WorldWideScience

Sample records for anomalous surplus energy

  1. Anomalous surplus energy transfer observed with multiple FRET acceptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinagesh V Koushik

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET is a mechanism where energy is transferred from an excited donor fluorophore to adjacent chromophores via non-radiative dipole-dipole interactions. FRET theory primarily considers the interactions of a single donor-acceptor pair. Unfortunately, it is rarely known if only a single acceptor is present in a molecular complex. Thus, the use of FRET as a tool for measuring protein-protein interactions inside living cells requires an understanding of how FRET changes with multiple acceptors. When multiple FRET acceptors are present it is assumed that a quantum of energy is either released from the donor, or transferred in toto to only one of the acceptors present. The rate of energy transfer between the donor and a specific acceptor (k(D-->A can be measured in the absence of other acceptors, and these individual FRET transfer rates can be used to predict the ensemble FRET efficiency using a simple kinetic model where the sum of all FRET transfer rates is divided by the sum of all radiative and non-radiative transfer rates. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The generality of this approach was tested by measuring the ensemble FRET efficiency in two constructs, each containing a single fluorescent-protein donor (Cerulean and either two or three FRET acceptors (Venus. FRET transfer rates between individual donor-acceptor pairs within these constructs were calculated from FRET efficiencies measured after systematically introducing point mutations to eliminate all other acceptors. We find that the amount of energy transfer observed in constructs having multiple acceptors is significantly greater than the FRET efficiency predicted from the sum of the individual donor to acceptor transfer rates. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that either an additional energy transfer pathway exists when multiple acceptors are present, or that a theoretical assumption on which the kinetic model prediction is based is

  2. Surplus biomass through energy efficient kilns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → The magnitude of the national heat demand for drying lumber in kilns is established. → Each part of the total heat consumption is divided and shown between the main drying conditions. → The potential to increase the energy efficiency in kilns with available techniques is presented. → The market demand for the biomass, available with increase kiln energy efficiency, is reviled. -- Abstract: The use of biomass in the European Union has increased since the middle of the 1990s, mostly because of high subsidies and CO2 emission regulation through the Kyoto protocol. The sawmills are huge biomass suppliers to the market; out of the Swedish annual lumber production of 16.4 Mm3, 95% is produced by medium to large-volume sawmills with a lumber quotient of 47%. The remaining part is produced as biomass. An essential part (12%) of the entering timber is used for supply of heat in their production processes, mostly in the substantial drying process. The drying process is the most time and heat consuming process in the sawmill. This study was undertaken to determine the sawmills' national use of energy and potential magnitude of improvements. If the drying process can be made more effective, sawmills' own use of biomass can be decreased and allow a considerably larger supply to the biomass market through processed or unprocessed biomass, heat or electricity production. The national electricity and heat usage when drying the lumber have been analysed by theoretical evaluation and experimental validation at a batch kiln. The main conclusion is that the heat consumption for drying lumber among the Swedish sawmills is 4.9 TW h/year, and with available state-of-the-art techniques it is possible to decrease the national heat consumption by approximately 2.9 TW h. This additional amount of energy corresponds to the market's desire for larger energy supply.

  3. Use of surplus napalm as an energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mushrush, G.W.; Beal, E.J.; Hardy, D.R.; Hughes, J.M.

    2000-03-01

    The current military surplus of napalm should be viewed as an energy source rather than as hazardous waste. The energy content of this resource is too valuable to waste. There are at present significant problems to be overcome both scientifically and politically before this material can be used as an energy source. Scientific problems include solubility in a proper fuel matrix, methods to ensure complete combustion, and safety in transportation and handling. In this paper, the authors present data on gasoline and benzene extraction from napalm, napalm fuel matrix solubilities, burner characteristics of these napalm fuel mixtures, and the accelerated storage stability studies of these mixtures.

  4. Anomalous free energy changes induced by topology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ying; Yuan, Ruoshi; Ao, Ping

    2015-12-01

    We report that nontrivial topology of a driven Brownian particle restricted on a ring leads to anomalous behaviors on free energy change. Starting from steady states with identical distribution and current on the ring, free energy changes are distinct and nonperiodic after the system is driven by the same periodic force protocol. We demonstrate our observation in examples through both exact solutions and numerical simulations. The free energy calculated here can be measured in recent experimental systems. PMID:26764654

  5. United States Department of Energy surplus facilities management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many nuclear facilities that were used throughout the early development of nuclear energy have no current use and have been retired. However, these facilities have residual radioactive contamination levels requiring controls. Under the authority of the Atomic Energy Act, as amended, the United States Department of Energy established the Remedial Action Program to assure the safe caretaking and disposal (decommissioning) of such facilities. About 500 government-owned facilities requiring remedial action have been identified and catalogued - approximately 75% of which are located on the Hanford Site in eastern Washington State. The United States Department of Energy Richland Operations Office is responsible for administering this program

  6. Seasonal shifting of surplus renewable energy in a power system located in a cold region

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Morel; Yuta Morizane; Shin'ya Obara

    2014-01-01

    The Fukushima nuclear disaster in 2011 changed Japan's strategy for reducing CO2 emissions. The government is now placing more emphasis on the development of nonCO2-emitting distributed generation systems such as wind, solar, and tidal power to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and guarantee electricity supply in the case of a natural disaster. This paper proposes a strategy for the exploitation of wind, solar, and tidal resources in a cold region in Japan by utilizing surplus energy from the s...

  7. Decommissioning of U.S. Department of Energy surplus facilities under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has identified more than 850 contaminated surplus facilities that require decommissioning through the environmental restoration program. This paper discusses the regulatory framework for decommissioning these facilities, specifically the framework established by the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). CERCLA jurisdiction covers releases of hazardous substances to the environment, substantial threats of such releases, and responses to these situations. DOE has determined that the use of CERCLA removal action authority is the appropriate means of responding to releases or threats of releases from contaminated surplus facilities under the jurisdiction, custody, or control of the Department. This paper focuses on the policy and process for decommissioning contaminated surplus facilities. Not all surplus facilities to be decommissioned will fall under CERCLA jurisdiction. In all instances, however, the same basic process will still be followed and a graded approach will be applied, consistent with DOE orders

  8. SURPLUS DILEMMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    On top of yuan revaluation and a huge trade surplus, the Chinese Government must also address ballooning forex reserves At the end of 2005, China's foreign exchange surplus totaled $818.87 billion, a leap of $208.9 billion over the previous year and an amount that is expected to have topped Japan's to become the world's largest.

  9. Low Energy Constraints and Anomalous Triple Gauge Boson Couplings

    CERN Document Server

    Zeppenfeld, Dieter

    1993-01-01

    Low energy (1-loop) constraints on anomalous triple gauge boson vertices (TGV's) are revisited and compared to the sensitivity achievable at LEP II and at future linear $e^+e^-$ colliders. The analysis is performed within the framework of an effective Lagrangian of gauge invariant dimension six operators with the gauge bosons and a single Higgs doublet field as the low energy degrees of freedom. The low energy data do not directly bound TGV's but they provide strong constraints on models which lead to anomalous gauge boson interactions in addition to other low energy effects.

  10. Surplus thermal energy model of greenhouses and coefficient analysis for effective utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Hwan Yang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available If a greenhouse in the temperate and subtropical regions is maintained in a closed condition, the indoor temperature commonly exceeds that required for optimal plant growth, even in the cold season. This study considered this excess energy as surplus thermal energy (STE, which can be recovered, stored and used when heating is necessary. To use the STE economically and effectively, the amount of STE must be estimated before designing a utilization system. Therefore, this study proposed an STE model using energy balance equations for the three steps of the STE generation process. The coefficients in the model were determined by the results of previous research and experiments using the test greenhouse. The proposed STE model produced monthly errors of 17.9%, 10.4% and 7.4% for December, January and February, respectively. Furthermore, the effects of the coefficients on the model accuracy were revealed by the estimation error assessment and linear regression analysis through fixing dynamic coefficients. A sensitivity analysis of the model coefficients indicated that the coefficients have to be determined carefully. This study also provides effective ways to increase the amount of STE.

  11. Policy, planning and generation of energy surpluses in a sugar and alcohol plants; Politica, planejamento e geracao de excedentes de energia eletrica no setor sucroalcooleiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarussi, Maria Alessandra Silva Nunes; Martins, Juliana Marinho Cavalcanti [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Curso de Pos-Graduacao em Planejamento de Sistemas Energeticos

    2008-07-01

    This present work has as it main purpose to analyze briefly the Decenal Plan of Energy Expansion and the National Energy Plan 2030 in relation to the surplus energy cogeneration capacity from sugar and alcohol industry in Brazil. At the same time, this work also intends to compare the existent public policies to foment the surplus electric energy production such as the Proinfa and energy auctions and the acquisition of more efficient cogeneration systems by the sugar cane sector. (author)

  12. Exploiting Seasonal Surplus Energy from Geothermal Utilization for Electrical Power Production

    OpenAIRE

    Pálmar Sigurðsson 1990

    2016-01-01

    Operation of geothermal power plants is a well-known subject. However, the interaction between heat and power production from seasonal surplus heat have not been investigated at length. This study focuses on exploiting the surplus heat from geothermal combined heat and power (CHP) plants for electrical power production. Nesjavellir geothermal CHP plant in Iceland was used as a case study but the work was structured so it could be implemented for other cases. District heat production at Nesjav...

  13. Anomalous Energy Transport in FPU- Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellet, Antoine; Merino-Aceituno, Sara

    2015-08-01

    This paper is devoted to the derivation of a macroscopic fractional diffusion equation describing heat transport in an anharmonic chain. More precisely, we study here the so-called FPU- chain, which is a very simple model for a one-dimensional crystal in which atoms are coupled to their nearest neighbors by a harmonic potential, weakly perturbed by a quartic potential. The starting point of our mathematical analysis is a kinetic equation: Lattice vibrations, responsible for heat transport, are modeled by an interacting gas of phonons whose evolution is described by the Boltzmann phonon equation. Our main result is the rigorous derivation of an anomalous diffusion equation starting from the linearized Boltzmann phonon equation.

  14. Seasonal shifting of surplus renewable energy in a power system located in a cold region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Morel

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Fukushima nuclear disaster in 2011 changed Japan's strategy for reducing CO2 emissions. The government is now placing more emphasis on the development of nonCO2-emitting distributed generation systems such as wind, solar, and tidal power to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and guarantee electricity supply in the case of a natural disaster. This paper proposes a strategy for the exploitation of wind, solar, and tidal resources in a cold region in Japan by utilizing surplus energy from the summer and spring during winter. It also aims to determine the most favorable energy mix of these renewable sources and storage system types. The study is performed by calculating hourly demand and renewable energy supply for the city in one year, which is based on actual data of demand, solar irradiation, wind speeds, and tidal current speeds. The costs of the components of the renewable power plants and storage systems are considered, and different proportions of generation outputs are evaluated with different types of storage systems. According to results, the configuration containing the hydrogen storage system using organic chemical hydride methylcyclohexane (OCHM is the most economical but is still more expensive than one using a conventional generation system. Moreover, we confirm that the cost of CO2 emissions is the key element for leveling the playing field between conventional and renewable generation from an economic perspective. The cost of CO2 emissions to public health as well as those costs related to the interruption of services during a catastrophe must be carefully calculated with other issues from conventional power projects to perform a precise comparative evaluation between both types of generation systems.

  15. Low Energy Constraints and Anomalous Triple Gauge Boson Couplings

    OpenAIRE

    Zeppenfeld, D.

    1993-01-01

    Low energy (1-loop) constraints on anomalous triple gauge boson vertices (TGV's) are revisited and compared to the sensitivity achievable at LEP II and at future linear $e^+e^-$ colliders. The analysis is performed within the framework of an effective Lagrangian of gauge invariant dimension six operators with the gauge bosons and a single Higgs doublet field as the low energy degrees of freedom. The low energy data do not directly bound TGV's but they provide strong constraints on models whic...

  16. Anomalous dissipation and energy cascade in 3D inviscid flows

    CERN Document Server

    Dascaliuc, Radu

    2011-01-01

    Adopting the setting for the study of existence and scale locality of the energy cascade in 3D viscous flows in physical space introduced in [arXiv:1101.2193] to 3D inviscid flows, it is shown that the anomalous dissipation is indeed capable of triggering the cascade which then continues ad infinitum, confirming Onsager's predictions.

  17. Dangerous surplus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of existing arms control reduction commitments, approximately 50 metric tons of weapon-grade plutonium is expected to become surplus in the United States--and a similar or larger amount in Russia--over the next 10 years. It is crucial that this surplus weapons plutonium be managed in a way that minimizes the danger that it will be re-used for weapons, does not lead to increased accessibility of civilian plutonium for weapons use, and meets reasonable standards for cost and human and environmental safety. The Committee on International Security and Arms Control (CISAC) of the National Academy of Sciences recently conducted an 18-month study for the U.S. government for methods of weapons plutonium management. This article summarizes the resulting report, which was released on January 24. The special security problems posed by plutonium are outlined. Three early phases of plutonium management emphasized by the report are discussed. Two candidate approaches for reducing the accessibility of weapons plutonium are described. One is to fabricate the weapons plutonium into mixed oxide fuel for reactors; the other is to mix the weapons plutonium with already reprocessed high-level radioactive waste for vitrification and long-term disposal. In either of the two approaches, the end result would be the dilution and the contamination of the weapons plutonium with a radioactive waste form. For both approaches, the ultimate destination of the plutonium would be a geologic repository

  18. Anomalous energy losses in fractal medium

    OpenAIRE

    Panyukov, Sergey; Leonidov, Andrei

    2010-01-01

    We derive equation describing distribution of energy losses of the particle propagating in fractal medium with quenched and dynamic heterogeneities. We show that in the case of the medium with fractal dimension $2

  19. Anomalous Transport of High Energy Cosmic Rays in Galactic Superbubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barghouty, Nasser F.

    2014-01-01

    High-energy cosmic rays may exhibit anomalous transport as they traverse and are accelerated by a collection of supernovae explosions in a galactic superbubble. Signatures of this anomalous transport can show up in the particles' evolution and their spectra. In a continuous-time-random- walk (CTRW) model assuming standard diffusive shock acceleration theory (DSA) for each shock encounter, and where the superbubble (an OB stars association) is idealized as a heterogeneous region of particle sources and sinks, acceleration and transport in the superbubble can be shown to be sub-diffusive. While the sub-diffusive transport can be attributed to the stochastic nature of the acceleration time according to DSA theory, the spectral break appears to be an artifact of transport in a finite medium. These CTRW simulations point to a new and intriguing phenomenon associated with the statistical nature of collective acceleration of high energy cosmic rays in galactic superbubbles.

  20. Energy quality and energy surplus in the extraction of fossil fuels in the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of net energy analysis is to assess the amount of useful energy delivered by an energy system, net of the energy costs of delivery. The standard technique of aggregating energy inputs and outputs by their thermal equivalents diminish the ability of energy analysis to achieve the goal because different types of energy have different abilities to do work per heat equivalent. This paper describes physical and economic methods of calculating energy quality, and incorporate economic estimates of quality in the analysis of the energy return on investment (EROI) for the extraction of coal and petroleum resources in the US from 1954 to 1987. EROI is the ratio of energy delivered to energy used in the delivery process. The quality- adjusted EROI is used to answer the following questions: (1) are coal and petroleum resources becoming more scarce in the US? (2) is society's capability of doing useful economic work changing? and (3) is society's allocation of energy between the extraction of coal and petroleum optimal? The results indicate that petroleum and coal become more scarce in the 1970s, although the degree of scarcity depends on the type of quality factor used. The quality-adjusted EROI shed light on the coal-petroleum paradox: when energy inputs and outputs are measured in thermal equivalents, coal extraction has a much larger EROI than petroleum. The adjustment for energy quality reduces substantially the difference between the two fuels. The results also suggest that when corrections are made for energy quality, society's allocation of energy between coal and petroleum extraction meets the efficiency criteria described by neoclassical and biophysical economists. 3 figs., 1 tab., 40 refs

  1. Anomalous broadening of energy distributions in photoemitted electron beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidi, Vincenzo

    1996-06-01

    Photoemission is widely used to generate electron beams with an energy spread lower than by thermoemission. However, when a photocathode is illuminated by a multimode laser this feature is lost and an electron beam with several eV of energy spread is produced. We have developed an explanation for this anomalous behavior pointing out its origin in the combined effect of charge relaxation, taking place within the beam, together with the modulation of the laser power imposed by laser modes. The model permits a correct interpretation overall experimental evidences.

  2. Consistent high-energy constraints in the anomalous QCD sector

    OpenAIRE

    Roig, Pablo; Sanz-Cillero, Juan José

    2014-01-01

    The anomalous 〈VVP〉 Green function and related form-factors ( π0→γ⁎γ⁎ and τ−→X−ντ vector form-factors, with X−=(KKπ)− , φ−γ , (φV)− ) are analyzed in this letter in the large- NC limit. Within the single (vector and pseudoscalar) resonance approximation and the context of Resonance Chiral Theory, we show that all these observables overdetermine in a consistent way a unique set of compatible high-energy constraints for the resonance couplings. This result is in agreement with analogous relatio...

  3. Anomalous vacuum energy and stability of a quantum liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trachenko, K; Brazhkin, V V

    2016-03-31

    We show that the vacuum (zero-point) energy of a low-temperature quantum liquid is a variable property which changes with the state of the system, in notable contrast to the static vacuum energy in solids commonly considered. We further show that this energy is inherently anomalous: it decreases with temperature and gives a negative contribution to a system's heat capacity. This effect operates in an equilibrium and macroscopic system, in marked contrast to small or out-of-equilibrium configurations discussed previously. We find that the negative contribution is over-compensated by the positive term from the excitation of longitudinal fluctuations and demonstrate how the overall positive heat capacity is related to the stability of a condensed phase at the microscopic level. PMID:26909505

  4. Anomalous vacuum energy and stability of a quantum liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show that the vacuum (zero-point) energy of a low-temperature quantum liquid is a variable property which changes with the state of the system, in notable contrast to the static vacuum energy in solids commonly considered. We further show that this energy is inherently anomalous: it decreases with temperature and gives a negative contribution to a system’s heat capacity. This effect operates in an equilibrium and macroscopic system, in marked contrast to small or out-of-equilibrium configurations discussed previously. We find that the negative contribution is over-compensated by the positive term from the excitation of longitudinal fluctuations and demonstrate how the overall positive heat capacity is related to the stability of a condensed phase at the microscopic level. (letter)

  5. Anomalous vacuum energy and stability of a quantum liquid

    CERN Document Server

    Trachenko, K

    2016-01-01

    We show that the vacuum (zero-point) energy of a low-temperature quantum liquid is a variable property which changes with the state of the system, in notable contrast to the static vacuum energy in solids commonly considered. We further show that this energy is inherently anomalous: it decreases with temperature and gives negative contribution to system's heat capacity. This effect operates in an equilibrium and macroscopic system, in marked contrast to small or out-of-equilibrium configurations discussed previously. We find that the negative contribution is over-compensated by the positive term from the excitation of longitudinal fluctuations and demonstrate how the overall positive heat capacity is related to the stability of a condensed phase at the microscopic level.

  6. Anomalous energy transport in hot plasmas: solar corona and Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anomalous energy transport is studied in two hot plasmas and appears to be associated with a heating of the solar corona and with a plasma deconfining process in tokamaks. The magnetic structure is shown to play a fundamental role in this phenomenon through small scale instabilities which are modelized by means of a nonlinear dynamical system: the Beasts' Model. Four behavior classes are found for this system, which are automatically classified in the parameter space thanks to a neural network. We use a compilation of experimental results relative to the solar corona to discuss current-based heating processes. We find that a simple Joule effect cannot provide the required heating rates, and therefore propose a dimensional model involving a resistive reconnective instability which leads to an efficient and discontinuous heating mechanism. Results are in good agreement with the observations. We give an analytical expression for a diffusion coefficient in tokamaks when magnetic turbulence is perturbing the topology, which we validate thanks to the standard mapping. A realistic version of the Beasts' Model allows to test a candidate to anomalous transport: the thermal filamentation instability

  7. Strategies for the Management of Surplus Electricity Production from Fluctuating Renewable Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Münster, E.

    2002-01-01

    The paper disusses and analyses different national strategies for renewable energy sources and energy effciency.......The paper disusses and analyses different national strategies for renewable energy sources and energy effciency....

  8. The surplus facility inventory and assessment project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of the ending of the Cold War, the Department of Energy (DOE) is experiencing a downsizing of the DOE nuclear weapons complex similar to the downsizing and base closures being experienced by the armed forces. Declining budgets across all DOE programs have further contributed to the extent and rate at which DOE's assets are being declared surplus. The Surplus Facility Inventory and Assessment (SFIA) Project will define the magnitude of risk associated with the DOE surplus, contaminated assets. The results of the SFIA Project will be fundamental to all planning, budgeting, and management associated with the surplus, contaminated inventory

  9. Recycling and surplus chemical programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1988, 45 years of defense production came to a close at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. The mission of the Hanford Site was formally changed to environmental restoration and remediation. Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) is the management and operations (M ampersand O) contractor leading the cleanup. Within the framework of future Site cleanup, Hanford recycling and surplus chemical programs are making a viable contribution today to waste minimization, diversion of materials from the waste stream, and setting a standard for future operations. This paper focuses on two successful efforts: paper recycling and surplus chemical sales

  10. Operating Cash Surplus Determinations

    OpenAIRE

    Teodor HADA

    2009-01-01

    The paper defines the concept of operating surplus. Then, it is compared to the gross operating surplus and the differences are identified. The two calculation methods are presented next: (1) operating revenue less operating charges and (2) the gross operating surplus less WCN (Working capital needs) less immobilised production less stored production less other operating revenues). Then, a three year study is presented (2005-2007) and the results are interpreted. Then, there is a correlation ...

  11. Sustainability and Surplus

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Haider A.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present two new concepts for studying sustainability. The first is the idea of an environmentally adjusted surplus(ES). The classical concept of surplus is revised to approximate the total available discretionary income for the society under ordinary (capitalist) growth process.ES is an operationalizable concept. We demonstrate this here via a simplified but illustrative exercise. Work with large data sets employing social and environmental accounting will yield sharper and m...

  12. "Sustainability and Surplus"

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Haider A.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present two new concepts for studying sustainability. The first is the idea of an environmentally adjusted surplus(ES). The classical concept of surplus is revised to approximate the total available discretionary income for the society under ordinary (capitalist) growth process.ES is an operationalizable concept. We demonstrate this here via a simplified but illustrative exercise. Work with large data sets employing social and environmental accounting will yield sharper and m...

  13. Anomalous dimensions of heavy operators from magnon energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mello Koch, Robert; Tahiridimbisoa, Nirina Hasina; Mathwin, Christopher

    2016-03-01

    We study spin chains with boundaries that are dual to open strings suspended between systems of giant gravitons and dual giant gravitons. Motivated by a geometrical interpretation of the central charges of su(2|2), we propose a simple and minimal all loop expression that interpolates between the anomalous dimensions computed in the gauge theory and energies computed in the dual string theory. The discussion makes use of a description in terms of magnons, generalizing results for a single maximal giant graviton. The symmetries of the problem determine the structure of the magnon boundary reflection/scattering matrix up to a phase. We compute a reflection/scattering matrix element at weak coupling and verify that it is consistent with the answer determined by symmetry. We find the reflection/scattering matrix does not satisfy the boundary Yang-Baxter equation so that the boundary condition on the open spin chain spoils integrability. We also explain the interpretation of the double coset ansatz in the magnon language.

  14. Microbial electrosynthesis: a novel strategy for flexible energy storage from electricity surplus and greenhouse gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Tian

    2014-01-01

    Energy storage and distribution is a particular concern for solar or wind energy within theexisting power grid infrastructure. This spurs the search for solutions to convert electrical energyproduced from these renewable sources to chemical compounds or liquid transportation fuels, whichcan readily...... be stored and consumed on demand or if necessary converted again to electricity.Microbial electrosynthesis (MES), the process in which microbes accept electrons from an electrodedirectly to reduce CO2 to chemical commodities such as biofuels, is a particularly attractive option totake advantage of...... the fluctuating electricity generated from renewable sources and to mitigate therelease of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Although MES is attracting a lot of attention and hasbeen studied intensively during the last five years, advances related to the engineering and the biologyof this process...

  15. Meat consumption providing a surplus energy in modern diet contributes to obesity prevalence: an ecological analysis

    OpenAIRE

    You, Wenpeng; Henneberg, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    Background: Excessive energy intake has been identified as a major contributor to the global obesity epidemic. However, it is not clear whether dietary patterns varying in their composition of food groups contribute. This study aims to determine whether differences in per capita availability of the major food groups could explain differences in global obesity prevalence. Methods: Country-specific Body Mass Index (BMI) estimates (mean, prevalence of obesity and overweight) were obtained. BM...

  16. Operating Cash Surplus Determinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor HADA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper defines the concept of operating surplus. Then, it is compared to thegross operating surplus and the differences are identified. The two calculationmethods are presented next: (1 operating revenue less operating charges and(2 the gross operating surplus less ΔWCN (Working capital needs lessimmobilised production less stored production less other operating revenues.Then, a three year study is presented (2005-2007 and the results areinterpreted. Then, there is a correlation between the operating cash flow surplusand the operating cash flows.

  17. Poynting vector, energy density, and energy velocity in an anomalous dispersion medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Poynting vector, energy density, and energy velocity of light pulses propagating in an anomalous dispersion medium with two closely spaced gain lines are calculated. The results show that a negative energy density in the medium propagates along the opposite direction of incidence with a velocity similar to the negative group velocity vg while Poynting vector is in the same direction of incidence. In other words, one might say that a positive energy density in the medium would propagate along the positive direction with a speed |vg|. We further point out that neither energy velocity nor group velocity is a good concept to describe the propagation process of light pulse inside the medium in the Wang, Kuzmich, and Dogaiu [Nature (London) 406, 277 (2000)] experiment owing to the strong accumulation and dissipation effects

  18. Canadian gas surplus to linger through 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that Canada's natural gas surplus will persist at least through 1995, although the gap between production and deliverability will narrow. Meantime, prices will slowly rise, the Canadian Energy Research Institute (CERI) predicts. The Calgary firm says surplus productive capacity will fall to 426 bcf in 1992 from 874 bcf in 1990. Those volumes amount to 12% and 25%, respectively, of deliverability. Prices for a processing plant's outlet stream, pegged at $1.38 (Canadian)/Mcf in 1991, will inch up to $1.53 in 1994, then climb to $1.69 in 1995, all in current dollars. Prices will firm as a reduced surplus reduces sales competition among producers. Increasing sales as a result of expanded export pipeline capacity will be a major factor in reducing surplus capacity. The study says after 1995 increased drilling will raise productive capacity and create some downward pressure on prices

  19. Energy Spectra of Anomalous Cosmic-Ray Oxygen During 1977-1987

    OpenAIRE

    Cummings, A. C.; Stone, E. C.

    1987-01-01

    We have previously reported that the energy of the peak intensity of the spectrum of anomalous cosmic-ray oxygen moved upwards by a factor of -2 near the time of the reversal of the solar magnetic field in 1980. An energy shift which persists into the next solar minimum period would agree with a key prediction of a theory of the acceleration and propagation of the anomalous component by Jokipii. That model also predicts distinctly different spectral shapes in the two halves of ...

  20. Anomalous Magnetohydrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Anomalous symmetries induce currents which can be parallel rather than orthogonal to the hypermagnetic field. Building on the analogy with charged liquids at high magnetic Reynolds numbers, the persistence of anomalous currents is scrutinized for parametrically large conductivities when the plasma approximation is accurate. Different examples in globally neutral systems suggest that the magnetic configurations minimizing the energy density with the constraint that the helicity be conserved co...

  1. Slowdown Trade Surplus Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Leo Zhao

    2008-01-01

    @@ According to Ma Kai's economic planning report submitted to the NPC session on March 5th.(Ma Kai is the Minister in charge of the National Development and Reform Commission),the government has listed the slowdown in trade surplus growth and the steady expansion of,external investment as major tasks for 2008.

  2. 'Nonprofits' need surplus too.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, D W

    1982-01-01

    By definition profit refers to the difference between revenue and expenses. In for-profit organizations profit or surplus gives a return to the owners of the company and serves as a source of financing for capital acquisitions and working capital. Nonprofit organizations, which are not allowed a surplus, don't suffer on the first count because they have no owners. But they do suffer on the second count because, if expected to grow, they need to finance asset replacement and growth. In these days when funds for long-term debt are becoming scarcer, this author asserts, the need for regulators to allow 'nonprofits' to keep a surplus is increasing. In this article, he argues for a surplus and then discusses how managers and regulators can determine how much a nonprofit organization should be allowed. He presents a combination of a modified version of the return-on-asset pricing model used in for-profit organizations and a model for assessing working capital needs associated with growth. PMID:10253782

  3. High-energy pulse compressor using self-defocusing spectral broadening in anomalously dispersive media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Morten; Zhou, Binbin

    A new high-energy pulse compressor uses self-defocusing spectral broadening in anomalously dispersive quadratic nonlinear crystals, followed by positive group-delay-dispersion compensation. Compression to sub-50 fs is possible from Joule-class 1.03 µm femtosecond amplifiers in large-aperture KDP....

  4. The energy spectra of anomalous oxygen at the time of two successive solar minima

    CERN Document Server

    Kondratyeva, M A; Tretyakova, S P; Zhuravlev, D A

    1999-01-01

    The energy spectra of anomalous oxygen have been determined from nuclear track detectors exposed aboard the Earth-orbiting satellites at altitudes ranging from approx 250-400 km in two consecutive solar minimum periods of 1986-1987 and 1994-1995 with opposite polarity of the solar magnetic field. A comparison of the spectra shows no contradiction to current drift models.

  5. Energy use from sugar cane industry to generated electric surplus for public supply in El Salvador; Aproveitamento energetico da agroindustria da cana de acucar para geracao de excedentes de eletricidade na rede publica de El Salvador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trabanino, Ana Maria Gonzalez

    1990-08-01

    The main purpose of this thesis is to demonstrate that the application of technological alternatives using high pressure (cogeneration or thermoelectric systems) and improving the efficiency of the whole energy cycle in sugar cane industry, it is possible to generate electric energy surplus for public electric network with technical and economical advantages. (author). 28 figs., 182 tabs., 53 refs

  6. Surplus energy reuse of circulating water power in alumina decomposition tank%氧化铝分解槽循环水余能利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李延频; 鞠阳; 袁寿其; 陈德新

    2014-01-01

    To make full use of the large number of surplus energy in the circulating water system of a-lumina decomposition tank,and to provide technical support for energy recovery of other similar sys-tem,the characteristics of circulating water system of alumina decomposition tank have been studied. Based on the size of the system,different solutions of energy recovery have been put forward.The solu-tion of using the surplus energy to generate electricity has been mainly focused.And in view of its pe-culiarities,the power generation device of the circulating water system in alumina decomposition tank was designed,which is called as the integrated power generation device for using the surplus of circulat-ing water.A circulating water protection process was proposed to solve the problem that the circulating water should not be cut down unexpectedly.An issue named inverse power will be occurred in genera-tor when the turbine discharge is smaller than that under non-load condition.Therefore,protection method for reverse power of generator was put forward,which included the generator excitation subsys-tem,speed control subsystem,synchronization subsystem and protect subsystem,all the subsystems of control and protect integrated together,forming the four unity comprehensive control panel.Practices have proved that the integrated power generation device for using the surplus energy of circulating water in alumina decomposition tank is safe,reliable and stable.%为充分利用众多的氧化铝生产企业的分解槽循环水系统中存在的大量余能,并为其他类似余能回收提供技术支持,研究了氧化铝分解槽循环水系统中余能的特点。根据余能的多少,提出了不同的余能利用方案。重点研究了余能发电的利用方式。并针对余能发电的特殊性,设计了分解槽水循环系统余能发电装置———集成循环水余能发电装置。针对其循环水不能异常中断的问题,提出了循环水保护方

  7. Disposal of Surplus Weapons Grade Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Office of Fissile Materials Disposition is responsible for disposing of inventories of surplus US weapons-usable plutonium and highly enriched uranium as well as providing, technical support for, and ultimate implementation of, efforts to obtain reciprocal disposition of surplus Russian plutonium. On January 4, 2000, the Department of Energy issued a Record of Decision to dispose of up to 50 metric tons of surplus weapons-grade plutonium using two methods. Up to 17 metric tons of surplus plutonium will be immobilized in a ceramic form, placed in cans and embedded in large canisters containing high-level vitrified waste for ultimate disposal in a geologic repository. Approximately 33 metric tons of surplus plutonium will be used to fabricate MOX fuel (mixed oxide fuel, having less than 5% plutonium-239 as the primary fissile material in a uranium-235 carrier matrix). The MOX fuel will be used to produce electricity in existing domestic commercial nuclear reactors. This paper reports the major waste-package-related, long-term disposal impacts of the two waste forms that would be used to accomplish this mission. Particular emphasis is placed on the possibility of criticality. These results are taken from a summary report published earlier this year

  8. Does anomalous violation of null energy condition invalidate holographic c-theorem?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Null energy condition plays a crucial role in holographic renormalization group flow, leading to the holographic c-theorem. Unfortunately, the null energy condition is quantum mechanically violated. Even the averaged version can be violated. We discuss how the anomalous violation of the null energy condition affects the holographic renormalization group flow in (1+3)-dimensional bulk gravity. We show that despite the violation of the null energy condition, a suitably modified holographic c-function with a peculiar log correction is still monotonically decreasing in so far as we add the counterterm that removes a ghost mode of gravity

  9. Decommissioning of surplus facilities at ORNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is part of the Department of Energy's (DOE) National SFMP, administered by the Richland Operations Office. This program was established to provide for the management of certain DOE surplus radioactively contaminated facilities from the end of their operating life until final facility disposition is completed. As part of this program, the ORNL SFMP oversees some 75 facilities, ranging in complexity from abandoned waste storage tanks to large experimental reactors. This paper describes the scope of the ORNL program and outlines the decommissioning activities currently underway, including a brief description of the decontamination techniques being utilized. 4 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  10. On anomalous 24Na production in high-energy nuclear interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent experiments on anomalously high production of 24Na fragments at large angles in high-energy C-Cu interactions are analysed starting from a cascade-evaporation model (CEM) and taking into consideration effects of particle transport through a matter. It turned out that no unusual mechanism of nucleus-nucleus collisions is needed to explain the experimental results. 14 refs.; 4 figs.; 5 tabs

  11. Residual load, renewable surplus generation and storage requirements in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I examine the effects of increasing amounts of fluctuating renewable energy on residual load, which is defined as the difference between actual power demand and the feed-in of non-dispatchable and inflexible generators. I draw on policy-relevant scenarios for Germany and make use of extensive sensitivity analyses. Whereas yearly renewable surplus energy is low in most scenarios analyzed, peak surplus power can become very high. Decreasing thermal must-run requirements and increasing biomass flexibility substantially reduce surpluses. I use an optimization model to determine the storage capacities required for taking up renewable surpluses. Allowing curtailment of 1% of the yearly feed-in of non-dispatchable renewables would render storage investments largely obsolete until 2032 under the assumption of a flexible power system. Further restrictions of curtailment as well as lower system flexibility strongly increase storage requirements. By 2050, at least 10 GW of storage are required for surplus integration, of which a sizeable share is seasonal storage. Results suggest that policy makers should work toward avoiding surplus generation, in particular by decreasing the must-run of thermal generators. Concerns about surpluses should not be regarded as an obstacle to further renewable expansion. The findings are also relevant for other countries that shift toward fluctuating renewables. - Highlights: • I examine the effects of fluctuating renewable energy on residual load. • Surplus energies are generally low, but there are high surplus power peaks. • Increasing the flexibility of thermal generators substantially reduces surpluses. • Allowing curtailment of 1% renders storage investments largely obsolete by 2032. • Both storage requirements and the share of seasonal storage increase by 2050

  12. Anomalous dissipation and kinetic-energy distribution in pipes at very high Reynolds numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Wei, Bo-Bo; Hussain, Fazle; She, Zhen-Su

    2016-01-01

    A symmetry-based theory is developed for the description of (streamwise) kinetic energy K in turbulent pipes at extremely high Reynolds numbers (Re's). The theory assumes a mesolayer with continual deformation of wall-attached eddies which introduce an anomalous dissipation, breaking the exact balance between production and dissipation. An outer peak of K is predicted above a critical Re of 10^{4}, in good agreement with experimental data. The theory offers an alternative explanation for the recently discovered logarithmic distribution of K. The concept of anomalous dissipation is further supported by a significant modification of the k-ω equation, yielding an accurate prediction of the entire K profile. PMID:26871016

  13. Surplus Cost Potential as a Life Cycle Impact Indicator for Metal Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Marisa D.M. Vieira; Thomas C. Ponsioen; Goedkoop, Mark J.; Huijbregts, Mark A J

    2016-01-01

    In the evaluation of product life cycles, methods to assess the increase in scarcity of resources are still under development. Indicators that can express the importance of an increase in scarcity of metals extracted include surplus ore produced, surplus energy required, and surplus costs in the mining and the milling stage. Particularly the quantification of surplus costs per unit of metal extracted as an indicator is still in an early stage of development. Here, we developed a method that q...

  14. Draft principles, policy, and acceptance criteria for decommissioning of U.S. Department of Energy contaminated surplus facilities and summary of international decommissioning programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decommissioning activities enable the DOE to reuse all or part of a facility for future activities and reduce hazards to the general public and any future work force. The DOE Office of Environment, Health and Safety has prepared this document, which consists of decommissioning principles and acceptance criteria, in an attempt to establish a policy that is in agreement with the NRC policy. The purpose of this document is to assist individuals involved with decommissioning activities in determining their specific responsibilities as identified in Draft DOE Order 5820.DDD, ''Decommissioning of US Department of Energy Contaminated Surplus Facilities'' (Appendix A). This document is not intended to provide specific decommissioning methodology. The policies and principles of several international decommissioning programs are also summarized. These programs are from the IAEA, the NRC, and several foreign countries expecting to decommission nuclear facilities. They are included here to demonstrate the different policies that are to be followed throughout the world and to allow the reader to become familiar with the state of the art for environment, safety, and health (ES and H) aspects of nuclear decommissioning

  15. Numerical Simulation of the Anomalous Transport of High-Energy Cosmic Rays in Galactic Superbubble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barghouty, A. F.; Price, E. M.; MeWaldt, R. A.

    2013-01-01

    A continuous-time random-walk (CTRW) model to simulate the transport and acceleration of high-energy cosmic rays in galactic superbubbles has recently been put forward (Barghouty & Schnee 2102). The new model has been developed to simulate and highlight signatures of anomalous transport on particles' evolution and their spectra in a multi-shock, collective acceleration context. The superbubble is idealized as a heterogeneous region of particle sources and sinks bounded by a random surface. This work concentrates on the effects of the bubble's assumed astrophysical characteristics (cf. geometry and roughness) on the particles' spectra.

  16. Momentum and Energy Dependence of the Anomalous High-Energy Dispersion in the Electronic Structure of High Temperature Superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inosov, D. S.; Fink, J.; Kordyuk, A. A.; Borisenko, S. V.; Zabolotnyy, V. B.; Schuster, R.; Knupfer, M.; Büchner, B.; Follath, R.; Dürr, H. A.; Eberhardt, W.; Hinkov, V.; Keimer, B.; Berger, H.

    2007-12-01

    Using high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy we have studied the momentum and photon energy dependence of the anomalous high-energy dispersion, termed waterfalls, between the Fermi level and 1 eV binding energy in several high-Tc superconductors. We observe strong changes of the dispersion between different Brillouin zones and a strong dependence on the photon energy around 75 eV, which we associate with the resonant photoemission at the Cu3p→3dx2-y2 edge. We conclude that the high-energy “waterfall” dispersion results from a strong suppression of the photoemission intensity at the center of the Brillouin zone due to matrix element effects and is, therefore, not an intrinsic feature of the spectral function. This indicates that the new high-energy scale in the electronic structure of cuprates derived from the waterfall-like dispersion may be incorrect.

  17. Relativistic energy correction of the hydrogen atom with an anomalous magnetic moment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electron is known to possess an anomalous magnetic moment, which interacts with the gradient of the electric field. This makes it necessary to compute its effects on the energy spectrum. Even though the Coulomb Dirac equation can be solved in closed form, this is no longer possible when the anomalous magnetic moment is included. In fact the interaction due to this term is so strong that it changes the domain of the Hamiltonian. From a differential equation point of view, the anomalous magnetic moment term is strongly singular near the origin. As usual, one has to resort to perturbation theory. This, however, only makes sense if the eigenvalues are stable. To prove stability is therefore a challenge one has to face before actually computing the energy shifts. The first stability results in this line were shown by Behncke for angular momenta κ≥3, because the eigenfunctions of the unperturbed Hamiltonian decay fast enough near the origin. He achieved this by decoupling the system and then using the techniques available for second order differential equations. Later, Kalf and Schmidt extended Behncke's results basing their analysis on the Pruefer angle technique and a comparison result for first order differential equations. The Pruefer angle method is particularly useful because it shows a better stability and because it obeys a first order differential equation. Nonetheless, Kalf and Schmidt had to exclude some coupling constants for κ>0. This I believe is an artefact of their method. In this study, I make increasing use of asymptotic integration, a method which is rather well adapted to perturbation theory and is known to give stability results to any level of accuracy. Together with the Pruefer angle technique, this lead to a more general stability result and even allows for an energy shifts estimate. Hamiltonians traditionally treated in physics to describe the spin-orbit effect are not self adjoint i.e. they are not proper observables in quantum

  18. Anomalous electron heating and energy balance in an ion beam generated plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The plasma described in this report is generated by a 15 to 34 kV ion beam, consisting primarily of protons, passing through an H2 gas cell neutralizer. Plasma ions (or ion-electron pairs) are produced by electron capture from (or ionization of) gas molecules by beam ions and atoms. An explanation is provided for the observed anomalous behavior of the electron temperature (T/sub e/): a step-lite, nearly two-fold jump in T/sub e/ as the beam current approaches that which minimizes beam angular divergence; insensitivity of T/sub e/ to gas pressure; and the linear relation of T/sub e/ to beam energy

  19. Anomalous behavior of the energy gap in the one-dimensional quantum XY model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuyama, Manaka; Yamanaka, Yuuki; Nishimori, Hidetoshi; Rams, Marek M

    2015-11-01

    We reexamine the well-studied one-dimensional spin-1/2 XY model to reveal its nontrivial energy spectrum, in particular the energy gap between the ground state and the first excited state. In the case of the isotropic XY model, the XX model, the gap behaves very irregularly as a function of the system size at a second order transition point. This is in stark contrast to the usual power-law decay of the gap and is reminiscent of the similar behavior at the first order phase transition in the infinite-range quantum XY model. The gap also shows nontrivial oscillatory behavior for the phase transitions in the anisotropic model in the incommensurate phase. We observe a close relation between this anomalous behavior of the gap and the correlation functions. These results, those for the isotropic case in particular, are important from the viewpoint of quantum annealing where the efficiency of computation is strongly affected by the size dependence of the energy gap. PMID:26651656

  20. Search for anomalous production of events with a high energy lepton and photon at the Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loginov, Andrey Borisovich; /Moscow, ITEP

    2006-01-01

    We present results of a search for the anomalous production of events containing a high-transverse momentum charged lepton ({ell}, either e or {mu}) and photon ({gamma}), accompanied by missing transverse energy (E{sub T}), and/or additional leptons and photons, and jets (X). We use the same kinematic selection criteria as in a previous CDF search, but with a substantially larger data set, 305 pb{sup -1}, a p{bar p} collision energy of 1.96 TeV, and the upgraded CDF II detector. We find 42 {ell}{gamma}E{sub T} events versus a standard model expectation of 37.3 {+-} 5.4 events. The level of excess observed in Run I, 16 events with an expectation of 7.6 {+-} 0.7 events (corresponding to a 2.7 {sigma} effect), is not supported by the new data. In the signature of {ell}{ell}{gamma} + X we observe 31 events versus an expectation of 23.0 {+-} 2.7 events. In this sample we find no events with an extra photon or E{sub T} and so find no events like the one ee{gamma}{gamma} E{sub T} event observed in Run I.

  1. On The Anomalous Fast Ion Energy Diffusion in Toroidal Plasmas Due to Cavity Modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N.N. Gorelenkov, N.J. Fisch and E. Fredrickson

    2010-03-09

    An enormous wave-particle diffusion coefficient along paths suitable for alpha channeling had been deduced in mode converted ion Bernstein wave experiments on Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) the only plausible explanation advanced for such a large diffusion coefficient was the excitation of internal cavity modes which induce particle diffusion along identical diffusion paths, but at much higher rates. Although such a mode was conjectured, it was never observed. However, recent detailed observations of high frequency compressional Alfven eigenmodes (CAEs) on the National Spherical torus Experiment (NSTX) indirectly support the existence of the related conjectured modes on TFTR. The eigenmodes responsible for the high frequency magnetic activity can be identified as CAEs through the polarization of the observed magnetic field oscillations in NSTX and through a comparison with the theoretically derived freuency dispersion relation. Here, we show how these recent observations of high frequency CAEs lend support to this explanation of the long-standing puzzle of anomalous fast ion energy diffusion on TFTR. The support of the conjecure that these internal modes could have caused the remarkable ion energy diffusion on TFTR carries significant and favorable implications for the possibilities in achieving the alpha channeling effect with small injected power in a tokamak reactor.

  2. On The Anomalous Fast Ion Energy Diffusion in Toroidal Plasmas Due to Cavity Modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An enormous wave-particle diffusion coefficient along paths suitable for alpha channeling had been deduced in mode converted ion Bernstein wave experiments on Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) the only plausible explanation advanced for such a large diffusion coefficient was the excitation of internal cavity modes which induce particle diffusion along identical diffusion paths, but at much higher rates. Although such a mode was conjectured, it was never observed. However, recent detailed observations of high frequency compressional Alfven eigenmodes (CAEs) on the National Spherical torus Experiment (NSTX) indirectly support the existence of the related conjectured modes on TFTR. The eigenmodes responsible for the high frequency magnetic activity can be identified as CAEs through the polarization of the observed magnetic field oscillations in NSTX and through a comparison with the theoretically derived freuency dispersion relation. Here, we show how these recent observations of high frequency CAEs lend support to this explanation of the long-standing puzzle of anomalous fast ion energy diffusion on TFTR. The support of the conjecure that these internal modes could have caused the remarkable ion energy diffusion on TFTR carries significant and favorable implications for the possibilities in achieving the alpha channeling effect with small injected power in a tokamak reactor.

  3. Superconducting energy scales and anomalous dissipative conductivity in thin films of molybdenum nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmendinger, Julian; Pracht, Uwe S.; Daschke, Lena; Proslier, Thomas; Klug, Jeffrey A.; Dressel, Martin; Scheffler, Marc

    2016-08-01

    We report investigations of molybdenum nitride (MoN) thin films with different thickness and disorder and with superconducting transition temperature 9.89 K ≥Tc≥2.78 K . Using terahertz frequency-domain spectroscopy we explore the normal and superconducting charge carrier dynamics for frequencies covering the range from 3 to 38 cm-1 (0.1 to 1.1 THz). The superconducting energy scales, i.e., the critical temperature Tc, the pairing energy Δ , and the superfluid stiffness J , and the superfluid density ns can be well described within the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory for conventional superconductors. At the same time, we find an anomalously large dissipative conductivity, which cannot be explained by thermally excited quasiparticles, but rather by a temperature-dependent normal-conducting fraction, persisting deep into the superconducting state. Our results on this disordered system constrain the regime, where discernible effects stemming from the disorder-induced superconductor-insulator transition possibly become relevant, to MoN films with a transition temperature lower than at least 2.78 K.

  4. Behind the Ever-Widening Trade Surplus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan

    2007-01-01

    @@ China's trade surplus has been on the rise since 2005.The surplus hit US$ 32.1 billion in 2004,and has soared to us$177.5 billion in 2006.The Chinese government has made the reduction of the trade surplus one of its major macro-economic goals since last September.

  5. 7 CFR 987.47 - Surplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... that any producer or handler may dispose of any such surplus dates of his own production within his own... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Surplus. 987.47 Section 987.47 Agriculture Regulations... RIVERSIDE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Volume Regulation § 987.47 Surplus. All cull...

  6. Uranium - surplus or scarcity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new joint report of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency will help to remove some of the prevailing confusion about the world's actual and potential resources of uranium. The Agencies confirm that the danger of a worldwide uranium shortage has receded and that, over the new few years, there could actually develop an over-supply situation, with a consequent drop in prices. They emphasise, however, that this will be a temporary phenomenon and that inadequate uranium supplies may set limits, in the longer run, to the rapid build-up of nuclear power installations. The report is the latest in a series of similar studies which now normally appear at two-yearly intervals. (author)

  7. Anomalous U(1) and low-energy physics: The power of D-flatness and holomorphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In models with an anomalous abelian symmetry broken at a very large scale, we study which requirements to impose on the anomalous charges in order to prevent standard model fields from acquiring large vacuum expectation values. The use of holomorphic invariants to study D-flat directions for the anomalous symmetry, proves to be a very powerful tool. We find that in order to forbid unphysical vacuum configurations at that scale, the superpotential must contain many interaction terms, including the usual Yukawa terms. Our analysis suggests that the anomalous charge of the μ-term is zero. It is remarkable that, together with the seesaw mechanism, and mass hierarchies, this implies a natural conservation of R-parity

  8. Anomalous U(1) and low-energy physics: The power of D-flatness and holomorphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binetruy, P. [Universite Paris-Sud, Orsay (France)]|[Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Irges, N.; Ramond, P. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Lavignac, S. [Universite Paris, Orsay (France)

    1997-03-01

    In models with an anomalous abelian symmetry broken at a very large scale, we study which requirements to impose on the anomalous charges in order to prevent standard model fields from acquiring large vacuum expectation values. The use of holomorphic invariants to study D-flat directions for the anomalous symmetry, proves to be a very powerful tool. We find that in order to forbid unphysical vacuum configurations at that scale, the superpotential must contain many interaction terms, including the usual Yukawa terms. Our analysis suggests that the anomalous charge of the {mu}-term is zero. It is remarkable that, together with the seesaw mechanism, and mass hierarchies, this implies a natural conservation of R-parity.

  9. Juno Earth Flyby as a Sensitive Detector of Anomalous Orbital-Energy Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J. D.; Jordan, J. F.; Campbell, J. K.; Ekelund, J. E.; Bordi, J. J.; Abrahamson, M.; Ardalan, S. M.; Thompson, P. F.

    2013-12-01

    The fact that unexplained energy changes occur in some Earth flybys, but not all, was reported in 2008 by Anderson et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 091102. The anomaly is detected by analyzing radio Doppler and ranging data used for space navigation. It is most significant for the closest flybys at altitudes of 539 km for the NEAR spacecraft, 960 km for the first Galileo flyby, and 1956 km for the first Rosetta flyby, with anomalous total changes in the hyperbolic excess velocity at infinity of 13.5 mm/s, 3.9 mm/s and 1.8 mm/s, respectively. There is also a correlation with the amount of asymmetry of the flyby trajectory with respect to the Earth's equator. As it turns out, the Juno flyby is well suited for another detection of this anomaly, with an altitude of about 500 km, and a declination of the incoming hyperbolic asymptote of 14.6 deg and an outgoing asymptote of 40.4 deg. Further, the control sequence for the spacecraft introduces no significant translational forces for an interval of plus and minus four days of perigee. Based on eight flybys analyzed previously, and an empirical formula given in the 2008 paper, the expected size of the Juno anomaly is about 7 mm/s. The standard error of the measurement is about 0.01 mm/s. We report first results of the data analysis.

  10. Momentum Conservation Implies Anomalous Energy Transport in 1D Classical Lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under quite general conditions, we prove that for classical many-body lattice Hamiltonians in one dimension (1D) total momentum conservation implies anomalous conductivity in the sense of the divergence of the Kubo expression for the coefficient of thermal conductivity, κ . Our results provide rigorous confirmation and explanation of many of the existing ''surprising'' numerical studies of anomalous conductivity in 1D classical lattices, including the celebrated Fermi-Pasta-Ulam problem. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  11. Momentum conservation implies anomalous energy transport in 1d classical lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Prosen, T; Prosen, Tomaz; Campbell, David K.

    2000-01-01

    Under quite general conditions, we prove that for classical many-body lattice Hamiltonians in one dimension (1D) total momentum conservation implies anomalous conductivity in the sense of the divergence of the Kubo expression for the coefficient of thermal conductivity, $\\kappa$. Our results provide rigorous confirmation and explanation of many of the existing ``surprising'' numerical studies of anomalous conductivity in 1D classical lattices, including the celebrated Fermi-Pasta-Ulam problem.

  12. Anomalous Chiral Superfluidity

    OpenAIRE

    Lublinsky, Michael(Physics Department, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva 84105, Israel); Zahed, Ismail

    2009-01-01

    We discuss both the anomalous Cartan currents and the energy-momentum tensor in a left chiral theory with flavour anomalies as an effective theory for flavored chiral phonons in a chiral superfluid with the gauged Wess-Zumino-Witten term. In the mean-field (leading tadpole) approximation the anomalous Cartan currents and the energy momentum tensor take the form of constitutive currents in the chiral superfluid state. The pertinence of higher order corrections and the Adler-Bardeen theorem is ...

