped fluorite-type crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Barandiaran, Zoila

    2014-01-01

    We report the existence of intervalence charge transfer (IVCT) luminescence in Yb-doped fluorites associated with Yb2+-Yb3+ mixed valence pairs. We show that the very broad band, anomalous emission of Yb2+-doped CaF2 and SrF2, usually associated with impurity-trapped excitons, is, rather, an IVCT luminescence associated with Yb2+-Yb3+ mixed valence pairs. It is very efficiently excited by a two-photon upconversion mechanism. The IVCT vertical transition leaves the pair moieties very far from their equilibrium structures; this explains the unexpectedly large band width of the emission band and its low peak energy, because the large reorganization energies are substracted from the normal emission. The ab initio IVCT energy diagrams explain the different luminescent properties of Yb-doped CaF2, SrF2, BaF2, and SrCl2: the presence of IVCT luminescence in Yb-doped CaF2 and SrF2; its coexistence with regular 5d-4f emission in SrF2; its absence in BaF2 and SrCl2; the quenching of all emissions in BaF2; and the prese...

  1. Analysis of the type IV fimbrial-subunit gene fimA of Xanthomonas hyacinthi: application in PCR-mediated detection of yellow disease in Hyacinths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Doorn, J; Hollinger, T C; Oudega, B

    2001-02-01

    A sensitive and specific detection method was developed for Xanthomonas hyacinthi; this method was based on amplification of a subsequence of the type IV fimbrial-subunit gene fimA from strain S148. The fimA gene was amplified by PCR with degenerate DNA primers designed by using the N-terminal and C-terminal amino acid sequences of trypsin fragments of FimA. The nucleotide sequence of fimA was determined and compared with the nucleotide sequences coding for the fimbrial subunits in other type IV fimbria-producing bacteria, such as Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Moraxella bovis. In a PCR internal primers JAAN and JARA, designed by using the nucleotide sequences of the variable central and C-terminal region of fimA, amplified a 226-bp DNA fragment in all X. hyacinthi isolates. This PCR was shown to be pathovar specific, as assessed by testing 71 Xanthomonas pathovars and bacterial isolates belonging to other genera, such as Erwinia and Pseudomonas. Southern hybridization experiments performed with the labelled 226-bp DNA amplicon as a probe suggested that there is only one structural type IV fimbrial-gene cluster in X. hyacinthi. Only two Xanthomonas translucens pathovars cross-reacted weakly in PCR. Primers amplifying a subsequence of the fimA gene of X. campestris pv. vesicatoria (T. Ojanen-Reuhs, N. Kalkkinen, B. Westerlund-Wikström, J. van Doorn, K. Haahtela, E.-L. Nurmiaho-Lassila, K. Wengelink, U. Bonas, and T. K. Korhonen, J. Bacteriol. 179: 1280-1290, 1997) were shown to be pathovar specific, indicating that the fimbrial-subunit sequences are more generally applicable in xanthomonads for detection purposes. Under laboratory conditions, approximately 1,000 CFU of X. hyacinthi per ml could be detected. In inoculated leaves of hyacinths the threshold was 5,000 CFU/ml. The results indicated that infected hyacinths with early symptoms could be successfully screened for X. hyacinthi with PCR.

  2. SDSS-IV MaNGA: Spatially resolved star formation histories in galaxies as a function of galaxy mass and type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, D.; Thomas, D.; Maraston, C.; Westfall, K.; Etherington, J.; Riffel, R.; Mallmann, N. D.; Zheng, Z.; Argudo-Fernández, M.; Lian, J.; Bershady, M.; Bundy, K.; Drory, N.; Law, D.; Yan, R.; Wake, D.; Weijmans, A.; Bizyaev, D.; Brownstein, J.; Lane, R. R.; Maiolino, R.; Masters, K.; Merrifield, M.; Nitschelm, C.; Pan, K.; Roman-Lopes, A.; Storchi-Bergmann, T.; Schneider, D. P.

    2016-12-01

    We study the internal gradients of stellar population properties within 1.5 Re for a representative sample of 721 galaxies with stellar masses ranging between 109 M⊙ to 1011.5 M⊙ from the SDSS-IV MaNGA IFU survey. Through the use of our full spectral fitting code FIREFLY, we derive light and mass-weighted stellar population properties and their radial gradients, as well as full star formation and metal enrichment histories. We also quanfify the impact that different stellar population models and full spectral fitting routines have on the derived stellar population properties, and the radial gradient measurements. In our analysis, we find that age gradients tend to be shallow for both early-type and late-type galaxies. Mass-weighted age gradients of early-types are positive (˜0.09 dex/Re) pointing to "outside-in" progression of star formation, while late-type galaxies have negative light-weighted age gradients (˜-0.11 dex/Re), suggesting an "inside-out" formation of discs. We detect negative metallicity gradients in both early and late-type galaxies, but these are significantly steeper in late-types, suggesting that radial dependence of chemical enrichment processes and the effect of gas inflow and metal transport are far more pronounced in discs. Metallicity gradients of both morphological classes correlate with galaxy mass, with negative metallicity gradients becoming steeper with increasing galaxy mass. The correlation with mass is stronger for late-type galaxies, with a slope of d(∇[Z/H])/d(log M) ˜ -0.2 ± 0.05 , compared to d(∇[Z/H])/d(log M) ˜ -0.05 ± 0.05 for early-types. This result suggests that the merger history plays a relatively small role in shaping metallicity gradients of galaxies.

  3. Icariin attenuates high glucose-induced type IV collagen and fibronectin accumulation in glomerular mesangial cells by inhibiting transforming growth factor-β production and signalling through G protein-coupled oestrogen receptor 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi-Chen; Ding, Xuan-Sheng; Li, Hui-Mei; Zhang, Cheng

    2013-09-01

    Icariin has been shown to attenuate diabetic nephropathy in rats by decreasing transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and type IV collagen expression, but its mode of action in glomerular mesangial cells is uncertain. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of icariin on excess mesangial type IV collagen and fibronectin accumulation induced by high glucose, and to determine the mechanism underlying its protective effects. Under high-glucose conditions, icariin diminished type IV collagen and fibronectin accumulation, as well as TGF-β production in human and rat mesangial cells. Mesangial cells treated with icariin after TGF-β1 exposure expressed less type IV collagen and fibronectin than those without icariin treatment, suggesting inhibition by icariin of TGF-β1 downstream pathways. On TGF-β1 stimulation, icariin inhibited TGF-β canonical Smad signalling and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 signalling by decreasing Smad2/3 and ERK1/2 phosphorylation in a dose-dependent manner. U0126, which blocked the ERK1/2 pathway, exerted an additive effect on the icariin suppression of type IV collagen and fibronectin expression, enhancing the beneficial effects of icariin. The G protein-coupled oestrogen receptor 1 (GPER) antagonist, G-15, abolished the icariin-induced inhibition of type IV collagen, and fibronectin overproduction and TGF-β signalling. Treatment of cells with fulvestrant, a downregulator of the oestrogen receptor, enhanced the action of icariin. In conclusion, icariin decreased type IV collagen and fibronectin accumulation induced by high glucose in mesangial cells by inhibiting TGF-β production, as well as Smad and ERK signalling in a GPER-dependent manner.

  4. SPIDER - IV. Optical and NIR color gradients in Early-type galaxies: New Insights into Correlations with Galaxy Properties

    CERN Document Server

    La Barbera, F; de la Rosa, I G; Gal, R R; Swindle, R; Lopes, P A A

    2010-01-01

    We present an analysis of stellar population gradients in 4,546 Early-Type Galaxies with photometry in $grizYHJK$ along with optical spectroscopy. A new approach is described which utilizes color information to constrain age and metallicity gradients. Defining an effective color gradient, $\

  5. Comparative analysis of basal lamina type IV collagen α chains, matrix metalloproteinases-2 and -9 expressions in oral dysplasia and invasive carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamamura, Ryo; Nagatsuka, Hitoshi; Siar, Chong Huat; Katase, Naoki; Naito, Ichiro; Sado, Yoshikazu; Nagai, Noriyuki

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the expressions of basal lamina (BL) collagen IV α chains and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 in oral dysplasia (OED) and invasive carcinoma. Ten cases each of OEDs, carcinomas-in situ and oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) were examined by immunohistochemistry. Another 5 cases, each of normal and hyperplastic oral mucosa, served as controls. Results showed that α1(IV)/α2(IV) and α5(IV)/α6(IV) chains were intact in BLs of control and OEDs. In BLs of carcinoma-in situ, α1(IV)/α2(IV) chains preceded α5(IV)/α6(IV) chains in showing incipient signs of disruption. OSCCs exhibited varying degrees of collagen α(IV) chain degradation. MMP-2 and MMP-9 were absent in controls and OED, but weakly detectable in carcinoma-in situ. In OSCC, these proteolytic enzymes were expressed in areas corresponding to collagen α(IV) chain loss. Enzymatic activity was enhanced in higher grade OSCC, and along the tumor advancing front. Overall the present findings suggest that loss of BL collagen α(IV) chains coincided with gain of expression for MMP-2 and MMP-9, and that these protein alterations are crucial events during progression from OED to OSCC.

  6. New lethal disease involving type I and III collagen defect resembling geroderma osteodysplastica, De Barsy syndrome, and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jukkola, A; Kauppila, S; Risteli, L; Vuopala, K; Risteli, J; Leisti, J; Pajunen, L

    1998-06-01

    We describe the clinical findings and biochemical features of a male child suffering from a so far undescribed lethal connective tissue disorder characterised by extreme hypermobility of the joints, lax skin, cataracts, severe growth retardation, and insufficient production of type I and type III procollagens. His features are compared with Ehlers-Danlos type IV, De Barsy syndrome, and geroderma osteodysplastica, as these disorders show some symptoms and signs shared with our patient. The child died because of failure of the connective tissue structures joining the skull and the spine, leading to progressive spinal stenosis. The aortic valve was translucent and insufficient. The clinical symptoms and signs, together with histological findings, suggested a collagen defect. Studies on both skin fibroblast cultures and the patient's serum showed reduced synthesis of collagen types I and III at the protein and RNA levels. The sizes of the mRNAs and newly synthesised proteins were normal, excluding gross structural abnormalities. These findings are not in accordance with any other collagen defect characterised so far.

  7. Anomalous diffusion of epicentres

    CERN Document Server

    Sotolongo-Costa, Oscar; Posadas, A; Luzon, F

    2007-01-01

    The classification of earthquakes in main shocks and aftershocks by a method recently proposed by M. Baiesi and M. Paczuski allows to the generation of a complex network composed of clusters that group the most correlated events. The spatial distribution of epicentres inside these structures corresponding to the catalogue of earthquakes in the eastern region of Cuba shows anomalous anti-diffusive behaviour evidencing the attractive nature of the main shock and the possible description in terms of fractional kinetics.

  8. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent serum assay specific for the 7S domain of Collagen Type IV (P4NP 7S)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leeming, Diana J; Nielsen, Mette J; Dai, Yueqin

    2012-01-01

    Aim:  The present study describes the ability of a newly developed N-terminal pro-peptides of type IV collagen 7S domain (P4NP 7S) competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for describing liver fibrosis. The assay applies a monoclonal antibody specific for a PIVNP 7S epitope 100...... were significantly elevated in rat with liver fibrosis as seen by histology (CCL4: 283% elevated in the highest quartile of total hepatic collagen compared with controls, P = 0.001; BDL: 183% elevated at week 4 compared with sham, P collagen...... expression in BDL rats (r = 0.49, P collagen in CCL4 treated livers (P 

  9. Nonlocal Anomalous Hall Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Steven S-L; Vignale, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    The anomalous Hall (AH) effect is deemed to be a unique transport property of ferromagnetic metals, caused by the concerted action of spin polarization and spin-orbit coupling. Nevertheless, recent experiments have shown that the effect also occurs in a nonmagnetic metal (Pt) in contact with a magnetic insulator [yttrium iron garnet (YIG)], even when precautions are taken to ensure that there is no induced magnetization in the metal. We propose a theory of this effect based on the combined action of spin-dependent scattering from the magnetic interface and the spin-Hall effect in the bulk of the metal. At variance with previous theories, we predict the effect to be of first order in the spin-orbit coupling, just as the conventional anomalous Hall effect-the only difference being the spatial separation of the spin-orbit interaction and the magnetization. For this reason we name this effect the nonlocal anomalous Hall effect and predict that its sign will be determined by the sign of the spin-Hall angle in the metal. The AH conductivity that we calculate from our theory is in order of magnitude agreement with the measured values in Pt/YIG structures.

  10. Nonlocal Anomalous Hall Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Steven S.-L.; Vignale, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    The anomalous Hall (AH) effect is deemed to be a unique transport property of ferromagnetic metals, caused by the concerted action of spin polarization and spin-orbit coupling. Nevertheless, recent experiments have shown that the effect also occurs in a nonmagnetic metal (Pt) in contact with a magnetic insulator [yttrium iron garnet (YIG)], even when precautions are taken to ensure that there is no induced magnetization in the metal. We propose a theory of this effect based on the combined action of spin-dependent scattering from the magnetic interface and the spin-Hall effect in the bulk of the metal. At variance with previous theories, we predict the effect to be of first order in the spin-orbit coupling, just as the conventional anomalous Hall effect—the only difference being the spatial separation of the spin-orbit interaction and the magnetization. For this reason we name this effect the nonlocal anomalous Hall effect and predict that its sign will be determined by the sign of the spin-Hall angle in the metal. The AH conductivity that we calculate from our theory is in order of magnitude agreement with the measured values in Pt /YIG structures.

  11. Postreplication Roles of the Brucella VirB Type IV Secretion System Uncovered via Conditional Expression of the VirB11 ATPase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Erin P.; Miller, Cheryl N.; Child, Robert; Cundiff, Jennifer A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Brucella abortus, the bacterial agent of the worldwide zoonosis brucellosis, primarily infects host phagocytes, where it undergoes an intracellular cycle within a dedicated membrane-bound vacuole, the Brucella-containing vacuole (BCV). Initially of endosomal origin (eBCV), BCVs are remodeled into replication-permissive organelles (rBCV) derived from the host endoplasmic reticulum, a process that requires modulation of host secretory functions via delivery of effector proteins by the Brucella VirB type IV secretion system (T4SS). Following replication, rBCVs are converted into autophagic vacuoles (aBCVs) that facilitate bacterial egress and subsequent infections, arguing that the bacterium sequentially manipulates multiple cellular pathways to complete its cycle. The VirB T4SS is essential for rBCV biogenesis, as VirB-deficient mutants are stalled in eBCVs and cannot mediate rBCV biogenesis. This has precluded analysis of whether the VirB apparatus also drives subsequent stages of the Brucella intracellular cycle. To address this issue, we have generated a B. abortus strain in which VirB T4SS function is conditionally controlled via anhydrotetracycline (ATc)-dependent complementation of a deletion of the virB11 gene encoding the VirB11 ATPase. We show in murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) that early VirB production is essential for optimal rBCV biogenesis and bacterial replication. Transient expression of virB11 prior to infection was sufficient to mediate normal rBCV biogenesis and bacterial replication but led to T4SS inactivation and decreased aBCV formation and bacterial release, indicating that these postreplication stages are also T4SS dependent. Hence, our findings support the hypothesis of additional, postreplication roles of type IV secretion in the Brucella intracellular cycle. PMID:27899503

  12. Postreplication Roles of the Brucella VirB Type IV Secretion System Uncovered via Conditional Expression of the VirB11 ATPase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin P. Smith

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Brucella abortus, the bacterial agent of the worldwide zoonosis brucellosis, primarily infects host phagocytes, where it undergoes an intracellular cycle within a dedicated membrane-bound vacuole, the Brucella-containing vacuole (BCV. Initially of endosomal origin (eBCV, BCVs are remodeled into replication-permissive organelles (rBCV derived from the host endoplasmic reticulum, a process that requires modulation of host secretory functions via delivery of effector proteins by the Brucella VirB type IV secretion system (T4SS. Following replication, rBCVs are converted into autophagic vacuoles (aBCVs that facilitate bacterial egress and subsequent infections, arguing that the bacterium sequentially manipulates multiple cellular pathways to complete its cycle. The VirB T4SS is essential for rBCV biogenesis, as VirB-deficient mutants are stalled in eBCVs and cannot mediate rBCV biogenesis. This has precluded analysis of whether the VirB apparatus also drives subsequent stages of the Brucella intracellular cycle. To address this issue, we have generated a B. abortus strain in which VirB T4SS function is conditionally controlled via anhydrotetracycline (ATc-dependent complementation of a deletion of the virB11 gene encoding the VirB11 ATPase. We show in murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs that early VirB production is essential for optimal rBCV biogenesis and bacterial replication. Transient expression of virB11 prior to infection was sufficient to mediate normal rBCV biogenesis and bacterial replication but led to T4SS inactivation and decreased aBCV formation and bacterial release, indicating that these postreplication stages are also T4SS dependent. Hence, our findings support the hypothesis of additional, postreplication roles of type IV secretion in the Brucella intracellular cycle.

  13. Anomalous Evidence, Confidence Change, and Theory Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmerich, Joshua A; Van Voorhis, Kellie; Wiley, Jennifer

    2016-08-01

    A novel experimental paradigm that measured theory change and confidence in participants' theories was used in three experiments to test the effects of anomalous evidence. Experiment 1 varied the amount of anomalous evidence to see if "dose size" made incremental changes in confidence toward theory change. Experiment 2 varied whether anomalous evidence was convergent (of multiple types) or replicating (similar finding repeated). Experiment 3 varied whether participants were provided with an alternative theory that explained the anomalous evidence. All experiments showed that participants' confidence changes were commensurate with the amount of anomalous evidence presented, and that larger decreases in confidence predicted theory changes. Convergent evidence and the presentation of an alternative theory led to larger confidence change. Convergent evidence also caused more theory changes. Even when people do not change theories, factors pertinent to the evidence and alternative theories decrease their confidence in their current theory and move them incrementally closer to theory change.

  14. Helicobacter pylori cholesteryl glucosides interfere with host membrane phase and affect type IV secretion system function during infection in AGS cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hung-Jung; Cheng, Wen-Chi; Cheng, Hsin-Hung; Lai, Chih-Ho; Wang, Wen-Ching

    2012-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is an aetiological cause of gastric disorders worldwide. H. pylori has been shown to assimilate and convert host cholesterol into cholesteryl glucosides (CGs) by cholesterol-α-glucosyltransferase encoded by capJ. Here, we show that CapJ-deficient (ΔcapJ) H. pylori resulted in greatly reduced type IV secretion system (TFSS)-associated activities, including the hummingbird phenotype of AGS cells, IL-8 production, CagA translocation/phosphorylation and CagA-mediated signalling events. Complementation of the ΔcapJ mutation with wild type cagJ or by adding CGs-containing lysates or exogenous fluorophore-tagged CGs reversed the mutant phenotypes. We also show that the wild-type but not ΔcapJ H. pylori recruited raft-associated components to sites of bacterial attachment. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) analysis of AGS cells treated with fluorescence-tagged cholesterol/CGs revealed that there was a higher proportion of CGs associated with immobile fractions. CGs-associated membranes were also more resistant to a cold detergent extraction. Thus, we propose that CGs synthesized by H. pylori around host-pathogen contact sites partition in detergent-resistant membranes (DRMs), alters lateral-phase segregation in membrane and reorganizes membrane architecture. These processes together promote the formation of a functional TFSS and H. pylori infection.

  15. Platelet half-life in patients with primary hyperlipoproteinemia type IIa, IIb, and IV according to Fredrickson with and without clinical signs of atherosclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, E.; Sinzinger, H.; Widhalm, K.; Kaliman, J.; Hoefer, R. (Vienna Univ. (Austria). 2. Medizinische Klinik; Ludwig Boltzmann-Institut fuer Nuklearmedizin, Vienna (Austria); Vienna Univ. (Austria). Kinderklinik; Vienna Univ. (Austria). Kardiologische Klinik)

    1982-09-01

    It is generally accepted that platelet half-life is shortened in atherosclerotic vascular diseases. Concerning changes due to hyperlipoproteinemia (HLP), however, there exist only few data. Therefore, we examined the platelet-half life in 60 patients with recently discovered HLP type IIa, IIb and IV according to Fredrickson before treatment in comparison to 60 controls. 33 of the HLP-patients had no clinical symptoms of angiopathy. 27 patients suffered from peripheral vascular disease or from coronary heart disease as verified by angiography. The labelling of autologous platelets was performed with 100..mu..Ci of /sup 111/Indium-oxine-sulfate at 37/sup 0/C for 5 minutes. The mean labelling efficiency was 90%, the recovery after 2 hours about 70%. Serum lipoproteins were estimated by means of ultracentrifugation and polyanionprecipitation according to Lipid Research Clinic Methods. In the patients with HLP platelet half-life was significantly shortened in comparison to the control group (p < 0.01). These changes were most pronounced in patients with HLP-type IIa and with atherosclerotic lesions, respectively. In patients with HLP-type IIa a very close correlation could be demonstrated between platelet half-life and LDL-cholesterol (r = -0.72; p < 0.001) as well as total cholesterol (r = -0.73; p < 0.001). These data prove that in HLP in-vivo platelet function as measured by platelet survival is significantly influenced even before the occurrence of clinically relevant symptoms of atherosclerosis.

  16. Parental somatic and germ-line mosaicism for a multiexon deletion with unusual endpoints in a type III collagen (COL3Al) allele produces ehlers-danlos syndrome type IV in the heterozygous offspring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGookey Milewicz, D.; Witz, A.M.; Byers, P.H. (Univ of Washington, Seattle (United States)); Smith, A.C.M.; Manchester, D.K.; Waldstein, G. (Children' s Hospital, Denver, CO (United States))

    1993-07-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) type IV is a dominantly inherited disorder that results from mutation in the type III collagen gene (COL3A1). The authors studied the structure of the COL3A1 gene of an individual with EDS type IV and that of her phenotypically normal parents. The proband was heterozygous for a 2-kb deletion in COL3A1, while her father was mosaic for the same deletion in somatic and germ cells. In fibroblasts from the father, approximately two-fifths of the COL3A1 alleles carried the deletion, but only 10% of the COL3A1 alleles in white blood cells were of the mutant species. The deletion in the mutant allele extended from intron 7 into intron 11. There was a 12-bp direct repeat in intron 7 and intron 11, the latter about 60 bp 5' to the junction. At the breakpoint there was a duplication of 10 bp from intron 11 separated by an insertion of 4 bp contained within the duplicated sequence. The father was mosaic for the deletion so that the gene rearrangement occurred during his early embryonic development prior to lineage allocation. These findings suggest that at least some of the deletions seen in human genes may occur during replication, rather than as a consequence of meiotic crossing-over, and that they thus have a risk for recurrence when observed de novo. 71 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Parental somatic and germ-line mosaicism for a multiexon deletion with unusual endpoints in a type III collagen (COL3A1) allele produces Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV in the heterozygous offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milewicz, D M; Witz, A M; Smith, A C; Manchester, D K; Waldstein, G; Byers, P H

    1993-01-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) type IV is a dominantly inherited disorder that results from mutations in the type III collagen gene (COL3A1). We studied the structure of the COL3A1 gene of an individual with EDS type IV and that of her phenotypically normal parents. The proband was heterozygous for a 2-kb deletion in COL3A1, while her father was mosaic for the same deletion in somatic and germ cells. In fibroblasts from the father, approximately two-fifths of the COL3A1 alleles carried the deletion, but only 10% of the COL3A1 alleles in white blood cells were of the mutant species. The deletion in the mutant allele extended from intron 7 into intron 11. There was a 12-bp direct repeat in intron 7 and intron 11, the latter about 60 bp 5' to the junction. At the breakpoint there was a duplication of 10 bp from intron 11 separated by an insertion of 4 bp contained within the duplicated sequence. The father was mosaic for the deletion so that the gene rearrangement occurred during his early embryonic development prior to lineage allocation. These findings suggest that at least some of the deletions seen in human genes may occur during replication, rather than as a consequence of meiotic crossing-over, and that they thus have a risk for recurrence when observed de novo. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8317500

  18. Variability in Proto-Planetary Nebulae: IV. Light Curve Analyses of Four Oxygen-Rich, F Spectral-Type Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Hrivnak, Bruce J; Nault, Kristie A

    2015-01-01

    We present new light curves covering 14 to 19 years of observations of four bright proto-planetary nebulae (PPNs), all O-rich and of F spectral type. They each display cyclical light curves with significant variations in amplitude. All four were previously known to vary in light. Our data were combined with published data and searched for periodicity. The results are as follows: IRAS 19475+3119 (HD 331319; 41.0 days), 17436+5003 (HD 161796; 45.2 days), 19386+0155 (101.8 days), and 18095+2704 (113.3 days). The two longer periods are in agreement with previous studies while the two shorter periods each reveal for the first time reveal a dominant period over these long observing intervals. Multiple periods were also found for each object. The secondary periods were all close to the dominant periods, with P2/P1 ranging from 0.86 to 1.06. The variations in color reveal maximum variations in T(eff) of 400 to 770 K. These variations are due to pulsations in these post-AGB objects. Maximum seasonal light variations a...

