WorldWideScience

Sample records for anomalous surplus energy

  1. Surplus biomass through energy efficient kilns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Jan-Olof; Westerlund, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The magnitude of the national heat demand for drying lumber in kilns is established. → Each part of the total heat consumption is divided and shown between the main drying conditions. → The potential to increase the energy efficiency in kilns with available techniques is presented. → The market demand for the biomass, available with increase kiln energy efficiency, is reviled. -- Abstract: The use of biomass in the European Union has increased since the middle of the 1990s, mostly because of high subsidies and CO 2 emission regulation through the Kyoto protocol. The sawmills are huge biomass suppliers to the market; out of the Swedish annual lumber production of 16.4 Mm 3 , 95% is produced by medium to large-volume sawmills with a lumber quotient of 47%. The remaining part is produced as biomass. An essential part (12%) of the entering timber is used for supply of heat in their production processes, mostly in the substantial drying process. The drying process is the most time and heat consuming process in the sawmill. This study was undertaken to determine the sawmills' national use of energy and potential magnitude of improvements. If the drying process can be made more effective, sawmills' own use of biomass can be decreased and allow a considerably larger supply to the biomass market through processed or unprocessed biomass, heat or electricity production. The national electricity and heat usage when drying the lumber have been analysed by theoretical evaluation and experimental validation at a batch kiln. The main conclusion is that the heat consumption for drying lumber among the Swedish sawmills is 4.9 TW h/year, and with available state-of-the-art techniques it is possible to decrease the national heat consumption by approximately 2.9 TW h. This additional amount of energy corresponds to the market's desire for larger energy supply.

  2. Microbial electrosynthesis: a novel strategy for flexible energy storage from electricity surplus and greenhouse gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Tian

    2014-01-01

    of the fluctuating electricity generated from renewable sources and to mitigate therelease of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Although MES is attracting a lot of attention and hasbeen studied intensively during the last five years, advances related to the engineering and the biologyof this process are required...... for pilot plant scale and commercialization. If MES reaches its fullpotential, it will serve as a highly flexible and tunable approach for the conversion of electrical energyinto chemical energy, generating valuable products especially from surplus electricity and CO2....

  3. Management of surplus electricity-production from a fluctuating renewable-energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, H.

    2003-01-01

    Renewable-energy sources and energy efficiency are important elements in Danish Energy Policy. The implementation of wind power and combined heat- and power-production (CHP) have already led to substantial fuel savings, and both technologies are intended for further expansion in the coming decade. Today, approximately 50% of both Danish electricity and heat demand are produced via CHP, and more than 15% of the electricity demands are produced by wind turbines. However, the electricity production from these technologies is linked to fluctuations either in wind or in heat demands rather than fluctuations in demand for electricity. Consequently, the electricity production exceeds the demand during certain periods and creates a problem of ''surplus production''. This paper discusses and analyses different national strategies for solving this problem. (author)

  4. Management of surplus electricity-production from a fluctuating renewable-energy source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Münster, E.

    2003-01-01

    The paper discusses and analyses different national strategies for solving a surplus production problem in Denmark, caused by electricity production from turbines and CHP.......The paper discusses and analyses different national strategies for solving a surplus production problem in Denmark, caused by electricity production from turbines and CHP....

  5. Vacuum field energy and spontaneous emission in anomalously dispersive cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradshaw, Douglas H.; Di Rosa, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Anomalously dispersive cavities, particularly white-light cavities, may have larger bandwidth to finesse ratios than their normally dispersive counterparts. Partly for this reason, they have been proposed for use in laser interferometer gravitational-wave observatory (LIGO)-like gravity-wave detectors and in ring-laser gyroscopes. In this paper we analyze the quantum noise associated with anomalously dispersive cavity modes. The vacuum field energy associated with a particular cavity mode is proportional to the cavity-averaged group velocity of that mode. For anomalously dispersive cavities with group index values between 1 and 0, this means that the total vacuum field energy associated with a particular cavity mode must exceed (ℎ/2π)ω/2. For white-light cavities in particular, the group index approaches zero and the vacuum field energy of a particular spatial mode may be significantly enhanced. We predict enhanced spontaneous emission rates into anomalously dispersive cavity modes and broadened laser linewidths when the linewidth of intracavity emitters is broader than the cavity linewidth.

  6. Surplus thermal energy model of greenhouses and coefficient analysis for effective utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, S.H.; Son, J.E.; Lee, S.D.; Cho, S.I.; Ashtiani-Araghi, A.; Rhee, J.Y.

    2016-11-01

    If a greenhouse in the temperate and subtropical regions is maintained in a closed condition, the indoor temperature commonly exceeds that required for optimal plant growth, even in the cold season. This study considered this excess energy as surplus thermal energy (STE), which can be recovered, stored and used when heating is necessary. To use the STE economically and effectively, the amount of STE must be estimated before designing a utilization system. Therefore, this study proposed an STE model using energy balance equations for the three steps of the STE generation process. The coefficients in the model were determined by the results of previous research and experiments using the test greenhouse. The proposed STE model produced monthly errors of 17.9%, 10.4% and 7.4% for December, January and February, respectively. Furthermore, the effects of the coefficients on the model accuracy were revealed by the estimation error assessment and linear regression analysis through fixing dynamic coefficients. A sensitivity analysis of the model coefficients indicated that the coefficients have to be determined carefully. This study also provides effective ways to increase the amount of STE. (Author)

  7. Surplus thermal energy model of greenhouses and coefficient analysis for effective utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Hwan Yang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available If a greenhouse in the temperate and subtropical regions is maintained in a closed condition, the indoor temperature commonly exceeds that required for optimal plant growth, even in the cold season. This study considered this excess energy as surplus thermal energy (STE, which can be recovered, stored and used when heating is necessary. To use the STE economically and effectively, the amount of STE must be estimated before designing a utilization system. Therefore, this study proposed an STE model using energy balance equations for the three steps of the STE generation process. The coefficients in the model were determined by the results of previous research and experiments using the test greenhouse. The proposed STE model produced monthly errors of 17.9%, 10.4% and 7.4% for December, January and February, respectively. Furthermore, the effects of the coefficients on the model accuracy were revealed by the estimation error assessment and linear regression analysis through fixing dynamic coefficients. A sensitivity analysis of the model coefficients indicated that the coefficients have to be determined carefully. This study also provides effective ways to increase the amount of STE.

  8. Policy, planning and generation of energy surpluses in a sugar and alcohol plants; Politica, planejamento e geracao de excedentes de energia eletrica no setor sucroalcooleiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarussi, Maria Alessandra Silva Nunes; Martins, Juliana Marinho Cavalcanti [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Curso de Pos-Graduacao em Planejamento de Sistemas Energeticos

    2008-07-01

    This present work has as it main purpose to analyze briefly the Decenal Plan of Energy Expansion and the National Energy Plan 2030 in relation to the surplus energy cogeneration capacity from sugar and alcohol industry in Brazil. At the same time, this work also intends to compare the existent public policies to foment the surplus electric energy production such as the Proinfa and energy auctions and the acquisition of more efficient cogeneration systems by the sugar cane sector. (author)

  9. Seasonal shifting of surplus renewable energy in a power system located in a cold region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Morel

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Fukushima nuclear disaster in 2011 changed Japan's strategy for reducing CO2 emissions. The government is now placing more emphasis on the development of nonCO2-emitting distributed generation systems such as wind, solar, and tidal power to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and guarantee electricity supply in the case of a natural disaster. This paper proposes a strategy for the exploitation of wind, solar, and tidal resources in a cold region in Japan by utilizing surplus energy from the summer and spring during winter. It also aims to determine the most favorable energy mix of these renewable sources and storage system types. The study is performed by calculating hourly demand and renewable energy supply for the city in one year, which is based on actual data of demand, solar irradiation, wind speeds, and tidal current speeds. The costs of the components of the renewable power plants and storage systems are considered, and different proportions of generation outputs are evaluated with different types of storage systems. According to results, the configuration containing the hydrogen storage system using organic chemical hydride methylcyclohexane (OCHM is the most economical but is still more expensive than one using a conventional generation system. Moreover, we confirm that the cost of CO2 emissions is the key element for leveling the playing field between conventional and renewable generation from an economic perspective. The cost of CO2 emissions to public health as well as those costs related to the interruption of services during a catastrophe must be carefully calculated with other issues from conventional power projects to perform a precise comparative evaluation between both types of generation systems.

  10. Energy quality and energy surplus in the extraction of fossil fuels in the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleveland, C.J.

    1992-01-01

    The goal of net energy analysis is to assess the amount of useful energy delivered by an energy system, net of the energy costs of delivery. The standard technique of aggregating energy inputs and outputs by their thermal equivalents diminish the ability of energy analysis to achieve the goal because different types of energy have different abilities to do work per heat equivalent. This paper describes physical and economic methods of calculating energy quality, and incorporate economic estimates of quality in the analysis of the energy return on investment (EROI) for the extraction of coal and petroleum resources in the US from 1954 to 1987. EROI is the ratio of energy delivered to energy used in the delivery process. The quality- adjusted EROI is used to answer the following questions: (1) are coal and petroleum resources becoming more scarce in the US? (2) is society's capability of doing useful economic work changing? and (3) is society's allocation of energy between the extraction of coal and petroleum optimal? The results indicate that petroleum and coal become more scarce in the 1970s, although the degree of scarcity depends on the type of quality factor used. The quality-adjusted EROI shed light on the coal-petroleum paradox: when energy inputs and outputs are measured in thermal equivalents, coal extraction has a much larger EROI than petroleum. The adjustment for energy quality reduces substantially the difference between the two fuels. The results also suggest that when corrections are made for energy quality, society's allocation of energy between coal and petroleum extraction meets the efficiency criteria described by neoclassical and biophysical economists. 3 figs., 1 tab., 40 refs

  11. Anomalous energy transport in hot plasmas: solar corona and Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaufume, P.

    1992-04-01

    Anomalous energy transport is studied in two hot plasmas and appears to be associated with a heating of the solar corona and with a plasma deconfining process in tokamaks. The magnetic structure is shown to play a fundamental role in this phenomenon through small scale instabilities which are modelized by means of a nonlinear dynamical system: the Beasts' Model. Four behavior classes are found for this system, which are automatically classified in the parameter space thanks to a neural network. We use a compilation of experimental results relative to the solar corona to discuss current-based heating processes. We find that a simple Joule effect cannot provide the required heating rates, and therefore propose a dimensional model involving a resistive reconnective instability which leads to an efficient and discontinuous heating mechanism. Results are in good agreement with the observations. We give an analytical expression for a diffusion coefficient in tokamaks when magnetic turbulence is perturbing the topology, which we validate thanks to the standard mapping. A realistic version of the Beasts' Model allows to test a candidate to anomalous transport: the thermal filamentation instability

  12. Anomalous dimensions of heavy operators from magnon energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Robert de Mello; Tahiridimbisoa, Nirina Hasina; Mathwin, Christopher [National Institute for Theoretical Physics,School of Physics and Mandelstam Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Witwatersrand,Wits, 2050 (South Africa)

    2016-03-22

    We study spin chains with boundaries that are dual to open strings suspended between systems of giant gravitons and dual giant gravitons. Motivated by a geometrical interpretation of the central charges of su(2|2), we propose a simple and minimal all loop expression that interpolates between the anomalous dimensions computed in the gauge theory and energies computed in the dual string theory. The discussion makes use of a description in terms of magnons, generalizing results for a single maximal giant graviton. The symmetries of the problem determine the structure of the magnon boundary reflection/scattering matrix up to a phase. We compute a reflection/scattering matrix element at weak coupling and verify that it is consistent with the answer determined by symmetry. We find the reflection/scattering matrix does not satisfy the boundary Yang-Baxter equation so that the boundary condition on the open spin chain spoils integrability. We also explain the interpretation of the double coset ansatz in the magnon language.

  13. Power-to-Gas: storing surplus electrical energy. A design study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buchholz, O.S.; van der Ham, Aloysius G.J.; Veneman, Rens; Brilman, Derk Willem Frederik; Kersten, Sascha R.A.

    2014-01-01

    In this work a conceptual design of a Power-to-Gas (PtG) process for storing electrical energy in form of synthetic natural gas (SNG) of gas grid quality H is presented. The combination with a conventional lignite fired power plant (LPP) was investigated for possible improvement of its economic

  14. Nutritional geometry: gorillas prioritize non-protein energy while consuming surplus protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Jessica M; Raubenheimer, David; Chapman, Colin A

    2011-12-23

    It is widely assumed that terrestrial food webs are built on a nitrogen-limited base and consequently herbivores must compensate through selection of high-protein foods and efficient nitrogen retention. Like many folivorous primates, gorillas' diet selection supports this assumption, as they apparently prefer protein-rich foods. Our study of mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei) in Uganda revealed that, in some periods, carbohydrate-rich fruits displace a large portion of protein-rich leaves in their diet. We show that non-protein energy (NPE) intake was invariant throughout the year, whereas protein intake was substantially higher when leaves were the major portion of the diet. This pattern of macronutrient intake suggests that gorillas prioritize NPE and, to achieve this when leaves are the major dietary item, they over-eat protein. The concentrations of protein consumed in relation to energy when leaves were the major portion of the diet were close to the maximum recommended for humans and similar to high-protein human weight-loss diets. By contrast, the concentrations of protein in relation to energy when gorillas ate fruit-dominated diets were similar to those recommended for humans. Our results question the generality of nitrogen limitation in terrestrial herbivores and provide a fascinating contrast with human macronutrient intake.

  15. Nutritional geometry: gorillas prioritize non-protein energy while consuming surplus protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Jessica M.; Raubenheimer, David; Chapman, Colin A.

    2011-01-01

    It is widely assumed that terrestrial food webs are built on a nitrogen-limited base and consequently herbivores must compensate through selection of high-protein foods and efficient nitrogen retention. Like many folivorous primates, gorillas' diet selection supports this assumption, as they apparently prefer protein-rich foods. Our study of mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei) in Uganda revealed that, in some periods, carbohydrate-rich fruits displace a large portion of protein-rich leaves in their diet. We show that non-protein energy (NPE) intake was invariant throughout the year, whereas protein intake was substantially higher when leaves were the major portion of the diet. This pattern of macronutrient intake suggests that gorillas prioritize NPE and, to achieve this when leaves are the major dietary item, they over-eat protein. The concentrations of protein consumed in relation to energy when leaves were the major portion of the diet were close to the maximum recommended for humans and similar to high-protein human weight-loss diets. By contrast, the concentrations of protein in relation to energy when gorillas ate fruit-dominated diets were similar to those recommended for humans. Our results question the generality of nitrogen limitation in terrestrial herbivores and provide a fascinating contrast with human macronutrient intake. PMID:21632622

  16. Recycling and surplus chemical programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, T.J.

    1993-05-01

    In 1988, 45 years of defense production came to a close at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. The mission of the Hanford Site was formally changed to environmental restoration and remediation. Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) is the management and operations (M ampersand O) contractor leading the cleanup. Within the framework of future Site cleanup, Hanford recycling and surplus chemical programs are making a viable contribution today to waste minimization, diversion of materials from the waste stream, and setting a standard for future operations. This paper focuses on two successful efforts: paper recycling and surplus chemical sales

  17. Surplus Facilities Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coobs, J.H.

    1983-01-01

    This is the second of two programs that are concerned with the management of surplus facilities. The facilities in this program are those related to commercial activities, which include the three surplus experimental and test reactors [(MSRE, HRE-2, and the Low Intensity Test Reactor (LITR)] and seven experimental loops at the ORR. The program is an integral part of the Surplus Facilities Management Program, which is a national program administered for DOE by the Richland Operations Office. Very briefly reported here are routine surveillance and maintenance of surplus radioactively contaminated DOE facilities awaiting decommissioning

  18. The energy spectra of anomalous oxygen at the time of two successive solar minima

    CERN Document Server

    Kondratyeva, M A; Tretyakova, S P; Zhuravlev, D A

    1999-01-01

    The energy spectra of anomalous oxygen have been determined from nuclear track detectors exposed aboard the Earth-orbiting satellites at altitudes ranging from approx 250-400 km in two consecutive solar minimum periods of 1986-1987 and 1994-1995 with opposite polarity of the solar magnetic field. A comparison of the spectra shows no contradiction to current drift models.

  19. Anomalous dissipation and kinetic-energy distribution in pipes at very high Reynolds numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Wei, Bo-Bo; Hussain, Fazle; She, Zhen-Su

    2016-01-01

    A symmetry-based theory is developed for the description of (streamwise) kinetic energy K in turbulent pipes at extremely high Reynolds numbers (Re's). The theory assumes a mesolayer with continual deformation of wall-attached eddies which introduce an anomalous dissipation, breaking the exact balance between production and dissipation. An outer peak of K is predicted above a critical Re of 10^{4}, in good agreement with experimental data. The theory offers an alternative explanation for the recently discovered logarithmic distribution of K. The concept of anomalous dissipation is further supported by a significant modification of the k-ω equation, yielding an accurate prediction of the entire K profile.

  20. Why do Electrons with "Anomalous Energies" appear in High-Pressure Gas Discharges?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozyrev, Andrey; Kozhevnikov, Vasily; Semeniuk, Natalia

    2018-01-01

    Experimental studies connected with runaway electron beams generation convincingly shows the existence of electrons with energies above the maximum voltage applied to the discharge gap. Such electrons are also known as electrons with "anomalous energies". We explain the presence of runaway electrons having so-called "anomalous energies" according to physical kinetics principles, namely, we describe the total ensemble of electrons with the distribution function. Its evolution obeys Boltzmann kinetic equation. The dynamics of self-consistent electromagnetic field is taken into the account by adding complete Maxwell's equation set to the resulting system of equations. The electrodynamic mechanism of the interaction of electrons with a travelling-wave electric field is analyzed in details. It is responsible for the appearance of electrons with high energies in real discharges.

  1. Local charge nonequilibrium and anomalous energy dependence of normalized moments in narrow rapidity windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yuanfang; Liu Lianshou

    1990-01-01

    From the study of even and odd multiplicity distributions for hadron-hadron collision in different rapidity windows, we propose a simple picture for charge correlation with nonzero correlation length and calculate the multiplicity distributions and the normalized moments in different rapidity windows at different energies. The results explain the experimentally observed coincidence and separation of even and odd distributions and also the anomalous energy dependence of normalized moments in narrow rapidity windows. The reason for the separation of even-odd distributions, appearing first at large multiplicities, is shown to be energy conservation. The special role of no-particle events in narrow rapidity windows is pointed out

  2. Observation of Anomalous Potential Electric Energy in Distilled Water Under Solar Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smarandache, Florentin; Christianto, V.

    2011-04-01

    In this paper, we describe a very simple experiment with distilled water which could exhibit anomalous potential electrical energy with very minimum preparation energy. While this observed excess energy here is less impressive than J-P. Beberian's and M. Porringa's, and the material used is also far less exotic than common LENR-CANR experiments, from the viewpoint of minimum preparation requirement --and therefore less barrier for rapid implementation--, it seems that further experiments could be recommended in order to verify and also to explore various implications of this new proposition.

  3. Hanford Surplus Facilities Program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, M.C.; Wahlen, R.K.; Winship, R.A.

    1989-09-01

    The Hanford Surplus Facilities Program is responsible for the safe and cost-effective surveillance, maintenance, and decommissioning of surplus facilities at the Hanford Site. The management of these facilities requires a surveillance and maintenance program to keep them in a safe condition and development of a plan for ultimate disposition. Criteria used to evaluate each factor relative to decommissioning are based on the guidelines presented by the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office, Defense Facilities Decommissioning Program Office, and are consistent with the Westinghouse Hanford Company commitment to decommission the Hanford Site retired facilities in the safest and most cost-effective way achievable. This document outlines the plan for managing these facilities to the end of disposition

  4. 'Nonprofits' need surplus too.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, D W

    1982-01-01

    By definition profit refers to the difference between revenue and expenses. In for-profit organizations profit or surplus gives a return to the owners of the company and serves as a source of financing for capital acquisitions and working capital. Nonprofit organizations, which are not allowed a surplus, don't suffer on the first count because they have no owners. But they do suffer on the second count because, if expected to grow, they need to finance asset replacement and growth. In these days when funds for long-term debt are becoming scarcer, this author asserts, the need for regulators to allow 'nonprofits' to keep a surplus is increasing. In this article, he argues for a surplus and then discusses how managers and regulators can determine how much a nonprofit organization should be allowed. He presents a combination of a modified version of the return-on-asset pricing model used in for-profit organizations and a model for assessing working capital needs associated with growth.

  5. Racism and Surplus Repression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Howard

    1983-01-01

    Explores the relationship between Herbert Marcuse's theory of "surplus repression" and Freud's theory of the "unconscious" with respect to latent, hidden, covert, or subliminal aspects of racism in the United States. Argues that unconscious racism, manifested in evasion/avoidance, acting out/projection, and attempted…

  6. Relativistic energy correction of the hydrogen atom with an anomalous magnetic moment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambogo, David Otieno

    2015-07-01

    The electron is known to possess an anomalous magnetic moment, which interacts with the gradient of the electric field. This makes it necessary to compute its effects on the energy spectrum. Even though the Coulomb Dirac equation can be solved in closed form, this is no longer possible when the anomalous magnetic moment is included. In fact the interaction due to this term is so strong that it changes the domain of the Hamiltonian. From a differential equation point of view, the anomalous magnetic moment term is strongly singular near the origin. As usual, one has to resort to perturbation theory. This, however, only makes sense if the eigenvalues are stable. To prove stability is therefore a challenge one has to face before actually computing the energy shifts. The first stability results in this line were shown by Behncke for angular momenta κ≥3, because the eigenfunctions of the unperturbed Hamiltonian decay fast enough near the origin. He achieved this by decoupling the system and then using the techniques available for second order differential equations. Later, Kalf and Schmidt extended Behncke's results basing their analysis on the Pruefer angle technique and a comparison result for first order differential equations. The Pruefer angle method is particularly useful because it shows a better stability and because it obeys a first order differential equation. Nonetheless, Kalf and Schmidt had to exclude some coupling constants for κ>0. This I believe is an artefact of their method. In this study, I make increasing use of asymptotic integration, a method which is rather well adapted to perturbation theory and is known to give stability results to any level of accuracy. Together with the Pruefer angle technique, this lead to a more general stability result and even allows for an energy shifts estimate. Hamiltonians traditionally treated in physics to describe the spin-orbit effect are not self adjoint i.e. they are not proper observables in quantum

  7. Relativistic energy correction of the hydrogen atom with an anomalous magnetic moment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambogo, David Otieno

    2015-07-15

    The electron is known to possess an anomalous magnetic moment, which interacts with the gradient of the electric field. This makes it necessary to compute its effects on the energy spectrum. Even though the Coulomb Dirac equation can be solved in closed form, this is no longer possible when the anomalous magnetic moment is included. In fact the interaction due to this term is so strong that it changes the domain of the Hamiltonian. From a differential equation point of view, the anomalous magnetic moment term is strongly singular near the origin. As usual, one has to resort to perturbation theory. This, however, only makes sense if the eigenvalues are stable. To prove stability is therefore a challenge one has to face before actually computing the energy shifts. The first stability results in this line were shown by Behncke for angular momenta κ≥3, because the eigenfunctions of the unperturbed Hamiltonian decay fast enough near the origin. He achieved this by decoupling the system and then using the techniques available for second order differential equations. Later, Kalf and Schmidt extended Behncke's results basing their analysis on the Pruefer angle technique and a comparison result for first order differential equations. The Pruefer angle method is particularly useful because it shows a better stability and because it obeys a first order differential equation. Nonetheless, Kalf and Schmidt had to exclude some coupling constants for κ>0. This I believe is an artefact of their method. In this study, I make increasing use of asymptotic integration, a method which is rather well adapted to perturbation theory and is known to give stability results to any level of accuracy. Together with the Pruefer angle technique, this lead to a more general stability result and even allows for an energy shifts estimate. Hamiltonians traditionally treated in physics to describe the spin-orbit effect are not self adjoint i.e. they are not proper observables in quantum

  8. Disposal of Surplus Weapons Grade Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alsaed, H.; Gottlieb, P.

    2000-01-01

    The Office of Fissile Materials Disposition is responsible for disposing of inventories of surplus US weapons-usable plutonium and highly enriched uranium as well as providing, technical support for, and ultimate implementation of, efforts to obtain reciprocal disposition of surplus Russian plutonium. On January 4, 2000, the Department of Energy issued a Record of Decision to dispose of up to 50 metric tons of surplus weapons-grade plutonium using two methods. Up to 17 metric tons of surplus plutonium will be immobilized in a ceramic form, placed in cans and embedded in large canisters containing high-level vitrified waste for ultimate disposal in a geologic repository. Approximately 33 metric tons of surplus plutonium will be used to fabricate MOX fuel (mixed oxide fuel, having less than 5% plutonium-239 as the primary fissile material in a uranium-235 carrier matrix). The MOX fuel will be used to produce electricity in existing domestic commercial nuclear reactors. This paper reports the major waste-package-related, long-term disposal impacts of the two waste forms that would be used to accomplish this mission. Particular emphasis is placed on the possibility of criticality. These results are taken from a summary report published earlier this year

  9. An instability of the standard model of cosmology creates the anomalous acceleration without dark energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoller, Joel; Temple, Blake; Vogler, Zeke

    2017-11-01

    We identify the condition for smoothness at the centre of spherically symmetric solutions of Einstein's original equations without the cosmological constant or dark energy. We use this to derive a universal phase portrait which describes general, smooth, spherically symmetric solutions near the centre of symmetry when the pressure p=0. In this phase portrait, the critical k=0 Friedmann space-time appears as a saddle rest point which is unstable to spherical perturbations. This raises the question as to whether the Friedmann space-time is observable by redshift versus luminosity measurements looking outwards from any point. The unstable manifold of the saddle rest point corresponding to Friedmann describes the evolution of local uniformly expanding space-times whose accelerations closely mimic the effects of dark energy. A unique simple wave perturbation from the radiation epoch is shown to trigger the instability, match the accelerations of dark energy up to second order and distinguish the theory from dark energy at third order. In this sense, anomalous accelerations are not only consistent with Einstein's original theory of general relativity, but are a prediction of it without the cosmological constant or dark energy.

  10. An instability of the standard model of cosmology creates the anomalous acceleration without dark energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoller, Joel; Temple, Blake; Vogler, Zeke

    2017-11-01

    We identify the condition for smoothness at the centre of spherically symmetric solutions of Einstein's original equations without the cosmological constant or dark energy. We use this to derive a universal phase portrait which describes general, smooth, spherically symmetric solutions near the centre of symmetry when the pressure p =0. In this phase portrait, the critical k =0 Friedmann space-time appears as a saddle rest point which is unstable to spherical perturbations. This raises the question as to whether the Friedmann space-time is observable by redshift versus luminosity measurements looking outwards from any point. The unstable manifold of the saddle rest point corresponding to Friedmann describes the evolution of local uniformly expanding space-times whose accelerations closely mimic the effects of dark energy. A unique simple wave perturbation from the radiation epoch is shown to trigger the instability, match the accelerations of dark energy up to second order and distinguish the theory from dark energy at third order. In this sense, anomalous accelerations are not only consistent with Einstein's original theory of general relativity, but are a prediction of it without the cosmological constant or dark energy.

  11. Anomalous resonance-radiation energy-transfer rate in a scattering dispersive medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shekhtman, V.L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a generalization of the concept of group velocity as an energy-transfer rate in a dispersive medium with complex refractive index when the polaritons, which are energy carriers, undergo scattering, in contrast to the classical concept of the group velocity of free polaritons (i.e., without scattering in the medium). The concept of delay time from quantum multichannel-scattering, theory is used as the fundamental concept. Based on Maxwell's equations and the new mathematical Φ-function method, a consistent conceptual definition of group velocity in terms of the ratio of the coherent-energy flux density to the coherent-energy density is obtained for the first time, and a critical analysis of the earlier (Brillouin) understanding of energy-transfer rate is given in the light of radiation-trapping theory and the quantum theory of resonance scattering. The role of generalized group velocity is examined for the interpretation of the phenomenon of multiple resonance scattering, or radiation diffusion. The question of causality for the given problem is touched upon; a new relationship is obtained, called the microcausality condition, which limits the anomalous values of group velocity by way of the indeterminacy principle and the relativistic causality principle for macroscopic time intervals directly measurable in experiment, whereby attention is focused on the connection of the given microcausality condition and the well-known Wigner inequality for the time delay of spherical waves. 22 refs

  12. Decommissioning of surplus facilities at ORNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myrick, T.E.; Coobs, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    The Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is part of the Department of Energy's (DOE) National SFMP, administered by the Richland Operations Office. This program was established to provide for the management of certain DOE surplus radioactively contaminated facilities from the end of their operating life until final facility disposition is completed. As part of this program, the ORNL SFMP oversees some 75 facilities, ranging in complexity from abandoned waste storage tanks to large experimental reactors. This paper describes the scope of the ORNL program and outlines the decommissioning activities currently underway, including a brief description of the decontamination techniques being utilized. 4 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Electron-temperature-gradient-driven drift waves and anomalous electron energy transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, P.K.; Murtaza, G.; Weiland, J.

    1990-01-01

    By means of a kinetic description for ions and Braginskii's fluid model for electrons, three coupled nonlinear equations governing the dynamics of low-frequency short-wavelength electrostatic waves in the presence of equilibrium density temperature and magnetic-field gradients in a two-component magnetized plasma are derived. In the linear limit a dispersion relation that admits new instabilities of drift waves is presented. An estimate of the anomalous electron energy transport due to non-thermal drift waves is obtained by making use of the saturated wave potential, which is deduced from the mixing-length hypothesis. Stationary solutions of the nonlinear equations governing the interaction of linearly unstable drift waves are also presented. The relevance of this investigation to wave phenomena in space and laboratory plasmas is pointed out. (author)

  14. The measurement of anomalous neutron inelastic cross-sections at electronvolt energy transfers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayers, J; Abdul-Redah, T

    2004-01-01

    It has been proposed that short-lived quantum entanglement of protons in condensed matter systems would result in anomalous inelastic scattering cross-sections at electronvolt energy transfers. This proposal seems to be confirmed by neutron measurements on the VESUVIO spectrometer at ISIS and by measurements using other techniques. However, there have been a number of published suggestions of ways in which the observed effects on VESUVIO could be introduced by assumptions used in the data analysis. In this paper it is shown using experimental data and Monte Carlo simulations that these suggestions cannot explain the observed cross-section anomalies. The other assumptions of the data analysis are also examined. It is shown that the assumption of a Gaussian peak shape for the neutron Compton profile can introduce significant errors into the determination of cross-section ratios, but also cannot explain the observed anomalies

  15. Anomalous electron heating and energy balance in an ion beam generated plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guethlein, G.

    1987-04-01

    The plasma described in this report is generated by a 15 to 34 kV ion beam, consisting primarily of protons, passing through an H/sub 2/ gas cell neutralizer. Plasma ions (or ion-electron pairs) are produced by electron capture from (or ionization of) gas molecules by beam ions and atoms. An explanation is provided for the observed anomalous behavior of the electron temperature (T/sub e/): a step-lite, nearly two-fold jump in T/sub e/ as the beam current approaches that which minimizes beam angular divergence; insensitivity of T/sub e/ to gas pressure; and the linear relation of T/sub e/ to beam energy.

  16. Draft principles, policy, and acceptance criteria for decommissioning of U.S. Department of Energy contaminated surplus facilities and summary of international decommissioning programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, B.K.

    1994-12-01

    Decommissioning activities enable the DOE to reuse all or part of a facility for future activities and reduce hazards to the general public and any future work force. The DOE Office of Environment, Health and Safety has prepared this document, which consists of decommissioning principles and acceptance criteria, in an attempt to establish a policy that is in agreement with the NRC policy. The purpose of this document is to assist individuals involved with decommissioning activities in determining their specific responsibilities as identified in Draft DOE Order 5820.DDD, ''Decommissioning of US Department of Energy Contaminated Surplus Facilities'' (Appendix A). This document is not intended to provide specific decommissioning methodology. The policies and principles of several international decommissioning programs are also summarized. These programs are from the IAEA, the NRC, and several foreign countries expecting to decommission nuclear facilities. They are included here to demonstrate the different policies that are to be followed throughout the world and to allow the reader to become familiar with the state of the art for environment, safety, and health (ES and H) aspects of nuclear decommissioning

  17. Residual load, renewable surplus generation and storage requirements in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schill, Wolf-Peter

    2014-01-01

    I examine the effects of increasing amounts of fluctuating renewable energy on residual load, which is defined as the difference between actual power demand and the feed-in of non-dispatchable and inflexible generators. I draw on policy-relevant scenarios for Germany and make use of extensive sensitivity analyses. Whereas yearly renewable surplus energy is low in most scenarios analyzed, peak surplus power can become very high. Decreasing thermal must-run requirements and increasing biomass flexibility substantially reduce surpluses. I use an optimization model to determine the storage capacities required for taking up renewable surpluses. Allowing curtailment of 1% of the yearly feed-in of non-dispatchable renewables would render storage investments largely obsolete until 2032 under the assumption of a flexible power system. Further restrictions of curtailment as well as lower system flexibility strongly increase storage requirements. By 2050, at least 10 GW of storage are required for surplus integration, of which a sizeable share is seasonal storage. Results suggest that policy makers should work toward avoiding surplus generation, in particular by decreasing the must-run of thermal generators. Concerns about surpluses should not be regarded as an obstacle to further renewable expansion. The findings are also relevant for other countries that shift toward fluctuating renewables. - Highlights: • I examine the effects of fluctuating renewable energy on residual load. • Surplus energies are generally low, but there are high surplus power peaks. • Increasing the flexibility of thermal generators substantially reduces surpluses. • Allowing curtailment of 1% renders storage investments largely obsolete by 2032. • Both storage requirements and the share of seasonal storage increase by 2050

  18. Search for anomalous production of events with a high energy lepton and photon at the Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loginov, Andrey Borisovich [State Scientific Center of the Russian Federation. Inst. for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2006-01-01

    We present results of a search for the anomalous production of events containing a high-transverse momentum charged lepton (ℓ, either e or μ) and photon (γ), accompanied by missing transverse energy (ET), and/or additional leptons and photons, and jets (X). We use the same kinematic selection criteria as in a previous CDF search, but with a substantially larger data set, 305 pb-1, a p$\\bar{p}$ collision energy of 1.96 TeV, and the upgraded CDF II detector. We find 42 ℓγET events versus a standard model expectation of 37.3 ± 5.4 events. The level of excess observed in Run I, 16 events with an expectation of 7.6 ± 0.7 events (corresponding to a 2.7 σ effect), is not supported by the new data. In the signature of ℓℓγ + X we observe 31 events versus an expectation of 23.0 ± 2.7 events. In this sample we find no events with an extra photon or ET and so find no events like the one eeγγ ET event observed in Run I.

  19. ANOMALOUS TRANSPORT OF HIGH-ENERGY COSMIC RAYS IN GALACTIC SUPERBUBBLES. I. NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barghouty, A. F.; Schnee, D. A.

    2012-01-01

    We present a simple continuous-time random-walk model for the transport of energetic particles accelerated by a collection of supernova explosions in a galactic superbubble, developed to simulate and highlight signatures of anomalous transport on the particles' evolution and their spectra in a multi-shock context. We assume standard diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) theory for each shock encounter. The superbubble (an OB stars association) is idealized as a heterogeneous region of particle sources and sinks bounded by a random surface. The model is based on two coupled stochastic differential equations and is applied for protons and alpha particles. Using characteristic values for a typical bubble, our simulations suggest that acceleration and transport in the bubble may be sub-diffusive. In addition, a spectral break in the particles' evolution and spectra is evident located at ≈10 15 eV for protons and ≈3 × 10 15 eV for alphas. Our simulations are consistent with a bubble's mean magnetic field strength of ≈1 μG and a shock separation distance ∼0.1 × the characteristic radius of the bubble. The simulations imply that the diffusion coefficient (for the elementary shock acceleration process) is ∼ 27 cm 2 s –1 at 1 GeV/c. While the sub-diffusive transport is readily attributed to the stochastic nature of the acceleration time according to DSA theory, the spectral break appears to be an artifact of transport in a finite medium. These simulations point to a new and intriguing phenomenon associated with the statistical nature of collective acceleration of high-energy cosmic rays in galactic superbubbles.

  20. Evidence for anomalous nuclei among relativistic projectile fragments at Bevalac energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckman, H.H.

    1981-01-01

    Two independent emulsion experiments using beams of 16 O and 56 Fe at approximately 2 GeV/nucleon find that the reaction mean free paths of projectile fragments (PF) with Z between 3 and 26 are shorter for a few centimeters after their emission than at larger distances, or than predicted from experiments on beam nuclei. Under the assumption that there are two populations of PF, a best fit to the data is obtained when approximately 6% of the PF have an anomalously short mean free path. The anomalous property of PF persists in subsequent fragmentation reactions. 6 figures

  1. High-energy scattering of particles with anomalous magnetic moments in quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguen Suan Khan; Pervushin, V.N.

    1976-01-01

    Eikonal type representations taking into account the anomalous magnetic moments of nucleons are obtained for the amplitude of pion-nucleon and nucleon-nucleon scattering in the asymptotic region s → infinity, (t) (<<) s in the framework of nonrenormalizable quantum field theory. The anomalous magnetic moment leads to additional terms in the amplitude which describe the spin flips in the scattering process. It is shown that the renormalization problem does not arise in the asymptotics s → infinity. As an application the Coulomb interference is considered

  2. Search for a particle with a long interaction length. [particle mandela to explain anomalous energy spectra at mountain altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrowes, S. C.; Huggett, R. W.; Jones, W. V.; Levit, L. B.; Porter, L. G.

    1975-01-01

    A search has been carried out for a long-lived particle having an interaction length lambda sub m equals 300 to 2000 gm/sq cm in air. Such a particle, called the mandela, has been proposed to explain an anomalous energy spectrum of particles observed near sea level with a shallow spectrometer. Data taken at mountain altitude with a deep spectrometer has been examined for compatibility with the existence of the mandela. Although data tend to favor the mandela hypothesis the results are not conclusive and appear to be explainable by conventional means.

  3. Surplus yeast tank failing catastrophically

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedlund, Frank Huess

    2016-01-01

    GOOD REASON FOR CAUTION I A large surplus yeast tank shot into the air leaving the floor plate and the contents behind. Although not designed for overpressure, the tank was kept at “very slight overpressure” to suppress nuisance foaming. The brewery was unaware of the hazards of compressed air...

  4. Social Security's Surpluses: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dattalo, Patrick

    1992-01-01

    Notes that deliberation over how to manage social security's large trust fund balances is expected to continue. Urges social workers to participate in this debate because surpluses have implications for increasing quality of life of low- and moderate-income families. Continues earlier discussion (Dattalo, 1990) by assessing two recent proposals…

  5. 76 FR 50186 - Surplus Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... have been determined surplus to the United States needs in accordance with the Defense Base Closure and... State and local governments and other eligible entities for public benefit purposes. Notices of interest from representatives of the homeless, and other interested parties located in the vicinity of any...

  6. Consumer surplus and CES demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Raa, Thijs

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the consumer surplus formula for constant elasticity of substitution (CES) demands. The formula is used to compare the monopoly and optimum provisions of product variety. It is shown that a monopolist under-provides variety. This result is contrasted with Lambertini’s analysis

  7. Anomalous group velocity at the high energy range of real 3D photonic nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botey, Muriel; Martorell, Jordi; Lozano, Gabriel; Míguez, Hernán; Dorado, Luis A.; Depine, Ricardo A.

    2010-05-01

    We perform a theoretical study on the group velocity for finite thin artificial opal slabs made of a reduced number of layers in the spectral range where the light wavelength is on the order of the lattice parameter. The vector KKR method including extinction allows us to evaluate the finite-size effects on light propagation in the ΓL and ΓX directions of fcc close-packed opal films made of dielectric spheres. The group is index determined from the phase delay introduced by the structure to the forwardly transmitted electric field. We show that for certain frequencies, light propagation can either be superluminal -positive or negative- or approach zero depending on the crystal size and absorption. Such anomalous behavior can be attributed to the finite character of the structure and provides confirmation of recently emerged experimental results.

  8. Anomalous gauge theories revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Kosuke; Suzuki, Hiroshi

    2005-01-01

    A possible formulation of chiral gauge theories with an anomalous fermion content is re-examined in light of the lattice framework based on the Ginsparg-Wilson relation. It is shown that the fermion sector of a wide class of anomalous non-abelian theories cannot consistently be formulated within this lattice framework. In particular, in 4 dimension, all anomalous non-abelian theories are included in this class. Anomalous abelian chiral gauge theories cannot be formulated with compact U(1) link variables, while a non-compact formulation is possible at least for the vacuum sector in the space of lattice gauge fields. Our conclusion is not applied to effective low-energy theories with an anomalous fermion content which are obtained from an underlying anomaly-free theory by sending the mass of some of fermions to infinity. For theories with an anomalous fermion content in which the anomaly is cancelled by the Green-Schwarz mechanism, a possibility of a consistent lattice formulation is not clear. (author)

  9. Surplus Cost Potential as a Life Cycle Impact Indicator for Metal Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa D.M. Vieira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the evaluation of product life cycles, methods to assess the increase in scarcity of resources are still under development. Indicators that can express the importance of an increase in scarcity of metals extracted include surplus ore produced, surplus energy required, and surplus costs in the mining and the milling stage. Particularly the quantification of surplus costs per unit of metal extracted as an indicator is still in an early stage of development. Here, we developed a method that quantifies the surplus cost potential of mining and milling activities per unit of metal extracted, fully accounting for mine-specific differences in costs. The surplus cost potential indicator is calculated as the average cost increase resulting from all future metal extractions, as quantified via cumulative cost-tonnage relationships. We tested the calculation procedure with 12 metals and platinum-group metals as a separate group. We found that the surplus costs range six orders of magnitude between the metals included, i.e., between $0.01–$0.02 (iron and $13,533–$17,098 (rhodium USD (year 2013 per kilogram of metal extracted. The choice of the reserve estimate (reserves vs. ultimate recoverable resource influenced the surplus costs only to a limited extent, i.e., between a factor of 0.7 and 3.2 for the metals included. Our results provide a good basis to regularly include surplus cost estimates as resource scarcity indicator in life cycle assessment.

  10. The (Surplus) Value of Scientific Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Fröhlich, Gerhard

    1996-01-01

    In research on scientific communication there are above all theory-less and formal/natural scientific models of scientific communication. These are juxtaposed to social-scientific, power-sensitive models (Elias, Bourdieu, Merton). The (surplus) value of scientific communication can be variously understood: either as inherent surplus values in the sense of potential effects of stimulation, synergy, critique, quality control; or as symbolic surplus value in the sense of symbolic capital (Bourdi...

  11. Social surplus approach and heterodox economics

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Frederic; Jo, Tae-Hee

    2010-01-01

    Given the emphasis on social provisioning in heterodox economics, two of its central theoretical organizing principles are the concepts of the total social product and the social surplus. This appears to link heterodox economics to the social surplus approach associated with the classical economists and currently with Sraffian economists. However, heterodox economics connects agency with the social surplus and the social product, which the Sraffians reject as they take the level and composit...

  12. Surplus from and storage of electricity generated by intermittent sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Friedrich

    2016-12-01

    Data from the German electricity system for the years 2010, 2012, 2013, and 2015 are used and scaled up to a 100% supply by intermittent renewable energy sources (iRES). In the average, 330GW wind and PV power are required to meet this 100% target. A back-up system is necessary with the power of 89% of peak load. Surplus electricity accrues at high power levels. Curtailing surplus power to a large extent is found to be uneconomic. Demand-side management will suffer from the strong day-to-day variation of available surplus energy. A day storage is ineffective because of the day-night correlation of surplus power during winter. A seasonal storage loses its character when transformation losses are considered because it can contribute only after periods with excessive surplus production. The option of an oversized iRES system to feed the storage is also not effective because, in this case, energy can be taken directly from the large iRES supply, making storage superfluous. The capacities to be installed stress the difficulty to base heat supply and mobility also on iRES generated electricity in the future. As the German energy transition replaces one CO2-free electricity supply system by another one, no major reduction in CO2 emission can be expected till 2022, when the last nuclear reactor will be switched off. By 2022, an extremely oversized power supply system has to be created, which can be expected to continue running down spot-market electricity prices. The continuation of the economic response -to replace expensive gas fuel by cheap lignite- causes an overall increase in CO2 emission. The German GHG emission targets for 2020 and beyond are therefore in jeopardy.

  13. Hanford surplus facilities hazards identification document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egge, R.G.

    1997-01-01

    This document provides general safety information needed by personnel who enter and work in surplus facilities managed by Bechtel Hanford, Inc. The purpose of the document is to enhance access control of surplus facilities, educate personnel on the potential hazards associated with these facilities prior to entry, and ensure that safety precautions are taken while in the facility

  14. Anomalous energy exchange in the gBL and quasilinear theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mynick, H.E.

    1992-02-01

    The rate of turbulence-induced energy exchange W o between species is computed in the framework of the quasilinear and gBL transport theories, and the relationship between these two theories, and the relationship between these two similar theories is thereby elucidated. For both theories, general formal expressions for W o are developed, and then applied to the trapped electron mode for illustration. The general expressions for W o in the two theories are formally closely related, but can yield predictions of very different magnitude in concrete applications. The fact that quasilinear theory is not valid for saturated steady-state turbulence gives rise to certain peculiarities in its predictions for this normal experimental situation, such as permitting energy to flow from the cooler to the hotter species, even in the limit of thermal equilibrium, where real-space gradients vanish. The gBL theory may be viewed as a modification of quasilinear theory to be valid for steady-state turbulence, keeping extra terms due to the self-consistent back reaction of particles on the fluctuations, which are just such as to eliminate these peculiarities

  15. Anomalous High-Energy Waterfall-Like Electronic Structure in 5 d Transition Metal Oxide Sr2IrO4 with a Strong Spin-Orbit Coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Yu, Li; Jia, Xiaowen; Zhao, Jianzhou; Weng, Hongming; Peng, Yingying; Chen, Chaoyu; Xie, Zhuojin; Mou, Daixiang; He, Junfeng; Liu, Xu; Feng, Ya; Yi, Hemian; Zhao, Lin; Liu, Guodong; He, Shaolong; Dong, Xiaoli; Zhang, Jun; Xu, Zuyan; Chen, Chuangtian; Cao, Gang; Dai, Xi; Fang, Zhong; Zhou, X. J.

    2015-08-01

    The low energy electronic structure of Sr2IrO4 has been well studied and understood in terms of an effective Jeff = 1/2 Mott insulator model. However, little work has been done in studying its high energy electronic behaviors. Here we report a new observation of the anomalous high energy electronic structure in Sr2IrO4. By taking high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission measurements on Sr2IrO4 over a wide energy range, we have revealed for the first time that the high energy electronic structures show unusual nearly-vertical bands that extend over a large energy range. Such anomalous high energy behaviors resemble the high energy waterfall features observed in the cuprate superconductors. While strong electron correlation plays an important role in producing high energy waterfall features in the cuprate superconductors, the revelation of the high energy anomalies in Sr2IrO4, which exhibits strong spin-orbit coupling and a moderate electron correlation, points to an unknown and novel route in generating exotic electronic excitations.

  16. Anomalous High-Energy Waterfall-Like Electronic Structure in 5 d Transition Metal Oxide Sr2IrO4 with a Strong Spin-Orbit Coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Yu, Li; Jia, Xiaowen; Zhao, Jianzhou; Weng, Hongming; Peng, Yingying; Chen, Chaoyu; Xie, Zhuojin; Mou, Daixiang; He, Junfeng; Liu, Xu; Feng, Ya; Yi, Hemian; Zhao, Lin; Liu, Guodong; He, Shaolong; Dong, Xiaoli; Zhang, Jun; Xu, Zuyan; Chen, Chuangtian; Cao, Gang; Dai, Xi; Fang, Zhong; Zhou, X J

    2015-08-12

    The low energy electronic structure of Sr2IrO4 has been well studied and understood in terms of an effective Jeff = 1/2 Mott insulator model. However, little work has been done in studying its high energy electronic behaviors. Here we report a new observation of the anomalous high energy electronic structure in Sr2IrO4. By taking high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission measurements on Sr2IrO4 over a wide energy range, we have revealed for the first time that the high energy electronic structures show unusual nearly-vertical bands that extend over a large energy range. Such anomalous high energy behaviors resemble the high energy waterfall features observed in the cuprate superconductors. While strong electron correlation plays an important role in producing high energy waterfall features in the cuprate superconductors, the revelation of the high energy anomalies in Sr2IrO4, which exhibits strong spin-orbit coupling and a moderate electron correlation, points to an unknown and novel route in generating exotic electronic excitations.

  17. A detection of HER-X 1 at PeV energies, with anomalous muon number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagle, D.E.

    1990-01-01

    The CYGNUS collaboration is operating a ground-based array of scintillation detectors to detect-extensive air showers. This paper reports that the objective is to detect compact sources of Ultra High Energy (PeV) gamma radiation. At the present time the array consists of 106 scintillation detectors of ∼10 4 m 2 . It is supplemented by a tracking detector of muons, shielded by about 6 feet of steel: its purpose is to compare the number of muons from purported gamma-ray primaries with the number from ordinary cosmic-ray primaries. Last year we reported 2 an unusual episode of emission from the direction of the binary source Hercules X-1, with the following features: on 24 July 1986 an excess event rate in the direction of Her X-1 was detected. The pulsar period observed, namely T = (1.23568s ± 0.0003s), is blue-shifted by about 0.16% from the contemporary X-ray period. The average number of muons detected in these events is not less than the number for ordinary cosmic ray events as seen in our detector. At Tev energies, two stations operating air-Cherenkov telescopes, namely Mt. Hopkins and Haleakala, had reported periods nearly identical to the authors': Lamb et al., T = (1.23579 ± 0.0002), and Resvanis et al., T = (1.23593 ± 0.0002). Recently the Haleakala group have added another detection, on May 23, 1987: T = 23598s. Another report comes from the Tata Institute, Bombay, which operates the air-shower array at Ooty

  18. Anomalous dimensionality dependence of diffusion in a rugged energy landscape: How pathological is one dimension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Kazuhiko; Bagchi, Kaushik; Bagchi, Biman

    2016-05-01

    Diffusion in one dimensional rugged energy landscape (REL) is predicted to be pathologically different (from any higher dimension) with a much larger chance of encountering broken ergodicity [D. L. Stein and C. M. Newman, AIP Conf. Proc. 1479, 620 (2012)]. However, no quantitative study of this difference has been reported, despite the prevalence of multidimensional physical models in the literature (like a high dimensional funnel guiding protein folding/unfolding). Paradoxically, some theoretical studies of these phenomena still employ a one dimensional diffusion description for analytical tractability. We explore the dimensionality dependent diffusion on REL by carrying out an effective medium approximation based analytical calculations and compare them with the available computer simulation results. We find that at an intermediate level of ruggedness (assumed to have a Gaussian distribution), where diffusion is well-defined, the value of the effective diffusion coefficient depends on dimensionality and changes (increases) by several factors (˜5-10) in going from 1d to 2d. In contrast, the changes in subsequent transitions (like 2d to 3d and 3d to 4d and so on) are far more modest, of the order of 10-20% only. When ruggedness is given by random traps with an exponential distribution of barrier heights, the mean square displacement (MSD) is sub-diffusive (a well-known result), but the growth of MSD is described by different exponents in one and higher dimensions. The reason for such strong ruggedness induced retardation in the case of one dimensional REL is discussed. We also discuss the special limiting case of infinite dimension (d = ∞) where the effective medium approximation becomes exact and where theoretical results become simple. We discuss, for the first time, the role of spatial correlation in the landscape on diffusion of a random walker.

  19. Surplus Facilities and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Closure program plan, fiscal year 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, M.C.; Wahlen, R.K.; Winship, R.A.

    1991-10-01

    The Surplus Facilities and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Closure program is responsible to US Department of Energy Field Office, Richland for the safe, cost-effective surveillance, maintenance, and decommissioning of surplus facilities at the Hanford Site. The Surplus Facilities and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Closure program is also responsible to US Department of Energy Field Office, Richland for the program management of specific Resource Conservation and Recovery Act closures at the Hanford Site. This program plan addresses only the surplus facilities. The criteria used to evaluate each factor relative to decommissioning are based on the guidelines presented by the US Department of Energy Field Office, Richland, Environmental Restoration Division. The guidelines are consistent with the Westinghouse Hanford Company commitment to decommission Hanford Site retired facilities in the safest and most cost-effective way achievable. This document outlines the plan for managing these facilities until disposal

  20. Safe disposal of surplus plutonium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, W. L.; Naz, S.; Lutze, W.; Busch, R.; Prinja, A.; Stoll, W.

    2001-06-01

    About 150 tons of weapons grade and weapons usable plutonium (metal, oxide, and in residues) have been declared surplus in the USA and Russia. Both countries plan to convert the metal and oxide into mixed oxide fuel for nuclear power reactors. Russia has not yet decided what to do with the residues. The US will convert residues into a ceramic, which will then be over-poured with highly radioactive borosilicate glass. The radioactive glass is meant to provide a deterrent to recovery of plutonium, as required by a US standard. Here we show a waste form for plutonium residues, zirconia/boron carbide (ZrO 2/B 4C), with an unprecedented combination of properties: a single, radiation-resistant, and chemically durable phase contains the residues; billion-year-old natural analogs are available; and criticality safety is given under all conceivable disposal conditions. ZrO 2/B 4C can be disposed of directly, without further processing, making it attractive to all countries facing the task of plutonium disposal. The US standard for protection against recovery can be met by disposal of the waste form together with used reactor fuel.

  1. Anomalous vacuum expectation values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, H.

    1986-01-01

    The anomalous vacuum expectation value is defined as the expectation value of a quantity that vanishes by means of the field equations. Although this value is expected to vanish in quantum systems, regularization in general produces a finite value of this quantity. Calculation of this anomalous vacuum expectation value can be carried out in the general framework of field theory. The result is derived by subtraction of divergences and by zeta-function regularization. Various anomalies are included in these anomalous vacuum expectation values. This method is useful for deriving not only the conformal, chiral, and gravitational anomalies but also the supercurrent anomaly. The supercurrent anomaly is obtained in the case of N = 1 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory in four, six, and ten dimensions. The original form of the energy-momentum tensor and the supercurrent have anomalies in their conservation laws. But the modification of these quantities to be equivalent to the original one on-shell causes no anomaly in their conservation laws and gives rise to anomalous traces

  2. Lenr and "cold Fusion" Excess Heat:. Their Relation to Other Anomalous Microphysical Energy Experiments and Emerging New Energy Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallove, Eugene F.

