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Sample records for anomalous skin effect

  1. Predicting molecular scale skin-effect in electrochemical impedance due to anomalous subdiffusion mediated adsorption phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushagra, Arindam

    2016-02-01

    Anomalous subdiffusion governs the processes which are not energetically driven, on a molecular scale. This paper proposes a model to predict the response of electrochemical impedance due to such diffusion process. Previous works considered the use of fractional calculus to predict the impedance behaviour in response to the anomalous diffusion. Here, we have developed an expression which predicts the skin-effect, marked by an increase in the impedance with increasing frequency, in this regime. Negative inductances have also been predicted as a consequence of the inertial response of adsorbed species upon application of frequency-mediated perturbations. It might help the researchers in the fields of impedimetric sensors to choose the working frequency and those working in the field of batteries to choose the parameters, likewise. This work would shed some light into the molecular mechanisms governing the impedance when exposed to frequency-based perturbations like electromagnetic waves (microwaves to ionizing radiations) and in charge storage devices like batteries etc.

  2. Investigation of surface resistance of copper in classical and anomalous skin-effect region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutovoj, V.A.; Egorov, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    The surface resistance of copper in classical and anomalous skin-effect region has been investigated, and the surface resistance improvement factor equal to the ratio of the surface resistance of copper at room temperature to that of helium temperature, depending on the electromagnetic field frequency, has been determined. The improvement factor has been shown to have inverse power law dependence on frequency. The frequencies at which the improvement factor of copper equals 10 have been determined. It has been found that the quality factor of a resonance high-frequency system made of copper, operating at temperature T ≥ 4.2 K can be increased 10 times or more as against a quality factor of a resonance high-frequency system operating at room temperature

  3. Optical properties of metals: Infrared emissivity in the anomalous skin effect spectral region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Echániz, T. [Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnología, UPV/EHU, Sarriena s/n, Leioa 48940 (Spain); Pérez-Sáez, R. B., E-mail: raul.perez@ehu.es; Tello, M. J. [Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnología, UPV/EHU, Sarriena s/n, Leioa 48940 (Spain); Instituto de Síntesis y Estudio de Materiales, Universidad del País Vasco, Apdo. 644, Bilbao 48080 (Spain)

    2014-09-07

    When the penetration depth of an electromagnetic wave in a metal is similar to the mean free path of the conduction electrons, the Drude classical theory is no longer satisfied and the skin effect becomes anomalous. Physical parameters of this theory for twelve metals were calculated and analyzed. The theory predicts an emissivity peak ε{sub peak} at room temperature in the mid-infrared for smooth surface metals that moves towards larger wavelengths as temperature decreases. Furthermore, the theory states that ε{sub peak} increases with the emission angle but its position, λ{sub peak}, is constant. Copper directional emissivity measurements as well as emissivity obtained using optical constants data confirm the predictions of the theory. Considering the relationship between the specularity parameter p and the sample roughness, it is concluded that p is not the simple parameter it is usually assumed to be. Quantitative comparison between experimental data and theoretical predictions shows that the specularity parameter can be equal to one for roughness values larger than those predicted. An exhaustive analysis of the experimental optical parameters shows signs of a reflectance broad peak in Cu, Al, Au, and Mo around the wavelength predicted by the theory for p = 1.

  4. Anomalous Hall effect

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nagaosa, N.; Sinova, Jairo; Onoda, S.; MacDonald, A. H.; Ong, N. P.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 2 (2010), s. 1539-1592 ISSN 0034-6861 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : anomalous Hall effect * spintronics Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 51.695, year: 2010

  5. Anomalous Hall effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaosa, Naoto; Sinova, Jairo; Onoda, Shigeki; MacDonald, A. H.; Ong, N. P.

    2010-04-01

    The anomalous Hall effect (AHE) occurs in solids with broken time-reversal symmetry, typically in a ferromagnetic phase, as a consequence of spin-orbit coupling. Experimental and theoretical studies of the AHE are reviewed, focusing on recent developments that have provided a more complete framework for understanding this subtle phenomenon and have, in many instances, replaced controversy by clarity. Synergy between experimental and theoretical works, both playing a crucial role, has been at the heart of these advances. On the theoretical front, the adoption of the Berry-phase concepts has established a link between the AHE and the topological nature of the Hall currents. On the experimental front, new experimental studies of the AHE in transition metals, transition-metal oxides, spinels, pyrochlores, and metallic dilute magnetic semiconductors have established systematic trends. These two developments, in concert with first-principles electronic structure calculations, strongly favor the dominance of an intrinsic Berry-phase-related AHE mechanism in metallic ferromagnets with moderate conductivity. The intrinsic AHE can be expressed in terms of the Berry-phase curvatures and it is therefore an intrinsic quantum-mechanical property of a perfect crystal. An extrinsic mechanism, skew scattering from disorder, tends to dominate the AHE in highly conductive ferromagnets. The full modern semiclassical treatment of the AHE is reviewed which incorporates an anomalous contribution to wave-packet group velocity due to momentum-space Berry curvatures and correctly combines the roles of intrinsic and extrinsic (skew-scattering and side-jump) scattering-related mechanisms. In addition, more rigorous quantum-mechanical treatments based on the Kubo and Keldysh formalisms are reviewed, taking into account multiband effects, and demonstrate the equivalence of all three linear response theories in the metallic regime. Building on results from recent experiment and theory, a

  6. Magnetic effects in anomalous dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blume, M.

    1992-01-01

    Spectacular enhancements of magnetic x-ray scattering have been predicted and observed experimentally. These effects are the result of resonant phenomena closely related to anomalous dispersion, and they are strongest at near-edge resonances. The theory of these resonances will be developed with particular attention to the symmetry properties of the scatterer. While the phenomena to be discussed concern magnetic properties the transitions are electric dipole or electric quadrupole in character and represent a subset of the usual anomalous dispersion phenomena. The polarization dependence of the scattering is also considered, and the polarization dependence for magnetic effects is related to that for charge scattering and to Templeton type anisotropic polarization phenomena. It has been found that the strongest effects occur in rare-earths and in actinides for M shell edges. In addition to the scattering properties the theory is applicable to ''forward scattering'' properties such as the Faraday effect and circular dichroism

  7. Anomalous Hall effect in polycrystalline Ni films

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Zaibing

    2012-02-01

    We systematically studied the anomalous Hall effect in a series of polycrystalline Ni films with thickness ranging from 4 to 200 nm. It is found that both the longitudinal and anomalous Hall resistivity increased greatly as film thickness decreased. This enhancement should be related to the surface scattering. In the ultrathin films (46 nm thick), weak localization corrections to anomalous Hall conductivity were studied. The granular model, taking into account the dominated intergranular tunneling, has been employed to explain this phenomenon, which can explain the weak dependence of anomalous Hall resistivity on longitudinal resistivity as well. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Anomalous effects of dense matter under rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xu-Guang; Nishimura, Kentaro; Yamamoto, Naoki

    2018-02-01

    We study the anomaly induced effects of dense baryonic matter under rotation. We derive the anomalous terms that account for the chiral vortical effect in the low-energy effective theory for light Nambu-Goldstone modes. The anomalous terms lead to new physical consequences, such as the anomalous Hall energy current and spontaneous generation of angular momentum in a magnetic field (or spontaneous magnetization by rotation). In particular, we show that, due to the presence of such anomalous terms, the ground state of the quantum chromodynamics (QCD) under sufficiently fast rotation becomes the "chiral soliton lattice" of neutral pions that has lower energy than the QCD vacuum and nuclear matter. We briefly discuss the possible realization of the chiral soliton lattice induced by a fast rotation in noncentral heavy ion collisions.

  9. Tunneling Anomalous and Spin Hall Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos-Abiague, A; Fabian, J

    2015-07-31

    We predict, theoretically, the existence of the anomalous Hall effect when a tunneling current flows through a tunnel junction in which only one of the electrodes is magnetic. The interfacial spin-orbit coupling present in the barrier region induces a spin-dependent momentum filtering in the directions perpendicular to the tunneling current, resulting in a skew tunneling even in the absence of impurities. This produces an anomalous Hall conductance and spin Hall currents in the nonmagnetic electrode when a bias voltage is applied across the tunneling heterojunction. If the barrier is composed of a noncentrosymmetric material, the anomalous Hall conductance and spin Hall currents become anisotropic with respect to both the magnetization and crystallographic directions, allowing us to separate this interfacial phenomenon from the bulk anomalous and spin Hall contributions. The proposed effect should be useful for proving and quantifying the interfacial spin-orbit fields in metallic and metal-semiconductor systems.

  10. Intrinsic anomalous Hall effect and local polarizabilities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Středa, Pavel; Jonckheere, T.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 11 (2010), 113303/1-113303/4 ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/08/0551 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : orbital polarization momentum * Berry phase correction * anomalous Hall effect Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.772, year: 2010

  11. Anomalous Hall effect in disordered multiband metals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kovalev, A.A.; Sinova, Jairo; Tserkovnyak, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 105, č. 3 (2010), 036601/1-036601/4 ISSN 0031-9007 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : anomalous Hall effect * spintronics Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 7.621, year: 2010

  12. Anomalous Hall effect and Nernst effect in itinerant ferromagnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyasato, T.; Abe, N.; Fujii, T.; Asamitsu, A.; Onose, Y.; Onoda, S.; Nagaosa, N.; Tokura, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Anomalous Hall effect (AHE) and anomalous Nernst effect (ANE) in many ferromagnetic metals including pure metals, oxides, and chalcogenides, are studied to obtain unified understandings of their origins. We show the universal behavior of anomalous Hall conductivity σ xy as a function of longitudinal conductivity σ xx over six orders of magnitude, which is well reproduced by a recent theory assuming both the intrinsic and extrinsic contributions to the AHE. ANE is closely related with AHE and gives us further information about the electronic state in the ground state of ferromagnets. The temperature dependence of transverse Peltier coefficient α xy shows almost similar behavior among various ferromagnets, and this behavior is expected from a conventional Boltzmann transport theory

  13. Anomalous Hall effect and Nernst effect in itinerant ferromagnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asamitsu, A.; Miyasato, T.; Abe, N.; Fujii, T.; Onose, Y.; Onoda, S.; Nagaosa, N.; Tokura, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Anomalous Hall effect (AHE) and anomalous Nernst effect (ANE) in many ferromagnetic metals including pure metals, oxides, and calcogenides, are studied to obtain unified understandings of their origins. We show the universal behavior of anomalous Hall conductivity σ xy as a function of longitudinal conductivity σ xx over six orders of magnitude, which is well reproduced by rigorous unified theory assuming both intrinsic and extrinsic contributions to the AHE. ANE is closely related with AHE and gives us further information about the electronic state in the ground state of ferromagnets. The temperature dependence of transverse Peltier coefficient α xy shows almost similar behavior among various ferromagnets and this behavior is expected from a conventional Boltzmann transport theory

  14. Anomalous transport effects and possible environmental symmetry ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-05-06

    May 6, 2015 ... The heavy-ion collision provides a unique many-body environment where local domains of strongly interacting chiral medium may occur and in a sense allow environmental symmetry 'violation' phenomena. For example, certain anomalous transport processes, forbidden in usual medium, become possible ...

  15. Effect of anomalous drift during ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksandrov, P.A.; Baranova, E.K.; Beloshitskii, V.V.; Demakov, K.D.; Starostin, V.A.

    1986-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical results are presented on Tl-ion implantation into hot silicon substrates (approx. 1200 0 C). a An anomalously large (by more than an order of magnitude) displacement of the peak position of the implanted impurity distribution into the bulk of the substrate is found. b) The conclusion is drawn that the basic process responsible for this displacement of the peak is radiation-enhanced diffusion (RED) due to nonequilibrium concentration of point defects produced in the heated target directly under implantation. c) The crystalline structure of the resulting ion-implanted layer indicates that in-situ annealing of the exposed layer occurs during high-temperature implantation. d) Experimental impurity distributions confirm the possibility of producing an implanted-impurity 'buried layer' below the layer of a single crystal silicon, the 'buried layer' depth depending on the implantation regime. (author)

  16. Anomalous scaling of stochastic processes and the Moses effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lijian; Bassler, Kevin E; McCauley, Joseph L; Gunaratne, Gemunu H

    2017-04-01

    The state of a stochastic process evolving over a time t is typically assumed to lie on a normal distribution whose width scales like t^{1/2}. However, processes in which the probability distribution is not normal and the scaling exponent differs from 1/2 are known. The search for possible origins of such "anomalous" scaling and approaches to quantify them are the motivations for the work reported here. In processes with stationary increments, where the stochastic process is time-independent, autocorrelations between increments and infinite variance of increments can cause anomalous scaling. These sources have been referred to as the Joseph effect and the Noah effect, respectively. If the increments are nonstationary, then scaling of increments with t can also lead to anomalous scaling, a mechanism we refer to as the Moses effect. Scaling exponents quantifying the three effects are defined and related to the Hurst exponent that characterizes the overall scaling of the stochastic process. Methods of time series analysis that enable accurate independent measurement of each exponent are presented. Simple stochastic processes are used to illustrate each effect. Intraday financial time series data are analyzed, revealing that their anomalous scaling is due only to the Moses effect. In the context of financial market data, we reiterate that the Joseph exponent, not the Hurst exponent, is the appropriate measure to test the efficient market hypothesis.

  17. Anomalous tensoelectric effects in gallium arsenide tunnel diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekseeva, Z.M.; Vyatkin, A.P.; Krivorotov, N.P.; Shchegol' , A.A.

    1988-02-01

    Anomalous tensoelectric phenomena induced in a tunnel p-n junction by a concentrated load and by hydrostatic compression were studied. The anomalous tensoelectric effects are caused by the action of concentrators of mechanical stresses in the vicinity of the p-n junction, giving rise to local microplastic strain. Under the conditions of hydrostatic compression prolate inclusions approx.100-200 A long play the role of concentrators. Analysis of irreversible changes in the current-voltage characteristics of tunnel p-n junctions made it possible to separate the energy levels of the defects produced with plastic strain of gallium arsenide.

  18. Anomalous cutaneous absorption of allergens as cause of skin prick testing adverse reactions in adult patients. Clinical and experimental evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antico, A; Arisi, M; Lima, G

    2015-07-01

    Paediatric age, active eczema and high number of allergens tested in poly-sensitized patients have been pinpointed as possible risk factors of systemic reactions by skin prick testing. As far as atopic eczema concerns, the higher penetration of the allergens into the skin because of the scraping or micro-injuries is an intuitive rationalization. Purpose of the present study is to provide documentary evidence that adverse reactions elicited by anomalous absorption of allergens can occur also in adult patients with apparently normal skin. Report of some exemplifying clinical and experimental observations. Measuring the inoculum volume into impaired skin and its variability in relation to the variation of the chemical-physical characteristic of the solutions used for the tests by means of a method of direct assay based on the use of a gamma-camera. Localized impairments of the skin permeability can cause a significant increase in inoculum volume by prick-test. Critical amounts of allergens can be introduced into the skin because of the possibility of direct absorption, also without pricking, of allergy diagnostic solutions. The greater water content of the solutions used for prick-testing can significantly increase the inoculum volume. This study adds clinical and experimental evidences that localized impairments of permeability can occur in adult patients with apparently normal skin. Special precautions should be taken when a change of the drops' normal shape and cohesion is seen, because allergy prick-testing in such areas is potentially associated with increased risk of large local or systemic reactions.

  19. Scattering Effect on Anomalous Hall Effect in Ferromagnetic Transition Metals

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Qiang

    2017-11-30

    The anomalous Hall effect (AHE) has been discovered for over a century, but its origin is still highly controversial theoretically and experimentally. In this study, we investigated the scattering effect on the AHE for both exploring the underlying physics and technical applications. We prepared Cox(MgO)100-x granular thin films with different Co volume fraction (34≤≤100) and studied the interfacial scattering effect on the AHE. The STEM HAADF images confirmed the inhomogeneous granular structure of the samples. As decreases from 100 to 34, the values of longitudinal resistivity () and anomalous Hall resistivity (AHE) respectively increase by about four and three orders in magnitude. The linear scaling relation between the anomalous Hall coefficient () and the measured at 5 K holds in both the as-prepared and annealed samples, which suggests a skew scattering dominated mechanism in Cox(MgO)100-x granular thin films. We prepared (Fe36//Au12/), (Ni36//Au12/) and (Ta12//Fe36/) multilayers to study the interfacial scattering effect on the AHE. The multilayer structures were characterized by the XRR spectra and TEM images of cross-sections. For the three serials of multilayers, both the and AHE increase with , which clearly shows interfacial scattering effect. The intrinsic contribution decreases with increases in the three serials of samples, which may be due to the crystallinity decaying or the finite size effect. In the (Fe36//Au12/) samples, the side-jump contribution increases with , which suggests an interfacial scattering-enhanced side jump. In the (Ni36//Au12/) samples, the side-jump contribution decreases with increases, which could be explained by the opposite sign of the interfacial scattering and grain boundary scattering contributed side jump. In the (Ta12//Fe36/) multilayers, the side-jump contribution changed from negative to positive, which is also because of the opposite sign of the interfacial scattering and grain boundary scattering

  20. Anomalous Nernst effect in type-II Weyl semimetals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Subhodip; Tewari, Sumanta

    2018-01-01

    Topological Weyl semimetals (WSM), a new state of quantum matter with gapless nodal bulk spectrum and open Fermi arc surface states, have recently sparked enormous interest in condensed matter physics. Based on the symmetry and fermiology, it has been proposed that WSMs can be broadly classified into two types, type-I and type-II Weyl semimetals. While the undoped, conventional, type-I WSMs have point like Fermi surface and vanishing density of states (DOS) at the Fermi energy, the type-II Weyl semimetals break Lorentz symmetry explicitly and have tilted conical spectra with electron and hole pockets producing finite DOS at the Fermi level. The tilted conical spectrum and finite DOS at Fermi level in type-II WSMs have recently been shown to produce interesting effects such as a chiral anomaly induced longitudinal magnetoresistance that is strongly anisotropic in direction and a novel anomalous Hall effect. In this work, we consider the anomalous Nernst effect in type-II WSMs in the absence of an external magnetic field using the framework of semi-classical Boltzmann theory. Based on both a linearized model of time-reversal breaking WSM with a higher energy cut-off and a more realistic lattice model, we show that the anomalous Nernst response in these systems is strongly anisotropic in space, and can serve as a reliable signature of type-II Weyl semimetals in a host of magnetic systems with spontaneously broken time reversal symmetry.

  1. Effects of surface and interface scattering on anomalous Hall effect in Co/Pd multilayers

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Zaibing

    2012-09-27

    In this paper, we report the results of surface and interface scattering on anomalous Hall effect in Co/Pd multilayers with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. The surface scattering effect has been extracted from the total anomalous Hall effect. By scaling surface scattering contribution with ρAHs∼ργss, the exponent γ has been found to decrease with the increase of surface scattering resistivity, which could account for the thickness-dependent anomalous Hall effect. Interface diffusion induced by rapid thermal annealing modifies not only the magnetization and longitudinal resistivity but also the anomalous Hall effect; a large exponent γ ∼ 5.7 has been attributed to interface scattering-dominated anomalous Hall effect.

  2. Urbanization effects on natural radiation in anomalous areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Affonseca, M.S. de.

    1993-10-01

    The urbanization effects and their possible causes on the environmental gamma radiation levels, in an anomalous area, were studied. The field work was accomplished in Guarapari, located in the seacoast of the Brazilian state of Espirito Santo, which is rich in monazite sands, with thorium and uranium contents. The results show clearly that there was a reduction in the levels of external exposition in the streets and squares of Guarapari. It was ascertained that the reduction was due to the materials used in the urbanization. (L.C.J.A.)

  3. Electrostatic Turbulence and Anomalous Effects in Reconnection Diffusion Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khotyaintsev, Y. V.; Graham, D. B.; Norgren, C.; Vaivads, A.; Li, W.; Divin, A. V.; Andre, M.; Markidis, S.; Lindqvist, P. A.; Peng, I. B.; Argall, M. R.; Ergun, R.; Le Contel, O.; Magnes, W.; Russell, C. T.; Giles, B. L.; Torbert, R. B.; Burch, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    Magnetic reconnection is a fundamental process whereby microscopicplasma processes cause macroscopic changes in magnetic field topology,so that initially separated plasmas become magnetically connected.Waves can produce particle diffusion, and anomalous resistivity, aswell as heat the plasma and accelerate plasma particles, all of whichcan impact ongoing reconnection. We report electrostatic turbulencedeveloping within the diffusion region of asymmetric magnetopausereconnection using observations by the Magnetospheric Multiscalemission and large-scale particle-in-cell simulations, and characterizeanomalous effects and plasma heating within the diffusion region. Ourobservations demonstrate that electrostatic turbulence plays animportant role in the electron-scale physics of asymmetricreconnection.

  4. Observation of the anomalous Hall effect in GaAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miah, M Idrish

    2007-01-01

    Devices for the direct detection of the spin current, based on the anomalous Hall effect (AHE), are fabricated on n-type GaAs bulk semiconductor materials. The AHE is observed in the device when the photoinduced spin-polarized electrons are injected into it, and it is found that the effect depends on the applied electric field. The origin of the field-dependent observed Hall effect is discussed based on the D'yakonov-Perel' (DP) spin relaxation mechanism. The spin-dependent Hall effect is also found to be enhanced with increasing doping concentration. The present experimental results might have potential applications in semiconductor spintronic devices since the effect is closely related to the spin Hall effect

  5. Observation of the anomalous Hall effect in GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miah, M Idrish [Nanoscale Science and Technology Centre, School of Science, Griffith University, Nathan, Brisbane, QLD 4111 (Australia); Department of Physics, University of Chittagong, Chittagong, Chittagong - 4331 (Bangladesh)

    2007-03-21

    Devices for the direct detection of the spin current, based on the anomalous Hall effect (AHE), are fabricated on n-type GaAs bulk semiconductor materials. The AHE is observed in the device when the photoinduced spin-polarized electrons are injected into it, and it is found that the effect depends on the applied electric field. The origin of the field-dependent observed Hall effect is discussed based on the D'yakonov-Perel' (DP) spin relaxation mechanism. The spin-dependent Hall effect is also found to be enhanced with increasing doping concentration. The present experimental results might have potential applications in semiconductor spintronic devices since the effect is closely related to the spin Hall effect.

  6. Anomalous Hall effect in Fe/Au multilayers

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Q.

    2016-07-22

    To understand the interfacial scattering effect on the anomalous Hall effect (AHE), we prepared multilayers of (Fe(36/n)nm/Au(12/n)nm)n using an e-beam evaporator. This structure design allowed us to investigate the effect of interfacial scattering on the AHE, while keeping the samples\\' thickness and composition unchanged. We measured the (magneto)transport properties of the samples in a wide temperature range (10–310 K) with magnetic fields up to 50 kOe. We found that the scaling between the anomalous Hall resistivity (ρAHE) and longitudinal resistivity (ρxx) can be roughly described by ρAHE∼ργxx with γ=2.65±0.10 and 1.90 ± 0.04 for samples from n=1 to n=4 and samples from n=4 to n=12, respectively. Our quantitative analysis results showed that the interfacial scattering suppresses the contribution of the intrinsic mechanism and gives rise to a side-jump contribution.

  7. Anomalous Hall-like effect probe of antiferromagnetic domain wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Lili; Qiu, Xuepeng; Zhou, Shiming

    2018-01-10

    Of crucial importance to antiferromagnetic (AF) spintronic devices, AF domain wall (AFDW), created in exchange biased Y 3 Fe 5 O 12 /Ni 0.50 Co 0.50 O (NiCoO)/Pt, is characterized by anomalous Hall-like effect through magnetic proximity effect and spin Hall magnetoresistance at NiCoO/Pt interface. The AFDW thickness, in the order of nanometers, has been for the first time proved in experiments to increase with increasing temperature. AF spins within AFDW show the same chirality in decent and ascent branches of ferromagnetic magnetization reversal process. Moreover, the uncompensated magnetic moment at the NiCoO/Pt interface is of perpendicular magnetization anisotropy and changes linearly in magnitude with temperature due to the reduced coordination of the magnetic atoms on the AF surface. This work will help to clarify the mechanism of the spin current propagation in AF materials and fully understand the physics behind exchange bias.

  8. Precise quantization of anomalous Hall effect near zero magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bestwick, A. J. [Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Fox, E. J. [Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Kou, Xufeng [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Pan, Lei [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Wang, Kang L. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Goldhaber-Gordon, D. [Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-05-04

    In this study, we report a nearly ideal quantum anomalous Hall effect in a three-dimensional topological insulator thin film with ferromagnetic doping. Near zero applied magnetic field we measure exact quantization in the Hall resistance to within a part per 10,000 and a longitudinal resistivity under 1 Ω per square, with chiral edge transport explicitly confirmed by nonlocal measurements. Deviations from this behavior are found to be caused by thermally activated carriers, as indicated by an Arrhenius law temperature dependence. Using the deviations as a thermometer, we demonstrate an unexpected magnetocaloric effect and use it to reach near-perfect quantization by cooling the sample below the dilution refrigerator base temperature in a process approximating adiabatic demagnetization refrigeration.

  9. Anomalous Hall effect scaling in ferromagnetic thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Grigoryan, Vahram L.

    2017-10-23

    We propose a scaling law for anomalous Hall effect in ferromagnetic thin films. Our approach distinguishes multiple scattering sources, namely, bulk impurity, phonon for Hall resistivity, and most importantly the rough surface contribution to longitudinal resistivity. In stark contrast to earlier laws that rely on temperature- and thickness-dependent fitting coefficients, this scaling law fits the recent experimental data excellently with constant parameters that are independent of temperature and film thickness, strongly indicating that this law captures the underlying physical processes. Based on a few data points, this scaling law can even fit all experimental data in full temperature and thickness range. We apply this law to interpret the experimental data for Fe, Co, and Ni and conclude that (i) the phonon-induced skew scattering is unimportant as expected; (ii) contribution from the impurity-induced skew scattering is negative; (iii) the intrinsic (extrinsic) mechanism dominates in Fe (Co), and both the extrinsic and intrinsic contributions are important in Ni.

  10. Mechanisms of the anomalous Pockels effect in bulk water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukita, Shunpei; Suzuki, Yuto; Shiokawa, Naoyuki; Kobayashi, Takayoshi; Tokunaga, Eiji

    2018-04-01

    The "anomalous" Pockels effect is a phenomenon that a light beam passing between two electrodes in an aqueous electrolyte solution is deflected by an AC voltage applied between the electrodes: the deflection angle is proportional to the voltage such that the incident beam alternately changes its direction. This phenomenon, the Pockels effect in bulk water, apparently contradicts what is believed in nonlinear optics, i.e., macroscopic inversion symmetry should be broken for the second-order nonlinear optical effect to occur such as the first-order electro-optic effect, i.e., the Pockels effect. To clarify the underlying mechanism, the dependence of the effect on the electrode material is investigated to find that the Pockels coefficient with Pt electrodes is two orders of magnitude smaller than with indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes. It is experimentally confirmed that the Pockels effect of interfacial water in the electric double layer (EDL) on these electrodes shows an electrode dependence similar to the effect in bulk water while the effects depend on the frequency of the AC voltage such that the interfacial signal decreases with frequency but the bulk signal increases with frequency up to 221 Hz. These experimental results lead to a conclusion that the beam deflection is caused by the refractive index gradient in the bulk water region, which is formed transiently by the Pockels effect of interfacial water in the EDL when an AC electric field is applied. The refractive index gradient is caused by the diffuse layer spreading into the bulk region to work as a breaking factor of inversion symmetry of bulk water due to its charge-biased ionic distribution. This mechanism does not contradict the principle of nonlinear optics.

  11. Spin chirality induced skew scattering and anomalous Hall effect in chiral magnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizuka, Hiroaki; Nagaosa, Naoto

    2018-02-01

    Noncoplanar magnetic orders in magnetic metals give rise to an anomalous Hall effect of unconventional origin, which, by the spin Berry phase effect, is known as the topological Hall effect. This effect is pronounced in the low-temperature limit, where the fluctuation of spins is suppressed. In contrast, we here discuss that the fluctuating but locally correlated spins close to the phase boundary give rise to another anomalous Hall effect, that with the opposite sign to the topological Hall effect. Using the Born approximation, we show that the anomalous Hall effect is attributed to the skew scattering induced by the local correlation of spins. The relation of the scalar spin chirality to the skew scattering amplitude is given, and the explicit formula for the Hall conductivity is derived using a semiclassical Boltzmann transport theory. Our theory potentially accounts for the sign change of the anomalous Hall effect observed in chiral magnets in the vicinity of the phase boundary.

  12. The effect of anomalous utterances on language production

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanova, I; Wardlow, L; Warker, J; Ferreira, VS

    2017-01-01

    Speakers sometimes encounter utterances that have anomalous linguistic features. Are such features registered during comprehension and transferred to speakers' production systems? In two experiments, we explored these questions. In a syntactic-priming paradigm, speakers heard prime sentences with novel or intransitive verbs as part of prepositional-dative or double-object structures (e.g., The chef munded the cup to the burglar or The doctor existed the pirate the balloon). Speakers then desc...

  13. ION ACOUSTIC TURBULENCE, ANOMALOUS TRANSPORT, AND SYSTEM DYNAMICS IN HALL EFFECT THRUSTERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-30

    NUMBER (Include area code) 30 June 2017 Briefing Charts 26 May 2017 - 30 June 2017 ION ACOUSTIC TURBULENCE, ANOMALOUS TRANSPORT , AND SYSTEM DYNAMICS...Robert Martin N/A ION ACOUSTIC TURBULENCE, ANOMALOUS TRANSPORT , AND SYSTEM DYNAMICS IN HALL EFFECT THRUSTERS Robert Martin1, Jonathan Tran2 1AIR FORCE...Approved for Public Release; Distribution is Unlimited. PA# 17394 1 / 13 OUTLINE 1 INTRODUCTION 2 TRANSPORT 3 DYNAMIC SYSTEM 4 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION

  14. Unconventional scaling of the anomalous Hall effect accompanying electron localization correction in the dirty regime

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Y. M.

    2013-03-05

    Scaling of the anomalous Hall conductivity to longitudinal conductivity σAH∝σ2xx has been observed in the dirty regime of two-dimensional weak and strong localization regions in ultrathin, polycrystalline, chemically disordered, ferromagnetic FePt films. The relationship between electron transport and temperature reveals a quantitatively insignificant Coulomb interaction in these films, while the temperature dependent anomalous Hall conductivity experiences quantum correction from electron localization. At the onset of this correction, the low-temperature anomalous Hall resistivity begins to be saturated when the thickness of the FePt film is reduced, and the corresponding Hall conductivity scaling exponent becomes 2, which is above the recent unified theory of 1.6 (σAH∝σ1.6xx). Our results strongly suggest that the correction of the electron localization modulates the scaling exponent of the anomalous Hall effect.

  15. Large anomalous Hall effect in a non-collinear antiferromagnet at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatsuji, Satoru; Kiyohara, Naoki; Higo, Tomoya

    2015-11-01

    In ferromagnetic conductors, an electric current may induce a transverse voltage drop in zero applied magnetic field: this anomalous Hall effect is observed to be proportional to magnetization, and thus is not usually seen in antiferromagnets in zero field. Recent developments in theory and experiment have provided a framework for understanding the anomalous Hall effect using Berry-phase concepts, and this perspective has led to predictions that, under certain conditions, a large anomalous Hall effect may appear in spin liquids and antiferromagnets without net spin magnetization. Although such a spontaneous Hall effect has now been observed in a spin liquid state, a zero-field anomalous Hall effect has hitherto not been reported for antiferromagnets. Here we report empirical evidence for a large anomalous Hall effect in an antiferromagnet that has vanishingly small magnetization. In particular, we find that Mn3Sn, an antiferromagnet that has a non-collinear 120-degree spin order, exhibits a large anomalous Hall conductivity of around 20 per ohm per centimetre at room temperature and more than 100 per ohm per centimetre at low temperatures, reaching the same order of magnitude as in ferromagnetic metals. Notably, the chiral antiferromagnetic state has a very weak and soft ferromagnetic moment of about 0.002 Bohr magnetons per Mn atom (refs 10, 12), allowing us to switch the sign of the Hall effect with a small magnetic field of around a few hundred oersted. This soft response of the large anomalous Hall effect could be useful for various applications including spintronics—for example, to develop a memory device that produces almost no perturbing stray fields.

  16. Anomalous Hall effect in Fe/Gd bilayers

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, W. J.

    2010-04-01

    Non-monotonic dependence of anomalous Hall resistivity on temperature and magnetization, including a sign change, was observed in Fe/Gd bilayers. To understand the intriguing observations, we fabricated the Fe/Gd bilayers and single layers of Fe and Gd simultaneously. The temperature and field dependences of longitudinal resistivity, Hall resistivity and magnetization in these films have also been carefully measured. The analysis of these data reveals that these intriguing features are due to the opposite signs of Hall resistivity/or spin polarization and different Curie temperatures of Fe and Gd single-layer films. Copyright (C) EPLA, 2010

  17. The effect of interfacial intermixing on magnetization and anomalous Hall effect in Co/Pd multilayers

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Zaibing

    2015-05-01

    The effect of interfacial intermixing on magnetization and anomalous Hall effect (AHE) in Co/Pd multilayers is studied by using rapid thermal annealing to enhance the interfacial diffusion. The dependence of saturation magnetization and coercivity on the temperature of rapid thermal annealing at 5 K is discussed. It is found that AHE is closely related to the relative thickness of the Co and Pd layers. Localized paramagnetism has been observed which destroys AHE, while AHE can be enhanced by annealing.

  18. Spin disorder effect in anomalous Hall effect in MnGa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, A. P. A.; Varalda, J.; Schreiner, W. H.; Mosca, D. H.

    2017-12-01

    We report on resistivity and Hall effect in MnGa thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy on GaAs substrates. Highly (1 1 1)-textured MnGa film with L10 structure exhibits hard magnetic properties with coercivities as high as 20 kOe and spin disorder mechanisms contributing to the Hall conductivity at room temperature. Density functional theory calculations were performed to determine the intrinsic Berry curvature in the momentum space with chiral spin structure that results in an anomalous Hall conductivity of 127 (Ωcm)-1 comparable to that measured at low temperature. In addition to residual and side-jump contributions, which are enhanced by thermal activation, both anomalous Hall conductivity and Hall angle increase between 100 K and room temperature. The present results reinforce the potential of Mn-Ga system for developing Hall effect-based spintronic devices.

  19. Anomalous Hall effect from vortex motion in high-Tc superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.L.; Yang, T.J.

    1994-01-01

    In this work, the unusual Seebeck effect is taken into consideration in explaining the possible origin of the anomalous Hall effect for high-T c superconductors. Combining Maki's theory of transport entropy and Tinkham's theory of resistive transition, we explain why the anomalous Hall effect can be observed in high-T c superconductors, but is absent in most conventional superconductors. The behavior of ρ xy (H,T) in our theory is qualitatively consistent with experiments. In addition, our theory not only predicts that ρ xy will become positive from ρ xy xy |∝ρ xx 2 in the region of ρ xy xy will diminish with increasing defect concentration

  20. Scaling of anomalous hall effect in amorphous CoFeB Films with accompanying quantum correction

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Yan

    2015-05-08

    Scaling of anomalous Hall effect in amorphous CoFeB films with thickness ranging from 2 to 160 nm have been investigated. We have found that the scaling relationship between longitudinal (ρxx) and anomalous Hall (ρAH) resistivity is distinctly different in the Bloch and localization regions. For ultrathin CoFeB films, the sheet resistance (Rxx) and anomalous Hall conductance (GAH) received quantum correction from electron localization showing two different scaling relationships at different temperature regions. In contrast, the thicker films show a metallic conductance, which have only one scaling relationship in the entire temperature range. Furthermore, in the dirty regime of localization regions, an unconventional scaling relationship View the MathML sourceσAH∝σxxα with α=1.99 is found, rather than α=1.60 predicted by the unified theory.

  1. Anomalous Hall effect as the response of the orbital momentum to the gradient of electrochemical potential

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Středa, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 13 (2013), "134422-1"-"134422-5" ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP204/11/1228 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : anomalous Hall effect * ferromagnetic systems * orbital momentum Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.664, year: 2013

  2. Electrical control of the anomalous valley Hall effect in antiferrovalley bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Wen-Yi; Duan, Chun-Gang

    2017-08-01

    In analogy to all-electric spintronics, all-electric valleytronics, i.e., valley manipulation via electric means, becomes an exciting new frontier as it may bring revolutions in the field of data storage with ultra-high speed and ultra-low power consumption. The existence of the anomalous valley Hall effect in ferrovalley materials demonstrates the possibility of electrical detection for valley polarization. However, in previously proposed valley-polarized monolayers, the anomalous valley Hall effect is controlled by external magnetic fields. Here, through elaborate structural design, we propose the antiferrovally bilayer as an ideal candidate for realizing all-electric valleytronic devices. Using the minimal k.p model, we show that the energy degeneracy between valley indexes in such system can be lifted by electric approaches. Subsequently, the anomalous valley Hall effect strongly depends on the electric field as well. Taking the bilayer VSe2 as an example, all-electric tuning and detecting of anomalous valley Hall effect is confirmed by density-functional theory calculations, indicating that the valley information in such antiferrovalley bilayer can be reversed by an electric field perpendicular to the plane of the system and easily probed through the sign of the Hall voltage.