  19. A novel COL4A1 frameshift mutation in familial kidney disease: the importance of the C-terminal NC1 domain of type IV collagen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Daniel P.; Oygar, D. Deren; Lin, Fujun; Oygar, P. Derin; Khan, Nadia; Connor, Thomas M.F.; Lapsley, Marta; Maxwell, Patrick H.; Neild, Guy H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Hereditary microscopic haematuria often segregates with mutations of COL4A3, COL4A4 or COL4A5 but in half of families a gene is not identified. We investigated a Cypriot family with autosomal dominant microscopic haematuria with renal failure and kidney cysts. Methods We used genome-wide linkage analysis, whole exome sequencing and cosegregation analyses. Results We identified a novel frameshift mutation, c.4611_4612insG:p.T1537fs, in exon 49 of COL4A1. This mutation predicts truncation of the protein with disruption of the C-terminal part of the NC1 domain. We confirmed its presence in 20 family members, 17 with confirmed haematuria, 5 of whom also had stage 4 or 5 chronic kidney disease. Eleven family members exhibited kidney cysts (55% of those with the mutation), but muscle cramps or cerebral aneurysms were not observed and serum creatine kinase was normal in all individuals tested. Conclusions Missense mutations of COL4A1 that encode the CB3 [IV] segment of the triple helical domain (exons 24 and 25) are associated with HANAC syndrome (hereditary angiopathy, nephropathy, aneurysms and cramps). Missense mutations of COL4A1 that disrupt the NC1 domain are associated with antenatal cerebral haemorrhage and porencephaly, but not kidney disease. Our findings extend the spectrum of COL4A1 mutations linked with renal disease and demonstrate that the highly conserved C-terminal part of the NC1 domain of the α1 chain of type IV collagen is important in the integrity of glomerular basement membrane in humans. PMID:27190376

  20. Beta Function and Anomalous Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Pica, Claudio

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate that it is possible to determine the coefficients of an all-order beta function linear in the anomalous dimensions using as data the two-loop coefficients together with the first one of the anomalous dimensions which are universal. The beta function allows to determine the anomalous dimension of the fermion masses at the infrared fixed point, and the resulting values compare well with the lattice determinations.

  1. Anomalous Dimensions of Conformal Baryons

    CERN Document Server

    Pica, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    We determine the anomalous dimensions of baryon operators for the three color theory as function of the number of massless flavours within the conformal window to the maximum known order in perturbation theory. We show that the anomalous dimension of the baryon is controllably small for a wide range of number of flavours. We also find that this is always smaller than the anomalous dimension of the fermion mass operator. These findings challenge the partial compositeness paradigm.

  2. Anomalous radiative transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Ishikawa, Kenzo; Tobita, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    Anomalous transitions involving photons derived by many-body interaction of the form, $\\partial_{\\mu} G^{\\mu}$, in the standard model are studied. This does not affect the equation of motion in the bulk, but makes wave functions modified, and causes the unusual transition characterized by the time-independent probability. In the transition probability at a time-interval T expressed generally in the form $P=T \\Gamma_0 +P^{(d)}$, now with $\\Gamma_0=0, P^{(d)} \

  3. Studying Coxiella burnetii Type IV Substrates in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Focus on Subcellular Localization and Protein Aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Escudero, María; Cid, Víctor J; Molina, María; Schulze-Luehrmann, Jan; Lührmann, Anja; Rodríguez-Escudero, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Coxiella burnetii is a Gram-negative obligate parasitic bacterium that causes the disease Q-fever in humans. To establish its intracellular niche, it utilizes the Icm/Dot type IVB secretion system (T4BSS) to inject protein effectors into the host cell cytoplasm. The host targets of most cognate and candidate T4BSS-translocated effectors remain obscure. We used the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model to express and study six C. burnetii effectors, namely AnkA, AnkB, AnkF, CBU0077, CaeA and CaeB, in search for clues about their role in C. burnetii virulence. When ectopically expressed in HeLa cells, these effectors displayed distinct subcellular localizations. Accordingly, GFP fusions of these proteins produced in yeast also decorated distinct compartments, and most of them altered cell growth. CaeA was ubiquitinated both in yeast and mammalian cells and, in S. cerevisiae, accumulated at juxtanuclear quality-control compartments (JUNQs) and insoluble protein deposits (IPODs), characteristic of aggregative or misfolded proteins. AnkA, which was not ubiquitinated, accumulated exclusively at the IPOD. CaeA, but not AnkA or the other effectors, caused oxidative damage in yeast. We discuss that CaeA and AnkA behavior in yeast may rather reflect misfolding than recognition of conserved targets in the heterologous system. In contrast, CBU0077 accumulated at vacuolar membranes and abnormal ER extensions, suggesting that it interferes with vesicular traffic, whereas AnkB associated with the yeast nucleolus. Both effectors shared common localization features in HeLa and yeast cells. Our results support the idea that C. burnetii T4BSS effectors manipulate multiple host cell targets, which can be conserved in higher and lower eukaryotic cells. However, the behavior of CaeA and AnkA prompt us to conclude that heterologous protein aggregation and proteostatic stress can be a limitation to be considered when using the yeast model to assess the function of bacterial effectors.

  4. Studying Coxiella burnetii Type IV Substrates in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Focus on Subcellular Localization and Protein Aggregation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Rodríguez-Escudero

    Full Text Available Coxiella burnetii is a Gram-negative obligate parasitic bacterium that causes the disease Q-fever in humans. To establish its intracellular niche, it utilizes the Icm/Dot type IVB secretion system (T4BSS to inject protein effectors into the host cell cytoplasm. The host targets of most cognate and candidate T4BSS-translocated effectors remain obscure. We used the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model to express and study six C. burnetii effectors, namely AnkA, AnkB, AnkF, CBU0077, CaeA and CaeB, in search for clues about their role in C. burnetii virulence. When ectopically expressed in HeLa cells, these effectors displayed distinct subcellular localizations. Accordingly, GFP fusions of these proteins produced in yeast also decorated distinct compartments, and most of them altered cell growth. CaeA was ubiquitinated both in yeast and mammalian cells and, in S. cerevisiae, accumulated at juxtanuclear quality-control compartments (JUNQs and insoluble protein deposits (IPODs, characteristic of aggregative or misfolded proteins. AnkA, which was not ubiquitinated, accumulated exclusively at the IPOD. CaeA, but not AnkA or the other effectors, caused oxidative damage in yeast. We discuss that CaeA and AnkA behavior in yeast may rather reflect misfolding than recognition of conserved targets in the heterologous system. In contrast, CBU0077 accumulated at vacuolar membranes and abnormal ER extensions, suggesting that it interferes with vesicular traffic, whereas AnkB associated with the yeast nucleolus. Both effectors shared common localization features in HeLa and yeast cells. Our results support the idea that C. burnetii T4BSS effectors manipulate multiple host cell targets, which can be conserved in higher and lower eukaryotic cells. However, the behavior of CaeA and AnkA prompt us to conclude that heterologous protein aggregation and proteostatic stress can be a limitation to be considered when using the yeast model to assess the function of

  5. Impact of plasmids, including those encodingVirB4/D4 type IV secretion systems, on Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg virulence in macrophages and epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuppan Gokulan

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg (S. Heidelberg can cause foodborne illness in humans following the consumption of contaminated meat and poultry products. Recent studies from our laboratory have demonstrated that certain S. Heidelberg isolated from food-animal sources harbor multiple transmissible plasmids with genes that encode antimicrobial resistance, virulence and a VirB4/D4 type-IV secretion system. This study examines the potential role of these transmissible plasmids in bacterial uptake and survival in intestinal epithelial cells and macrophages, and the molecular basis of host immune system modulation that may be associated with disease progression. A series of transconjugant and transformant strains were developed with different combinations of the plasmids to determine the roles of the individual and combinations of plasmids on virulence. Overall the Salmonella strains containing the VirB/D4 T4SS plasmids entered and survived in epithelial cells and macrophages to a greater degree than those without the plasmid, even though they carried other plasmid types. During entry in macrophages, the VirB/D4 T4SS encoding genes are up-regulated in a time-dependent fashion. When the potential mechanisms for increased virulence were examined using an antibacterial Response PCR Array, the strain containing the T4SS down regulated several host innate immune response genes which likely contributed to the increased uptake and survival within macrophages and epithelial cells.

  6. Impact of plasmids, including those encodingVirB4/D4 type IV secretion systems, on Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg virulence in macrophages and epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokulan, Kuppan; Khare, Sangeeta; Rooney, Anthony W; Han, Jing; Lynne, Aaron M; Foley, Steven L

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg (S. Heidelberg) can cause foodborne illness in humans following the consumption of contaminated meat and poultry products. Recent studies from our laboratory have demonstrated that certain S. Heidelberg isolated from food-animal sources harbor multiple transmissible plasmids with genes that encode antimicrobial resistance, virulence and a VirB4/D4 type-IV secretion system. This study examines the potential role of these transmissible plasmids in bacterial uptake and survival in intestinal epithelial cells and macrophages, and the molecular basis of host immune system modulation that may be associated with disease progression. A series of transconjugant and transformant strains were developed with different combinations of the plasmids to determine the roles of the individual and combinations of plasmids on virulence. Overall the Salmonella strains containing the VirB/D4 T4SS plasmids entered and survived in epithelial cells and macrophages to a greater degree than those without the plasmid, even though they carried other plasmid types. During entry in macrophages, the VirB/D4 T4SS encoding genes are up-regulated in a time-dependent fashion. When the potential mechanisms for increased virulence were examined using an antibacterial Response PCR Array, the strain containing the T4SS down regulated several host innate immune response genes which likely contributed to the increased uptake and survival within macrophages and epithelial cells.

  7. A case of subepidermal blistering disease with autoantibodies to multiple laminin subunits who developed later autoantibodies to alpha-5 chain of type IV collagen associated with membranous glomerulonephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sueki, Hirohiko; Sato, Yoshinori; Ohtoshi, Shinpei; Nakada, Tokio; Yoshimura, Ashio; Tateishi, Chiharu; Borza, Dorin-Bogdan; Fader, William; Ghohestani, Reza F; Hirako, Yoshiaki; Koga, Hiroshi; Ishii, Norito; Tsuchisaka, Atsunari; Qian, Hua; Li, Xiaoguang; Hashimoto, Takashi

    2015-09-01

    We report a 68-year-old Japanese female patient with subepidermal blistering disease with autoantibodies to multiple laminins, who subsequently developed membranous glomerulonephropathy. At skin disease stage, immunofluorescence demonstrated IgG anti-basement membrane zone antibodies reactive with dermal side of NaCl-split skin. Immunoblotting of human dermal extract, purified laminin-332, hemidesmosome-rich fraction and laminin-521 trimer recombinant protein (RP) detected laminin γ-1 and α-3 and γ-2 subunits of laminin-332. Three years after skin lesions disappeared, nephrotic symptoms developed. Antibodies to α-3 chain of type IV collagen (COL4A3) were negative, thus excluding the diagnosis of Goodpasture syndrome. All anti-laminin antibodies disappeared. Additional IB and ELISA studies of RPs of various COL4 chains revealed reactivity with COL4A5, but not with COL4A6 or COL4A3. Although diagnosis of anti-laminin γ-1 (p200) pemphigoid or anti-laminin-332-type mucous membrane pemphigoid could not be made, this case was similar to previous cases with autoantibodies to COL4A5 and/or COL4A6.

  8. Establishment of systemic Brucella melitensis infection through the digestive tract requires urease, the type IV secretion system, and lipopolysaccharide O antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paixão, Tatiane A; Roux, Christelle M; den Hartigh, Andreas B; Sankaran-Walters, Sumathi; Dandekar, Satya; Santos, Renato L; Tsolis, Renée M

    2009-10-01

    Human brucellosis is caused mainly by Brucella melitensis, which is often acquired by ingesting contaminated goat or sheep milk and cheese. Bacterial factors required for food-borne infection of humans by B. melitensis are poorly understood. In this study, a mouse model of oral infection was characterized to assess the roles of urease, the VirB type IV secretion system, and lipopolysaccharide for establishing infection through the digestive tract. B. melitensis strain 16M was consistently recovered from the mesenteric lymph node (MLN), spleen, and liver beginning at 3 or 7 day postinfection (dpi). In the gut, persistence of the inoculum was observed up to 21 dpi. No inflammatory lesions were observed in the ileum or colon during infection. Mutant strains lacking the ureABC genes of the ure1 operon, virB2, or pmm encoding phosphomannomutase were constructed and compared to the wild-type strain for infectivity through the digestive tract. Mutants lacking the virB2 and pmm genes were attenuated in the spleen (P melitensis transited rapidly through polarized enterocyte monolayers containing M-like cells; however, transit through monolayers containing only enterocytes was reduced or absent. These results indicate that B. melitensis is able to spread systemically from the digestive tract after infection, most likely through M cells of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue.

  9. Gene Flow Across Genus Barriers - Conjugation of Dinoroseobacter shibae's 191-kb Killer Plasmid into Phaeobacter inhibens and AHL-mediated Expression of Type IV Secretion Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patzelt, Diana; Michael, Victoria; Päuker, Orsola; Ebert, Matthias; Tielen, Petra; Jahn, Dieter; Tomasch, Jürgen; Petersen, Jörn; Wagner-Döbler, Irene

    2016-01-01

    Rhodobacteraceae harbor a conspicuous wealth of extrachromosomal replicons (ECRs) and therefore the exchange of genetic material via horizontal transfer has been supposed to be a major evolutionary driving force. Many plasmids in this group encode type IV secretion systems (T4SS) that are expected to mediate transfer of proteins and/or DNA into host cells, but no experimental evidence of either has yet been provided. Dinoroseobacter shibae, a species of the Roseobacter group within the Rhodobacteraceae family, contains five ECRs that are crucial for anaerobic growth, survival under starvation and the pathogenicity of this model organism. Here we tagged two syntenous but compatible RepABC-type plasmids of 191 and 126-kb size, each encoding a T4SS, with antibiotic resistance genes and demonstrated their conjugational transfer into a distantly related Roseobacter species, namely Phaeobacter inhibens. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis showed transfer of those replicons into the recipient both individually but also together documenting the efficiency of conjugation. We then studied the influence of externally added quorum sensing (QS) signals on the expression of the T4SS located on the sister plasmids. A QS deficient D. shibae null mutant (ΔluxI1 ) lacking synthesis of N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs) was cultivated with a wide spectrum of chemically diverse long-chain AHLs. All AHLs with lengths of the acid side-chain ≥14 reverted the ΔluxI1 phenotype to wild-type. Expression of the T4SS was induced up to log2 ∼3fold above wild-type level. We hypothesize that conjugation in roseobacters is QS-controlled and that the QS system may detect a wide array of long-chain AHLs at the cell surface.

  10. The virB-encoded type IV secretion system is critical for establishment of infection and persistence of Brucella ovis infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá, Joicy C; Silva, Teane M A; Costa, Erica A; Silva, Ana P C; Tsolis, Renée M; Paixão, Tatiane A; Carvalho Neta, Alcina V; Santos, Renato L

    2012-09-14

    Brucella spp. are gram-negative intracellular bacterial pathogens that cause chronic infections. Brucella virulence factors include a type IV secretion system (T4SS) and its lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which are essential for persistence. However, the role of the virB-encoded T4SS has not been investigated in naturally rough Brucella species such as Brucella ovis. In this study, male 6-week old BALBc mice were infected with B. ovis, Brucella abortus, and their respective ΔvirB2 mutant strains. During early infection, B. ovis and B. abortus wild type strains were similarly recovered from spleen. Interestingly, in contrast to ΔvirB2 B. abortus that was recovered at similar levels when compared to the wild type strain, the ΔvirB2 B. ovis was markedly attenuated as early as 24h post infection (hpi). The ΔvirB2 B. ovis was unable to survive and multiply in murine peritoneal macrophages and extracellularly within the peritoneal cavity at 12 and 24 hpi with lower splenic colonization than the parental strain at 6, 12 and 24 hpi. In contrast, wild type B. abortus and ΔvirB2 B. abortus had a similar kinetics of infection in this model. As expected, the T4SS was essential for intracellular replication of smooth and rough strains in RAW macrophages at 48 hpi. These results suggest that T4SS is important for survival of B. ovis in murine model, and that a T4SS deficient B. ovis strain is cleared at earlier stages of infection when compared to a similar B. abortus mutant.

  11. Anomalous Microwave Emission

    CERN Document Server

    Kogut, A J

    1999-01-01

    Improved knowledge of diffuse Galactic emission is important to maximize the scientific return from scheduled CMB anisotropy missions. Cross-correlation of microwave maps with maps of the far-IR dust continuum show a ubiquitous microwave emission component whose spatial distribution is traced by far-IR dust emission. The spectral index of this emission, beta_{radio} = -2.2 (+0.5 -0.7) is suggestive of free-free emission but does not preclude other candidates. Comparison of H-alpha and microwave results show that both data sets have positive correlations with the far-IR dust emission. Microwave data, however, are consistently brighter than can be explained solely from free-free emission traced by H-alpha. This ``anomalous'' microwave emission can be explained as electric dipole radiation from small spinning dust grains. The anomalous component at 53 GHz is 2.5 times as bright as the free-free emission traced by H-alpha, providing an approximate normalization for models with significant spinning dust emission.

  12. Fickian dispersion is anomalous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushman, John H.; O'Malley, Dan

    2015-12-01

    The thesis put forward here is that the occurrence of Fickian dispersion in geophysical settings is a rare event and consequently should be labeled as anomalous. What people classically call anomalous is really the norm. In a Lagrangian setting, a process with mean square displacement which is proportional to time is generally labeled as Fickian dispersion. With a number of counter examples we show why this definition is fraught with difficulty. In a related discussion, we show an infinite second moment does not necessarily imply the process is super dispersive. By employing a rigorous mathematical definition of Fickian dispersion we illustrate why it is so hard to find a Fickian process. We go on to employ a number of renormalization group approaches to classify non-Fickian dispersive behavior. Scaling laws for the probability density function for a dispersive process, the distribution for the first passage times, the mean first passage time, and the finite-size Lyapunov exponent are presented for fixed points of both deterministic and stochastic renormalization group operators. The fixed points of the renormalization group operators are p-self-similar processes. A generalized renormalization group operator is introduced whose fixed points form a set of generalized self-similar processes. Power-law clocks are introduced to examine multi-scaling behavior. Several examples of these ideas are presented and discussed.

  13. Contribution of alpha3(IV)alpha4(IV)alpha5(IV) Collagen IV to the Mechanical Properties of the Glomerular Basement Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyoneva, Lazarina

    The glomerular basement membrane (GBM) is a vital part of the blood-urine filtration barrier in the kidneys. In healthy GBMs, the main tension-resisting component is alpha3(IV)alpha4(IV)alpha5(IV) type IV collagen, but in some diseases it is replaced by other collagen IV isoforms. As a result, the GBM becomes leaky and disorganized, ultimately resulting in kidney failure. Our goal is to understanding the biomechanical aspects of the alpha3(IV)alpha4(IV)alpha5(IV) chains and how their absence could be responsible for (1) the initial injury to the GBM and (2) progression to kidney failure. A combination of experiments and computational models were designed for that purpose. A model basement membrane was used to compare experimentally the distensibility of tissues with the alpha3(IV)alpha4(IV)alpha5(IV) chains present and missing. The experiments showed basement membranes containing alpha3(IV)alpha4(IV)alpha5(IV) chains were less distensible. It has been postulated that the higher level of lateral cross-linking (supercoiling) in the alpha3(IV)alpha4(IV)alpha5(IV) networks contributes additional strength/stability to basement membranes. In a computational model of supercoiled networks, we found that supercoiling greatly increased the stiffness of collagen IV networks but only minimally decreased the permeability, which is well suited for the needs of the GBM. It is also known that the alpha3(IV)alpha4(IV)alpha5(IV) networks are more protected from enzymatic degradation, and we explored their significance in GBM remodeling. Our simulations showed that the more protected network was needed to prevent the system from entering a dangerous feedback cycle due to autoregulation mechanisms in the kidneys. Overall, the work adds to the evidence of biomechanical differences between the alpha3(IV)alpha4(IV)alpha5(IV) networks and other collagen IV networks, points to supercoiling as the main source of biomechanical differences, discusses the suitability of alpha3(IV)alpha4(IV

  14. Anomalous Dimensions of Conformal Baryons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pica, Claudio; Sannino, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    We determine the anomalous dimensions of baryon operators for the three color theory as function of the number of massless flavours within the conformal window to the maximum known order in perturbation theory. We show that the anomalous dimension of the baryon is controllably small, within...

  15. Anomalous Dimensions of Conformal Baryons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pica, Claudio; Sannino, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    We determine the anomalous dimensions of baryon operators for the three color theory as function of the number of massless flavours within the conformal window to the maximum known order in perturbation theory. We show that the anomalous dimension of the baryon is controllably small, within the $...

  16. Beta Function and Anomalous Dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pica, Claudio; Sannino, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that it is possible to determine the coefficients of an all-order beta function linear in the anomalous dimensions using as data the two-loop coefficients together with the first one of the anomalous dimensions which are universal. The beta function allows to determine the anomalou...