    2005-12-01

    During the past 15 years, indisputable experimental evidence has built up for substantial excess heat (far beyond ordinary chemical energy) and low-energy nuclear reaction phenomena in specialized heavy hydrogen and ordinary hydrogen-containing systems.1 The primary theorists in the field that is properly designated Cold Fusion/LENR have generally assumed that the excess heat phenomena is commensurate with nuclear ash (such as helium), whether already identified or presumed to be present but not yet found. That was an excellent initial hypothesis. However, the commensurate nuclear ash hypothesis has not been proved, and appears to be approximately correct in only a few experiments. During this same period, compelling evidence although not as broadly verified as data from cold fusion/LENR has also emerged for other microphysical sources of energy that were previously unexpected by accepted physics. The exemplar of this has been the "hydrino" physics work of Dr. Randall Mills and his colleagues at Black-Light Power Corporation, which was a radical outgrowth from the cold fusion field that emerged publicly in May 1991.2 Even more far-reaching is the work in vacuum energy extraction pioneered by Dr. Paulo and Alexandra Correa, which first became public in 1996.3 This vacuum energy experimentation began in the early 1980s and has been reduced to prototype technological devices, such as the patented PAGDTM (pulsed abnormal glow discharge) electric power generator, as well as many published experiments that can be performed in table-top fashion to verify the Correa Aetherometry (non-luminiferous or non-electromagnetic aether measurement science).4 In an era when mainstream science and its media is all agog about dark matter and dark energy composing the vast bulk of the universe, there is a great need to reconcile, if possible, the significant bodies of evidence from these three major experimental and theoretical streams: cold fusion/LENR, hydrino physics, and

  3. 75 FR 70916 - Surplus Properties; Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-19

    ... (Volunteer Army Ammunition Plant) USARC that was determined surplus to the United States needs in accordance... Community Redevelopment and Homeless Assistance Act of 1994, Public Law 103-421 and 10 U.S.C. 113. Dated...

  4. Study of the Energy Dependence of the Anomalous Mean Free Path Effect by Means of High-energy ($\\geq$12 GeV/nucleon) Helium Nuclei

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The proposal concerns an extension to higher energies of previous experiments which have provided evidence for anomalously short reaction mean free paths among projectile fragments from heavy ion interactions.\\\\ \\\\ It is intended to provide information on the interaction properties of projectile fragments, mainly 3He, P, D, T as well as of scattered 4He nuclei in passive detectors exposed to beams of energies exceeding those available in previous experim factor of about 7. \\\\ \\\\ Interaction mean free paths and event topologies will be measured in a nuclear emulsion stack (LBL) of 7.5~cm~x~5~cm~x~25~cm dimensions. Decay effects will be recorded by comparing the activity of spallation residues in dense and diluted copper target assemblies (Marburg). Target fragmentation will be studied in a stack of silverchloride crystal foils (Frankfurt) of about 7~cm~x~6~cm~x~1~cm dimensions. The \\alpha beam ejected at EJ~62 will be used to provide both exposures at high intensity of 10|1|2 alphas on th and at low intensity ...

  5. Anomalous diffusion in chaotic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srokowski, T.; Ploszajczak, M.

    1994-01-01

    The anomalous diffusion is found for peripheral collision of atomic nuclei described in the framework of the molecular dynamics. Similarly as for chaotic billiards, the long free paths are the source of the long-time correlations and the anomalous diffusion. Consequences of this finding for the energy dissipation in deep-inelastic collisions and the dynamics of fission in hot nuclei are discussed (authors). 30 refs., 2 figs

  6. Characterizing Surplus US Plutonium for Disposition - 13199

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allender, Jeffrey S. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken SC 29808 (United States); Moore, Edwin N. [Moore Nuclear Energy, LLC, Savannah River Site, Aiken SC 29808 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The United States (US) has identified 61.5 metric tons (MT) of plutonium that is permanently excess to use in nuclear weapons programs, including 47.2 MT of weapons-grade plutonium. Surplus inventories will be stored safely by the Department of Energy (DOE) and then transferred to facilities that will prepare the plutonium for permanent disposition. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) operates a Feed Characterization program for the Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (OFMD) of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and the DOE Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM). SRNL manages a broad program of item tracking through process history, laboratory analysis, and non-destructive assay. A combination of analytical techniques allows SRNL to predict the isotopic and chemical properties that qualify materials for disposition through the Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF). The research also defines properties that are important for other disposition paths, including disposal to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) as transuranic waste (TRUW) or to high-level waste (HLW) systems. (authors)

  7. Anomalous transport in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wootton, A.J.

    1989-01-01

    A review is presented of what is known about anomalous transport in tokamaks. It is generally thought that this anomalous transport is the result of fluctuations in various plasma parameters. In the plasma edge detailed measurements of the quantities required to directly determine the fluctuation driven fluxes are available. The total flux of particles is well explained by the measured electrostatic fluctuation driven flux. However, a satisfactory model to explain the origin of the fluctuations has not been identified. The processes responsible for determining the edge energy flux are less clear, but electrostatic convection plays an important part. In the confinement region experimental observations are presently restricted to measurements of density and potential fluctuations and their correlations. The characteristics of the measured fluctuations are discussed and compared with the predictions of various models. Comparisons between measured particle, electron heat and ion heat fluxes, and those fluxes predicted to result from the measured fluctuations, are made. Magnetic fluctuations is discussed

  8. Anomalous nuclear fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karmanov, V.A.

    1983-01-01

    Experimental data are given, the status of anomalon problem is discussed, theoretical approaches to this problem are outlined. Anomalons are exotic objects formed following fragmentation of nuclei-targets under the effect of nuclei - a beam at the energy of several GeV/nucleon. These nuclear fragments have an anomalously large cross section of interaction and respectively, small free path, considerably shorter than primary nuclei have. The experimental daa are obtained in accelerators following irradiation of nuclear emulsions by 16 O, 56 Fe, 40 Ar beams, as well as propane by 12 C beams. The experimental data testify to dependence of fragment free path on the distance L from the point of the fragment formation. A decrease in the fragment free path is established more reliably than its dependence on L. The problem of the anomalon existence cannot be yet considered resolved. Theoretical models suggested for explanation of anomalously large cross sections of nuclear fragment interaction are variable and rather speculative

  9. Spin rotation and depolarization of high-energy particles in crystals at Hadron Collider (LHC) and Future Circular Collider (FCC) energies and the possibility to measure the anomalous magnetic moments of short-lived particles

    CERN Document Server

    Baryshevsky, V.G.

    2015-01-01

    We study the phenomena of spin rotation and depolarization of high-energy particles in crystals in the range of high energies that will be available at Hadron Collider (LHC) and Future Circular Collider (FCC). It is shown that these phenomena can be used to measure the anomalous magnetic moments of short-lived particles in this range of energies. We also demonstrate that the phenomenon of particle spin depolarization in crystals provides a unique possibility of measuring the anomalous magnetic moment of negatively-charged particles (e.g., beauty baryons), for which the channeling effect is hampered due to far more rapid dechanneling as compared to that for positively-charged particles. Channeling of particles in either straight or bent crystals with polarized nuclei could be used for polarization and the analysis thereof of high-energy particles.

  10. Immobilization as a route to surplus fissile materials disposition. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, L.W.; Kan, T.; McKibben, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    The safe management of surplus weapons plutonium is a very important and urgent task with profound environmental, national and international security implications. In the aftermath of the Cold War, Presidential Police Directive 13 and various analysis by renown scientific, technical and international policy organizations have brought about a focused effort within the Department of Energy to identify and implement paths forward for the long term disposition of surplus weapons usable plutonium. The central, overarching goal is to render surplus weapons plutonium as inaccessible and unattractive for reuse in nuclear weapons, as the much larger and growing stock of plutonium contained in civilian spent reactor fuel. One disposition alternative considered for surplus Pu is immobilization, in which plutonium would be emplaced in glass, ceramic or glass-bonded zeolite. This option, along with some of the progress over the last year is discussed

  11. Habit formation, surplus consumption and return predictability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsted, Tom; Hyde, Stuart; Vinther Møller, Stig

    2010-01-01

    On an international post World War II dataset, we use an iterated GMM procedure to estimate and test the Campbell and Cochrane (1999, By force of habit: a consumption-based explanation of aggregate stock market behavior. Journal of Political Economy 107, 205–251.) habit formation model with a time......-varying risk-free rate. In addition, we analyze the predictive power of the surplus consumption ratio for future stock and bond returns. We find that, although there are important cross-country differences and economically significant pricing errors, for the majority of countries in our sample the model gets...... significant information about future stock returns, also during the 1990s. In addition, in most countries the surplus consumption ratio is also a powerful predictor of future bond returns. Thus, the surplus consumption ratio captures time-varying expected returns in both stock and bond markets....

  12. Anomalous behavior in temporal evolution of ripple wavelength under medium energy Ar{sup +}-ion bombardment on Si: A case of initial wavelength selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, Sandeep Kumar [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar 751 005 (India); Inter-University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110 067 (India); Cuerno, Rodolfo [Departamento de Matematicas and Grupo Interdisciplinar de Sistemas Complejos (GISC), Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganes (Spain); Kanjilal, Dinakar [Inter-University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110 067 (India); Som, Tapobrata, E-mail: tsom@iopb.res.in [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar 751 005 (India)

    2016-06-14

    We have studied the early stage dynamics of ripple patterns on Si surfaces, in the fluence range of 1–3 × 10{sup 18} ions cm{sup −2}, as induced by medium energy Ar{sup +}-ion irradiation at room temperature. Under our experimental conditions, the ripple evolution is found to be in the linear regime, while a clear decreasing trend in the ripple wavelength is observed up to a certain time (fluence). Numerical simulations of a continuum model of ion-sputtered surfaces suggest that this anomalous behavior is due to the relaxation of the surface features of the experimental pristine surface during the initial stage of pattern formation. The observation of this hitherto unobserved behavior of the ripple wavelength seems to have been enabled by the use of medium energy ions, where the ripple wavelengths are found to be order(s) of magnitude larger than those at lower ion energies.

  13. A small firm leads to curious outcomes: Social surplus, consumer surplus

    OpenAIRE

    Matsumura, Toshihiro; Matsushima, Noriaki

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates an asymmetric duopoly model with a Hotelling line. We find that helping a small (minor) firm can reduce both social and consumer surplus. This makes a sharp contrast to existing works showing that helping minor firms can reduce social surplus but always improves consumer surplus. We also investigate R&D competition. We find that a minor firm may engage in R&D more intensively than a major firm in spite of economies of scale in R&D activities.

  14. Overview of surplus weapons plutonium disposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudy, G.

    1996-05-01

    The safe disposition of surplus weapons useable plutonium is a very important and urgent task. While the functions of long term storage and disposition directly relate to the Department`s weapons program and the environmental management program, the focus of this effort is particularly national security and nonproliferation.

  15. Nutrient surpluses on integrated arable farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schröder, J.J.; Asperen, van P.; Dongen, van G.J.M.; Wijnands, F.G.

    1996-01-01

    From 1990 to 1993 nutrient fluxes were monitored on 38 private arable farms that had adopted farming strategies aiming at reduced nutrient inputs and substitution of mineral fertilizers by organic fertilizers. The nutrient surplus was defined as the difference between inputs (including inputs

  16. 7 CFR 987.47 - Surplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... that any producer or handler may dispose of any such surplus dates of his own production within his own... regulations necessary and incidental to administration of this regulation. [27 FR 6818, July 19, 1962, as...

  17. Management strategies for surplus electricity loads using electrolytic hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez-Martin, F.; Garcia-De Maria, J.M.; Bairi, A.; Laraqi, N.

    2009-01-01

    Management of electricity-hydrogen binomials is greatly enhanced by the knowledge of power variations, together with an optimized performance of the electrolyzers. Strategies include the regulation of current densities to minimize hydrogen costs, which depend of the energy prices, the power of installations and utilization factors. The objective is to convert the energy in distinct periods of electricity demand, taking into account the size and efficiency of the equipments; this approach indicates the possibility to reduce costs below a reference price, either by using small facilities which consume high proportions of surplus energy or larger plants for shorter off-peak periods. Thus, we study the viability of large scale production of hydrogen via electrolysis, within the context of excess electricity loads in France (estimated at 22 TWh in 2007): that gives a daily hydrogen potential of 1314 ton, from a total installed power of 5800 MW and average utilization ratios of 42.8%; the production cost approaches 1$/kg H2 , and CO 2 reduction potential amounts 6720 kton/year (if all the produced hydrogen is used to feed 3 million of new fuel-cell vehicles). This analysis serves to demonstrate the great potentials for converting the surplus energy into hydrogen carriers and for managing the power subsystem in thoroughly electrified societies. (author)

  18. Surplus electricity production in sugarcane mills using residual bagasse and straw as fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Moises; Ponce, Gustavo H.S.F.; Silva, Maria Aparecida; Ensinas, Adriano V.

    2015-01-01

    The cogeneration system is one of the most important parts of sugarcane mills which use the bagasse as fuel. In the recent years, modern equipments and energy efficiency measures made possible to the sugarcane industry, the production of surplus electricity which become, besides the sugar and ethanol, a third product from the same renewable source, the sugarcane. This work analyses the surplus electric power systems for three different schemes of cogeneration system in the sugarcane industry through the simulator Thermoflow"®. The analysis is made considering both the available bagasse and sugarcane straw recovery as fuel in three different scenarios for the industrial process energy requirements. The results show that the CEST (Condensing Extraction Steam Turbine) system can have a surplus of electricity of up to four times higher than the BPST (Backpressure Steam Turbine) system. The system CEST can have an increase in surplus power above 23% and 102% for the rate of 10% and 50% of cane straw recovery in the field respectively. The BPST-C (Backpressure and Condensing Turbines) system can produce similar values of surplus electricity when compared with the system CEST, but may represent an opportunity of flexible operation of the cogeneration systems in harvest and off-seasons. - Highlights: • At least three cogeneration system options are available in sugarcane mills. • Nowadays, only steam-based cycle cogeneration systems are used in sugarcane mills. • BPST system is limited to 70 e kWh/t cane of surplus electricity production. • CEST system increases the surplus electricity up to four times than the BPST. • Operation during off-season of the BPST-C system is an advantage for this option.

  19. Computer simulations of anomalous transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W.W.; Okuda, H.

    1980-07-01

    Numerical plasma simulations have been carried out to study: (1) the turbulent spectrum and anomalous plasma transport associated with a steady state electrostatic drift turbulence; and (2) the anomalous energy transport of electrons due to shear-Alfven waves in a finite-β plasma. For the simulation of the steady state drift turbulence, it is observed that, in the absence of magnetic shear, the turbulence is quenched to a low level when the rotational transform is a rational number, while the turbulent level remains high for an irrational rotational transform

  20. US DOE surplus facilities management program (SFMP). International technology exchange activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broderick, J.

    1986-01-01

    The Surplus Facilities Management Program is one of five remedial action programs established by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to eliminate potential hazards to the public and environment from radioactive contamination. These programs provide remedial actions at various facilities and sites previously used by the US Government in national atomic energy programs. Included are uranium ore milling sites, nuclear materials production plants, and research and development facilities. The DOE's five remedial action programs are: the Grand Junction Remedial Action Project; the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Project; the West Valley Demonstration Project; and the Surplus Facilities Management Program. The Surplus Facilities Management Program (SWMP) was established by DOE in 1978. There are presently over 300 shutdown facilities in the SFMP located at sites across the United States and in Puerto Rico. In some cases, remedial action involves decontaminating and releasing a facility for some other use. In other instances, facilities are completely demolished and removed from the site

  1. Diffraction anomalous fine structure using X-ray anomalous dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soejima, Yuji; Kuwajima, Shuichiro

    1998-01-01

    A use of X-ray anomalous dispersion effects for structure investigation has recently been developed by using synchrotron radiation. One of the interesting method is the observation of anomalous fine structure which arise on diffraction intensity in energy region of incident X-ray at and higher than absorption edge. The phenomenon is so called Diffraction Anomalous Fine Structure (DAFS). DAFS originates in the same physical process an that of EXAFS: namely photoelectric effect at the corresponding atom and the interaction of photoelectron waves between the atom and neighboring atoms. In contrast with EXAFS, the method is available for only the crystalline materials, but shows effective advantages of the structure investigations by a use of diffraction: one is the site selectivity and the other is space selectivity. In the present study, demonstrations of a use of X-ray anomalous dispersion effect for the superstructure determination will be given for the case of PbZrO 3 , then recent trial investigations of DAFS in particular on the superlattice reflections will be introduced. In addition, we discuss about Forbidden Reflection near Edge Diffraction (FRED) which is more recently investigated as a new method of the structure analysis. (author)

  2. Study about hydrogen and methanation as power surplus valorization process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the use of technologies that allow converting power into gas as ways of providing added value to power surpluses. In the Anglo-Saxon world, and in numerous other countries, this concept is known as Power-to-Gas (PtG or P2G). The massive integration of fluctuating renewable energy sources ((wind and photovoltaic principally) into electricity systems implies more and more time periods during which production will exceed consumption. The volumes at stake could surpass the conventional capacities of flexibility and storage of the electricity system: the conversion into another energy carrier therefore appears as a solution for giving value to these surpluses. As the basic technology of Power-to-Gas, electrolysis converts electrical energy into chemical energy in the form of hydrogen gas (H2), by separating molecules of water (H 2 O). The gas produced can be used on-site in different manners, for example by a manufacturer for it's own process needs or by a filling station for hydrogen-fuelled vehicles (fuel-cell motorisation), or it can be stored locally for being later converted back into power through a fuel-cell. However it can also be directly injected into the gas distribution or transmission networks, thus creating a coupling of various energy networks and carriers: in this way the possibilities to create added-value from power surpluses are significantly increased and diversified both in terms of final use as well as across a scope of time and space. The development of Power-to-Gas can be summarized in three key steps. In the short to mid-term, hydrogen represents, when incorporated into the gas network in limited proportions (a few %) and/or used directly in some niche markets (particularly via fuel cells) a way to provide added value to substantial renewable electricity surpluses.. In the longer term, a transition toward synthetic methane production would allow to overcome all technical barriers linked with gas

  3. Beating swords into plowshares. [Surplus plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    With the end of the Cold War and the consequent dismantling of United States and Russian nuclear weapons, comes the problem of what to do with the plutonium and highly enriched uranium thus produced. This surplus fissile material could pose a national and international security hazard and recent studies have stresses the need for mutual and cooperative monitoring of fissile material stocks. Long term proposals for disposal, such as burning the plutonium in nuclear plants, vitrifying it into high-level waste glass logs and burying it in deep boreholes in the Earth's surface are all considered with respect to safety and economic viability. (UK).

  4. Surplus Highly Enriched Uranium Disposition Program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide upper level guidance for the program that will downblend surplus highly enriched uranium for use as commercial nuclear reactor fuel or low-level radioactive waste. The intent of this document is to outline the overall mission and program objectives. The document is also intended to provide a general basis for integration of disposition efforts among all applicable sites. This plan provides background information, establishes the scope of disposition activities, provides an approach to the mission and objectives, identifies programmatic assumptions, defines major roles, provides summary level schedules and milestones, and addresses budget requirements

  5. A cosmic-ray nuclear event with an anomalously strong concentration of energy and particles in the central region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amato, N.M.; Arata, N.; Maldonado, R.H.C.

    1987-01-01

    A cosmic-ray-induced nuclear event detected in an emulsion chamber is described. The event consist of 217 shower cores with ΣEγ=1.275 TeV. In a logarithmic scale, energy and particles are emitted most densely at the small lateral distance corresponding to 0.5 mm; 77% of the total energy and 61% of the total multiplicity are inside a radius of 0.65 cm. The shower cores in the central region show exponential-type energy distribution and nonisotropic azimuthal distribution

  6. A cosmic-ray nuclear event with an anomalously strong concentration of energy and particles in the central region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amato, N.M.; Arata, N.; Maldonado, R.H.C.

    1986-01-01

    A cosmic-ray induced nuclear event detected in the emulsion chamber is described. The event consists of 217 shower cores with ΣEγ = 1,275 TeV. In log scale, energy and particles are emitted most densely at the small lateral distance corresponding to 0.5 mm; 77 % of the total energy and 61 % of the total multiplicity are inside the radius of 0.65 cm. The shower cores in the central region show exponential-type energy distribution and non-isotropic azimuthal distribution. This event indicates a possibility that phenomena of large transverse momentum could happen to produce a strong concentration of energy and particles in the very forward direction. (Authors) [pt

  7. Heterodox surplus approach: production, prices, and value theory

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Frederic

    2011-01-01

    In this paper I argue that that there is a heterodox social surplus approach that has its own account of output-employment and prices, and its own value theory which draws upon various heterodox traditions. Starting with the Sraffian technical definition of the social surplus and then working with a Sraffa-Leontief input-output framework, the particular distinguishing feature of the heterodox approach is the role of agency in determining prices, the social surplus, and total social product a...

  8. Savannah River Site Surplus Facilities Available for Reuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, R.M.; Owens, M.B.; Lentz, D.W.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide a current, centralized list of Savannah River Site facilities, which are surplus and available for reuse. These surplus facilities may be made available for other DOE site missions, commercial economic development reuse, or other governmental reuse. SRS procedures also require that before new construction can be approved, available surplus facilities are screened for possible reuse in lieu of the proposed new construction

  9. Investigation of the heavy nuclei fission with anomalously high values of the fission fragments total kinetic energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khryachkov, Vitaly; Goverdovskii, Andrei; Ketlerov, Vladimir; Mitrofanov, Vecheslav; Sergachev, Alexei

    2018-03-01

    Binary fission of 232Th and 238U induced by fast neutrons were under intent investigation in the IPPE during recent years. These measurements were performed with a twin ionization chamber with Frisch grids. Signals from the detector were digitized for further processing with a specially developed software. It results in information of kinetic energies, masses, directions and Bragg curves of registered fission fragments. Total statistics of a few million fission events were collected during each experiment. It was discovered that for several combinations of fission fragment masses their total kinetic energy was very close to total free energy of the fissioning system. The probability of such fission events for the fast neutron induced fission was found to be much higher than for spontaneous fission of 252Cf and thermal neutron induced fission of 235U. For experiments with 238U target the energy of incident neutrons were 5 MeV and 6.5 MeV. Close analysis of dependence of fission fragment distribution on compound nucleus excitation energy gave us some explanation of the phenomenon. It could be a process in highly excited compound nucleus which leads the fissioning system from the scission point into the fusion valley with high probability.

  10. Disposition of surplus fissile materials via immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, L.W.; Kan, T.; Sutcliffe, W.G.; McKibben, J.M.; Danker, W.

    1995-01-01

    In the Cold War aftermath, the US and Russia have agreed to large reductions in nuclear weapons. To aid in the selection of long-term management options, the USDOE has undertaken a multifaceted study to select options for storage and disposition of surplus plutonium (Pu). One disposition alternative being considered is immobilization. Immobilization is a process in which surplus Pu would be embedded in a suitable material to produce an appropriate form for ultimate disposal. To arrive at an appropriate form, we first reviewed published information on HLW immobilization technologies to identify forms to be prescreened. Surviving forms were screened using multi-attribute utility analysis to determine promising technologies for Pu immobilization. We further evaluated the most promising immobilization families to identify and seek solutions for chemical, chemical engineering, environmental, safety, and health problems; these problems remain to be solved before we can make technical decisions about the viability of using the forms for long-term disposition of Pu. All data, analyses, and reports are being provided to the DOE Office of Fissile Materials Disposition to support the Record of Decision that is anticipated in Summer of 1996

  11. The approaching plutonium surplus: a Japanese/European predicament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkhout, F.; Suzuki, Tatsujiro; Walker, W.

    1990-01-01

    The vision of cheap energy independence through civil nuclear power has faded in the late 1980s as the costs of nuclear programmes have come to light. But present nuclear plans in Japan, France and Britain are set to produce quantities of plutonium in the 1990s which, the authors argue, will be surplus to requirements and very difficult to use. The over-production of plutonium will pose political and security problems - particularly for Japan, which owns large stocks of separated plutonium in Europe that it may not be able to bring back home. Nuclear strategy in Japan and Europe needs to be rethought if serious international problems are to be avoided. (author)

  12. Anomalous top magnetic couplings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-11-09

    Nov 9, 2012 ... Corresponding author. E-mail: remartinezm@unal.edu.co. Abstract. The real and imaginary parts of the one-loop electroweak contributions to the left and right tensorial anomalous couplings of the tbW vertex in the Standard Model (SM) are computed. Keywords. Top; anomalous. PACS Nos 14.65.Ha; 12.15 ...

  13. Inclusive anomalous muon production in e+e- annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, G.J.; Bulos, F.; Lueke, D.; Abrams, G.S.; Alam, M.S.; Boyarski, A.M.; Breidenbach, M.; Dorfan, J.; Friedberg, C.E.; Fryberger, D.; Goldhaber, G.; Hanson, G.; Heile, F.B.; Jaros, J.A.; Kadyk, J.A.; Larsen, R.R.; Litke, A.M.; Lueth, V.; Madaras, R.J.; Morehouse, C.C.; Nguyen, H.K.; Paterson, J.M.; Perl, M.L.; Peruzzi, I.; Piccolo, M.; Pierre, F.M.; Pun, T.P.; Rapidis, P.; Richter, B.; Sadoulet, B.; Schwitters, R.F.; Tanenbaum, W.; Trilling, G.H.; Vannucci, F.; Whitaker, J.S.; Wiss, J.E.

    1977-01-01

    We present measurements of inclusive anomalous muon production in e + e - annihilations in three energy ranges. In all three ranges we observe a large anomalous muon production rate in two-prong events which is compatible with the expected decays of pairs of heavy leptons. In the highest energy range there is also appreciable anomalous muon production in multiprong events which, due to its magnitude and momentum dependence, must come in part from a source other than a heavy lepton

  14. The assessment of labour surplus in agricultural farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Marcysiak

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Polish agriculture is characterised by high labour surplus in agricultural farms. The aim of the study is showing the methods used for assessment of labour surplus in agricultural farms. The assessment was made considering two criteria: objective and subjective.

  15. 50 CFR 30.2 - Disposition of surplus range animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposition of surplus range animals. 30.2... (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM RANGE AND FERAL ANIMAL MANAGEMENT Range Animals § 30.2 Disposition of surplus range animals. Disposition shall be made only during regularly scheduled disposal...

  16. 50 CFR 30.1 - Surplus range animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Surplus range animals. 30.1 Section 30.1... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM RANGE AND FERAL ANIMAL MANAGEMENT Range Animals § 30.1 Surplus range animals. Range animals on fenced wildlife refuge areas, including buffalo and longhorn cattle, determined...

  17. 50 CFR 31.1 - Determination of surplus wildlife populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Determination of surplus wildlife populations. 31.1 Section 31.1 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM WILDLIFE SPECIES MANAGEMENT Surplus...

  18. 12 CFR 615.5330 - Minimum surplus ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum surplus ratios. 615.5330 Section 615.5330 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS, LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Surplus and Collateral Requirements § 615.5330 Minimum...

  19. Progress and problems in the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program and Surplus Facilities Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiore, J.J.; Turi, G.P.

    1988-01-01

    The Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) was established in 1974 to identify, evaluate, and as appropriate, conduct remedial actions at sites used in the early years of nuclear energy development by the Manhattan Engineer District and the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC). This program currently has 29 sites and is evaluating 350 other sites for possible inclusion in the program. Another remedial action program in the Department of Energy's (DOE) Division of Facility and Site Decommissioning Projects is the Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP). The SFMP involves the safe management, decontamination and disposal of surplus DOE contaminated facilities which were not related to defense activities. There are currently 33 projects at 15 different sites in the program. These two programs have made steady progress over the last 10 or so years in cleaning up sites so that they can be reused or released for unrestricted use. Work has been completed at 8 of the FUSRAP sites and three of the SFMP sites

  20. Energy cascade with small-scale thermalization, counterflow metastability, and anomalous velocity of vortex rings in Fourier-truncated Gross-Pitaevskii equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krstulovic, Giorgio; Brachet, Marc

    2011-01-01

    that is related to the presence of finite-amplitude Kelvin waves. This anomalous vortex ring velocity is quantitatively reproduced by assuming equipartition of energy of the Kelvin waves. Orders of magnitude are given for the predicted effects in weakly interacting Bose-Einstein condensates and superfluid 4 He.

  1. Surplus plutonium disposition environmental impact statement. Public scoping meeting: Comment summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) issued a Record of Decision for the Storage and Disposition of Weapons-Usable Fissile Materials Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (S ampersand D PEIS) (DOE/EIS-0229) on January 14, 1997. In that Record of Decision, DOE stated its decision to pursue a strategy for plutonium disposition that allows for immobilization of surplus weapons plutonium in glass or ceramic forms and irradiating the surplus plutonium as mixed oxide (MOX) fuel in existing reactors, while reserving the option to immobilize all the surplus weapons plutonium. The Department also decided that the extent to which either or both of these disposition approaches would ultimately be deployed would depend in part upon future National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) review for surplus weapons plutonium disposition. On May 22, 1997, DOE published in the Federal Register (62 FR 28013) a Notice of Intent to prepare an environmental impact statement (tiered from the S ampersand D PEIS) on the disposition of United States' surplus weapons-usable plutonium. The purpose of the Notice of Intent was to describe DOE's proposed action, to solicit public input, and to announce the schedule for the public scoping meetings. During the public scoping period (May 22 - July 22, 1997), the public was invited to submit written comments by U.S. mail, fax, or through the Office of Fissile Materials Disposition's Website, as well as to provide oral comments by voicemail or by participating in public scoping meetings. Written and oral comments on the scope of the SPD EIS that were submitted during the formal comment period have been uniquely identified and have become part of the official record. This is the case whether the comments were submitted via U.S. mail, fax, website, toll-free telephone number, or through participation at a public scoping meeting

  2. The social surplus of broadband initiatives in compulsory education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Peter Parsons

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In 2010, the New Zealand government embarked upon an ambitious programme of broadband infrastructure investment, a process that will continue until at least 2019. Part of this investment is specifically targeted at compulsory education, with initiatives that include bringing fibre connections to the school gate, supporting on-site network upgrades (including wireless and providing teaching, learning and support services delivered through these networks. Such investments are not made without some projections of the likely rate of return, but calculating return on investment (ROI in educational broadband is complex, as it encompasses a range of factors. This article reports on an interview-based study engaging a range of stakeholders in educational broadband provision. The study utilises a research model that considers the various elements of social surplus, namely; producer surplus (savings, producer surplus (profit and consumer surplus (perceived value over and above cost, to explore the elements of social surplus that have been used to define educational broadband ROI calculations and justify the scale of investment. The results indicate that all three components of social surplus are relevant, though the concept of profit can only be seen in the broader context of long term contributions to the economy. A note of caution is that projections of ROI based only on positive returns fail to acknowledge the potential for some innovations to actually increase costs. Further, purely quantitative models do not properly take into account qualitative components of consumer surplus.

  3. Hanford surplus facilities hazards identification document. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egge, R.G.

    1996-02-01

    This document provides general safety information needed by personnel who enter and work in surplus facilities managed by Bechtel Hanford, Inc. (BHI). The purpose of the document is to enhance access control of surplus facilities, educate personnel on the potential hazards associated with these facilities prior to entry, and ensure that safety precautions are taken while in the facility. Questions concerning the currency of this information should be directed to the building administrator (as listed in BHI-FS-01, Field Support Administration, Section 1.1, ''Access Control for ERC Surplus Facilities'')

  4. Performance assessment of DOE spent nuclear fuel and surplus plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duguid, J.O.; Vallikat, V.; McNeish, J.

    1998-01-01

    Yucca Mountain, in southern Nevada, is under consideration by the US Department of Energy (DOE) as a potential site for the disposal of the nation's radioactive wastes in a geologic repository. The wastes consist of commercial spent fuel, DOE spent nuclear fuel (SNF), high level waste (HLW), and surplus plutonium. The DOE was mandated by Congress in the fiscal 1997 Energy and Water Appropriations Act to complete a viability assessment (VA) of the repository in September of 1998. The assessment consists of a preliminary design concept for the critical elements of the repository, a total system performance assessment (TSPA), a plan and cost estimate for completion of the license application, and an estimate of the cost to construct and operate the repository. This paper presents the results of the sensitivity analyses that were conducted to examine the behavior of DOE SNF and plutonium waste forms in the environment of the base case repository that was modeled for the TSPA-VA. Fifteen categories of DOE SNF and two Plutonium waste forms were examined and their contribution to radiation dose to humans was evaluated

  5. High-energy scattering of particles with anomalous magnetic moments in the quantum field theory. πN scattering and Coulomb interference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguen Suan Khan; Pervushin, V.N.

    1975-01-01

    An eikonal representation has been obtained for the amplitude of the πN-scattering in the asymptotic form into account the anomalous nucleon magnetic moment leads to the introduction of the additive term in to the eikonal phase which is responsible for the spin flip in the scattering process. The Coulomb interference is considered

  6. Modelling of cation displacements in SrTiO.sub.3./sub. by means of multi-energy anomalous X-ray diffuse scattering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopecký, Miloš; Fábry, Jan; Kub, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 49, Jun (2016), 1016-1020 ISSN 1600-5767 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-04121S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : X-ray diffuse scattering * atomic displacements * anomalous X-ray scattering * SrTiO 3 Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.495, year: 2016

  7. Application of surplus and waste materials in roads pavement making

    OpenAIRE

    Mousavi, S. M.; Fazli, A. H.; Rouzmehr, F.

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays there are a lot of problems about surpluses and debris made by humans all around the world. Lots of these surpluses seriously harm our natural environment. Reuse of this kind of materials in other processes like building constructions or pavement help our natural environment in every aspect. Asphalt concrete is the main part of pavements in most parts of the world with an increasing rate of production in need of more ways and roads. In this paper we will provide...

  8. UK surplus source disposal programme - 16097

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, Gordon H.; Reeves, Nigel; Nisbet, Amy C.; Garnett, Andrew; Williams, Clive R.

    2009-01-01

    The UK Surplus Source Disposal Programme (SSDP), managed by the Environment Agency, was designed to remove redundant radioactive sources from the public domain. The UK Government Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) was concerned that disused sources were being retained by hospitals, universities and businesses, posing a risk to public health and the environment. AMEC provided a range of technical and administrative services to support the SSDP. A questionnaire was issued to registered source holders and the submitted returns compiled to assess the scale of the project. A member of AMEC staff was seconded to the Environment Agency to provide technical support and liaise directly with source holders during funding applications, which would cover disposal costs. Funding for disposal of different sources was partially based on a sliding scale of risk as determined by the IAEA hazard categorisation system. This funding was also sector dependent. The SSDP was subsequently expanded to include the disposal of luminised aircraft instruments from aviation museums across the UK. These museums often hold significant radiological inventories, with many items being unused and in a poor state of repair. These instruments were fully characterised on site by assessing surface dose rate, dimensions, source integrity and potential contamination issues. Calculations using the Microshield computer code allowed gamma radiation measurements to be converted into total activity estimates for each source. More than 11,000 sources were disposed of under the programme from across the medical, industrial, museum and academic sectors. The total activity disposed of was more than 8.5 E+14 Bq, and the project was delivered under budget. (authors)

  9. Anomalous carbon nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasparian, A.P.

    1984-01-01

    Results are presented from a bubble chamber experiment to search for anomalous mean free path (MFP) phenomena for secondary multicharged fragments (Zsub(f)=5 and 6) of the beam carbon nucleus at 4.2 GeV/c per nucleon. A total of 50000 primary interactions of carbon with propane (C 3 H 8 ) were created. Approximately 6000 beam tragments with charges Zsub(f)=5 and 6 were analyzed in detail to find out an anomalous decrease of MFP. The anomaly is observed only for secondary 12 C nuclei

  10. Low intensity surplus activated sludge pretreatment before anaerobic digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suschka Jan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sewage sludge (municipal, or industrial treatment is still a problem in so far that it is not satisfactorily resolved in terms of cost and final disposal. Two common forms of sludge disposal are possible; the first being direct disposal on land (including agriculture and the second being incineration (ash production, although neither of these methods are universally applied. Simplifying the issue, direct sludge disposal on land is seldom applied for sanitary and environmental reasons, while incineration is not popular for financial (high costs reasons. Very often medium and large wastewater treatment plants apply anaerobic digestion for sludge hygiene principles, reducing the amount to be disposed and for biogas (energy production. With the progress in sewage biological treatment aiming at nutrient removal, primary sludge has been omitted in the working processes and only surplus activated sludge requires handling. Anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS is more difficult due to the presence of microorganisms, the decomposition of which requires a relatively long time for hydrolysis. In order to upgrade the hydrolysis effects, several different pre-treatment processes have already been developed and introduced. The additional pre-treatment processes applied are aimed at residual sludge bulk mass minimization, shortening of the anaerobic digestion process or higher biogas production, and therefore require additional energy. The water-energy-waste Nexus (treads of of the benefits and operational difficulties, including energy costs are discussed in this paper. The intensity of pre-treatment processes to upgrade the microorganism’s hydrolysis has crucial implications. Here a low intensity pre-treatment process, alkalisation and hydrodynamic disintegration - hybrid process - were presented in order to achieve sufficient effects of WAS anaerobic digestion. A sludge digestion efficiency increase expressed as 45% biogas additional

  11. Kinetic studies of anomalous transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, W.M.

    1990-11-01

    Progress in achieving a physics-based understanding of anomalous transport in toroidal systems has come in large part from investigations based on the proposition that low frequency electrostatic microinstabilities are dominant in the bulk (''confinement'') region of these plasmas. Although the presence here of drift-type modes dependent on trapped particle and ion temperature gradient driven effects appears to be consistent with a number of important observed confinement trends, conventional estimates for these instabilities cannot account for the strong current (I p ) and /or q-scaling frequently found in empirically deduced global energy confinement times for auxiliary-heated discharges. The present paper deals with both linear and nonlinear physics features, ignored in simpler estimates, which could introduce an appreciable local dependence on current. It is also pointed out that while the thermal flux characteristics of drift modes have justifiably been the focus of experimental studies assessing their relevance, other transport properties associated with these microinstabilities should additionally be examined. Accordingly, the present paper provides estimates and discusses the significance of anomalous energy exchange between ions and electrons when fluctuations are present. 19 refs., 3 figs

  12. Discussions on JNC roles and issues on management and disposition of surplus plutonium from the dismantlement of nuclear warhead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-04-01

    Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) and Russian Federation are now promoting the collaborative project to use the fast breeder reactor of BN-600 for the Russian surplus plutonium under the framework of the bilateral agreement on peaceful use of atomic energy. Based upon this background, JNC organized a study group to survey the world aspect on surplus plutonium resulting in START (Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty). The study group, including technical experts and also experts on international affairs, made a report after their survey and gave wide range discussion on various issues. The surplus plutonium of Russian Federation was estimated to be 102 - 136 tones. There were shortages of back end technologies in Russian infrastructures for dismantling, reprocessing and disposition of the surplus plutonium. A supporting leadership of USA to Russian Federation met some difficulties due to the strategic gap between both countries. One of the examples is the temporal evolution of USA attitude toward the CANDU (thermal power reactors of Canadian design characterized by heavy water moderator, pressure tube construction, and on-power refuelling) option to use surplus plutonium as MOX (Mixed OXide) fuels. Additional supports from the G8 (Group of eight) countries except USA and Russian Federation came up to their expectation. For examples, the joint group of French, German and Russian is promoting DEMOX (Demonstration of MOX fuel) project but is on the way to discussion depending on various thoughts about mutual benefits. Many issues remained in joint project with CIS (Commonwealth of Independent States), such as safeguard, nonproliferation, energy supply and demand, and environmental impacts. In addition, public opinions will give some impacts to policy makers, especially in USA. This report had analyzed many viewpoints for technical and political issues on surplus plutonium in the world, and pointed out consequences, merits and demerits after possible many

  13. Diffusion coefficient for anomalous transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    A report on the progress towards the goal of estimating the diffusion coefficient for anomalous transport is given. The gyrokinetic theory is used to identify different time and length scale inherent to the characteristics of plasmas which exhibit anomalous transport

  14. Anomalous Hall effect

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nagaosa, N.; Sinova, Jairo; Onoda, S.; MacDonald, A. H.; Ong, N. P.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 2 (2010), s. 1539-1592 ISSN 0034-6861 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : anomalous Hall effect * spintronics Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 51.695, year: 2010

  15. Temperature dependent anomalous statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, A.; Panda, S.

    1991-07-01

    We show that the anomalous statistics which arises in 2 + 1 dimensional Chern-Simons gauge theories can become temperature dependent in the most natural way. We analyze and show that a statistic's changing phase transition can happen in these theories only as T → ∞. (author). 14 refs

  16. Anomalous Levinson theorem and supersymmetric quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boya, L.J.; Casahorran, J.; Esteve, J.G.

    1993-01-01

    We analyse the symmetry breaking associated to anomalous realization of supersymmetry in the context of SUSY QM. In this case one of the SUSY partners is singular; that leads to peculiar forms of the Levinson theorem relating phase shifts and bound states. Some examples are exhibited; peculiarities include negative energies, incomplete pairing of states and extra phases in scattering. (Author) 8 refs

  17. Combination of results from the ATLAS and CMS experiments on anomalous triple gauge couplings in ZZ production from pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    CMS and ATLAS Collaborations

    2016-01-01

    A procedure is presented to combine data from the ATLAS and CMS experiments on ZZ production to obtain constraints on anomalous neutral triple gauge boson couplings. Statistical and systematic uncertainties and their correlations are taken into account. Data from pp collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV delivered by the LHC are used. The datasets correspond to integrated luminosities of $4.6$ and $5.0~\\mathrm{fb}^{-1}$ for ATLAS and CMS, respectively. The combination is performed in the fully leptonic decay channels $\\mathrm{ZZ} \\to \\ell^+ \\ell^- \

  18. Surplus plutonium disposition draft environmental impact statement. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-07-01

    On May 22, 1997, DOE published a Notice of Intent (NOI) in the Federal Register (62 Federal Register 28009) announcing its decision to prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) that would tier from the analysis and decisions reached in connection with the Storage and Disposition of Weapons-Usable Fissile Materials Final Programmatic EIS (Storage and Disposition PEIS). DOE's disposition strategy allows for both the immobilization of surplus plutonium and its use as mixed oxide (MOX) fuel in existing domestic, commercial reactors. The disposition of surplus plutonium would also involve disposal of the immobilized plutonium and MOX fuel (as spent nuclear fuel) in a geologic repository. The Surplus Plutonium Disposition Environmental Impact Statement analyzes alternatives that would use the immobilization approach (for some of the surplus plutonium) and the MOX fuel approach (for some of the surplus plutonium); alternatives that would immobilize all of the surplus plutonium; and the No Action Alternative. The alternatives include three disposition facilities that would be designed so that they could collectively accomplish disposition of up to 50 metric tons (55 tons) of surplus plutonium over their operating lives: (1) the pit disassembly and conversion facility would disassemble pits (a weapons component) and convert the recovered plutonium, as well as plutonium metal from other sources, into plutonium dioxide suitable for disposition; (2) the immobilization facility would include a collocated capability for converting nonpit plutonium materials into plutonium dioxide suitable for immobilization and would be located at either Hanford or SRS. DOE has identified SRS as the preferred site for an immobilization facility; (3) the MOX fuel fabrication facility would fabricate plutonium dioxide into MOX fuel. Volume 2 contains the appendices to the report and describe the following: Federal Register notices; contractor nondisclosure statement; adjunct melter

  19. Surplus plutonium disposition draft environmental impact statement. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-07-01

    On May 22, 1997, DOE published a Notice of Intent (NOI) in the Federal Register (62 Federal Register 28009) announcing its decision to prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) that would tier from the analysis and decisions reached in connection with the Storage and Disposition of Weapons-Usable Fissile Materials Final Programmatic EIS (Storage and Disposition PEIS). DOE's disposition strategy allows for both the immobilization of surplus plutonium and its use as mixed oxide (MOX) fuel in existing domestic, commercial reactors. The disposition of surplus plutonium would also involve disposal of the immobilized plutonium and MOX fuel (as spent nuclear fuel) in a geologic repository. The Surplus Plutonium Disposition Environmental Impact Statement analyzes alternatives that would use the immobilization approach (for some of the surplus plutonium) and the MOX fuel approach (for some of the surplus plutonium); alternatives that would immobilize all of the surplus plutonium; and the No Action Alternative. The alternatives include three disposition facilities that would be designed so that they could collectively accomplish disposition of up to 50 metric tons (55 tons) of surplus plutonium over their operating lives: (1) the pit disassembly and conversion facility would disassemble pits (a weapons component) and convert the recovered plutonium, as well as plutonium metal from other sources, into plutonium dioxide suitable for disposition; (2) the immobilization facility would include a collocated capability for converting nonpit plutonium materials into plutonium dioxide suitable for immobilization and would be located at either Hanford or SRS. DOE has identified SRS as the preferred site for an immobilization facility; (3) the MOX fuel fabrication facility would fabricate plutonium dioxide into MOX fuel

  20. Reducing food waste through direct surplus food redistribution : the Norwegian case

    OpenAIRE

    Capodistrias, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Food waste is a global problem with significant economic and environmental consequences. Food waste management approaches include production of biogas, animal feed and compost and surplus food redistribution. From a sustainability point of view, surplus food redistribution is the most favorable approach. Surplus food redistribution can be either direct (between suppliers of surplus food and charity food services) or indirect (Through Food banks). This paper is a case study on direct surplus f...

  1. The vector meson with anomalous magnetic moment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyarkin, O.M.

    1976-01-01

    The possibility of introducing an anomalous magnetic moment into the Stuckelberg version of the charged vector meson theory is considered. It is shown that the interference of states with spins equal to one and zero is absent in the presence of an anomalous magnetic moment of a particle. The differential cross section of scattering on the Coulomb field of a nucleus is calculated, and so are the differential and integral cross sections of meson pair production on annihilation of two gamma quanta. The two-photon mechanism of production of a meson pair in colliding electron-positron beams is considered. It is shown that with any value of the anomalous magnetic moment the cross section of the esup(+)esup(-) → esup(+)esup(-)γsup(*)γsup(*) → esup(+)esup(-)Wsup(+)Wsup(-) reaction exceeds that of the esup(+)esup(-) → γsup(*) → Wsup(+)Wsup(-) at sufficiently high energies

  2. Thermoeconomic and thermodynamics analysis of a sugarcane plant that produces energy surplus for commercialization; Analise termodinamica e termoeconomica de uma usina sucroalcooleira que produz excedente de energia para comercializacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiomari, Marcelo Caldato; Mashiba, Marcos Hideo da Silva; Lima, Rodrigo dos Santos; Maia, Cassio Roberto Macedo; Ramos, Ricardo Alan Verdu [Universidade Estadual Paulista (NUPLEN/UNESP), Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Nucleo de Planejamento Energetico, Geracao e Cogeracao de Energia], e-mail: nuplen@dem.feis.unesp.br

    2006-07-01

    In this work, thermodynamic and thermo economic analyses of a plant resulted from an expansion of the Pioneiros Distillery's cogeneration system are carried out, which is constituted basically by a boiler that produces 140 ton/h of steam at high pressure and temperature (6,6 MPa and 530 deg C, respectively), by a condensation-extraction turbine that drives a electrical generator producing 32 MW, being the mechanical drivers realized by electrical engines. By means of thermodynamic analyses it's possible to define some plant's performance indexes as well as evaluate the global use of energy in each component. The thermo economic analysis allows evaluating the costs of capital and fuel reflexes in the composition of the products (steam and electricity) costs. (author)

  3. Anomalous transport in toroidal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punjabi, A.

    1989-12-01

    When the magnetic moment of particle is conserved, there are three mechanisms which cause anomalous transport. These are: variation of magnetic field strength in flux surface, variation of electrostatic potential in flux surface, and destruction of flux surface. The anomalous transport of different groups of particles resulting from each of these mechanisms is different. This fact can be exploited to determine the cause of transport operative in an experimental situation. This approach can give far more information on the transport than the standard confinement time measurements. To implement this approach, we have developed Monte Carlo codes for toroidal geometries. The equations of motion are developed in a set of non-canonical, practical Boozer co-ordinates by means of Jacobian transformations of the particle drift Hamiltonian equations of motion. Effects of collisions are included by appropriate stochastic changes in the constants of motion. Effects of the loop voltage on particle motions are also included. We plan to apply our method to study two problems: the problem of the hot electron tail observed in edge region of ZT-40, and the energy confinement time in TOKAPOLE II. For the ZT-40 problem three situations will be considered: a single mode in the core, a stochastic region that covers half the minor radius, a stochastic region that covers the entire plasma. A turbulent spectrum of perturbations based on the experimental data of TOKAPOLE II will be developed. This will be used to simulate electron transport resulting from ideal instabilities and resistive instabilities in TOKAPOLE II

  4. A stochastic surplus production model in continuous time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Martin Wæver; Berg, Casper Willestofte

    2017-01-01

    surplus production model in continuous time (SPiCT), which in addition to stock dynamics also models the dynamics of the fisheries. This enables error in the catch process to be reflected in the uncertainty of estimated model parameters and management quantities. Benefits of the continuous-time state......Surplus production modelling has a long history as a method for managing data-limited fish stocks. Recent advancements have cast surplus production models as state-space models that separate random variability of stock dynamics from error in observed indices of biomass. We present a stochastic......-space model formulation include the ability to provide estimates of exploitable biomass and fishing mortality at any point in time from data sampled at arbitrary and possibly irregular intervals. We show in a simulation that the ability to analyse subannual data can increase the effective sample size...

  5. THE CLOWER CONSTRAINTS MODEL DARI SURPLUS ATAU DEFISIT FISKAL PEMERINTAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonni Manurung

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study has something as a purpose to building the empirical models and the new hypothesis between the broad money, surpluses or fiscal deficit, the general price index or inflation rate, demand for monetary base and demand for bank deposit. This study also head for optimal interest rate for bank deposit at the given value of broad money, surplus or fiscal deficit, general price index, demand for monetary base, and demand for bank deposit. The model build consist to balance central bank, intertemporal budget constraint at the maximum expected utility for hold monetary base and bank deposit. The evaluation of the surplus or fiscal deficit stabilization is with the alteration of the requirement reserve ratio, Gross Domestic Product, general price index and interest rate. The results of the study show that the requirement reserve ratio, Gross Domestic Product, general price index and interest rate is very respect to surplus or deficit fiscal. The contribution requirement reserve ratio and interest rate for surplus or deficit fiscal are relatively high. This results show that the clower constraint model can explain the necessary of fiscal and monetary coordinate. Fiscal policy still weak and cause the real business cycle slow down, high inflation and interest rate. The other hands, monetary policy is very strong and cause fiscal surplus is relatively high. The prudent of government and monetary authority are needed to build the fiscal and monetary policy for create the dynamic economy, lower inflation, requirement reserve ratio and interest rate, and the monetary and fiscal dynamic equilibrium. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Studi ini bertujuan membuat model empiris dan hipotesis baru tentang faktor-faktor broad money, surplus dan defisit fiskal, tingkat bunga secara umum, atau tingkat inflasi, permintaan uang primer dan deposito. Selain itu studi ini juga mencari tingkat suku bunga deposito optimal pada nilai tertentu dari faktor-faktor tersebut

  6. Investment and protection of the OAPEC surplus: a strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuwayhid, H.S.

    1981-02-01

    The Arab countries could not absorb the surplus dollars when oil prices rose in the 1970s, nor were they prepared to move into Western financial markets without causing disruptions. A strategy for protecting these surpluses takes into account market realities and the responsibilities of Arab oil-exporting countries toward the Third World. The Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC) strategy mainly applies to those countries that cannot absorb their surpluses for internal development. Emphasizing asset protection rather than investment, the strategy suggests a new oil-pricing method, and a shift toward real assets, especially those in the Arab and Third World. Success will require help from the rest of the world to reform the International Monetary System, east stagflation, and recycle petrodollars. 6 references, 2 tables. (DCK)

  7. Natural gas: redistributing the economic surplus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, A. de; Pinto Junior, H.Q.

    1990-01-01

    The natural gas has a limited role in the Brazilian energy balance. This role in industrial countries and some developing countries is much more important. Historically this contrasting situation can be explained by the limited natural gas reserves Brazil used to have. Since the oil crisis however the Brazilian natural gas reserves increased substantially without a similar increase in the role of natural gas in the energy balance. The existing institutional arrangement generates a struggle for the economic rent generated by natural gas production and consumption that seems to be at the core of this question. Our paper estimates the economic rent generated by natural gas in Brazil and its distribution among producers and consumers: it points toward a new institutional arrangement that could arguably, generate a new role for the natural gas in the Brazilian energy balance. (author)

  8. Combination of results from the ATLAS and CMS experiments on anomalous triple gauge couplings in ZZ production from pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    ATLAS and CMS Collaborations

    2016-01-01

    A procedure is presented to combine data from the ATLAS and CMS experiments on $ZZ$ production to obtain constraints on anomalous neutral triple gauge boson couplings. Statistical and systematic uncertainties and their correlations are taken into account. Data from $pp$ collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV delivered by the LHC are used. The datasets correspond to integrated luminosities of 4.6 and 5.0 $\\rm{fb^{−1}}$ for ATLAS and CMS, respectively. The combination is performed in the fully leptonic decay channels ZZ → 2l2ν (ATLAS) and ZZ → 4l (ATLAS, CMS). Combined limits on the coupling parameters are −0.010 < f4γ < 0.011, −0.0087 < f4Z < 0.0091, −0.011 < f5γ < 0.010, and −0.0091 < f5Z < 0.0089 at 95% C.L., where all other parameters are fixed to the standard model values. These results represent the first combined limits of the ATLAS and CMS collaborations for anomalous gauge boson couplings.

  9. Rising above Decline: Some Uses of Surplus Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Dale E.

    In many communities new arrangements of surplus school space have been made that facilitate use of the space by the people of the districts, encourage government agencies to anticipate and support social transitions where they are necessary, and allow school districts to improve the quality of their programs. This paper is a survey of some of…

  10. Analysis of yam marketable surplus in Imo state, Nigeria | Onyenobi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted in Imo State in the southeastern agricultural zone of Nigeria, to determine socio-economic characteristics of farmers; cost and return of farmers and factors that determine the marketable surplus of farmers. Among the farm enterprises in the state, yam has high- income elasticity of demand by ...

  11. Determinants of rural household marketed surplus for cereal crops ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and supply of cereal crops to the market (market surplus). The study utilized cross sectional data obtained through multistage random sampling method. Ordinary least square method was used for the analysis. Finding revealed that the quantity of food crops reserved for home consumption by households increased their ...

  12. Material constraints related to storage of future European renewable electricity surpluses with CO_2 methanation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meylan, Frédéric D.; Moreau, Vincent; Erkman, Suren

    2016-01-01

    The main challenges associated with a growing production of renewable electricity are intermittency and dispersion. Intermittency generates spikes in production, which need to be curtailed when exceeding consumption. Dispersion means electricity has to be transported over long distances between production and consumption sites. In the Directive 2009/28/EC, the European Commission recommends sustainable and effective measures to prevent curtailments and facilitate transportation of renewable electricity. This article explores the material constraints of storing and transporting surplus renewable electricity by conversion into synthetic methane. Europe is considered for its mix of energy technologies, data availability and multiple energy pathways to 2050. Results show that the requirements for key materials and land remain relatively low, respecting the recommendations of the EU Commission. By 2050, more than 6 million tons of carbon dioxide might be transformed into methane annually within the EU. The efficiency of renewable power methane production is also compared to the natural process of converting solar into chemical energy (i.e. photosynthesis), both capturing and reenergizing carbon dioxide. Overall, the production of renewable methane (including carbon dioxide capture) is more efficient and less material intensive than the production of biofuels derived from photosynthesis and biomass conversion. - Highlights: •The potential of methanation to store renewable electricity surpluses is assessed. •Material constraints are relatively low. •Biogenic CO_2 will probably be insufficient. •Production of renewable power methane is more efficient than conventional biofuels. •Renewable power methane can help decarbonizing the global energy sector.

  13. Fuel qualification issues and strategies for reactor-based surplus plutonium disposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowell, B.S.; Copeland, G.L.; Moses, D.L.