  13. Search for stable energy levels in materials exhibiting strong anomalous fading: The case of apatites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermally assisted OSL signal resulting from very deep traps was studied in the case of three fluorapatite samples, one chlorapatite as well as one collophanite cryptocrystalline carbonite phosphorite sample of various origins. Intense thermally assisted OSL signal was monitored while stimulating at 200 °C in all samples subjected to the present study, indicating the prevalence of the existence of these very deep traps. Anomalous fading effect is ubiquitous for all TL and OSL signals of all apatite samples subjected to the present study. The anomalous fading of the thermally assisted OSL signal arising from very deep traps is strongly differentiated from the anomalous fading of electron trap excited at temperatures below 500 °C. The thermally assisted OSL signal arising from very deep traps was found to clearly be more stable, showing much less anomalous fading over time. The possible implications of this finding in dating of both apatites and feldspars are also briefly discussed. - Highlights: • All apatite samples of the present study yield strong thermally assisted OSL (TA-OSL) signal. • In all cases, TA-OSL signal is much more stable compared to TL and conventional OSL, based on the corresponding anomalous fading rates. • This experimental feature could be extremely beneficial for luminescence dating

  14. Search for stable energy levels in materials exhibiting strong anomalous fading: The case of apatites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polymeris, George S., E-mail: polymers@auth.gr [Laboratory of Radiation Applications and Archaeological Dating, Department of Archaeometry and Physicochemical Measurements, ‘Athena’—Research and Innovation Center in Information, Communication and Knowledge Technologies, Kimmeria University Campus, GR-67100 Xanthi (Greece); Solid State Physics Section, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Giannoulatou, Valeria; Sfampa, Ioanna K. [Nuclear Physics Laboratory, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Tsirliganis, Nestor C. [Laboratory of Radiation Applications and Archaeological Dating, Department of Archaeometry and Physicochemical Measurements, ‘Athena’—Research and Innovation Center in Information, Communication and Knowledge Technologies, Kimmeria University Campus, GR-67100 Xanthi (Greece); Kitis, George [Nuclear Physics Laboratory, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2014-09-15

    The thermally assisted OSL signal resulting from very deep traps was studied in the case of three fluorapatite samples, one chlorapatite as well as one collophanite cryptocrystalline carbonite phosphorite sample of various origins. Intense thermally assisted OSL signal was monitored while stimulating at 200 °C in all samples subjected to the present study, indicating the prevalence of the existence of these very deep traps. Anomalous fading effect is ubiquitous for all TL and OSL signals of all apatite samples subjected to the present study. The anomalous fading of the thermally assisted OSL signal arising from very deep traps is strongly differentiated from the anomalous fading of electron trap excited at temperatures below 500 °C. The thermally assisted OSL signal arising from very deep traps was found to clearly be more stable, showing much less anomalous fading over time. The possible implications of this finding in dating of both apatites and feldspars are also briefly discussed. - Highlights: • All apatite samples of the present study yield strong thermally assisted OSL (TA-OSL) signal. • In all cases, TA-OSL signal is much more stable compared to TL and conventional OSL, based on the corresponding anomalous fading rates. • This experimental feature could be extremely beneficial for luminescence dating.

  15. Surplus Cost Potential as a Life Cycle Impact Indicator for Metal Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa D.M. Vieira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the evaluation of product life cycles, methods to assess the increase in scarcity of resources are still under development. Indicators that can express the importance of an increase in scarcity of metals extracted include surplus ore produced, surplus energy required, and surplus costs in the mining and the milling stage. Particularly the quantification of surplus costs per unit of metal extracted as an indicator is still in an early stage of development. Here, we developed a method that quantifies the surplus cost potential of mining and milling activities per unit of metal extracted, fully accounting for mine-specific differences in costs. The surplus cost potential indicator is calculated as the average cost increase resulting from all future metal extractions, as quantified via cumulative cost-tonnage relationships. We tested the calculation procedure with 12 metals and platinum-group metals as a separate group. We found that the surplus costs range six orders of magnitude between the metals included, i.e., between $0.01–$0.02 (iron and $13,533–$17,098 (rhodium USD (year 2013 per kilogram of metal extracted. The choice of the reserve estimate (reserves vs. ultimate recoverable resource influenced the surplus costs only to a limited extent, i.e., between a factor of 0.7 and 3.2 for the metals included. Our results provide a good basis to regularly include surplus cost estimates as resource scarcity indicator in life cycle assessment.

  16. ESTIMATING IMPURITIES IN SURPLUS PLUTONIUM FOR DISPOSITION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allender, J.; Moore, E.

    2013-07-17

    The United States holds at least 61.5 metric tons (MT) of plutonium that is permanently excess to use in nuclear weapons programs, including 47.2 MT of weapons-grade plutonium. Surplus inventories will be stored safely by the Department of Energy (DOE) and then transferred to facilities that will prepare the plutonium for permanent disposition. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) operates a Feed Characterization program for the Office of Fissile Materials Disposition of the National Nuclear Security Administration and the DOE Office of Environmental Management. Many of the items that require disposition are only partially characterized, and SRNL uses a variety of techniques to predict the isotopic and chemical properties that are important for processing through the Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility and alternative disposition paths. Recent advances in laboratory tools, including Prompt Gamma Analysis and Peroxide Fusion treatment, provide data on the existing inventories that will enable disposition without additional, costly sampling and destructive analysis.

  17. Geothermal Prospects in a Shrinking Power Surplus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geyer, John D.

    1989-03-21

    The western power surplus is finite and electric load growth is persistent. Concerns about availability and environmental effects will overshadow life-cycle cost in selection of tomorrow's sources. Geothermal's growth and achievements qualify it as a preferred resource for the 1990s and beyond but its merits remain largely unknown in political and financial circles. Near-term needs include power sales contracts after 1990, improved comfort for banks and utilities with reservoir assessment techniques and mitigation of financial risks at pilot plants on new fields. Institutional, not technical, issues will dominate geothermal energy's growth, performance, image and utility relationships in the 1990s.

  18. Search for a particle with a long interaction length. [particle mandela to explain anomalous energy spectra at mountain altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrowes, S. C.; Huggett, R. W.; Jones, W. V.; Levit, L. B.; Porter, L. G.

    1975-01-01

    A search has been carried out for a long-lived particle having an interaction length lambda sub m equals 300 to 2000 gm/sq cm in air. Such a particle, called the mandela, has been proposed to explain an anomalous energy spectrum of particles observed near sea level with a shallow spectrometer. Data taken at mountain altitude with a deep spectrometer has been examined for compatibility with the existence of the mandela. Although data tend to favor the mandela hypothesis the results are not conclusive and appear to be explainable by conventional means.

  19. Anomalous gauge boson interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss the direct measurement of the trilinear vector boson couplings in present and future collider experiments. The major goals of such experiments will be the confirmation of the Standard Model (SM) predictions and the search for signals of new physics. We review our current theoretical understanding of anomalous trilinear gauge-boson self interactions. If the energy scale of the new physics is ∼ 1 TeV, these low energy anomalous couplings are expected to be no larger than Ο(10-2). Constraints from high precision measurements at LEP and low energy charged and neutral current processes are critically reviewed

  20. Hanford surplus facilities hazards identification document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides general safety information needed by personnel who enter and work in surplus facilities managed by Bechtel Hanford, Inc. The purpose of the document is to enhance access control of surplus facilities, educate personnel on the potential hazards associated with these facilities prior to entry, and ensure that safety precautions are taken while in the facility

  1. Wave Sources, Energy Propagation and Conversion for Anomalous Rossby Wave Activities Along the West Asian Jet Stream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Lianmei; Zhang Qingyun

    2009-01-01

    Characteristics of the wave sources, energy propagation and conversion for anomalous Rossby wave activ- ities (RWAs) along the West Asian jet stream (WAJS) in summer are examined based on the NCEP/NCAR (National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research) reanaiysis data from 1958 to 2003, using the vorticity source equation, the Eliassen-Palm (EP) flux, and the wave energy equation under diabatic heating. The study aims to find the dynamical causes for RWA anomalies along the WAJS and to improve the understanding of mid-high latitude circulation anomalies. The results show that the negative vorticity source and the strong EP flux divergence over the Mediterranean Sea and the North Atlantic - Scandinavian Peninsula area act as the wave sources for RWA anomalies along the WAJS. When the intensity and position of the wave sources are anomalous, the excited eastward-propagating RWA along the WAJS also behaves anomalously. In strong (weak) years of RWA, Rossby waves excited by the strong divergence of EP fluxes over the Iceland - Scandinavian Peninsula area (east to the Scandinavian Peninsula) propagate eastward and southeastward. The eastward propagating waves become strengthened (weakened) after turning southeastward near the Ural Mountains and then entering the Asian subtropi- cal westerly jet stream (ASWJS) over the Caspian Sea-Aral Sea-Xinjiang. The southeastward propagating waves also strengthen (weaken) after directly entering the ASWJS over the eastern Mediterranean-the Black Sea. Furthermore, the divergence of EP fluxes over the Mediterranean also strengthens (weakens) in the strong (weak) years, so they jointly bring about the strong (weak) RWA along the WAJS. Finally, the pertur- bation available potential energy (PAPE) along the WAJS (15°-60°E) produced by diabatic heating, is far greater than the conversion from the kinetic energy of the basic flow into the perturbation kinetic energy and from the available potential

  2. Anomalous enhancements of low-energy fusion rates in plasmas: the role of ion momentum distributions and inhomogeneous screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coraddu, Massimo; Lissia, Marcello; Quarati, Piero

    2009-09-01

    Non-resonant fusion cross-sections significantly higher than corresponding theoretical predictions are observed in low-energy experiments with deuterated matrix target. Models based on thermal effects, electron screening, or quantum-effect dispersion relations have been proposed to explain these anomalous results: none of them appears to satisfactory reproduce the experiments. Velocity distributions are fundamental for the reaction rates and deviations from the Maxwellian limit could play a central role in explaining the enhancement. We examine two effects: an increase of the tail of the target Deuteron momentum distribution due to the Galitskii-Yakimets quantum uncertainty effect, which broadens the energy-momentum relation; and spatial fluctuations of the Debye-Hückel radius leading to an effective increase of electron screening. Either effect leads to larger reaction rates especially large at energies below a few keV, reducing the discrepancy between observations and theoretical expectations.

  3. Anomalous enhancements of low-energy fusion rates in plasmas: the role of ion momentum distributions and inhomogeneous screening

    CERN Document Server

    Coraddu, M; Quarati, P

    2009-01-01

    Non-resonant fusion cross-sections significantly higher than corresponding theoretical predictions are observed in low-energy experiments with deuterated matrix target. Models based on thermal effects, electron screening, or quantum-effect dispersion relations have been proposed to explain these anomalous results: none of them appears to satisfactory reproduce the experiments. Velocity distributions are fundamental for the reaction rates and deviations from the Maxwellian limit could play a central role in explaining the enhancement. We examine two effects: an increase of the tail of the target Deuteron momentum distribution due to the Galitskii-Yakimets quantum uncertainty effect, which broadens the energy-momentum relation; and spatial fluctuations of the Debye-H\\"{u}ckel radius leading to an effective increase of electron screening. Either effect leads to larger reaction rates especially large at energies below a few keV, reducing the discrepancy between observations and theoretical expectations.

  4. Anomalous quark-gluon chromomagnetic interaction and high-energy ρ-meson electroproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that existence of a large anomalous chromomagnetic moment of quark induced by nonperturbative structure of QCD leads to the additional contribution to exclusive ρ -meson electroproduction off proton target. The contribution coming from new type of quark-gluon interaction to the ρ -meson production cross section for both transversal and longitudinal polarization of virtual photon is found. Such nonperturbative contribution together with conventional perturbative two-gluon exchange allows us to describe the experimental data at low Q2 for transversal polarization. However, in the longitudinal polarization case there is still some discrepancy with the data. The possible source of this deviation is discussed

  5. Anomalous heat conduction and anomalous diffusion in nonlinear lattices, single walled nanotubes, and billiard gas channels

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Baowen; Wang, Jiao; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Gang

    2004-01-01

    We study anomalous heat conduction and anomalous diffusion in low dimensional systems ranging from nonlinear lattices, single walled carbon nanotubes, to billiard gas channels. We find that in all discussed systems, the anomalous heat conductivity can be connected with the anomalous diffusion, namely, if energy diffusion is $\\sigma^2(t)\\equiv =2Dt^{\\alpha} (01$) implies an anomalous heat conduction with a divergent thermal conductivity ($\\beta>0$), and more interestingly, a subdiffusion ($\\a...

  6. Safe disposal of surplus plutonium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, W. L.; Naz, S.; Lutze, W.; Busch, R.; Prinja, A.; Stoll, W.

    2001-06-01

    About 150 tons of weapons grade and weapons usable plutonium (metal, oxide, and in residues) have been declared surplus in the USA and Russia. Both countries plan to convert the metal and oxide into mixed oxide fuel for nuclear power reactors. Russia has not yet decided what to do with the residues. The US will convert residues into a ceramic, which will then be over-poured with highly radioactive borosilicate glass. The radioactive glass is meant to provide a deterrent to recovery of plutonium, as required by a US standard. Here we show a waste form for plutonium residues, zirconia/boron carbide (ZrO 2/B 4C), with an unprecedented combination of properties: a single, radiation-resistant, and chemically durable phase contains the residues; billion-year-old natural analogs are available; and criticality safety is given under all conceivable disposal conditions. ZrO 2/B 4C can be disposed of directly, without further processing, making it attractive to all countries facing the task of plutonium disposal. The US standard for protection against recovery can be met by disposal of the waste form together with used reactor fuel.

  7. TRACKING SURPLUS PLUTONIUM FROM WEAPONS TO DISPOSITION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allender, J.; Beams, J.; Sanders, K.; Myers, L.

    2013-07-16

    Supporting nuclear nonproliferation and global security principles, beginning in 1994 the United States has withdrawn more than 50 metric tons (MT) of government-controlled plutonium from potential use in nuclear weapons. The Department of Energy (DOE), including the National Nuclear Security Administration, established protocols for the tracking of this "excess" and "surplus" plutonium, and for reconciling the current storage and utilization of the plutonium to show that its management is consistent with the withdrawal policies. Programs are underway to ensure the safe and secure disposition of the materials that formed a major part of the weapons stockpile during the Cold War, and growing quantities have been disposed as waste, after which they are not included in traditional nuclear material control and accountability (NMC&A) data systems. A combination of resources is used to perform the reconciliations that form the basis for annual reporting to DOE, to U.S. Department of State, and to international partners including the International Atomic Energy Agency.

  8. Tracking surplus plutonium from weapons to disposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supporting nuclear nonproliferation and global security principles, beginning in 1994 the United States has withdrawn more than 50 metric tons (MT) of government-controlled plutonium from potential use in nuclear weapons. The Department of Energy (DOE), including the National Nuclear Security Administration, established protocols for the tracking of this ''excess'' and ''surplus'' plutonium, and for reconciling the current storage and utilization of the plutonium to show that its management is consistent with the withdrawal policies. Programs are underway to ensure the safe and secure disposition of the materials that formed a major part of the weapons stockpile during the Cold War, and growing quantities have been disposed as waste, after which they are not included in traditional nuclear material control and accountability (NMC and A) data systems. A combination of resources is used to perform the reconciliations that form the basis for annual reporting to DOE, to U.S. Department of State, and to international partners including the International Atomic Energy Agency.

  9. Characterizing surplus US plutonium for disposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allender, Jeffrey S.; Moore, Edwin N.

    2013-02-26

    The United States (US) has identified 61.5 metric tons (MT) of plutonium that is permanently excess to use in nuclear weapons programs, including 47.2 MT of weapons-grade plutonium. Surplus inventories will be stored safely by the Department of Energy (DOE) and then transferred to facilities that will prepare the plutonium for permanent disposition. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) operates a Feed Characterization program for the Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (OFMD) of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and the DOE Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM). SRNL manages a broad program of item tracking through process history, laboratory analysis, and non-destructive assay. A combination of analytical techniques allows SRNL to predict the isotopic and chemical properties that qualify materials for disposition through the Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF). The research also defines properties that are important for other disposition paths, including disposal to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) as transuranic waste (TRUW) or to high-level waste (HLW) systems.

  10. Characterizing surplus US plutonium for disposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States (US) has identified 61.5 metric tons (MT) of plutonium that is permanently excess to use in nuclear weapons programs, including 47.2 MT of weapons-grade plutonium. Surplus inventories will be stored safely by the Department of Energy (DOE) and then transferred to facilities that will prepare the plutonium for permanent disposition. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) operates a Feed Characterization program for the Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (OFMD) of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and the DOE Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM). SRNL manages a broad program of item tracking through process history, laboratory analysis, and non-destructive assay. A combination of analytical techniques allows SRNL to predict the isotopic and chemical properties that qualify materials for disposition through the Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF). The research also defines properties that are important for other disposition paths, including disposal to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) as transuranic waste (TRUW) or to high-level waste (HLW) systems

  11. Immobilization as a route to surplus fissile materials disposition. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safe management of surplus weapons plutonium is a very important and urgent task with profound environmental, national and international security implications. In the aftermath of the Cold War, Presidential Police Directive 13 and various analysis by renown scientific, technical and international policy organizations have brought about a focused effort within the Department of Energy to identify and implement paths forward for the long term disposition of surplus weapons usable plutonium. The central, overarching goal is to render surplus weapons plutonium as inaccessible and unattractive for reuse in nuclear weapons, as the much larger and growing stock of plutonium contained in civilian spent reactor fuel. One disposition alternative considered for surplus Pu is immobilization, in which plutonium would be emplaced in glass, ceramic or glass-bonded zeolite. This option, along with some of the progress over the last year is discussed

  12. Generation of high energy square-wave pulses in all anomalous dispersion Er:Yb passive mode locked fiber ring laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semaan, Georges; Ben Braham, Fatma; Salhi, Mohamed; Meng, Yichang; Bahloul, Faouzi; Sanchez, François

    2016-04-18

    We have experimentally demonstrated square pulses emission from a co-doped Er:Yb double-clad fiber laser operating in anomalous dispersion DSR regime using the nonlinear polarization evolution technique. Stable mode-locked pulses have a repetition rate of 373 kHz with 2.27 µJ energy per pulse under a pumping power of 30 W in cavity. With the increase of pump power, both the duration and the energy of the output square pulses broaden. The experimental results demonstrate that the passively mode-locked fiber laser operating in the anomalous regime can also realize a high-energy pulse, which is different from the conventional low-energy soliton pulse. PMID:27137277

  13. Link Between Trade Surplus and Labor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The past four years have seen China’s trade surplus soar. It accounted for 7 percent of the country’s gross domestic product (GDP) in 2006.Indications are that this will exceed 10 percent in 2007.Given the swelling trade surplus and its rising proportion to the GDP,many people conclude that China’s economy is seriously imbalanced.Li Yang,Director of the Institute of Finance and Banking,the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences,recently shared his views on the issue in an article in Wen Hui Bao,a Shanghai-based newspaper.

  14. Investigation of anomalous spectral structure in low-energy positron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scattering of low-energy positrons on a thorium target has been investigated. The positron-electron energy spectrum in the interval 265-425 keV is best described in terms of Bhabha scattering with the addition of a small peak at about 330 keV for both the positrons and the electrons. The evidence for this peak is not considered conclusive. (author)

  15. Overview of surplus weapons plutonium disposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudy, G.

    1996-05-01

    The safe disposition of surplus weapons useable plutonium is a very important and urgent task. While the functions of long term storage and disposition directly relate to the Department`s weapons program and the environmental management program, the focus of this effort is particularly national security and nonproliferation.

  16. Management strategies for surplus electricity loads using electrolytic hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Management of electricity-hydrogen binomials is greatly enhanced by the knowledge of power variations, together with an optimized performance of the electrolyzers. Strategies include the regulation of current densities to minimize hydrogen costs, which depend of the energy prices, the power of installations and utilization factors. The objective is to convert the energy in distinct periods of electricity demand, taking into account the size and efficiency of the equipments; this approach indicates the possibility to reduce costs below a reference price, either by using small facilities which consume high proportions of surplus energy or larger plants for shorter off-peak periods. Thus, we study the viability of large scale production of hydrogen via electrolysis, within the context of excess electricity loads in France (estimated at 22 TWh in 2007): that gives a daily hydrogen potential of 1314 ton, from a total installed power of 5800 MW and average utilization ratios of 42.8%; the production cost approaches 1$/kgH2, and CO2 reduction potential amounts 6720 kton/year (if all the produced hydrogen is used to feed 3 million of new fuel-cell vehicles). This analysis serves to demonstrate the great potentials for converting the surplus energy into hydrogen carriers and for managing the power subsystem in thoroughly electrified societies. (author)

  17. Management strategies for surplus electricity loads using electrolytic hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez-Martin, F. [Dept. Quimica Industrial y Polimeros, EUITI, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Rda.Valencia 3, E-28012 Madrid (Spain); Garcia-De Maria, J.M. [Dept. Fisica Aplicada, EUITI, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Rda.Valencia 3, 28012 Madrid (Spain); Bairi, A.; Laraqi, N. [Dept. Genie Thermique et Energie, IUT, Universite Paris X, Chemin Desvallieres 1, 92410 Ville d' Avray (France)

    2009-10-15

    Management of electricity-hydrogen binomials is greatly enhanced by the knowledge of power variations, together with an optimized performance of the electrolyzers. Strategies include the regulation of current densities to minimize hydrogen costs, which depend of the energy prices, the power of installations and utilization factors. The objective is to convert the energy in distinct periods of electricity demand, taking into account the size and efficiency of the equipments; this approach indicates the possibility to reduce costs below a reference price, either by using small facilities which consume high proportions of surplus energy or larger plants for shorter off-peak periods. Thus, we study the viability of large scale production of hydrogen via electrolysis, within the context of excess electricity loads in France (estimated at 22 TWh in 2007): that gives a daily hydrogen potential of 1314 ton, from a total installed power of 5800 MW and average utilization ratios of 42.8%; the production cost approaches 1$/kg{sub H{sub 2}}, and CO{sub 2} reduction potential amounts 6720 kton/year (if all the produced hydrogen is used to feed 3 million of new fuel-cell vehicles). This analysis serves to demonstrate the great potentials for converting the surplus energy into hydrogen carriers and for managing the power subsystem in thoroughly electrified societies. (author)

  18. Search for Anomalous Production of Photon, b-jet, and Missing Transverse Energy at CDF

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Shin-Shan

    2008-01-01

    We report the results of two signature-based searches for new physics using 1.9- 2.0 fb-1 of data collected at the CDF experiment. Both analyses look in events containing a photon, a b-tagged jet, and missing transverse energy. The first search requires an additional jet. The second search requires an extra electron or muon. No significant excess of events over the Standard Model prediction is observed. We also describe the ``CES/CPR'' method which is used to estimate the amount of mis-identified photons.

  19. Anomalous dimensionality dependence of diffusion in a rugged energy landscape: How pathological is one dimension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Kazuhiko; Bagchi, Kaushik; Bagchi, Biman

    2016-05-21

    Diffusion in one dimensional rugged energy landscape (REL) is predicted to be pathologically different (from any higher dimension) with a much larger chance of encountering broken ergodicity [D. L. Stein and C. M. Newman, AIP Conf. Proc. 1479, 620 (2012)]. However, no quantitative study of this difference has been reported, despite the prevalence of multidimensional physical models in the literature (like a high dimensional funnel guiding protein folding/unfolding). Paradoxically, some theoretical studies of these phenomena still employ a one dimensional diffusion description for analytical tractability. We explore the dimensionality dependent diffusion on REL by carrying out an effective medium approximation based analytical calculations and compare them with the available computer simulation results. We find that at an intermediate level of ruggedness (assumed to have a Gaussian distribution), where diffusion is well-defined, the value of the effective diffusion coefficient depends on dimensionality and changes (increases) by several factors (∼5-10) in going from 1d to 2d. In contrast, the changes in subsequent transitions (like 2d to 3d and 3d to 4d and so on) are far more modest, of the order of 10-20% only. When ruggedness is given by random traps with an exponential distribution of barrier heights, the mean square displacement (MSD) is sub-diffusive (a well-known result), but the growth of MSD is described by different exponents in one and higher dimensions. The reason for such strong ruggedness induced retardation in the case of one dimensional REL is discussed. We also discuss the special limiting case of infinite dimension (d = ∞) where the effective medium approximation becomes exact and where theoretical results become simple. We discuss, for the first time, the role of spatial correlation in the landscape on diffusion of a random walker. PMID:27208935

  20. Keeping Food Alive: Surplus Food Management

    OpenAIRE

    Sedef Sert; Paola Garrone; Marco Melacini

    2014-01-01

    This paper is motivated by the paradoxical reality of food waste in a world of food insecurity, which is an important issue even for developed countries. Today, in Europe,nearly 43.6 million people are estimated to be food insecure, while European countries are reported to generate 179 kg per capita of food waste every year. Previous empirical studies highlight the potential of surplus food management, i.e. managerial processes and practices that strike a balance between social, environmental...

  1. The Micro-Economics of 'Surplus Labor

    OpenAIRE

    Ranis, Gustav

    1997-01-01

    This paper examines the apparent conflict between the classical assumption of a bargaining agricultural sector wage and the neoclassical assumption of a competitive wage in the context of a labor surplus developing economy. It concludes that the relatively inelastic supply of labor hours offered by low income small or landless farmers in the static micro-economic leisure/work context is perfectly consistent with the persistence for some time of an institutional real wage offered to the non-ag...

  2. Study of the Energy Dependence of the Anomalous Mean Free Path Effect by Means of High-energy ($\\geq$12 GeV/nucleon) Helium Nuclei

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The proposal concerns an extension to higher energies of previous experiments which have provided evidence for anomalously short reaction mean free paths among projectile fragments from heavy ion interactions.\\\\ \\\\ It is intended to provide information on the interaction properties of projectile fragments, mainly 3He, P, D, T as well as of scattered 4He nuclei in passive detectors exposed to beams of energies exceeding those available in previous experim factor of about 7. \\\\ \\\\ Interaction mean free paths and event topologies will be measured in a nuclear emulsion stack (LBL) of 7.5~cm~x~5~cm~x~25~cm dimensions. Decay effects will be recorded by comparing the activity of spallation residues in dense and diluted copper target assemblies (Marburg). Target fragmentation will be studied in a stack of silverchloride crystal foils (Frankfurt) of about 7~cm~x~6~cm~x~1~cm dimensions. The \\alpha beam ejected at EJ~62 will be used to provide both exposures at high intensity of 10|1|2 alphas on th and at low intensity ...

  3. Surplus Highly Enriched Uranium Disposition Program plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide upper level guidance for the program that will downblend surplus highly enriched uranium for use as commercial nuclear reactor fuel or low-level radioactive waste. The intent of this document is to outline the overall mission and program objectives. The document is also intended to provide a general basis for integration of disposition efforts among all applicable sites. This plan provides background information, establishes the scope of disposition activities, provides an approach to the mission and objectives, identifies programmatic assumptions, defines major roles, provides summary level schedules and milestones, and addresses budget requirements.

  4. Study about hydrogen and methanation as power surplus valorization process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to examine the use of technologies that allow converting power into gas as ways of providing added value to power surpluses. In the Anglo-Saxon world, and in numerous other countries, this concept is known as Power-to-Gas (PtG or P2G). The massive integration of fluctuating renewable energy sources ((wind and photovoltaic principally) into electricity systems implies more and more time periods during which production will exceed consumption. The volumes at stake could surpass the conventional capacities of flexibility and storage of the electricity system: the conversion into another energy carrier therefore appears as a solution for giving value to these surpluses. As the basic technology of Power-to-Gas, electrolysis converts electrical energy into chemical energy in the form of hydrogen gas (H2), by separating molecules of water (H2O). The gas produced can be used on-site in different manners, for example by a manufacturer for it's own process needs or by a filling station for hydrogen-fuelled vehicles (fuel-cell motorisation), or it can be stored locally for being later converted back into power through a fuel-cell. However it can also be directly injected into the gas distribution or transmission networks, thus creating a coupling of various energy networks and carriers: in this way the possibilities to create added-value from power surpluses are significantly increased and diversified both in terms of final use as well as across a scope of time and space. The development of Power-to-Gas can be summarized in three key steps. In the short to mid-term, hydrogen represents, when incorporated into the gas network in limited proportions (a few %) and/or used directly in some niche markets (particularly via fuel cells) a way to provide added value to substantial renewable electricity surpluses.. In the longer term, a transition toward synthetic methane production would allow to overcome all technical barriers linked with gas

  5. Are ''anomalous'' cosmic rays the main contribution to the low-energy ''galactic'' cosmic ray spectrum?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherer, Klaus; Fichtner, Horst [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Lehrstuhl IV- Weltraum- und Astrophysik, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum (Germany); Ferreira, Stefan; Buesching, Ingo; Potgieter, Marius [Unit for Space Physics, North-West University, Potchefstroom (South Africa)

    2008-07-01

    While the high-energy part of the galactic cosmic ray spectrum is well observed, its nature at energies below about 1 GeV/nucleon is still not known well. Recent in-situ measurements made with the Voyager 1 spacecraft in the heliosheath between the solar wind termination shock and the heliopause have not only added further constraints to the local interstellar spectrum of galactic cosmic rays at low energies, but also suggest how the proton part is formed in the Galaxy. It appears that the acceleration of heliospheric anomalous cosmic rays does not only take place at the solar wind termination shock but to an even larger extent within the heliosheath leading to a significantly higher source strength than expected. Combining this finding with recent model results for astrospheres immersed in different interstellar environments shows that the astrospheric anomalous cosmic ray fluxes of solar-type stars can be a hundred times higher than thought earlier and, consequently, their total contribution to the lower end of the interstellar spectrum can be significant.

  6. The cognitive surplus is made of fossil fuels

    OpenAIRE

    Tomlinson, Bill; Silberman, M. Six

    2012-01-01

    People in the industrial world have a great deal of free time. Clay Shirky has described this free time, considered as a whole, as a vast “cognitive surplus,” and presents many efforts currently under way to use the cognitive surplus for prosocial ends. However, the cognitive surplus came to exist largely as a result of labor–saving devices that run on fossil fuels. Many problems relating to fossil fuels constrain how people can responsibly use the cognitive surplus to addre...

  7. Anomalous Earth flybys of spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Klaus; Dwivedi, Bhola N.

    2015-07-01

    A small deviation from the potential is expected for the gravitational interaction of extended bodies. It is explained as a consequence of a recently proposed gravitational impact model (Wilhelm et al. in Astrophys. Space Sci. 343:135-144, 2013) and has been applied to anomalous perihelion advances by Wilhelm and Dwivedi (New Astron. 31:51-55, 2014). The effect—an offset of the effective gravitational centre from the geometric centre of a spherical symmetric body—might also be responsible for the observed anomalous orbital energy gains and speed increases during Earth flybys of several spacecraft. However, close flybys would require detailed considerations of the orbit geometry. In this study, an attempt is made to explain the anomalous Earth flybys of the Galileo, NEAR Shoemaker and Rosetta spacecraft.

  8. ON THE FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE SURPLUS OF DIFFUSE GALACTIC GAMMA-RAY EMISSION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent observations of diffuse Galactic γ-ray emission (DGE) by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (Fermi-LAT) have shown significant deviations, above a few GeV to about 100 GeV, from DGE models that use the GALPROP code for the propagation of cosmic ray (CR) particles outside their sources in the Galaxy and their interaction with the target distributions of the interstellar gas and radiation fields. The surplus of radiation observed is most pronounced in the inner Galaxy, where the concentration of CR sources is strongest. The present study investigates this 'Fermi-LAT Galactic Plane Surplus' by estimating the γ-ray emission from the sources themselves, which is disregarded in the above DGE models. It is shown that the expected hard spectrum of CRs, still confined in their sources (source cosmic rays, SCRs), can indeed explain this surplus. The method is based on earlier studies regarding the so-called EGRET GeV excess, which by now is generally interpreted as an instrumental effect. The contribution from SCRs is also predicted to increasingly exceed the DGE models above 100 GeV, up to γ-ray energies of about 10 TeV, where the corresponding surplus exceeds the hadronic part of the DGE by about one order of magnitude. Above such energies, the emission surplus should decrease again with energy due to the finite lifetime of the assumed supernova remnant sources. Observations of the DGE in the inner Galaxy at 15 TeV with the ground-based Milagro γ-ray detector and, at TeV energies, with the ARGO-YBJ detector are interpreted to provide confirmation of a significant SCR contribution to the DGE

  9. 50 CFR 30.1 - Surplus range animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Surplus range animals. 30.1 Section 30.1... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM RANGE AND FERAL ANIMAL MANAGEMENT Range Animals § 30.1 Surplus range animals. Range animals on fenced wildlife refuge areas, including buffalo and longhorn cattle,...

  10. 50 CFR 30.2 - Disposition of surplus range animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposition of surplus range animals. 30.2... (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM RANGE AND FERAL ANIMAL MANAGEMENT Range Animals § 30.2 Disposition of surplus range animals. Disposition shall be made only during regularly scheduled...

  11. 25 CFR 117.14 - Miscellaneous expenditure of surplus funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Miscellaneous expenditure of surplus funds. 117.14... AND EXPENDITURE OF INDIVIDUAL FUNDS OF MEMBERS OF THE OSAGE TRIBE OF INDIANS WHO DO NOT HAVE CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY § 117.14 Miscellaneous expenditure of surplus funds. Upon application by an...

  12. Weighing the options for limiting surplus animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asa, Cheryl

    2016-05-01

    The unsustainability of many animal programs managed by zoos and aquariums has brought renewed attention to unresolved questions about various management strategies. Solving the "sustainability crisis" for many species will require housing more adults and producing more offspring than there are existing spaces in accredited zoos and aquariums. Careful reproductive management is central to addressing this challenge, but opinions differ about which management strategies are best for an individual, for a species, for an institution, or for a country or region. The primary options for limiting the number of animals that would be surplus to the population are to prevent reproduction or to euthanize. However, there is much misunderstanding about methods for controlling reproduction, in particular about contraceptives and species differences in their effects. Careful weighing of all the options is called for. Lifetime Reproductive Planning may help increase breeding success through careful reproductive management but cannot eliminate production of surplus animals. Limiting reproduction does not address the problem of animals already in the population. Despite best efforts and planning, consistently hitting target numbers for a population may never be achieved. Increasing capacity provides a temporary patch when targets are exceeded, but is not a long-term solution, since each generation potentially produces even more individuals needing even more space. Welfare considerations should be included in discussions of management euthanasia and its alternatives. Such discussions will be most productive if based on full awareness of the advantages and disadvantages of all the options. Zoo Biol. 35:183-186, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27187931

  13. $W^{+-}$-production in $e^{-}$ p-collisions at CERN LEP/LHC energies with a non-standard $W^{+-}$ anomalous magnetic moment

    CERN Document Server

    Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, A

    2000-01-01

    We discuss the production of charged bosons in deep inelastic e-p- scattering, in the context of an electroweak model, in which the vector boson self interactions may be different from those prescribed by the electroweak standard model. We present results which show the strong dependence of the cross section on the anomalous magnetic dipole moment kappa of the W/sup +or-/. We show that even small deviations from the standard model value of kappa ( kappa =1) implies an observable deviation in the W/sup +or-/-production rates at CERN LEP/LHC energies. We also show that for the analysis of the charged boson production via e/sup -/p collisions at LEP/LHC energies will be very important to include the contribution from heavy boson exchange diagrams to the cross section rates. (25 refs).

  14. How Large Is China’s Rural Surplus Labor Force?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马晓河; 马建蕾

    2008-01-01

    The existence of surplus labor in the countryside and transfer of agricultural labor to non-agricultural sectors is a common phenomenon in economic development.Supply of rural surplus labor will change with the transfer of labor.By calculating the di erence between the agricultural labor force and current demand of laborin agriculture,this paper seeks to estimate the total amount of China’s rural surplus labor as identified by age,gender and education.Results indicate that there areroughly 110 million rural surplus laborers,of which 50%are aged above 40 years old,55.37%are women,and 42.96%have received an education below primaryschool.Currently,China’s rural surplus labor supply falls short of non-agricultural industry demand.

  15. Progress and problems in the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program and Surplus Facilities Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) was established in 1974 to identify, evaluate, and as appropriate, conduct remedial actions at sites used in the early years of nuclear energy development by the Manhattan Engineer District and the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC). This program currently has 29 sites and is evaluating 350 other sites for possible inclusion in the program. Another remedial action program in the Department of Energy's (DOE) Division of Facility and Site Decommissioning Projects is the Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP). The SFMP involves the safe management, decontamination and disposal of surplus DOE contaminated facilities which were not related to defense activities. There are currently 33 projects at 15 different sites in the program. These two programs have made steady progress over the last 10 or so years in cleaning up sites so that they can be reused or released for unrestricted use. Work has been completed at 8 of the FUSRAP sites and three of the SFMP sites

  16. Surplus plutonium disposition environmental impact statement. Public scoping meeting: Comment summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy (DOE) issued a Record of Decision for the Storage and Disposition of Weapons-Usable Fissile Materials Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (S ampersand D PEIS) (DOE/EIS-0229) on January 14, 1997. In that Record of Decision, DOE stated its decision to pursue a strategy for plutonium disposition that allows for immobilization of surplus weapons plutonium in glass or ceramic forms and irradiating the surplus plutonium as mixed oxide (MOX) fuel in existing reactors, while reserving the option to immobilize all the surplus weapons plutonium. The Department also decided that the extent to which either or both of these disposition approaches would ultimately be deployed would depend in part upon future National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) review for surplus weapons plutonium disposition. On May 22, 1997, DOE published in the Federal Register (62 FR 28013) a Notice of Intent to prepare an environmental impact statement (tiered from the S ampersand D PEIS) on the disposition of United States' surplus weapons-usable plutonium. The purpose of the Notice of Intent was to describe DOE's proposed action, to solicit public input, and to announce the schedule for the public scoping meetings. During the public scoping period (May 22 - July 22, 1997), the public was invited to submit written comments by U.S. mail, fax, or through the Office of Fissile Materials Disposition's Website, as well as to provide oral comments by voicemail or by participating in public scoping meetings. Written and oral comments on the scope of the SPD EIS that were submitted during the formal comment period have been uniquely identified and have become part of the official record. This is the case whether the comments were submitted via U.S. mail, fax, website, toll-free telephone number, or through participation at a public scoping meeting

  17. Hanford surplus facilities hazards identification document. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides general safety information needed by personnel who enter and work in surplus facilities managed by Bechtel Hanford, Inc. (BHI). The purpose of the document is to enhance access control of surplus facilities, educate personnel on the potential hazards associated with these facilities prior to entry, and ensure that safety precautions are taken while in the facility. Questions concerning the currency of this information should be directed to the building administrator (as listed in BHI-FS-01, Field Support Administration, Section 1.1, ''Access Control for ERC Surplus Facilities'')

  18. Performance assessment of DOE spent nuclear fuel and surplus plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yucca Mountain, in southern Nevada, is under consideration by the US Department of Energy (DOE) as a potential site for the disposal of the nation's radioactive wastes in a geologic repository. The wastes consist of commercial spent fuel, DOE spent nuclear fuel (SNF), high level waste (HLW), and surplus plutonium. The DOE was mandated by Congress in the fiscal 1997 Energy and Water Appropriations Act to complete a viability assessment (VA) of the repository in September of 1998. The assessment consists of a preliminary design concept for the critical elements of the repository, a total system performance assessment (TSPA), a plan and cost estimate for completion of the license application, and an estimate of the cost to construct and operate the repository. This paper presents the results of the sensitivity analyses that were conducted to examine the behavior of DOE SNF and plutonium waste forms in the environment of the base case repository that was modeled for the TSPA-VA. Fifteen categories of DOE SNF and two Plutonium waste forms were examined and their contribution to radiation dose to humans was evaluated

  19. The greater good: Integration in a surplus food management system

    OpenAIRE

    Farahbakhsh, Amy Shireen

    2015-01-01

    This study explores surplus food management in the City of Vancouver, including the organizations involved, how it behaves as a system, and opportunities for optimizing the system. The analysis incorporates environmental policy integration, systems thinking for sustainable development, food systems planning, and approaches to food security. Data collection included eight semi-structured interviews with individuals familiar with surplus food management, a review of literature and information f...

  20. Share-of-Surplus Product Line Optimisation with Price Levels

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, X. G.; Z. C. Zhang; Kwong, C. K.; J. F. Tang

    2014-01-01

    Kraus and Yano (2003) established the share-of-surplus product line optimisation model and developed a heuristic procedure for this nonlinear mixed-integer optimisation model. In their model, price of a product is defined as a continuous decision variable. However, because product line optimisation is a planning process in the early stage of product development, pricing decisions usually are not very precise. In this research, a nonlinear integer programming share-of-surplus product line opti...

  1. Application of surplus and waste materials in roads pavement making

    OpenAIRE

    S.M. Mousavi; Fazli, A. H.; Rouzmehr, F.

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays there are a lot of problems about surpluses and debris made by humans all around the world. Lots of these surpluses seriously harm our natural environment. Reuse of this kind of materials in other processes like building constructions or pavement help our natural environment in every aspect. Asphalt concrete is the main part of pavements in most parts of the world with an increasing rate of production in need of more ways and roads. In this paper we will provide...

  2. "Marx's Value, Exchange and Surplus Value Theory: A Suggested Interpretation"

    OpenAIRE

    Jean Cartelier

    1989-01-01

    The concept of commodity society based on a specific division of labour (opposition between private and social labor) and that of surplus-value are the most prominent achievements of Marx's intellectual efforts in dealing with the economy of capitalism. This paper attempts to evaluate the consistency of the theoretical propositions inherent in these concepts. The main contention is that an internal criticism of Marx's theory of exchange and surplus-value leads one to restate it in a different...

  3. Surplus foundry sand and its assessment of applicability in composting

    OpenAIRE

    Maharjan, Devendra

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to carry out a research on reuse possibility of surplus foundry sand in composting and develop a general proposal for guideline only as appendix in this thesis for the Finnish foundries to assist them in setting quality control system criteria to control the quality of surplus foundry sand suitable for composting and preventing any harm or risk to environment, human and natural resources. The research was made on the typical foundry sand used such as alkaline ph...

  4. UK surplus source disposal programme - 16097

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The UK Surplus Source Disposal Programme (SSDP), managed by the Environment Agency, was designed to remove redundant radioactive sources from the public domain. The UK Government Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) was concerned that disused sources were being retained by hospitals, universities and businesses, posing a risk to public health and the environment. AMEC provided a range of technical and administrative services to support the SSDP. A questionnaire was issued to registered source holders and the submitted returns compiled to assess the scale of the project. A member of AMEC staff was seconded to the Environment Agency to provide technical support and liaise directly with source holders during funding applications, which would cover disposal costs. Funding for disposal of different sources was partially based on a sliding scale of risk as determined by the IAEA hazard categorisation system. This funding was also sector dependent. The SSDP was subsequently expanded to include the disposal of luminised aircraft instruments from aviation museums across the UK. These museums often hold significant radiological inventories, with many items being unused and in a poor state of repair. These instruments were fully characterised on site by assessing surface dose rate, dimensions, source integrity and potential contamination issues. Calculations using the Microshield computer code allowed gamma radiation measurements to be converted into total activity estimates for each source. More than 11,000 sources were disposed of under the programme from across the medical, industrial, museum and academic sectors. The total activity disposed of was more than 8.5 E+14 Bq, and the project was delivered under budget. (authors)

  5. Discussions on JNC roles and issues on management and disposition of surplus plutonium from the dismantlement of nuclear warhead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) and Russian Federation are now promoting the collaborative project to use the fast breeder reactor of BN-600 for the Russian surplus plutonium under the framework of the bilateral agreement on peaceful use of atomic energy. Based upon this background, JNC organized a study group to survey the world aspect on surplus plutonium resulting in START (Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty). The study group, including technical experts and also experts on international affairs, made a report after their survey and gave wide range discussion on various issues. The surplus plutonium of Russian Federation was estimated to be 102 - 136 tones. There were shortages of back end technologies in Russian infrastructures for dismantling, reprocessing and disposition of the surplus plutonium. A supporting leadership of USA to Russian Federation met some difficulties due to the strategic gap between both countries. One of the examples is the temporal evolution of USA attitude toward the CANDU (thermal power reactors of Canadian design characterized by heavy water moderator, pressure tube construction, and on-power refuelling) option to use surplus plutonium as MOX (Mixed OXide) fuels. Additional supports from the G8 (Group of eight) countries except USA and Russian Federation came up to their expectation. For examples, the joint group of French, German and Russian is promoting DEMOX (Demonstration of MOX fuel) project but is on the way to discussion depending on various thoughts about mutual benefits. Many issues remained in joint project with CIS (Commonwealth of Independent States), such as safeguard, nonproliferation, energy supply and demand, and environmental impacts. In addition, public opinions will give some impacts to policy makers, especially in USA. This report had analyzed many viewpoints for technical and political issues on surplus plutonium in the world, and pointed out consequences, merits and demerits after possible many

  6. Reducing food waste through direct surplus food redistribution : the Norwegian case

    OpenAIRE

    Capodistrias, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Food waste is a global problem with significant economic and environmental consequences. Food waste management approaches include production of biogas, animal feed and compost and surplus food redistribution. From a sustainability point of view, surplus food redistribution is the most favorable approach. Surplus food redistribution can be either direct (between suppliers of surplus food and charity food services) or indirect (Through Food banks). This paper is a case study on direct surplus f...

  7. Anomalous radiative transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anomalous transitions involving photons derived by many-body interaction of the form ∂μGμ in the standard model are studied for the first time. This does not affect the equation of motion in the bulk, but modifies the wavefunctions, and causes an unusual transition characterized by a time-independent probability. In the transition probability at a time interval T expressed generally in the form P=TΓ0+P(d), now with P(d)≠0. The diffractive term P(d) has its origin in the overlap of waves of the initial and final states, and reveals the characteristics of waves. In particular, the processes of the neutrino–photon interaction ordinarily forbidden by the Landau–Yang theorem (Γ0=0) manifest themselves through the boundary interaction. The new term leads physical processes over a wide energy range to have finite probabilities. New methods of detecting neutrinos using lasers are proposed, based on this diffractive term; these would enhance the detectability of neutrinos by many orders of magnitude

  8. Surplus plutonium disposition draft environmental impact statement. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On May 22, 1997, DOE published a Notice of Intent (NOI) in the Federal Register (62 Federal Register 28009) announcing its decision to prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) that would tier from the analysis and decisions reached in connection with the Storage and Disposition of Weapons-Usable Fissile Materials Final Programmatic EIS (Storage and Disposition PEIS). DOE's disposition strategy allows for both the immobilization of surplus plutonium and its use as mixed oxide (MOX) fuel in existing domestic, commercial reactors. The disposition of surplus plutonium would also involve disposal of the immobilized plutonium and MOX fuel (as spent nuclear fuel) in a geologic repository. The Surplus Plutonium Disposition Environmental Impact Statement analyzes alternatives that would use the immobilization approach (for some of the surplus plutonium) and the MOX fuel approach (for some of the surplus plutonium); alternatives that would immobilize all of the surplus plutonium; and the No Action Alternative. The alternatives include three disposition facilities that would be designed so that they could collectively accomplish disposition of up to 50 metric tons (55 tons) of surplus plutonium over their operating lives: (1) the pit disassembly and conversion facility would disassemble pits (a weapons component) and convert the recovered plutonium, as well as plutonium metal from other sources, into plutonium dioxide suitable for disposition; (2) the immobilization facility would include a collocated capability for converting nonpit plutonium materials into plutonium dioxide suitable for immobilization and would be located at either Hanford or SRS. DOE has identified SRS as the preferred site for an immobilization facility; (3) the MOX fuel fabrication facility would fabricate plutonium dioxide into MOX fuel

  9. Surplus plutonium disposition draft environmental impact statement. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On May 22, 1997, DOE published a Notice of Intent (NOI) in the Federal Register (62 Federal Register 28009) announcing its decision to prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) that would tier from the analysis and decisions reached in connection with the Storage and Disposition of Weapons-Usable Fissile Materials Final Programmatic EIS (Storage and Disposition PEIS). DOE's disposition strategy allows for both the immobilization of surplus plutonium and its use as mixed oxide (MOX) fuel in existing domestic, commercial reactors. The disposition of surplus plutonium would also involve disposal of the immobilized plutonium and MOX fuel (as spent nuclear fuel) in a geologic repository. The Surplus Plutonium Disposition Environmental Impact Statement analyzes alternatives that would use the immobilization approach (for some of the surplus plutonium) and the MOX fuel approach (for some of the surplus plutonium); alternatives that would immobilize all of the surplus plutonium; and the No Action Alternative. The alternatives include three disposition facilities that would be designed so that they could collectively accomplish disposition of up to 50 metric tons (55 tons) of surplus plutonium over their operating lives: (1) the pit disassembly and conversion facility would disassemble pits (a weapons component) and convert the recovered plutonium, as well as plutonium metal from other sources, into plutonium dioxide suitable for disposition; (2) the immobilization facility would include a collocated capability for converting nonpit plutonium materials into plutonium dioxide suitable for immobilization and would be located at either Hanford or SRS. DOE has identified SRS as the preferred site for an immobilization facility; (3) the MOX fuel fabrication facility would fabricate plutonium dioxide into MOX fuel. Volume 2 contains the appendices to the report and describe the following: Federal Register notices; contractor nondisclosure statement; adjunct melter

  10. A cosmic-ray nuclear event with an anomalously strong concentration of energy and particles in the central region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cosmic-ray-induced nuclear event detected in an emulsion chamber is described. The event consist of 217 shower cores with ΣEγ=1.275 TeV. In a logarithmic scale, energy and particles are emitted most densely at the small lateral distance corresponding to 0.5 mm; 77% of the total energy and 61% of the total multiplicity are inside a radius of 0.65 cm. The shower cores in the central region show exponential-type energy distribution and nonisotropic azimuthal distribution

  11. Habit Formation, Surplus Consumption and Return Predictability: International Evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsted, Tom; Hyde, Stuart; Møller, Stig V.

    On an international post World War II dataset, we use an iterated GMM pro- cedure to estimate and test the Campbell-Cochrane (1999) habit formation model. In addition, we analyze the predictive power of the surplus consumption ratio for future asset returns. We find that, although there are impor......On an international post World War II dataset, we use an iterated GMM pro- cedure to estimate and test the Campbell-Cochrane (1999) habit formation model. In addition, we analyze the predictive power of the surplus consumption ratio for future asset returns. We find that, although...... there are important cross-country differences, for the majority of countries in our sample the model gets empirical support in a variety of diffrent dimensions, including reasonable estimates of risk- free rates, and the model dominates the time-separable power utility model in terms of pricing errors. Further......, for the majority of countries the surplus consumption ratio captures time-variation in expected returns. Together with the price-dividend ratio, the surplus consumption ratio contains significant information about future stock returns, also during the 1990s. Finally, in most countries the surplus con- sumption...

  12. Transfer of Rural Surplus Labor and Vocational Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The paper introduces about the rural surplus labor transfer.According to the paper,the transfer of rural surplus labor in China presents such fundamental characteristics as randomness and non-thoroughness,scope and field constraint,and hysteretic nature of employment and industrial structure conversion.Besides,the causes of the difficulties in the transfer of rural surplus labor lie in the barriers from the system and policy,structural imbalance of industry and low quality of rural labor.The paper studies the correlation between the quality and the transfer of rural surplus labor FORCE in a systematical way from three aspects,which are the correlations between rural labor quality and the transfer difficulty & speed,the transfer scope & field and the employment stability & income after transfer respectively.Moreover,the paper carries out analysis of the special effects of vocational education on the transfer of rural surplus labor in China,which shows that vocational education is a help in the improvement of cultural qualities,labor skills and physical & mental health of rural labor.

  13. On the origin of the anomalous behaviour of 2+ excitation energies in the neutron-rich Cd isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent experimental results obtained using β decay and isomer spectroscopy indicate an unusual behaviour of the energies of the first excited 2+ states in neutron-rich Cd isotopes approaching the N=82 shell closure. To explain the unexpected trend, changes of the nuclear structure far-off stability have been suggested, namely a quenching of the N=82 shell gap already in 130Cd, only two proton holes away from doubly magic 132Sn. We study the behaviour of the 2+ energies in the Cd isotopes from N=50 to N=82, i.e. across the entire span of a major neutron shell using modern beyond mean field techniques and the Gogny force. We demonstrate that the observed low 2+ excitation energy in 128Cd close to the N=82 shell closure is a consequence of the doubly magic character of this nucleus for oblate deformation favoring thereby prolate configurations rather than spherical ones

  14. Does China's Huge External Surplus Imply an Undervalued Renminbi?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anthony J. Makin

    2007-01-01

    A pegged exchange rate regime has been pivotal to China's export-led development strategy. However, its huge trade surpluses and massive build up of international reserves have been matched by large deficits for major trading partners, creating acute policy concerns abroad, especially in the USA. This paper provides a straightforward conceptual framework for interpreting the effect of China's exchange rate policy on its own trade balance and that of trading partners in the context of discrepant economic growth rates. It shows how pegging the exchange rate when output is outstripping expenditure induces China's trade surpluses and counterpart deficits for its trading partners. An important corollary is that given its strictly regulated capital account, China's persistently large surpluses imply a significantly undervalued renminbi, which should gradually become more flexible.