  17. Asteroids IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Patrick; DeMeo, Francesca E.; Bottke, William F.

    . Asteroids, like planets, are driven by a great variety of both dynamical and physical mechanisms. In fact, images sent back by space missions show a collection of small worlds whose characteristics seem designed to overthrow our preconceived notions. Given their wide range of sizes and surface compositions, it is clear that many formed in very different places and at different times within the solar nebula. These characteristics make them an exciting challenge for researchers who crave complex problems. The return of samples from these bodies may ultimately be needed to provide us with solutions. In the book Asteroids IV, the editors and authors have taken major strides in the long journey toward a much deeper understanding of our fascinating planetary ancestors. This book reviews major advances in 43 chapters that have been written and reviewed by a team of more than 200 international authorities in asteroids. It is aimed to be as comprehensive as possible while also remaining accessible to students and researchers who are interested in learning about these small but nonetheless important worlds. We hope this volume will serve as a leading reference on the topic of asteroids for the decade to come. We are deeply indebted to the many authors and referees for their tremendous efforts in helping us create Asteroids IV. We also thank the members of the Asteroids IV scientific organizing committee for helping us shape the structure and content of the book. The conference associated with the book, "Asteroids Comets Meteors 2014" held June 30-July 4, 2014, in Helsinki, Finland, did an outstanding job of demonstrating how much progress we have made in the field over the last decade. We are extremely grateful to our host Karri Muinonnen and his team. The editors are also grateful to the Asteroids IV production staff, namely Renée Dotson and her colleagues at the Lunar and Planetary Institute, for their efforts, their invaluable assistance, and their enthusiasm; they made life as

  18. Fractal model of anomalous diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmachowski, Lech

    2015-12-01

    An equation of motion is derived from fractal analysis of the Brownian particle trajectory in which the asymptotic fractal dimension of the trajectory has a required value. The formula makes it possible to calculate the time dependence of the mean square displacement for both short and long periods when the molecule diffuses anomalously. The anomalous diffusion which occurs after long periods is characterized by two variables, the transport coefficient and the anomalous diffusion exponent. An explicit formula is derived for the transport coefficient, which is related to the diffusion constant, as dependent on the Brownian step time, and the anomalous diffusion exponent. The model makes it possible to deduce anomalous diffusion properties from experimental data obtained even for short time periods and to estimate the transport coefficient in systems for which the diffusion behavior has been investigated. The results were confirmed for both sub and super-diffusion.

  19. Evidence of the presence of a functional Dot/Icm type IV-B secretion system in the fish bacterial pathogen Piscirickettsia salmonis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando A Gómez

    Full Text Available Piscirickettsia salmonis is a fish bacterial pathogen that has severely challenged the sustainability of the Chilean salmon industry since its appearance in 1989. As this Gram-negative bacterium has been poorly characterized, relevant aspects of its life cycle, virulence and pathogenesis must be identified in order to properly design prophylactic procedures. This report provides evidence of the functional presence in P. salmonis of four genes homologous to those described for Dot/Icm Type IV Secretion Systems. The Dot/Icm System, the major virulence mechanism of phylogenetically related pathogens Legionella pneumophila and Coxiella burnetii, is responsible for their intracellular survival and multiplication, conditions that may also apply to P. salmonis. Our results demonstrate that the four P. salmonis dot/icm homologues (dotB, dotA, icmK and icmE are expressed both during in vitro tissue culture cells infection and growing in cell-free media, suggestive of their putative constitutive expression. Additionally, as it happens in other referential bacterial systems, temporal acidification of cell-free media results in over expression of all four P. salmonis genes, a well-known strategy by which SSTIV-containing bacteria inhibit phagosome-lysosome fusion to survive. These findings are very important to understand the virulence mechanisms of P. salmonis in order to design new prophylactic alternatives to control the disease.

  20. A conserved type IV pilin signal peptide H-domain is critical for the post-translational regulation of flagella-dependent motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquivel, Rianne N; Pohlschroder, Mechthild

    2014-08-01

    In many bacteria and archaea, type IV pili facilitate surface adhesion, the initial step in biofilm formation. Haloferax volcanii has a specific set of adhesion pilins (PilA1-A6) that, although diverse, contain an absolutely conserved signal peptide hydrophobic (H) domain. Data presented here demonstrate that these pilins (PilA1-A6) also play an important role in regulating flagella-dependent motility, which allows cells to rapidly transition between planktonic and sessile states. Cells lacking adhesion pilins exhibit a severe motility defect, however, expression of any one of the adhesion pilins in trans can rescue the motility and adhesion. Conversely, while deleting pilB3-C3, genes required for PilA pilus biosynthesis, results in cells lacking pili and having an adhesion defect, it does not affect motility, indicating that motility regulation requires the presence of pilins, but not assembled pili. Mutagenesis studies revealed that the pilin-dependent motility regulatory mechanism does not require the diverse C-terminal region of the PilA pilins but specifically involves the conserved H-domain. This novel post-translational regulatory mechanism, which employs components that promote biofilm formation to inhibit motility, can provide a rapid response to changing environmental conditions. A model for this regulatory mechanism, which may also be present in other prokaryotes, is discussed.

  1. Two novel splicing mutations in the SLC45A2 gene cause Oculocutaneous Albinism Type IV by unmasking cryptic splice sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straniero, Letizia; Rimoldi, Valeria; Soldà, Giulia; Mauri, Lucia; Manfredini, Emanuela; Andreucci, Elena; Bargiacchi, Sara; Penco, Silvana; Gesu, Giovanni P; Del Longo, Alessandra; Piozzi, Elena; Asselta, Rosanna; Primignani, Paola

    2015-09-01

    Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) is characterized by hypopigmentation of the skin, hair and eye, and by ophthalmologic abnormalities caused by a deficiency in melanin biosynthesis. OCA type IV (OCA4) is one of the four commonly recognized forms of albinism, and is determined by mutation in the SLC45A2 gene. Here, we investigated the genetic basis of OCA4 in an Italian child. The mutational screening of the SLC45A2 gene identified two novel potentially pathogenic splicing mutations: a synonymous transition (c.888G>A) involving the last nucleotide of exon 3 and a single-nucleotide insertion (c.1156+2dupT) within the consensus sequence of the donor splice site of intron 5. As computer-assisted analysis for mutant splice-site prediction was not conclusive, we investigated the effects on pre-mRNA splicing of these two variants by using an in vitro minigene approach. Production of mutant transcripts in HeLa cells demonstrated that both mutations cause the almost complete abolishment of the physiologic donor splice site, with the concomitant unmasking of cryptic donor splice sites. To our knowledge, this work represents the first in-depth molecular characterization of splicing defects in a OCA4 patient.

  2. Detection of anomalous events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferragut, Erik M.; Laska, Jason A.; Bridges, Robert A.

    2016-06-07

    A system is described for receiving a stream of events and scoring the events based on anomalousness and maliciousness (or other classification). The system can include a plurality of anomaly detectors that together implement an algorithm to identify low-probability events and detect atypical traffic patterns. The anomaly detector provides for comparability of disparate sources of data (e.g., network flow data and firewall logs.) Additionally, the anomaly detector allows for regulatability, meaning that the algorithm can be user configurable to adjust a number of false alerts. The anomaly detector can be used for a variety of probability density functions, including normal Gaussian distributions, irregular distributions, as well as functions associated with continuous or discrete variables.

  3. Optically Anomalous Crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Shtukenberg, Alexander; Kahr, Bart

    2007-01-01

    Optical anomalies in crystals are puzzles that collectively constituted the greatest unsolved problems in crystallography in the 19th Century. The most common anomaly is a discrepancy between a crystal’s symmetry as determined by its shape or by X-ray analysis, and that determined by monitoring the polarization state of traversing light. These discrepancies were perceived as a great impediment to the development of the sciences of crystals on the basis of Curie’s Symmetry Principle, the grand organizing idea in the physical sciences to emerge in the latter half of the 19th Century. Optically Anomalous Crystals begins with an historical introduction covering the contributions of Brewster, Biot, Mallard, Brauns, Tamman, and many other distinguished crystallographers. From this follows a tutorial in crystal optics. Further chapters discuss the two main mechanisms of optical dissymmetry: 1. the piezo-optic effect, and 2. the kinetic ordering of atoms. The text then tackles complex, inhomogeneous crystals, and...

  4. Identification of VceA and VceC, two members of the VjbR regulon that are translocated into macrophages by the Brucella type IV secretion system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Maarten F.; Sun, Yao-Hui; den Hartigh, Andreas B.; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Tsolis, Renee M.

    2008-01-01

    Survival and replication inside host cells by Brucella spp. requires a type IV secretion system (T4SS), encoded by the virB locus. However, the identity of the molecules secreted by the T4SS has remained elusive. We hypothesized that proteins translocated by the T4SS would be co-regulated with the v

  5. Critical role of ASC inflammasomes and bacterial type IV secretion system in caspase-1 activation and host innate resistance to Brucella abortus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Marco Tulio R; Campos, Priscila C; Oliveira, Fernanda S; Corsetti, Patricia P; Bortoluci, Karina R; Cunha, Larissa D; Zamboni, Dario S; Oliveira, Sergio C

    2013-04-01

    Pathogens are detected by innate immune receptors that, upon activation, orchestrate an appropriate immune response. Recent studies revealed the intracellular signaling cascades involved in the TLR-initiated immune response to Brucella abortus infection. However, no report has elucidated the role of inflammasome receptors in Brucella recognition. Therefore, we decided to investigate the function of NLRC4, NLRP3, and AIM2 in sensing Brucella. In this study, we showed that NLRC4 is not required to induce caspase-1 activation and further secretion of IL-1β by B. abortus in macrophages. In contrast, we determined that AIM2, which senses Brucella DNA, and NLRP3 are partially required for caspase-1 activation and IL-1β secretion. Additionally, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species induced by Brucella were implicated in IL-1β production. Furthermore, AIM2, NLRP3, ASC, and caspase-1 knockout mice were more susceptible to B. abortus infection than were wild-type animals, suggesting that multiple ASC-dependent inflammasomes contribute to host protection against infection. This protective effect is due to the inflammatory response caused by IL-1β and IL-18 rather than pyroptosis, because we observed augmented bacterial burden in IL-1R and IL-18 knockout mice. Finally, we determined that bacterial type IV secretion system VirB and live, but not heat-killed, Brucella are required for full inflammasome activation in macrophages during infection. Taken together, our results indicate that Brucella is sensed by ASC inflammasomes that collectively orchestrate a robust caspase-1 activation and proinflammatory response.

  6. Analysis of conductivity and dielectric spectra of Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 with coupled Cole-Cole type anomalous relaxations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, N. S. K.; Shahid, T. S.; Govindaraj, G.

    2016-05-01

    Most of the crystalline materials seldom show a well-defined dielectric loss peak due to domination of dc conductivity contribution, but effects of loss peaks are seen at high frequencies. Ac electrical data of nano-crystalline Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 synthesised by chemical co-precipitation method show such behaviour. Properly combined and formulated conduction and dielectric relaxation functions are required for such materials. Cole-Cole type relaxation function in the combined conduction and dielectric process is formulated for complex resistivity ρ*(ω), complex permittivity ε*(ω), complex conductivity σ*(ω) and complex electric modulus M*(ω). Conduction and dielectric relaxation are linked to Jonscher's idea of 'pinned dipole' and 'free dipole' to understand the relaxation dynamics. The physical parameters of 'pinned dipole' and 'free dipole' formalism are unique for all representations like ρ*(ω), ε*(ω), σ*(ω) and M*(ω). 'Pinned dipole' relaxation time τc related to conduction process and 'free dipole' relaxation time τd related to dielectric process show Arrhenius behaviour with the same activation energy. Correlation of dc conductivity σc with τc and τd indicates the coupled dynamics of 'pinned dipole' and 'free dipole'. Time-temperature scaling of conduction and dielectric relaxation reveals that the mechanism of coupled dynamics of 'pinned dipole' and 'free dipole' is temperature independent. Hopping of charge carriers with dynamics of disordered cation distribution of host matrix generates a coupled conduction and dielectric relaxation in Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4.

  7. Expression and purification of a single-chain Type IV restriction enzyme Eco94GmrSD and determination of its substrate preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xinyi; Hull, Victoria; Thomas, Julie A; Fu, Xiaoqing; Gidwani, Sonal; Gupta, Yogesh K; Black, Lindsay W; Xu, Shuang-yong

    2015-05-19

    The first reported Type IV restriction endonuclease (REase) GmrSD consists of GmrS and GmrD subunits. In most bacteria, however, the gmrS and gmrD genes are fused together to encode a single-chain protein. The fused coding sequence for ECSTEC94C_1402 from E. coli strain STEC_94C was expressed in T7 Express. The protein designated as Eco94GmrSD displays modification-dependent ATP-stimulated REase activity on T4 DNA with glucosyl-5-hydroxymethyl-cytosines (glc-5hmC) and T4gt DNA with 5-hydroxymethyl-cytosines (5hmC). A C-terminal 6xHis-tagged protein was purified by two-column chromatography. The enzyme is active in Mg(2+) and Mn(2+) buffer. It prefers to cleave large glc-5hmC- or 5hmC-modified DNA. In phage restriction assays, Eco94GmrSD weakly restricted T4 and T4gt, whereas T4 IPI*-deficient phage (Δip1) were restricted more than 10(6)-fold, consistent with IPI* protection of E. coli DH10B from lethal expression of the closely homologous E. coli CT596 GmrSD. Eco94GmrSD is proposed to belong to the His-Asn-His (HNH)-nuclease family by the identification of a putative C-terminal REase catalytic site D507-H508-N522. Supporting this, GmrSD variants D507A, H508A, and N522A displayed no endonuclease activity. The presence of a large number of fused GmrSD homologs suggests that GmrSD is an effective phage exclusion protein that provides a mechanism to thwart T-even phage infection.

  8. The 2.5 Å structure of the enterococcus conjugation protein TraM resembles VirB8 type IV secretion proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goessweiner-Mohr, Nikolaus; Grumet, Lukas; Arends, Karsten; Pavkov-Keller, Tea; Gruber, Christian C; Gruber, Karl; Birner-Gruenberger, Ruth; Kropec-Huebner, Andrea; Huebner, Johannes; Grohmann, Elisabeth; Keller, Walter

    2013-01-18

    Conjugative plasmid transfer is the most important means of spreading antibiotic resistance and virulence genes among bacteria and therefore presents a serious threat to human health. The process requires direct cell-cell contact made possible by a multiprotein complex that spans cellular membranes and serves as a channel for macromolecular secretion. Thus far, well studied conjugative type IV secretion systems (T4SS) are of Gram-negative (G-) origin. Although many medically relevant pathogens (e.g., enterococci, staphylococci, and streptococci) are Gram-positive (G+), their conjugation systems have received little attention. This study provides structural information for the transfer protein TraM of the G+ broad host range Enterococcus conjugative plasmid pIP501. Immunolocalization demonstrated that the protein localizes to the cell wall. We then used opsonophagocytosis as a novel tool to verify that TraM was exposed on the cell surface. In these assays, antibodies generated to TraM recruited macrophages and enabled killing of pIP501 harboring Enteroccocus faecalis cells. The crystal structure of the C-terminal, surface-exposed domain of TraM was determined to 2.5 Å resolution. The structure, molecular dynamics, and cross-linking studies indicated that a TraM trimer acts as the biological unit. Despite the absence of sequence-based similarity, TraM unexpectedly displayed a fold similar to the T4SS VirB8 proteins from Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Brucella suis (G-) and to the transfer protein TcpC from Clostridium perfringens plasmid pCW3 (G+). Based on the alignments of secondary structure elements of VirB8-like proteins from mobile genetic elements and chromosomally encoded T4SS from G+ and G- bacteria, we propose a new classification scheme of VirB8-like proteins.

  9. Development and application of pathovar-specific monoclonal antibodies that recognize the lipopolysaccharide O antigen and the type IV fimbriae of Xanthomonas hyacinthi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doorn, J. van; Ojanen-Reuhs, T.; Hollinger, T.C.; Reuhs, B.L.; Schots, A.; Boonekamp, P.M.; Oudega, B.

    1999-09-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a specific immunological diagnostic assay for yellow disease in hyacinths, using monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). Mice were immunized with a crude cell wall preparation (shear fraction) from Xanthomonas hyacinthi and with purified type IV fimbriae. Hybridomas were screened for a positive reaction with X. hyacinthi cells or fimbriae and for a negative reaction with X. translucens pv. graminis or Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora. Nine MAbs recognized fimbrial epitopes, as shown by immunoblotting, immunofluorescence, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and immunoelectron microscopy; however, three of these MAbs had weak cross-reactions with two X. translucens pathovars in immunoblotting experiments. Seven MAbs reacted with lipopolysaccharides and yielded a low-mobility ladder pattern on immunoblots. Subsequent analysis of MAb 2E5 showed that it specifically recognized an epitope on the O antigen, which was found to consist of rhamnose and fucose in a 2:1 molar ratio. The cross-reaction of MAb 2E5 with all X. hyacinthi strains tested showed that this O antigen is highly conserved within this species. MAb 1B10 also reacted with lipopolysaccharides. MAbs 2E5 and 1B10 were further tested in ELISA and immunoblotting experiments with cells and extracts from other pathogens. No cross-reaction was found with 27 other Xanthomonas pathovars tested or with 14 other bacterial species from other genera, such as Erwinia and Pseudomonas, indicating the high specificity of these antibodies. MAbs 2E5 and 1B10 were shown to be useful in ELISA for the detection of X. hyacinthi in infected hyacinths.

  10. Animal Protection and Structural Studies of a Consensus Sequence Vaccine Targeting the Receptor Binding Domain of the Type IV Pilus of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kao, Daniel J.; Churchill, Mair E.A.; Irvin, Randall T.; Hodges, Robert S. (Alberta); (Colorado)

    2008-09-23

    One of the main obstacles in the development of a vaccine against Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the requirement that it is protective against a wide range of virulent strains. We have developed a synthetic-peptide consensus-sequence vaccine (Cs1) that targets the host receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the type IV pilus of P. aeruginosa. Here, we show that this vaccine provides increased protection against challenge by the four piliated strains that we have examined (PAK, PAO, KB7 and P1) in the A.BY/SnJ mouse model of acute P. aeruginosa infection. To further characterize the consensus sequence, we engineered Cs1 into the PAK monomeric pilin protein and determined the crystal structure of the chimeric Cs1 pilin to 1.35 {angstrom} resolution. The substitutions (T130K and E135P) used to create Cs1 do not disrupt the conserved backbone conformation of the pilin RBD. In fact, based on the Cs1 pilin structure, we hypothesize that the E135P substitution bolsters the conserved backbone conformation and may partially explain the immunological activity of Cs1. Structural analysis of Cs1, PAK and K122-4 pilins reveal substitutions of non-conserved residues in the RBD are compensated for by complementary changes in the rest of the pilin monomer. Thus, the interactions between the RBD and the rest of the pilin can either be mediated by polar interactions of a hydrogen bond network in some strains or by hydrophobic interactions in others. Both configurations maintain a conserved backbone conformation of the RBD. Thus, the backbone conformation is critical in our consensus-sequence vaccine design and that cross-reactivity of the antibody response may be modulated by the composition of exposed side-chains on the surface of the RBD. This structure will guide our future vaccine design by focusing our investigation on the four variable residue positions that are exposed on the RBD surface.

  11. Evolutionary dynamics of pathoadaptation revealed by three independent acquisitions of the VirB/D4 type IV secretion system in Bartonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, Alexander; Segers, Francisca H I D; Quebatte, Maxime; Mistl, Claudia; Manfredi, Pablo; Körner, Jonas; Chomel, Bruno B; Kosoy, Michael; Maruyama, Soichi; Engel, Philipp; Dehio, Christoph

    2017-03-07

    The α-proteobacterial genus Bartonella comprises a group of ubiquitous mammalian pathogens that are studied as a model for the evolution of bacterial pathogenesis. Vast abundance of two particular phylogenetic lineages of Bartonella had been linked to enhanced host adaptability enabled by lineage-specific acquisition of a VirB/D4 type IV secretion system (T4SS) and parallel evolution of complex effector repertoires. However, the limited availability of genome sequences from one of those lineages as well as other, remote branches of Bartonella has so far hampered comprehensive understanding of how the VirB/D4 T4SS and its effectors called Beps have shaped Bartonella evolution. Here, we report the discovery of a third repertoire of Beps associated with the VirB/D4 T4SS of B. ancashensis, a novel human pathogen that lacks any signs of host adaptability and is only distantly related to the two species-rich lineages encoding a VirB/D4 T4SS. Furthermore, sequencing of ten new Bartonella isolates from under-sampled lineages enabled combined in silico analyses and wet lab experiments that suggest several parallel layers of functional diversification during evolution of the three Bep repertoires from a single ancestral effector. Our analyses show that the Beps of B. ancashensis share many features with the two other repertoires, but may represent a more ancestral state that has not yet unleashed the adaptive potential of such an effector set. We anticipate that the effectors of B. ancashensis will enable future studies to dissect the evolutionary history of Bartonella effectors and help unraveling the evolutionary forces underlying bacterial host adaptation.

  12. Evolutionary Dynamics of Pathoadaptation Revealed by Three Independent Acquisitions of the VirB/D4 Type IV Secretion System in Bartonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, Alexander; Segers, Francisca H.I.D.; Quebatte, Maxime; Mistl, Claudia; Manfredi, Pablo; Körner, Jonas; Chomel, Bruno B.; Kosoy, Michael; Maruyama, Soichi; Engel, Philipp

    2017-01-01

    The α-proteobacterial genus Bartonella comprises a group of ubiquitous mammalian pathogens that are studied as a model for the evolution of bacterial pathogenesis. Vast abundance of two particular phylogenetic lineages of Bartonella had been linked to enhanced host adaptability enabled by lineage-specific acquisition of a VirB/D4 type IV secretion system (T4SS) and parallel evolution of complex effector repertoires. However, the limited availability of genome sequences from one of those lineages as well as other, remote branches of Bartonella has so far hampered comprehensive understanding of how the VirB/D4 T4SS and its effectors called Beps have shaped Bartonella evolution. Here, we report the discovery of a third repertoire of Beps associated with the VirB/D4 T4SS of B. ancashensis, a novel human pathogen that lacks any signs of host adaptability and is only distantly related to the two species-rich lineages encoding a VirB/D4 T4SS. Furthermore, sequencing of ten new Bartonella isolates from under-sampled lineages enabled combined in silico analyses and wet lab experiments that suggest several parallel layers of functional diversification during evolution of the three Bep repertoires from a single ancestral effector. Our analyses show that the Beps of B. ancashensis share many features with the two other repertoires, but may represent a more ancestral state that has not yet unleashed the adaptive potential of such an effector set. We anticipate that the effectors of B. ancashensis will enable future studies to dissect the evolutionary history of Bartonella effectors and help unraveling the evolutionary forces underlying bacterial host adaptation. PMID:28338931

  13. Helicobacter pylori exploits a unique repertoire of type IV secretion system components for pilus assembly at the bacteria-host cell interface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie L Shaffer

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Colonization of the human stomach by Helicobacter pylori is an important risk factor for development of gastric cancer. The H. pylori cag pathogenicity island (cag PAI encodes components of a type IV secretion system (T4SS that translocates the bacterial oncoprotein CagA into gastric epithelial cells, and CagL is a specialized component of the cag T4SS that binds the host receptor α5β1 integrin. Here, we utilized a mass spectrometry-based approach to reveal co-purification of CagL, CagI (another integrin-binding protein, and CagH (a protein with weak sequence similarity to CagL. These three proteins are encoded by contiguous genes in the cag PAI, and are detectable on the bacterial surface. All three proteins are required for CagA translocation into host cells and H. pylori-induced IL-8 secretion by gastric epithelial cells; however, these proteins are not homologous to components of T4SSs in other bacterial species. Scanning electron microscopy analysis reveals that these proteins are involved in the formation of pili at the interface between H. pylori and gastric epithelial cells. ΔcagI and ΔcagL mutant strains fail to form pili, whereas a ΔcagH mutant strain exhibits a hyperpiliated phenotype and produces pili that are elongated and thickened compared to those of the wild-type strain. This suggests that pilus dimensions are regulated by CagH. A conserved C-terminal hexapeptide motif is present in CagH, CagI, and CagL. Deletion of these motifs results in abrogation of CagA translocation and IL-8 induction, and the C-terminal motifs of CagI and CagL are required for formation of pili. In summary, these results indicate that CagH, CagI, and CagL are components of a T4SS subassembly involved in pilus biogenesis, and highlight the important role played by unique constituents of the H. pylori cag T4SS.