  3. Enhancement of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and anomalous hall effect in Co/Ni multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yiwei; Zhang, Jingyan, E-mail: jyzhang@ustb.edu.cn; Jiang, Shaolong; Liu, Qianqian; Li, Xujing; Yu, Guanghua, E-mail: ghyu@mater.ustb.edu.cn

    2016-12-15

    The perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) and the anomalous Hall effect (AHE) in Co/Ni multilayer were optimized by manipulating its interface structure (inducing HfO{sub 2} capping layer and Pt insertion) and post-annealing treatment. A strong PMA can be obtained in Co/Ni multilayers with HfO{sub 2} capping layer even after annealing at 400 °C. The heavy metal Hf may improve the interfacial spin-orbit coupling, which responsible for the enhanced PMA and high annealing stability. Moreover, the multilayer containing HfO{sub 2} capping layer also exhibited high saturation anomalous Hall resistivity through post-annealing, which is 0.85 μΩ cm after annealing at 375 °C, 211% larger than in the sample at deposited state which is only 0.27 μΩ cm. The enhancement of AHE is mainly attributed to the interface scattering through post-annealing treatment. - Highlights: • The perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and anomalous Hall effect of Co/Ni multilayer films were studied. • The PMA thermal stability of the Co/Ni ML can be enhanced by HfO{sub 2} capping layer and Pt insertion. • The anomalous Hall resistivity of Co/Ni ML covered by HfO{sub 2} was enhanced by post-annealing treatment.

  4. Interfacial scattering effect on anisotropic magnetoresistance and anomalous Hall effect in Ta/Fe multilayers

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Qiang

    2017-12-26

    The effect of interfacial scattering on anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) and anomalous Hall effect (AHE) was studied in the (Ta12n/Fe36n)n multilayers, where the numbers give the thickness in nanometer and n is an integer from 1 to 12. The multilayer structure has been confirmed by the XRR spectra and STEM images of cross-sections. The magneto-transport properties were measured by four-point probe method in Hall bar shaped samples in the temperature range of 5 - 300 K. The AMR increases with n, which could be ascribed to the interfacial spin-orbit scattering. At 5 K, the longitudinal resistivity (ρ) increases by 6.4 times and the anomalous Hall resistivity (ρ) increases by 49.4 times from n =1 to n =12, indicative of the interfacial scattering effect. The skew-scattering, side-jump and intrinsic contributions to the AHE were separated successfully. As n increases from 1 to 12, the intrinsic contribution decreases because of the decaying crystallinity or finite size effect and the intrinsic contribution dominated the AHE for all samples. The side jump changes from negative to positive because the interfacial scattering and intralayer scattering in Fe layers both contribute to side jump in the AHE but with opposite sign.

  5. Skin thickness effects on in vivo LXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preiss, I.L.; Washington, W. II

    1995-01-01

    The analysis of lead concentration in bone utilizing LXRF can be adversely effected by overlying issue. A quantitative measure of the attenuation of the 10.5 keV Pb L a x-ray signal by skin and skin equivalent plastic has been conducted. Concentration ranges in plaster of Paris and goat bone from 7 to 90 ppm with attenuators of Lucite reg-sign and pig skin were examined. It is concluded that no quantitative or semi quantitative analysis can be achieved if overlying sue thickness exceeds 3 mm for Ph concentrations of less than 30 porn Ph in bone

  6. Interfacial scattering effect on anomalous Hall effect in Ni/Au multilayers

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Qiang

    2017-04-21

    The effect of interfacial scattering on anomalous Hall effect (AHE) was studied in the ${{\\\\left(\\\\text{N}{{\\\\text{i}}_{\\\\frac{36}{n}~\\\\text{nm}}}/\\\\text{A}{{\\\\text{u}}_{\\\\frac{12}{n}~\\\\text{nm}}}\\ ight)}_{n}}$ multilayers. Field-dependent Hall resistivity was measured in the temperature range of 5–300 K with the magnetic field up to 50 kOe. The anomalous Hall resistivity (${{\\ ho}_{\\\\text{AHE}}}$ ) was enhanced by more than six times at 5 K from n  =  1 to n  =  12 due to the increased interfacial scattering, whereas the longitudinal resistivity (${{\\ ho}_{xx}}$ ) was increased nearly three times. A scaling relation ${{\\ ho}_{\\\\text{AHE}}}\\\\sim \\ ho _{xx}^{\\\\gamma}$ with $\\\\gamma =1.85$ was obtained for ${{\\ ho}_{\\\\text{AHE}}}$ and ${{\\ ho}_{xx}}$ measured at 5 K, indicating that the dominant mechanism(s) of the AHE in these multilayers should be side-jump or/and intrinsic in nature. The new scaling relation ${{\\ ho}_{\\\\text{AHE}}}=\\\\alpha {{\\ ho}_{xx0}}+\\\\beta \\ ho _{xx0}^{2}+b\\ ho _{xx}^{2}$ (Tian et al 2009 Phys. Rev. Lett. 103 087206) has been applied to our data to identify the origin of the AHE in this type of multilayer.

  7. Importance of Coulomb correlation on the quantum anomalous Hall effect in V-doped topological insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeongwoo; Wang, Hui; Wu, Ruqian

    2018-03-01

    The presence of the quantum anomalous Hall effect in a V-doped topological insulator (TI) has not yet been understood from band-structure studies. Here, we demonstrate the importance of including the correlation effect in density-functional-theory (DFT) calculations, in the format as simple as the Hubbard U , for the determination of the topological properties of these materials. Our results show that the correlation effect turns a V-doped TI thin film into a Mott insulator and facilitates it entering the quantum anomalous Hall phase. Even the ferromagnetic ordering is also strongly affected by the inclusion of the U term. This work satisfactorily explains recent experimental observations and highlights the essentialness of having the Coulomb correlation effect in DFT studies of magnetic TIs.

  8. Compositeness Effects in the Anomalous Weak-Magnetic Moment of Leptons

    CERN Document Server

    González-Garciá, M Concepción

    1996-01-01

    We investigate the effects induced by excited leptons, at the one-loop level, in the anomalous magnetic and weak-magnetic form factors of the leptons. Using a general effective Lagrangian approach to describe the couplings of the excited leptons, we compute their contributions to the weak-magnetic moment of the $\\tau$ lepton, which can be measured on the $Z$ peak, and we compare it with the contributions to $g_\\mu - 2$, measured at low energies.

  9. Anomalous effect of small doses of ionizing radiation on metals and alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernov, I.P.; Mamontov, A.P.; Botaki, A.A.; Cherdantsev, P.A.; Chakhlov, B.V.; Sharov, S.R.; Timoshnikov, Yu.A.; Filipenko, L.A.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of small doses of 60 Co gamma rays on copper, tungsten, and WCo alloys has been investigated. A decrease in the concentration of material defects under the influence of small doses of ionizing radiation was found. Also the structural rearrangement of the crystal was found to be still in progress after irradiation ceased. The mechanism of the anomalous effect of small doses of ionizing radiation on metals and alloys is discussed in terms of the electron energy scheme. (U.K.)

  10. Anomalous Josephson effect in semiconductor nanowire with strong spin-orbit interaction and Zeeman effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Tomohiro; Eto, Mikio; Nazarov, Yuli

    2014-03-01

    We theoretically investigate the Josephson junction using quasi-one dimensional semiconductor nanowires with strong spin-orbit (SO) interaction, e.g., InSb. First, we examine a simple model using a single scatterer to describe the elastic scattering due to impurities and SO interaction in the normal region.[1] The Zeeman effect is taken into account by the spin-dependent phase shift of electron and hole through the system. The interplay between SO interaction and Zeeman effect results in a finite supercurrent even when the phase difference between two superconductors is zero. Moreover, the critical current depends on its current direction if more than one conduction channel is present in the nanowire. Next, we perform a numerical simulation by the tight-binding model for the nanowire to confirm our simple model. Then, we show that a spin-dependent Fermi velocity due to the SO interaction causes the anomalous Josephson effect.

  11. Theory of anomalous Hall effect in europium chalcogenides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinkkonen, J.

    1976-04-01

    Considering the exchange interaction between the conduction electrons in a broad 5d-type band and the magnetic electrons in the localized 4f-shells, it is shown that in addition to the ordinary d-f exchange diagonal in band index, there is also a non-diagonal interaction representing a one particle transfer between the conduction and magnetic electrons. Including the spin-orbit coupling, an effective Hamiltonian for the conductionelectrons is obtained, which contains additional asymmetric scattering terms. The ordinary d-f exchange is treated as the dominating scattering interaction. The anomatous Hall effect results by skew scattering and side jump mechanisms. The density matrix method is used to derive the transport properties. The effect of the correlation of spins at different lattice sites is discussed. The model indicates that the anomatous Hall effect can be seen in heavily doped samples. (author)

  12. Fast plasma heating by anomalous and inertial resistivity effects in the solar atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duijveman, A.; Hoyng, P.; Ionson, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    A simple model is presented to describe fast plasma heating by anomalous and inertial resistivity effects. It is noted that a small fraction of the plasma contains strong currents that run parallel to the magnetic field and are driven by an exponentiating electric field. The anomalous character of the current dissipation derives from the excitation of electrostatic ion-cyclotron and/or ion-acoustic waves. The possible role of resistivity deriving from geometrical effects ('inertial resistivity') is also considered. Using a marginal stability analysis, equations for the average electron and ion temperatures are derived and numerically solved. No loss mechanisms are taken into account. The evolution of the plasma is described as a path in the drift velocity diagram, where the drift velocity is plotted as a function of the electron to ion temperature ratio.

  13. The representation of the anomalous Einstein effects with the aid of an effective metric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treder, H.J.; Gottloeber, S.

    1977-01-01

    An investigation is conducted concerning the possibility of an excess of solar gravitooptical Einstein effects relative to certain theoretical predictions. The anomaly of the Einstein shift is described with the aid of a metric which depends on the solar radiation field, taking into account an approach reported by Treder (1971). It is found that the anomalies of the Einstein effects are frequency dependent. In agreement with radio-astronomical data and the results of radar measurements, there is no excess at low frequencies. It is pointed out that an anomalous Einstein shift with the obtained characteristics, which involves the displacement of the spectral frequencies of the light in proportion to the difference of the square roots of the spectral energy densities at the places of the emission and absorption of the photons, should be detectable in principle also in laboratory measurements.

  14. Anomalous Wtb coupling effects in the weak radiative B-meson decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grzadkowski, Bohdan; Misiak, Mikolaj

    2008-01-01

    We study the effect of anomalous Wtb couplings on the B→X s γ branching ratio. The considered couplings are introduced as parts of gauge-invariant dimension-six operators that are built out of the standard model fields only. One-loop contributions from the charged-current vertices are assumed to be of the same order as the tree-level flavor-changing neutral current ones. Bounds on the corresponding Wilson coefficients are derived.

  15. Anomalous Hall effect in stoichiometric Heusler alloys with native disorder: A first-principles study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kudrnovský, Josef; Drchal, Václav; Turek, Ilja

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 1 (2013), "014422-1"-"014422-8" ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP204/11/1228 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:68081723 Keywords : anomalous Hall effect * Heusler alloys * native disorder * halfmetal * first-principles * linear response theory Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.664, year: 2013

  16. Anomalous effective action, Noether current, Virasoro algebra and Horizon entropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majhi, Bibhas Ranjan [IUCAA, Ganeshkhind, Pune University Campus, Post Bag 4, Pune (India); Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Racah Institute of Physics, Jerusalem (Israel); Chakraborty, Sumanta [IUCAA, Ganeshkhind, Pune University Campus, Post Bag 4, Pune (India)

    2014-05-15

    Several investigations show that in a very small length scale there exist corrections to the entropy of black hole horizon. Due to fluctuations of the background metric and the external fields the action incorporates corrections. In the low energy regime, the one-loop effective action in four dimensions leads to trace anomaly. We start from the Noether current corresponding to the Einstein-Hilbert plus the one-loop effective action to calculate the charge for the diffeomorphisms which preserve the Killing horizon structure. Then a bracket for the charges is calculated. We show that the Fourier modes of the bracket are exactly similar to the Virasoro algebra. Then using the Cardy formula the entropy is evaluated. Finally, the explicit terms of the entropy expression is calculated for a classical background. It turns out that the usual expression for the entropy; i.e. the Bekenstein-Hawking form, is not modified. (orig.)

  17. Anomalous Josephson effect controlled by an Abrikosov vortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mironov, S.; Goldobin, E.; Koelle, D.; Kleiner, R.; Tamarat, Ph.; Lounis, B.; Buzdin, A.

    2017-12-01

    The possibility of a fast and precise Abrikosov vortex manipulation by a focused laser beam opens the way to create laser-driven Josephson junctions. We theoretically demonstrate that a vortex pinned in the vicinity of the Josephson junction generates an arbitrary ground state phase which can be equal not only to 0 or π but to any desired φ0 value in between. Such φ0 junctions have many peculiar properties and may be effectively controlled by the optically driven Abrikosov vortex. Also we theoretically show that the Josephson junction with the embedded vortex can serve as an ultrafast memory cell operating at sub THz frequencies.

  18. Anomalous doping effects on charge transport in graphene nanoribbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biel, Blanca; Blase, X; Triozon, François; Roche, Stephan

    2009-03-06

    We present first-principles calculations of quantum transport in chemically doped graphene nanoribbons with a width of up to 4 nm. The presence of boron and nitrogen impurities is shown to yield resonant backscattering, whose features are strongly dependent on the symmetry and the width of the ribbon, as well as the position of the dopants. Full suppression of backscattering is obtained on the pi-pi* plateau when the impurity preserves the mirror symmetry of armchair ribbons. Further, an unusual acceptor-donor transition is observed in zigzag ribbons. These unconventional doping effects could be used to design novel types of switching devices.

  19. Anomalous piezoelectric effects, found in the laboratory and reconstructed by numerical simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. P. Teisseyre

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Various rocks and minerals, which are not piezoelectric in the common sense, exhibit transient electric polarization in response to sudden changes in stress load. This anomalous piezoelectric effect differs from the regular, static piezoelectric response, in which electric charges appear as a result of crystal lattice deformation. The anomalous piezoelectricity is dynamic decaying in a few seconds or a few tens of seconds. However, in some materials different polarization properties are discovered. To explain certain aspects of the polarization signal increase and decay, some complicated mechanisms of electric charge generation and relaxation need to be assumed in their number ? concurrence of two or three relaxation processes. The hypothetical mechanisms are only mentioned, as the purpose of this work is to construct numerical models, behaving like the rocks investigated. Examples of experimental plots are shown together with the results of the numerical simulation of these experiments.

  20. Anomalous proximity effect and theoretical design for its realization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegaya, Satoshi; Asano, Yasuhiro; Tanaka, Yukio

    2015-05-01

    We discuss the stability of zero-energy states appearing in a dirty normal metal attached to a superconducting thin film with Dresselhaus [110] spin-orbit coupling under an in-plane Zeeman field. The Dresselhaus superconductor preserves an additional chiral symmetry and traps more than one zero-energy state at its edges. All the zero-energy states at an edge belong to the same chirality in large Zeeman fields due to the effective p -wave pairing symmetry. The pure chiral nature of the wave function enables the zero-energy states to penetrate the dirty normal metal while retaining their high degree of degeneracy. We prove the perfect Andreev reflection into the dirty normal metal at zero energy.

  1. Large anomalous Hall effect driven by a nonvanishing Berry curvature in the noncolinear antiferromagnet Mn3Ge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Ajaya K; Fischer, Julia Erika; Sun, Yan; Yan, Binghai; Karel, Julie; Komarek, Alexander C; Shekhar, Chandra; Kumar, Nitesh; Schnelle, Walter; Kübler, Jürgen; Felser, Claudia; Parkin, Stuart S P

    2016-04-01

    It is well established that the anomalous Hall effect displayed by a ferromagnet scales with its magnetization. Therefore, an antiferromagnet that has no net magnetization should exhibit no anomalous Hall effect. We show that the noncolinear triangular antiferromagnet Mn3Ge exhibits a large anomalous Hall effect comparable to that of ferromagnetic metals; the magnitude of the anomalous conductivity is ~500 (ohm·cm)(-1) at 2 K and ~50 (ohm·cm)(-1) at room temperature. The angular dependence of the anomalous Hall effect measurements confirms that the small residual in-plane magnetic moment has no role in the observed effect except to control the chirality of the spin triangular structure. Our theoretical calculations demonstrate that the large anomalous Hall effect in Mn3Ge originates from a nonvanishing Berry curvature that arises from the chiral spin structure, and that also results in a large spin Hall effect of 1100 (ħ/e) (ohm·cm)(-1), comparable to that of platinum. The present results pave the way toward the realization of room temperature antiferromagnetic spintronics and spin Hall effect-based data storage devices.

  2. Gamma radiation effects on peanut skin antioxidants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camargo, Adriano Costa de; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange Guidolin; Vieira, Thais Maria Ferreira de Souza; Regitano-d'Arce, Marisa Aparecida Bismara; Calori-Domingues, Maria Antonia

    2011-01-01

    Peanut skin, which is removed in the peanut blanching process, is rich in bioactive compounds with antioxidant properties. The viability of using natural sources of antioxidants to replace synthetic antioxidants was assessed. The aims of this study were to measure bioactive compounds in peanut skins and evaluate the effect of gamma radiation on their antioxidant activity. Peanut skin samples were treated with 0.0, 5.0, 7.5, or 10.0 kGy gamma rays at a dose rate of 7.5 kGy/h using a 60 Co source. Total phenolics, condensed tannins, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity were evaluated. Extracts obtained from the peanut skins were added to refined-bleached deodorized (RBD) soybean oil that was free from synthetic antioxidants. The oxidative stability of the oil samples was determined using the Rancimat method and compared to a control and synthetic antioxidants (100 mg/kg BHT and 200 mg/kg TBHQ). Gamma radiation changed total phenolic content, total condensed tannins, total flavonoid content, and the antioxidant activity. Ethanolic extracts, gamma irradiated or not, presented increasing induction period (h), measured by the Rancimat method, when compared with the control. Antioxidant activity of the peanut skins was higher than BHT but lower than THBQ. The present study confirmed that gamma radiation did not affect the peanut skin extracts' antioxidative level when added to soybean oil. The induction period of the control soybean oil was 5.7 h, while soybean oil with added ethanolic peanut skin extract had an induction period of 7.2 h, on average. (author)

  3. Gamma radiation effects on peanut skin antioxidants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camargo, Adriano Costa de [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange Guidolin; Vieira, Thais Maria Ferreira de Souza; Regitano-d' Arce, Marisa Aparecida Bismara; Calori-Domingues, Maria Antonia, E-mail: sgcbraza@usp.b, E-mail: tvieira@esalq.usp.b, E-mail: mabra@esalq.usp.b, E-mail: macdomin@esalq.usp.b [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Agroindustria, Alimentos e Nutricao

    2011-07-01

    Peanut skin, which is removed in the peanut blanching process, is rich in bioactive compounds with antioxidant properties. The viability of using natural sources of antioxidants to replace synthetic antioxidants was assessed. The aims of this study were to measure bioactive compounds in peanut skins and evaluate the effect of gamma radiation on their antioxidant activity. Peanut skin samples were treated with 0.0, 5.0, 7.5, or 10.0 kGy gamma rays at a dose rate of 7.5 kGy/h using a {sup 60}Co source. Total phenolics, condensed tannins, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity were evaluated. Extracts obtained from the peanut skins were added to refined-bleached deodorized (RBD) soybean oil that was free from synthetic antioxidants. The oxidative stability of the oil samples was determined using the Rancimat method and compared to a control and synthetic antioxidants (100 mg/kg BHT and 200 mg/kg TBHQ). Gamma radiation changed total phenolic content, total condensed tannins, total flavonoid content, and the antioxidant activity. Ethanolic extracts, gamma irradiated or not, presented increasing induction period (h), measured by the Rancimat method, when compared with the control. Antioxidant activity of the peanut skins was higher than BHT but lower than THBQ. The present study confirmed that gamma radiation did not affect the peanut skin extracts' antioxidative level when added to soybean oil. The induction period of the control soybean oil was 5.7 h, while soybean oil with added ethanolic peanut skin extract had an induction period of 7.2 h, on average. (author)

  4. Disorder effect on chiral edge modes and anomalous Hall conductance in Weyl semimetals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takane, Yositake

    2016-01-01

    Typical Weyl semimetals host chiral surface states and hence show an anomalous Hall response. Although a Weyl semimetal phase is known to be robust against weak disorder, the effect of disorder on chiral states has not been fully clarified so far. We study the behavior of such chiral states in the presence of disorder and its consequences on an anomalous Hall response, focusing on a thin slab of Weyl semimetal with chiral surface states along its edge. It is shown that weak disorder does not disrupt chiral edge states but crucially affects them owing to the renormalization of a mass parameter: the number of chiral edge states changes depending on the strength of disorder. It is also shown that the Hall conductance is quantized when the Fermi level is located near Weyl nodes within a finite-size gap. This quantization of the Hall conductance collapses once the strength of disorder exceeds a critical value, suggesting that it serves as a probe to distinguish a Weyl semimetal phase from a diffusive anomalous Hall metal phase. (author)

  5. Revisiting the Anomalous rf Field Penetration into a Warm Plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igor D. Kaganovich; Oleg V. Polomarov; Constantine E. Theodosiou

    2005-06-24

    Radio-frequency [rf] waves do not penetrate into a plasma and are damped within it. The electric field of the wave and plasma current are concentrated near the plasma boundary in a skin layer. Electrons can transport the plasma current away from the skin layer due to their thermal motion. As a result, the width of the skin layer increases when electron temperature effects are taken into account. This phenomenon is called anomalous skin effect. The anomalous penetration of the rf electric field occurs not only for transversely propagating to the plasma boundary wave (inductively coupled plasmas) but also for the wave propagating along the plasma boundary (capacitively coupled plasmas). Such anomalous penetration of the rf field modifies the structure of the capacitive sheath. Recent advances in the nonlinear, non-local theory of the capacitive sheath are reported. It is shown that separating the electric field profile into exponential and non-exponential parts yields an efficient qualitative and quantitative description of the anomalous skin effect in both inductively and capacitively coupled plasma.

  6. Is the anomalous effect an experimental evidence for the excitation of new exotic states in heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion, D.B.; Ion, R.; Topor Pop, V.

    1984-10-01

    Lower bound on the mean free path of the projectile fragments from the relativistic heavy ion collisions are drived using generalized Rarita-Schwed's theorems. These bounds are compared with the experimental data on the anomalous mean free path observed in recent experiments. The near saturation of these bounds provide a specific interpretation of the anomalous effects as an experimental evidence for the excitation of those extreme nuclear states which saturate the limits of the convetional nuclear physics. (authors)

  7. Anomalous Josephson Effect in Junctions with Rashba Spin-Orbit Coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesterov, Konstantin; Houzet, Manuel; Meyer, Julia

    2015-03-01

    We study two-dimensional double-barrier SINIS Josephson junctions in which the inversion symmetry in the normal part is broken by Rashba spin-orbit coupling. In the presence of a suitably oriented Zeeman field in the normal part, the system displays the anomalous Josephson effect: the current is nonzero even at zero phase difference between two superconductors. We investigate this effect by means of the Ginzburg-Landau formalism and microscopic Green's functions approach in the clean limit. This work was supported in part by the Grants No. ANR-12-BS04-0016-03 and an EU-FP7 Marie Curie IRG.

  8. Anomalous effect of trench-oxide depth on alpha-particle-induced charge collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, H.; Kim, N.M.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of trench-oxide depth on the alpha-particle-induced charge collection is analyzed for the first time. From the simulation results, it was found that the depth of trench oxide has a considerable influence on the amount of collected charge. The confining of generated charge by the trench oxide was identified as a cause of this anomalous effect. Therefore, the tradeoff between soft error rate and cell to cell isolation characteristics should be considered in optimizing the depth of trench oxide

  9. Topical isoflavones provide effective photoprotection to skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jing-Yi; Tournas, Joshua A; Burch, James A; Monteiro-Riviere, Nancy A; Zielinski, Jan

    2008-04-01

    Isoflavones, one main group of phytoestrogens, have antioxidative and photoprotective effects in cellular and mouse studies. The aim of this study is to obtain a more comprehensive understanding of the isoflavone-mediated photoprotection with the pig skin model, a more human-resembling model. The pig skin was treated with five well-known isoflavone compounds (genistein, equol, daidzein, biochanin A, and formononetin) and one antioxidant combination solution of 15% vitamin C and 1% vitamin E and 0.5% ferulic acid (CEF) daily for 4 days. Skin was irradiated with solar-simulated UV irradiation, 1 to 5 minimal erythema dose (MED) at 1-MED intervals. Evaluation was carried out 24 h later by colorimeter-measured erythema and sunburn cell numbers. Topical application of 0.5% solutions of three individual phytoestrogens - genistein, daidzein, biochanin A - are better than similar solutions of equol or formononetin in protecting pig skin from solar-simulated ultraviolet (SSUV)-induced photodamage, as measured by sunburn cell formation and/or erythema. However, the protection was less than that provided by a topical combination antioxidant standard containing 15% L-ascorbic acid, 1%alpha-tocopherol, and 0.5% ferulic acid. Isoflavones provide effective photoprotection and are good candidate ingredients for protection against ultraviolet (UV) photodamage.

  10. Shark skin effect in creeping films

    OpenAIRE

    Scholle, M.; Aksel, N.

    2006-01-01

    If a body in a stream is provided with small ridges aligned in the local flow direction, a remarkable drag reduction can be reached under turbulent flow conditions. This surprising phenomenon is called the 'shark skin effect'. We demonstrate, that a reduction of resistance can also be reached in creeping flows if the ridges are aligned perpendicular to the flow direction. We especially consider in gravity-driven film flows the effect of the bottom topography on the mean transport velocity.

  11. Searches for clean anomalous gauge couplings effects at present and future e+e- colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Blondel, A; Trentadue, L G; Verzegnassi, Claudio

    1996-01-01

    We consider the virtual effects of a general type of Anomalous (triple) Gauge Couplings on various experimental observables in the process of electron-positron annihilation into a final fermion-antifermion state. We show that the use of a recently proposed "Z-peak subtracted" theoretical description of the process allows to reduce substantially the number of relevant parameters of the model, so that a calculation of observability limits can be performed in a rather simple way. As an illustration of our approach, we discuss the cases of future measurements at LEP2 and at a new 500 GeV linear collider.

  12. The chiral anomalous Hall effect in PdFe and AuFe alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff-Fabris, F. [NHMFL, Los Alamos National Laboratory, MS E536, Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States)], E-mail: frederikwf@lanl.gov; Pureur, P.; Schaf, J. [Instituto de Fisica, UFRGS, Caixa Postal 15051, Porto Alegre 91501970 (Brazil); Vieira, V. [Instituto de Fisica e Matematica-UFPel, Caixa Postal 354, Pelotas 96010900 (Brazil); Campbell, I.A. [Laboratoire des Colloides, Verres et Nanomateriaux, Universite Montpellier II, Montpellier 34095 (France)

    2008-04-01

    We have made systematic measurements of the anomalous Hall effect in a PdFe and AuFe alloys. The Hall coefficient R{sub h} has been measured as a function of applied magnetic field and temperature. The experimental results demonstrate that it is necessary to consider a negative contribution in addition to the canonical Karplus-Luttinger term. This difference term can be identified to the theoretically predicted chiral or real space Berry phase term and can be understood in terms of the Aharonov-Bohm-like intrinsic microscopic current loops arising from successive scatterings by canted local spins.

  13. Sun’s effect on skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    The skin uses sunlight to help manufacture vitamin D, which is important for normal bone formation. But sometimes its ultraviolet light can be ... the pigment melanin. Melanin protects skin from the sun's ultraviolet rays, which can burn the skin, and ...

  14. Quantifying the chiral magnetic effect from anomalous-viscous fluid dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yin; Shi, Shuzhe; Yin, Yi; Liao, Jinfeng

    2018-01-01

    The Chiral Magnetic Effect (CME) is a macroscopic manifestation of fundamental chiral anomaly in a many-body system of chiral fermions, and emerges as an anomalous transport current in the fluid dynamics framework. Experimental observation of the CME is of great interest and has been reported in Dirac and Weyl semimetals. Significant efforts have also been made to look for the CME in heavy ion collisions. Critically needed for such a search is the theoretical prediction for the CME signal. In this paper we report a first quantitative modeling framework, Anomalous Viscous Fluid Dynamics (AVFD), which computes the evolution of fermion currents on top of realistic bulk evolution in heavy ion collisions and simultaneously accounts for both anomalous and normal viscous transport effects. AVFD allows a quantitative understanding of the generation and evolution of CME-induced charge separation during the hydrodynamic stage, as well as its dependence on theoretical ingredients. With reasonable estimates of key parameters, the AVFD simulations provide the first phenomenologically successful explanation of the measured signal in 200 AGeV AuAu collisions. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics, within the framework of the Beam Energy Scan Theory (BEST) Topical Collaboration. The work is also supported in part by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. PHY-1352368 (SS and JL), by the National Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11735007 (JL) and by the U.S. Department of Energy under grant Contract Number No. DE- SC0012704 (BNL)/DE-SC0011090 (MIT) (YY). JL is grateful to the Institute for Nuclear Theory for hospitality during the INT-16-3 Program. The computation of this research was performed on IU’s Big Red II cluster, supported in part by Lilly Endowment, Inc. (through its support for the Indiana University Pervasive Technology Institute) and in part by the Indiana METACyt

  15. Surfactants have multi-fold effects on skin barrier function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemery, Emmanuelle; Briançon, Stéphanie; Chevalier, Yves; Oddos, Thierry; Gohier, Annie; Boyron, Olivier; Bolzinger, Marie-Alexandrine

    2015-01-01

    The stratum corneum (SC) is responsible for the barrier properties of the skin and the role of intercorneocyte skin lipids, particularly their structural organization, in controlling SC permeability is acknowledged. Upon contacting the skin, surfactants interact with the SC components leading to barrier damage. To improve knowledge of the effect of several classes of surfactant on skin barrier function at three different levels. The influence of treatments of human skin explants with six non-ionic and four ionic surfactant solutions on the physicochemical properties of skin was investigated. Skin surface wettability and polarity were assessed through contact angle measurements. Infrared spectroscopy allowed monitoring the SC lipid organization. The lipid extraction potency of surfactants was evaluated thanks to HPLC-ELSD assays. One anionic and one cationic surfactant increased the skin polarity by removing the sebaceous and epidermal lipids and by disturbing the organization of the lipid matrix. Another cationic surfactant displayed a detergency effect without disturbing the skin barrier. Several non-ionic surfactants disturbed the lipid matrix organization and modified the skin wettability without any extraction of the skin lipids. Finally two non-ionic surfactants did not show any effect on the investigated parameters or on the skin barrier. The polarity, the organization of the lipid matrix and the lipid composition of the skin allowed describing finely how surfactants can interact with the skin and disturb the skin barrier function.

  16. Anomalous size effect in conductivity of Bi films of small thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anopchenko, A.S.; Kashirin, V.Yu.; Komnik, Yu.F.

    1995-01-01

    Experimental data are obtained at helium temperature, which describe the kinetic properties (conductivity, magnetoresistance and Hall coefficient) of Bi films whose thicknesses are within 100-500 A. The small-thickness Bi films display an anomalous size effect- the growing conductivity at decreasing thickness, and pronounced quantum interference effects - weak electron localization and enhancing electron-electron interaction in a disordered system. The information derived on the kinetic properties of the films is used to identify the character of the changes in the electron and hole concentrations and mobilities with a decreasing thickness. The isotropy of the properties in the films plane due to the axial texture has permitted us to use the equations for a conductor with two types of charge carriers. The used kinetic characteristics correctly take into account the contribution of the quantum corrections related to quantum interference. It is found that the concentration of the charge carries increases appreciably (by about two orders of magnitude) as the film thickness decreases to 100 A, which determines the anomalous size effect in the conductivity of the films

  17. Tunable anomalous hall effect induced by interfacial catalyst in perpendicular multilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J. Y.; Peng, W. L.; Sun, Q. Y.; Liu, Y. W.; Dong, B. W.; Zheng, X. Q.; Yu, G. H.; Wang, C.; Zhao, Y. C.; Wang, S. G.

    2018-04-01

    The interfacial structures, playing a critical role on the transport properties and the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in thin films and multilayers, can be modified by inserting an ultrathin functional layer at the various interfaces. The anomalous Hall effect (AHE) in the multilayers with core structure of Ta/CoFeB/X/MgO/Ta (X: Hf or Pt) is tuned by interfacial catalytic engineering. The saturation anomalous Hall resistance (RAH) is increased by 16.5% with 0.1 nm Hf insertion compared with the reference sample without insertion. However, the RAH value is decreased by 9.0% with 0.1 nm Pt insertion. The interfacial states were characterized by the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The XPS results indicate that a strong bonding between Hf and O for Hf insertion, but no bonding between Pt and O for Pt insertion. The bonding between metal and oxygen leads to various oxygen migration behavior at the interfaces. Therefore, the opposite behavior about the RAH originates from the different oxygen behavior due to various interfacial insertion. This work provides a new approach to manipulate spin transport property for the potential applications.

  18. Pumping conductance, the intrinsic anomalous Hall effect, and statistics of topological invariants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlhaus, Jan; Ilan, Roni; Freed, Daniel; Freedman, Michael; Moore, Joel E.

    2015-06-01

    The pumping conductance of a disordered two-dimensional Chern insulator scales with increasing size and fixed disorder strength to sharp plateau transitions at well-defined energies between ordinary and quantum Hall insulators. When the disorder strength is scaled to zero as system size increases, the "metallic" regime of fluctuating Chern numbers can extend over the whole band. A simple argument leads to a sort of weighted equipartition of Chern number over minibands in a finite system with periodic boundary conditions: even though there must be strong fluctuations between disorder realizations, the mean Chern number at a given energy is determined by the clean Berry curvature distribution, as in the intrinsic anomalous Hall effect formula for metals. This estimate is compared to numerical results using recently developed operator algebra methods, and indeed the dominant variation of average Chern number is explained by the intrinsic anomalous Hall formula. A mathematical appendix provides more precise definitions and a model for the full distribution of Chern numbers.

  19. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Skin and Nail Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    N ational C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Skin and Nail Changes “I was glad to learn that most skin and nail problems go away after treatment. For now, my nurse told me about ...

  20. Direct construction of the effective action of chiral gauge fermions in the anomalous sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salcedo, L.L.

    2009-01-01

    The anomaly implies an obstruction to a fully chiral covariant calculation of the effective action in the abnormal-parity sector of chiral theories. The standard approach then is to reconstruct the anomalous effective action from its covariant current. In this work, we use a recently introduced formulation which allows one to directly construct the non-trivial chiral invariant part of the effective action within a fully covariant formalism. To this end we develop an appropriate version of Chan's approach to carry out the calculation within the derivative expansion. The result to four derivatives, i.e., to leading order in two and four dimensions and next-to-leading order in two dimensions, is explicitly worked out. Fairly compact expressions are found for these terms. (orig.)

  1. Scaling of Anomalous Hall Effects in Facing-Target Reactively Sputtered Fe4N Films

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Yan

    2015-05-13

    Anomalous Hall effect (AHE) in the reactively sputtered epitaxial and polycrystalline γ′-Fe4N films is investigated systematically. The Hall resistivity is positive in the entire temperature range. The magnetization, carrier density and grain boundaries scattering have a major impact on the AHE scaling law. The scaling exponent γ in the conventional scaling of is larger than 2 in both the epitaxial and polycrystalline γ′-Fe4N films. Although γ>2 has been found in heterogeneous systems due to the effects of the surface and interface scattering on AHE, γ>2 is not expected in homogenous epitaxial systems. We demonstrated that γ>2 results from residual resistivity (ρxx0) in γ′-Fe4N films. Furthermore, the side-jump and intrinsic mechanisms are dominant in both epitaxial and polycrystalline samples according to the proper scaling relation.

  2. Structure investigation of metal ions clustering in dehydrated gel using x-ray anomalous dispersion effect

    CERN Document Server

    Soejima, Y; Sugiyama, M; Annaka, M; Nakamura, A; Hiramatsu, N; Hara, K

    2003-01-01

    The structure of copper ion clusters in dehydrated N-isopropylacrylamide/sodium acrylate (NIPA/SA) gel has been studied by means of small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) method. In order to distinguish the intensity scattered by Cu ions, the X-ray anomalous dispersion effect around the Cu K absorption edge has been coupled with SAXS. It is found that the dispersion effect dependent on the incident X-ray energy is remarkable only at the momentum transfer q = 0.031 A sup - sup 1 , where a SAXS peak is observed. The results indicate that copper ions form clusters in the dehydrated gel, and that the mean size of clusters is the same as that of SA clusters produced by microphase separation. It is therefore naturally presumed that copper ions are adsorbed into the SA molecules. On the basis of the presumption, a mechanism is proposed for microphase-separation and clustering of Cu ions.

  3. Oxidized Mn:Ge magnetic semiconductor: Observation of anomalous Hall effect and large magnetoresistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duc Dung, Dang; Choi, Jiyoun; Feng, Wuwei; Cao Khang, Nguyen; Cho, Sunglae

    2018-03-01

    We report on the structural and magneto-transport properties of the as-grown and oxidized Mn:Ge magnetic semiconductors. Based on X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results, the samples annealed at 650 and 700 °C became fully oxidized and the chemical binding energies of Mn was found to be Mn3O4. Thus, the system became Mn3O4 clusters embedded in Ge1-yOy. The as-grown sample showed positive linear Hall effect and negligible negative magnetoresistance (MR), which trend remained for the sample annealed up to 550 °C. Interestingly, for the samples annealed at above 650 °C, we observed the anomalous Hall effect around 45 K and the giant positive MR, which are respectively 59.2% and 78.5% at 7 kOe annealed at 650 °C and 700 °C.

  4. Skin Exposures & Effects in the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... care Agriculture Cleaning Painting Mechanics Printing/lithography Construction Anatomy and Functions of the Skin The skin is ... Biological agents include parasites, microorganisms, plants and other animal materials. Dermal Absorption Dermal absorption is the transport ...