  15. Strategy-proof assignment with a vanishing budget surplus

    OpenAIRE

    Moulin, Hervé

    2007-01-01

    A VCG mechanism to assign p identical objects is feasible is cash transfers yield no deficit. The efficiency loss of such a mechanism is the worst ratio of budget surplus to efficient surplus. We compute the optimal efficiency loss for all n and p, when we also require Voluntary Participation as well as when we do not. Without the VP requirement, the optimal efficiency loss converges to zero uniformly in p, and exponentially fast if p is fixed. With the VP requirement asymptotic budget balanc...

  16. Anomalous Higgs couplings

    CERN Document Server

    González-Garciá, M Concepción

    1999-01-01

    We review the effects of new effective interactions on Higgs-boson phenomenology. New physics in the electroweak bosonic sector is expected to induce additional interactions between the Higgs doublet field and the electroweak gauge bosons, leading to anomalous Higgs couplings as well as anomalous gauge-boson self-interactions. Using a linearly realized SU(2)/sub L/*U(1)/sub Y/ invariant effective Lagrangian to describe the bosonic sector of the Standard Model, we review the effects of the new effective interactions on the Higgs- boson production rates and decay modes. We summarize the results from searches for the new Higgs signatures induced by the anomalous interactions in order to constrain the scale of new physics, in particular at CERN LEP and Fermilab Tevatron colliders. (43 refs).

  17. Anomalous law of cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapas, Luciano C., E-mail: luciano.lapas@unila.edu.br [Universidade Federal da Integração Latino-Americana, Caixa Postal 2067, 85867-970 Foz do Iguaçu, Paraná (Brazil); Ferreira, Rogelma M. S., E-mail: rogelma.maria@gmail.com [Centro de Ciências Exatas e Tecnológicas, Universidade Federal do Recôncavo da Bahia, 44380-000 Cruz das Almas, Bahia (Brazil); Rubí, J. Miguel, E-mail: mrubi@ub.edu [Departament de Física Fonamental, Facultat de Física, Universitat de Barcelona, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Oliveira, Fernando A., E-mail: fernando.oliveira@pq.cnpq.br [Instituto de Física and Centro Internacional de Física da Matéria Condensada, Universidade de Brasília, Caixa Postal 04513, 70919-970 Brasília, Distrito Federal (Brazil)

    2015-03-14

    We analyze the temperature relaxation phenomena of systems in contact with a thermal reservoir that undergoes a non-Markovian diffusion process. From a generalized Langevin equation, we show that the temperature is governed by a law of cooling of the Newton’s law type in which the relaxation time depends on the velocity autocorrelation and is then characterized by the memory function. The analysis of the temperature decay reveals the existence of an anomalous cooling in which the temperature may oscillate. Despite this anomalous behavior, we show that the variation of entropy remains always positive in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics.

  18. Anomalous law of cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyze the temperature relaxation phenomena of systems in contact with a thermal reservoir that undergoes a non-Markovian diffusion process. From a generalized Langevin equation, we show that the temperature is governed by a law of cooling of the Newton’s law type in which the relaxation time depends on the velocity autocorrelation and is then characterized by the memory function. The analysis of the temperature decay reveals the existence of an anomalous cooling in which the temperature may oscillate. Despite this anomalous behavior, we show that the variation of entropy remains always positive in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics

  19. Anomalous law of cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapas, Luciano C.; Ferreira, Rogelma M. S.; Rubí, J. Miguel; Oliveira, Fernando A.

    2015-03-01

    We analyze the temperature relaxation phenomena of systems in contact with a thermal reservoir that undergoes a non-Markovian diffusion process. From a generalized Langevin equation, we show that the temperature is governed by a law of cooling of the Newton's law type in which the relaxation time depends on the velocity autocorrelation and is then characterized by the memory function. The analysis of the temperature decay reveals the existence of an anomalous cooling in which the temperature may oscillate. Despite this anomalous behavior, we show that the variation of entropy remains always positive in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics.

  20. Study of the anomalous presence of iron in olive trees leaves by energy dispersion X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, we made use of the technique of X-ray fluorescence for dispersion in energy, to study a phytopathology denominated 'sooty mould' on leaves of Olive trees of Mediterranean area. The Olive trees are quite common and of great economical value in that area,especially in the island of Sardegna in Italy, where this work was developed, for treating one of the income main sources of the local economy. We observed a correlation between the elements Fe and Ca among infected leaves of Olive trees and not infected that is: leaves infected by the sooty mould present a large concentration of Fe and a low concentration of Ca when compared to the leaves not infected by the sooty mould. The oxidation state of Fe was determined by Moessbauer spectroscopy that revealed that this was Fe3+. (author)

  1. A survey of Coulomb displacement energies and questions on the anomalous behavior in the upper fp-shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent advances in nuclear mass measurement have sparked discussions on the isospin-symmetry breaking reflected in the Coulomb displacement energy (CDE). The current data suggested that the regular phase of the odd–even staggering in CDE for the T = 1/2 mirror nuclei persists up to A = 67 and changes at A = 69. Shell-model calculations using the modern GXPF1A and JUN45 effective interactions with a proper treatment of the Coulomb and isospin-nonconserving forces cannot describe the observation. Inspired by recent work (Kaneko 2013 Phys. Rev. Lett. 110 172505), we investigate the systematic behavior of CDE along the N = Z line up to the heaviest available masses. Starting from A ≈ 65, a systematic deviation is observed between the experimental data and the model estimations assuming the nucleus as a homogeneously charged sphere. Possibilities that may resolve the conflict between the experimental mass and theoretical expectations for the 69Br-region are discussed, and new mass experiments are called for. (paper)

  2. Surplus School Buildings: New Opportunities for Adaptive Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    AIA Journal, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Declining enrollments are leaving many districts with space they no longer need. The conversion of surplus school buildings to new uses can often provide communities with new vitality. Examples show unused schools converted for use as apartments, shops, and office space for public agencies. (Author/MLF)

  3. Why Double Surplus in China's International Balance of Payments?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Zhengxiang

    2010-01-01

    @@ In accordance with the theory of development economics,developing countries should maintain a current account deficit and capital account surplus, and achieve a higher level of investment through foreign savings rather than just domestic savings. The international financial crisis not only hit the European and US economy, but also gave China's macro-micro economy a heavy blow.

  4. 26 CFR 1.815-4 - Policyholders surplus account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Distributions to Shareholders § 1.815-4 Policyholders surplus account. (a) In...) by reason of distributions to shareholders during the taxable year which are treated as being made...), exceeds $25,000 for the taxable year 1959. Assume that of the amount distributed by S to its...

  5. Anomalous pion decay revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Battistel, O A; Nemes, M C; Hiller, B

    1999-01-01

    An implicit four dimensional regularization is applied to calculate the axial-vector-vector anomalous amplitude. The present technique always complies with results of Dimensional Regularization and can be easily applied to processes involving odd numbers of $\\gamma_5$ matrices. This is illustrated explicitely in the example of this letter.

  6. Anomalous Hall effect

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nagaosa, N.; Sinova, Jairo; Onoda, S.; MacDonald, A. H.; Ong, N. P.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 2 (2010), s. 1539-1592. ISSN 0034-6861 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : anomalous Hall effect * spintronics Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 51.695, year: 2010

  7. Anomalous tunneling in carbon/alkane/TiO(2)/gold molecular electronic junctions: energy level alignment at the metal/semiconductor interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Haijun; McCreery, Richard L

    2009-02-01

    Carbon/TiO(2)/gold electronic junctions show slightly asymmetric electronic behavior, with higher current observed in current density (J)/voltage (V) curves when carbon is biased negative with respect to the gold top contact. When a approximately 1-nm-thick alkane film is deposited between the carbon and TiO(2), resulting in a carbon/alkane/TiO(2)/gold junction, the current increases significantly for negative bias and decreases for positive bias, thus creating a much less symmetric J/V response. Similar results were obtained when SiO(2) was substituted for the alkane layer, but Al(2)O(3) did not produce the effect. The observation that, by the addition of an insulating material between carbon and TiO(2), the junction becomes more conductive is unexpected and counterintuitive. Kelvin probe measurements revealed that while the apparent work function of the pyrolyzed photoresist film electrode is modulated by surface dipoles of different surface-bound molecular layers, the anomalous effect is independent of the direction of the surface dipole. We propose that by using a nanometer-thick film with a low dielectric constant as an insertion layer, most of the applied potential is dropped across this thin film, thus permitting alignment between the carbon Fermi level and the TiO(2) conduction band. Provided that the alkane layer is sufficiently thin, electrons can directly tunnel from carbon to the TiO(2) conduction band. Therefore, the electron injection barrier at the carbon/TiO(2) interface is effectively reduced by this energy-level alignment, resulting in an increased current when carbon is biased negative. The modulation of injection barriers by a low-kappa molecular layer should be generally applicable to a variety of materials used in micro- and nanoelectronic fabrication. PMID:20353235

  8. Natural gas: redistributing the economic surplus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The natural gas has a limited role in the Brazilian energy balance. This role in industrial countries and some developing countries is much more important. Historically this contrasting situation can be explained by the limited natural gas reserves Brazil used to have. Since the oil crisis however the Brazilian natural gas reserves increased substantially without a similar increase in the role of natural gas in the energy balance. The existing institutional arrangement generates a struggle for the economic rent generated by natural gas production and consumption that seems to be at the core of this question. Our paper estimates the economic rent generated by natural gas in Brazil and its distribution among producers and consumers: it points toward a new institutional arrangement that could arguably, generate a new role for the natural gas in the Brazilian energy balance. (author)

  9. Does Surplus Participation Reflect Market Discipline? An Analysis of the German Life Insurance Market

    OpenAIRE

    Eling, Martin; Kiesenbauer, Dieter

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze whether the level of surplus participation affects customer demand. We use multivariate linear regression models and data on surplus participation, new business, and lapse for the German life insurance market from 1998 to 2008. We find a significant positive dependence between surplus participation and new business growth as well as a significant negative dependence between surplus participation and growth of lapse volume. Overall, these findings indicate t...

  10. Anomalous fluorescence line intensity in megavoltage bremsstrahlung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Nino; Litz, Marc; Merkel, George; Schumer, Joseph; Seely, John; Carroll, Jeff

    2009-11-01

    A Cauchois transmission crystal spectrometer intended for laser plasma diagnostics has measured an anomalous ratio between the fluorescence lines in megavoltage bremsstrahlung. When observed in reflection, Kα1 fluorescence is twice as strong as the Kβ line, as is usual. However, in forward-directed bremsstrahlung from a 2 MV end point linear accelerator with a tungsten converter, the Kα1 and Kβ fluorescence are approximately equal. The anomalous fluorescence line ratio, unity, reflects the large amount of fluorescence generated on the side of the converter where the electrons enter, and the differential attenuation of the fluorescence photons as they pass through the converter to opposite side. Understanding of fluorescence in megavoltage bremsstrahlung is relevant to the explanation of anomalous line ratios in spectra produced by high-energy electrons generated by intense femtosecond laser irradiation.

  11. 50 CFR 31.2 - Methods of surplus wildlife population control and disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Methods of surplus wildlife population control and disposal. 31.2 Section 31.2 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE... Surplus Wildlife § 31.2 Methods of surplus wildlife population control and disposal. Upon a...

  12. Anomalous transport in toroidal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When the magnetic moment of particle is conserved, there are three mechanisms which cause anomalous transport. These are: variation of magnetic field strength in flux surface, variation of electrostatic potential in flux surface, and destruction of flux surface. The anomalous transport of different groups of particles resulting from each of these mechanisms is different. This fact can be exploited to determine the cause of transport operative in an experimental situation. This approach can give far more information on the transport than the standard confinement time measurements. To implement this approach, we have developed Monte Carlo codes for toroidal geometries. The equations of motion are developed in a set of non-canonical, practical Boozer co-ordinates by means of Jacobian transformations of the particle drift Hamiltonian equations of motion. Effects of collisions are included by appropriate stochastic changes in the constants of motion. Effects of the loop voltage on particle motions are also included. We plan to apply our method to study two problems: the problem of the hot electron tail observed in edge region of ZT-40, and the energy confinement time in TOKAPOLE II. For the ZT-40 problem three situations will be considered: a single mode in the core, a stochastic region that covers half the minor radius, a stochastic region that covers the entire plasma. A turbulent spectrum of perturbations based on the experimental data of TOKAPOLE II will be developed. This will be used to simulate electron transport resulting from ideal instabilities and resistive instabilities in TOKAPOLE II

  13. Thermoeconomic and thermodynamics analysis of a sugarcane plant that produces energy surplus for commercialization; Analise termodinamica e termoeconomica de uma usina sucroalcooleira que produz excedente de energia para comercializacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiomari, Marcelo Caldato; Mashiba, Marcos Hideo da Silva; Lima, Rodrigo dos Santos; Maia, Cassio Roberto Macedo; Ramos, Ricardo Alan Verdu [Universidade Estadual Paulista (NUPLEN/UNESP), Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Nucleo de Planejamento Energetico, Geracao e Cogeracao de Energia], e-mail: nuplen@dem.feis.unesp.br

    2006-07-01

    In this work, thermodynamic and thermo economic analyses of a plant resulted from an expansion of the Pioneiros Distillery's cogeneration system are carried out, which is constituted basically by a boiler that produces 140 ton/h of steam at high pressure and temperature (6,6 MPa and 530 deg C, respectively), by a condensation-extraction turbine that drives a electrical generator producing 32 MW, being the mechanical drivers realized by electrical engines. By means of thermodynamic analyses it's possible to define some plant's performance indexes as well as evaluate the global use of energy in each component. The thermo economic analysis allows evaluating the costs of capital and fuel reflexes in the composition of the products (steam and electricity) costs. (author)

  14. Depolarization of high-energy neutral particles in crystals and the possibility to measure anomalous magnetic moments of short-lived hyperons

    CERN Document Server

    Baryshevsky, V G

    2016-01-01

    The degree of depolarization of neutral particles in crystals can reach tens of percents over the crystal length of several centimeters, which can be the basis for possible experimental application of the depolarization effect for measuring anomalous magnetic moments of short-lived neutral hyperons.

  15. Anomalous lattice expansion in yttria stabilized zirconia under simultaneous applied electric and thermal fields: A time-resolved in situ energy dispersive x-ray diffractometry study with an ultrahigh energy synchrotron probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akdogan, E. K.; Savkl Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I y Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I ld Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I z, I.; Bicer, H.; Paxton, W.; Toksoy, F.; Tsakalakos, T. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854-8065 (United States); Zhong, Z. [National Synchrotron Light Source, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States)

    2013-06-21

    Nonisothermal densification in 8% yttria doped zirconia (8YSZ) particulate matter of 250 nm median particle size was studied under 215 V/cm dc electric field and 9 Degree-Sign C/min heating rate, using time-resolved in-situ high temperature energy dispersive x-ray diffractometry with a polychromatic 200 keV synchrotron probe. Densification occurred in the 876-905 Degree-Sign C range, which resulted in 97% of the theoretical density. No local melting at particle-particle contacts was observed in scanning electron micrographs, implying densification was due to solid state mass transport processes. The maximum current draw at 905 Degree-Sign C was 3 A, corresponding to instantaneous absorbed power density of 570 W/cm{sup 3}. Densification of 8YSZ was accompanied by anomalous elastic volume expansions of the unit cell by 0.45% and 2.80% at 847 Degree-Sign C and 905 Degree-Sign C, respectively. The anomalous expansion at 905 Degree-Sign C at which maximum densification was observed is characterized by three stages: (I) linear stage, (II) anomalous stage, and (III) anelastic recovery stage. The densification in stage I (184 s) and II (15 s) was completed in 199 s, while anelastic relaxation in stage III lasted 130 s. The residual strains ({epsilon}) at room temperature, as computed from tetragonal (112) and (211) reflections, are {epsilon}{sub (112)} = 0.05% and {epsilon}{sub (211)} = 0.13%, respectively. Time dependence of (211) and (112) peak widths ({beta}) show a decrease with both exhibiting a singularity at 905 Degree-Sign C. An anisotropy in (112) and (211) peak widths of {l_brace} {beta}{sub (112)}/{beta}{sub (211)}{r_brace} = (3:1) magnitude was observed. No phase transformation occurred at 905 Degree-Sign C as verified from diffraction spectra on both sides of the singularity, i.e., the unit cell symmetry remains tetragonal. We attribute the reduction in densification temperature and time to ultrafast ambipolar diffusion of species arising from the

  16. Nonlocal Anomalous Hall Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Steven S.-L.; Vignale, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    The anomalous Hall (AH) effect is deemed to be a unique transport property of ferromagnetic metals, caused by the concerted action of spin polarization and spin-orbit coupling. Nevertheless, recent experiments have shown that the effect also occurs in a nonmagnetic metal (Pt) in contact with a magnetic insulator [yttrium iron garnet (YIG)], even when precautions are taken to ensure that there is no induced magnetization in the metal. We propose a theory of this effect based on the combined action of spin-dependent scattering from the magnetic interface and the spin-Hall effect in the bulk of the metal. At variance with previous theories, we predict the effect to be of first order in the spin-orbit coupling, just as the conventional anomalous Hall effect—the only difference being the spatial separation of the spin-orbit interaction and the magnetization. For this reason we name this effect the nonlocal anomalous Hall effect and predict that its sign will be determined by the sign of the spin-Hall angle in the metal. The AH conductivity that we calculate from our theory is in order of magnitude agreement with the measured values in Pt /YIG structures.

  17. 222Rn surpluses in Warm-Core rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of 222Rn and 226Ra were made in the western Atlantic Ocean as part of the Warm-Core rings Program. A significant number of measurements on waters taken from the surface and deeper waters showed 222Rn concentrations in excess of those supported by the parent 226Ra. Since the source of these 222Rn surpluses is near-bottom shelf or slope water, and since the half-life of 222Rn is only 3.8 days, such 222Rn surpluses are indicative of rapid offshore advective and or mixing processes. Concentrations of 226Ra exhibit a small but measurable increase when moving from a Sargasso Sea, through the slope water, and up onto the shelf

  18. Share-of-Surplus Product Line Optimisation with Price Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. G. Luo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Kraus and Yano (2003 established the share-of-surplus product line optimisation model and developed a heuristic procedure for this nonlinear mixed-integer optimisation model. In their model, price of a product is defined as a continuous decision variable. However, because product line optimisation is a planning process in the early stage of product development, pricing decisions usually are not very precise. In this research, a nonlinear integer programming share-of-surplus product line optimization model that allows the selection of candidate price levels for products is established. The model is further transformed into an equivalent linear mixed-integer optimisation model by applying linearisation techniques. Experimental results in different market scenarios show that the computation time of the transformed model is much less than that of the original model.

  19. Dealing with a dangerous surplus from the cold war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proliferation of nuclear materials is a threat to national security and world peace. This threat complicates the safeguarding and management of fissile materials that have become surplus since the end of the Cold War. The dismantling of weapons and the cessation of new nuclear weapons manufacturing, while positive for world peace, have raised a problem: what to do about the fissile materials recovered from the weapons or in inventories that will remain unused. These materials--primarily plutonium and highly enriched uranium--are environmental, safety, and health concerns. But of more urgency is the threat they pose to national and international security if they fall into the hands of terrorists or rogue nations. As arms reduction continues and amounts of surplus fissile materials increase, the potential for such security breaches will increase

  20. LLNL MOX fuel lead assemblies data report for the surplus plutonium disposition environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this document is to support the US Department of Energy (DOE) Fissile Materials Disposition Program's preparation of the draft surplus plutonium disposition environmental impact statement. This is one of several responses to data call requests for background information on activities associated with the operation of the lead assembly (LA) mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication facility. The DOE Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (DOE-MD) has developed a dual-path strategy for disposition of surplus weapons-grade plutonium. One of the paths is to disposition surplus plutonium through irradiation of MOX fuel in commercial nuclear reactors. MOX fuel consists of plutonium and uranium oxides (PuO2 and UO2), typically containing 95% or more UO2. DOE-MD requested that the DOE Site Operations Offices nominate DOE sites that meet established minimum requirements that could produce MOX LAs. LLNL has proposed an LA MOX fuel fabrication approach that would be done entirely inside an S and S Category 1 area. This includes receipt and storage of PuO2 powder, fabrication of MOX fuel pellets, assembly of fuel rods and bundles, and shipping of the packaged fuel to a commercial reactor site. Support activities will take place within a Category 1 area. Building 332 will be used to receive and store the bulk PuO2 powder, fabricate MOX fuel pellets, and assemble fuel rods. Building 334 will be used to assemble, store, and ship fuel bundles. Only minor modifications would be required of Building 332. Uncontaminated glove boxes would need to be removed, petition walls would need to be removed, and minor modifications to the ventilation system would be required

  1. LLNL MOX fuel lead assemblies data report for the surplus plutonium disposition environmental impact statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Connor, D.G.; Fisher, S.E.; Holdaway, R. [and others

    1998-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to support the US Department of Energy (DOE) Fissile Materials Disposition Program`s preparation of the draft surplus plutonium disposition environmental impact statement. This is one of several responses to data call requests for background information on activities associated with the operation of the lead assembly (LA) mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication facility. The DOE Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (DOE-MD) has developed a dual-path strategy for disposition of surplus weapons-grade plutonium. One of the paths is to disposition surplus plutonium through irradiation of MOX fuel in commercial nuclear reactors. MOX fuel consists of plutonium and uranium oxides (PuO{sub 2} and UO{sub 2}), typically containing 95% or more UO{sub 2}. DOE-MD requested that the DOE Site Operations Offices nominate DOE sites that meet established minimum requirements that could produce MOX LAs. LLNL has proposed an LA MOX fuel fabrication approach that would be done entirely inside an S and S Category 1 area. This includes receipt and storage of PuO{sub 2} powder, fabrication of MOX fuel pellets, assembly of fuel rods and bundles, and shipping of the packaged fuel to a commercial reactor site. Support activities will take place within a Category 1 area. Building 332 will be used to receive and store the bulk PuO{sub 2} powder, fabricate MOX fuel pellets, and assemble fuel rods. Building 334 will be used to assemble, store, and ship fuel bundles. Only minor modifications would be required of Building 332. Uncontaminated glove boxes would need to be removed, petition walls would need to be removed, and minor modifications to the ventilation system would be required.

  2. The Interacting Boson Model for Anomalous Rotational Bands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIANCheng-De; LIUDang-Bo; 等

    2002-01-01

    The interacting boson model for anomalous rotational bands is proposed.In the rotational SU(3) limit an asymptotic limit is discussed.Within the framework of the model several analytic relations for energies and electromagnetic transition rates are derived.

  3. Marketed Surplus and Price Spread of Vegetables in Kashmir Valley

    OpenAIRE

    Baba, S.H.; Wani, M.H.; Wani, S A; Yousuf, Shahid

    2010-01-01

    The paper has reported the growth of vegetable sector in relation with technology mission, extent and determinants of marketed surplus and price spread of vegetables in the Kashmir valley. A substantial increase in the area and production of vegetables has been observed under Mini-Mission-II scheme of Technology Mission. At the farm level, vegetables have been observed to occupy an important place in the cropping pattern. The intensity of cropping in the study area has become more than 250 pe...

  4. Some optimal dividend problems for a surplus process with interest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Hu; GENG Wen-ting

    2008-01-01

    We derive some results on the dividend payments prior to ruin in the classical surplus process with interest. An integro-differential equation with a boundary conditions satisfied by the expected present value of dividend payments is derived and solved. Furthermore, we derive an integro-differential equation for the moment generating function, through which we analyze the higher moment of the present value of dividend payments. Finally, closed-form expressions for exponential claims are given.

  5. Cupid's Invisible Hand: Social Surplus and Identification in Matching Models

    OpenAIRE

    Salanié, Bernard; Galichon, Alfred

    2012-01-01

    We investigate a model of one-to-one matching with transferable utility when some of the characteristics of the players are unobservable to the analyst. We allow for a wide class of distributions of unobserved heterogeneity, subject only to a separability assumption that generalizes Choo and Siow (2006). We first show that the stable matching maximizes a social gain function that trades off the average surplus due to the observable characteristics and a generalized entropy term that reflects ...

  6. Surplus production and basic aspects of subsistence economy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Danielisová, Alžběta

    Budapest: Archaeolingua Alapítvány, 2015 - (Danielisová, A.; Fernández-Götz, M.), s. 103-118. (Archaeolingua. 35). ISBN 978-963-9911-70-3 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP405/12/0926 Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : Iron Age * surplus * production * consumption * modelling * social simulation Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  7. HAS ANDHRHA PRADESH BECOME A RICE-SURPLUS STATE?

    OpenAIRE

    Ramanamurthy, R V

    2013-01-01

    Rice production in Andhra Pradesh has risen remarkably in the last three decades. The farm harvest prices started falling below the minimum support prices in the state in the recent years. This is viewed by some as an indication of surplus production over its domestic requirements in the state, which has several policy implications. This paper makes an estimation of demand for rice in the last twenty years to assess the claim and makes projections for rice demand the next five years. Further,...

  8. How can the German electricity export surplus in 2013 be explained?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In principle cross-border electricity transmission can be accounted for by price differences between the relevant electricity exchanges. For any given level of electricity demand the price of electricity at the individual electricity exchanges is primarily influenced by fuel prices, power plant availability and the feed-in of electricity from renewable energy, and differences in electricity prices in turn are a determinant of cross-border transmission. Some may have been surprised by the high level of electricity export in the spring of 2011, only shortly after 8 GW of power plant capacity had been shut down as part of the nuclear energy phaseout. What in fact explains the existing export surplus are the continuing excess of power plant capacity, an efficient power plant fleet compared with other European countries and the continuing growth of renewable energies in Germany.

  9. The quantum anomalous Hall effect

    OpenAIRE

    LIU, CHAO-XING; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; Qi, Xiao-Liang

    2015-01-01

    The quantum anomalous Hall effect is defined as a quantized Hall effect realized in a system without external magnetic field. Quantum anomalous Hall effect is a novel manifestation of topological structure in many-electron systems, and may have potential applications in future electronic devices. In recent years, quantum anomalous Hall effect has been proposed theoretically and realized experimentally. In this review article, we provide a systematic overview of the theoretical and experimenta...

  10. Anomalous Dimensions of Conformal Baryons

    CERN Document Server

    Pica, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    We determine the anomalous dimensions of baryon operators for the three color theory as function of the number of massless flavours within the conformal window to the maximum known order in perturbation theory. We show that the anomalous dimension of the baryon is controllably small for a wide range of number of flavours. We also find that this is always smaller than the anomalous dimension of the fermion mass operator. These findings challenge the partial compositeness paradigm.

  11. Anomalous scalings in differential models of turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Thalabard, Simon; Galtier, Sebastien; Sergey, Medvedev

    2015-01-01

    Differential models for hydrodynamic, passive-scalar and wave turbulence given by nonlinear first- and second-order evolution equations for the energy spectrum in the $k$-space were analysed. Both types of models predict formation an anomalous transient power-law spectra. The second-order models were analysed in terms of self-similar solutions of the second kind, and a phenomenological formula for the anomalous spectrum exponent was constructed using numerics for a broad range of parameters covering all known physical examples. The first-order models were examined analytically, including finding an analytical prediction for the anomalous exponent of the transient spectrum and description of formation of the Kolmogorov-type spectrum as a reflection wave from the dissipative scale back into the inertial range. The latter behaviour was linked to pre-shock/shock singularities similar to the ones arising in the Burgers equation. Existence of the transient anomalous scaling and the reflection-wave scenario are argu...

  12. Anomalous N=2 superconformal Ward identities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The N=2 superconformal Ward identities and their anomalies are discussed in N=2 superspace (including N=2 harmonic superspace), at the level of the low-energy effective action (LEEA) in four-dimensional N=2 supersymmetric field theories. The (first) chiral N=2 supergravity compensator is related to the known N=2 anomalous Ward identity in the N=2 (abelian) vector mulitplet sector. As regards the hypermultiplet LEEA given by the N=2 non-linear sigma-model (NLSM), a new anomalous N=2 superconformal Ward identity is found, whose existence is related to the (second) analytic compensator in N=2 supergravity. The celebrated solution of Seiberg and Witten is known to obey the (first) anomalous Ward identity in the Coulomb branch. We find a few solutions to the new anomalous Ward identity, after making certain assumptions about unbroken internal symmetries. Amongst the N=2 NLSM target space metrics governing the hypermultiplet LEEA are the SU(2)-Yang-Mills-Higgs monopole moduli-space metrics that can be encoded in terms of the spectral curves (Riemann surfaces), similarly to the Seiberg-Witten-type solutions. After a dimensional reduction to three spacetime dimensions (3d), our results support the mirror symmetry between the Coulomb and Higgs branches in 3d, N=4 gauge theories

  13. Engineering studies for the surplus production reactor decommissioning project at the Hanford site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eight nuclear reactors on the Hanford Site are retired from service and ready for decommissioning. Viable, decommissioning alternatives for these facilities were assessed, and the Department of Energy (DOE) issued the Record of Decision for the Decommissioning of Eight Surplus Production Reactors at the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington on September 14, 1993. This document indicated DOE's selection of safe storage followed by deferred one-piece removal on a time frame consistent with the proposed Hanford cleanup schedule for remedial actions included in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement). One-piece removal, following conventional Decontamination and Decommissioning (D ampersand D) of the reactor building, will dispose of the reactor blocks by transporting them intact to a disposal facility for burial. The project is technically complex; each reactor block weighs 9,000-11,000 tons and will be transported from 5/14 miles to the disposal site. The Westinghouse Hanford Company subsequently established the Surplus Production Reactor Decommissioning Project (SPRDP), and conceptual engineering for the SPRDP has been initiated

  14. Statistical analysis of anomalous transport in resistive interchange turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new anomalous transport model for resistive interchange turbulence is derived from statistical analysis applying two-scale direct-interaction approximation to resistive magnetohydrodynamic equations with a gravity term. Our model is similar to the K-ε model for eddy viscosity of turbulent shear flows in that anomalous transport coefficients are expressed in terms of by the turbulent kinetic energy K and its dissipation rate ε while K and ε are determined by transport equations. This anomalous transport model can describe some nonlocal effects such as those from boundary conditions which cannot be treated by conventional models based on the transport coefficients represented by locally determined plasma parameters. (author)

  15. No-Drag Frame for Anomalous Chiral Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephanov, Mikhail A.; Yee, Ho-Ung

    2016-03-01

    We show that for an anomalous fluid carrying dissipationless chiral magnetic and/or vortical currents there is a frame in which a stationary obstacle experiences no drag, but energy and charge currents do not vanish, resembling superfluidity. However, unlike ordinary superfluid flow, the anomalous chiral currents can transport entropy in this frame. We show that the second law of thermodynamics completely determines the amounts of these anomalous nondissipative currents in the "no-drag frame" as polynomials in temperature and chemical potential with known anomaly coefficients. These general results are illustrated and confirmed by a calculation in the chiral kinetic theory and in the quark-gluon plasma at high temperature.

  16. The no-drag frame for anomalous chiral fluid

    CERN Document Server

    Stephanov, Mikhail A

    2015-01-01

    We show that for an anomalous fluid carrying dissipationless chiral magnetic and/or vortical currents there is a frame in which a stationary obstacle experiences no drag, but energy and charge currents do not vanish, resembling superfluidity. However, unlike ordinary superfluid flow, the anomalous chiral currents do transport entropy in this frame. We show that the second law of thermodynamics completely determines the amounts of these anomalous non-dissipative currents in the "no-drag frame" as polynomials in temperature and chemical potential with known anomaly coefficients. These general results are illustrated and confirmed by a calculation in the chiral kinetic theory and quark-gluon plasma at high temperature.

  17. A Mystery of the Global Surplus and its Ramification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko G Malovic

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with phenomenon of the increasingly indicative global imbalances and lagging genesis of balance of payments (BoP accounting in an attempt to accommodate the ongoing mutation of international trade and finance. Namely, although BoP of the world as a whole should be zero since international trade in goods, services and financial assets ought to be a zero-sum game, our planet apparently runs a non-negligible and rising BoP surplus, projected to reach 1% of global GDP by 2015! To make the puzzle more bizarre, IMF statistics up until 2004 had recorded a persistent BoP deficit for the entire globe, which P. Krugman dubbed “The Mystery of the missing Surplus”. Well, surplus is back with the vengeance – while this paper tries to make sense of the phenomenon and pinpoint both its determinants and likely economic consequences. In conclusion, it appears that 1 during international financial crises quality and accuracy of the BoP statistics worsens worldwide, 2 net global imbalances may still be much smaller than we commonly believe, 3 true culprits may not be our usual suspects, 4 gross trade exhibits stark differences once confronted with decomposed value-added net exports and imports free of double counted processed exports and indirect exporting, 5 also, deliberate misreporting of cross-border investment proceeds as well as MNE’s transfer pricing practices may account for a relevant portion of registered global imbalances, and finally, 6 even the latest 6th edition of the IMF’s BoP and IIP Manual explicitly tackles but a few of the factors behind the returning surplus mystery. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE

  18. The Democratic Surplus that Constitutionalised the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

    2015-01-01

    This article questions the very foundation of the doctrine of a so-called “democratic deficit” in the EU. Yet in order to argue beyond nationalist myths, clear-cut concepts are necessary. Speaking about democracy in the EU, the article exposes four dimensions that constitute a “democratic surplus...... classical nation-state, the EU, secondly, is not build by nobles and monarchs, nor by war. Third, a separation of powers is obvious. And fourth, this article demonstrates how the EU rescued the democratic nation-state....

  19. Regulated Prices, Rent-Seeking, and Consumer Surplus

    OpenAIRE

    Bulow, Jeremy; Klemperer, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Price controls lead to misallocation of goods and encourage rent-seeking. The misallocation effect alone ensures that a price control always reduces consumer surplus in an otherwise-competitive market with convex demand if supply is more elastic than demand; or with log-convex demand (e.g., constant-elasticity) even if supply is inelastic. The same results apply whether rationed goods are allocated by costless lottery, or whether costly rent-seeking and/or partial decontrol mitigates the inef...

  20. R&D Subsidies and the Surplus Appropriability Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anders

    2005-01-01

    It may be optimal from a welfare perspective to use R&D subsidies when the source of R&D distortions originates from the surplus appropriability problem and technological spillovers in the form of knowledge spillovers, creative destruction, and duplication externalities are absent. Hence, R&D sub...... unwilling to use the level of spending required to implement the optimum policy. The argument is developed in a semi-endogenous growth model where the only distortion is monopoly pricing of intermediate goods.Keywords: R&D, policy instruments, welfare, market powerJEL: O38, O41...

  1. Spectrum of anomalous magnetohydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2016-05-01

    The equations of anomalous magnetohydrodynamics describe an Abelian plasma where conduction and chiral currents are simultaneously present and constrained by the second law of thermodynamics. At high frequencies the magnetic currents play the leading role, and the spectrum is dominated by two-fluid effects. The system behaves instead as a single fluid in the low-frequency regime where the vortical currents induce potentially large hypermagnetic fields. After deriving the physical solutions of the generalized Appleton-Hartree equation, the corresponding dispersion relations are scrutinized and compared with the results valid for cold plasmas. Hypermagnetic knots and fluid vortices can be concurrently present at very low frequencies and suggest a qualitatively different dynamics of the hydromagnetic nonlinearities.

  2. Detection of anomalous events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferragut, Erik M.; Laska, Jason A.; Bridges, Robert A.

    2016-06-07

    A system is described for receiving a stream of events and scoring the events based on anomalousness and maliciousness (or other classification). The system can include a plurality of anomaly detectors that together implement an algorithm to identify low-probability events and detect atypical traffic patterns. The anomaly detector provides for comparability of disparate sources of data (e.g., network flow data and firewall logs.) Additionally, the anomaly detector allows for regulatability, meaning that the algorithm can be user configurable to adjust a number of false alerts. The anomaly detector can be used for a variety of probability density functions, including normal Gaussian distributions, irregular distributions, as well as functions associated with continuous or discrete variables.

  3. Optically Anomalous Crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Shtukenberg, Alexander; Kahr, Bart

    2007-01-01

    Optical anomalies in crystals are puzzles that collectively constituted the greatest unsolved problems in crystallography in the 19th Century. The most common anomaly is a discrepancy between a crystal’s symmetry as determined by its shape or by X-ray analysis, and that determined by monitoring the polarization state of traversing light. These discrepancies were perceived as a great impediment to the development of the sciences of crystals on the basis of Curie’s Symmetry Principle, the grand organizing idea in the physical sciences to emerge in the latter half of the 19th Century. Optically Anomalous Crystals begins with an historical introduction covering the contributions of Brewster, Biot, Mallard, Brauns, Tamman, and many other distinguished crystallographers. From this follows a tutorial in crystal optics. Further chapters discuss the two main mechanisms of optical dissymmetry: 1. the piezo-optic effect, and 2. the kinetic ordering of atoms. The text then tackles complex, inhomogeneous crystals, and...

  4. Due To Surplus in Aluminum Capacity, a Number of Enterprises Experienced Loss to Varying Degrees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Beginning from 2002,in China’s aluminum industry,aluminum output began to show surplus due to dwindling demand from downstream industry;in 2008 China’s aluminum surplus was expected to reach 500,000 tonnes.In recent years,capacity surplus in the aluminum industry has become widely known,in the final analysis,the reason is related to the accelerating speed of capacity

  5. China's Rural Enterprises: Effects of Agriculture, Surplus Labor, and Human Capital

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Yusheng

    1995-01-01

    Rural industry is the most dynamic sector in China. I argue that rural industrialization is funded by agricultural accumulation, driven by surplus labor, and sustained by human capital. Rural reforms since 1978 have allowed Chinese peasants to retain a larger share of agricultural surplus to be transferred into rural industries. Rural surplus labor and shortage of farmland drive rural industrialization by the dynamic of extensive growth. Education is crucial for rural industrialization becaus...

  6. ANL-W MOX fuel lead assemblies data report for the surplus plutonium disposition environmental impact statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Connor, D.G.; Fisher, S.E.; Holdaway, R. [and others

    1997-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to support the US Department of Energy (DOE) Fissile Materials Disposition Program`s preparation of the draft surplus plutonium disposition environmental impact statement (EIS). This is one of several responses to data call requests for background information on activities associated with the operation of the lead assembly (LA) mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication facility. The DOE Office of fissile Materials Disposition (DOE-MD) has developed a dual-path strategy for disposition of surplus weapons-grade plutonium. One of the paths is to disposition surplus plutonium through irradiation of MOX fuel in commercial nuclear reactors. MOX fuel consists of plutonium and uranium oxides (PuO{sub 2} and UO{sub 2}), typically containing 95% or more UO{sub 2}. DOE-MD requested that the DOE Site Operations Offices nominate DOE sites that meet established minimum requirements that could produce MOX LAs. The paper describes the following: Site map and the LA facility; process descriptions; resource needs; employment requirements; wastes, emissions, and exposures; accident analysis; transportation; qualitative decontamination and decommissioning; post-irradiation examination; LA fuel bundle fabrication; LA EIS data report assumptions; and LA EIS data report supplement.

  7. ANL-W MOX fuel lead assemblies data report for the surplus plutonium disposition environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this document is to support the US Department of Energy (DOE) Fissile Materials Disposition Program's preparation of the draft surplus plutonium disposition environmental impact statement (EIS). This is one of several responses to data call requests for background information on activities associated with the operation of the lead assembly (LA) mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication facility. The DOE Office of fissile Materials Disposition (DOE-MD) has developed a dual-path strategy for disposition of surplus weapons-grade plutonium. One of the paths is to disposition surplus plutonium through irradiation of MOX fuel in commercial nuclear reactors. MOX fuel consists of plutonium and uranium oxides (PuO2 and UO2), typically containing 95% or more UO2. DOE-MD requested that the DOE Site Operations Offices nominate DOE sites that meet established minimum requirements that could produce MOX LAs. The paper describes the following: Site map and the LA facility; process descriptions; resource needs; employment requirements; wastes, emissions, and exposures; accident analysis; transportation; qualitative decontamination and decommissioning; post-irradiation examination; LA fuel bundle fabrication; LA EIS data report assumptions; and LA EIS data report supplement

  8. Microeconomic Surplus in Health Care: Applied Economic Theory in Health Care in Four European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walzer, S.; Nuijten, M.; Wiesner, C.; Kaier, K.; Johansson, P-O.; Oertel, S.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: In economic theory economic surplus refers to two related quantities: Consumer and producer surplus. Applying this theory to health care “convenience” could be one way how consumer benefits might manifest itself. Methods: Various areas of economic surplus were identified and subsequently screened and analyzed in Germany, Spain, The Netherlands, and the UK: Cesarean births, emergency room visits (nights or weekends), drug availability after test results, and response surplus. A targeted literature search was being conducted to identify the associated costs. Finally the economic surplus (convenience value) was calculated. Results: The economic surplus for different health care areas was being calculated. The highest economic surplus was obtained for the example of response surplus IVF-treatments in The Netherlands. Conclusion: The analyzed examples in this article support the underlying hypothesis for this research: “Value of convenience defined as the consumer surplus in health care can be shown in different health care settings.” Again, this hypothesis should be accepted as a starting point in this research area and hence further primary research is strongly recommended in order to fully proof this concept. PMID:23423475

  9. Microeconomic surplus in health care: Applied economic theory in health care in four European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan eWalzer

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In economic theory economic surplus refers to two related quantities: Consumer and producer surplus. Applying this theory to health care convenience could be one way how consumer benefits might manifest itself. Methods: Various areas of economic surplus were identified and subsequently screened and analysed in Germany, Spain, The Netherlands and the UK: Caesarean births, emergency room visits (nights or weekends, drug availability after test results, and response surplus. A targeted literature search was being conducted to identify the associated costs. Finally the economic surplus (convenience value was calculated.Results: The economic surplus for different health care areas was being calculated. The highest economic surplus was obtained for the example of response surplus IVF-treatments in The Netherlands.Conclusions: The analyzed examples in this article support the underlying hypothesis for this research: Value of convenience defined as the consumer surplus in health care can be shown in different health care settings. Again, this hypothesis should be accepted as a starting point in this research area and hence further primary research is strongly recommended in order to fully proof this concept.

  10. Combination of results from the ATLAS and CMS experiments on anomalous triple gauge couplings in ZZ production from pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS and CMS Collaborations

    2016-01-01

    A procedure is presented to combine data from the ATLAS and CMS experiments on $ZZ$ production to obtain constraints on anomalous neutral triple gauge boson couplings. Statistical and systematic uncertainties and their correlations are taken into account. Data from $pp$ collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV delivered by the LHC are used. The datasets correspond to integrated luminosities of 4.6 and 5.0 $\\rm{fb^{−1}}$ for ATLAS and CMS, respectively. The combination is performed in the fully leptonic decay channels ZZ → 2l2ν (ATLAS) and ZZ → 4l (ATLAS, CMS). Combined limits on the coupling parameters are −0.010 < f4γ < 0.011, −0.0087 < f4Z < 0.0091, −0.011 < f5γ < 0.010, and −0.0091 < f5Z < 0.0089 at 95% C.L., where all other parameters are fixed to the standard model values. These results represent the first combined limits of the ATLAS and CMS collaborations for anomalous gauge boson couplings.

  11. Anomalous interactions at a linear collider

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sudhansu S Biswal; Debajyoti Choudhury; Rohini M Godbole; Ritesh K Singh

    2007-11-01

    We examine, in a model independent way, the sensitivity of a linear collider to the couplings of a light Higgs boson to a pair of gauge bosons, including the possibility of CP violation. We construct several observables that probe the various possible anomalous couplings. For an intermediate mass Higgs, a collider operating at a center of mass energy of 500 GeV and with an integrated luminosity of 500 fb-1 is shown to be able to constrain the vertex at the few per cent level, with even higher sensitivity for some of the couplings. However, lack of sufficient number of observables as well as contamination from the vertex limits the precision to which anomalous part of the coupling can be probed.

  12. Equilibrium fluctuation theorems compatible with anomalous response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez, L.; Curilef, S.

    2010-12-01

    Previously, we have derived a generalization of the canonical fluctuation relation between heat capacity and energy fluctuations C = β2langδU2rang, which is able to describe the existence of macrostates with negative heat capacities C < 0. In this work, we extend our previous results for an equilibrium situation with several control parameters to account for the existence of states with anomalous values in other response functions. Our analysis leads to the derivation of three different equilibrium fluctuation theorems: the fundamental and the complementary fluctuation theorems, which represent the generalization of two fluctuation identities already obtained in previous works, and the associated fluctuation theorem, a result that has no counterpart in the framework of Boltzmann-Gibbs distributions. These results are applied to study the anomalous susceptibility of a ferromagnetic system, in particular, the case of the 2D Ising model.

  13. Anomalous Hall effect in Weyl superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednik, G.; Zyuzin, A. A.; Burkov, A. A.

    2016-08-01

    We present a theory of the anomalous Hall effect in a topological Weyl superconductor with broken time reversal symmetry. Specifically, we consider a ferromagnetic Weyl metal with two Weyl nodes of opposite chirality near the Fermi energy. In the presence of inversion symmetry, such a metal experiences a weak-coupling Bardeen–Cooper–Schrieffer instability, with pairing of parity-related eigenstates. Due to the nonzero topological charge, carried by the Weyl nodes, such a superconductor is necessarily topologically nontrivial, with Majorana surface states coexisting with the Fermi arcs of the normal Weyl metal. We demonstrate that, surprisingly, the anomalous Hall conductivity of such a superconducting Weyl metal coincides with that of a nonsuperconducting one, under certain conditions, in spite of the nonconservation of charge in a superconductor. We relate this to the existence of an extra (nearly) conserved quantity in a Weyl metal, the chiral charge.

  14. Site Selection for Surplus Plutonium Disposition Facilities at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wike, L.D.

    2000-08-17

    A site selection study was conducted to evaluate locations for the proposed Surplus Plutonium Disposition Facilities. Facilities to be located include the Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility, the Pit Disassembly and Conversion Facility (PDCF), and the Plutonium Immobilization Project (PIP) facility. Objectives of the study include: (1) Confirm that the Department of Energy (DOE) selected locations for the MOX and PDCF were suitable based on selected siting criteria, (2) Recommend a site in the vicinity of F Area that is suitable for the PIP, and (3) Identify alternative suitable sites for one or more of these facilities in the event that further geotechnical characterization or other considerations result in disqualification of a currently proposed site.

  15. ORNL Surplus Facilities Management Program maintenance and surveillance plan for fiscal year 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is part of the Department of Energy's (DOE) National SFMP, administered by the Richland Operations Office. The purpose and objectives of the national program are set forth in the current SFMP Program Plan and include (1) the maintenance and surveillance of facilities awaiting decommissioning, (2) planning for the orderly decommissioning of these facilities, and (3) implementation of a program to accomplish the facility disposition in a safe, cost-effective, and timely manner. As outlined in the national program plan, participating SFMP contractors are required to prepare a formal plan that documents the maintenance and surveillance (M and S) programs established for each site. This report has been prepared to provide this documentation for those facilties included in the ORNL SFMP

  16. Site Selection for Surplus Plutonium Disposition Facilities at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A site selection study was conducted to evaluate locations for the proposed Surplus Plutonium Disposition Facilities. Facilities to be located include the Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility, the Pit Disassembly and Conversion Facility (PDCF), and the Plutonium Immobilization Project (PIP) facility. Objectives of the study include: (1) Confirm that the Department of Energy (DOE) selected locations for the MOX and PDCF were suitable based on selected siting criteria, (2) Recommend a site in the vicinity of F Area that is suitable for the PIP, and (3) Identify alternative suitable sites for one or more of these facilities in the event that further geotechnical characterization or other considerations result in disqualification of a currently proposed site

  17. 48 CFR 245.7205 - Reporting excess and surplus contractor inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... purchases or retention at cost). (3) Line 3—Insert total excess inventory reported by contractors during the... surplus contractor inventory. 245.7205 Section 245.7205 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... Instructions 245.7205 Reporting excess and surplus contractor inventory. (a) Contract administration...

  18. 25 CFR 117.7 - Disbursement or expenditure of surplus funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disbursement or expenditure of surplus funds. 117.7... AND EXPENDITURE OF INDIVIDUAL FUNDS OF MEMBERS OF THE OSAGE TRIBE OF INDIANS WHO DO NOT HAVE CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY § 117.7 Disbursement or expenditure of surplus funds. Except as provided in...

  19. Where Should the Rural Surplus Labour Force Go?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩康

    2007-01-01

    The Chinese government attaches a great deal of importance to the income growth of farmers.In considering strategies for solving rural problems in China,it is important not to depart from the external development strategy of transferring employment of the rural surplus labour force.For farmers to become rich,they must be fewer in number.This strategic task cannot be replaced by any of the new measures of an internal development strategy.However,certain scholars at home and abroad hold that difficulties have emerged during the transfer process.In this article,the author offers an in- depth analysis of this issue and puts forward some further considerations.

  20. The Estimation Methods for Agricultural Surplus Labor Based on Stochastic Frontier Production Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chaozhou; LU; Yanfen; LUO

    2014-01-01

    The existing calculation methods for the number of agricultural surplus labor have a common flaw,that is,they can not reflect the impact of technical efficiency changes in agricultural production on the surplus labor. Based on the basic principle of stochastic frontier production function,this paper calculates the agricultural production technical efficiency of various provinces,and selects the province with the highest technical efficiency to assume that its agricultural labor is fully utilized,and there is no agricultural surplus labor. With the ratio of agricultural labor number to agricultural output value in this province as a reference,this paper calculates the number of agricultural surplus labor in other provinces. This calculation method makes up for the shortcomings of the existing calculation methods; it reflects the relationship between the number of agricultural surplus labor and production technical efficiency.

  1. Petrology of Anomalous Eucrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Peng, Z. X.; Ross, D. K.

    2015-01-01

    Most mafic achondrites can be broadly categorized as being "eucritic", that is, they are composed of a ferroan low-Ca clinopyroxene, high-Ca plagioclase and a silica phase. They are petrologically distinct from angritic basalts, which are composed of high-Ca, Al-Ti-rich clinopyroxene, Carich olivine, nearly pure anorthite and kirschsteinite, or from what might be called brachinitic basalts, which are composed of ferroan orthopyroxene and high-Ca clinopyroxene, intermediate-Ca plagioclase and ferroan olivine. Because of their similar mineralogy and composition, eucrite-like mafic achondrites formed on compositionally similar asteroids under similar conditions of temperature, pressure and oxygen fugacity. Some of them have distinctive isotopic compositions and petrologic characteristics that demonstrate formation on asteroids different from the parent of the HED clan (e.g., Ibitira, Northwest Africa (NWA) 011). Others show smaller oxygen isotopic distinctions but are otherwise petrologically and compositionally indistinguishable from basaltic eucrites (e.g., Pasamonte, Pecora Escarpment (PCA) 91007). The degree of uniformity in delta O-17 of eucrites and diogenites is one piece of evidence considered to favor of a magma-ocean scenario for their petrogenesis. Given that the O isotopic differences separating Pasamonte and PCA 91007 from other eucrites are small, and that there is an absence of other distinguishing characteristics, a legitimate question is: Did the HED parent asteroid fail to homogenize via a magma-ocean stage, thus explaining outliers like Pasamonte? We are initiating a program of study of anomalous eucrite-like achondrites as one part of our effort to seek a resolution of this issue. Here we present preliminary petrologic information on Asuka (A-) 881394, Elephant Moraine (EET) 87520 and EET 87542. We will have studied several more by conference time.

  2. Anomalous position of the gallbladder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Tae II; Lim, Joo Won; Ko, Young Tae; Lee, Dong Ho; Yoon, Yup [Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-12-15

    To determine the significance of anomalous position of the gallbladder. Sixteen patients with anomalous position of the gallbladder were evaluated for analysis. The diagnosis was confirmed by ultrasonography(15 patients) and oral cholecystography(1 patient). Among those, six patients underwent CT scan and a patient had 99mTc-DISIDA scan. The images were analysed with respect to the location of the GB and configuration and associated abnormality of the liver and hepatobiliary systems. Medical records of each patient were also reviewed. Among 16 patients having an anomalous position of the gallbladder, nine had retrodisplaced gallbladder, four had left-sided gallbladder, two had supra hepatic gallbladder, and one had floating gallbladder. Except for one patient, fifteen had abnormality in the liver such as focal atrophic or hypoplastic change and liver cirrhosis. Intrahepatic stones were demonstrated in 6 patients. Our results showed that anomalous position of the gallbladder was commonly associated with atrophy or hypoplasia of the liver rather than congenital in origin. The possibility of an anomalous location of gallbladder should be kept in mind when GB is not in its normal location.