  14. Hydrodynamic Waves in an Anomalous Charged Fluid

    CERN Document Server

    Abbasi, Navid; Rezaei, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    We study the collective excitations in a relativistic fluid with an anomalous conserved charge. In $3+1$ dimensions, in addition to two ordinary sound modes we find two propagating modes in presence of an external magnetic field: one with a velocity proportional to the coefficient of gauge-gravitational anomaly coefficient and the other with a velocity which depends on both chiral anomaly and the gauge gravitational anomaly coefficients. While the former is the Chiral Alfv\\'en wave recently found in arXiv:1505.05444, the latter is a new type of collective excitations originated from the density fluctuations. We refer to these modes as the Type-M and Type-D chiral Alfv\\'en waves respectively. We show that the Type-M Chiral Alfv\\'en mode is split into two chiral Alfv\\'en modes when taking into account the effect of dissipation processes in the fluid. In 1+1 dimensions we find only one propagating mode associated with the anomalous effects. We explicitly compute the velocity of this wave and show that in contras...

  15. Petrology of Anomalous Eucrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Peng, Z. X.; Ross, D. K.

    2015-01-01

    Most mafic achondrites can be broadly categorized as being "eucritic", that is, they are composed of a ferroan low-Ca clinopyroxene, high-Ca plagioclase and a silica phase. They are petrologically distinct from angritic basalts, which are composed of high-Ca, Al-Ti-rich clinopyroxene, Carich olivine, nearly pure anorthite and kirschsteinite, or from what might be called brachinitic basalts, which are composed of ferroan orthopyroxene and high-Ca clinopyroxene, intermediate-Ca plagioclase and ferroan olivine. Because of their similar mineralogy and composition, eucrite-like mafic achondrites formed on compositionally similar asteroids under similar conditions of temperature, pressure and oxygen fugacity. Some of them have distinctive isotopic compositions and petrologic characteristics that demonstrate formation on asteroids different from the parent of the HED clan (e.g., Ibitira, Northwest Africa (NWA) 011). Others show smaller oxygen isotopic distinctions but are otherwise petrologically and compositionally indistinguishable from basaltic eucrites (e.g., Pasamonte, Pecora Escarpment (PCA) 91007). The degree of uniformity in delta O-17 of eucrites and diogenites is one piece of evidence considered to favor of a magma-ocean scenario for their petrogenesis. Given that the O isotopic differences separating Pasamonte and PCA 91007 from other eucrites are small, and that there is an absence of other distinguishing characteristics, a legitimate question is: Did the HED parent asteroid fail to homogenize via a magma-ocean stage, thus explaining outliers like Pasamonte? We are initiating a program of study of anomalous eucrite-like achondrites as one part of our effort to seek a resolution of this issue. Here we present preliminary petrologic information on Asuka (A-) 881394, Elephant Moraine (EET) 87520 and EET 87542. We will have studied several more by conference time.

  16. Raman spectra of Cu{sub 2}B{sup II}C{sup IV}X{sub 4}{sup VI} magnetic quaternary semiconductor compounds with tetragonal stannite type structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rincón, C., E-mail: crincon@ula.ve; Quintero, M.; Power, Ch.; Moreno, E.; Quintero, E.; Morocoima, M. [Centro de Estudios de Semiconductores, Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Los Andes, Mérida (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Henao, J. A.; Macías, M. A. [Grupo de Investigación en Química Estructural, Facultad de Ciencias, Escuela de Química, Universidad Industrial de Santander, Apartado Aéreo 678, Bucaramanga (Colombia)

    2015-05-28

    A comparative study of the Raman spectra of Cu{sub 2}B{sup II}C{sup IV}S{sub 4}{sup VI} and Cu{sub 2}B{sup II}C{sup IV}Se{sub 4}{sup VI}(where B = Mn or Fe) magnetic quaternary semiconductor compounds with stannite-type structure (I4{sup ¯}2m) has been done. Most of the fourteen Raman lines expected for these materials were observed in the spectra. The two strongest lines observed have been assigned to the IR inactive A{sub 1}{sup 1} and A{sub 1}{sup 2} stannite modes that originated from the motion of the S or Se anion around the Cu and C{sup IV} cations remaining at rest. The shift in the frequency of these two lines of about 150 cm{sup −1} to lower energies observed in Cu{sub 2}B{sup II}C{sup IV}Se{sub 4}{sup VI} compounds as compared to those in Cu{sub 2}B{sup II}C{sup IV}S{sub 4}{sup VI} ones, can then be explained as due to the anion mass effect. Based on the fact that values of these frequencies depend mainly on anion mass and bond-stretching forces between nearest-neighbor atoms, the vibrational frequencies v{sup ¯}(A{sub 1}{sup 2}) and v{sup ¯}(A{sub 1}{sup 2}) of both modes for several Cu{sub 2}B{sup II}C{sup IV}X{sub 4}{sup VI} stannite compounds (where X = S, Se, or Te) very close to the experimental data reported for these materials were calculated from a simple model that relates these stretching forces to the anion-cation bond-distances.

  17. Bartonella henselae trimeric autotransporter adhesin BadA expression interferes with effector translocation by the VirB/D4 type IV secretion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yun-Yueh; Franz, Bettina; Truttmann, Matthias C; Riess, Tanja; Gay-Fraret, Jérémie; Faustmann, Marco; Kempf, Volkhard A J; Dehio, Christoph

    2013-05-01

    The Gram-negative, zoonotic pathogen Bartonella henselae is the aetiological agent of cat scratch disease, bacillary angiomatosis and peliosis hepatis in humans. Two pathogenicity factors of B. henselae - each displaying multiple functions in host cell interaction - have been characterized in greater detail: the trimeric autotransporter Bartonella adhesin A (BadA) and the type IV secretion system VirB/D4 (VirB/D4 T4SS). BadA mediates, e.g. binding to fibronectin (Fn), adherence to endothelial cells (ECs) and secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). VirB/D4 translocates several Bartonella effector proteins (Beps) into the cytoplasm of infected ECs, resulting, e.g. in uptake of bacterial aggregates via the invasome structure, inhibition of apoptosis and activation of a proangiogenic phenotype. Despite this knowledge of the individual activities of BadA or VirB/D4 it is unknown whether these major virulence factors affect each other in their specific activities. In this study, expression and function of BadA and VirB/D4 were analysed in a variety of clinical B. henselae isolates. Data revealed that most isolates have lost expression of either BadA or VirB/D4 during in vitro passages. However, the phenotypic effects of coexpression of both virulence factors was studied in one clinical isolate that was found to stably coexpress BadA and VirB/D4, as well as by ectopic expression of BadA in a strain expressing VirB/D4 but not BadA. BadA, which forms a dense layer on the bacterial surface, negatively affected VirB/D4-dependent Bep translocation and invasome formation by likely preventing close contact between the bacterial cell envelope and the host cell membrane. In contrast, BadA-dependent Fn binding, adhesion to ECs and VEGF secretion were not affected by a functional VirB/D4 T4SS. The obtained data imply that the essential virulence factors BadA and VirB/D4 are likely differentially expressed during different stages of the infection cycle of

  18. Effects of wild-type (Trp72) and mutant (Arg72) apolipoprotein(a) kringle IV-10 on the proliferation of human arterial smooth muscle cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    喻红; 洪嘉玲; 汪炳华; 彭芳芳; 李小明; 何春燕

    2003-01-01

    Objective To assess the atherogenicity of lipoprotein(a), the effect of the heterogeneity of lysine binding of apolipoprotein(a) [apo(a)], a plasminogen-like glycoprotein component on the proliferation of human arterial smooth muscle cells (SMCs).Results Apo(a) wt-kringle IV-10 that has lysine binding properties possessed a growth-stimulating activity to SMCs on a dose-dependence manner by stimulating cells in the G1/G0 phase of cell cycle to S and G2/M phase, and reduced significantly the amounts of endogenous active TGF-β1 in culture when compared with the control medium and the GST group (2.4±0.5 vs 8.6±1.6 and 9.1±1.7 ng/ml, P<0.01). The growth-stimulating effect of apo(a) mut-kringle IV-10 deficient in lysine binding was negligible. Conclusions Apo(a) induces SMCs growth by inhibiting the activation of latent TGF-β1, an activity that may involve the ability of apo(a) kringle IV-10 to bind lysine. The mitogenic effect of apo(a) wt-kringle IV-10 on SMCs might play an active role in the atherogenic function of lipoprotein(a).

  19. Anomalous Redshift of Some Galactic Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Yi-Jia

    2013-01-01

    Anomalous redshifts of some galactic objects such as binary stars, early-type stars in the solar neighborhood, and O stars in a star clusters are discussed. It is shown that all these phenomena have a common characteristic, that is, the redshifts of stars increase as the temperature rises. This characteristic cannot be explained by means of the Doppler Effect but can by means of the soft-photon process proposed by Yijia Zheng (arXiv:1305.0427 [astro-ph.HE]).

  20. Anomalous dimensions of higher spin currents in large N CFTs

    CERN Document Server

    Hikida, Yasuaki

    2016-01-01

    We examine anomalous dimensions of higher spin currents in the critical O(N) scalar model and the Gross-Neveu model in arbitrary d dimensions. These two models are proposed to be dual to the type A and type B Vasiliev theories, respectively. We reproduce the known results on the anomalous dimensions to the leading order in 1/N by using conformal perturbation theory. This work can be regarded as an extension of previous work on the critical O(N) scalars in 3 dimensions, where it was shown that the bulk computation for the masses of higher spin fields on AdS_4 can be mapped to the boundary one in conformal perturbation theory. The anomalous dimensions of the both theories agree with each other up to an overall factor depending only on d, and the coincidence is explained for d=3 by making use of N=2 supersymmetry.

  1. Anomalous magnetic moment of anyons

    CERN Document Server

    Gat, G; Gat, Gil; Ray, Rashmi

    1994-01-01

    The anomalous magnetic moment of anyons is calculated to leading order in a 1/N expansion. It is shown that the gyromagnetic ratio g remains 2 to the leading order in 1/N. This result strongly supports that obtained in \\cite{poly}, namely that g=2 is in fact exact.

  2. Characterization of a novel arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME) and staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec composite island with significant homology to Staphylococcus epidermidis ACME type II in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus genotype ST22-MRSA-IV.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shore, Anna C

    2011-05-01

    The arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME) is prevalent among methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates of sequence type 8 (ST8) and staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec) type IVa (USA300) (ST8-MRSA-IVa isolates), and evidence suggests that ACME enhances the ability of ST8-MRSA-IVa to grow and survive on its host. ACME has been identified in a small number of isolates belonging to other MRSA clones but is widespread among coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS). This study reports the first description of ACME in two distinct strains of the pandemic ST22-MRSA-IV clone. A total of 238 MRSA isolates recovered in Ireland between 1971 and 2008 were investigated for ACME using a DNA microarray. Twenty-three isolates (9.7%) were ACME positive, and all were either MRSA genotype ST8-MRSA-IVa (7\\/23, 30%) or MRSA genotype ST22-MRSA-IV (16\\/23, 70%). Whole-genome sequencing and comprehensive molecular characterization revealed the presence of a novel 46-kb ACME and staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec) composite island (ACME\\/SCCmec-CI) in ST22-MRSA-IVh isolates (n=15). This ACME\\/SCCmec-CI consists of a 12-kb DNA region previously identified in ACME type II in S. epidermidis ATCC 12228, a truncated copy of the J1 region of SCCmec type I, and a complete SCCmec type IVh element. The composite island has a novel genetic organization, with ACME located within orfX and SCCmec located downstream of ACME. One PVL locus-positive ST22-MRSA-IVa isolate carried ACME located downstream of SCCmec type IVa, as previously described in ST8-MRSA-IVa. These results suggest that ACME has been acquired by ST22-MRSA-IV on two independent occasions. At least one of these instances may have involved horizontal transfer and recombination events between MRSA and CoNS. The presence of ACME may enhance dissemination of ST22-MRSA-IV, an already successful MRSA clone.

  3. Anomalous Brownian Refrigerator

    OpenAIRE

    Rana, Shubhashis; Pal, P. S.; Saha, Arnab; Jayannavar, A. M.

    2015-01-01

    We present a detailed study of a Brownian particle driven by Carnot-type refrigerating protocol operating between two thermal baths. Both the underdamped as well as the overdamped limits are investigated. The particle is in a harmonic potential with time-periodic strength that drives the particle cyclically between the baths. Each cycle consists of two isothermal steps at different temperatures and two adiabatic steps connecting them. Besides working as a stochastic refrigerator, it is shown ...

  4. Observations of Anomalous Refraction with Co-housed Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Malinda S.; McGraw, J. T.; Zimmer, P. C.

    2013-01-01

    Anomalous refraction is described as a low frequency, large angular scale motion of the entire image plane with respect to the celestial coordinate system as observed and defined by previous astrometric catalogs. These motions of typically several tenths of an arcsecond with timescales on the order of ten minutes are ubiquitous to drift-scan ground-based astrometric measurements regardless of location or telescopes used and have been attributed to meter scale slowly evolving coherent dynamical structures in the boundary-layer below 60 meters. The localized nature of the effect and general inconsistency of the motions seen by even closely spaced telescopes in individual domes has led to the hypothesis that the dome or other type of telescope housing may be responsible. This hypothesis is tested by observing anomalous refraction using two telescopes housed in a single roll-off roof observatory building with the expected outcome that the two telescopes will see correlated anomalous refraction induced motions.

  5. Anomalous center of mass shift gravitational dipole moment

    CERN Document Server

    Jeong, E J

    1996-01-01

    The anomalous, energy dependent shift of the center of mass of an idealized, perfectly rigid, uniformly rotating hemispherical shell which is caused by the relativistic mass increase effect is investigated in detail. It is shown that a classical object on impact which has the harmonic binding force between the adjacent constituent particles has the similar effect of the energy dependent, anomalous shift of the center of mass. From these observations, the general mode of the linear acceleration is suggested to be caused by the anomalous center of mass shift whether it's due to classical or relativistic origin. The effect of the energy dependent center of mass shift perpendicular to the plane of rotation of a rotating hemisphere appears as the non zero gravitational dipole moment in general relativity. Controlled experiment for the measurement of the gravitational dipole field and its possible links to the cylindrical type line formation of a worm hole in the extreme case are suggested. The jets from the black ...

  6. GDP (Gemcitabine, Dexamethasone, and Cisplatin) Is Highly Effective and Well-Tolerated for Newly Diagnosed Stage IV and Relapsed/Refractory Extranodal Natural Killer/T-Cell Lymphoma, Nasal Type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing-Jing; Dong, Mei; He, Xiao-Hui; Li, Ye-Xiong; Wang, Wei-Hu; Liu, Peng; Yang, Jian-Liang; Gui, Lin; Zhang, Chang-Gong; Yang, Sheng; Zhou, Sheng-Yu; Shi, Yuan-Kai

    2016-02-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness and tolerance of GDP (gemcitabine, dexamethasone, and cisplatin) regimen in patients with newly diagnosed stage IV and relapsed/refractory extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type (ENKTL).The study enrolled 41 ENKTL patients who received GDP regimen at the Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College between January 2008 and January 2015.The disease status was newly diagnosed stage IV in 15 patients and relapsed/refractory in 26 patients. The median number of cycles of chemotherapy per patient was 6 (range, 2-8 cycles). The overall response rate and complete-remission rate were 83.0% (34/41) and 41.5% (17/41), respectively. After a median follow-up of 16.2 months, 1-year progression-free survival rate and 1-year overall survival rate for the whole cohort were 54.5% and 72.7%. Grade 3 to 4 adverse events included neutropenia (34.1%), thrombocytopenia (19.5%), and anemia (14.6%).Our study has suggested high efficacy and low toxicity profile of GDP regimen in patients with newly diagnosed stage IV and relapsed/refractory ENKTL.

  7. Characterization of a Novel Arginine Catabolic Mobile Element (ACME) and Staphylococcal Chromosomal Cassette mec Composite Island with Significant Homology to Staphylococcus epidermidis ACME type II in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Genotype ST22-MRSA-IV.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shore, Anna C

    2011-02-22

    The arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME) is prevalent among ST8-MRSA-IVa (USA300) isolates and evidence suggests that ACME enhances the ability of ST8-MRSA-IVa to grow and survive on its host. ACME has been identified in a small number of isolates belonging to other MRSA clones but is widespread among coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS). This study reports the first description of ACME in two distinct strains of the pandemic ST22-MRSA-IV clone. A total of 238 MRSA isolates recovered in Ireland between 1971 and 2008 were investigated for ACME using a DNA microarray. Twenty-three isolates (9.7%) were ACME-positive, all were either MRSA genotype ST8-MRSA-IVa (7\\/23, 30%) or ST22-MRSA-IV (16\\/23, 70%). Whole-genome sequencing and comprehensive molecular characterization revealed the presence of a novel 46-kb ACME and SCCmec composite island (ACME\\/SCCmec-CI) in ST22-MRSA-IVh isolates (n = 15). This ACME\\/SCCmec-CI consists of a 12-kb DNA region previously identified in ACME type II in S. epidermidis ATCC 12228, a truncated copy of the J1 region of SCCmec I and a complete SCCmec IVh element. The composite island has a novel genetic organization with ACME located within orfX and SCCmec located downstream of ACME. One pvl-positive ST22-MRSA-IVa isolate carried ACME located downstream of SCCmec IVa as previously described in ST8-MRSA-IVa. These results suggest that ACME has been acquired by ST22-MRSA-IV on two independent occasions. At least one of these instances may have involved horizontal transfer and recombination events between MRSA and CoNS. The presence of ACME may enhance dissemination of ST22-MRSA-IV, an already successful MRSA clone.

  8. Minimal flavor violation and anomalous top decays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faller, Sven; Mannel, Thomas; Gadatsch, Stefan

    2013-08-01

    Top-quark physics at the LHC may open a window to physics beyond the Standard Model and even lead us to an understanding of the phenomenon of “flavor.” However, current flavor data is a strong hint that no “new physics” with a generic flavor structure can be expected at the TeV scale. In turn, if there is “new physics” at the TeV scale, it must be “minimally flavor violating.” This has become a widely accepted assumption for “new physics” models. In this paper we propose a model-independent scheme to test minimal flavor violation for the anomalous charged Wtq, q∈{d,s,b} and flavor-changing Vtq, q∈{u,c} and V∈{Z,γ,g} couplings within an effective field theory framework, i.e., in a model-independent way. We perform a spurion analysis of our effective field theory approach and calculate the decay rates for the anomalous top-quark decays in terms of the effective couplings for different helicities by using a two-Higgs doublet model of type II, under the assumption that the top-quark is produced at a high-energy collision and decays as a quasi-free particle.

  9. Minimal Flavour Violation and Anomalous Top Decays

    CERN Document Server

    Faller, Sven; Mannel, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Top quark physics at the LHC may open a window to physics beyond the standard model and even lead us to an understanding of the phenomenon "flavour". However, current flavour data is a strong hint that no "new physics" with a generic flavour structure can be expected in the TeV scale. In turn, if there is "new physics" at the TeV scale, it must be "minimally flavour violating". This has become a widely accepted assumption for "new physics" models. In this paper we propose a way to test the concept of minimal flavour violation for the anomalous charged $Wtq$, $q\\in\\{d,s,b\\}$, and flavour-changing $Vtq$, $q\\in\\{u,c\\}$ and $V\\in\\{Z,\\gamma,g\\}$, couplings within an effective field theory framework, i.e. in a model independent way. We perform a spurion analysis of our effective field theory approach and calculate the decay rates for the anomalous top-quark decays in terms of the effective couplings for different helicities by using a two-Higgs doublet model of type II (2HDM-II), under the assumption that the top-q...

  10. Expression ind significance of MMP2 and type IV collagen in gastric cancer%基质金属蛋白酶及Ⅳ型胶原在胃癌中的表达及其意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    封国生; 谭毓铨

    2000-01-01

    目的探讨基质金属蛋白酶(MMP2)及Ⅳ型胶原与胃癌浸润转移的关系。方法对27例胃癌患者采用临床观察及免疫组化方法观察MMP2及Ⅳ型胶原在癌组织中的表达。结果MMP2在低分化腺癌、管状腺癌的癌细胞和癌间质中表达率分别为85.7%、77.7%,同时有Ⅳ型胶原的破坏;在血管淋巴管癌栓及淋巴结转移癌病例中表达率分别为83.3%、86.7%。结论 MMP2的高表达与胃癌浸润和转移有关,主要是破坏细胞外间质,尤其是Ⅳ型胶原。MMP2监测可做为判断患者预后的指标。%Objective To evaluate the relationship between the expression of MMP2, type IV callagen, and invasion and metastasis of gastric cancer. Mothods The expression of MMP2 and Type IV collagen was observed by using immunohistochemistry technique. Results The MMP2 expression clearly appeared in the poordifferentiated adenocarcinoma and tubular adenocarcinoma(85.7 %, 77.7 % ). Type IV collagen destruction was observed simultaneously. MMP2 was highly expressed in patients with cancer embolus in blood vessel and lymphatic vessel or with lymph node metastasis (83.3 %, 86.7 % ). Conclutions The high expression of MMP2 was significantly associated with infiltration and metastasis of gartric cancer. The extracellular matrix, especially type IV collagen was destructed in the cases of high expression of MMP2. These rusults suggest that monitoring the level of MMP2 expression may be an index for evaluation of prognosis.