    1997-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has proposed irradiation of mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel in existing commercial reactors as a disposition method for surplus plutonium from the weapons program. The burning of MOX fuel in reactors is supported by an extensive technology base; however, the infrastructure required to implement reactor-based plutonium disposition does not exist domestically. This report identifies and examines the actions required to qualify and license weapons-grade (WG) plutonium-based MOX fuels for use in domestic commercial light-water reactors (LWRs)

  14. Anomalous N=2 superconformal Ward identities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketov, Sergei V.

    2000-01-01

    The N=2 superconformal Ward identities and their anomalies are discussed in N=2 superspace (including N=2 harmonic superspace), at the level of the low-energy effective action (LEEA) in four-dimensional N=2 supersymmetric field theories. The (first) chiral N=2 supergravity compensator is related to the known N=2 anomalous Ward identity in the N=2 (abelian) vector mulitplet sector. As regards the hypermultiplet LEEA given by the N=2 non-linear sigma-model (NLSM), a new anomalous N=2 superconformal Ward identity is found, whose existence is related to the (second) analytic compensator in N=2 supergravity. The celebrated solution of Seiberg and Witten is known to obey the (first) anomalous Ward identity in the Coulomb branch. We find a few solutions to the new anomalous Ward identity, after making certain assumptions about unbroken internal symmetries. Amongst the N=2 NLSM target space metrics governing the hypermultiplet LEEA are the SU(2)-Yang-Mills-Higgs monopole moduli-space metrics that can be encoded in terms of the spectral curves (Riemann surfaces), similarly to the Seiberg-Witten-type solutions. After a dimensional reduction to three spacetime dimensions (3d), our results support the mirror symmetry between the Coulomb and Higgs branches in 3d, N=4 gauge theories

  15. [On the temporary surplus population in the elementary stage of socialism in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; Chen, L

    1988-07-01

    The causes and patterns of China's surplus population are analyzed for the period 1951-1980. The authors view the surplus population as a temporary phenomenon that is advantageous to social development.

  16. Fickian dispersion is anomalous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushman, John H.; O'Malley, Dan

    2015-12-01

    The thesis put forward here is that the occurrence of Fickian dispersion in geophysical settings is a rare event and consequently should be labeled as anomalous. What people classically call anomalous is really the norm. In a Lagrangian setting, a process with mean square displacement which is proportional to time is generally labeled as Fickian dispersion. With a number of counter examples we show why this definition is fraught with difficulty. In a related discussion, we show an infinite second moment does not necessarily imply the process is super dispersive. By employing a rigorous mathematical definition of Fickian dispersion we illustrate why it is so hard to find a Fickian process. We go on to employ a number of renormalization group approaches to classify non-Fickian dispersive behavior. Scaling laws for the probability density function for a dispersive process, the distribution for the first passage times, the mean first passage time, and the finite-size Lyapunov exponent are presented for fixed points of both deterministic and stochastic renormalization group operators. The fixed points of the renormalization group operators are p-self-similar processes. A generalized renormalization group operator is introduced whose fixed points form a set of generalized self-similar processes. Power-law clocks are introduced to examine multi-scaling behavior. Several examples of these ideas are presented and discussed.

  17. Anomalous photoconductivity of ferrocene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, A K [Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Calcutta (India). Dept. of Spectroscopy; Mallik, B [Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Calcutta (India). Dept. of Spectroscopy

    1995-08-15

    Photoconductivity behaviour of ferrocene, a very useful metallo-organic sandwich compound, has been investigated at different constant temperatures using powdery material in a sandwich type of cell configuration and with the exposure of a polychromatic light source (mercury lamp of 125 W). Measurements with a constant d.c. bias voltage (27 V) across the sample cell and a fixed intensity of the exciting light source have shown a drastic change in the photocurrent versus time profile with the increase in temperature. Anomalous changes have been observed in the plot of the photocurrent versus reciprocal of temperature. Such changes are completely absent in the corresponding dark current behaviour. The photoinduced changes have been observed to be almost reversible in the entire temperature range. In a particular temperature range the reversibility of photocurrent is accompanied by fluctuations in equilibrium current obtained after switching off the light source. The observed anomalous changes in photocurrent have been explained by photoinduced phase transition in ferrocene. The possible origin and implications of this photoinduced phase transition are discussed. (orig.)

  18. Statistical analysis of anomalous transport in resistive interchange turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugama, Hideo; Wakatani, Masahiro.

    1992-01-01

    A new anomalous transport model for resistive interchange turbulence is derived from statistical analysis applying two-scale direct-interaction approximation to resistive magnetohydrodynamic equations with a gravity term. Our model is similar to the K-ε model for eddy viscosity of turbulent shear flows in that anomalous transport coefficients are expressed in terms of by the turbulent kinetic energy K and its dissipation rate ε while K and ε are determined by transport equations. This anomalous transport model can describe some nonlocal effects such as those from boundary conditions which cannot be treated by conventional models based on the transport coefficients represented by locally determined plasma parameters. (author)

  19. Micro-instabilities and anomalous transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connor, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    In order to optimise the design of a tokamak fusion reactor it is necessary to understand how the energy confinement time depends on the plasma and machine parameters. In principle the neo-classical theory provides this information but empirical evidence yields confinement times up to two orders of magnitude less than the predictions of this model. Experimental evidence of microscopic fluctuations in plasma density and other quantities suggests turbulent electro-magnetic fluctuations may be responsible for this anomalous transport. (Author)

  20. 41 CFR 102-37.40 - What type of surplus property is available for donation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... property is available for donation? 102-37.40 Section 102-37.40 Public Contracts and Property Management... 37-DONATION OF SURPLUS PERSONAL PROPERTY General Provisions Donation Overview § 102-37.40 What type of surplus property is available for donation? All surplus property (including property held by...

  1. Anomalous Dimensions of Conformal Baryons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pica, Claudio; Sannino, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    We determine the anomalous dimensions of baryon operators for the three color theory as function of the number of massless flavours within the conformal window to the maximum known order in perturbation theory. We show that the anomalous dimension of the baryon is controllably small, within...

  2. Distribution of health-related social surplus in pharmaceuticals: an estimation of consumer and producer surplus in the management of high blood lipids and COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refoios Camejo, Rodrigo; Camejo, Rodrigo Refoios; McGrath, Clare; Miraldo, Marisa; Rutten, Frans

    2014-05-01

    Following suggestions that developers should be allowed to capture a defined share of the total value generated by their technologies, the amount of surplus accruing to the pharmaceutical industry has become an important concept when discussing policies to encourage innovation in healthcare. Observational clinical and market data spanning over a period of 20 years were applied in order to estimate the social surplus generated by pharmaceuticals used in the management of high cholesterol and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The distribution of social surplus between consumers and producers was also computed and the dynamics of rent extraction examined. Health-related social surplus increased consistently over time for both disease areas, mostly due to the launch of more effective technologies and a greater number of patients being treated for the conditions. However, the growth rate of social surplus differed for each disease and dissimilar patterns of distribution between consumer and producer surplus emerged across the years. For lipid-lowering therapies, yearly consumer surplus reaches 85 % of total health-related social surplus after the loss of exclusivity of major molecules, whilst for COPD it ranges from 54 to 69 %. Average producer surplus is approximately 25 % of total health-related social surplus in the lipid-lowering market between 1990 and 2010, and 37 % for COPD between 2001 and 2010. The share of surplus captured by non-innovative generic producers also varies differently across periods for both markets, reaching 11.12 % in the case of lipid-lowering therapies but just 1.55 % in the case of COPD. A considerable amount of the value may be recouped by consumers only towards the end of the lifecycle. Elements affecting the distribution of social surplus vary across disease areas and include the market pricing structure and the pattern of clinical effectiveness observed over time. The application of a longer-term disease specific perspective

  3. Optically Anomalous Crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Shtukenberg, Alexander; Kahr, Bart

    2007-01-01

    Optical anomalies in crystals are puzzles that collectively constituted the greatest unsolved problems in crystallography in the 19th Century. The most common anomaly is a discrepancy between a crystal’s symmetry as determined by its shape or by X-ray analysis, and that determined by monitoring the polarization state of traversing light. These discrepancies were perceived as a great impediment to the development of the sciences of crystals on the basis of Curie’s Symmetry Principle, the grand organizing idea in the physical sciences to emerge in the latter half of the 19th Century. Optically Anomalous Crystals begins with an historical introduction covering the contributions of Brewster, Biot, Mallard, Brauns, Tamman, and many other distinguished crystallographers. From this follows a tutorial in crystal optics. Further chapters discuss the two main mechanisms of optical dissymmetry: 1. the piezo-optic effect, and 2. the kinetic ordering of atoms. The text then tackles complex, inhomogeneous crystals, and...

  4. Detection of anomalous events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferragut, Erik M.; Laska, Jason A.; Bridges, Robert A.

    2016-06-07

    A system is described for receiving a stream of events and scoring the events based on anomalousness and maliciousness (or other classification). The system can include a plurality of anomaly detectors that together implement an algorithm to identify low-probability events and detect atypical traffic patterns. The anomaly detector provides for comparability of disparate sources of data (e.g., network flow data and firewall logs.) Additionally, the anomaly detector allows for regulatability, meaning that the algorithm can be user configurable to adjust a number of false alerts. The anomaly detector can be used for a variety of probability density functions, including normal Gaussian distributions, irregular distributions, as well as functions associated with continuous or discrete variables.

  5. Dealing with a dangerous surplus from the cold war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, L.

    1997-01-01

    The proliferation of nuclear materials is a threat to national security and world peace. This threat complicates the safeguarding and management of fissile materials that have become surplus since the end of the Cold War. The dismantling of weapons and the cessation of new nuclear weapons manufacturing, while positive for world peace, have raised a problem: what to do about the fissile materials recovered from the weapons or in inventories that will remain unused. These materials--primarily plutonium and highly enriched uranium--are environmental, safety, and health concerns. But of more urgency is the threat they pose to national and international security if they fall into the hands of terrorists or rogue nations. As arms reduction continues and amounts of surplus fissile materials increase, the potential for such security breaches will increase

  6. Share-of-Surplus Product Line Optimisation with Price Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. G. Luo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Kraus and Yano (2003 established the share-of-surplus product line optimisation model and developed a heuristic procedure for this nonlinear mixed-integer optimisation model. In their model, price of a product is defined as a continuous decision variable. However, because product line optimisation is a planning process in the early stage of product development, pricing decisions usually are not very precise. In this research, a nonlinear integer programming share-of-surplus product line optimization model that allows the selection of candidate price levels for products is established. The model is further transformed into an equivalent linear mixed-integer optimisation model by applying linearisation techniques. Experimental results in different market scenarios show that the computation time of the transformed model is much less than that of the original model.

  7. The SWAP SHOP: A surplus materials exchange network at DOE's Oak Ridge Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, L.H.; Birch-Kennedy, S.

    1993-01-01

    The diversity and continually changing nature of the research and production programs at the ORR plant sites, as well as the size of the facilities and their physical separation on the ORR, lead to the buildup of surplus equipment and materials from canceled or completed projects, changes in work orders or directives, or over-procurement of particular items or materials. Many times, for lack of a means to find legitimate uses for these excess items, they have been disposed of as wastes or sold as salvage. Recognizing that this situation prevails at most, if not all, government facilities, Congress has enacted legislation encouraging the establishment of waste minimization, pollution prevention, and cost avoidance measures throughout government-owned facilities. In response to this, the Secretary of Energy has instituted a high-priority DOE initiative to develop, promote, and implement waste minimization and pollution prevention at government installations. One result of the increased awareness and emphasis on environmental concerns and improved resource management is the recent grassroots development of a surplus materials exchange network developed and operated on a voluntary basis by Environmental Protection Officers (EPOs) at the Oak Ridge installations. The EPOs are full-time or part-time staff members employed by each division to provide guidance and assistance for achieving compliance with all environmental regulatory requirements and to resolve waste disposal problems. The materials exchange network, called the SWAP SHOP, provides an EPO communications and problem-solving network to help eliminate unnecessary disposal of usable surplus chemicals and equipment at the Oak Ridge plant sites

  8. LLNL MOX fuel lead assemblies data report for the surplus plutonium disposition environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connor, D.G.; Fisher, S.E.; Holdaway, R.

    1998-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to support the US Department of Energy (DOE) Fissile Materials Disposition Program's preparation of the draft surplus plutonium disposition environmental impact statement. This is one of several responses to data call requests for background information on activities associated with the operation of the lead assembly (LA) mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication facility. The DOE Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (DOE-MD) has developed a dual-path strategy for disposition of surplus weapons-grade plutonium. One of the paths is to disposition surplus plutonium through irradiation of MOX fuel in commercial nuclear reactors. MOX fuel consists of plutonium and uranium oxides (PuO 2 and UO 2 ), typically containing 95% or more UO 2 . DOE-MD requested that the DOE Site Operations Offices nominate DOE sites that meet established minimum requirements that could produce MOX LAs. LLNL has proposed an LA MOX fuel fabrication approach that would be done entirely inside an S and S Category 1 area. This includes receipt and storage of PuO 2 powder, fabrication of MOX fuel pellets, assembly of fuel rods and bundles, and shipping of the packaged fuel to a commercial reactor site. Support activities will take place within a Category 1 area. Building 332 will be used to receive and store the bulk PuO 2 powder, fabricate MOX fuel pellets, and assemble fuel rods. Building 334 will be used to assemble, store, and ship fuel bundles. Only minor modifications would be required of Building 332. Uncontaminated glove boxes would need to be removed, petition walls would need to be removed, and minor modifications to the ventilation system would be required

  9. LLNL MOX fuel lead assemblies data report for the surplus plutonium disposition environmental impact statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Connor, D.G.; Fisher, S.E.; Holdaway, R. [and others

    1998-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to support the US Department of Energy (DOE) Fissile Materials Disposition Program`s preparation of the draft surplus plutonium disposition environmental impact statement. This is one of several responses to data call requests for background information on activities associated with the operation of the lead assembly (LA) mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication facility. The DOE Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (DOE-MD) has developed a dual-path strategy for disposition of surplus weapons-grade plutonium. One of the paths is to disposition surplus plutonium through irradiation of MOX fuel in commercial nuclear reactors. MOX fuel consists of plutonium and uranium oxides (PuO{sub 2} and UO{sub 2}), typically containing 95% or more UO{sub 2}. DOE-MD requested that the DOE Site Operations Offices nominate DOE sites that meet established minimum requirements that could produce MOX LAs. LLNL has proposed an LA MOX fuel fabrication approach that would be done entirely inside an S and S Category 1 area. This includes receipt and storage of PuO{sub 2} powder, fabrication of MOX fuel pellets, assembly of fuel rods and bundles, and shipping of the packaged fuel to a commercial reactor site. Support activities will take place within a Category 1 area. Building 332 will be used to receive and store the bulk PuO{sub 2} powder, fabricate MOX fuel pellets, and assemble fuel rods. Building 334 will be used to assemble, store, and ship fuel bundles. Only minor modifications would be required of Building 332. Uncontaminated glove boxes would need to be removed, petition walls would need to be removed, and minor modifications to the ventilation system would be required.

  10. Understanding and overcoming the “positive profits with negative surplus-value” paradox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUSTAVO DAOU LUCAS

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This paper explains the “positive profits with negative surplus-value” example of Steedman (1975 and shows that while in joint production systems individual labour values can be negative, the claim that the total labour embodied in the surplus product of the economy (surplus-value can also be negative is based on assumptions that have no economic meaning (such as negative activity levels.The paper also provides a way to measure the surplus-value of joint production systems which overcomes the problems of the traditional concept and restates the proposition that a positive amount of surplus labour is a necessary condition for positive profits.

  11. Current Account Surpluses and the Interest Rate Island in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Paolo Mauro

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes some long-run aspects of the Swiss balance of payments, highlighting two macroeconomic phenomena that make Switzerland stand out among other countries: first, it has had a persistent current account surplus and the largest ratio of net foreign assets to GDP in the world; second, its real interest rates have been significantly lower than those of most other industrialized countries, earning it the label “interest rate island”. These two distinctive features may be related,...

  12. Addiction surplus: the add-on margin that makes addictive consumptions difficult to contain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Peter J; Livingstone, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Addictive consumptions generate financial surpluses over-and-above non-addictive consumptions because of the excessive consumption of addicted consumers. This add-on margin or 'addiction surplus' provides a powerful incentive for beneficiaries to protect their income by ensuring addicted consumers keep consuming. Not only that, addiction surplus provides the financial base that enables producers to sponsor activities which aim to prevent public health initiatives from reducing consumption. This paper examines the potency of addiction surplus to engage industry, governments and communities in an on-going reliance on addiction surplus. It then explores how neo-liberal constructions of a rational consumer disguise the ethical and exploitative dynamics of addiction surplus by examining ways in which addictive consumptions fail to conform to notions of autonomy and rationality. Four measures are identified to contain the distorting effects of addiction surplus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Anomalous Hall effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaosa, Naoto; Sinova, Jairo; Onoda, Shigeki; MacDonald, A. H.; Ong, N. P.

    2010-04-01

    The anomalous Hall effect (AHE) occurs in solids with broken time-reversal symmetry, typically in a ferromagnetic phase, as a consequence of spin-orbit coupling. Experimental and theoretical studies of the AHE are reviewed, focusing on recent developments that have provided a more complete framework for understanding this subtle phenomenon and have, in many instances, replaced controversy by clarity. Synergy between experimental and theoretical works, both playing a crucial role, has been at the heart of these advances. On the theoretical front, the adoption of the Berry-phase concepts has established a link between the AHE and the topological nature of the Hall currents. On the experimental front, new experimental studies of the AHE in transition metals, transition-metal oxides, spinels, pyrochlores, and metallic dilute magnetic semiconductors have established systematic trends. These two developments, in concert with first-principles electronic structure calculations, strongly favor the dominance of an intrinsic Berry-phase-related AHE mechanism in metallic ferromagnets with moderate conductivity. The intrinsic AHE can be expressed in terms of the Berry-phase curvatures and it is therefore an intrinsic quantum-mechanical property of a perfect crystal. An extrinsic mechanism, skew scattering from disorder, tends to dominate the AHE in highly conductive ferromagnets. The full modern semiclassical treatment of the AHE is reviewed which incorporates an anomalous contribution to wave-packet group velocity due to momentum-space Berry curvatures and correctly combines the roles of intrinsic and extrinsic (skew-scattering and side-jump) scattering-related mechanisms. In addition, more rigorous quantum-mechanical treatments based on the Kubo and Keldysh formalisms are reviewed, taking into account multiband effects, and demonstrate the equivalence of all three linear response theories in the metallic regime. Building on results from recent experiment and theory, a

  14. 41 CFR 102-37.200 - What certifications must a SASP make when requesting surplus property for donation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... a SASP make when requesting surplus property for donation? 102-37.200 Section 102-37.200 Public... MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 37-DONATION OF SURPLUS PERSONAL PROPERTY State Agency for Surplus... requesting surplus property for donation? When requesting or applying for property, you must certify that: (a...

  15. Anomalous spreading behaviour of polyethyleneglycoldistearate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Anomalous behaviour; polythyleneglycoldistearate; air/water interface; ... distinguished these monolayer states in terms of molecular ordering, including the .... It has been found that the compressibilities of the materials in the condensed phase.

  16. Renewal-anomalous-heterogeneous files

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flomenbom, Ophir

    2010-01-01

    Renewal-anomalous-heterogeneous files are solved. A simple file is made of Brownian hard spheres that diffuse stochastically in an effective 1D channel. Generally, Brownian files are heterogeneous: the spheres' diffusion coefficients are distributed and the initial spheres' density is non-uniform. In renewal-anomalous files, the distribution of waiting times for individual jumps is not exponential as in Brownian files, yet obeys: ψ α (t)∼t -1-α , 0 2 >, obeys, 2 >∼ 2 > nrml α , where 2 > nrml is the MSD in the corresponding Brownian file. This scaling is an outcome of an exact relation (derived here) connecting probability density functions of Brownian files and renewal-anomalous files. It is also shown that non-renewal-anomalous files are slower than the corresponding renewal ones.

  17. Search for anomalous production of photonic events with missing energy in $e^+ e^-$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 130-172 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Ackerstaff, K; Allison, J; Altekamp, N; Anderson, K J; Anderson, S; Arcelli, S; Asai, S; Ashby, S F; Axen, D A; Azuelos, Georges; Ball, A H; Barberio, E; Barlow, R J; Bartoldus, R; Batley, J Richard; Baumann, S; Bechtluft, J; Beeston, C; Behnke, T; Bell, A N; Bell, K W; Bella, G; Bentvelsen, Stanislaus Cornelius Maria; Bethke, Siegfried; Betts, S; Biebel, O; Biguzzi, A; Bird, S D; Blobel, Volker; Bloodworth, Ian J; Bloomer, J E; Bobinski, M; Bock, P; Bonacorsi, D; Boutemeur, M; Braibant, S; Brigliadori, L; Brown, R M; Burckhart, Helfried J; Burgard, C; Bürgin, R; Capiluppi, P; Carnegie, R K; Carter, A A; Carter, J R; Chang, C Y; Charlton, D G; Chrisman, D; Clarke, P E L; Cohen, I; Conboy, J E; Cooke, O C; Couyoumtzelis, C; Coxe, R L; Cuffiani, M; Dado, S; Dallapiccola, C; Dallavalle, G M; Davis, R; De Jong, S; del Pozo, L A; Desch, Klaus; Dienes, B; Dixit, M S; Doucet, M; Duchovni, E; Duckeck, G; Duerdoth, I P; Eatough, D; Edwards, J E G; Estabrooks, P G; Evans, H G; Evans, M; Fabbri, Franco Luigi; Fanfani, A; Fanti, M; Faust, A A; Feld, L; Fiedler, F; Fierro, M; Fischer, H M; Fleck, I; Folman, R; Fong, D G; Foucher, M; Fürtjes, A; Futyan, D I; Gagnon, P; Gary, J W; Gascon, J; Gascon-Shotkin, S M; Geddes, N I; Geich-Gimbel, C; Geralis, T; Giacomelli, G; Giacomelli, P; Giacomelli, R; Gibson, V; Gibson, W R; Gingrich, D M; Glenzinski, D A; Goldberg, J; Goodrick, M J; Gorn, W; Grandi, C; Gross, E; Grunhaus, Jacob; Gruwé, M; Hajdu, C; Hanson, G G; Hansroul, M; Hapke, M; Hargrove, C K; Hart, P A; Hartmann, C; Hauschild, M; Hawkes, C M; Hawkings, R; Hemingway, Richard J; Herndon, M; Herten, G; Heuer, R D; Hildreth, M D; Hill, J C; Hillier, S J; Hobson, P R; Höcker, Andreas; Homer, R James; Honma, A K; Horváth, D; Hossain, K R; Howard, R; Hüntemeyer, P; Hutchcroft, D E; Igo-Kemenes, P; Imrie, D C; Ingram, M R; Ishii, K; Jawahery, A; Jeffreys, P W; Jeremie, H; Jimack, Martin Paul; Joly, A; Jones, C R; Jones, G; Jones, M; Jost, U; Jovanovic, P; Junk, T R; Kanzaki, J I; Karlen, D A; Kartvelishvili, V G; Kawagoe, K; Kawamoto, T; Kayal, P I; Keeler, Richard K; Kellogg, R G; Kennedy, B W; Kirk, J; Klier, A; Kluth, S; Kobayashi, T; Kobel, M; Koetke, D S; Kokott, T P; Kolrep, M; Komamiya, S; Kress, T; Krieger, P; Von Krogh, J; Kyberd, P; Lafferty, G D; Lahmann, R; Lai, W P; Lanske, D; Lauber, J; Lautenschlager, S R; Layter, J G; Lazic, D; Lee, A M; Lefebvre, E; Lellouch, Daniel; Letts, J; Levinson, L; Lloyd, S L; Loebinger, F K; Long, G D; Losty, Michael J; Ludwig, J; Liu, D; Macchiolo, A; MacPherson, A L; Mannelli, M; Marcellini, S; Markopoulos, C; Markus, C; Martin, A J; Martin, J P; Martínez, G; Mashimo, T; Mättig, P; McDonald, W J; McKenna, J A; McKigney, E A; McMahon, T J; McPherson, R A; Meijers, F; Menke, S; Merritt, F S; Mes, H; Meyer, J; Michelini, Aldo; Mikenberg, G; Miller, D J; Mincer, A; Mir, R; Mohr, W; Montanari, A; Mori, T; Müller, U; Mihara, S; Nagai, K; Nakamura, I; Neal, H A; Nellen, B; Nisius, R; O'Neale, S W; Oakham, F G; Odorici, F; Ögren, H O; Oh, A; Oldershaw, N J; Oreglia, M J; Orito, S; Pálinkás, J; Pásztor, G; Pater, J R; Patrick, G N; Patt, J; Pérez-Ochoa, R; Petzold, S; Pfeifenschneider, P; Pilcher, J E; Pinfold, J L; Plane, D E; Poffenberger, P R; Poli, B; Posthaus, A; Rembser, C; Robertson, S; Robins, S A; Rodning, N L; Roney, J M; Rooke, A M; Rossi, A M; Routenburg, P; Rozen, Y; Runge, K; Runólfsson, O; Ruppel, U; Rust, D R; Rylko, R; Sachs, K; Saeki, T; Sang, W M; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E; Sbarra, C; Schaile, A D; Schaile, O; Scharf, F; Scharff-Hansen, P; Schieck, J; Schleper, P; Schmitt, B; Schmitt, S; Schöning, A; Schröder, M; Schultz-Coulon, H C; Schumacher, M; Schwick, C; Scott, W G; Shears, T G; Shen, B C; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C H; Sherwood, P; Siroli, G P; Sittler, A; Skillman, A; Skuja, A; Smith, A M; Snow, G A; Sobie, Randall J; Söldner-Rembold, S; Springer, R W; Sproston, M; Stephens, K; Steuerer, J; Stockhausen, B; Stoll, K; Strom, D; Ströhmer, R; Szymanski, P; Tafirout, R; Talbot, S D; Tanaka, S; Taras, P; Tarem, S; Teuscher, R; Thiergen, M; Thomson, M A; Von Törne, E; Torrence, E; Towers, S; Trigger, I; Trócsányi, Z L; Tsur, E; Turcot, A S; Turner-Watson, M F; Utzat, P; Van Kooten, R; Verzocchi, M; Vikas, P; Vokurka, E H; Voss, H; Wäckerle, F; Wagner, A; Ward, C P; Ward, D R; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Wells, P S; Wermes, N; White, J S; Wilkens, B; Wilson, G W; Wilson, J A; Wyatt, T R; Yamashita, S; Yekutieli, G; Zacek, V; Zer-Zion, D

    1998-01-01

    Photonic events with large missing energy have been observed in e+e- collisions at centre-of-mass energies of 130, 136, 161 and 172 GeV using the OPAL detector at LEP. Results are presented based on search topologies designed to select events with a single photon and missing transverse energy or events with a pair of acoplanar photons. In both search topologies, cross-section measurements are performed within the kinematic acceptance of the selection. These results are compared with the expectations from the Standard Model processes e+e- -> nu nu(bar) gamma (gamma) (single-photon) and e+e- -> \

  18. Anomalous magnetoresistance in amorphous metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuz'menko, V.M.; Vladychkin, A.N.; Mel'nikov, V.I.; Sudovtsev, A.I.

    1984-01-01

    The magnetoresistance of amorphous Bi, Ca, V and Yb films is investigated in fields up to 4 T at low temperatures. For all metals the magnetoresistance is positive, sharply decreases with growth of temperature and depends anomalously on the magnetic field strength. For amorphous superconductors the results agree satisfactorily with the theory of anomalous magnetoresistance in which allowance is made for scattering of electrons by the superconducting fluctuations

  19. Utilization of surplus electricity from wind power for dynamic biogas upgrading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurgensen, Lars; Ehimen, Ehiazesebhor Augustine; Born, Jens

    2014-01-01

    The methanation of CO2 has been increasingly discussed for the potential long term storage of electricity and for facilitating grid load management. Using the regions of northern Germany as a case study, the feasibility of CO2 conversion from biogas plants and its integration in existing natural...... gas grid was examined in this study. Furthermore the material and energy flows of in the methanation process, were evaluated to provide expression for the quantities of excess electrical energy which could be potentially stored using the biogas integrated systems. The study results showed...... that with 480 biogas plants in the region would be able to utilize up to 0.7 TWh surplus electricity could be used to produce 100 106 m3 at standard temperature and pressure of upgraded methane per year....

  20. Fractional Diffusion Equations and Anomalous Diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista, Luiz Roberto; Kaminski Lenzi, Ervin

    2018-01-01

    Preface; 1. Mathematical preliminaries; 2. A survey of the fractional calculus; 3. From normal to anomalous diffusion; 4. Fractional diffusion equations: elementary applications; 5. Fractional diffusion equations: surface effects; 6. Fractional nonlinear diffusion equation; 7. Anomalous diffusion: anisotropic case; 8. Fractional Schrödinger equations; 9. Anomalous diffusion and impedance spectroscopy; 10. The Poisson–Nernst–Planck anomalous (PNPA) models; References; Index.

  1. Anomalous and resonance small-angle scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epperson, J.E.; Thiyagarajan, P.

    1988-01-01

    Significant changes in the small-angle scattered intensity can be induced by making measurements with radiation close to an absorption edge of an appropriate atomic species contained in the sample. These changes can be related quantitatively to the real and imaginary anomalous-dispersion terms for the scattering factor (X-rays) or scattering length (neutrons). The physics inherent in these anomalous-dispersion terms is first discussed before consideration of how they enter the relevant scattering theory. Two major areas of anomalous-scattering research have emerged; macromolecules in solution and unmixing of metallic alloys. Research in each area is reviewed, illustrating both the feasibility and potential of these techniques. All the experimental results reported to date have been obtained with X-rays. However, it is pointed out that the formalism is the same for the analog experiment with neutrons, and a number of suitable isotopes exist which exhibit resonance in an accessible range of energy. Potential applications of resonance small-angle neutron scattering are discussed. (orig.)

  2. Anomalous momentum transport from drift waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez, R.R.; Staebler, G.M.

    1993-01-01

    A sheared slab magnetic field model B = B 0 [z + (x/L s )y], with inhomogeneous flows in the y and z directions, is used to perform a fully-kinetic stability analysis of the ion temperature gradient (ITG) and dissipative trapped electron (DTE) modes. The concomitant quasilinear stress components that couple to the local perpendicular (y-component) and parallel (z-component) momentum transport are also calculated and the anomalous perpendicular and parallel viscous stresses obtained. A breakdown of the ITG-induced perpendicular viscous stress is generally observed at moderate values of the sheared perpendicular flow. The ITG-induced parallel viscous stress is generally larger and strongly dependent on the sheared flows. The DTE-induced perpendicular viscous stress may sometimes be negative, tending to cancel the ITG contributions while the DTE-induced parallel viscous stress is generally small. The effect of the perpendicular stress component in the momentum balance equations is generally small while the parallel stress component can dominate the usual neoclassical viscous stress terms. The dominant contribution to parallel viscous stress by the ITG mode suggests that bulk plasma toroidal momentum confinement, like energy confinement, is governed by an anomalous ion loss mechanism. Furthermore, the large anomalous effect suggests that the neoclassical explanation of poloidal flows in tokamaks may be incorrect. The present results are in general agreement with existing experimental observations on momentum transport in tokamaks

  3. A Mystery of the Global Surplus and its Ramification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko G Malovic

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with phenomenon of the increasingly indicative global imbalances and lagging genesis of balance of payments (BoP accounting in an attempt to accommodate the ongoing mutation of international trade and finance. Namely, although BoP of the world as a whole should be zero since international trade in goods, services and financial assets ought to be a zero-sum game, our planet apparently runs a non-negligible and rising BoP surplus, projected to reach 1% of global GDP by 2015! To make the puzzle more bizarre, IMF statistics up until 2004 had recorded a persistent BoP deficit for the entire globe, which P. Krugman dubbed “The Mystery of the missing Surplus”. Well, surplus is back with the vengeance – while this paper tries to make sense of the phenomenon and pinpoint both its determinants and likely economic consequences. In conclusion, it appears that 1 during international financial crises quality and accuracy of the BoP statistics worsens worldwide, 2 net global imbalances may still be much smaller than we commonly believe, 3 true culprits may not be our usual suspects, 4 gross trade exhibits stark differences once confronted with decomposed value-added net exports and imports free of double counted processed exports and indirect exporting, 5 also, deliberate misreporting of cross-border investment proceeds as well as MNE’s transfer pricing practices may account for a relevant portion of registered global imbalances, and finally, 6 even the latest 6th edition of the IMF’s BoP and IIP Manual explicitly tackles but a few of the factors behind the returning surplus mystery. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE

  4. TEORI SURPLUS BERSIH: VALUASI PERUSAHAAN BERDASARKAN DATA AKUNTANSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEWA GEDE WIRAMA

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Fundamental accounting research under measurement perspective regained researchers’ consideration following the publications of Ohlson (1995 and Feltham and Ohlson (1995 valuation models. While fundamental researches before Ball and Brown (1968 were mostly focusing on the determination of the “correct” income number in economic sense, current fundamental researches are more about firm valuation based on accounting numbers.Ohlson (1995 and Feltham and Ohlson (1995 valuation models are based on clean surplus theory. The theory considers accounting as a wealth creation and distribution recording system, and thus provides the base of the relation between firm value and accounting numbers. Based on neoclassical concept of value, clean surplus theory states that a firm value is equal to its book value plus the present value of expected abnormal earnings, termed as goodwill. Based on that relation, Ohlson (1995 formulated a closed-form valuation model that explain firm value based only on current and one period ahead book value and earnings. Feltham and Ohlson (1995 is an attempt to generalized Ohlson (1995 for accounting conservatism and growth.Clean surplus theory is now used as an alternative to CAPM in estimating cost of capital and risk. While Feltham and Ohlson (1995 model seems to have a misspecification for conservatism, the empirical validity of Ohslon (1995 model has been tested with relatively satisfactory results. The model is deemed to be valid as it explains stock prices. The test results, however, also suggest that there is plenty of room to make further contribution in refining the theory. Further research suggestion includes, among others, examination of factors affecting abnormal earnings and the validity of the theory in general, more accurate specification of LID, and enhancement of Feltham and Ohlson (1995 model in dealing with accounting conservatism and growth.

  5. A Mystery of the Global Surplus and its Ramification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malović Marko

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with phenomenon of the increasingly indicative global imbalances and lagging genesis of balance of payments (BoP accounting in an attempt to accommodate the ongoing mutation of international trade and finance. Namely, although BoP of the world as a whole should be zero since international trade in goods, services and financial assets ought to be a zero-sum game, our planet apparently runs a non-negligible and rising BoP surplus, projected to reach 1% of global GDP by 2015! To make the puzzle more bizarre, IMF statistics up until 2004 had recorded a persistent BoP deficit for the entire globe, which P. Krugman dubbed “The Mystery of the missing Surplus”. Well, surplus is back with the vengeance – while this paper tries to make sense of the phenomenon and pinpoint both its determinants and likely economic consequences. In conclusion, it appears that 1 during international financial crises quality and accuracy of the BoP statistics worsens worldwide, 2 net global imbalances may still be much smaller than we commonly believe, 3 true culprits may not be our usual suspects, 4 gross trade exhibits stark differences once confronted with decomposed value-added net exports and imports free of double counted processed exports and indirect exporting, 5 also, deliberate misreporting of cross-border investment proceeds as well as MNE’s transfer pricing practices may account for a relevant portion of registered global imbalances, and finally, 6 even the latest 6th edition of the IMF’s BoP and IIP Manual explicitly tackles but a few of the factors behind the returning surplus mystery.

  6. Habit Formation, Surplus Consumption and Return Predictability: International Evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsted, Tom; Hyde, Stuart; Møller, Stig V.

    On an international post World War II dataset, we use an iterated GMM pro- cedure to estimate and test the Campbell-Cochrane (1999) habit formation model. In addition, we analyze the predictive power of the surplus consumption ratio for future asset returns. We find that, although...... there are important cross-country differences, for the majority of countries in our sample the model gets empirical support in a variety of diffrent dimensions, including reasonable estimates of risk- free rates, and the model dominates the time-separable power utility model in terms of pricing errors. Further...... ratio is also a powerful predictor of future bond returns....

  7. STEM crisis or STEM surplus? Yes and yes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yi; Larson, Richard C

    2015-05-01

    The last decade has seen considerable concern regarding a shortage of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) workers to meet the demands of the labor market. At the same time, many experts have presented evidence of a STEM worker surplus. A comprehensive literature review, in conjunction with employment statistics, newspaper articles, and our own interviews with company recruiters, reveals a significant heterogeneity in the STEM labor market: the academic sector is generally oversupplied, while the government sector and private industry have shortages in specific areas.

  8. The Democratic Surplus that Constitutionalised the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

    2015-01-01

    This article questions the very foundation of the doctrine of a so-called “democratic deficit” in the EU. Yet in order to argue beyond nationalist myths, clear-cut concepts are necessary. Speaking about democracy in the EU, the article exposes four dimensions that constitute a “democratic surplus...... nation-state, the EU, secondly, is not build by nobles and monarchs, nor by war. Third, a separation of powers is obvious. And fourth, this article demonstrates how the EU rescued the democratic nation-state....

  9. Optimization of Surplus Reinsurance Treaty using the Conditional Tail Expectation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abderrahim El Attar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we propose a new optimization strategy for reinsurance using the genetic algorithms. This approach is to determine an optimal structure of a "surplus" reinsurance contract by finding the optimal cession rates through an optimization model which is based on the minimization of the Conditional Tail Expectation (CTE risk measure under the constraint of technical benefit. This approach can be seen as a decision support tool that can be used by managers to minimize the actuarial risk and maximize the technical benefit in the insurance company.

  10. Westinghouse Hanford Company risk management strategy for retired surplus facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, W.E.; Coles, G.A.; Shultz, M.V.; Egge, R.G.

    1993-09-01

    This paper describes an approach that facilitates management of personnel safety and environmental release risk from retired, surplus Westinghouse Hanford Company-managed facilities during the predemolition time frame. These facilities are located in the 100 and 200 Areas of the 1,450-km 2 (570-mi 2 ) Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The production reactors are located in the 100 Area and the chemical separation facilities are located in the 200 Area. This paper also includes a description of the risk evaluation process, shows applicable results, and includes a description of comparison costs for different risk reduction options

  11. Two ways to handle a pension plan surplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beautyman, M J

    1991-01-01

    A healthcare organization wanting to tap into its pension plan surplus may be reluctant to do so for fear of Medicare recapture. By following a recent court decision and a reasonable interpretation of Medicare regulations, however, a facility may terminate an existing pension plan, purchase a group annuity contract, and reduce Medicare recapture. Two methods for treating termination of a plan are in line with Medicare rules. A facility considering termination should analyze the effects of both and use the method likely to produce a better financial result.

  12. ANL-W MOX fuel lead assemblies data report for the surplus plutonium disposition environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connor, D.G.; Fisher, S.E.; Holdaway, R.

    1997-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to support the US Department of Energy (DOE) Fissile Materials Disposition Program's preparation of the draft surplus plutonium disposition environmental impact statement (EIS). This is one of several responses to data call requests for background information on activities associated with the operation of the lead assembly (LA) mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication facility. The DOE Office of fissile Materials Disposition (DOE-MD) has developed a dual-path strategy for disposition of surplus weapons-grade plutonium. One of the paths is to disposition surplus plutonium through irradiation of MOX fuel in commercial nuclear reactors. MOX fuel consists of plutonium and uranium oxides (PuO 2 and UO 2 ), typically containing 95% or more UO 2 . DOE-MD requested that the DOE Site Operations Offices nominate DOE sites that meet established minimum requirements that could produce MOX LAs. The paper describes the following: Site map and the LA facility; process descriptions; resource needs; employment requirements; wastes, emissions, and exposures; accident analysis; transportation; qualitative decontamination and decommissioning; post-irradiation examination; LA fuel bundle fabrication; LA EIS data report assumptions; and LA EIS data report supplement

  13. ANL-W MOX fuel lead assemblies data report for the surplus plutonium disposition environmental impact statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Connor, D.G.; Fisher, S.E.; Holdaway, R. [and others

    1997-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to support the US Department of Energy (DOE) Fissile Materials Disposition Program`s preparation of the draft surplus plutonium disposition environmental impact statement (EIS). This is one of several responses to data call requests for background information on activities associated with the operation of the lead assembly (LA) mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication facility. The DOE Office of fissile Materials Disposition (DOE-MD) has developed a dual-path strategy for disposition of surplus weapons-grade plutonium. One of the paths is to disposition surplus plutonium through irradiation of MOX fuel in commercial nuclear reactors. MOX fuel consists of plutonium and uranium oxides (PuO{sub 2} and UO{sub 2}), typically containing 95% or more UO{sub 2}. DOE-MD requested that the DOE Site Operations Offices nominate DOE sites that meet established minimum requirements that could produce MOX LAs. The paper describes the following: Site map and the LA facility; process descriptions; resource needs; employment requirements; wastes, emissions, and exposures; accident analysis; transportation; qualitative decontamination and decommissioning; post-irradiation examination; LA fuel bundle fabrication; LA EIS data report assumptions; and LA EIS data report supplement.

  14. Anomalous vector-boson self-interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nir, Y.

    1988-03-01

    We study the possibility that vector-boson self-couplings may differ from their standard model values. We find that known constraints from loop-effects and from unitarity already imply that such deviations are of order 10 -2 or less. Consequently, even if the correct model differs from the standard model and even if the energy scale of new physics is as low as 1 TeV, a direct observation of anomalous couplings is very improbable in the LEP-200 and Tevatron experiments. (author)

  15. Search for Anomalous Photonic Events with Missing Energy in $e^{+} e^{-}$ Collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 130, 136 and 183 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Abbiendi, G.; Alexander, G.; Allison, John; Altekamp, N.; Anderson, K.J.; Anderson, S.; Arcelli, S.; Asai, S.; Ashby, S.F.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Ball, A.H.; Barberio, E.; Barlow, Roger J.; Bartoldus, R.; Batley, J.R.; Baumann, S.; Bechtluft, J.; Behnke, T.; Bell, Kenneth Watson; Bella, G.; Bellerive, A.; Bentvelsen, S.; Bethke, S.; Betts, S.; Biebel, O.; Biguzzi, A.; Bird, S.D.; Blobel, V.; Bloodworth, I.J.; Bobinski, M.; Bock, P.; Bohme, J.; Bonacorsi, D.; Boutemeur, M.; Braibant, S.; Bright-Thomas, P.; Brigliadori, L.; Brown, Robert M.; Burckhart, H.J.; Burgard, C.; Burgin, R.; Capiluppi, P.; Carnegie, R.K.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, David G.; Chrisman, D.; Ciocca, C.; Clarke, P.E.L.; Clay, E.; Cohen, I.; Conboy, J.E.; Cooke, O.C.; Couyoumtzelis, C.; Coxe, R.L.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; Dallavalle, G.Marco; Davis, R.; De Jong, S.; del Pozo, L.A.; de Roeck, A.; Desch, K.; Dienes, B.; Dixit, M.S.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Eatough, D.; Estabrooks, P.G.; Etzion, E.; Evans, H.G.; Fabbri, F.; Fanti, M.; Faust, A.A.; Fiedler, F.; Fierro, M.; Fleck, I.; Folman, R.; Furtjes, A.; Futyan, D.I.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, J.W.; Gascon, J.; Gascon-Shotkin, S.M.; Gaycken, G.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Gibson, V.; Gibson, W.R.; Gingrich, D.M.; Glenzinski, D.; Goldberg, J.; Gorn, W.; Grandi, C.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwe, M.; Hanson, G.G.; Hansroul, M.; Hapke, M.; Harder, K.; Hargrove, C.K.; Hartmann, C.; Hauschild, M.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R.J.; Herndon, M.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R.D.; Hildreth, M.D.; Hill, J.C.; Hillier, S.J.; Hobson, P.R.; Hocker, James Andrew; Homer, R.J.; Honma, A.K.; Horvath, D.; Hossain, K.R.; Howard, R.; Huntemeyer, P.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Imrie, D.C.; Ishii, K.; Jacob, F.R.; Jawahery, A.; Jeremie, H.; Jimack, M.; Jones, C.R.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T.R.; Karlen, D.; Kartvelishvili, V.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Kayal, P.I.; Keeler, R.K.; Kellogg, R.G.; Kennedy, B.W.; Klier, A.; Kluth, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Koetke, D.S.; Kokott, T.P.; Kolrep, M.; Komamiya, S.; Kowalewski, Robert V.; Kress, T.; Krieger, P.; von Krogh, J.; Kuhl, T.; Kyberd, P.; Lafferty, G.D.; Lanske, D.; Lauber, J.; Lautenschlager, S.R.; Lawson, I.; Layter, J.G.; Lazic, D.; Lee, A.M.; Lellouch, D.; Letts, J.; Levinson, L.; Liebisch, R.; List, B.; Littlewood, C.; Lloyd, A.W.; Lloyd, S.L.; Loebinger, F.K.; Long, G.D.; Losty, M.J.; Ludwig, J.; Lui, D.; Macchiolo, A.; Macpherson, A.; Mader, W.; Mannelli, M.; Marcellini, S.; Markopoulos, C.; Martin, A.J.; Martin, J.P.; Martinez, G.; Mashimo, T.; Mattig, Peter; McDonald, W.John; McKenna, J.; Mckigney, E.A.; McMahon, T.J.; McPherson, R.A.; Meijers, F.; Menke, S.; Merritt, F.S.; Mes, H.; Meyer, J.; Michelini, A.; Mihara, S.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D.J.; Mir, R.; Mohr, W.; Montanari, A.; Mori, T.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Neal, H.A.; Nellen, B.; Nisius, R.; O'Neale, S.W.; Oakham, F.G.; Odorici, F.; Ogren, H.O.; Oreglia, M.J.; Orito, S.; Palinkas, J.; Pasztor, G.; Pater, J.R.; Patrick, G.N.; Patt, J.; Perez-Ochoa, R.; Petzold, S.; Pfeifenschneider, P.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, David E.; Poffenberger, P.; Polok, J.; Przybycien, M.; Rembser, C.; Rick, H.; Robertson, S.; Robins, S.A.; Rodning, N.; Roney, J.M.; Roscoe, K.; Rossi, A.M.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Runolfsson, O.; Rust, D.R.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sahr, O.; Sang, W.M.; Sarkisian, E.K.G.; Sbarra, C.; Schaile, A.D.; Schaile, O.; Scharf, F.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schieck, J.; Schmitt, B.; Schmitt, S.; Schoning, A.; Schroder, Matthias; Schumacher, M.; Schwick, C.; Scott, W.G.; Seuster, R.; Shears, T.G.; Shen, B.C.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C.H.; Sherwood, P.; Siroli, G.P.; Sittler, A.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A.M.; Snow, G.A.; Sobie, R.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Sproston, M.; Stahl, A.; Stephens, K.; Steuerer, J.; Stoll, K.; Strom, David M.; Strohmer, R.; Surrow, B.; Talbot, S.D.; Tanaka, S.; Taras, P.; Tarem, S.; Teuscher, R.; Thiergen, M.; Thomson, M.A.; von Torne, E.; Torrence, E.; Towers, S.; Trigger, I.; Trocsanyi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turcot, A.S.; Turner-Watson, M.F.; Van Kooten, Rick J.; Vannerem, P.; Verzocchi, M.; Voss, H.; Wackerle, F.; Wagner, A.; Ward, C.P.; Ward, D.R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, N.K.; Wells, P.S.; Wermes, N.; White, J.S.; Wilson, G.W.; Wilson, J.A.; Wyatt, T.R.; Yamashita, S.; Yekutieli, G.; Zacek, V.; Zer-Zion, D.

    1999-01-01

    Photonic events with large missing energy have been observed in e+e- collisions at centre-of-mass energies of 130, 136 and 183 GeV collected in 1997 using the OPAL detector at LEP. Results are presented for event topologies with a single photon and missing transverse energy or with an acoplanar photon pair. Cross-section measurements are performed within the kinematic acceptance of each selection. These results are compared with the expectations from the Standard Model process e+e- to nunubar + photon(s). No evidence is observed for new physics contributions to these final states. Using the data at Ecm = 183 GeV, upper limits on sigma(e+e- to X.Y)*BR(X to Y gamma) and sigma(e+e- to X.X)*BR(X to Y gamma)**2 are derived for the case of stable and invisible Y. These limits apply to single and pair production of excited neutrinos (X = nu*, Y = nu), to neutralino production (X = Chi_2^0, Y = Chi_1^0) and to supersymmetric models in which X = chi_1^0 and Y is a light gravitino.

  16. Disposition of surplus highly enriched uranium: Draft environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-10-01

    This document assesses the environmental impacts at four potential sites that may result from alternatives for the disposition of United States-origin weapons-usable highly enriched uranium (HEU) that has been or may be declared surplus to national defense or defense-related program needs. In addition to the no action alternative, it assesses four alternatives that would eliminate the weapons-usability of HEU by blending it with depleted uranium, natural uranium, or low-enriched uranium (LEU) to create low-enriched uranium, either as commercial reactor fuel feedstock or as low-level radioactive waste. The potential blending sites are DOE's Y-12 Plant at Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee; DOE's Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina; the Babcock ampersand Wilcox Naval Nuclear Fuel Division Facility in Lynchburg, Virginia; and the Nuclear Fuel Services Fuel Fabrication Plant in Erwin, Tennessee. Evaluations of impacts on site infrastructure, water resources, air quality and noise, socioeconomic resources, waste management, public and occupational health, and environmental justice for the potential blending sites are included in the assessment. The intersite transportation of nuclear and hazardous materials is also assessed. The preferred alternative is to blend down surplus HEU to LEU for maximum commercial use as reactor fuel feed which would likely be done at a combination of DOE and commercial sites

  17. Patients' Attitudes towards the Surplus Frozen Embryos in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Jin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Assisted reproductive techniques have been used in China for more than 20 years. This study investigates the attitudes of surplus embryo holders towards embryos storage and donation for medical research. Methods. A total of 363 couples who had completed in vitro fertilization (IVF treatment and had already had biological children but who still had frozen embryos in storage were invited to participate. Interviews were conducted by clinics in a narrative style. Results. Family size was the major reason for participants’ (discontinuation of embryo storage; moreover, the moral status of embryos was an important factor for couples choosing embryo storage, while the storage fee was an important factor for couples choosing embryo disposal. Most couples discontinued the storage of their embryos once their children were older than 3 years. In our study, 58.8% of the couples preferred to dispose of surplus embryos rather than donate them to research, citing a lack of information and distrust in science as significant reasons for their decision. Conclusions. Interviews regarding frozen embryos, including patients’ expectations for embryo storage and information to assist them with decisions regarding embryo disposal, are beneficial for policies addressing embryo disposition and embryo donation in China.

  18. ORNL Surplus Facilities Management Program maintenance and surveillance plan for fiscal year 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coobs, J.H.; Myrick, T.E.

    1986-10-01

    The Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is part of the Department of Energy's (DOE) National SFMP, administered by the Richland Operations Office. The purpose and objectives of the national program are set forth in the current SFMP Program Plan and include (1) the maintenance and surveillance of facilities awaiting decommissioning, (2) planning for the orderly decommissioning of these facilities, and (3) implementation of a program to accomplish the facility disposition in a safe, cost-effective, and timely manner. As outlined in the national program plan, participating SFMP contractors are required to prepare a formal plan that documents the maintenance and surveillance (M and S) programs established for each site. This report has been prepared to provide this documentation for those facilties included in the ORNL SFMP

  19. Site Selection for Surplus Plutonium Disposition Facilities at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wike, L.D.

    2000-01-01

    A site selection study was conducted to evaluate locations for the proposed Surplus Plutonium Disposition Facilities. Facilities to be located include the Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility, the Pit Disassembly and Conversion Facility (PDCF), and the Plutonium Immobilization Project (PIP) facility. Objectives of the study include: (1) Confirm that the Department of Energy (DOE) selected locations for the MOX and PDCF were suitable based on selected siting criteria, (2) Recommend a site in the vicinity of F Area that is suitable for the PIP, and (3) Identify alternative suitable sites for one or more of these facilities in the event that further geotechnical characterization or other considerations result in disqualification of a currently proposed site

  20. Anomalous x-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendin, G.

    1979-01-01

    The availability of tunable synchrotron radiation has made it possible systematically to perform x-ray diffraction studies in regions of anomalous scattering near absorption edges, e.g. in order to derive phase information for crystal structure determination. An overview is given of recent experimental and theoretical work and discuss the properties of the anomalous atomic scattering factor, with emphasis on threshold resonances and damping effects. The results are applied to a discussion of the very strong anomalous dispersion recently observed near the L 3 edge in a cesium complex. Also given is an overview of elements and levels where similar behavior can be expected. Finally, the influence of solid state and chemical effects on the absorption edge structure is discussed. 64 references

  1. Anomalous couplings at LEP2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayolle, D.

    2002-01-01

    In its second phase, LEP has allowed to study four fermion processes never observed before. Results are presented on the charged triple gauge boson couplings (TGC) from the W-pair, Single W and Single γ production. The anomalous quartic gauge couplings (QGC) are constrained using production of WWγ, νν-barγγ and Z γγ final states. Finally, limits on the neutral anomalous gauge couplings (NGC) using the Z γ and ZZ production processes are also reported. All results are consistent with the Standard Model expectations. (authors)

  2. Energy coppice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, C.P.

    1991-01-01

    One form of renewable energy production involves the growing of energy coppice on agricultural land. It is important as it can be grown on those areas of agricultural land which are surplus to agricultural production. Hence it can be seen as an alternative farm crop, and as such, a possible solution to the problem of agricultural surpluses as well as providing a source of energy. Studies have indicated that up to one million hectares of land surplus to agricultural production may be suitable for growing energy coppice. However, its development as an agricultural crop will only happen if it can be produced at costs competitive with alternative fuels and there is a reliable and long term market offering good returns. (author)

  3. The local field potential reflects surplus spike synchrony

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denker, Michael; Roux, Sébastien; Lindén, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    While oscillations of the local field potential (LFP) are commonly attributed to the synchronization of neuronal firing rate on the same time scale, their relationship to coincident spiking in the millisecond range is unknown. Here, we present experimental evidence to reconcile the notions...... of synchrony at the level of spiking and at the mesoscopic scale. We demonstrate that only in time intervals of significant spike synchrony that cannot be explained on the basis of firing rates, coincident spikes are better phase locked to the LFP than predicted by the locking of the individual spikes....... This effect is enhanced in periods of large LFP amplitudes. A quantitative model explains the LFP dynamics by the orchestrated spiking activity in neuronal groups that contribute the observed surplus synchrony. From the correlation analysis, we infer that neurons participate in different constellations...

  4. ELIMINATION OF CLOSTRIDIUM PERFRINGENS DURING SURPLUS ACTIVATED SLUDGE HANDLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaudiusz Grűbel

    2014-10-01

    Basis on the results of the research was concluded that microwave radiation (700W and 900W shows disintegration action expressed in COD value in the supernatant increase: 12 times increase value of COD with power 700W and 13 times for 900W radiation power. Electromagnetic wave contributed to partial higienisation of surplus activated sludge. The number of Clostridium perfringens decrease about 52% and 56% during the 120s of higienisation process with power 700W and 900W, respectively. Reduction of the overall number of bacteria under the influence of microwave radiation was 42% and 51% (respectively for 700W and 900W, and sticks from the family Enterobacteriaceae from 54% to 70% depending on the power of radiation, the time of operation and biochemical properties.