  5. Effects of ultraviolet irradiation on skin of guinea pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wenwen; Chen Qiang; Li Peng; Ling Ling; Lin Xiaochen; Ren Shuping; Liu Yajuan; Li Yun

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore the adverse effects of ultraviolet B (UV-B) on the skin of guinea pig. Methods: Guinea pig skin was irradiated with UV-B, the skin changes in external appearance, pathology, and the contents of OH and O 2 - produced in the skin were determined to study the adverse effects of UV-B on the guinea pig skin. Results: UV-B caused red swelling and desquamation of skin, with the increasing of the UV-B irradiation, the cells in stratum spinosum began to proliferate vigorously, the MDA and ROS contents in UVB radiation group were significantly higher than those in control group (P<0.05). Conclusion: UV-B can cause injury to guinea pig skin and has the potential to produce skin cancer. (authors)

  6. Skew scattering dominated anomalous Hall effect in Cox(MgO)100-x granular thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Qiang

    2017-07-31

    We investigated the mechanism(s) of the anomalous Hall effect (AHE) in magnetic granular materials by fabricating 100-nm-thick thin films of Cox(MgO)100-x with a Co volume fraction of 34≤x≤100 using co-sputtering at room temperature. We measured the temperature dependence of longitudinal resistivity (ρxx) and anomalous Hall resistivity (ρAHE) from 5 K to 300 K in all samples. We found that when x decreases from 100 to 34, the values of ρxx and ρAHE respectively increased by about four and three orders in magnitude. By linearly fitting the data, obtained at 5 K, of anomalous Hall coefficient (Rs) and of ρxx to log(Rs)~γlog(ρxx), we found that our results perfectly fell on a straight line with a slope of γ= 0.97±0.02. This fitting value of γ in Rsρxxγ clearly suggests that skew scattering dominated the AHE in this granular system. To explore the effect of the scattering on the AHE, we performed the same measurements on annealed samples. We found that although both ρxx and ρAHE significantly reduced after annealing, the correlation between them was almost the same, which was confirmed by the fitted value, γ=0.99±0.03. These data strongly suggest that the AHE originates from the skew scattering in Co-MgO granular thin films no matter how strong the scatterings of electrons by the interfaces and defects is. This observation may be of importance to the development of spintronic devices based on MgO.

  7. Effective field theory of an anomalous Hall metal from interband quantum fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Victor; Assawasunthonnet, Wathid; Fradkin, Eduardo

    2017-07-01

    We construct an effective field theory, a two-dimensional two-component metallic system described by a model with two Fermi surfaces ("pockets"). This model describes a translationally invariant metallic system with two types of fermions, each with its own Fermi surface, with forward scattering interactions. This model, in addition to the O (2 ) rotational invariance, has a U (1 )×U (1 ) symmetry of separate charge conservation for each Fermi surface. For sufficiently attractive interactions in the d -wave (quadrupolar) channel, this model has an interesting phase diagram that includes a spontaneously generated anomalous Hall metal phase. We derive the Landau-Ginzburg effective action of quadrupolar order parameter fields which enjoys an O (2 )×U (1 ) global symmetry associated to spatial isotropy and the internal U (1 ) relative phase symmetries, respectively. We show that the order parameter theory is dynamically local with a dynamical scaling of z =2 and perform a one-loop renormalization group analysis of the Landau-Ginzburg theory. The electronic liquid crystal phases that result from spontaneous symmetry breaking are studied and we show the presence of Landau damped Nambu-Goldstone modes at low momenta that is a signature of non-Fermi-liquid behavior. Electromagnetic linear response is also analyzed in both the normal and symmetry broken phases from the point of view of the order parameter theory. The nature of the coupling of electromagnetism to the order parameter fields in the normal phase is non-minimal and decidedly contains a precursor to the anomalous Hall response in the form of a order-parameter-dependent Chern-Simons term in the effective action.

  8. Investigation of the spin Seebeck effect and anomalous Nernst effect in a bulk carbon material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongjom, Poramed; Pinitsoontorn, Supree

    2018-03-01

    Since the discovery of the spin Seebeck effect (SSE) in 2008, it has become one of the most active topics in the spin caloritronics research field. It opened up a new way to create the spin current by a combination of magnetic fields and heat. The SSE was observed in many kinds of materials including metallic, semiconductor, or insulating magnets, as well as non-magnetic materials. On the other hand, carbon-based materials have become one of the most exciting research areas recently due to its low cost, abundance and some exceptional functionalities. In this work, we have investigated the possibility of the SSE in bulk carbon materials for the first time. Thin platinum film (Pt), coated on the smoothened surface of the bulk carbon, was used as the spin detector via the inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE). The experiment for observing longitudinal SSE in the bulk carbon was set up by applying a magnetic field up to 30 kOe to the sample with the direction perpendicular to the applied temperature gradient. The induced voltage from the SSE was extracted. However, for conductive materials, e.g. carbon, the voltage signal under this set up could be a combination of the SSE and the anomalous Nernst effect (ANE). Therefore, two measurement configurations were carried out, i.e. the in-plane magnetization (IM), and the perpendicular-to-plane magnetization (PM). For the IM configuration, the SSE + ANE signals were detected where as the only ANE signal existed in the PM configuration. The results showed that there were the differences between the voltage signals from the IM and PM configurations implying the possibility of the SSE in the bulk carbon material. Moreover, it was found that the difference in the IM and PM signals was a function of the magnetic field strength, temperature difference, and measurement temperature. Although the magnitude of the possible SSE voltage in this experiment was rather low (less than 0.5 μV at 50 K), this research showed that potential of using

  9. Evaluation of anionic surfactants effects on the skin barrier function based on skin permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okasaka, Mana; Kubota, Koji; Yamasaki, Emi; Yang, Jianzhong; Takata, Sadaki

    2018-01-23

    Anionic surfactants are often used for cleaning and pharmaceutical purposes because of their strong surfactancy and foaming property. However, they are rarely ingested orally, the skin is a part of the human body most affected by surfactants. Barrier function of the skin is very strong, but the anionic surfactants can cause serious damages to it. Recently, amino acid-based surfactants have attracted attention as a safer option owing to their biocompatibility. Cytotoxicity examinations revealed that the amino acid-based surfactants are superior to sulfate-based surfactants. However, a systematical and comprehensive study related to the effect of these surfactants on skin barrier function has not yet been reported. In this work, skin permeation test using the skin of hairless mice and HPLC method is carried out. The material transmission speed through skin in a steady state was different between each surfactant treatment. We performed a comprehensive analysis of the effect of surfactants on skin barrier function and defined Transmission Index as an index for the degree of effect of surfactants. Glutamate series amino acid-based surfactant were effective to Transmission Index and we guessed the cause was due to adsorption. Based on the finding this study, we suggest using adsorptive property as a measure to the effect on the skin barrier function.

  10. Anomalous dispersion effects in the IR-ATR spectroscopy of water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hancer, Mehmet [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, 412 William C. Browning Building, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States); Sperline, Roger P. [4600 N. Ave. del Cazador, Tucson, Arizona 85718 (United States); Miller, Jan D. [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, 412 William C. Browning Building, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The distortion of band shapes seen in infrared attenuated total reflection (IR-ATR) spectroscopy of strongly absorbing materials such as water, relative to transmission sampling, is shown here to be due to the anomalous dispersion (AD) of water. This distortion occurs in addition to the normal 1/{nu} dependence, and, contrary to previous reports, is shown to not be due to chemical changes of water at the interface between the optical element and bulk solution. IR-ATR spectra of water were modeled with approximation-free calculations. The modeled spectra are compared with experimental ATR spectra for different internal reflection elements, and the results are discussed in terms of the AD optical effect. (c) 2000 Society for Applied Spectroscopy.

  11. Anomalous Brownian motion of colloidal particle in a nematic environment: effect of the director fluctuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Turiv

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available As recently reported [Turiv T. et al., Science, 2013, Vol. 342, 1351], fluctuations in the orientation of the liquid crystal (LC director can transfer momentum from the LC to a colloid, such that the diffusion of the colloid becomes anomalous on a short time scale. Using video microscopy and single particle tracking, we investigate random thermal motion of colloidal particles in a nematic liquid crystal for the time scales shorter than the expected time of director fluctuations. At long times, compared to the characteristic time of the nematic director relaxation we observe typical anisotropic Brownian motion with the mean square displacement (MSD linear in time τ and inversly proportional to the effective viscosity of the nematic medium. At shorter times, however, the dynamics is markedly nonlinear with MSD growing more slowly (subdiffusion or faster (superdiffusion than τ. These results are discussed in the context of coupling of colloidal particle's dynamics to the director fluctuation dynamics.

  12. Anomalous Hall effect and magnetoresistance behavior in Co/Pd1−xAgx multilayers

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Z. B.

    2013-02-13

    In this paper, we report anomalous Hall effect (AHE) correlated with the magnetoresistance behavior in [Co/Pd1-xAg x]n multilayers. For the multilayers with n = 6, the increase in Ag content from x = 0 to 0.52 induces the change in AHE sign from negative surface scattering-dominated AHE to positive interface scattering-dominated AHE, which is accompanied with the transition from anisotropy magnetoresistance (AMR) dominated transport to giant magnetoresistance (GMR) dominated transport. For n = 80, scaling analysis with Rs ∝ρ xx γ yields γ ∼ 3.44 for x = 0.52 which presents GMR-type transport, in contrast to γ ∼ 5.7 for x = 0 which presents AMR-type transport. © 2013 American Institute of Physics.

  13. Low-energy effective field theory below the electroweak scale: anomalous dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Elizabeth E.; Manohar, Aneesh V.; Stoffer, Peter

    2018-01-01

    We compute the one-loop anomalous dimensions of the low-energy effective Lagrangian below the electroweak scale, up to terms of dimension six. The theory has 70 dimension-five and 3631 dimension-six Hermitian operators that preserve baryon and lepton number, as well as additional operators that violate baryon number and lepton number. The renormalization group equations for the quark and lepton masses and the QCD and QED gauge couplings are modified by dimension-five and dimension-six operator contributions. We compute the renormalization group equations from one insertion of dimension-five and dimension-six operators, as well as two insertions of dimension-five operators, to all terms of dimension less than or equal to six. The use of the equations of motion to eliminate operators can be ambiguous, and we show how to resolve this ambiguity by a careful use of field redefinitions.

  14. Skin and glucocorticoids: effects of local skin glucocorticoid impairment on skin homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolakis, Georgios; Zouboulis, Christos C

    2014-11-01

    The role of skin as a de novo source of glucocorticoids and the importance of cutaneous glucocorticoidogenesis as a homeostatic mechanism in human skin is highlighted by Slominski et al. in a recently published issue. Impairment of glucocorticoidogenesis through noxious stimuli, such as UVB, can explain pathophysiology of skin diseases (e.g. rosacea). In addition to keratinocytes, melanocytes and fibroblasts, cutaneous adnexes also play a significant role as targets and sources of glucocorticoids, because they express most of the enzymes required for steroidogenesis. Glucocorticoids are also involved in the pathogenesis of acne lesions, affecting sebum production in vivo and in vitro. Certain steroidogenic enzymes, such as 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, are upregulated in acne lesions. On this background, the paper by Slominski et al. provides further insights into dermatoendocrinology, with emphasis on the importance of an impairment of the skin's own hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-like axis in the pathophysiology of several skin diseases. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Anisotropic magnetoresistance and anomalous Nernst effect in exchange biased permalloy/(1 0 0) NiO single-crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holanda, J., E-mail: joseholanda@df.ufpe.br; Maior, D.S.; Azevedo, A.; Rezende, S.M.

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • We have investigated the anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) and the anomalous Nernst effect (ANE) in an exchange-biased bilayer Py/(100) NiO single-Crystal. • The shift of the hysteresis loop, measured with the different techniques, yield approximately the same value of H{sub EB}. • In spite of the measurement techniques be based in different physical phenomena, our results confirm the robustness of the exchange anisotropy at the Py/NiO interface. • The strength of the anomalous Nernst effect for the exchange-biased permalloy film is compared to values measured in non biased films. - Abstract: We have investigated the anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) and the anomalous Nernst effect (ANE) in an exchange-biased bilayer consisting of a thin film of permalloy deposited on a single crystal antiferromagnetic NiO (1 0 0). The exchange bias field (H{sub EB}) value was obtained by means of AMR, ANE and magnetization hysteresis measurements. The shift of the hysteresis loop, measured with the three different techniques, yield approximately the same value of H{sub EB.} In spite of the measurement techniques be based in different physical phenomena, our results confirm the robustness of the exchange anisotropy at the Py/NiO interface. The strength of the anomalous Nernst effect for the exchange-biased permalloy film is compared to values measured in non biased films.

  16. Effects of air pollution on the skin: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Poonam; Nandar, Shashi Kumar; Kathuria, Sushruta; Ramesh, V

    2017-01-01

    The increase in air pollution over the years has had major effects on the human skin. Various air pollutants such as ultraviolet radiation, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, volatile organic compounds, oxides, particulate matter, ozone and cigarette smoke affect the skin as it is the outermost barrier. Air pollutants damage the skin by inducing oxidative stress. Although human skin acts as a biological shield against pro-oxidative chemicals and physical air pollutants, prolonged or repetitive exposure to high levels of these pollutants may have profound negative effects on the skin. Exposure to ultraviolet radiation has been associated with extrinsic skin aging and skin cancers. Cigarette smoke contributes to premature aging and an increase in the incidence of psoriasis, acne and skin cancers. It is also implicated in allergic skin conditions such as atopic dermatitis and eczema. Polyaromatic hydrocarbons are associated with extrinsic skin aging, pigmentation, cancers and acneiform eruptions. Volatile organic compounds have been associated with atopic dermatitis. Given the increasing levels of air pollution and its detrimental effects on the skin, it is advisable to use strategies to decrease air pollution.

  17. Reentrant quantum anomalous Hall effect with in-plane magnetic fields in HgMnTe quantum wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hsiu-Chuan; Liu, Xin; Liu, Chao-Xing

    2013-08-01

    The quantum anomalous Hall effect has been predicted in HgMnTe quantum wells with an out-of-plane magnetization of Mn atoms. However, since HgMnTe quantum wells are paramagnetic, an out-of-plane magnetic field is required to polarize magnetic moments of Mn atoms, which inevitably induces Landau levels and makes it difficult to identify the origin of the quantized Hall conductance experimentally. In this work, we study the quantum anomalous Hall effect in the presence of an in-plane magnetic field in Mn-doped HgTe quantum wells. For a small out-of-plane magnetic field, the in-plane magnetic field can drive the system from a normal insulating state to a quantum anomalous Hall state. When the out-of-plane magnetic field is slightly above the transition point, the system shows a reentrant behavior of Hall conductance, varying from -e2/h to 0 and back to -e2/h, with increasing in-plane magnetic fields. The reentrant quantum anomalous Hall effect originates from the interplay between the exchange coupling of magnetic moments and the direct Zeeman coupling of magnetic fields. The calculation incorporating Landau levels shows that there is no qualitative change of the reentrant behavior.

  18. Extremely Large Magnetoresistance at Low Magnetic Field by Coupling the Nonlinear Transport Effect and the Anomalous Hall Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhaochu; Xiong, Chengyue; Zhang, Xu; Guo, Zhen-Gang; Cai, Jianwang; Zhang, Xiaozhong

    2016-04-13

    The anomalous Hall effect of a magnetic material is coupled to the nonlinear transport effect of a semiconductor material in a simple structure to achieve a large geometric magnetoresistance (MR) based on a diode-assisted mechanism. An extremely large MR (>10(4) %) at low magnetic fields (1 mT) is observed at room temperature. This MR device shows potential for use as a logic gate for the four basic Boolean logic operations. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Antibacterial effect of glycerol as preservative on donor skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Baare, J.; Ligtvoet, E.E.J.; Middelkoop, E.

    1999-01-01

    Glycerolised cadavetic allografts have been used widely since 1984 in the treatment of bum wounds. Rejections reaction to glycerolised skin were reported to be attenuated. Structural integrity of the skin was maintained and antiviral and antibacterial effects were noted. The Euro Skin Bank has gathered approximately 2000 data since 1987 concerning bacteriology cultures of glycerolised skin. These data are presented. Bacteriological data from skin donors were examined from 1987 till 1995 (1927 data). Donor skin sent to the laboratory and found to be positive for bacteria was quarantined and another container with skin samples was sent to the laboratory at a later time point. This was repeated until all cultures were negative. In 1987, 25 donors were processed without using antibiotics. These results were compared with donor skin treated with antibiotics. The average day for first culture was 19.7 ? 17.2. The average percentage of contaminated skin was 10.1? 3.7%. Antibiotics reduced contamination of glycerolised skin from 80% to 10.1%. Glycerol treatment also showed an antibacterial effect as all contaminated skin eventually became negative. Of the contaminated skin Staphylococcus epidermidis was found most frequently: in 70.7 ? 10.8% of the cases. Not all bacteria are equally sensitive to glycerol: Staphylococcus epidennidis contaminated skin became sterile after 48?24 days, whereas for Bacillus species it took 195? 1 37.9 days. We show that glycerol preservation of donor skin has important advantages over conservative methods such as cryopreservation. Initial contamination of the skin is no longer a reason to discard the material. Prolonged storage in glycerol will eliminate bacterial contamination. This allows an increase in yield of at least 10%

  20. Moisturizing and antisebum effect of cosmetic application on facial skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yan; Dong, Yiyang; Dong, Meixian; Wang, Chao; Sun, Yuantao; Su, Ning; Liu, Juan; Zheng, Hongyan; Yang, Xiaoran; Li, Jing; Andreas, Schrader; Rohr, Mathias; Liu, Wei

    2007-09-01

    Water content of the stratum corneum and skin surface lipids are important factors in the appearance and function of skin. High water content and low sebum secretion are considered main features of fair skin. Aim This paper aims to study the change of skin physiological parameters after cosmetic application. The skin water content, transepidermal water loss, and skin sebum secretion on different regions of the facial skin before and after the cosmetic application were measured using Corneometer, Tewameter, and Sebumeter, respectively. The cosmetics kept higher water content and lower transepidermal water loss, at the same time lower sebum secretion 4 and 8 h after the cosmetic application, compared with those before it. The situation was maintained in the following 3-week continuous use of the cosmetics. The cosmetic application on human facial skin could provide some moisturizing effect and at the same time some antisebum effect according to different regions on facial skin, which favored the maintenance of good skin physiological function after applying skin care products.

  1. Vehicle effects on human stratum corneum absorption and skin penetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Alissa; Jung, Eui-Chang; Zhu, Hanjiang; Zou, Ying; Hui, Xiaoying; Maibach, Howard

    2017-05-01

    This study evaluated the effects of three vehicles-ethanol (EtOH), isopropyl alcohol (IPA), and isopropyl myristate (IPM)-on stratum corneum (SC) absorption and diffusion of the [ 14 C]-model compounds benzoic acid and butenafine hydrochloride to better understand the transport pathways of chemicals passing through and resident in SC. Following application of topical formulations to human dermatomed skin for 30 min, penetration flux was observed for 24 h post dosing, using an in vitro flow-through skin diffusion system. Skin absorption and penetration was compared to the chemical-SC (intact, delipidized, or SC lipid film) binding levels. A significant vehicle effect was observed for chemical skin penetration and SC absorption. IPA resulted in the greatest levels of intact SC/SC lipid absorption, skin penetration, and total skin absorption/penetration of benzoic acid, followed by IPM and EtOH, respectively. For intact SC absorption and total skin absorption/penetration of butenafine, the vehicle that demonstrated the highest level of sorption/penetration was EtOH, followed by IPA and IPM, respectively. The percent doses of butenafine that were absorbed in SC lipid film and penetrated through skin in 24 h were greatest for IPA, followed by EtOH and IPM, respectively. The vehicle effect was consistent between intact SC absorption and total chemical skin absorption and penetration, as well as SC lipid absorption and chemical penetration through skin, suggesting intercellular transport as a main pathway of skin penetration for model chemicals. These results suggest the potential to predict vehicle effects on skin permeability with simple SC absorption assays. As decontamination was applied 30 min after chemical exposure, significant vehicle effects on chemical SC partitioning and percutaneous penetration also suggest that skin decontamination efficiency is vehicle dependent, and an effective decontamination method should act on chemical solutes in the lipid domain.

  2. IUPAP C-10 Award Talk: From Topological Insulators to Quantum Anomalous Hall Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Cui-Zu

    The quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) effect can be considered as the quantum Hall (QH) effect without external magnetic field, which can be realized by time reversal symmetry breaking in a topologically non-trivial system. A QAH system carries spin-polarized dissipationless chiral edge transport channels without the need for external energy input, hence may have huge impact on future electronic and spintronic device applications for ultralow-power consumption. The many decades quest for the experimental realization of QAH phenomenon became a possibility in 2006 with the discovery of topological insulators (TIs). In 2013, the QAH effect was observed in thin films of Cr-doped TI for the first time. Two years later in a near ideal system, V-doped TI, contrary to the negative prediction from first principle calculations, a high-precision QAH quantization with more robust magnetization and a perfectly dissipationless chiral current flow was demonstrated. In this talk, I will introduce the route to the experimental observation of the QAH effect in above-mentioned two systems, and discuss the zero magnetic field dissipationless edge current flow as well as the origin of the dissipative channels in the QAH state. Finally I will talk about our recent progress on the QAH insulator-Anderson insulator quantum phase transition and its scaling behaviors.

  3. Side Effects: Skin and Nail Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer treatments can cause skin to become dry, itchy, red, or peel. Nails may become dark, yellow, or cracked. Learn about signs of skin problems that may need urgent medical care. Get a helpful list of questions to ask your doctor.

  4. Abelian and non-Abelian anyons in integer quantum anomalous Hall effect and topological phase transitions via superconducting proximity effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuele; Wang, Ziqiang; Xie, X. C.; Yu, Yue

    2011-03-01

    We study the quantum anomalous Hall effect described by a class of two-component Haldane models on square lattices. We show that the latter can be transformed into a pseudospin triplet p+ip-wave paired superfluid. In the long wavelength limit, the ground-state wave function is described by Halperin’s (1,1,-1) state of neutral fermions analogous to the double-layer quantum Hall effect. The vortex excitations are charge e/2 Abelian anyons which carry a neutral Dirac fermion zero mode. The superconducting proximity effect induces “tunneling” between “layers” which leads to topological phase transitions whereby the Dirac fermion zero mode fractionalizes and Majorana fermions emerge in the edge states. The charge e/2 vortex excitation carrying a Majorana zero mode is a non-Abelian anyon. The proximity effect can also drive a conventional insulator into a quantum anomalous Hall effect state with a Majorana edge mode and the non-Abelian vortex excitations.

  5. Highly-ordered wide bandgap materials for quantized anomalous Hall and magnetoelectric effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otrokov, M. M.; Menshchikova, T. V.; Vergniory, M. G.; Rusinov, I. P.; Vyazovskaya, A. Yu; Koroteev, Yu M.; Bihlmayer, G.; Ernst, A.; Echenique, P. M.; Arnau, A.; Chulkov, E. V.

    2017-06-01

    An interplay of spin-orbit coupling and intrinsic magnetism is known to give rise to the quantum anomalous Hall and topological magnetoelectric effects under certain conditions. Their realization could open access to low power consumption electronics as well as many fundamental phenomena like image magnetic monopoles, Majorana fermions and others. Unfortunately, being realized very recently, these effects are only accessible at extremely low temperatures and the lack of appropriate materials that would enable the temperature increase is a most severe challenge. Here, we propose a novel material platform with unique combination of properties making it perfectly suitable for the realization of both effects at elevated temperatures. The key element of the computational material design is an extension of a topological insulator (TI) surface by a thin film of ferromagnetic insulator, which is both structurally and compositionally compatible with the TI. Following this proposal we suggest a variety of specific systems and discuss their numerous advantages, in particular wide band gaps with the Fermi level located in the gap.

  6. Anomalous effect of ion velocity on track formation in GeS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szenes, G., E-mail: szenesgyorgy@caesar.elte.hu [Department of Materials Physics, Eötvös University, P.O. Box 32, H-1518 Budapest (Hungary); Pécz, B. [Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 1525 Budapest, P.O. Box 49 (Hungary)

    2016-12-15

    Systematic experiments were performed for studying the effect of the projectile velocity (velocity effect, VE) in GeS which has a highly anisotropic conductivity. The prethinned specimens were irradiated by Bi, Au, W, Xe, Ag, Kr, Ni and Fe ions of about E ≈ 1 MeV/nucleon energy. Track radii were measured by transmission electron microscopy. Compared to previous experiments performed with high velocity projectile, there is a marked VE for S{sub e} > 20 keV/nm (S{sub e} – electronic stopping power). However, the VE is gradually reduced and finally disappears as S{sub e} decreases. This effect is described for the first time. The predictions according to the Analytical Thermal Spike Model are in excellent quantitative agreement with the experiments in the range S{sub e} > 20 keV/nm. The anomalous behavior of track evolution at lower values of S{sub e} is attributed to the combination of semiconducting and insulating properties. An explanation of the VE is given based on the Coulomb explosion model.

  7. The foreign exchange market: return distributions, multifractality, anomalous multifractality and the Epps effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drożdż, Stanisław; Kwapień, Jarosław; Oświȩcimka, Paweł; Rak, Rafał

    2010-10-01

    We present a systematic study of various statistical characteristics of high-frequency returns from the foreign exchange market. This study is based on six exchange rates forming two triangles: EUR-GBP-USD and GBP-CHF-JPY. It is shown that the exchange rate return fluctuations for all of the pairs considered are well described by the non-extensive statistics in terms of q-Gaussians. There exist some small quantitative variations in the non-extensivity q-parameter values for different exchange rates (which depend also on the time scales studied), and this can be related to the importance of a given exchange rate in the world's currency trade. Temporal correlations organize the series of returns such that they develop the multifractal characteristics for all of the exchange rates, with a varying degree of symmetry of the singularity spectrum f(α), however. The most symmetric spectrum is identified for the GBP/USD. We also form time series of triangular residual returns and find that the distributions of their fluctuations develop disproportionately heavier tails as compared to small fluctuations, which excludes description in terms of q-Gaussians. The multifractal characteristics of these residual returns reveal such anomalous properties as negative singularity exponents and even negative singularity spectra. Such anomalous multifractal measures have so far been considered in the literature in connection with diffusion-limited aggregation and with turbulence. Studying the cross-correlations among different exchange rates, we found that market inefficiency on short time scales leads to the occurrence of the Epps effect on much longer time scales, but comparable to the ones for the stock market. Although the currency market is much more liquid than the stock markets and has a much greater transaction frequency, the building up of correlations takes up to several hours—a duration that does not differ much from what is observed in the stock markets. This may suggest

  8. Anomalous hydrodynamics in two dimensions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Anomalous hydrodynamics; gauge anomaly; gravitational anomaly. PACS No. 47.10.ab. The chiral anomaly has played a ubiquitous role in modern physics. It has found appli- cations in several diverse fields like quantum wires, quantum Hall effect, chiral magnetic effect and anomalous hydrodynamics, to name ...

  9. Magnetoresistance and anomalous Hall effect of reactive sputtered polycrystalline Ti1 - XCrxN films

    KAUST Repository

    Duan, Xiaofei

    2013-09-01

    The reactive-sputtered polycrystalline Ti1 - xCrxN films with 0.17 ≤ x ≤ 0.51 are ferromagnetic and at x = 0.47 the Curie temperature TC shows a maximum of ~ 120 K. The films are metallic at 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.47, while the films with x = 0.51 and 0.78 are semiconducting-like. The upturn of resistivity below 70 K observed in the films with 0.10 ≤ x ≤ 0.47 is from the effects of the electron-electron interaction and weak localization. The negative magnetoresistance (MR) of the films with 0.10 ≤ x ≤ 0.51 is dominated by the double-exchange interaction, while at x = 0.78, MR is related to the localized magnetic moment scattering at the grain boundaries. The scaling ρxyA/n ∝ ρxx2.19 suggests that the anomalous Hall effect in the polycrystalline Ti1 - xCrxN films is scattering-independent. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. [Effects of frictional properties on traumas of rabbit skin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Qu, Shuxin; Kong, Mei; Zhou, Zhongrong

    2008-04-01

    Simulative experiments on skin traumas between prosthetic socket materials and residual limb skin were investigated by using the means of tribology, histology and animal experiment. Healthy adult rabbits were used as animal model and their denuded back skin was selected as experimental position to simulate residual limb skin. The effects of different normal load and reciprocal sliding frequency on rabbit skin trauma grade were investigated by using a reciprocal sliding skin friction testing apparatus to simulate prosthesis gait. The traumatic subcutaneous tissue slice was stained with hematoxylineosin and the morphology was observed under the optical microscope. The scab thickness of traumatic skin was measured under x 10 object lens. The inflammatory cells were counted in a given visual field under x 20 object lens. The statistical significance analysis of scab thickness and inflammatory cells were carried out to assess the effect of different frictional conditions on skin pathological traumas. The results showed: the greater normal load and higher reciprocal sliding frequency applied on the rabbit skin, the more serious injury to skin and more inflammatory cells in the subcutaneous tissue at the same time. The findings provide a theoretical basis of comfortized prosthesis design and gait analysis for the amputee.

  11. Effect of tannic acid on skin barrier function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Tomoya; Yoshida, Naoki; Yasoshima, Mitsue; Kojima, Yoshihiko

    2017-12-06

    In this study, we investigated how tannic acid (TA) protects the skin from inflammation caused by external irritation. The effects of TA were evaluated using a mouse 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA)-induced skin inflammation model and a reconstructed human epidermal model. We then used Lucifer Yellow for visual confirmation of TA's suppression effect at the stratum corneum (SC) surface. TA treatment of the skin prevented Lucifer Yellow from permeating the skin. This result suggests that TA acts as a barrier against external stimulants such as TPA and artificial sweat on the SC surface. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Skin moisturizing effects of panthenol-based formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Flávio B; Gaspar, Lorena R; Maia Campos, Patrícia M B G

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the skin moisturizing efficacy of formulations containing different concentrations of panthenol. Formulations supplemented with or without 0.5%, 1.0%, or 5.0% panthenol were applied daily to the forearms of healthy subjects. Skin conditions in terms of moisture and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) were analyzed before and after 15- and 30-day periods of application. The formulations were also applied after skin washing with sodium laureth sulphate (SLES) to evaluate the immediate effects on TEWL and skin moisture. Panthenol-containing formulations (1.0% and 5.0%) produced significant decreases in TEWL after 30-day applications. In skin washed with SLES, significant reduction of TEWL was evident two hours after application of formulations loaded with panthenol when compared with control and vehicle. It is concluded that skin integrity is maintained by the improved protective effect of 1.0% panthenol added to the formulation.

  13. Clinical and histological effects of blue light on normal skin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinpenning, M.M.; Smits, T.; Frunt, M.H.A.; Erp, P.E.J. van; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de; Gerritsen, R.M.

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Phototherapy with visible light is gaining interest in dermatological practice. Theoretically, blue light could induce biological effects comparable to ultraviolet A (UVA) radiation. OBJECTIVES: To study the effects of blue light on normal skin in terms of photodamage, skin ageing and

  14. The Binary Offset Effect in CCDs: an Anomalous Readout Artifact Affecting Most Astronomical CCDs in Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Kyle Robert; Aldering, Gregory; Copin, Yannick; Dixon, Samantha; Domagalski, Rachel; Gangler, Emmanuel; Pecontal, Emmanuel; Perlmutter, Saul; Nearby Supernova Factory Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    We discovered an anomalous behavior of CCD readout electronics that affects their use in many astronomical applications, which we call the “binary offset effect”. Due to feedback in the readout electronics, an offset is introduced in the values read out for each pixel that depends on the binary encoding of the previously read-out pixel values. One consequence of this effect is that a pathological local background offset can be introduced in images that only appears where science data are present on the CCD. The amplitude of this introduced offset does not scale monotonically with the amplitude of the objects in the image, and can be up to 4.5 ADU per pixel for certain instruments. Additionally, this background offset will be shifted by several pixels from the science data, potentially distorting the shape of objects in the image. We tested 22 instruments for signs of the binary offset effect and found evidence of it in 16 of them, including LRIS and DEIMOS on the Keck telescopes, WFC3-UVIS and STIS on HST, MegaCam on CFHT, SNIFS on the UH88 telescope, GMOS on the Gemini telescopes, HSC on Subaru, and FORS on VLT. A large amount of archival data is therefore affected by the binary offset effect, and conventional methods of reducing CCD images do not measure or remove the introduced offsets. As a demonstration of how to correct for the binary offset effect, we have developed a model that can accurately predict and remove the introduced offsets for the SNIFS instrument on the UH88 telescope. Accounting for the binary offset effect is essential for precision low-count astronomical observations with CCDs.

  15. The framing effect and skin conductance responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick eRing

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Individuals often rely on simple heuristics when they face complex choice situations under uncertainty. Traditionally, it has been proposed that cognitive processes are the main driver to evaluate different choice options and finally to reach a decision. Growing evidence, however, highlights a strong interrelation between judgment and decision-making (JDM on the one hand, and emotional processes on the other hand. This also seems to apply to judgmental heuristics, i.e. decision-processes that are typically considered to be fast and intuitive. In this study, participants are exposed to different probabilities of receiving an unpleasant electric shock. Information about electric shock probabilities is either positively or negatively framed. Integrated skin conductance responses (ISCRs while waiting for electric shock realization are used as an indicator for participants' emotional arousal. This measure is compared to objective probabilities. I find evidence for a relation between emotional body reactions measured by ISCRs and the framing effect. Under negative frames, participants show significantly higher ISCRs while waiting for an electric shock to be delivered than under positive frames. This result might contribute to a better understanding of the psychological processes underlying JDM. Further studies are necessary to reveal the causality underlying this finding, i.e. whether emotional processes influence JDM or vice versa.

  16. Anomalous magnetoresistance effect in sputtered TbFeCo relating to dispersed magnetic moment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yumoto, S.; Toki, K.; Okada, O.; Gokan, H.

    1988-01-01

    The electric resistance is sputtered TbFeCo has been measured at room temperature as a function of magnetic field perpendicular to the film plane. Two kinds of anomalous magnetoresistance have been observed. One is a magnetoresistance peak in the magnetization reversal region. The other is reversible change proportional to the applied magnetic field, appearing in the other region. The magnetoresistance peak agrees well with a curve calculated from experimental Hall loop, using a phenomenological relation between anomalous magnetoresistance and anomalous Hall voltage. The magnetoresistance peak is found to originate from magnetic domain walls. The linear magnetoresistance change for TM dominant samples appears in a direction opposite to that for RE dominant samples. The linear change can't be derived from Hall loop

  17. Anomalous Hall effect in ion-beam sputtered Co2FeAl full Heusler alloy thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Sajid; Kumar, Ankit; Akansel, Serkan; Svedlindh, Peter; Chaudhary, Sujeet

    2017-11-01

    Investigations of temperature dependent anomalous Hall effect and longitudinal resistivity in Co2FeAl (CFA) thin films grown on Si(1 0 0) at different substrate temperature Ts are reported. The scaling of the anomalous Hall conductivity (AHC) and the associated phenomenological mechanisms (intrinsic and extrinsic) are analyzed vis-à-vis influence of Ts. The intrinsic contribution to AHC is found to be dominating over the extrinsic one. The appearance of a resistivity minimum at low temperature necessitates the inclusion of quantum corrections on account of weak localization and electron-electron scattering effects whose strength reduces with increase in Ts. The study establishes that the optimization of Ts plays an important role in the improvement of atomic ordering which indicates the higher strength of spin-orbit coupling and leads to the dominant intrinsic contribution to AHC in these CFA full Heusler alloy thin films.

  18. Anomalous lightning activity over the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo due to urban effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, W. R. G.; Pinto, O., Jr.; Naccarato, K. P.; Pinto, I. R. C. A.

    2009-02-01

    A significant enhancement in the number of negative cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning and a decrease in the percentage of positive CG flashes are observed over the city of São Paulo, similar to observations in other large urban areas. Strong evidence indicates that this anomalous behavior results from several mechanisms related to the urban effect. In this paper, we investigated the importance of the air pollution using CG lightning data provided by the Brazilian lightning detection network (BrasilDAT) for a 6-year period (1999-2004). Due to the large variations in the CG lightning activity in response to different meteorological processes, it is not an easy task to infer the contribution of air pollution to the enhancement in the lightning activity. In order to overcome such difficulty, two approaches were considered: (1) the weekly variation of the number of days with lightning in comparison to the mean concentration of particulate matter (PM 10), as well as other thermodynamical parameters; (2) the variation of the number of CG flashes and the maximum storm flash rate per individual thunderstorm for different levels of pollution. The results of both analyses suggest that: first, the enhancement in the CG lightning activity during the week days over São Paulo metropolitan region is related to the PM 10 concentration (pollution); second, the PM 10 concentration tends to increase the lifetime of the storms and, in consequence, the number of flashes per storm, and not the flash rate of the thunderstorm; and third, the effect of the pollution in the enhancement of the CG lightning activity is probably less significant compared to the effect of the urban heat island.

  19. Solar Wind MHD Turbulence: Anomalous Scaling and Intermittency Effects in the Slow and Fast Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, C.; Mangeney, A.; Bale, S. D.