  11. MMP mediated degradation of type IV collagen alpha 1 and alpha 3 chains reflects basement membrane remodeling in experimental and clinical fibrosis--validation of two novel biomarker assays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jannie Marie Sand

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Fibrosis is characterized by excessive tissue remodeling resulting from altered expression of various growth factors, cytokines and proteases. We hypothesized that matrix metalloproteinase (MMP mediated degradation of type IV collagen, a main component of the basement membrane, will release peptide fragments (neo-epitopes into the circulation. Here we present the development of two competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs for assessing the levels of specific fragments of type IV collagen α1 (C4M12a1 and α3 (C4M12a3 chains in serum as indicators of fibrosis. METHODS: Fragments of type IV collagen cleaved in vitro by MMP-12 were identified by mass spectrometry, and two were chosen for ELISA development due to their unique sequences. The assays were evaluated using samples from a carbon tetrachloride (CCl₄ rat model of liver fibrosis and from patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. RESULTS: Two technically robust ELISAs were produced using neo-epitope specific monoclonal antibodies. Mean serum C4M12a1 levels were significantly elevated in CCl₄-treated rats compared with controls in weeks 12, 16, and 20, with a maximum increase of 102% at week 16 (p < 0.0001. Further, C4M12a1 levels correlated with the total collagen content of the liver in CCl₄-treated rats (r = 0.43, p = 0.003. Mean serum C4M12a3 levels were significantly elevated in patients with mild, moderate, and severe IPF, and COPD relative to healthy controls, with a maximum increase of 321% in COPD (p < 0.0001. CONCLUSIONS: Two assays measuring C4M12a1 and C4M12a3 enabled quantification of MMP mediated degradation of type IV collagen in serum. C4M12a1 was elevated in a pre-clinical model of liver fibrosis, and C4M12a3 was elevated in IPF and COPD patients. This suggests the use of these assays to investigate pathological remodeling of the basement membrane in different organs. However, validations in

  12. First Numerical Simulations of Anomalous Hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Hongo, Masaru; Hirano, Tetsufumi

    2013-01-01

    Anomalous hydrodynamics is a low-energy effective theory that captures effects of quantum anomalies. We develop a numerical code of anomalous hydrodynamics and apply it to dynamics of heavy-ion collisions, where anomalous transports are expected to occur. This is the first attempt to perform fully non-linear numerical simulations of anomalous hydrodynamics. We discuss implications of the simulations for possible experimental observations of anomalous transport effects. From analyses of the charge-dependent elliptic flow parameters ($v_2^\\pm$) as a function of the net charge asymmetry $A_\\pm$, we quantitatively verify that the linear dependence of $\\Delta v_2 \\equiv v_2^- - v_2^+$ on the net charge asymmetry $A_\\pm$ cannot be regarded as a sensitive signal of anomalous transports, contrary to previous studies. We, however, find that the intercept $\\Delta v_2(A_\\pm=0)$ is sensitive to anomalous transport effects.

  13. Anomalous Thermalization in Ergodic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luitz, David J.; Bar Lev, Yevgeny

    2016-10-01

    It is commonly believed that quantum isolated systems satisfying the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis (ETH) are diffusive. We show that this assumption is too restrictive since there are systems that are asymptotically in a thermal state yet exhibit anomalous, subdiffusive thermalization. We show that such systems satisfy a modified version of the ETH ansatz and derive a general connection between the scaling of the variance of the off-diagonal matrix elements of local operators, written in the eigenbasis of the Hamiltonian, and the dynamical exponent. We find that for subdiffusively thermalizing systems the variance scales more slowly with system size than expected for diffusive systems. We corroborate our findings by numerically studying the distribution of the coefficients of the eigenfunctions and the off-diagonal matrix elements of local operators of the random field Heisenberg chain, which has anomalous transport in its thermal phase. Surprisingly, this system also has non-Gaussian distributions of the eigenfunctions, thus, directly violating Berry's conjecture.

  14. Faraday anomalous dispersion optical tuners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanninger, P.; Valdez, E. C.; Shay, T. M.

    1992-01-01

    Common methods for frequency stabilizing diode lasers systems employ gratings, etalons, optical electric double feedback, atomic resonance, and a Faraday cell with low magnetic field. Our method, the Faraday Anomalous Dispersion Optical Transmitter (FADOT) laser locking, is much simpler than other schemes. The FADOT uses commercial laser diodes with no antireflection coatings, an atomic Faraday cell with a single polarizer, and an output coupler to form a compound cavity. This method is vibration insensitive, thermal expansion effects are minimal, and the system has a frequency pull in range of 443.2 GHz (9A). Our technique is based on the Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter. This method has potential applications in optical communication, remote sensing, and pumping laser excited optical filters. We present the first theoretical model for the FADOT and compare the calculations to our experimental results.

  15. Anomalous Brownian refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Shubhashis; Pal, P. S.; Saha, Arnab; Jayannavar, A. M.

    2016-02-01

    We present a detailed study of a Brownian particle driven by Carnot-type refrigerating protocol operating between two thermal baths. Both the underdamped as well as the overdamped limits are investigated. The particle is in a harmonic potential with time-periodic strength that drives the system cyclically between the baths. Each cycle consists of two isothermal steps at different temperatures and two adiabatic steps connecting them. Besides working as a stochastic refrigerator, it is shown analytically that in the quasistatic regime the system can also act as stochastic heater, depending on the bath temperatures. Interestingly, in non-quasistatic regime, our system can even work as a stochastic heat engine for certain range of cycle time and bath temperatures. We show that the operation of this engine is not reliable. The fluctuations of stochastic efficiency/coefficient of performance (COP) dominate their mean values. Their distributions show power law tails, however the exponents are not universal. Our study reveals that microscopic machines are not the microscopic equivalent of the macroscopic machines that we come across in our daily life. We find that there is no one to one correspondence between the performance of our system under engine protocol and its reverse.

  16. Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shay, T. M.; Yin, B.; Alvarez, L. S.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filters on infrared and blue transitions of some alkali atoms is calculated. A composite system is designed to further increase the background noise rejection. The measured results of the solar background rejection and image quality through the filter are presented. The results show that the filter may provide high transmission and high background noise rejection with excellent image quality.

  17. 新型数字化智能输液仪的研制及应用%The research and application of a new type of digitalized intelligent IV monitoring device.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华嘉临; 何茗芳; 缪学明; 冯钧; 支杨

    2011-01-01

    Objective:The goal of this research is to study and to develop a new type of digitized intelligent IV monitoring device in order to robotize the IV infusion process, to increase the safety factor, to reduce the working load of nurses, and to make patient having better rest. Methods:The method of such a device is described as the followings. The device which applies the principle of electronic load sensor consists of 5 parts: load sensor, data collector, data processor,data display including a liquid crystal display screen,a wireless transmitter and an alarming device. Results:The device can automatically monitor the whole process of an IV infusion process, including measuring the volume of the medical liquid in an IV bottle, the infusion rate, the required infusion time, and automatic alarming. Conclusions: This device applies high technology with low cost, high market demand, ease to use, and ease for market development; It would become the first candidate candidate for an IV infusion monitoring system.%目的:研制一种新型数字化智能输液监测仪,自动监测输液过程,提高安全系数,减轻护士工作负担,保证患者休息.方法:该输液监测仪采用电子称重的原理,由五部分构成:传感器、数据采集部件、数据处理部件、液晶面板显示和无线发送并报警.结果:实现对输液全过程进行自动化测试,测试输液容器容量、输液速度、需要时间、自动报警.结论:该装置技术含量高、成本低廉、实用性强、使用简便、易于推广,可成为输液监测系统的首选装置.

  18. In vitro effects of bis(1,2-dimethyl-3-hydroxy-4-pyridinonato)oxidovanadium(IV), or VO(dmpp)2, on insulin secretion in pancreatic islets of type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Julien; Domingues, Neuza; Castro, M Margarida C A; Östenson, Claes-Göran

    2016-01-01

    Vanadium compounds have been explored as therapy of diabetes, and most studies have focussed on insulin mimetic effects, i.e. reducing hyperglycemia by improving glucose sensitivity and thus glucose uptake in sensitive tissues. We have recently shown that bis(1,2-dimethyl-3-hydroxy-4-pyridinonato)oxidovanadium(IV), VO(dmpp)2, has promising effects when compared to another vanadium compound, bis(maltolato)oxidovanadium(IV), BMOV, and insulin itself, in isolated adipocytes and in vivo in Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, an animal model of hereditary type 2 diabetes (T2D).We now have investigated in GK rats whether VO(dmpp)2 also modulates another important defect in T2D, impaired insulin secretion. VO(dmpp)2, but not BMOV, stimulated insulin secretion from isolated GK rat pancreatic islets at high, 16.7mM, but not at low–normal, 3.3 mM, glucose concentration. Mechanistic studies demonstrate that the insulin releasing effect of VO(dmpp)2 is due to its interaction with several steps in the stimulus-secretion coupling for glucose, including islet glucose metabolism and K-ATP channels, L-type Ca2+ channels, modulation by protein kinases A and C, as well as the exocytotic machinery. In conclusion, VO(dmpp)2 exhibits properties of interest for treatment of the insulin secretory defect in T2D, in addition to its well-described insulin mimetic activity.

  19. EGFR、PCNA、LN、IV型胶原在SACC中的表达及临床意义%The clinical significance of EGFR,PCNA,LN and type IV collagen expression in salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜贵霞; 张凡; 霍秀英; 李立恒; 李瑞平; 刘博; 张九鸿; 白睿; 赵秀芳

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the clinical significance of epidermal growth factor receptor(EGFR),proliferating cell nuclear antigen(PCNA),laminin(LN)and type IV collagen expression in salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma(SACC).Methods:EGFR gene in 78 cases of SACC with complete clinical data was detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization(FISH)technique,the expression of EGFR,PCNA,LN and type IV collagen protein was detected by immunohistochemistry technique(IHC),their correlation with the clin-icopathological parameters was analysed by SPSS 13.00 software.Results:EGFR gene amplification levels(69.2%)was positively related to the ratio of EGFR protein positive expression(7 1 .8%),the expression of EGFR,PCNA,LN and type IV collagen was posi-tively related to the clinical pathological parameters(P<0.05).There was a positive correlation between EGFR and PCNA expression (P<0.05),a negative correlation between LN protein and type IV collagen protein expression(P<0.05).Conclusion:EGFR gene is amplified in SACC.EGFR,PCNA,LN and type IV collagen take part in the occurrence and development of SACC.%目的:探讨表皮生长因子受体(EGFR)、增殖细胞核抗原(PCNA)、层黏连蛋白(LN)和IV型胶原蛋白在唾液腺腺样囊性癌(SACC)中的表达及临床意义。方法:选取临床病例资料齐全的SACC 78例,用荧光原位杂交技术检测EGFR基因表达,免疫组织化学技术检测 EGFR、PCNA、LN和Ⅳ型胶原蛋白的表达,分析其与临床病理参数的相关性。结果:SACC中EG-FR基因扩增率(69.2%)与蛋白的阳性表达率(71.8%)存在明显正相关(P<0.05),且EGFR、PCNA、LN、Ⅳ型胶原蛋白表达与临床病理参数密切相关。EGFR、PCNA表达水平间存在明显正相关(P<0.05);LN蛋白、Ⅳ型胶原表达水平间存在明显负相关(P<0.05)。结论:EGFR基因在SACC中明显扩增,EGFR、PCNA、LN、Ⅳ型胶原蛋白共同参与SACC发生、发展。

  20. 米非司酮对早孕蜕膜组织中IV型胶原 及纤维粘连蛋白的影响%The effects of mifepristone on collagen type IV and fibronectin in human decidua

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉贤; 李翘竹

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study the effects of mifepristone on collagen type IV and fibronectin in human decidua during first trimester of pregnancy for further investigating the mechanisms of antigestational action of mifepristone.   Methods: Fifty-five women with early pregnancy (≤60 gestational days) were divided into treatment group (mifepristone 150 mg administered) and control group randomly. Immunohistochemical technique (ABC method) was carried out to examine the distribution of collagen type IV and fibronectin in decidua of both groups.   Results: Compared with control group, the levels of decidual collagen type IV and fibronectin in treatment group were significantly decreased (P<0.01,P<0.05).Particularly, the contents of collagen type IV in glandular basal membrane and the fibronectin in extracellular matrix (ECM) were significantly reduced (P<0.01).   Conclusion: The results suggested that the anti-gestational effect of mifepristonemay act through decreasing the decidual collagen type IV and fibronectin. The concen-trations of these two componentes in ECM of decidua might be related by progesterone and corticosteroid.%目的:探讨米非司酮(Ru 486)对早孕蜕膜组织中IV型胶原、纤维粘连蛋白(FN)的影响,进一步认识米非司酮的抗早孕机理。方法:孕<60 d妇女,随机分为对照组和药物组。药物组口服米非司酮总量为150 mg。采用免疫组织化学(ABC)法测定早孕蜕膜组织IV型胶原(对照组15例,药物组20例)和纤维粘连蛋白(对照组25例,药物组30例)的分布状况。结果:与对照组相比,药物组早孕蜕膜组织中IV型胶原、FN均明显减少(P<0.01,P<0.05)。尤其是 IV型胶原在腺体基膜,FN在蜕膜细胞间质中降低最为明显(P<0.01),上皮基膜、血管周围IV型胶原含量也明显降低(P<0.05)。结论:米非司酮明显影响早孕蜕膜组织中这两种细胞外基质(ECM)的含量及分布,可使IV型胶原、FN的含量减少

  1. Catalogue of the Type Specimens of Amphibians and Reptiles in the Herpetological Museum of the Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences:IV. Lizards (Reptilia, Sauria)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo WANG; Ke JIANG; Jiatang LI; Yuezhao WANG; Daode YANG

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we report the six type specimens and two paratypes of eight lizard species in the Herpetological Museum of the Chengdu Institute of Biology (CIB), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS). Each entry provides the information of the original description, the catalog number of the holotype, sex, type locality, and information of allotype and paratype (if any), number and distribution of deposited specimens, and comments. Additionally, two invalid species and one invalid subspecies are discussed.

  2. Anomalous Transport Foundations and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Klages, Rainer; Sokolov, Igor M

    2008-01-01

    This multi-author reference work provides a unique introduction to the currently emerging, highly interdisciplinary field of those transport processes that cannot be described by using standard methods of statistical mechanics. It comprehensively summarizes topics ranging from mathematical foundations of anomalous dynamics to the most recent experiments in this field. In so doing, this monograph extracts and emphasizes common principles and methods from many different disciplines while providing up-to-date coverage of this new field of research, considering such diverse applications as plasma

  3. Anomalous Hall effect in polycrystalline Ni films

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Zaibing

    2012-02-01

    We systematically studied the anomalous Hall effect in a series of polycrystalline Ni films with thickness ranging from 4 to 200 nm. It is found that both the longitudinal and anomalous Hall resistivity increased greatly as film thickness decreased. This enhancement should be related to the surface scattering. In the ultrathin films (46 nm thick), weak localization corrections to anomalous Hall conductivity were studied. The granular model, taking into account the dominated intergranular tunneling, has been employed to explain this phenomenon, which can explain the weak dependence of anomalous Hall resistivity on longitudinal resistivity as well. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Anomalous center of mass shift: gravitational dipole moment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Eue Jin

    1997-02-01

    The anomalous, energy dependent shift of the center of mass of an idealized, perfectly rigid, uniformly rotating hemispherical shell which is caused by the relativistic mass increase effect is investigated in detail. It is shown that a classical object on impact which has the harmonic binding force between the adjacent constituent particles has the similar effect of the energy dependent, anomalous shift of the center of mass. From these observations, the general mode of the linear acceleration is suggested to be caused by the anomalous center of mass shift whether it's due to classical or relativistic origin. The effect of the energy dependent center of mass shift perpendicular to the plane of rotation of a rotating hemisphere appears as the non zero gravitational dipole moment in general relativity. Controlled experiment for the measurement of the gravitational dipole field and its possible links to the cylindrical type line formation of a worm hole in the extreme case are suggested. The jets from the black hole accretion disc and the observed anomalous red shift from far away galaxies are considered to be the consequences of the two different aspects of the dipole gravity.

  5. IVS1 −397T>C Estrogen Receptor α Polymorphism Is Associated with Low-Grade Systemic Inflammatory Response in Type 1 Diabetic Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Ryba-Stanisławowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The study aimed to investigate the influence of estrogen receptor α (ER-α genotypes on inflammatory response and development of microvascular complications in girls with type 1 diabetes. Methods. 152 young regularly menstruating girls with diagnosed type 1 diabetes and 84 young, healthy menstruating girls were recruited. ER-α genotyping was carried out by PCR. Serum concentrations of 17β-estradiol, as well as IL-6, TNF-α, VEGF, and IL-10, were measured. CD4+Foxp3+ TH17 cells were isolated and analyzed by flow cytometry. Results. Type 1 diabetic girls carrying TT genotype were characterized by the lowest serum estradiol level and IL-10 and highest IL-6, TNF-α , and VEGF. The association between the level of certain cytokine and the genetic variant of estrogen receptor α polymorphism was analyzed. Frequencies of CD4+Foxp3+ TH17 cells were also enhanced in TT bearing girls with type 1 diabetes and correlated with the level of analyzed cytokines. In addition, the correlation between serum estradiol level and cytokine concentrations was observed. Conclusions. We propose that TT variant of estrogen receptor α polymorphism may be associated with enhanced inflammatory response, which in turn may lead to acceleration of diabetic retino- and nephropathy in girls with type 1 diabetes. This finding may help the physicians to predict the onset and progression of diabetic microvascular complications.

  6. 尿IV型胶原在2型糖尿病肾病早期诊断中的意义%Significance of detecting urinary type IV collagen in diagnosis of early diabetic nephropathy in type 2-diabetic patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周淑红; 倪安民; 刘静

    2003-01-01

    目的探讨检测尿IV型胶原(IV-C)对2型糖尿病肾病早期诊断的作用及可能影响因素.方法选择我院2000年3~12月2型糖尿病患者60例和健康体检者20例,根据尿微量白蛋白排泄率,将糖尿病患者均分为3组,每组各20例,采用酶联免疫吸附测定法测定尿IV-C,免疫比浊法测尿微量白蛋白,同时测定血糖、胰岛素、胰岛素敏感指数、24小时动态血压、血脂和相关肾功能指标.结果正常对照组尿IV-C(1.93±1.12)mg/L,糖尿病无肾病组(6.61±1.64)mg/L,糖尿病早期肾病组(11.35±3.76)mg/L.糖尿病临床肾病组(23.40±13.8)mg/L.糖尿病无肾病组中,尿白蛋白指数与正常对照组接近(P>0.05),而尿IV-C的含量与正常对照组比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).糖尿病早期肾病组和临床肾病组尿IV-C含量明显高于正常对照组(P<0.01).糖尿病各组胰岛素敏感指数均低于正常对照组(P<0.05).糖尿病临床肾病组24小时平均血压、白天和夜间平均血压均高于其他3组(P<0.05).尿IV-C多因素相关性分析,与病程、尿白蛋白指数、尿α1微球蛋白、尿β2微球蛋白、餐后血糖、平均舒张压、夜间血压和N-乙酰-β-葡萄糖酐酶呈正相关关系,与胰岛素敏感指数呈负相关关系(P<0.05).结论尿IV型胶原是诊断早期糖尿病肾病灵敏可靠的预测指标,可以反映肾功能的损害程度,监测糖尿病肾病的进展.

  7. Alternative Agents in Type 1 Diabetes in Addition to Insulin Therapy: Metformin, Alpha-Glucosidase Inhibitors, Pioglitazone, GLP-1 Agonists, DPP-IV Inhibitors, and SGLT-2 Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGeeter, Michelle; Williamson, Bobbie

    2016-04-01

    Insulin is the mainstay of current treatment for patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Due to increasing insulin resistance, insulin doses are often continually increased, which may result in weight gain for patients. Medications currently approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes offer varying mechanisms of action that can help to reduce insulin resistance and prevent or deter weight gain. A MEDLINE search was conducted to review literature evaluating the use of metformin, alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, pioglitazone, glucagon-like peptide 1 agonists, dipeptidyl peptidase, and sodium-dependent glucose transporter 2 inhibitors, in patients with T1DM. Varying results were found with some benefits including reductions in hemoglobin A1c, decreased insulin doses, and favorable effects on weight. Of significance, a common fear of utilizing multiple therapies for diabetes treatment is the risk of hypoglycemia, and this review displayed limited evidence of hypoglycemia with multiple agents.

  8. The MASSIVE Survey. IV. The X-ray Halos of the Most Massive Early-type Galaxies in the Nearby Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulding, Andy D.; Greene, Jenny E.; Ma, Chung-Pei; Veale, Melanie; Bogdan, Akos; Nyland, Kristina; Blakeslee, John P.; McConnell, Nicholas J.; Thomas, Jens

    2016-08-01

    Studies of the physical properties of local elliptical galaxies are shedding new light on galaxy formation. Here we present the hot-gas properties of 33 early-type systems within the MASSIVE galaxy survey that have archival Chandra X-ray observations, and we use these data to derive X-ray luminosities ({L}{{X,gas}}) and plasma temperatures ({T}{{gas}}) for the diffuse gas components. We combine this with the {{ATLAS}}{{3D}} survey to investigate the X-ray-optical properties of a statistically significant sample of early-type galaxies across a wide range of environments. When X-ray measurements are performed consistently in apertures set by the galaxy stellar content, we deduce that all early types (independent of galaxy mass, environment, and rotational support) follow a universal scaling law such that {L}{{X,gas}}\\propto {T}{{gas}}˜ 4.5. We further demonstrate that the scatter in {L}{{X,gas}} around both K-band luminosity (L K ) and the galaxy stellar velocity dispersion ({σ }e) is primarily driven by {T}{{gas}}, with no clear trends with halo mass, radio power, or angular momentum of the stars. It is not trivial to tie the gas origin directly to either stellar mass or galaxy potential. Indeed, our data require a steeper relation between {L}{{X,gas}},{L}K, and {σ }e than predicted by standard mass-loss models. Finally, we find that {T}{{gas}} is set by the galaxy potential inside the optical effective radius. We conclude that within the innermost 10-30 kpc region, early types maintain pressure-supported hot gas, with a minimum {T}{{gas}} set by the virial temperature, but the majority show evidence for additional heating.

  9. Z' effects and anomalous gauge couplings at LC with polarization

    CERN Document Server

    Pankov, A A; Verzegnassi, Claudio

    1998-01-01

    We show that the availability of longitudinally polarized electron beams at a $500 GeV$ Linear Collider would allow, from an analysis of the reaction $e^+e^-\\to W^+W^-$, to set stringent bounds on the couplings of a Z' of the most general type. In addition, to some extent it would be possible to disentangle observable effects of the Z' from analogous ones due to competitor models with anomalous trilinear gauge couplings.

  10. A Geobacter sulfurreducens strain expressing pseudomonas aeruginosa type IV pili localizes OmcS on pili but is deficient in Fe(III) oxide reduction and current production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xing; Tremblay, Pier-Luc; Malvankar, Nikhil S; Nevin, Kelly P; Lovley, Derek R; Vargas, Madeline

    2014-02-01

    The conductive pili of Geobacter species play an important role in electron transfer to Fe(III) oxides, in long-range electron transport through current-producing biofilms, and in direct interspecies electron transfer. Although multiple lines of evidence have indicated that the pili of Geobacter sulfurreducens have a metal-like conductivity, independent of the presence of c-type cytochromes, this claim is still controversial. In order to further investigate this phenomenon, a strain of G. sulfurreducens, designated strain PA, was constructed in which the gene for the native PilA, the structural pilin protein, was replaced with the PilA gene of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. Strain PA expressed and properly assembled P. aeruginosa PilA subunits into pili and exhibited a profile of outer surface c-type cytochromes similar to that of a control strain expressing the G. sulfurreducens PilA. Surprisingly, the strain PA pili were decorated with the c-type cytochrome OmcS in a manner similar to the control strain. However, the strain PA pili were 14-fold less conductive than the pili of the control strain, and strain PA was severely impaired in Fe(III) oxide reduction and current production. These results demonstrate that the presence of OmcS on pili is not sufficient to confer conductivity to pili and suggest that there are unique structural features of the G. sulfurreducens PilA that are necessary for conductivity.