  3. Anomalous x-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The availability of tunable synchrotron radiation has made it possible systematically to perform x-ray diffraction studies in regions of anomalous scattering near absorption edges, e.g. in order to derive phase information for crystal structure determination. An overview is given of recent experimental and theoretical work and discuss the properties of the anomalous atomic scattering factor, with emphasis on threshold resonances and damping effects. The results are applied to a discussion of the very strong anomalous dispersion recently observed near the L3 edge in a cesium complex. Also given is an overview of elements and levels where similar behavior can be expected. Finally, the influence of solid state and chemical effects on the absorption edge structure is discussed. 64 references

  4. Anomalous Sudakov Form Factors

    CERN Document Server

    Ciafaloni, Marcello; Comelli, Denis

    2009-01-01

    While radiative corrections of infrared origin normally depress high energy amplitudes (Sudakov form factors), we find that in some cases resummation of leading effects produces exponentials with positive exponents, giving rise to amplitudes that grow indefinitely with energy. The effect happens in broken gauge theories like the electroweak sector of the Standard Model, and is related to the existence of amplitudes that do not respect the gauge symmetry. Contrary to expectations, these amplitudes, although mass suppressed, do not vanish in the very high energy limit, but rather become dominant. As a working example we consider a model with two chiral abelian gauge groups U'(1)times U(1) with large mass splitting M(Z') >> M(Z), and we compute leading radiative corrections corrections to the decay of the heavy extra Z' boson into light fermions. The chirality breaking magnetic dipole moment becomes the dominant contribution to the Z' width at very high energies.

  5. Effective actions for anomalous hydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We argue that an effective field theory of local fluid elements captures the constraints on hydrodynamic transport stemming from the presence of quantum anomalies in the underlying microscopic theory. Focussing on global current anomalies for an arbitrary flavour group, we derive the anomalous constitutive relations in arbitrary even dimensions. We demonstrate that our results agree with the constraints on anomaly governed transport derived hitherto using a local version of the second law of thermodynamics. The construction crucially uses the anomaly inflow mechanism and involves a novel thermofield double construction. In particular, we show that the anomalous Ward identities necessitate non-trivial interaction between the two parts of the Schwinger-Keldysh contour

  6. Challenges for Nordic power; How to handle the renewable electricity surplus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-11-15

    Almost two years after the EU Commission put forth the EUs 202020 Climate and Energy policy package, it is clear that the Nordic region may face investment in new renewable generation at levels that are unprecedented since the deregulation of the Nordic electricity market. This report explores the linkages between political choices and market dynamics on the basis of four scenarios for the Nordic Power Sector towards 2020 and 2030. The aim is to contribute to a common understanding of the market challenges and dynamics among different stakeholders: How do different policy and market drivers interact? What are the long-term implications for prices and the energy balance? And ultimately, what policy choices are available when it comes to handling the expected increase in renewable generation and the looming Nordic energy surplus. Econ Poeyry and THEMA Consulting Group have invited companies, industry organizations and government agencies to participate in the process to elaborate on the issues mentioned above. The participants have contributed through workshops, working groups and conferences. (Author)

  7. Anomalous behavior of (n,α), (n,p) cross-section for 55Fe and 59Ni with low energy neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the present work is to study 55Fe(n,p) 59Ni(n,p), 55Fe(n,α), and 59Ni(n,α) reactions from the point of view of the prolific source of helium and hydrogen production not only at fast neutrons energy but also at lower energy. These reactions cannot be neglected at lower energy due to its very high cross-sections for He/H production inside the fusion reactor

  8. Anomalous bootstrap current due to drift waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An anomalous parallel current driven by radial flux in tokamak is discussed. Drift waves, which cause an anomalous cross field diffusion, can generate a parallel current in a sheared magnetic field, if the fluctuation level has radial dependence. (author)

  9. Anomalous-viscosity current drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stix, T.H.; Ono, M.

    1986-04-25

    The present invention relates to a method and apparatus for maintaining a steady-state current for magnetically confining the plasma in a toroidal magnetic confinement device using anomalous viscosity current drive. A second aspect of this invention relates to an apparatus and method for the start-up of a magnetically confined toroidal plasma.

  10. QCD Anomalous Structure of Electron

    OpenAIRE

    Slominski, Wojciech

    1998-01-01

    The parton content of the electron is analyzed within perturbative QCD. It is shown that electron acquires an anomalous component from QCD, analogously to photon. The evolution equations for the `exclusive' and `inclusive' electron structure function are constructed and solved numerically in the asymptotic $Q^2$ region.

  11. Anomalous magnetic moment of anyons

    CERN Document Server

    Gat, G; Gat, Gil; Ray, Rashmi

    1994-01-01

    The anomalous magnetic moment of anyons is calculated to leading order in a 1/N expansion. It is shown that the gyromagnetic ratio g remains 2 to the leading order in 1/N. This result strongly supports that obtained in \\cite{poly}, namely that g=2 is in fact exact.

  12. Surplus plutonium disposition draft environmental impact statement. Volume 1, Part A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On May 22, 1997, DOE published a Notice of Intent (NOI) in the Federal Register (62 Federal Register 28009) announcing its decision to prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) that would tier from the analysis and decisions reached in connection with the Storage and Disposition of Weapons-Usable Fissile Materials Final Programmatic EIS (Storage and Disposition PEIS). DOE's disposition strategy allows for both the immobilization of surplus plutonium and its use as mixed oxide (MOX) fuel in existing domestic, commercial reactors. The disposition of surplus plutonium would also involve disposal of the immobilized plutonium and MOX fuel (as spent nuclear fuel) in a geologic repository. The Surplus Plutonium Disposition Environmental Impact Statement analyzes alternatives that would use the immobilization approach (for some of the surplus plutonium) and the MOX fuel approach (for some of the surplus plutonium); alternatives that would immobilize all of the surplus plutonium; and the No Action Alternative. The alternatives include three disposition facilities that would be designed so that they could collectively accomplish disposition of up to 50 metric tons (55 tons) of surplus plutonium over their operating lives: (1) the pit disassembly and conversion facility would disassemble pits (a weapons component) and convert the recovered plutonium, as well as plutonium metal from other sources, into plutonium dioxide suitable for disposition; (2) the immobilization facility would include a collocated capability for converting nonpit plutonium materials into plutonium dioxide suitable for immobilization and would be located at either Hanford or SRS. DOE has identified SRS as the preferred site for an immobilization facility; (3) the MOX fuel fabrication facility would fabricate plutonium dioxide into MOX fuel. This volume includes background information; purpose of and need for the proposed action; alternatives for disposition of surplus weapons useable plutonium; and

  13. Search for anomalous production of photonic events with missing energy in $e^+ e^-$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 130-172 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Ackerstaff, K; Allison, J; Altekamp, N; Anderson, K J; Anderson, S; Arcelli, S; Asai, S; Ashby, S F; Axen, D A; Azuelos, Georges; Ball, A H; Barberio, E; Barlow, R J; Bartoldus, R; Batley, J Richard; Baumann, S; Bechtluft, J; Beeston, C; Behnke, T; Bell, A N; Bell, K W; Bella, G; Bentvelsen, Stanislaus Cornelius Maria; Bethke, Siegfried; Betts, S; Biebel, O; Biguzzi, A; Bird, S D; Blobel, Volker; Bloodworth, Ian J; Bloomer, J E; Bobinski, M; Bock, P; Bonacorsi, D; Boutemeur, M; Braibant, S; Brigliadori, L; Brown, R M; Burckhart, Helfried J; Burgard, C; Bürgin, R; Capiluppi, P; Carnegie, R K; Carter, A A; Carter, J R; Chang, C Y; Charlton, D G; Chrisman, D; Clarke, P E L; Cohen, I; Conboy, J E; Cooke, O C; Couyoumtzelis, C; Coxe, R L; Cuffiani, M; Dado, S; Dallapiccola, C; Dallavalle, G M; Davis, R; De Jong, S; del Pozo, L A; Desch, Klaus; Dienes, B; Dixit, M S; Doucet, M; Duchovni, E; Duckeck, G; Duerdoth, I P; Eatough, D; Edwards, J E G; Estabrooks, P G; Evans, H G; Evans, M; Fabbri, Franco Luigi; Fanfani, A; Fanti, M; Faust, A A; Feld, L; Fiedler, F; Fierro, M; Fischer, H M; Fleck, I; Folman, R; Fong, D G; Foucher, M; Fürtjes, A; Futyan, D I; Gagnon, P; Gary, J W; Gascon, J; Gascon-Shotkin, S M; Geddes, N I; Geich-Gimbel, C; Geralis, T; Giacomelli, G; Giacomelli, P; Giacomelli, R; Gibson, V; Gibson, W R; Gingrich, D M; Glenzinski, D A; Goldberg, J; Goodrick, M J; Gorn, W; Grandi, C; Gross, E; Grunhaus, Jacob; Gruwé, M; Hajdu, C; Hanson, G G; Hansroul, M; Hapke, M; Hargrove, C K; Hart, P A; Hartmann, C; Hauschild, M; Hawkes, C M; Hawkings, R; Hemingway, Richard J; Herndon, M; Herten, G; Heuer, R D; Hildreth, M D; Hill, J C; Hillier, S J; Hobson, P R; Höcker, Andreas; Homer, R James; Honma, A K; Horváth, D; Hossain, K R; Howard, R; Hüntemeyer, P; Hutchcroft, D E; Igo-Kemenes, P; Imrie, D C; Ingram, M R; Ishii, K; Jawahery, A; Jeffreys, P W; Jeremie, H; Jimack, Martin Paul; Joly, A; Jones, C R; Jones, G; Jones, M; Jost, U; Jovanovic, P; Junk, T R; Kanzaki, J I; Karlen, D A; Kartvelishvili, V G; Kawagoe, K; Kawamoto, T; Kayal, P I; Keeler, Richard K; Kellogg, R G; Kennedy, B W; Kirk, J; Klier, A; Kluth, S; Kobayashi, T; Kobel, M; Koetke, D S; Kokott, T P; Kolrep, M; Komamiya, S; Kress, T; Krieger, P; Von Krogh, J; Kyberd, P; Lafferty, G D; Lahmann, R; Lai, W P; Lanske, D; Lauber, J; Lautenschlager, S R; Layter, J G; Lazic, D; Lee, A M; Lefebvre, E; Lellouch, Daniel; Letts, J; Levinson, L; Lloyd, S L; Loebinger, F K; Long, G D; Losty, Michael J; Ludwig, J; Liu, D; Macchiolo, A; MacPherson, A L; Mannelli, M; Marcellini, S; Markopoulos, C; Markus, C; Martin, A J; Martin, J P; Martínez, G; Mashimo, T; Mättig, P; McDonald, W J; McKenna, J A; McKigney, E A; McMahon, T J; McPherson, R A; Meijers, F; Menke, S; Merritt, F S; Mes, H; Meyer, J; Michelini, Aldo; Mikenberg, G; Miller, D J; Mincer, A; Mir, R; Mohr, W; Montanari, A; Mori, T; Müller, U; Mihara, S; Nagai, K; Nakamura, I; Neal, H A; Nellen, B; Nisius, R; O'Neale, S W; Oakham, F G; Odorici, F; Ögren, H O; Oh, A; Oldershaw, N J; Oreglia, M J; Orito, S; Pálinkás, J; Pásztor, G; Pater, J R; Patrick, G N; Patt, J; Pérez-Ochoa, R; Petzold, S; Pfeifenschneider, P; Pilcher, J E; Pinfold, J L; Plane, D E; Poffenberger, P R; Poli, B; Posthaus, A; Rembser, C; Robertson, S; Robins, S A; Rodning, N L; Roney, J M; Rooke, A M; Rossi, A M; Routenburg, P; Rozen, Y; Runge, K; Runólfsson, O; Ruppel, U; Rust, D R; Rylko, R; Sachs, K; Saeki, T; Sang, W M; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E; Sbarra, C; Schaile, A D; Schaile, O; Scharf, F; Scharff-Hansen, P; Schieck, J; Schleper, P; Schmitt, B; Schmitt, S; Schöning, A; Schröder, M; Schultz-Coulon, H C; Schumacher, M; Schwick, C; Scott, W G; Shears, T G; Shen, B C; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C H; Sherwood, P; Siroli, G P; Sittler, A; Skillman, A; Skuja, A; Smith, A M; Snow, G A; Sobie, Randall J; Söldner-Rembold, S; Springer, R W; Sproston, M; Stephens, K; Steuerer, J; Stockhausen, B; Stoll, K; Strom, D; Ströhmer, R; Szymanski, P; Tafirout, R; Talbot, S D; Tanaka, S; Taras, P; Tarem, S; Teuscher, R; Thiergen, M; Thomson, M A; Von Törne, E; Torrence, E; Towers, S; Trigger, I; Trócsányi, Z L; Tsur, E; Turcot, A S; Turner-Watson, M F; Utzat, P; Van Kooten, R; Verzocchi, M; Vikas, P; Vokurka, E H; Voss, H; Wäckerle, F; Wagner, A; Ward, C P; Ward, D R; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Wells, P S; Wermes, N; White, J S; Wilkens, B; Wilson, G W; Wilson, J A; Wyatt, T R; Yamashita, S; Yekutieli, G; Zacek, V; Zer-Zion, D

    1998-01-01

    Photonic events with large missing energy have been observed in e+e- collisions at centre-of-mass energies of 130, 136, 161 and 172 GeV using the OPAL detector at LEP. Results are presented based on search topologies designed to select events with a single photon and missing transverse energy or events with a pair of acoplanar photons. In both search topologies, cross-section measurements are performed within the kinematic acceptance of the selection. These results are compared with the expectations from the Standard Model processes e+e- -> nu nu(bar) gamma (gamma) (single-photon) and e+e- -> \

  14. Anomalous Hall Effect in a 2D Rashba Ferromagnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ado, I A; Dmitriev, I A; Ostrovsky, P M; Titov, M

    2016-07-22

    Skew scattering on rare impurity configurations is shown to dominate the anomalous Hall effect in a 2D Rashba ferromagnet. The mechanism originates in scattering on rare impurity pairs separated by distances of the order of the Fermi wavelength. The corresponding theoretical description goes beyond the conventional noncrossing approximation. The mechanism provides the only contribution to the anomalous Hall conductivity in the most relevant metallic regime and strongly modifies previously obtained results for lower energies in the leading order with respect to impurity strength. PMID:27494487

  15. Anomalous single top quark production at the LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafabadi, M. Mohammadi; Pooya, G.

    2010-09-01

    The anomalous top quark interactions with gluon (tug, tcg) allow the production of single top quarks at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Using the angular distribution of the charged lepton from the W boson in the top decay, we show that with the data of 10 fb-1 of integrated luminosity and in the collisions with the center of mass energy of 14 TeV, the anomalous up and charm quarks coupling parameters κu, c/Λ can be measured down to 0.005 and 0.007 TeV-1, respectively.

  16. Anomalous spectral laws in differential models of turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Differential models for hydrodynamic, passive-scalar and wave turbulence given by nonlinear first- and second-order evolution equations for the energy spectrum in the k-space were analysed. Both types of models predict formation an anomalous transient power-law spectra. The second-order models were analysed in terms of self-similar solutions of the second kind, and a phenomenological formula for the anomalous spectrum exponent was constructed using numerics for a broad range of parameters covering all known physical examples. The first-order models were examined analytically, including finding an analytical prediction for the anomalous exponent of the transient spectrum and description of formation of the Kolmogorov-type spectrum as a reflection wave from the dissipative scale back into the inertial range. The latter behaviour was linked to pre-shock/shock singularities similar to the ones arising in the Burgers equation. Existence of the transient anomalous scaling and the reflection-wave scenario are argued to be a robust feature common to the finite-capacity turbulence systems. The anomalous exponent is independent of the initial conditions but varies for for different models of the same physical system. (paper)

  17. Anomalous spectral laws in differential models of turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalabard, Simon; Nazarenko, Sergey; Galtier, Sébastien; Medvedev, Sergey

    2015-07-01

    Differential models for hydrodynamic, passive-scalar and wave turbulence given by nonlinear first- and second-order evolution equations for the energy spectrum in the k-space were analysed. Both types of models predict formation an anomalous transient power-law spectra. The second-order models were analysed in terms of self-similar solutions of the second kind, and a phenomenological formula for the anomalous spectrum exponent was constructed using numerics for a broad range of parameters covering all known physical examples. The first-order models were examined analytically, including finding an analytical prediction for the anomalous exponent of the transient spectrum and description of formation of the Kolmogorov-type spectrum as a reflection wave from the dissipative scale back into the inertial range. The latter behaviour was linked to pre-shock/shock singularities similar to the ones arising in the Burgers equation. Existence of the transient anomalous scaling and the reflection-wave scenario are argued to be a robust feature common to the finite-capacity turbulence systems. The anomalous exponent is independent of the initial conditions but varies for for different models of the same physical system.

  18. Microinstability-based model for anomalous thermal confinement in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with the formulation of microinstability-based thermal transport coefficients (chi/sub j/) for the purpose of modelling anomalous energy confinement properties in tokamak plasmas. Attention is primarily focused on ohmically heated discharges and the associated anomalous electron thermal transport. An appropriate expression for chi/sub e/ is developed which is consistent with reasonable global constraints on the current and electron temperature profiles as well as with the key properties of the kinetic instabilities most likely to be present. Comparisons of confinement scaling trends predicted by this model with the empirical ohmic data base indicate quite favorable agreement. The subject of anomalous ion thermal transport and its implications for high density ohmic discharges and for auxiliary-heated plasmas is also addressed

  19. Anomalous light transmission by nematic liquid crystal cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konshina, E. A.; Fedorov, M. A.; Ivanova, N. L.; Amosova, L. P.

    2008-01-01

    Light transmission through nematic liquid crystal (NLC) cells with a planar alignment and various boundary conditions has been studied as a function of the bias voltage in the regimes of maximum transmittance and complete extinction. The phenomenon of anomalous light leakage in the regime of complete extinction has been observed in the NLC sells with alignment layers of amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-C:H) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), in which an anisotropy was induced by rubbing the electrode surface (for a-C:H) and the alignment layer (for PVA). The anomalous transmission is caused by the deformation of nematic molecules, which are situated near the surface, in the direction perpendicular to the direction of rubbing. The magnitude of anomalous transmission increases with the bias voltage. This behavior is explained by the anisotropy of the surface anchoring energy of nematic molecules at the interface.

  20. No-Drag Frame for Anomalous Chiral Fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephanov, Mikhail A; Yee, Ho-Ung

    2016-03-25

    We show that for an anomalous fluid carrying dissipationless chiral magnetic and/or vortical currents there is a frame in which a stationary obstacle experiences no drag, but energy and charge currents do not vanish, resembling superfluidity. However, unlike ordinary superfluid flow, the anomalous chiral currents can transport entropy in this frame. We show that the second law of thermodynamics completely determines the amounts of these anomalous nondissipative currents in the "no-drag frame" as polynomials in temperature and chemical potential with known anomaly coefficients. These general results are illustrated and confirmed by a calculation in the chiral kinetic theory and in the quark-gluon plasma at high temperature. PMID:27058072

  1. 中国对外贸易顺差背后的国民顺差%The national surplus behind China's nominal trade surplus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林玲; 余娟娟

    2012-01-01

    为了更好地反映我国贸易顺差背后的真实利得,本文借鉴“国民贸易差额”的概念,将海关统计的名义顺差按照所有权原则调整为国民贸易顺差并进行比较分析,得出的结论是:中国只是名义顺差大国;从所有权角度来看,中国是国民贸易逆差国。这种差异在一定程度上预示了中国对外贸易数量虚幻与福利实质的异化。%In order to reflect the real gains behind China's trade surplus, this paper induced the conception of "the national trade surplus" to explain the necessity of constructing the trade statistics system in the principle of ownership, and then adjust China's nominal trade surplus into national trade surplus according to the ownership. Our conclusion is although China is surplus in the nominal trade, but deficit in the nation trade, which imply the deviation between the trade quantity and the trade gains.

  2. Unparticles and anomalous dimensions in the cuprates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karch, Andreas; Limtragool, Kridsanaphong; Phillips, Philip W.

    2016-03-01

    Motivated by the overwhelming evidence some type of quantum criticality underlies the power-law for the optical conductivity and T-linear resistivity in the cuprates, we demonstrate here how a scale-invariant or unparticle sector can lead to a unifying description of the observed scaling forms. We adopt the continuous mass formalism or multi band (flavor) formalism of the unparticle sector by letting various microscopic parameters be mass-dependent. In particular, we show that an effective mass that varies with the flavor index as well as a running band edge and lifetime capture the AC and DC transport phenomenology of the cuprates. A key consequence of the running mass is that the effective dynamical exponent can differ from the underlying bare critical exponent, thereby providing a mechanism for realizing the fractional values of the dynamical exponent required in a previous analysis [1]. We also predict that regardless of the bare dynamical exponent, z, a non-zero anomalous dimension for the current is required. Physically, the anomalous dimension arises because the charge depends on the flavor, mass or energy. The equivalent phenomenon in a d + 1 gravitational construction is the running of the charge along the radial direction. The nature of the superconducting instability in the presence of scale invariant stuff shows that the transition temperature is not necessarily a monotonic function of the pairing interaction.

  3. Macromolecular structure phasing by neutron anomalous diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuypers, Maxime G; Mason, Sax A; Mossou, Estelle; Haertlein, Michael; Forsyth, V Trevor; Mitchell, Edward P

    2016-01-01

    In this report we show for the first time that neutron anomalous dispersion can be used in a practical manner to determine experimental phases of a protein crystal structure, providing a new tool for structural biologists. The approach is demonstrated through the use of a state-of-the-art monochromatic neutron diffractometer at the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL) in combination with crystals of perdeuterated protein that minimise the level of hydrogen incoherent scattering and enhance the visibility of the anomalous signal. The protein used was rubredoxin in which cadmium replaced the iron at the iron-sulphur site. While this study was carried out using a steady-state neutron beam source, the results will be of major interest for capabilities at existing and emerging spallation neutron sources where time-of-flight instruments provide inherent energy discrimination. In particular this capability may be expected to offer unique opportunities to a rapidly developing structural biology community where there is increasing interest in the identification of protonation states, protein/water interactions and protein-ligand interactions - all of which are of central importance to a wide range of fundamental and applied areas in the biosciences. PMID:27511806

  4. Minimal muon anomalous magnetic moment

    CERN Document Server

    Biggio, Carla

    2014-01-01

    We classify all possible one-particle (scalar and fermion) extensions of the Standard Model that can contribute to the anomalous magnetic moment of leptons. We review the cases already discussed in the literature and complete the picture by performing the calculation for a fermionic doublet with hypercharge -3/2. We conclude that, out of the listed possibilities, only two scalar leptoquarks and the pseudoscalar of a peculiar two-Higgs-doublet model could be the responsibles for the muon anomalous magnetic moment discrepancy. Were this the case, this particles could be seen in the next LHC run. To this aim, especially to test the leptoquark hypothesis, we suggest to look for final states with tops and muons.

  5. Evaluation of alternatives for the disposition of surplus weapons-usable plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyer, J.S.; Butler, J.C. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Edmunds, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-04

    The Department of Energy Record of Decision (ROD) selected alternatives for disposition of surplus, weapons grade plutonium. A major objective of this decision was to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons. Other concerns addressed included economic, technical, institutional, schedule, environmental, and health and safety issues. The analysis reported here was conducted in parallel with technical, environmental, and nonproliferation analyses; it uses multiattribute utility theory to combine these considerations in order to facilitate an integrated evaluation of alternatives. This analysis is intended to provide additional insight regarding alternative evaluation and to assist in understanding the rationale for the choice of alternatives recommended in the ROD. Value functions were developed for objectives of disposition, and used to rank alternatives. Sensitivity analyses indicated that the ranking of alternatives for the base case was relatively insensitive to changes in assumptions over reasonable ranges. The analyses support the recommendation of the ROD to pursue parallel development of the vitrification immobilization alternative and the use of existing light water reactors alternative. 27 refs., 109 figs., 20 tabs.

  6. Evaluation of alternatives for the disposition of surplus weapons-usable plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy Record of Decision (ROD) selected alternatives for disposition of surplus, weapons grade plutonium. A major objective of this decision was to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons. Other concerns addressed included economic, technical, institutional, schedule, environmental, and health and safety issues. The analysis reported here was conducted in parallel with technical, environmental, and nonproliferation analyses; it uses multiattribute utility theory to combine these considerations in order to facilitate an integrated evaluation of alternatives. This analysis is intended to provide additional insight regarding alternative evaluation and to assist in understanding the rationale for the choice of alternatives recommended in the ROD. Value functions were developed for objectives of disposition, and used to rank alternatives. Sensitivity analyses indicated that the ranking of alternatives for the base case was relatively insensitive to changes in assumptions over reasonable ranges. The analyses support the recommendation of the ROD to pursue parallel development of the vitrification immobilization alternative and the use of existing light water reactors alternative. 27 refs., 109 figs., 20 tabs

  7. Anomalous Diffusion in Velocity Space

    OpenAIRE

    Trigger, S. A.

    2009-01-01

    The problem of anomalous diffusion in the momentum space is considered on the basis of the appropriate probability transition function (PTF). New general equation for description of the diffusion of heavy particles in the gas of the light particles is formulated on basis of the new approach similar to one in coordinate space (S. Trigger et al.). The obtained results permit to describe the various situations when the probability transition function (PTF) has a long tail in the momentum space. ...

  8. Bosons production $W^{\\pm}$ via $e^{-}$ p-collisions at CERN LEP/LHC energies with a $W{\\pm}$ anomalous magnetic moment

    CERN Document Server

    Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, A

    2002-01-01

    We discuss the production of charged bosons in deep inelastic e/sup - /p-scattering, in the context of an electroweak model, in which the vector boson self interactions may be different from those prescribed by the electroweak standard model. We show that even small deviations from the standard model value of kappa ( kappa =1) implies an observable deviation in the W/sup +or-/ production rates at CERN LEP /LHC energies.

  9. Search for anomalous production of photonic events with missing energy in e+e- collisions at √ {s} = 130-172 GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    OPAL Collaboration; Ackerstaff, K.; et al.

    Photonic events with large missing energy have been observed in e+e- collisions at centre-of-mass energies of 130, 136, 161 and 172 GeV using the OPAL detector at LEP. Results are presented based on search topologies designed to select events with a single photon and missing transverse energy or events with a pair of acoplanar photons. In both search topologies, cross-section measurements are performed within the kinematic acceptance of the selection. These results are compared with the expectations from the Standard Model processes e+e--> ν /lineν γ (γ ) (single-photon) and e+e--> ν /lineν γ γ (γ ) (acoplanar-photons). No evidence is observed for new physics contributions to these final states. Upper limits on σ (e+e- -> XY)ot BR(X-> Yγ ) and σ (e+e- -> XX)ot BR2(X-> Yγ ) are derived for the case of stable and invisible Y. These limits apply to single and pair production of excited neutrinos ( X= ν *, Y= ν ), to neutralino production ( X=~ i02, Y=~ i01), and to supersymmetric models in which X= ~ i01 and Y= is a light gravitino. For the latter scenario, the results of the acoplanar-photons search are used to provide mode l-dependent lower limits on the mass of the lightest neutralino.

  10. Search for Anomalous Photonic Events with Missing Energy in $e^{+} e^{-}$ Collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 130, 136 and 183 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Abbiendi, G; Alexander, Gideon; Allison, J; Altekamp, N; Anderson, K J; Anderson, S; Arcelli, S; Asai, S; Ashby, S F; Axen, D A; Azuelos, Georges; Ball, A H; Barberio, E; Barlow, R J; Bartoldus, R; Batley, J Richard; Baumann, S; Bechtluft, J; Behnke, T; Bell, K W; Bella, G; Bellerive, A; Bentvelsen, Stanislaus Cornelius Maria; Bethke, Siegfried; Betts, S; Biebel, O; Biguzzi, A; Bird, S D; Blobel, Volker; Bloodworth, Ian J; Bobinski, M; Bock, P; Böhme, J; Bonacorsi, D; Boutemeur, M; Braibant, S; Bright-Thomas, P G; Brigliadori, L; Brown, R M; Burckhart, Helfried J; Burgard, C; Bürgin, R; Capiluppi, P; Carnegie, R K; Carter, A A; Carter, J R; Chang, C Y; Charlton, D G; Chrisman, D; Ciocca, C; Clarke, P E L; Clay, E; Cohen, I; Conboy, J E; Cooke, O C; Couyoumtzelis, C; Coxe, R L; Cuffiani, M; Dado, S; Dallavalle, G M; Davis, R; De Jong, S; del Pozo, L A; de Roeck, A; Desch, Klaus; Dienes, B; Dixit, M S; Dubbert, J; Duchovni, E; Duckeck, G; Duerdoth, I P; Eatough, D; Estabrooks, P G; Etzion, E; Evans, H G; Fabbri, Franco Luigi; Fanti, M; Faust, A A; Fiedler, F; Fierro, M; Fleck, I; Folman, R; Fürtjes, A; Futyan, D I; Gagnon, P; Gary, J W; Gascon, J; Gascon-Shotkin, S M; Gaycken, G; Geich-Gimbel, C; Giacomelli, G; Giacomelli, P; Gibson, V; Gibson, W R; Gingrich, D M; Glenzinski, D A; Goldberg, J; Gorn, W; Grandi, C; Gross, E; Grunhaus, Jacob; Gruwé, M; Hanson, G G; Hansroul, M; Hapke, M; Harder, K; Hargrove, C K; Hartmann, C; Hauschild, M; Hawkes, C M; Hawkings, R; Hemingway, Richard J; Herndon, M; Herten, G; Heuer, R D; Hildreth, M D; Hill, J C; Hillier, S J; Hobson, P R; Höcker, Andreas; Homer, R James; Honma, A K; Horváth, D; Hossain, K R; Howard, R; Hüntemeyer, P; Igo-Kemenes, P; Imrie, D C; Ishii, K; Jacob, F R; Jawahery, A; Jeremie, H; Jimack, Martin Paul; Jones, C R; Jovanovic, P; Junk, T R; Karlen, D A; Kartvelishvili, V G; Kawagoe, K; Kawamoto, T; Kayal, P I; Keeler, Richard K; Kellogg, R G; Kennedy, B W; Klier, A; Kluth, S; Kobayashi, T; Kobel, M; Koetke, D S; Kokott, T P; Kolrep, M; Komamiya, S; Kowalewski, R V; Kress, T; Krieger, P; Von Krogh, J; Kühl, T; Kyberd, P; Lafferty, G D; Lanske, D; Lauber, J; Lautenschlager, S R; Lawson, I; Layter, J G; Lazic, D; Lee, A M; Lellouch, Daniel; Letts, J; Levinson, L; Liebisch, R; List, B; Littlewood, C; Lloyd, A W; Lloyd, S L; Loebinger, F K; Long, G D; Losty, Michael J; Ludwig, J; Liu, D; Macchiolo, A; MacPherson, A L; Mader, W F; Mannelli, M; Marcellini, S; Markopoulos, C; Martin, A J; Martin, J P; Martínez, G; Mashimo, T; Mättig, P; McDonald, W J; McKenna, J A; McKigney, E A; McMahon, T J; McPherson, R A; Meijers, F; Menke, S; Merritt, F S; Mes, H; Meyer, J; Michelini, Aldo; Mihara, S; Mikenberg, G; Miller, D J; Mir, R; Mohr, W; Montanari, A; Mori, T; Nagai, K; Nakamura, I; Neal, H A; Nellen, B; Nisius, R; O'Neale, S W; Oakham, F G; Odorici, F; Ögren, H O; Oreglia, M J; Orito, S; Pálinkás, J; Pásztor, G; Pater, J R; Patrick, G N; Patt, J; Pérez-Ochoa, R; Petzold, S; Pfeifenschneider, P; Pilcher, J E; Pinfold, James L; Plane, D E; Poffenberger, P R; Polok, J; Przybycien, M B; Rembser, C; Rick, Hartmut; Robertson, S; Robins, S A; Rodning, N L; Roney, J M; Roscoe, K; Rossi, A M; Rozen, Y; Runge, K; Runólfsson, O; Rust, D R; Sachs, K; Saeki, T; Sahr, O; Sang, W M; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E; Sbarra, C; Schaile, A D; Schaile, O; Scharf, F; Scharff-Hansen, P; Schieck, J; Schmitt, B; Schmitt, S; Schöning, A; Schröder, M; Schumacher, M; Schwick, C; Scott, W G; Seuster, R; Shears, T G; Shen, B C; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C H; Sherwood, P; Siroli, G P; Sittler, A; Skuja, A; Smith, A M; Snow, G A; Sobie, Randall J; Söldner-Rembold, S; Sproston, M; Stahl, A; Stephens, K; Steuerer, J; Stoll, K; Strom, D; Ströhmer, R; Surrow, B; Talbot, S D; Tanaka, S; Taras, P; Tarem, S; Teuscher, R; Thiergen, M; Thomson, M A; Von Törne, E; Torrence, E; Towers, S; Trigger, I; Trócsányi, Z L; Tsur, E; Turcot, A S; Turner-Watson, M F; Van Kooten, R; Vannerem, P; Verzocchi, M; Voss, H; Wäckerle, F; Wagner, A; Ward, C P; Ward, D R; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Wells, P S; Wermes, N; White, J S; Wilson, G W; Wilson, J A; Wyatt, T R; Yamashita, S; Yekutieli, G; Zacek, V; Zer-Zion, D

    1999-01-01

    Photonic events with large missing energy have been observed in e+e- collisions at centre-of-mass energies of 130, 136 and 183 GeV collected in 1997 using the OPAL detector at LEP. Results are presented for event topologies with a single photon and missing transverse energy or with an acoplanar photon pair. Cross-section measurements are performed within the kinematic acceptance of each selection. These results are compared with the expectations from the Standard Model process e+e- to nunubar + photon(s). No evidence is observed for new physics contributions to these final states. Using the data at Ecm = 183 GeV, upper limits on sigma(e+e- to X.Y)*BR(X to Y gamma) and sigma(e+e- to X.X)*BR(X to Y gamma)**2 are derived for the case of stable and invisible Y. These limits apply to single and pair production of excited neutrinos (X = nu*, Y = nu), to neutralino production (X = Chi_2^0, Y = Chi_1^0) and to supersymmetric models in which X = chi_1^0 and Y is a light gravitino.

  11. Supplement to the Surplus Plutonium Disposition Draft Environmental Impact Statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    1999-05-14

    On May 22, 1997, DOE published a Notice of Intent in the Federal Register (62 Federal Register 28009) announcing its decision to prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) that would tier from the analysis and decisions reached in connection with the ''Storage and Disposition of Weapons-Usable Fissile Materials Final Programmatic EIS (Storage and Disposition PEIS)''. ''The Surplus Plutonium Disposition Draft Environmental Impact Statement'' (SPD Draft EIS) (DOWEIS-0283-D) was prepared in accordance with NEPA and issued in July 1998. It identified the potential environmental impacts of reasonable alternatives for the proposed siting, construction, and operation of three facilities for plutonium disposition. These three facilities would accomplish pit disassembly and conversion, immobilization, and MOX fuel fabrication. For the alternatives that included MOX fuel fabrication, the draft also described the potential environmental impacts of using from three to eight commercial nuclear reactors to irradiate MOX fuel. The potential impacts were based on a generic reactor analysis that used actual reactor data and a range of potential site conditions. In May 1998, DCE initiated a procurement process to obtain MOX fuel fabrication and reactor irradiation services. The request for proposals defined limited activities that may be performed prior to issuance of the SPD EIS Record of Decision (ROD) including non-site-specific work associated with the development of the initial design for the MOX fuel fabrication facility, and plans (paper studies) for outreach, long lead-time procurements, regulatory management, facility quality assurance, safeguards, security, fuel qualification, and deactivation. No construction on the proposed MOX facility would begin before an SPD EIS ROD is issued. In March 1999, DOE awarded a contract to Duke Engineering & Services; COGEMA, Inc.; and Stone & Webster (known as DCS) to provide the requested

  12. Surplus plutonium disposition draft environmental impact statement. Volume 1, Part B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On May 22, 1997, DOE published a Notice of Intent (NOI) in the Federal Register (62 Federal Register 28009) announcing its decision to prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) that would tier from the analysis and decisions reached in connection with the Storage and Disposition of Weapons-Usable Fissile Materials Final Programmatic EIS (Storage and Disposition PEIS). DOE's disposition strategy allows for both the immobilization of surplus plutonium and its use as mixed oxide (MOX) fuel in existing domestic, commercial reactors. The disposition of surplus plutonium would also involve disposal of the immobilized plutonium and MOX fuel (as spent nuclear fuel) in a geologic repository. The Surplus Plutonium Disposition Environmental Impact Statement analyzes alternatives that would use the immobilization approach (for some of the surplus plutonium) and the MOX fuel approach (for some of the surplus plutonium); alternatives that would immobilize all of the surplus plutonium; and the No Action Alternative. The alternatives include three disposition facilities that would be designed so that they could collectively accomplish disposition of up to 50 metric tons (55 tons) of surplus plutonium over their operating lives: (1) the pit disassembly and conversion facility would disassemble pits (a weapons component) and convert the recovered plutonium, as well as plutonium metal from other sources, into plutonium dioxide suitable for disposition; (2) the immobilization facility would include a collocated capability for converting nonpit plutonium materials into plutonium dioxide suitable for immobilization and would be located at either Hanford or SRS. DOE has identified SRS as the preferred site for an immobilization facility; (3) the MOX fuel fabrication facility would fabricate plutonium dioxide into MOX fuel. This volume has chapters on environmental consequences; environmental regulations, permits, and consultations; a glossary; list of preparers; distribution list

  13. Anomalous magnetoresistance in magnetized topological insulator cylinders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siu, Zhuo Bin, E-mail: a0018876@nus.edu.sg [NUS Graduate School for Integrative Sciences and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117456 (Singapore); Data Storage Institute, Agency for Science, Technology and Research, Singapore 117608 (Singapore); Jalil, Mansoor B. A. [NUS Graduate School for Integrative Sciences and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117456 (Singapore)

    2015-05-07

    The close coupling between the spin and momentum degrees of freedom in topological insulators (TIs) presents the opportunity for the control of one to manipulate the other. The momentum can, for example, be confined on a curved surface and the spin influenced by applying a magnetic field. In this work, we study the surface states of a cylindrical TI magnetized in the x direction perpendicular to the cylindrical axis lying along the z direction. We show that a large magnetization leads to an upwards bending of the energy bands at small |k{sub z}|. The bending leads to an anomalous magnetoresistance where the transmission between two cylinders magnetized in opposite directions is higher than when the cylinders are magnetized at intermediate angles with respect to each other.

  14. Anomalous electronic transport in boron carbides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emin, D.; Samara, G. A.; Wood, C.

    The boron carbides are composed of icosahedral units, B12 and B11C1, linked together by strong intericosahedral bonds. With such distributions of icosahedral and intericosahedral compositions, boron carbides, B/sub 1-x/C/sub x/, are single phase over 0.1 less than or equal to x less than or equal to 0.2. The electronic transport properties of the boron carbides were examined within this single-phase region. Results are inconsistent with conventional analyses of both itinerant and hopping transport. Most striking are Seebeck coefficients which are both large and rapidly increasing functions of temperature despite thermally activated dc conductivities. These results manifest the hopping of small bipolaronic holes between carbon-containing icosahedral that are inequivalent in energy and electron-lattice coupling strength. Under hydrostatic pressures up to approx. 25 kbar, the dc conductivities increase with pressure. This anomalous behavior for hopping conduction reflects the distinctive structure and bonding of these materials.

  15. Anomalous diffusion in geophysical and laboratory turbulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tsinober

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an overview and some new results on anomalous diffusion of passive scalar in turbulent flows (including those used by Richardson in his famous paper in 1926. The obtained results are based on the analysis of the properties of invariant quantities (energy, enstrophy, dissipation, enstrophy generation, helicity density, etc. - i.e. independent of the choice of the system of reference as the most appropriate to describe physical processes - in three different turbulent laboratory flows (grid-flow, jet and boundary layer, see Tsinober et al. (1992 and Kit et al. (1993. The emphasis is made on the relations between the asymptotic properties of the intermittency exponents of higher order moments of different turbulent fields (energy, dissipation, helicity, spontaneous breaking of isotropy and reflexional symmetry and the variability of turbulent diffusion in the atmospheric boundary layer, in the troposphere and in the stratosphere. It is argued that local spontaneous breaking of isotropy of turbulent flow results in anomalous scaling laws for turbulent diffusion (as compared to the scaling law of Richardson which are observed, as a rule, in different atmospheric layers from the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL to the stratosphere. Breaking of rotational symmetry is important in the ABL, whereas reflexional symmetry breaking is dominating in the troposphere locally and in the stratosphere globally. The results are of speculative nature and further analysis is necessary to validate or disprove the claims made, since the correspondence with the experimental results may occur for the wrong reasons as happens from time to time in the field of turbulence.

  16. Energy coppice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One form of renewable energy production involves the growing of energy coppice on agricultural land. It is important as it can be grown on those areas of agricultural land which are surplus to agricultural production. Hence it can be seen as an alternative farm crop, and as such, a possible solution to the problem of agricultural surpluses as well as providing a source of energy. Studies have indicated that up to one million hectares of land surplus to agricultural production may be suitable for growing energy coppice. However, its development as an agricultural crop will only happen if it can be produced at costs competitive with alternative fuels and there is a reliable and long term market offering good returns. (author)

  17. Surplus weapons-grade plutonium: a resource for exploring and terraforming Mars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muscatello, A.C.; Houts, M.G.

    1996-12-31

    With the end of the Cold War, greater than 100 metric tons (MT) of weapons-grade plutonium (WGPu) have become surplus to defense needs in the United States and the Former Soviet Union. This paper is a proposal for an option for WGPu disposition, i.e., use of the plutonium as a fuel for nuclear reactors for Mars exploration and eventual terraforming. WGPu was used in nuclear weapons because it has a much smaller critical mass than highly enriched uranium, allowing lighter weapons with consequent longer ranges. Similarly, WGPu reactors would also require smaller amounts of fuel to attain a critical mass, making the reactor much lighter overall and resulting in large savings in launch costs. The greater than 100 MT of WGPu would generate about 1000 billion kilowatt hours of heat energy, much of which could be converted into electricity. The waste heat would also be useful to a Martian outpost or colony. A potential way of getting the WGPu reactors into space is a large gas gun like that being developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to orbit materials by achieving high velocity at the surface, greatly reducing launch costs and enhancing reliability. Reactor components would be launched on conventional rockets or space shuttles, the reactor fuel rods would be injected into orbit using the gas gun, and the reactor would be assembled in space. Implementation of this proposal would allow disposition of a serious, expensive problem on earth by removing the WGPu from the planet and simultaneously provide a very large energy resource for Mars exploration and terraforming.

  18. Surplus weapons-grade plutonium: a resource for exploring and terraforming Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the end of the Cold War, greater than 100 metric tons (MT) of weapons-grade plutonium (WGPu) have become surplus to defense needs in the United States and the Former Soviet Union. This paper is a proposal for an option for WGPu disposition, i.e., use of the plutonium as a fuel for nuclear reactors for Mars exploration and eventual terraforming. WGPu was used in nuclear weapons because it has a much smaller critical mass than highly enriched uranium, allowing lighter weapons with consequent longer ranges. Similarly, WGPu reactors would also require smaller amounts of fuel to attain a critical mass, making the reactor much lighter overall and resulting in large savings in launch costs. The greater than 100 MT of WGPu would generate about 1000 billion kilowatt hours of heat energy, much of which could be converted into electricity. The waste heat would also be useful to a Martian outpost or colony. A potential way of getting the WGPu reactors into space is a large gas gun like that being developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to orbit materials by achieving high velocity at the surface, greatly reducing launch costs and enhancing reliability. Reactor components would be launched on conventional rockets or space shuttles, the reactor fuel rods would be injected into orbit using the gas gun, and the reactor would be assembled in space. Implementation of this proposal would allow disposition of a serious, expensive problem on earth by removing the WGPu from the planet and simultaneously provide a very large energy resource for Mars exploration and terraforming

  19. 44th Annual Anomalous Absorption Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beg, Farhat

    2014-03-03

    Conference Grant Report July 14, 2015 Submitted to the U. S. Department of Energy Attn: Dr. Sean Finnegan By the University of California, San Diego 9500 Gilman Drive La Jolla, California 92093 On behalf of the 44th Annual Anomalous Absorption Conference 8-13 June 2014, in Estes Park, Colorado Support Requested: $10,100 Amount expended: $3,216.14 Performance Period: 1 March 20 14 to 28 February 20 15 Principal Investigator Dr. Farhat Beg Center for Energy Research University of California, San Diego 9500 Gilman Drive La Jolla, California 92093-0417 858-822-1266 (telephone) 858-534-4543 (fax) fbeg@ucsd.edu Administrative Point of Contact: Brandi Pate, 858-534-0851, blpate®ucsd.edu I. Background The forty-fourth Anomalous Absorption Conference was held in Estes Park, Colorado from June 5-8, 2014 (aac2014.ucsd.edu). The first Anomalous Absorption Conference was held in 1971 to assemble experts in the poorly understood area of laser-plasma absorption. The goal of that conference was to address the anomalously large laser absorption seen in plasma experiments with respect to the laser absorption predicted by linear plasma theory. Great progress in this research area has been made in the decades since that first meeting, due in part to the scientific interactions that have occurred annually at this conference. Specifically, this includes the development of nonlinear laser-plasma theory and the simulation of laser interactions with plasmas. Each summer since that first meeting, this week-long conference has been held at unique locations in North America as a scientific forum for intense scientific exchanges relevant to the interaction of laser radiation with plasmas. Responsibility for organizing the conference has traditional rotated each year between the major Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) laboratories and universities including LANL, LLNL, LLE, UCLA UC Davis and NRL. As the conference has matured over the past four decades, its technical footprint has expanded

  20. Performance Analysis of a Manufacturing Line Operated under Optimal Surplus-Based Production Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. K. Starkov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We examine optimality and performance of a tandem manufacturing line driven by a surplus-based decentralized production control strategy. The main objective of this type of production strategies is to guarantee that the cumulative number of produced products follows the cumulative production demand on the output of the given network. The basic idea of surplus-based control strategy is presented for the case of one manufacturing machine. We prove that this strategy is optimal. Then, a flow model of a line composed of arbitrarily many machines with bounded buffers is analyzed. We prove that the surplus-based production control enables this network to efficiently follow the product demand and establish the relation between the efficiency in the production tracking error and the intermediate inventory levels of a line. Performance and robustness of the flow model of the closed-loop manufacturing line are illustrated by computer simulations.

  1. Anomalous Higgs Couplings at Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    González-Garciá, M Concepción

    1998-01-01

    I summarize our results on the attainable limits on the coefficients of dimension-6 operators from the analysis of Higgs boson phenomenology using data taken at Tevatron RUNI and LEPII. Our results show that the coefficients of Higgs-vector boson couplings can be determined with unprecedented accuracy. Assuming that the coefficients of all ``blind'' operators are of the same magnitude, we are also able to impose bounds on the anomalous vector-boson triple couplings comparable to those from double gauge boson production at the Tevatron and LEPII.

  2. Anomalous Hall effect in polycrystalline Ni films

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Zaibing

    2012-02-01

    We systematically studied the anomalous Hall effect in a series of polycrystalline Ni films with thickness ranging from 4 to 200 nm. It is found that both the longitudinal and anomalous Hall resistivity increased greatly as film thickness decreased. This enhancement should be related to the surface scattering. In the ultrathin films (46 nm thick), weak localization corrections to anomalous Hall conductivity were studied. The granular model, taking into account the dominated intergranular tunneling, has been employed to explain this phenomenon, which can explain the weak dependence of anomalous Hall resistivity on longitudinal resistivity as well. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A discussion on the existence of the anomalous high and the anomalous low

    OpenAIRE

    Li, N

    2015-01-01

    The air flow in a three-way balance between the Coriolis force, the centrifugal force and the pressure gradient force, i.e., the gradient wind, is discussed. The author studies formation mechanisms and possible existence of four types of gradient wind (the normal high, the normal low, the anomalous high and the anomalous low), and proposes reasonable explanation of the evolution of the gradient wind, especially for the anomalous high and the anomalous low, both of which are ...

  4. SURPLUS-VALUE AND AGGREGATE CONCENTRATION IN THE UK ECONOMY, 1987-2009

    OpenAIRE

    Vitor Leone; Bruce Philp

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the movements in the Marxian surplus-value rate using a Quantitative Marxist methodology. It examines the relationship between surplus-value and the degree of monopoly power in the UK economy using quarterly data and a proxy for aggregate concentration — the ratio of market capitalisation in FTSE100 firms to market capitalisation in FTSE All Share firms. Two other forces are considered: (i) the size of the “reserve army” of the unemployed; (ii) working class militancy. Our...

  5. Stabilization effects of surplus soft clay with cement and GBF slag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Jiang; Chirdchanin MODMOLTIN; Katsutada ONITSUKA

    2004-01-01

    Utilization of industrial waste and surplus construction soft clay as construction material was recommended, and many attempts at geotechnical waste utilization were undertaken. This study aimed at the application of cement and a kind of industrial wastes, i.e. granulated blast furnace slag, on stabilization of surplus soft clay. The results showed that the cement and slag can successfully stabilize Ariake clays even though this high organic clay fails to be stabilized by lime and cement. Addition of slag in cement for stabilization induces higher strength than cement alone for longer curing time. The application of the cement with slag is more suitable than cement alone for stabilization because of economical consideration.

  6. MARKETABLE AND MARKETED SURPLUSES OF SOME LEADING CROPS IN BANGLADESH: RECENT TRENDS AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    ALAM, SHAMSUL; Afruz, Siren

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, investigation has been made to analyse the marketable and marketed surpluses of leading crops viz. different varieties of rice, wheat, potato, mustard and lentil. This study suggests that marketed surplus as percentage of total production was found highest in potato (64 per cent) followed by lentil (59.5 per cent), Boro paddy (57.5 per cent), mustard (52.7 per cent), Aman paddy (48 per cent), Aus paddy (38 per cent) and wheat (14 per cent). Small farmers were the large supplier...

  7. The potential for generating a surplus of biomass fuel in the pulp and paper industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wising, U.