    2007-12-01

    Although considerable progress has been made in the understanding of MHD turbulence over the past few decades through the analysis of in-situ solar wind data, two of the primary problems of solar wind MHD turbulence that still remain a puzzle are the nature of the nonlinear energy cascade, and the strong intermittent character of solar wind fluctuations in the inertial range. This intermittency modifies significantly the scaling exponents of actual power-law spectra, which are directly related to the physical nature of the energy cascade taking place in the solar wind. The identification of the most intermittent structures and their relation to dissipation represents then a crucial problem in the framework of turbulence. Anomalous scaling of both solar wind magnetic field and velocity fluctuations in the inertial range, as well as intermittency effects have recently been investigated in detail using Wavelet transforms on simultaneous WIND 3s resolution particle and magnetic field data from the 3DP and the MFi experiments respectively. Specifically, the Haar Wavelet transform is used to compute spectra, structure functions and probability distribution functions (PDFs). This powerful technique allows: (1) for a systematic study of intermittency effects on these spectra, structure functions and PDFs, thus for a clear determination of the actual scaling properties in the inertial range, and (2) for a direct and systematic identification of the most active, singular structures responsible for the intermittency in the solar wind. The analysis of structure functions and PDFs, as well as new results on the nature of the intermittent coherent structures will be presented. The turbulent properties and intermittency effects in different solar wind regimes will be also discussed.

  20. Local orbitals approach to the anomalous Hall and Nernst effects in itinerant ferromagnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Středa Pavel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Linear response of the orbital momentum to the gradient of the chemical potential is used to obtain anomalous Hall conductivity. Transition from the ideal Bloch system for which the conductivity is determined by the Berry phase curvatures to the case of strong disorder for which the conductivity becomes dependent on the relaxation time is analysed. Presented tight-binding model reproduces experimentally observed qualitative features of the anomalous Hall conductivity and the transverse Peltier coefficient in the so called bad-metal and scattering-independent regimes.

  1. Research surface resistance of copper normal and abnormal skin-effects depending on the frequency of electromagnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutovyi, V.A.; Komir, A.I.

    2013-01-01

    The results of the frequency dependence of surface resistance of copper in diffuse and specular reflection of electrons from the conductive surface of the high-frequency resonance of the system depending on the frequency of the electromagnetic field in the normal and anomalous skin effect. Found, the surface resistance of copper is reduced by more than 10 times at the temperature of liquid helium, as compared with a surface resistivity at room temperature, at frequencies f ≤ 173 MHz, for diffuse reflection of conduction electrons from the surface of the conductive layer, and the specular reflection - at frequencies f ≤ 346 MHz

  2. FALLOUT RADIATION: EFFECTS ON THE SKIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conard, R. A.; Cronkite, E. P.; Bond, V. P.

    1963-02-06

    Until recently it has been generally assumed that injury to the skin from ionizing radiation was not a serious hazard associated with the detonation of nuclear dcvices. However, in 1954 the importance of this hazard became apparent when widespread lesions of the skin developed in a large group of people accidentally exposed to fallout radiation in the Marshall Islands following the experimental detonation of a large nuclear device. The accident in the Marshall Islands affords an example of large numbers of lesions of the skin in human beings from the fallout. Studies have been documented and will be referred to frequently in this chapter. The possibility of such accidents must be considered seriously in view of the increasingly widespread use of radioisotopes.

  3. Skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    Malignant disease involving the skin represents a significant work load to the general radiotherapist and can involve interesting diagnostic and therapeutic decisions. Primary skin cancer is also relatively common and there is a need to provide an efficient service in which the first treatment is successful in the majority of patients. The reward for careful attention to technique is very considerable both in terms of clinical cancer control and functional results. Squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, and intra-epidermal carcinoma constitute the majority of the lesions dealt with clinically, but metastatic disease, lymphomas, and malignant melanomas are also referred regularly for opinions and may require radiotherapy. The general principle of the techniques of assessment and radiotherapeutic management to be described are equally applicable to any malignant skin tumour once the decision has been made to accept it for radiotherapy. Dosage and fractionation may have to be adjusted to allow for the nature of the disease process and the intent of the treatment

  4. Visualization of anomalous Ettingshausen effect in a ferromagnetic film: Direct evidence of different symmetry from spin Peltier effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, T.; Iguchi, R.; Takanashi, K.; Uchida, K.

    2018-04-01

    Spatial distribution of temperature modulation due to the anomalous Ettingshausen effect (AEE) is visualized in a ferromagnetic FePt thin film with in-plane and out-of-plane magnetizations using the lock-in thermography technique. Comparing the AEE of FePt with the spin Peltier effect (SPE) of a Pt/yttrium iron garnet junction provides direct evidence of different symmetries of AEE and SPE. Our experiments and numerical calculations reveal that the distribution of heat sources induced by AEE strongly depends on the direction of magnetization, leading to the remarkable different temperature profiles in the FePt thin film between the in-plane and perpendicularly magnetized configurations.

  5. Thickness dependence of magnetic anisotropy and intrinsic anomalous Hall effect in epitaxial Co{sub 2}MnAl film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, K.K., E-mail: kkmeng@ustb.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Miao, J.; Xu, X.G. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhao, J.H. [State Key Laboratory of Superlattices and Microstructures, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Jiang, Y. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2017-04-04

    We have investigated the thickness dependence of magnetic anisotropy and intrinsic anomalous Hall effect (AHE) in single-crystalline full-Heusler alloy Co{sub 2}MnAl (CMA) grown by molecular-beam epitaxy on GaAs(001). The magnetic anisotropy is the interplay of uniaxial and the fourfold anisotropy, and the corresponding anisotropy constants have been deduced. Considering the thickness of CMA is small, we ascribe it to the influence from interface stress. The AHE in CMA is found to be well described by a proper scaling. The intrinsic anomalous conductivity is found to be smaller than the calculated one and is thickness dependent, which is ascribed to the influence of chemical ordering by affecting the band structure and Fermi surface. - Highlights: • Single-crystalline full-Heusler alloy Co{sub 2}MnAl grown by molecular-beam epitaxy. • Uniaxial and the fourfold magnetic anisotropies in Heusler alloys. • Anomalous Hall effect in Heusler alloys. • The intrinsic contributions modified by chemical ordering.

  6. Effect of glove occlusion on the skin barrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiedemann, Daniel; Clausen, Maja Lisa; John, Swen Malthe

    2016-01-01

    that the negative effect of occlusion in itself is limited, and that only extensive and long-term occlusion will cause barrier impairment. However, studies investigating combined effect of occlusion and exposure to soaps/detergents indicate that occlusion significantly enhances the skin barrier damage caused...... of this study is to review the literature on the effects of glove occlusion on skin barrier function. The PubMed database was searched up to 1 February 2015 for articles on the association between glove occlusion and skin barrier function, including human studies only and in English. Only experimental studies...... by detergents/soaps in a dose-response fashion....

  7. Comparison of the Effect of Skin Preparation Pads on Transepidermal Water Loss in Ex Vivo Human Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman-Ponchet, Hanan; Gaborit, Alexandre; Kouidhi, Magali; Anglars, Sandrine; Marceau-Suissa, Jeanne; Duffy-Roger, Orla; Linget, Jean-Michel; Wilson, Claire E

    2017-09-01

    Pre-treatment of the skin to remove scales and crusts prior to photodynamic therapy (PDT) is essential to enhance the uptake of topically applied methyl aminolevulinate (MAL) and to improve treatment efficacy. This study compared the effect of two different skin preparation pads on skin integrity in ex vivo human skin. Ex vivo human skin samples from three donors were pre-treated in triplicates with PREPSTER™ (PR) skin preparation pad (6, 8, and 10 passages) or Ambu Unilect™ (A-UN) skin preparation pad (6, 8, and 10 passages). In addition, skin samples were pre-treated with tape strippings (10 adhesive tape strips) as a reference method for comparison. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) was measured on intact skin and following skin barrier impairment using skin preparation pads and tape stripping. Histological analysis was performed to verify the impairment of the stratum corneum (SC) barrier function in samples from intact skin (control), 10 tape strippings (reference method), 10 passages of PR, and 10 passages of A-UN. TEWL increased with the increasing number of passages of skin preparation pads, with 2.4- and 3.3-fold increases following 10 passages of A-UN and PR, respectively, versus a 2.2-fold increase with 10 tape strippings (reference). Histological analysis showed only partial removal of the SC, with no damage observed on the epidermis, regardless of the procedure used. Pre-treatment of skin using PR and A-UN skin preparation pads markedly increases TEWL, indicating slight impairment of the SC barrier function. Comparison of both skin preparation pads showed that PR pad consistently induced significantly higher TEWL than A-UN pad (p preparation pads are thought to increase the uptake of MAL and can therefore be used for the preparation of skin prior to PDT. Nestlé Skin Health - Galderma R&D.

  8. The effect of grape-skin extract on oxidative status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Young, J. F.; Dragsted, L. O.; Daneshvar, B.

    2000-01-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate that moderate alcohol consumption, particularly wine, reduce the risk of CHD. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of grape-skin extract on markers of oxidative status. The study was designed as a randomised crossover. A diet with a low content...... of flavonoids was served with strict control of intake in two consecutive 1-week intervention periods to fifteen subjects (nine women, six men) divided randomly into two groups. During one of the weeks the subjects from either group consumed 200 ml grape-skin extract in water (1 mg extract/ml) at each of three....... Intake of the experimental diet significantly reduced plasma vitamin C and plasma AAS in both groups. This effect was most pronounced in the particular week with no grape-skin extract addition. We speculate that grape-skin extract may have a sparing effect on vitamin C. The effects of the experimental...

  9. Thermally Driven Pure Spin and Valley Currents via the Anomalous Nernst Effect in Monolayer Group-VI Dichalcogenides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Xiao-Qin; Zhu, Zhen-Gang; Su, Gang

    2015-01-01

    The spin and valley-dependent anomalous Nernst effects are analyzed for monolayer MoS2 and other group-VI dichalcogenides. We find that pure spin and valley currents can be generated perpendicular to the applied thermal gradient in the plane of these two-dimensional materials. This effect provides...... a versatile platform for applications of spin caloritronics. A spin current purity factor is introduced to quantify this effect. When time reversal symmetry is violated, e.g., two-dimensional materials on an insulating magnetic substrate, a dip-peak feature appears for the total Nernst coefficient...

  10. Simulating chiral magnetic effect and anomalous transport phenomena in the pre-equilibrium stages of heavy-ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Mark; Mueller, Niklas; Schlichting, Sören; Sharma, Sayantan

    2017-11-01

    We present a first principles approach to study the Chiral Magnetic Effect during the pre-equilibrium stage of a heavy-ion collision. We discuss the dynamics of the Chiral Magnetic Effect and Chiral Magnetic Wave based on real-time lattice simulations with dynamical (Wilson and Overlap) fermions simultaneously coupled to color and electromagnetic fields. While for light quarks we observe a dissipation-less transport of charges as in anomalous hydrodynamics, we demonstrate that for heavier quarks the effects of explicit chiral symmetry breaking lead to a significant reduction of the associated currents.

  11. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Infrared Signature Suppression of Aircraft Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jian Wei; Wang, Qiang; Kwon, Oh Joon

    During typical supersonic cruising, the temperature of the aircraft skin rises above 300 K due to aerodynamic heating. In this situation, aircraft-skin infrared (IR) suppression, used to minimize the radiation contrast from the background is a crucial survival technology. In the present study, a technique to evaluate the effectiveness of IR suppression of aircraft skin is proposed. For this purpose, a synthetic procedure based on numerical simulations has been developed. In this procedure, the thermal status of aircraft skin is obtained using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method for complex aircraft geometries. An IR signature model is proposed using a reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) technique. The detection range and the IR contrast are adopted as the performance indicators for the evaluation of the aircraft IR suppression. The influence of these factors related to the aircraft-skin radiation, such as aircraft-skin emissivity, surface temperature distribution and flight speed, on the IR contrast and the detection range is also studied. As a test case, the effectiveness of various IR suppression schemes was analyzed for a typical air combat situation. Then, the method is applied to clarify the contribution of each aircraft component to the IR suppression of the overall IR radiation. The results show that aircraft-skin temperature control and emissivity control are effective means to reduce the IR radiation and to achieve lower detection. The results can be used as a practical guide for designing future stealth aircraft.

  12. Influence of defects and disorder on anomalous Hall effect and spin Seebeck effect on permalloy and Heusler compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilanova Vidal, Enrique

    2012-09-19

    In this work Heusler thin films have been prepared and their transport properties have been studied. Of particularly interest is the anomalous Hall effect (AHE). The effect is a long known but still not fully understood transport effect. Most theory papers focus on the influence of one particular contribution to the AHE. Actual measured experimental data, however, often are not in accordance with idealized assumptions. This thesis discusses the data analysis for materials with low residual resistivity ratios. As prototypical materials, half metallic Heusler compounds are studied. Here, the influence of defects and disorder is apparent in a material with a complex topology of the Fermi surface. Using films with different degrees of disorder, the different scattering mechanisms can be separated. For Co{sub 2}FeSi{sub 0.6}Al{sub 0.4} and Co{sub 2}FeGa{sub 0.5}Ge{sub 0.5}, the AHE induced by B2-type disorder and temperature-dependent scattering is positive, while DO{sub 3}-type disorder and possible intrinsic contributions possess a negative sign. For these compounds, magneto-optical Kerr effects (MOKE) are investigated. First order contributions as a function of intrinsic and extrinsic parameters are qualitatively analyzed. The relation between the crystalline ordering and the second order contributions to the MOKE signal is studied. In addition, sets of the Heusler compound Co{sub 2}MnAl thin films were grown on MgO(100) and Si(100) substrates by radio frequency magnetron sputtering. Composition, magnetic and transport properties were studied systematically for samples deposited at different conditions. In particular, the anomalous Hall effect resistivity presents an extraordinarily temperature independent behavior in a moderate magnetic field range from 0 to 0.6 T. The off-diagonal transport at temperatures up to 300 C was analyzed. The data show the suitability of the material for Hall sensors working well above room temperature. Recently, the spin Seebeck effect

  13. Strong anisotropic anomalous Hall effect and spin Hall effect in the chiral antiferromagnetic compounds Mn3X (X =Ge , Sn, Ga, Ir, Rh, and Pt)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Sun, Yan; Yang, Hao; Železný, Jakub; Parkin, Stuart P. P.; Felser, Claudia; Yan, Binghai

    2017-02-01

    We have carried out a comprehensive study of the intrinsic anomalous Hall effect and spin Hall effect of several chiral antiferromagnetic compounds Mn3X (X = Ge, Sn, Ga, Ir, Rh and Pt) by ab initio band structure and Berry phase calculations. These studies reveal large and anisotropic values of both the intrinsic anomalous Hall effect and spin Hall effect. The Mn3X materials exhibit a noncollinear antiferromagnetic order which, to avoid geometrical frustration, forms planes of Mn moments that are arranged in a Kagome-type lattice. With respect to these Kagome planes, we find that both the anomalous Hall conductivity (AHC) and the spin Hall conductivity (SHC) are quite anisotropic for any of these materials. Based on our calculations, we propose how to maximize AHC and SHC for different materials. The band structures and corresponding electron filling, that we show are essential to determine the AHC and SHC, are compared for these different compounds. We point out that Mn3Ga shows a large SHC of about 600 (ℏ /e ) (Ωcm) -1 . Our work provides insights into the realization of strong anomalous Hall effects and spin Hall effects in chiral antiferromagnetic materials.

  14. Effects of uranium compounds on skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rey, B.M. de

    1982-12-01

    The following uranium compounds were topically applied to the dorsal skin of 35 day-old Wistar rats (60 g, male): uranium dioxide, uranyl nitrate, uranyl acetate, ammonium uranyl tricarbonate and ammonium diuranate. Percutaneous absorption was mediated with the aid of a vehicle and known quantities of various particle-sized batches of uranium compounds were directly implanted in the subcutaneous tissue. Animals were sacrificed 3, 6, 24 and 48 hours after implantation. Subcutaneous tissue and muscle underneath the implantation site were anlaysed by light and electron microscopy. A Cameca 322 X-ray microanalyzer was used to analyze uranium traces in calcified tissue (bones and teeth) and kidneys. A steady loss in body weight was observed in animals given high concentration of uranyl nitrate and ammonium uranyl tricarbonate. All animals died five days after the onset of the experiment due to renal failure. Slightly soluble compounds, ammonium diuranate and uranyl acetate, caused only a slight decrease in body weight. Uranium dioxide, the most insoluble compound used, induced only a transitory slight body weight decrease. Histopathological study revealed damages to the tissues of topicated skin, hair follicles and adnexal glands. High concentration of uranium was indicated in bone, teeth and kidneys by X-ray scanning

  15. [Effect of heijiang pill on radiation skin ulcer in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qi; Yang, Yang; Xu, Yong-Mei

    2008-05-01

    To investigate the relationship between single dosage of 60Co radiation and the degree of radiation-induced skin ulcers, and to evaluate the curative effect of Heijiang Pill (HJP) on skin ulcer induced by various dosages of radiation in rats. Sixty-six Wistar female rats were randomly divided into three groups, the blank control group (n = 6) and the two radiation groups, each 30 rats, with their right hind leg exposed respectively to 60 Gy and 40 Gy of 60 Co radiation. The time of emergence and degree of skin ulcer were recorded. Then rats in the two radiation groups were subdivided into the HJP group, the Ethacridine group and the model group, 10 in each group, they received corresponding treatment after ulceration, and the incidence, pathology, cure rate and cure time of skin ulcer were observed in the 90 days of observation. The incidence of skin ulcer was higher and occurred earlier in rats radiated with 60 Gy than that with 40 Gy (P ulcer healing rate in rats treated with HJP was higher than that treated with Ethacridine (P cure time in the HJP group was shorter (P ulcers. HJP can effectively cure radiation skin ulcer, and the effect is especially significant on the ulcer induced by low dose radiation.

  16. Effect of topically applied lipids on surfactant-irritated skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodén, M; Andersson, A C

    1996-02-01

    Moisturizers are used daily by many people to alleviate symptoms of dry skin. All of them contain lipids. It has been suggested that topically applied lipids may interfere with the structure and function of the permeability barrier. The influence of a single application of nine different lipids on normal skin and skin irritated by sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) was studied in 21 healthy subjects. Parameters assessed were visible signs of irritation, and objectively measured cutaneous blood flow and transepidermal water loss (TEWL). The substances tested were hydrocortisone, petrolatum, fish oil, borage oil, sunflower seed oil, canola oil, shea butter, and fractions of unsaponifiable lipids from canola oil and shea butter. Water was included as a control. On normal skin, no significant differences in the effects of the test substances were found, whereas significant differences were observed when they were applied to SLS-irritated skin. The visible signs of SLS-induced irritation were significantly less pronounced after treatment with the sterol-enriched fraction from canola oil than after treatment with water. This fraction, and hydrocortisone, reduced cutaneous blood flow. Furthermore, application of hydrocortisone, canola oil, and its sterol-enriched fraction, resulted in significantly lower TEWL than with water. The other lipids had no effect on the degree of irritation. In conclusion, lipids commonly used in moisturizers may reduce skin reactions to irritants. Previous studies have shown that, in barrier perturbed skin, the synthesis of sterols is increased. The observed effects of canola oil and its fraction of unsaponifiable lipids on SLS-induced irritation suggest the possibility that they assisted the skin in supplying the damaged barrier with adequate lipids.

  17. Microplasma effect on skin scaffold for melanoma cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Zulaika; Zaaba, S. K.; Mustaffa, M. T.; Mohamad, C. W. S. R.; Zakaria, A.

    2017-03-01

    An atmospheric plasma system using Helium gas was developed. The effect of helium plasma treatment on skin scaffold surface was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The changes of skin scaffold surfaces before and after helium plasma treatment was recorded. The surface of skin scaffold changed with the prolonged of helium plasma treatment time. The depth of helium plasma penetration was studied using methylene blue dye staining method. The methylene blue will detect the presence or absence of an oxygen that was induced from plasma excitation. The presence of the oxygen indicated on the depth of helium plasma penetration. Results showed plasma are able to penetrate 4mm of skin scaffold after 1200 seconds of exposure.

  18. Peristomal skin complications: causes, effects, and treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doctor K

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Kimberly Doctor, Dorin T Colibaseanu Section of Colon and Rectal Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL, USA Abstract: Enterostomal formation remains a necessary part of multiple types of surgeries. Stomal difficulties can be a source of frustration for patients; however, a properly functioning stoma in a patient educated in its care can result in a highly functional individual, with a high quality of life, comparable to a person without a stoma. Correct surgical technique is vital to creating a stoma that is sufficiently everted, and in a good anatomical location. Loop ileostomies have a higher chance of complications, thus care in their formation is especially important. Systemic disease (inflammatory conditions, and autoimmune diseases especially as well as local conditions (pyoderma gangrenosum, infections, and fistulas, among others can be the causes for difficult-to-treat peristomal complications. Accurate diagnosis is essential in order to be able to address the underlying disease. Choosing the appropriate products to care for the stoma is often a process of trial and error, and is best done under the guidance of an enterostomal therapist. This is especially true for stomas in overweight individuals or stomas that have become flush with the skin with time and changing body habitus. Inattention to care can result in problems that range from simple mucocutaneous separations (separation of the bowel edge from the surrounding skin to large and difficult-to-heal ulcers. This article provides a systematic review of the most common challenges that patients with stoma are faced with, and offers solutions based on up-to-date review of the literature. Keywords: stoma care, stoma complications, stoma wound

  19. Skew scattering dominated anomalous Hall effect in Co x (MgO)100-x granular thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Wen, Yan; Zhao, Yuelei; Li, Peng; He, Xin; Zhang, Junli; He, Yao; Peng, Yong; Yu, Ronghai; Zhang, Xixiang

    2017-10-18

    We investigated the mechanism(s) of the anomalous Hall effect (AHE) in magnetic granular materials by fabricating 100 nm-thick thin films of Co x (MgO) 100-x with a Co volume fraction of 34  ⩽  x  ⩽  100 using co-sputtering at room temperature. We measured the temperature dependence of longitudinal resistivity ([Formula: see text]) and anomalous Hall resistivity ([Formula: see text]) from 5 K to 300 K in all samples. We found that when x decreases from 100 to 34, the values of [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] respectively increased by about four and three orders in magnitude. By linearly fitting the data, obtained at 5 K, of anomalous Hall coefficient ([Formula: see text]) and of [Formula: see text] to [Formula: see text], we found that our results perfectly fell on a straight line with a slope of [Formula: see text] 0.97  ±  0.02. This fitting value of [Formula: see text] in [Formula: see text] clearly suggests that skew scattering dominated the AHE in this granular system. To explore the effect of the scattering on the AHE, we performed the same measurements on annealed samples. We found that although both [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] significantly reduced after annealing, the correlation between them was almost the same, which was confirmed by the fitted value, [Formula: see text]  =  0.99  ±  0.03. These data strongly suggest that the AHE originates from the skew scattering in Co-MgO granular thin films no matter how strong the scattering of electrons by the interfaces and defects is. This observation may be of importance to the development of spintronic devices based on MgO.

  20. Characterization of ionizing radiation effects on human skin allografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourroul, Selma Cecilia

    2004-01-01

    The skin has a fundamental role in the viability of the human body. In the cases of extensive wounds, allograft skin provides an alternative to cover temporarily the damaged areas. After donor screening and preservation in glycerol (above 85%), the skin can be stored in the Skin Banks. The glycerol at this concentration has a bacteriostatic effect after certain time of preservation. On the other hand, skin sterilization by ionizing radiation may reduces the quarantine period for transplantation in patients and its safety is considered excellent. The objectives of this work were to establish procedures using two sources of ionizing radiation for sterilization of human skin allograft, and to evaluate the skin after gamma and electron beam irradiation. The analysis of stress-strain intended to verify possible effects of the radiation on the structure of preserved grafts. Skin samples were submitted to doses of 25 kGy and 50 kGy in an irradiator of 60 Co and in an electron beam accelerator. Morphology and ultra-structure studies were also accomplished. The samples irradiated with a dose of 25 kGy seemed to maintain the bio mechanic characteristics. The gamma irradiated samples with a dose of 50 kGy and submitted to an electron beam at doses of 25 kGy and 50 kGy presented significant differences in the values of the elasticity modulus, in relation to the control. The analysis of the ultramicrographies revealed modifications in the structure and alterations in the pattern of collagen fibrils periodicity of the irradiated samples. (author)

  1. Effects of TLC-Ag dressings on skin inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisson, Jean-François; Hidalgo-Lucas, Sophie; Bouschbacher, Marielle; Thomassin, Laetitia

    2013-06-01

    The TLC-Ag dressings, a combination of technology lipido-colloid and silver salts, are used to promote healing in wounds with risks or signs of local infection, thanks to the antimicrobial properties of the silver salts. Nanocrystalline silver dressings containing nanocrystalline silver, also used to improve wound healing, present both antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of TLC-Ag dressings in a model of chronic skin inflammation induced by repeated application of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate to the skin of hairless mice, in comparison with TLC dressing, Silcryst nanocrystalline dressing, desonide cream 0.05%, a corticoid cream used as positive control, and gauze. Daily treatments of the mice began 7 days after the start of induction of chronic skin inflammation and lasted for 7 days. A macroscopic score was performed daily during the treatment period until the mice killing on day 15 and skin samples were taken for histopathological analysis. TLC-Ag reduced significantly the macroscopic score of chronic skin inflammation from day 10 in comparison with gauze and TLC dressing, similarly to Silcryst nanocrystalline dressing and desonide cream, which presented the best anti-inflammatory effects. No significant differences were observed between TLC dressing and gauze. TLC-Ag reduced significantly the microscopic score of chronic skin inflammation in comparison with TLC dressing and gauze, similarly to Silcryst nanocrystalline dressing but significantly less than desonide cream. These results demonstrate that TLC-Ag dressings present significant anti-inflammatory effects on chronic skin inflammation. They can improve wound healing, due to both the antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties. © 2013 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  2. Rational three-spin string duals and non-anomalous finite size effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freyhult, Lisa; Kristjansen, Charlotte

    2005-01-01

    We determine by a one line computation the one-loop conformal dimension and the associated non-anomalous finite size correction for all operators dual to spinning strings of rational type having three angular momenta (J_1,J_2,J_3) on S^5. Finite size corrections are conjectured to encode informat......We determine by a one line computation the one-loop conformal dimension and the associated non-anomalous finite size correction for all operators dual to spinning strings of rational type having three angular momenta (J_1,J_2,J_3) on S^5. Finite size corrections are conjectured to encode...... information about string sigma model loop corrections to the spectrum of type IIB superstrings on AdS_5xS^5. We compare our result to the zero-mode contribution to the leading quantum string correction derived for the stable three-spin string with two out of the three spin labels identical and observe...... agreement. As a side result we clarify the relation between the Bethe root description of three-spin strings of the type (J,J',J') with respectively J>J' and JJ....

  3. Effect of microstructure on anomalous strain-rate-dependent behaviour of bacterial cellulose hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xing; Shi, Zhijun; Lau, Andrew; Liu, Changqin; Yang, Guang; Silberschmidt, Vadim V

    2016-05-01

    This study is focused on anomalous strain-rate-dependent behaviour of bacterial cellulose (BC) hydrogel that can be strain-rate insensitive, hardening, softening, or strain-rate insensitive in various ranges of strain rate. BC hydrogel consists of randomly distributed nanofibres and a large content of free water; thanks to its ideal biocompatibility, it is suitable for biomedical applications. Motivated by its potential applications in complex loading conditions of body environment, its time-dependent behaviour was studied by means of in-aqua uniaxial tension tests at constant temperature of 37 °C at various strain rates ranging from 0.000 1s(-1) to 0.3s(-1). Experimental results reflect anomalous strain-rate-dependent behaviour that was not documented before. Micro-morphological observations allowed identification of deformation mechanisms at low and high strain rates in relation to microstructural changes. Unlike strain-rate softening behaviours in other materials, reorientation of nanofibres and kinematics of free-water flow dominate the softening behaviour of BC hydrogel at high strain rates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of 900 MHz radiofrequency radiation on skin hydroxyproline contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çam, Semra Tepe; Seyhan, Nesrin; Kavaklı, Cengiz; Çelikbıçak, Ömür

    2014-09-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the possible effect of pulse-modulated radiofrequency radiation (RFR) on rat skin hydroxyproline content, since skin is the first target of external electromagnetic fields. Skin hydroxyproline content was measured using liquid chromatography mass spectrometer method. Two months old male wistar rats were exposed to a 900 MHz pulse-modulated RFR at an average whole body specific absorption rate (SAR) of 1.35 W/kg for 20 min/day for 3 weeks. The radiofrequency (RF) signals were pulse modulated by rectangular pulses with a repetition frequency of 217 Hz and a duty cycle of 1:8 (pulse width 0.576 ms). A skin biopsy was taken at the upper part of the abdominal costa after the exposure. The data indicated that whole body exposure to a pulse-modulated RF radiation that is similar to that emitted by the global system for mobile communications (GSM) mobile phones caused a statistically significant increase in the skin hydroxyproline level (p = 0.049, Mann-Whitney U test). Under our experimental conditions, at a SAR less than the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection safety limit recommendation, there was evidence that GSM signals could alter hydroxyproline concentration in the rat skin.

  5. Anomalous H/D isotope effect in hydrogen bonded systems: H-bonded cyclic structures and transfers of protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marechal, Y.

    1993-01-01

    The systematic H/D substitution is a precious tool to obtain information on the dynamics of H-bonds. It is particularly useful in IR spectroscopy where H-bonds are at the origin of particularly intense and specific bands and where the particularly great value for the m D /m H ratio ensures strongly marked effects. In most H-bonded systems the effects of these substitutions are normal, in the sense that they are at the origin of bands having intensities, centers (of intensity) and widths smaller in D-bonds by a factor close to √2 as compared to H-bonds. In some systems as carboxylic acid dimers, however, anomalous ratios of intensities are found upon such a substitution. Their origin is still obscure. Experimental results suggest that such anomalous ratios have much to do with the cyclic structure of these systems. It leads to stressing an important property of H-bonded cyclic structures which is that they seem necessary for having transfers of protons between molecules through H-bonds in a neutral aqueous medium (p H =7) at room temperature. The mechanism of such transfers of protons is still poorly known, but these transfers are now suspected to play a fundamental role in such widespread reactions as hydrolysis, peptide synthesis, etc... which may make them soon appear as being a crucial basic mechanism for reactivity of aqueous systems, particularly biological systems

  6. Renewal-anomalous-heterogeneous files

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flomenbom, Ophir

    2010-01-01

    Renewal-anomalous-heterogeneous files are solved. A simple file is made of Brownian hard spheres that diffuse stochastically in an effective 1D channel. Generally, Brownian files are heterogeneous: the spheres' diffusion coefficients are distributed and the initial spheres' density is non-uniform. In renewal-anomalous files, the distribution of waiting times for individual jumps is not exponential as in Brownian files, yet obeys: ψ α (t)∼t -1-α , 0 2 >, obeys, 2 >∼ 2 > nrml α , where 2 > nrml is the MSD in the corresponding Brownian file. This scaling is an outcome of an exact relation (derived here) connecting probability density functions of Brownian files and renewal-anomalous files. It is also shown that non-renewal-anomalous files are slower than the corresponding renewal ones.

  7. Anomalous Diffusion Near Resonances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, Tanaji; /Fermilab

    2010-05-01

    Synchro-betatron resonances can lead to emittance growth and the loss of luminosity. We consider the detailed dynamics of a bunch near such a low order resonance driven by crossing angles at the collision points. We characterize the nature of diffusion and find that it is anomalous and sub-diffusive. This affects both the shape of the beam distribution and the time scales for growth. Predictions of a simplified anomalous diffusion model are compared with direct simulations. Transport of particles near resonances is still not a well understood phenomenon. Often, without justification, phase space motion is assumed to be a normal diffusion process although at least one case of anomalous diffusion in beam dynamics has been reported [1]. Here we will focus on the motion near synchro-betatron resonances which can be excited by several means, including beams crossing at an angle at the collision points as in the LHC. We will consider low order resonances which couple the horizontal and longitudinal planes, both for simplicity and to observe large effects over short time scales. While the tunes we consider are not practical for a collider, nonetheless the transport mechanisms we uncover are also likely to operate at higher order resonances.

  8. Effect of entropy on anomalous transport in ITG-modes of magneto-plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaqub Khan, M.; Qaiser Manzoor, M.; Haq, A. ul; Iqbal, J.

    2017-04-01

    The ideal gas equation and S={{c}v}log ≤ft(P/ρ \\right) (where S is entropy, P is pressure and ρ is the mass density) define the interconnection of entropy with the temperature and density of plasma. Therefore, different phenomena relating to plasma and entropy need to be investigated. By employing the Braginskii transport equations for a nonuniform electron-ion magnetoplasma, two new parameters—the entropy distribution function and the entropy gradient drift—are defined, a new dispersion relation is obtained, and the dependence of anomalous transport on entropy is also proved. Some results, like monotonicity, the entropy principle and the second law of thermodynamics, are proved with a new definition of entropy. This work will open new horizons in fusion processes, not only by controlling entropy in tokamak plasmas—particularly in the pedestal regions of the H-mode and space plasmas—but also in engineering sciences.

  9. Anomalous dose rate effects in gamma irradiated SiGe heterojunction bipolar transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, G.; Niu, G.; Cressler, J.D.; Clark, S.D.; Palmer, M.J.; Ahlgren, D.C.

    1999-01-01

    Low dose rate (LDR) cobalt-60 (0.1 rad(Si)/s) gamma irradiated Silicon Germanium (SiGe) Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors (HBTs) were studied. Comparisons were made with devices irradiated with 300 rad(Si)/s gamma radiation to verify if LDR radiation is a serious radiation hardness assurance (RHA) issue. Almost no LDR degradation was observed in this technology up to 50 krad(Si). The assumption of the presence of two competing mechanisms is justified by experimental results. At low total dose (le20 krad), an anomalous base current decrease was observed which is attributed to self-annealing of deep-level traps to shallower levels. An increase in base current at larger total doses is attributed to radiation induced generation-recombination (G/R) center generation. Experiments on gate-assisted lateral PNP transistors and 2D numerical simulations using MEDICI were used to confirm these assertions

  10. Anomalous hydrodynamical dispersion and the Coats-Smith equation: the finite size effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caceres, Manuel O.

    2003-09-01

    We investigate a family of probability distributions that shows anomalous hydrodynamics dispersion, by solving a particular class of coupled generalized master equations. The Fourier-Laplace solution is obtained analytically in terms of the matrix Green function method; then the Coats-Smith concentration profile is revisited in a particular case. Two models of disorder are worked out explicitly, and the mean current is asymptotically calculated. We present an approximation method to calculate the first passage time distribution for this stochastic transport process, and as an example an exact Markovian result is worked out; scaling results are also shown. We discuss the comparison with other different methods to work out complex diffusion phenomena in the presence of disordered multiple transport paths. Extensions when the models are non diffusive can also be solved in the Fourier-Laplace representation. (author)

  11. Anomalous Hall effect in the van der Waals bonded ferromagnet Fe3 -xGeTe2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Stavitski, Eli; Attenkofer, Klaus; Petrovic, C.

    2018-04-01

    We report the anomalous Hall effect (AHE) in single crystals of a quasi-two-dimensional Fe3 -xGeTe2 (x ≈0.36 ) ferromagnet grown by the flux method which induces defects on the Fe site and bad metallic resistivity. Fe K-edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy was measured to provide information on the local atomic environment in such crystals. The dc and ac magnetic susceptibility measurements indicate a second-stage transition below 119 K in addition to the paramagnetic to ferromagnetic transition at 153 K. A linear scaling behavior between the modified anomalous Hall resistivity ρx y/μ0Heff and longitudinal resistivity ρxx 2M /μ0Heff implies that the AHE in Fe3 -xGeTe2 should be dominated by the intrinsic Karplus-Luttinger mechanism rather than the extrinsic skew-scattering and side-jump mechanisms. The observed deviation in the linear-M Hall conductivity σxy A below 30 K is in line with its transport characteristic at low temperatures, implying the scattering of conduction electrons due to magnetic disorder and the evolution of the Fermi surface induced by a possible spin-reorientation transition.

  12. UV-radiation and skin cancer dose effect curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriksen, T.; Dahlback, A.; Larsen, S.H.

    1988-08-01

    Norwegian skin cancer data were used in an attempt to arrive at the dose effect relationship for UV-carcinogenesis. The Norwegian population is relatively homogenous with regard to skin type and live in a country where the annual effective UV-dose varies by approximately 40 percent. Four different regions of the country, each with a broadness of 1 o in latitude (approximately 111 km), were selected . The annual effective UV-doses for these regions were calculated assuming normal ozone conditions throughout the year. The incidence of malignant melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer (mainly basal cell carcinoma) in these regions were considered and compared to the annual UV-doses. For both these types of cancer a quadratic dose effect curve seems to be valid. Depletions of the ozone layer results in larger UV-doses which in turn may yield more skin cancer. The dose effect curves suggest that the incidence rate will increase by an ''amplification factor'' of approximately 2

  13. Anomalous transport phenomena in px+i py superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Songci; Andreev, A. V.; Spivak, B. Z.

    2015-09-01

    Spontaneous breaking of time-reversal symmetry in superconductors with the px+i py symmetry of the order parameter allows for a class of effects which are analogous to the anomalous Hall effect in ferromagnets. These effects exist below the critical temperature, T effects. In particular, we consider anomalous Hall thermal conductivity, the polar Kerr effect, the anomalous Hall effect, and the anomalous photo- and acousto-galvanic effects.

  14. Effective Architectural Design Decisions in Double Skin Facades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuğba İnan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In architectural discourse, it is possible to notice a rising interest in building skin configurations which promise to help minimizing the loss of energy while maximizing its gain. In parallel, it is possible to see that the use of double-skin glass facades globally pervades. All over the world double-skin facade applications multiply day by day. This technology is still quite new in Turkey and it is not possible to find many applications or researches done on this subject. For this reason, architects and engineers should be focused on the designs solutions providing energy savings. The design of DSF depends on various architectural decisions. In this study, effective design decision parameters on energy performance of DSF systems will be discussed in a comprehensive way in architectural perspective by reviewing previous studies.