  5. Estimating the 'consumer surplus' for branded versus standardised tobacco packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendall, Philip; Eckert, Christine; Hoek, Janet; Farley, Tessa; Louviere, Jordan; Wilson, Nick; Edwards, Richard

    2016-11-01

    Tobacco companies question whether standardised (or 'plain') packaging will change smokers' behaviour. We addressed this question by estimating how standardised packaging compared to a proven tobacco control intervention, price increases through excise taxes, thus providing a quantitative measure of standardised packaging's likely effect. We conducted an online study of 311 New Zealand smokers aged 18 years and above that comprised a willingness-to-pay task comparing a branded and a standardised pack at four different price levels, and a choice experiment. The latter used an alternative-specific design, where the alternatives were a branded pack or a standardised pack, with warning theme and price varied for each pack. Respondents had higher purchase likelihoods for the branded pack (with a 30% warning) than the standardised pack (with a 75% warning) at each price level tested, and, on average, were willing to pay approximately 5% more for a branded pack. The choice experiment produced a very similar estimate of 'consumer surplus' for a branded pack. However, the size of the 'consumer surplus' varied between warning themes and by respondents' demographic characteristics. These two experiments suggest standardised packaging and larger warning labels could have a similar overall effect on adult New Zealand smokers as a 5% tobacco price increase. The findings provide further evidence for the efficacy of standardised packaging, which focuses primarily on reducing youth initiation, and suggest this measure will also bring notable benefits to adult smokers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  6. Fractional charge and anomalous commutators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frishman, Y.; Gepner, D.

    1983-06-01

    Non-integer charges on topological objects in the presence of fermions are further investigated. The connection with anomalous commutators is discussed. The reason for the identical results in two-dimensional solutions and four-dimensional monopoles is pointed out. (author)

  7. Theory of anomalous transport in toroidal helical plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, K.; Itoh, S.; Fukuyama, A.

    1992-03-01

    Theoretical model of the anomalous transport in Torsatron/Heliotron plasmas is developed, based on the current-diffusive interchange instability which is destabilized due to the averaged magnetic hill near edge. Analytic formula of transport coefficient is derived. This model explains the high edge transport, the power degradation and energy confinement scaling law and the enhanced heat-pulse thermal conduction. (author)

  8. Anomalous heat conduction in a one-dimensional ideal gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casati, Giulio; Prosen, Tomaz

    2003-01-01

    We provide firm convincing evidence that the energy transport in a one-dimensional gas of elastically colliding free particles of unequal masses is anomalous, i.e., the Fourier law does not hold. Our conclusions are confirmed by a theoretical and numerical analysis based on a Green-Kubo-type approach specialized to momentum-conserving lattices.

  9. Trust and Exchange : Effects of Temporal Embeddedness and Network Embeddedness on Providing and Dividing a Surplus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gautschi, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Dissertation of the University of Utrecht Mutually profitable cooperation is characterized by the fact that the combined efforts of the cooperating parties generate a certain surplus. The first part of the book studies the production of a surplus as a trust problem between two actors. Should an

  10. Dealing with surplus emissions in the climate negotiations after Copenhagen: What are the options for compromise?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elzen, Michel den; Roelfsema, Mark; Slingerland, Stephan

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses the environmental and financial consequences of various strategies of dealing with surplus emission allowances in the aftermath of the Copenhagen Accord. This topic remains relevant, in particular, with respect to the Russian negotiation position, as this country is the largest holder of surplus emissions. It is concluded that not addressing the surplus problem is not a feasible negotiation option, as the sheer size of the surpluses would jeopardise the environmental integrity of any future agreement. Cancelling surpluses against Russia's will, though viable, is not desirable, as it might well lead to this country opting out of this climate treaty. Three options for compromise have been selected and analysed here: (1) stricter targets for Annex I countries; (2) strategic reserve for Russia; (3) institutionalising optimal banking. It is concluded that, whereas option 1 is environmentally the best, in the present political context it is probably less feasible. The other two options, although environmentally suboptimal, seem politically more favourable. Our analysis suggests that maximal revenues for surplus-holding countries arise by releasing only a limited amount of surplus credits to the market. The institutionalisation of this effect could be a key lever to a politically feasible agreement on surplus emissions.

  11. The Impact of Financing Surpluses and Large Financing Deficits on Tests of the Pecking Order Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Abe; Verbeek, Marno; Verwijmeren, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    This paper extends the basic pecking order model of Shyam-Sunder and Myers by separating the effects of financing surpluses, normal deficits, and large deficits. Using a panel of US firms over the period 1971-2005, we find that the estimated pecking order coefficient is highest for surpluses (0.90),

  12. Essays on the relevance and use of dirty surplus accounting flows in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Y.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis intends to add empirical evidence to a recently heavily debated regulatory issue, the necessity of promoting a clean surplus income statement. I document the magnitude, and assess the relevance of dirty surplus accounting flows in European member states. In particular, this thesis

  13. Sensitivity of whitewater rafting consumers surplus to pecuniary travel cost specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald B.K. English; J. Michael Bowker

    1996-01-01

    Considerable research has examined how different ways of accounting for onsite and travel time affect surplus estimates from travel cost models. However, little has been done regarding different definitions of out-of-pocket costs. Estimates of per trip consumer surplus are developed for a zonal travel cost model for outfitted rafting on the Chattooga River. Nine price...

  14. 5 CFR 330.607 - Notification of surplus and displaced employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... employees. 330.607 Section 330.607 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS RECRUITMENT, SELECTION, AND PLACEMENT (GENERAL) Agency Career Transition Assistance Plans (CTAP) for Local Surplus and Displaced Employees § 330.607 Notification of surplus and displaced employees...

  15. 76 FR 53699 - Labor Surplus Area Classification Under Executive Orders 12073 and 10582

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Labor Surplus Area Classification Under Executive Orders 12073 and 10582 AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration, Labor. ACTION: Notice SUMMARY: The purpose of this notice is to announce the annual list of labor surplus areas for Fiscal Year...

  16. 78 FR 63248 - Labor Surplus Area Classification under Executive Orders 12073 and 10582

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Labor Surplus Area Classification under Executive Orders 12073 and 10582 AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration, Labor. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The purpose of this notice is to announce the annual list of labor surplus areas for Fiscal Year...

  17. 75 FR 9955 - Labor Surplus Area Classification Under Executive Orders 12073 and 10582

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Labor Surplus Area Classification Under Executive Orders 12073 and 10582 AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration, Labor. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The purpose of this notice is to update the 2010 Labor Surplus Areas annual list published in the...

  18. Anomalous tensoelectric effects in gallium arsenide tunnel diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekseeva, Z.M.; Vyatkin, A.P.; Krivorotov, N.P.; Shchegol' , A.A.

    1988-02-01

    Anomalous tensoelectric phenomena induced in a tunnel p-n junction by a concentrated load and by hydrostatic compression were studied. The anomalous tensoelectric effects are caused by the action of concentrators of mechanical stresses in the vicinity of the p-n junction, giving rise to local microplastic strain. Under the conditions of hydrostatic compression prolate inclusions approx.100-200 A long play the role of concentrators. Analysis of irreversible changes in the current-voltage characteristics of tunnel p-n junctions made it possible to separate the energy levels of the defects produced with plastic strain of gallium arsenide.

  19. Gauge invariance and anomalous theories at finite fermionic density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberge, A.

    1990-01-01

    We investigate the issue of stability of anomalous matter at finite fermionic density using a two-dimensional toy model. In particular, we pay careful attention to the issue of gauge invariance. We find that, contrary to some recent claims, the effective free energy (obtained by integrating out the fermions) cannot be obtained by the simple inclusion of a Chern-Simons term multiplying the fermionic chemical potential. We obtain some conditions for stability of anomalous charges when some finite density of conserved charge is present as well as for the neutral case. We also show that, under reasonable conditions, no sphaleron-type solution can exist in the toy model unless the anomalous charge density vanishes. We argue that this could be the case for more realistic models as well

  20. Quantum anomalous Bloch-Siegert shift in Weyl semimetal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Upendra; Kumar, Vipin; Enamullah, Setlur, Girish S.

    2018-05-01

    A periodic exchange of energy between the light field and two level system is known as Rabi oscillations. The Bloch-Siegert shift (BSS) is a shift in Rabi oscillation resonance condition, when the driving field is sufficiently strong. There are new type of oscillations exhibit in Weyl semimetal at far from resonance, known as anomalous Rabi oscillation. In this work, we study the phenomenon of the Bloch-Siegert shift in Weyl semimetal at far from resonance called anomalous Bloch-Siegert shift (ABSS) by purely quantum mechanical treatment and describe it's anisotropic nature. A fully numerical solution of the Floquet-Bloch equations unequivocally establishes the presence of not only anomalous Rabi oscillations in these systems but also their massless character.

  1. Microinstability-based model for anomalous thermal confinement in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, W.M.

    1986-03-01

    This paper deals with the formulation of microinstability-based thermal transport coefficients (chi/sub j/) for the purpose of modelling anomalous energy confinement properties in tokamak plasmas. Attention is primarily focused on ohmically heated discharges and the associated anomalous electron thermal transport. An appropriate expression for chi/sub e/ is developed which is consistent with reasonable global constraints on the current and electron temperature profiles as well as with the key properties of the kinetic instabilities most likely to be present. Comparisons of confinement scaling trends predicted by this model with the empirical ohmic data base indicate quite favorable agreement. The subject of anomalous ion thermal transport and its implications for high density ohmic discharges and for auxiliary-heated plasmas is also addressed

  2. Anomalous behaviour of DSSSDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grassi, L.; Torresi, D.; Acosta, L.; Figuera, P.; Fisichella, M.; Grilj, V.; Jakšić, M.; Lattuada, M.; Mijatović, T.; Milin, M.; Prepolec, L.; Skukan, N.; Soić, N.; Tokić, V.; Uroić, M.

    2012-01-01

    Double Sided Silicon Strip Detectors (DSSSDs) are often used in nuclear physics experiments in a wide energy range. According to the previous experiments, when a particle hits the interstrip region of these detectors, different effects may occur. Charge sharing, pulse height deficits and inverse polarity pulses on adjacent strips can influence the measured charge. In order to understand these effects and improve DSSSD utilization, an experiment was performed at the scanning proton microbeam of the Ruder Bošković Institute (RBI) using low proton microbeam intensity (∼fA) and two DSSSDs of thickness 75 μm and 998 μm.

  3. Edge separation using diffraction anomalous fine structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravel, B.; Bouldin, C.E.; Renevier, H.; Hodeau, J.L.; Berar, J.F.

    1999-01-01

    We exploit the crystallographic sensitivity of the Diffraction Anomalous Fine-Structure (DAFS) measurement to separate the fine structure contributions of different atomic species with closely spaced resonant energies. In BaTiO 3 the Ti K edge and Ba Lm edges are separated by 281 eV, or about 8.2 Angstrom -1 ), thus severely limiting the information content of the Ti K edge signal. Using the site selectivity of DAFS we can separate the two fine structure spectra using an iterative Kramers-Kronig method, thus extending the range of the Ti K edge spectrum. This technique has application to many rare earth/transition metal compounds, including many magnetic materials of technological significance for which K and L edges overlap in energy. (au)

  4. Powder diffraction studies using anomalous dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, D.E.; Wilkinson, A.P.

    1993-01-01

    With the increasing availability and accessibility of high resolution powder diffractometers at many synchrotron radiation sources throughout the world, there is rapidly-growing interest in the exploitation of anomalous dispersion techniques for structural studies of polycrystalline materials. In conjunction with the Rietveld profile method for structure refinement, such studies are especially useful for the determination of the site distributions of two or more atoms which are near neighbors in the periodic table, or atoms which are distributed among partially occupied sites. Additionally, it is possible to (1) determine the mean-square displacements associated with different kinds of atoms distributed over a single set of sites, (2) distinguish between different oxidation states and coordination geometries of a particular atom in a compound and (3) to determine f' for a wide range of atomic species as a function of energy in the vicinity of an absorption edge. Experimental methods for making anomalous dispersion measurements are described in some detail, including data collection strategies, data analysis and correlation problems, possible systematic errors, and the accuracy of the results. Recent work in the field is reviewed, including cation site-distribution studies (e.g. doped high T c superconductors, ternary alloys, FeCo 2 (PO 4 ) 3 , FeNi 2 BO 5 ), oxidation-state contrast (e.g. YBa 2 Cu 3 O 6+x , Eu 3 O 4 , GaCl 2 , Fe 2 PO 5 ), and the effect of coordination geometry (e.g. Y 3 Ga 5 O l2 )

  5. Unparticles and anomalous dimensions in the cuprates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karch, Andreas [Department of Physics, University of Washington,3910 15th Ave. NE, Seattle, WA 98195-1560 (United States); Limtragool, Kridsanaphong; Phillips, Philip W. [Department of Physics and Institute for Condensed Matter Theory, University of Illinois,1110 W. Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2016-03-25

    Motivated by the overwhelming evidence some type of quantum criticality underlies the power-law for the optical conductivity and T−linear resistivity in the cuprates, we demonstrate here how a scale-invariant or unparticle sector can lead to a unifying description of the observed scaling forms. We adopt the continuous mass formalism or multi band (flavor) formalism of the unparticle sector by letting various microscopic parameters be mass-dependent. In particular, we show that an effective mass that varies with the flavor index as well as a running band edge and lifetime capture the AC and DC transport phenomenology of the cuprates. A key consequence of the running mass is that the effective dynamical exponent can differ from the underlying bare critical exponent, thereby providing a mechanism for realizing the fractional values of the dynamical exponent required in a previous analysis http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.91.155126. We also predict that regardless of the bare dynamical exponent, z, a non-zero anomalous dimension for the current is required. Physically, the anomalous dimension arises because the charge depends on the flavor, mass or energy. The equivalent phenomenon in a d+1 gravitational construction is the running of the charge along the radial direction. The nature of the superconducting instability in the presence of scale invariant stuff shows that the transition temperature is not necessarily a monotonic function of the pairing interaction.

  6. Anomalous Photoionization in Xe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapisch, Marcel; Busquet, Michel

    2012-10-01

    Photoionization (PI) cross sections are important components of the opacities that are necessary for the simulation of astrophysical and ICF plasmas. Most of PI cross sections (i) start abruptly at threshold and (ii) decrease as an inverse power (e.g.3^rd) of the photon energy. In the framework of the CRASH project [1] we computed Xe opacities with the STA code [2]. We observed that the PI cross section for the 4d shell has neither of these 2 characteristics. We explain this result as interference between the bound 4d wavefunction (wf), the photon, and the free electron wf. Similar, but less pronounced effects are seen for the 5d and 5p shells. Simplified models of PI not involving the actual wf would not show this effect and would probably be inaccurate.[4pt] [1] Doss, F. W., Drake, R. P., and Kuranz, C. C., High Ener. Dens. Phys. 6, 157-61.[0pt] [2] Busquet, M., Klapisch, M., Bar-Shalom, A., et al., Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 55, 225 (2010).

  7. Magnetic effects in anomalous dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blume, M.

    1992-01-01

    Spectacular enhancements of magnetic x-ray scattering have been predicted and observed experimentally. These effects are the result of resonant phenomena closely related to anomalous dispersion, and they are strongest at near-edge resonances. The theory of these resonances will be developed with particular attention to the symmetry properties of the scatterer. While the phenomena to be discussed concern magnetic properties the transitions are electric dipole or electric quadrupole in character and represent a subset of the usual anomalous dispersion phenomena. The polarization dependence of the scattering is also considered, and the polarization dependence for magnetic effects is related to that for charge scattering and to Templeton type anisotropic polarization phenomena. It has been found that the strongest effects occur in rare-earths and in actinides for M shell edges. In addition to the scattering properties the theory is applicable to ''forward scattering'' properties such as the Faraday effect and circular dichroism

  8. Faraday anomalous dispersion optical tuners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanninger, P.; Valdez, E. C.; Shay, T. M.

    1992-01-01

    Common methods for frequency stabilizing diode lasers systems employ gratings, etalons, optical electric double feedback, atomic resonance, and a Faraday cell with low magnetic field. Our method, the Faraday Anomalous Dispersion Optical Transmitter (FADOT) laser locking, is much simpler than other schemes. The FADOT uses commercial laser diodes with no antireflection coatings, an atomic Faraday cell with a single polarizer, and an output coupler to form a compound cavity. This method is vibration insensitive, thermal expansion effects are minimal, and the system has a frequency pull in range of 443.2 GHz (9A). Our technique is based on the Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter. This method has potential applications in optical communication, remote sensing, and pumping laser excited optical filters. We present the first theoretical model for the FADOT and compare the calculations to our experimental results.

  9. Challenges for Nordic power; How to handle the renewable electricity surplus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-11-15

    Almost two years after the EU Commission put forth the EUs 202020 Climate and Energy policy package, it is clear that the Nordic region may face investment in new renewable generation at levels that are unprecedented since the deregulation of the Nordic electricity market. This report explores the linkages between political choices and market dynamics on the basis of four scenarios for the Nordic Power Sector towards 2020 and 2030. The aim is to contribute to a common understanding of the market challenges and dynamics among different stakeholders: How do different policy and market drivers interact? What are the long-term implications for prices and the energy balance? And ultimately, what policy choices are available when it comes to handling the expected increase in renewable generation and the looming Nordic energy surplus. Econ Poeyry and THEMA Consulting Group have invited companies, industry organizations and government agencies to participate in the process to elaborate on the issues mentioned above. The participants have contributed through workshops, working groups and conferences. (Author)

  10. 41 CFR 102-37.80 - What happens to surplus property that isn't transferred for donation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... property that isn't transferred for donation? 102-37.80 Section 102-37.80 Public Contracts and Property... PROPERTY 37-DONATION OF SURPLUS PERSONAL PROPERTY General Provisions Donation Overview § 102-37.80 What happens to surplus property that isn't transferred for donation? Surplus property not transferred for...

  11. 41 CFR 102-37.50 - What is the general process for requesting surplus property for donation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... process for requesting surplus property for donation? 102-37.50 Section 102-37.50 Public Contracts and... REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 37-DONATION OF SURPLUS PERSONAL PROPERTY General Provisions Donation Overview § 102-37.50 What is the general process for requesting surplus property for donation? The process for...

  12. Schwinger Model Mass Anomalous Dimension

    CERN Document Server

    Keegan, Liam

    2016-06-20

    The mass anomalous dimension for several gauge theories with an infrared fixed point has recently been determined using the mode number of the Dirac operator. In order to better understand the sources of systematic error in this method, we apply it to a simpler model, the massive Schwinger model with two flavours of fermions, where analytical results are available for comparison with the lattice data.

  13. Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shay, T. M.; Yin, B.; Alvarez, L. S.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filters on infrared and blue transitions of some alkali atoms is calculated. A composite system is designed to further increase the background noise rejection. The measured results of the solar background rejection and image quality through the filter are presented. The results show that the filter may provide high transmission and high background noise rejection with excellent image quality.

  14. Feasibility Study on UAV-assisted Construction Surplus Soil Tracking Control and Management Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jieh Haur, Chen; Kuo, Lin Sheng; Fu, Chen Ping; Li Hsu, Yeh; Da Heng, Chen

    2018-01-01

    Construction surplus soil tracking management has been the key management issue in Taiwan since 1991. This is mainly due to the construction surplus soils were often regarded as disposable waste and were disposed openly without any supervision, leading to environmental pollution. Even though the surplus soils were gradually being viewed as reusable resources, some unscrupulous enterprises still dump them freely for their own convenience. In order to dispose these surplus soils, site offices are required to confirm with the soil treatment plant regarding the approximate soil volume for hauling vehicle dispatch. However, the excavated soil volume will transform from bank volume to loose volume upon excavation, which may differ by a certain speculative coefficient (1.3), depending on the excavation site and geological condition. For managing and tracking the construction surplus soils, local government authorities frequently performed on-site spot check, but the lack of rapid assessment tools for soil volume estimation increased the evaluation difficulty for on-site inspectors. This study adopted unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) in construction surplus soil tracking and rapidly acquired site photography and point cloud data, the excavated soil volume can be determined promptly after post-processing and interpretation, providing references to future surplus soil tracking management.

  15. Potential for greenhouse gas emission reductions using surplus electricity in hydrogen, methane and methanol production via electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uusitalo, Ville; Väisänen, Sanni; Inkeri, Eero; Soukka, Risto

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Greenhouse gas emission reductions using power-to-x processes are studied using life cycle assessment. • Surplus electricity use led to greenhouse gas emission reductions in all studied cases. • Highest reductions can be achieved by using hydrogen to replace fossil based hydrogen. • High reductions are also achieved when fossil transportation fuels are replaced. - Abstract: Using a life cycle perspective, potentials for greenhouse gas emission reductions using various power-to-x processes via electrolysis have been compared. Because of increasing renewable electricity production, occasionally surplus renewable electricity is produced, which leads to situations where the price of electricity approach zero. This surplus electricity can be used in hydrogen, methane and methanol production via electrolysis and other additional processes. Life cycle assessments have been utilized to compare these options in terms of greenhouse gas emission reductions. All of the power-to-x options studied lead to greenhouse gas emission reductions as compared to conventional production processes based on fossil fuels. The highest greenhouse gas emission reductions can be gained when hydrogen from steam reforming is replaced by hydrogen from the power-to-x process. High greenhouse gas emission reductions can also be achieved when power-to-x products are utilized as an energy source for transportation, replacing fossil transportation fuels. A third option with high greenhouse gas emission reduction potential is methane production, storing and electricity conversion in gas engines during peak consumption hours. It is concluded that the power-to-x processes provide a good potential solution for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in various sectors.

  16. Anomalous photon-assisted tunneling in graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iurov, Andrii; Gumbs, Godfrey; Roslyak, Oleksiy; Huang, Danhong

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the transmission of Dirac electrons through a potential barrier in the presence of circularly polarized light. An anomalous photon-assisted enhanced transmission is predicted and explained. It is demonstrated that the perfect transmission for nearly head-on collision in infinite graphene is suppressed in gapped dressed states of electrons, which is further accompanied by a shift of peaks as a function of the incident angle away from head-on collision. In addition, the perfect transmission is partially suppressed by a photon-induced gap in illuminated graphene. After the effect of rough edges of the potential barrier or impurity scattering is included, the perfect transmission with no potential barrier becomes completely suppressed and the energy range for the photon-assisted transmission is reduced at the same time. (paper)

  17. Anomalous normal mode oscillations in semiconductor microcavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, H. [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States). Dept. of Physics; Hou, H.Q.; Hammons, B.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Semiconductor microcavities as a composite exciton-cavity system can be characterized by two normal modes. Under an impulsive excitation by a short laser pulse, optical polarizations associated with the two normal modes have a {pi} phase difference. The total induced optical polarization is then expected to exhibit a sin{sup 2}({Omega}t)-like oscillation where 2{Omega} is the normal mode splitting, reflecting a coherent energy exchange between the exciton and cavity. In this paper the authors present experimental studies of normal mode oscillations using three-pulse transient four wave mixing (FWM). The result reveals surprisingly that when the cavity is tuned far below the exciton resonance, normal mode oscillation in the polarization is cos{sup 2}({Omega}t)-like, in contrast to what is expected form the simple normal mode model. This anomalous normal mode oscillation reflects the important role of virtual excitation of electronic states in semiconductor microcavities.

  18. Anomalous diffusion in geophysical and laboratory turbulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tsinober

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an overview and some new results on anomalous diffusion of passive scalar in turbulent flows (including those used by Richardson in his famous paper in 1926. The obtained results are based on the analysis of the properties of invariant quantities (energy, enstrophy, dissipation, enstrophy generation, helicity density, etc. - i.e. independent of the choice of the system of reference as the most appropriate to describe physical processes - in three different turbulent laboratory flows (grid-flow, jet and boundary layer, see Tsinober et al. (1992 and Kit et al. (1993. The emphasis is made on the relations between the asymptotic properties of the intermittency exponents of higher order moments of different turbulent fields (energy, dissipation, helicity, spontaneous breaking of isotropy and reflexional symmetry and the variability of turbulent diffusion in the atmospheric boundary layer, in the troposphere and in the stratosphere. It is argued that local spontaneous breaking of isotropy of turbulent flow results in anomalous scaling laws for turbulent diffusion (as compared to the scaling law of Richardson which are observed, as a rule, in different atmospheric layers from the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL to the stratosphere. Breaking of rotational symmetry is important in the ABL, whereas reflexional symmetry breaking is dominating in the troposphere locally and in the stratosphere globally. The results are of speculative nature and further analysis is necessary to validate or disprove the claims made, since the correspondence with the experimental results may occur for the wrong reasons as happens from time to time in the field of turbulence.

  19. 44th Annual Anomalous Absorption Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beg, Farhat

    2014-03-03

    Conference Grant Report July 14, 2015 Submitted to the U. S. Department of Energy Attn: Dr. Sean Finnegan By the University of California, San Diego 9500 Gilman Drive La Jolla, California 92093 On behalf of the 44th Annual Anomalous Absorption Conference 8-13 June 2014, in Estes Park, Colorado Support Requested: $10,100 Amount expended: $3,216.14 Performance Period: 1 March 20 14 to 28 February 20 15 Principal Investigator Dr. Farhat Beg Center for Energy Research University of California, San Diego 9500 Gilman Drive La Jolla, California 92093-0417 858-822-1266 (telephone) 858-534-4543 (fax) fbeg@ucsd.edu Administrative Point of Contact: Brandi Pate, 858-534-0851, blpate®ucsd.edu I. Background The forty-fourth Anomalous Absorption Conference was held in Estes Park, Colorado from June 5-8, 2014 (aac2014.ucsd.edu). The first Anomalous Absorption Conference was held in 1971 to assemble experts in the poorly understood area of laser-plasma absorption. The goal of that conference was to address the anomalously large laser absorption seen in plasma experiments with respect to the laser absorption predicted by linear plasma theory. Great progress in this research area has been made in the decades since that first meeting, due in part to the scientific interactions that have occurred annually at this conference. Specifically, this includes the development of nonlinear laser-plasma theory and the simulation of laser interactions with plasmas. Each summer since that first meeting, this week-long conference has been held at unique locations in North America as a scientific forum for intense scientific exchanges relevant to the interaction of laser radiation with plasmas. Responsibility for organizing the conference has traditional rotated each year between the major Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) laboratories and universities including LANL, LLNL, LLE, UCLA UC Davis and NRL. As the conference has matured over the past four decades, its technical footprint has expanded

  20. Budget Surpluses: Experiences of Other Nations and Implications for the United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    ... should be used. While balancing the budget has been the clear and generally accepted fiscal goal for many years in the United States, there is not yet agreement on the appropriate fiscal policy during a period of budget surpluses...

  1. Consumer Surplus in the Digital Economy: Estimating the Value of Increased Product Variety at Online Booksellers

    OpenAIRE

    Brynjolfsson, Erik; Smith, Michael D.; Yu, (Jeffrey) Hu

    2003-01-01

    We present a framework and empirical estimates that quantify the economic impact of increased product variety made available through electronic markets. While efficiency gains from increased competition significantly enhance consumer surplus, for instance, by leading to lower average selling prices, our present research shows that increased product variety made available through electronic markets can be a significantly larger source of consumer surplus gains. One reason for increased product...

  2. Surplus plutonium disposition draft environmental impact statement. Volume 1, Part A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-07-01

    On May 22, 1997, DOE published a Notice of Intent (NOI) in the Federal Register (62 Federal Register 28009) announcing its decision to prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) that would tier from the analysis and decisions reached in connection with the Storage and Disposition of Weapons-Usable Fissile Materials Final Programmatic EIS (Storage and Disposition PEIS). DOE's disposition strategy allows for both the immobilization of surplus plutonium and its use as mixed oxide (MOX) fuel in existing domestic, commercial reactors. The disposition of surplus plutonium would also involve disposal of the immobilized plutonium and MOX fuel (as spent nuclear fuel) in a geologic repository. The Surplus Plutonium Disposition Environmental Impact Statement analyzes alternatives that would use the immobilization approach (for some of the surplus plutonium) and the MOX fuel approach (for some of the surplus plutonium); alternatives that would immobilize all of the surplus plutonium; and the No Action Alternative. The alternatives include three disposition facilities that would be designed so that they could collectively accomplish disposition of up to 50 metric tons (55 tons) of surplus plutonium over their operating lives: (1) the pit disassembly and conversion facility would disassemble pits (a weapons component) and convert the recovered plutonium, as well as plutonium metal from other sources, into plutonium dioxide suitable for disposition; (2) the immobilization facility would include a collocated capability for converting nonpit plutonium materials into plutonium dioxide suitable for immobilization and would be located at either Hanford or SRS. DOE has identified SRS as the preferred site for an immobilization facility; (3) the MOX fuel fabrication facility would fabricate plutonium dioxide into MOX fuel. This volume includes background information; purpose of and need for the proposed action; alternatives for disposition of surplus weapons useable plutonium; and

  3. Anomalous Hall effect in polycrystalline Ni films

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Zaibing

    2012-02-01

    We systematically studied the anomalous Hall effect in a series of polycrystalline Ni films with thickness ranging from 4 to 200 nm. It is found that both the longitudinal and anomalous Hall resistivity increased greatly as film thickness decreased. This enhancement should be related to the surface scattering. In the ultrathin films (46 nm thick), weak localization corrections to anomalous Hall conductivity were studied. The granular model, taking into account the dominated intergranular tunneling, has been employed to explain this phenomenon, which can explain the weak dependence of anomalous Hall resistivity on longitudinal resistivity as well. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Anomalous properties of technetium clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryuchkov, S.V.

    1985-01-01

    On the basis of critical evaluation of literature data in the field of chemistry of technetium cluster compounds with ligands of a weak field a conclusion is made on specific, ''anomalous'' properties of technetium cluster complexes which consist in an increased ability of the given element to the formation of a series of binuclear and multinuclear clusters, similar in composition and structure and easily transforming in each other. The majority of technetium clusters unlike similar compounds of other elements are paramagnetic with one unpaired electron on ''metallic'' MO of loosening type. All theoretical conceptions known today on the electronic structure of technetium clusters are considered. It is pointed out, that the best results in the explanation of ''anomalous'' properties of technetium clusters can be obtained in the framework of nonempirical methods of self-consistent field taking into account configuration interactions. It is also shown, that certain properties of technetium clusters can be explained on the basis of qualitative model of Coulomb repulsion of metal atoms in clusters. The conclusion is made, that technetium position in the Periodic table, as well as recently detected technetium property to the decrease of effective charge on its atoms during M-M bond formation promote a high ability of the element to cluster formation both with weak field ligands and with strong field one

  5. Anomalous transport in toroidal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punjabi, A.

    1991-01-01

    We have developed a Monte Carlo method to estimate the transport of different groups of particles for plasmas in toroidal geometries. This method can determine the important transport mechanisms driving the anomalous transport by comparing the numerical results with the experimental data. The important groups of particles whose transport can be estimated by this method include runaway electrons, thermal electrons, both passing and trapped diagnostic beam ions etc. The three basic mechanisms driving the anomalous transport are: spatial variation of magnetic field strength, spatial variation of electrostatic potential within the flux surfaces, and the loss of flux surfaces. The equation of motion are obtained from the drift hamiltonian. The equations of motion are developed in the canonical and in the non-canonical, practical co-ordinates as well. The effects of collisions are represented by appropriate stochastic changes in the constants of motion at each time-step. Here we present the results of application of this method to three cases: superathermal alphas in the rippled field of tokamaks, motion in the magnetic turbulence of takapole II, and transport in the stochastic fields of ZT40. This work is supported by DOE OFE and ORAU HBCU program

  6. Effective field theory: A modern approach to anomalous couplings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degrande, Céline; Greiner, Nicolas; Kilian, Wolfgang; Mattelaer, Olivier; Mebane, Harrison; Stelzer, Tim; Willenbrock, Scott; Zhang, Cen

    2013-01-01

    We advocate an effective field theory approach to anomalous couplings. The effective field theory approach is the natural way to extend the standard model such that the gauge symmetries are respected. It is general enough to capture any physics beyond the standard model, yet also provides guidance as to the most likely place to see the effects of new physics. The effective field theory approach also clarifies that one need not be concerned with the violation of unitarity in scattering processes at high energy. We apply these ideas to pair production of electroweak vector bosons. -- Highlights: •We discuss the advantages of effective field theories compared to anomalous couplings. •We show that one need not be concerned with unitarity violation at high energy. •We discuss the application of effective field theory to weak boson physics

  7. Evaluation of alternatives for the disposition of surplus weapons-usable plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyer, J.S.; Butler, J.C.; Edmunds, T.

    1997-01-01

    The Department of Energy Record of Decision (ROD) selected alternatives for disposition of surplus, weapons grade plutonium. A major objective of this decision was to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons. Other concerns addressed included economic, technical, institutional, schedule, environmental, and health and safety issues. The analysis reported here was conducted in parallel with technical, environmental, and nonproliferation analyses; it uses multiattribute utility theory to combine these considerations in order to facilitate an integrated evaluation of alternatives. This analysis is intended to provide additional insight regarding alternative evaluation and to assist in understanding the rationale for the choice of alternatives recommended in the ROD. Value functions were developed for objectives of disposition, and used to rank alternatives. Sensitivity analyses indicated that the ranking of alternatives for the base case was relatively insensitive to changes in assumptions over reasonable ranges. The analyses support the recommendation of the ROD to pursue parallel development of the vitrification immobilization alternative and the use of existing light water reactors alternative. 27 refs., 109 figs., 20 tabs

  8. Anomalous Higgs couplings at an eγ collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudhury, Debajyoti; Mamta

    2006-01-01

    We examine the sensitivity of eγ colliders (based on e + e - linear colliders of c.m. energy 500 GeV) to the anomalous couplings of the Higgs to W-boson via the process e - γ→νWH. This has the advantage over e + e - collider in being able to dissociate WWH vertex from ZZH. We are able to construct several dynamical variables which may be used to constrain the various couplings in the WWH vertex

  9. Anomalous transport due to shear-Alfven waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W.W.; Chance, M.S.; Okuda, H.

    1980-10-01

    The behavior of shear-Alfven eigenmodes and the accompanied anomalous transport have been investigated. In the particle simulation, equilibrium thermal fluctuations associated with the eigenmodes have been observed to nullify the zeroth-order shear near the rational surface through the induced second-order eddy current, and, in turn, give rise to the formation of magnetic islands which cause rapid electron energy transport in the region. The theoretical verification of the observed behavior is discussed

  10. Supplement to the Surplus Plutonium Disposition Draft Environmental Impact Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    On May 22, 1997, DOE published a Notice of Intent in the Federal Register (62 Federal Register 28009) announcing its decision to prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) that would tier from the analysis and decisions reached in connection with the ''Storage and Disposition of Weapons-Usable Fissile Materials Final Programmatic EIS (Storage and Disposition PEIS)''. ''The Surplus Plutonium Disposition Draft Environmental Impact Statement'' (SPD Draft EIS) (DOWEIS-0283-D) was prepared in accordance with NEPA and issued in July 1998. It identified the potential environmental impacts of reasonable alternatives for the proposed siting, construction, and operation of three facilities for plutonium disposition. These three facilities would accomplish pit disassembly and conversion, immobilization, and MOX fuel fabrication. For the alternatives that included MOX fuel fabrication, the draft also described the potential environmental impacts of using from three to eight commercial nuclear reactors to irradiate MOX fuel. The potential impacts were based on a generic reactor analysis that used actual reactor data and a range of potential site conditions. In May 1998, DCE initiated a procurement process to obtain MOX fuel fabrication and reactor irradiation services. The request for proposals defined limited activities that may be performed prior to issuance of the SPD EIS Record of Decision (ROD) including non-site-specific work associated with the development of the initial design for the MOX fuel fabrication facility, and plans (paper studies) for outreach, long lead-time procurements, regulatory management, facility quality assurance, safeguards, security, fuel qualification, and deactivation. No construction on the proposed MOX facility would begin before an SPD EIS ROD is issued. In March 1999, DOE awarded a contract to Duke Engineering and Services; COGEMA, Inc.; and Stone and Webster (known as DCS) to provide the requested services. The procurement process

  11. Supplement to the Surplus Plutonium Disposition Draft Environmental Impact Statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    1999-05-14

    On May 22, 1997, DOE published a Notice of Intent in the Federal Register (62 Federal Register 28009) announcing its decision to prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) that would tier from the analysis and decisions reached in connection with the ''Storage and Disposition of Weapons-Usable Fissile Materials Final Programmatic EIS (Storage and Disposition PEIS)''. ''The Surplus Plutonium Disposition Draft Environmental Impact Statement'' (SPD Draft EIS) (DOWEIS-0283-D) was prepared in accordance with NEPA and issued in July 1998. It identified the potential environmental impacts of reasonable alternatives for the proposed siting, construction, and operation of three facilities for plutonium disposition. These three facilities would accomplish pit disassembly and conversion, immobilization, and MOX fuel fabrication. For the alternatives that included MOX fuel fabrication, the draft also described the potential environmental impacts of using from three to eight commercial nuclear reactors to irradiate MOX fuel. The potential impacts were based on a generic reactor analysis that used actual reactor data and a range of potential site conditions. In May 1998, DCE initiated a procurement process to obtain MOX fuel fabrication and reactor irradiation services. The request for proposals defined limited activities that may be performed prior to issuance of the SPD EIS Record of Decision (ROD) including non-site-specific work associated with the development of the initial design for the MOX fuel fabrication facility, and plans (paper studies) for outreach, long lead-time procurements, regulatory management, facility quality assurance, safeguards, security, fuel qualification, and deactivation. No construction on the proposed MOX facility would begin before an SPD EIS ROD is issued. In March 1999, DOE awarded a contract to Duke Engineering & Services; COGEMA, Inc.; and Stone & Webster (known as DCS) to provide the requested

  12. Anomalous osmosis resulting from preferential absorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staverman, A.J.; Kruissink, C.A.; Pals, D.T.F.

    1965-01-01

    An explanation of the anomalous osmosis described in the preceding paper is given in terms of friction coefficients in the glass membrane. It is shown that anomalous osmosis may be expected when the friction coefficients are constant and positive provided that the membrane absorbs solute strongly

  13. Surplus plutonium disposition draft environmental impact statement. Volume 1, Part B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-07-01

    On May 22, 1997, DOE published a Notice of Intent (NOI) in the Federal Register (62 Federal Register 28009) announcing its decision to prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) that would tier from the analysis and decisions reached in connection with the Storage and Disposition of Weapons-Usable Fissile Materials Final Programmatic EIS (Storage and Disposition PEIS). DOE's disposition strategy allows for both the immobilization of surplus plutonium and its use as mixed oxide (MOX) fuel in existing domestic, commercial reactors. The disposition of surplus plutonium would also involve disposal of the immobilized plutonium and MOX fuel (as spent nuclear fuel) in a geologic repository. The Surplus Plutonium Disposition Environmental Impact Statement analyzes alternatives that would use the immobilization approach (for some of the surplus plutonium) and the MOX fuel approach (for some of the surplus plutonium); alternatives that would immobilize all of the surplus plutonium; and the No Action Alternative. The alternatives include three disposition facilities that would be designed so that they could collectively accomplish disposition of up to 50 metric tons (55 tons) of surplus plutonium over their operating lives: (1) the pit disassembly and conversion facility would disassemble pits (a weapons component) and convert the recovered plutonium, as well as plutonium metal from other sources, into plutonium dioxide suitable for disposition; (2) the immobilization facility would include a collocated capability for converting nonpit plutonium materials into plutonium dioxide suitable for immobilization and would be located at either Hanford or SRS. DOE has identified SRS as the preferred site for an immobilization facility; (3) the MOX fuel fabrication facility would fabricate plutonium dioxide into MOX fuel. This volume has chapters on environmental consequences; environmental regulations, permits, and consultations; a glossary; list of preparers; distribution list

  14. Surplus men, sex work, and the spread of HIV in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Joseph D; Henderson, Gail E; Wang, Tian F; Huang, Ying Y; Parish, William; Pan, Sui M; Chen, Xiang S; Cohen, Myron S

    2005-03-24

    While 70% of HIV positive individuals live in sub-Saharan Africa, it is widely believed that the future of the epidemic depends on the magnitude of HIV spread in India and China, the world's most populous countries. China's 1.3 billion people are in the midst of significant social transformation, which will impact future sexual disease transmission. Soon approximately 8.5 million 'surplus men', unmarried and disproportionately poor and migrant, will come of age in China's cities and rural areas. Meanwhile, many millions of Chinese sex workers appear to represent a broad range of prices, places, and related HIV risk behaviors. Using demographic and behavioral data, this paper describes the combined effect of sexual practices, sex work, and a true male surplus on HIV transmission. Alongside a rapid increase in sexually transmitted disease incidence across developed parts of urban China, surplus men could become a significant new HIV risk group. The anticipated high sexual risk among many surplus men and injecting drug use use among a subgroup of surplus men may create bridging populations from high to low risk individuals. Prevention strategies that emphasize traditional measures--condom promotion, sex education, medical training--must be reinforced by strategies which acknowledge surplus men and sex workers. Reform within female sex worker mandatory re-education centers and site specific interventions at construction sites, military areas, or unemployment centers may hold promise in curbing HIV/sexually transmitted infections. From a sociological perspective, we believe that surplus men and sex workers will have a profound effect on the future of HIV spread in China and on the success or failure of future interventions.

  15. Economic and environmental performance of alternative policy measures to reduce nutrient surpluses in Finnish agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. LEHTONEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an economic sector level analysis of the effectiveness of different policy measures in decreasing nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P surpluses from agriculture in order to reduce nutrient runoff from agricultural fields to watercourses and to improve water quality of surface waters. Assuming no changes in the EU level policies after CAP reform 2003 we focus on national level policy measures such as full or partial de-coupling of national support from production, payments for reduced nutrient surpluses of N and P, and N fertiliser tax. None of the analysed policy measures is superior one with respect to environmental performance, since full decoupling of national support would be the most effective in reducing P surpluses while payment for reduced nutrient surplus performed best with respect to N surpluses. Economic performance (farmers’ compliance cost per %-reduction of N or P surplus of full and partial de-coupling of national support is clearly better than that of specialised agri-environmental policy instruments, because both decoupling scenarios result in the increase of farmers’ income in comparison to base scenario, and thus compliance costs are in fact negative in these two cases. Our analysis confirms the fact that the overall policy package matters a lot for the effectiveness of agrienvironmental policy measures. Environmental performance of agri-environmental policy measures may be significantly reduced, if they are implemented jointly with production coupled income support policies. Thus, in order to increase the effectiveness of agri-environmental policy measures agricultural income support policies should be decoupled from production and this alone would bring substantial reduction in nutrient surpluses.;

  16. Anomalous transport in mirror systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, R.F.

    1979-01-01

    As now being explored for fusion applications confinement systems based on the mirror principle embody two kinds of plasma regimes. These two regimes are: (a) high-beta plasmas, stabilized against MHD and other low frequency plasma instabilities by magnetic-well fields, but characterized by non-Maxwellian ion distributions; (b) near-Maxwellian plasmas, confined electrostatically (as in the tandem mirror) or in a field-reversed region within the mirror cell. Common to both situations are the questions of anomalous transport owing to high frequency instabilities in the non-maxwellian portions of the plasmas. This report will summarize the status of theory and of experimental data bearing on these questions, with particular reference to the high temperature regimes of interest for fusion power

  17. Fluctuation relations for anomalous dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chechkin, A V; Klages, R

    2009-01-01

    We consider work fluctuation relations (FRs) for generic types of dynamics generating anomalous diffusion: Lévy flights, long-correlated Gaussian processes and time-fractional kinetics. By combining Langevin and kinetic approaches we calculate the probability distributions of mechanical and thermodynamical work in two paradigmatic nonequilibrium situations, respectively: a particle subject to a constant force and a particle in a harmonic potential dragged by a constant force. We check the transient FR for two models exhibiting superdiffusion, where a fluctuation-dissipation relation does not exist, and for two other models displaying subdiffusion, where there is a fluctuation-dissipation relation. In the two former cases the conventional transient FR is not recovered, whereas in the latter two it holds either exactly or in the long-time limit. (letter)

  18. Dinotor model for anomalous nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillejo, L.; Goldhaber, A.S.; Jackson, A.D.; Johnson, M.B.

    1986-01-01

    The simplest version of the MIT bag model implies the existence of metastable toroidal bags, with large radius proportional to the enclosed baryon number, and small radius comparable to that of an ordinary nucleon (we refer to those toroidal bags as dinotors). Considerations of various possible instabilities, and of the effects of quark interactions through intermediate gluons, suggest that the metastability is still valid when the model is treated more realistically. These results might provide an explanation for reports of anomalously large interaction cross sections of secondary fragments (''anomalons'') observed in visual track detectors. However, it appears that the most likely characteristics of toroidal bags would not be compatible with those of anomalons, and would not be as easy to detect in emulsions. copyright 1986 Academic Press, Inc

  19. Anomalous Lorentz and CPT violation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinkhamer, F. R.

    2018-01-01

    If there exists Lorentz and CPT violation in nature, then it is crucial to discover and understand the underlying mechanism. In this contribution, we discuss one such mechanism which relies on four-dimensional chiral gauge theories defined over a spacetime manifold with topology ℛ3 × S 1 and periodic spin structure for the compact dimension. It can be shown that the effective gauge-field action contains a local Chern-Simons-like term which violates Lorentz and CPT invariance. For arbitrary Abelian U(1) gauge fields with trivial holonomies in the compact direction, this anomalous Lorentz and CPT violation has recently been established perturbatively with a Pauli-Villars-type regularization and nonperturbatively with a lattice regularization based on Ginsparg-Wilson fermions.

  20. Surplus weapons-grade plutonium: a resource for exploring and terraforming Mars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muscatello, A.C.; Houts, M.G.

    1996-12-31

    With the end of the Cold War, greater than 100 metric tons (MT) of weapons-grade plutonium (WGPu) have become surplus to defense needs in the United States and the Former Soviet Union. This paper is a proposal for an option for WGPu disposition, i.e., use of the plutonium as a fuel for nuclear reactors for Mars exploration and eventual terraforming. WGPu was used in nuclear weapons because it has a much smaller critical mass than highly enriched uranium, allowing lighter weapons with consequent longer ranges. Similarly, WGPu reactors would also require smaller amounts of fuel to attain a critical mass, making the reactor much lighter overall and resulting in large savings in launch costs. The greater than 100 MT of WGPu would generate about 1000 billion kilowatt hours of heat energy, much of which could be converted into electricity. The waste heat would also be useful to a Martian outpost or colony. A potential way of getting the WGPu reactors into space is a large gas gun like that being developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to orbit materials by achieving high velocity at the surface, greatly reducing launch costs and enhancing reliability. Reactor components would be launched on conventional rockets or space shuttles, the reactor fuel rods would be injected into orbit using the gas gun, and the reactor would be assembled in space. Implementation of this proposal would allow disposition of a serious, expensive problem on earth by removing the WGPu from the planet and simultaneously provide a very large energy resource for Mars exploration and terraforming.

  1. Surplus weapons-grade plutonium: a resource for exploring and terraforming Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muscatello, A.C.; Houts, M.G.

    1996-01-01

    With the end of the Cold War, greater than 100 metric tons (MT) of weapons-grade plutonium (WGPu) have become surplus to defense needs in the United States and the Former Soviet Union. This paper is a proposal for an option for WGPu disposition, i.e., use of the plutonium as a fuel for nuclear reactors for Mars exploration and eventual terraforming. WGPu was used in nuclear weapons because it has a much smaller critical mass than highly enriched uranium, allowing lighter weapons with consequent longer ranges. Similarly, WGPu reactors would also require smaller amounts of fuel to attain a critical mass, making the reactor much lighter overall and resulting in large savings in launch costs. The greater than 100 MT of WGPu would generate about 1000 billion kilowatt hours of heat energy, much of which could be converted into electricity. The waste heat would also be useful to a Martian outpost or colony. A potential way of getting the WGPu reactors into space is a large gas gun like that being developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to orbit materials by achieving high velocity at the surface, greatly reducing launch costs and enhancing reliability. Reactor components would be launched on conventional rockets or space shuttles, the reactor fuel rods would be injected into orbit using the gas gun, and the reactor would be assembled in space. Implementation of this proposal would allow disposition of a serious, expensive problem on earth by removing the WGPu from the planet and simultaneously provide a very large energy resource for Mars exploration and terraforming

  2. Anomalous Nernst effect in type-II Weyl semimetals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Subhodip; Tewari, Sumanta

    2018-01-01

    Topological Weyl semimetals (WSM), a new state of quantum matter with gapless nodal bulk spectrum and open Fermi arc surface states, have recently sparked enormous interest in condensed matter physics. Based on the symmetry and fermiology, it has been proposed that WSMs can be broadly classified into two types, type-I and type-II Weyl semimetals. While the undoped, conventional, type-I WSMs have point like Fermi surface and vanishing density of states (DOS) at the Fermi energy, the type-II Weyl semimetals break Lorentz symmetry explicitly and have tilted conical spectra with electron and hole pockets producing finite DOS at the Fermi level. The tilted conical spectrum and finite DOS at Fermi level in type-II WSMs have recently been shown to produce interesting effects such as a chiral anomaly induced longitudinal magnetoresistance that is strongly anisotropic in direction and a novel anomalous Hall effect. In this work, we consider the anomalous Nernst effect in type-II WSMs in the absence of an external magnetic field using the framework of semi-classical Boltzmann theory. Based on both a linearized model of time-reversal breaking WSM with a higher energy cut-off and a more realistic lattice model, we show that the anomalous Nernst response in these systems is strongly anisotropic in space, and can serve as a reliable signature of type-II Weyl semimetals in a host of magnetic systems with spontaneously broken time reversal symmetry.

  3. Constraints on Anomalous Quartic Gauge Boson Couplings from $\

    CERN Document Server

    Abbiendi, G; Åkesson, P F; Alexander, G; Allison, J; Amaral, P; Anagnostou, G; Anderson, K J; Asai, S; Axen, D A; Azuelos, Georges; Bailey, I; Barberio, E; Barillari, T; Barlow, R J; Batley, J Richard; Bechtle, P; Behnke, T; Bell, K W; Bell, P J; Bella, G; Bellerive, A; Benelli, G; Bethke, Siegfried; Biebel, O; Boeriu, O; Bock, P; Boutemeur, M; Braibant, S; Brigliadori, L; Brown, R M; Büsser, K; Burckhart, H J; Campana, S; Carnegie, R K; Carter, A A; Carter, J R; Chang, C Y; Charlton, D G; Ciocca, C; Csilling, Akos; Cuffiani, M; Dado, S; de Roeck, A; De Wolf, E A; Desch, Klaus; Dienes, B; Donkers, M; Dubbert, J; Duchovni, E; Duckeck, G; Duerdoth, I P; Etzion, E; Fabbri, Franco Luigi; Feld, L; Ferrari, P; Fiedler, F; Fleck, I; Ford, M; Frey, A; Gagnon, P; Gary, J W; Gaycken, G; Geich-Gimbel, C; Giacomelli, G; Giacomelli, P; Giunta, M; Goldberg, J; Gross, E; Grunhaus, Jacob; Gruwé, M; Günther, P O; Sen-Gupta, A; Hajdu, C; Hamann, M; Hanson, G G; Harel, A; Hauschild, M; Hawkes, C M; Hawkings, R; Hemingway, Richard J; Herten, G; Heuer, R D; Hill, J C; Hoffman, K; Horváth, D; Igo-Kemenes, P; Ishii, K; Jeremie, H; Jovanovic, P; Junk, T R; Kanaya, N; Kanzaki, J; Karlen, Dean A; Kawagoe, K; Kawamoto, T; Keeler, Richard K; Kellogg, R G; Kennedy, B W; Kluth, S; Kobayashi, T; Kobel, M; Komamiya, S; Kramer, T; Krieger, P; Von Krogh, J; Krüger, K; Kühl, T; Kupper, M; Lafferty, G D; Landsman, Hagar Yaël; Lanske, D; Layter, J G; Lellouch, D; Letts, J; Levinson, L; Lillich, J; Lloyd, S L; Loebinger, F K; Lü, J; Ludwig, A; Ludwig, J; Mader, W; Marcellini, S; Martin, A J; Masetti, G; Mashimo, T; Mättig, P; McKenna, J A; McPherson, R A; Meijers, F; Menges, W; Merritt, F S; Mes, H; Meyer, N; Michelini, Aldo; Mihara, S; Mikenberg, G; Miller, D J; Moed, S; Mohr, W; Mori, T; Mutter, A; Nagai, K; Nakamura, I; Nanjo, H; Neal, H A; Nisius, R; O'Neale, S W; Oh, A; Oreglia, M J; Orito, S; Pahl, C; Pásztor, G; Pater, J R; Pilcher, J E; Pinfold, J L; Plane, D E; Poli, B; Pooth, O; Przybycien, M B; Quadt, A; Rabbertz, K; Rembser, C; Renkel, P; Roney, J M; Rozen, Y; Runge, K; Sachs, K; Saeki, T; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E; Schaile, A D; Schaile, O; Scharff-Hansen, P; Schieck, J; Schörner-Sadenius, T; Schröder, M; Schumacher, M; Scott, W G; Seuster, R; Shears, T G; Shen, B C; Sherwood, P; Skuja, A; Smith, A M; Sobie, R J; Söldner-Rembold, S; Spanó, F; Stahl, A; Strom, D; Ströhmer, R; Tarem, S; Tasevsky, M; Teuscher, R; Thomson, M A; Torrence, E; Toya, D; Tran, P; Trigger, I; Trócsányi, Z L; Tsur, E; Turner-Watson, M F; Ueda, I; Ujvári, B; Vollmer, C F; Vannerem, P; Vertesi, R; Verzocchi, M; Voss, H; Vossebeld, Joost Herman; Ward, C P; Ward, D R; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Wells, P S; Wengler, T; Wermes, N; Wilson, G W; Wilson, J A; Wolf, G; Wyatt, T R; Yamashita, S; Zer-Zion, D; Zivkovic, L

    2004-01-01

    Anomalous quartic couplings between the electroweak gauge bosons may contribute to the vv gamma gamma and qq gamma gamma final states produced in e+e- collisions. This analysis uses the LEP2 OPAL data sample at centre-of-mass energies up to 209 GeV. Event selections identify vv gamma gamma and qq gamma gamma events in which the two photons are reconstructed within the detector acceptance. The cross-section for the process e+e- -> qq gamma gamma is measured. Averaging over all energies, the ratio of the observed e+e- -> qq gamma gamma cross-section to the Standard Model expectation is R(data/SM) = 0.92 +- 0.07 +- 0.04 where the errors represent the statistical and systematic uncertainties respectively. The vv gamma gamma and qq gamma gamma data are used to constrain possible anomalous W+W- gamma gamma and ZZ gamma gamma couplings. Combining with previous OPAL results from the W+W- gamma final state, the 95% confidence level limits on the anomalous coupling parameters aoz, acz, aow and acw are found to be: -0.0...

  4. Sleeping money: investigating the huge surpluses of social health insurance in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, JunQiang; Chen, Tao

    2013-12-01

    The spreading of social health insurance (SHI) worldwide poses challenges for fledging public administrators. Inefficiency, misuse and even corruption threaten the stewardship of those newly established health funds. This article examines a tricky situation faced by China's largest SHI program: the basic health insurance (BHI) scheme for urban employees. BHI accumulated a 406 billion yuan surplus by 2009, although the reimbursement level was still low. Using a provincial level panel database, we find that the huge BHI surpluses are related to the (temporarily) decreasing dependency ratio, the steady growth of average wages, the extension of BHI coverage, and progress in social insurance agency building. The financial situations of local governments and risk pooling level also matter. Besides, medical savings accounts result in about one third of BHI surpluses. Although these findings are not causal, lessons drawn from this study can help to improve the governance and performance of SHI programs in developing countries.

  5. Probing anomalous quartic gauge-boson couplings via e+e-→4 fermions +γ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denner, A.; Dittmaier, S.; Roth, M.; Wackeroth, D.