    2001-06-01

    The conditions under which the pulp and paper industry is working are changing. New technology and new environmental objectives lead to changes: system closure (less water is used); processes are introduced and modified; new, more energy efficient processes are applied. Many of these changes affect the energy system in a mill and can also result in new potential for energy savings. Here a method is described and applied to six modern and/or future green field kraft market pulp model mills. The basic configuration for these model mills is designed according to best available technology today and consists of commercially available equipment in conventionally designed mills. These basic configurations are process integrated using Pinch Technology to ensure that the model mills are as energy efficient as possible with existing processes. Then by allowing process and system modifications, the model mills are made even more energy efficient. From the process integration study streams that could produce usable excess heat below the Pinch temperature are identified. In a pulp mill, necessary cooling is performed while producing warm and hot water. In modern mills there is usually a surplus of warm and hot water. It is herein presented that by designing the secondary heat system differently such that only necessary warm and hot water is produced, excess heat at a higher temperature than traditionally can be made available. The excess heat made available can be used for several applications; in this work it is used for evaporation. In order to use the excess heat for evaporation the evaporation plant has to be designed non-conventionally, with more than one level where heat is supplied, and a lower temperature in the surface condenser than what is typically used. A reasonable level of the extra investment cost for the novel system compared to the reference system is then calculated and a payback period is estimated. This payback period varies between approximately 3.5 and 6

  8. A Methodology for the Analysis and Selection of Alternative for the Disposition of Surplus Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy (DOE) - Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (OFMD) has announced a Record of Decision (ROD) selecting alternatives for disposition of surplus plutonium. A major objective of this decision was to further U.S. efforts to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons. Other concerns that were addressed include economic, technical, institutional, schedule, environmental, and health and safety issues. The technical, environmental, and nonproliferation analyses supporting the ROD are documented in three DOE reports (DOE-TSR 96, DOE-PEIS 96, and DOE-NN 97, respectively). At the request of OFMD, a team of analysts from the Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium (ANRCP) provided an independent evaluation of the alternatives for plutonium that were considered during the evaluation effort. This report outlines the methodology used by the ANRCP team. This methodology, referred to as multiattribute utility theory (MAU), provides a structure for assembling results of detailed technical, economic, schedule, environment, and nonproliferation analyses for OFMD, DOE policy makers, other stakeholders, and the general public in a systematic way. The MAU methodology has been supported for use in similar situations by the National Research Council, an agency of the National Academy of Sciences.1 It is important to emphasize that the MAU process does not lead to a computerized model that actually determines the decision for a complex problem. MAU is a management tool that is one component, albeit a key component, of a decision process. We subscribe to the philosophy that the result of using models should be insights, not numbers. The MAU approach consists of four steps: (1) identification of alternatives, objectives, and performance measures, (2) estimation of the performance of the alternatives with respect to the objectives, (3) development of value functions and weights for the objectives, and (4) evaluation of the alternatives and sensitivity

  9. LANL MOX fuel lead assemblies data report for the surplus plutonium disposition environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this document is to support the US Department of Energy (DOE) Fissile Materials Disposition Program's preparation of the draft surplus plutonium disposition environmental impact statement. This is one of several responses to data call requests for background information on activities associated with the operation of the lead assembly (LA) mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication facility. LANL has proposed an LA MOX fuel fabrication approach that would be done entirely inside an S and S Category 1 area. This includes receipt and storage of PuO2 powder, fabrication of MOX fuel pellets, assembly of fuel rods and bundles, and shipping of the packaged fuel to a commercial reactor site. Support activities will take place within both Category 1 and 2 areas. Technical Area (TA) 55/Plutonium Facility 4 will be used to store the bulk PuO2 powder, fabricate MOX fuel pellets, assemble rods, and store fuel bundles. Bundles will be assembled at a separate facility, several of which have been identified as suitable for that activity. The Chemistry and Metallurgy Research Building (at TA-3) will be used for analytical chemistry support. Waste operations will be conducted in TA-50 and TA-54. Only very minor modifications will be needed to accommodate the LA program. These modifications consist mostly of minor equipment upgrades. A commercial reactor operator has not been identified for the LA irradiation. Postirradiation examination (PIE) of the irradiated fuel will take place at either Oak Ridge National Laboratory or ANL-W. The only modifications required at either PIE site would be to accommodate full-length irradiated fuel rods. Results from this program are critical to the overall plutonium distribution schedule

  10. Hanford MOX fuel lead assemblies data report for the surplus plutonium disposition environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this document is to support the US Department of Energy (DOE) Fissile Materials Disposition Program's preparation of the draft surplus plutonium disposition environmental impact statement. This is one of several responses to data call requests for background information on activities associated with the operation of the lead assembly (LA) mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication facility. DOE-MD requested that the DOE Site Operations Offices nominate DOE sites that meet established minimum requirements that could produce MOX LAs. Six initial site combinations were proposed: (1) Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) with support from Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), (2) Hanford, (3) Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) with support from Pantex, (4) Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), (5) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), and (6) Savannah River Site (SRS). After further analysis by the sites and DOE-MD, five site combinations were established as possible candidates for producing MOX LAs: (1) ANL-W with support from INEEL, (2) Hanford, (3) LANL, (4) LLNL, and (5) SRS. Hanford has proposed an LA MOX fuel fabrication approach that would be done entirely inside an S and S Category 1 area. An alternate approach would allow fabrication of fuel pellets and assembly of fuel rods in an S and S Category 1 facility. In all, a total of three LA MOX fuel fabrication options were identified by Hanford that could accommodate the program. In every case, only minor modification would be required to ready any of the facilities to accept the equipment necessary to accomplish the LA program

  11. A Methodology for the Analysis and Selection of Alternative for the Disposition of Surplus Plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-08-31

    The Department of Energy (DOE) - Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (OFMD) has announced a Record of Decision (ROD) selecting alternatives for disposition of surplus plutonium. A major objective of this decision was to further U.S. efforts to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons. Other concerns that were addressed include economic, technical, institutional, schedule, environmental, and health and safety issues. The technical, environmental, and nonproliferation analyses supporting the ROD are documented in three DOE reports [DOE-TSR 96, DOE-PEIS 96, and DOE-NN 97, respectively]. At the request of OFMD, a team of analysts from the Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium (ANRCP) provided an independent evaluation of the alternatives for plutonium that were considered during the evaluation effort. This report outlines the methodology used by the ANRCP team. This methodology, referred to as multiattribute utility theory (MAU), provides a structure for assembling results of detailed technical, economic, schedule, environment, and nonproliferation analyses for OFMD, DOE policy makers, other stakeholders, and the general public in a systematic way. The MAU methodology has been supported for use in similar situations by the National Research Council, an agency of the National Academy of Sciences.1 It is important to emphasize that the MAU process does not lead to a computerized model that actually determines the decision for a complex problem. MAU is a management tool that is one component, albeit a key component, of a decision process. We subscribe to the philosophy that the result of using models should be insights, not numbers. The MAU approach consists of four steps: (1) identification of alternatives, objectives, and performance measures, (2) estimation of the performance of the alternatives with respect to the objectives, (3) development of value functions and weights for the objectives, and (4) evaluation of the alternatives and sensitivity

  12. Hanford MOX fuel lead assemblies data report for the surplus plutonium disposition environmental impact statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Connor, D.G.; Fisher, S.E.; Holdaway, R. [and others

    1998-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to support the US Department of Energy (DOE) Fissile Materials Disposition Program`s preparation of the draft surplus plutonium disposition environmental impact statement. This is one of several responses to data call requests for background information on activities associated with the operation of the lead assembly (LA) mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication facility. DOE-MD requested that the DOE Site Operations Offices nominate DOE sites that meet established minimum requirements that could produce MOX LAs. Six initial site combinations were proposed: (1) Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) with support from Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), (2) Hanford, (3) Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) with support from Pantex, (4) Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), (5) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), and (6) Savannah River Site (SRS). After further analysis by the sites and DOE-MD, five site combinations were established as possible candidates for producing MOX LAs: (1) ANL-W with support from INEEL, (2) Hanford, (3) LANL, (4) LLNL, and (5) SRS. Hanford has proposed an LA MOX fuel fabrication approach that would be done entirely inside an S and S Category 1 area. An alternate approach would allow fabrication of fuel pellets and assembly of fuel rods in an S and S Category 1 facility. In all, a total of three LA MOX fuel fabrication options were identified by Hanford that could accommodate the program. In every case, only minor modification would be required to ready any of the facilities to accept the equipment necessary to accomplish the LA program.

  13. LANL MOX fuel lead assemblies data report for the surplus plutonium disposition environmental impact statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, S.E.; Holdaway, R.; Ludwig, S.B. [and others

    1998-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to support the US Department of Energy (DOE) Fissile Materials Disposition Program`s preparation of the draft surplus plutonium disposition environmental impact statement. This is one of several responses to data call requests for background information on activities associated with the operation of the lead assembly (LA) mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication facility. LANL has proposed an LA MOX fuel fabrication approach that would be done entirely inside an S and S Category 1 area. This includes receipt and storage of PuO{sub 2} powder, fabrication of MOX fuel pellets, assembly of fuel rods and bundles, and shipping of the packaged fuel to a commercial reactor site. Support activities will take place within both Category 1 and 2 areas. Technical Area (TA) 55/Plutonium Facility 4 will be used to store the bulk PuO{sub 2} powder, fabricate MOX fuel pellets, assemble rods, and store fuel bundles. Bundles will be assembled at a separate facility, several of which have been identified as suitable for that activity. The Chemistry and Metallurgy Research Building (at TA-3) will be used for analytical chemistry support. Waste operations will be conducted in TA-50 and TA-54. Only very minor modifications will be needed to accommodate the LA program. These modifications consist mostly of minor equipment upgrades. A commercial reactor operator has not been identified for the LA irradiation. Postirradiation examination (PIE) of the irradiated fuel will take place at either Oak Ridge National Laboratory or ANL-W. The only modifications required at either PIE site would be to accommodate full-length irradiated fuel rods. Results from this program are critical to the overall plutonium distribution schedule.

  14. Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2012-01-01

    Energy is the capacity to do the things we are capable of and desire to accomplish. Most often this is thought of in terms of PEP--personal energy potential--a reservoir of individual vivacity and zest for work. Like a battery, energy can be conceived of as a resource that is alternatively used and replenished. Transitions between activities, variety of tasks, and choices of what to spend energy on are part of energy management. Energy capacity can be thought of at four levels: (a) so little that harm is caused and extraordinary steps are needed for recovery, (b) a deficit that slightly impairs performance but will recover naturally, (c) the typical range of functioning, and (d) a surplus that may or may not be useful and requires continual investment to maintain. "Flow" is the experience of optimal energy use when challenges balance capacity as a result of imposing order on our environment. There are other energy resources in addition to personal vim. Effective work design reduces demands on energy. Money, office design, and knowledge are excellent substitutes for personal energy. PMID:22856055

  15. 41 CFR 102-75.775 - Is the disposal agency required to approve a determination by FEMA that identifies surplus...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... required to approve a determination by FEMA that identifies surplus property for emergency management... that identifies surplus property for emergency management response use? Yes, the disposal agency must... emergency management response use before an eligible public agency can obtain such property for...

  16. 45 CFR 205.25 - Eligibility of supplemental security income beneficiaries for food stamps or surplus commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....25 Eligibility of supplemental security income beneficiaries for food stamps or surplus commodities... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Eligibility of supplemental security income beneficiaries for food stamps or surplus commodities. 205.25 Section 205.25 Public Welfare Regulations...

  17. 41 CFR 102-37.220 - Are there special types of surplus property that require written justification when submitting a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of surplus property that require written justification when submitting a transfer request? 102-37.220... types of surplus property that require written justification when submitting a transfer request? Yes, a SASP must obtain written justification from the intended donee, and submit it to GSA along with...

  18. 78 FR 146 - Determination of Trade Surplus in Certain Sugar and Syrup Goods and Sugar-Containing Products of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-02

    ... STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Determination of Trade Surplus in Certain Sugar and Syrup Goods and Sugar... certain sugar and syrup goods and sugar containing products of Determination of Trade Surplus in Certain Sugar and Syrup Goods and Sugar-Containing Products of Chile, Morocco, Costa Rica, the...

  19. Probing anomalous Higgs couplings at an collider using unpolarised beams

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Debajyoti Choudhury; Mamta

    2007-11-01

    We examine the sensitivity of colliders (based on + - linear colliders of c.m. energy 500 GeV) to the anomalous couplings of the Higgs to -boson via the process - → . This has the advantage over + - collider in being able to dissociate vertex from . We are able to construct several dynamical variables which may be used to constrain the various couplings in the vertex.

  20. Non-Anomalous Semigroups and Real Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Binder, Damon

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by intuitive properties of physical quantities, the notion of a non-anomalous semigroup is formulated. These are totally ordered semigroups where there are no `infinitesimally close' elements. The real numbers are then defined as the terminal object in a closely related category. From this definition a field structure on $\\mathbb R$ is derived, relating multiplication to morphisms between non-anomalous semigroups.

  1. Anomalous commutator corrections to sum rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we consider the contributions of anomalous commutators to various QCD sum rules. Using a combination of the Bjorken-Johnson-Low limit with the operator product expansion the results are presented in terms of the vacuum condensates of gauge-invariant operators. It is demonstrated that the anomalous contributions are non-negligible and reconcile various apparently contradictory calculations

  2. Electrically tunable spin polarization of chiral edge modes in a quantum anomalous Hall insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui-Xing; Hsu, Hsiu-Chuan; Liu, Chao-Xing

    2016-06-01

    In the quantum anomalous Hall effect, chiral edge modes are expected to conduct spin polarized current without dissipation and thus hold great promise for future electronics and spintronics with low energy consumption. However, spin polarization of chiral edge modes has never been established in experiments. In this work, we theoretically study spin polarization of chiral edge modes in the quantum anomalous Hall effect, based on both the effective model and more realistic tight-binding model constructed from first-principles calculations. We find that spin polarization can be manipulated by tuning either a local gate voltage or the Fermi energy. We also propose to extract spin information of chiral edge modes by contacting the quantum anomalous Hall insulator to a ferromagnetic lead. The establishment of spin polarization of chiral edge modes, as well as the manipulation and detection in a fully electrical manner, will pave the way to the applications of the quantum anomalous Hall effect in spintronics.

  3. Commercial nuclear fuel from U.S. and Russian surplus defense inventories: Materials, policies, and market effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    Nuclear materials declared by the US and Russian governments as surplus to defense programs are being converted into fuel for commercial nuclear reactors. This report presents the results of an analysis estimating the market effects that would likely result from current plans to commercialize surplus defense inventories. The analysis focuses on two key issues: (1) the extent by which traditional sources of supply, such as production from uranium mines and enrichment plants, would be displaced by the commercialization of surplus defense inventories or, conversely, would be required in the event of disruptions to planned commercialization, and (2) the future price of uranium considering the potential availability of surplus defense inventories. Finally, the report provides an estimate of the savings in uranium procurement costs that could be realized by US nuclear power generating companies with access to competitively priced uranium supplied from surplus defense inventories.

  4. Commercial nuclear fuel from U.S. and Russian surplus defense inventories: Materials, policies, and market effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear materials declared by the US and Russian governments as surplus to defense programs are being converted into fuel for commercial nuclear reactors. This report presents the results of an analysis estimating the market effects that would likely result from current plans to commercialize surplus defense inventories. The analysis focuses on two key issues: (1) the extent by which traditional sources of supply, such as production from uranium mines and enrichment plants, would be displaced by the commercialization of surplus defense inventories or, conversely, would be required in the event of disruptions to planned commercialization, and (2) the future price of uranium considering the potential availability of surplus defense inventories. Finally, the report provides an estimate of the savings in uranium procurement costs that could be realized by US nuclear power generating companies with access to competitively priced uranium supplied from surplus defense inventories

  5. Preliminary assessments the shortcut to remediation (category III-surplus facility assessments)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the details of the preliminary assessments for the shortcut of decontamination of surplus nuclear facilities. Topics discussed include: environment, health and safety concerns; economic considerations; reduction of transition time; preliminary characterization reports; preliminary project plan; health and safety plan; quality assurance plan; surveillance and maintenance plan; and waste management plan

  6. Knowledge Valorisation: A Route of Knowledge That Ends In Surplus Value (An Example of The Netherlands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladchenko, Myroslava

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the reasons of the success of the Netherlands in knowledge valorisation: what are the actors that participate in knowledge valorisation process and what are their functions; what is the route of knowledge in valorisation; what "surplus value" does knowledge gain in the valorisation…

  7. 14 CFR 21.27 - Issue of type certificate: surplus aircraft of the Armed Forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... paragraph (f) and adding in its place the words “14 CFR”, effective Apr. 14, 2010. ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Issue of type certificate: surplus aircraft..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Type Certificates §...

  8. Testing the Pecking Order Theory: The Impact of Financing Surpluses and Large Financing Deficits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. de Jong (Abe); M.J.C.M. Verbeek (Marno); P. Verwijmeren (Patrick)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis paper extends the basic pecking order model of Shyam-Sunder and Myers (1999) by separating the effects of financing surpluses, normal deficits, and large deficits. Using a broad cross-section of publicly traded firms for 1971 to 2005, we find that the estimated pecking order coeffic

  9. The theorem of consumer surplus and demand elasticity at equilibrium price in a monopolist competition case

    OpenAIRE

    Grebennikov, Petr I

    2010-01-01

    In the market of a monopolistically competition the price of a long-run equilibrium, the consumers’ surplus is equal to a half of fixed cost value, and the price elasticity is equal to the ratio of total to fixed costs.

  10. 75 FR 6360 - Information on Surplus Land at a Military Installation Designated for Disposal: Newport Naval...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-09

    ... Farms 1 & 2, Portsmouth, and Midway/Green Lane Parcel, Stringham Road and Portion of Defense Highway.../Green Lane Parcel, Stringham Road and Portion of Defense Highway, that are surplus to the needs of the.... 1 is a three-story concrete and brick H-plan structure, which was constructed in 1913 and used as...

  11. The Traders' Cross: Identifying Traders' Surpluses in the Traditional Edgeworth Exchange Diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulier, Scott A.; Prychitko, David L.

    2010-01-01

    The Edgeworth exchange diagram is a traditional tool of undergraduate microeconomic theory that depicts the mutually beneficial gains from voluntary trade. The authors take the analysis one step further. They identify the buyer's and seller's surpluses that accrue to both trading parties in the Edgeworth diagram. This is a straightforward exercise…

  12. A comparison of nitrogen use efficiency and surplus in two dairy farms typologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igino Andrighetto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Referring to the Destra Brenta district (Veneto Region, Italy two farming systems were considered: grassland-hay (H vs. arable land-silage maize (M. Manure and crop products belonged to an internal flow, thus an annual farm gate balance of nitrogen (N was carried out to determine the nutrient use efficiency (NUE and surplus by using data from a survey. Surplus was determined as difference between inputs (I and outputs (O and NUE as ratio between O and I. The main I was represented by purchased concentrate, on the contrary fertilizer accounted only for low amounts. Surplus per surface unit was significantly higher in M-farms group than in H one (269 vs. 369 kg N per ha; P<0.01. Surplus referred to unit of fat corrected milk was significantly lower in M-farms (17.6 vs.15.6 kg of N per ton of FCM; P<0.01 leading to an higher N-NUE (0.260 vs. 0.278; P<0.05.

  13. The food waste hierarchy as a framework for the management of food surplus and food waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papargyropoulou, Effie; Lozano, Rodrigo; K. Steinberger, Julia; Wright, Nigel; Ujang, Zaini Bin

    2014-01-01

    The unprecedented scale of food waste in global food supply chains is attracting increasing attention due to its environmental, social and economic impacts. Drawing on interviews with food waste specialists, this study construes the boundaries between food surplus and food waste, avoidable and unavo

  14. When Shortage Coexists with Surplus of Teachers: The Case of Arab Teachers in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbaria, Ayman K.; Pinson, Halleli

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the nexus between pre-service teacher education polices and the supply and demand of minority teachers. It problematizes the recent reports on teacher shortages in Israel, which tend to focus on the shortage of Jewish teachers while dealing with the surplus of Arab teachers only tangentially. Specifically, this article…

  15. Multilevel Exploratory Factor Analysis: Illustrating Its Surplus Value in Educational Effectiveness Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Haenens, Ellen; Van Damme, Jan; Onghena, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    This paper illustrates the surplus value of multilevel exploratory factor analysis in educational effectiveness research. Educational researchers often use measures for process variables at the class or school level to explain differences in student outcomes. Recently, van de Vijver and Poortinga (2002) have developed a procedure for multilevel…

  16. Anomalous diffraction in hyperbolic materials

    CERN Document Server

    Alberucci, Alessandro; Boardman, Allan D; Assanto, Gaetano

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate that light is subject to anomalous (i.e., negative) diffraction when propagating in the presence of hyperbolic dispersion. We show that light propagation in hyperbolic media resembles the dynamics of a quantum particle of negative mass moving in a two-dimensional potential. The negative effective mass implies time reversal if the medium is homogeneous. Such property paves the way to diffraction compensation, spatial analogue of dispersion compensating fibers in the temporal domain. At variance with materials exhibiting standard elliptic dispersion, in inhomogeneous hyperbolic materials light waves are pulled towards regions with a lower refractive index. In the presence of a Kerr-like optical response, bright (dark) solitons are supported by a negative (positive) nonlinearity.

  17. Soft theorems from anomalous symmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Yu-tin

    2015-01-01

    We discuss constraints imposed by soft limits for effective field theories arising from symmetry breaking. In particular, we consider those associated with anomalous conformal symmetry as well as duality symmetries in supergravity. We verify these soft theorems for the dilaton effective action relevant for the a-theorem, as well as the one-loop effective action for N=4 supergravity. Using the universality of leading transcendental coefficients in the alpha' expansion of string theory amplitudes, we study the matrix elements of operator R^4 with half maximal supersymmetry. We construct the non-linear completion of R^4 that satisfies both single and double soft theorems up to seven points. This supports the existence of duality invariant completion of R^4.

  18. Anomalous Growth of Aging Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebenkov, Denis S.

    2016-04-01

    We consider a discrete-time population dynamics with age-dependent structure. At every time step, one of the alive individuals from the population is chosen randomly and removed with probability q_k depending on its age, whereas a new individual of age 1 is born with probability r. The model can also describe a single queue in which the service order is random while the service efficiency depends on a customer's "age" in the queue. We propose a mean field approximation to investigate the long-time asymptotic behavior of the mean population size. The age dependence is shown to lead to anomalous power-law growth of the population at the critical regime. The scaling exponent is determined by the asymptotic behavior of the probabilities q_k at large k. The mean field approximation is validated by Monte Carlo simulations.

  19. The spectrum of anomalous magnetohydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    The equations of anomalous magnetohydrodynamics describe an Abelian plasma where conduction and chiral currents are simultaneously present and constrained by the second law of thermodynamics. At high frequencies the magnetic currents play the leading role and the spectrum is dominated by two-fluid effects. The system behaves instead as a single fluid in the low-frequency regime where the vortical currents induce potentially large hypermagnetic fields. After deriving the physical solutions of the generalized Appleton-Hartree equation, the corresponding dispersion relations are scrutinized and compared with the results valid for cold plasmas. Hypermagnetic knots and fluid vortices can be concurrently present at very low frequencies and suggest a qualitatively different dynamics of the hydromagnetic nonlinearities.

  20. Anomalous extracellular diffusion in rat cerebellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Fanrong; Hrabe, Jan; Hrabetova, Sabina

    2015-05-01

    Extracellular space (ECS) is a major channel transporting biologically active molecules and drugs in the brain. Diffusion-mediated transport of these substances is hindered by the ECS structure but the microscopic basis of this hindrance is not fully understood. One hypothesis proposes that the hindrance originates in large part from the presence of dead-space (DS) microdomains that can transiently retain diffusing molecules. Because previous theoretical and modeling work reported an initial period of anomalous diffusion in similar environments, we expected that brain regions densely populated by DS microdomains would exhibit anomalous extracellular diffusion. Specifically, we targeted granular layers (GL) of rat and turtle cerebella that are populated with large and geometrically complex glomeruli. The integrative optical imaging (IOI) method was employed to evaluate diffusion of fluorophore-labeled dextran (MW 3000) in GL, and the IOI data analysis was adapted to quantify the anomalous diffusion exponent dw from the IOI records. Diffusion was significantly anomalous in rat GL, where dw reached 4.8. In the geometrically simpler turtle GL, dw was elevated but not robustly anomalous (dw = 2.6). The experimental work was complemented by numerical Monte Carlo simulations of anomalous ECS diffusion in several three-dimensional tissue models containing glomeruli-like structures. It demonstrated that both the duration of transiently anomalous diffusion and the anomalous exponent depend on the size of model glomeruli and the degree of their wrapping. In conclusion, we have found anomalous extracellular diffusion in the GL of rat cerebellum. This finding lends support to the DS microdomain hypothesis. Transiently anomalous diffusion also has a profound effect on the spatiotemporal distribution of molecules released into the ECS, especially at diffusion distances on the order of a few cell diameters, speeding up short-range diffusion-mediated signals in less permeable

  1. Thickness Dependence of the Quantum Anomalous Hall Effect in Magnetic Topological Insulator Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiao; Feng, Yang; Wang, Jing; Ou, Yunbo; Hao, Zhenqi; Liu, Chang; Zhang, Zuocheng; Zhang, Liguo; Lin, Chaojing; Liao, Jian; Li, Yongqing; Wang, Li-Li; Ji, Shuai-Hua; Chen, Xi; Ma, Xucun; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; Wang, Yayu; He, Ke; Xue, Qi-Kun

    2016-08-01

    The evolution of the quantum anomalous Hall effect with the thickness of Cr-doped (Bi,Sb)2 Te3 magnetic topological insulator films is studied, revealing how the effect is caused by the interplay of the surface states, band-bending, and ferromagnetic exchange energy. Homogeneity in ferromagnetism is found to be the key to high-temperature quantum anomalous Hall material. PMID:27166762

  2. Environmental contaminants in fish and mussels from Meddybemps Lake, the Dennys River, and East Machias River - Eastern Surplus Superfund Site, Meddybemps, Maine

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — From 1946 to the early 1980s, the 3-acre Eastern Surplus Superfund Site in Meddybemps, Maine, was used for the disposal and storage of surplus military equipment...

  3. Anomalous nonlinear X-ray Compton scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Matthias; Trigo, Mariano; Chen, Jian; Ghimire, Shambhu; Shwartz, Sharon; Kozina, Michael; Jiang, Mason; Henighan, Thomas; Bray, Crystal; Ndabashimiye, Georges; Bucksbaum, Philip H.; Feng, Yiping; Herrmann, Sven; Carini, Gabriella A.; Pines, Jack; Hart, Philip; Kenney, Christopher; Guillet, Serge; Boutet, Sébastien; Williams, Garth J.; Messerschmidt, Marc; Seibert, M. Marvin; Moeller, Stefan; Hastings, Jerome B.; Reis, David A.

    2015-11-01

    X-ray scattering is typically used as a weak linear atomic-scale probe of matter. At high intensities, such as produced at free-electron lasers, nonlinearities can become important, and the probe may no longer be considered weak. Here we report the observation of one of the most fundamental nonlinear X-ray-matter interactions: the concerted nonlinear Compton scattering of two identical hard X-ray photons producing a single higher-energy photon. The X-ray intensity reached 4 × 1020 W cm-2, corresponding to an electric field well above the atomic unit of strength and within almost four orders of magnitude of the quantum-electrodynamic critical field. We measure a signal from solid beryllium that scales quadratically in intensity, consistent with simultaneous non-resonant two-photon scattering from nearly-free electrons. The high-energy photons show an anomalously large redshift that is incompatible with a free-electron approximation for the ground-state electron distribution, suggesting an enhanced nonlinearity for scattering at large momentum transfer.

  4. Anomalous Hall effect on the surface of topological Kondo insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, E. J.; Ostrovsky, P. M.; Dzero, M.; Levchenko, A.

    2016-07-01

    We calculate the anomalous Hall conductivity σx y of the surface states in cubic topological Kondo insulators. We consider a generic model for the surface states with three Dirac cones on the (001) surface. The Fermi velocity, the Fermi momentum, and the Zeeman energy in different Dirac pockets may be unequal. The microscopic impurity potential mediates mixed intra- and interband extrinsic scattering processes. Our calculation of σx y is based on the Kubo-Streda diagrammatic approach. It includes diffractive skew scattering contributions originating from the rare two-impurity complexes. Remarkably, these contributions yield anomalous Hall conductivity that is independent of impurity concentration, and thus is of the same order as other known extrinsic side jump and skew scattering terms. We discuss various special cases of our results and the experimental relevance of our study in the context of the recent hysteretic magnetotransport data in SmB6 samples.

  5. Anomalous Brownian motion and viscoelasticity of the ear's mechanoelectrical transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andor-Ardó, Daniel; Kozlov, Andrei; Hudspeth, A. J.

    2009-03-01

    The Brownian motion of a particle in a complex environment is known to display anomalous power-law scaling in which the mean squared displacement is proportional to a fractional power of time. Using laser interferometry and analytical methods of microrheology, we examine nanometer-scale thermal motions of hair bundles in the internal ear and show that these cellular organelles undergo fractional Brownian motion. This anomalous scaling is caused by viscoelasticity of the gating springs, elements that transmit energy in a sound to the mechanosensitive ion channels. These results demonstrate a connection between rheology and auditory physiology, and indicate that statistical properties of the thermal noise in the ear can be determined by dynamics of a small number of key molecules.

  6. Simple Explanation on Application of Flue Gas Denitration in Surplus Heat Boiler%浅谈烟气脱硝在余热锅炉上的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周萍

    2013-01-01

      随着国家对节能减排工作的日益重视,氮氧化物(NOx)减排工作已提上日程,成为“十二五”期间节能减排的主要任务之一。目前,各种工业窑炉、锅炉是NOx的主要排放源,其NOx的减排工作任重而道远,需要依靠科技的力量来完成。现在,很多工业窑炉陆续都安装了余热锅炉来节能,所以有很多脱硝设备是设置在余热锅炉上的。本文结合现有的成熟脱硝技术及各种余热锅炉的情况,提出了适合余热锅炉脱硝的可行性工艺,并分析总结了工程实践的经验。%With the increasing attention to the work of energy saving and emission reduction by the State, the emission reduction work of NOx has been put into the daily agenda and becomes one of the main task target of energy saving and emis-sion reduction during“the twelfth five-year plan”. At the present time, various kinds of kiln and boiler are the main force of NOx emission, among them, the burden of NOx emission reduction is heavy and the road is long, it requires the force of science and technology to fulfil the work. Now, surplus heat boilers are instal ed in many industrial kilns for the energy saving, therefore a lot of denitrification equipment is instal ed in surplus heat boilers. Based on the existing mature denitrification technology and various surplus heat boilers, the paper puts forward the feasibility denitrification technology that adapts to surplus heat boilers, and analyzes and sums up the technical experiences of engineering practice.

  7. Anomalous dispersion enhanced Cerenkov phase-matching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalczyk, T.C.; Singer, K.D. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States). Dept. of Physics; Cahill, P.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-11-01

    The authors report on a scheme for phase-matching second harmonic generation in polymer waveguides based on the use of anomalous dispersion to optimize Cerenkov phase matching. They have used the theoretical results of Hashizume et al. and Onda and Ito to design an optimum structure for phase-matched conversion. They have found that the use of anomalous dispersion in the design results in a 100-fold enhancement in the calculated conversion efficiency. This technique also overcomes the limitation of anomalous dispersion phase-matching which results from absorption at the second harmonic. Experiments are in progress to demonstrate these results.

  8. Modeling of anomalous Wtb interactions in single top quark events using auxiliary fields

    CERN Document Server

    Boos, E; Dudko, L; Perfilov, M

    2016-01-01

    A method to simulate anomalous fermion-boson interactions in Wtb vertex is presented with a minimal set of simulated samples of single top quark events at the LHC energies. In proposed method additional auxiliary vector fields corresponding to the Standard Model gauge fields are implemented for each type of the anomalous vertex structure. The method allows to simulate a manifestation of anomalous gauge couplings in two approaches used in experimental analyses either keeping only the linear order contributions in the anomalous couplings or keeping all contributions in numerators and denominators as appeared in matrix elements. All the single top quark production mechanisms, $t$-, $s$- and associative tW-channels are considered. The correctness of the proposed method is demonstrated.

  9. A Malthusian Model for all Seasons: A Theoretical Approach to Labour Input and Labour Surplus in Traditional Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Sharp, Paul Richard; Weisdorf, Jacob Louis

    2007-01-01

    It has become popular to argue (e.g. Clark 2007) that all societies were Malthusian until about 1800. At the same time, the phenomenon of surplus labour is well-documented for historical (as well as modern) pre-industrial societies. This study discusses the paradox of surplus labour in a Malthusian economy. Inspired by the work of Boserup (1965) and others, and in contrast to the Lewis (1954) approach, we suggest that the phenomenon of surplus labour is best understood through an acceptance o...

  10. Anomalous radial expansion in central heavy-ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The expansion velocity profile in central heavy-ion reactions in the Fermi energy domain is examined. The radial expansion is non-hubblean and in the surface region it scales proportional to a higher exponent (α > 1) of the radius. The anomalous expansion velocity profile is accompanied by a power law nucleon density profile in the surface region. Both these features of central heavy-ion reactions disappear at higher energies, and the system follows a uniform Hubble expansion (α ≅ 1). (authors)

  11. Anomalous magnetic moment with heavy virtual leptons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurz, Alexander [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Teilchenphysik; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Liu, Tao; Steinhauser, Matthias [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Teilchenphysik; Marquard, Peter [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)

    2013-11-15

    We compute the contributions to the electron and muon anomalous magnetic moment induced by heavy leptons up to four-loop order. Asymptotic expansion is applied to obtain three analytic expansion terms which show rapid convergence.

  12. The charmonium dissociation in an "anomalous wind"

    CERN Document Server

    Sadofyev, Andrey V

    2016-01-01

    We study the charmonium dissociation in a strongly coupled chiral plasma in the presence of magnetic field and axial charge imbalance. This type of plasma carries ``anomalous flow" induced by the chiral anomaly and exhibits novel transport phenomena such as chiral magnetic effect. We found that the ``anomalous flow" would modify the charmonium color screening length by using the gauge/gravity correspondence. We derive an analytical expression quantifying the ``anomalous flow" experienced by a charmonium for a large class of chiral plasma with a gravity dual. We elaborate on the similarity and {\\it qualitative} difference between anomalous effects on the charmonium color screening length which are {\\it model-dependent} and those on the heavy quark drag force which are fixed by the second law of thermodynamics. We speculate on the possible charmonium dissociation induced by chiral anomaly in heavy ion collisions.

  13. The charmonium dissociation in an "anomalous wind"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadofyev, Andrey V.; Yin, Yi

    2016-01-01

    We study the charmonium dissociation in a strongly coupled chiral plasma in the presence of magnetic field and axial charge imbalance. This type of plasma carries "anomalous flow" induced by the chiral anomaly and exhibits novel transport phenomena such as chiral magnetic effect. We found that the "anomalous flow" would modify the charmonium color screening length by using the gauge/gravity correspondence. We derive an analytical expression quantifying the "anomalous flow" experienced by a charmonium for a large class of chiral plasma with a gravity dual. We elaborate on the similarity and qualitative difference between anomalous effects on the charmonium color screening length which are model-dependent and those on the heavy quark drag force which are fixed by the second law of thermodynamics. We speculate on the possible charmonium dissociation induced by the chiral anomaly in heavy ion collisions.

  14. Reactive, anomalous compression in shocked polyurethane foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dattelbaum, Dana M.; Coe, Joshua D.; Kiyanda, Charles B.; Gustavsen, Richard L.; Patterson, Brian M.

    2014-05-01

    We present the results of plate impact experiments performed on 30%-75% porous, polymeric methylene diphenyl diisocyanate polyurethane foams. The combination of new data with those previously obtained on full-density material was used to calibrate complete equations-of-state under both inert and chemically reactive frameworks. Description of unreacted polyurethane was based on a combination of Hayes and P-α models, whereas its decomposition products were predicted via free energy minimization under the assumption of chemical and thermodynamic equilibrium. Correspondence of experiment and theory suggests that polyurethane at all densities decomposes when shocked above some threshold pressure, and that this threshold falls dramatically as a function of initial porosity. The shock locus of foams at 50% or less of theoretical maximum density was found "anomalous" in the sense that final volumes increased with pressure. We attribute this anomaly to chemical decomposition of the initial matrix to a mixture of small-molecule fluids and bulk carbon (graphite or diamond, depending on the initial density).

  15. Observation of photonic anomalous Floquet Topological Insulators

    CERN Document Server

    Maczewsky, Lukas J; Nolte, Stefan; Szameit, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Commonly, a two-dimensional topological insulator is characterized by non-zero Chern numbers associated with its band structure. In our work, we present the experimental demonstration of an anomalous topological insulator, for which the Chern numbers are always zero, and the winding number is the appropriate quantity describing the topological character of the system. We probe the robustness of the chiral edge states in such anomalous topological insulators and analyze the phase transition between topological and trivial phase.

  16. Anomalous transport due to scale anomaly

    CERN Document Server

    Chernodub, M N

    2016-01-01

    We show that the scale anomaly in field theories leads to new anomalous transport effects that emerge in external electromagnetic field in inhomogeneous gravitational background. In inflating geometry the QED scale anomaly generates electric current which flows in opposite direction with respect to background electric field. In static spatially inhomogeneous gravitational background the dissipationless electric current flows transversely both to the magnetic field axis and to the gradient of the inhomogeneity. The anomalous currents are proportional to the beta function of the theory.

  17. The UK's Surplus Source Disposal Programme: successful management of a national radioactive legacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Clive; Burns, Philip; Wakerley, Malcolm; Watson, Isabelle; Cook, Marianne; Moloney, Barry

    2010-06-01

    Between 2004 and 2009, the Surplus Source Disposal Programme (SSDP) arranged and subsidised the safe disposal or recycling of more than 11,000 unwanted radioactive items containing in total more than 8.5 x 10(14) Bq of activity, from some 500 sites throughout the United Kingdom. Sources were removed principally from universities, schools and colleges, museums, and hospitals. SSDP was funded by the UK Government and managed by the Environment Agency. The programme was delivered at a total cost of pound sterling 7.14 million, nearly pound sterling 2 million less than its initial budget. This was a big success for health and safety, the environment, business and the public purse. Current legislative requirements under the High Activity Sealed Sources Directive, which came into effect during 2005, will prevent a build-up of high activity surplus sources in future. Continuing vigilance may be needed to avoid a build-up of lower activity disused sources. PMID:20530861

  18. The UK's Surplus Source Disposal Programme: successful management of a national radioactive legacy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Clive [Environment Agency, Block 1, Government Buildings, Burghill Road, Westbury-on-Trym, Bristol BS10 6BF (United Kingdom); Burns, Philip [Formerly of the Environment Agency, Olton Court, 10 Warwick Road, Solihull B92 7HX (United Kingdom); Wakerley, Malcolm [Formerly of the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, Ergon House, 17 Smith Square, London SW1P 3JR (United Kingdom); Watson, Isabelle [Scottish Environment Protection Agency, 5 Redwood Crescent, Peel Park, East Kilbride G74 5PP (United Kingdom); Cook, Marianne [Scottish Government, Victoria Quay, Edinburgh EH6 6QQ (United Kingdom); Moloney, Barry [Safeguard International (now EnergySolutions), B168, Harwell Campus, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QT (United Kingdom)

    2010-06-15

    Between 2004 and 2009, the Surplus Source Disposal Programme (SSDP) arranged and subsidised the safe disposal or recycling of more than 11 000 unwanted radioactive items containing in total more than 8.5 x 10{sup 14} Bq of activity, from some 500 sites throughout the United Kingdom. Sources were removed principally from universities, schools and colleges, museums, and hospitals. SSDP was funded by the UK Government and managed by the Environment Agency. The programme was delivered at a total cost of Pounds 7.14 million, nearly Pounds 2 million less than its initial budget. This was a big success for health and safety, the environment, business and the public purse. Current legislative requirements under the High Activity Sealed Sources Directive, which came into effect during 2005, will prevent a build-up of high activity surplus sources in future. Continuing vigilance may be needed to avoid a build-up of lower activity disused sources. (note)

  19. US FDI in China Has Widened China-US Trade Surplus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨来科; 廖春

    2007-01-01

    The paper analyzes the impact of U.S.direct investment in Chino on the Sino-US trade balance.The research shows that US FDI in China has largely widened the US-Chino trade deficit.On the one hand,cost-oriented US investment enlarged Ch/nese export to the US;on the other hand,market-oriented investment decreased US exports to China.Moreover,China’s surplus against US high-technology products is mainly created by foreign invested enterprises.Therefore,the paper suggests that China should adjust its FDI policies to reduce the trade surplus against the US,thereby calming the trade dispute with the US as well as other countries.

  20. Conversion of Surplus Picric Acid/Explosive D to Higher Value Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, A R; Hsu, P C; Coburn, M D; Schmidt, R D; Pagoria, P F; Lee, G S; Kwak, S S W

    2003-02-28

    The global demilitarization of nuclear and conventional munitions is producing millions of pounds of surplus energetic materials. Historically, energetic materials (high explosives, propellants, and pyrotechnics) have been disposed of by open burning/open detonation (OB/OD). The use of OB/OD is becoming unacceptable due to public concerns and increasingly stringent environmental regulations. Clearly, there is a great need to develop environmentally sound and cost-effective alternatives to OB/OD. The conversion of surplus picric acid and/or ammonium picrate (Explosive D) to 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) has been subject of extensive process development studies at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). LLNL, under the direction and sponsorship of the U.S. Army Defense Ammunition Center (DAC), is developing a process for the conversion of picric acid to TATB on a pilot scale.

  1. Metabolomic analysis of plasma and liver from surplus arginine fed Atlantic salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Synne M.; Assaad, Houssein I.; Lin, Gang; Wang, Junjun; Aksnes, Anders; Wu, Guoyao; Espe, Marit

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the metabolic effect of surplus arginine (36.1 g/kg dry matter) compared to a control diet with required arginine (21.1 g/kg dry matter) in adult Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Although the feeding trial had no significant effect on growth, there were significant differences in the metabolite profile in both plasma and liver in experimental group as compared to the control group. There was increased concentrations of biliverdin, PGF-2 alpha, oxidized glutathione, selenocysteine, two monoacylglycerols and a tripeptide in the liver as well as decreased concentrations of valine and a vitamin D3 metabolite in plasma of arginine supplemented fish. These results indicate that while surplus arginine does not affect growth or body weight, it induces metabolic changes in Atlantic salmon. PMID:25553364

  2. Gas power production, surplus concepts and the transformation of hydro-electric rent into resource rent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper considers the effects of introducing large scale gas power production capacity into an electricity sector based on hydropower. In this process the economic rent is transmitted from the hydro power sector to the resource rent in the gas power sector, but is along the way intermingled with ordinary producer surplus and quasi-rent stemming from increasing cost conditions in the production infrastructure and capacity constraints. The net effect on total rent generated depends on development in demand, demand elasticities, costs saved from delaying hydropower projects and the existence of producer surplus in gas power generation. The paper closes with a discussion of possible tax base changes following from the introduction of a thermal power system based on natural gas

  3. The UK's Surplus Source Disposal Programme: successful management of a national radioactive legacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Between 2004 and 2009, the Surplus Source Disposal Programme (SSDP) arranged and subsidised the safe disposal or recycling of more than 11 000 unwanted radioactive items containing in total more than 8.5 x 1014 Bq of activity, from some 500 sites throughout the United Kingdom. Sources were removed principally from universities, schools and colleges, museums, and hospitals. SSDP was funded by the UK Government and managed by the Environment Agency. The programme was delivered at a total cost of Pounds 7.14 million, nearly Pounds 2 million less than its initial budget. This was a big success for health and safety, the environment, business and the public purse. Current legislative requirements under the High Activity Sealed Sources Directive, which came into effect during 2005, will prevent a build-up of high activity surplus sources in future. Continuing vigilance may be needed to avoid a build-up of lower activity disused sources. (note)

  4. Disposition and transportation of surplus radioactive low specific activity nitric acid. Volume 1, Environmental Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DOE is deactivating the PUREX plant at Hanford; this will involve the disposition of about 692,000 liters (183,000 gallons) of surplus nitric acid contaminated with low levels of U and other radionuclides. The nitric acid, designated as low specific activity, is stored in 4 storage tanks at PUREX. Five principal alternatives were evaluated: transfer for reuse (sale to BNF plc), no action, continued storage in Hanford upgraded or new facility, consolidation of DOE surplus acid, and processing the LSA nitric acid as waste. The transfer to BNF plc is the preferred alternative. From the analysis, it is concluded that the proposed disposition and transportation of the acid does not constitute a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of NEPA; therefore an environmental impact statement is not required

  5. SRS MOX fuel lead assemblies data report for the surplus plutonium disposition environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this document is to support the US Department of Energy (DOE) Fissile Materials Disposition Program's preparation of the draft surplus plutonium disposition environmental impact statement. This is one of several responses to data call requests for background information on activities associated with the operation of the lead assembly (LA) mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication facility. DOE-MD requested that the DOE Site Operations Offices nominate DOE sites that meet established minimum requirements that could produce MOX LAs. Six initial site combinations were proposed: (1) Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) with support from Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), (2) Hanford, (3) Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) with support from Pantex, (4) Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), (5) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), and (6) Savannah River Site(SRS). After further analysis by the sites and DOE-MD, five site combinations were established as possible candidates for producing MOX LAs: (1) ANL-W with support from INEEL, (2) Hanford, (3) LANL, (4) LLNL, and (5) SRS. SRS has proposed an LA MOX fuel fabrication approach that would be done entirely inside an S and S Category 1 area. An alternate approach would allow fabrication of fuel pellets and assembly of fuel rods in an S and S Category 2 or 3 facility with storage of bulk PuO2 and assembly, storage, and shipping of fuel bundles in an S and S Category 1 facility. The total Category 1 approach, which is the recommended option, would be done in the 221-H Canyon Building. A facility that was never in service will be removed from one area, and a hardened wall will be constructed in another area to accommodate execution of the LA fuel fabrication. The non-Category 1 approach would require removal of process equipment in the FB-Line metal production and packaging glove boxes, which requires work in a contamination area. The Immobilization Hot Demonstration Program

  6. SRS MOX fuel lead assemblies data report for the surplus plutonium disposition environmental impact statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Connor, D.G.; Fisher, S.E.; Holdaway, R. [and others

    1998-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to support the US Department of Energy (DOE) Fissile Materials Disposition Program`s preparation of the draft surplus plutonium disposition environmental impact statement. This is one of several responses to data call requests for background information on activities associated with the operation of the lead assembly (LA) mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication facility. DOE-MD requested that the DOE Site Operations Offices nominate DOE sites that meet established minimum requirements that could produce MOX LAs. Six initial site combinations were proposed: (1) Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) with support from Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), (2) Hanford, (3) Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) with support from Pantex, (4) Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), (5) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), and (6) Savannah River Site(SRS). After further analysis by the sites and DOE-MD, five site combinations were established as possible candidates for producing MOX LAs: (1) ANL-W with support from INEEL, (2) Hanford, (3) LANL, (4) LLNL, and (5) SRS. SRS has proposed an LA MOX fuel fabrication approach that would be done entirely inside an S and S Category 1 area. An alternate approach would allow fabrication of fuel pellets and assembly of fuel rods in an S and S Category 2 or 3 facility with storage of bulk PuO{sub 2} and assembly, storage, and shipping of fuel bundles in an S and S Category 1 facility. The total Category 1 approach, which is the recommended option, would be done in the 221-H Canyon Building. A facility that was never in service will be removed from one area, and a hardened wall will be constructed in another area to accommodate execution of the LA fuel fabrication. The non-Category 1 approach would require removal of process equipment in the FB-Line metal production and packaging glove boxes, which requires work in a contamination area. The Immobilization Hot Demonstration Program

  7. Search for anomalous weak dipole moments of the $\\tau$ lepton

    CERN Document Server

    Heister, A; Barate, R; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Merle, E; Minard, M N; Pietrzyk, B; Bravo, S; Casado, M P; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Garrido, L; Martínez, M; Pacheco, A; Ruiz, H; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Tricomi, A; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Abbaneo, D; Azzurri, P; Buchmüller, O L; Cattaneo, M; Cerutti, F; Clerbaux, B; Drevermann, H; Forty, R W; Frank, M; Gianotti, F; Hansen, J B; Harvey, J; Hutchcroft, D E; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kado, M; Mato, P; Moutoussi, A; Ranjard, F; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schneider, O; Sguazzoni, G; Tejessy, W; Teubert, F; Valassi, Andrea; Videau, I; Ward, J; Badaud, F; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Montret, J C; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Kyriakis, A; Markou, C; Simopoulou, Errietta; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Swynghedauw, M; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Ciulli, V; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Antonelli, A; Antonelli, M; Bencivenni, G; Bossi, F; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, G P; Passalacqua, L; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Lynch, J G; Negus, P; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Thompson, A S; Wasserbaech, S R; Cavanaugh, R J; Geweniger, C; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Dornan, P J; Girone, M; Marinelli, N; Sedgbeer, J K; Thompson, J C; Ghete, V M; Girtler, P; Kneringer, E; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bouhova-Thacker, E; Bowdery, C K; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Jones, R W L; Pearson, M R; Robertson, N A; Jakobs, K; Kleinknecht, K; Renk, B; Sander, H G; Wachsmuth, H W; Zeitnitz, C; Bonissent, A; Coyle, P; Leroy, O; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Ragusa, F; David, A; Dietl, H; Ganis, G; Hüttmann, K; Lütjens, G; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Settles, Ronald; Wolf, G; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacholkowska, A; Lefrançois, J; Veillet, J J; Yuan, C; Bagliesi, G; Boccali, T; Foà, L; Giammanco, A; Giassi, A; Ligabue, F; Messineo, A; Palla, Fabrizio; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Tenchini, Roberto; Venturi, A; Verdini, P G; Blair, G A; Cowan, G; Green, M G; Medcalf, T; Misiejuk, A; Strong, J A; Teixeira-Dias, P; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Norton, P R; Tomalin, I R; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Schuller, J P; Vallage, B; Konstantinidis, N P; Litke, A M; Taylor, G; Booth, C N; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Lehto, M H; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Grupen, Claus; Ngac, A; Prange, G; Giannini, G; Rothberg, J E; Armstrong, S R; Berkelman, K; Cranmer, K; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y; Gonzáles, S; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; Jin, S; Kile, J; McNamara, P A; Nielsen, J; Pan, Y B; Von Wimmersperg-Töller, J H; Wiedenmann, W; Wu, J; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Zobernig, G; Dissertori, G

    2003-01-01

    The anomalous weak dipole moments of the $\\tau$ lepton are measured in a data sample collected by ALEPH from 1990 to 1995 corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 155~pb$^{-1}$. Tau leptons produced in the reaction $e^+ e^- \\rightarrow \\tau^+ \\tau^-$ at energies close to the ${\\rm Z}$ mass are studied using their semileptonic decays to $\\pi$, $\\rho$, $a_1 \\rightarrow \\pi 2\\pi^0$ or $a_1 \\rightarrow 3 \\pi$. The real and imaginary components of both the anomalous weak magnetic dipole moment and the CP-violating anomalous weak electric dipole moment, $ {\\rm Re}\\,\\mu_{\\tau}$, ${\\rm Im}\\,\\mu_{\\tau}$, ${\\rm Re}\\,d_{\\tau}$ and ${\\rm Im}\\,d_{\\tau}$, are measured simultaneously by means of a likelihood fit built from the full differential cross section. No evidence of new physics is found. The following bounds are obtained (95\\% CL): $|{\\rm Re}\\, \\mu_{\\tau} | < 1.14 \\times 10^{-3}$, $|{\\rm Im}\\, \\mu_{\\tau} | < 2.65 \\times 10^{-3}$, $|{\\rm Re}\\, d_{\\tau} | < 0.91 \\times 10^{-3}$, and $|{\\rm Im}\\, d_{\\tau} ...