  15. Effect of Mechanical Stretching of the Skin on Collagen Fibril ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stabilization of collagen fibres during development and through growth to maturation has now become fairly documented. In vitro effect of mechanical stretching of ratsf skin on oxidative deamination of ε-NH2-groups of lysine and hydroxylysine, and functional properties of its type . collagen were studied. Experiments were ...

  16. An improved modelling of asynchronous machine with skin-effect ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The conventional method of analysis of Asynchronous machine fails to give accurate results especially when the machine is operated under high rotor frequency. At high rotor frequency, skin-effect dominates causing the rotor impedance to be frequency dependant. This paper therefore presents an improved method of ...

  17. Experimental investigation of system effects in stressed-skin elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dela Stang, B.; Isaksson, T.; Hansson, M.

    What kind of behaviour can be expected from stressed-skin elements at failure? To answer this question was a primary objective of the experimental investigation presented in this report. Systems of 3 roof units, each made of 5 parallel beams, have been tested for load-carrying capacity...... issue in studies of system effects....

  18. Effects of Fermented Dairy Products on Skin: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Alexandra R; Sivamani, Raja K

    2015-07-01

    Fermented dairy products, such as yogurt, have been proposed as a natural source of probiotics to promote intestinal health. Growing evidence shows that modulation of the gastrointestinal tract microbiota can modulate skin disease as well. This systematic review was conducted to examine the evidence for the use of ingested fermented dairy products to modulate skin health and function. We also sought to review the effects of the topical application of dairy products. The PubMed and Embase databases were systematically searched for clinical studies involving humans only that examined the relationship between fermented dairy products and skin health. A total of 312 articles were found and a total of 4 studies met inclusion criteria. Three studies evaluated the effects of ingestion, while one evaluated the effects of topical application. All studies noted improvement with the use of fermented dairy. Overall, there is early and limited evidence that fermented dairy products, used both topically and orally, may provide benefits for skin health. However, existing studies are limited and further studies will be important to better assess efficacy and the mechanisms involved.

  19. Anomalous effect in Schumann resonance phenomena observed in Japan, possibly associated with the Chi-chi earthquake in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hayakawa

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The Schumann resonance phenomenon has been monitored at Nakatsugawa (near Nagoya in Japan since the beginning of 1999, and due to the occurance of a severe earthquake (so-called Chi-chi earthquake on 21 September 1999 in Taiwan we have examined our Schumann resonance data at Nakatsugawa during the entire year of 1999. We have found a very anomalous effect in the Schumann resonance, possibly associated with two large land earthquakes (one is the Chi-chi earthquake and another one on 2 November 1999 (Chia-yi earthquake with a magnitude again greater than 6.0. Conspicuous effects are observed for the larger Chi-chi earthquake, so that we summarize the characteristics for this event. The anomaly is characterized mainly by the unusual increase in amplitude of the fourth Schumann resonance mode and a significant frequency shift of its peak frequency (~1.0Hz from the conventional value on the By magnetic field component which is sensitive to the waves propagating in the NS meridian plane. Anomalous Schumann resonance signals appeared from about one week to a few days before the main shock. Secondly, the goniometric estimation of the arrival angle of the anomalous signal is found to coincide with the Taiwan azimuth (the unresolved dual direction indicates toward South America. Also, the pulsed signals, such as the Q-bursts, were simultaneously observed with the "carrier" frequency around the peak frequency of the fourth Schumann resonance mode. The anomaly for the second event for the Chia-yi earthquake on 2 November had much in common. But, most likely due to a small magnitude, the anomaly appears one day before and lasts until one day after the main shock, with the enhancement at the fourth Schumann resonance mode being smaller in amplitude than the case of the Chi-chi earthquake. Yet, the other characteristics, including the goniometric direction finding result, frequency shift, etc., are nearly the same. Although the emphasis of

  20. Anomalous effect in Schumann resonance phenomena observed in Japan, possibly associated with the Chi-chi earthquake in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hayakawa

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The Schumann resonance phenomenon has been monitored at Nakatsugawa (near Nagoya in Japan since the beginning of 1999, and due to the occurance of a severe earthquake (so-called Chi-chi earthquake on 21 September 1999 in Taiwan we have examined our Schumann resonance data at Nakatsugawa during the entire year of 1999. We have found a very anomalous effect in the Schumann resonance, possibly associated with two large land earthquakes (one is the Chi-chi earthquake and another one on 2 November 1999 (Chia-yi earthquake with a magnitude again greater than 6.0. Conspicuous effects are observed for the larger Chi-chi earthquake, so that we summarize the characteristics for this event. The anomaly is characterized mainly by the unusual increase in amplitude of the fourth Schumann resonance mode and a significant frequency shift of its peak frequency (~1.0Hz from the conventional value on the By magnetic field component which is sensitive to the waves propagating in the NS meridian plane. Anomalous Schumann resonance signals appeared from about one week to a few days before the main shock. Secondly, the goniometric estimation of the arrival angle of the anomalous signal is found to coincide with the Taiwan azimuth (the unresolved dual direction indicates toward South America. Also, the pulsed signals, such as the Q-bursts, were simultaneously observed with the "carrier" frequency around the peak frequency of the fourth Schumann resonance mode. The anomaly for the second event for the Chia-yi earthquake on 2 November had much in common. But, most likely due to a small magnitude, the anomaly appears one day before and lasts until one day after the main shock, with the enhancement at the fourth Schumann resonance mode being smaller in amplitude than the case of the Chi-chi earthquake. Yet, the other characteristics, including the goniometric direction finding result, frequency shift, etc., are nearly the same. Although the emphasis of the present study is

  1. Effects of age and diet on rat skin histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J Regan

    2005-03-01

    To document age-related histologic morphometric changes of rat skin and the effects of calorie restriction on such changes. Fischer 344 rats of three age groups (young, 4 mo; adult, 1 year; old, 24+ months) were procured from ad libitum (AL) diet and calorie-restricted (CR) colonies of the National Institute of Aging and were used for histologic study. Each study group consisted of six animals. Skin samples from the dorsum (DS) and footpad (FP) of these animals were excised and processed for histology with staining techniques for general morphology (hematoxylin-eosin-phloxine) and for differentiation of collagen bundles and elastic fibers (Verhoeff-van Gieson technique). Light microscopic morphometric and stereologic point counting procedures were applied manually to tissue sections to obtain quantitative data on the depth of the epidermis, dermis, and stratum corneum, epidermal nuclear number, and percentage fraction of collagen, elastic fibers, capillaries, and pilosebaceous units. Data were analyzed with two-way of analysis of variance (ANOVA) to determine significant effects of age, diet, and age-diet interaction on these parameters in AL rats and their age-matched cohorts. Significant effects of age, diet, or age-diet interaction were observed in respect of the thickness of epidermis, dermis, stratum corneum of FP, epidermal nuclear number, collagen percentage fraction, and area fraction of capillaries. DS epidermis showed increasing thickness in AL group, but this was reduced in CR rats. A similar trend in DS dermal depth was observed. Fewer capillaries were present in aging CR rats. The DS epidermal nuclear profiles and collagen area fraction also showed effects of diet and age-diet interaction. Aging changes, especially the effect of CR, was more evident in the measured parameters of dorsal skin. No alterations were observed in the distribution of pilosebaceous units and elastic fiber profiles of the skin. The Fischer 344 rat shows many age-related changes

  2. The impact of local diffusion on longitudinal macrodispersivity and its major effect upon anomalous transport in highly heterogeneous aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janković, Igor; Fiori, Aldo; Dagan, Gedeon

    2009-05-01

    Flow and transport are solved for a heterogeneous medium modeled as an ensemble of spherical inclusions of uniform radius R and of conductivities K, drawn from a pdf f(K) ( Fig. 1). This can be regarded as a particular discretization scheme, allowing for accurate numerical and semi-analytical solutions, for any given univariate f(Y)(Y=lnK) and integral scale IY. The transport is quantified by the longitudinal equivalent macrodispersivity α, for uniform mean flow of velocity U and for a large (ergodic) plume of a conservative solute injected in a vertical plane ( x=0) and moving past a control plane at x≫IY. In the past we have solved transport for advection solely for highly heterogeneous media of σY2⩽8. We have found that α increases in a strong nonlinear fashion with σY2 and transport becomes anomalous for the subordinate model. This effect is explained by the large residence time of solute particles in inclusions of low K. In the present work we examine the impact of local diffusion as quantified by the Peclet number Pe=UIY/D0, where D0 is the coefficient of molecular diffusion. Transport with diffusion is solved by accurate numerical simulations for flow past spheres of low K and for high Pe=O(102-104). It was found that finite Pe reduces significantly α as compared to advection, for σY2≳3(Pe=1000) and for σY2≳1.4(Pe=100), justifying neglection of the effect of diffusion for weak to moderately heterogeneous aquifers (e.g. σY2⩽1). In contrast, diffusion impacts considerably α for large σY2 due to the removal of solute from low K inclusions. Furthermore, anomalous behavior is eliminated, though α may be still large for Pe≫1.

  3. Effect of age on leather and skin traits of slaughter ostriches | Cloete ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Little is known about the factors affecting leather and skin traits in ostriches. The effect of age on physical skin traits of slaughter ostriches was consequently investigated. Forty skins representing slaughter ages ranging from five to 14 months were selected to represent means of the respective age groups with regard to skin ...

  4. Honeydew honey: biological effects on skin cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinotti, Simona; Calabrese, Giorgio; Ranzato, Elia

    2017-11-01

    Honey is a natural product well known by humankind and now reconsidered for its use as topical agent for wound and burn treatments. Floral honey is made by honeybees from the nectar of blossoms, while honeydew honey is prepared from secretions of plants or excretions of plant-sucking insects. Chemical composition is different between blossom and honeydew honeys and there is very few information about the biological properties of honeydew honey. So, this study was specifically designed to explore the potential wound healing effects of the honeydew honey. We used in vitro scratch wound healing model consisting of fibroblasts and keratinocytes. Data showed that honeydew honeys is able to increase wound closure by acting both on fibroblasts and keratinocytes. Based on our findings, honeydew honey has the potential to be useful for clinical settings.

  5. Thermal diffusivity effect in opto-thermal skin measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, P; Imhof, R E; Cui, Y; Ciortea, L I; Berg, E P

    2010-01-01

    We present our latest study on the thermal diffusivity effect in opto-thermal skin measurements. We discuss how thermal diffusivity affects the shape of opto-thermal signal, and how to measure thermal diffusivity in opto-thermal measurements of arbitrary sample surfaces. We also present a mathematical model for a thermally gradient material, and its corresponding opto-thermal signal. Finally, we show some of our latest experimental results of this thermal diffusivity effect study.

  6. Anomalous gauge theories as constrained Hamiltonian systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, T.

    1989-01-01

    Anomalous gauge theories considered as constrained systems are investigated. The effects of chiral anomaly on the canonical structure are examined first for nonlinear σ-model and later for fermionic theory. The breakdown of the Gauss law constraints and the anomalous commutators among them are studied in a systematic way. An intrinsic mass term for gauge fields makes it possible to solve the Gauss law relations as second class constraints. Dirac brackets between the time components of gauge fields are shown to involve anomalous terms. Based upon the Ward-Takahashi identities for gauge symmetry, we investigate anomalous fermionic theory within the framework of path integral approach. (orig.)

  7. Toxic effects of ultraviolet radiation on the skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation present in sunlight is an environmental human carcinogen. The toxic effects of UV from natural sunlight and therapeutic artificial lamps are a major concern for human health. The major acute effects of UV irradiation on normal human skin comprise sunburn inflammation (erythema), tanning, and local or systemic immunosuppression. At the molecular level, UV irradiation causes DNA damage such as cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and (6-4) photoproducts, which are usually repaired by nucleotide excision repair (NER). Chronic exposure to UV irradiation leads to photoaging, immunosuppression, and ultimately photocarcinogenesis. Photocarcinogenesis involves the accumulation of genetic changes, as well as immune system modulation, and ultimately leads to the development of skin cancers. In the clinic, artificial lamps emitting UVB (280-320 nm) and UVA (320-400 nm) radiation in combination with chemical drugs are used in the therapy of many skin diseases including psoriasis and vitiligo. Although such therapy is beneficial, it is accompanied with undesirable side effects. Thus, UV radiation is like two sides of the same coin--on one side, it has detrimental effects, and on the other side, it has beneficial effects

  8. Nutritional skin care : health effects of micronutrients and fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelsma, E.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Roza, L.

    2001-01-01

    Human skin is continuously exposed to internal and external influences that may alter its condition and functioning. As a consequence, the skin may undergo alterations leading to photoaging, inflammation, immune dysfunction, imbalanced epidermal homeostasis, or other skin disorders. Modern

  9. Anomalous X-Ray Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendin, G.

    1979-01-01

    The availability of tunable synchrotron radiation has made it possible systematically to perform x-ray diffraction studies in regions of anomalous scattering near absorption edges, e.g., in order to derive phase information for crystal structure determination. An overview is given of recent experimental and theoretical work and discussion of the properties of the anomalous atomic scattering factor, with emphasis on threshold resonances and damping effects. The results are applied to a discussion of the very strong anomalous dispersion recently observed near the L3 edge in a cesium complex. Also given is an overview of elements and levels where similar behavior can be expected. Finally, the influence of solid state and chemical effects on the absorption edge structure is discussed. 64 references.

  10. Anomalous x-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendin, G.

    1979-01-01

    The availability of tunable synchrotron radiation has made it possible systematically to perform x-ray diffraction studies in regions of anomalous scattering near absorption edges, e.g. in order to derive phase information for crystal structure determination. An overview is given of recent experimental and theoretical work and discuss the properties of the anomalous atomic scattering factor, with emphasis on threshold resonances and damping effects. The results are applied to a discussion of the very strong anomalous dispersion recently observed near the L 3 edge in a cesium complex. Also given is an overview of elements and levels where similar behavior can be expected. Finally, the influence of solid state and chemical effects on the absorption edge structure is discussed. 64 references

  11. The effect of skin surface topography and skin colouration cues on perception of male facial age, health and attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, B; Matts, P J; Brauckmann, C; Gundlach, S

    2018-02-22

    Previous studies investigating the effects of skin surface topography and colouration cues on the perception of female faces reported a differential weighting for the perception of skin topography and colour evenness, where topography was a stronger visual cue for the perception of age, whereas skin colour evenness was a stronger visual cue for the perception of health. We extend these findings in a study of the effect of skin surface topography and colour evenness cues on the perceptions of facial age, health and attractiveness in males. Facial images of six men (aged 40 to 70 years), selected for co-expression of lines/wrinkles and discolouration, were manipulated digitally to create eight stimuli, namely, separate removal of these two features (a) on the forehead, (b) in the periorbital area, (c) on the cheeks and (d) across the entire face. Omnibus (within-face) pairwise combinations, including the original (unmodified) face, were presented to a total of 240 male and female judges, who selected the face they considered younger, healthier and more attractive. Significant effects were detected for facial image choice, in response to skin feature manipulation. The combined removal of skin surface topography resulted in younger age perception compared with that seen with the removal of skin colouration cues, whereas the opposite pattern was found for health preference. No difference was detected for the perception of attractiveness. These perceptual effects were seen particularly on the forehead and cheeks. Removing skin topography cues (but not discolouration) in the periorbital area resulted in higher preferences for all three attributes. Skin surface topography and colouration cues affect the perception of age, health and attractiveness in men's faces. The combined removal of these features on the forehead, cheeks and in the periorbital area results in the most positive assessments. © 2018 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  12. Research on the Superposition of Harmonic Loss Considering Skin Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Li-Min; Yan, Hua-Guang; Meng, Jun-Xia; Yin, Zhong-Dong; Lin, Zhi

    2017-05-01

    Power system harmonic will cause extra power loss. The higher the harmonic order, the more obvious the skin effect, which means current density becomes larger near the surface of conductor. When several harmonics with different frequency exist, whether the current density distribution of each harmonic is independent, and whether the total harmonic loss can be regarded as the sum of each harmonic loss, need further research. In this paper, based on the basic principle of electromagnetic field, the expressions of the current density distribution and power loss under multiple harmonics background are deduced, and the superposition of harmonic loss considering skin effect is also proved, which can provide theory basis of harmonic loss calculation.

  13. Assessing vehicle effects on skin absorption using artificial membrane assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadzovska, Daniela; Riviere, Jim E

    2013-12-18

    A vast number of variations in drug/vehicle combinations may come into contact with skin. Evaluating the effect of potential drug, vehicle and skin interactions for all possible combinations is a daunting task. A practical solution is a rapid screening technique amenable to high throughput approaches (e.g. 96-well plates). In this study, three artificial membranes (isopropyl myristate (IPM), certramides and Strat-M™) were evaluated for their ability to predict the skin permeability of caffeine, cortisone, diclofenac sodium, mannitol, salicylic acid and testosterone applied in propylene glycol, water and ethanol as unsaturated and saturated concentrations. Resultant absorption data was compared to porcine skin diffusion cell data. The correlations (r(2)) between membrane and diffusion cell data from saturated and unsaturated concentrations were 0.38, 0.47 and 0.56 for the Strat-M™, certramide and IPM membranes, respectively. This relationship improved when only saturated concentrations were evaluated (r(2) = 0.60, 0.63 and 0.66 for the Strat-M™, certramide and IPM membranes, respectively). A correlation between membrane retention and the amount remaining in skin had r(2) values of 0.73 (Strat-M™), 0.67 (certramides), and 0.67 (IPM). Quantitative structure-permeability relationship models for each membrane identified different physicochemical factors influencing the absorption process. Although further investigations exploring complex topical formulations are required, these results suggest potential use as an initial screening approach to assist in narrowing the selection of formulations to be evaluated with a more biologically intact model, thereby assisting in the development of new topical formulations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Skin effect of microwaves and transverse pseudowaves in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minami, Kazuo

    1977-09-01

    Using linearized Vlasov-Maxwell equations, the skin effect of microwaves and transverse pseudowaves excited by an idealized grid antenna in plasmas are analyzed. It is shown that the latter is predominant over the former, in such a plasma that ω sub(p) v sub(t)/ωc >= 1, where ω sub(p) and ω are the plasma and microwave angular frequencies, v sub(t) and c are the electron thermal and light velocities, respectively. (auth.)

  15. Photo- and gas-tuned, reversible thermoelectric properties and anomalous photo-thermoelectric effects of platinum-loaded tungsten trioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Kenta; Watanabe, Takuya [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Medicine and Engineering, University of Yamanashi, 4-3-11 Takeda, Kofu, Yamanashi 400-8511 (Japan); Kakemoto, Hirofumi; Irie, Hiroshi, E-mail: hirie@yamanashi.ac.jp [Clean Energy Research Center, University of Yamanashi, 4-3-11 Takeda, Kofu, Yamanashi 400-8511 (Japan)

    2016-06-28

    We report the photo- and gas-controllable properties of platinum-loaded tungsten trioxide (Pt/WO{sub 3}), which is of interest for developing practical applications of WO{sub 3} as well as for interpreting such phenomena from scientific viewpoints. Here, a Pt/WO{sub 3} thin film generated a thermoelectric power due to the ultraviolet-light-induced band-gap excitation (photochromic (PC) reaction) and/or dark storage in formic acid vapor (gaschromic (GC) reaction) in the absence of O{sub 2}, resulting from the generation of W{sup 5+} ions. After such chromic reactions, the electrical conductivity (σ) is increased, whereas the absolute value of the Seebeck coefficient (S) is decreased. The changes in σ and S and their rate of change for consistency increased in the order of: during the PC reaction < during the GC reaction < during simultaneous PC and GC reactions. The opposite behaviors, a decrease in σ and an increase in S, were exhibited by Pt/WO{sub 3} in the presence of O{sub 2} after dark storage or visible-light irradiation. This reversible cycle could be repeated. Moreover, anomalous, nontrivial photo-thermoelectric effects (a photoconductive effect (photoconductivity, σ{sub photo}) and a photo-Seebeck effect (photo-Seebeck coefficient, S{sub photo})) were also detected in response to the visible-light irradiation of Pt/WO{sub 3} in the absence of O{sub 2} after chromic reactions. Under visible-light irradiation, both σ{sub photo} and the absolute value of S{sub photo} are increased. After the irradiation, both values were decreased, that is, σ and the absolute value of S were smaller than σ{sub photo} and the absolute value of S{sub photo}, respectively. These effects are likely to be due to the photoinduced charge carriers and the accumulated electrons in Pt contributing to the increase in σ{sub photo}. In addition, electrons are extracted from the W{sup 5+} state, decreasing the number of W{sup 5+} in H{sub x}WO{sub 3} and thus contributing to the

  16. Effects of bathing on skin exposed to Cobalt-60 teletherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohannan, P.A.

    1982-01-01

    The problem of this study was to determine the effects of bathing or not bathing on the degree of skin reaction occurring in patients receiving Cobalt-60 radiation therapy to the chest, back, or head and neck. A quasi experimental study was done using a 2 x 7 repeated measures design. Sixty-seven subjects receiving Cobalt-60 radiation therapy at the Moncrief Radiation Center in Fort Worth, Texas, were randomly assigned to an experimental group who did not bathe during therapy and a control group who did bathe with water during therapy. Observations were made after each 1000 rads of therapy and two weeks after the final treatment. Erythema and pigmentation measurements were taken using the Photovolt 670 and rates were assigned using the Baker-Leith Rating Scale. Findings from the study suggest that bathing the portal of entry with water during the treatment period does not influence the degree of skin response that occurs from Cobalt-60 teletherapy

  17. Diffraction anomalous fine structure using X-ray anomalous dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soejima, Yuji; Kuwajima, Shuichiro

    1998-01-01

    A use of X-ray anomalous dispersion effects for structure investigation has recently been developed by using synchrotron radiation. One of the interesting method is the observation of anomalous fine structure which arise on diffraction intensity in energy region of incident X-ray at and higher than absorption edge. The phenomenon is so called Diffraction Anomalous Fine Structure (DAFS). DAFS originates in the same physical process an that of EXAFS: namely photoelectric effect at the corresponding atom and the interaction of photoelectron waves between the atom and neighboring atoms. In contrast with EXAFS, the method is available for only the crystalline materials, but shows effective advantages of the structure investigations by a use of diffraction: one is the site selectivity and the other is space selectivity. In the present study, demonstrations of a use of X-ray anomalous dispersion effect for the superstructure determination will be given for the case of PbZrO 3 , then recent trial investigations of DAFS in particular on the superlattice reflections will be introduced. In addition, we discuss about Forbidden Reflection near Edge Diffraction (FRED) which is more recently investigated as a new method of the structure analysis. (author)

  18. Influence of an anomalous dimension effect on thermal instability in amorphous-InGaZnO thin-film transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Kuan-Hsien; Chou, Wu-Ching, E-mail: tcchang3708@gmail.com, E-mail: wuchingchou@mail.nctu.edu.tw [Department of Electrophysics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsin-chu 300, Taiwan (China); Chang, Ting-Chang, E-mail: tcchang3708@gmail.com, E-mail: wuchingchou@mail.nctu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China); Advanced Optoelectronics Technology Center, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan (China); Chen, Hua-Mao; Tai, Ya-Hsiang [Department of Photonics and Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsin-chu 300, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Ming-Yen; Hung, Pei-Hua; Chu, Ann-Kuo [Department of Photonics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China); Wu, Ming-Siou; Hung, Yi-Syuan [Department of Electronics Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsin-Chu 300, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Tien-Yu [Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China); Yeh, Bo-Liang [Advanced Display Technology Research Center, AU Optronics, No.1, Li-Hsin Rd. 2, Hsinchu Science Park, Hsin-Chu 30078, Taiwan (China)

    2014-10-21

    This paper investigates abnormal dimension-dependent thermal instability in amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors. Device dimension should theoretically have no effects on threshold voltage, except for in short channel devices. Unlike short channel drain-induced source barrier lowering effect, threshold voltage increases with increasing drain voltage. Furthermore, for devices with either a relatively large channel width or a short channel length, the output drain current decreases instead of saturating with an increase in drain voltage. Moreover, the wider the channel and the shorter the channel length, the larger the threshold voltage and output on-state current degradation that is observed. Because of the surrounding oxide and other thermal insulating material and the low thermal conductivity of the IGZO layer, the self-heating effect will be pronounced in wider/shorter channel length devices and those with a larger operating drain bias. To further clarify the physical mechanism, fast I{sub D}-V{sub G} and modulated peak/base pulse time I{sub D}-V{sub D} measurements are utilized to demonstrate the self-heating induced anomalous dimension-dependent threshold voltage variation and on-state current degradation.

  19. Impact of high-frequency pumping on anomalous finite-size effects in three-dimensional topological insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervishko, Anastasiia A.; Yudin, Dmitry; Shelykh, Ivan A.

    2018-02-01

    Lowering of the thickness of a thin-film three-dimensional topological insulator down to a few nanometers results in the gap opening in the spectrum of topologically protected two-dimensional surface states. This phenomenon, which is referred to as the anomalous finite-size effect, originates from hybridization between the states propagating along the opposite boundaries. In this work, we consider a bismuth-based topological insulator and show how the coupling to an intense high-frequency linearly polarized pumping can further be used to manipulate the value of a gap. We address this effect within recently proposed Brillouin-Wigner perturbation theory that allows us to map a time-dependent problem into a stationary one. Our analysis reveals that both the gap and the components of the group velocity of the surface states can be tuned in a controllable fashion by adjusting the intensity of the driving field within an experimentally accessible range and demonstrate the effect of light-induced band inversion in the spectrum of the surface states for high enough values of the pump.

  20. Effect of Different Skin Penetration Promoters in Halobetasol Propionate Permeation and Retention in Human Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Carvajal-Vidal

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Halobetasol propionate (HB is a potent synthetic corticosteroid used against inflammatory skin diseases, such as dermatitis, eczema, and psoriasis, among others. The aim of this study is to define how the presence of different skin penetration enhancers (nonane, menthone, limonene, azone, carene, decanol, linoleic acid and cetiol affects the penetration and retention in skin of HB. To determine drug penetration through skin, 5% of each promoter was used in an ex vivo system with human skin on Franz cells. The results showed that the highest permeation occurs in the presence of menthone, followed by nonane. Permeation parameters were determined. The in vivo test was assessed, and the formulation containing HB-menthone presented better anti-inflammatory efficacy. These results are useful to generate a specific treatment according to each patient’s needs, and the inflammatory characteristics of the disease.

  1. Hard-hard coupling assisted anomalous magnetoresistance effect in amine-ended single-molecule magnetic junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Y.-H.; Lin, C.-J.; Chiang, K.-R.

    2017-06-01

    We proposed a single-molecule magnetic junction (SMMJ), composed of a dissociated amine-ended benzene sandwiched between two Co tip-like nanowires. To better simulate the break junction technique for real SMMJs, the first-principles calculation associated with the hard-hard coupling between a amine-linker and Co tip-atom is carried out for SMMJs with mechanical strain and under an external bias. We predict an anomalous magnetoresistance (MR) effect, including strain-induced sign reversal and bias-induced enhancement of the MR value, which is in sharp contrast to the normal MR effect in conventional magnetic tunnel junctions. The underlying mechanism is the interplay between four spin-polarized currents in parallel and anti-parallel magnetic configurations, originated from the pronounced spin-up transmission feature in the parallel case and spiky transmission peaks in other three spin-polarized channels. These intriguing findings may open a new arena in which magnetotransport and hard-hard coupling are closely coupled in SMMJs and can be dually controlled either via mechanical strain or by an external bias.

  2. Effects of combined phytochemicals on skin tumorigenesis in SENCAR mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    KOWALCZYK, MAGDALENA C.; JUNCO, JACOB J.; KOWALCZYK, PIOTR; TOLSTYKH, OLGA; HANAUSEK, MARGARET; SLAGA, THOMAS J.; WALASZEK, ZBIGNIEW

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine the effect of the combined action of phytochemicals on the early stages of skin tumorigenesis, i.e. initiation and promotion. We tested calcium D-glucarate (CG) given in the diet, while resveratrol (RES) and ursolic acid (UA) were applied topically. The 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-initiated, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-promoted multistage skin carcinogenesis model in SENCAR mice was used. Mice received one topical dose of DMBA, then after one month, two weekly doses of TPA for 14 weeks until sacrifice. RES or UA were applied 20 min prior to DMBA or TPA treatment and 2% dietary CG was given from 2 weeks prior to 2 weeks after the DMBA dose or continually beginning 2 weeks prior to the first dose of TPA. UA applied alone and in combination with CG during the promotion stage was the only inhibitor of tumor multiplicity and tumor incidence. A number of combinations reduced epidermal proliferation, but only UA and the combination UA+CG applied during promotion significantly reduced epidermal hyperplasia. DMBA/TPA application resulted in significant increases in c-jun and p50, which were reversed by a number of different treatments. DMBA/TPA treatment also strongly increased mRNA levels of inflammation markers COX-2 and IL-6. All anti-promotion treatments caused a marked decrease in COX-2 and IL-6 expression compared to the DMBA/TPA control. These results show that UA is a potent inhibitor of skin tumor promotion and inflammatory signaling and it may be useful in the prevention of skin cancer and other epithelial cancers in humans. PMID:23835587

  3. Anomalous diffusion without scale invariance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanyga, A [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Bergen, Allegaten 41, N5007 Bergen (Norway)

    2007-05-25

    Asymptotic behaviour of a new class of anomalous diffusion equations for subdiffusive transport defined in terms of generalized distributed fractional-order time derivatives is considered. The effect of slowly varying factors on the scaling function of asymptotic solutions is demonstrated. The origin of slowly varying scaling factors in the CTRW models is discussed.

  4. Effects of Cream Containing Ficus carica L. Fruit Extract on Skin Parameters: In vivo Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, H; Akhtar, N; Ali, A

    2014-01-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the effects of cream containing Ficus carica L. fruit (Fig) extract on various skin parameters such as skin melanin, erythema, moisture content, trans-epidermal water loss and sebum. For this purpose, formulation with 4% concentrated extract of F. carica fruit and base without extract were developed. Base served as a control. Both base and formulation were applied to the cheeks of human volunteers for 8 weeks to investigate the effects on different skin parameters using non-invasive bioengineering instruments. Formulation decreased the skin melanin, trans-epidermal water loss and skin sebum significantly. Formulation increased the skin hydration significantly and insignificant effects on skin erythema. We concluded that a stable topical cream (w/o emulsion) containing F. carica fruit extract have effects on skin melanin, trans-epidermal loss, hydration values and sebum content and possibly could be used against for hyper pigmentation, acne, freckles and wrinkle.

  5. Heat effects on drug delivery across human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Jinsong; Ghosh, Priyanka; Li, S. Kevin; Newman, Bryan; Kasting, Gerald B.; Raney, Sam G.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Exposure to heat can impact the clinical efficacy and/or safety of transdermal and topical drug products. Understanding these heat effects and designing meaningful in vitro and in vivo methods to study them are of significant value to the development and evaluation of drug products dosed to the skin. Areas covered This review provides an overview of the underlying mechanisms and the observed effects of heat on the skin and on transdermal/topical drug delivery, thermoregulation and heat tolerability. The designs of several in vitro and in vivo heat effect studies and their results are reviewed. Expert opinion There is substantial evidence that elevated temperature can increase transdermal/topical drug delivery. However, in vitro and in vivo methods reported in the literature to study heat effects of transdermal/topical drug products have utilized inconsistent study conditions, and in vitro models require better characterization. Appropriate study designs and controls remain to be identified, and further research is warranted to evaluate in vitro-in vivo correlations and the ability of in vitro models to predict in vivo effects. The physicochemical and pharmacological properties of the drug(s) and the drug product, as well as dermal clearance and heat gradients may require careful consideration. PMID:26808472

  6. Laminar separation control effects of shortfin mako shark skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Michael Thomas

    Shark skin is investigated as a means of laminar flow separation control due to its preferential flow direction as well as the potential for scales to erect and obstruct low-momentum backflow resulting from an adverse pressure gradient acting on the boundary layer. In this study, the effect of the scales on flow reversal is observed in laminar flow conditions. This is achieved by comparing the flow over a pectoral fin from a shortfin mako shark to that over the same fin that is painted to neutralize the effect of the scales on the flow. The effect of the scales on flow reversal is also observed by comparing the flow over a smooth PVC cylinder to that over the same cylinder with samples of mako shark skin affixed to the entire circumference of the cylinder. These samples were taken from the flank region of the shark because the scales at this location have been shown to have the greatest angle of erection compared to the scales on the rest of the shark's body. Scales at this location have an average crown length of 220 microm with a maximum bristling angle of proximately 50 degrees. Because these scales have the highest bristling angle, they have the best potential for separation control. All data was taken using time-resolved Digital Particle Image Velocimetry. The flow over the pectoral fin was analyzed at multiple angles of attack. It was found that the shark skin had the effect of decreasing the size of the separated region over both the pectoral fin and the cylinder as well as decreasing the magnitudes of the reversing flow found in these regions. For all Reynolds numbers tested, drag reduction over 28% was found when applying the sharkskin to the cylinder.

  7. Effect of oral intake of choline-stabilized orthosilicic acid on skin, nails and hair in women with photodamaged skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barel, A; Calomme, M; Timchenko, A; De Paepe, K; Paepe, K De; Demeester, N; Rogiers, V; Clarys, P; Vanden Berghe, D

    2005-10-01

    Chronic exposure of the skin to sunlight causes damage to the underlying connective tissue with a loss of elasticity and firmness. Silicon (Si) was suggested to have an important function in the formation and maintenance of connective tissue. Choline-stabilized orthosilicic acid ("ch-OSA") is a bioavailable form of silicon which was found to increase the hydroxyproline concentration in the dermis of animals. The effect of ch-OSA on skin, nails and hair was investigated in a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study. Fifty women with photodamaged facial skin were administered orally during 20 weeks, 10 mg Si/day in the form of ch-OSA pellets (n=25) or a placebo (n=25). Noninvasive methods were used to evaluate skin microrelief (forearm), hydration (forearm) and mechanical anisotropy (forehead). Volunteers evaluated on a virtual analog scale (VAS, "none=0, severe=3") brittleness of hair and nails. The serum Si concentration was significantly higher after a 20-week supplementation in subjects with ch-OSA compared to the placebo group. Skin roughness parameters increased in the placebo group (Rt:+8%; Rm: +11%; Rz: +6%) but decreased in the ch-OSA group (Rt: -16%; Rm: -19%; Rz: -8%). The change in roughness from baseline was significantly different between ch-OSA and placebo groups for Rt and Rm. The difference in longitudinal and lateral shear propagation time increased after 20 weeks in the placebo group but decreased in the ch-OSA group suggesting improvement in isotropy of the skin. VAS scores for nail and hair brittleness were significantly lower after 20 weeks in the ch-OSA group compared to baseline scores. Oral intake of ch-OSA during the 20 weeks results in a significant positive effect on skin surface and skin mechanical properties, and on brittleness of hair and nails.

  8. Effect of Orally Administered Collagen Peptides from Bovine Bone on Skin Aging in Chronologically Aged Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongdong Song

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Collagen peptides (CPs have demonstrated to exert beneficial effects on skin photoaging. However, little has been done to evaluate their effects on chronologically aged skin. Here, the effects of CPs from bovine bone on skin aging were investigated in chronologically aged mice. 13-month-old female Kunming mice were administered with CPs from bovine bone (200, 400 and 800 mg/kg body weight/day or proline (400 mg/kg body weight/day for 8 weeks. Mice body weight, spleen index (SI and thymus index (TI, degree of skin laxity (DSL, skin components, skin histology and antioxidant indicators were analyzed. Ingestion of CPs or proline had no effect on mice skin moisture and hyaluronic acid content, but it significantly improved the skin laxity, repaired collagen fibers, increased collagen content and normalized the ratio of type I to type III collagen in chronologically aged skin. CPs prepared by Alcalase performed better than CPs prepared by collagenase. Furthermore, CPs intake also significantly improved the antioxidative enzyme activities in skin. These results indicate that oral administration of CPs from bovine bone or proline can improve the laxity of chronologically aged skin by changing skin collagen quantitatively and qualitatively, and highlight their potential application as functional foods to combat skin aging in chronologically aged process.

  9. Anomalous Hall effect suppression in anatase Co:TiO2 by the insertion of an interfacial TiO2 buffer layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Y.J.; de Jong, Machiel Pieter; van der Wiel, Wilfred Gerard; Kim, Y.; Brock, J.D.

    2010-01-01

    We present the effect of introducing a TiO2 buffer layer at the SrTiO3 /Co:TiO2 interface on the magnetic and structural properties of anatase Co:TiO2 1.4 at. % Co. Inserting the buffer layer leads to suppression of the room-temperature anomalous Hall effect, accompanied by a reduced density of Co

  10. Understanding the Effects of Host Evolution and Skin Bacteria Composition on Disease Vector Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-14

    Distribution Unlimited UU UU UU UU 14-04-2016 1-Sep-2014 31-Dec-2015 Final Report: Understanding the effects of host evolution and skin bacteria...reviewed journals: Final Report: Understanding the effects of host evolution and skin bacteria composition on disease vector choices Report Title Here...SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Here we sought to understand how host biology influences the composition of skin microbes, how skin microbes influence

  11. Effect of skin surface lipid on the skin permeation of lidocaine from pressure sensitive adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Y H; Hosoya, O; Sugibayashi, K; Morimoto, Y

    1994-12-01

    Pressure sensitive adhesives (PSA) tapes containing different concentrations of lidocaine were prepared by a general casting method using styrene-isoprene-styrene block copolymer, and the in vitro skin permeation of lidocaine from each tape was evaluated using diffusion cell and excised hairless rat skin. The skin permeation was proportionally increased by up to 40% lidocaine in the PSA tape and did not change after this concentration. Although the bending point of the steady-state flux via skin concentration curve was found at 40%, saturated concentration or solubility of lidocaine in the tape was estimated to be about 20% by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurement. In addition, the steady-state flux of lidocaine through skin from water or silicone fluid suspension (92 or 120 micrograms/cm2.h, respectively) was very similar to those of 40, 50 and 60% tapes (105, 101 and 112 micrograms/cm2.h, respectively). Decrease in the concentration in tapes during the permeation experiment explained only part of these phenomena. To analyze them further, the drug free PSA tape with or without (control) skin surface lipid was affixed to 50% lidocaine PSA tape for 48 h, and the amount of lidocaine crystal in the layered tapes was measured by DSC. The amount was found to be lower in the lipid-containing tape than in the lipid-free tape, suggesting that skin surface lipid can dissolve lidocaine crystal or solid in PSA tape to decrease its thermodynamic activity. Thus it is important to follow the concentration and thermodynamic activity of lidocaine in PSA tape, skin and the interface between the two layers to exactly assess its skin permeation flux.