    2001-01-01

    All lowest-order amplitudes for e + e - →4fγ are calculated including five anomalous quartic gauge-boson couplings that are allowed by electromagnetic gauge invariance and the custodial SU(2) c symmetry. Three of these anomalous couplings correspond to the operators L 0 ,L c , and L n that have been constrained by the LEP collaborations in WWγ production. The anomalous couplings are incorporated in the Monte Carlo generator RacoonWW(RacoonWW fellow of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft). Moreover, for the processes e + e - →4fγ RacoonWW is improved upon including leading universal electroweak corrections such as initial-state radiation. The discussion of numerical results illustrates the size of the leading corrections as well as the impact of the anomalous quartic couplings for LEP2 energies and at 500 GeV. (orig.)

  6. Anomalous dispersion enhanced Cerenkov phase-matching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalczyk, T.C.; Singer, K.D. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States). Dept. of Physics; Cahill, P.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-11-01

    The authors report on a scheme for phase-matching second harmonic generation in polymer waveguides based on the use of anomalous dispersion to optimize Cerenkov phase matching. They have used the theoretical results of Hashizume et al. and Onda and Ito to design an optimum structure for phase-matched conversion. They have found that the use of anomalous dispersion in the design results in a 100-fold enhancement in the calculated conversion efficiency. This technique also overcomes the limitation of anomalous dispersion phase-matching which results from absorption at the second harmonic. Experiments are in progress to demonstrate these results.

  7. Anomalous behavior of 2+ excitations around 132Sn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terasaki, J.; Engel, J.; Nazarewicz, W.; Stoitsov, M.

    2002-01-01

    In certain neutron-rich Te isotopes, a decrease in the energy of the first excited 2 + state is accompanied by a decrease in the E2 strength to that state from the ground state, contradicting simple systematics and general intuition about quadrupole collectivity. We use a separable quadrupole-plus-pairing Hamiltonian and the quasiparticle random phase approximation to calculate energies, B(E2,0 + →2 + ) strengths, and g factors for the lowest 2 + states near 132 Sn (Z≥50). We trace the anomalous behavior in the Te isotopes to a reduced neutron pairing above the N=82 magic gap

  8. Multidisciplinary studies on hydric, energetic and environmental resources, evaluating the hydroelectric plants energy surplus as alternative for hydrogen production; Estudos multidisciplinares na area de recursos hidricos, energeticos e ambientais, avaliando-se o uso de energia excedente de hidreletricas como alternativa para producao de hidrogenio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariotoni, Carlos Alberto; Naturesa, Jim Silva; Santos Junior, Joubert Rodrigues; Demanboro, Antonio Carlos [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil. Grupo de Planejamento Energetico e Sistemas Eletricos]. E-mails: cam@fec.unicamp.br; jimnaturesa@yahoo.com; joubert.dos@terra.com.br; anto1810@fec.unicamp.br

    2006-07-01

    The researchers on energy, hydraulic and environmental subjects have been discussing the perspective and both the technical and economic viability of using the exceeding energy of hydroelectric power plants to produce hydrogen, taking into consideration the resources optimizations and the maximization of the economic gains. The researches and technicians of the Brazilian energy sector have considered, the increasing possibility of using of exceeding energy from hydroelectric power plants to produce hydrogen, mainly for the special case of the bi-national hydroelectric of Itaipu. Nevertheless it is important to present a discussion about the use and the production of hydrogen in Brazilian context considering, mainly, the consolidated experience of certain research centers and national laboratories. The paper also presents a discussions about the main technical characteristics, the electro electronic devices used and a brief discussion about the possibility of electric energy expansion, through the use of FACTS devices, for the southeast region of the country having the hydrogen as an important fuel. (author)

  9. The potential for generating a surplus of biomass fuel in the pulp and paper industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wising, U.

    2001-06-01

    The conditions under which the pulp and paper industry is working are changing. New technology and new environmental objectives lead to changes: system closure (less water is used); processes are introduced and modified; new, more energy efficient processes are applied. Many of these changes affect the energy system in a mill and can also result in new potential for energy savings. Here a method is described and applied to six modern and/or future green field kraft market pulp model mills. The basic configuration for these model mills is designed according to best available technology today and consists of commercially available equipment in conventionally designed mills. These basic configurations are process integrated using Pinch Technology to ensure that the model mills are as energy efficient as possible with existing processes. Then by allowing process and system modifications, the model mills are made even more energy efficient. From the process integration study streams that could produce usable excess heat below the Pinch temperature are identified. In a pulp mill, necessary cooling is performed while producing warm and hot water. In modern mills there is usually a surplus of warm and hot water. It is herein presented that by designing the secondary heat system differently such that only necessary warm and hot water is produced, excess heat at a higher temperature than traditionally can be made available. The excess heat made available can be used for several applications; in this work it is used for evaporation. In order to use the excess heat for evaporation the evaporation plant has to be designed non-conventionally, with more than one level where heat is supplied, and a lower temperature in the surface condenser than what is typically used. A reasonable level of the extra investment cost for the novel system compared to the reference system is then calculated and a payback period is estimated. This payback period varies between approximately 3.5 and 6

  10. Selling money on eBay: A field study of surplus division

    OpenAIRE

    Gizatulina, Alia; Gorelkina, Olga

    2016-01-01

    We study the division of trade surplus in a competitive market environment by conducting a natural field experiment on German eBay. Acting as a seller, we offer Amazon gift cards with face values of up to 500 Euro. Randomly arriving buyers, the subjects of our experiment, make price offers according to eBay rules. Using a novel decomposition method, we infer offered shares of trade surplus and find that the average share proposed to the seller amounts to 29%. Additionally, we document: (i) in...

  11. Anomalous magnetic moment with heavy virtual leptons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurz, Alexander [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Teilchenphysik; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Liu, Tao; Steinhauser, Matthias [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Teilchenphysik; Marquard, Peter [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)

    2013-11-15

    We compute the contributions to the electron and muon anomalous magnetic moment induced by heavy leptons up to four-loop order. Asymptotic expansion is applied to obtain three analytic expansion terms which show rapid convergence.

  12. Tunneling Anomalous and Spin Hall Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos-Abiague, A; Fabian, J

    2015-07-31

    We predict, theoretically, the existence of the anomalous Hall effect when a tunneling current flows through a tunnel junction in which only one of the electrodes is magnetic. The interfacial spin-orbit coupling present in the barrier region induces a spin-dependent momentum filtering in the directions perpendicular to the tunneling current, resulting in a skew tunneling even in the absence of impurities. This produces an anomalous Hall conductance and spin Hall currents in the nonmagnetic electrode when a bias voltage is applied across the tunneling heterojunction. If the barrier is composed of a noncentrosymmetric material, the anomalous Hall conductance and spin Hall currents become anisotropic with respect to both the magnetization and crystallographic directions, allowing us to separate this interfacial phenomenon from the bulk anomalous and spin Hall contributions. The proposed effect should be useful for proving and quantifying the interfacial spin-orbit fields in metallic and metal-semiconductor systems.

  13. Anomalous neutron scattering and feroelectric modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viswanathan, K.S.

    1977-01-01

    It is suggested that anomalous neutron scattering could prove a powerful experimental tool in studying ferroelectric phase transition, the sublattice displacements of the soft modes as well as their symmetry characteristics. (author)

  14. Preliminary process simulation and analysis of GMODS: Processing of plutonium surplus materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrada, J.J.; Nehls, J.W. Jr.; Welch, T.D.; Giardina, J.L.; Forsberg, C.W.; Maliyekkel, A.T.

    1996-01-01

    To address growing concerns in the areas of arms control, control of fissile materials, waste management, and environment and health, the US Department of Energy is studying and evaluating various options for the control and disposal of surplus fissile materials (SFMs). One of the options under consideration is the Glass Material Oxidation and Dissolution System (GMODS) which directly converts plutonium-bearing materials such as metals, ceramics, and organics into a durable-high-quality glass for long-term storage or a waste form for disposal. This study undertook the development of a computer simulation of the GMODS process using FLOW. That computer simulation was used to perform an assessment of how GMODS would handle the treatment of plutonium, rich scrap (RS) and lead scrap (LS), and identify critical process parameters. Among the key process parameters affecting the glass formation were processing temperatures, additives, and the effects of varying them on the final product. This assessment looked at the quantity of glass produced, the quality of the final glass form, and the effect of blending different groups of the feed streams on the glass produced. The model also provided a way to study the current process assumptions and determine in which areas more experimental studies are required. The simulation showed that the glass chemistry postulated in the models is workable. It is expected that the glass chemistry assumed during the modeling process can be verified by the results of the laboratory experiments that are currently being conducted relating to the GMODS process.Further waste characterization, especially of the SFM waste streams not studied in this report, will provide more nearly accurate results and give a more detailed evaluation of the GMODS process

  15. LANL MOX fuel lead assemblies data report for the surplus plutonium disposition environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, S.E.; Holdaway, R.; Ludwig, S.B.

    1998-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to support the US Department of Energy (DOE) Fissile Materials Disposition Program's preparation of the draft surplus plutonium disposition environmental impact statement. This is one of several responses to data call requests for background information on activities associated with the operation of the lead assembly (LA) mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication facility. LANL has proposed an LA MOX fuel fabrication approach that would be done entirely inside an S and S Category 1 area. This includes receipt and storage of PuO 2 powder, fabrication of MOX fuel pellets, assembly of fuel rods and bundles, and shipping of the packaged fuel to a commercial reactor site. Support activities will take place within both Category 1 and 2 areas. Technical Area (TA) 55/Plutonium Facility 4 will be used to store the bulk PuO 2 powder, fabricate MOX fuel pellets, assemble rods, and store fuel bundles. Bundles will be assembled at a separate facility, several of which have been identified as suitable for that activity. The Chemistry and Metallurgy Research Building (at TA-3) will be used for analytical chemistry support. Waste operations will be conducted in TA-50 and TA-54. Only very minor modifications will be needed to accommodate the LA program. These modifications consist mostly of minor equipment upgrades. A commercial reactor operator has not been identified for the LA irradiation. Postirradiation examination (PIE) of the irradiated fuel will take place at either Oak Ridge National Laboratory or ANL-W. The only modifications required at either PIE site would be to accommodate full-length irradiated fuel rods. Results from this program are critical to the overall plutonium distribution schedule

  16. Hanford MOX fuel lead assemblies data report for the surplus plutonium disposition environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connor, D.G.; Fisher, S.E.; Holdaway, R.

    1998-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to support the US Department of Energy (DOE) Fissile Materials Disposition Program's preparation of the draft surplus plutonium disposition environmental impact statement. This is one of several responses to data call requests for background information on activities associated with the operation of the lead assembly (LA) mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication facility. DOE-MD requested that the DOE Site Operations Offices nominate DOE sites that meet established minimum requirements that could produce MOX LAs. Six initial site combinations were proposed: (1) Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) with support from Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), (2) Hanford, (3) Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) with support from Pantex, (4) Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), (5) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), and (6) Savannah River Site (SRS). After further analysis by the sites and DOE-MD, five site combinations were established as possible candidates for producing MOX LAs: (1) ANL-W with support from INEEL, (2) Hanford, (3) LANL, (4) LLNL, and (5) SRS. Hanford has proposed an LA MOX fuel fabrication approach that would be done entirely inside an S and S Category 1 area. An alternate approach would allow fabrication of fuel pellets and assembly of fuel rods in an S and S Category 1 facility. In all, a total of three LA MOX fuel fabrication options were identified by Hanford that could accommodate the program. In every case, only minor modification would be required to ready any of the facilities to accept the equipment necessary to accomplish the LA program

  17. A Methodology for the Analysis and Selection of Alternative for the Disposition of Surplus Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) - Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (OFMD) has announced a Record of Decision (ROD) selecting alternatives for disposition of surplus plutonium. A major objective of this decision was to further U.S. efforts to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons. Other concerns that were addressed include economic, technical, institutional, schedule, environmental, and health and safety issues. The technical, environmental, and nonproliferation analyses supporting the ROD are documented in three DOE reports (DOE-TSR 96, DOE-PEIS 96, and DOE-NN 97, respectively). At the request of OFMD, a team of analysts from the Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium (ANRCP) provided an independent evaluation of the alternatives for plutonium that were considered during the evaluation effort. This report outlines the methodology used by the ANRCP team. This methodology, referred to as multiattribute utility theory (MAU), provides a structure for assembling results of detailed technical, economic, schedule, environment, and nonproliferation analyses for OFMD, DOE policy makers, other stakeholders, and the general public in a systematic way. The MAU methodology has been supported for use in similar situations by the National Research Council, an agency of the National Academy of Sciences.1 It is important to emphasize that the MAU process does not lead to a computerized model that actually determines the decision for a complex problem. MAU is a management tool that is one component, albeit a key component, of a decision process. We subscribe to the philosophy that the result of using models should be insights, not numbers. The MAU approach consists of four steps: (1) identification of alternatives, objectives, and performance measures, (2) estimation of the performance of the alternatives with respect to the objectives, (3) development of value functions and weights for the objectives, and (4) evaluation of the alternatives and sensitivity

  18. Preliminary process simulation and analysis of GMODS: Processing of plutonium surplus materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrada, J.J.; Nehls, J.W. Jr.; Welch, T.D.; Giardina, J.L.; Forsberg, C.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Maliyekkel, A.T. [Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN (United States)

    1996-01-02

    To address growing concerns in the areas of arms control, control of fissile materials, waste management, and environment and health, the US Department of Energy is studying and evaluating various options for the control and disposal of surplus fissile materials (SFMs). One of the options under consideration is the Glass Material Oxidation and Dissolution System (GMODS) which directly converts plutonium-bearing materials such as metals, ceramics, and organics into a durable-high-quality glass for long-term storage or a waste form for disposal. This study undertook the development of a computer simulation of the GMODS process using FLOW. That computer simulation was used to perform an assessment of how GMODS would handle the treatment of plutonium, rich scrap (RS) and lead scrap (LS), and identify critical process parameters. Among the key process parameters affecting the glass formation were processing temperatures, additives, and the effects of varying them on the final product. This assessment looked at the quantity of glass produced, the quality of the final glass form, and the effect of blending different groups of the feed streams on the glass produced. The model also provided a way to study the current process assumptions and determine in which areas more experimental studies are required. The simulation showed that the glass chemistry postulated in the models is workable. It is expected that the glass chemistry assumed during the modeling process can be verified by the results of the laboratory experiments that are currently being conducted relating to the GMODS process.Further waste characterization, especially of the SFM waste streams not studied in this report, will provide more nearly accurate results and give a more detailed evaluation of the GMODS process.

  19. Hanford MOX fuel lead assemblies data report for the surplus plutonium disposition environmental impact statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Connor, D.G.; Fisher, S.E.; Holdaway, R. [and others

    1998-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to support the US Department of Energy (DOE) Fissile Materials Disposition Program`s preparation of the draft surplus plutonium disposition environmental impact statement. This is one of several responses to data call requests for background information on activities associated with the operation of the lead assembly (LA) mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication facility. DOE-MD requested that the DOE Site Operations Offices nominate DOE sites that meet established minimum requirements that could produce MOX LAs. Six initial site combinations were proposed: (1) Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) with support from Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), (2) Hanford, (3) Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) with support from Pantex, (4) Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), (5) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), and (6) Savannah River Site (SRS). After further analysis by the sites and DOE-MD, five site combinations were established as possible candidates for producing MOX LAs: (1) ANL-W with support from INEEL, (2) Hanford, (3) LANL, (4) LLNL, and (5) SRS. Hanford has proposed an LA MOX fuel fabrication approach that would be done entirely inside an S and S Category 1 area. An alternate approach would allow fabrication of fuel pellets and assembly of fuel rods in an S and S Category 1 facility. In all, a total of three LA MOX fuel fabrication options were identified by Hanford that could accommodate the program. In every case, only minor modification would be required to ready any of the facilities to accept the equipment necessary to accomplish the LA program.

  20. LANL MOX fuel lead assemblies data report for the surplus plutonium disposition environmental impact statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, S.E.; Holdaway, R.; Ludwig, S.B. [and others

    1998-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to support the US Department of Energy (DOE) Fissile Materials Disposition Program`s preparation of the draft surplus plutonium disposition environmental impact statement. This is one of several responses to data call requests for background information on activities associated with the operation of the lead assembly (LA) mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication facility. LANL has proposed an LA MOX fuel fabrication approach that would be done entirely inside an S and S Category 1 area. This includes receipt and storage of PuO{sub 2} powder, fabrication of MOX fuel pellets, assembly of fuel rods and bundles, and shipping of the packaged fuel to a commercial reactor site. Support activities will take place within both Category 1 and 2 areas. Technical Area (TA) 55/Plutonium Facility 4 will be used to store the bulk PuO{sub 2} powder, fabricate MOX fuel pellets, assemble rods, and store fuel bundles. Bundles will be assembled at a separate facility, several of which have been identified as suitable for that activity. The Chemistry and Metallurgy Research Building (at TA-3) will be used for analytical chemistry support. Waste operations will be conducted in TA-50 and TA-54. Only very minor modifications will be needed to accommodate the LA program. These modifications consist mostly of minor equipment upgrades. A commercial reactor operator has not been identified for the LA irradiation. Postirradiation examination (PIE) of the irradiated fuel will take place at either Oak Ridge National Laboratory or ANL-W. The only modifications required at either PIE site would be to accommodate full-length irradiated fuel rods. Results from this program are critical to the overall plutonium distribution schedule.

  1. Experimental study of parametric instabilities and anomalous heating in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batanov, G.M.; Rabinovich, M.S.

    1975-01-01

    Over the last few years the study of the dissipation of electromagnetic wave energy in a hot plasma has become perhaps one of the main problems of high-temperature plasma physics and controlled thermonuclear fusion. The focus of attention is on the processes by which electromagnetic energy is transformed into potential plasma waves and the processes involving relaxation of the latter. In this paper the authors summarize the experimental research into these processes conducted at the Lebedev Physics Institute over the 10 cm wave band. In the case of an isotropic plasma the authors recorded non-linear generation of Langmuir noise, the energy density of which was found to be comparable, in order of magnitude, with that of a pump wave. They detected the generation of fast-electron streams, the non-stationary character of the latter with respect to time, and non-linear transmissivity of the plasma layer. In the case of a magnetoactive plasma they studied the parametric excitation of oscillations at the upper hybrid frequency during its resonance with the first overtone of the pump wave. Excitation of plasma noise was found to be accompanied by a flux of fast-electrons, in the energy spectrum of which separate groups were detected. It was also found that the effective collision frequency increased by 1-3 orders, compared to the pari-collision frequency. In the region of magnetic waves close to the electron cyclotron resonance the authors observed forced Mandel'shtam-Brillouin scattering and kinetic instability of the plasma. It was found that the excitation of ionic Langmuir noise preceded ''anomalous absorption'' of waves and ''anomalous heating'' of electrons. The authors further consider the possibility of an experimental study of anomalous heating in plasma in the region of the lower hybrid frequencies, using the Institute's L-2 stellarator. (author)

  2. 45 CFR 205.25 - Eligibility of supplemental security income beneficiaries for food stamps or surplus commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... beneficiaries for food stamps or surplus commodities. 205.25 Section 205.25 Public Welfare Regulations Relating....25 Eligibility of supplemental security income beneficiaries for food stamps or surplus commodities... XVI of the Social Security Act, the State agency shall make the following determinations: (1) The...

  3. 41 CFR 102-37.85 - Can surplus property being offered for sale be withdrawn and approved for donation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... being offered for sale be withdrawn and approved for donation? 102-37.85 Section 102-37.85 Public... MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 37-DONATION OF SURPLUS PERSONAL PROPERTY General Provisions Donation Overview § 102-37.85 Can surplus property being offered for sale be withdrawn and approved for donation...

  4. Multi-attribute evaluation and choice of alternatives for surplus weapons-usable plutonium disposition at uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosterev, V.V.; Bolyatko, V.V.; Khajretdinov, S.I.; Averkin, A.N.

    2014-01-01

    The problem of surplus weapons-usable plutonium disposition is formalized as a multi-attribute problem of a choice of alternatives from a set of possible alternatives under fuzzy conditions. Evaluation and ordering of alternatives for the surplus weapons-usable plutonium disposition and sensitivity analysis are carried out at uncertainty [ru

  5. 41 CFR 102-37.530 - What are FAA's responsibilities in the donation of surplus property to public airports?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are FAA's... § 102-37.530 What are FAA's responsibilities in the donation of surplus property to public airports? In the donation of surplus property to public airports, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), acting...

  6. 32 CFR 644.551 - Equal opportunity-sales of timber, embedded sand, gravel, stone, and surplus structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 644.551 Equal opportunity—sales of timber, embedded sand, gravel, stone, and surplus structures... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Equal opportunity-sales of timber, embedded sand, gravel, stone, and surplus structures. 644.551 Section 644.551 National Defense Department of Defense...

  7. Demographic perspectives on agrarian transformations and 'surplus populations': supply-side banalities versus redistributive imperatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Fischer (Andrew Martín)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis paper frames the discussion of agrarian transformations and 'surplus populations' in the Global South within a political economy and macro-structural consideration of the developmental challenges faced in the context of contemporary rapid population growth. The case is made that the

  8. Countermeasure for Surplus Electricity of PV using Replacement Battery of EVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Masaaki; Iwafune, Yumiko; Yamamoto, Hiromi; Yamaji, Kenji; Okano, Kunihiko; Hiwatari, Ryouji; Ikeya, Tomohiko

    In the power sector, the national government has set the goal that the introduction of PV reaches 53 million kW by 2030. However, large-scale introduction of PV will cause several problems in power systems such as surplus electricity. We need large capacity of pumped storages or batteries for the surplus electricity, but the construction costs of these plants are very high. On the other hand, in the transport sector, Electric Vehicle (EV) is being developed as an environmentally friendly vehicle. To promote the diffusion of EV, it is necessary to build infrastructures that can charge EV in a short time; a battery switch station is one of the solutions to this problem. At a station, the automated switch platform will replace the depleted battery with a fully-charged battery. The depleted battery is placed in a storage room and recharged to be available to other drivers. In this study, we propose the use of station's battery as a countermeasure for surplus electricity of PV and evaluate the economic value of the proposed system. We assumed that 53 million kW of PV is introduced in the nationwide power system and considered two countermeasures for surplus electricity: (1) Pumped storage; (2) Battery of station. The difference in total annual cost between Pumped case and Battery case results in 792.6 billion yen. Hence, if a utility leases the batteries from stations fewer than 792.6 billion yen, the utility will have the cost advantage in Battery case.

  9. The Traders' Cross: Identifying Traders' Surpluses in the Traditional Edgeworth Exchange Diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulier, Scott A.; Prychitko, David L.

    2010-01-01

    The Edgeworth exchange diagram is a traditional tool of undergraduate microeconomic theory that depicts the mutually beneficial gains from voluntary trade. The authors take the analysis one step further. They identify the buyer's and seller's surpluses that accrue to both trading parties in the Edgeworth diagram. This is a straightforward exercise…

  10. 78 FR 77108 - Surplus Property Notice at a Military Installation Designated for Disposal: Pueblo Chemical Depot...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-20

    ... United States needs in accordance with the Defense Authorization Amendments and Base Closure and... authorities, this surplus property may be available for conveyance to State and local governments and other eligible entities for public benefit purposes. Notices of interest from representatives of the homeless...

  11. The Value Relevance of Dirty Surplus Accounting Flows in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Y.; Buijink, W.F.J.; Eken Ra, R.C.W.

    2003-01-01

    Recently the Dutch financial reporting standard setters have taken steps to make dirty surplus accounting flows more visible to parties outside firms, either by eliminating their possibility or by requiring comprehensive income type statements. These steps are presumably based on the idea that dirty

  12. 34 CFR 12.5 - Who may apply for surplus Federal real property?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Who may apply for surplus Federal real property? 12.5 Section 12.5 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DISPOSAL AND UTILIZATION OF... Federal real property: (a) A State. (b) A political subdivision or instrumentality of a State. (c) A tax...

  13. Preliminary assessments the shortcut to remediation (category III-surplus facility assessments)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byars, L.L.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the details of the preliminary assessments for the shortcut of decontamination of surplus nuclear facilities. Topics discussed include: environment, health and safety concerns; economic considerations; reduction of transition time; preliminary characterization reports; preliminary project plan; health and safety plan; quality assurance plan; surveillance and maintenance plan; and waste management plan

  14. The food waste hierarchy as a framework for the management of food surplus and food waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papargyropoulou, Effie; Lozano, Rodrigo|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/36412380X; K. Steinberger, Julia; Wright, Nigel; Ujang, Zaini Bin

    2014-01-01

    The unprecedented scale of food waste in global food supply chains is attracting increasing attention due to its environmental, social and economic impacts. Drawing on interviews with food waste specialists, this study construes the boundaries between food surplus and food waste, avoidable and

  15. Knowledge Valorisation: A Route of Knowledge That Ends In Surplus Value (An Example of The Netherlands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladchenko, Myroslava

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the reasons of the success of the Netherlands in knowledge valorisation: what are the actors that participate in knowledge valorisation process and what are their functions; what is the route of knowledge in valorisation; what "surplus value" does knowledge gain in the valorisation…

  16. Macroeconomic impacts of bioenergy production on surplus agricultural land: a case study of Argentina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wicke, B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/306645955; Smeets, E.M.W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/311445217; Tabeau, A.; Hilbert, J.; Faaij, A.P.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/10685903X

    2009-01-01

    This paper assesses the macroeconomic impacts in terms of GDP, trade balance and employment of large-scale bioenergy production on surplus agricultural land. An input–output model is developed with which the direct, indirect and induced macroeconomic impacts of bioenergy production and agricultural

  17. Macroeconomic impacts of bioenergy production on surplus agricultural land—A case study of Argentina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wicke, Birka; Smeets, E.; Tabeau, Andrzej; Hilbert, Jorge; Faaij, André

    2009-01-01

    This paper assesses the macroeconomic impacts in terms of GDP, trade balance and employment of large-scale bioenergy production on surplus agricultural land. An input–output model is developed with which the direct, indirect and induced macroeconomic impacts of bioenergy production and agricultural

  18. Suitability of oil bioremediation in an Artic soil using surplus heating from an incineration facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couto, Nazare; Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne; Jensen, Pernille Erland

    2014-01-01

    A 168-day period field study, carried out in Sisimiut, Greenland, assessed the potential to enhance soil remediation with the surplus heating from an incineration facility. This approach searches a feasible ex situ remediation process that could be extended throughout the year with low costs. Ind...

  19. Annual summary report on surveillance and maintenance activities of the surplus contaminated facilities program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for period ending September 30, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannon, T.R.; Ford, M.K.; Holder, L. Jr.

    1991-09-01

    The Surplus Contaminated Facilities Program (SCFP) was established at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in 1985 to provide support for inactive contaminated facilities that were largely abandoned by the programs which they formerly served. This support provides for routine surveillance and maintenance (S ampersand M) and special projects beyond a routine nature when such actions are needed to ensure adequate protection of personnel or the environment. The facilities included in the program had been used for research, technology development, isotope production and processing, and waste management. Support for facilities in the SCFP has previously been provided by the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Energy Research: Multiprogram Energy Laboratories -- Facilities Support (ERKG) because of multiprogram use of the facilities or because of the landlord responsibility of Energy Research. Recently, an integrated Decontamination and Decommissioning (D ampersand D) program within the DOE Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management has been established to collectively manage the former Surplus Facilities Management Program, Defense D ampersand D Program, and the KG-funded, ORNL-originated SCFP. This report gives an overview of the S ampersand M planning, routine S ampersand M, and special maintenance project activities which have occurred at the SCFP facilities during the 1991 Fiscal Year

  20. Commercial nuclear fuel from U.S. and Russian surplus defense inventories: Materials, policies, and market effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    Nuclear materials declared by the US and Russian governments as surplus to defense programs are being converted into fuel for commercial nuclear reactors. This report presents the results of an analysis estimating the market effects that would likely result from current plans to commercialize surplus defense inventories. The analysis focuses on two key issues: (1) the extent by which traditional sources of supply, such as production from uranium mines and enrichment plants, would be displaced by the commercialization of surplus defense inventories or, conversely, would be required in the event of disruptions to planned commercialization, and (2) the future price of uranium considering the potential availability of surplus defense inventories. Finally, the report provides an estimate of the savings in uranium procurement costs that could be realized by US nuclear power generating companies with access to competitively priced uranium supplied from surplus defense inventories.

  1. Commercial nuclear fuel from U.S. and Russian surplus defense inventories: Materials, policies, and market effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-05-01

    Nuclear materials declared by the US and Russian governments as surplus to defense programs are being converted into fuel for commercial nuclear reactors. This report presents the results of an analysis estimating the market effects that would likely result from current plans to commercialize surplus defense inventories. The analysis focuses on two key issues: (1) the extent by which traditional sources of supply, such as production from uranium mines and enrichment plants, would be displaced by the commercialization of surplus defense inventories or, conversely, would be required in the event of disruptions to planned commercialization, and (2) the future price of uranium considering the potential availability of surplus defense inventories. Finally, the report provides an estimate of the savings in uranium procurement costs that could be realized by US nuclear power generating companies with access to competitively priced uranium supplied from surplus defense inventories

  2. Computational Study of Anomalous Transport in High Beta DIII-D Discharges with ITBs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankin, Alexei; Garofalo, Andrea; Grierson, Brian; Kritz, Arnold; Rafiq, Tariq

    2015-11-01

    The advanced tokamak scenarios require a large bootstrap current fraction and high β. These large values are often outside the range that occurs in ``conventional'' tokamak discharges. The GLF23, TGLF, and MMM transport models have been previously validated for discharges with parameters associated with ``conventional'' tokamak discharges. It has been demonstrated that the TGLF model under-predicts anomalous transport in high β DIII-D discharges [A.M. Garofalo et al. 2015 TTF Workshop]. In this research, the validity of MMM7.1 model [T. Rafiq et al. Phys. Plasmas 20 032506 (2013)] is tested for high β DIII-D discharges with low and high torque. In addition, the sensitivity of the anomalous transport to β is examined. It is shown that the MMM7.1 model over-predicts the anomalous transport in the DIII-D discharge 154406. In particular, a significant level of anomalous transport is found just outside the internal transport barrier. Differences in the anomalous transport predicted using TGLF and MMM7.1 are reviewed. Mechanisms for quenching of anomalous transport in the ITB regions of high-beta discharges are investigated. This research is supported by US Department of Energy.

  3. IN DEFENSE OF BULGARIAN CONSUMERS AND PRODUCERS – THE PROBLEM OF SURPLUS CHARGES AND DISCOUNTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasimir Davchev

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In a market economy the term "market price" should reflect the market opportunities of users (amount of income and not to violate the economic interests of the producers. Structure of the economy is such that the predominant not only in Bulgaria but also in the other European countries is the sector of trade and services, where the main income for the traders are the margins or surplus charges. The article contains an analysis of the surplus charges of three main commodity groups - white flour, oil and sugar based on official data from the Ministry of Agriculture and Food. The analysis covers margins of the three major sales markets of food - commodity markets, large retail chains and other stores for retail sale. The results suggest that in addition to the normal surplus charges for wholesale and retail, there are the so called by the author "parasitic surplus charges" that are not controlled nor penalized in any way. In this respect, the author proposes the adoption by the Council of Ministers Regulation on the surplus charges with which to resolve this problem. Moreover, the author notes, and there are plenty of discounts that major retailers impose on Bulgarian producers and suppliers. Since these traders do not fall under the legal concept of "dominant market position", they are not sanctioned by the Commission for Protection of Competition. In this regard, the author suggests introducing in the Law on Protection of Competition concept of "economic dependence" or the preparation of sectoral trade law with which to regulate not only this issue but also trade margins.

  4. Analysis of the anomalous hydrogen solubilities in deformed palladiums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Choong Nyeon; Lee, Ho Jong

    1987-02-01

    The anomalous hydrogen solubilities in the deformed palladiums were analyzed by empolying modified Kirchheim's model with considering the partially coherent strain energy which would induced during hydride precipitation around edge dislocations. The dislocation densities, obtained by this model, of the various cold worked and/or reversible US transformed palladium samples were the order of 10/sup 11/cm/sup -2/. The partially coherent strain energies were about 3 kJ/molH and nearly same in the various samples. This value could be compared with the incoherent strain energy, 0.4kJ/molH, which was obtained from the hysteresis on P-C isotherm, and the coherent strain energy calulated, 9.6kJ/molH.

  5. Anomalous couplings in WZ production beyond NLO QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campanario, Francisco; Roth, Robin; Zeppenfeld, Dieter [Institute for Theoretical Physics, KIT, Karlsruhe (Germany); Sapeta, Sebastian [CERN PH-TH, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2016-07-01

    We study WZ production with anomalous couplings (AC) at anti nNLO QCD using the LoopSim method in combination with the Monte Carlo program VBFNLO. Higher order corrections to WZ production are dominated by additional hard jet radiation. Those contributions are insensitive to AC and should thus be suppressed in analyses. We do this using a dynamical jet veto based on the transverse energy of the QCD and EW final state particles. This removes jet dominated events without introducing problematic logs like a fixed p{sub T} jet veto.

  6. Anomalous magnetic nucleon moments in a Bethe-Salpeter model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chak Wing Chan.

    1978-01-01

    We investigate the anomalous magnetic moment of the nucleon in a field theoretic many-channel model for the electromagnetic form factors of the N anti N, the ππ, the K anti K, the πω and the πrho systems. Propagator self-energy corrections from the Ward idendity and phenomenological strong vertex corrections are both included. The photon is coupled minimally to pions, kaons and nucleons with power multiplicative renormalization. With solutions in the framework of the Bethe-Salpeter equation we obtain a value 1.84 for the isovector moment and a value -0.02 for the isoscalar moment. (orig.)

  7. Anomalous heat evolution of deuteron implanted Al on electron bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamada, K.; Kinoshita, H.; Takahashi, H.

    1994-05-01

    Anomalous heat evolution was observed in deuteron implanted Al foils on 175 keV electron bombardment. Local regions with linear dimension of several 100nm showed simultaneous transformation from single crystalline to polycrystalline structure instantaneously on the electron bombardment, indicating the temperature rise up to more than melting point of Al from room temperature. The amount of energy evolved was more than 180 MeV for each transformed region. The transformation was never observed in proton implanted Al foils. The heat evolution was considered due to a nuclear reaction in D 2 molecular collections. (author)

  8. Anomalous low-temperature desorption from preirradiated rare gas solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savchenko, E.V.; Gumenchuk, G.B.; Yurtaeva, E.M.; Belov, A.G.; Khyzhniy, I.V.; Frankowski, M.; Beyer, M.K.; Smith-Gicklhorn, A.M.; Ponomaryov, A.N.; Bondybey, V.E.

    2005-01-01

    The role for the exciton-induced defects in the stimulation of anomalous low-temperature desorption of the own lattice atoms from solid Ar and Ne preirradiated by an electron beam is studied. The free electrons from shallow traps-structural defects-was monitored by the measurements of a yield of the thermally induced exoelectron emission (TSEE). The reaction of recombination of self-trapped holes with electrons is considered as a source of energy needed for the desorption of atoms from the surface of preirradiated solids. A key part of the exciton-induced defects in the phenomenon observed is demonstrated

  9. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wethe, Per Ivar

    2009-01-01

    Today we know two forms of nuclear energy: fission and fusion. Fission is the decomposition of heavy nuclei, while fusion is the melting together of light nuclei. Both processes create a large surplus of energy. Technologically, we can currently only use fission to produce energy in today's nuclear power plants, but there is intense research worldwide in order to realize a controlled fusion process. In a practical context, today's nuclear energy is a sustained source of energy since the resource base is virtually unlimited. When fusion technology is realized, the resource supply will be a marginal problem. (AG)

  10. Flexible energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    The paper discusses and analyses diffent national strategies and points out key changes in the energy system in order to achieve a system which can benefit from a high percentage of wind and CHP without having surplus production problems, introduced here as a flexible energy system....

  11. 41 CFR 102-37.210 - Must a SASP make a drug-free workplace certification when requesting surplus property for donation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-free workplace certification when requesting surplus property for donation? 102-37.210 Section 102-37...) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 37-DONATION OF SURPLUS PERSONAL PROPERTY State Agency for... workplace certification when requesting surplus property for donation? No, you must certify that you will...

  12. Anomalous magnetohydrodynamics in the extreme relativistic domain

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    The evolution equations of anomalous magnetohydrodynamics are derived in the extreme relativistic regime and contrasted with the treatment of hydromagnetic nonlinearities pioneered by Lichnerowicz in the absence of anomalous currents. In particular we explore the situation where the conventional vector currents are complemented by the axial-vector currents arising either from the pseudo Nambu-Goldstone bosons of a spontaneously broken symmetry or because of finite fermionic density effects. After expanding the generally covariant equations in inverse powers of the conductivity, the relativistic analog of the magnetic diffusivity equation is derived in the presence of vortical and magnetic currents. While the anomalous contributions are generally suppressed by the diffusivity, they are shown to disappear in the perfectly conducting limit. When the flow is irrotational, boost-invariant and with vanishing four-acceleration the corresponding evolution equations are explicitly integrated so that the various physic...

  13. The anomalous magnetic moment of the muon

    CERN Document Server

    Jegerlehner, Friedrich

    2017-01-01

    This research monograph covers extensively the theory of the muon anomalous magnetic moment and provides estimates of the theoretical uncertainties. The muon anomalous magnetic moment is one of the most precisely measured quantities in elementary particle physics and provides one of the most stringent tests of relativistic quantum field theory as a fundamental theoretical framework. It allows for an extremely precise check of the standard model of elementary particles and of its limitations. This book reviews the present state of knowledge of the anomalous magnetic moment a=(g-2)/2 of the muon. Recent experiments at the Brookhaven National Laboratory now reach the unbelievable precision of 0.5 parts per million, improving the accuracy of previous g-2 experiments at CERN by a factor of 14. In addition, quantum electrodynamics and electroweak and hadronic effects are reviewed. Since non-perturbative hadronic effects play a key role for the precision test, their evaluation is described in detail. Perspectives fo...

  14. Total least squares for anomalous change detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theiler, James; Matsekh, Anna M.

    2010-04-01

    A family of subtraction-based anomalous change detection algorithms is derived from a total least squares (TLSQ) framework. This provides an alternative to the well-known chronochrome algorithm, which is derived from ordinary least squares. In both cases, the most anomalous changes are identified with the pixels that exhibit the largest residuals with respect to the regression of the two images against each other. The family of TLSQbased anomalous change detectors is shown to be equivalent to the subspace RX formulation for straight anomaly detection, but applied to the stacked space. However, this family is not invariant to linear coordinate transforms. On the other hand, whitened TLSQ is coordinate invariant, and special cases of it are equivalent to canonical correlation analysis and optimized covariance equalization. What whitened TLSQ offers is a generalization of these algorithms with the potential for better performance.

  15. Fractional diffusion equations and anomalous diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Evangelista, Luiz Roberto

    2018-01-01

    Anomalous diffusion has been detected in a wide variety of scenarios, from fractal media, systems with memory, transport processes in porous media, to fluctuations of financial markets, tumour growth, and complex fluids. Providing a contemporary treatment of this process, this book examines the recent literature on anomalous diffusion and covers a rich class of problems in which surface effects are important, offering detailed mathematical tools of usual and fractional calculus for a wide audience of scientists and graduate students in physics, mathematics, chemistry and engineering. Including the basic mathematical tools needed to understand the rules for operating with the fractional derivatives and fractional differential equations, this self-contained text presents the possibility of using fractional diffusion equations with anomalous diffusion phenomena to propose powerful mathematical models for a large variety of fundamental and practical problems in a fast-growing field of research.

  16. On polarization parameters of spin-1 particles and anomalous couplings in e"+e"- → ZZ/Zγ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahaman, Rafiqul; Singh, Ritesh K.

    2016-01-01

    We study the anomalous trilinear gauge couplings of Z and γ using a complete set of polarization asymmetries for the Z boson in e"+e"- → ZZ/Zγ processes with unpolarized initial beams. We use these polarization asymmetries, along with the cross section, to obtain a simultaneous limit on all the anomalous couplings using the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method. For an e"+e"- collider running at 500 GeV center-of-mass energy and 100 fb"-"1 of integrated luminosity the simultaneous limits on the anomalous couplings are 1-3 x 10"-"3. (orig.)

  17. Anomalous Threshold Voltage Variability of Nitride Based Charge Storage Nonvolatile Memory Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Chuan Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional technology scaling is implemented to meet the insatiable demand of high memory density and low cost per bit of charge storage nonvolatile memory (NVM devices. In this study, effect of technology scaling to anomalous threshold voltage ( variability is investigated thoroughly on postcycled and baked nitride based charge storage NVM devices. After long annealing bake of high temperature, cell’s variability of each subsequent bake increases within stable distribution and found exacerbate by technology scaling. Apparent activation energy of this anomalous variability was derived through Arrhenius plots. Apparent activation energy (Eaa of this anomalous variability is 0.67 eV at sub-40 nm devices which is a reduction of approximately 2 times from 110 nm devices. Technology scaling clearly aggravates this anomalous variability, and this poses reliability challenges to applications that demand strict control, for example, reference cells that govern fundamental program, erase, and verify operations of NVM devices. Based on critical evidence, this anomalous variability is attributed to lateral displacement of trapped charges in nitride storage layer. Reliability implications of this study are elucidated. Moreover, potential mitigation methods are proposed to complement technology scaling to prolong the front-runner role of nitride based charge storage NVM in semiconductor flash memory market.

  18. Anomalous diffusion in a dynamical optical lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wei; Cooper, Nigel R.

    2018-02-01

    Motivated by experimental progress in strongly coupled atom-photon systems in optical cavities, we study theoretically the quantum dynamics of atoms coupled to a one-dimensional dynamical optical lattice. The dynamical lattice is chosen to have a period that is incommensurate with that of an underlying static lattice, leading to a dynamical version of the Aubry-André model which can cause localization of single-particle wave functions. We show that atomic wave packets in this dynamical lattice generically spread via anomalous diffusion, which can be tuned between superdiffusive and subdiffusive regimes. This anomalous diffusion arises from an interplay between Anderson localization and quantum fluctuations of the cavity field.

  19. Development of anomalous detection using movie prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakakibara, Yoji; Demachi, Kazuyuki; Kawai, Masaki; Chhatluli, Ritu; Kamiaka, Kazuma

    2012-01-01

    In this research, the new method to predict the near-future of the movie images captured by video camera based on the combination of the Principle Component Analysis (PCA) and the Singular Spectral Analysis (SSA). In the normal condition of machines, the real-time captured movie is supposed to correspond to the predicted one. If the error between the both becomes significantly large, it may suggest some anomalous motion of the machines. So the movie prediction method has a possibility of the sensitive anomalous detection system. (author)

  20. Anomalous fermion number nonconservation: Paradoxes in the level crossing picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnier, Y.

    2006-01-01

    In theories with anomalous fermion number nonconservation, the level-crossing picture is considered a faithful representation of the fermionic quantum number variation. It represents each created fermion by an energy level that crosses the zero-energy line from below. If several fermions of various masses are created, the level-crossing picture contains several levels that cross the zero-energy line and cross each other. However, we know from quantum mechanics that the corresponding levels cannot cross if the different fermions are mixed via some interaction potential. The simultaneous application of these two requirements on the level behavior leads to paradoxes. For instance, a naive interpretation of the resulting level-crossing picture gives rise to charge nonconservation. In this paper, we resolve this paradox by a precise calculation of the transition probability, and discuss what are the implications for the electroweak theory. In particular, the nonperturbative transition probability is higher if top quarks are present in the initial state

  1. SRS MOX fuel lead assemblies data report for the surplus plutonium disposition environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connor, D.G.; Fisher, S.E.; Holdaway, R.

    1998-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to support the US Department of Energy (DOE) Fissile Materials Disposition Program's preparation of the draft surplus plutonium disposition environmental impact statement. This is one of several responses to data call requests for background information on activities associated with the operation of the lead assembly (LA) mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication facility. DOE-MD requested that the DOE Site Operations Offices nominate DOE sites that meet established minimum requirements that could produce MOX LAs. Six initial site combinations were proposed: (1) Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) with support from Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), (2) Hanford, (3) Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) with support from Pantex, (4) Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), (5) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), and (6) Savannah River Site(SRS). After further analysis by the sites and DOE-MD, five site combinations were established as possible candidates for producing MOX LAs: (1) ANL-W with support from INEEL, (2) Hanford, (3) LANL, (4) LLNL, and (5) SRS. SRS has proposed an LA MOX fuel fabrication approach that would be done entirely inside an S and S Category 1 area. An alternate approach would allow fabrication of fuel pellets and assembly of fuel rods in an S and S Category 2 or 3 facility with storage of bulk PuO 2 and assembly, storage, and shipping of fuel bundles in an S and S Category 1 facility. The total Category 1 approach, which is the recommended option, would be done in the 221-H Canyon Building. A facility that was never in service will be removed from one area, and a hardened wall will be constructed in another area to accommodate execution of the LA fuel fabrication. The non-Category 1 approach would require removal of process equipment in the FB-Line metal production and packaging glove boxes, which requires work in a contamination area. The Immobilization Hot Demonstration Program

  2. SRS MOX fuel lead assemblies data report for the surplus plutonium disposition environmental impact statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Connor, D.G.; Fisher, S.E.; Holdaway, R. [and others

    1998-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to support the US Department of Energy (DOE) Fissile Materials Disposition Program`s preparation of the draft surplus plutonium disposition environmental impact statement. This is one of several responses to data call requests for background information on activities associated with the operation of the lead assembly (LA) mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication facility. DOE-MD requested that the DOE Site Operations Offices nominate DOE sites that meet established minimum requirements that could produce MOX LAs. Six initial site combinations were proposed: (1) Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) with support from Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), (2) Hanford, (3) Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) with support from Pantex, (4) Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), (5) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), and (6) Savannah River Site(SRS). After further analysis by the sites and DOE-MD, five site combinations were established as possible candidates for producing MOX LAs: (1) ANL-W with support from INEEL, (2) Hanford, (3) LANL, (4) LLNL, and (5) SRS. SRS has proposed an LA MOX fuel fabrication approach that would be done entirely inside an S and S Category 1 area. An alternate approach would allow fabrication of fuel pellets and assembly of fuel rods in an S and S Category 2 or 3 facility with storage of bulk PuO{sub 2} and assembly, storage, and shipping of fuel bundles in an S and S Category 1 facility. The total Category 1 approach, which is the recommended option, would be done in the 221-H Canyon Building. A facility that was never in service will be removed from one area, and a hardened wall will be constructed in another area to accommodate execution of the LA fuel fabrication. The non-Category 1 approach would require removal of process equipment in the FB-Line metal production and packaging glove boxes, which requires work in a contamination area. The Immobilization Hot Demonstration Program

  3. Genomic testing interacts with reproductive surplus in reducing genetic lag and increasing economic net return

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortø, Line; Ettema, Jehan Frans; Kargo, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Until now, genomic information has mainly been used to improve the accuracy of genomic breeding values for breeding animals at a population level. However, we hypothesize that the use of information from genotyped females also opens up the possibility of reducing genetic lag in a dairy herd......, especially if genomic tests are used in combination with sexed semen or a high management level for reproductive performance, because both factors provide the opportunity for generating a reproductive surplus in the herd. In this study, sexed semen is used in combination with beef semen to produce high......-value crossbred beef calves. Thus, on average there is no surplus of and selection among replacement heifers whether to go into the herd or to be sold. In this situation, the selection opportunities arise when deciding which cows to inseminate with sexed semen, conventional semen, or beef semen. We tested...

  4. THE EFFECT OF A MALE SURPLUS ON INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE IN INDIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Sunita; Trent, Katherine; South, Scott J

    2013-08-31

    Theories of the social consequences of imbalanced sex ratios posit that men will exercise extraordinarily strict control over women's behaviour when women's relationship options are plentiful and men's own options are limited. We use data from the third wave of the Indian National Family and Health Survey, conducted in 2005-06, to explore this issue, investigating the effect of the community sex ratio on women's experience of intimate partner violence in India. Multilevel logistic regression models show that a relative surplus of men in a community increases the likelihood of physical abuse by husbands even after adjusting for various other individual, household, and geographic characteristics. Further evidence of control over women when there is a sex ratio imbalance is provided by the increased odds of husbands distrusting wives with money when there is a male surplus in the local community.

  5. Gas power production, surplus concepts and the transformation of hydro-electric rent into resource rent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amundsen, Eirik S.

    1997-01-01

    The paper considers the effects of introducing large scale gas power production capacity into an electricity sector based on hydropower. In this process the economic rent is transmitted from the hydro power sector to the resource rent in the gas power sector, but is along the way intermingled with ordinary producer surplus and quasi-rent stemming from increasing cost conditions in the production infrastructure and capacity constraints. The net effect on total rent generated depends on development in demand, demand elasticities, costs saved from delaying hydropower projects and the existence of producer surplus in gas power generation. The paper closes with a discussion of possible tax base changes following from the introduction of a thermal power system based on natural gas

  6. [Thought Experiments of Economic Surplus: Science and Economy in Ernst Mach's Epistemology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulz, Monika

    2015-03-01

    Thought Experiments of Economic Surplus: Science and Economy in Ernst Mach's Epistemology. Thought experiments are an important element in Ernst Mach's epistemology: They facilitate amplifying our knowledge by experimenting with thoughts; they thus exceed the empirical experience and suspend the quest for immediate utility. In an economical perspective, Mach suggested that thought experiments depended on the production of an economic surplus based on the division of labor relieving the struggle for survival of the individual. Thus, as frequently emphasized, in Mach's epistemology, not only the 'economy of thought' is an important feature; instead, also the socioeconomic conditions of science play a decisive role. The paper discusses the mental and social economic aspects of experimental thinking in Mach's epistemology and examines those within the contemporary evolutionary, physiological, and economic contexts. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Disposition and transportation of surplus radioactive low specific activity nitric acid. Volume 1, Environmental Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-05-01

    DOE is deactivating the PUREX plant at Hanford; this will involve the disposition of about 692,000 liters (183,000 gallons) of surplus nitric acid contaminated with low levels of U and other radionuclides. The nitric acid, designated as low specific activity, is stored in 4 storage tanks at PUREX. Five principal alternatives were evaluated: transfer for reuse (sale to BNF plc), no action, continued storage in Hanford upgraded or new facility, consolidation of DOE surplus acid, and processing the LSA nitric acid as waste. The transfer to BNF plc is the preferred alternative. From the analysis, it is concluded that the proposed disposition and transportation of the acid does not constitute a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of NEPA; therefore an environmental impact statement is not required

  8. NOW ON THE WEB SALES AND PURCHASE OF OBSOLETE OR SURPLUS EQUIPMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    The Recuperation and Sales Service wishes to recall that obsolete or surplus equipment which is no longer needed at CERN may be sold to outside institutes, members of the personnel, companies, etc. For this purpose an 'on-line sales and purchase tool' has been developed and installed on the web: consult the 'Recuperation and Sales Service' site on the CERN homepage. Users wishing to eliminate or sell obsolete or surplus equipment are invited to use the tool to issue an 'on-line sales request' and users who are looking for cheap 2nd hand equipment may consult the 'on-line sales catalogue' and make 'on-line purchase bids'. The direct sale of low value equipment, which takes place Thursdays 13h30 ­ 15h30 in the Recuperation Centre, building 133, will continue as before. For more information contact the Recuperation & Sales Service, tel. 75782 or 78665.

  9. The UK's Surplus Source Disposal Programme: successful management of a national radioactive legacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Clive; Burns, Philip; Wakerley, Malcolm; Watson, Isabelle; Cook, Marianne; Moloney, Barry

    2010-01-01

    Between 2004 and 2009, the Surplus Source Disposal Programme (SSDP) arranged and subsidised the safe disposal or recycling of more than 11 000 unwanted radioactive items containing in total more than 8.5 x 10 14 Bq of activity, from some 500 sites throughout the United Kingdom. Sources were removed principally from universities, schools and colleges, museums, and hospitals. SSDP was funded by the UK Government and managed by the Environment Agency. The programme was delivered at a total cost of Pounds 7.14 million, nearly Pounds 2 million less than its initial budget. This was a big success for health and safety, the environment, business and the public purse. Current legislative requirements under the High Activity Sealed Sources Directive, which came into effect during 2005, will prevent a build-up of high activity surplus sources in future. Continuing vigilance may be needed to avoid a build-up of lower activity disused sources. (note)

  10. The UK's Surplus Source Disposal Programme: successful management of a national radioactive legacy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Clive [Environment Agency, Block 1, Government Buildings, Burghill Road, Westbury-on-Trym, Bristol BS10 6BF (United Kingdom); Burns, Philip [Formerly of the Environment Agency, Olton Court, 10 Warwick Road, Solihull B92 7HX (United Kingdom); Wakerley, Malcolm [Formerly of the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, Ergon House, 17 Smith Square, London SW1P 3JR (United Kingdom); Watson, Isabelle [Scottish Environment Protection Agency, 5 Redwood Crescent, Peel Park, East Kilbride G74 5PP (United Kingdom); Cook, Marianne [Scottish Government, Victoria Quay, Edinburgh EH6 6QQ (United Kingdom); Moloney, Barry [Safeguard International (now EnergySolutions), B168, Harwell Campus, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QT (United Kingdom)

    2010-06-15

    Between 2004 and 2009, the Surplus Source Disposal Programme (SSDP) arranged and subsidised the safe disposal or recycling of more than 11 000 unwanted radioactive items containing in total more than 8.5 x 10{sup 14} Bq of activity, from some 500 sites throughout the United Kingdom. Sources were removed principally from universities, schools and colleges, museums, and hospitals. SSDP was funded by the UK Government and managed by the Environment Agency. The programme was delivered at a total cost of Pounds 7.14 million, nearly Pounds 2 million less than its initial budget. This was a big success for health and safety, the environment, business and the public purse. Current legislative requirements under the High Activity Sealed Sources Directive, which came into effect during 2005, will prevent a build-up of high activity surplus sources in future. Continuing vigilance may be needed to avoid a build-up of lower activity disused sources. (note)

  11. Effects of an anomalous W-boson weak electric dipole moment in fi- fj → W ± Z0 (γ)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queijeiro, A.; Garcia, J.

    1995-01-01

    We study the high-energy production process f i - f j → W ± Z 0 (γ) allowing for gauge boson compositeness through an anomalous W - -boson weak-electric dipole moment parameter ∼ k z . We give the angular differential and total cross-section for different values of ∼ k z , and compare with the corresponding results coming from an anomalous weak-magnetic dipole moment k z . (Author)

  12. High Electrocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution Activity of an Anomalous Ruthenium Catalyst

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Yao; Jiao, Yan; Zhu, Yihan; Li, Lu Hua; Han, Yu; Chen, Ying; Jaroniec, Mietek; Qiao, Shi Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) is a critical process due to its fundamental role in electrocatalysis. Practically, the development of high-performance electrocatalysts for HER in alkaline media is of great importance for the conversion of renewable energy to hydrogen fuel via photoelectrochemical water splitting. However, both mechanistic exploration and materials development for HER under alkaline conditions are very limited. Precious Pt metal, which still serves as the state-of-the-art catalyst for HER, is unable to guarantee a sustainable hydrogen supply. Here we report an anomalously structured Ru catalyst that shows 2.5 times higher hydrogen generation rate than Pt and is among the most active HER electrocatalysts yet reported in alkaline solutions. The identification of new face-centered cubic crystallographic structure of Ru nanoparticles was investigated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy imaging, and its formation mechanism was revealed by spectroscopic characterization and theoretical analysis. For the first time, it is found that the Ru nanocatalyst showed a pronounced effect of the crystal structure on the electrocatalytic activity tested under different conditions. The combination of electrochemical reaction rate measurements and density functional theory computation shows that the high activity of anomalous Ru catalyst in alkaline solution originates from its suitable adsorption energies to some key reaction intermediates and reaction kinetics in the HER process.