  11. Calcium binding properties of the Kingella kingae PilC1 and PilC2 proteins have differential effects on type IV pilus-mediated adherence and twitching motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porsch, Eric A; Johnson, Michael D L; Broadnax, Angela D; Garrett, Christopher K; Redinbo, Matthew R; St Geme, Joseph W

    2013-02-01

    Kingella kingae is an emerging bacterial pathogen that is being recognized increasingly as an important etiology of septic arthritis, osteomyelitis, and bacteremia, especially in young children. The pathogenesis of K. kingae disease begins with bacterial adherence to respiratory epithelium, which is dependent on type IV pili and is influenced by two PilC-like proteins called PilC1 and PilC2. Production of either PilC1 or PilC2 is necessary for K. kingae piliation and bacterial adherence. In this study, we set out to further investigate the role of PilC1 and PilC2 in type IV pilus-associated phenotypes. We found that PilC1 contains a functional 9-amino-acid calcium-binding (Ca-binding) site with homology to the Pseudomonas aeruginosa PilY1 Ca-binding site and that PilC2 contains a functional 12-amino-acid Ca-binding site with homology to the human calmodulin Ca-binding site. Using targeted mutagenesis to disrupt the Ca-binding sites, we demonstrated that the PilC1 and PilC2 Ca-binding sites are dispensable for piliation. Interestingly, we showed that the PilC1 site is necessary for twitching motility and adherence to Chang epithelial cells, while the PilC2 site has only a minor influence on twitching motility and no influence on adherence. These findings establish key differences in PilC1 and PilC2 function in K. kingae and provide insights into the biology of the PilC-like family of proteins.

  12. Anomalous osmosis resulting from preferential absorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staverman, A.J.; Kruissink, C.A.; Pals, D.T.F.

    1965-01-01

    An explanation of the anomalous osmosis described in the preceding paper is given in terms of friction coefficients in the glass membrane. It is shown that anomalous osmosis may be expected when the friction coefficients are constant and positive provided that the membrane absorbs solute strongly an

  13. NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis - 2014.This Table includes total number of cases reported in the United States, by region and by states, in accordance with the...

  14. NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis - 2015.This Table includes total number of cases reported in the United States, by region and by states, in accordance with the...

  15. NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis - 2016.This Table includes total number of cases reported in the United States, by region and by states, in accordance with the...

  16. Study of a SiGeSn/GeSn/SiGeSn structure toward direct bandgap type-I quantum well for all group-IV optoelectronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghetmiri, Seyed Amir; Zhou, Yiyin; Margetis, Joe; Al-Kabi, Sattar; Dou, Wei; Mosleh, Aboozar; Du, Wei; Kuchuk, Andrian; Liu, Jifeng; Sun, Greg; Soref, Richard A; Tolle, John; Naseem, Hameed A; Li, Baohua; Mortazavi, Mansour; Yu, Shui-Qing

    2017-02-01

    A SiGeSn/GeSn/SiGeSn single quantum well structure was grown using an industry standard chemical vapor deposition reactor with low-cost commercially available precursors. The material characterization revealed the precisely controlled material growth process. Temperature-dependent photoluminescence spectra were correlated with band structure calculation for a structure accurately determined by high-resolution x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Based on the result, a systematic study of SiGeSn and GeSn bandgap energy separation and barrier heights versus material compositions and strain was conducted, leading to a practical design of a type-I direct bandgap quantum well.

  17. Anomalous diffraction in hyperbolic materials

    CERN Document Server

    Alberucci, Alessandro; Boardman, Allan D; Assanto, Gaetano

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate that light is subject to anomalous (i.e., negative) diffraction when propagating in the presence of hyperbolic dispersion. We show that light propagation in hyperbolic media resembles the dynamics of a quantum particle of negative mass moving in a two-dimensional potential. The negative effective mass implies time reversal if the medium is homogeneous. Such property paves the way to diffraction compensation, spatial analogue of dispersion compensating fibers in the temporal domain. At variance with materials exhibiting standard elliptic dispersion, in inhomogeneous hyperbolic materials light waves are pulled towards regions with a lower refractive index. In the presence of a Kerr-like optical response, bright (dark) solitons are supported by a negative (positive) nonlinearity.

  18. Anomalous diffraction in hyperbolic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberucci, Alessandro; Jisha, Chandroth P.; Boardman, Allan D.; Assanto, Gaetano

    2016-09-01

    We demonstrate that light is subject to anomalous (i.e., negative) diffraction when propagating in the presence of hyperbolic dispersion. We show that light propagation in hyperbolic media resembles the dynamics of a quantum particle of negative mass moving in a two-dimensional potential. The negative effective mass implies time reversal if the medium is homogeneous. Such property paves the way to diffraction compensation, i.e., spatial analog of dispersion compensating fibers in the temporal domain. At variance with materials exhibiting standard elliptic dispersion, in inhomogeneous hyperbolic materials light waves are pulled towards regions with a lower refractive index. In the presence of a Kerr-like optical response, bright (dark) solitons are supported by a negative (positive) nonlinearity.

  19. Type IV(B) pili are required for invasion but not for adhesion of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi into BHK epithelial cells in a cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator-independent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Denisse; Blondel, Carlos J; Hoare, Anilei; Leyton, Lisette; Valvano, Miguel A; Contreras, Inés

    2011-11-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) has been proposed as an epithelial cell receptor for the entry of Salmonella Typhi but not Salmonella Typhimurium. The bacterial ligand recognized by CFTR is thought to reside either in the S. Typhi lipopolysaccharide core region or in the type IV pili. Here, we assessed the ability of virulent strains of S. Typhi and S. Typhimurium to adhere to and invade BHK epithelial cells expressing either the wild-type CFTR protein or the ∆F508 CFTR mutant. Both S. Typhi and S. Typhimurium invaded the epithelial cells in a CFTR-independent fashion. Furthermore and also in a CFTR-independent manner, a S. Typhi pilS mutant adhered normally to BHK cells but displayed a 50% reduction in invasion as compared to wild-type bacteria. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that bacteria and CFTR do not colocalize at the epithelial cell surface. Together, our results strongly argue against the established dogma that CFTR is a receptor for entry of Salmonella to epithelial cells.

  20. Sympathetic nervous system activity and anti-lipolytic response to iv-glucose load in subcutaneous adipose tissue of obese and obese type 2 diabetic subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Uwe; Jenkinson, Christopher P.; Alt, Andreas; Zügel, Martina; Steinacker, Jürgen M.; Flechtner-Mors, Marion

    2017-01-01

    The study aim was to investigate the effect of endogenous insulin release on lipolysis in subcutaneous adipose tissue after adrenergic stimulation in obese subjects diagnosed with type 2 diabetes (T2D). In 14 obese female T2D subjects, or 14 obese non-T2D controls, glycerol concentration was measured in response to the α1,2,ß-agonist norepinephrine, the α1-agonist norfenefrine and the ß2-agonist terbutaline (each 10−4 M), using the microdialysis technique. After 60 minutes of stimulation, an intravenous glucose load (0.5 g/kg lean body mass) was given. Local blood flow was monitored by means of the ethanol technique. Norepinephrine and norfenefrine induced a four and three fold rise in glycerol dialysate concentration (pnervous system activity and is assumed to be due to ß1-adrenoceptor mediated stimulation by norepinephrine. PMID:28346464

  1. Mechanism of cell surface activation of 72-kDa type IV collagenase. Isolation of the activated form of the membrane metalloprotease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strongin, A Y; Collier, I; Bannikov, G; Marmer, B L; Grant, G A; Goldberg, G I

    1995-03-10

    Matrix metalloproteases are secreted by mammalian cells as zymogens and, upon activation, initiate tissue remodeling by proteolytic degradation of collagens and proteoglycans. Activation of the secreted proenzymes and interaction with their specific inhibitors determine the net enzymatic activity in the extracellular space. We have previously demonstrated that 72T4Cl can be activated by a plasma membrane-dependent mechanism specific for this enzyme. Here, we report purification of the membrane activator of 72T4Cl, which is a new metalloprotease identical to a recently cloned membrane-type matrix metalloprotease (MT-MMP). We demonstrate that activated MT-MMP acts as a cell surface tissue inhibitor of metalloprotease 2 (TIMP-2) receptor with Kd = 2.54 x 10(-9) M. The activator.TIMP-2 complex in turn acts as a receptor for 72T4Cl (Kd = 0.56 x 10(-9) M, binding to the carboxyl-end domain of the enzyme. Activation of 72T4Cl on the cell membrane provides a basic mechanism for spatially regulated extracellular proteolysis and presents a new target for prognosis and treatment of metastatic disease. The activation, purified as a tri-molecular complex of MT-MMP.TIMP2.carboxyl-end domain of 72T4Cl, is itself an activated form of MT-MMP, posing the following question: what is the mechanism of the activator's activation?

  2. Comparative distribution of the alpha 1(IV), alpha 5(IV), and alpha 6(IV) collagen chains in normal human adult and fetal tissues and in kidneys from X-linked Alport syndrome patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Peissel, B; Geng, L.; Kalluri, R.; Kashtan, C; Rennke, H G; Gallo, G R; Yoshioka, K.; Sun, M J; Hudson, B.G.; Neilson, E. G.

    1995-01-01

    We have shown previously that the 5' ends of the genes for the alpha 5(IV) and alpha 6(IV) collagen chains lie head-to-head on Xq22 and are deleted in patients with Alport syndrome (AS)-associated diffuse leiomyomatosis. In this study, we raised a rabbit anti-human alpha 6(IV)chain antibody, demonstrated its specificity by the analysis of recombinant NC1 domains af all six type IV chains, and studied the distribution of the alpha 6(IV) chain in relation to the alpha 1(IV) and alpha 5(IV) chai...

  3. Wangercone股骨柄联合转子下截骨治疗CroweIV型髋关节发育不良%Wanger cone with subtrochanteric osteotomy in the treatment of Crowe type IV developmental dysplasia of the hip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倘艳锋; 李红军; 朱英杰; 蔡鸿敏; 贾宇东; 李启义; 刘又文

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effectiveness of the subtrochanteric osteotomy with the Wanger cone in total hip arthroplasty ( THA ) for Crowe type IV developmental dysplasia of the hip ( DDH ) in adults.Methods From January 2009 to January 2015, 15 patients ( 17 hips ) with Crowe type IV DDH were treated by THA procedures of subtrochanteric osteotomy with Wanger cone, aged 18 - 49 years ( mean 39.4 years ). The left hip was involved in 8 cases, the right hip in 5 cases, and bilateral hips in 2 cases. The both limps were not of the same length. The length of the involved limp was shorter than the normal ( 3.4 - 4.6 cm, mean 3.8 cm ) in 13 cases, including 4 cases with spinal deformity. The results of Trendelenburg sign were positive in 10 cases. X-ray iflms showed high complete dislocation of the involved hips.Results All patients underwent THA procedures of subtrochanteric osteotomy with Wanger cone. The length of subtrochanteric osteotomy was 2.0 - 4.5 cm ( mean, 3.5 cm ). The incisions healed by the ifrst intention. There were no complications such as infection, dislocation, prosthesis loosening, or sciatic neurovascular injury. 2 cases had transient sciatic nerve symptoms in 2 months. The average follow-up was 42.5 months ( range: 13 - 62 months ). Four cases were of delayed union and osseous healing was achieved in 10 months. Lower limb shortening 2 cm in 2 cases. Harris score was improved from ( 33.1 ± 4.2 ) points preoperatively to ( 92.8 ± 2.7 ) points postoperatively.Conclusions Subtrochanteric osteotomy with the Wanger cone in THA for Crowe type IV DDH in adults is a good option when limp length shortening > 4 cm, which is effective in decreasing the risk of neurovascular injury with satisfactory short-term results.%目的:探讨应用 Wanger cone 股骨柄联合转子下截骨人工全髋关节置换术( total hip arthroplasty, THA )治疗 Crowe IV 型髋关节发育不良( developmental dysplasia of hip,DDH )的临

  4. Collagen IV in normal skin and in pathological processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Abreu-Velez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Type IV collagen is a type of collagen found primarily in the skin within the basement membrane zone. The type IV collagen C4 domain at the C-terminus is not removed in post-translational processing, and the fibers are thus link head-to-head, rather than in a parallel fashion. Also, type IV collagen lacks a glycine in every third amino-acid residue necessary for the tight collagen helix. Thus, the overall collagen-IV conformation is structurally more pliable and kinked, relative to other collagen subtypes. These structural features allow collagen IV to form sheets, which is the primary structural form found in the cutaneous basal lamina. There are six human genes associated with collagen IV, specifically COL4A1, COL4A2, COL4A3, COL4A4, COL4A5 and COL4A6. The aim of this review is to highlight the significance of this protein in normal skin, and in selected diseases. Results: The alpha 3 protein constituent of type IV collagen is thought to be the antigen implicated in Goodpasture′s syndrome, wherein the immune system attacks the basement membranes of the renal glomeruli and pulmonary alveoli. In addition, mutations to the genes coding for type IV collagen lead to the Alport syndrome. Furthermore, autoantibodies directed against denatured human type IV collagen have been described in rheumatoid arthritis, scleroderma, and SLE. Structural studies of collagen IV have been utilized to differentiate between subepidermal blistering diseases, including bullous pemphigoid, acquired epidermolysis bullosa, anti-epiligrin cicatricial pemphigoid, and bullous lupus erythematosus. Collagen IV is also of importance in wound healing and in embryogenesis. Conclusions: Pathological studies have demonstrated that minor structural differences in collagen IV can lead to distinct, clinically different diseases.

  5. Peptides Derived from Type IV Collagen, CXC Chemokines, and Thrombospondin-1 Domain-Containing Proteins Inhibit Neovascularization and Suppress Tumor Growth in MDA-MB-231 Breast Cancer Xenografts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob E. Koskimaki

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis or neovascularization, the process of new blood vessel formation from preexisting microvasculature, involves interactions among several cell types including parenchymal, endothelial cells, and immune cells. The formation of new vessels is tightly regulated by a balance between endogenous proangiogenic and antiangiogenic factors to maintain homeostasis in tissue; tumor progression and metastasis in breast cancer have been shown to be angiogenesis-dependent. We previously introduced a systematic methodology to identify putative endogenous antiangiogenic peptides and validated these predictions in vitro in human umbilical vein endothelial cell proliferation and migration assays. These peptides are derived from several protein families including type IV collagen, CXC chemokines, and thrombospondin-1 domain-containing proteins. On the basis of the results from the in vitro screening, we have evaluated the ability of one peptide selected from each family named pentastatin-1, chemokinostatin-1, and properdistatin, respectively, to suppress angiogenesis in an MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer orthotopic xenograft model in severe combined immunodeficient mice. Peptides were administered intraperitoneally once per day. We have demonstrated significant suppression of tumor growth in vivo and subsequent reductions in microvascular density, indicating the potential of these peptides as therapeutic agents for breast cancer.

  6. Gene flow across genus barriers – Conjugation of Dinoroseobacter shibae´s 191-kb killer plasmid into Phaeobacter inhibens and AHL-mediated expression of type IV secretion systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana ePatzelt

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Rhodobacteraceae harbor a conspicuous wealth of extrachromosomal replicons (ECRs and therefore the exchange of genetic material via horizontal transfer has been supposed to be a major evolutionary driving force. Many plasmids in the roseobacter group encode type IV secretion systems (T4SS that generally mediate transfer of proteins and/or DNA into host cells, but no experimental evidence of either has yet been provided. Dinoroseobacter shibae contains five ECRs that are crucial for anaerobic growth, survival under starvation and the pathogenicity of this model organism. Here we tagged two syntenous but compatible RepABC-type plasmids of 191 kb and 126-kb size, each harboring a T4SS, with antibiotic resistance genes and demonstrated their conjugational transfer into a distantly related roseo-bacter species, namely Phaeobacter inhibens. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis showed transfer of those replicons into the recipient both individually but also together documenting the efficiency of conjugation. We then studied the influence of externally added quorum sensing (QS signals on the expression of the T4SS located on the sister plasmids. A QS deficient D. shibae null mutant (ΔluxI1 lacking synthesis of N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs was cultivated with a wide spectrum of chemically diverse long-chain AHLs. All AHLs with lengths of the acid side-chain >14 reverted the ΔluxI1 phenotype to wild-type. Expression of the T4SS was induced above wild-type level. We hypothesize that conjugation in roseobacters is QS-controlled and that the QS system may detect a wide array of long-chain AHLs at the cell surface.

  7. IV access in dental practice.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzpatrick, J J

    2009-04-01

    Intravenous (IV) access is a valuable skill for dental practitioners in emergency situations and in IV sedation. However, many people feel some apprehension about performing this procedure. This article explains the basic principles behind IV access, and the relevant anatomy and physiology, as well as giving a step-by-step guide to placing an IV cannula.

  8. Fratura extra-articular da extremidade medial da clavícula associada à luxação acromioclavicular tipo IV: relato de caso Extra-articular fracture of the medial end of the clavicle associated with type IV acromioclavicular dislocation: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Chaves Correa

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Ocorrendo isoladamente, as fraturas da clavícula e as luxações acromioclaviculares são lesões muito comuns. A combinação de uma luxação acromioclavicular e de uma fratura do terço lateral da clavícula não é rara. Entretanto, existem muito poucos casos descritos de luxações acromioclaviculares associadas a fraturas do terço médio da clavícula; aquelas associadas a fraturas do terço medial são ainda mais raras. Nós reportamos o caso de um indivíduo adulto do sexo masculino que sofreu uma luxação acromioclavicular (tipo IV associada a uma fratura extra-articular desviada da extremidade medial da clavícula (grupo 3 de Almann em um acidente ciclístico. O paciente foi tratado na fase aguda com redução aberta e fixação interna das duas lesões. Na avaliação clínica, 12 meses após a cirurgia, o paciente apresentava-se assintomático, com mobilidade ativa e passiva completa, força e resistência normais e simetria das cinturas escapulares. As radiografias e a tomografia computadorizada tridimensional mostravam subluxação posterossuperior persistente da articulação acromioclavicular e consolidação anatômica da fratura clavicular.Fractures of the clavicle and acromioclavicular dislocations are very common injuries when they occur separately. The combination of an acromioclavicular dislocation and a fracture of the lateral third of the clavicle is not rare. However, there are very few reported cases of acromioclavicular dislocations associated with fractures of the middle third of the clavicle; those associated with fractures of the medial third are even rarer. We report the case of an adult male who suffered an acromioclavicular dislocation (type IV associated with a displaced extra-articular fracture of the medial end of the clavicle (Almann group 3 in a cycling accident. The patient was treated during the acute phase with open reduction and internal fixation of the two lesions. At the clinical evaluation 12

  9. Anomalous magnetic moment with heavy virtual leptons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurz, Alexander [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Teilchenphysik; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Liu, Tao; Steinhauser, Matthias [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Teilchenphysik; Marquard, Peter [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)

    2013-11-15

    We compute the contributions to the electron and muon anomalous magnetic moment induced by heavy leptons up to four-loop order. Asymptotic expansion is applied to obtain three analytic expansion terms which show rapid convergence.

  10. Anomalous Fractional Diffusion Equation for Transport Phenomena

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QiuhuaZENG; HouqiangLI; 等

    1999-01-01

    We derive the standard diffusion equation from the continuity equation and by discussing the defectiveness of earlier proposed equations,we get the generalized fractional diffusion equation for anomalous diffusion.

  11. Anomalous magnetic moment with heavy virtual leptons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurz, Alexander [Institut für Theoretische Teilchenphysik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron (DESY), 15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Liu, Tao [Institut für Theoretische Teilchenphysik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Marquard, Peter [Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron (DESY), 15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Steinhauser, Matthias [Institut für Theoretische Teilchenphysik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2014-02-15

    We compute the contributions to the electron and muon anomalous magnetic moment induced by heavy leptons up to four-loop order. Asymptotic expansion is applied to obtain three analytic expansion terms which show rapid convergence.

  12. Anomalous magnetic moment with heavy virtual leptons

    CERN Document Server

    Kurz, Alexander; Marquard, Peter; Steinhauser, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    We compute the contributions to the electron and muon anomalous magnetic moment induced by heavy leptons up to four-loop order. Asymptotic expansion is applied to obtain three analytic expansion terms which show rapid convergence.

  13. Signal velocity for anomalous dispersive waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mainardi, F. (Bologna Univ. (Italy))

    1983-03-11

    The concept of signal velocity for dispersive waves is usually identified with that of group velocity. When the dispersion is anomalous, this interpretation is not correct since the group velocity can assume nonphysical values. In this note, by using the steepest descent method first introduced by Brillouin, the phase velocity is shown to be the signal velocity when the dispersion is anomalous in the full range of frequencies.

  14. Anomalous transport due to scale anomaly

    CERN Document Server

    Chernodub, M N

    2016-01-01

    We show that the scale anomaly in field theories leads to new anomalous transport effects that emerge in external electromagnetic field in inhomogeneous gravitational background. In inflating geometry the QED scale anomaly generates electric current which flows in opposite direction with respect to background electric field. In static spatially inhomogeneous gravitational background the dissipationless electric current flows transversely both to the magnetic field axis and to the gradient of the inhomogeneity. The anomalous currents are proportional to the beta function of the theory.

  15. Marketing produktu Karel IV.

    OpenAIRE

    Mikšů, Šárka

    2009-01-01

    Goal of the thesis Marketing of the product Karel IV. is to propose chanels of marketing communication and indicate possibilities of next product's development. Theoretical part is based on marketing plan and it's partition. In the practical part you can find market analysis and competing products analysis, product's evolution description and marketing research.

  16. Dibromidodimethyldipyridineplatinum(IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mairéad E. Kelly

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In the title complex, [PtBr2(CH32(C5H5N2], the PtIV metal centre lies on a twofold rotation axis and adopts a slightly distorted octahedral coordination geometry. The structure displays weak intramolecular C—H...Br hydrogen-bonding interactions.

  17. PLATO IV Accountancy Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pondy, Dorothy, Comp.

    The catalog was compiled to assist instructors in planning community college and university curricula using the 48 computer-assisted accountancy lessons available on PLATO IV (Programmed Logic for Automatic Teaching Operation) for first semester accounting courses. It contains information on lesson access, lists of acceptable abbreviations for…

  18. Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV inhibitory activity of parotid exudate of Bufo melanostictus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allenki Venkatesham

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes arises as a result of β-cell failure combined with concomitant insulin resistance. Glucagon-like peptide-1 is a gastrointestinal hormone that is released postprandially from the L cells of the gut and exerts a glucose- dependent and direct insulinotropic effect on the pancreatic β cell. Which activate adenylate cyclase and enhances insulin secretion. GLP-1 is rapidly degraded by DPP-IV to GLP-1(9-37 amide following release from gut L cells. GLP-1 directly enhances glucose-dependent insulin secretion via an increase in β-cell cAMP. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV is a plasma membrane glycoprotein ectopeptidase. In mammals, DPP-IV was widely expressed on the surface of endothelial and epithelial cells and highest levels in humans have been reported to occur in the intestine, bone marrow and kidney. Inhibiting DPP-IV reduces its rapid degradation of GLP-1, increasing circulating levels of the active hormone in vivo and prolonging its beneficial effects. The IC 50 value of parotid exudate was found to be 9.4 μg/ml. The maximum % inhibition (61.8 was showed at a concentration of 12μg/ml. Parotid exudate through inhibition of DPP-IV, improves glucose tolerance and enhances insulin secretion. DPP-IV inhibitors are a novel class of oral hypoglycemic agents with a potential to improve pancreatic beta cell function and the clinical course of type 2 diabetes.