  12. Pred-Skin: A Fast and Reliable Web Application to Assess Skin Sensitization Effect of Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Rodolpho C; Alves, Vinicius M; Muratov, Eugene N; Strickland, Judy; Kleinstreuer, Nicole; Trospsha, Alexander; Andrade, Carolina Horta

    2017-05-22

    Chemically induced skin sensitization is a complex immunological disease with a profound impact on quality of life and working ability. Despite some progress in developing alternative methods for assessing the skin sensitization potential of chemical substances, there is no in vitro test that correlates well with human data. Computational QSAR models provide a rapid screening approach and contribute valuable information for the assessment of chemical toxicity. We describe the development of a freely accessible web-based and mobile application for the identification of potential skin sensitizers. The application is based on previously developed binary QSAR models of skin sensitization potential from human (109 compounds) and murine local lymph node assay (LLNA, 515 compounds) data with good external correct classification rate (0.70-0.81 and 0.72-0.84, respectively). We also included a multiclass skin sensitization potency model based on LLNA data (accuracy ranging between 0.73 and 0.76). When a user evaluates a compound in the web app, the outputs are (i) binary predictions of human and murine skin sensitization potential; (ii) multiclass prediction of murine skin sensitization; and (iii) probability maps illustrating the predicted contribution of chemical fragments. The app is the first tool available that incorporates quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models based on human data as well as multiclass models for LLNA. The Pred-Skin web app version 1.0 is freely available for the web, iOS, and Android (in development) at the LabMol web portal ( http://labmol.com.br/predskin/ ), in the Apple Store, and on Google Play, respectively. We will continuously update the app as new skin sensitization data and respective models become available.

  13. Rescattering Effects in the Hadronic-Light-by-Light Contribution to the Anomalous Magnetic Moment of the Muon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colangelo, Gilberto; Hoferichter, Martin; Procura, Massimiliano; Stoffer, Peter

    2017-06-09

    We present a first model-independent calculation of ππ intermediate states in the hadronic-light-by-light (HLBL) contribution to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon (g-2)_{μ} that goes beyond the scalar QED pion loop. To this end, we combine a recently developed dispersive description of the HLBL tensor with a partial-wave expansion and demonstrate that the known scalar-QED result is recovered after partial-wave resummation. Using dispersive fits to high-statistics data for the pion vector form factor, we provide an evaluation of the full pion box a_{μ}^{π box}=-15.9(2)×10^{-11}. We then construct a suitable input for the γ^{*}γ^{*}→ππ helicity partial waves, based on a pion-pole left-hand cut and show that for the dominant charged-pion contribution, this representation is consistent with the two-loop chiral prediction and the COMPASS measurement for the pion polarizability. This allows us to reliably estimate S-wave rescattering effects to the full pion box and leads to our final estimate for the sum of these two contributions a_{μ}^{π box}+a_{μ,J=0}^{ππ,π-pole  LHC}=-24(1)×10^{-11}.

  14. Biological dosimetry by the radiation effects on the skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bessho, Yuko

    1994-01-01

    In cases of partial body over-exposure, the dose estimation with personal monitors or with reconstruction of exposed conditions is often impossible without considerable error. Clinical signs of irradiated skin, such as epilation or moist desquamation have been used as the indicators of doses in the radiological accidents, because each sign has the threshold dose. As hair growth is known to be sensitive to radiation, the dose-effect relationship of the delay of hair regrowth and the reduction in hair length of mice after irradiation were examined to investigate if they can be used as biological dosimeters. Hairs on the dorsal skin of 290 ICR mice (8 weeks old) were shaved and irradiated with a Sr-90/Y-90 β-ray source in the early anagen and the midanagen stages of the hair cycle. Skin doses were from 0.5 to 10 Gy. The time of hair regrowth and the hair length were examined with the scaling loupe. Dose-effect relationship of the delay of hair regrowth and reduction in hair length were both clearly dose dependent, fitting the L-Q or L function depending on the stage. Dose estimation functions were derived from the dose-effect relationship curves. The histological observations suggested that hair growth retardation caused by irradiation in midanagen might be due to the cell death and the depression of mitosis in the hair matrix cells. This dose estimation method was applied to the case who was over-exposed to X-ray on his hand and fingers. The findings showed that hair regrowth delay was a sensitive biological dosimeter in the case of partial body over-exposure, which could be applied as early as a few days after over-exposure. The method was simple and non-invasive to the exposed patient. (author)

  15. The effect of a daily facial cleanser for normal to oily skin on the skin barrier of subjects with acne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draelos, Zoe D

    2006-07-01

    Acne vulgaris is a common skin disorder that affects many people every year, especially the teenaged population. People with acne find the condition especially difficult to manage because of the disease's chronicity and variability in response to treatment. Acne is the result of pores clogged with shed skin cells combined with sebum in the hair follicle. Successful treatment of acne is important because acne has the potential to result in lasting physical and emotional scarring. For many years, physicians have agreed that although cleansing is not effective on its own, effective cleansing is an important part of any acne treatment regimen. However, patients have not been satisfied with the types of cleansers available. In addition to containing dyes and perfumes that can irritate and exacerbate acne, these cleansers often are too harsh and can result in excessive drying of the skin, which leads to overcompensation by the oil glands and ultimately to more oil on the surface of the skin. This study examined the use of a daily facial cleanser formulated for normal to oily skin in subjects with mild facial acne. The cleanser was studied for 2 weeks in the absence of additional treatments to eliminate the confounding effects of various treatments. Subjects were monitored for skin barrier function through transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and corneometry, sebum level, and lesion counts. The results of the study indicate that the facial cleanser is gentle and does not damage the skin barrier or result in sebum overcompensation; additionally, the cleanser is effective at deep-pore cleansing, which may help to manage some acne-associated symptoms.

  16. Vascular effects of leukotriene D4 in human skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H

    1987-01-01

    as a mediator of the axon reflex, and show that LTD4 causes a direct vasodilatory effect that is not mediated via histamine or cyclooxygenase products. The laser-Doppler flowmeter was applied for dynamic studies of the vasopressor response in the skin during a Valsalva maneuver, and the relative changes...... in blood flow were confirmed by control estimates of the blood flow rate by a 133xenon washout method. The pressor response to a Valsalva maneuver was reversed by local nerve block, but not affected by LTD4. Therefore LTD4 did not interfere with the sympathetic activity on the cutaneous vessels...

  17. Dynamic hysteresis modeling including skin effect using diffusion equation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, Souad, E-mail: souadhamada@yahoo.fr [LSP-IE: Research Laboratory, Electrical Engineering Department, University of Batna, 05000 Batna (Algeria); Louai, Fatima Zohra, E-mail: fz_louai@yahoo.com [LSP-IE: Research Laboratory, Electrical Engineering Department, University of Batna, 05000 Batna (Algeria); Nait-Said, Nasreddine, E-mail: n_naitsaid@yahoo.com [LSP-IE: Research Laboratory, Electrical Engineering Department, University of Batna, 05000 Batna (Algeria); Benabou, Abdelkader, E-mail: Abdelkader.Benabou@univ-lille1.fr [L2EP, Université de Lille1, 59655 Villeneuve d’Ascq (France)

    2016-07-15

    An improved dynamic hysteresis model is proposed for the prediction of hysteresis loop of electrical steel up to mean frequencies, taking into account the skin effect. In previous works, the analytical solution of the diffusion equation for low frequency (DELF) was coupled with the inverse static Jiles-Atherton (JA) model in order to represent the hysteresis behavior for a lamination. In the present paper, this approach is improved to ensure the reproducibility of measured hysteresis loops at mean frequency. The results of simulation are compared with the experimental ones. The selected results for frequencies 50 Hz, 100 Hz, 200 Hz and 400 Hz are presented and discussed.

  18. Protective effect of gelatin and gelatin hydrolysate from salmon skin on UV irradiation-induced photoaging of mice skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tiejun; Hou, Hu; Lu, Jiaohan; Zhang, Kai; Li, Bafang

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of gelatin (SG) isolated from salmon skin and its hydrolysate (SGH) on photoaging skin, and the mechanism responsible for anti-photoaging. The average molecular weights of SG and SGH were 65 kDa and 873 Da, respectively. The amino acid compositions of SG and SGH were similar. Both of them were abundant in hydrophobic amino acids. Twenty-five peptides were identified from SGH. SG and SGH could improve UV irradiation-induced pathological changes of macroscopical tissue texture and skin morphology. Hydroxyproline content is an indicator of matrix collagen content, SG and SGH could inhibit the decrease of hydroxyproline content in photoaging skin in a dose dependent manner. In addition, SG and SGH could alleviate UV irradiation-induced oxidative damages to skin by increasing the activities of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and catalase (CAT), increasing the content of glutathione (GSH) and decreasing the content of malonaldehyde (MDA). Moreover, SG and SGH could enhance immune regulation system by increasing the thymus index. Thus, the anti-photoaging mechanisms of SG and SGH were by inhibiting the depletion of antioxidant defense components, involving in the synthesis of collagen and enhancing the function of immune system. Besides, SGH showed a better result in protecting skin from photoaging than SG.

  19. Anomalous top magnetic couplings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-11-09

    Nov 9, 2012 ... Corresponding author. E-mail: remartinezm@unal.edu.co. Abstract. The real and imaginary parts of the one-loop electroweak contributions to the left and right tensorial anomalous couplings of the tbW vertex in the Standard Model (SM) are computed. Keywords. Top; anomalous. PACS Nos 14.65.Ha; 12.15 ...

  20. Optically Anomalous Crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Shtukenberg, Alexander; Kahr, Bart

    2007-01-01

    Optical anomalies in crystals are puzzles that collectively constituted the greatest unsolved problems in crystallography in the 19th Century. The most common anomaly is a discrepancy between a crystal’s symmetry as determined by its shape or by X-ray analysis, and that determined by monitoring the polarization state of traversing light. These discrepancies were perceived as a great impediment to the development of the sciences of crystals on the basis of Curie’s Symmetry Principle, the grand organizing idea in the physical sciences to emerge in the latter half of the 19th Century. Optically Anomalous Crystals begins with an historical introduction covering the contributions of Brewster, Biot, Mallard, Brauns, Tamman, and many other distinguished crystallographers. From this follows a tutorial in crystal optics. Further chapters discuss the two main mechanisms of optical dissymmetry: 1. the piezo-optic effect, and 2. the kinetic ordering of atoms. The text then tackles complex, inhomogeneous crystals, and...

  1. [Effect of UV index in the skin exposure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbaudo, Mabel; Dionisio de Cabalier, María E

    2010-01-01

    This research was conducted from October 2003 to March 2005, collecting data through the measuring authorized volunteers measuring their photoexposition . It worked with the equipment (Safesun from Optix Tech, Inc.), available for measuring. The radiation impact of solar on the city of Cordoba, was chosen measurements for a clear spot on the terrace of the Observatory Environmental Laprida located at 854, in a position that excedes level approximately 30 meters from Piazza San Martin (centerhistoric city). It had two fixed radiation sensors total solar and ultraviolet A radiation sensor manual ultraviolet calibrated according to the erythemal response of skin measuring human ultraviolet index and the maximum exposure timer ecommended for different skin types (Safesun from Optix Tech, Inc.).The aim of this study was to measure the rate and exposure ultraviolet (UV) to evaluate the erythemal effect on most sensitive areas of the face and neck to noon fotoexposición solar in the four annual seasons, and thus promote extending protection regulations to prevent the effects harmful UV non-ionizing radiation. The analysis of the data, UV index values indicate that from the Winter season is observed to undergo the risk of exposure excessive radiation at noon solar day is measured with high Fall UV index is high in spring and high-very high and with days end in the Summer season daily with UV index very high and extreme. This risk remains in the four annual seasons and according to the criteria of the World Health Organization is need to perform significant work to develop measures, education campaigns and outreach, which tend to diminish the sun exposure, hours with the highest incidence of lightning ultraviolet in the four annual seasons. The global environmental degradation and thus destruction of the ozone layer, has been a direct cause of the increase in ultraviolet radiation on earth, which resulted increased rates of cancer incidence and prevalence skin, within the

  2. Investigation on the effect of developed product and new food for radiation-induced skin damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Ho; Kim, Jong Chun; Bae, Chun Sik; Kim, Se Ra; Lee, Hae Jun; Bang, Dae Won; Lee, Jin Hee; Kim, Joong Sun; Ki, Sun Ah; Song, Myung Seop

    2007-07-01

    In vivo evaluation of the developed pilot product on the skin protection against UV irradiation and screening of new candidate materials. Project Results are Establishment of experimental methods for 3 morphological indices of UV-induced skin damages -Establishment of experimental methods for whitening effect evaluation -Evaluation of HemoHIM administration on the skin damage indices -Evaluation of HemoHIM skin application on the skin damage indices -Evaluation of HemoTonic administration on the skin damage indices -Evaluation of HemoTonic skin application on the skin damage indices -Evaluation of HemoHIM on the antiinflamatory effects in the inflammation stage 1 -Evaluation of HemoHIM on the antiinflamatory effects in the inflammation stage 2 -Evaluation of HemoHIM on the antiinflamatory effects in the inflammation stage 3 -Evaluation of HemoHIM on the antiinflamatory effects in the TNBS-induced colitis -Evaluation of HemoHIM on the anti-wrinkle effects in the skin -Evaluation of HemoHIM on the protective effects on the skin tissue (epidermal thickening, dermal cellularity, dermal cyst) -Evaluation of HemoHIM on the protective effects on the skin tumor development

  3. Investigation on the effect of developed product and new food for radiation-induced skin damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Ho; Kim, Jong Chun; Bae, Chun Sik; Kim, Se Ra; Lee, Hae Jun; Bang, Dae Won; Lee, Jin Hee; Kim, Joong Sun; Ki, Sun Ah; Song, Myung Seop [Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-15

    In vivo evaluation of the developed pilot product on the skin protection against UV irradiation and screening of new candidate materials. Project Results are Establishment of experimental methods for 3 morphological indices of UV-induced skin damages -Establishment of experimental methods for whitening effect evaluation -Evaluation of HemoHIM administration on the skin damage indices -Evaluation of HemoHIM skin application on the skin damage indices -Evaluation of HemoTonic administration on the skin damage indices -Evaluation of HemoTonic skin application on the skin damage indices -Evaluation of HemoHIM on the antiinflamatory effects in the inflammation stage 1 -Evaluation of HemoHIM on the antiinflamatory effects in the inflammation stage 2 -Evaluation of HemoHIM on the antiinflamatory effects in the inflammation stage 3 -Evaluation of HemoHIM on the antiinflamatory effects in the TNBS-induced colitis -Evaluation of HemoHIM on the anti-wrinkle effects in the skin -Evaluation of HemoHIM on the protective effects on the skin tissue (epidermal thickening, dermal cellularity, dermal cyst) -Evaluation of HemoHIM on the protective effects on the skin tumor development

  4. Study of the anomalous cross-section lineshape of e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}DD{sup Macron} at {psi}(3770) with an effective field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Guo-Ying, E-mail: chengy@pku.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Xinjiang University, Urumqi 830046 (China); Zhao, Qiang [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Theoretical Physics Center for Science Facilities, CAS, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2013-01-29

    We study the anomalous cross-section lineshape of e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}DD{sup Macron} with an effective field theory. Near the threshold, most of the DD{sup Macron} pairs are from the decay of {psi}(3770). Taking into account the fact that the nonresonance background is dominated by the {psi}(2S) transition, the produced DD{sup Macron} pair can undergo final-state interactions before the pair is detected. We propose an effective field theory for the low-energy DD{sup Macron} interactions to describe these final-state interactions and find that the anomalous lineshape of the DD{sup Macron} cross section observed by the BESII Collaboration can be well described.

  5. Effect of age on leather and skin traits of slaughter ostriches

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Schalk Cloete

    Abstract. Little is known about the factors affecting leather and skin traits in ostriches. The effect of age on physical skin traits of slaughter ostriches was consequently investigated. Forty skins representing slaughter ages ranging from five to 14 months were selected to represent means of the respective age groups with.

  6. Effect of skin tumor properties on laser penetration

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Karsten, AE

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available into the skin. Comparison between the healthy dermis and the skin tumors indicated that up to 28 % more laser light is absorbed in the healthy dermis than in the tumor tissue. This has implications on the laser dose applied to the skin for treatment....

  7. ANOMALOUS MICROWAVE-ABSORPTION IN BI-2212 HIGH-TEMPERATURE SUPERCONDUCTORS WITH THE PARAMAGNETIC MEISSNER EFFECT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KATAEV, [No Value; KNAUF, N; BRAUNISCH, W; MULLER, R; BOROWSKI, R; RODEN, B; KHOMSKII, D

    1993-01-01

    The results of the experimental study of an anomaly in low magnetic field microwave absorption in polycrystalline Bi high-temperature superconductors are presented. These results show the presence of the so-called paramagnetic Meissner effect. The data obtained are evidence for the common origin of

  8. Effects of Ginsenoside Rb1 on Skin Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki Kimura

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ginseng roots (Panax ginseng CA Meyer have been used traditionally for the treatment, especially prevention, of various diseases in China, Korea, and Japan. Both experimental and clinical studies suggest ginseng roots to have pharmacological effects in patients with life-style-related diseases such as non-insulin-dependent diabetic mellitus, atherosclerosis, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension. The topical use of ginseng roots to treat skin complaints including atopic suppurative dermatitis, wounds, and inflammation is also described in ancient Chinese texts; however, there have been relatively few studies in this area. In the present paper, we describe introduce the biological and pharmacological effects of ginsenoside Rb1 isolated from Red ginseng roots on skin damage caused by burn-wounds using male Balb/c mice (in vivo and by ultraviolet B irradiation using male C57BL/6J and albino hairless (HR-1 mice (in vivo. Furthermore, to clarify the mechanisms behind these pharmacological actions, human primary keratinocytes and the human keratinocyte cell line HaCaT were used in experiments in vitro.

  9. Detsius effect on the skin trophism in synergism with radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dovgusha, V.V.; Zuevich, F.I.; Lobanova, I.Ya.; Ramzaev, V.P.; Rumyantsev, A.P.

    1993-01-01

    Detsins effect on the skin trophism in synergism with radiation (external X irradiation, radon-222 inhalation) and in case of the repeated administration in combination with sodium nitrate was investigated. Rats was used as experimental animals. It was shown that the preliminary X-irradiation at the dose 100R or radon inhalation (8.1x10 7 Bq/m 3 ) did not intensity the toxic effect of detsius and sodium nitrate at the dose 0.5 LD 50 . In case of repeated administration the detsius effect is lower than that in case of single administration at large dose. Conclusion is made that the detsius is hazardous material for children and it is necessary to ban the application of this pesticide in agriculture

  10. Effect of structural defects on anomalous ultrasound propagation in solids during second-order phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prudnikov, P. V.; Prudnikov, V. V.; Nosikhin, E. A.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of structural defects on the critical ultrasound absorption and ultrasound velocity dispersion in Ising-like three-dimensional systems is studied. A field-theoretical description of the dynamic effects of acoustic-wave propagation in solids during phase transitions is performed with allowance for both fluctuation and relaxation absorption mechanisms. The temperature and frequency dependences of the scaling functions of the absorption coefficient and the ultrasound velocity dispersion are calculated in a two-loop approximation for homogeneous and structurally disordered systems, and their asymptotic behavior in hydrodynamic and critical regions is separated. As compared to a homogeneous system, the presence of structural defects in it is shown to cause a stronger increase in the sound absorption coefficient and the sound velocity dispersion even in the hydrodynamic region as the critical temperature is reached. As compared to homogeneous analogs, structurally disordered systems should exhibit stronger temperature and frequency dependences of the acoustic characteristics in the critical region

  11. Anomalous water dynamics at surfaces and interfaces: synergistic effects of confinement and surface interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Rajib; Bagchi, Biman

    2018-01-01

    In nature, water is often found in contact with surfaces that are extended on the scale of molecule size but small on a macroscopic scale. Examples include lipid bilayers and reverse micelles as well as biomolecules like proteins, DNA and zeolites, to name a few. While the presence of surfaces and interfaces interrupts the continuous hydrogen bond network of liquid water, confinement on a mesoscopic scale introduces new features. Even when extended on a molecular scale, natural and biological surfaces often have features (like charge, hydrophobicity) that vary on the scale of the molecular diameter of water. As a result, many new and exotic features, which are not seen in the bulk, appear in the dynamics of water close to the surface. These different behaviors bear the signature of both water–surface interactions and of confinement. In other words, the altered properties are the result of the synergistic effects of surface–water interactions and confinement. Ultrafast spectroscopy, theoretical modeling and computer simulations together form powerful synergistic approaches towards an understanding of the properties of confined water in such systems as nanocavities, reverse micelles (RMs), water inside and outside biomolecules like proteins and DNA, and also between two hydrophobic walls. We shall review the experimental results and place them in the context of theory and simulations. For water confined within RMs, we discuss the possible interference effects propagating from opposite surfaces. Similar interference is found to give rise to an effective attractive force between two hydrophobic surfaces immersed and kept fixed at a separation of d, with the force showing an exponential dependence on this distance. For protein and DNA hydration, we shall examine a multitude of timescales that arise from frustration effects due to the inherent heterogeneity of these surfaces. We pay particular attention to the role of orientational correlations and modification of

  12. Transport theory for disordered multiple-band systems: Anomalous Hall effect and anisotropic magnetoresistance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kovalev, A.A.; Tserkovnyak, Y.; Výborný, Karel; Sinova, J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 79, č. 19 (2009), 19529/1-19529/19 ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC510; GA AV ČR KJB100100802 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : ferromagnetic materials * Hall effect * magnetoresistance * quasiparticles * spin-orbit interactions * two-dimensional electro n gas Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.475, year: 2009 http://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevB.79.195129

  13. Anomalous diamagnetism (high-temperature Meissner effect) in the compound CuCl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, N.B.; Kuvshinnikov, S.V.; Rusakov, A.P.; Semenov, M.V.

    1978-06-01

    Polycrystaline CuCl samples under hydrostatic compression of approximately 5 kbar have been cooled rather rapidly (>20 degrees/min). Thereby, starting at approximately 170 K, repeated transitions from the weak diamagnetic state with chi approximately - (10 5 /10 6 ) to the diamagnetic state with a magnetic susceptibility here chi = -1 (Meissner effect) have been observed, in some cases with a simultaneous strong increase (some orders of magnitude) in electrical conductivity. At temperatures below approximately 100 K, CuCl is going to the stationary or quasi-stationary state with chi approximately -1 which is stable in this temperature range for at least some hours. (orig.) [de

  14. Hybrid skew scattering regime of the anomalous Hall effect in Rashba systems: Unifying Keldysh, Boltzmann, and Kubo formalisms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kovalev, A.A.; Výborný, Karel; Sinova, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 78, č. 4 (2008), 041305/1-041305/4 ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC510; GA AV ČR KJB100100802 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : anomalous Hall efect * Rashba systemy * Keldysh formalism Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.322, year: 2008

  15. Effect of anomalous ุ ฯ vertex on decay-lepton distributions in ท-ุุ and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We also study the lepton energy and beam polarization dependence of certain CP-violating lepton angular asymmetries arising from an anomalous decay vertex and compare them with the asymmetries arising due to CP-violation in the production process due to the top electric or weak dipole moment.

  16. Intrinsic quantum spin Hall and anomalous Hall effects in h-Sb/Bi epitaxial growth on a ferromagnetic MnO2 thin film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jian; Sun, Qiang; Wang, Qian; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki; Jena, Puru

    2016-06-07

    Exploring a two-dimensional intrinsic quantum spin Hall state with a large band gap as well as an anomalous Hall state in realizable materials is one of the most fundamental and important goals for future applications in spintronics, valleytronics, and quantum computing. Here, by combining first-principles calculations with a tight-binding model, we predict that Sb or Bi can epitaxially grow on a stable and ferromagnetic MnO2 thin film substrate, forming a flat honeycomb sheet. The flatness of Sb or Bi provides an opportunity for the existence of Dirac points in the Brillouin zone, with its position effectively tuned by surface hydrogenation. The Dirac points in spin up and spin down channels split due to the proximity effects induced by MnO2. In the presence of both intrinsic and Rashba spin-orbit coupling, we find two band gaps exhibiting a large band gap quantum spin Hall state and a nearly quantized anomalous Hall state which can be tuned by adjusting the Fermi level. Our findings provide an efficient way to realize both quantized intrinsic spin Hall conductivity and anomalous Hall conductivity in a single material.

  17. Effects of repeated skin exposure to low nickel concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, N H; Menné, T; Kristiansen, J

    1999-01-01

    We studied the effects of repeated daily exposure to low nickel concentrations on the hands of patients with hand eczema and nickel allergy. The concentrations used were chosen to represent the range of trace to moderate occupational nickel exposure. The study was double-blinded and placebo...... and nickel allergy, either on normal or on SLS-treated forearm skin. The present study strongly suggests that the changes observed were specific to nickel exposure. Standardized methods to assess trace to moderate nickel exposure on the hands, and the associated effects in nickel-sensitized subjects...... controlled. Patients immersed a finger for 10 min daily into a 10-p.p.m. nickel concentration in water for the first week, and during the second week into a 100-p.p.m. nickel concentration. This regimen significantly increased (P = 0.05) local vesicle formation and blood flow (P = 0.03) as compared...

  18. Moisturizing and anti-sebum secretion effects of cosmetic application on human facial skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yan; Dong, Yiyang; Wang, Junbing; Dong, Meixian; Zou, Yundong; Ren, Dongmei; Yang, Xiaoran; Li, Ming; Schrader, Andreas; Rohr, Mathias; Liu, Wei

    2009-01-01

    For human skin, high water content and low sebum secretion are considered to be main features of fair skin. To explore the proper personal care regimen for facial skin, we investigated the change of skin physiologic parameters after cosmetic application by measuring the skin water content, transepidermal water loss, and skin sebum secretion on facial skin before and after the cosmetic application using the Corneometer, Tewameter, and Sebumeter, respectively. The results indicated that the cosmetics application kept a higher water content and a lower transepidermal water loss, and at the same time, a lower sebum secretion 4 h and 8 h after the cosmetic application, compared with those before it. The situation was maintained in the succeeding three-week continuous use of the cosmetics. It could be concluded that the cosmetic application on human facial skin might provide some moisturizing effect and at the same time an anti-sebum effect, which favors the maintenance of good skin physiological function after applying skin care products. Our results might provide a scientific personal care regimen for human facial skin to prompt the balance for the hydrolipid film on skin.

  19. Reactions of atomic hydrogen with formic acid and carbon monoxide in solid parahydrogen I: Anomalous effect of temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, Leif O; Mutunga, Fredrick M; Follett, Shelby E; Anderson, David T

    2014-09-11

    Low-temperature condensed phase reactions of atomic hydrogen with closed-shell molecules have been studied in rare gas matrices as a way to generate unstable chemical intermediates and to study tunneling-driven chemistry. Although parahydrogen (pH2) matrix isolation spectroscopy allows these reactions to be studied equally well, little is known about the analogous reactions conducted in a pH2 matrix host. In this study, we present Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic studies of the 193 nm photoinduced chemistry of formic acid (HCOOH) isolated in a pH2 matrix over the 1.7 to 4.3 K temperature range. Upon short-term irradiation the HCOOH readily undergoes photolysis to yield CO, CO2, HOCO, HCO and H atoms. Furthermore, after photolysis at 1.9 K tunneling reactions between migrating H atoms and trapped HCOOH and CO continue to produce HOCO and HCO, respectively. A series of postphotolysis kinetic experiments at 1.9 K with varying photolysis conditions and initial HCOOH concentrations show the growth of HOCO consistently follows single exponential (k = 4.9(7)x10(-3) min(-1)) growth kinetics. The HCO growth kinetics is more complex displaying single exponential growth under certain conditions, but also biexponential growth at elevated CO concentrations and longer photolysis exposures. By varying the temperature after photolysis, we show the H atom reaction kinetics qualitatively change at ∼2.7 K; the reaction that produces HOCO stops at higher temperatures and is only observed at low temperature. We rationalize these results using a kinetic mechanism that involves formation of an H···HCOOH prereactive complex. This study clearly identifies anomalous temperature effects in the reaction kinetics of H atoms with HCOOH and CO in solid pH2 that deserve further study and await full quantitative theoretical modeling.

  20. Ectomycorrhizal host specificity in a changing world: can legacy effects explain anomalous current associations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofgren, Lotus; Nguyen, Nhu H; Kennedy, Peter G

    2018-02-07

    Despite the importance of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi in forest ecosystems, knowledge about the ecological and co-evolutionary mechanisms underlying ECM host associations remains limited. Using a widely distributed group of ECM fungi known to form tight associations with trees in the family Pinaceae, we characterized host specificity among three unique Suillus-host species pairs using a combination of field root tip sampling and experimental bioassays. We demonstrate that the ECM fungus S. subaureus can successfully colonize Quercus hosts in both field and glasshouse settings, making this species unique in an otherwise Pinaceae-specific clade. Importantly, however, we found that the colonization of Quercus by S. subaureus required co-planting with a Pinaceae host. While our experimental results indicate that gymnosperms are required for the establishment of new S. subaureus colonies, Pineaceae hosts are locally absent at both our field sites. Given the historical presence of Pineaceae hosts before human alteration, it appears the current S. subaureus-Quercus associations represent carryover from past host presence. Collectively, our results suggest that patterns of ECM specificity should be viewed not only in light of current forest community composition, but also as a legacy effect of host community change over time. © 2018 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  1. Anomalous transport effects on switching currents of graphene-based Josephson junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarcello, Claudio; Valenti, Davide; Spagnolo, Bernardo; Pierro, Vincenzo; Filatrella, Giovanni

    2017-03-01

    We explore the effect of noise on the ballistic graphene-based small Josephson junctions in the framework of the resistively and capacitively shunted model. We use the non-sinusoidal current-phase relation specific for graphene layers partially covered by superconducting electrodes. The noise induced escapes from the metastable states, when the external bias current is ramped, given the switching current distribution, i.e. the probability distribution of the passages to finite voltage from the superconducting state as a function of the bias current, that is the information more promptly available in the experiments. We consider a noise source that is a mixture of two different types of processes: a Gaussian contribution to simulate an uncorrelated ordinary thermal bath, and non-Gaussian, α-stable (or Lévy) term, generally associated to non-equilibrium transport phenomena. We find that the analysis of the switching current distribution makes it possible to efficiently detect a non-Gaussian noise component in a Gaussian background.

  2. Evaluating the Effect of Mother – Baby Skin- to- Skin Care on Neonatal Outcomes in Preterm Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Kalhor

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Involving the parents in caring of premature newborns is one of the best and effective manners for preventing the hospitalization of premature newborns. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of mother – baby skin- to- skin care on neonatal outcomes in preterm infants, in Kosar hospital. Methods: This was a descriptive comparative study conducted on 400 nulliparous women with premature infants admitted to neonatal intensive care unit of Kosar hospital during April 2012 and March 2015. Sampling was performed via convenience sampling. Sample population divided into two groups, one of them 200, the kangaroo care and non- care groups. The data were obtained by a researcher prepared check list, including mother’s demographic characteristics and neonatal outcomes. Both descriptive and statistical analysis methods were applied. For analyzing the data, chi-square test, t-test, and logistic regression tests was applied (P 0.05. In the intervention group, the relationship between maternal variables and neonatal outcome was significant (P <0.05. Conclusion: Mother – baby skin- to- skin care has a positive effect on neonatal outcomes. Thus, supporting and awareness of premature infants’ mothers in order to implement this type of care can reduce the neonatal complications. Moreover, it is effective in decreasing the treatment costs.

  3. Effect of olive and sunflower seed oil on the adult skin barrier: implications for neonatal skin care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danby, Simon G; AlEnezi, Tareq; Sultan, Amani; Lavender, Tina; Chittock, John; Brown, Kirsty; Cork, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Natural oils are advocated and used throughout the world as part of neonatal skin care, but there is an absence of evidence to support this practice. The goal of the current study was to ascertain the effect of olive oil and sunflower seed oil on the biophysical properties of the skin. Nineteen adult volunteers with and without a history of atopic dermatitis were recruited into two randomized forearm-controlled mechanistic studies. The first cohort applied six drops of olive oil to one forearm twice daily for 5 weeks. The second cohort applied six drops of olive oil to one forearm and six drops of sunflower seed oil to the other twice daily for 4 weeks. The effect of the treatments was evaluated by determining stratum corneum integrity and cohesion, intercorneocyte cohesion, moisturization, skin-surface pH, and erythema. Topical application of olive oil for 4 weeks caused a significant reduction in stratum corneum integrity and induced mild erythema in volunteers with and without a history of atopic dermatitis. Sunflower seed oil preserved stratum corneum integrity, did not cause erythema, and improved hydration in the same volunteers. In contrast to sunflower seed oil, topical treatment with olive oil significantly damages the skin barrier, and therefore has the potential to promote the development of, and exacerbate existing, atopic dermatitis. The use of olive oil for the treatment of dry skin and infant massage should therefore be discouraged. These findings challenge the unfounded belief that all natural oils are beneficial for the skin and highlight the need for further research. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. The Effects of Yin, Yang and Qi in the Skin on Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James David Adams

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The most effective and safe treatment site for pain is in the skin. This chapter discusses the reasons to treat pain in the skin. Pain is sensed in the skin through transient receptor potential cation channels and other receptors. These receptors have endogenous agonists (yang and antagonists (yin that help the body control pain. Acupuncture works through modulation of these receptor activities (qi in the skin; as do moxibustion and liniments. The treatment of pain in the skin has the potential to save many lives and improve pain therapy in most patients.

  5. Transmission of phototherapy through human skin: dosimetry adjustment for effects of skin color, body composition, wavelength, and light coupling to skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussbaum, Ethne L.; Van Zuylen, Jeff

    2006-02-01

    Purpose: To examine factors that affect penetration of phototherapy. Methods: Age, sex, height, and weight were recorded; skin color, skinfold thickness, and light transmission through a skinfold were measured over biceps and triceps muscles, and at the anterior waistline. Light was generated using two 23-diode LED arrays at 840 nm and 660 nm with surface area of 7 cm2. Photon irradiation was measured using an Optical Power Meter consisting of a 1x1-cm2 light detector placed in the centre of the illuminated 7 cm2 spot. Transmission was measured using three skin-diode coupling conditions. Results: Penetration of LED irradiation increased when diodes were coupled to skin with pressure. Red light attenuated more rapidly than infrared light and the attenuation of red light increased as skin color darkened. Penetration of red and infrared light decreased as the amount of subcutaneous fat increased. There were gender effects on penetration of infrared light at normal and low BMI values. Conclusions: When using divergent light sources for phototherapy, radiant exposure should take into account individual physical characteristics, irradiation wavelength and diode configuration of the laser therapy system.

  6. Effect of blood transfusion and skin grafting on rats with combined radiation-burn injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Yongtang; Ran Xinze; Wei Shuqing

    1990-01-01

    The therapeutic effect of escharectomy and skin grafting at different times on rats with combined radiation-burn injuries (5 Gy total body irradiation plus flash radiation from a 5 kW bromotungstenic lamp to induce a 15% TBSA full thickness burn on back) treated with blood transfusion (BT) were studied. The treatment with BT and escharectomy plus skin grafting at 24, 48, and 72 h after injury showed significant therapeutic effects. In these treated groups, early recovery of WBC counts, the granulocytes and total lymphocytes, T, B-cells, bone marrow cells or CFU-F counts were evident within 30 days after injury. The 30-day survival rates of the skin grafts in the group treated with BT and skin grafting at 24 h after injury was 80%, in the group with skin grafting alone was 50%, while all the skin grafts sloughted within 30 days when the grafting was performed 48 and 72 h after injury. The 30-day survival rate of the recipients treated with skin grafting plus BT was higher than that of the animals with skin grafting alone. The results showed that satisfactory results were achieved with BT plus escharectomy and skin grafting within 24 h after injury, while skin grafting performed at 48 or 72 h after injury was ineffective for the survival of skin grafts

  7. Suppression of the Neoclassical Tearing Modes in Tokamaks under Anomalous Transverse Transport Conditions when the Magnetic Well Effect Predominates over the Bootstrap Drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konovalov, S.V.; Mikhailovskii, A.B.; Shirokov, M.S.; Ozeki, T.; Tsypin, V.S.