  8. Search for anomalous couplings in the Higgs sector at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Acciarri, M; Adriani, O; Aguilar-Benítez, M; Alcaraz, J; Alemanni, G; Allaby, James V; Aloisio, A; Alviggi, M G; Ambrosi, G; Anderhub, H; Andreev, V P; Angelescu, T; Anselmo, F; Arefev, A; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Bagnaia, P; Bajo, A; Baksay, L; Balandras, A; Baldew, S V; Banerjee, S; Banerjee, Sw; Barczyk, A; Barillère, R; Bartalini, P; Basile, M; Battiston, R; Bay, A; Becattini, F; Becker, U; Behner, F; Bellucci, L; Berbeco, R; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Betev, B L; Bhattacharya, S; Biasini, M; Biglietti, M; Biland, A; Blaising, J J; Blyth, S C; Bobbink, Gerjan J; Böhm, A; Boldizsar, L; Borgia, B; Bourilkov, D; Bourquin, Maurice; Braccini, S; Branson, J G; Brochu, F; Buffini, A; Buijs, A; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Cai, X D; Capell, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carlino, G; Cartacci, A M; Casaus, J; Castellini, G; Cavallari, F; Cavallo, N; Cecchi, C; Cerrada-Canales, M; Cesaroni, F; Chamizo-Llatas, M; Chang, Y H; Chaturvedi, U K; Chemarin, M; Chen, A; Chen, G; Chen, G M; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chiefari, G; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Civinini, C; Clare, I; Clare, R; Coignet, G; Colino, N; Costantini, S; Cotorobai, F; de la Cruz, B; Csilling, Akos; Cucciarelli, S; Dai, T S; van Dalen, J A; D'Alessandro, R; De Asmundis, R; Déglon, P L; Degré, A; Deiters, K; Della Volpe, D; Delmeire, E; Denes, P; De Notaristefani, F; De Salvo, A; Diemoz, M; Dierckxsens, M; Van Dierendonck, D N; Dionisi, C; Dittmar, Michael; Dominguez, A; Doria, A; Dova, M T; Duchesneau, D; Dufournaud, D; Duinker, P; Durán, I; El-Mamouni, H; Engler, A; Eppling, F J; Erné, F C; Extermann, Pierre; Fabre, M; Falagán, M A; Falciano, S; Favara, A; Fay, J; Fedin, O; Felcini, Marta; Ferguson, T; Fesefeldt, H S; Fiandrini, E; Field, J H; Filthaut, Frank; Fisher, P H; Fisk, I; Forconi, G; Freudenreich, Klaus; Furetta, C; Galaktionov, Yu; Ganguli, S N; García-Abia, P; Gataullin, M; Gau, S S; Gentile, S; Gheordanescu, N; Giagu, S; Gong, Z F; Grenier, G; Grimm, O; Grünewald, M W; Guida, M; van Gulik, R; Gupta, V K; Gurtu, A; Gutay, L J; Haas, D; Hasan, A; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hebbeker, T; Hervé, A; Hidas, P; Hirschfelder, J; Hofer, H; Holzner, G; Hoorani, H; Hou, S R; Hu, Y; Iashvili, I; Jin, B N; Jones, L W; de Jong, P; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Khan, R A; Kaur, M; Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Kim, D; Kim, J K; Kirkby, Jasper; Kiss, D; Kittel, E W; Klimentov, A; König, A C; Kopp, A; Koutsenko, V F; Kräber, M H; Krämer, R W; Krenz, W; Krüger, A; Kunin, A; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Laktineh, I; Landi, G; Lebeau, M; Lebedev, A; Lebrun, P; Lecomte, P; Lecoq, P; Le Coultre, P; Lee, H J; Le Goff, J M; Leiste, R; Levchenko, P M; Li Chuan; Likhoded, S A; Lin, C H; Lin, W T; Linde, Frank L; Lista, L; Liu, Z A; Lohmann, W; Longo, E; Lü, Y S; Lübelsmeyer, K; Luci, C; Luckey, D; Lugnier, L; Luminari, L; Lustermann, W; Ma Wen Gan; Maity, M; Malgeri, L; Malinin, A; Maña, C; Mangeol, D J J; Mans, J; Marian, G; Martin, J P; Marzano, F; Mazumdar, K; McNeil, R R; Mele, S; Merola, L; Meschini, M; Metzger, W J; Von der Mey, M; Mihul, A; Milcent, H; Mirabelli, G; Mnich, J; Mohanty, G B; Moulik, T; Muanza, G S; Muijs, A J M; Musicar, B; Musy, M; Napolitano, M; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newman, H; Niessen, T; Nisati, A; Nowak, H; Ofierzynski, R A; Organtini, G; Oulianov, A; Palomares, C; Pandoulas, D; Paoletti, S; Paolucci, P; Paramatti, R; Park, H K; Park, I H; Passaleva, G; Patricelli, S; Paul, T; Pauluzzi, M; Paus, C; Pauss, Felicitas; Pedace, M; Pensotti, S; Perret-Gallix, D; Petersen, B; Piccolo, D; Pierella, F; Pieri, M; Piroué, P A; Pistolesi, E; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Pozhidaev, V; Postema, H; Pothier, J; Prokofiev, D O; Prokofev, D; Quartieri, J; Rahal-Callot, G; Rahaman, M A; Raics, P; Raja, N; Ramelli, R; Rancoita, P G; Ranieri, R; Raspereza, A V; Raven, G; Razis, P A; Ren, D; Rescigno, M; Reucroft, S; Riemann, S; Riles, K; Rodin, J; Roe, B P; Romero, L; Rosca, A; Rosier-Lees, S; Rubio, Juan Antonio; Ruggiero, G; Rykaczewski, H; Saremi, S; Sarkar, S; Salicio, J; Sánchez, E; Sanders, M P; Sarakinos, M E; Schäfer, C; Shchegelskii, V; Schmidt-Kärst, S; Schmitz, D; Schopper, Herwig Franz; Schotanus, D J; Schwering, G; Sciacca, C; Seganti, A; Servoli, L; Shevchenko, S; Shivarov, N; Shoutko, V; Shumilov, E; Shvorob, A V; Siedenburg, T; Son, D; Smith, B; Spillantini, P; Steuer, M; Stickland, D P; Stone, A; Stoyanov, B; Strässner, A; Sudhakar, K; Sultanov, G G; Sun, L Z; Suter, H; Swain, J D; Szillási, Z; Sztaricskai, T; Tang, X W; Tauscher, Ludwig; Taylor, L; Tellili, B; Timmermans, C; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tonwar, S C; Tóth, J; Tully, C; Tung, K L; Uchida, Y; Ulbricht, J; Valente, E; Vesztergombi, G; Vetlitskii, I; Vicinanza, D; Viertel, Gert M; Villa, S; Vivargent, M; Vlachos, S; Vodopyanov, I; Vogel, H; Vogt, H; Vorobev, I; Vorobyov, A A; Vorvolakos, A; Wadhwa, M; Wallraff, W; Wang, M; Wang, X L; Wang, Z M; Weber, A; Weber, M; Wienemann, P; Wilkens, H; Wu, S X; Wynhoff, S; Xia, L; Xu, Z Z; Yamamoto, J; Yang, B Z; Yang, C G; Yang, H J; Yang, M; Ye, J B; Yeh, S C; Zalite, A; Zalite, Yu; Zhang, Z P; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, R Y; Zichichi, A; Zilizi, G; Zimmermann, B; Zöller, M

    2000-01-01

    We search for a Higgs particle with anomalous couplings in the $\\mathrm{e}^+\\mathrm{e}^-\\rightarrow\\mathrm{H}\\gamma$, $\\mathrm{e}^+\\mathrm{e}^-\\rightarrow\\mathrm{H}\\mathrm{Z}$ and $\\mathrm{e}^+\\mathrm{e}^-\\rightarrow\\mathrm{H}\\mathrm{e}^+\\mathrm{e }^-$ processes with the L3 detector at LEP. We explore the mass range $70~{\\rm GeV} < m_\\mathrm{H} < 170~{\\rm GeV}$ using $176~{\\rm pb}^{-1}$ of integrated luminosity at a center-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s} = 189~{\\rm GeV}$. The Higgs decays $\\mathrm{H}\\rightarrow\\mathrm{b}\\mathrm{\\overline{b}}$, $\\mathrm{H}\\rightarrow\\gamma\\gamma$ and $\\mathrm{H}\\rightarrow\\mathrm{ Z}\\gamma$ are considered in the analysis. No evidence for anomalous Higgs production is found. This is interpreted in terms of limits on the anomalous couplings $d$, $d_B$, $\\Delta g_1^\\mathrm{Z}$ and $\\Delta \\kappa_\\gamma$. Limits on the $\\Gamma(\\mathrm{H}\\rightarrow\\gamma\\gamma)$ and $\\Gamma(\\mathrm{H}\\rightarrow\\mathrm{Z}\\gamma)$ partial widths in the explored Higgs mass range are also obtained.

  9. The food waste hierarchy as a framework for the management of food surplus and food waste

    OpenAIRE

    Papargyropoulou, E; Lozano, R, R.; Steinberger, JK; Wright, N; Ujang, ZB

    2014-01-01

    The unprecedented scale of food waste in global food supply chains is attracting increasing attention due to its environmental, social and economic impacts. Drawing on interviews with food waste specialists, this study construes the boundaries between food surplus and food waste, avoidable and unavoidable food waste, and between waste prevention and waste management. This study suggests that the first step towards a more sustainable resolution of the food waste issue is to adopt a sustainable...

  10. Record of Decision Colorado River Interim Surplus Guidelines Final Environmental Impact Statement

    OpenAIRE

    Secretary of the Department of the Interior

    2001-01-01

    This document constitutes the Record of Decision (ROD) of the Department of the Interior, regarding the preferred alternative for Colorado River Interim Surplus Guidelines (Guidelines). The Secretary of the Interior (Secretary) is vested with the responsibility of managing the mainstream waters of the lower Colorado River pursuant to federal law. This responsibility is carried out consistent with applicable federal law. Reclamation, as the agency that is designated to act on the Secretary’s b...

  11. Anxiety and surplus in nursing practice: lessons from Lacan and Bataille.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Alicia M; Glass, Nel; Traynor, Michael

    2014-07-01

    It is well established, following Menzies' work, that nursing practice produces considerable anxiety. Like Menzies, we bring a psychoanalytic perspective to a theorization of anxiety in nursing and do so in order to consider nursing practice in the light of psychoanalytic theory, although from a Lacanian perspective. We also draw on Bataille's notion of 'surplus'. These concepts provide the theoretical framework for a study investigating how some clinical nurses are able to remain in clinical practice rather than leave the profession or seek work at a distance from the bedside. We conducted focus groups and present here an analysis of two fragments of nurses' speech. We found the nurses responded from one of two positions. In the first position, the nurses focus on doctors, complain about the surplus afforded them, and call for it to be eliminated. In this way, the nursing group is similar to other groups, considered by Bataille, who also attempt to get rid of a surplus. However, in the second position, the nurses stay with the surplus, tolerating it as they nurse the patient. This latter position is one where the nurse practises with a focus on the patient rather than being distracted by their dispute over the doctor's privilege. The importance of this paper is in its illustration of two distinct positions from which the nurse can practise: one that is not optimal because the nurse is distracted and the other that is more focused on practice, and thus the nurse is in a position to provide the best care possible to patients. PMID:24460865

  12. Marketing Efficiency and Determinants of Marketable Surplus in Vegetable Production in Kwara State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    A.H. Adenuga; Fakayode, S.B.; Adewole, R.A.

    2013-01-01

    Marketing of vegetables is a complex phenomenon due to their perishable nature, seasonality and bulkiness, and as such, vegetable production requires an efficient marketing system. This study was therefore carried out to examine the marketing efficiency and determinants of marketable surplus in vegetables production in Kwara state, Nigeria. Data were collected using a well structured questionnaire from 75 respondents comprising 35 vegetable farmers and 40 vegetable marketers from 6 vegetable ...

  13. Reevaluating the roles of large public surpluses and sovereign wealth funds in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Bernard; Wang, Hefei

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the increasingly important roles of Asian official institutions in the new global financial landscape and the reasons that have led to the build-up of massive public surpluses. We re-examine the role of sovereign wealth funds (SWFs) as the de facto "global lender of last resort" during the recent financial crisis. Specifically, we analyze SWFs’ balance sheet characteristics, target allocations strategies, strategic agendas and political realities, management philosop...

  14. Profit as Cost versus Profit as Surplus over Cost: A Case Study on Varian's "Intermediate Microeconomics"

    OpenAIRE

    Ormazabal Sánchez, Kepa Mirena

    2004-01-01

    [Alternative summary] This paper is a critique of the standard conception of the relation between competition and profit and takes Varian as a representative case. Varian starts defining profit as the surplus of revenues over cost: profit is made by buying cheap and selling dear. But the he stumbles on the fact that selling-price cannot be different from cost-price under competition. As Varian views it, competition annihilates the profit margin. This means that, in the general competitive equ...

  15. Producer Surplus Distributions in GM Crops: The Ignored Impacts of Roundup Ready Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, William W.; Huso, Scott R.

    2006-01-01

    Release of a genetically modified (GM) crop variety would lower prices of competing pesticides used on conventional varieties. This causes an increase in surplus for those farmers who adopt the GM variety, as well as for those who plant the conventional variety. A Cournot model was developed to determine the equilibrium quantities of conventional pesticides. A market with conventional wheat was compared to a market with both conventional and GM wheat varieties to identify price decreases of t...

  16. From Scarcity to Surplus: A Contribution to the Critique of Neoclassical Foundations

    OpenAIRE

    Isler, Ozan

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation is composed of two halves: "economies of scarcity," and "economies of surplus." The first part, "economies of scarcity," performs a philosophical critique of modernism by discussing the inherent limits of the foundations of neoclassical economic discourse. Here, rather than formulating utility functions that can better take account of our inherent cognitive biases -- as, for example, behavioral economics does -- I focus on the formal foundations common to all such "utility f...

  17. Recent Progress on the Conversion of Surplus Picric Acid/Explosive D to Higher Value Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.Mitchell, A; Hsu, P C; Coburn, M D; Schmidt, R D; Pagoria, P F; Lee, G S; Kwak, S W

    2004-07-06

    The global demilitarization of nuclear and conventional munitions is producing millions of pounds of surplus energetic materials. Historically, energetic materials (high explosives, propellants, and pyrotechnics) have been disposed of by open burning/open detonation (OB/OD). The use of OB/OD is becoming unacceptable due to public concerns and increasingly stringent environmental regulations. Clearly, there is a great need to develop environmentally sound and cost-effective alternatives to OB/OD. The conversion of surplus picric acid and/or ammonium picrate (Explosive D) to1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6- trinitrobenzene (TATB) has been subject of extensive process development studies at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). LLNL, under the direction and sponsorship of the U.S. Army Defense Ammunition Center (DAC), is developing a process for the conversion of picric acid to TATB on a larger scale. In FY 03, a 10 g per batch process was developed with good results. Development for a one pound per batch system is required as part of overall scale up process for producing TATB from the surplus feedstocks.

  18. On The {\\it Fermi} -Lat Surplus of the Diffuse Galactic Gamma-Ray Emission

    CERN Document Server

    Voelk, Heinrich J

    2013-01-01

    Recent observations of the diffuse Galactic \\gr emission (DGE) by the {\\it Fermi} Large Area Telescope ({\\it Fermi}-LAT) have shown significant deviations, above a few GeV until about 100 GeV, from DGE models that use the GALPROP code for the propagation of cosmic ray (CR) particles outside their sources in the Galaxy and their interaction with the target distributions of the interstellar gas and radiation fields. The surplus of radiation observed is most pronounced in the inner Galaxy, where the concentration of CR sources is strongest. The present study investigates this "{\\it Fermi}-LAT Galactic Plane Surplus" by estimating the \\gr emission from the sources themselves, which is disregarded in the above DGE models. It is shown that indeed the expected hard spectrum of CRs, still confined in their sources (SCRs), can explain this surplus. The method is based on earlier studies regarding the so-called EGRET GeV excess which by now is generally interpreted as an instrumental effect. The contribution from SCRs ...

  19. Capital injections with negative surplus and delays:models and analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhuo JIN; George YIN

    2014-01-01

    This work develops a new model to deal with the scenario that some companies can still run business even the surplus falls below zero temporarily. With such a scenario in mind, we allow the surplus process to continue in this negative-surplus period, during which capital injections will be ordered to assist in the stabilization of financial structure, until the financial status becomes severe enough to file bankruptcy. The capital injections will be modeled as impulse controls. By introducing the capital injections with time delays, optimal dividend payment and capital injection policies are considered. Using the dynamic programming approach, the value function obeys a quasi-variational inequality. With delays in capital injections, the company will be exposed to the risk of bankruptcy during the delay period. In addition, the optimal dividend payment and capital injection strategies should balance the expected cost of the possible capital injections and the time value of the delay periods. This gives rise to a stochastic control problem with mixed singular and delayed impulse controls. Under general assumptions, the lower capital injection barrier is determined, where bankruptcy occurs. The closed-form solution to the value function and corresponding optimal policies are obtained.

  20. Developmental competence of oocytes isolated from surplus medulla tissue in connection with cryopreservation of ovarian tissue for fertility preservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilken-Jensen, Helle N; Kristensen, Stine G; Jeppesen, Janni V;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Evaluating the developmental competence of immature oocytes collected from surplus medulla tissue in connection with ovarian tissue cryopreservation for fertility preservation. DESIGN: Cohort comparative study. SETTING: University laboratory in Denmark from 2011-2012. POPULATION: 69...

  1. Compressed air energy storage (CAES) - possibilities in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmegaard, Brian; Szameitat, Nicklas; Brix, Wiebke

    2005-01-01

    Through a systematic development of the Danish electrical supply system with wind power and CHP, problems with stability and electricity surplus have appeared. Therefore, the possibilities for profitably implementing a CAES plant for energy storage, peak shaving and electricity surplus reduction...

  2. Compressed air energy storage (CAES) - possibilities in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmegaard, Brian; Szameitat, Nicklas; Brix, Wiebke

    Through a systematic development of the Danish electrical supply system with wind power and CHP, problems with stability and electricity surplus have appeared. Therefore, the possibilities for profitably implementing a CAES plant for energy storage, peak shaving and electricity surplus reduction...

  3. Anomalous isobaric analogue resonance in 71As

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1971 G. M. Temmer et al., reported observing five anomalous substructures in a spin 1/2+ isobaric analogue resonance in 71As at E/sub p/ = 5.05 MeV. They suggested that these substructures could be interpreted as ''hallway states'' coupling a ''doorway state'' to compound nuclear states. Although doorway states are well established interpretations of isobaric analogue resonances, hallway states have no such acreditation. The case investigated in this paper was the first reported evidence suggesting the existence of hallway states in an isobaric analogue resonance. In this work the validity of the hallway state interpretation was ascertained for two of the five substructures. The spin and parity of these two substructures were determined to be 5/2+; therefore, their interpretation as hallway states is incorrect since it would not conserve angular momentum. The spins and parities of all the substructures were determined by measuring the analyzing power of the elastic reaction 70Ge(p(pol),p0) from an energy E/sub p/ = 4.92 MeV to an energy E/sub p/ = 5.23 MeV in 10 keV steps. The analyzing power was then remeasured over the last two substructures at E = 5.05 MeV and E = 5.14 MeV in 5 keV steps. These last two substructures also decayed strongly to the 2+ first excited state in 70Ge. The angular correlation between the first inelastic proton and the subsequently emitted gamma ray was measured in the Goldfarb--Seyler geometry and was then expanded in terms of cosine functions. The expansion coefficients implied that the spins of these two resonances were greater than or equal to 5/2, in agreement with the analyzing power measurements

  4. Canadian hydrogen survey 2004-2005 : capacity, production and surplus update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey was conducted to obtain an inventory of Canadian hydrogen production capacity. Data for actual production for 2004 was provided, as well as the amount of hydrogen produced, but not for product feedstock or commercial sale. Data was presented for production capacity as of March 2005. Data was collected by telephone and electronically. Senior operating staff at each facility were asked to provide an average daily rate and annual rate, the number of operating days, or an annual production figure. Estimates of some producers were used when issues concerning confidentiality arose. Data was divided into 3 geographic regions: western region, central region, and Atlantic region. In 2004, Canada produced 3,403,00 tonnes of hydrogen, approximately 100,000 tonnes more than in 2003. The vast majority of increased hydrogen capacity, production and surplus was in the western region, and was prompted by the need for higher quality synthetic crude oil produced by hydrogen upgrading of oilsands bitumen and improved markets for North American ethylene. Approximately 85 per cent of new hydrogen production related to new oil sands projects. A 25 per cent increase in heavy oil upgrading applications was observed, as well as a 21 per cent increase for chemical applications relating to new fertilizer and chemical industry expansions. There were no changes in capacity or production in the oil refinery, chemical by-product or merchant gas sectors. It was observed that some companies are now soliciting sales for surplus hydrogen. Total surplus hydrogen in the western region represents 96 per cent of the total Canadian surplus production. There were no significant changes in hydrogen production in Ontario and Quebec. However, new capacity is currently under construction and changes will be reflected in 2005 data. No changes in hydrogen capacity, production or surplus were reported in the Atlantic region. It was concluded that the cost of hydrogen production at bitumen recovery sites

  5. Laser-ion acceleration via anomalous electron heating

    CERN Document Server

    Yogo, A; Iwata, N; Tosaki, S; Morace, A; Arikawa, Y; Fujioka, S; Nishimura, H; Sagisaka, A; Johzaki, T; Matsuo, K; Kamitsukasa, N; Kojima, S; Nagatomo, H; Nakai, M; Shiraga, H; Murakami, M; Tokita, S; Kawanaka, J; Miyanaga, N; Yamanoi, K; Norimatsu, T; Sakagami, H; Bulanov, S V; Kondo, K; Azechi, H

    2016-01-01

    Using a kilojoule class laser, we demonstrate for the first time that high-contrast picosecond pulses are advantageous for ion acceleration. We show that a laser pulse with optimum duration and a large focal spot accelerates electrons beyond the ponderomotive energy. This anomalous electron heating enables efficient ion acceleration reaching 52 MeV at an intensity of 1.2X10^19 Wcm^-2. The proton energy observed agrees quantitatively with a one-dimensional plasma expansion model newly developed by taking the anomalous heating effect into account. The heating process is confirmed by both measurements with an electron spectrometer and a one-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation. By extending the pulse duration to 6 ps, 5% energy conversion efficiency to protons (50 J out of 1 kJ laser energy) is achieved with an intensity of 10^18-Wcm^-2. The present results are quite encouraging for realizing ion-driven fast ignition and novel ion beamlines.

  6. Effect of anomalous vertex on decay-lepton distributions in + -→ t\\overline{t}$ and CP-violating asymmetries

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Saurabh D Rindani

    2000-06-01

    We obtain analytic expressions for the energy and polar-angle double differential distributions of a secondary lepton +(-) arising from the decay of ($\\overline{t}$) in + - → $t\\overline{t}$ with an anomalous decay vertex. We also obtain analytic expressions for the various differential cross-sections with the lepton energy integrat ed over. In this case, we find that the angular distributions of the secondary lepton do not depend on the anomalous coupling in the decay, regardless of possible anomalous couplings occurring in the production amplitude for + - → $t\\overline{t}$. Our study includes the effect of longitudinal - and + beam polarization. We also study the lepton energy and beam polarization dependence of certain CP-violating lepton angular asymmetries arising from an anomalous decay vertex and compare them with the asymmetries arising due to CP-violation in the production process due to the top electric or weak dipole moment.

  7. Anomalous cosmic rays and solar energetic particle composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a rapporteur paper for the 26th International Cosmic Ray Conference covering the sessions on anomalous cosmic rays (SH 4.1-SH 4.4) and on energetic charged particle composition, spectra, and charge states (SH 1.4). The ACR sessions covered the topics anomalous cosmic ray elemental and isotopic composition and energy spectra, anomalous cosmic ray sources, preacceleration and acceleration, ACR transport, modulation and time variation, the observation of ACRs trapped in the Earth's magnetic field, and energetic neutral atoms of ACR origin from the outer heliosphere. Among the highlights of the ACR sessions were the discovery of new ACR elements of possibly heliospheric origin, the new high resolution measurements of ACR elemental and isotopic composition with instrumentation onboard ACE, and the first report on energetic neutral hydrogen atoms of ACR origin observed onboard SOHO. Session SH 1.4 covered the elemental and isotopic composition, the energy spectra, and the ionic charge composition of energetic charged particles in gradual and impulsive solar energetic particle events and the signature of a quiet-time interplanetary low-energy component. This brief report will concentrate on compositional variations during individual gradual events and their simulation, on new observations of the event-to event variability of elemental and isotopic composition, and on the determination of the ionic charge composition, using a variety of indirect methods and direct observations. Among the highlights of the SEP session were the new high-resolution measurements of elemental, isotopic, and ionic charge composition with unprecedented sensitivity providing new insight into the characteristic differences between gradual and impulsive events

  8. Analytical solutions for anomalous dispersion transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, D.; Vesselinov, V. V.

    2014-06-01

    Groundwater flow and transport often occur in a highly heterogeneous environment (potentially heterogeneous at multiple spatial scales) and is impacted by geochemical reactions, advection, diffusion, and other pore scale processes. All these factors can give rise to large-scale anomalous dispersive behavior that can make complex model representation and prediction of plume concentrations challenging due to difficulties unraveling all the complexities associated with the governing processes, flow medium, and their parameters. An alternative is to use upscaled stochastic models of anomalous dispersion, and this is the approach used here. Within a probabilistic framework, we derive a number of analytical solutions for several anomalous dispersion models. The anomalous dispersion models are allowed to be either non-Gaussian (α-stable Lévy), correlated, or nonstationary from the Lagrangian perspective. A global sensitivity analysis is performed to gain a greater understanding of the extent to which uncertainty in the parameters associated with the anomalous behavior can be narrowed by examining concentration measurements from a network of monitoring wells and to demonstrate the computational speed of the solutions. The developed analytical solutions are encoded and available for use in the open source computational framework MADS (http://mads.lanl.gov).

  9. Parametric probability distributions for anomalous change detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theiler, James P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Foy, Bernard R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wohlberg, Brendt E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Scovel, James C [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    The problem of anomalous change detection arises when two (or possibly more) images are taken of the same scene, but at different times. The aim is to discount the 'pervasive differences' that occur thoughout the imagery, due to the inevitably different conditions under which the images were taken (caused, for instance, by differences in illumination, atmospheric conditions, sensor calibration, or misregistration), and to focus instead on the 'anomalous changes' that actually take place in the scene. In general, anomalous change detection algorithms attempt to model these normal or pervasive differences, based on data taken directly from the imagery, and then identify as anomalous those pixels for which the model does not hold. For many algorithms, these models are expressed in terms of probability distributions, and there is a class of such algorithms that assume the distributions are Gaussian. By considering a broader class of distributions, however, a new class of anomalous change detection algorithms can be developed. We consider several parametric families of such distributions, derive the associated change detection algorithms, and compare the performance with standard algorithms that are based on Gaussian distributions. We find that it is often possible to significantly outperform these standard algorithms, even using relatively simple non-Gaussian models.

  10. Tau anomalous magnetic moment in γγ colliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peressutti, Javier; Sampayo, Oscar A.

    2012-08-01

    We investigate the possibility of setting model independent limits for a nonstandard anomalous magnetic moment aτNP of the tau lepton, in future γγ colliders based on Compton backscattering. For a hypothetical collider we find that, at various levels of confidence, the limits for aτNP could be improved, compared to previous studies based on LEP1, LEP2 and SLD data. We show the results for a realistic range of the center of mass energy of the e+e- collider. As a more direct application, we also present the results of the simulation for the photon collider at the TESLA project.

  11. Anomalous transport and anomalous heating due to lower hybrid wave fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The microscopic and the macroscopic behaviour of a linear reflex discharge in the presence of low frequency turbulence is investigated under the action of moderate lower hybrid wave power. The frequency and the wavenumber spectra of both the low frequency fluctuations and the high frequency waves are measured using correlation analysis technique with two probes. The low frequency fluctuations may be attributed to drift wave turbulence. The fluctuation level raises when RF power is coupled to the plasma thus causing considerably enhanced radial transport. The coupling between the low frequency fluctuations and the high frequency waves can clearly be seen from the spectra. The high frequency wavenumber spectra measured inside the antenna are in reasonable agreement with the lower hybrid wave dispersion. However, the wavenumbers observed in the lower hybrid resonance region outside the antenna are - in contrast to the expectation - not larger than in the plasma edge region. From the electric field energy density spectra and from measurements of the density and the temperatures, a detailed energy balance can be performed. The calculated heating rates are anomalously large both for the electrons and the ions. The absorption processes, relevant for the present experiment, are discussed. (orig.)

  12. Anomalous magnetohydrodynamics in the extreme relativistic domain

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    The evolution equations of anomalous magnetohydrodynamics are derived in the extreme relativistic regime and contrasted with the treatment of hydromagnetic nonlinearities pioneered by Lichnerowicz in the absence of anomalous currents. In particular we explore the situation where the conventional vector currents are complemented by the axial-vector currents arising either from the pseudo Nambu-Goldstone bosons of a spontaneously broken symmetry or because of finite fermionic density effects. After expanding the generally covariant equations in inverse powers of the conductivity, the relativistic analog of the magnetic diffusivity equation is derived in the presence of vortical and magnetic currents. While the anomalous contributions are generally suppressed by the diffusivity, they are shown to disappear in the perfectly conducting limit. When the flow is irrotational, boost-invariant and with vanishing four-acceleration the corresponding evolution equations are explicitly integrated so that the various physic...

  13. Niagara Falls Storage Site, Annual site environmental report, Lewiston, New York, Calendar year 1986: Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During 1986, the environmental monitoring program was continued at the Niagara Falls Storage Site (NFSS), a US Department of Energy (DOE) surplus facility located in Niagara County, New York, presently used for the interim storage of radioactive residues and contaminated soils and rubble. The monitoring program is being conducted by Bechtel National, Inc. The monitoring program at the NFSS measures radon gas concentrations in air; external gamma radiation levels; and uranium and radium concentrations in surface water, groundwater, and sediment. To verify that the site is in compliance with the DOE radiation protection standard and to assess its potential effect on public health, the radiation dose was calculated for the maximally exposed individual. Based on the conservative scenario described in the report, this individual would receive an annual external exposure approximately equivalent to 6% of the DOE radiation protection standard of 100 mrem/yr. By comparison, the incremental dose received from living in a brick house versus a wooden house is 10 mrem/yr above background. The cumulative dose to the population within an 80-km (50-mi) radius of the NFSS that would result from radioactive materials present at the site would be indistinguishable from the dose that the same population would receive from naturally occurring radioactive sources. Results of the 1986 monitoring show that the NFSS is in compliance with the DOE radiation protection standard. 14 refs., 11 figs., 14 tabs

  14. Deterministic Role of Concentration Surplus of Cation Vacancy over Anion Vacancy in Bipolar Memristive NiO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhong; Zhao, Yonggang; He, Min; Gu, Lin; Ma, Chao; Jin, Kuijuan; Zhao, Diyang; Luo, Nannan; Zhang, Qinghua; Wang, Na; Duan, Wenhui; Nan, Ce-Wen

    2016-05-11

    Migration of oxygen vacancies has been proposed to play an important role in the bipolar memristive behaviors because oxygen vacancies can directly determine the local conductivity in many systems. However, a recent theoretical work demonstrated that both migration of oxygen vacancies and coexistence of cation and anion vacancies are crucial to the occurrence of bipolar memristive switching, normally observed in the small-sized NiO. So far, experimental work addressing this issue is still lacking. In this work, with conductive atomic force microscopy and combined scanning transmission electron microscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy, we reveal that concentration surplus of Ni vacancy over O vacancy determines the bipolar memristive switching of NiO films. Our work supports the dual-defects-based model, which is of fundamental importance for understanding the memristor mechanisms beyond the well-established oxygen-vacancy-based model. Moreover, this work provides a methodology to investigate the effect of dual defects on memristive behaviors. PMID:27096884

  15. Characterization of Representative Materials in Support of Safe, Long Term Storage of Surplus Plutonium in DOE-STD-3013 Containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narlesky, Joshua E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stroud, Mary Ann [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Smith, Paul Herrick [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wayne, David M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mason, Richard E. [MET-1: ACTINIDE PROCESSING SUPPORT; Worl, Laura A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2013-02-15

    The Surveillance and Monitoring Program is a joint Los Alamos National Laboratory/Savannah River Site effort funded by the Department of Energy-Environmental Management to provide the technical basis for the safe, long-term storage (up to 50 years) of over 6 metric tons of plutonium stored in over 5,000 DOE-STD-3013 containers at various facilities around the DOE complex. The majority of this material is plutonium that is surplus to the nuclear weapons program, and much of it is destined for conversion to mixed oxide fuel for use in US nuclear power plants. The form of the plutonium ranges from relatively pure metal and oxide to very impure oxide. The performance of the 3013 containers has been shown to depend on moisture content and on the levels, types and chemical forms of the impurities. The oxide materials that present the greatest challenge to the storage container are those that contain chloride salts. Other common impurities include oxides and other compounds of calcium, magnesium, iron, and nickel. Over the past 15 years the program has collected a large body of experimental data on 54 samples of plutonium, with 53 chosen to represent the broader population of materials in storage. This paper summarizes the characterization data, moisture analysis, particle size, surface area, density, wattage, actinide composition, trace element impurity analysis, and shelf life surveillance data and includes origin and process history information. Limited characterization data on fourteen nonrepresentative samples is also presented.

  16. Contrasting the Anomalous and the SM-MSSM Couplings at the Colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This talk consists of two parts. In the first, the present experimental bounds on the anomalous couplings of the gauge bosons, based mainly on the LEP and Tevatron experiments, are reviewed. In the second part, the theorem of helicity conservation (HC) is presented, which should be valid in either the Standard Model (SM) or MSSM, for any two-body process at high energies and fixed angles. The energy-range for the HC validity is discussed and, under certain conditions, it should well be within the LHC or ILC range. Since all known anomalous couplings violate HC, its testing may provide a way for generically identifying the possible presence of anomalous (non-renormalizable) contributions. (author)

  17. Development of anomalous detection using movie prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this research, the new method to predict the near-future of the movie images captured by video camera based on the combination of the Principle Component Analysis (PCA) and the Singular Spectral Analysis (SSA). In the normal condition of machines, the real-time captured movie is supposed to correspond to the predicted one. If the error between the both becomes significantly large, it may suggest some anomalous motion of the machines. So the movie prediction method has a possibility of the sensitive anomalous detection system. (author)

  18. Anomalous cross field flux in CHS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anomalous quasi-linear fluxes induced by the curvature drift resonance and transit resonance are evaluated in a rotating helical plasma. The radial electric field makes the Doppler shift, but does not contribute to the anomalous fluxes. The curvature drift resonance induces the new curvature term in the quasi-linear fluxes. The effect of helical magnetic field is through this curvature of magnetic field lines, and contributes to the inward transport. The ion heat diffusivity due to the curvature drift resonance is obtained in the form modified gyro-Bohm coefficient, and is compared with experimentally observed one in CHS Heliotron. (author)

  19. Anomalous Resistance in Critical Ionization Velocity Phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Badin, V I

    2001-01-01

    To describe the generation of the electric field by a discontinuity of the Hall current, an equation of the third order is obtained using the electric charge conservation and Ohm laws. The solutions of this equation are used to model the electric impulses detected in experiments aimed to verify Alfven's hypothesis on the critical ionization velocity at collisions of neutral gas with magnetized plasma. A quantitative agreement with experiment is attained and the main features of measured signals are modeled under an assumption on the strong anomalous resistance behind the discontinuity. Apparently, the anomalous resistance occurs due to trapping the current carriers by a small-scaled modulation of the electric field.

  20. Anomalous Hall effect for semiclassical chiral fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Pengming, E-mail: zhpm@impcas.ac.cn [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou (China); Horváthy, P.A., E-mail: horvathy@lmpt.univ-tours.fr [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou (China); Laboratoire de Mathématiques et de Physique Théorique, Université de Tours (France)

    2015-03-06

    Semiclassical chiral fermions manifest the anomalous spin-Hall effect: when put into a pure electric field they suffer a side jump, analogous to what happens to their massive counterparts in non-commutative mechanics. The transverse shift is consistent with the conservation of the angular momentum. In a pure magnetic field, instead, spiraling motion is found. Motion in Hall-type perpendicular electric and magnetic fields is also studied. - Highlights: • Chiral fermions exhibit an anomalous spin-Hall effect. • Transverse shift appears in a pure electric field. • In a pure magnetic field spiraling motion is found.

  1. Anomalous transport equations in toroidal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reduced transport equations for a toroidal plasma with fluctuations are derived. These equations include the effects of both anomalous and standard neoclassical transport, and allow clarification of the structure of convective fluxes caused by electrostatic and magnetic fluctuations. Special attention is paid to the combined effects of fluctuations and toroidicity on the transport. The formulation retains the effects of a magnetic field inhomogeneity on the anomalous transport. It is shown that phase space diffusion caused by the gradient in the equilibrium magnetic field appears as a pinch flux in the real space

  2. Anomalous Threshold Voltage Variability of Nitride Based Charge Storage Nonvolatile Memory Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Chuan Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional technology scaling is implemented to meet the insatiable demand of high memory density and low cost per bit of charge storage nonvolatile memory (NVM devices. In this study, effect of technology scaling to anomalous threshold voltage ( variability is investigated thoroughly on postcycled and baked nitride based charge storage NVM devices. After long annealing bake of high temperature, cell’s variability of each subsequent bake increases within stable distribution and found exacerbate by technology scaling. Apparent activation energy of this anomalous variability was derived through Arrhenius plots. Apparent activation energy (Eaa of this anomalous variability is 0.67 eV at sub-40 nm devices which is a reduction of approximately 2 times from 110 nm devices. Technology scaling clearly aggravates this anomalous variability, and this poses reliability challenges to applications that demand strict control, for example, reference cells that govern fundamental program, erase, and verify operations of NVM devices. Based on critical evidence, this anomalous variability is attributed to lateral displacement of trapped charges in nitride storage layer. Reliability implications of this study are elucidated. Moreover, potential mitigation methods are proposed to complement technology scaling to prolong the front-runner role of nitride based charge storage NVM in semiconductor flash memory market.

  3. Evaluation of Agri-Environmental Measures in the Venice Lagoon Watershed. Nitrogen Budgets and Surplus Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Trevisiol

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the main concerns of the environmental scientists and policy makers is related to the environmental compatibility of current agricultural systems and, in particular, to the losses of chemical fertilizers and manure in surface and ground-waters, as a consequence of run-off and leaching phenomena. In most cases European recent agrienvironmental schemes envisaged specific measures for the reduction of fertilizer rates and the control of manure applications, in order to limit the releases of nutrients in surface and ground-waters. Substantial financial resources are invested in those measures and therefore the issue raises interest in monitoring and evaluating their effectiveness. Nutrient balance indicators are often used for quantitative assessment of the effectiveness of the measures in limiting the environmental impact of farming activities. N-surplus is one of the most commonly used indicators. The paper refers the results of a research project aimed at assessing the outcomes of agri-environmental measures implemented in the Venice Lagoon Watershed with an approach based upon the gross nitrogen balance, called “Nboxes”. The results of applying the Nboxes procedure to a sample of 550 farms set are presented, evidencing the expectations of greater effectiveness in terms of nitrogen surplus reduction from the measure C.5.1.3a and C.5.1.3b (low input farming and buffer strips. Measures supporting improved irrigation systems, controlled drainage and more rational livestock nutritional programmes and technologies, showed instead only limited potential for tangible contributions to the reduction of nitrogen surplus in cultivated soils.

  4. [Anomalous systemic arterial supply to left basal lung with anomalous return of V6].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabuki, Hiroshi; Shibuya, Jotaro; Handa, Masashi; Yamada, Takehiro

    2014-11-01

    The patient was 52-year-old woman. Her chief compliant was bloody sputum. The computed tomography revealed an anomalous artery from descending aorta running into left lung basal segment and anomalous left V6 return to superior pulmonary vein. The bronchoscopic examination showed normal bronchial branches. Under the diagnosis of anomalous systemic arterial supply to left basal lung without sequestration, left lower lobectomy was performed. Microscopically, the pulmonary artery showed intimal thickening and alveolar collapse with interstitial fibrosis were seen. The postoperative course was uneventful and she discharged at 6th postoperative day. PMID:25391467

  5. Utilization of surplus electricity from wind power for dynamic biogas upgrading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurgensen, Lars; Ehimen, Ehiazesebhor Augustine; Born, Jens;

    2014-01-01

    The methanation of CO2 has been increasingly discussed for the potential long term storage of electricity and for facilitating grid load management. Using the regions of northern Germany as a case study, the feasibility of CO2 conversion from biogas plants and its integration in existing natural...... 480 biogas plants in the region would be able to utilize up to 0.7 TWh surplus electricity could be used to produce 100 106 m3 at standard temperature and pressure of upgraded methane per year....

  6. Study on the Quantity and Age Structure of Rural Surplus Labor Force in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Sui; CHEN Zhuochun

    2009-01-01

    Based on the data from the Second National Agriculture Census in 2006, this paper analyzed the absolute quantity and age structure of China rural surplus labor force by the classical approach. It showed that the migration of rural labor force was still far away from "Lewis turning point", and "mingong huang" (shortage of peasant workforce) appearing in coastal areas could be explained with the location separation between the labor-intensive industries and rural labor force. It was a feasible and an effective way to push forward the transfer of labor-intensive industries from the east coast to central and Western China to absorb the abundant supply of rural labor force.

  7. Surpluses and Deficits: How University Partners Perceive University-Community Partnerships at One Ivy League Institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Klebanoff Cohen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available University-community partnerships are a critical method for how universities can serve the public interest.  Yet key questions remain: how do these partnerships work in practice, and how can university and fill reciprocal and mutual needs effectively?  A participatory evaluation of university-community partnerships in education at an Ivy League university found that university partners had a surplus perspective of the university and a deficit perspective of community partners; practitioners must shift our paradigm towards mutually beneficial, asset-driven university-community partnerships to ensure success.

  8. Exact and asymptotic results for insurance risk models with surplus-dependent premiums

    CERN Document Server

    Albrecher, Hansjörg; Palmowski, Zbigniew; Regensburger, Georg; Rosenkranz, Markus

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we develop a symbolic technique to obtain asymptotic expressions for ruin probabilities and discounted penalty functions in renewal insurance risk models when the premium income depends on the present surplus of the insurance portfolio. The analysis is based on boundary problems for linear ordinary differential equations with variable coefficients. The algebraic structure of the Green's operators allows us to develop an intuitive way of tackling the asymptotic behavior of the solutions, leading to exponential-type expansions and Cram\\'er-type asymptotics. Furthermore, we obtain closed-form solutions for more specific cases of premium functions in the compound Poisson risk model.

  9. Reviews on Phosphorus Surplus of Cultivated Land%耕地磷盈余研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐梦; 吴胜军; 张亮; 刘睿; 冯奇

    2012-01-01

    Phosphorus has caused universal concern as a key factor of eutrophication. Cultivated lands with phosphorus surplus are important source of nonpoint source pollution. Phosphorus surplus has been reviewed in three ways in this paper;the amount of phosphorus surplus all around the world,the risk assessment of phophorus surplus and the mitigation of phosphorus surplus. The study shows that phosphorus surplus in cultivated land has become a serious issue all around the world. The amount of phosphorus surplus is increasing in China, while in many developed countries it is decreasing. The risk of phosphorus surplus mainly lays in the loss of phosphorus from land to water. Optimized fertilization , crop type, farm land management and type of agriculture could be effective mitigation of phosphourus surplus.%磷作为影响水体富营养化的关键因素之一,已受到人们的普遍关注.磷盈余的耕地是水体磷的重要来源.本文从国内外耕地磷盈余量、耕地磷盈余的环境风险及其防治三个方面对目前耕地磷盈余的研究进行了综述.研究表明,随着农业的发展,化肥投入的增加,磷盈余问题普遍存在于世界各地,我国耕地磷盈余正处于上升通道,大多数发达国家则处于控制下降通道;耕地磷盈余的环境风险主要表现为耕地磷流失能力以及区域非点源磷污染的可能性;通过改良施肥方式、优化作物类型、加强田间管理模式及改进农业类型能够有效减少磷盈余带来的危害.

  10. How did external pressures change Japan's protectionist farm policies from the Uruguay Round to TPP?: A Surplus Transformation Curve (STC) analysis

    OpenAIRE

    ARAHATA, Katsumi

    2011-01-01

    Japan’s seemingly monolithic protectionist farm policies were often easily moderated by external pressures. This study analyzes the change of the degree and the methods of protectionist farm policies, focusing on Japan’s most important crop, rice. It calculates consumer surplus, producer surplus and government spending in the past fifty years and integrates these figures into one diagram utilizing the STC (surplus transformation curve) analysis, developed by Bruce Gardner in 1983. The result ...

  11. Anomalous Hall Effect for chiral fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, P -M

    2014-01-01

    Semiclassical chiral fermions manifest the anomalous spin-Hall effect: when put into a pure electric field, they suffer a side jump, analogous to what happens to their massive counterparts in non-commutative mechanics. The transverse shift is consistent with the conservation of the angular momentum. In a pure magnetic field a cork-screw-like, spiraling motion is found.

  12. Anomalous Hall conductivity: Local orbitals approach

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Středa, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 4 (2010), 045115/1-045115/9. ISSN 1098-0121 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : anomalous Hall effect * Berry phase correction * orbital polarization momentum Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.772, year: 2010

  13. Anomalous fermion number violation and numerical simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After discussing the problem of lattice regularization of chiral gauge theories, a simple model for anomalous fermion number violation is formulated which can be numerically studied with present day technique. Exploratory results of numerical simulations of a two-dimensional U(1) Higgs model are presented. (orig.)

  14. STIS MAMA Recovery from Anomalous Shutdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    This proposal is designed to permit a safe and orderly recovery of the STIS FUV MAMA or NUV MAMA detector after an anomalous shutdown. This is accomplished by using slower-than-normal MCP high-voltage ramp-ups and diagnostics. Anomalous shutdowns can occur because of bright object violations which trigger the Global Hardware Monitor or the Global Software Monitor. Anomalous shutdowns can also occur because of MAMA hardware anomalies or failures. The cause of the shutdown should be thoroughly investigated and understood prior to recovery. Twenty-four hour wait intervals are required after each test for MCP gas desorption and data analysis. Event flags are used to prevent inadvertent MAMA usage.The recovery procedure consists of three separate tests {i.e. visits} to check the MAMA's health after an anomalous shutdown: 1} signal processing electronics check, 2} slow, intermediate voltage high voltage ramp-up, and 3} ramp-up to full operating voltage followed by a fold analysis test {See STIS ISR 98-02R}. Each must be successfully completed before proceeding onto the next. This proposal executes the same steps as Cycle 20 proposal 13150.

  15. Anomalous Hall effect in disordered multiband metals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kovalev, A.A.; Sinova, Jairo; Tserkovnyak, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 105, č. 3 (2010), 036601/1-036601/4. ISSN 0031-9007 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : anomalous Hall effect * spintronics Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 7.621, year: 2010

  16. Anomalous wetting of helium on cesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors report studies of the anomalous wetting of a cesium substrate by a liquid helium film by means of the technique of third sound. A hysteretic pre-wetting transition is observed as a function of the amount of helium in the experimental cell. 10 refs., 2 figs

  17. Total least squares for anomalous change detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theiler, James P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Matsekh, Anna M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    A family of difference-based anomalous change detection algorithms is derived from a total least squares (TLSQ) framework. This provides an alternative to the well-known chronochrome algorithm, which is derived from ordinary least squares. In both cases, the most anomalous changes are identified with the pixels that exhibit the largest residuals with respect to the regression of the two images against each other. The family of TLSQ-based anomalous change detectors is shown to be equivalent to the subspace RX formulation for straight anomaly detection, but applied to the stacked space. However, this family is not invariant to linear coordinate transforms. On the other hand, whitened TLSQ is coordinate invariant, and furthermore it is shown to be equivalent to the optimized covariance equalization algorithm. What whitened TLSQ offers, in addition to connecting with a common language the derivations of two of the most popular anomalous change detection algorithms - chronochrome and covariance equalization - is a generalization of these algorithms with the potential for better performance.

  18. Anomalous Cepheids in the Sculptor dwarf galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Sculptor dwarf galaxy contains at least three Cepheids (V25, V26, and V119), each with a period near 1 day and B magnitudes about 1.4 mag brighter than those of the Sculptor RR Lyrae stars. Low-resolution spectra of these so-called anomalous Cepheids were obtained. Metal abundances of the Cepheids have been determined by the Delta-S method and are found to be: Fe/H = -1.9 + or - 0.2, -1.8 + or - 0.2, and -2.2 + or - 0.3 for V25, V26, and V119, respectively. These values are consistent with the metal abundances of Sculptor red giants estimated from the color of the giant branch. Pulsational masses have been estimated for V25 and V26, but there is a need for improved photometry of these stars to obtain accurate results. It cannot be unambiguously established whether the Sculptor anomalous Cepheids are evolved single stars, aged about 3 Gyr, or whether they are created by mass transfer in older binary systems. The occurrence of anomalous Cepheids in other systems is discussed. There is some evidence that most anomalous Cepheids in the Small Magellanic Cloud are evolved single stars. 89 references

  19. Anomalous transport phenomena in px+i py superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Songci; Andreev, A. V.; Spivak, B. Z.

    2015-09-01

    Spontaneous breaking of time-reversal symmetry in superconductors with the px+i py symmetry of the order parameter allows for a class of effects which are analogous to the anomalous Hall effect in ferromagnets. These effects exist below the critical temperature, T anomalous Hall thermal conductivity, the polar Kerr effect, the anomalous Hall effect, and the anomalous photo- and acousto-galvanic effects.

  20. Anomalous intense driver (AID) concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An optimized electron bunching mechanism is utilized to efficiently couple the energy of a 5 to 100 MeV, 1 to 30 TW electron beam into a 3 to 50 cm3 plasma of electron density 1017 to 1020 cm-3. An efficient coupling of beam energy and momentum to the plasma is possible due to the relativistic nature of the beam dynamics combined with the short wavelength of the bunching mechanism in a high-density plasma. The rapidly produced multi-kilovolt plasma can be used directly to develop a pulsed neutron and x-ray source. Alternatively, the plasma can be used to drive a hierarchy of inertial confinement or x-ray devices. Utilizing this novel concept, controlled thermonuclear fusion may be achievable within present or near term relativistic electron beam technology

  1. Anomalous magnetoresistance in Fibonacci multilayers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, L. D.; Bezerra, C. G.; Correa, M. A.; Chesman, C.; Pearson, J. E.; Hoffmann, A. (Materials Science Division); (Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte)

    2012-01-01

    We theoretically investigated magnetoresistance curves in quasiperiodic magnetic multilayers for two different growth directions, namely, [110] and [100]. We considered identical ferromagnetic layers separated by nonmagnetic layers with two different thicknesses chosen based on the Fibonacci sequence. Using parameters for Fe/Cr multilayers, four terms were included in our description of the magnetic energy: Zeeman, cubic anisotropy, bilinear coupling, and biquadratic coupling. The minimum energy was determined by the gradient method and the equilibrium magnetization directions found were used to calculate magnetoresistance curves. By choosing spacers with a thickness such that biquadratic coupling is stronger than bilinear coupling, unusual behaviors for the magnetoresistance were observed: (i) for the [110] case, there is a different behavior for structures based on even and odd Fibonacci generations, and, more interesting, (ii) for the [100] case, we found magnetic field ranges for which the magnetoresistance increases with magnetic field.

  2. Macroeconomic impacts of bioenergy production on surplus agricultural land. A case study of Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper assesses the macroeconomic impacts in terms of GDP, trade balance and employment of large-scale bioenergy production on surplus agricultural land. An input-output model is developed with which the direct, indirect and induced macroeconomic impacts of bioenergy production and agricultural intensification, which is needed to make agricultural land become available for bioenergy production, are assessed following a scenario approach. The methodology is applied to a case study of Argentina. The results of this study reveal that large-scale pellet production in 2015 would directly increase GDP by 4%, imports by 10% and employment by 6% over the reference situation in 2001. When accounting for indirect and induced impacts, GDP increases by 18%, imports by 20% and employment by 26% compared to 2001. Agricultural intensification reduces but does not negate these positive impacts of bioenergy production. Accounting for agricultural intensification, the increase in GDP as a result of bioenergy production on surplus agricultural land would amount to 16%, 20% in imports and 16% in employment compared to 2001. (author)

  3. Multiply Charged Anomalous Cosmic Rays Above 15 MeV/nucleon

    OpenAIRE

    Selesnick, R. S.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Cummings, J. R.

    1997-01-01

    Ionic charge states of anomalous cosmic ray nitrogen, oxygen, and neon with kinetic energies above 15 MeV /nucleon have been measured using the geomagnetic field as a rigidity filter. Data from the MAST instrument on the polar-orbiting SAMPEX satellite taken during the period from 1992 to 1996 show that all three elements are predominantly multiply charged at high energies, confirming the earlier result for oxygen alone based on a smaller data set. Energy spectra of the singly ...

  4. Soft Contribution to Quark-Quark Scattering Induced by an Anomalous Chromomagnetic Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Kochelev, N.

    2006-01-01

    We calculate the soft contribution to high energy quark-quark scattering that arises from an instanton-induced quark anomalous chromomagnetic moment. We demonstrate that this is a large contribution, which cannot be neglected for transverse momenta of a few GeV. We discuss the influence of this effect on inclusive particle production.

  5. A Relation between the Anomalous Dimensions and OPE Coefficients in Asymptotic Free Field Theories

    OpenAIRE

    Sonoda, Hidenori; Su, Wang-Chang

    1996-01-01

    In asymptotic free field theories we show that part of the OPE of the trace of the stress-energy tensor and an arbitrary composite field is determined by the anomalous dimension of the composite field. We take examples from the two-dimensional O(N) non-linear sigma model.

  6. QCD radiation patterns in WH and WZ production and anomalous coupling measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campanario, Francisco [Theory Division, IFIC, University of Valencia-CSIC, E-46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Roth, Robin; Zeppenfeld, Dieter [Institute for Theoretical Physics, KIT, 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    We present a study of QCD radiation for WH and WZ production at the LHC. Regions with high sensitivity to anomalous couplings are identified by considering the contribution of jet activity to the transverse energy. For this, WHj and WZj production cross sections are calculated at NLO QCD using the Monte Carlo program VBFNLO. Based on the observations, we propose a dynamical jet veto to enhance the sensitivity to anomalous couplings, especially in WZ production. The dynamical jet veto avoids large logarithms, which are typical for a fixed jet veto, hence, it provides more reliable predictions.

  7. When health policy and empirical evidence collide: the case of cigarette package warning labels and economic consumer surplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Anna V; Brown, Paul; Glantz, Stanton A

    2014-02-01

    In its graphic warning label regulations on cigarette packages, the Food and Drug Administration severely discounts the benefits of reduced smoking because of the lost "pleasure" smokers experience when they stop smoking; this is quantified as lost "consumer surplus." Consumer surplus is grounded in rational choice theory. However, empirical evidence from psychological cognitive science and behavioral economics demonstrates that the assumptions of rational choice are inconsistent with complex multidimensional decisions, particularly smoking. Rational choice does not account for the roles of emotions, misperceptions, optimistic bias, regret, and cognitive inefficiency that are germane to smoking, particularly because most smokers begin smoking in their youth. Continued application of a consumer surplus discount will undermine sensible policies to reduce tobacco use and other policies to promote public health. PMID:24328661

  8. Anomalous WWγ couplings with beam polarization at the Compact Linear Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arı, V.; Billur, A. A.; İnan, S. C.; Köksal, M.

    2016-05-01

    We study the anomalous WWγ couplings at the Compact Linear Collider through the processes e+e- →W+W-, e-e+ →e-γ*e+ →e+νeW- and e-e+ →e-γ*γ*e+ →e-W+W-e+ (γ* is the Weizsacker-Williams photon). We give the 95% confidence level limits for unpolarized and polarized electron (positron) beam on the anomalous couplings for various values of the integrated luminosities and center-of-mass energies. We show that the obtained limits on the anomalous couplings through these processes can highly improve the current experimental limits. In addition, our limits with beam polarization are approximately two times better than the unpolarized case.

  9. Polarization dependent diffraction anomalous fine structure of rutile TiO2 001 and 111 reflections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy and polarization dependent Diffraction Anomalous Fine Structure (DAFS) also known as Anisotropic Anomalous Scattering (AAS) can be employed in addition to X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS) to study electronic transitions from core states to unoccupied states. Here, we present results from resonant X-ray diffraction experiments on TiO2 rutile, space group (136) P42/mnm. For this model structure, site symmetry information was extracted from determination of the structure factor tensor by refining elements of Ti atomic scattering factor tensors. Influences of oxygen vacancies on the anomalous scattering contributions have been studied on a series of rutile wafers of different oxygen concentration. Samples investigated were 10 x 10 x 1 mm3 single crystal wafers and experiments were carried out at DESY/HASYLAB beamlines C and E2 using a Si(111) double crystal monochromator in the vicinity of the Ti-K absorption edge. Considered reflections include the 'forbidden' 001 and allowed 111 reflection.