  19. (2R)-4-Oxo-4[3-(Trifluoromethyl)-5,6-diihydro:1,2,4}triazolo[4,3-a}pyrazin-7(8H)-y1]-1-(2,4,5-trifluorophenyl)butan-2-amine: A Potent, Orally Active Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV Inhibitor for the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D.; Wang, L.; Beconi, M.; Eiermann, G.; Fisher, M.; He, H.; Hickey, G.; Kowalchick, Jennifer; Leiting, Barbara; Lyons, K.; Marsilio, F.; McCann, F.; Patel, R.; Petrov, A.; Scapin, G.; Patel, S.; Roy, R.; Wu, J.; Wyvratt, M.; Zhang, B.; Zhu, L.; Thornberry, N.; Weber, A. (Merck)

    2010-11-10

    A novel series of {beta}-amino amides incorporating fused heterocycles, i.e., triazolopiperazines, were synthesized and evaluated as inhibitors of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. (2R)-4-Oxo-4-[3-(trifluoromethyl)-5,6-dihydro[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a]pyrazin-7(8H)-yl]-1-(2,4,5-trifluorophenyl)butan-2-amine (1) is a potent, orally active DPP-IV inhibitor (IC{sub 50} = 18 nM) with excellent selectivity over other proline-selective peptidases, oral bioavailability in preclinical species, and in vivo efficacy in animal models. MK-0431, the phosphate salt of compound 1, was selected for development as a potential new treatment for type 2 diabetes.

  20. Anomalous heat conduction in asymmetric graphene Y junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Chenhui; Pan, Feng; Niu, Chunyao [International Laboratory for Quantum Functional Materials of Henan, and School of Physics and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Chen, Weiguang [International Laboratory for Quantum Functional Materials of Henan, and School of Physics and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); School of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Zhengzhou Normal College, Zhengzhou 450053 (China); Jia, Yu, E-mail: jiay@zzu.edu.cn [International Laboratory for Quantum Functional Materials of Henan, and School of Physics and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China)

    2015-12-18

    Through MD simulation of the transient heat pulse propagation in asymmetric Y junction, we report a novel type of controllable heat conduction in graphene nanostructure. The Y junction consists of a steam breaking into a wide branch and a narrow branch. In contrast to the classic situation where heat conductivity is proportional to the cross-sectional area of the material, the transmitted part of the heat pulse in the narrow branch is anomalously much stronger than that in the wide branch. As we increase the width ratio between the wide branch and narrow branch, transmitted coefficient in the narrow branch decreases a little, while in the wide branch, it decreases sharply. Specifically under 2:1 width ratio, transmitted coefficient of the narrow branch is three times that of the coefficient of the wide branch. Further analysis shows that the anomalous heat conduction is primarily induced by the behavior of the longitude vibrational modes. - Highlights: • Heat pulse propagation in asymmetric graphene Y-junctions are investigated by MD simulation. • Transmitted signal in the narrow branch is found to be stronger than that in the wide branch. • The anomalous heat conduction could be attributed to the behavior of the longitude vibrational modes.

  1. Antibodies against the majority subunit of type IV Pili disperse nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae biofilms in a LuxS-dependent manner and confer therapeutic resolution of experimental otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotny, Laura A; Jurcisek, Joseph A; Ward, Michael O; Jordan, Zachary B; Goodman, Steven D; Bakaletz, Lauren O

    2015-04-01

    Despite resulting in a similar overall outcome, unlike antibodies directed against the DNABII protein, integration host factor (IHF), which induce catastrophic structural collapse of biofilms formed by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI), those directed against a recombinant soluble form of PilA [the majority subunit of Type IV pili (Tfp) produced by NTHI], mediated gradual 'top-down' dispersal of NTHI from biofilms. This dispersal occurred via a mechanism that was dependent upon expression of both PilA (and by inference, Tfp) and production of AI-2 quorum signaling molecules by LuxS. The addition of rsPilA to a biofilm-targeted therapeutic vaccine formulation comprised of IHF plus the powerful adjuvant dmLT and delivered via a noninvasive transcutaneous immunization route induced an immune response that targeted two important determinants essential for biofilm formation by NTHI. This resulted in significantly earlier eradication of NTHI from both planktonic and adherent populations in the middle ear, disruption of mucosal biofilms already resident within middle ears prior to immunization and rapid resolution of signs of disease in an animal model of experimental otitis media. These data support continued development of this novel combinatorial immunization approach for resolution and/or prevention of multiple diseases of the respiratory tract caused by NTHI.

  2. Optimal and safe treatment of spider leg veins measuring less than 1.5 mm on skin type IV patients, using repeated low-fluence Nd:YAG laser pulses after polidocanol injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Moraga, Javier; Hernández, Esteban; Royo, Josefina; Alcolea, Justo; Isarría, M Jose; Pascu, Mihail Lucian; Smarandache, Adriana; Trelles, Mario

    2013-05-01

    Treatment of micro-veins of less than 1.5 mm with laser and with chemical sclerosis is technically challenging because of their difficulty to remedy. Laser treatment is even more difficult when dark phototypes are involved.Three groups of 30 patients each, skin type IV, and vessels measuring less than 1.5 mm in diameter, were enrolled for two treatment sessions 8 weeks apart: group A, polidocanol (POL) micro-foam injection; group B, Nd:YAG laser alone; and group C, laser after POL injection. Repeated 8-Hz low-fluence pulses, moving the hand piece over a 3-cm vein segment with an average of five laser passes maximum and with a total time irradiation of 1 s were used. Sixteen weeks after the second treatment, statistically, degree of clearance after examining photographs and patients satisfaction index, plotted on a visual analogue scale and comparing results of all three groups, results were significantly better for group C (p<0.0001). No significant differences in complications were noticed between the three groups. Efficacy of combining POL and laser proved safe and satisfactory in 96 % of patients using low-fluence laser pulses with a total cumulative energy in the 3 cm venous segment, lower than that of conventional treatment. Very few and transient complications were observed. POL foam injection followed by laser pulses is safe and efficient for vein treatment in dark-skinned patients.

  3. 全髋关节置换治疗CroweⅣ型成人髋关节发育性不良%Total hip arthroplasty for Crowe type IV developmental dysplasia of hip in adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐小鹏; 张元凯; 李德强; 李明

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Total hip arthroplasty is an optimal choice for patients with late hip dysplasia. Crowe type IV developmental dysplasia of the hip increases the difficulty of the operation, and the surgery is controversial. OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the clinical effects of total hip arthroplasty on Crowe type IV developmental dysplasia of the hip and the method of reconstruction of acetabulum and the treatment of proximal femur. METHODS:A total of 12 patients (14 hips) with Crowe type IV developmental dysplasia of the hip underwent total hip arthroplasty. Preoperative Harris hip score was averagely (35.0±6.8) points. Al hips were treated with smal acetabular components combined with medial protrusion technique in acetabular reconstruction, as wel as subtrochanteric shortening osteotomy in femur. Joint function of hips was evaluated according to the Harris hip score. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:Al patients were fol owed up with an average of 4.6 years (ranged 1 to 7 years). Two cases (two hips) suffered from infraction of greater trochanter of femur during replacement, and it was fixed with wire. There was complete sciatic nerve injury in one case, which partial y restored after conservative treatment for 1 month. No infection, prosthesis loosening, or deep venous thrombosis with obvious clinical manifestations was visible. Bone union was observed at the site undergoing osteotomy at the side of femur. After replacement, final fol ow-up showed that Harris hip score was averagely (84.0±7.0) points. The mean amount of postoperative leg lengthening was 5 cm (range 4-6 cm). Shortened limbs were corrected satisfactorily. These results suggested that total hip arthroplasty using smal acetabular component, medial protrusion, and femoral subtrochanteric shortening osteotomy technique for the Crowe type IV developmental dysplasia of the hip can effectively restore hip function and leg length. The long-term curative effects require further investigations.%背景:人工全髋关节置

  4. A DFT study of the Karplus-type dependence of vicinal (3)J(Sn-C-X-C), X=N,O,S, in organotin(iv) compounds: application to conformationally flexible systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casella, Girolamo; Ferrante, Francesco; Saielli, Giacomo

    2010-06-21

    ZORA relativistic and non-relativistic DFT protocols have been used to investigate vicinal coupling constants, (3)J(Sn-C-X-C), in several organotin(iv) compounds, with particular emphasis on cyclic alpha-aminoorganostannanes. The dependence of the coupling constant on the heteroatom X (X = N,O,S) in the coupling path, and, for X = N, its substituents, has been studied in detail. The electron-withdrawing strength of the N-substituents has been found to strongly affect the magnitude and shape of the Karplus-type curve. The results obtained for the simple model systems, having no or little conformational flexibility, have helped in rationalizing the data concerning real flexible cyclic systems recently investigated in the literature. For these intricate cases a population analysis of various conformers has allowed to obtain a very good agreement between calculated and experimental data. It is therefore established that NMR J couplings, together with DFT calculations, are a very useful tool to investigate conformational issues in solution by comparison of experimental and weighted average calculated values.

  5. Anomalous experiences, trauma and symbolization processes at the frontier between psychoanalysis and cognitive neurosciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eRabeyron

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Anomalous or exceptional experiences are uncommon experiences which are usually interpreted as being paranormal by those who report them. These experiences have long remained difficult to explain, but current progress in cognitive neuroscience and psychoanalysis sheds light on the contexts in which they emerge, as well as on their underlying processes. Following a brief description of the different types of anomalous experiences, we underline how they can be better understood at the frontiers between psychoanalysis and cognitive neurosciences. In this regard, three main lines of research are discussed and illustrated, alongside clinical cases which come from a clinical service specializing in anomalous experiences. First, we study the links between anomalous experiences and hallucinatory processes, by showing that anomalous experiences frequently occur as a specific reaction to negative life events, in which case they mainly take the form of non-pathological hallucinations. Next, we propose to analyze these experiences from the perspective of their traumatic aspects and the altered states of consciousness they often imply. Finally, these experiences are considered to be the consequence of a hypersensitivity that can be linked to an increase in psychic permeability. In conclusion, these different processes lead us to consider anomalous experiences as primary forms of symbolization and transformation of the subjective experience, especially during or after traumatic situations.

  6. Anomalous Experiences, Trauma, and Symbolization Processes at the Frontiers between Psychoanalysis and Cognitive Neurosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabeyron, Thomas; Loose, Tianna

    2015-01-01

    Anomalous or exceptional experiences are uncommon experiences which are usually interpreted as being paranormal by those who report them. These experiences have long remained difficult to explain, but current progress in cognitive neuroscience and psychoanalysis sheds light on the contexts in which they emerge, as well as on their underlying processes. Following a brief description of the different types of anomalous experiences, we underline how they can be better understood at the frontiers between psychoanalysis and cognitive neurosciences. In this regard, three main lines of research are discussed and illustrated, alongside clinical cases which come from a clinical service specializing in anomalous experiences. First, we study the links between anomalous experiences and hallucinatory processes, by showing that anomalous experiences frequently occur as a specific reaction to negative life events, in which case they mainly take the form of non-pathological hallucinations. Next, we propose to analyze these experiences from the perspective of their traumatic aspects and the altered states of consciousness they often imply. Finally, these experiences are considered to be the consequence of a hypersensitivity that can be linked to an increase in psychic permeability. In conclusion, these different processes lead us to consider anomalous experiences as primary forms of symbolization and transformation of the subjective experience, especially during, or after traumatic situations. PMID:26732646

  7. Predicting DPP-IV inhibitors with machine learning approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jie; Li, Chanjuan; Liu, Zhihong; Du, Jiewen; Ye, Jiming; Gu, Qiong; Xu, Jun

    2017-02-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) is a promising Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) drug target. DPP-IV inhibitors prolong the action of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP), improve glucose homeostasis without weight gain, edema, and hypoglycemia. However, the marketed DPP-IV inhibitors have adverse effects such as nasopharyngitis, headache, nausea, hypersensitivity, skin reactions and pancreatitis. Therefore, it is still expected for novel DPP-IV inhibitors with minimal adverse effects. The scaffolds of existing DPP-IV inhibitors are structurally diversified. This makes it difficult to build virtual screening models based upon the known DPP-IV inhibitor libraries using conventional QSAR approaches. In this paper, we report a new strategy to predict DPP-IV inhibitors with machine learning approaches involving naïve Bayesian (NB) and recursive partitioning (RP) methods. We built 247 machine learning models based on 1307 known DPP-IV inhibitors with optimized molecular properties and topological fingerprints as descriptors. The overall predictive accuracies of the optimized models were greater than 80%. An external test set, composed of 65 recently reported compounds, was employed to validate the optimized models. The results demonstrated that both NB and RP models have a good predictive ability based on different combinations of descriptors. Twenty "good" and twenty "bad" structural fragments for DPP-IV inhibitors can also be derived from these models for inspiring the new DPP-IV inhibitor scaffold design.

  8. Infant-type anomalous origin of left coronary artery from pulmonary artery: analysis of diagnosis and surgical treatment%婴儿左冠状动脉异常起源于肺动脉的诊疗分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱家伟; 李方; 李轩; 尹朝华; 闫军; 王强; 李巅远

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨左冠状动脉异常起源于肺动脉(anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery,ALCAPA)的临床特点、诊断方法、外科治疗及疗效分析.方法 2006年6月~ 2015年1月阜外医院诊断为ALCA-PA并行手术治疗患儿29例,对这些患儿的临床资料、诊断与治疗情况及随访结果进行回顾性分析.随访结果根据包括复查结果及电话随访.结果 本组患者男性16例,女性13例,年龄2月~1(0.75 ±0.27)岁,体质量4.8~11.5(8.0±2.2)kg,左心室射血分数18 ~66(42±18)%.患儿均出现临床心功能不全症状,并通过心电图、心脏彩超及64排螺旋CT检查以明确诊断.并发二尖瓣轻度反流10例,中度反流5例,重度反流4例.手术中将左冠状动脉从肺动脉游离后,直接将左冠状动脉移植到升主动脉15例,用部分肺动脉干和主动脉壁或心包片作左冠状动脉延伸与升主动脉吻合13例,应用肺动脉内通道术(Takeuchi方法)1例.9例并发二尖瓣中度及以上反流者同期作二尖瓣成形术.术毕3例行体外膜肺氧合(extracorporeal membrane oxygenation,ECMO)辅助左心系统.无手术早期死亡.术后随访资料24例(83%,24/29),随访1~80(22 ±20)个月,患儿术后症状均明显改善.结论 ALCAPA的患儿应早期诊断,及早手术治疗.冠状动脉直接移植术是目前重建双冠状动脉系统的首选方案,外科治疗效果良好.

  9. Prospective Evaluation of the Safety and Efficacy of a 1060-nm Large Spot Size, Vacuum-Assisted Hair Removal Diode Laser System in Asian/Pacific Fitzpatrick's Skin Types IV-V Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahiliani, Sushil T; Tahiliani, Harsh S

    2016-11-01

    Laser-based photoepilation of dark skin types demands a delicate combination of appropriate light wavelengths and spot size to achieve optimal epidermal-to-follicular energy absorption ratios. This prospective study assessed the axillary, arm, thigh, and back hair clearing ef cacy of the LightSheer In nity 1060 nm diode laser in 10 Fitzpatrick skin type IV-V patients. Each area was treated up to ve times, at 4-6-week intervals, after which immediate skin responses and adverse events were recorded. Hair count, color and coarseness were assessed before each treatment session, as well as 1, 3, and 6 months following the last session. Both patients and the treating physician rated the degree of improvement with time, and patients also ranked their satisfaction with the treatment outcome. Percent hair reduction from baseline gradually increased with treatment and peaked at 74.6%, 68.4%, and 65.7% for axillary, arm and thigh regions, respectively, 6 months following the last treatment session. Baseline hair growth patterns precluded effective selection of a representative area for hair counting. Patients satisfaction was consistently higher for axillary hair clearance rates, followed by thigh and arm responses. Throughout the follow-up period, the investigator rated 50-67% of the treated axillae as presenting "good" or "very good" hair clearance, and provided similar ratings for 67% of the treated thigh regions at both the 1 and 6 month follow-up sessions. Immediate responses to treatment were mild to moderate and short-lived and no incidents of brosis or scarring were reported. Taken together, the LightSheer In nity 1060 HS Handpiece provided for an ideal ef cacy-safety balance in treating dark-skinned patients, providing for long-term hair clearance with minimal downtime. J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(11):1427-1434.

  10. Enhanced Design Alternative IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. E. Kramer

    1999-05-18

    This report evaluates Enhanced Design Alternative (EDA) IV as part of the second phase of the License Application Design Selection (LADS) effort. The EDA IV concept was compared to the VA reference design using criteria from the ''Design Input Request for LADS Phase II EDA Evaluations'' (CRWMS M&O 1999b) and (CRWMS M&O 1999f). Briefly, the EDA IV concept arranges the waste packages close together in an emplacement configuration known as ''line load''. Continuous pre-closure ventilation keeps the waste packages from exceeding the 350 C cladding and 200 C (4.3.13) drift wall temperature limits. This EDA concept keeps relatively high, uniform emplacement drift temperatures (post-closure) to drive water away from the repository and thus dry out the pillars between emplacement drifts. The waste package is shielded to permit human access to emplacement drifts and includes an integral filler inside the package to reduce the amount of water that can contact the waste form. Closure of the repository is desired 50 years after first waste is emplaced. Both backfill and a drip shields will be emplaced at closure to improve post-closure performance.

  11. ON THE SOURCE OF ASTROMETRIC ANOMALOUS REFRACTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, M. Suzanne [Department of Natural and Environmental Sciences, Western State Colorado University, 128 Hurst Hall, Gunnison, CO 81230 (United States); McGraw, John T.; Zimmer, Peter C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, MSC07 4220, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Pier, Jeffrey R., E-mail: mstaylor@western.edu [Division of Astronomical Sciences, NSF 4201 Wilson Blvd, Arlington, VA 22230 (United States)

    2013-03-15

    More than a century ago, astronomers using transit telescopes to determine precise stellar positions were hampered by an unexplained periodic shifting of the stars they were observing. With the advent of CCD transit telescopes in the past three decades, this unexplained motion, termed 'anomalous refraction' by these early astronomers, is again being observed. Anomalous refraction is described as a low-frequency, large angular scale ({approx}2 Degree-Sign ) motion of the entire image plane with respect to the celestial coordinate system as observed and defined by astrometric catalogs. These motions, of typically several tenths of an arcsecond amplitude with timescales on the order of 10 minutes, are ubiquitous to ground-based drift-scan astrometric measurements regardless of location or telescopes used and have been attributed to the effect of tilting of equal-density layers of the atmosphere. The cause of this tilting has often been attributed to atmospheric gravity waves, but this cause has never been confirmed. Although theoretical models of atmospheric refraction show that atmospheric gravity waves are a plausible cause of anomalous refraction, an observational campaign specifically directed at defining this relationship provides clear evidence that anomalous refraction is not consistent with the passage of atmospheric gravity waves. The source of anomalous refraction is found to be meter-scale, slowly evolving quasi-coherent dynamical structures in the boundary layer below 60 m above ground level.

  12. On the Source of Astrometric Anomalous Refraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M. Suzanne; McGraw, John T.; Zimmer, Peter C.; Pier, Jeffrey R.

    2013-03-01

    More than a century ago, astronomers using transit telescopes to determine precise stellar positions were hampered by an unexplained periodic shifting of the stars they were observing. With the advent of CCD transit telescopes in the past three decades, this unexplained motion, termed "anomalous refraction" by these early astronomers, is again being observed. Anomalous refraction is described as a low-frequency, large angular scale (~2°) motion of the entire image plane with respect to the celestial coordinate system as observed and defined by astrometric catalogs. These motions, of typically several tenths of an arcsecond amplitude with timescales on the order of 10 minutes, are ubiquitous to ground-based drift-scan astrometric measurements regardless of location or telescopes used and have been attributed to the effect of tilting of equal-density layers of the atmosphere. The cause of this tilting has often been attributed to atmospheric gravity waves, but this cause has never been confirmed. Although theoretical models of atmospheric refraction show that atmospheric gravity waves are a plausible cause of anomalous refraction, an observational campaign specifically directed at defining this relationship provides clear evidence that anomalous refraction is not consistent with the passage of atmospheric gravity waves. The source of anomalous refraction is found to be meter-scale, slowly evolving quasi-coherent dynamical structures in the boundary layer below 60 m above ground level.

  13. Anomalous transport in low-dimensional systems with correlated disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izrailev, F M [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Apartado Postal J-48, Puebla, Pue., 72570 (Mexico); Makarov, N M [Instituto de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Priv. 17 Norte No 3417, Col. San Miguel Hueyotlipan, Puebla, Pue., 72050 (Mexico)

    2005-12-09

    We review recent results on the anomalous transport in one-dimensional and quasi-one-dimensional systems with bulk and surface disorder. Principal attention is paid to the role of long-range correlations in random potentials for the bulk scattering and in corrugated profiles for the surface scattering. It is shown that with the proper type of correlations one can construct such a disorder that results in a selective transport with given properties. Of particular interest is the possibility to arrange windows of a complete transparency (or reflection) with dependence on the wave number of incoming classical waves or electrons.

  14. Use of sonification in the detection of anomalous events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballora, Mark; Cole, Robert J.; Kruesi, Heidi; Greene, Herbert; Monahan, Ganesh; Hall, David L.

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, we describe the construction of a soundtrack that fuses stock market data with information taken from tweets. This soundtrack, or auditory display, presents the numerical and text data in such a way that anomalous events may be readily detected, even by untrained listeners. The soundtrack generation is flexible, allowing an individual listener to create a unique audio mix from the available information sources. Properly constructed, the display exploits the auditory system's sensitivities to periodicities, to dynamic changes, and to patterns. This type of display could be valuable in environments that demand high levels of situational awareness based on multiple sources of incoming information.

  15. Passage times of asymmetric anomalous walks with multiple paths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caceres, Manuel O [Centro Atomico Bariloche, Instituto Balseiro, and CONICET, 8400, Bariloche (Argentina); Insua, G Liliana [Facultad de Ingenieria, Univ. Nac. del Comahue, 8300, Neuquen (Argentina)

    2005-04-29

    We investigate the transient and the long-time behaviour of asymmetric anomalous walks in heterogeneous media. Two types of disorder are worked out explicitly: weak and strong disorder; in addition, the occurrence of disordered multiple paths is considered. We calculate the first passage time distribution of the associated stochastic transport process. We discuss the occurrence of the crossover from a power law to an exponential decay for the long-time behaviour of the distribution of the first passage times of disordered biased walks.

  16. Soft-/rapidity- anomalous dimensions correspondence

    CERN Document Server

    Vladimirov, Alexey A

    2016-01-01

    We establish a correspondence between ultraviolet singularities of soft factors for multi-particle production and rapidity singularities of soft factors for multi-parton scattering. This correspondence is a consequence of a conformal mapping between scattering geometries. The correspondence is valid to all orders of perturbation theory and in this way provides a proof of rapidity renormalization procedure for multi-parton scattering soft factors (including the transverse momentum dependent (TMD) soft factor as a special case). As a by-product we obtain an exact relation between the rapidity anomalous dimension and the well-known soft anomalous dimension. The three-loop rapidity anomalous dimensions for TMD and a general multi-parton scattering are derived.

  17. Neoclassical Viscosities and Anomalous Flows in Stellarators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, A. S.; Spong, D. A.; Breyfogle, M.; Marine, T.