    2005-01-01

    A study is made of the suppression of neoclassical tearing modes in tokamaks under anomalous transverse transport conditions when the magnetic well effect predominates over the bootstrap drive. It is stressed that the corresponding effect, which is called the compound suppression effect, depends strongly on the profiles of the electron and ion temperature perturbations. Account is taken of the fact that the temperature profile can be established as a result of the competition between anomalous transverse heat transport, on the one hand, and longitudinal collisional heat transport, longitudinal heat convection, longitudinal inertial transport, and transport due to the rotation of magnetic islands, on the other hand. The role of geodesic effects is discussed. The cases of competition just mentioned are described by the model sets of reduced transport equations, which are called, respectively, collisional, convective, inertial, and rotational plasmophysical models. The magnetic well is calculated with allowance for geodesic effects. It is shown that, for strong anomalous heat transport conditions, the contribution of the magnetic well to the generalized Rutherford equation for the island width W is independent of W not only in the collisional model (which has been investigated earlier) but also in the convective and inertial models and depends very weakly (logarithmically) on W in the rotational model. It is this weak dependence that gives rise to the compound effect, which is the subject of the present study. A criterion for the stabilization of neoclassical tearing modes by the compound effect at an arbitrary level of the transverse heat transport by electrons and ions is derived and is analyzed for two cases: when the electron heat transport and ion heat transport are both strong, and when the electron heat transport is strong and the ion heat transport is weak

  8. Effects of some physiological conditions on the radiosensitivity of mouse skin, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Kouji

    1979-01-01

    Effects of anatomic site and positioning during irradiation on the response of mouse skin to single or 32-fractionated gamma rays with one-day interval were studied, using the hind legs of C3Hf/Bu mice, and early skin reaction as an end point. No significant difference in the response of skin to single exposure was observed between dorsal side and abdominal side of a leg. When mouse skin was mechanically stimulated by hair shaving one-day prior to irradiation, the response of the skin to single exposure was more severe on dorsal side, while that to 32 fractions more severe on abdominal side. These results indicate that the dorsal skin of a hind leg has more potentially reproductive stem cells which can be stimulated by hair shaving. The response of mouse skin irradiated in dorsal position was relatively less severe compared to that irradiated in abdominal position. (author)

  9. Effect of microneedle geometry and supporting substrate on microneedle array penetration into skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochhar, Jaspreet Singh; Quek, Ten Cheer; Soon, Wei Jun; Choi, Jaewoong; Zou, Shui; Kang, Lifeng

    2013-11-01

    Microneedles are being fast recognized as a useful alternative to injections in delivering drugs, vaccines, and cosmetics transdermally. Owing to skin's inherent elastic properties, microneedles require an optimal geometry for skin penetration. In vitro studies, using rat skin to characterize microneedle penetration in vivo, require substrates with suitable mechanical properties to mimic human skin's subcutaneous tissues. We tested the effect of these two parameters on microneedle penetration. Geometry in terms of center-to-center spacing of needles was investigated for its effect on skin penetration, when placed on substrates of different hardness. Both hard (clay) and soft (polydimethylsiloxane, PDMS) substrates underneath rat skin and full-thickness pig skin were used as animal models and human skins were used as references. It was observed that there was an increase in percentage penetration with an increase in needle spacing. Microneedle penetration with PDMS as a support under stretched rat skin correlated better with that on full-thickness human skin, while penetration observed was higher when clay was used as a substrate. We showed optimal geometries for efficient penetration together with recommendation for a substrate that could better mimic the mechanical properties of human subcutaneous tissues, when using microneedles fabricated from poly(ethylene glycol)-based materials. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  10. Neutron skin thickness in neutron-rich nuclei: bulk and surface contributions and shell effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinas, X.; Centelles, M.; Warda, M.; Roca-Maza, X.

    2012-01-01

    We analyze theoretically the neutron skin thickness in nuclei and its correlation with the symmetry energy by using semiclassical and mean field approaches together with nuclear effective interactions. Semiclassical approaches reveal that the neutron skin thickness in nuclei is formed by a combination of bulk and surface contributions. To investigate the neutron skin thickness predicted by mean field models, we fit the corresponding densities by two-parameter Fermi distributions. Using these parametrized densities, we study the neutron skin thickness as well as its bulk and surface contributions in 208 Pb and in Zr isotopes, where the influence of shell effects along the isotopic chain is discussed. (author)

  11. Effect of mother-infant early skin-to-skin contact on breast feeding status: a randomized controlled trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, I.; Jamal, M.; Khan, N.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of mother-infant early skin-to-skin contact on breast feeding behavior of infants. Study Design: A randomized controlled trial. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in the Department of Obstetrics of Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad, from November to December 2009. Methodology: Eligible mothers were assessed for the successful breast feeding by using IBFAT tool. The time to initiate the first feed, time to effective breast feeding, maternal satisfaction with the care provided, preference for the same care in future and level of exclusive breast feeding at the age of one month were also noted. The data was compared by using X2 and t-test. Significant p-value was taken as < 0.05. Results: A total of 183 mother-infant pairs (92 in skin-to-skin care [SSC] group and 91 in conventional care [CC] group) were analyzed for breast feeding behavior of the infants. The first breast feed was 26.25% more successful in SSC group (58.8% in SSC group as compared to 32.5% in CC group with p-value of 0.001). In SSC group, the mean time to initiate first breast feed was 61.6 minutes shorter than CC group (40.62 vs. 101.88; p < 0.001). Mean time to achieve effective breast feeding was 207 minutes earlier in SSC group (149.69 vs. 357.50; p < 0.001). The level of satisfaction in the mothers of SSC group was significantly high as compared to controls (56% vs. 6.2%). Similarly, 53.8% mothers of SSC group showed reference for similar care in future as compared to 5% in CC group. In SSC group 85.3% infants were exclusively breast fed at one month as compared to 65.7% in CC group (p=0.025). Conclusion: Maternal-infant early skin-to-skin contact significantly enhanced the success of first breast feed and continuation of exclusive breast feeding till one month of age. It also reduced the time to initiate first feed and time to effective breast feeding. (author)

  12. The effect of liposomes on skin barrier structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coderch, L; de Pera, M; Perez-Cullell, N; Estelrich, J; de la Maza, A; Parra, J L

    1999-01-01

    The present work deals with the 'in vivo' stripping technique to evaluate the percutaneous absorption of sodium fluorescein (NaFl) vehiculized in two different liposome preparations formed by phosphatidylcholine (PC) and lipids mimicking the stratum corneum (SC; ceramides, cholesterol, palmitic acid and cholesteryl sulphate), respectively. Furthermore, the possible effect of these vesicles on the SC lipid alkyl chain conformational order were evaluated at different depths of SC by non-invasive biophysical techniques: Corneometer, Tewameter and especially ATR-FTIR. The results of NaFl percutaneous absorption indicate the highest penetration in the case of incorporation in PC liposomes, which could be related to the increase in SC lipid disorder detected by ATR-FTIR, i.e. a decrease in skin barrier function. On the other hand, SC lipid liposomes have been shown to have a higher affinity for SC owing to the high amount of NaFl found in this layer, suggesting a greater reservoir capacity of SC when similar lipid composition formulation is applied. A lipid order increase is observed by infrared spectroscopy, when these types of liposomes are topically applied, resulting in a strong barrier effect. These results could be useful in designing specific liposomal topical applications.

  13. dermaOXY skin assay: effect and evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menov, Lasse; Klösgen-Buchkremer, Beate Maria

    2015-01-01

    This text is a videnkupon report supported by the Danish Innovation Fonds and conducted by L.M. and B.K. for dermaOXY (by MedicTinedic ApS, Varde, Denmark). It involves two dermaOXY products: dermaOXY HYALURON SERUM and dermaOXY SYN SERUM. These are applied to the facial skin in combination...... with a 90 percent pure oxygen gas stream. Occasionally, the treatment is supported by low-level light exposure, prepared by mechanical microporation of skin or both. The dermaOXY skin improvement approach is used in treatments by clinics spread across 23 countries [1]. This text also includes an assessment...

  14. lipolytic effect of calotropis procera in the skin of wistar rats.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Femi Olaleye

    used as an antiseptic for skin infection. Several studies have been carried out on the effects of various extracts of Calotropis procera on different organs of animals (Al-Robai et al, 1993a, 1993b;. Jam et al, 1996; Basu et al, 1997). On the contrar), there is little or no information on the effect of the plant extract on the skin.

  15. What is the effect of different skin types on the required dose for photodynamic therapy?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Karsten, AE

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available For effective laser treatment it is very important to provide the correct dose at the required treatment depth. In South Africa we have a richness of ethnic groups contributing to a large variety in skin tones. Effective laser treatment of skin...

  16. An evaluation of costs and effects of a nutrient-based skin care program as a component of prevention of skin tears in an extended convalescent center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groom, Marjorie; Shannon, Ronald J; Chakravarthy, Debashish; Fleck, Cynthia A

    2010-01-01

    A decision model was developed in a pilot study comparing a regimen using a skin care product line containing active ingredients and nutrients with a commercially available alternative skin care regimen in an elderly convalescent care hospital-based center. Using a decision-tree model, skin treatment with a nutrient-based skin care (NBSC) formulation was compared with products without nutrients. The number of skin-tear-free days was the primary outcome measure. A cost-effectiveness ratio was calculated for each skin treatment as the average cost for reaching a particular outcome. Incidence of skin tear data was collected from residents in a convalescent center from 2004 to 2005. An independent t test was used to compare differences in the number of skin tears between periods when NBSC and other formulations were used. All costs in the decision model were adjusted to 2007 dollars. Sensitivity analysis was used to test uncertain data. The NBSC provided more skin-tear-free days and was less costly than the use of non-NBSC products. The expected skin-tear-free days for a patient in the model treated with NBSC were 179.7 days compared with 154.6 days for non-NBSC products, yielding an incremental effect of 25.1 days. The expected cost of preventing skin tears and treatment via skin treatment per patient in the NBSC group was $281.00 versus $324.10 for periods when other products were used. The NBSC had a lower projected cost for prevention of skin tears and more skin-tear-free days when compared with non-NBSC products.

  17. Short duration of skin-to-skin contact: effects on growth and breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boo, Nem-Yun; Jamli, Faizah Mohamed

    2007-12-01

    To compare weight gain and head growth in very-low-birthweight (VLBW, skin-to-skin contact (STSC) during their stay in a neonatal intensive care unit. Stable VLBW infants were randomised into either STSC or control group. Parents of the STSC group were encouraged to provide STSC for at least 1 h daily. One hundred and forty-six infants were randomised, but only 126 were enrolled (STSC group: n = 64; n = 62). Infants in the STSC group had better mean weekly increase in head circumference (1.0 cm (SD = 0.3) vs. 0.7 cm (SD = 0.3); P milk at enrollment (adjusted OR: 4.1; 95% CI: 1.4, 11.7; P = 0.009) and receiving expressed breast milk during intervention period (adjusted OR: 8.3; 95% CI: 2.8, 24.4; P < 0.0001); exposure to STSC and maternal education were not significant predictors. Exposure to short duration of STSC may promote head growth in VLBW infants.

  18. Ultrasound enhanced skin-lightening effect of vitamin C and niacinamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakozaki, Tomohiro; Takiwaki, Hirotsugu; Miyamoto, Kukizo; Sato, Yasuhiro; Arase, Seiji

    2006-05-01

    Cutaneous hyperpigmentation occurs in multiple conditions. There is a strong need for the improvement of hyperpigmentation especially among Asian women. However, the effect of existing skin-lightening agents is not sufficient. One reason attributes to the limited capability of active agents to be delivered transepidermally. Ultrasound is one promising approach to enhance transepidermal transport. In this work, we investigate the effect of the use of high-frequency ultrasound together with coupling gel containing skin-lightening agents (ascorbyl glucoside and niacinamide) on facial hyperpigmentation in vivo in Japanese women. The effect of ultrasound on the absorption of skin-lightening agents into the stratum corneum was evaluated in a tape-stripping method on human forearms in vivo. The skin efficacy was assessed in a facial clinical trial involving 60 subjects with hyperpigmentation in a paired design. Subjects were assigned to two groups, each group using two treatments (one on each facial cheek): (1) skin-lightening gel with ultrasound vs. no treatment or (2) skin-lightening gel with ultrasound vs. skin-lightening gel treatment. Changes in facial hyperpigmentation were objectively quantified by computer analysis and visual grading of high-resolution digital images of the face in addition to the subjective assessment via questionnaire. Ultrasound radiation enhanced the absorption of skin-lightening agents in the stratum corneum in a radiation-time-dependent manner. In the facial clinical trial, use of ultrasound radiation together with the skin-lightening gel significantly reduced facial hyperpigmented spots compared with both no treatment and skin-lightening gel alone after 4 weeks. The data suggest that use of high-frequency ultrasound radiation together with skin-lightening gel is effective to reduce hyperpigmentation via enhancing transepidermal transport of skin-lightening agents.

  19. Sunscreen effects in skin analyzed by photoacoustic spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Anjos, Fernanda H.; Rompe, Paula C. B.; Batista, Roberta R.; Martin, Airton A.; Mansanares, Antonio M.; da Silva, Edson C.; Acosta-Avalos, Daniel; Barja, Paulo R.

    2004-06-01

    In the photoacoustic technique, the signal is proportional to the heat produced in a sample as a consequence of modulated light absorption. This technique allows the spectroscopic characterization of multilayer systems: as the thermal diffusion length varies with the light modulation frequency, one can obtain the depth profile of the sample by analyzing the frequency-dependence of the signal. As the photoacoustic signal depends on thermal and optical properties of the sample, structural changes in the system under analysis account for signal variations in time. In this work, photoacoustic spectroscopy was used to characterize samples of sunscreen and the system formed by sunscreen plus skin. We used photoacoustic spectroscopy to monitor the absorption kinetics of sunscreen applied to samples of human skin, characterizing alterations in the human skin after application of sunscreen. Measurements used 250W Xe arc lamp as light source, for wavelengths between 240nm and 400nm. This range corresponds to most of the UV radiation that reaches Earth. Skin samples were about 0,5cm diameter. The absorption spectra of sunscreen was obtained. Finally, photoacoustics was employed to monitor the absorption kinetics of the sunscreen applied to skin samples. This was done by applying sunscreen in a skin sample and recording the photoacoustic spectra in regular time intervals, up to 90 minutes after application. According to measurements, light absorption by the system sunscreen plus skin stabilizes between 25 and 45 minutes after sunscreen application. Results show that this technique can be utilized to monitor drug delivery and farmacokinetics in skin samples.

  20. Effectiveness Evaluation of Skin Covers against Intravascular Brachytherapy Sources Using VARSKIN3 Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baghani HR

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: The most common intravascular brachytherapy sources include 32P, 188Re, 106Rh and 90Sr/90Y. In this research, skin absorbed dose for different covering materials in dealing with these sources were evaluated and the best covering material for skin protection and reduction of absorbed dose by radiation staff was recognized and recommended. Method: Four materials including polyethylene, cotton and two different kinds of plastic were proposed as skin covers and skin absorbed dose at different depths for each kind of the materials was calculated separately using the VARSKIN3 code. Results: The results suggested that for all sources, skin absorbed dose was minimized when using polyethylene. Considering this material as skin cover, maximum and minimum doses at skin surface were related to 90Sr/90Y and 106Rh, respectively. Conclusion: polyethylene was found the most effective cover in reducing skin dose and protecting the skin. Furthermore, proper agreement between the results of VARSKIN3 and other experimental measurements indicated that VRASKIN3 is a powerful tool for skin dose calculations when working with beta emitter sources. Therefore, it can be utilized in dealing with the issue of radiation protection.

  1. Anomalous carbon nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasparian, A.P.

    1984-01-01

    Results are presented from a bubble chamber experiment to search for anomalous mean free path (MFP) phenomena for secondary multicharged fragments (Zsub(f)=5 and 6) of the beam carbon nucleus at 4.2 GeV/c per nucleon. A total of 50000 primary interactions of carbon with propane (C 3 H 8 ) were created. Approximately 6000 beam tragments with charges Zsub(f)=5 and 6 were analyzed in detail to find out an anomalous decrease of MFP. The anomaly is observed only for secondary 12 C nuclei

  2. Chiral anomalous dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadofyev, Andrey; Sen, Srimoyee

    2018-02-01

    The linearized Einstein equation describing graviton propagation through a chiral medium appears to be helicity dependent. We analyze features of the corresponding spectrum in a collision-less regime above a flat background. In the long wave-length limit, circularly polarized metric perturbations travel with a helicity dependent group velocity that can turn negative giving rise to a new type of an anomalous dispersion. We further show that this chiral anomalous dispersion is a general feature of polarized modes propagating through chiral plasmas extending our result to the electromagnetic sector.

  3. Proinflammatory Effects of Diesel Exhaust Nanoparticles on Scleroderma Skin Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mastrofrancesco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune diseases are complex disorders of unknown etiology thought to result from interactions between genetic and environmental factors. We aimed to verify whether environmental pollution from diesel engine exhaust nanoparticulate (DEP of actually operating vehicles could play a role in the development of a rare immune-mediated disease, systemic sclerosis (SSc, in which the pathogenetic role of environment has been highlighted. The effects of carbon-based nanoparticulate collected at the exhaust of newer (Euro 5 and older (Euro 4 diesel engines on SSc skin keratinocytes and fibroblasts were evaluated in vitro by assessing the mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1α, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α and fibroblast chemical mediators (metalloproteases 2, 3, 7, 9, and 12; collagen types I and III; VEGF. DEP was shown to stimulate cytokine gene expression at a higher extent in SSc keratinocytes versus normal cells. Moreover, the mRNA gene expression of all MMPs, collagen types, and VEGF genes was significantly higher in untreated SSc fibroblasts versus controls. Euro 5 particle exposure increased the mRNA expression of MMP-2, -7, and -9 in SSc fibroblasts in a dose dependent manner and only at the highest concentration in normal cells. We suggest that environmental DEP could trigger the development of SSc acting on genetically hyperreactive cell systems.

  4. Effects of hair removal alexandrite laser on biometric parameters of the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Shiva; Abolhasani, Ehsan; Nilforoushzadeh, Mohammadali

    2016-04-01

    The effects of alexandrite laser (AL) on skin parameters such as melanin content, skin layer depth, elasticity, and density have not been investigated through biometric methods. We aim to assess the effect of AL on the skin parameters through biometric devices to determine whether it has positive effects on treated region. In this pretest-posttest study, we recruited patients who attended Laser Clinic of Skin and Stem Cell Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, from January through December 2014. Patients had to be free of any dermatologic conditions and lesion at the site of treatment or any contraindication to laser therapy. Baseline measurements were performed and patients received four sessions of AL therapy (spot size, 12 mm; fluence, 12 J/cm(2); and pulse width, 5 Hz) with 4-week intervals. Four weeks after the last treatment session, the same parameters were assessed that included skin color, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), dermis and epidermis density and depth (through skin ultrasonography), melanin content, erythema intensity, and skin elasticity. Biometric parameters of 33 patients (27 females [81.8%]), with mean (SD) age of 35.7 (9.5) years were evaluated. The mean percent changes of skin parameters were as follows: skin color, 5.88% through Visioface and by 56.8% through Colorimeter devices (became lighter); melanin content, -15.95%; TEWL, -2.96%; elasticity, +14.88%; dermis depth -19.01%; and dermis density, +1580.11% (P skin and make the skin thinner while it could increase elasticity and density of epidermis and dermis, which might indicate increased collagen content of skin.

  5. The Effects of Dietary Macronutrient Balance on Skin Structure in Aging Male and Female Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hew, Jonathan; Solon-Biet, Samantha M; McMahon, Aisling C; Ruohonen, Kari; Raubenheimer, David; Ballard, J William O; Le Couteur, David G; Nicholls, Caroline; Li, Zhe; Maitz, Peter K M; Wang, Yiwei; Simpson, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition influences skin structure; however, a systematic investigation into how energy and macronutrients (protein, carbohydrate and fat) affects the skin has yet to be conducted. We evaluated the associations between macronutrients, energy intake and skin structure in mice fed 25 experimental diets and a control diet for 15 months using the Geometric Framework, a novel method of nutritional analysis. Skin structure was associated with the ratio of dietary macronutrients eaten, not energy intake, and the nature of the effect differed between the sexes. In males, skin structure was primarily associated with protein intake, whereas in females carbohydrate intake was the primary correlate. In both sexes, the dermis and subcutaneous fat thicknesses were inversely proportional. Subcutaneous fat thickness varied positively with fat intake, due to enlarged adipocytes rather than increased adipocyte number. We therefore demonstrated clear interactions between skin structure and macronutrient intakes, with the associations being sex-specific and dependent on dietary macronutrient balance.

  6. Effects of HfO{sub 2}/Co interface and Co/HfO{sub 2} interface on anomalous Hall behavior in perpendicular Co/Pt multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Shao-Long [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Yang, Guang [Department of Materials Physics and Chemistry, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Teng, Jiao, E-mail: tengjiao@mater.ustb.edu.cn [Department of Materials Physics and Chemistry, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Guo, Qi-Xun; Liu, Yi-Wei; Li, Xu-Jing [Department of Materials Physics and Chemistry, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Yu, Guang-Hua, E-mail: ghyu@mater.ustb.edu.cn [Department of Materials Physics and Chemistry, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2017-07-01

    Highlights: • Anomalous Hall effect in perpendicular Co/Pt multilayers is studied. • Thermally stable AHE feature is obtained in [Pt/Co]{sub 3}/HfO{sub 2}/Pt multilayers. • Good thermal stability is due to enhanced intrinsic and side-jump contributions. - Abstract: Effects of the HfO{sub 2}/Co interface and the Co/HfO{sub 2} interface on thermal stability of anomalous Hall effect (AHE) in perpendicular Co/Pt multilayers have been studied. It is observed that thermally stable AHE behavior cannot be obtained in perpendicular Co/Pt multilayers with the HfO{sub 2}/Co interface, mainly due to Co-Pt interdiffusion during annealing. In contrast, thermally stable AHE feature is observed in perpendicular Co/Pt multilayers with the Co/HfO{sub 2} interface despite Co-Pt interdiffusion, which is owing to the enhancement of the side jump and intrinsic contributions to the AHE through interfacial modification after annealing.

  7. Effects of tretinoin on wound healing in aged skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Campos Peseto, Danielle; Carmona, Erica Vilaça; Silva, Kellyn Cristina da; Guedes, Flavia Roberta Valente; Hummel Filho, Fernando; Martinez, Natalia Peres; Pereira, José Aires; Rocha, Thalita; Priolli, Denise Gonçalves

    2016-03-01

    Aged and adult populations have differences in the structural, biological, and healing properties of skin. Comparative studies of healing under the influence of retinoids in both these populations are very important and, to the best of our knowledge, have not been performed to date. The purpose of this study was to compare the activities of topical tretinoin in aged and adult animal models of wound healing by secondary intention. Male aged rats (24 months old, n = 7) and adult rats (6 months old, n = 8) were used. The rats were assigned to the following groups according to the dates on which wound samples were excised (day 14 or 21 after model creation): treated group, control group, and naive group. Topical application of tretinoin cream was used only on the proximal wound and was applied daily for 7 days. Wound healing areas were measured using metal calipers, and morphological analysis was performed. Slides were stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin, Masson's trichrome, and periodic acid-Schiff stains. Statistical analysis adopted a 5% coefficient for rejection of the null hypothesis. Although aged animals showed skin repair, complete reepithelialization was found on day 21 in some animals of both groups (treated and control). In aged rats, the wound area was significantly smaller in treated wounds than in untreated wounds, resulting in a larger scar area compared with the adult group. When treated wounds were compared, no differences were found between the wound areas in adult and aged rats. As expected, the collagen concentration was higher in normal skin from adult rats than in normal skin from aged animals, but there was no difference when aged skin was treated with tretinoin. These results indicate that tretinoin increases collagen synthesis in aged skin and returns the healing process to a normal state of skin healing. © 2016 by the Wound Healing Society.

  8. Shining Light on Skin Pigmentation: The Darker and the Brighter Side of Effects of UV Radiation†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddodi, Nityanand; Jayanthy, Ashika; Setaluri, Vijayasaradhi

    2012-01-01

    The term barrier function as applied to human skin often connotes the physical properties of this organ that provide protection from its surrounding environment. This term does not generally include skin pigmentation. However, skin pigmentation, which is the result of melanin produced in melanocytes residing the basal layer of the skin and exported to the keratinocytes in the upper layers, serves equally important protective function. Indeed, changes in skin pigmentation are often the most readily recognized indicators of exposure of skin to damaging agents, especially to natural and artificial radiation in the environment. Several recent studies have shed new light on a) the mechanisms of involved in selective effects of subcomponents of UV radiation on human skin pigmentation and b) the interactive influences between keratinocytes and melanocytes, acting as ‘epidermal melanin unit’, that manifest as changes in skin pigmentation in response to exposure to various forms of radiation. This article provides a concise review of our current understanding of the effects of the non-ionizing solar radiation, at cellular and molecular levels, on human skin pigmentation. PMID:22404235

  9. A refined method to evaluate diapers for effectiveness in reducing skin hydration using the adult forearm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, F J; Lemmen, J T; Bozarth, D L; Garofalo, M J; Grove, G L

    1997-08-01

    Excessive skin hydration resulting from wet undergarments is a major cause of diaper rash in children and contributes to severe dermatitis in incontinent adults. Advancements in absorbent technology have led to diapers and incontinent garments that not only absorb urine, but also transfer it to different regions, and lock it away from the skin. The purpose of the present study was to develop a reliable method to assess the effectiveness of absorbent articles in mitigating skin hydration. Disposable diapers with different absorbent structures were wrapped around the forearms of adult volunteers, loaded with urine substitute, and held in place for 1 h. Hydration of the volar region was measured by evaporimetry and compared with that of skin in the diaper region of children who had worn control loaded diapers in the usual way. The amount of fluid retained in various diaper layers and in the superabsorbent polymer core was measured. Evaporative water loss measurement on adult forearms was shown to be a reliable test for comparing the effectiveness of absorbent articles in preventing excessive skin hydration provided that 1) the complete garment was used and 2) fluid was loaded in a manner that simulated normal urination. Skin on adult forearms and skin in the diaper region of children were concordant in their response to wet diapers. Skin wetness was directly related to the amount of liquid retained in absorbent layers close to the skin.

  10. Anomalous response of supported few-layer hexagonal boron nitride to DC electric fields: a confined water effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Camilla; Matos, Matheus; Mazzoni, Mário; Chacham, Hélio; Neves, Bernardo

    2013-03-01

    Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) is a two-dimensional compound from III-V family, with the atoms of boron and nitrogen arranged in a honeycomb lattice, similar to graphene. Unlike graphene though, h-BN is an insulator material, with a gap larger than 5 eV. Here, we use Electric Force Microscopy (EFM) to study the electrical response of mono and few-layers of h-BN to an electric field applied by the EFM tip. Our results show an anomalous behavior in the dielectric response for h-BN for different bias orientation: for a positive bias applied to the tip, h-BN layers respond with a larger dielectric constant than the dielectric constant of the silicon dioxide substrate; while for a negative bias, the h-BN dielectric constant is smaller than the dielectric constant of the substrate. Based on first-principles calculations, we showed that this anomalous response may be interpreted as a macroscopic consequence of confinement of a thin water layer between h-BN and substrate. These results were confirmed by sample annealing and also also by a comparative analysis with h-BN on a non-polar substrate. All the authors acknowledge financial support from CNPq, Fapemig, Rede Nacional de Pesquisa em Nanotubos de Carbono and INCT-Nano-Carbono.

  11. The effect of skin temperature on performance during a 7.5-km cycling time trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levels, K.; Koning, J.J. de; Foster, C.; Daanen, H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Aerobic exercise performance is seriously compromised in the heat. Possibly, a high skin temperature causes a rating of perceived exertion (RPE)-mediated decrease in exercise intensity. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of skin temperature on power output during a 7.5-km cycling

  12. Using a Cell Phone to Investigate the Skin Depth Effect in Salt Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, John

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes an experimental investigation of the skin depth effect for electromagnetic waves in salt water using a cell phone that is immersed to a critical depth where it no longer responds when called. We show that this critical depth is directly proportional to the theoretical skin depth for a range of salt concentrations.

  13. The effects of culture, skin color, and other nonclinical issues on acne treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Hilary E; Friedlander, Sheila Fallon; Eichenfield, Lawrence F; Mancini, Anthony J; Yan, Albert C

    2011-09-01

    The effective and safe treatment of acne vulgaris often is affected by individual patient characteristics, including skin color and cultural background. Skin of color is especially prone to hyperpigmentation, both from lesions and from irritating therapy. Clinicians also should be aware of cultural attitudes and folk remedies that may adversely affect dermatologic conditions such as acne. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The effect of icepack cooling on skin and muscle temperature at rest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of icepack cooling on skin and muscle temperature at rest and after exercise. M Mars, B Hadebe, M Tufts. Abstract. Objective. To compare cooling of skin, subcutaneous fat and muscle, produced by an icepack, at rest and after short-duration exhaustive exercise. Methods. Eight male subjects were studied. With the ...

  15. Fluoroscopically Guided Interventional Procedures: A Review of Radiation Effects on Patients’ Skin and Hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    Upton AC . Medical effects of ionizing radiation . Philadelphia, Pa : Saunders/ Elsevier , 2008 . 50 . Trott K , Kummermehr J...Radiation effects in skin . In: Scherer E , Streffer C , Trott K , eds. Radiopathology of organs and tissues . Berlin, Germany : Springer

  16. ttH anomalous coupling in double Higgs production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishiwaki, Kenji; Niyogi, Saurabh; Shivaji, Ambresh [Regional Centre for Accelerator-based Particle Physics, Harish-Chandra Research Institute,Chhatnag Road, Junsi, Allahabad-211019 (India)

    2014-04-02

    We study the effects of top-Higgs anomalous coupling in the production of a pair of Higgs boson via gluon fusion at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The introduction of anomalous ttH coupling can alter the hadronic double Higgs boson cross section and can lead to characteristic changes in certain kinematic distributions. We perform a global analysis based on available LHC data on the Higgs to constrain the parameters of ttH anomalous coupling. Possible overlap of the predictions due to anomalous ttH coupling with those due to anomalous trilinear Higgs coupling is also studied. We briefly discuss the effect of the anomalous ttH coupling on the HZ production via gluon fusion which is one of the main backgrounds in the HH→γγbb-macron channel.

  17. Effects of ultraviolet radiations on the human skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesarini, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    Skin cancers and, particularly, malignant melanomas are the end product of a long chain of events which start with the very first exposure to sunlight. The genetic program which directs the capacity to develop a protective tan has failed when a skin cancer arises. The price to pay before building an efficient defense is already too high for those who develop skin cancers. Less exposures to solar or artificial UVR and larger use of complementary efficient sunscreens should reduce the cutaneous damages to a level compatible with the repair capacity. Nevertheless, care should be taken to discourage individuals at high risk for cancers to develop a tan since increasing phaeomelanic content of the epidermis is equivalent to increase the risk

  18. Effects of lotioned disposable handkerchiefs on skin barrier recovery after tape stripping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paepe, Kristien; De Rop, Evelien; Houben, Evi; Adam, Ralf; Rogiers, Vera

    2008-11-01

    In the present work, it was studied whether repeated use of lotioned disposable handkerchiefs on tape-stripped forearm skin was able to improve skin barrier recovery. Skin assessments included scoring of visual erythema and dryness/scaliness; and measuring of skin redness (Chromameter CR300), skin hydration (Corneometer CM825), and transepidermal water loss (Tewameter TM300). Four different lotioned paper handkerchiefs - randomly assigned to one of two subject groups (n=20) - were tested vs. the non-lotioned control handkerchief. The results were also compared with those obtained using a topically applied oil-in-water barrier cream (Dermalex). The three-day lasting protocol revealed that handkerchief wiping itself delayed skin recovery, but a significantly better performance was seen for the lotioned handkerchiefs containing fatty alcohols and mineral oils. This shows that the use of lotioned tissues helps to prevent skin damage inevitably caused by the wiping process. The controlled pre-damaged forearm method with tape stripping appears to be a suitable model to study the effects of repetitive wiping on irritated skin with disposable handkerchiefs of different quality. More specifically, the model seems applicable to mimic the nasolabial skin damage observed during a common cold associated with frequent use of disposable handkerchiefs.

  19. Effectiveness of hand washing on the removal of iron oxide nanoparticles from human skin ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewinski, Nastassja A; Berthet, Aurélie; Maurizi, Lionel; Eisenbeis, Antoine; Hopf, Nancy B

    2017-08-01

    In this study, the effectiveness of washing with soap and water in removing nanoparticles from exposed skin was investigated. Dry, nanoscale hematite (α-Fe 2 O 3 ) or maghemite (γ-Fe 2 O 3 ) powder, with primary particle diameters between 20-30 nm, were applied to two samples each of fresh and frozen ex vivo human skin in two independent experiments. The permeation of nanoparticles through skin, and the removal of nanoparticles after washing with soap and water were investigated. Bare iron oxide nanoparticles remained primarily on the surface of the skin, without penetrating beyond the stratum corneum. Skin exposed to iron oxide nanoparticles for 1 and 20 hr resulted in removal of 85% and 90%, respectively, of the original dose after washing. In the event of dermal exposure to chemicals, removal is essential to avoid potential local irritation or permeation across skin. Although manufactured at an industrial scale and used extensively in laboratory experiments, limited data are available on the removal of engineered nanoparticles after skin contact. Our finding raises questions about the potential consequences of nanoparticles remaining on the skin and whether alternative washing methods should be proposed. Further studies on skin decontamination beyond use of soap and water are needed to improve the understanding of the potential health consequences of dermal exposure to nanoparticles.

  20. Effect of chlorhexidine gluconate on the skin integrity at PICC line sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visscher, M; deCastro, M V; Combs, L; Perkins, L; Winer, J; Schwegman, N; Burkhart, C; Bondurant, P

    2009-12-01

    To determine the effects of chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) on skin inflammation and stratum corneum barrier integrity at peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) sites among patients in the neonatal intensive care setting. In a within-subject design, PICC sites with CHG plus semipermeable dressing (PICC) were compared with contralateral dressing sites and untreated controls among 40 neonates (gestational age 32.1+/-4.7) at weekly dressing changes, using quantitative measures of skin erythema, dryness and barrier integrity (transepidermal water loss, TEWL). Data were analyzed using analysis of variance and linear mixed methods. At week 1, all three sites differed for erythema with the highest value indicating poorer skin condition at the PICC site. Dressing-site erythema was higher than the untreated control. Dryness and TEWL were higher, indicating poorer skin integrity, for the PICC site than either the dressing or the control. After 2 weeks, erythema and dryness scores were higher for the PICC site than the dressing and control skin. By week 3, scores were comparable for PICC and dressing sites and both were higher than the control for erythema and dryness. After 3 weeks, PICC skin TEWL was higher than both dressing and control and they did not differ from each other. The dressings used to secure PICC lines contribute to the observed skin compromise at CHG-treated skin sites and may affect skin barrier development in similar populations of neonates.

  1. Beta Function and Anomalous Dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pica, Claudio; Sannino, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that it is possible to determine the coefficients of an all-order beta function linear in the anomalous dimensions using as data the two-loop coefficients together with the first one of the anomalous dimensions which are universal. The beta function allows to determine the anomalous...

  2. Curative effect of TFX-Jelfa supplementation on the skin of ovariectomised rats – morphological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karpińska Teresa Agnieszka

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the effect of thymus factor X (TFX-Jelfa treatment in hypoestrogenic female rats for the purpose of decreasing skin impairments. Ovariectomised rats were used as a model. The histopathological analysis of the skin after TFX-Jelfa treatment demonstrated that the epidermis was thicker and more desquamated, without deep wrinkles or hypersecretion in comparison to the skin of animals only castrated and not treated with TFX-Jelfa. Collagen and elastic fibres were arranged more uniformly in the dermis and there were numerous fibroblasts, hair follicles, and small vessels. Ultrastructural analysis showed keratinocytes without degenerative changes and the proliferation of lymphatic and dendritic cells in the skin. The results indicate that thymus extracts can have beneficial effects on skin aging, which is often accompanied by hormonal perturbances.

  3. Novel Inhibitory Effect of N-(2-Hydroxycyclohexylvaliolamine on Melanin Production in a Human Skin Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bum-Ho Bin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Hyper-pigmentation causes skin darkness and medical disorders, such as post-inflammatory melanoderma and melasma. Therefore, the development of anti-melanogenic agents is important for treating these conditions and for cosmetic production. In our previous paper, we demonstrated that the anti-diabetic drug voglibose, a valiolamine derivative, is a potent anti-melanogenic agent. In addition, we proposed an alternative screening strategy to identify valiolamine derivatives with high skin permeability that act as anti-melanogenic agents when applied topically. In this study, we synthesized several valiolamine derivatives with enhanced lipophilicity and examined their inhibitory effects in a human skin model. N-(2-hydroxycyclohexylvaliolamine (HV possesses a stronger inhibitory effect on melanin production than voglibose in a human skin model, suggesting that HV is a more potent anti-melanogenic agent for the skin.

  4. Uncovering the Origin of Skin Side Effects from EGFR-Targeted Therapies | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a key regulator of cell proliferation, is often mutated or overexpressed in a variety of cancer types. EGFR-targeted therapies, including monoclonal antibodies and small molecule inhibitors, can effectively treat patients whose tumors depend on aberrant EGFR signaling. Within a few weeks of initiating therapy, however, patients develop a characteristic rash with leukocyte infiltration into the skin accompanied by pruritus (itching), scaling of the skin, hair loss, and even changes in skin cell differentiation. The side effects can become so severe that patients take reduced doses, which can limit efficacy, or stop treatment altogether. To understand how EGFR inhibitors cause these skin changes in the hopes of identifying a means of preventing them, Stuart Yuspa, M.D., of CCR’s Laboratory of Cancer Biology and Genetics, and his colleagues examined patient samples and generated a mouse model of EGFR loss in the skin.

  5. Giant magnetic anisotropy and robust quantum anomalous Hall effect in boron-doped graphene with Re-adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai-Cheng; Li, Yong-Feng; Liu, Yong; Zhu, Yan

    2018-04-01

    Recently topological materials have attracted much attention due to their quantization transports as well as edge states. It will be excellent to realize the robust quantum anomalous Hall transports in graphene-based devices. Using density-functional theory and tight-binding method, we investigated the structural, magnetic and topological properties for the boron-doped graphene with Re-adsorption. A large band-gap of 32.5 meV is opened by the Rashba spin-orbital coupling, and the band-gap is robust against the shape deformation of  ± 4% along the zigzag direction. Giant magnetic anisotropy emerges in this adsorption system together with the Fermi level lying in the band gap. Both the magnetic anisotropy and the band gap can be tuned by a moderate electric field. Calculations reveal that the system exhibits the quantization transports with the Chern number C=2 .