  10. Study of anomalous top quark FCNC interactions via $tW$-channel of single top

    CERN Document Server

    Etesami, S M

    2010-01-01

    The potential of the LHC for investigation of anomalous top quark interactions with gluon ($tug,tcg$) through the production of $tW$-channel of single top quark is studied. In the Standard Model, the single top quarks in the $tW$-channel mode are charge symmetric meaning that $\\sigma(pp\\to t+W^{-}) = \\sigma(pp\\to \\bar{t}+W^{+})$. However, the presence of anomalous FCNC couplings leads to charge asymmetry. In this paper a method is proposed in which this charge asymmetry may be used to constrain anomalous FCNC couplings. The strength of resulting constraints is estimated for the LHC for the center of mass energies of 7 and 14 TeV.

  11. Anomalous absorption in H2CN and CH2CN molecules

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Chandra; S V Shinde

    2008-07-01

    Structures of H2CN and CH2CN molecules are similar to that of H2CO molecule. The H2CO has shown anomalous absorption for its transition 111 - 110 at 4.8 GHz in a number of cool molecular clouds. Though the molecules H2CN and CH2CN have been identified in TMC-1 and Sgr B2 through some transitions in ortho as well as in para species, here we have investigated the condition under which transitions 111 - 110 and 212 - 211 of these molecules may show anomalous absorption. For the present investigation, we have calculated energy levels and radiative transition probabilities. However, we have used scaled values for collisional rate coefficients. We found that relative values of collisional rate coefficients can produce the required anomalous absorption in 111 - 110 and 212 - 211 transitions in the molecules.

  12. Anomalous particle pinch in Tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diffusion coefficient in phase space usually varies with the particle energy. A consequence is the dependence of the fluid particle flux on the temperature gradient. If the diffusion coefficient in phase space decreases with the energy in the bulk of the thermal distribution function, the particle thermodiffusion coefficient which links the particle flux to the temperature gradient is negative. This is a possible explanation for the inward particle pinch that is observed in tokamaks. A quasilinear theory shows that such a thermodiffusion is generic for a tokamak electrostatic turbulence at low frequency. This effect adds to the particle flux associated with the radial gradient of magnetic field. This behavior is illustrated with a perturbed electric potential, for which the trajectories of charged particle guiding centers are calculated. The diffusion coefficient of particles is computed and compared to the quasilinear theory, which predicts a divergence at low velocity. It is shown that at low velocity, the actual diffusion coefficient increases, but remains lower than the quasilinear value. Nevertheless, this differential diffusion between cold and fast particles leads to an inward flux of particles. (author)

  13. Anomalous radiation effects on oxide material surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various different kind of radiation influence on surface properties, in particular, adsorptive, was revealed and at some cases the general observation regularity of the radiation adsorption is upset. So, the hydrogen photo-adsorption is not observed on silicon dioxide and on some other oxides. At the same time hydrogen adsorption takes place at the same oxides irradiation by more power nuclear particles, such as gamma-rays, protons of high energies, alpha-particles, neutrons, high-velocity electrons, and also at a X-ray irradiation. At the same time oxygen adsorption takes place on the majority of the studied oxides. So it is possible to conclude that at the irradiated adsorbents the formation of electronic centers is general regularity. The radiation adsorption of oxygen is well studied on many systems and its regularities are established on numerous experiments. On an example of such oxide systems, as silicon dioxide, oxides of rare-earth elements, beryllium oxide, aluminum oxide, the zeolites we have studied a general regularity of the oxygen and hydrogen radiation adsorption, i.e. their electron-hole properties at irradiation by protons with energy 30 MeV, alpha-particles and ions of helium-3 with energy 40 and 50 MeV, gamma-rays and ultra-violet-radiation, and also neutrons from the nuclear reactor. Parallel with adsorptive properties of oxides their paramagnetic properties and thermal desorption characteristics in a wide range of temperatures were studied. The received data have allowed to find the dependence of paramagnetic centers from adsorptive centers. It was established that the adsorptive centers do not always coincide with paramagnetic ones and vise versa. It was established that the anomalous effects in a radiation adsorption at irradiation of the oxide rare-earth elements on of scandium, lanthanum, erbium and dysprosium oxides are observed. It was found out that radiation adsorption of hydrogen is absent on oxides of a lanthanum, erbium and

  14. Anomalous Magnetic Excitations of Cooperative Tetrahedral Spin Clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prsa, K.; Rønnow, H.M.; Zaharko, O.; Christensen, Niels Bech; Jensen, J.; Chang, J.; Streule, S.; Jimenez-Ruiz, M.; Berger, H.; Prester, M.; Mesot, J.

    2009-01-01

    An inelastic neutron scattering study of Cu2Te2O5X2 (X=Cl, Br) shows strong dispersive modes with large energy gaps persisting far above T-N, notably in Cu2Te2O5Br2. The anomalous features: a coexisting unusually weak Goldstone-like mode observed in Cu2Te2O5Cl2 and the size of the energy gaps can...... cannot be explained by existing theories, such as our mean-field or random-phase approximation. We argue that our findings represent a new general type of behavior due to intercluster quantum fluctuations and call for development of a new theoretical approach....

  15. Effects of lowering nitrogen and phosphorus surpluses in agriculture on the quality of groundwater and surface water in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oenema, Oene; van Liere, Lowie; Schoumans, Oscar

    2005-03-01

    The ecological status of many surface waters in the Netherlands (NL) is poor, due to relatively high discharges of N and P from agriculture, industry and wastewater treatment plants. Agriculture is suggested to be a major source, as discharges from industry and wastewater treatment plants have sharply decreased from the 1980s onwards. Agricultural land covers more than 60% of the total surface area in NL, and most of this land is managed intensively and is intersected by a dense network of ditches (total length ˜300,000 km), streams and lakes. On average, groundwater levels are shallow to very shallow. It has been suggested that nutrient balances of agricultural land are easy to measure proxies for nutrient discharges from agricultural land, though the relationships between nutrient balances and nutrient discharges into groundwater and surface water are not well-established. Thus, we explored the effects of lowering N and P surpluses in NL agriculture on the quality of groundwater and surface waters. Effects of N surpluses in the range of 40-300 kg ha -1 yr -1, and of P surpluses in the range of 0.4-17.5 kg of P per ha per year were examined using an integrated set of mathematical models and databases. Results indicate that nitrate leaching to groundwater and N and P discharges to surface waters are related to both N and P surpluses, hydrological condition, land use and soil type. On a national scale, decreasing N surplus by 1 kg ha -1, decreased nitrate leaching to groundwater on average by 0.08 kg ha -1 and N leaching to surface waters on average by 0.12 kg ha -1. Decreases of N and P concentrations in surface waters upon lowering surpluses were smaller than the calculated discharges. Decreases in N and P concentrations were much smaller in the coastal zone and Lake IJsselmeer, than in regional waters (ditches and small streams). The small improvement in the quality of surface waters upon lowering surpluses in agriculture is related to the relative importance of

  16. Anomalous copper diffusion through samarium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the observation of enhanced diffusion of Cu through thick films of Sm at temperatures of 250--300 K. The rate of diffusion of Cu to the surface is found to be independent of temperature. The time dependence of the intensities of the Sm divalent and trivalent features indicate the Cu occupies interstitial sites below the divalent Sm surface layer and above the trivalent Sm bulk. The measured binding energies of the divalent and trivalent Sm show no shift with respect to pure Sm, indicating the Cu does not react with the Sm. The spectral features associated with Cu indicate it is in an atomic-like configuration. An examination of these intensities also provide evidence for heterogeneous mixed valence in Sm

  17. Initial data report in response to the surplus plutonium disposition environmental impact statement data call for the UO2 supply. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this document is to support the US Department of Energy (DOE) Fissile Materials Disposition Program's preparation of the draft Surplus Plutonium Disposition Environmental Impact Statement. This is one of several responses to data calls generated to provide background information on activities associated with the operation of the Mixed-Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility. Urania feed for the MOX Fuel Fabrication Facility may be either natural or depleted. Natural uranium typically contains 0.0057 wt% 234U, 0.711 wt% 235U, and the majority as 238U. The fissile isotope is 235U, and uranium is considered depleted if the total 235U content is less than 0.711 wt% as found in nature. The average composition of 235U in DOE's total depleted urania inventory is 0.20 wt%. The depleted uranium assay range proposed for use in this program is 0.2500--0.2509 wt%. Approximately 30% more natural uranium would be required than depleted uranium based on the importance of maintaining a specific fissile portion in the MOX fuel blend. If the uranium component constitutes a larger quantity of fissile material, less plutonium can be dispositioned on an annual basis. The percentage composition, referred to as assay, of low-enriched uranium necessary for controlled fission in commercial light-water nuclear power reactors is 1.8--5.0 wt% 235U. This data report provides information on the schedule, acquisition, impacts, and conversion process for using uranium, derived from depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF6), as the diluent for the weapons-grade plutonium declared as surplus. The case analyzed is use of depleted UF6 in storage at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant in Piketon, Ohio, being transported to a representative UF6 to uranium dioxide conversion facility (GE Nuclear Energy) for processing, and subsequently transported to the MOX Fuel Fabrication Facility

  18. Guide for radiological characterization and measurements for decommissioning of US Department of Energy surplus facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denahm, D. H.; Barnes, M. G.; Jaquish, R. E.; Corley, J. P.; Gilbert, R. O.; Hoenes, G. R.; Jamison, J. D.; McMurray, B. J.; Watson, E. C.

    1983-08-01

    This Guide describes the elements of radiological characterization at DOE excess facilities in preparation for, during, and subsequent to decommissioning operations. It is the intent of this Guide and accompanying appendices to provide the reader (user) with sufficient information to carry out that task with a minimum of confusion and to provide a uniform basis for evaluating site conditions and verifying that decommissioning operations are conducted according to a specific plan. Some areas of particular interest in this Guide are: the need to involve appropriate staff from the affected states in the early planning stages of decommissioning; the need for and suggested methods of radiological site characterization to complete a decommissioning project, including: historical surveys, environmental pathway analyses, statistical sampling design, and choosing appropriate instrumentation and measurements; the need for and emphasis on quality assurance, documentation and records retention; the establishment of a Design Objective approach to applying site-specific contamination limits based on the ALARA philosophy; the establishment of a ''de minimis'' or minimum dose level of concern for decommissioning operations based on existing standards, experience and ALARA considerations.

  19. Guide for radiological characterization and measurements for decommissioning of US Department of Energy surplus facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Guide describes the elements of radiological characterization at DOE excess facilities in preparation for, during, and subsequent to decommissioning operations. It is the intent of this Guide and accompanying appendices to provide the reader (user) with sufficient information to carry out that task with a minimum of confusion and to provide a uniform basis for evaluating site conditions and verifying that decommissioning operations are conducted according to a specific plan. Some areas of particular interest in this Guide are: the need to involve appropriate staff from the affected states in the early planning stages of decommissioning; the need for and suggested methods of radiological site characterization to complete a decommissioning project, including: historical surveys, environmental pathway analyses, statistical sampling design, and choosing appropriate instrumentation and measurements; the need for and emphasis on quality assurance, documentation and records retention; the establishment of a Design Objective approach to applying site-specific contamination limits based on the ALARA philosophy; the establishment of a ''de minimis'' or minimum dose level of concern for decommissioning operations based on existing standards, experience and ALARA considerations

  20. Flexible energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    The paper discusses and analyses diffent national strategies and points out key changes in the energy system in order to achieve a system which can benefit from a high percentage of wind and CHP without having surplus production problems, introduced here as a flexible energy system....

  1. Longitudinal top polarisation measurement and anomalous Wtb coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arun Prasath, V.; Godbole, Rohini M. [Indian Institute of Science, Centre for High Energy Physics, Bangalore (India); Rindani, Saurabh D. [Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad (India)

    2015-09-15

    Kinematical distributions of decay products of the top quark carry information on the polarisation of the top as well as on any possible new physics in the decay of the top quark. We construct observables in the form of asymmetries in the kinematical distributions to probe their effects. Charged-lepton angular distributions in the decay are insensitive to anomalous couplings to leading order. Hence these can be a robust probe of top polarisation. However, these are difficult to measure in the case of highly boosted top quarks as compared to energy distributions of decay products. These are then sensitive, in general, to both top polarisation and top anomalous couplings. We compare various asymmetries for their sensitivities to the longitudinal polarisation of the top quark as well as to possible new physics in the Wtb vertex, paying special attention to the case of highly boosted top quarks. We perform a χ{sup 2} analysis to determine the regions in the plane of longitudinal polarisation of the top quark and the couplings of the Wtb vertex constrained by different combinations of the asymmetries. Moreover, we find that the use of observables sensitive to the longitudinal top polarisation can add to the sensitivity to which the Wtb vertex can be probed. (orig.)

  2. Anomalous magnetic field effects on graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Graphene exhibits anomalous properties in externally applied magnetic field. The orbital susceptibility of graphene has a singularity expressed as a delta function in Fermi energy EF, which diverges at Dirac point (EF =0) and vanishes otherwise. The singular diamagnetism is modified by various external factors such as the disorder potential [1], and the band gap opening [2,3], the finite-size effect [4] and the multilayer stacking [5], and studying those effects give deeper insights into the origin of the diamagnetic singularity of Dirac electron. The delta-function singularity is generally weakened by the electronic coupling between different graphene layers. In usual AB-stacked multilayer graphite, the interlayer coupling changes monlayer's linear band to quadratic, and then the susceptibility peak is broadened into a less singular logarithmic curve [5]. In a turbostratic (randomly-stacked) graphene multilayer, on the other hand, the diamagnetism generally becomes much stronger than in AB-stacked graphite, because the interlayer coupling is significantly reduced in misoriented lattice structure. There the external magnetic field is significantly screened inside the sample in low temperatures, and even a perfect screening is achieved at zero temperature in an ideal sample [4]. When the stacking angle between two graphene layers becomes as small as a few degree, the electronic structure is strongly modified by the long-period lattice structure with a Moire pattern. In increasing magnetic field, the spectrum gradually evolves into a fractal band structure called Hofstadter's butterfly, where the Hall conductivity exhibits a nonmonotonic behavior as a function of Fermi energy [6]. In finite-sized graphene system such as graphene ribbon and graphene nano-islands, the finite-size effect also changes the singular diamagnetism.[4] At T=0, the susceptibility χ(EF) oscillates between diamagnetism and paramagnetism in accordance with the subband structure formed

  3. Genomic testing interacts with reproductive surplus in reducing genetic lag and increasing economic net return.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjortø, L; Ettema, J F; Kargo, M; Sørensen, A C

    2015-01-01

    Until now, genomic information has mainly been used to improve the accuracy of genomic breeding values for breeding animals at a population level. However, we hypothesize that the use of information from genotyped females also opens up the possibility of reducing genetic lag in a dairy herd, especially if genomic tests are used in combination with sexed semen or a high management level for reproductive performance, because both factors provide the opportunity for generating a reproductive surplus in the herd. In this study, sexed semen is used in combination with beef semen to produce high-value crossbred beef calves. Thus, on average there is no surplus of and selection among replacement heifers whether to go into the herd or to be sold. In this situation, the selection opportunities arise when deciding which cows to inseminate with sexed semen, conventional semen, or beef semen. We tested the hypothesis by combining the results of 2 stochastic simulation programs, SimHerd and ADAM. SimHerd estimates the economic effect of different strategies for use of sexed semen and beef semen at 3 levels of reproductive performance in a dairy herd. Besides simulating the operational return, SimHerd also simulates the parity distribution of the dams of heifer calves. The ADAM program estimates genetic merit per year in a herd under different strategies for use of sexed semen and genomic tests. The annual net return per slot was calculated as the sum of operational return and value of genetic lag minus costs of genomic tests divided by the total number of slots. Our results showed that the use of genomic tests for decision making decreases genetic lag by as much as 0.14 genetic standard deviation units of the breeding goal and that genetic lag decreases even more (up to 0.30 genetic standard deviation units) when genomic tests are used in combination with strategies for increasing and using a reproductive surplus. Thus, our hypothesis was supported. We also observed that

  4. Petrology of Anomalous Eucrite QUE 94484

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Peng, Z. X.

    2015-01-01

    Most mafic achondrites are broadly "eucritic", being composed of ferroan low-Ca clinopyroxene, high-Ca plagioclase, a silica phase, ilmenite and accessory phases. Their characteristics indicate that eucrite-like basalts formed on asteroids of similar composition under similar petrologic conditions (T, P, fO2). Some eucrite-like basalts have isotopic compositions and petrologic characteristics consistent with formation on different parent asteroids (e.g., Ibitira, NWA 011). Others show small isotopic differences but no distinguishing petrological characteristics (e.g., Caldera, Pasamonte). We have begun a study of anomalous eucrite-like achondrites in an effort to seek resolution to the issues: Did the eucrite parent asteroid fail to homogenize via a magma-ocean stage, thus explaining outliers like Pasamonte? How many parent asteroids are represented by these basalts? Here we present preliminary petrologic information on anomalous basaltic eucrite QUE 94484.

  5. Anomalous enthalpy relaxation in vitreous silica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yue, Yuanzheng

    2015-01-01

    scans. It is known that the liquid fragility (i.e., the speed of the viscous slow-down of a supercooled liquid at its Tg during cooling) has impact on enthalpy relaxation in glass. Here, we find that vitreous silica (as a strong system) exhibits striking anomalies in both glass transition and enthalpy...... relaxation compared to fragile oxide systems. The anomalous enthalpy relaxation of vitreous silica is discovered by performing the hyperquenching-annealing-calorimetry experiments. We argue that the strong systems like vitreous silica and vitreous Germania relax in a structurally cooperative manner, whereas...... the fragile ones do in a structurally independent fashion. We discuss the origin of the anomalous enthalpy relaxation in the HQ vitreous silica....

  6. Anomalous transport theory for toroidal helical plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anomalous transport coefficients in toroidal helical plasmas are studied, based on the innovative theoretical method. The self-sustained turbulence is analyzed by balancing the nonlinear growth due to the current diffusivity with the nonlinear damping by the ion viscosity and thermal conductivity. Interchange and ballooning mode turbulence is investigated, and the geometrical dependence of the anomalous transport coefficient is clarified. Variation of transport owing to the geometrical difference in toroidal helical plasmas is illustrated. The mechanism for confinement improvement is searched for. To verify the nonlinear destabilization and the self-sustained state, the nonlinear simulation of the interchange mode turbulence is performed in a sheared slab. It is demonstrated that the nonlinear enhancement of the growth rate occurs when the fluctuation amplitude exceeds the critical level. In the saturation stage, the fluctuation level becomes higher associated with the enhanced nonlinear growth. (author)

  7. Examination of anomalous self-experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raballo, Andrea; Parnas, Josef

    2012-01-01

    A growing body of evidence points to the clinical and heuristic value of anomalous subjective experiences (ASEs) for the characterization of schizophrenia spectrum vulnerability and early detection purposes. In particular, a subgroup of ASEs, entailing basic disorders of self-awareness (self....... Here, we present the initial normative data and psychometric properties of a newly developed instrument (Examination of Anomalous Self-experience [EASE]), specifically designed to support the psychopathological exploration of SDs in both research and "real world" clinical settings. Our results support...... the clinical validity of the EASE as a tool for assessing anomalies of self-awareness (SDs) and lend credit to the translational potential of a phenomenological exploration of the subjective experience of vulnerability to schizophrenia....

  8. Probing anomalous gauge boson couplings at LEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We bound anomalous gauge boson couplings using LEP data for the Z → bar ∫∫ partial widths. We use an effective field theory formalism to compute the one-loop corrections resulting from non-standard model three and four gauge boson vertices. We find that measurements at LEP constrain the three gauge boson couplings at a level comparable to that obtainable at LEPII

  9. Anomalous Mirror Symmetry Generated by Optical Illusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kokichi Sugihara

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a new concept of mirror symmetry, called “anomalous mirror symmetry”, which is physically impossible but can be perceived by human vision systems because of optical illusion. This symmetry is characterized geometrically and a method for creating cylindrical surfaces that create this symmetry is constructed. Examples of solid objects constructed by a 3D printer are also shown.

  10. Discrete fields and the Pioneer anomalous acceleration

    CERN Document Server

    De Souza, M M

    2001-01-01

    The dominant contributions from a discrete gravitational interaction produce the standard potential as an effective continuous field. The sub-dominant contributions are, in a first approximation, linear on n, the accumulated number of (discrete) interaction events along the test-body trajectory. For a nearly radial trajectory n is proportional to the traversed distance and its effects may have been observed as the Pioneer anomalous constant radial acceleration, which cannot be observed on the nearly circular planetary orbits.

  11. Anomalous velocity distributions in active Brownian suspensions

    OpenAIRE

    Fiege, Andrea; Vollmayr-Lee, Benjamin; Zippelius, Annette

    2013-01-01

    Large scale simulations and analytical theory have been combined to obtain the non-equilibrium velocity distribution, $f(v)$, of randomly accelerated particles in suspension. The simulations are based on an event-driven algorithm, generalised to include friction. They reveal strongly anomalous but largely universal distributions which are independent of volume fraction and collision processes, which suggests a one-particle model should capture all the essential features. We have formulated th...

  12. Electroweak Baryogenesis with Anomalous Higgs Couplings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobakhidze, Archil; Wu, Lei; Yue, Jason

    2016-07-01

    In non-linear realisation of the electroweak gauge symmetry, the LHC Higgs boson can be assumed to be a singlet under SU(2)L ⊗ U(1)Y. In such scenario, the Standard Model particle content can be kept but new sets of couplings are allowed. We identify a range of anomalous Higgs cubic and the 𝒞𝒫-violating Higgs-top quark couplings that leads to first order phase transition and successful baryogenesis at the electroweak scale.

  13. Anomalous diffusions induced by enhancement of memory

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyun-Joo

    2014-01-01

    We introduced simple microscopic non-Markovian walk models which describe underlying mechanism of anomalous diffusions. In the models, we considered the competitions between randomness and memory effects of previous history by introducing the probability parameters. The memory effects were considered in two aspects, one is the perfect memory of whole history and the other is the latest memory improved with time. In the perfect memory model superdiffusion was induced with the relation the Hurs...

  14. Anomalous transport due to scale anomaly

    OpenAIRE

    Chernodub, M.N.

    2016-01-01

    We show that the scale anomaly in field theories leads to new anomalous transport effects that emerge in external electromagnetic field in inhomogeneous gravitational background. In inflating geometry the QED scale anomaly generates electric current which flows in opposite direction with respect to background electric field. In static spatially inhomogeneous gravitational background the dissipationless electric current flows transversely both to the magnetic field axis and to the gradient of ...

  15. Anomalous dissolution of metals and chemical corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DRAGUTIN M. DRAZIC

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available An overview is given of the anomalous behavior of some metals, in particular Fe and Cr, in acidic aqueous solutions during anodic dissolution. The anomaly is recognizable by the fact that during anodic dissolutionmore material dissolves than would be expected from the Faraday law with the use of the expected valence of the formed ions. Mechanical disintegration, gas bubble blocking, hydrogen embrittlement, passive layer cracking and other possible reasons for such behavior have been discussed. It was shown, as suggested by Kolotyrkin and coworkers, that the reason can be, also, the chemical reaction in which H2O molecules with the metal form metal ions and gaseous H2 in a potential independent process. It occurs simultaneously with the electrochemical corrosion process, but the electrochemical process controls the corrosion potential. On the example of Cr in acid solution itwas shown that the reason for the anomalous behavior is dominantly chemical dissolution, which is considerably faster than the electrochemical corrosion, and that the increasing temperature favors chemical reaction, while the other possible reasons for the anomalous behavior are of negligible effect. This effect is much smaller in the case of Fe, but exists. The possible role of the chemical dissolution reacton and hydrogen evolution during pitting of steels and Al and stress corrosion cracking or corrosion fatigue are discussed.

  16. Anomalous diffusion induced by enhancement of memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Joo

    2014-07-01

    We introduced simple microscopic non-Markovian walk models which describe the underlying mechanism of anomalous diffusions. In the models, we considered the competitions between randomness and memory effects of previous history by introducing the probability parameters. The memory effects were considered in two aspects: one is the perfect memory of whole history and the other is the latest memory enhanced with time. In the perfect memory model superdiffusion was induced with the relation of the Hurst exponent H to the controlling parameter p as H =p for p >1/2, while in the latest memory enhancement models, anomalous diffusions involving both superdiffusion and subdiffusion were induced with the relations H =(1+α)/2 and H =(1-α)/2 for 0≤α≤1, where α is the parameter controlling the degree of the latest memory enhancement. Also we found that, although the latest memory was only considered, the memory improved with time results in the long-range correlations between steps and the correlations increase as time goes on. Thus we suggest the memory enhancement as a key origin describing anomalous diffusions.

  17. 41 CFR 102-38.345 - Do we have to withdraw personal property advertised for public sale if a State Agency for Surplus...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Do we have to withdraw personal property advertised for public sale if a State Agency for Surplus Property wants to buy it? 102-38... for public sale if a State Agency for Surplus Property wants to buy it? No, you are not required...

  18. Price Discrimination and Consumer Surplus. Applications of Calculus to Economics Modules and Monographs in Undergraduate Mathematics and Its Applications Project. UMAP Unit 294.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevison, Christopher H.

    This unit considers the application of calculus in determining price discrimination and consumer surplus in a competitive market. Producer surplus and two-tier price discrimination are also developed in problems. It is noted that calculus cannot usually provide numerical answers for practical economic problems. The importance of calculus…

  19. Genomic testing interacts with reproductive surplus in reducing genetic lag and increasing economic net return

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortø, Line; Ettema, Jehan Frans; Kargo, Morten;

    2015-01-01

    simulates the parity distribution of the dams of heifer calves. The ADAM program estimates genetic merit per year in a herd under different strategies for use of sexed semen and genomic tests. The annual net return per slot was calculated as the sum of operational return and value of genetic lag minus costs......Until now, genomic information has mainly been used to improve the accuracy of genomic breeding values for breeding animals at a population level. However, we hypothesize that the use of information from genotyped females also opens up the possibility of reducing genetic lag in a dairy herd......, especially if genomic tests are used in combination with sexed semen or a high management level for reproductive performance, because both factors provide the opportunity for generating a reproductive surplus in the herd. In this study, sexed semen is used in combination with beef semen to produce high...

  20. Decommissioning of eight surplus production reactors at the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first section of this volume summarizes the content of the draft environmental impact statement (DEIS) and this Addendum, which together constitute the final environmental impact statement (FEIS) prepared on the decommissioning of eight surplus plutonium production reactors at Hanford. The FEIS consists of two volumes. The first volume is the DEIS as written. The second volume (this Addendum) consists of a summary; Chapter 9, which contains comments on the DEIS and provides DOE's responses to the comments; Appendix F, which provides additional health effects information; Appendix K, which contains costs of decommissioning in 1990 dollars; Appendix L, which contains additional graphite leaching data; Appendix M, which contains a discussion of accident scenarios; Appendix N, which contains errata; and Appendix 0, which contains reproductions of the letters, transcripts, and exhibits that constitute the record for the public comment period

  1. Measurement of anomalous dimuons produced in electron-positron annihilations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental search for anomalous events of the type μ+μ- + (missing energy and momentum) produced in e+e- annihilation at center-of-mass energies between 6.4 and 7.4 GeV is presented. Analysis of the data reveals 12 events, of which only 6 can be readily explained as background. It is concluded that anomalous dimuon events were found. Furthermore, these events are most simply interpreted as the production and subsequent decay of a pair of heavy leptons, tau+-, each with a mass of about 1.8 GeV/c2, and a muonic branching ratio, B(tau → ν/sub tau/μν/tau → all), = 0.21+007-008. Because the known family of leptons is so small, and because these leptons seem to be truly elementary particles, the discovery of new lepton is a major event in physics. This discovery can be viewed as a hint of a needed revision in the current paradigm of elementary particle physics. The historical, logical, and technological development of physics in progressing towards fields of increasingly abstract nature is noted. The experimental search, analysis, and interpretation presented here is considered an example of a model problem and solution within the current paradigm of high energy physics. This paradigm is not considered to be complete. On the basis of the Transcendental Meditation technique it is proposed that the systematic and precise exploration of consciousness and its relationship to physical matter is now feasible. It is proposed that the expansion of the current paradigm to include the pure consciousness state as a dynamical element in both the physical description of nature, and the experience of one's own inner nature is a necessity to accomplish the goal and fulfill the purpose of physics

  2. Semiclassical origin of anomalous shell effect for tetrahedral deformation in radial power-law potential model

    CERN Document Server

    Arita, Ken-ichiro

    2014-01-01

    Shell structures in single-particle energy spectra are investigated against regular tetrahedral type deformation using radial power-law potential model. Employing a natural way of shape parametrization which interpolate sphere and regular tetrahedron, we find prominent shell effects at rather large tetrahedral deformations, which bring about shell energies much larger than the cases of spherical and quadrupole type shapes. We discuss the semiclassical origin of these anomalous shell structures using periodic orbit theory.

  3. Estimating Characteristics of the Heliosphere Using Anomalous Cosmic Ray Observations at Solar Maximum

    OpenAIRE

    Stone, E. C.; Cummings, A. C.

    1999-01-01

    Observations of the energy spectra of anomalous cosmic ray (ACR) oxygen were acquired in the outer heliosphere during the last solar maximum period in 1990 when the particle distributions are expected to be more nearly spherically symmetric than at solar minimum. Hence, we use a simple one-dimensional model of ACR acceleration and transport to fit the observed energy spectra at Voyagers 1 and 2 and Pioneer 10. The inferred interplanetary radial diffusion coefficient is remarkably consistent w...

  4. 78 FR 8686 - Notice of Opportunity for Public Comment on Surplus Property Release at Manchester-Boston...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... Manchester-Boston Regional Airport in Manchester, NH AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT...), notice is being given that the FAA is considering a request from Manchester-Boston Regional Airport in Manchester, NH to waive the surplus property requirements for approximately 19 acres of airport...

  5. 41 CFR 102-75.445 - Who can convey surplus real and related personal property for historic monument use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... real and related personal property for historic monument use? 102-75.445 Section 102-75.445 Public... historic monument use? A disposal agency may convey surplus real and related personal property for use as a historic monument, without monetary consideration, to any State, political subdivision,...

  6. 41 CFR 102-75.440 - Who must disposal agencies notify that surplus property is available for historic monument use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... agencies notify that surplus property is available for historic monument use? 102-75.440 Section 102-75.440... is available for historic monument use? Disposal agencies must notify State and area wide clearinghouses and eligible public agencies that property that may be conveyed for use as a historic monument...

  7. 41 CFR 102-75.750 - Who is eligible to receive surplus real and related personal property for correctional facility...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... fire and rescue services, if the Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) has... emergency management response purposes? 102-75.750 Section 102-75.750 Public Contracts and Property... Enforcement, Or Emergency Management Response Purposes § 102-75.750 Who is eligible to receive surplus...

  8. 41 CFR 102-37.195 - Does a SASP have to have a donee in mind to request surplus property?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Does a SASP have to have a donee in mind to request surplus property? 102-37.195 Section 102-37.195 Public Contracts and...) Screening and Requesting Property § 102-37.195 Does a SASP have to have a donee in mind to request...

  9. Low inflation, a high net savings surplus and institutional restrictions keep the Japanese long-term interest rate low

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Pieter W.

    2006-01-01

    This paper explains that the interest rate on long-term Japanese government bonds is low in comparison with other industrialised countries for four main reasons: lower inflation, net savings surplus, institutional restrictions and home bias. Monetary policy and institutionalised purchases of govern

  10. 41 CFR 102-75.255 - What are disposal agencies' specific responsibilities concerning the disposal of surplus property?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... property? The disposal agency must determine that there is no further Federal need or requirement for the... this determination, the disposal agency must expeditiously make the surplus property available for... by public advertising, negotiation, or other disposal action. The disposal agency must consider...

  11. APPLICATION OF THE ANALYTIC HIERARCHY PROCESS TO COMPARE ALTERNATIVES FOR THE LONG-TERM MANAGEMENT OF SURPLUS MERCURY

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper describes a systematic method for comparing options for the long-term management of surplus elemental mercury in the U.S., using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) as embodied in commercially available Expert Choice software. A limited scope multi-criteria decision-a...

  12. 41 CFR 102-37.65 - What happens to surplus property that has been approved for transfer when the prospective...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... property that has been approved for transfer when the prospective transferee decides it cannot use the... happens to surplus property that has been approved for transfer when the prospective transferee decides it cannot use the property and declines to pick it up? When a prospective transferee decides it cannot...

  13. 41 CFR 102-75.625 - Which Federal agency is assigned surplus real property for public park or recreation purposes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... use as a public park or recreation area for conveyance to a State, political subdivision... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Which Federal agency is assigned surplus real property for public park or recreation purposes? 102-75.625 Section 102-75.625...

  14. 41 CFR 102-75.395 - May surplus airport property be conveyed or disposed of to a State, political subdivision...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... a State, political subdivision, municipality, or tax-supported institution for use as a public... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May surplus airport property be conveyed or disposed of to a State, political subdivision, municipality, or...

  15. 41 CFR 102-37.530 - What are FAA's responsibilities in the donation of surplus property to public airports?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... State, political subdivision of a State, or tax-supported organization for public airport use; (b... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are FAA's responsibilities in the donation of surplus property to public airports? 102-37.530 Section 102-37.530...

  16. 论共同犯罪的实行过限%Study of Surplus Behavior in Complicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶沙; 夏伟

    2015-01-01

    The determination and imputation of surplus behavior are two different things .In essence , surplus behavior is that the behavior exceeds connection of “common intent” in the subjective aspect , and oversteps common behavior in the objective as-pect .As for imputation of the surplus responsibility , it is linked with the structural characteristic of complicity , the surplus behavior can be divided into three kinds of situations:constitution overlap , cross and rejection , and each situation should be observed indi-vidually.%实行过限的认定与责任归属属于两个不同层面的问题。从本质上看,实行过限是行为在主客观层面均予以过限,即主观层面超越共谋范围,客观层面超过共同行为。就过限责任的归属而言,应当联系共同犯罪的结构性特征,按照过限犯罪与共谋犯罪之间的关系分为构成要件重合、交叉以及排斥三种情形,并个别化的予以考察。

  17. Anomalous ionospheric conductivities caused by plasma turbulence in high-latitude E-region ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimant, Yakov; Oppenheim, Meers

    2015-11-01

    During periods of intense geomagnetic activity, electric fields penetrating from the Earth's magnetosphere to the high-latitude E-region ionosphere drive strong currents named electrojets and excite there plasma instabilities. These instabilities give rise to plasma turbulence that induces nonlinear currents and strong anomalous electron heating. This increases the ionospheric conductances and modifies the global energy flow, affecting behavior of the entire near-Earth plasma. A quantitative understanding of anomalous conductance and global energy transfer is important for accurate modeling of the geomagnetic storm/substorm evolution. Our theoretical analysis, supported by recent 3D fully kinetic particle-in-cell simulations, shows that during strong geomagnetic storms the inclusion of anomalous conductivity can more than double the total Pedersen conductance - the crucial factor responsible for magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling through the current closure. We have started incorporating the effects of anomalous heating and nonlinear conductivity into existing global magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere codes developed for predictive modeling of Space. In our presentation, we will report on the latest progress in this modeling. Work supported by NASA Heliophysics GCR Grant NNX14AI13G.

  18. The relationship between milk production and farm-gate nitrogen surplus for the Waikato region, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beukes, P C; Scarsbrook, M R; Gregorini, P; Romera, A J; Clark, D A; Catto, W

    2012-01-01

    As the scope and scale of New Zealand (NZ) dairy farming increases, farmers and the industry are being challenged by Government and the New Zealand public to address growing environmental concerns. Dairying has come under increasing scrutiny from local authorities tasked with sustainable resource management. Despite recent efforts of farmers and industry to improve resource use efficiency, there is increasing likelihood of further regulatory constraints on water use and nutrient management. This study uses available data on farm-gate nitrogen (N) surpluses and milk production from the Waikato, New Zealand's largest dairying region, together with a farm scale modeling exercise, to provide a perspective on the current situation compared to dairy farms in Europe. It also aims to provide relevant guidelines for N surpluses and efficiencies under NZ conditions. Waikato dairy farms compare favorably with farms in Europe in terms of N use efficiency expressed as L milk/kg farm-gate N surplus. Achievable and realistic good practice objectives for Waikato dairy farmers could be 15,000 L milk/ha (1200 kg milk fat plus protein/ha) with a farm-gate N surplus of 100 kg/ha giving an eco-efficiency (L milk/kg N surplus) of 150, and long-term average nitrate leaching losses of approximately 25-30 kg/ha/yr. This can be achieved by increasing the N conversion efficiency through lower replacement rates (16 versus 22%), lower stocked (loafing pad for part of the day, and through lower N fertilizer rates (50-70 kg/ha/yr compared to the norm of 170-200 kg/ha/yr) and using a nitrification inhibitor and gibberellins to boost pasture growth and the former to reduce N leaching. PMID:22054570

  19. Background check for anomalous like-sign dimuon charge asymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The D0 Collaboration has reported an excess of roughly 1% of μ-μ- pairs over μ+μ+ pairs in pp collisions at a center-of-mass energy √(s)=1.96 GeV at the Fermilab Tevatron, when known backgrounds are subtracted. This excess, if ascribed to CP violation in meson-antimeson mixing of nonstrange or strange neutral B mesons, is about 40 times that expected in the standard model. We propose a null test, based on a tight restriction on the muon impact parameter b, to confirm that this excess is indeed due to B mesons. If the asymmetry is due to anomalous CP violation in Bs-Bs mixing, then a tight restriction on b would increase by a factor 2 the net asymmetry from neutral B mixing, while the sample of dimuons from neutral B decays will be reduced significantly relative to background events.

  20. Constraints on Anomalous Top Quark Couplings at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Rizzo, T G

    1996-01-01

    Measurements of distributions associated with the pair production of top quarks at the LHC can be used to constrain (or observe) the anomalous chromomagnetic dipole moment($\\kappa$) of the top. For example, using either the $t\\bar t$ invariant mass or the $p_t$ distribution of top we find that sensitivities to $|\\kappa|$ of order 0.05 are obtainable with 100 $fb^{-1}$ of integrated luminosity. This is similar in magnitude to what can be obtained at a 500 GeV NLC with an integrated luminosity of 50 $fb^{-1}$ through an examination of the $e^+e^- \\to t\\bar tg$ process. [To appear in the Proceedings of the 1996 DPF/DPB Summer Study on NewDirections for High Energy Physics-Snowmass96, Snowmass, CO, 25 June-12 July, 1996.

  1. Long-Term Monitoring of Anomalous X-ray Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Gavriil, F P; Chakraborty, D; Gavriil, Fotis P.; Kaspi, Victoria M.; Chakrabarty, Deepto

    2001-01-01

    We report on long-term monitoring of anomalous X-ray pulsars (AXPs) using the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer. Using phase-coherent timing, we find a wide variety of behaviors among the sources, ranging from high stability (in 1E 2259.1+586 and 4U 0142+61), to instabilities so severe that phase-coherent timing is not possible (in 1E 1048.1-5937). We note a correlation in which timing stability in AXPs decreases with increasing spin-down rate. The timing stability of soft gamma repeaters in quiescence is consistent with this trend, which is similar to one seen in radio pulsars. We consider high signal-to-noise ratio average pulse profiles as a function of energy for each AXP, and find a variety of behaviors. We find no large variability in pulse morphology nor in pulsed flux as a function of time.

  2. Solution of Dirac Equation for Charged and Neutral Fermions with Anomalous Magnetic Moments in Uniform Magnetic Field

    OpenAIRE

    Pitschmann, M.; A. N. Ivanov

    2012-01-01

    The Dirac equation for charged and neutral fermions with anomalous magnetic moments is solved in a uniform magnetic field. We find the relativistic wave functions and energy spectra. In the non-relativistic limit the wave functions and energy spectra of charged fermions agree with the known solutions of the Schroedinger equation.

  3. Anomalous Subsidence at Rifted Continental Margins: Distinguishing Mantle Dynamic Topography from Anomalous Oceanic Crustal Thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowie, L.; Kusznir, N. J.

    2012-12-01

    It has been proposed that some continental rifted margins have anomalous subsidence histories and that at breakup they were elevated at shallower bathymetries than the isostatic response of classical rift models (McKenzie 1978) would predict. The existence of anomalous syn or post breakup subsidence of this form would have important implications for our understanding of the geodynamics of continental breakup and rifted continental margin formation, margin subsidence history and the evolution of syn and post breakup depositional systems. We have investigated three rifted continental margins; the Gulf of Aden, Galicia Bank and the Gulf of Lions, to determine whether the oceanic crust in the ocean-continent transition of these margins has present day anomalous subsidence and if so, whether it is caused by mantle dynamic topography or anomalous oceanic crustal thickness. Residual depth anomalies (RDA) corrected for sediment loading, using flexural backstripping and decompaction, have been calculated by comparing observed and age predicted oceanic bathymetries in order to identify anomalous oceanic bathymetry and subsidence at these margins. Age predicted bathymetric anomalies have been calculated using the thermal plate model predictions from Crosby & McKenzie (2009). Non-zero sediment corrected RDAs may result from anomalous oceanic crustal thickness with respect to the global average, or from mantle dynamic uplift. Positive RDAs may result from thicker than average oceanic crust or mantle dynamic uplift; negative RDAs may result from thinner than average oceanic crust or mantle dynamic subsidence. Gravity inversion incorporating a lithosphere thermal gravity anomaly correction and sediment thickness from 2D seismic data has been used to determine Moho depth and oceanic crustal basement thickness. The reference Moho depths used in the gravity inversion have been calibrated against seismic refraction Moho depths. The gravity inversion crustal basement thicknesses

  4. ttH anomalous coupling in double Higgs production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the effects of top-Higgs anomalous coupling in the production of a pair of Higgs boson via gluon fusion at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The introduction of anomalous ttH coupling can alter the hadronic double Higgs boson cross section and can lead to characteristic changes in certain kinematic distributions. We perform a global analysis based on available LHC data on the Higgs to constrain the parameters of ttH anomalous coupling. Possible overlap of the predictions due to anomalous ttH coupling with those due to anomalous trilinear Higgs coupling is also studied. We briefly discuss the effect of the anomalous ttH coupling on the HZ production via gluon fusion which is one of the main backgrounds in the HH→γγbb-macron channel

  5. Scaling theory for anomalous semiclassical quantum transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantum transport through devices coupled to electron reservoirs can be described in terms of the full counting statistics (FCS) of charge transfer. Transport observables, such as conductance and shot-noise power are just cumulants of FCS and can be obtained from the sample’s average density of transmission eigenvalues, which in turn can be obtained from a finite element representation of the saddle-point equation of the Keldysh (or supersymmetric) nonlinear sigma model, known as quantum circuit theory. Normal universal metallic behavior in the semiclassical regime is controlled by the presence of a Fabry–Pérot singularity in the average density of transmission eigenvalues. We present general conditions for the suppression of Fabry–Pérot modes in the semiclassical regime in a sample of arbitrary shape, a disordered conductor or a network of ballistic quantum dots, which leads to an anomalous metallic phase. Through a double-scaling limit, we derive a scaling equation for anomalous metallic transport, in the form of a nonlinear differential equation, which generalizes the ballistic-diffusive scaling equation of a normal metal. The two-parameter stationary solution of our scaling equation generalizes Dorokhov’s universal single-parameter distribution of transmission eigenvalues. We provide a simple interpretation of the stationary solution using a thermodynamic analogy with a spin-glass system. As an application, we consider a system formed by a diffusive wire coupled via a barrier to normal-superconductor reservoirs. We observe anomalous reflectionless tunneling, when all perfectly transmitting channels are suppressed, which cannot be explained by the usual mechanism of disorder-induced opening of tunneling channels. (paper)

  6. Scaling theory for anomalous semiclassical quantum transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sena-Junior, M. I.; Macêdo, A. M. S.

    2016-01-01

    Quantum transport through devices coupled to electron reservoirs can be described in terms of the full counting statistics (FCS) of charge transfer. Transport observables, such as conductance and shot-noise power are just cumulants of FCS and can be obtained from the sample's average density of transmission eigenvalues, which in turn can be obtained from a finite element representation of the saddle-point equation of the Keldysh (or supersymmetric) nonlinear sigma model, known as quantum circuit theory. Normal universal metallic behavior in the semiclassical regime is controlled by the presence of a Fabry-Pérot singularity in the average density of transmission eigenvalues. We present general conditions for the suppression of Fabry-Pérot modes in the semiclassical regime in a sample of arbitrary shape, a disordered conductor or a network of ballistic quantum dots, which leads to an anomalous metallic phase. Through a double-scaling limit, we derive a scaling equation for anomalous metallic transport, in the form of a nonlinear differential equation, which generalizes the ballistic-diffusive scaling equation of a normal metal. The two-parameter stationary solution of our scaling equation generalizes Dorokhov's universal single-parameter distribution of transmission eigenvalues. We provide a simple interpretation of the stationary solution using a thermodynamic analogy with a spin-glass system. As an application, we consider a system formed by a diffusive wire coupled via a barrier to normal-superconductor reservoirs. We observe anomalous reflectionless tunneling, when all perfectly transmitting channels are suppressed, which cannot be explained by the usual mechanism of disorder-induced opening of tunneling channels.

  7. Localization corrections to the anomalous Hall effect in a ferromagnet

    OpenAIRE

    Dugaev, V. K.; Crepieux, A.; Bruno, P

    2001-01-01

    We calculate the localization corrections to the anomalous Hall conductivity related to the contribution of spin-orbit scattering into the current vertex (side-jump mechanism). We show that in contrast to the ordinary Hall effect, there exists a nonvanishing localization correction to the anomalous Hall resistivity. The correction to the anomalous Hall conductivity vanishes in the case of side-jump mechanism, but is nonzero for the skew scattering. The total correction to the nondiagonal cond...

  8. Anomalous Josephson Hall effect in magnet/triplet superconductor junctions

    OpenAIRE

    Yokoyama, Takehito

    2015-01-01

    We investigate anomalous Hall effect in a magnet coupled to a triplet superconductor under phase gradient. It is found that the anomalous Hall supercurrent arises from non-trivial structure of the magnetization. The magnetic structure manifested in the Hall supercurrent is characterized by even order terms of the exchange coupling, essentially different from that discussed in the context of anomalous Hall effect, reflecting the disspationless nature of supercurrent. We also discuss a possible...

  9. Anomalous Hall effect in YIG$|$Pt bilayers

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Sibylle; Schlitz, Richard; Geprägs, Stephan; Opel, Matthias; Huebl, Hans; Gross, Rudolf; Goennenwein, Sebastian T. B.

    2015-01-01

    We measure the ordinary and the anomalous Hall effect in a set of yttrium iron garnet$|$platinum (YIG$|$Pt) bilayers via magnetization orientation dependent magnetoresistance experiments. Our data show that the presence of the ferrimagnetic insulator YIG leads to an anomalous Hall like signature in Pt, sensitive to both Pt thickness and temperature. Interpretation of the experimental findings in terms of the spin Hall anomalous Hall effect indicates that the imaginary part of the spin mixing ...

  10. Anomalous x-ray radiation of beam plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The properties of non-equilibrium stationary plasma under the conditions of the planned plasma-chemical reactors based on beam-plasma discharge were investigated. The x-ray spectrum of the beam-plasma was measured and anomalous spectral properties were analyzed. Starting with some critical pressure the anomalous radiation was added to the classical bremsstrahlung spectrum. The occurrence of anomalous radiation can be used to diagnose the condition of beam transportation in such systems. (D.Gy.)

  11. Anomalous magnetoresistance on the topological surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report theoretical study of charge transport in two-dimensional ferromag-net/ferromagnet junction on a topological insulator. The conductance across the interface shows anomalous dependence on the directions of the magnetizations of the two ferromagnets. This stems from the way how the wavefunctions connect between both sides. It is found that the conductance depends strongly on the in-plane direction of the magnetization. Moreover, in stark contrast to the conventional magnetoresistance effect, the conductance at the parallel configuration can be much smaller than that at the antiparallel configuration.

  12. Study of the anomalous ionization phenomenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of experiments at the ''IKI large barometric chamber'' (Moscow) and the ''SOMB'' Sib ISMIR (Irkutsk) facilities are stated. It is shown that the presence of magnetic field H perpendicular U1 during relative motion of plasma and gas stream at U1 > Usub(ca) velocity (Usub(ca)-critical velocity of ionization) leads to anomalous gas ionization on Lsub(x) scale, where Psub(e) 2 long H-fsub(e)(νsub(z)) turns out to be significantly non-equilibrium at Vsub(Z) > Vsub(Te) √ 2Te/m

  13. Anomalous mapping between pionfull and pionless EFT's

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, J. -F.

    2013-01-01

    The pion contributions to the coupling $C_0$ of pionless EFT are studied via both non-relativistic and relativistic forms of chiral effective field theory for nuclear forces. A definite item in the $2N$-reducible component of the box diagram is shown to be dominant over the $2N$-irreducible (potential) ones due to the pinching of low-lying nucleon poles, and this anomalous mapping between pionless and pionfull EFT's occurs right within the non-relativistic regime. A natural strategy for renor...

  14. Anomalous Diffusion on the Hanoi Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Boettcher, S.; B. Goncalves

    2008-01-01

    Diffusion is modeled on the recently proposed Hanoi networks by studying the mean- square displacement of random walks with time, ~t^{2/d_w}. It is found that diffusion - the quintessential mode of transport throughout Nature - proceeds faster than ordinary, in one case with an exact, anomalous exponent dw = 2-log_2(\\phi) = 1.30576 . . .. It is an instance of a physical exponent containing the "golden ratio" \\phi=(1+\\sqrt{5})/2 that is intimately related to Fibonacci sequences and since Eucli...

  15. HR 4453 - An anomalously bright UV source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polidan, R. S.; Oegerle, W. R.; Margon, B.

    1980-01-01

    Crawford et al. (1979) reported that HR 4453 has an anomalously large UV flux in the 1350-1600 A band. This paper reports results of the UV spectrophotometry of HR 4453 obtained with the Copernicus satellite. Portions of the spectrum from 1120 to 2660 A were scanned, but no stellar signal was detected in any wavelength interval. This result is consistent with both components of the binary being normal A2A stars. UV variability or a source other than HR 4453 must be invoked to explain the observations of Crawford et al.

  16. On the photon anomalous magnetic moment

    CERN Document Server

    Villalba, S; Villalba, Selym; Rojas, Hugo Perez

    2006-01-01

    It is shown that due to radiative corrections a photon having a non vanishing component of its momentum perpendicular to it, bears a non-zero magnetic moment. All modes of propagation of the polarization operator in one loop approximation are discussed and in this field regime the dispersion equation and the corresponding magnetic moment are derived. Near the first thresholds of cyclotron resonance the photon magnetic moment has a peak larger than the electron anomalous magnetic moment. Related to this magnetic moment, the arising of some sort of photon "dynamical mass" and a gyromagnetic ratio are discussed. These latter results might be interesting in an astrophysical context.

  17. Anomalous Cepheid period-luminosity relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The P-L relationship for anomalous Cepheids (ACs) splits into two well-defined lines in the log P - M(B) plane. One line corresponds to pulsation in the fundamental mode, and the other corresponds to the first-overtone. If these P-L relationships are universal, then they can be used to estimate distances to nearby dwarf galaxies. Knowledge of pulsation modes of the ACs in Draco suggests a mass range of 1.04 to 1.7 solar mass

  18. Anomalous Redshift of Some Galactic Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Yi-Jia

    2013-01-01

    Anomalous redshifts of some galactic objects such as binary stars, early-type stars in the solar neighborhood, and O stars in a star clusters are discussed. It is shown that all these phenomena have a common characteristic, that is, the redshifts of stars increase as the temperature rises. This characteristic cannot be explained by means of the Doppler Effect but can by means of the soft-photon process proposed by Yijia Zheng (arXiv:1305.0427 [astro-ph.HE]).

  19. Anomalous CMB polarization and gravitational chirality

    CERN Document Server

    Contaldi, Carlo R; Smolin, Lee

    2008-01-01

    We consider the possibility that gravity breaks parity, with left and right handed gravitons coupling to matter with a different Newton's constant and show that this would affect their zero-point vacuum fluctuations during inflation. Should there be a cosmic background of gravity waves, the effect would translate into anomalous CMB polarization. Non-vanishing TB (and EB) polarization components emerge, revealing interesting experimental targets. Indeed if reasonable chirality is present a TB measurement would provide the easiest way to detect a gravitational wave background. We speculate on the theoretical implications of such an observation.