  13. High Electrocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution Activity of an Anomalous Ruthenium Catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yao; Jiao, Yan; Zhu, Yihan; Li, Lu Hua; Han, Yu; Chen, Ying; Jaroniec, Mietek; Qiao, Shi-Zhang

    2016-12-14

    Hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) is a critical process due to its fundamental role in electrocatalysis. Practically, the development of high-performance electrocatalysts for HER in alkaline media is of great importance for the conversion of renewable energy to hydrogen fuel via photoelectrochemical water splitting. However, both mechanistic exploration and materials development for HER under alkaline conditions are very limited. Precious Pt metal, which still serves as the state-of-the-art catalyst for HER, is unable to guarantee a sustainable hydrogen supply. Here we report an anomalously structured Ru catalyst that shows 2.5 times higher hydrogen generation rate than Pt and is among the most active HER electrocatalysts yet reported in alkaline solutions. The identification of new face-centered cubic crystallographic structure of Ru nanoparticles was investigated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy imaging, and its formation mechanism was revealed by spectroscopic characterization and theoretical analysis. For the first time, it is found that the Ru nanocatalyst showed a pronounced effect of the crystal structure on the electrocatalytic activity tested under different conditions. The combination of electrochemical reaction rate measurements and density functional theory computation shows that the high activity of anomalous Ru catalyst in alkaline solution originates from its suitable adsorption energies to some key reaction intermediates and reaction kinetics in the HER process.

  14. High Electrocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution Activity of an Anomalous Ruthenium Catalyst

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Yao

    2016-11-28

    Hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) is a critical process due to its fundamental role in electrocatalysis. Practically, the development of high-performance electrocatalysts for HER in alkaline media is of great importance for the conversion of renewable energy to hydrogen fuel via photoelectrochemical water splitting. However, both mechanistic exploration and materials development for HER under alkaline conditions are very limited. Precious Pt metal, which still serves as the state-of-the-art catalyst for HER, is unable to guarantee a sustainable hydrogen supply. Here we report an anomalously structured Ru catalyst that shows 2.5 times higher hydrogen generation rate than Pt and is among the most active HER electrocatalysts yet reported in alkaline solutions. The identification of new face-centered cubic crystallographic structure of Ru nanoparticles was investigated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy imaging, and its formation mechanism was revealed by spectroscopic characterization and theoretical analysis. For the first time, it is found that the Ru nanocatalyst showed a pronounced effect of the crystal structure on the electrocatalytic activity tested under different conditions. The combination of electrochemical reaction rate measurements and density functional theory computation shows that the high activity of anomalous Ru catalyst in alkaline solution originates from its suitable adsorption energies to some key reaction intermediates and reaction kinetics in the HER process.

  15. The class analysis of poverty: is the underclass living off the socially available surplus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernomas, R; Sepehri, A

    1997-01-01

    In a recent article Erik Olin Wright argues that the U.S. underclass is a drain on the socially available surplus and thus a hindrance to capital accumulation. Wright's argument is not supported by available evidence from the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom on the state's distributive activities. This evidence suggests that the social welfare necessary to sustain the underclass is provided by transfers from wage and salary earners rather than from profit.

  16. Producer Surplus Distributions in GM Crops: The Ignored Impacts of Roundup Ready Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, William W.; Huso, Scott R.

    2006-01-01

    Release of a genetically modified (GM) crop variety would lower prices of competing pesticides used on conventional varieties. This causes an increase in surplus for those farmers who adopt the GM variety, as well as for those who plant the conventional variety. A Cournot model was developed to determine the equilibrium quantities of conventional pesticides. A market with conventional wheat was compared to a market with both conventional and GM wheat varieties to identify price decreases of t...

  17. Relative willingness to pay and surplus comparison mechanism in experimental auctions

    OpenAIRE

    COMBRIS Pierre; SEABRA PINTO Alexandra; GIRAUD HERAUD Eric

    2015-01-01

    We study the relative willingness-to-pay (WTP) of consumers according to the diversity of supply in a market and we show how the presence of substitutes for a given product leads to question the incentive mechanisms commonly used in experimental auctions. We propose a Surplus Comparison Mechanism (SCM) in order to yield WTP estimates which better take into account the choice set available to consumers. After showing the efficiency of this mechanism we test the SCM in a laboratory experiment, ...

  18. What is to be done with surplus embryos? Attitude formation with ambivalence in German fertility patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kufner, K; Tonne, M; Barth, J

    2009-01-01

    Improved pregnancy rates in IVF have led to increasing numbers of surplus embryos which can potentially be used for purposes like donation to another infertile couple or further research. Individuals report high levels of ambivalence concerning the donation of surplus embryos. This study examined which strategies infertile patients use to deal with this ambivalence when asked to evaluate potential dispositions of surplus embryos created during IVF. Guideline-based interviews with fertility patients were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Following the principle of theoretical sampling, eight interviews were analysed by use of Grounded Theory. Analyses focused on processes of individual attitude formation. Strategies for handling ambivalence during attitude formation were identified: the six strategies comprise cognitive and communicative strategies, and were integrated into a model of attitude formation under ambivalence. As ambivalence is a relevant phenomenon in attitude formation within IVF treatment, assessment of ambivalence is strongly recommended in social science studies investigating ethical problems in patient care. In the context of informed consent, there is a need for individual counselling which draws attention to the conflicting values during attitude formation. Counsellors should be aware of the signs of and the strategies to deal with ambivalence.

  19. Tobacco Regulation and Cost-Benefit Analysis: How Should We Value Foregone Consumer Surplus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Helen G.; Norton, Edward C.; Smith, Jeffrey A.

    2016-01-01

    Recent tobacco regulations proposed by the Food and Drug Administration have raised a thorny question: how should the cost-benefit analysis accompanying such policies value foregone consumer surplus associated with regulation-induced reductions in smoking? In a model with rational and fully informed consumers, this question is straightforward. There is disagreement, however, about whether consumers are rational and fully informed, and the literature offers little practical guidance about what approach the FDA should use if they are not. In this paper, we outline the history of the FDA’s recent attempts to regulate cigarettes and other tobacco products and how they have valued foregone consumer surplus in cost-benefit analyses. We advocate replacing the approach used in most of this literature, which first calculates health gains associated with regulation and then “offsets” them by some factor reflecting consumer surplus losses, with a more general behavioral public finance framework for welfare analysis. This framework applies standard tools of welfare analysis to consumer demand that may be “biased” (that is, not necessarily rational and fully informed) without requiring specific assumptions about the reason for the bias. This framework would require estimates of both biased and unbiased consumer demand; we sketch an agenda to help develop these in the context of smoking. The use of this framework would substantially reduce the confusion currently surrounding welfare analysis of tobacco regulation. PMID:29404381

  20. How can the German electricity export surplus in 2013 be explained?; Wie laesst sich der deutsche Exportueberschuss fuer Strom in 2013 erklaeren?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Growitsch, Christian; Nagl, Stephan; Peter, Jakob; Tode, Christian [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Energiewirtschaftliches Inst.

    2014-11-15

    In principle cross-border electricity transmission can be accounted for by price differences between the relevant electricity exchanges. For any given level of electricity demand the price of electricity at the individual electricity exchanges is primarily influenced by fuel prices, power plant availability and the feed-in of electricity from renewable energy, and differences in electricity prices in turn are a determinant of cross-border transmission. Some may have been surprised by the high level of electricity export in the spring of 2011, only shortly after 8 GW of power plant capacity had been shut down as part of the nuclear energy phaseout. What in fact explains the existing export surplus are the continuing excess of power plant capacity, an efficient power plant fleet compared with other European countries and the continuing growth of renewable energies in Germany.

  1. 'Complexity' and anomalous transport in space plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Tom; Wu Chengchin

    2002-01-01

    'Complexity' has become a hot topic in nearly every field of modern physics. Space plasma is of no exception. In this paper, it is demonstrated that the sporadic and localized interactions of magnetic coherent structures are the origin of 'complexity' in space plasmas. The intermittent localized interactions, which generate the anomalous diffusion, transport, and evolution of the macroscopic state variables of the overall dynamical system, may be modeled by a triggered (fast) localized chaotic growth equation of a set of relevant order parameters. Such processes would generally pave the way for the global system to evolve into a 'complex' state of long-ranged interactions of fluctuations, displaying the phenomenon of forced and/or self-organized criticality. An example of such type of anomalous transport and evolution in a sheared magnetic field is provided via two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations. The coarse-grained dissipation due to the intermittent triggered interactions among the magnetic coherent structures induces a 'fluctuation-induced nonlinear instability' that reconfigures the sheared magnetic field into an X-point magnetic geometry (in the mean field sense), leading to the anomalous acceleration of the magnetic coherent structures. A phenomenon akin to such type of anomalous transport and acceleration, the so-called bursty bulk flows, has been commonly observed in the plasma sheet of the Earth's magnetotail

  2. Anomalous Seebeck coefficient in boron carbides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aselage, T.L.; Emin, D.; Wood, C.; Mackinnon, I.D.R.; Howard, I.A.

    1987-01-01

    Boron carbides exhibit an anomalously large Seebeck coefficient with a temperature coefficient that is characteristic of polaronic hopping between inequivalent sites. The inequivalence in the sites is associated with disorder in the solid. The temperature dependence of the Seebeck coefficient for materials prepared by different techniques provides insight into the nature of the disorder

  3. Examination of anomalous self-experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raballo, Andrea; Parnas, Josef

    2012-01-01

    . Here, we present the initial normative data and psychometric properties of a newly developed instrument (Examination of Anomalous Self-experience [EASE]), specifically designed to support the psychopathological exploration of SDs in both research and "real world" clinical settings. Our results support...

  4. Anomalous human behavior detection: An Adaptive approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, C. van; Halma, A.; Schutte, K.

    2013-01-01

    Detection of anomalies (outliers or abnormal instances) is an important element in a range of applications such as fault, fraud, suspicious behavior detection and knowledge discovery. In this article we propose a new method for anomaly detection and performed tested its ability to detect anomalous

  5. Anomalous VVH interactions at a linear collider

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We examine, in a model independent way, the sensitivity of a linear collider to the couplings of a light Higgs boson to a pair of gauge bosons, including the possibility of. CP violation. We construct several observables that probe the various possible anomalous couplings. For an intermediate mass Higgs, a collider ...

  6. Anomalous periodic disruptions in tokamak plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montvai, A.; Tegze, M.; Valyi, I.

    1982-09-01

    Anomalously strong, periodic instabilities were observed in the MT-1 tokamak. Characteristics of these instabilities were partly similar to those of internal disruptions, but there were features making them different from the normal relaxational oscillations. Basic characteristics of the phenomenon were studied with the aid of generally used diagnostics. (author)

  7. Anomalous Hall effect in disordered multiband metals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kovalev, A.A.; Sinova, Jairo; Tserkovnyak, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 105, č. 3 (2010), 036601/1-036601/4 ISSN 0031-9007 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : anomalous Hall effect * spintronics Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 7.621, year: 2010

  8. Anomalous VVH interactions at a linear collider

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We examine, in a model independent way, the sensitivity of a linear collider to the couplings of a light Higgs boson to a pair of gauge bosons, including the possibility of CP violation. We construct several observables that probe the various possible anomalous couplings. For an intermediate mass Higgs, a collider operating ...

  9. Anomalous Hall conductivity: Local orbitals approach

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Středa, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 4 (2010), 045115/1-045115/9 ISSN 1098-0121 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : anomalous Hall effect * Berry phase correction * orbital polarization momentum Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.772, year: 2010

  10. Bunburra Rockhole: A New Anomalous Achondrite

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bland, P.A.; Spurný, Pavel; Greenwood, R.C.; Towner, M.C.; Bevan, A.W.R.; Bottke jr., W.F.; Shrbený, Lukáš; McClafferty, T.; Vaughan, D.; Benedix, G.K.; Franchi, I.A.; Hough, R.M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 72, Supplement (2009), A34-A34 ISSN 1086-9379. [Annual Meeting of the Meteoritical Society /72./. Nancy, 13.06.2009-18.06.2009] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : Bunburra Rockhole * anomalous achondrite Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 3.253, year: 2009

  11. Anomalous intense driver (AID) concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thode, L.E.

    1980-03-01

    An optimized electron bunching mechanism is utilized to efficiently couple the energy of a 5 to 100 MeV, 1 to 30 TW electron beam into a 3 to 50 cm 3 plasma of electron density 10 17 to 10 20 cm- 3 . An efficient coupling of beam energy and momentum to the plasma is possible due to the relativistic nature of the beam dynamics combined with the short wavelength of the bunching mechanism in a high-density plasma. The rapidly produced multi-kilovolt plasma can be used directly to develop a pulsed neutron and x-ray source. Alternatively, the plasma can be used to drive a hierarchy of inertial confinement or x-ray devices. Utilizing this novel concept, controlled thermonuclear fusion may be achievable within present or near term relativistic electron beam technology

  12. Anomalous magnetoresistance in Fibonacci multilayers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, L. D.; Bezerra, C. G.; Correa, M. A.; Chesman, C.; Pearson, J. E.; Hoffmann, A. (Materials Science Division); (Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte)

    2012-01-01

    We theoretically investigated magnetoresistance curves in quasiperiodic magnetic multilayers for two different growth directions, namely, [110] and [100]. We considered identical ferromagnetic layers separated by nonmagnetic layers with two different thicknesses chosen based on the Fibonacci sequence. Using parameters for Fe/Cr multilayers, four terms were included in our description of the magnetic energy: Zeeman, cubic anisotropy, bilinear coupling, and biquadratic coupling. The minimum energy was determined by the gradient method and the equilibrium magnetization directions found were used to calculate magnetoresistance curves. By choosing spacers with a thickness such that biquadratic coupling is stronger than bilinear coupling, unusual behaviors for the magnetoresistance were observed: (i) for the [110] case, there is a different behavior for structures based on even and odd Fibonacci generations, and, more interesting, (ii) for the [100] case, we found magnetic field ranges for which the magnetoresistance increases with magnetic field.

  13. Explanation of the anomalously small absorption of α particles in 40Ca nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planeta, R.; Dabrowski, H.; Freindl, L.; Grotowski, K.

    1979-01-01

    The reduced absorption at lower α particle energies (approximately 30 MeV) which is necessary to describe the anomalous large angle scattering of α particles from 40 Ca nuclei is explained by the angular momentum mismatch between the entrance and exit reaction channels. A new definition of the volume integral of the imaginary potential is proposed. (author)

  14. Anomalous high-frequency wave activity flux preceding anomalous changes in the Northern polar jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Mototaka; Kadota, Minoru; Yamane, Shozo

    2010-05-01

    Anomalous forcing by quasi-geostrophic (QG) waves has been reported as an important forcing factor in the Northern Annular Mode (NAM) in recent literatures. In order to shed a light on the dynamics of the NAM from a different angle, we have examined anomalous behavior of the winter jets in the upper troposphere and stratosphere by focusing our diagnosis on not the anomalous geopotential height (Z) itself, but on the anomalous change in the Z (dZ) between two successive months and preceding transient QG wave activity flux during the cold season. We calculated EOFs of dZ between two successive months at 150hPa for a 46-year period, from 1958 to 2003, using the monthly mean NCEP reanalysis data. We then formed anomaly composites of changes in Z and the zonal velocity (U), as well as the preceding and following wave activity flux, Z, U, and temperature at various heights, for both positive and negative phases of the first EOF. For the wave forcing fields, we adopted the diagnostic system for the three-dimensional QG transient wave activity flux in the zonally-varying three-dimensional mean flow developed by Plumb (1986) with a slight modification in its application to the data. Our choice of the Plumb86 is based on the fact that the winter mean flow in the Northern Hemisphere is characterized by noticeable zonal asymmetry, and has a symbiotic relationship with waves in the extra-tropics. The Plumb86 flux was calculated for high-frequency (period of 2 to 7 days) and low-frequency (period of 10 to 20 days) waves with the ultra-low-frequency (period of 30 days or longer) flow as the reference state for each time frame of the 6 hourly NCEP reanalysis data from 1958 to 2003. By replacing the mean flow with the ultra-low-frequency flow in the application of the Plumb86 formula, the flux fields were calculated as time series at 6 hour intervals. The time series of the wave activity flux was then averaged for each month. The patterns of composited anomalous dZ and dU clearly

  15. Developmental competence of oocytes isolated from surplus medulla tissue in connection with cryopreservation of ovarian tissue for fertility preservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilken-Jensen, Helle N; Kristensen, Stine G; Jeppesen, Janni V

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Evaluating the developmental competence of immature oocytes collected from surplus medulla tissue in connection with ovarian tissue cryopreservation for fertility preservation. DESIGN: Cohort comparative study. SETTING: University laboratory in Denmark from 2011-2012. POPULATION: 69...

  16. Effect of anomalous transport coefficients on the thermal structure of the storm time auroral ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontheim, E.G.; Ong, R.S.B.; Roble, R.G.; Mayr, H.G.; Hoegy, W.H.; Baron, M.J.; Wickwar, V.B.

    1978-01-01

    By analyzing an observed storm time auroral electron temperature profile it is shown that anomalous transport effects strongly influence the thermal structure of the disturbed auroral ionosphere. Such anomalous transport effects are a consequence of plasma turbulence, the existence of which has been established by a large number of observations in the auroral ionosphere. The electron and composite ion energy equations are solved with anomalous electron thermal conductivity and parallel electrical resistivity coefficients. The solutions are parameterized with respect to a phenomenological altitude-dependent anomaly coefficient A and are compared with an observed storm time electron temperature profile above Chatanika. The calculated temperature profile for the classical case (A=1)disagrees considerably with the measured profile over most of the altitude range up to 450km. It is shown that an anomaly coefficient with a sharp peak of the order of 10 4 centered aroung the F 2 peak is consistent with observations

  17. The Bruce Energy Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.I.

    1982-06-01

    The Bruce Energy Centre Development Corporation is a joint venture of the Ontario Energy Corporation and 6 private companies formed to market surplus steam from the Bruce Nuclear Power Development. The corporation will also sell or lease land near Bruce NPD. The Bruce Energy Centre has an energy output of 900 BTU per day per dollar invested. Potential customers include greenhouse operators, aquaculturalists, food and beverage manufacturers, and traditional manufacturers

  18. Anomalous Magnetic Excitations of Cooperative Tetrahedral Spin Clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prsa, K.; Rønnow, H.M.; Zaharko, O.

    2009-01-01

    An inelastic neutron scattering study of Cu2Te2O5X2 (X=Cl, Br) shows strong dispersive modes with large energy gaps persisting far above T-N, notably in Cu2Te2O5Br2. The anomalous features: a coexisting unusually weak Goldstone-like mode observed in Cu2Te2O5Cl2 and the size of the energy gaps can...... cannot be explained by existing theories, such as our mean-field or random-phase approximation. We argue that our findings represent a new general type of behavior due to intercluster quantum fluctuations and call for development of a new theoretical approach....

  19. Search for Anomalous Production of Photon + Jets + Missing Transverse Energy in $p\\bar{p}$ Collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=1.96$~TeV Using the CDF II Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hewamanage, Samantha Kaushalya [Baylor Univ., Waco, TX (United States)

    2011-01-01

    A model-independent signature-based search for physics beyond the Standard Model is performed in the photon + jets + missing transverse energy channel in \\ppbar collisions at a center of mass energy of 1.96 TeV using the CDF II detector. Events with a photon + jets are predicted by the Standard Model and also by many theoretical models beyond the Standard Model. In the Standard Model, the main mechanisms for photon + jets production include quark-antiquark annihilation and quark-gluon scattering. No intrinsic missing transverse energy is present in any of these Standard Model processes. In this search, photon + $\\geq$1 jet and photon + $\\geq$2 jet events are analyzed with and without a minimum requirement on the missing transverse energy. Numerous mass distributions and kinematic distributions are studied and no significant excess over the background prediction is found. All results indicate good agreement with expectations of the Standard Model.

  20. Guide for radiological characterization and measurements for decommissioning of US Department of Energy surplus facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denahm, D. H.; Barnes, M. G.; Jaquish, R. E.; Corley, J. P.; Gilbert, R. O.; Hoenes, G. R.; Jamison, J. D.; McMurray, B. J.; Watson, E. C.

    1983-08-01

    This Guide describes the elements of radiological characterization at DOE excess facilities in preparation for, during, and subsequent to decommissioning operations. It is the intent of this Guide and accompanying appendices to provide the reader (user) with sufficient information to carry out that task with a minimum of confusion and to provide a uniform basis for evaluating site conditions and verifying that decommissioning operations are conducted according to a specific plan. Some areas of particular interest in this Guide are: the need to involve appropriate staff from the affected states in the early planning stages of decommissioning; the need for and suggested methods of radiological site characterization to complete a decommissioning project, including: historical surveys, environmental pathway analyses, statistical sampling design, and choosing appropriate instrumentation and measurements; the need for and emphasis on quality assurance, documentation and records retention; the establishment of a Design Objective approach to applying site-specific contamination limits based on the ALARA philosophy; the establishment of a ''de minimis'' or minimum dose level of concern for decommissioning operations based on existing standards, experience and ALARA considerations.

  1. Guide for radiological characterization and measurements for decommissioning of US Department of Energy surplus facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denahm, D.H.; Barnes, M.G.; Jaquish, R.E.; Corley, J.P.; Gilbert, R.O.; Hoenes, G.R.; Jamison, J.D.; McMurray, B.J.; Watson, E.C.

    1983-08-01

    This Guide describes the elements of radiological characterization at DOE excess facilities in preparation for, during, and subsequent to decommissioning operations. It is the intent of this Guide and accompanying appendices to provide the reader (user) with sufficient information to carry out that task with a minimum of confusion and to provide a uniform basis for evaluating site conditions and verifying that decommissioning operations are conducted according to a specific plan. Some areas of particular interest in this Guide are: the need to involve appropriate staff from the affected states in the early planning stages of decommissioning; the need for and suggested methods of radiological site characterization to complete a decommissioning project, including: historical surveys, environmental pathway analyses, statistical sampling design, and choosing appropriate instrumentation and measurements; the need for and emphasis on quality assurance, documentation and records retention; the establishment of a Design Objective approach to applying site-specific contamination limits based on the ALARA philosophy; the establishment of a ''de minimis'' or minimum dose level of concern for decommissioning operations based on existing standards, experience and ALARA considerations

  2. Ion anomalous transport and feedback control. Final technical report, September 1, 1987 - August 31, 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, A.K.

    1998-01-01

    This final report is comprised of the following six progress reports: Ion Temperature Gradient Instability and Anomalous Transport, July 1989; Ion Temperature Gradient Instability and Anomalous Transport, August 1991; Ion Temperature Gradient Instability and Anomalous Transport, July 1993; Ion Anomalous Transport and Feedback Control, May 1994; Ion Anomalous Transport and Feedback Control, April 1995; and Ion Anomalous Transport and Feedback Control, December 1997

  3. Chiral anomaly and anomalous finite-size conductivity in graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Shun-Qing; Li, Chang-An; Niu, Qian

    2017-09-01

    Graphene is a monolayer of carbon atoms packed into a hexagon lattice to host two spin degenerate pairs of massless two-dimensional Dirac fermions with different chirality. It is known that the existence of non-zero electric polarization in reduced momentum space which is associated with a hidden chiral symmetry will lead to the zero-energy flat band of a zigzag nanoribbon and some anomalous transport properties. Here it is proposed that the Adler-Bell-Jackiw chiral anomaly or non-conservation of chiral charges of Dirac fermions at different valleys can be realized in a confined ribbon of finite width, even in the absence of a magnetic field. In the laterally diffusive regime, the finite-size correction to conductivity is always positive and is inversely proportional to the square of the lateral dimension W, which is different from the finite-size correction inversely proportional to W from the boundary modes. This anomalous finite-size conductivity reveals the signature of the chiral anomaly in graphene, and it is measurable experimentally. This finding provides an alternative platform to explore the purely quantum mechanical effect in graphene.

  4. Extreme coastal erosion enhanced by anomalous extratropical storm wave direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, Mitchell D; Turner, Ian L; Kinsela, Michael A; Middleton, Jason H; Mumford, Peter J; Splinter, Kristen D; Phillips, Matthew S; Simmons, Joshua A; Hanslow, David J; Short, Andrew D

    2017-07-20

    Extratropical cyclones (ETCs) are the primary driver of large-scale episodic beach erosion along coastlines in temperate regions. However, key drivers of the magnitude and regional variability in rapid morphological changes caused by ETCs at the coast remain poorly understood. Here we analyze an unprecedented dataset of high-resolution regional-scale morphological response to an ETC that impacted southeast Australia, and evaluate the new observations within the context of an existing long-term coastal monitoring program. This ETC was characterized by moderate intensity (for this regional setting) deepwater wave heights, but an anomalous wave direction approximately 45 degrees more counter-clockwise than average. The magnitude of measured beach volume change was the largest in four decades at the long-term monitoring site and, at the regional scale, commensurate with that observed due to extreme North Atlantic hurricanes. Spatial variability in morphological response across the study region was predominantly controlled by alongshore gradients in storm wave energy flux and local coastline alignment relative to storm wave direction. We attribute the severity of coastal erosion observed due to this ETC primarily to its anomalous wave direction, and call for greater research on the impacts of changing storm wave directionality in addition to projected future changes in wave heights.

  5. 75 FR 57912 - Application To Export Electric Energy; Rainbow Energy Marketing Corporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY [OE Docket No. EA-375] Application To Export Electric Energy; Rainbow Energy... electric energy from the United States to Mexico pursuant to section 202(e) of the Federal Power Act. DATES... franchised service area. The electric energy that Rainbow proposes to export to Mexico would be surplus...

  6. Niagara Falls Storage Site, Annual site environmental report, Lewiston, New York, Calendar year 1986: Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    During 1986, the environmental monitoring program was continued at the Niagara Falls Storage Site (NFSS), a US Department of Energy (DOE) surplus facility located in Niagara County, New York, presently used for the interim storage of radioactive residues and contaminated soils and rubble. The monitoring program is being conducted by Bechtel National, Inc. The monitoring program at the NFSS measures radon gas concentrations in air; external gamma radiation levels; and uranium and radium concentrations in surface water, groundwater, and sediment. To verify that the site is in compliance with the DOE radiation protection standard and to assess its potential effect on public health, the radiation dose was calculated for the maximally exposed individual. Based on the conservative scenario described in the report, this individual would receive an annual external exposure approximately equivalent to 6% of the DOE radiation protection standard of 100 mrem/yr. By comparison, the incremental dose received from living in a brick house versus a wooden house is 10 mrem/yr above background. The cumulative dose to the population within an 80-km (50-mi) radius of the NFSS that would result from radioactive materials present at the site would be indistinguishable from the dose that the same population would receive from naturally occurring radioactive sources. Results of the 1986 monitoring show that the NFSS is in compliance with the DOE radiation protection standard. 14 refs., 11 figs., 14 tabs

  7. Niagara Falls Storage Site, Annual site environmental report, Lewiston, New York, Calendar year 1986: Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-06-01

    During 1986, the environmental monitoring program was continued at the Niagara Falls Storage Site (NFSS), a US Department of Energy (DOE) surplus facility located in Niagara County, New York, presently used for the interim storage of radioactive residues and contaminated soils and rubble. The monitoring program is being conducted by Bechtel National, Inc. The monitoring program at the NFSS measures radon gas concentrations in air; external gamma radiation levels; and uranium and radium concentrations in surface water, groundwater, and sediment. To verify that the site is in compliance with the DOE radiation protection standard and to assess its potential effect on public health, the radiation dose was calculated for the maximally exposed individual. Based on the conservative scenario described in the report, this individual would receive an annual external exposure approximately equivalent to 6% of the DOE radiation protection standard of 100 mrem/yr. By comparison, the incremental dose received from living in a brick house versus a wooden house is 10 mrem/yr above background. The cumulative dose to the population within an 80-km (50-mi) radius of the NFSS that would result from radioactive materials present at the site would be indistinguishable from the dose that the same population would receive from naturally occurring radioactive sources. Results of the 1986 monitoring show that the NFSS is in compliance with the DOE radiation protection standard. 14 refs., 11 figs., 14 tabs.

  8. 1D momentum-conserving systems: the conundrum of anomalous versus normal heat transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yunyun; Li, Nianbei; Hänggi, Peter; Li, Baowen; Liu, Sha

    2015-01-01

    Transport and the spread of heat in Hamiltonian one dimensional momentum conserving nonlinear systems is commonly thought to proceed anomalously. Notable exceptions, however, do exist of which the coupled rotator model is a prominent case. Therefore, the quest arises to identify the origin of manifest anomalous energy and momentum transport in those low dimensional systems. We develop the theory for both, the statistical densities for momentum- and energy-spread and particularly its momentum-/heat-diffusion behavior, as well as its corresponding momentum/heat transport features. We demonstrate that the second temporal derivative of the mean squared deviation of the momentum spread is proportional to the equilibrium correlation of the total momentum flux. Subtracting the part which corresponds to a ballistic momentum spread relates (via this integrated, subleading momentum flux correlation) to an effective viscosity, or equivalently, to the underlying momentum diffusivity. We next put forward the intriguing hypothesis: normal spread of this so adjusted excess momentum density causes normal energy spread and alike normal heat transport (Fourier Law). Its corollary being that an anomalous, superdiffusive broadening of this adjusted excess momentum density in turn implies an anomalous energy spread and correspondingly anomalous, superdiffusive heat transport. This hypothesis is successfully corroborated within extensive molecular dynamics simulations over large extended time scales. Our numerical validation of the hypothesis involves four distinct archetype classes of nonlinear pair-interaction potentials: (i) a globally bounded pair interaction (the noted coupled rotator model), (ii) unbounded interactions acting at large distances (the coupled rotator model amended with harmonic pair interactions), (iii) the case of a hard point gas with unbounded square-well interactions and (iv) a pair interaction potential being unbounded at short distances while displaying an

  9. 1D momentum-conserving systems: the conundrum of anomalous versus normal heat transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunyun; Liu, Sha; Li, Nianbei; Hänggi, Peter; Li, Baowen

    2015-04-01

    Transport and the spread of heat in Hamiltonian one dimensional momentum conserving nonlinear systems is commonly thought to proceed anomalously. Notable exceptions, however, do exist of which the coupled rotator model is a prominent case. Therefore, the quest arises to identify the origin of manifest anomalous energy and momentum transport in those low dimensional systems. We develop the theory for both, the statistical densities for momentum- and energy-spread and particularly its momentum-/heat-diffusion behavior, as well as its corresponding momentum/heat transport features. We demonstrate that the second temporal derivative of the mean squared deviation of the momentum spread is proportional to the equilibrium correlation of the total momentum flux. Subtracting the part which corresponds to a ballistic momentum spread relates (via this integrated, subleading momentum flux correlation) to an effective viscosity, or equivalently, to the underlying momentum diffusivity. We next put forward the intriguing hypothesis: normal spread of this so adjusted excess momentum density causes normal energy spread and alike normal heat transport (Fourier Law). Its corollary being that an anomalous, superdiffusive broadening of this adjusted excess momentum density in turn implies an anomalous energy spread and correspondingly anomalous, superdiffusive heat transport. This hypothesis is successfully corroborated within extensive molecular dynamics simulations over large extended time scales. Our numerical validation of the hypothesis involves four distinct archetype classes of nonlinear pair-interaction potentials: (i) a globally bounded pair interaction (the noted coupled rotator model), (ii) unbounded interactions acting at large distances (the coupled rotator model amended with harmonic pair interactions), (iii) the case of a hard point gas with unbounded square-well interactions and (iv) a pair interaction potential being unbounded at short distances while displaying an

  10. Resurgence of the cusp anomalous dimension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorigoni, Daniele; Hatsuda, Yasuyuki [DESY Theory Group, DESY Hamburg,Notkestrasse 85, D-22603 Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-09-21

    We revisit the strong coupling limit of the cusp anomalous dimension in planar N=4 super Yang-Mills theory. It is known that the strong coupling expansion is asymptotic and non-Borel summable. As a consequence, the cusp anomalous dimension receives non-perturbative corrections, and the complete strong coupling expansion should be a resurgent transseries. We reveal that the perturbative and non-perturbative parts in the transseries are closely interrelated. Solving the Beisert-Eden-Staudacher equation systematically, we analyze in detail the large order behavior in the strong coupling perturbative expansion and show that the non-perturbative information is indeed encoded there. An ambiguity of (lateral) Borel resummations of the perturbative expansion is precisely canceled by the contributions from the non-perturbative sectors, and the final result is real and unambiguous.

  11. Resurgence of the Cusp Anomalous Dimension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorigoni, Daniele; Hatsuda, Yasuyuki [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group

    2015-06-15

    We revisit the strong coupling limit of the cusp anomalous dimension in planar N=4 super Yang-Mills theory. It is known that the strong coupling expansion is asymptotic and non-Borel summable. As a consequence, the cusp anomalous dimension receives non-perturbative corrections, and the complete strong coupling expansion should be a resurgent transseries. We reveal that the perturbative and non-perturbative parts in the transseries are closely interrelated. Solving the Beisert-Eden-Staudacher equation systematically, we analyze in detail the large order behavior in the strong coupling perturbative expansion and show that the non-perturbative information is indeed encoded there. An ambiguity of (lateral) Borel resummations of the perturbative expansion is precisely canceled by the contributions from the non-perturbative sectors, and the final result is real and unambiguous.

  12. Resurgence of the Cusp Anomalous Dimension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorigoni, Daniele; Hatsuda, Yasuyuki

    2015-06-01

    We revisit the strong coupling limit of the cusp anomalous dimension in planar N=4 super Yang-Mills theory. It is known that the strong coupling expansion is asymptotic and non-Borel summable. As a consequence, the cusp anomalous dimension receives non-perturbative corrections, and the complete strong coupling expansion should be a resurgent transseries. We reveal that the perturbative and non-perturbative parts in the transseries are closely interrelated. Solving the Beisert-Eden-Staudacher equation systematically, we analyze in detail the large order behavior in the strong coupling perturbative expansion and show that the non-perturbative information is indeed encoded there. An ambiguity of (lateral) Borel resummations of the perturbative expansion is precisely canceled by the contributions from the non-perturbative sectors, and the final result is real and unambiguous.

  13. Anomalous properties of hot dense nonequilibrium plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrante, G; Zarcone, M; Uryupin, S A

    2005-01-01

    A concise overview of a number of anomalous properties of hot dense nonequilibrium plasmas is given. The possibility of quasistationary megagauss magnetic field generation due to Weibel instability is discussed for plasmas created in atom tunnel ionization. The collisionless absorption and reflection of a test electromagnetic wave normally impinging on the plasma with two-temperature bi-maxwellian electron velocity distribution function are studied. Due to the wave magnetic field influence on the electron kinetics in the skin layer the wave absorption and reflection significantly depend on the degree of the electron temperature anisotropy. The linearly polarized impinging wave during reflection transforms into an elliptically polarized one. The problem of transmission of an ultrashort laser pulse through a layer of dense plasma, formed as a result of ionization of a thin foil, is considered. It is shown that the strong photoelectron distribution anisotropy yields an anomalous penetration of the wave field through the foil

  14. Anomalous enthalpy relaxation in vitreous silica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yue, Yuanzheng

    2015-01-01

    scans. It is known that the liquid fragility (i.e., the speed of the viscous slow-down of a supercooled liquid at its Tg during cooling) has impact on enthalpy relaxation in glass. Here, we find that vitreous silica (as a strong system) exhibits striking anomalies in both glass transition and enthalpy...... relaxation compared to fragile oxide systems. The anomalous enthalpy relaxation of vitreous silica is discovered by performing the hyperquenching-annealing-calorimetry experiments. We argue that the strong systems like vitreous silica and vitreous Germania relax in a structurally cooperative manner, whereas...... the fragile ones do in a structurally independent fashion. We discuss the origin of the anomalous enthalpy relaxation in the HQ vitreous silica....

  15. Anomalous feedback and negative domain wall resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Ran; Xiao, Di; Zhu, Jian-Gang

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic induction can be regarded as a negative feedback effect, where the motive-force opposes the change of magnetic flux that generates the motive-force. In artificial electromagnetics emerging from spintronics, however, this is not necessarily the case. By studying the current-induced domain wall dynamics in a cylindrical nanowire, we show that the spin motive-force exerting on electrons can either oppose or support the applied current that drives the domain wall. The switching into the anomalous feedback regime occurs when the strength of the dissipative torque β is about twice the value of the Gilbert damping constant α . The anomalous feedback manifests as a negative domain wall resistance, which has an analogy with the water turbine. (paper)

  16. Anomalous diffusion of fermions in superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drozdz, S.; Okolowicz, J.; Srokowski, T.; Ploszajczak, M.

    1996-03-01

    Diffusion of fermions in the periodic two-dimensional lattice of fermions is studied. It is shown that effects connected with antisymmetrization of the wave function increase chaoticness of motion. Various types of anomalous diffusion, characterized by a power spectral analysis are found. The nonlocality of the Pauli potential destroys cantori in the phase space. Consequently, the diffusion process is dominated by long free paths and the power spectrum is logarithmic at small frequency limit. (author)

  17. What's wrong with anomalous chiral gauge theory?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kieu, T.D.

    1994-05-01

    It is argued on general ground and demonstrated in the particular example of the Chiral Schwinger Model that there is nothing wrong with apparently anomalous chiral gauge theory. If quantised correctly, there should be no gauge anomaly and chiral gauge theory should be renormalisable and unitary, even in higher dimensions and with non-Abelian gauge groups. Furthermore, it is claimed that mass terms for gauge bosons and chiral fermions can be generated without spoiling the gauge invariance. 19 refs

  18. Anomalous Symmetry Fractionalization and Surface Topological Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Chen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In addition to possessing fractional statistics, anyon excitations of a 2D topologically ordered state can realize symmetry in distinct ways, leading to a variety of symmetry-enriched topological (SET phases. While the symmetry fractionalization must be consistent with the fusion and braiding rules of the anyons, not all ostensibly consistent symmetry fractionalizations can be realized in 2D systems. Instead, certain “anomalous” SETs can only occur on the surface of a 3D symmetry-protected topological (SPT phase. In this paper, we describe a procedure for determining whether a SET of a discrete, on-site, unitary symmetry group G is anomalous or not. The basic idea is to gauge the symmetry and expose the anomaly as an obstruction to a consistent topological theory combining both the original anyons and the gauge fluxes. Utilizing a result of Etingof, Nikshych, and Ostrik, we point out that a class of obstructions is captured by the fourth cohomology group H^{4}(G,U(1, which also precisely labels the set of 3D SPT phases, with symmetry group G. An explicit procedure for calculating the cohomology data from a SET is given, with the corresponding physical intuition explained. We thus establish a general bulk-boundary correspondence between the anomalous SET and the 3D bulk SPT whose surface termination realizes it. We illustrate this idea using the chiral spin liquid [U(1_{2}] topological order with a reduced symmetry Z_{2}×Z_{2}⊂SO(3, which can act on the semion quasiparticle in an anomalous way. We construct exactly solved 3D SPT models realizing the anomalous surface terminations and demonstrate that they are nontrivial by computing three-loop braiding statistics. Possible extensions to antiunitary symmetries are also discussed.

  19. Anomalous cross-modulation between microwave beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranfagni, Anedio; Mugnai, Daniela; Petrucci, Andrea; Mignani, Roberto; Cacciari, Ilaria

    2018-06-01

    An anomalous effect in the near field of crossing microwave beams, which consists of an unexpected transfer of modulation from one beam to the other, has found a plausible interpretation within the framework of a locally broken Lorentz invariance. A theoretical approach of this kind deserves to be reconsidered also in the light of further experimental work, including a counter-check of the phenomenon.

  20. Anomalous hall effect in ferromagnetic semiconductors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jungwirth, Tomáš; Niu, Q.; MacDonald, A. H.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 20 (2002), s. 207208-1-207208-4 ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/02/0912; GA MŠk OC P5.10 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : ferromagnetic semiconductors * anomalous Hall effect Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 7.323, year: 2002

  1. Probing anomalous gauge boson couplings at LEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, S.; Valencia, G.

    1994-01-01

    We bound anomalous gauge boson couplings using LEP data for the Z → bar ∫∫ partial widths. We use an effective field theory formalism to compute the one-loop corrections resulting from non-standard model three and four gauge boson vertices. We find that measurements at LEP constrain the three gauge boson couplings at a level comparable to that obtainable at LEPII

  2. Profile consistency, anomalous electron thermal conduction, and confinement analysis of tokamak devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu Wenxiao

    1992-01-01

    Assuming that there exists a position in the tokamak plasma where the energy transport is dominated by local anomalous electron thermal conduction and taking advantage of the basic experimental result usually referred to as profile consistency, the authors obtain a more convincing approach to the description of the confinement property of tokamak devices without touching upon the physical mechanism of global plasma energy transport. 8 refs

  3. Measurement of anomalous dimuons produced in electron-positron annihilations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidman, K.M.

    1979-01-01

    An experimental search for anomalous events of the type μ + μ - + (missing energy and momentum) produced in e + e - annihilation at center-of-mass energies between 6.4 and 7.4 GeV is presented. Analysis of the data reveals 12 events, of which only 6 can be readily explained as background. It is concluded that anomalous dimuon events were found. Furthermore, these events are most simply interpreted as the production and subsequent decay of a pair of heavy leptons, tau +- , each with a mass of about 1.8 GeV/c 2 , and a muonic branching ratio, B(tau → ν/sub tau/μν/tau → all), = 0.21 +0 07 - 0 08 . Because the known family of leptons is so small, and because these leptons seem to be truly elementary particles, the discovery of new lepton is a major event in physics. This discovery can be viewed as a hint of a needed revision in the current paradigm of elementary particle physics. The historical, logical, and technological development of physics in progressing towards fields of increasingly abstract nature is noted. The experimental search, analysis, and interpretation presented here is considered an example of a model problem and solution within the current paradigm of high energy physics. This paradigm is not considered to be complete. On the basis of the Transcendental Meditation technique it is proposed that the systematic and precise exploration of consciousness and its relationship to physical matter is now feasible. It is proposed that the expansion of the current paradigm to include the pure consciousness state as a dynamical element in both the physical description of nature, and the experience of one's own inner nature is a necessity to accomplish the goal and fulfill the purpose of physics

  4. Multislice CT imaging of anomalous coronary arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Heshui; Aschoff, Andrik J.; Brambs, Hans-Juergen; Hoffmann, Martin H.K.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the role of 16 multislice computed tomography (MSCT) to identify the origin of anomalous coronary arteries and to confirm their anatomic course in relation to the great vessels. Accuracy of coronary artery disease (CAD) detection was a secondary aim and was tested with conventional angiograms (CA) serving as standard of reference. Two hundred and forty-two consecutive patients referred for noninvasive coronary CT imaging were reviewed for the study. Sixteen patients (6.6%) with anomalous coronary arteries were detected and included as the study group. MSCT and CA images were analyzed in a blinded fashion for accuracy of anomalous artery origin and path detection. Results were compared in a secondary consensus evaluation. Accuracy ratios to detect CAD with MSCT in all vessels were calculated. Coronary anomalies for all 16 patients were correctly displayed on MSCT. CA alone achieved correct identification of the abnormality in only 53% (P=0.016). Sensitivity and specificity of MSCT to detect significantly stenosed vessels was 90 and 92%. 16-MSCT is accurate to delineate abnormally branching coronary arteries and allows sufficiently accurate detection of obstructive coronary artery disease in distal branches. It should therefore be considered as a prime non-invasive imaging tool for suspected coronary anomalies. (orig.)

  5. The Anomalous Magnetic Moment of the Muon

    CERN Document Server

    Jegerlehner, Friedrich

    2008-01-01

    This book reviews the present state of knowledge of the anomalous magnetic moment a=(g-2)/2 of the muon. The muon anomalous magnetic moment amy is one of the most precisely measured quantities in elementary particle physics and provides one of the most stringent tests of relativistic quantum field theory as a fundamental theoretical framework. It allows for an extremely precise check of the standard model of elementary particles and of its limitations. Recent experiments at the Brookhaven National Laboratory now reach the unbelievable precision of 0.5 parts per million, improving the accuracy of previous g-2 experiments at CERN by a factor of 14. A major part of the book is devoted to the theory of the anomalous magnetic moment and to estimates of the theoretical uncertainties. Quantum electrodynamics and electroweak and hadronic effects are reviewed. Since non-perturbative hadronic effects play a key role for the precision test, their evaluation is described in detail. After the overview of theory, the exper...

  6. Anomalous dissolution of metals and chemical corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DRAGUTIN M. DRAZIC

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available An overview is given of the anomalous behavior of some metals, in particular Fe and Cr, in acidic aqueous solutions during anodic dissolution. The anomaly is recognizable by the fact that during anodic dissolutionmore material dissolves than would be expected from the Faraday law with the use of the expected valence of the formed ions. Mechanical disintegration, gas bubble blocking, hydrogen embrittlement, passive layer cracking and other possible reasons for such behavior have been discussed. It was shown, as suggested by Kolotyrkin and coworkers, that the reason can be, also, the chemical reaction in which H2O molecules with the metal form metal ions and gaseous H2 in a potential independent process. It occurs simultaneously with the electrochemical corrosion process, but the electrochemical process controls the corrosion potential. On the example of Cr in acid solution itwas shown that the reason for the anomalous behavior is dominantly chemical dissolution, which is considerably faster than the electrochemical corrosion, and that the increasing temperature favors chemical reaction, while the other possible reasons for the anomalous behavior are of negligible effect. This effect is much smaller in the case of Fe, but exists. The possible role of the chemical dissolution reacton and hydrogen evolution during pitting of steels and Al and stress corrosion cracking or corrosion fatigue are discussed.

  7. An Anomalous Breccia in the Mesoproterozoic (~1.1 Ga) Atar Group, Mauritania: Potential Evidence for an Impact-generated Tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aden, D. J.; Milam, K. A.; Kah, L. C.; Gilleaudeau, G. J.

    2009-03-01

    Inital observations reveal that an anomalous high-energy breccia in the Mesoproterozoic Atar Group, Mauitania, is a possible candidate for an ancient tsunamite, which may have been triggered by a marine impact event.

  8. Evaluation of Agri-Environmental Measures in the Venice Lagoon Watershed. Nitrogen Budgets and Surplus Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Trevisiol

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the main concerns of the environmental scientists and policy makers is related to the environmental compatibility of current agricultural systems and, in particular, to the losses of chemical fertilizers and manure in surface and ground-waters, as a consequence of run-off and leaching phenomena. In most cases European recent agrienvironmental schemes envisaged specific measures for the reduction of fertilizer rates and the control of manure applications, in order to limit the releases of nutrients in surface and ground-waters. Substantial financial resources are invested in those measures and therefore the issue raises interest in monitoring and evaluating their effectiveness. Nutrient balance indicators are often used for quantitative assessment of the effectiveness of the measures in limiting the environmental impact of farming activities. N-surplus is one of the most commonly used indicators. The paper refers the results of a research project aimed at assessing the outcomes of agri-environmental measures implemented in the Venice Lagoon Watershed with an approach based upon the gross nitrogen balance, called “Nboxes”. The results of applying the Nboxes procedure to a sample of 550 farms set are presented, evidencing the expectations of greater effectiveness in terms of nitrogen surplus reduction from the measure C.5.1.3a and C.5.1.3b (low input farming and buffer strips. Measures supporting improved irrigation systems, controlled drainage and more rational livestock nutritional programmes and technologies, showed instead only limited potential for tangible contributions to the reduction of nitrogen surplus in cultivated soils.

  9. An examination of sources of sensitivity of consumer surplus estimates in travel cost models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaine, Thomas W; Lichtkoppler, Frank R; Bader, Timothy J; Hartman, Travis J; Lucente, Joseph E

    2015-03-15

    We examine sensitivity of estimates of recreation demand using the Travel Cost Method (TCM) to four factors. Three of the four have been routinely and widely discussed in the TCM literature: a) Poisson verses negative binomial regression; b) application of Englin correction to account for endogenous stratification; c) truncation of the data set to eliminate outliers. A fourth issue we address has not been widely modeled: the potential effect on recreation demand of the interaction between income and travel cost. We provide a straightforward comparison of all four factors, analyzing the impact of each on regression parameters and consumer surplus estimates. Truncation has a modest effect on estimates obtained from the Poisson models but a radical effect on the estimates obtained by way of the negative binomial. Inclusion of an income-travel cost interaction term generally produces a more conservative but not a statistically significantly different estimate of consumer surplus in both Poisson and negative binomial models. It also generates broader confidence intervals. Application of truncation, the Englin correction and the income-travel cost interaction produced the most conservative estimates of consumer surplus and eliminated the statistical difference between the Poisson and the negative binomial. Use of the income-travel cost interaction term reveals that for visitors who face relatively low travel costs, the relationship between income and travel demand is negative, while it is positive for those who face high travel costs. This provides an explanation of the ambiguities on the findings regarding the role of income widely observed in the TCM literature. Our results suggest that policies that reduce access to publicly owned resources inordinately impact local low income recreationists and are contrary to environmental justice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of Agri-Environmental Measures in the Venice Lagoon Watershed. Nitrogen Budgets and Surplus Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Carpani

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the main concerns of the environmental scientists and policy makers is related to the environmental compatibility of current agricultural systems and, in particular, to the losses of chemical fertilizers and manure in surface and ground-waters, as a consequence of run-off and leaching phenomena. In most cases European recent agrienvironmental schemes envisaged specific measures for the reduction of fertilizer rates and the control of manure applications, in order to limit the releases of nutrients in surface and ground-waters. Substantial financial resources are invested in those measures and therefore the issue raises interest in monitoring and evaluating their effectiveness. Nutrient balance indicators are often used for quantitative assessment of the effectiveness of the measures in limiting the environmental impact of farming activities. N-surplus is one of the most commonly used indicators. The paper refers the results of a research project aimed at assessing the outcomes of agri-environmental measures implemented in the Venice Lagoon Watershed with an approach based upon the gross nitrogen balance, called “Nboxes”. The results of applying the Nboxes procedure to a sample of 550 farms set are presented, evidencing the expectations of greater effectiveness in terms of nitrogen surplus reduction from the measure C.5.1.3a and C.5.1.3b (low input farming and buffer strips. Measures supporting improved irrigation systems, controlled drainage and more rational livestock nutritional programmes and technologies, showed instead only limited potential for tangible contributions to the reduction of nitrogen surplus in cultivated soils.

  11. Long-term criticality safety concerns associated with surplus fissile material disposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, J.S.

    1995-01-01

    A substantial inventory of surplus fissile material would result from ongoing and planned dismantlement of US and Russian nuclear weapons. This surplus fissile material could be dispositioned by irradiation in nuclear reactors, and the resulting spent MOx fuel would be similar in radiation characteristics to regular LWR spent UO2 fuel. The surplus fissile material could also be immobilized into high-level waste forms, such as borosilicate glass, synroc, or metal-alloy matrix. The MOx spent fuel, or the immobilized waste forms, could then be directly disposed of in a geologic repository. Long-term criticality safety concerns arise because the fissile contents (i.e., Pu-239 and its decay daughter U-235) in these waste forms are higher than in LWR spent UO2 fuel. MOx spent fuel could contain 3 to 4 wt% of reactor-grade plutonium, compared to only 0.9 wt% of plutonium in LWR spent UO2 fuel. At some future time (tens of thousand of years), when the waste forms had deteriorated due to intruding groundwater, the water could mix with the long-lived fissile materials to form into a critical system. If the critical system is self-sustaining, somewhat like the natural-occurring reactor in OKLO, fission products produced could readily be available for dissolution and release out to the accessible environment, adversely affecting public health and safety. This paper will address ongoing activities to evaluate long-term criticality safety concerns associated with disposition of fissile material in a geologic setting. Issues to be addressed include the identification of a worst-case water-intrusion scenario and waste-form geometries which present the most concern for long-term criticality safety; and suggests of technical solutions for such concerns

  12. Surpluses and Deficits: How University Partners Perceive University-Community Partnerships at One Ivy League Institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Klebanoff Cohen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available University-community partnerships are a critical method for how universities can serve the public interest.  Yet key questions remain: how do these partnerships work in practice, and how can university and fill reciprocal and mutual needs effectively?  A participatory evaluation of university-community partnerships in education at an Ivy League university found that university partners had a surplus perspective of the university and a deficit perspective of community partners; practitioners must shift our paradigm towards mutually beneficial, asset-driven university-community partnerships to ensure success.

  13. The effect of the downturn in oil prices on the external surpluses of the GCC countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metwally, M.M.

    1993-01-01

    The paper examines the impact of the downturn in oil prices on the performance of the external sectors of the members of the Gulf Co-operation Council (GCC). The paper also develops and tests a simultaneous-equations model to examine the interaction between the economies of the GCC and the rest of the world. The analysis shows that the slump in oil exports has reduced drastically the external surplus of the GCC and has resulted in structural shifts in the import and resource balance functions. (author)

  14. Requirements for the transport of surplus fissile materials in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R.K.

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses the requirements and issues associated with the transportation of surplus fissile materials in the United States. The paper describes the materials that will be transported, the permissible modes of transport for these materials, and the safety and security requirements for each mode of transport. The paper also identifies transportation issues associated with these requirements, including the differences in requirements corresponding to who owns the material and whether the transport is on-site or off-site. Finally, the paper provides a discussion that suggests that by adopting the spent fuel standard and stored weapon standard proposed by the National Academy of Sciences, the requirements for transportation become straightforward

  15. Application of new synchrotron powder diffraction techniques to anomalous scattering from glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beno, M.A.; Knapp, G.S.; Armand, P.; Price, D.L.; Saboungi, M.

    1995-01-01

    We have applied two synchrotron powder diffraction techniques to the measurement of high quality anomalous scattering diffraction data for amorphous materials. One of these methods, which uses a curved perfect crystal analyzer to simultaneously diffract multiple powder lines into a position sensitive detector has been shown to possess high resolution, low background, and very high counting rates. This data measurement technique provides excellent energy resolution while minimizing systematic errors resulting from detector nonlinearity. Anomalous scattering data for a Cesium Germanate glass collected using this technique will be presented. The second powder diffraction technique uses a flat analyzer crystal to deflect multiple diffraction lines out of the equatorial plane. Calculations show that this method possesses sufficient energy resolution for anomalous scattering experiments when a perfect crystal analyzer is used and is experimentally much simpler. Future studies will make use of a rapid sample changer allowing the scattering from the sample and a standard material (a material not containing the anomalous scatterer) to be measured alternately at each angle, reducing systematic errors due to beam instability or sample misalignment

  16. arXiv Bootstrapping the QCD soft anomalous dimension

    CERN Document Server

    Almelid, Øyvind; Gardi, Einan; McLeod, Andrew; White, Chris D.

    2017-09-18

    The soft anomalous dimension governs the infrared singularities of scattering amplitudes to all orders in perturbative quantum field theory, and is a crucial ingredient in both formal and phenomenological applications of non-abelian gauge theories. It has recently been computed at three-loop order for massless partons by explicit evaluation of all relevant Feynman diagrams. In this paper, we show how the same result can be obtained, up to an overall numerical factor, using a bootstrap procedure. We first give a geometrical argument for the fact that the result can be expressed in terms of single-valued harmonic polylogarithms. We then use symmetry considerations as well as known properties of scattering amplitudes in collinear and high-energy (Regge) limits to constrain an ansatz of basis functions. This is a highly non-trivial cross-check of the result, and our methods pave the way for greatly simplified higher-order calculations.