    2009-05-01

    We present initial work to use neoclassical viscosities calculated with the PENTA code [1] in a transport model that includes Reynolds stress generation of flows [2]. The PENTA code uses a drift kinetic equation solver to calculate neoclassical viscosities and flows in general three-dimensional geometries over a range of collisionalities. The predicted neoclassical viscosities predicted by PENTA can be flux-surfaced average and applied in a 1-D transport model that includes anomalous flow generation. This combination of codes can be used to test the impact of stellarator geometry on anomalous flow generation. As a test case, we apply the code to modeling flows in the HSX stellarator. Due to variations in the neoclassical viscosities, HSX can have strong neoclassical flows in the core region. In turn, these neoclassical flows can provide a seed for anomalous flow generation. [1] D. A. Spong, Phys. Plasmas 12, 056114 (2005). [2] D. E. Newman, et al., Phys. Plasmas 5, 938 (1998).

  18. Theory of the Muon Anomalous Magnetic Moment

    CERN Document Server

    Melnikov, Kirill

    2006-01-01

    The theory of the muon anomalous magnetic moment is "particle physics in a nutshell" and as such is interesting, exciting and difficult. The current precision of the experimental value for this quantity, improved significantly in the past several years due to experiment E821 at Brookhaven National Laboratory, is so high that a large number of subtle effects not relevant previously, become important for the interpretation of the experimental result. The theory of the muon anomalous magnetic moment is at the cutting edge of current research in particle physics and includes multiloop calculations in both QED and electroweak theory, precision low-energy hadron physics, isospin violations and scattering of light by light. Any deviation between the theoretical prediction and the experimental value might be interpreted as a signal of an as-yet-unknown new physics. This book provides a comprehensive review of the theory of the muon anomalous magnetic moment.

  19. Anomalous magnetohydrodynamics in the extreme relativistic domain

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    The evolution equations of anomalous magnetohydrodynamics are derived in the extreme relativistic regime and contrasted with the treatment of hydromagnetic nonlinearities pioneered by Lichnerowicz in the absence of anomalous currents. In particular we explore the situation where the conventional vector currents are complemented by the axial-vector currents arising either from the pseudo Nambu-Goldstone bosons of a spontaneously broken symmetry or because of finite fermionic density effects. After expanding the generally covariant equations in inverse powers of the conductivity, the relativistic analog of the magnetic diffusivity equation is derived in the presence of vortical and magnetic currents. While the anomalous contributions are generally suppressed by the diffusivity, they are shown to disappear in the perfectly conducting limit. When the flow is irrotational, boost-invariant and with vanishing four-acceleration the corresponding evolution equations are explicitly integrated so that the various physic...

  20. Electroweak Baryogenesis with Anomalous Higgs Couplings

    CERN Document Server

    Kobakhidze, Archil; Yue, Jason

    2015-01-01

    We investigate feasibility of efficient baryogenesis at the electroweak scale within the effective field theory framework based on a non-linear realisation of the electroweak gauge symmetry. In this framework the LHC Higgs boson is described by a singlet scalar field, which, therefore, admits new interactions. Assuming that Higgs couplings with the eletroweak gauge bosons are as in the Standard Model, we demonstrate that the Higgs cubic coupling and the CP-violating Higgs-top quark anomalous couplings alone may drive the a strongly first-order phase transition. The distinguished feature of this transition is that the anomalous Higgs vacuum expectation value is generally non-zero in both phases. We identify a range of anomalous couplings, consistent with current experimental data, where sphaleron rates are sufficiently fast in the 'symmetric' phase and are suppressed in the 'broken' phase and demonstrate that the desired baryon asymmetry can indeed be generated in this framework. This range of the Higgs anomal...

  1. The abcEDCBA-Encoded ABC Transporter and the virB Operon-Encoded Type IV Secretion System of Brucella ovis Are Critical for Intracellular Trafficking and Survival in Ovine Monocyte-Derived Macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auricelio A Macedo

    Full Text Available Brucella ovis infection is associated with epididymitis, orchitis and infertility in rams. Most of the information available on B. ovis and host cell interaction has been generated using murine macrophages or epithelial cell lines, but the interaction between B. ovis and primary ovine macrophages has not been studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of the B. ovis abcEDCBA-encoded ABC transporter and the virB operon-encoded Type IV Secretion System (T4SS during intracellular survival of B. ovis in ovine peripheral blood monocyte-derived macrophages. ΔabcBA and ΔvirB2 mutant strains were unable to survive in the intracellular environment when compared to the WT B. ovis at 48 hours post infection (hpi. In addition, these mutant strains cannot exclude the lysosomal marker LAMP1 from its vacuolar membrane, and their vacuoles do not acquire the endoplasmic reticulum marker calreticulin, which takes place in the WT B. ovis containing vacuole. Higher levels of nitric oxide production were observed in macrophages infected with WT B. ovis at 48 hpi when compared to macrophages infected with the ΔabcBA or ΔvirB2 mutant strains. Conversely, higher levels of reactive oxygen species were detected in macrophages infected with the ΔabcBA or ΔvirB2 mutant strains at 48 hpi when compared to macrophages infected with the WT strain. Our results demonstrate that B. ovis is able to persist and multiply in ovine macrophages, while ΔabcBA and ΔvirB2 mutations prevent intracellular multiplication, favor phagolysosome fusion, and impair maturation of the B. ovis vacuole towards an endoplasmic reticulum-derived compartment.

  2. Characterization and expression analysis of mcoln1.1 and mcoln1.2, the putative zebrafish co-orthologs of the gene responsible for human mucolipidosis type IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benini, Anna; Bozzato, Andrea; Mantovanelli, Silvia; Calvarini, Laura; Giacopuzzi, Edoardo; Bresciani, Roberto; Moleri, Silvia; Zizioli, Daniela; Beltrame, Monica; Borsani, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Mucolipidosis type IV (MLIV) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder caused by mutations in the MCOLN1 gene coding for mucolipin-1 (TRPML1). TRPML1 belongs to a transient receptor potential channels (TRP) subfamily, which in mammals includes two other members: mucolipin-2 (TRPML2) and mucolipin-3 (TRPML3). Bioinformatic analysis of the Danio rerio (zebrafish) genome and trascriptome revealed the presence of five different genes related to human mucolipins: mcoln1.1, mcoln1.2, mcoln2, mcoln3.1 and mcoln3.2. We focused our efforts on the characterization of the two putative zebrafish MCOLN1 co-orthologs. Transient-expression experiments in human HeLa cells demonstrated that fish Mcoln1.1 and Mcoln1.2, similarly to TRPML1, localize to late endosomal/lysosomal compartments. Real-Time PCR (RT-PCR) experiments showed that both genes are maternally expressed and transcribed at different levels during embryogenesis. RT-PCR analysis in different zebrafish tissues displayed ubiquitary expression for mcoln1.1 and a more tissue-specific pattern for mcoln1.2. Spatial and temporal expression studies using whole-mount in situ hybridization confirmed that both genes are maternally expressed and ubiquitously transcribed during gastrulation and early somitogenesis. Notably, in the next developmental stages they are more expressed in neural regions and in retina layers, tissues affected in MLIV. Interestingly, mcoln1.1 is detected, from 10 somite-stage until to 36 hpf, in the yolk syncytial layer (YSL) and in the intermediate cell mass (ICM), the earliest site of hematopoiesis. Overall, the redundancy of mucolipins together with their expression profile support the biological relevance of this class of proteins in zebrafish. The data herein presented indicate that Danio rerio could be a suitable vertebrate model for the study of some aspects of MLIV pathogenesis.

  3. 经转子入路大转子截骨治疗Ⅳ型Pipkin骨折%TREATMENT OF TYPE IV PIPKIN FRACTURE THROUGH TRANSTROCHANTERIC APPROACH WITH TROCHANTERIC OSTEOTOMY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志伟; 戴祝; 廖瑛; 范伟杰; 唐正午

    2011-01-01

    Objective To summarize the short-term effectivness of type IV Pipkin fracture through transtrochanteric approach with trochanteric osteotomy. Methods Between January 2007 and January 2010, 15 cases of type IV Pipkin fracture were treated through transtrochanteric approach with trochanteric osteotomy. There were 9 males and 6 females with an average age of 42.5 years (range, 27-55 years). The causes of fractures included traffic accident (12 cases), falling from height (2 cases), and heavy pound injury (1 case). The time from injury to hospitalization was 4 hours to 7 days (mean, 2.3 days). All patients had limitation of activity in the injured hips. The X-ray films and CT three-dimensional reconstruction indicated posterior dislocation of the hip joints and fractures of the femoral head and acetabulum, with no fracture of femoral neck. The locations of the femoral head fractures were under the round ligament in 9 cases and above the round ligament in 6 cases. Complications were treated firstly in all patients. The time from hospital ization to operation ranged from 2 to 10 days (mean, 4.5 days). Results All patients got primary wound healing with no early complication. All the patients were followed up 12-48 months with an average of 26 months. All osteotomies and acetabular fractures healed within 6 to 8 weeks. All patients achieved healing of femoral head fracture after 6-10 months. Mild heterotopic ossification occurred in 2 cases at 3 months after operation which were left untreated; and necrosis of the femoral head occurred in 1 case at 8 months after operation, was treated by total hip arthroplasty. At last follow-up, the flexion of the injuried hips ranged from 60 to 120° (mean, 92.5°). Based on Thompson et al. scoring scales, the results were excellent in 5 cases, good in 7 cases, fair in 2 cases, and poor in 1 case; the excellent and good rate was 80%. Conclusion Treatment of type IV Pipkin fracture through transtrochanteric approach with trochanteric

  4. Anomalous mass dimension in multiflavor QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doff, A.; Natale, A. A.

    2016-10-01

    Models of strongly interacting theories with a large mass anomalous dimension (γm) provide an interesting possibility for the dynamical origin of the electroweak symmetry breaking. A laboratory for these models is QCD with many flavors, which may present a nontrivial fixed point associated to a conformal region. Studies based on conformal field theories and on Schwinger-Dyson equations have suggested the existence of bounds on the mass anomalous dimension at the fixed points of these models. In this note we discuss γm values of multiflavor QCD exhibiting a nontrivial fixed point and affected by relevant four-fermion interactions.

  5. A potassium Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, B.; Shay, T. M.

    1992-01-01

    The characteristics of a potassium Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter operating on the blue and near infrared transitions are calculated. The results show that the filter can be designed to provide high transmission, very narrow pass bandwidth, and low equivalent noise bandwidth. The Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter (FADOF) provides a narrow pass bandwidth (about GHz) optical filter for laser communications, remote sensing, and lidar. The general theoretical model for the FADOF has been established in our previous paper. In this paper, we have identified the optimum operational conditions for a potassium FADOF operating on the blue and infrared transitions. The signal transmission, bandwidth, and equivalent noise bandwidth (ENBW) are also calculated.

  6. Double exponential I-V characteristics and double Gaussian distribution of barrier heights in (Au/Ti)/Al2O3/ n-GaAs (MIS)-type Schottky barrier diodes in wide temperature range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güçlü, Çiğdem Ş.; Özdemir, Ahmet Faruk; Altindal, Şemsettin

    2016-12-01

    In this study, current conduction mechanisms of the sample (Au/Ti)/Al2O3/ n-GaAs were investigated in detail using current-voltage (I-V) measurements in the temperature range of 80-380 K. The semilogarithmic I-V plots reveal two distinct linear regions with different slopes between 0.07-0.30 and 0.30-0.69 V which are called as Region I (RI) and Region II (RII), respectively. The ideality factor ( n) and zero-bias barrier height (Φ_{{bo}}) were found to be strong functions of temperature and voltage. In both regions, as the temperature increases, Φ_{{bo}} increases, whereas the value of n decreases. The high value of n at low temperatures is an evidence of deviation from thermionic emission, and it cannot be explained solely by tunneling mechanism, the existence of surface states and interfacial layer. Therefore, the Φ_{{bo}} versus q/kT plots were drawn for two linear regions of lnI-V plots, and these plots also revealed two distinct linear regions with different slopes between two temperature regions of 80-170 and 200-380 K which are called as low- and high-temperature range (LTR and HTR), respectively. Such behavior of these plots confirmed the existence of double Gaussian distribution (DGD) in the samples which in turn has mean barrier heights bar{Φ}_{{bo}} and standard deviations ( σ s). These values were obtained from the intercept and slope of these plots as 0.38 eV and 0.061 V for LTR and as 0.88 eV and 0.142 V for HTR (in RI), whereas they were obtained as 0.37 eV and 0.061 V for LTR and as 0.92 eV and 0.148 V for HTR (in RII), respectively. Thus, the modified ln( I s/ T 2)- q 2 σ s 2 /2 k 2 T 2 versus q/ kT plots were drawn, and the values of (bar{Φ}_{{bo}}) and effective Richardson constant ( A *) were extracted from the intercept and slope of these plots as 0.39 eV and 7.07 A/cm2 K2 for LTR and as 0.92 eV and 8.158 A/cm2 K2 for HTR (in RI), whereas they were extracted as 0.38 eV and 7.92 A/cm2 K2 for LTR and as 0.94 eV and 4.66 A/cm2 K2 for HTR

  7. Using support vector machines for anomalous change detonation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theiler, James P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Steinwart, Ingo [UNIV STUTTGART; Llamocca, Daniel [UNM

    2010-01-01

    We cast anomalous change detection as a binary classification problem, and use a support vector machine (SVM) to build a detector that does not depend on assumptions about the underlying data distribution. To speed up the computation, our SVM is implemented, in part, on a graphical processing unit. Results on real and simulated anomalous changes are used to compare performance to algorithms which effectively assume a Gaussian distribution. In this paper, we investigate the use of support vector machines (SVMs) with radial basis kernels for finding anomalous changes. Compared to typical applications of SVMs, we are operating in a regime of very low false alarm rate. This means that even for relatively large training sets, the data are quite meager in the regime of operational interest. This drives us to use larger training sets, which in turn places more of a computational burden on the SVM. We initially considered three different approaches to to address the need to work in the very low false alarm rate regime. The first is a standard SVM which is trained at one threshold (where more reliable estimates of false alarm rates are possible) and then re-thresholded for the low false alarm rate regime. The second uses the same thresholding approach, but employs a so-called least squares SVM; here a quadratic (instead of a hinge-based) loss function is employed, and for this model, there are good theoretical arguments in favor of adjusting the threshold in a straightforward manner. The third approach employs a weighted support vector machine, where the weights for the two types of errors (false alarm and missed detection) are automatically adjusted to achieve the desired false alarm rate. We have found in previous experiments (not shown here) that the first two types can in some cases work well, while in other cases they do not. This renders both approaches unreliable for automated change detection. By contrast, the third approach reliably produces good results, but at

  8. Anomalous human behavior detection: An Adaptive approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, C. van; Halma, A.; Schutte, K.

    2013-01-01

    Detection of anomalies (outliers or abnormal instances) is an important element in a range of applications such as fault, fraud, suspicious behavior detection and knowledge discovery. In this article we propose a new method for anomaly detection and performed tested its ability to detect anomalous b

  9. Anomalous Hall Effect for chiral fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, P -M

    2014-01-01

    Semiclassical chiral fermions manifest the anomalous spin-Hall effect: when put into a pure electric field, they suffer a side jump, analogous to what happens to their massive counterparts in non-commutative mechanics. The transverse shift is consistent with the conservation of the angular momentum. In a pure magnetic field a cork-screw-like, spiraling motion is found.

  10. ACS SBC Recovery from Anomalous Shutdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    This proposal is designed to permit a safe and orderly recovery of the SBC {FUV MAMA} detector after an anomalous shutdown. This is accomplished by using slower-than-normal MCP high-voltage ramp-ups and diagnostics. Anomalous shutdowns can occur because of bright object violations, which trigger the Global Hardware Monitor or the Global Software Monitor. Anomalous shutdowns can also occur because of MAMA hardware anomalies or failures. The cause of the shutdown should be thoroughly investigated and understood prior to recovery. Twenty-four hour wait intervals are required after each test for MCP gas desorption and data analysis. Event flag 2 is used to prevent inadvertent MAMA usage. The recovery procedure consists of four separate tests {i.e. visits} to check the MAMA's health after an anomalous shutdown: 1} signal processing electronics check, 2} slow, high-voltage ramp-up to an intermediate voltage, 3} a slow high-voltage ramp-up to the nominal operating HV, and 4} fold analysis test. Each must be completed successfully before proceeding onto the next. During the two high-voltage ramp-ups, dark ACCUM exposures are taken. At high voltage, dark ACCUM exposures and diagnostics are taken. This proposal is based on Proposal 13163 from Cycle 20. For additional MAMA recovery information, see STIS ISR 98-02R.

  11. Total least squares for anomalous change detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theiler, James P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Matsekh, Anna M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    A family of difference-based anomalous change detection algorithms is derived from a total least squares (TLSQ) framework. This provides an alternative to the well-known chronochrome algorithm, which is derived from ordinary least squares. In both cases, the most anomalous changes are identified with the pixels that exhibit the largest residuals with respect to the regression of the two images against each other. The family of TLSQ-based anomalous change detectors is shown to be equivalent to the subspace RX formulation for straight anomaly detection, but applied to the stacked space. However, this family is not invariant to linear coordinate transforms. On the other hand, whitened TLSQ is coordinate invariant, and furthermore it is shown to be equivalent to the optimized covariance equalization algorithm. What whitened TLSQ offers, in addition to connecting with a common language the derivations of two of the most popular anomalous change detection algorithms - chronochrome and covariance equalization - is a generalization of these algorithms with the potential for better performance.

  12. Anomalous atomic volume of alpha-Pu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kollar, J.; Vitos, Levente; Skriver, Hans Lomholt

    1997-01-01

    .3%. The comparison between the LDA and GGA results show that the anomalously large atomic volume of alpha-Pu relative to alpha-Np can be ascribed to exchange-correlation effects connected with the presence of low coordinated sites in the structure where the f electrons are close to the onset of localization...

  13. Anomalous transports in a time-delayed system subjected to anomalous diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ru-Yin; Tong, Lu-Mei; Nie, Lin-Ru; Wang, Chaojie; Pan, Wanli

    2017-02-01

    We investigate anomalous transports of an inertial Brownian particle in a time-delayed periodic potential subjected to an external time-periodic force, a constant bias force, and the Lévy noise. By means of numerical calculations, effect of the time delay and the Lévy noise on its mean velocity are discussed. The results indicate that: (i) The time delay can induce both multiple current reversals (CRs) and absolute negative mobility (ANM) phenomena in the system; (ii) The CRs and ANM phenomena only take place in the region of superdiffusion, while disappear in the regions of normal diffusion; (iii) The time delay can cause state transition of the system from anomalous →normal →anomalous →normal →anomalous →normal transport in the case of superdiffusion.

  14. Count rates and structure factors in anomalous soft x-ray scattering from cuprate superconductors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbamonte, P; Rusydi, A; Logvenov, G; Bozovic, [No Value; Sawatzky, GA; Venema, L.C.; Bozovic,; Pavuna, D

    2002-01-01

    It has recently been shown that x-ray diffraction from the doped holes in cuprates can be enhanced by 3-4 orders of magnitude by exploiting resonance effects in the oxygen K shell. This new type of anomalous scattering is direct way of probing ground state inhomogeneity in the mobile carrier liquid

  15. Diaquatetrabromidotin(IV trihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Ye

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, [SnBr4(H2O2]·3H2O, forms large colourless crystals in originally sealed samples of tin tetrabromide. It constitutes the first structurally characterized hydrate of SnBr4 and is isostructural with the corresponding hydrate of SnCl4. It is composed of SnIV atoms octahedrally coordinated by four Br atoms and two cis-related water molecules. The octahedra exhibit site symmetry 2. They are arranged into columns along [001] via medium–strong O—H...O hydrogen bonds involving the two lattice water molecules (one situated on a twofold rotation axis while the chains are interconnected via longer O—H...Br hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional network.

  16. Towards a Better Understanding of the Anomalous Hall Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Di; Jin, Xiaofeng

    2017-01-01

    Recent experimental efforts to identify the intrinsic and extrinsic contributions in the anomalous Hall effect are reviewed. Benefited from the experimental control of artificial impurity density in single crystalline magnetic thin films, a comprehensive physical picture of the anomalous Hall effect involving multiple competing scattering processes has been established. Some new insights into the microscopic mechanisms of the anomalous Hall effect are discussed.

  17. Quantum anomalous Hall effect in magnetically doped InAs/GaSb quantum wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing-Ze; Liu, Xin; Zhang, Hai-Jun; Samarth, Nitin; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; Liu, Chao-Xing

    2014-10-03

    The quantum anomalous Hall effect has recently been observed experimentally in thin films of Cr-doped (Bi,Sb)(2)Te(3) at a low temperature (∼ 30 mK). In this work, we propose realizing the quantum anomalous Hall effect in more conventional diluted magnetic semiconductors with magnetically doped InAs/GaSb type-II quantum wells. Based on a four-band model, we find an enhancement of the Curie temperature of ferromagnetism due to band edge singularities in the inverted regime of InAs/GaSb quantum wells. Below the Curie temperature, the quantum anomalous Hall effect is confirmed by the direct calculation of Hall conductance. The parameter regime for the quantum anomalous Hall phase is identified based on the eight-band Kane model. The high sample quality and strong exchange coupling make magnetically doped InAs/GaSb quantum wells good candidates for realizing the quantum anomalous Hall insulator at a high temperature.

  18. Phase IV of Drug Development

    OpenAIRE

    Viraj Suvarna

    2010-01-01

    Not all Phase IV studies are post-marketing surveillance (PMS) studies but every PMS study is a phase IV study. Phase IV is also an important phase of drug development. In particular, the real world effectiveness of a drug as evaluated in an observational, non-interventional trial in a naturalistic setting which complements the efficacy data that emanates from a pre-marketing randomized controlled trial (RCT). No matter how many patients are studied pre-marketing in a controlled environment, ...

  19. Estabilidade dimensional dos moldes de poliéter e polissulfeto obtidos com a técnica do casquete de acrílico, vazados em gesso pedra especial tipo IV e V = Dimensional stability of polyether and polysulfide impression materials obtained with acrylic coping techniques pouring in stone type IV and V

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alves, Maria Cechinel

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available O propósito deste estudo foi verificar o comportamento de moldes de polissulfeto (Permlastic e poliéter (Impregum Soft obtidos por meio da técnica do casquete de resina acrílica. Avaliou-se a estabilidade dimensional dos moldes confeccionados de uma matriz metálica contendo dois preparos protéticos, com diâmetros e alturas diferentes. Os moldes de cada material foram vazados com gessos pedra IV (Vel-mix e gesso pedra V (Exadur, perfazendo um total de quatro combinações experimentais: (polissulfeto/gesso-pedra IV, polissulfeto/gesso-pedra V, poliéter/gesso-pedra IV e poliéter/gesso-pedra V. Os troquéis de gesso foram mensurados com um paquímetro digital, 24 horas após sua obtenção. Os resultados obtidos foram submetidos a ANOVA a 5%. Pode-se concluir que os moldes de poliéter vazados com gesso pedra tipo V apresentaram melhor estabilidade dimensional em relação às outras condições experimentais

  20. Influence of disorder on anomalous Hall effect for Heusler compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilanova Vidal, E.; Schneider, H.; Jakob, G.

    2011-05-01

    The anomalous Hall effect (AHE) is a long known but still not fully understood transport effect. Most theory papers focus on the influence of one particular contribution to the AHE. Actual