  20. Anomalous transport effects in magnetically-confined plasma columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evolution of density structure in a magnetized plasma column is analyzed accounting for anomalous diffusion due to the lower hybrid drift instability. The plasma column is found to be divided into regions of classical, anomalous, and intermediate diffusivity. The bulk behavior, described in terms of radial confinement time, depends most sensitively upon the particle line density (ion/cm). For broad plasmas (large line density), the transport is characteristic of classical diffusion, and for slender plasmas (small line density) the transport is characteristic of anomalous diffusion. For intermediate line densities, the transport undertakes a rapid transition from classical to anomalous. Correlations between the theoretical results and past experiments are described

  1. Anomalous WWZ couplings and KL → μ+ μ-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author analysed contributions to KL → μ+μ- from anomalous WWZ interactions. There are, in general, seven anomalous couplings. Among the seven anomalous couplings, only two of them contribute significantly. The others are suppressed by factors like m2s/M2W, m2d/M2W, or M2K/M2W. Using the experimental data on KL → μ+μ-, it is possible to obtain strong bounds on the two anomalous couplings. 10 refs., 6 tabs

  2. Robust structural analysis of native biological macromolecules from multi-crystal anomalous diffraction data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anomalous diffraction signals from typical native macromolecules are very weak, frustrating their use in structure determination. Here, native SAD procedures are described for enhancing the signal to noise in anomalous diffraction by using multiple crystals are described. Five applications demonstrate that truly routine structure determination is possible without the need for heavy atoms. Structure determinations for biological macromolecules that have no known structural antecedents typically involve the incorporation of heavier atoms than those found natively in biological molecules. Currently, selenomethionyl proteins analyzed using single- or multi-wavelength anomalous diffraction (SAD or MAD) data predominate for such de novo analyses. Naturally occurring metal ions such as zinc or iron often suffice in MAD or SAD experiments, and sulfur SAD has been an option since it was first demonstrated using crambin 30 years ago; however, SAD analyses of structures containing only light atoms (Zmax ≤ 20) have not been common. Here, robust procedures for enhancing the signal to noise in measurements of anomalous diffraction by combining data collected from several crystals at a lower than usual X-ray energy are described. This multi-crystal native SAD method was applied in five structure determinations, using between five and 13 crystals to determine substructures of between four and 52 anomalous scatterers (Z ≤ 20) and then the full structures ranging from 127 to 1200 ordered residues per asymmetric unit at resolutions from 2.3 to 2.8 Å. Tests were devised to assure that all of the crystals used were statistically equivalent. Elemental identities for Ca, Cl, S, P and Mg were proven by f′′ scattering-factor refinements. The procedures are robust, indicating that truly routine structure determination of typical native macromolecules is realised. Synchrotron beamlines that are optimized for low-energy X-ray diffraction measurements will facilitate such direct

  3. Empirical Analysis of Factors Influencing Surplus Labor Transfer in Poverty-stricken Areas: A Case Study of Yimatu Town in Fuxin City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    From the microscopic point of view,taking the surplus labor transfer in the Yimatu Town area as study object,we conduct survey of characteristics and transfer of rural surplus labor in Yimatu Town,through questionnaires and field interviews.Then we analyze the main factors influencing surplus labor transfer in rural areas from the personal characteristics of labor forces and family factor of labor forces.The results show that gender,age,educational level,farmland management days and other factors pertaining to the labor forces all affect the transfer of surplus labor, but the size and extent of the impact vary.In accordance with various influencing factors,we put forward recommendations for promoting the effective transfer of surplus labor in rural areas as follows:first,paying equal attention to macroscopic factors and microscopic factors influencing the transfer of surplus labor;second,focusing on the factors concerning the rural households and individual farmers,to find out the factors influencing the rational transfer;third,shifting the employment concept of surplus labor in rural areas;fourth,speeding up the construction of small towns and developing the secondary and tertiary industries.

  4. Search for Anomalous Production of Photon + Jets + Missing Transverse Energy in $p\\bar{p}$ Collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=1.96$~TeV Using the CDF II Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hewamanage, Samantha Kaushalya [Baylor Univ., Waco, TX (United States)

    2011-01-01

    A model-independent signature-based search for physics beyond the Standard Model is performed in the photon~+ jets~+ missing transverse energy channel in \\ppbar collisions at a center of mass energy of 1.96 TeV using the CDF II detector. Events with a photon + jets are predicted by the Standard Model and also by many theoretical models beyond the Standard Model. In the Standard Model, the main mechanisms for photon~+ jets production include quark-antiquark annihilation and quark-gluon scattering. No intrinsic missing transverse energy is present in any of these Standard Model processes. In this search, photon~+ $\\geq$1 jet and photon~+ $\\geq$2 jet events are analyzed with and without a minimum requirement on the missing transverse energy. Numerous mass distributions and kinematic distributions are studied and no significant excess over the background prediction is found. All results indicate good agreement with expectations of the Standard Model.

  5. Anomalous Micellization of Pluronic Block Copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, Amanda; Ryu, Chang Y.

    2014-03-01

    Poly(ethylene oxide) - poly(propylene oxide) - poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-PPO-PEO) block copolymers, commercially known as Pluronics, are a unique family of amphiphilic triblock polymers, which self-assemble into micelles in aqueous solution. These copolymers have shown promise in therapeutic, biomedical, cosmetic, and nanotech applications. As-received samples of Pluronics contain low molecular weight impurities (introduced during the manufacturing and processing), that are ignored in most applications. It has been observed, however, that in semi-dilute aqueous solutions, at concentrations above 1 wt%, the temperature dependent micellization behavior of the Pluronics is altered. Anomalous behavior includes a shift of the critical micellization temperature and formation of large aggregates at intermediate temperatures before stable sized micelles form. We attribute this behavior to the low molecular weight impurities that are inherent to the Pluronics which interfere with the micellization process. Through the use of Dynamic Light Scattering and HPLC, we compared the anomalous behavior of different Pluronics of different impurity levels to their purified counterparts.

  6. More modular invariant anomalous U(1) breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaillard, Mary K.; Giedt, Joel

    2002-06-27

    We consider the case of several scalar fields, charged under a number of U(1) factors, acquiring vacuum expectation values due to anomalous U(1). We demonstrate how to make redefinitions at the superfield level in order to account for tree-level exchange of vector supermultiplets in the effective supergravity theory of the light fields in the supersymmetric vacuum phase. Our approach builds up on previous results that we obtained in a more elementary case. We find that the modular weights of light fields are typically shifted from their original values, allowing an interpretation in terms of the preservation of modular invariance in the effective theory. We address various subtleties in defining unitary gauge that are associated with the noncanonical Kahler potential of modular invariant supergravity, the vacuum degeneracy, and the role of the dilaton field. We discuss the effective superpotential for the light fields and note how proton decay operators may be obtained when the heavy fields are integrated out of the theory at the tree-level. We also address how our formalism may be extended to describe the generalized Green-Schwarz mechanism for multiple anomalous U(1)'s that occur in four-dimensional Type I and Type IIB string constructions.

  7. Hydrodynamic Waves in an Anomalous Charged Fluid

    CERN Document Server

    Abbasi, Navid; Rezaei, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    We study the collective excitations in a relativistic fluid with an anomalous conserved charge. In $3+1$ dimensions, in addition to two ordinary sound modes we find two propagating modes in presence of an external magnetic field: one with a velocity proportional to the coefficient of gauge-gravitational anomaly coefficient and the other with a velocity which depends on both chiral anomaly and the gauge gravitational anomaly coefficients. While the former is the Chiral Alfv\\'en wave recently found in arXiv:1505.05444, the latter is a new type of collective excitations originated from the density fluctuations. We refer to these modes as the Type-M and Type-D chiral Alfv\\'en waves respectively. We show that the Type-M Chiral Alfv\\'en mode is split into two chiral Alfv\\'en modes when taking into account the effect of dissipation processes in the fluid. In 1+1 dimensions we find only one propagating mode associated with the anomalous effects. We explicitly compute the velocity of this wave and show that in contras...

  8. Turbulence: mechanics and structure of anomalous scaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Gordienko

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available As the finite correlation time of a force driving turbulence is taken into account, a new, dimensionless parameter occurs in the theory of turbulence. This new parameter is responsible for two different mechanisms of formation of anomalous spectra. The first mechanism is related to the change of a governing parameter, which defines the spectrum of turbulent fluctuation. The second mechanism is associated with spontaneous formation of characteristic scales that differ parametrically from the scale of the external force. The last mechanism can explain the intermittent structure of turbulent flows. The appropriate discrete set of the possible characteristic scales and anomalous spectra has been calculated. The results give a new insight into the concept of universality: there is a set of universal power laws, although occurrence in the spectrum segments described by one or another power law from this set depends on the dimensionless parameter mentioned above. It is noted that for the broad class of geophysical flows, the new dimensionless parameter is connected with the so-called degree of turbulence, which guarantees that the smallness of this parameter, as the degree of turbulence is usually small enough. That explains the important role of the Kolmogorov spectrum in geophysical applications.

  9. The Bruce Energy Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Bruce Energy Centre Development Corporation is a joint venture of the Ontario Energy Corporation and 6 private companies formed to market surplus steam from the Bruce Nuclear Power Development. The corporation will also sell or lease land near Bruce NPD. The Bruce Energy Centre has an energy output of 900 BTU per day per dollar invested. Potential customers include greenhouse operators, aquaculturalists, food and beverage manufacturers, and traditional manufacturers

  10. Problems in the Transfer of Rural Surplus Labor Force in Chengdu Plain——A Empirical Analysis of Xiyu Village,Gexianshan Town,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Under the new situation of the coordination of rural and urban development,the employment and transfer of surplus labor force have become the major social problems in China.Based on the field investigation on Xiyu Village of Gexianshan Town in Pengzhou City,the surplus labor force and the absorptive capacity of non-agricultural industries are estimated by using per capita cultivated method and output value absorption method.Based on this,the transfer pattern of surplus labor force is generalized and the corresponding suggestions for transfer are put forward.

  11. Anomalous two-election Auger resonance in thorium near the 5d(O5) photothreshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The photoexcited O5P3V (5dsub(3/2) 6psub(3/2) valence) Auger emission line for thorium metal shows an anomalous increase in kinetic energy of approximately 1 eV as the photon energy hν is increased through the atomic-like 5d → 5f resonant excitation at hνsub(r) = 89 eV. Possible mechanisms for this anomalous behavior are discussed, and it is suggested that it can be interpreted as a two-electron resonance involving the O5P3V Auger excitation and a shake-up satellite of the 6psub(3/2) core level excitation. (author)

  12. Bioconversion of potatoes residues or surplus potatoes to ethanol under non axenic conditions [abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamaudière, S.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofuels can offer an alternative to fossil fuels in the context of climate change and fossil reserves depletion. With 3 million tons of potatoes produced in 2007 and a high yield per hectare of 47 tons, Belgium is the 19th largest producer in the world. The residual and surplus potatoes could be used to produce bioethanol by fermentation. We examined the feasibility of a simple ethanol fermentation process under non axenic conditions. The substrate was pretreated with commercial amylases or by adding as low as 10% FM (Fresh Matter barley malt. It was then fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Ethanol and volatile fatty acids were analyzed by GC-FID and soluble sugars were analyzed with the Anthrone method. Starch from potatoes was hydrolyzed to soluble sugars. Hydrolysis seems to continue with 10% FM of barley malt after 48 h while the hydrolysis stopped or decelerated with commercial enzymes. With 10% FM of malt, 3 h of hydrolysis and 7 days of fermentation, an ethanol concentration of 42 g.l-1 was obtained and the conversion yield was 139 gethanol.kg-1 DM. The fermentation conversion yield of soluble sugars to ethanol was > 82% and the endogenous competition was limited. However, starch hydrolyzing seems to be a limiting step under the conditions tested. Commercial enzymes did not provide better results under the same conditions.

  13. Decontamination and decommissioning of the Argonne National Laboratory East Area radioactively contaminated surplus facilities: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ANL has decontaminated and decommissioned (D and D) seven radiologically contaminated surplus facilities at its Illinois site: a ''Hot'' Machine Shop (Building 17) and support facilities; Fan House No. 1 (Building 37), Fan House No. 2 (Building 38), the Pangborn Dust Collector (Building 41), and the Industrial Waste Treatment Plant (Building 34) for exhaust air from machining of radioactive materials. Also included were a Nuclear Materials Storage Vault (Building 16F) and a Nuclear Research Laboratory (Building 22). The D and D work involved dismantling of all process equipment and associated plumbing, ductwork, drain lines, etc. After radiation surveys, floor and wall coverings, suspended ceilings, room partitions, pipe, conduit and electrical gear were taken down as necessary. In addition, underground sewers were excavated. The grounds around each facility were also thoroughly surveyed. Contaminated materials and soil were packaged and shipped to a low-level waste burial site, while nonactive debris was buried in the ANL landfill. Clean, reusable items were saved, and clean metal scrap was sold for salvage. After the decommissioning work, each building was torn down and the site relandscaped. The project was completed in 1985, ahead of schedule, with substantial savings

  14. Impacts of distorted fishery statistical data on assessments of three surplus production models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yingbin; ZHENG Ji; WANG Zheng

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of various error sources in fishery harvest/effort data on the maximum sustainable yield (MSY) and corresponding fishing effort (EMSY) using Monte Carlo simulation analyses. A high coefficient of variation (CV) of the catch and effort values biased the estimates of MSY and EMSY. Thus, the state of the fisheries resource and its exploitation was overestimated. We compared the effect using three surplus production models, Hilborn-Waters (H-W), Schnute, and Prager models. The estimates generated using the H-W model were significantly affected by the CV. The Schnute model was least affected by errors in the underlying data. The CV of the catch data had a greater impact on the assessment than the CV of the fishing effort. Similarly, the changes in CV had a greater impact on the estimated maximum sustainable yield (MSY) than on the corresponding estimate of fishing effort (EMSY). We discuss the likely effect of these biases on management efforts and provide suggestions for the improvement of fishery evaluations.

  15. Comments on the report "Indications of anomalous heat energy production in a reactor device containing hydrogen loaded nickel powder" [arXiv:1305.3913] by G.Levi, E.Foschi, T.Hartman, B.H\\"oistad, R.Pettersson, L.Tegn\\'er, H.Ess\\'en

    CERN Document Server

    Ericsson, Göran

    2013-01-01

    In a recent report titled "Indications of anomalous heat energy production in a reactor device containing hydrogen loaded nickel powder" [arXiv:1305.3913], G. Levi and co-workers put forth several claims concerning the operations and performance of the so-called E-Cat of Andrea Rossi. We note first of all that the circumstances and people involved in the test make if far from being an independent one. We examine the claims put forth by the authors and note that in many cases they are not supported by the facts given in the report. The authors seem to jump to conclusions fitting pre-conceived ideas where alternative explanations are possible. In general we find that much attention is drawn to trivialities while important pieces of information and investigation are lacking and seem not to have been conducted or considered. These are characteristics more typically found in pseudo-scientific texts and have no place in a technical/scientific report on this level. We also note that the proposed claims would require...

  16. Diffraction Anomalous Fine Structure spectroscopy at the beamline BM2 at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility

    OpenAIRE

    Renevier, H.; Grenier, S.; ARNAUD, S; Berar, J.F.; Caillot, B.; Hodeau, J. L.; Letoublon, A.; Proietti, M. G.; Ravel, B.

    2003-01-01

    Diffraction Anomalous Fine Structure (DAFS) spectroscopy uses resonant elastic x-rays scattering as an atomic, shell and site selective probe that gives information on the electronic structure and the local atomic environment as well as on the long range ordered crystallographic structure. A DAFS experiment consists of measuring the Bragg peak intensities as a function of the energy of the incoming x-ray beam. The French CRG (Collaborative Research Group) beamline BM2-D2AM (Diffraction Diffus...

  17. Ambipolar radial electric field generated by anomalous transport induced by magnetic perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dunqiang; Zhu, Siqiang; Zhang, Debing; Wang, Shaojie

    2016-05-01

    The anomalous particle transport induced by magnetic perturbations in a tokamak is investigated. The correlation between the radial position and the kinetic energy of electrons, Dr K=-e ErDr r , is predicted theoretically and is verified by simulations in the presence of a mean radial electric field. This correlation leads to a radial particle flux produced by the radial electric field. The ambipolar radial electric field can thus be predicted by using the ambipolarity condition Γri=Γre .

  18. Anomalous screening in two-dimensional materials with an extremum ring in the dispersion law

    OpenAIRE

    Kolomeisky, Eugene B.; Straley, Joseph P.

    2016-01-01

    A variety of two-dimensional materials possess a band structure with an energy extremal ridge along a ring in momentum space. Examples are biased bilayer graphene, and surfaces and interfaces with a Rashba spin-orbit interaction where at low doping the carriers fill an annulus. This topological feature causes an anomalous screening behavior, which we study using the Thomas-Fermi theory. Specifically, reducing the doping is predicted to enhance the linear screening response, while at zero dopi...

  19. Feasibility Study on Anomalous Small-Angle X-ray Scattering near Sulphur K-edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anomalous small-angle X-ray scattering (ASAXS) is expected to be a powerful and vital tool for the structural study of soft matter. We investigated feasibility of ASAXS near sulphur K absorption edge at SPring-8. Scattering pattern was successfully obtained and the dependence of scattering intensity on the energy of X-ray well agreed with the calculated one. This study can be the basis of structural study of soft matter using ASAXS, especially non-crystalline/amorphous materials.

  20. Wess-Zumino terms for reducible anomalous gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reducible off-shell anomalous gauge theories are studied in the framework of an extended Field-Antifield formalism by introducing new variables associated with the anomalous gauge degrees of freedom. The Wess-Zumino term for these theories is constructed and new gauge invariances appear. The quantum effects due to the extra variables are considered. (orig.)

  1. An algorithm for DLP on anomalous elliptic curves over Fp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝跃飞; 裴定一

    2002-01-01

    This paper improves the method of discrete logarithm on anomalous elliptic curves, and establishes an isomorphism from E(Fp) to Fp which can be more easily implemented. Fruthermore, we give an optimized algorithm for discrete logarithm on anomalous elliptic curves E(Fp).

  2. Anomalous Hall Effect in non-commutative mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Horvathy, P. A.

    2006-01-01

    The anomalous velocity term in the semiclassical model of a Bloch electron deviates the trajectory from the conventional one. When the Berry curvature (alias noncommutative parameter) is a monopole in momentum space as found recently in some ferromagnetic semiconductors while observing the anomalous Hall effect, we get a transverse shift, similar to that in the optical Hall effect.

  3. Bootstrapping rapidity anomalous dimension for transverse-momentum resummation

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Ye

    2016-01-01

    Soft function relevant for transverse-momentum resummation for Drell-Yan or Higgs production at hadron colliders are computed through to three loops in the expansion of strong coupling, with the help of bootstrap technique and supersymmetric decomposition. The corresponding rapidity anomalous dimension is extracted. An intriguing relation between anomalous dimensions for transverse-momentum resummation and threshold resummation is found.

  4. Bootstrapping Rapidity Anomalous Dimension for Transverse-Momentum Resummation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ye [Fermilab; Zhu, Hua Xing [MIT, Cambridge, CTP

    2016-04-05

    Soft function relevant for transverse-momentum resummation for Drell-Yan or Higgs production at hadron colliders are computed through to three loops in the expansion of strong coupling, with the help of bootstrap technique and supersymmetric decomposition. The corresponding rapidity anomalous dimension is extracted. An intriguing relation between anomalous dimensions for transverse-momentum resummation and threshold resummation is found.

  5. Normal and anomalous stress relaxation in metallic glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stress relaxation in certain metallic glasses at room temperature has been studied. Anomalous relaxation after off-loading of strained samples is detected. A dislocation model permitting to explain qualitatively the presence of anomalous relaxation is suggested. Activation volume of relaxation and its dependence on stress are calculated

  6. Effects of whaling on the structure of the Southern Ocean food web: insights on the "krill surplus" from ecosystem modelling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymon Surma

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the ecological plausibility of the "krill surplus" hypothesis and the effects of whaling on the Southern Ocean food web using mass-balance ecosystem modelling. The depletion trajectory and unexploited biomass of each rorqual population in the Antarctic was reconstructed using yearly catch records and a set of species-specific surplus production models. The resulting estimates of the unexploited biomass of Antarctic rorquals were used to construct an Ecopath model of the Southern Ocean food web existing in 1900. The rorqual depletion trajectory was then used in an Ecosim scenario to drive rorqual biomasses and examine the "krill surplus" phenomenon and whaling effects on the food web in the years 1900-2008. An additional suite of Ecosim scenarios reflecting several hypothetical trends in Southern Ocean primary productivity were employed to examine the effect of bottom-up forcing on the documented krill biomass trend. The output of the Ecosim scenarios indicated that while the "krill surplus" hypothesis is a plausible explanation of the biomass trends observed in some penguin and pinniped species in the mid-20th century, the excess krill biomass was most likely eliminated by a rapid decline in primary productivity in the years 1975-1995. Our findings suggest that changes in physical conditions in the Southern Ocean during this time period could have eliminated the ecological effects of rorqual depletion, although the mechanism responsible is currently unknown. Furthermore, a decline in iron bioavailability due to rorqual depletion may have contributed to the rapid decline in overall Southern Ocean productivity during the last quarter of the 20th century. The results of this study underscore the need for further research on historical changes in the roles of top-down and bottom-up forcing in structuring the Southern Ocean food web.

  7. Governmental Accounting versus National Accounts: Implications of different accounting bases on EU member-States Central Government deficit/surplus

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Antónia Jorge de Jesus; Susana Margarida Jorge

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to assess the implications on the European Union (EU) member-States Central Government deficit/surplus of different accounting basis adopted in Governmental Accounting (GA – microeconomic perspective) and National Accounting (NA – macroeconomic perspective). It analyses the cash to accrual basis adjustments to be made to General Government Sector (GGS) data, when converting from Governmental Accounts to National Accounts. Additionally, it assesses the impact ...

  8. Effects of whaling on the structure of the Southern Ocean food web: insights on the "krill surplus" from ecosystem modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surma, Szymon; Pakhomov, Evgeny A; Pitcher, Tony J

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the ecological plausibility of the "krill surplus" hypothesis and the effects of whaling on the Southern Ocean food web using mass-balance ecosystem modelling. The depletion trajectory and unexploited biomass of each rorqual population in the Antarctic was reconstructed using yearly catch records and a set of species-specific surplus production models. The resulting estimates of the unexploited biomass of Antarctic rorquals were used to construct an Ecopath model of the Southern Ocean food web existing in 1900. The rorqual depletion trajectory was then used in an Ecosim scenario to drive rorqual biomasses and examine the "krill surplus" phenomenon and whaling effects on the food web in the years 1900-2008. An additional suite of Ecosim scenarios reflecting several hypothetical trends in Southern Ocean primary productivity were employed to examine the effect of bottom-up forcing on the documented krill biomass trend. The output of the Ecosim scenarios indicated that while the "krill surplus" hypothesis is a plausible explanation of the biomass trends observed in some penguin and pinniped species in the mid-20th century, the excess krill biomass was most likely eliminated by a rapid decline in primary productivity in the years 1975-1995. Our findings suggest that changes in physical conditions in the Southern Ocean during this time period could have eliminated the ecological effects of rorqual depletion, although the mechanism responsible is currently unknown. Furthermore, a decline in iron bioavailability due to rorqual depletion may have contributed to the rapid decline in overall Southern Ocean productivity during the last quarter of the 20th century. The results of this study underscore the need for further research on historical changes in the roles of top-down and bottom-up forcing in structuring the Southern Ocean food web. PMID:25517505

  9. Projection of aggregate and farm benefits of conservation agriculture productions systems using economic surplus analysis and linear programing in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Paudel, B.; Chan-Halbrendt, Catherine; Nguema, A.; Norton, George W.; Tamang, Bishal B.; T.J.K. Radovich; Crow, S.; Halbrendt, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    Traditional agriculture in central mid hills of Nepal is characterized by cultivation of sloping lands, resulting in lower productivity and soil loss. The Sustainable Management of Agro-ecological Resources in Tribal Societies (SMARTS) project applied a participatory agro-ecological research framework to develop improved conservation agriculture practices system (CAPS) to contribute to sustainable livelihood of marginalized tribal farmers. This paper used economic surplus analysis at macro le...

  10. ATLAS sensitivity to Wtb anomalous couplings in top quark decays

    CERN Document Server

    Aguilar-Saavedra, J A; Castro, N; Onofre, A; Veloso, F

    2006-01-01

    We study the sensitivity of the ATLAS experiment to Wtb anomalous couplings in top pair production with semileptonic decay, pp -> t tbar -> W+ b W- bbar with one of the W bosons decaying leptonically and the other hadronically. Several observables are examined, including the W helicity fractions and new quantities recently introduced, such as the ratios of helicity fractions and some angular asymmetries defined in the W rest frame. The dependence on anomalous couplings of all these observables has been previously obtained. In this work we show that some of the new observables also have smaller systematic uncertainties than the helicity fractions, with a dependence on anomalous couplings similar or stronger than for helicity fractions. Consequently, their measurement can significantly improve the limits on anomalous couplings. Moreover, the most sensitive measurements can be combined. In this case, the precision achieved in the determination of Wtb anomalous couplings can be of a few percent in the semileptoni...

  11. Can Anomalous Amplification be Attained without Postselection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Rincón, Julián; Liu, Wei-Tao; Viza, Gerardo I.; Howell, John C.

    2016-03-01

    We present a parameter estimation technique based on performing joint measurements of a weak interaction away from the weak-value-amplification approximation. Two detectors are used to collect full statistics of the correlations between two weakly entangled degrees of freedom. Without discarding of data, the protocol resembles the anomalous amplification of an imaginary-weak-value-like response. The amplification is induced in the difference signal of both detectors allowing robustness to different sources of technical noise, and offering in addition the advantages of balanced signals for precision metrology. All of the Fisher information about the parameter of interest is collected. A tunable phase controls the strength of the amplification response. We experimentally demonstrate the proposed technique by measuring polarization rotations in a linearly polarized laser pulse. We show that in the presence of technical noise the effective sensitivity and precision of a split detector is increased when compared to a conventional continuous-wave balanced detection technique.

  12. Anomalous Wtb coupling at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Kolodziej, K

    2013-01-01

    Some normalized distributions of the secondary mu- in the top quark pair production at the LHC through one of the dominant hard scattering reactions gg -> b u anti-d anti-b mu- anti-nu_mu are calculated to leading order in the presence of the most general anomalous Wtb coupling with operators up to dimension five. In spite of the fact that non zero tensor form factors of the coupling modify substantially the top quark pair production rate, they hardly affect the distributions in the transverse momentum, rapidity and cosine of the angle between the momenta of mu- and recoiling top quark in the pp centre of mass frame. The effects of the tensor form factors become visible in distributions in cosine of the angle between the momentum of mu- and the reversed momentum of the b-quark, both boosted first to the rest frame of top quark and then to the rest frame of W-boson.

  13. Mapping Anomalous Currents in Supersymmetric Dualities

    CERN Document Server

    Abel, Steven; Komargodski, Zohar

    2011-01-01

    In many strongly-coupled systems, the infrared dynamics is described by different degrees of freedom from the ultraviolet. It is then natural to ask how operators written in terms of the microscopic variables are mapped to operators composed of the macroscopic ones. Certain types of operators, like conserved currents, are simple to map, and in supersymmetric theories one can also follow the chiral ring. In this note, we consider supersymmetric theories and extend the mapping to anomalous currents (and gaugino bilinears). Our technique is completely independent of subtleties associated with the renormalization group, thereby shedding new light on previous approaches to the problem. We demonstrate the UV/IR mapping in several examples with different types of dynamics, emphasizing the uniformity and simplicity of the approach. Natural applications of these ideas include the effects of soft breaking on the dynamics of various theories and new models of electroweak symmetry breaking.

  14. Anomalous conductances in an ultracold quantum wire

    CERN Document Server

    Kanász-Nagy, Márton; Esslinger, Tilman; Demler, Eugene A

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the recently measured anomalous transport properties of an ultracold gas through a ballistic constriction [S. Krinner et al., PNAS 201601812 (2016)]. The quantized conductance observed at weak interactions increases several-fold as the gas is made strongly interacting, which cannot be explained by the Landauer theory of single-channel transport. We show that this phenomenon is due to the multichannel Andreev reflections at the edges of the constriction, where the interaction and confinement result in a superconducting state. Andreev processes convert atoms of otherwise reflecting channels into the condensate propagating through the constriction, leading to a significant excess conductance. Furthermore, we find the spin conductance being suppressed by superconductivity; the agreement with experiment provides an additional support for our model.

  15. Anomalous Dynamical Responses in a Driven System

    CERN Document Server

    Dutta, Suman

    2016-01-01

    The interplay between structure and dynamics in non-equilibrium steady-state is far from understood. We address this interplay by tracking Brownian Dynamics trajectories of particles in a binary colloid of opposite charges in an external electric field, undergoing cross-over from homogeneous to lane state, a prototype of heterogeneous structure formation in non-equilibrium systems. We show that the length scale of structural correlations controls heterogeneity in diffusion and consequent anomalous dynamic responses, like the exponential tail in probability distributions of particle displacements and stretched exponential structural relaxation. We generalise our observations using equations for steady state density which may aid to understand microscopic basis of heterogeneous diffusion in condensed matter systems.

  16. Anomalous velocity distributions in active Brownian suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiege, Andrea; Vollmayr-Lee, Benjamin; Zippelius, Annette

    2013-08-01

    Large-scale simulations and analytical theory have been combined to obtain the nonequilibrium velocity distribution, f(v), of randomly accelerated particles in suspension. The simulations are based on an event-driven algorithm, generalized to include friction. They reveal strongly anomalous but largely universal distributions, which are independent of volume fraction and collision processes, which suggests a one-particle model should capture all the essential features. We have formulated this one-particle model and solved it analytically in the limit of strong damping, where we find that f(v) decays as 1/v for multiple decades, eventually crossing over to a Gaussian decay for the largest velocities. Many particle simulations and numerical solution of the one-particle model agree for all values of the damping. PMID:24032806

  17. Communication: Probing anomalous diffusion in frequency space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anomalous diffusion processes are usually detected by analyzing the time-dependent mean square displacement of the diffusing particles. The latter evolves asymptotically as W(t) ∼ 2Dαtα, where Dα is the fractional diffusion constant and 0 < α < 2. In this article we show that both Dα and α can also be extracted from the low-frequency Fourier spectrum of the corresponding velocity autocorrelation function. This offers a simple method for the interpretation of quasielastic neutron scattering spectra from complex (bio)molecular systems, in which subdiffusive transport is frequently encountered. The approach is illustrated and validated by analyzing molecular dynamics simulations of molecular diffusion in a lipid POPC bilayer

  18. Anomalous redshifts of quasi-stellar objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is based on the assumption that the observational evidence to date does point to the possibility that high-redshift quasars are physically associated with low-redshift galaxies. It is first argued that the excess (or anomalous) redshifts of the quasars in such associations are unlikely to be either of Doppler or of gravitational origin. A new source for this excess redshift was suggested by Narlikar on the basis of the Hoyle-Narlikar theory of gravitation which is based on Mach's principle. This idea is applied to the hypothesis that quasars may have been ejected from galactic nuclei. The dynamics of such an ejection and its observable consequences are discussed. In particular, it is shown that quasar alignments and redshift bunching which have been observed recently can be understood within the framework of this theory. Further test of this hypothesis are discussed

  19. Anomalous resistivity in the plasma opening switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental studies and modelling together with analytical considerations of anomalous resistivity in the plasma opening switch (POS) are being pursued to improve the understanding of the physical mechanism of the POS conduction phase. Experiments have been undertaken for a 'microsecond' POS of coaxial geometry. Measurements of Stark broadening of the Hα line allowed turbulent oscillations in plasma to be found at the conductivity stage. A comparison with the modelling including low-frequency (ion-acoustic) turbulence and Doppler broadening (neutral gas temperature 1-3 eV) the electric field value to be estimated to 10-30 kV/cm. The turbulent field increased toward the cathode up to 50 kV/cm in the near-cathode layer. (author). 3 figs., 14 refs

  20. Photoinduced Anomalous Hall Effects in Weyl Semimetals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ching-Kit; Lee, Patrick A.; Burch, Kenneth S.; Han, Jung Hoon; Ran, Ying

    We examine theoretically the interplay between chiral photons and chiral electrons in Weyl semimetals. Owing to its monopole nature, a three-dimensional Weyl node is topologically-robust against a circularly polarized light. A driven Weyl system exhibits node shifts in the momentum space, in sharp contrast to the gap opening in a driven two-dimensional Dirac system. We show that the node shift leads to a change of the Chern vector which gives arise to a net photoinduced anomalous Hall conductivity, in the plane perpendicular to the light propagation. We shall describe the basic idea behind this generic photoinduced Hall effect, illustrate it with a concrete microscope model, and estimate its feasibility based on current optical experimental techniques.

  1. Anomalous water absorption in porous materials

    CERN Document Server

    Lockington, D A

    2003-01-01

    The absorption of fluid by unsaturated, rigid porous materials may be characterized by the sorptivity. This is a simple parameter to determine and is increasingly being used as a measure of a material's resistance to exposure to fluids (especially moisture and reactive solutes) in aggressive environments. The complete isothermal absorption process is described by a nonlinear diffusion equation, with the hydraulic diffusivity being a strongly nonlinear function of the degree of saturation of the material. This diffusivity can be estimated from the sorptivity test. In a typical test the cumulative absorption is proportional to the square root of time. However, a number of researchers have observed deviation from this behaviour when the infiltrating fluid is water and there is some potential for chemo-mechanical interaction with the material. In that case the current interpretation of the test and estimation of the hydraulic diffusivity is no longer appropriate. Kuentz and Lavallee (2001) discuss the anomalous b...

  2. Latest results on $J/$ anomalous suppression

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sérgio Ramos; NA50 Collaboration; B Allessandro; C Alexa; R Arnaldi; M Atayan; C Baglin; A Baldit; M Bedjidian; S Beolè; V Boldea; P Bordalo; S R Borenstein; G Borges; A Bussière; L Capelli; C Castanier; J Castor; B Chaurand; B Cheynis; E Chiavassa; C Cicalo; T Claudino; M P Comets; S Constantinescu; P Cortese; J Cruz; A DeFalco; N DeMarco; G Dellacasa; A Devaux; S Dita; O Drapier; B Espagnon; J Fargeix; P Force; M Gallio; Y K Gavrilov; C Gerschel; P Giubellino; M B Golubeva; M Gonin; A A Grigorian; S Grigorian; J Y Grossiord; F F Guber; A Guichard; H Gulkanyan; R Hakobyan; R Haroutunian; M Idzik; D Jouan; T L Karavitcheva; L Kluberg; A B Kurepin; Y Le Bornée; C Lourenço; P Macciotta; M Mac Cormick; A Marzari-Chiesa; M Masera; A Masoni; M Monteno; A Musso; P Petiau; A Piccotti; J R Pizzi; W L Prado da Silva; F Prino; G Puddu; C Quintans; L Ramello; S Ramos; P Rato Mendes; L Riccati; A Romana; H Santos; P Saturnini; E Scalas; E Scomparin; S Serci; R Shahoyan; F Sigaudo; M Sitta; P Sonderegger; X Tarrago; N S Topilskaya; G L Usai; E Vercellin; L Villatte; N Willis; T Wu

    2004-03-01

    The NA50 experiment deals with Pb–Pb collisions at 158 GeV/nucleon at the CERN SPS accelerator. The $J/$ production is studied through the muon decay channel, using the Drell–Yan dimuons as a reference. New results based on recent analyses, from data taken with improved experimental conditions and using different centrality estimators, are presented and compared to an update of those already obtained from previous data samples. The stepwise pattern of the anomalous $J/$ suppression as a function of centrality, already present in these previous results, is confirmed. This observation could be a fingerprint of the theoretically predicted melting of charmonia resonances in a deconfined quark–gluon plasma.

  3. The anomalous quadrupole collectivity in Te isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Qi, Chong

    2016-01-01

    We present systematic calculations on the spectroscopy and transition properties of even-even Te isotopes by using the large-scale configuration interaction shell model approach with a realistic interaction. These nuclei are of particular interest since their yrast spectra show a vibrational-like equally-spaced pattern but the few known E2 transitions show anomalous rotational-like behavior, which cannot be reproduced by collective models. Our calculations reproduce well the equally-spaced spectra of those isotopes as well as the constant behavior of the $B(E2)$ values in $^{114}$Te. The calculated $B(E2)$ values for neutron-deficient and heavier Te isotopes show contrasting different behaviors along the yrast line. The $B(E2)$ of light isotopes can exhibit a nearly constant bevavior upto high spins. We show that this is related to the enhanced neutron-proton correlation when approaching $N=50$.

  4. Anomalous atomic volume of alpha-Pu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kollar, J.; Vitos, Levente; Skriver, Hans Lomholt

    1997-01-01

    We have performed full charge-density calculations for the equilibrium atomic volumes of the alpha-phase light actinide metals using the local density approximation (LDA) and the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). The average deviation between the experimental and the GGA atomic radii is 1.......3%. The comparison between the LDA and GGA results show that the anomalously large atomic volume of alpha-Pu relative to alpha-Np can be ascribed to exchange-correlation effects connected with the presence of low coordinated sites in the structure where the f electrons are close to the onset of...... localization. This effect is correctly described in the GGA but not in the LDA....

  5. Comparative study of anomalous dispersive transparent media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a comparative theoretical analysis of five different atomic schemes with respect to their performance as negative (anomalous) dispersive transparent media. The schemes discussed are the strongly driven and the degenerate two-level system, two closely spaced gain lines, and two slightly different double-Λ schemes with incoherent pumping. The analysis shows that the degenerate two-level scheme is best suited for applications for which only modest negative dispersion but strongly reduced absorption is required, and dissipation and loss of the optical fields have to be avoided. Two closely spaced gain lines and one of the double-Λ schemes are the best choice for applications which rely on large negative dispersion, but are not too sensitive to residual absorption and dissipation

  6. Reactive evaporation of anomalous blue VO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thin films of vanadium dioxide exhibit a thermally induced semiconductor-to-metal phase transition near 670 C. In most deposition conditions, the transition is accompanied by large changes in optical properties at infrared wavelengths, but with only slight visible contrast. Recently, reactive evaporation at high temperatures and in stringent process conditions of so-called blue VO2 has been reported [G. A. Nyberg and R. A. Buhrman, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 2, 301 (1984)]. These films exhibit a striking blue-to-red transition in transmitted light. In this paper, a new technique for thin-film growth of anomalous vanadium dioxide will be presented. The primary steps in the process are the reactive evaporation of vanadium oxide at ambient temperature followed by anneal in flowing oxygen. Optical and microstructural data for material deposited on sapphire and fused quartz substrates will be compared to standard vanadium oxide

  7. Anomalous magnetic properties of VOx multiwall nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demishev, S. V.; Chernobrovkin, A. L.; Glushkov, V. V.; Goodilin, E. A.; Grigorieva, A. V.; Ishchenko, T. V.; Kuznetsov, A. V.; Sluchanko, N. E.; Tretyakov, Yu D.; Semeno, A. V.

    2010-01-01

    Basing on the high frequency (60 GHz) electron spin resonance (ESR) and magnetic susceptibility study of the VOx multiwall nanotubes (VOx-NTs) in the range 4.2-300 K we report the ESR evidence of the presence of the antiferromagnetic V4+ dimers in VOx-NTs and the observation of an anomalous low temperature (T<50 K) growth of the magnetic susceptibility for V4+ quasi-free spins, which obey power law χ(T)~1/Tα with the exponent αapprox0.6. The estimates of the concentrations for various spin species (clusters) indicate that the non-interacting dimers should be an essential element in the VOx-NTs structure. The possibility of the disorder driven quantum critical regime in VOx-NTs is discussed.

  8. Anomalous transport from holography: Part I

    CERN Document Server

    Bu, Yanyan; Sharon, Amir

    2016-01-01

    We revisit the transport properties induced by the chiral anomaly in a charged plasma holographically dual to anomalous $U(1)_V\\times U(1)_A$ Maxwell theory in Schwarzschild-$AdS_5$. Off-shell constitutive relations for vector and axial currents are derived using various approximations generalising most of known in the literature anomaly-induced phenomena and revealing some new ones. In a weak external field approximation, the constitutive relations have all-order derivatives resummed into six momenta-dependent transport coefficient functions: the diffusion, the electric/magnetic conductivity, and three anomaly induced functions. The latter generalise the chiral magnetic and chiral separation effects. Nonlinear transport is studied assuming presence of constant background external fields. The chiral magnetic effect, including all order nonlinearity in magnetic field, is proven to be exact when the magnetic field is the only external field that is turned on. Non-linear corrections to the constitutive relations...

  9. Comparison of the anomalous and non-anomalous generalized Schwinger models via functional formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Green functions of the two versions of the two versions of the generalized Schwinger model, the anomalous and the non-anomalous one, in their higher order Lagrangian density form are calculated. Furthermore it is shown through a sequence of transformations that the bosonized Lagrangian density is equivalent to the former, at least for the bosonic correlation functions. The introduction of the sources from the beginning, leading to a gauge-invariant source term is also considered. It is verified that the two models have the same correlation functions only of the gauge-invariant sector is taken into account. Finally it is presented a generalization of the Wess-Zumino term, and its physical consequences are studied, in particular the appearance of gauge-dependent massive excitations. (author)

  10. Soft gamma-ray repeaters and anomalous X-ray pulsars as highly magnetized white dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyay, Banibrata

    2016-01-01

    We show that the soft gamma-ray repeaters (SGRs) and anomalous X-ray pulsars (AXPs) can be explained as recently proposed highly magnetized white dwarfs (B-WDs). The radius and magnetic field of B-WDs are perfectly adequate to explain energies in SGRs/AXPs as the rotationally powered energy. While the highly magnetized neutron stars require an extra, observationally not well established yet, source of energy, the magnetized white dwarfs, yet following Chandrasekhar's theory (C-WDs), exhibit large ultra-violet luminosity which is observationally constrained from a strict upper limit.

  11. The Effect of Surplus Free Cash Flow on the Relationship between the Board Structure and Earnings Quality of Companies Listed on Tehran Stock Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Farzad Karimi; Masoud Foladi; Nasim Shirazi

    2014-01-01

    In this study, is evaluated the effect of surplus free cash flow on the relationship between board structure and earnings quality of listed companies in Tehran Stock Exchange. This study attempts to empirically examine the role of surplus free cash flow (SFCF) as a moderator on the relationship between board structure and earnings quality. The statistical society this study consisted of all companies listed on Tehran Stock Exchange during the period 2008 to 2012 that after applying the restri...

  12. No need to replace an "anomalous" primate (Primates) with an "anomalous" bear (Carnivora, Ursidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Eliécer E; Pine, Ronald H

    2015-01-01

    By means of mitochondrial 12S rRNA sequencing of putative "yeti", "bigfoot", and other "anomalous primate" hair samples, a recent study concluded that two samples, presented as from the Himalayas, do not belong to an "anomalous primate", but to an unknown, anomalous type of ursid. That is, that they match 12S rRNA sequences of a fossil Polar Bear (Ursusmaritimus), but neither of modern Polar Bears, nor of Brown Bears (Ursusarctos), the closest relative of Polar Bears, and one that occurs today in the Himalayas. We have undertaken direct comparison of sequences; replication of the original comparative study; inference of phylogenetic relationships of the two samples with respect to those from all extant species of Ursidae (except for the Giant Panda, Ailuropodamelanoleuca) and two extinct Pleistocene species; and application of a non-tree-based population aggregation approach for species diagnosis and identification. Our results demonstrate that the very short fragment of the 12S rRNA gene sequenced by Sykes et al. is not sufficiently informative to support the hypotheses provided by these authors with respect to the taxonomic identity of the individuals from which these sequences were obtained. We have concluded that there is no reason to believe that the two samples came from anything other than Brown Bears. These analyses afforded an opportunity to test the monophyly of morphologically defined species and to comment on both their phylogenetic relationships and future efforts necessary to advance our understanding of ursid systematics. PMID:25829853

  13. Coupling Research on the Process of Transfer of Surplus Labor Forces and Scaling-up of Farmland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of giving an overview of efficiency research on transformation of land from fragmentation to scale economy, by using the concept of coupling in physics, this paper expounds the behavior basis of transfer of surplus rural labor forces in China and transformation of land from fragmentation to scaling up, and analyzes behaviors of all parties and equilibrium outcomes in the three stages concerning the transformation of agricultural land from fragmentation to scaling up as follows. At the first stage of coupling, after multitudinous rural surplus labor forces emerge, the farmers begin to go to city seeking jobs. In this period, the amalgamation of land management has not occurred and the single farmer’s land has not yet concentrated. The total land area of single farmer has not yet increased and the total amount of farmers has not yet decreased. At the second stage of coupling, driven by living standards and income, multitudinous rural surplus labor forces begin to live in the city permanently in fact, and the scale management of rural land begins to arise. Foreign funded enterprises begin to enter agriculture, and the industrialization management of agriculture is equipped with the most fundamental conditions due to the occurrence of scaling up of land. At the third stage of coupling, the transfer of rural surplus labor forces basically ends. The property rights of agricultural land or the management forms also, in a large measure, concentrate. The obstacles to agricultural scaling-up management are solved fundamentally, and the income gap between urban areas and rural areas is narrowed. Urban-rural population migration is no longer the main form of China’s population migration. This stage has not yet been realized in China and it is the future state of villages. Finally, through the two cases researched by the predecessors, we verify the research results of the preceding two stages, which provides reliable reference for transformation of China

  14. Surplus N in US maize production: Informing data-driven policies using the Adapt-N model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sela, Shai; van-Es, Harold; McLellan, Eileen; Margerison, Rebecca; Melkonian, Jeff

    2016-04-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) production accounts for the largest share of crop land area in the U.S, and is the largest consumer of nitrogen (N) fertilizers of all US crops. Over-application of N fertilizer in excess of crop needs often lead to surplus of N in the soil, resulting in well-documented environmental problems and social costs associated with high reactive N losses. There is a potential to reduce these costs through better application timing, use of enhanced efficiency products, and more precise rate calculations. However, promoting management changes by means of environmental policies requires robust analysis of the possible environmental outcomes associated with these policies. This research gap is addressed using Adapt-N, a computational tool that combines soil, crop and management information with near-real-time weather data to estimate optimum N application rates for maize. Using results from a large synthetic dataset of 8100 simulations spanning 6 years (2010-2015), we have explored the total applied N rates, surplus of N (total N applied minus N removed by the crop) and the environmental losses resulting from seven N management scenarios applied in the top 5 US maize production states - IL, IN, IA, MN and NE. To cover a wide range of weather and production environments, all scenarios were applied at five randomly selected locations in each state, using combinations of three soil texture classes and two organic matter contents. The results indicate that fall applications typically lead to the highest total amount of N applied, highest N surplus and substantial amounts of environmental N losses. Nitrification inhibitors were found to have a marginal benefits for fall applied N. Spring pre-plant N applications were found to have lower N surplus than fall applications, but could still lead to high N losses under wet spring conditions. These losses were reduced (12%) when nitrification and urease inhibitors were applied. Out of all simulated N management

  15. Hubble Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Macleod, Alasdair

    2004-01-01

    Light received from a cosmological source is redshifted with an apparent loss of energy, a problem first pointed out by Edwin Hubble in 1936. A new type of energy called Hubble Energy is introduced to restore the principle of energy conservation. The energy has no inertial or gravitational effect but retards radial motion in a manner consistent with the anomalous acceleration experienced by the Pioneer probes leaving the solar system. The energy is predicted to have important effects on the s...

  16. Overview of the U.S. Department of Energy's Isotope Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy's Isotopes Program. The charter of the Isotope Programs covers the production and sale of radioactive and stable isotopes, associated byproducts, surplus materials, and related isotope services

  17. Tunable Anomalous Supercurrent in a topological tri-junction SQUID

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurter, C.; Finck, A. D. K.; Ghaemi, P.; Hor, Y. S.; van Harlingen, D. J.

    2014-03-01

    There has been intense interest in realizing Majorana fermions (MFs) in solid-state systems. Circuits of Josephson junctions (JJs) made of closely spaced s-wave superconductors on 3D topological insulators have been proposed to host zero energy Andreev bound states (ABSs) that act like MFs. Here, we present signatures of an anomalous supercurrent carried by topologically non-trivial low energy ABSs in a Nb/Bi2Se3/Nb tri-junction SQUID where two of the three superconducting leads are connected by a loop. An electrostatic top gate allows strong modulation of the supercurrent despite a high bulk contribution to the normal state conductance. In response to a magnetic field threading flux within the superconducting loop, we find unconventional SQUID oscillations enclosed by an envelope associated with a clear diffraction pattern, indicating spatially uniform and symmetric JJs. At a critical gate voltage, when the trivial 2DEG at the surface is nearly depleted, we observe a sharp drop in the critical current, signaling a topological phase transition in which the nature of the supercurrent-carrying states is transformed. This transition is accompanied by qualitative changes in the SQUID oscillations, magnetic diffraction pattern, and temperature dependence of the critical current. We acknowledge funding from Microsoft Station-Q.

  18. Limits on anomalous trilinear gauge couplings at the CMS with 7TeV Large Hadron Collider data

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bhawana Gomber

    2012-10-01

    Diboson production in proton–proton collisions presents an opportunity to study the self-interaction between gauge bosons via anomalous trilinear gauge couplings (aTGC). The values of these couplings are fully fixed in the SM by the gauge structure. Thus, any deviation of the observed strength of the TGC from the SM prediction would indicate new physics. This paper presents the limits on anomalous , and trilinear gauge couplings in proton–proton collisions at the centre of mass energy of 7 TeV with the CMS detector.

  19. Managed Aquifer Recharge of Surplus Desalinated Seawater: a MARSOL Case Study from Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtzman, Daniel; Ganot, Yonatan; Russak, Ammos; Nitzan, Ido; Bernstein, Anat; Katz, Yoram; Guttman, Yossi

    2015-04-01

    MARSOL is an EU-funded project on demonstrating managed aquifer recharge (MAR) as a solution to water scarcity and drought. Among other activities in MARSOL, 7 demo-sites in Mediterranean countries were chosen for research and demonstration of different types of MAR (e.g. soil aquifer treatment, river infiltration basins etc.). One of these demo sites is the Menashe infiltration basin (Israel) in which MAR of surplus desalinated sea water is demonstrated, monitored and investigated in the last year. Different operational circumstances create periods in which water from the Hadera seawater desalination plant cannot be distributed through the national water carrier to consumers. A solution was set in MAR of this water through sandy infiltration ponds to the Israeli coastal aquifer which is consisted mainly from calcareous sandstone. Hydrological and geochemical aspects are of interest in this MAR operation due to the high discharge rates of low-salinity chlorinated water to the infiltration pond. Monitoring of operational events, laboratory experiments, controlled field-experiments and modelling are carried out aiming at clarifying the following issues: infiltration rates - spatial and temporal variability; recharge and withdrawal operation; disinfection by-products due to infiltration of chlorinated water; changes in hydraulic properties due to dissolution/precipitation processes; and using MAR of desalinated water as a remineralization treatment. We will present some results concerning these aspects concentrating on the last one. Observations show that desalinated water dissolve carbonates relatively fast in the unsaturated zone and shallow groundwater of the infiltration site. This process which increases significantly the water's alkalinity also enriches the water with magnesium which its deficiency in desalinated seawater is an unsolved concern. Further increase in calcium and magnesium concentration requires flow in the aquifer through the calcareous

  20. Water deficit and water surplus maps for Brazil, based on FAO Penman-Monteith potential evapotranspiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronalton Evandro Machado

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The climatological water balance (CWB proposed by Thornthwaite and Mather (1957 is a useful tool for agricultural planning. This method requires the soil water holding capacity (SWHC, rainfall (R and potential evapotranspiration (PET data as input. Among the methods used to estimate PET, the one proposed by Thornthwaite (1948 is the simplest and the most used in Brazil, however it presents limitations of use, which is caused by its empirical relationships. When Thornthwaite PET method is used into the CWB, the errors associated to PET are transferred to the output variables, mainly water deficit (WD and water surplus (WS. As all maps of WD and WS for Brazil are based on Thornthwaite PET, the objective of this study was to produce new maps of these variables considering Penman-Monteith PET. For this purpose, monthly normal climate data base (1961-1990 from Brazilian Meteorological Service (INMET, with 219 locations in all country, was used. PET data were estimated by Thornthwaite (TH and FAO Penman-Monteith (PM methods. PET, from both methods, and R data were used to estimate the CWB for a SWHC of 100 mm, having as results actual ET (AET, WD and WS. Results obtained with PET from the two methods were compared by regression analysis. The results showed that TH method underestimated annual PM PET by 13% in 84% of the places. Such underestimation also led to AET and WD underestimations of 7% (in 69% of places and 40% (in 83% of places, respectively. For WS, the use of TH PET data in the CWB resulted in overestimations of about 80% in 78% of places. The differences observed in the CWB variables resulted in changes in the maps of WD and WS for Brazil. These new maps, based on PM PET, provide more accurate information, mainly for agricultural and hydrological planning and irrigation and drainage projects purposes.