  17. Anomalous broadening of the N2+ first negative band system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robben, F.; Cattolica, R.; Coe, D.; Talbot, L.

    1976-01-01

    Analysis of the fluorescence excited by a high energy electron beam has become a standard technique for measurement of density, rotational temperature of nitrogen, and translational temperature of helium and argon in rarefied gas dynamics. To obtain translational temperature the Doppler broadening of the fluorescence is determined by measuring the spectral line shape with a Fabry-Perot interferometer. To apply this technique to nitrogen a single rotational line must be selected from the band spectrum for analysis by the Fabry-Perot interferometer. As supported by extensive additional measurements, there is an anomalous broadening of the rotational lines of the N 2 + first negative band system with a width equivalent to about a 70 0 K translational temperature of nitrogen. It appears that the line width of approximately 0.03 cm -1 is an inherent property of this nitrogen band when excited by electron impact directly from the ground state

  18. Anomalous friction of graphene nanoribbons on waved graphenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Fang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Friction plays a critical role in the function and maintenance of small-scale structures, where the conventional Coulomb friction law often fails. To probe the friction at small scales, here we present a molecular dynamics study on the process of dragging graphene nanoribbons on waved graphene substrates. The simulation shows that the induced friction on graphene with zero waviness is ultra-low and closely related to the surface energy barrier. On waved graphenes, the friction generally increases with the amplitude of the wave at a fixed period, but anomalously increases and then decreases with the period at a fixed amplitude. These findings provide insights into the ultra-low friction at small scales, as well as some guidelines into the fabrication of graphene-based nano-composites with high performance.

  19. Subleading Regge limit from a soft anomalous dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüser, Robin; Caron-Huot, Simon; Henn, Johannes M.

    2018-04-01

    Wilson lines capture important features of scattering amplitudes, for example soft effects relevant for infrared divergences, and the Regge limit. Beyond the leading power approximation, corrections to the eikonal picture have to be taken into account. In this paper, we study such corrections in a model of massive scattering amplitudes in N=4 super Yang-Mills, in the planar limit, where the mass is generated through a Higgs mechanism. Using known three-loop analytic expressions for the scattering amplitude, we find that the first power suppressed term has a very simple form, equal to a single power law. We propose that its exponent is governed by the anomalous dimension of a Wilson loop with a scalar inserted at the cusp, and we provide perturbative evidence for this proposal. We also analyze other limits of the amplitude and conjecture an exact formula for a total cross-section at high energies.

  20. Anomalous x-ray scattering studies of functional disordered materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohara, S; Tajiri, H; Song, C H; Ohara, K; Temleitner, L; Sugimito, K; Fujiwara, A; Pusztai, L; Usuki, T; Hosokawa, S; Benino, Y; Kitamura, N; Fukumi, K

    2014-01-01

    We have developed anomalous x-ray scattering (AXS) spectrometers, that employ intrinsic Ge detectors and crystal analyzers, at SPring-8. The use of LiF analyzer crystal provides us with an energy resolution of ∼ 12 eV. Furthermore, it has been established that the use of AXS technique is essential to reveal the relationship between the atomic structure and its function of a fast phase-change material, Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 . We were able to address the issue of why the amorphous phase of fast phase change materials is stable at room temperature for a long time despite the fact that it can rapidly transform to the crystalline phase by using a combination of AXS and large scale density functional theory-based molecular dynamics simulations.

  1. Dynamic model-based N management reduces surplus nitrogen and improves the environmental performance of corn production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sela, S.; Woodbury, P. B.; van Es, H. M.

    2018-05-01

    The US Midwest is the largest and most intensive corn (Zea mays, L.) production region in the world. However, N losses from corn systems cause serious environmental impacts including dead zones in coastal waters, groundwater pollution, particulate air pollution, and global warming. New approaches to reducing N losses are urgently needed. N surplus is gaining attention as such an approach for multiple cropping systems. We combined experimental data from 127 on-farm field trials conducted in seven US states during the 2011–2016 growing seasons with biochemical simulations using the PNM model to quantify the benefits of a dynamic location-adapted management approach to reduce N surplus. We found that this approach allowed large reductions in N rate (32%) and N surplus (36%) compared to existing static approaches, without reducing yield and substantially reducing yield-scaled N losses (11%). Across all sites, yield-scaled N losses increased linearly with N surplus values above ~48 kg ha‑1. Using the dynamic model-based N management approach enabled growers to get much closer to this target than using existing static methods, while maintaining yield. Therefore, this approach can substantially reduce N surplus and N pollution potential compared to static N management.

  2. Investigation of anomalous very fast decay regimes in homogeneous isotropic turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meldi, Marcello; Sagaut, Pierre

    2018-05-01

    The emergence of anomalous fast decay regimes in homogeneous isotropic turbulence (HIT) decay is investigated via both theoretical analysis and eddy-damped quasi-normal Markovian simulations. The work provides new insight about a fundamental issue playing a role in HIT decay, namely the influence of non-standard shapes of the energy spectrum, in particular in the large energetic scale region. A detailed analysis of the kinetic energy spectrum E(k) and the non-linear energy transfer T(k) shows that anomalous decay regimes are associated with the relaxation of initial energy spectra which exhibit a bump at energetic scales. This feature induces an increase in the energy cascade rate, toward solutions with a smooth shape at the spectrum peak. Present results match observations reported in wind-tunnel experiments dealing with turbulence decay in the wake of grids and bluff bodies, including scaling laws for the dissipation parameter Cɛ. They also indicate that the ratio between the initial eddy turnover time and the advection time determines of how fast anomalous regimes relax toward classical turbulence free-decay. This parameter should be used for consistent data comparison and it opens perspectives for the control of multiscale effects in industrial applications.

  3. Macroeconomic impacts of bioenergy production on surplus agricultural land. A case study of Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicke, Birka; Smeets, Edward; Faaij, Andre; Tabeau, Andrzej; Hilbert, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    This paper assesses the macroeconomic impacts in terms of GDP, trade balance and employment of large-scale bioenergy production on surplus agricultural land. An input-output model is developed with which the direct, indirect and induced macroeconomic impacts of bioenergy production and agricultural intensification, which is needed to make agricultural land become available for bioenergy production, are assessed following a scenario approach. The methodology is applied to a case study of Argentina. The results of this study reveal that large-scale pellet production in 2015 would directly increase GDP by 4%, imports by 10% and employment by 6% over the reference situation in 2001. When accounting for indirect and induced impacts, GDP increases by 18%, imports by 20% and employment by 26% compared to 2001. Agricultural intensification reduces but does not negate these positive impacts of bioenergy production. Accounting for agricultural intensification, the increase in GDP as a result of bioenergy production on surplus agricultural land would amount to 16%, 20% in imports and 16% in employment compared to 2001. (author)

  4. Macroeconomic impacts of bioenergy production on surplus agricultural land. A case study of Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wicke, Birka; Smeets, Edward; Faaij, Andre [Copernicus Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation - Utrecht University, Heidelberglaan 2, 3584 CS Utrecht (Netherlands); Tabeau, Andrzej [Landbouw Economisch Instituut - Wageningen University and Research Centre, Burgermeester Partijnlaan 19, 2585 BE Den Haag (Netherlands); Hilbert, Jorge [Instituto Ingenieria Rural - Instituto Nacional de la Tecnologia Agropecuario, C.C. 25, 1712 Castelar (Buenos Aires) (Argentina)

    2009-12-15

    This paper assesses the macroeconomic impacts in terms of GDP, trade balance and employment of large-scale bioenergy production on surplus agricultural land. An input-output model is developed with which the direct, indirect and induced macroeconomic impacts of bioenergy production and agricultural intensification, which is needed to make agricultural land become available for bioenergy production, are assessed following a scenario approach. The methodology is applied to a case study of Argentina. The results of this study reveal that large-scale pellet production in 2015 would directly increase GDP by 4%, imports by 10% and employment by 6% over the reference situation in 2001. When accounting for indirect and induced impacts, GDP increases by 18%, imports by 20% and employment by 26% compared to 2001. Agricultural intensification reduces but does not negate these positive impacts of bioenergy production. Accounting for agricultural intensification, the increase in GDP as a result of bioenergy production on surplus agricultural land would amount to 16%, 20% in imports and 16% in employment compared to 2001. (author)

  5. Paper Prototyping: The Surplus Merit of a Multi-Method Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Bettina Linek

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a multi-method approach for usability testing. The approach combines paper prototyping and think-aloud with two supplemental methods: advanced scribbling and a handicraft task. The method of advanced scribbling instructs the participants to use different colors for marking important, unnecessary and confusing elements in a paper prototype. In the handicraft task the participants have to tinker a paper prototype of their wish version. Both methods deliver additional information on the needs and expectations of the potential users and provide helpful indicators for clarifying complex or contradictory findings. The multi-method approach and its surplus benefit are illustrated by a pilot study on the redesign of the homepage of a library 2.0. The findings provide positive evidence for the applicability of the advanced scribbling and the handicraft task as well as for the surplus merit of the multi-method approach. The article closes with a discussion and outlook. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs150379

  6. 75 FR 38514 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Brookfield Energy Marketing LP

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... Energy Marketing LP AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: Brookfield Energy Marketing LP (BEM LP) has applied for authority to transmit electric... surplus energy purchased from electric utilities, Federal power marketing agencies and other entities...

  7. Contemporary Use of Anomalous Diffraction in Biomolecular Structure Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Q.; Hendrickson, W.

    2017-01-01

    The normal elastic X-ray scattering that depends only on electron density can be modulated by an ?anomalous? component due to resonance between X-rays and electronic orbitals. Anomalous scattering thereby precisely identifies atomic species, since orbitals distinguish atomic elements, which enables the multi- and single-wavelength anomalous diffraction (MAD and SAD) methods. SAD now predominates in de novo structure determination of biological macromolecules, and we focus here on the prevailing SAD method. We describe the anomalous phasing theory and the periodic table of phasing elements that are available for SAD experiments, differentiating between those readily accessible for at-resonance experiments and those that can be effective away from an edge. We describe procedures for present-day SAD phasing experiments and we discuss optimization of anomalous signals for challenging applications. We also describe methods for using anomalous signals as molecular markers for tracing and element identification. Emerging developments and perspectives are discussed in brief.

  8. When health policy and empirical evidence collide: the case of cigarette package warning labels and economic consumer surplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Anna V; Brown, Paul; Glantz, Stanton A

    2014-02-01

    In its graphic warning label regulations on cigarette packages, the Food and Drug Administration severely discounts the benefits of reduced smoking because of the lost "pleasure" smokers experience when they stop smoking; this is quantified as lost "consumer surplus." Consumer surplus is grounded in rational choice theory. However, empirical evidence from psychological cognitive science and behavioral economics demonstrates that the assumptions of rational choice are inconsistent with complex multidimensional decisions, particularly smoking. Rational choice does not account for the roles of emotions, misperceptions, optimistic bias, regret, and cognitive inefficiency that are germane to smoking, particularly because most smokers begin smoking in their youth. Continued application of a consumer surplus discount will undermine sensible policies to reduce tobacco use and other policies to promote public health.

  9. When Health Policy and Empirical Evidence Collide: The Case of Cigarette Package Warning Labels and Economic Consumer Surplus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Anna V.; Brown, Paul

    2014-01-01

    In its graphic warning label regulations on cigarette packages, the Food and Drug Administration severely discounts the benefits of reduced smoking because of the lost “pleasure” smokers experience when they stop smoking; this is quantified as lost “consumer surplus.” Consumer surplus is grounded in rational choice theory. However, empirical evidence from psychological cognitive science and behavioral economics demonstrates that the assumptions of rational choice are inconsistent with complex multidimensional decisions, particularly smoking. Rational choice does not account for the roles of emotions, misperceptions, optimistic bias, regret, and cognitive inefficiency that are germane to smoking, particularly because most smokers begin smoking in their youth. Continued application of a consumer surplus discount will undermine sensible policies to reduce tobacco use and other policies to promote public health. PMID:24328661

  10. Rationality of the anomalous dimensions in N=4 SYM theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genovese, Luigi; Stanev, Yassen S.

    2005-01-01

    We reconsider the general constraints on the perturbative anomalous dimensions in conformal invariant QFT and in particular in N=4 SYM with gauge group SU(N). We show that all the perturbative corrections to the anomalous dimension of a renormalized gauge invariant local operator can be written as polynomials in its one loop anomalous dimension. In the N=4 SYM theory the coefficients of these polynomials are rational functions of the number of colours N

  11. Presentation: 3D magnetic inversion by planting anomalous densities

    OpenAIRE

    Uieda, Leonardo; Barbosa, Valeria C. F.

    2013-01-01

    Slides for the presentation "3D magnetic inversion by planting anomalous densities" given at the 2013 AGU Meeting of the Americas in Cancun, Mexico.   Note: There was an error in the title of the talk. The correct title should be "3D magnetic inversion by planting anomalous magnetization"   Abstract: We present a new 3D magnetic inversion algorithm based on the computationally efficient method of planting anomalous densities. The algorithm consists of an iterative growth of the an...

  12. Anomalous x-ray radiation of beam plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrov, S.K.; Zavyalov, M.A.; Mikhin, S.G.; Tarasenkov, V.A.; Telkovskij, V.G.; Khrabrov, V.A.

    1985-01-01

    The properties of non-equilibrium stationary plasma under the conditions of the planned plasma-chemical reactors based on beam-plasma discharge were investigated. The x-ray spectrum of the beam-plasma was measured and anomalous spectral properties were analyzed. Starting with some critical pressure the anomalous radiation was added to the classical bremsstrahlung spectrum. The occurrence of anomalous radiation can be used to diagnose the condition of beam transportation in such systems. (D.Gy.)

  13. Connection between recurrence time statistics and anomalous transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaslavsky, G.M.; Tippett, M.K.

    1991-01-01

    For a model stationary flow with hexagonal symmetry, the recurrence time statistics are studied. The model has been shown to have a sharp transition from normal to anomalous transport. Here it is shown that this transition is accompanied by a correspondent change of the recurrence time statistics from normal to anomalous. The latter one displays the existence of a power tail. Recurrence time statistics provide a local measurement of anomalous transport that is of practical interest

  14. Anomalous Cepheids and population II blue stragglers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemec, James M.

    Recent studies of anomalous Cepheids (ACs) and population II blue stragglers (BSs), including photometrically variable BSs (VBSs), are reviewed. The VBSs represent about 25 percent of the BSs, the majority of which are SX Phe short-period variables in the Cepheid instability strip. Mass estimates derived using various techniques suggest that both ACs and BSs are relatively massive (about 1.0-1.6 solar mass). The recent discovery that two BSs in the globular cluster NGC 5466 are contact binaries, and the earlier discovery that one of the BSs in Omega Cen is an eclipsing binary, provide direct evidence that at least some BSs are binary systems.

  15. Global constraints on top quark anomalous couplings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Déliot, Frédéric; Faria, Ricardo; Fiolhais, Miguel C. N.; Lagarelhos, Pedro; Onofre, António; Pease, Christopher M.; Vasconcelos, Ana

    2018-01-01

    The latest results on top quark physics, namely single top quark production cross sections, W -boson helicity and asymmetry measurements are used to probe the Lorentz structure of the W t b vertex. The increase of sensitivity to new anomalous physics contributions to the top quark sector of the standard model is quantified by combining the relevant results from Tevatron and the Large Hadron Collider. The results show that combining an increasing set of available precision measurements in the search for new physics phenomena beyond the standard model leads to significant sensitivity improvements, especially when compared with the current expectation for the High Luminosity run at the LHC.

  16. Anomalous atomic volume of alpha-Pu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kollar, J.; Vitos, Levente; Skriver, Hans Lomholt

    1997-01-01

    We have performed full charge-density calculations for the equilibrium atomic volumes of the alpha-phase light actinide metals using the local density approximation (LDA) and the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). The average deviation between the experimental and the GGA atomic radii is 1.......3%. The comparison between the LDA and GGA results show that the anomalously large atomic volume of alpha-Pu relative to alpha-Np can be ascribed to exchange-correlation effects connected with the presence of low coordinated sites in the structure where the f electrons are close to the onset of localization...

  17. Observations of anomalous fading in maiolica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, S.G.E.

    1988-01-01

    In the course of an authenticity study on Italian maiolica (tin-glazed earthenware of the Renaissance period), storage at elevated temperature was used to accelerate anomalous fading. Substantial levels of fading were observed in about half of the samples, and in these cases the variation of fading with glow curve temperature accounted for the lack of an equivalent dose plateau. Some evidence was found for a difference in the fading between alpha and beta induced thermoluminescence (TL). More importantly, some samples with unstable natural TL were found: the implications of this for dating and the circumvention of fading are discussed. (author)

  18. The anomalous magnetic moment of the muon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farley, F.J.M.

    1975-01-01

    A historical survey of the measurements of the gyromagnetic ratio g of the muon. A brief introduction is given to the theory of the 'anomalous magnetic moment' a equivalent to 1/2(g-2) and its significance is explained. The main part of the review concerns the successive (g-2) experiments to measure a directly, with gradually increasing accuracy. At present experiment and theory agree to (13+-29) parts in 10 9 in g, and the muon still obeys the rules of quantum electrodynamics for a structureless point charge. (author)

  19. Initial data report in response to the surplus plutonium disposition environmental impact statement data call for the UO2 supply. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, V.S.; Cash, J.M.; Michelhaugh, R.D.

    1997-11-01

    The purpose of this document is to support the US Department of Energy (DOE) Fissile Materials Disposition Program's preparation of the draft Surplus Plutonium Disposition Environmental Impact Statement. This is one of several responses to data calls generated to provide background information on activities associated with the operation of the Mixed-Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility. Urania feed for the MOX Fuel Fabrication Facility may be either natural or depleted. Natural uranium typically contains 0.0057 wt% 234 U, 0.711 wt% 235 U, and the majority as 238 U. The fissile isotope is 235 U, and uranium is considered depleted if the total 235 U content is less than 0.711 wt% as found in nature. The average composition of 235 U in DOE's total depleted urania inventory is 0.20 wt%. The depleted uranium assay range proposed for use in this program is 0.2500--0.2509 wt%. Approximately 30% more natural uranium would be required than depleted uranium based on the importance of maintaining a specific fissile portion in the MOX fuel blend. If the uranium component constitutes a larger quantity of fissile material, less plutonium can be dispositioned on an annual basis. The percentage composition, referred to as assay, of low-enriched uranium necessary for controlled fission in commercial light-water nuclear power reactors is 1.8--5.0 wt% 235 U. This data report provides information on the schedule, acquisition, impacts, and conversion process for using uranium, derived from depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ), as the diluent for the weapons-grade plutonium declared as surplus. The case analyzed is use of depleted UF 6 in storage at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant in Piketon, Ohio, being transported to a representative UF 6 to uranium dioxide conversion facility (GE Nuclear Energy) for processing, and subsequently transported to the MOX Fuel Fabrication Facility

  20. Effect of Different Levels of Surplus Date on Performance, Egg Quality and Blood Parameters in Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.J Hosseini Vashan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available One hundred forty-four 26-wk-old white Hy-Line layers (W-36 were fed commercial diets containing 0, 1.5, 3 and 5% surplus date for three period of 28 days each to study the effects of dietary surplus date on hen performance (egg production, egg weight, egg mass, feed intake, feed conversion ratio ‘FCR’ and body weight gain and egg quality parameters (Haugh unit score, yolk colour index, yolk index, egg shape, shell weight, shell thickness and density. The yolk of eggs extracted and cholesterol content were determined on one egg of each replicate hens in each period. Blood samples were collected in non-heparin zed tubes from six hens in each treatment through brachial vein at the end of experiment. Serum was separated after 8-10 hrs and was stored at – 20 oC for subsequent analysis. Hen performance (egg production, egg mass, feed intake, FCR and weight gain and egg quality parameters (Haugh unit score, yolk colour index, yolk index, egg shape, shell weight, shell thickness and density were not significantly different among treatments (P>0.05; However in all traits, the control group had numerically lower value, except egg weight that was significantly increased with supplementation of surplus date in diet. The dietary surplus date did not significantly affect egg cholesterol, ND and IBD titre, but the serum cholesterol was significantly reduced in hens fed diets contained 5% surplus date. This study suggested that the surplus date may be used up to 5% in the diet of laying hens to reduce blood cholesterol without any significant adverse effect on performance.

  1. Electrical control of the anomalous valley Hall effect in antiferrovalley bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Wen-Yi; Duan, Chun-Gang

    2017-08-01

    In analogy to all-electric spintronics, all-electric valleytronics, i.e., valley manipulation via electric means, becomes an exciting new frontier as it may bring revolutions in the field of data storage with ultra-high speed and ultra-low power consumption. The existence of the anomalous valley Hall effect in ferrovalley materials demonstrates the possibility of electrical detection for valley polarization. However, in previously proposed valley-polarized monolayers, the anomalous valley Hall effect is controlled by external magnetic fields. Here, through elaborate structural design, we propose the antiferrovally bilayer as an ideal candidate for realizing all-electric valleytronic devices. Using the minimal k.p model, we show that the energy degeneracy between valley indexes in such system can be lifted by electric approaches. Subsequently, the anomalous valley Hall effect strongly depends on the electric field as well. Taking the bilayer VSe2 as an example, all-electric tuning and detecting of anomalous valley Hall effect is confirmed by density-functional theory calculations, indicating that the valley information in such antiferrovalley bilayer can be reversed by an electric field perpendicular to the plane of the system and easily probed through the sign of the Hall voltage.

  2. An Agent-based Application to Enable Deregulated Energy Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capodieci, Nicola; Cabri, Giacomo; Pagani, Giuliano Andrea; Aiello, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Private houses are more and more enabled with devices that can produce renewable energy, and the not so remote chance of selling the surplus energy makes them new players in the energy market. This market is likely to become deregulated since each energy home-producer can negotiate the energy price

  3. Characteristics of Primary Care Trusts in financial deficit and surplus - a comparative study in the English NHS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badrinath, Padmanabhan; Currell, Rosemary Anne; Bradley, Peter M

    2006-06-01

    Recently the financial status of primary care trusts has come under considerable scrutiny by the government, and financial deficits have been blamed on poor local management of resources. This paper examines the factors that differ between those Primary Care Trusts (PCT) in financial deficit and those in surplus, using readily available data at PCT level. PCTs are the National Health Service organisations in England responsible for improving the health of their population, developing primary and community health services, and commissioning secondary care services. A descriptive comparative study using data from 58 PCTs; 29 in greatest financial surplus and 29 in greatest deficit in the English National Health Service. Nearly half the study deficit PCTs (14 out of 29) are in the East of England and of the 29 surplus PCTs, five each are in Birmingham and Black Country Strategic Health Authority (SHA), and Greater Manchester SHA. The median population density of the deficit PCTs is almost seven times lower than that of surplus PCTs (p = 0.004). Surplus PCTs predominantly serve deprived communities. Nearly half the surplus PCTs are 'spearhead' PCTs compared to only one of the deficit PCTs. Percentage population increase by local authority of the PCT showed that on average deficit PCTs had 2.7 times higher change during 1982-2002 (13.37% for deficit and 4.94% for surplus PCTs). Work pressure felt by staff is significantly higher in deficit PCTs, and they also reported working higher amount of extra hours due to work pressures. The proportion of dispensing general practitioners is significantly higher in deficit PCTs 40.5% vs. 12.9% (p = 0.002). Deficit PCTs on average received pound123 less per head of registered population compared to surplus PCTs. The two groups of PCTs serve two distinct populations with marked differences between the two. Deficit PCTs tend to be in relatively affluent and rural areas. Poor management alone is unlikely to be the cause of deficits

  4. Zγ production at NNLO including anomalous couplings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, John M.; Neumann, Tobias; Williams, Ciaran

    2017-11-01

    In this paper we present a next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) QCD calculation of the processes pp → l + l -γ and pp\\to ν \\overline{ν}γ that we have implemented in MCFM. Our calculation includes QCD corrections at NNLO both for the Standard Model (SM) and additionally in the presence of Zγγ and ZZγ anomalous couplings. We compare our implementation, obtained using the jettiness slicing approach, with a previous SM calculation and find broad agreement. Focusing on the sensitivity of our results to the slicing parameter, we show that using our setup we are able to compute NNLO cross sections with numerical uncertainties of about 0.1%, which is small compared to residual scale uncertainties of a few percent. We study potential improvements using two different jettiness definitions and the inclusion of power corrections. At √{s}=13 TeV we present phenomenological results and consider Zγ as a background to H → Zγ production. We find that, with typical cuts, the inclusion of NNLO corrections represents a small effect and loosens the extraction of limits on anomalous couplings by about 10%.

  5. Anomalous Stars and Where to Find Them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muna, Demitri; Huff, Eric

    2018-01-01

    The sky is now extensively mapped by imaging surveys in wavelengths that span the electromagnetic spectrum, ranging from Fermi and GALEX down to WISE, Planck, and radio surveys like FIRST and VLSS. Individual public catalogs now contain on order hundreds of millions of distinct sources. Recent progress in image analysis techniques makes possible great increases in the efficiency, sensitivity, and reliability of measurements that combine imaging data from multiple probes with heterogeneous properties. This is especially true for the identification of anomalous sources: traditional methods for finding ‘outliers’ typically rely on making hard cuts on noisy catalog properties, greatly restricting the potential discovery space. Cross-catalog matches confine investigation to objects that occur at signal-to-noise ratios sufficient to be independently detectable in a subset of all the available multi-wavelength coverage. The process of merging the latest analyses with existing data is severely hampered, however, by the fractured way in which these data are processed and stored, limitations of data access, the data volume involved, and the computation power required. This has left archive data far from fully exploited. Stellar anomalies present the best place to start: joint distributions of stellar colors and magnitudes have finer structures than extended sources, and modelling of point sources is computationally cheaper than for galaxies. We present a framework to solve the problem of applying new algorithms to old data while overcoming the limitations described above, in the search for the undiscovered anomalous.

  6. More modular invariant anomalous U(1) breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaillard, Mary K.; Giedt, Joel

    2002-01-01

    We consider the case of several scalar fields, charged under a number of U(1) factors, acquiring vacuum expectation values due to an anomalous U(1). We demonstrate how to make redefinitions at the superfield level in order to account for tree-level exchange of vector supermultiplets in the effective supergravity theory of the light fields in the supersymmetric vacuum phase. Our approach builds upon previous results that we obtained in a more elementary case. We find that the modular weights of light fields are typically shifted from their original values, allowing an interpretation in terms of the preservation of modular invariance in the effective theory. We address various subtleties in defining unitary gauge that are associated with the noncanonical Kaehler potential of modular invariant supergravity, the vacuum degeneracy, and the role of the dilaton field. We discuss the effective superpotential for the light fields and note how proton decay operators may be obtained when the heavy fields are integrated out of the theory at the tree-level. We also address how our formalism may be extended to describe the generalized Green-Schwarz mechanism for multiple anomalous U(1)'s that occur in four-dimensional Type I and Type IIB string constructions

  7. Elucidation of the mechanism for anomalous blueshift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotaki, Hideyuki; Kando, Masaki; Koga, J.K.; Nakajima, Kazuhisa

    2004-01-01

    The anomalous blue shift of high intensity laser which was discovered by the present authors occurs in the process of gas ionization accompanied with the self-focusing. This shift does not depend either on the laser power or on the gas density and all photons are shifted by a certain frequency, while the one which has been known in common depends on both the intensity and density and only some part of the laser photons is shifted. In order to elucidate this phenomenon, the occurrence conditions of the anomalous blue shift were investigated and the results are compared with theory. The shifts were measured by focusing the laser beam in the gas-filled chamber with an off-axis-parabolic mirror and with a convex lens. When the reflective lens was used the amount of the shift depended significantly on the ionization rate of the plasma, while it depended on the pulse width when the transmission lens was used indicating that the shift is determined by the valence due to the ionization at the focusing point. (S. Funahashi)

  8. Anomalous Micellization of Pluronic Block Copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, Amanda; Ryu, Chang Y.

    2014-03-01

    Poly(ethylene oxide) - poly(propylene oxide) - poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-PPO-PEO) block copolymers, commercially known as Pluronics, are a unique family of amphiphilic triblock polymers, which self-assemble into micelles in aqueous solution. These copolymers have shown promise in therapeutic, biomedical, cosmetic, and nanotech applications. As-received samples of Pluronics contain low molecular weight impurities (introduced during the manufacturing and processing), that are ignored in most applications. It has been observed, however, that in semi-dilute aqueous solutions, at concentrations above 1 wt%, the temperature dependent micellization behavior of the Pluronics is altered. Anomalous behavior includes a shift of the critical micellization temperature and formation of large aggregates at intermediate temperatures before stable sized micelles form. We attribute this behavior to the low molecular weight impurities that are inherent to the Pluronics which interfere with the micellization process. Through the use of Dynamic Light Scattering and HPLC, we compared the anomalous behavior of different Pluronics of different impurity levels to their purified counterparts.

  9. Anomalous growth of Ba on Ag(111)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teodoro, O.M.N.D.; Los, J.; Moutinho, A.M.C.

    2002-01-01

    Electropositive elements are often adsorbed on metals to produce a well-known decrease in the surface work function. During deposition, the work function drops steeply and reaches a minimum at coverage lower than one monolayer. Then, it increases slightly and the work function converges to the value of the deposited element. In this work, we report anomalous behavior found during the deposition of barium on a Ag(111) surface. After a minimum of about 2.4 eV the work function did not increase up to 2.7 eV, the bulk barium work function, no matter what amount of barium was deposited. Auger electron spectroscopy corroborated these results in which we measured a permanent and constant intensity of the Ag MNN peak for high barium coverage. To explain this anomalous growth of barium on Ag(111) we propose an explanation based on the diffusion of silver atoms into the barium film. Further experiments showed that coadsorption of oxygen before a second deposition of barium blocked the diffusion thus allowing the work function to reach 2.7 eV

  10. Revisit to diffraction anomalous fine structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawaguchi, T.; Fukuda, K.; Tokuda, K.; Shimada, K.; Ichitsubo, T.; Oishi, M.; Mizuki, J.; Matsubara, E.

    2014-01-01

    The diffraction anomalous fine structure method has been revisited by applying this measurement technique to polycrystalline samples and using an analytical method with the logarithmic dispersion relation. The diffraction anomalous fine structure (DAFS) method that is a spectroscopic analysis combined with resonant X-ray diffraction enables the determination of the valence state and local structure of a selected element at a specific crystalline site and/or phase. This method has been improved by using a polycrystalline sample, channel-cut monochromator optics with an undulator synchrotron radiation source, an area detector and direct determination of resonant terms with a logarithmic dispersion relation. This study makes the DAFS method more convenient and saves a large amount of measurement time in comparison with the conventional DAFS method with a single crystal. The improved DAFS method has been applied to some model samples, Ni foil and Fe 3 O 4 powder, to demonstrate the validity of the measurement and the analysis of the present DAFS method

  11. Soliton formation and evolution in passively-mode-locked lasers with ultralong anomalous-dispersion fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xueming

    2011-01-01

    The soliton formation and evolution are numerically and experimentally investigated in passively-mode-locked lasers where pulses encounter ultralong anomalous-dispersion fibers. The pulse formation and evolution in lasers are determined by two balances, namely, nonlinearity and anomalous-dispersion balance and intracavity filtering and self-amplitude modulation balance. It is numerically found that a higher-energy soliton can be split into identical lower-energy multisolitons with exactly the same physical properties. Simulation results show that the separation of neighboring solitons is variational in the temporal domain. The temporal and spectral characteristics of solitons have large variations throughout the laser cavity, qualitatively distinct from the steady state of conventional solitons. The experimental observations confirm the theoretical predictions.

  12. Explanatory hypotheses formation and the anomalous β spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauderis, Tjerk [Centre for Logic and Philosophy of Science, Ghent University (Belgium)

    2013-07-01

    Between 1928 and 1934, a persevering anomaly mystified the physics community: while alpha decay behaved perfectly according to the new quantum mechanics, the energy of electrons emitted in beta decay displayed a broad continuous spectrum. This puzzle invoked a lively debate among the most established physicists at the time. But the curious thing was that they all suggested hypotheses of very different formal types: Rutherford and Chadwick thought of varying internal energies, Bohr suggested to restrict the energy conservation principle, Heisenberg tinkered with a new quantization of space, and Pauli suggested the existence of a new elementary particle - all these hypotheses being radical and highly controversial. In physics, an anomalous experimental result can trigger the formation of formally very different hypotheses. A scientist confronted with such a result has no strict guidelines to help her decide whether she should explain this result by withdrawing or adapting a constraint (e.g. a law) of the current theory, or by presupposing the existence of a hitherto unobserved entity (e.g. a particle) that makes the anomaly fit within that theory. In this talk I aim to gain some insights how scientists make this choice, by examining in the above case study how the choice of the various mentioned physicists depended on their previous experiences and their specific perception of the problem.

  13. Probing anomalous Higgs couplings at an eγ collider using unpolarized beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudhury, Debajyoti; Mamta

    2007-01-01

    We examine the sensitivity of e γ colliders (based on e + e - linear colliders of c.m. energy 500 GeV) to the anomalous couplings of the Higgs to W-boson via the process e - γ → νWH. This has the advantage over e + e - collider in being able to dissociate WWH vertex from ZZH. We are able to construct several dynamical variables which may be used to constrain the various couplings in the WWH vertex. (author)

  14. Anomalous correlation between hadrons and electromagnetic particles in hadron and gamma-ray families

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamada, Masanobu; Funayama, Yoshimi

    1986-01-01

    Correlations in relative (energy-weighted) distance between hadrons and electromagnetic particles are studied in the families observed in Chacaltaya emulsion chamber experiment. It is found that the observed number of hadrons which accompany electromagnetic in very close vicinity, say -5 , and it means there exists anomalous correlation between hadrons and electromagnetic particles in the characteristic spread of atmospheric electromagnetic cascade. The results are also compared with those of Japan-USSR joint chamber exposed at Pamir observatory. (author)

  15. Anomalous effect of small doses of ionizing radiation on metals and alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernov, I.P.; Mamontov, A.P.; Botaki, A.A.; Cherdantsev, P.A.; Chakhlov, B.V.; Sharov, S.R.; Timoshnikov, Yu.A.; Filipenko, L.A.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of small doses of 60 Co gamma rays on copper, tungsten, and WCo alloys has been investigated. A decrease in the concentration of material defects under the influence of small doses of ionizing radiation was found. Also the structural rearrangement of the crystal was found to be still in progress after irradiation ceased. The mechanism of the anomalous effect of small doses of ionizing radiation on metals and alloys is discussed in terms of the electron energy scheme. (U.K.)

  16. Decommissioning of eight surplus production reactors at the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    The first section of this volume summarizes the content of the draft environmental impact statement (DEIS) and this Addendum, which together constitute the final environmental impact statement (FEIS) prepared on the decommissioning of eight surplus plutonium production reactors at Hanford. The FEIS consists of two volumes. The first volume is the DEIS as written. The second volume (this Addendum) consists of a summary; Chapter 9, which contains comments on the DEIS and provides DOE's responses to the comments; Appendix F, which provides additional health effects information; Appendix K, which contains costs of decommissioning in 1990 dollars; Appendix L, which contains additional graphite leaching data; Appendix M, which contains a discussion of accident scenarios; Appendix N, which contains errata; and Appendix 0, which contains reproductions of the letters, transcripts, and exhibits that constitute the record for the public comment period

  17. Acetone-butanol-ethanol production from substandard and surplus dates by Egyptian native Clostridium strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-Alla, Mohamed Hemida; Zohri, Abdel-Naser Ahmed; El-Enany, Abdel-Wahab Elsadek; Ali, Shimaa Mohamed

    2015-04-01

    One hundred and seven mesophilic isolates of Clostridium were isolated from agricultural soils cultivated with different plants in Assuit Governorate, Egypt. Eighty isolates (out of 107) showed the ability to produce ABE (Acetone, butanol and ethanol) on T6 medium ranging from 0.036 to 31.89 g/L. The highest numbers of ABE producing isolates were obtained from soil samples of potato contributing 27 isolates, followed by 18 isolates from wheat and 10 isolates from onion. On the other hand, there were three native isolates that produced ABE more than those produced by the reference isolate Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 (11.543 g/L). The three isolates were identified based on phenotypic and gene encoding 16S rRNA as Clostridium beijerinckii ASU10 (KF372577), Clostridium chauvoei ASU55 (KF372580) and Clostridium roseum ASU58 (KF372581). The highest ABE level from substandard and surplus dates was produced by C. beijerinckii ASU10 (24.07 g/L) comprising butanol 67.15% (16.16 g/L), acetone 30.73% (7.4 g/L) and ethanol 2.12% (0.51 g/L), while C. roseum ASU58 and C. chauvoei ASU55 produced ABE contributing 20.20 and 13.79 g/L, respectively. ABE production by C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 was 15.01 g/L. This study proved that the native strains C. beijerinckii ASU10 and C. roseum ASU58 have high competitive efficacy on ABE production from economical substrate as substandard and surplus date fruits. Additionally, using this substrate without any nutritional components is considered to be a commercial substrate for desired ABE production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Trust and Exchange : Effects of TemporalTrust and Exchange : Effects of Temporal Embeddedness and Network Embeddedness on Providing and Dividing a Surplus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gautschi, T.

    2002-01-01

    Mutually profitable cooperation is characterized by the fact that the combined efforts of the cooperating parties generate a certain surplus. The first part of the book studies the production of a surplus as a trust problem between two actors. Should an actor provide resources if the other actor

  19. 26 CFR 1.593-2 - Additions to reserve for bad debts where surplus, reserves, and undivided profits equal or exceed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Additions to reserve for bad debts where surplus... bad debts where surplus, reserves, and undivided profits equal or exceed 12 percent of deposits or... profits, and reserves at the beginning of the taxable year, a reasonable addition to the reserve for bad...

  20. 41 CFR 102-37.380 - What is the statutory authority for donations of surplus Federal property made under this subpart?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...: (a) Section 549(d) of title 40, United States Code authorizes surplus property under the control of... or SEAs). (b) Section 549(c)(3) of title 40, United States Code authorizes SASPs to donate surplus... centers. (6) Providers of assistance to homeless individuals. (7) Providers of assistance to impoverished...

  1. Contribution of MRI in supracardiac total anomalous pulmonary venous drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kastler, B.; Germain, P.; Gangi, A.; Klinkert, A.; Dietemann, J.L.; Wackenheim, A.; Livolsi, A.; Willard, D.

    1992-01-01

    A case of supracardiac total anomalous pulmonary venous drainage (TAPVD) in an infant aged 2 1/2 months is presented. Diagnosis was established non invasively by magnetic resonance image (MRI). Not only did MRI precisely depict the anomalous venous pathway but it moreover securely excluded pulmonary venous obstruction. (orig.)

  2. Nonlinear trapped electron mode and anomalous heat transport in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaw, P.K.

    1982-01-01

    We take the phenomenological point of view that the anomalous electron thermal conductivity produced by the non-linear trapped electron mode should also influence the stability properties of the mode itself. Using a model equation, we show that this effect makes the mode self-stabilizing. A simple expression for the anomalous thermal conductivity is derived, and its scaling properties are discussed. (orig.)

  3. Anomalous structural changes and elastic properties of bismuth oxide superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Y.S.; Xiang, J.; Chang, F.G.; Zhang, J.C.; He, A.S.; Wang, H.; Gu, B.L.

    1989-01-01

    Ultrasonic measurement revealed that there are anomalous structural changes near 200 K in single 2212 or 2223 phase samples of Bi(Pb)-Sr-Ca-Cu-O. Detailed study showed such anomalous changes are isothermal-like processes and have a characteristics of second order phase transition, accompanying with increases in lattice constants. The elastic properties of these ceramics and related systems are discussed

  4. 76 FR 11437 - Application To Export Electric Energy; Societe Generale Energy Corp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... reliability of the U.S. electric power supply system. Copies of this application will be made available, upon... surplus energy purchased from electric utilities, Federal power marketing agencies and other entities... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY [OE Docket No. EA-376] Application To Export Electric Energy; Societe...

  5. 77 FR 42076 - Notice of Opportunity for Public Comment on Surplus Property Release at Hancock County-Bar Harbor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-17

    ... Comment on Surplus Property Release at Hancock County-Bar Harbor Airport, Trenton, ME AGENCY: Federal... located at Hancock County-Bar Harbor Airport, Trenton, Maine. DATES: Comments must be received on or... INFORMATION: The Federal Aviation Administration is reviewing a request by Hancock County-Bar Harbor Airport...

  6. APPLICATION OF THE ANALYTIC HIERARCHY PROCESS TO COMPARE ALTERNATIVES FOR THE LONG-TERM MANAGEMENT OF SURPLUS MERCURY

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper describes a systematic method for comparing options for the long-term management of surplus elemental mercury in the U.S., using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) as embodied in commercially available Expert Choice software. A limited scope multi-criteria decision-a...

  7. 32 CFR 644.425 - Authority and procedure for disposal of surplus property by DA to eligible public agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Authority and procedure for disposal of surplus property by DA to eligible public agencies. 644.425 Section 644.425 National Defense Department of Defense... property by DA to eligible public agencies. FPMR 101-47.303-2 provides that the disposal agency shall allow...

  8. Nitrogen leaching: A crop rotation perspective on the effect of N surplus, field management and use of catch crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Notaris, Chiara; Rasmussen, Jim; Sørensen, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Components of the field nitrogen (N) balance (input and surplus) are often used to predict nitrate leaching from agricultural lands. However, management factors, such as use of catch crops, greatly affect the actual loss and are a key to reduce N leaching. The present study is based on the 4th cy...

  9. 77 FR 30047 - Notice of Opportunity for Public Comment on Surplus Property Release at Michael J Smith Field...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... Comment on Surplus Property Release at Michael J Smith Field, Beaufort, NC AGENCY: Federal Aviation... J Smith Field, be used for aeronautical purposes. DATES: Comments must be received on or before June... property at the Michael J Smith Field. The property consists of one parcel located on the north side of...

  10. 76 FR 81005 - Determination of Trade Surplus in Certain Sugar and Syrup Goods and Sugar-Containing Products of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ... Nicaragua, and (iv) the United States--Peru Trade Promotion Agreement (Peru TPA), in the case of Peru. DATES... authority, the Office des Changes. Based on this data, USTR determines that Morocco's trade surplus is... 2012). Peru: Pursuant to section 201 of the United States--Peru Trade Promotion Agreement...

  11. 75 FR 77042 - Determination of Trade Surplus in Certain Sugar and Syrup Goods and Sugar Containing Products of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-10

    ...) the United States--Peru Trade Promotion Agreement (Peru TPA), in the case of Peru. DATES: Effective... authority, the Office des Changes. Based on this data, USTR determines that Morocco's trade surplus is... United States--Peru Trade Promotion Agreement Implementation Act (Pub. L. 110-138; 19 U.S.C. 3805 note...

  12. Low inflation, a high net savings surplus and institutional restrictions keep the Japanese long-term interest rate low

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Pieter W.

    2006-01-01

    This paper explains that the interest rate on long-term Japanese government bonds is low in comparison with other industrialised countries for four main reasons: lower inflation, net savings surplus, institutional restrictions and home bias. Monetary policy and institutionalised purchases of

  13. 75 FR 43158 - Amended Record of Decision for the Decommissioning of Eight Surplus Production Reactors at the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-23

    ... transition regarding its defense production mission at the time of the Surplus Production Reactor EIS, and.../cultural resources, ecological resources, and cumulative impacts. Preliminary calculations (based on near..., historical/cultural resource, or ecological resources impacts were identified in the Supplement Analysis...

  14. Farm structure or farm management: effective ways to reduce nutrient surpluses on dairy farms and their financial impacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ondersteijn, C.J.M.; Beldman, A.C.G.; Daatselaar, C.H.G.; Giesen, G.W.J.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2003-01-01

    .To control and prevent nutrient pollution from agricultural non-point sources, the Dutch government introduced the Mineral Accounting System (MINAS), a nutrient bookkeeping system which taxes farms with nutrient surpluses exceeding safe threshold values. Since the levies can be severe it is

  15. Anomalous water absorption in porous materials

    CERN Document Server

    Lockington, D A

    2003-01-01

    The absorption of fluid by unsaturated, rigid porous materials may be characterized by the sorptivity. This is a simple parameter to determine and is increasingly being used as a measure of a material's resistance to exposure to fluids (especially moisture and reactive solutes) in aggressive environments. The complete isothermal absorption process is described by a nonlinear diffusion equation, with the hydraulic diffusivity being a strongly nonlinear function of the degree of saturation of the material. This diffusivity can be estimated from the sorptivity test. In a typical test the cumulative absorption is proportional to the square root of time. However, a number of researchers have observed deviation from this behaviour when the infiltrating fluid is water and there is some potential for chemo-mechanical interaction with the material. In that case the current interpretation of the test and estimation of the hydraulic diffusivity is no longer appropriate. Kuentz and Lavallee (2001) discuss the anomalous b...

  16. Anomalous Quantum Correlations of Squeezed Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, B.; Vogel, W.; Mraz, M.; Köhnke, S.; Hage, B.

    2017-04-01

    Three different noise moments of field strength, intensity, and their correlations are simultaneously measured. For this purpose a homodyne cross-correlation measurement [1] is implemented by superimposing the signal field and a weak local oscillator on an unbalanced beam splitter. The relevant information is obtained via the intensity noise correlation of the output modes. Detection details like quantum efficiencies or uncorrelated dark noise are meaningless for our technique. Yet unknown insight in the quantumness of a squeezed signal field is retrieved from the anomalous moment, correlating field strength with intensity noise. A classical inequality including this moment is violated for almost all signal phases. Precognition on quantum theory is superfluous, as our analysis is solely based on classical physics.

  17. Rooted triple consensus and anomalous gene trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt Heiko A

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anomalous gene trees (AGTs are gene trees with a topology different from a species tree that are more probable to observe than congruent gene trees. In this paper we propose a rooted triple approach to finding the correct species tree in the presence of AGTs. Results Based on simulated data we show that our method outperforms the extended majority rule consensus strategy, while still resolving the species tree. Applying both methods to a metazoan data set of 216 genes, we tested whether AGTs substantially interfere with the reconstruction of the metazoan phylogeny. Conclusion Evidence of AGTs was not found in this data set, suggesting that erroneously reconstructed gene trees are the most significant challenge in the reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships among species with current data. The new method does however rule out the erroneous reconstruction of deep or poorly resolved splits in the presence of lineage sorting.

  18. Anomalous krypton in the Allende meteorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, U.

    1977-01-01

    The reported investigation provides important new data for the heavy noble gases, especially Kr, in the Allende meteorite. The data are used to criticize the original model of Lewis et al. (1975) based on the noble gas data of these researchers. The conclusions reached in the investigation support alternative models which have been mainly based on Xe data by Lewis et al. (1975, 1977). Because of the relatively high noble gas abundances in the separates studied, disturbance from nuclear effects occurring in situ such as spallation and neutron capture is insignificant, offering an opportunity to study primordial Ar, Kr, and Xe. The isotopic and abundance data obtained from the samples largely confirm the noble gas results of Lewis et al. (1975, 1977) where isotopic correlations agree with the correlations of the considered samples. It is found that both Kr and Xe data are consistent with a two component mixture of 'ordinary' as well as 'anomalous' planetary gases.

  19. Anomalous Abelian symmetry in the standard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramond, P.

    1995-01-01

    The observed hierarchy of quark and lepton masses can be parametrized by nonrenormalizable operators with dimensions determined by an anomalous Abelian family symmetry, a gauge extension to the minimal supersymmetric standard model. Such an Abelian symmetry is generic to compactified superstring theories, with its anomalies compensated by the Green-Schwarz mechanism. If we assume these two symmetries to be the same, we find the electroweak mixing angle to be sin 2 θ ω = 3/8 at the string scale, just by setting the ratio of the product of down quark to charged lepton masses equal to one at the string scale. This assumes no GUT structure. The generality of the result suggests a superstring origin for the standard model. We generalize our analysis to massive neutrinos, and mixings in the lepton sector

  20. Anomalous resistivity in the plasma opening switch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolgachev, G I; Zakatov, L P; Kalinin, Yu G; Kingsep, A S; Nitishinskij, M S; Ushakov, A G [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation). Applied Physics Division

    1997-12-31

    Experimental studies and modelling together with analytical considerations of anomalous resistivity in the plasma opening switch (POS) are being pursued to improve the understanding of the physical mechanism of the POS conduction phase. Experiments have been undertaken for a `microsecond` POS of coaxial geometry. Measurements of Stark broadening of the H{sub {alpha}} line allowed turbulent oscillations in plasma to be found at the conductivity stage. A comparison with the modelling including low-frequency (ion-acoustic) turbulence and Doppler broadening (neutral gas temperature 1-3 eV) the electric field value to be estimated to 10-30 kV/cm. The turbulent field increased toward the cathode up to 50 kV/cm in the near-cathode layer. (author). 3 figs., 14 refs.

  1. Case report 376: Accessory (anomalous) soleus muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apple, J.S.; Khoury, M.B.; Martinez, S.; Nunley, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    In summary, a case has been presented of a 24-year-old woman who developed pain in the left lower extremity while jogging. Physical examination showed a soft, palpable mass medial and anterior to the Achilles tendon in the left lower extremity. Although a lipoma was suspected, plain films and CT studies indicated clearly that the mass was not of fatty density. In fact, the density of the mass was equivalent to adjacent muscles. The mass itself was lying in the soft tissues of the left ankle tissue. An open biopsy showed a normal muscle which represented an accessory soleus muscle - a muscle known to be anomalous on accoasion and reported as being symptomatic or asymptomatic in different individuals. (orig./SHA)

  2. Comparison of the anomalous and non-anomalous generalized Schwinger models via functional formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza Dutra, A. de.

    1992-01-01

    The Green functions of the two versions of the two versions of the generalized Schwinger model, the anomalous and the non-anomalous one, in their higher order Lagrangian density form are calculated. Furthermore it is shown through a sequence of transformations that the bosonized Lagrangian density is equivalent to the former, at least for the bosonic correlation functions. The introduction of the sources from the beginning, leading to a gauge-invariant source term is also considered. It is verified that the two models have the same correlation functions only of the gauge-invariant sector is taken into account. Finally it is presented a generalization of the Wess-Zumino term, and its physical consequences are studied, in particular the appearance of gauge-dependent massive excitations. (author)

  3. Overview of the U.S. Department of Energy's Isotope Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carty, J.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy's Isotopes Program. The charter of the Isotope Programs covers the production and sale of radioactive and stable isotopes, associated byproducts, surplus materials, and related isotope services

  4. Effect of anomalous ุ ฯ vertex on decay-lepton distributions in ท-ุุ and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We also study the lepton energy and beam polarization dependence of certain CP-violating lepton angular asymmetries arising from an anomalous decay vertex and compare them with the asymmetries arising due to CP-violation in the production process due to the top electric or weak dipole moment.

  5. Anomalous Chained Turbulence in Actively Driven Flows on Spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickelin, Oscar; Słomka, Jonasz; Burns, Keaton J.; Lecoanet, Daniel; Vasil, Geoffrey M.; Faria, Luiz M.; Dunkel, Jörn

    2018-04-01

    Recent experiments demonstrate the importance of substrate curvature for actively forced fluid dynamics. Yet, the covariant formulation and analysis of continuum models for nonequilibrium flows on curved surfaces still poses theoretical challenges. Here, we introduce and study a generalized covariant Navier-Stokes model for fluid flows driven by active stresses in nonplanar geometries. The analytical tractability of the theory is demonstrated through exact stationary solutions for the case of a spherical bubble geometry. Direct numerical simulations reveal a curvature-induced transition from a burst phase to an anomalous turbulent phase that differs distinctly from externally forced classical 2D Kolmogorov turbulence. This new type of active turbulence is characterized by the self-assembly of finite-size vortices into linked chains of antiferromagnetic order, which percolate through the entire fluid domain, forming an active dynamic network. The coherent motion of the vortex chain network provides an efficient mechanism for upward energy transfer from smaller to larger scales, presenting an alternative to the conventional energy cascade in classical 2D turbulence.

  6. No need to replace an "anomalous" primate (Primates) with an "anomalous" bear (Carnivora, Ursidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Eliécer E; Pine, Ronald H

    2015-01-01

    By means of mitochondrial 12S rRNA sequencing of putative "yeti", "bigfoot", and other "anomalous primate" hair samples, a recent study concluded that two samples, presented as from the Himalayas, do not belong to an "anomalous primate", but to an unknown, anomalous type of ursid. That is, that they match 12S rRNA sequences of a fossil Polar Bear (Ursusmaritimus), but neither of modern Polar Bears, nor of Brown Bears (Ursusarctos), the closest relative of Polar Bears, and one that occurs today in the Himalayas. We have undertaken direct comparison of sequences; replication of the original comparative study; inference of phylogenetic relationships of the two samples with respect to those from all extant species of Ursidae (except for the Giant Panda, Ailuropodamelanoleuca) and two extinct Pleistocene species; and application of a non-tree-based population aggregation approach for species diagnosis and identification. Our results demonstrate that the very short fragment of the 12S rRNA gene sequenced by Sykes et al. is not sufficiently informative to support the hypotheses provided by these authors with respect to the taxonomic identity of the individuals from which these sequences were obtained. We have concluded that there is no reason to believe that the two samples came from anything other than Brown Bears. These analyses afforded an opportunity to test the monophyly of morphologically defined species and to comment on both their phylogenetic relationships and future efforts necessary to advance our understanding of ursid systematics.

  7. The quantum anomalous Hall effect on a star lattice with spin-orbit coupling and an exchange field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Mengsu; Wan Shaolong

    2012-01-01

    We study a star lattice with Rashba spin-orbit coupling and an exchange field and find that there is a quantum anomalous Hall effect in this system, and that there are five energy gaps at Dirac points and quadratic band crossing points. We calculate the Berry curvature distribution and obtain the Hall conductivity (Chern number ν) quantized as integers, and find that ν =- 1,2,1,1,2 when the Fermi level lies in these five gaps. Our model can be viewed as a general quantum anomalous Hall system and, in limit cases, can give what the honeycomb lattice and kagome lattice give. We also find that there is a nearly flat band with ν = 1 which may provide an opportunity for realizing the fractional quantum anomalous Hall effect. Finally, the chiral edge states on a zigzag star lattice are given numerically, to confirm the topological property of this system. (paper)

  8. Anomalous dispersion properties of TM waves in subwavelength metallic waveguides loaded by uniaxial metamaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Guanghui, E-mail: wanggh@scnu.edu.cn; Lei, Yuandong; Zhang, Weifeng

    2015-02-20

    Dispersion properties of transverse magnetic (TM) waves in a subwavelength metallic waveguide loaded by uniaxial metamaterials are investigated, based on two kinds of uniaxial metamaterials with different orientations of optical axis. The numerical results show that the existence of fundamental TM{sub 0} mode and high-order TM modes in the waveguide system is dependent on the orientation of optical axis. In addition, their anomalous dispersion properties are clarified. When the orientation of optical axis is selected properly, there are two branches of dispersion curves for each high-order mode—one is normal dispersion and another belongs to anomalous dispersion, showing a transition from a backward wave to a forward one with the increase of working frequency. Moreover, the group velocity and energy flow distribution for TM{sub 1} mode are also demonstrated. These properties may have potential applications in optical information storage, integrated optics and nanophotonic devices. - Highlights: • Two kinds of subwavelength uniaxial metamaterial waveguides are constructed. • We demonstrate anomalous dispersion properties of transverse magnetic (TM) guided modes. • There are two branches of dispersion curves for high-order TM modes, showing a transition from a backward wave to a forward one. • Group velocity can approach to zero, having potential application in optical information storage. • Negative group velocity and energy flow distribution for TM modes are shown.

  9. Regularization of a massless dirac model to describe anomalous electromagnetic response of Weyl semimetals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takane, Yoshitake

    2016-01-01

    An unbounded massless Dirac model with two nondegenerate Dirac cones is the simplest model for Weyl semimetals, which show the anomalous electromagnetic response of chiral magnetic effect (CME) and anomalous Hall effect (AHE). However, if this model is naively used to analyze the electromagnetic response within a linear response theory, it gives the result apparently inconsistent with the persuasive prediction based on a lattice model. We show that this serious difficulty is related to the breaking of current conservation in the Dirac model due to quantum anomaly and can be removed if current and charge operators are redefined to include the contribution from the anomaly. We demonstrate that the CME as well as the AHE can be properly described using newly defined operators, and clarify that the CME is determined by the competition between the contribution from the anomaly and that from low-energy electrons. (author)

  10. Prospect of quantum anomalous Hall and quantum spin Hall effect in doped kagome lattice Mott insulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guterding, Daniel; Jeschke, Harald O; Valentí, Roser

    2016-05-17

    Electronic states with non-trivial topology host a number of novel phenomena with potential for revolutionizing information technology. The quantum anomalous Hall effect provides spin-polarized dissipation-free transport of electrons, while the quantum spin Hall effect in combination with superconductivity has been proposed as the basis for realizing decoherence-free quantum computing. We introduce a new strategy for realizing these effects, namely by hole and electron doping kagome lattice Mott insulators through, for instance, chemical substitution. As an example, we apply this new approach to the natural mineral herbertsmithite. We prove the feasibility of the proposed modifications by performing ab-initio density functional theory calculations and demonstrate the occurrence of the predicted effects using realistic models. Our results herald a new family of quantum anomalous Hall and quantum spin Hall insulators at affordable energy/temperature scales based on kagome lattices of transition metal ions.

  11. Search for anomalous ZZγ and Zγγ couplings with D0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landsberg, G.

    1995-01-01

    A direct test of the Standard Model by searching for anomalous ZZγ and Zγγ couplings is presented. The authors analyze p bar p → llγ + X, (l = e,μ) events at √s = 1.8 TeV with the D0d detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. A fit to the transverse energy spectrum of the photon in the signal events, based on the data set corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 13.9 pb -1 (13.3 pb -1 ) for the electron (muon) channel, yields the following 95% CL limits on the anomalous CP-conserving ZZγ couplings: -1.9 30 Z 40 Z = 0), and -0.5 40 Z 30 Z = 0), for a form-factor scale Λ = 500 GeV. Limits on the Zγγ couplings and CP-violating couplings are also discussed

  12. Anomalous loss of DT alpha particles in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, Hans W. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    1997-09-01

    An escaping alpha collector probe has been developed for TFTR`s DT phase. Energy distributions of escaping alphas have been determined by measuring the range of α-particles implanted into nickel foils located within the alpha collector. Results at 1.0 MA of plasma current are in good agreement with predictions for first orbit alpha loss. Results at 1.8 MA, however, show a significant anomalous loss of partially thermalized alphas (in addition to the expected first orbit loss), which is not observed with the lost alpha scintillator detectors in DT plasmas, but does resemble the anomalous delayed loss seen in DD plasmas. None of the candidate explanations proposed thus far are fully consistent with the anomalous loss observations. An experiment designed to study the effect of plasma major radius shifts on α-particle loss has led to a better understanding of α-particle dynamics in tokamaks. Intuitively, one might suppose that confined marginally passing α-particles forced to move toward higher magnetic field during an inward major radius shift (i.e., compression) would mirror and become trapped particles, leading to increased alpha loss. Such an effect was looked for during the shift experiment, however, no significant changes in alpha loss to the 90° lost alpha scintillator detector were observed during the shifts. It is calculated that the energy gained by an α-particle during the inward shift is sufficient to explain this result. However, an unexpected loss of partially thermalized α-particles near the passing/trapped boundary was observed to occur between inward and outward shifts at an intermediate value of plasma current (1.4 MA). This anomalous loss feature is not yet understood.

  13. Search for Anomalous Couplings in the Higgs Sector at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Achard, P; Aguilar-Benítez, M; Alcaraz, J; Alemanni, G; Allaby, James V; Aloisio, A; Alviggi, M G; Anderhub, H; Andreev, V P; Anselmo, F; Arefev, A; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Bagnaia, P; Bajo, A; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Baldew, S V; Banerjee, S; Banerjee, Sw; Barczyk, A; Barillère, R; Bartalini, P; Basile, M; Batalova, N; Battiston, R; Bay, A; Becattini, F; Becker, U; Behner, F; Bellucci, L; Berbeco, R; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Betev, B L; Biasini, M; Biglietti, M; Biland, A; Blaising, J J; Blyth, S C; Bobbink, Gerjan J; Böhm, A; Boldizsar, L; Borgia, B; Bottai, S; Bourilkov, D; Bourquin, Maurice; Braccini, S; Branson, J G; Brochu, F; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Cai, X D; Capell, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carlino, G; Cartacci, A M; Casaus, J; Cavallari, F; Cavallo, N; Cecchi, C; Cerrada, M; Chamizo-Llatas, M; Chang, Y H; Chemarin, M; Chen, A; Chen, G; Chen, G M; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chiefari, G; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Clare, I; Clare, R; Coignet, G; Colino, N; Costantini, S; de la Cruz, B; Cucciarelli, S; van Dalen, J A; De Asmundis, R; Déglon, P L; Debreczeni, J; Degré, A; Dehmelt, K; Deiters, K; Della Volpe, D; Delmeire, E; Denes, P; De Notaristefani, F; De Salvo, A; Diemoz, M; Dierckxsens, M; Dionisi, C; Dittmar, M; Doria, A; Dova, M T; Duchesneau, D; Duda, M; Echenard, B; Eline, A; El-Hage, A; El-Mamouni, H; Engler, A; Eppling, F J; Extermann, P; Falagán, M A; Falciano, S; Favara, A; Fay, J; Fedin, O; Felcini, M; Ferguson, T; Fesefeldt, H S; Fiandrini, E; Field, J H; Filthaut, F; Fisher, P H; Fisher, W; Fisk, I; Forconi, G; Freudenreich, Klaus; Furetta, C; Galaktionov, Yu; Ganguli, S N; García-Abia, P; Gataullin, M; Gentile, S; Giagu, S; Gong, Z F; Grenier, G; Grimm, O; Grünewald, M W; Guida, M; van Gulik, R; Gupta, V K; Gurtu, A; Gutay, L J; Haas, D; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hebbeker, T; Hervé, A; Hirschfelder, J; Hofer, H; Hohlmann, M; Holzner, G; Hou, S R; Hu, Y; Jin, B N; Jones, L W; de Jong, P; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Kaur, M; Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Kim, J K; Kirkby, Jasper; Kittel, E W; Klimentov, A; König, A C; Kopal, M; Koutsenko, V F; Kräber, M H; Krämer, R W; Krüger, A; Kunin, A; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Laktineh, I; Landi, G; Lebeau, M; Lebedev, A; Lebrun, P; Lecomte, P; Lecoq, P; Le Coultre, P; Le Goff, J M; Leiste, R; Levtchenko, M; Levchenko, P M; Li, C; Likhoded, S; Lin, C H; Lin, W T; Linde, Frank L; Lista, L; Liu, Z A; Lohmann, W; Longo, E; Lü, Y S; Luci, C; Luminari, L; Lustermann, W; Ma Wen Gan; Malgeri, L; Malinin, A; Maña, C; Mans, J; Martin, J P; Marzano, F; Mazumdar, K; McNeil, R R; Mele, S; Merola, L; Meschini, M; Metzger, W J; Mihul, A; Milcent, H; Mirabelli, G; Mnich, J; Mohanty, G B; Muanza, G S; Muijs, A J M; Musicar, B; Musy, M; Nagy, S; Natale, S; Napolitano, M; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newman, H; Nisati, A; Novák, T; Nowak, H; Ofierzynski, R A; Organtini, G; Pal, I; Palomares, C; Paolucci, P; Paramatti, R; Passaleva, G; Patricelli, S; Paul, T; Pauluzzi, M; Paus, C; Pauss, Felicitas; Pedace, M; Pensotti, S; Perret-Gallix, D; Petersen, B; Piccolo, D; Pierella, F; Pioppi, M; Piroué, P A; Pistolesi, E; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Pozhidaev, V; Pothier, J; Prokofev, D; Prokofiev, D O; Quartieri, J; Rahal-Callot, G; Rahaman, M A; Raics, P; Raja, N; Ramelli, R; Rancoita, P G; Ranieri, R; Raspereza, A V; Razis, P A; Ren, D; Rescigno, M; Reucroft, S; Riemann, S; Riles, K; Roe, B P; Romero, L; Rosca, A; Rosemann, C; Rosenbleck, C; Rosier-Lees, S; Roth, S; Rubio, J A; Ruggiero, G; Rykaczewski, H; Sakharov, A; Saremi, S; Sarkar, S; Salicio, J; Sánchez, E; Schäfer, C; Shchegelskii, V; Schopper, Herwig Franz; Schotanus, D J; Sciacca, C; Servoli, L; Shevchenko, S; Shivarov, N; Shoutko, V; Shumilov, E; Shvorob, A V; Son, D; Souga, C; Spillantini, P; Steuer, M; Stickland, D P; Stoyanov, B; Strässner, A; Sudhakar, K; Sultanov, G G; Sun, L Z; Sushkov, S; Suter, H; Swain, J D; Szillási, Z; Tang, X W; Tarjan, P; Tauscher, Ludwig; Taylor, L; Tellili, B; Teyssier, D; Timmermans, C; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tonwar, S C; Tóth, J; Tully, C; Tung, K L; Ulbricht, J; Valente, E; Van de Walle, R T; Vásquez, R; Veszpremi, V; Vesztergombi, G; Vetlitskii, I; Vicinanza, D; Viertel, Gert M; Villa, S; Vivargent, M; Vlachos, S; Vodopyanov, I; Vogel, H; Vogt, H; Vorobev, I; Vorobyov, A A; Wadhwa, M; Wang, Q; Wang, X L; Wang, Z M; Weber, M; Wilkens, H; Wynhoff, S; Xia, L; Xu, Z Z; Yamamoto, J; Yang, B Z; Yang, C G; Yang, H J; Yang, M; Yeh, S C; Zalite, A; Zalite, Yu; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, J; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, R Y; Zhuang, H L; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, B; Zöller, M

    2004-01-01

    Anomalous couplings of the Higgs boson are searched for through the processes e^+ e^- -> H gamma, e^+ e^- -> e^+ e^- H and e^+ e^- -> HZ. The mass range 70 GeV ffbar, H -> gamma gamma, H -> Z\\gamma and H -> WW^(*) are considered and no evidence is found for anomalous Higgs production or decay. Limits on the anomalous couplings d, db, Delta(g1z), Delta(kappa_gamma) and xi^2 are derived as well as limits on the H -> gamma gamma and H -> Z gamma decay rates.

  14. Anomalous Centrifugal Distortion in NH_2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Drumel, Marie-Aline; Pirali, Olivier; Coudert, L. H.

    2017-06-01

    The NH2 radical spectrum, first observed by Herzberg and Ramsay, is dominated by a strong Renner-Teller effect giving rise to two electronic states: the bent X ^{2}B_1 ground state and the quasi-linear A ^{2}A_1 excited state. The NH2 radical has been the subject of numerous high-resolution investigations and its electronic and ro-vibrational transitions have been measured. Using synchrotron radiation, new rotational transitions have been recently recorded and a value of the rotational quantum number N as large as 26 could be reached. In the X ^{2}B_1 ground state, the NH2 radical behaves like a triatomic molecule displaying spin-rotation splittings. Due to the lightness of the molecule, a strong coupling between the overall rotation and the bending mode arises whose effects increase with N and lead to the anomalous centrifugal distortion evidenced in the new measurements.^d In this talk the Bending-Rotation approach developed to account for the anomalous centrifugal distortion of the water molecule is modified to include spin-rotation coupling and applied to the fitting of high-resolution data pertaining to the ground electronic state of NH2. A preliminary line position analysis of the available data^{c,d} allowed us to account for 1681 transitions with a unitless standard deviation of 1.2. New transitions could also be assigned in the spectrum recorded by Martin-Drumel et al.^d In the talk, the results obtained with the new theoretical approach will be compared to those retrieved with a Watson-type Hamiltonian and the effects of the vibronic coupling between the ground X ^{2}B_1 and the excited A ^{2}A_1 electronic state will be discussed. Herzberg and Ramsay, J. Chem. Phys. 20 (1952) 347 Dressler and Ramsay, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 25 (1959) 553 Hadj Bachir, Huet, Destombes, and Vervloet, J. Molec. Spectrosc. 193 (1999) 326 McKellar, Vervloet, Burkholder, and Howard, J. Molec. Spectrosc. 142 (1990) 319 Morino and Kawaguchi, J. Molec. Spectrosc. 182 (1997) 428

  15. The dependence of the anomalous $J/\\psi$ suppression on the number of participant nucleons

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, M C; Alexa, C; Arnaldi, R; Ataian, M R; Baglin, C; Baldit, A; Bedjidian, Marc; Beolè, S; Boldea, V; Bordalo, P; Borges, G; Bussière, A; Capelli, L; Castor, J I; Castanier, C; Chaurand, B; Chevrot, I; Cheynis, B; Chiavassa, E; Cicalò, C; Claudino, T; Comets, M P; Constans, N; Constantinescu, S; Cortese, P; De Marco, N; De Falco, A; Dellacasa, G; Devaux, A; Dita, S; Drapier, O; Ducroux, L; Espagnon, B; Fargeix, J; Force, P; Gallio, M; Gavrilov, Yu K; Gerschel, C; Giubellino, P; Golubeva, M B; Gonin, M; Grigorian, A A; Grigorian, S; Grossiord, J Y; Guber, F F; Guichard, A; Gulkanian, H R; Hakobyan, R S; Haroutunian, R; Idzik, M; Jouan, D; Karavitcheva, T L; Kluberg, L; Kurepin, A B; Le Bornec, Y; Lourenço, C; Macciotta, P; MacCormick, M; Marzari-Chiesa, A; Masera, M; Masoni, A; Monteno, M; Musso, A; Petiau, P; Piccotti, A; Pizzi, J R; Prino, F; Puddu, G; Quintans, C; Ramos, S; Ramello, L; Rato-Mendes, P; Riccati, L; Romana, A; Santos, H; Saturnini, P; Scalas, E; Scomparin, E; Serci, S; Shahoyan, R; Sigaudo, F; Silva, S; Sitta, M; Sonderegger, P; Tarrago, X; Topilskaya, N S; Usai, G L; Vercellin, Ermanno; Villatte, L; Willis, N

    2001-01-01

    The observation of an anomalous \\jpsi\\ suppression in \\mbox{Pb-Pb} collisions by the NA50 collaboration can be considered as the most striking indication for the deconfinement of quarks and gluons at SPS energies. In this letter, we determine the \\jpsi\\ suppression pattern as a function of the forward hadronic energy \\ezdc\\ measured in a Zero Degree Calorimeter (ZDC). The direct connection between \\ezdc\\ and the geometry of the collision allows us to calculate, within a Glauber approach, the precise relation between the number of participant nucleons \

  16. UCN storage experiment for the investigation of the anomalous interaction with wall surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawabata, Yuji; Utsuro, Masahiko; Steyerl, A.; Malik, S.S.; Geltenbort, P.; Neumair, S.; Nesvizhevsky, V.V.

    1997-01-01

    The UCN experiment for the investigation of the anomalous interaction with wall surfaces was performed in the ILL UCN source. UCN is monochromated by the gravity and stored in the spectrometer with rectangular trap which is the Fombrin-grease coated box of 67x67cm 2 cross section and 20cm height. The measured energy distribution of stored UCN shows the indication of 'initial micro-heating'. The order of energy gain is ∼ 10 -10 eV in the initial several 100sec of storage. (author)

  17. Anomalous acoustic effect during martensitic transformations in titanium nickelide base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plotnikov, V.A.; Kokhanenko, D.V.

    2002-01-01

    One carried out experiments to determine effect of external static stress on martensitic transformations and acoustic emission, Martensitic transformations in titanium nickelide base alloys under mechanical stress were determined to change nature of acoustic emission to anomalous one - cycling of transformations under gradual increase of mechanical stress during direct martensitic transformation was followed by increase of acoustic emission energy instead of reduction. The mentioned nature of acoustic emission is indicative of essential effect of external stress on martensitic transformations and energy dissipation during transformations [ru

  18. Generation of relativistic electron beam and its anomalous stopping in the fast ignition scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sengupta, S.; Sandhu, A.S.; Dharmadhikari, A.K.; Kumar, G.R.; Das, A.; Kaw, P.K.

    2005-01-01

    We present experimental/theoretical results concerning two main physics issues related to the fast ignition scheme viz. the nonlinear mechanism of conversion of incident laser energy into a relativistic electron beam at the critical layer and its subsequent transport through an overdense plasma. Theoretical/numerical modelling of the experimental data, firstly shows that the conversion of the laser energy into an inward propagating electron beam occurs through the nonlinear mechanism of wave breaking of plasma waves excited at the critical layer and, secondly the transport of the electron beam through the overdense plasma is influenced by electrostatically induced and/or turbulence induced anomalous resistivity. (author)

  19. Shortage and surplus of water in the socio-hydrological context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, A.; Nijssen, d.

    2014-09-01

    Balancing the temporal variability of hydrological conditions in the long- and short-term is often essential for steady socio-economic conditions. However, this equilibrium is very fragile in many cases. Hydrological changes or socio-economic changes may destroy it in a short time. If we extend the bearing capacity of socio-hydrological systems we increase, in many cases, the harmful consequences of failures. Here, two case studies are discussed to illustrate these problems. The limited success at adapting water resources to increasing human requirements without consideration of the natural capacities will be discussed with the example of water use for irrigation in northeastern China. The demand for a new planning approach, which is based on a combination of monitoring, model-based impact assessments and spatial distributed planning, is demonstrated. The problems of water surplus, which becomes evident during floods, are discussed in a second case study. It is shown that flood protection depends strongly on expectations of flood characteristics. The gap between the social requirement for complete flood prevention and the remaining risk of flood damage becomes obvious. An increase of risk-awareness would be more sustainable than promises of flood protection, which are the basis for technical measures to affect floods and (or) to prevent flood damages.

  20. Decontamination and decommissioning of the Argonne National Laboratory East Area radioactively contaminated surplus facilities: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kline, W.H.; Fassnacht, G.F.; Moe, H.J.

    1987-07-01

    ANL has decontaminated and decommissioned (D and D) seven radiologically contaminated surplus facilities at its Illinois site: a ''Hot'' Machine Shop (Building 17) and support facilities; Fan House No. 1 (Building 37), Fan House No. 2 (Building 38), the Pangborn Dust Collector (Building 41), and the Industrial Waste Treatment Plant (Building 34) for exhaust air from machining of radioactive materials. Also included were a Nuclear Materials Storage Vault (Building 16F) and a Nuclear Research Laboratory (Building 22). The D and D work involved dismantling of all process equipment and associated plumbing, ductwork, drain lines, etc. After radiation surveys, floor and wall coverings, suspended ceilings, room partitions, pipe, conduit and electrical gear were taken down as necessary. In addition, underground sewers were excavated. The grounds around each facility were also thoroughly surveyed. Contaminated materials and soil were packaged and shipped to a low-level waste burial site, while nonactive debris was buried in the ANL landfill. Clean, reusable items were saved, and clean metal scrap was sold for salvage. After the decommissioning work, each building was torn down and the site relandscaped. The project was completed in 1985, ahead of schedule, with substantial savings

  1. Bioconversion of potatoes residues or surplus potatoes to ethanol under non axenic conditions [abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamaudière, S.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofuels can offer an alternative to fossil fuels in the context of climate change and fossil reserves depletion. With 3 million tons of potatoes produced in 2007 and a high yield per hectare of 47 tons, Belgium is the 19th largest producer in the world. The residual and surplus potatoes could be used to produce bioethanol by fermentation. We examined the feasibility of a simple ethanol fermentation process under non axenic conditions. The substrate was pretreated with commercial amylases or by adding as low as 10% FM (Fresh Matter barley malt. It was then fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Ethanol and volatile fatty acids were analyzed by GC-FID and soluble sugars were analyzed with the Anthrone method. Starch from potatoes was hydrolyzed to soluble sugars. Hydrolysis seems to continue with 10% FM of barley malt after 48 h while the hydrolysis stopped or decelerated with commercial enzymes. With 10% FM of malt, 3 h of hydrolysis and 7 days of fermentation, an ethanol concentration of 42 g.l-1 was obtained and the conversion yield was 139 gethanol.kg-1 DM. The fermentation conversion yield of soluble sugars to ethanol was > 82% and the endogenous competition was limited. However, starch hydrolyzing seems to be a limiting step under the conditions tested. Commercial enzymes did not provide better results under the same conditions.

  2. Shortage and surplus of water in the socio-hydrological context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Schumann

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Balancing the temporal variability of hydrological conditions in the long- and short-term is often essential for steady socio-economic conditions. However, this equilibrium is very fragile in many cases. Hydrological changes or socio-economic changes may destroy it in a short time. If we extend the bearing capacity of socio-hydrological systems we increase, in many cases, the harmful consequences of failures. Here, two case studies are discussed to illustrate these problems. The limited success at adapting water resources to increasing human requirements without consideration of the natural capacities will be discussed with the example of water use for irrigation in northeastern China. The demand for a new planning approach, which is based on a combination of monitoring, model-based impact assessments and spatial distributed planning, is demonstrated. The problems of water surplus, which becomes evident during floods, are discussed in a second case study. It is shown that flood protection depends strongly on expectations of flood characteristics. The gap between the social requirement for complete flood prevention and the remaining risk of flood damage becomes obvious. An increase of risk-awareness would be more sustainable than promises of flood protection, which are the basis for technical measures to affect floods and (or to prevent flood damages.

  3. Radionuclide inventory and source terms for the surplus production reactors at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.L.; Steffes, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Radionuclide inventories have been estimated for the eight surplus production reactors at Hanford. The inventories listed represent more than 95% of the total curie burden; the remaining 5% is distributed in piping, tunnels, and various other locations within the reactor building and unaccounted for inventories within the reactors or fuel storage basins. Estimates are conservative as the methodology was designed to overestimate the radionuclide inventories in the facilities. The estimated inventory per reactor facility ranges from 13,000 curies to 58,000 curies. The majority of the present inventory consists of tritium, carbon-14, cobalt-60, and nickel-63. The information in this document combines data from past characterization efforts and introduces adjustments for added information and refinement. The inventory of hazardous materials in the reactor facilities is also addressed. This document has been revised to include new reduced inventory figures for chlorine-36. The new figures were derived from recent analysis of irradiated graphite from the 105-kW reactor

  4. What do we really know about food storage, surplus, and feasting in preagricultural communities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuijt, Ian

    2009-10-01

    In studying the origins of agriculture it is critical that we envision food production as a long-term human process that centers on the control and management of cycles of plant reproduction, including the harvesting, storage, and planting of seed stock. Drawing upon a growing body of literature illustrating multiple trajectories and pathways to agriculture, I see domestication as developing through coevolution between human beings and the resources they exploited. A more detailed understanding of the process and pathways of the origins of agriculture requires us to disentangle a complex knot of different yet interrelated factors, including food storage, food surplus, and feasting. I argue that archaeologists have yet to develop a detailed understanding of the scale and economic contributions of food storage in preagriculturalist communities. Evidence from the Near East indicates that use of storage practices increased dramatically after domestication. Analysis indicates that while there was a level of food storage in predomesticate and agricultural context, it was small scale. Finally, I argue that in some cases, discussions of food storage and feasting been reduced to claims of universal importance rather than a contextualized and detailed exploration within a specific cultural, temporal, and geographical case study.

  5. Joint Inventory, Pricing, and Advertising Decisions with Surplus and Stockout Loss Aversions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing-Bing Cao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The newsvendor models considering decision-makers’ behavioral factors remain a fruitful research area in operation management field in past decade. In this paper, we further extend the current literatures to look into joint inventory, pricing, and advertising decisions considering loss aversion effects under the newsvendor setting. The purpose is to explore how the loss aversions affect the optimal policy of order quantity, price, and advertising effort level. We present an integrated utility model to measure both economic payoff and loss aversion utility of the newsvendor, where surplus loss aversion and stockout loss aversion are first separately defined and quantified. Then, we analyze the optimal solution conditions of the integrated model under exogenous and endogenous price cases, respectively. Under exogenous price case, we find that the uniquely optimal policy exists and is presented in the closed form. Under endogenous price case, the optimal policy is determined under mild conditions; we also provide the solutions when order quantity factor or advertising effort level is fixed in this case. In addition, the sensitivity analysis shows that the loss aversions affect the optimal decisions of order quantity, price, and advertising effort level in a systematic way.

  6. Anomalous transport from holography. Part I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bu, Yanyan [Department of Physics, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev,Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Lublinsky, Michael [Department of Physics, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev,Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Physics Department, University of Connecticut,2152 Hillside Road, Storrs, CT 06269-3046 (United States); Sharon, Amir [Department of Physics, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev,Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2016-11-17

    We revisit the transport properties induced by the chiral anomaly in a charged plasma holographically dual to anomalous U(1){sub V}×U(1){sub A} Maxwell theory in Schwarzschild-AdS{sub 5}. Off-shell constitutive relations for vector and axial currents are derived using various approximations generalising most of known in the literature anomaly-induced phenomena and revealing some new ones. In a weak external field approximation, the constitutive relations have all-order derivatives resummed into six momenta-dependent transport coefficient functions: the diffusion, the electric/magnetic conductivity, and three anomaly induced functions. The latter generalise the chiral magnetic and chiral separation effects. Nonlinear transport is studied assuming presence of constant background external fields. The chiral magnetic effect, including all order nonlinearity in magnetic field, is proven to be exact when the magnetic field is the only external field that is turned on. Non-linear corrections to the constitutive relations due to electric and axial external fields are computed.

  7. Anomalous transport from holography. Pt. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bu, Yanyan; Sharon, Amir; Lublinsky, Michael

    2017-01-01

    This is a second study of chiral anomaly-induced transport within a holographic model consisting of anomalous U(1)_V x U(1)_A Maxwell theory in Schwarzschild-AdS_5 spacetime. In the first part, chiral magnetic/separation effects (CME/CSE) are considered in the presence of a static spatially inhomogeneous external magnetic field. Gradient corrections to CME/CSE are analytically evaluated up to third order in the derivative expansion. Some of the third order gradient corrections lead to an anomaly-induced negative B"2-correction to the diffusion constant. We also find modifications to the chiral magnetic wave nonlinear in B. In the second part, we focus on the experimentally interesting case of the axial chemical potential being induced dynamically by a constant magnetic and time-dependent electric fields. Constitutive relations for the vector/axial currents are computed employing two different approximations: (a) derivative expansion (up to third order) but fully nonlinear in the external fields, and (b) weak electric field limit but resuming all orders in the derivative expansion. A non-vanishing nonlinear axial current (CSE) is found in the first case. The dependence on magnetic field and frequency of linear transport coefficient functions is explored in the second. (orig.)

  8. Anomalous water diffusion in salt solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yun; Hassanali, Ali A.; Parrinello, Michele

    2014-01-01

    The dynamics of water exhibits anomalous behavior in the presence of different electrolytes. Recent experiments [Kim JS, Wu Z, Morrow AR, Yethiraj A, Yethiraj A (2012) J Phys Chem B 116(39):12007–12013] have found that the self-diffusion of water can either be enhanced or suppressed around CsI and NaCl, respectively, relative to that of neat water. Here we show that unlike classical empirical potentials, ab initio molecular dynamics simulations successfully reproduce the qualitative trends observed experimentally. These types of phenomena have often been rationalized in terms of the “structure-making” or “structure-breaking” effects of different ions on the solvent, although the microscopic origins of these features have remained elusive. Rather than disrupting the network in a significant manner, the electrolytes studied here cause rather subtle changes in both structural and dynamical properties of water. In particular, we show that water in the ab initio molecular dynamics simulations is characterized by dynamic heterogeneity, which turns out to be critical in reproducing the experimental trends. PMID:24522111

  9. Diagnosing Anomalous Network Performance with Confidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Settlemyer, Bradley W [ORNL; Hodson, Stephen W [ORNL; Kuehn, Jeffery A [ORNL; Poole, Stephen W [ORNL

    2011-04-01

    Variability in network performance is a major obstacle in effectively analyzing the throughput of modern high performance computer systems. High performance interconnec- tion networks offer excellent best-case network latencies; how- ever, highly parallel applications running on parallel machines typically require consistently high levels of performance to adequately leverage the massive amounts of available computing power. Performance analysts have usually quantified network performance using traditional summary statistics that assume the observational data is sampled from a normal distribution. In our examinations of network performance, we have found this method of analysis often provides too little data to under- stand anomalous network performance. Our tool, Confidence, instead uses an empirically derived probability distribution to characterize network performance. In this paper we describe several instances where the Confidence toolkit allowed us to understand and diagnose network performance anomalies that we could not adequately explore with the simple summary statis- tics provided by traditional measurement tools. In particular, we examine a multi-modal performance scenario encountered with an Infiniband interconnection network and we explore the performance repeatability on the custom Cray SeaStar2 interconnection network after a set of software and driver updates.

  10. Anomalous transport from holography. Pt. II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bu, Yanyan; Sharon, Amir [Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Department of Physics, Beersheba (Israel); Lublinsky, Michael [Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Department of Physics, Beersheba (Israel); University of Connecticut, Physics Department, Storrs, CT (United States)

    2017-03-15

    This is a second study of chiral anomaly-induced transport within a holographic model consisting of anomalous U(1){sub V} x U(1){sub A} Maxwell theory in Schwarzschild-AdS{sub 5} spacetime. In the first part, chiral magnetic/separation effects (CME/CSE) are considered in the presence of a static spatially inhomogeneous external magnetic field. Gradient corrections to CME/CSE are analytically evaluated up to third order in the derivative expansion. Some of the third order gradient corrections lead to an anomaly-induced negative B{sup 2}-correction to the diffusion constant. We also find modifications to the chiral magnetic wave nonlinear in B. In the second part, we focus on the experimentally interesting case of the axial chemical potential being induced dynamically by a constant magnetic and time-dependent electric fields. Constitutive relations for the vector/axial currents are computed employing two different approximations: (a) derivative expansion (up to third order) but fully nonlinear in the external fields, and (b) weak electric field limit but resuming all orders in the derivative expansion. A non-vanishing nonlinear axial current (CSE) is found in the first case. The dependence on magnetic field and frequency of linear transport coefficient functions is explored in the second. (orig.)

  11. Anomalous Anticipatory Responses in Networked Random Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, Roger D.; Bancel, Peter A.

    2006-01-01

    We examine an 8-year archive of synchronized, parallel time series of random data from a world spanning network of physical random event generators (REGs). The archive is a publicly accessible matrix of normally distributed 200-bit sums recorded at 1 Hz which extends from August 1998 to the present. The primary question is whether these data show non-random structure associated with major events such as natural or man-made disasters, terrible accidents, or grand celebrations. Secondarily, we examine the time course of apparently correlated responses. Statistical analyses of the data reveal consistent evidence that events which strongly affect people engender small but significant effects. These include suggestions of anticipatory responses in some cases, leading to a series of specialized analyses to assess possible non-random structure preceding precisely timed events. A focused examination of data collected around the time of earthquakes with Richter magnitude 6 and greater reveals non-random structure with a number of intriguing, potentially important features. Anomalous effects in the REG data are seen only when the corresponding earthquakes occur in populated areas. No structure is found if they occur in the oceans. We infer that an important contributor to the effect is the relevance of the earthquake to humans. Epoch averaging reveals evidence for changes in the data some hours prior to the main temblor, suggestive of reverse causation

  12. Drift wave vortices and anomalous transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, W.

    1990-01-01

    Many plasma equations for drift waves and other modes possess vortex solutions, so it is important to consider the transport associated with vortex structures and their mutual interactions. Vortex structures occur when the amplitude of the fluctuation is sufficient to trap and circulate plasma around the vortex in one wave period. The vortex contribution of the diffusion of the passively convected scalar field was calculated. It was found that the field can be represented by the superposition of vortices and wave fluctuation components. For transport the computer solutions for the vortex-vortex collisions with various impact parameters while carrying along the passively convected scalar thermodynamic field were used. As the result, the inelastic collisions with b≅r 0 ≅1/k x cross-section σ(b)≅b exp(-b/r 0 )≅r 0 give the strongest transport. An example is shown in figure. As the final result, the anomalous diffusion D was derived in dimensional form. (M.T.)

  13. Anomalous Solubility Behavior of Several Acidic Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Avdeef

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The “anomalous solubility behavior at higher pH values” of several acidic drugs originally studied by Higuchi et al. in 1953 [1], but hitherto not fully rationalized, has been re-analyzed using a novel solubility-pH analysis computer program, pDISOL-XTM. The program internally derives implicit solubility equations, given a set of proposed equilibria and constants (iteratively refined by weighted nonlinear regression, and does not require explicit Henderson-Hasselbalch equations. The re-analyzed original barbital, phenobarbital, oxytetracycline, and sulfathiazole solubility-pH data of Higuchi et al. is consistent with the presence of dimers in saturated solutions. In the case of barbital, phenobarbital and sulfathiazole, anionic dimers, reaching peak concentrations near pH 8. However, oxytetracycline indicated a pronounced tendency to form a cationic dimer, peaking near pH 2. Under the conditions of the original study, only barbital indicated a slight tendency to form a salt precipitate at pH > 6.8, with a highly unusual stoichiometry (consistent with a slope of 0.55 in the log S – pH plot: K+ + A2H- + 3HA D KA5H4(s. Thus the “anomaly” in the Higuchi data can be rationalized by invoking specific aggregated species.

  14. Mechanisms of anomalous compressibility of vitreous silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Alisha N.; Lesher, Charles E.; Jacobsen, Steven D.; Sen, Sabyasachi

    2014-11-01

    The anomalous compressibility of vitreous silica has been known for nearly a century, but the mechanisms responsible for it remain poorly understood. Using GHz-ultrasonic interferometry, we measured longitudinal and transverse acoustic wave travel times at pressures up to 5 GPa in vitreous silica with fictive temperatures (Tf) ranging between 985 °C and 1500 °C. The maximum in ultrasonic wave travel times-corresponding to a minimum in acoustic velocities-shifts to higher pressure with increasing Tf for both acoustic waves, with complete reversibility below 5 GPa. These relationships reflect polyamorphism in the supercooled liquid, which results in a glassy state possessing different proportions of domains of high- and low-density amorphous phases (HDA and LDA, respectively). The relative proportion of HDA and LDA is set at Tf and remains fixed on compression below the permanent densification pressure. The bulk material exhibits compression behavior systematically dependent on synthesis conditions that arise from the presence of floppy modes in a mixture of HDA and LDA domains.

  15. Are anomalously short tunnelling times measurable?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado, V.; Muga, J.G.

    1996-01-01

    Low and Mende have analyzed the conditions that would make possible an actual measurement of an anomalously short traversal time through a potential barrier concluding that such a measurement cannot be made because it is not possible to describe the tunnelling of a wave packet initially close to the barrier by the open-quote open-quote usual wave packet space time analysis close-quote close-quote. We complement this work in several ways: It is argued that the described failure of the usual formalism occurs under a set of too restrictive conditions, some of them not physically motivated, so it does not necessarily imply the impossibility of such a measurement. However, by retaining only conditions well motivated on physical grounds we have performed a systematic numerical check which shows that the conclusion by Low and Mende is indeed generally valid. It is shown that, as speculated by Low and Mende, the process is dominated by over the barrier transmission. Copyright copyright 1996 Academic Press, Inc

  16. Anomalous transport from holography. Part I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bu, Yanyan; Lublinsky, Michael; Sharon, Amir

    2016-01-01

    We revisit the transport properties induced by the chiral anomaly in a charged plasma holographically dual to anomalous U(1)_V×U(1)_A Maxwell theory in Schwarzschild-AdS_5. Off-shell constitutive relations for vector and axial currents are derived using various approximations generalising most of known in the literature anomaly-induced phenomena and revealing some new ones. In a weak external field approximation, the constitutive relations have all-order derivatives resummed into six momenta-dependent transport coefficient functions: the diffusion, the electric/magnetic conductivity, and three anomaly induced functions. The latter generalise the chiral magnetic and chiral separation effects. Nonlinear transport is studied assuming presence of constant background external fields. The chiral magnetic effect, including all order nonlinearity in magnetic field, is proven to be exact when the magnetic field is the only external field that is turned on. Non-linear corrections to the constitutive relations due to electric and axial external fields are computed.

  17. Efficient anomalous reflection through near-field interactions in metasurfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalabi, H.; Ra'di, Y.; Sounas, D. L.; Alù, A.

    2017-08-01

    Gradient metasurfaces have been extensively used in the past few years for advanced wave manipulation over a thin surface. These metasurfaces have been mostly designed based on the generalized laws of reflection and refraction. However, it was recently revealed that metasurfaces based on this approach tend to suffer from inefficiencies and complex design requirements. We have recently proposed a different approach to the problem of efficient beam steering using a surface, based on bianisotropic particles in a periodic array. Here, we show highly efficient reflective metasurfaces formed by pairs of isotropic dielectric rods, which can offer asymmetrical scattering of normally incident beams with unitary efficiency. Our theory shows that moderately broadband anomalous reflection can be achieved with suitably designed periodic arrays of isotropic nanoparticles. We also demonstrate practical designs using TiO2 cylindrical nanorods to deflect normally incident light toward a desired direction. The proposed structures may pave the way to a broader range of light management opportunities, with applications in energy harvesting, signaling, and communications.

  18. Anomalous pH-Dependent Nanofluidic Salinity Gradient Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Li-Hsien; Chen, Fu; Chiou, Yu-Ting; Su, Yen-Shao

    2017-12-01

    Previous studies on nanofluidic salinity gradient power (NSGP), where energy associated with the salinity gradient can be harvested with ion-selective nanopores, all suggest that nanofluidic devices having higher surface charge density should have higher performance, including osmotic power and conversion efficiency. In this manuscript, this viewpoint is challenged and anomalous counterintuitive pH-dependent NSGP behaviors are reported. For example, with equal pH deviation from its isoelectric point (IEP), the nanopore at pH IEP is shown to have smaller surface charge density but remarkably higher NSGP performance than that at pH > IEP. Moreover, for sufficiently low pH, the NSGP performance decreases with lowering pH (increasing nanopore charge density). As a result, a maximum osmotic power density as high as 5.85 kW m -2 can be generated along with a conversion efficiency of 26.3% achieved for a single alumina nanopore at pH 3.5 under a 1000-fold concentration ratio. Using the rigorous model with considering the surface equilibrium reactions on the pore wall, it is proved that these counterintuitive surface-charge-dependent NSGP behaviors result from the pH-dependent ion concentration polarization effect, which yields the degradation in effective concentration ratio across the nanopore. These findings provide significant insight for the design of next-generation, high-performance NSGP devices. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Physics basis of Multi-Mode anomalous transport module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafiq, T.; Kritz, A. H.; Luo, L. [Department of Physics, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015 (United States); Weiland, J. [Departments of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology and Euratom-VR Assoc., S41296 Gothenburg (Sweden); Pankin, A. Y. [Tech-X Corporation, Boulder, Colorado (United States)

    2013-03-15

    The derivation of Multi-Mode anomalous transport module version 8.1 (MMM8.1) is presented. The MMM8.1 module is advanced, relative to MMM7.1, by the inclusion of peeling modes, dependence of turbulence correlation length on flow shear, electromagnetic effects in the toroidal momentum diffusivity, and the option to compute poloidal momentum diffusivity. The MMM8.1 model includes a model for ion temperature gradient, trapped electron, kinetic ballooning, peeling, collisionless and collision dominated magnetohydrodynamics modes as well as model for electron temperature gradient modes, and a model for drift resistive inertial ballooning modes. In the derivation of the MMM8.1 module, effects of collisions, fast ion and impurity dilution, non-circular flux surfaces, finite beta, and Shafranov shift are included. The MMM8.1 is used to compute thermal, particle, toroidal, and poloidal angular momentum transports. The fluid approach which underlies the derivation of MMM8.1 is expected to reliably predict, on an energy transport time scale, the evolution of temperature, density, and momentum profiles in plasma discharges for a wide range of plasma conditions.

  20. Partial anomalous pulmonary venous return in patients with pulmonary hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Won-kyung; Au, Virginia; Rose, Anand

    2012-01-01

    Anomalous pulmonary venous return is an uncommon congenital malformation, and may be partial or total. Partial anomalous pulmonary venous return (PAPVR) is more common than total anomalous pulmonary venous return, and is often associated with other congenital cardiac anomalies. Whilst many patients with PAPVR remain asymptomatic, some may present in later age with symptoms related to left-to-right shunt, right heart failure and pulmonary hypertension. We report two cases of PAPVR detected on Computed Tomography Pulmonary Angiogram (CTPA) for the work up of pulmonary hypertension. The cases demonstrate that, although uncommon, partial anomalous pulmonary venous return can be a contributing factor to pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary veins should be carefully examined when reading a CTPA study.

  1. The relation between anomalous magnetic moment and axial anomaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teryaev, O.V.

    1990-12-01

    The conservation of total angular momentum of spinor particle leads to a simple relation between the famous Schwinger and Adler coefficients determining axial anomaly and anomalous magnetic moment, respectively. (author). 8 refs, 1 fig

  2. Anomalous superconductivity in black phosphorus under high pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, H.; Tachikawa, K.

    1984-01-01

    Pressure induced superconductivity in single crystals of black phosphorus has been studied. Maximum onset Tsub(c) was near 13 K. The anomalous superconductivity may be explained in terms of excitonic mechanism. (author)

  3. Anomalous magnon Nernst effect of topological magnonic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X. S.; Wang, X. R.

    2018-05-01

    The magnon transport driven by a thermal gradient in a perpendicularly magnetized honeycomb lattice is studied. The system with the nearest-neighbor pseudodipolar interaction and the next-nearest-neighbor Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction has various topologically nontrivial phases. When an in-plane thermal gradient is applied, a transverse in-plane magnon current is generated. This phenomenon is termed as the anomalous magnon Nernst effect that closely resembles the anomalous Nernst effect for an electronic system. The anomalous magnon Nernst coefficient and its sign are determined by the magnon Berry curvature distributions in the momentum space and magnon populations in the magnon bands. We predict a temperature-induced sign reversal in anomalous magnon Nernst effect under certain conditions.

  4. Anomalous scaling of a scalar field advected by turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraichnan, R.H. [Robert H. Kraichnan, Inc., Santa Fe, NM (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Recent work leading to deduction of anomalous scaling exponents for the inertial range of an advected passive field from the equations of motion is reviewed. Implications for other turbulence problems are discussed.

  5. Anomalous transient behavior from an inhomogeneous initial optical vortex density

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, FS

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available . However, the decay curves contain oscillatory features that are counterintuitive: for a short while, the inhomogeneity actually increases. The author provides numerical simulations and analytic calculations to study the appearance of the anomalous features...

  6. Anomalous dynamics of capillary rise in porous media

    KAUST Repository

    Shikhmurzaev, Yulii D.; Sprittles, James E.

    2012-01-01

    The anomalous dynamics of capillary rise in a porous medium discovered experimentally more than a decade ago is described. The developed theory is based on considering the principal modes of motion of the menisci that collectively form the wetting

  7. Surplus, Scarcity and Soil Fertility in Pre-Industrial Austrian Agriculture—The Sustainability Costs of Inequality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Gizicki-Neundlinger

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper takes a Long-Term Socio-Ecological Research (LTSER perspective to integrate important aspects of social inequality into Socio-Ecological Metabolism (SEM research. SEM has dealt with biophysical features of pre-industrial agricultural systems from a largely apolitical perspective, neglecting social relations and conditions of peasant production and reproduction. One of the politically and economically most important manorial systems in Early Modern Austria (Grundherrschaft Grafenegg serves as a case study to reconstruct the unequal distribution of central resources between ruling landlords and subjected peasants. We show that peasant land use systems generated small surpluses only, whereas landlords enjoyed significant economies of scale. Furthermore, we explore what these conditions of landlord surplus and peasant scarcity implied for their respective agro-ecological sustainability. Finally, we argue that within pre-industrial agrarian systems sustainability costs of inequality were severely limiting margins for agricultural intensification and growth of peasant economies.

  8. Energy-WEB. Greenhouse sector in a sustainable regional energy network. Starting paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Liere, J.; Van Wunnik, A.W.M.; Van der Burgt, M.J.; Van Oosten, H.J.

    2004-08-01

    The horticulture sector can make use of surplus heat, produced within the greenhouses, and supply the heat to several energy consuming parties (other greenhouse businesses, buildings, etc.). Thus, a local or regional web of suppliers and consumers starts. This report is a starting memo which should inspire the debate on a sustainable energy supply for the greenhouse sector in the Netherlands [nl

  9. Effect of anomalous resistivity on the dynamics of plasma switching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kingsep, A [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Munier, A [Centre d` Etudes Limeil-Vaneton, Villeneuve St. Georges (France)

    1997-12-31

    Some of the conditions for electron MHD are recollected, and it is shown how this leads to anomalous resistivity which may play an important role in the dynamics of POS. It has been shown that not only the order of value of the resistance of the plasma-filled diode but rather basic scalings have to be changed in the regime of essential anomalous resistivity. (author). 11 refs.

  10. Anomalous magnon Nernst effect of topological magnonic materials

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, X. S.; Wang, X. R.

    2017-01-01

    The magnon transport driven by thermal gradient in a perpendicularly magnetized honeycomb lattice is studied. The system with the nearest-neighbor pseudodipolar interaction and the next-nearest-neighbor Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI) has various topologically nontrivial phases. When an in-plane thermal gradient is applied, a transverse in-plane magnon current is generated. This phenomenon is termed as the anomalous magnon Nernst effect that closely resembles the anomalous Nernst effe...

  11. Four-fermi anomalous dimension with adjoint fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Del Debbio, Luigi; Ruano, Carlos Pena

    2014-01-01

    The four-fermi interaction can play an important role in models of strong dynamical EW sym- metry breaking if the anomalous dimensions of the four-fermi operators become large in the IR. We discuss a number of issues that are relevant for the nonperturbative computation of the four- fermi anomalous dimensions for the SU(2) gauge theory with two flavors of Dirac fermions in the adjoint representation, using a Schrödinger functional formalism.

  12. chi2 analyses of data on relativistic anomalous projectile fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacGregor, M.H.

    1983-01-01

    Nuclear emulsion data from four experimental groups are now available on the interactions of p relativistic anomalous projectile fragments. In the present paper we systematically combine these data together to form several different data sets, which are used to carry out a series of chi 2 parameter studies. The anomalous particle fragment component in the relativistic nuclear beam has been characterized previously in terms of the parameters f and lambda, where f is the anomalous particle fragment fraction in the secondary beam and lambda is the average anomalous particle fragment mean free path in the emulsion. We extend this result here by setting lambda = lambda 0 (2Z)/sup -beta/, where Z is the nuclear charge of the anomalous particle fragment, so that we can investigate the Z dependence of lambda. We also investigate isotopic effects in the equations used to describe ''normal'' secondary beam nuclei, and we examine the problem of optimizing the bin sizes used to represent the data. A series of (f,lambda 0 ,#betta#) parameter studies leads to the conclusion that the ''anomalous particle fragment effect'' exists for all Z values in the range Z = 3--26 included in the chi 2 analyses. These chi 2 analyses also indicate that #betta#>0, so that the anomalous particle fragment lambda's are Z dependent, but the data are not sufficient to pin down a definite value of #betta#. In order to assess the physical content of these results, we define a domain within which nuclear mean free paths can be accounted for by conventional nuclear forces (but not necessarily by conventional nuclear structure). The Z-dependent anomalous particle fragment mean free paths lie approximately on the boundary of this domain

  13. Effects of whaling on the structure of the Southern Ocean food web: insights on the "krill surplus" from ecosystem modelling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymon Surma

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the ecological plausibility of the "krill surplus" hypothesis and the effects of whaling on the Southern Ocean food web using mass-balance ecosystem modelling. The depletion trajectory and unexploited biomass of each rorqual population in the Antarctic was reconstructed using yearly catch records and a set of species-specific surplus production models. The resulting estimates of the unexploited biomass of Antarctic rorquals were used to construct an Ecopath model of the Southern Ocean food web existing in 1900. The rorqual depletion trajectory was then used in an Ecosim scenario to drive rorqual biomasses and examine the "krill surplus" phenomenon and whaling effects on the food web in the years 1900-2008. An additional suite of Ecosim scenarios reflecting several hypothetical trends in Southern Ocean primary productivity were employed to examine the effect of bottom-up forcing on the documented krill biomass trend. The output of the Ecosim scenarios indicated that while the "krill surplus" hypothesis is a plausible explanation of the biomass trends observed in some penguin and pinniped species in the mid-20th century, the excess krill biomass was most likely eliminated by a rapid decline in primary productivity in the years 1975-1995. Our findings suggest that changes in physical conditions in the Southern Ocean during this time period could have eliminated the ecological effects of rorqual depletion, although the mechanism responsible is currently unknown. Furthermore, a decline in iron bioavailability due to rorqual depletion may have contributed to the rapid decline in overall Southern Ocean productivity during the last quarter of the 20th century. The results of this study underscore the need for further research on historical changes in the roles of top-down and bottom-up forcing in structuring the Southern Ocean food web.

  14. Short term load forecasting of anomalous load using hybrid soft computing methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasyid, S. A.; Abdullah, A. G.; Mulyadi, Y.

    2016-04-01

    Load forecast accuracy will have an impact on the generation cost is more economical. The use of electrical energy by consumers on holiday, show the tendency of the load patterns are not identical, it is different from the pattern of the load on a normal day. It is then defined as a anomalous load. In this paper, the method of hybrid ANN-Particle Swarm proposed to improve the accuracy of anomalous load forecasting that often occur on holidays. The proposed methodology has been used to forecast the half-hourly electricity demand for power systems in the Indonesia National Electricity Market in West Java region. Experiments were conducted by testing various of learning rate and learning data input. Performance of this methodology will be validated with real data from the national of electricity company. The result of observations show that the proposed formula is very effective to short-term load forecasting in the case of anomalous load. Hybrid ANN-Swarm Particle relatively simple and easy as a analysis tool by engineers.

  15. On dark matter interactions with the Standard Model through an anomalous Z'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Ahmed; Katz, Andrey; Racco, Davide

    2017-10-01

    We study electroweak scale Dark Matter (DM) whose interactions with baryonic matter are mediated by a heavy anomalous Z'. We emphasize that when the DM is a Majorana particle, its low-velocity annihilations are dominated by loop suppressed annihilations into the gauge bosons, rather than by p-wave or chirally suppressed annihilations into the SM fermions. Because the Z ' is anomalous, these kinds of DM models can be realized only as effective field theories (EFTs) with a well-defined cutoff, where heavy spectator fermions restore gauge invariance at high energies. We formulate these EFTs, estimate their cutoff and properly take into account the effect of the Chern-Simons terms one obtains after the spectator fermions are integrated out. We find that, while for light DM collider and direct detection experiments usually provide the strongest bounds, the bounds at higher masses are heavily dominated by indirect detection experiments, due to strong annihilation into W + W -, ZZ, Zγ and possibly into gg and γγ. We emphasize that these annihilation channels are generically significant because of the structure of the EFT, and therefore these models are prone to strong indirect detection constraints. Even though we focus on selected Z' models for illustrative purposes, our setup is completely generic and can be used for analyzing the predictions of any anomalous Z'-mediated DM model with arbitrary charges.

  16. Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meister, F.; Ott, F.

    2002-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of the current energy economy in Austria. The Austrian political aims of sustainable development and climate protection imply a reorientation of the Austrian energy policy as a whole. Energy consumption trends (1993-1998), final energy consumption by energy carrier (indexed data 1993-1999), comparative analysis of useful energy demand (1993 and 1999) and final energy consumption of renewable energy sources by sector (1996-1999) in Austria are given. The necessary measures to be taken in order to reduce the energy demand and increased the use of renewable energy are briefly mentioned. Figs. 5. (nevyjel)

  17. Dislocation structures and anomalous flow in L12 compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimiduk, D. M.

    1991-06-01

    The theory of the anomalous flow behavior of LI2 compounds has developed over the last 30 years. This theory has a foundation in the early estimates of the crystallographic anisotropy of antiphase boundary (APB) energy in these compounds. In spite of this critical aspect of the theory, it is only in the last five years that electron microscopy has been employed to quantify the APB energies and to determine the detailed nature of dislocation structures at each stage of deformation. The recent studies of several research groups have provided essentially consistent new details about the nature of dislocations in Ni3AI and a few other LI2 compounds which exhibit anomalous flow behavior. These studies have introduced several new concepts for the controlling dislocation mechanisms. Additionally, these studies have shown that in Ni3AI, the APB energies have only small variations in magnitude with change of the APB plane (they are nearly isotropic), are relatively insensitive to changes in solute content, and the anisotropy ratio does not correlate with alloy strength. The present manuscript provides a critical review of the new transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results along with the new concepts for the mechanism of anomalous flow. Inconsistencies and deficiencies within these new concepts are identified and discussed. The collective set of electron-microscopy results is discussed within the context of both the mechanical behavior of LI2 compounds and the Greenberg and Paidar, Pope and Vitek (PPV) models for anomalous flow. Conceptual consistency with these models can only be constructed if the Kear-Wilsdorf (K-W) configurations are treated as an irreversible work hardening or relaxation artifact and, specific details of these two models cannot be shown by electron microscopy. Alternatively, the structural features recently revealed by electron microscopy have not been assembled into a self-consistent model for yielding which fully addresses the mechanical behavior

  18. A Hybrid Energy Sharing Framework for Green Cellular Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Farooq, Muhammad Junaid; Ghazzai, Hakim; Kadri, Abdullah; Elsawy, Hesham; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2016-01-01

    traffic at each base station (BS), a surplus or shortfall of energy may occur at any given time. To increase energy selfreliance and minimize the network’s energy cost, the operator needs to efficiently exploit the RE generated across all BSs

  19. Symmetrized local co-registration optimization for anomalous change detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohlberg, Brendt E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Theiler, James P [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The goal of anomalous change detection (ACD) is to identify what unusual changes have occurred in a scene, based on two images of the scene taken at different times and under different conditions. The actual anomalous changes need to be distinguished from the incidental differences that occur throughout the imagery, and one of the most common and confounding of these incidental differences is due to the misregistration of the images, due to limitations of the registration pre-processing applied to the image pair. We propose a general method to compensate for residual misregistration in any ACD algorithm which constructs an estimate of the degree of 'anomalousness' for every pixel in the image pair. The method computes a modified misregistration-insensitive anomalousness by making local re-registration adjustments to minimize the local anomalousness. In this paper we describe a symmetrized version of our initial algorithm, and find significant performance improvements in the anomalous change detection ROC curves for a number of real and synthetic data sets.

  20. 77 FR 11515 - Application to Export Electric Energy; NRG Power Marketing LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY [OE Docket No. EA-384] Application to Export Electric Energy; NRG Power... electric energy from the United States to Mexico pursuant to section 202(e) of the Federal Power Act (FPA... requested. The electric energy that NRGPML proposes to export to Mexico would be surplus energy purchased...