  6. Clinical effects of an oral supplement rich in antioxidants on skin radiance in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumoulin M

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Marion Dumoulin, David Gaudout, Benoit Lemaire Activ’Inside, Libourne, France Background: Environmental factors impact the skin aging resulting in decrease of skin radiance. Nutrition and particularly antioxidants could help to fight against skin degradation.Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of an oral supplement rich in specific antioxidants, SkinAx2TM, on the improvement of the skin radiance in women.Methods: The open-label clinical study enrolled 35 women, aged 40–70, with facial dull complexion. Subjects were supplemented orally with a daily dosage of 150 mg of an antioxidant-rich formulation containing superoxide dismutase-rich melon concentrate, grape seed extract rich in monomers of flavanols, vitamin C, and zinc for 8 weeks. Each subject served as her own control. The C.L.B.T.™ test has been used to evaluate facial skin coloring (C, luminosity (L, brightness (B, and transparency (T involved in skin radiance. Facial skin imperfections have been assessed by clinical assessment. Firmness has been evaluated by clinical assessment and cutometer measurement. Finally, an auto-questionnaire has been carried out in order to evaluate the satisfaction of the subjects concerning different parameters involved in skin radiance and the global efficacy of the supplement.Results: Skin “red pink” and “olive” colors were significantly improved after supplementation (P<0.0001. Luminosity was increased by 25.9% (P<0.0001 whereas brightness and transparency were not affected by the supplementation. Facial skin imperfections were significantly reduced after the antioxidant-rich formulation intake (global reduction: –18.0%; P<0.0001. Indeed, dark circles, redness, and spots significantly diminished after oral treatment. Firmness and elasticity have been shown to be improved. Subjects were globally satisfied by the product (82.4% and have found improvements on their facial skin. Furthermore, 64.7% reported to look

  7. Effects of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) on skin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kappa B (NF-κB) localization and cell viability were measured in vivo. Keratinocytes from normal skin were cultured in AGE-enriched conditional media, and the cell viability, apoptosis, adhesion and migration were detected in order to find the ...

  8. Effect of individual finger skin temperature on vibrotactile perception threshold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Harazin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: In healthy people, the vibrotactile perception threshold (VPT at fingertips depends on a given measurement method and on individual characteristics such as age, gender and finger skin temperature. The aim of the study was to compare the VPT values in 2 groups of healthy subjects with different finger skin temperature. Materials and Methods: The study group comprised 56 males and 76 females, who formed pairs matched with respect to age, gender and body mass index (BMI but differing in terms of finger skin temperature at pre-launch testing. The finger skin temperature of less than 29°C indicated the subjects with "cold hands" and that of more than 29°C, the subjects with "warm hands". The measuring system made use of P8 pallesthesiometer (EMSON-MAT, Poland and the measurement procedure was in compliance with the ISO 13091-1:2001 standard. VPT measurements were performed for the index, middle and ring fingers of both hands at the frequencies of 4 Hz, 25 Hz, 31.5 Hz, 63 Hz, 125 Hz and 250 Hz. Results: The findings of the study revealed that the mean VPTs among the subjects with "cold hands" were significantly higher than the corresponding values among the subjects with "warm hands". Conclusions: The type of individual peripheral thermoregulation should be considered when assessing the VPT and determining its reference values.

  9. Skin cancer, irradiation, and sunspots: the solar cycle effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valachovic, Edward; Zurbenko, Igor

    2014-01-01

    Skin cancer is diagnosed in more than 2 million individuals annually in the United States. It is strongly associated with ultraviolet exposure, with melanoma risk doubling after five or more sunburns. Solar activity, characterized by features such as irradiance and sunspots, undergoes an 11-year solar cycle. This fingerprint frequency accounts for relatively small variation on Earth when compared to other uncorrelated time scales such as daily and seasonal cycles. Kolmogorov-Zurbenko filters, applied to the solar cycle and skin cancer data, separate the components of different time scales to detect weaker long term signals and investigate the relationships between long term trends. Analyses of crosscorrelations reveal epidemiologically consistent latencies between variables which can then be used for regression analysis to calculate a coefficient of influence. This method reveals that strong numerical associations, with correlations >0.5, exist between these small but distinct long term trends in the solar cycle and skin cancer. This improves modeling skin cancer trends on long time scales despite the stronger variation in other time scales and the destructive presence of noise.

  10. Contemporary Use of Anomalous Diffraction in Biomolecular Structure Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Q.; Hendrickson, W.

    2017-01-01

    The normal elastic X-ray scattering that depends only on electron density can be modulated by an ?anomalous? component due to resonance between X-rays and electronic orbitals. Anomalous scattering thereby precisely identifies atomic species, since orbitals distinguish atomic elements, which enables the multi- and single-wavelength anomalous diffraction (MAD and SAD) methods. SAD now predominates in de novo structure determination of biological macromolecules, and we focus here on the prevailing SAD method. We describe the anomalous phasing theory and the periodic table of phasing elements that are available for SAD experiments, differentiating between those readily accessible for at-resonance experiments and those that can be effective away from an edge. We describe procedures for present-day SAD phasing experiments and we discuss optimization of anomalous signals for challenging applications. We also describe methods for using anomalous signals as molecular markers for tracing and element identification. Emerging developments and perspectives are discussed in brief.

  11. The moisturizing effects of glycolipid biosurfactants, mannosylerythritol lipids, on human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Shuhei; Morita, Tomotake; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Yanagidani, Shusaku; Sogabe, Atsushi; Kitamoto, Dai; Kitagawa, Masaru

    2012-01-01

    Glycolipid biosurfactants, such as mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs), are produced by different yeasts belonging to the genus Pseudozyma and have been attracting much attention as new cosmetic ingredients owing to their unique liquid-crystal-forming and moisturizing properties. In this study, the effects of different MEL derivatives on the skin were evaluated in detail using a three-dimensional cultured human skin model and an in vivo human study. The skin cells were cultured and treated with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and the effects of different lipids on the SDS-damaged cells were evaluated on the basis of cell viability. Most MEL derivatives efficiently recovered the viability of the cells and showed high recovery rates (over 80%) comparable with that of natural ceramide. It is interesting that the recovery rate with MEL-A prepared from olive oil was significantly higher than that of MEL-A prepared from soybean oil. The water retention properties of MEL-B were further investigated on human forearm skin in a preliminary study. Compared with the control, the aqueous solution of MEL-B (5 wt%) was estimated to considerably increase the stratum corneum water content in the skin. Moreover, perspiration on the skin surface was clearly suppressed by treatment with the MEL-B solution. These results suggest that MELs are likely to exhibit a high moisturizing action, by assisting the barrier function of the skin. Accordingly, the yeast glycolipids have a strong potential as a new ingredient for skin care products.

  12. [Skin defect coverage with micro skin graft].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gümüş, Nazim; Kaya, Yalçin; Karakaya, Sadik; Camci, Cemalettin

    2002-04-01

    The aim of this study is to coverage of the large skin defect with microskin graft. The wound coverage of the large skin defect may be difficult with auto skin graft. In these patients, split thickness skin graft may be used in a bloc shape or expanded skin graft shape and a stamp skin graft shape or expanded stamp skin graft shape. On the other hand, split thickness skin graft may be used as a micrograft shape after the mincing process, which reduces of the graft size in a few millimeters. In this study, 6 patients with skin defect was admitted in our clinic, and their skin defect was treated with micro skin graft. Expansion ratio was 1:15. Epithelialization on the wound surface was completed in 4 to 6 weeks and cobblestone appearance was observed after the wound coverage. Skin defect coverage with micrograft is an effective technique like the other skin graft coverage methods.

  13. The Effect of Low-Dose Nitroglycerin Ointment on Skin Flap Necrosis in Breast Reconstruction after Skin-Sparing or Nipple-Sparing Mastectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Ho Yun

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Skin flap necrosis is a common complication after mastectomy and breast reconstruction. It has been proven that nitroglycerin ointment, as a topical vasodilator, can decrease the rate of skin flap necrosis after mastectomy and breast reconstruction. However, nitroglycerin can cause several side effects, including headache, dizziness, and hypotension. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the application of a low dose of nitroglycerin ointment reduced the rate of skin flap necrosis in breast reconstruction after skin-sparing or nipple-sparing mastectomy. Methods A total of 73 cases of breast reconstruction after nipple-sparing and skin-sparing mastectomy at our institution from March 2012 to January 2017 were retrospectively studied. Of these patients, 52 received nitroglycerin ointment (4.5 mg application to the skin around the nipple-areolar complex from August 2015 to January 2017, while 21 received fusidic acid ointment from March 2012 to August 2015. The number of patients who experienced necrosis of the breast skin flap was counted in both groups. Results Skin flap necrosis developed in 2 (3.8% patients who were treated with nitroglycerin ointment and 5 (23.8% patients who did not receive nitroglycerin ointment treatment. Patients who did not receive nitroglycerin ointment treatment had a significantly higher risk of mastectomy skin flap necrosis than patients who did (odds ratio=7.81; 95% confidence interval, 1.38 to 44.23; P=0.02. Conclusions Low-dose nitroglycerin ointment administration significantly decreased the rate of skin flap necrosis in patients who underwent breast reconstruction after skin-sparing or nipple-sparing mastectomy, without increasing the incidence of the side effects of nitroglycerin.

  14. The effect of skin thickness determined using breast CT on mammographic dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Shihying; Boone, John M.; Yang, Kai; Kwan, Alexander L. C.; Packard, Nathan J.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of breast skin thickness on dosimetry in mammography was investigated. Breast computed tomography (CT) acquisition techniques, combined with algorithms designed for determining specific breast metrics, were useful for estimating skin thickness. A radial-geometry edge detection scheme was implemented on coronal reconstructed breast CT (bCT) images to measure the breast skin thickness. Skin thickness of bilateral bCT volume data from 49 women and unilateral bCT volume data from 2 women (10 healthy women and 41 women with BIRADS 4 and 5 diagnoses) was robustly measured with the edge detection scheme. The mean breast skin thickness (±inter-breast standard deviation) was found to be 1.45±0.30 mm. Since most current published normalized glandular dose (D gN ) coefficients are based on the assumption of a 4-mm breast skin thickness, the D gN values computed with Monte Carlo techniques will increase up to 18% due to the thinner skin layers (e.g., 6-cm 50% glandular breast, 28 kVp Mo-Mo spectrum). The thinner skin dimensions found in this study suggest that the current D gN values used for mammographic dosimetry lead to a slight underestimate in glandular dose

  15. The anomalous magnetic moment of the muon

    CERN Document Server

    Jegerlehner, Friedrich

    2017-01-01

    This research monograph covers extensively the theory of the muon anomalous magnetic moment and provides estimates of the theoretical uncertainties. The muon anomalous magnetic moment is one of the most precisely measured quantities in elementary particle physics and provides one of the most stringent tests of relativistic quantum field theory as a fundamental theoretical framework. It allows for an extremely precise check of the standard model of elementary particles and of its limitations. This book reviews the present state of knowledge of the anomalous magnetic moment a=(g-2)/2 of the muon. Recent experiments at the Brookhaven National Laboratory now reach the unbelievable precision of 0.5 parts per million, improving the accuracy of previous g-2 experiments at CERN by a factor of 14. In addition, quantum electrodynamics and electroweak and hadronic effects are reviewed. Since non-perturbative hadronic effects play a key role for the precision test, their evaluation is described in detail. Perspectives fo...

  16. Integral Model of Skin Effect and Associated Phenomena in Long Massive Conductors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doležel, Ivo; Karban, P.; Mach, M.; Ulrych, B.

    č. 4 (2004), s. 3-6 ISSN 0204-3599 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM 232200016 Keywords : skin effect * eddy current s * integral techniques Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  17. The effect of dietary and/or cosmetic argan oil on postmenopausal skin elasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiraouani Boucetta K

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Kenza Qiraouani Boucetta,1 Zoubida Charrouf,2 Hassan Aguenaou,3 Abdelfattah Derouiche,4 Yahya Bensouda1 1Research Team on Formulation and Biopharmacy, Research Center for Drug, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, Mohammed V University, Rabat, Morocco; 2Faculty of Sciences, Mohammed V University, Rabat, Morocco; 3Mixed Unit of Research in Nutrition, ITU / CNESTEN, Ibn Tofail University, Kenitra, Morocco; 4Faculty of Sciences, Hassan II University, Casablanca, Morocco Background: During menopause, the decrease of estrogenic secretion induces the disruption of skin functioning, thus causing the decline in skin elasticity characteristic of skin aging. The purpose of this study was to evaluate in postmenopausal women the effect of daily consumption and/or application of argan oil on skin elasticity.Materials and methods: Sixty postmenopausal women consumed butter during the stabilization period and were randomly divided into two groups for the intervention period: the treatment group of 30 participants received dietary argan oil, the control group of 30 participants received olive oil, and both groups applied cosmetic argan oil in the left volar forearm during a 60-day period. Assessments of skin elasticity parameters, ie, the three R-parameters (R2 or gross-elasticity of the skin, R5 or net elasticity of the skin, and R7 or biological elasticity, and the resonance running time (RRT at both volar forearms of the two groups were performed during three visits: before starting oils consumption and application, after 30 days of oils consumption and application, and after 60 days of oils consumption and application.Results: The consumption of argan oil led to a significant increase of gross-elasticity of the skin (R2 (P<0.001, net elasticity of the skin (R5 (P<0.001, biological elasticity (R7 (P<0.001, and a significant decrease of RRT (P=0.002. The application of argan oil led to a significant increase of gross-elasticity of the skin (R2 (P<0.001, net

  18. Effects of a cellulose mask synthesized by a bacterium on facial skin characteristics and user satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amnuaikit T

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Thanaporn Amnuaikit, Toon Chusuit, Panithi Raknam, Prapaporn BoonmeDepartment of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla, ThailandBackground: Cellulose masks obtained from natural sources such as bacteria are of interest as cosmetic devices for the treatment of dry skin because they not only improve hydration of the skin, but have low toxicity and are biodegradable. The aims of this study were to determine the in vivo effects of a cellulose mask obtained from Acetobacter xylinum on skin characteristics and to evaluate user satisfaction with the product.Methods: Thirty healthy Thai volunteers aged 21–40 years participated in the study. The volunteers were randomly separated into a control group and an experimental group. For the control group, volunteers were assigned to apply moist towels to the face for 25 minutes. For the experimental group, the volunteers were assigned to apply the masks, ie, translucent patches which could be fitted onto the face for the same period. The following week, the groups were changed over to the alternative treatment. Skin moisture, sebum, elasticity, texture, dullness, and desquamation levels were assessed using a system used for routine skin counseling before applying the trial product and five minutes after its removal. Degree of satisfaction with use of the cellulose mask was investigated using a five-point rating scale.Results: The cellulose mask increased moisture levels in the skin significantly more than moist towels (P < 0.05 after a single application. No obvious effects on other skin characteristics were found. The cellulose mask product rated around 4/5 on the satisfaction rating scale.Conclusions: A single application of the trial cellulose mask enhanced moisture uptake by facial skin. Users also reported being satisfied with the trial product.Keywords: bacterial cellulose, facial mask, skin characteristics, skin hydration, user

  19. Effect of skin metabolism on dermal delivery of testosterone: qualitative assessment using a new short-term skin model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, C; Perdu, E; Jamin, E L; Cravedi, J P; Mavon, A; Duplan, H; Zalko, D

    2014-01-01

    The skin is a metabolically active organ expressing biotransformation enzymes able to metabolize both endogenous molecules and xenobiotics. We investigated the impact of metabolism on the delivery of testosterone through the skin with an ex vivo pig ear skin system as an alternative model for human skin. Penetration, absorption and metabolic capabilities were investigated up to 72 h after application of [(14)C]-testosterone doses of 50-800 nmol on either fresh or frozen skin, with the latter model being metabolically inactive. Testosterone absorption and metabolite production were monitored by radio-HPLC and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Testosterone absorption through frozen skin was much lower, irrespective of the dose of testosterone applied, compared to fresh skin. Using fresh skin samples, >95% of the radioactivity recovered in culture media, as well as the skin itself, corresponded to metabolites. These results were compared with the metabolic data obtained from other in vitro systems (liver and skin microsomes). The present work leads to the conclusion that most of the enzymatic activities expressed in liver fractions are also expressed in pig and human skin. The metabolic activity of the skin can modulate the biological activity of pharmaceuticals (and xenobiotics). Consequently, it can also greatly affect transdermal drug delivery.

  20. Environmental and Host Effects on Skin Bacterial Community Composition in Panamanian Frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Brandon J; Lesbarrères, David; Ibáñez, Roberto; Green, David M

    2018-01-01

    Research on the amphibian skin microbiota has focused on identifying bacterial taxa that deter a pathogenic chytrid fungus, and on describing patterns of microbiota variation. However, it remains unclear how environmental variation affects amphibian skin bacterial communities, and whether the overall functional diversity of the amphibian skin microbiota is associated to such variation. We sampled skin microbial communities from one dendrobatoid frog species across an environmental gradient along the Panama Canal, and from three dendrobatoid frog species before and after the onset of the wet season in one site. We found frog skin microbial alpha diversity to be highest in frogs from sites with low soil pH, but no clear effect of the onset of the wet season. However, we found frog skin microbial community structure to be affected by soil pH and the onset of the wet season, which also resulted in a decrease in between-sample variation. Across the sampled frog species, bacterial functional groups changed with the onset of the wet season, with certain bacterial functional groups entirely disappearing and others differing in their relative abundances. In particular, we found the proportion of Bd-inhibitory bacteria to correlate with mean soil pH, and to increase in two of the frog species with the onset of the wet season. Taken together, our results suggest that structure and predicted function of amphibian bacterial skin communities may be influenced by environmental variables such as pH and precipitation, site effects, and host effects.

  1. The skin protective effects of compound K, a metabolite of ginsenoside Rb1 from Panax ginseng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunji Kim

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Compound K (CK is a ginsenoside, a metabolite of Panax ginseng. There is interest both in increasing skin health and antiaging using natural skin care products. In this study, we explored the possibility of using CK as a cosmetic ingredient. Methods: To assess the antiaging effect of CK, RT-PCR was performed, and expression levels of matrix metalloproteinase-1, cyclooxygenase-2, and type I collagen were measured under UVB irradiation conditions. The skin hydrating effect of CK was tested by RT-PCR, and its regulation was explored through immunoblotting. Melanin content, melanin secretion, and tyrosinase activity assays were performed. Results: CK treatment reduced the production of matrix metalloproteinase-1 and cyclooxygenase-2 in UVB irradiated NIH3T3 cells and recovered type I collagen expression level. Expression of skin hydrating factors—filaggrin, transglutaminase, and hyaluronic acid synthases-1 and -2—were augmented by CK and were modulated through the inhibitor of κBα, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, or extracellular signal-regulated kinases pathway. In the melanogenic response, CK did not regulate tyrosinase activity and melanin secretion, but increased melanin content in B16F10 cells was observed. Conclusion: Our data showed that CK has antiaging and hydrating effects. We suggest that CK could be used in cosmetic products to protect the skin from UVB rays and increase skin moisture level. Keywords: compound K, melanogenesis, Panax ginseng, skin protection, UVB irradiation

  2. Environmental and Host Effects on Skin Bacterial Community Composition in Panamanian Frogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon J. Varela

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Research on the amphibian skin microbiota has focused on identifying bacterial taxa that deter a pathogenic chytrid fungus, and on describing patterns of microbiota variation. However, it remains unclear how environmental variation affects amphibian skin bacterial communities, and whether the overall functional diversity of the amphibian skin microbiota is associated to such variation. We sampled skin microbial communities from one dendrobatoid frog species across an environmental gradient along the Panama Canal, and from three dendrobatoid frog species before and after the onset of the wet season in one site. We found frog skin microbial alpha diversity to be highest in frogs from sites with low soil pH, but no clear effect of the onset of the wet season. However, we found frog skin microbial community structure to be affected by soil pH and the onset of the wet season, which also resulted in a decrease in between-sample variation. Across the sampled frog species, bacterial functional groups changed with the onset of the wet season, with certain bacterial functional groups entirely disappearing and others differing in their relative abundances. In particular, we found the proportion of Bd-inhibitory bacteria to correlate with mean soil pH, and to increase in two of the frog species with the onset of the wet season. Taken together, our results suggest that structure and predicted function of amphibian bacterial skin communities may be influenced by environmental variables such as pH and precipitation, site effects, and host effects.

  3. Meloxicam transdermal delivery: effect of eutectic point on the rate and extent of skin permeation

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadi-Samani, Soliman; Yousefi, Gholamhossein; Mohammadi, Farhad; Ahmadi, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): Drug delivery through the skin can transfer therapeutic levels of drugs for pharmacological effects. Analgesics such as NSAIDs have gastrointestinal side effects and topical dosage forms of these drugs are mainly preferred, especially for local pains. Meloxicam is one of NSAIDs with no topical form in the market. In this research, we attempted to quantify the skin permeation of a meloxicam topical preparation and to show how permeation would be increased by using thymol as an en...

  4. Radiation effects control: eyes, skin. Final report, 1 October 1969--31 December 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hightower, D.; Smathers, J.B.

    1974-12-01

    Adverse effects on the lens of the eye and the skin due to exposure to proton radiation during manned space flight were evaluated. Actual proton irradiation which might be encountered in space was simulated. Irradiation regimes included single acute exposures, daily fractionated exposures, and weekly fractionated exposures. Animals were exposed and then maintained and examined periodically until data sufficient to meet the objective were obtained. No significant skin effects were noted and no serious sight impairment was exhibited. (auth)

  5. Skin effects and UV dosimetry of climate therapy in patients with psoriasis

    OpenAIRE

    Bartosova, Veronika

    2010-01-01

    Sun exposure and climate therapy is an effective treatment for psoriasis. However, even though this treatment gives the patients relief from their discomforting symptoms, it has some potentially dangerous side effects such as an increased risk of skin cancer and premature skin aging. A prospective field study plans to follow the patients undergoing the climate therapy. During this study the UV dose to each patient will be monitored by personal dosimeters worn by the patients. Furthermore the...

  6. ON THE SOURCE OF ASTROMETRIC ANOMALOUS REFRACTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, M. Suzanne [Department of Natural and Environmental Sciences, Western State Colorado University, 128 Hurst Hall, Gunnison, CO 81230 (United States); McGraw, John T.; Zimmer, Peter C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, MSC07 4220, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Pier, Jeffrey R., E-mail: mstaylor@western.edu [Division of Astronomical Sciences, NSF 4201 Wilson Blvd, Arlington, VA 22230 (United States)

    2013-03-15

    More than a century ago, astronomers using transit telescopes to determine precise stellar positions were hampered by an unexplained periodic shifting of the stars they were observing. With the advent of CCD transit telescopes in the past three decades, this unexplained motion, termed 'anomalous refraction' by these early astronomers, is again being observed. Anomalous refraction is described as a low-frequency, large angular scale ({approx}2 Degree-Sign ) motion of the entire image plane with respect to the celestial coordinate system as observed and defined by astrometric catalogs. These motions, of typically several tenths of an arcsecond amplitude with timescales on the order of 10 minutes, are ubiquitous to ground-based drift-scan astrometric measurements regardless of location or telescopes used and have been attributed to the effect of tilting of equal-density layers of the atmosphere. The cause of this tilting has often been attributed to atmospheric gravity waves, but this cause has never been confirmed. Although theoretical models of atmospheric refraction show that atmospheric gravity waves are a plausible cause of anomalous refraction, an observational campaign specifically directed at defining this relationship provides clear evidence that anomalous refraction is not consistent with the passage of atmospheric gravity waves. The source of anomalous refraction is found to be meter-scale, slowly evolving quasi-coherent dynamical structures in the boundary layer below 60 m above ground level.

  7. Anomalous transport in toroidal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punjabi, A.

    1989-12-01

    When the magnetic moment of particle is conserved, there are three mechanisms which cause anomalous transport. These are: variation of magnetic field strength in flux surface, variation of electrostatic potential in flux surface, and destruction of flux surface. The anomalous transport of different groups of particles resulting from each of these mechanisms is different. This fact can be exploited to determine the cause of transport operative in an experimental situation. This approach can give far more information on the transport than the standard confinement time measurements. To implement this approach, we have developed Monte Carlo codes for toroidal geometries. The equations of motion are developed in a set of non-canonical, practical Boozer co-ordinates by means of Jacobian transformations of the particle drift Hamiltonian equations of motion. Effects of collisions are included by appropriate stochastic changes in the constants of motion. Effects of the loop voltage on particle motions are also included. We plan to apply our method to study two problems: the problem of the hot electron tail observed in edge region of ZT-40, and the energy confinement time in TOKAPOLE II. For the ZT-40 problem three situations will be considered: a single mode in the core, a stochastic region that covers half the minor radius, a stochastic region that covers the entire plasma. A turbulent spectrum of perturbations based on the experimental data of TOKAPOLE II will be developed. This will be used to simulate electron transport resulting from ideal instabilities and resistive instabilities in TOKAPOLE II

  8. Development and evaluation of a skin organ model for the analysis of radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meineke, V.; Mueller, K.; Ridi, R.; Cordes, N.; Beuningen, D. van; Koehn, F.M.; Ring, J.; Mayerhofer, A.

    2004-01-01

    Background and purpose: the reaction of tissues to ionizing radiation involves alterations in cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions mediated by cellular adhesion molecules. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate an artificial skin organ model for the analysis of radiation effects. Material and methods: a human co-culture system consisting of the spontaneously immortalized keratinocyte cell line HaCaT and primary HDFa fibroblasts embedded into a collagen sponge was established. This skin organ model has been characterized and evaluated for its suitability for radiobiological investigations. For that purpose, expression of β 1 -integrin following irradiation was compared in the skin organ model and in HaCaT monolayer cells (FACScan and immunohistochemistry). Furthermore, the influence of ionizing radiation on DNA fragmentation was investigated in the skin organ model (TUNEL assay). Results: the novel skin organ model showed characteristics of human skin as demonstrated by cytokeratin and Ki-67 immunoreactivity and by electron microscopy. A single dose of 5 Gy X-irradiation induced an upregulation of β 1 -integrin expression both in the skin organ model and in HaCaT cells. Following irradiation, β 1 -integrin immunoreactivity was intensified in the upper layers of the epidermis equivalent whereas it was almost absent in the deeper layers. Additionally, irradiation of the skin organ model also caused a marked increase of DNA fragmentation. Conclusion: these results demonstrate that the novel skin organ model is suitable to investigate cellular radiation effects under three-dimensional conditions. This allows to investigate radiation effects which cannot be demonstrated in monolayer cell cultures. (orig.)

  9. Is Kinesio Taping to Generate Skin Convolutions Effective for Increasing Local Blood Circulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jae-Man; Lee, Jung-Hoon

    2018-01-01

    Background It is unclear whether traditional application of Kinesio taping, which produces wrinkles in the skin, is effective for improving blood circulation. This study investigated local skin temperature changes after the application of an elastic therapeutic tape using convolution and non-convolution taping methods (CTM/NCTM). Material/Methods Twenty-eight pain-free men underwent CTM and NCTM randomly applied to the right and left sides of the lower back. Using infrared thermography, skin temperature was measured before, immediately after application, 5 min later, 15 min later, and after the removal of the tape. Results Both CTM and NCTM showed a slight, but significant, decrease in skin temperature for up to 5 min. The skin temperature at 15 min and after the removal of the tape was not significantly different from the initial temperature for CTM and NCTM. There were also no significant differences in the skin temperatures between CTM and NCTM. Conclusions Our findings do not support a therapeutic effect of wrinkling the skin with elastic tape application as a technique to increase local blood flow. PMID:29332101

  10. Protective effects of oleum curcumae wenchowensis on skin damage due to UVB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhicheng; Zhao Hongguang; Du Xiang; Li Yanbo; Guo Wei; Gong Shouliang; Xiao Jian; Yao Chongshun; Li Xiaokun

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the protective effects of oleum curcumae wenchowensis on skin damage exposed to UVB and its mechanism, and to provide the experimental basis for the protection of skin damage exposed to UVB. Methods: The skin of guinea pigs was exposed to UVB (28.38 J/cm 2 · 30 d) to establish the oxidative damage model. The skin erythema and the rough were observed during the experiment; the thickness of epiderm and the number of fibroblast were observed under light microscope after the experiment. The activities of GSH-Px, SOD, CAT and T-AOC and the contain of MDA in the supernate of skin homogenate were detected with biochemical methods. Results: The epiderm in UVB exposure group and blank group thickened, but that in protective group weren't observed; the number of fibroblast in UVB exposure group and blank group decreased, while that in protective group increased, but that in control group didn't. The content of MDA in the supemate of skin homogenate in UVB exposure group and blank group increased, but that in protective group deceased, and the activities of GSH-Px, SOD, CAT and T-AOC in UVB exposure group and blank group decreased, but those in protective group increased, and control group had no change. Conclusions: Oleum curcumae wenchowensis has the protective effects on skin damage exposed to UVB, which may be mediated by increasing the contain of antioxidases and eliminating the flee radical. (authors)

  11. Is Kinesio Taping to Generate Skin Convolutions Effective for Increasing Local Blood Circulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jae-Man; Lee, Jung-Hoon

    2018-01-14

    BACKGROUND It is unclear whether traditional application of Kinesio taping, which produces wrinkles in the skin, is effective for improving blood circulation. This study investigated local skin temperature changes after the application of an elastic therapeutic tape using convolution and non-convolution taping methods (CTM/NCTM). MATERIAL AND METHODS Twenty-eight pain-free men underwent CTM and NCTM randomly applied to the right and left sides of the lower back. Using infrared thermography, skin temperature was measured before, immediately after application, 5 min later, 15 min later, and after the removal of the tape. RESULTS Both CTM and NCTM showed a slight, but significant, decrease in skin temperature for up to 5 min. The skin temperature at 15 min and after the removal of the tape was not significantly different from the initial temperature for CTM and NCTM. There were also no significant differences in the skin temperatures between CTM and NCTM. CONCLUSIONS Our findings do not support a therapeutic effect of wrinkling the skin with elastic tape application as a technique to increase local blood flow.

  12. Nanostructured polymer and lipid carriers for sunscreen. Biological effects and skin permeation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcato, P D; Caverzan, J; Rossi-Bergmann, B; Pinto, E F; Machado, D; Silva, R A; Justo, G Z; Ferreira, C V; Durán, N

    2011-03-01

    The interest in developing new sunscreens is increasing due to the harmful effects of UV radiation on the skin, such as erythema, accelerated skin ageing (photoageing) and the induction of skin cancer. However, many molecular sunscreens penetrate into the skin causing photoallergies, phototoxic reactions and skin irritation. Thus, the aim of this work was the preparation and characterization of polymeric and solid lipid nanoparticles to act carriers of benzophenone-3 (BZ3), aiming to improve the safety of sunscreen products by increasing the sun protection factor (SPF), decreasing BZ3 skin penetration and decreasing BZ3 concentration in sunscreen formulation. BZ3 was encapsulated in poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) nanoparticles by the nanoprecipitation method and in solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) by the hot high pressure homogenization method. The particles were stable for 40 days. The BZ3 encapsulated in PCL nanoparticles was released faster than BZ3 encapsulated in SLN. The sun protection factor increased when BZ3 was encapsulated in both nanostructures. However, BZ3 encapsulated in PCL nanoparticles decreased its skin permeation more than SLN-BZ3. Furthermore, BZ3 encapsulated in SLN did not exhibit cytotoxic or phototoxic effects in human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) and BABL/c 3T3 fibroblasts, whereas PCL nanoparticles with BZ3 showed phototoxic potential in HaCaT cells. Nevertheless, BZ3 free and encapsulated in PCL nanoparticles or in SLN did not show allergic reactions in mice. Our results suggest that these nanostructures are interesting carriers for sunscreen.

  13. Anomalous Statistics of Bose-Einstein Condensate in an Interacting Gas: An Effect of the Trap’s Form and Boundary Conditions in the Thermodynamic Limit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Tarasov

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We analytically calculate the statistics of Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC fluctuations in an interacting gas trapped in a three-dimensional cubic or rectangular box with the Dirichlet, fused or periodic boundary conditions within the mean-field Bogoliubov and Thomas-Fermi approximations. We study a mesoscopic system of a finite number of trapped particles and its thermodynamic limit. We find that the BEC fluctuations, first, are anomalously large and non-Gaussian and, second, depend on the trap’s form and boundary conditions. Remarkably, these effects persist with increasing interparticle interaction and even in the thermodynamic limit—only the mean BEC occupation, not BEC fluctuations, becomes independent on the trap’s form and boundary conditions.

  14. Ferromagnetism in reactive sputtered Cu0.96Fe 0.04O1-δ nanocrystalline films evidenced by anomalous Hall effect

    KAUST Repository

    Mi, Wenbo

    2011-03-14

    Cu0.96Fe0.04O1-δ nanocrystalline films were fabricated using reactive sputtering at different oxygen partial pressures (PO2). The electrical transport properties of the films were measured in a broad temperature range (10-300 K) under magnetic fields of up to 5T. Anomalous Hall effect (AHE) of up to 0.4μΩ cm was observed at 10 K and decreased to 0.2μΩ cm at 300 K. The characteristic AHE clearly indicated the existence of ferromagnetism in these materials. The AHE weakened as PO2 increased because the increasing PO2 reduced the fraction of Fe2+ ions, and consequently weakened the double exchange coupling between Fe2+-O2--Cu2+ in the materials. © 2011 The Japan Society of Applied Physics.

  15. Electron's anomalous magnetic-moment effects on electron-hydrogen elastic collisions in the presence of a circularly polarized laser field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elhandi, S.; Taj, S.; Attaourti, Y.; Manaut, B.; Oufni, L.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of the electron's anomalous magnetic moment on the relativistic electronic dressing for the process of electron-hydrogen atom elastic collisions is investigated. We consider a laser field with circular polarization and various electric field strengths. The Dirac-Volkov states taking into account this anomaly are used to describe the process in the first order of perturbation theory. The correlation between the terms coming from this anomaly and the electric field strength gives rise to the strong dependence of the spinor part of the differential cross section (DCS) with respect to these terms. A detailed study has been devoted to the nonrelativistic regime as well as the moderate relativistic regime. Some aspects of this dependence as well as the dynamical behavior of the DCS in the relativistic regime have been addressed.

  16. Origin of the low critical observing temperature of the quantum anomalous Hall effect in V-doped (Bi, Sb)2Te3 film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W.; Claassen, M.; Chang, Cui-Zu; Moritz, B.; Jia, T.; Zhang, C.; Rebec, S.; Lee, J. J.; Hashimoto, M.; Lu, D.-H.; Moore, R. G.; Moodera, J. S.; Devereaux, T. P.; Shen, Z.-X.

    2016-09-01

    The experimental realization of the quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) effect in magnetically-doped (Bi, Sb)2Te3 films stands out as a landmark of modern condensed matter physics. However, ultra-low temperatures down to few tens of mK are needed to reach the quantization of Hall resistance, which is two orders of magnitude lower than the ferromagnetic phase transition temperature of the films. Here, we systematically study the band structure of V-doped (Bi, Sb)2Te3 thin films by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) and show unambiguously that the bulk valence band (BVB) maximum lies higher in energy than the surface state Dirac point. Our results demonstrate clear evidence that localization of BVB carriers plays an active role and can account for the temperature discrepancy.

  17. Skin-whitening and skin-condition-improving effects of topical oxidized glutathione: a double-blind and placebo-controlled clinical trial in healthy women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Fumiko; Hashizume, Erika; Chan, Gertrude P; Kamimura, Ayako

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Glutathione is a tripeptide consisting of cysteine, glycine, and glutamate and functions as a major antioxidant. It is synthesized endogenously in humans. Glutathione protects thiol protein groups from oxidation and is involved in cellular detoxification for maintenance of the cell environment. Reduced glutathione (GSH) has a skin-whitening effect in humans through its tyrosinase inhibitory activity, but in the case of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) this effect is unclear. We examined the skin-whitening and skin-condition effects of topical GSSG in healthy women. Subjects and methods The subjects were 30 healthy adult women aged 30 to 50 years. The study design was a randomized, double-blind, matched-pair, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Subjects applied GSSG 2% (weight/weight [w/w]) lotion to one side of the face and a placebo lotion to the other side twice daily for 10 weeks. We objectively measured changes in melanin index values, moisture content of the stratum corneum, smoothness, wrinkle formation, and elasticity of the skin. The principal investigator and each subject also used subjective scores to investigate skin whitening, wrinkle reduction, and smoothness. Analysis of variance was used to evaluate differences between groups. Results The skin melanin index was significantly lower with GSSG treatment than with placebo from the early weeks after the start of the trial through to the end of the study period (at 10 weeks, P<0.001). In addition, in the latter half of the study period GSSG-treated sites had significant increases in moisture content of the stratum corneum, suppression of wrinkle formation, and improvement in skin smoothness. There were no marked adverse effects from GSSG application. Conclusion Topical GSSG is safe and effectively whitens the skin and improves skin condition in healthy women. PMID:25378941

  18. Anomalous magnetohydrodynamics in the extreme relativistic domain

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    The evolution equations of anomalous magnetohydrodynamics are derived in the extreme relativistic regime and contrasted with the treatment of hydromagnetic nonlinearities pioneered by Lichnerowicz in the absence of anomalous currents. In particular we explore the situation where the conventional vector currents are complemented by the axial-vector currents arising either from the pseudo Nambu-Goldstone bosons of a spontaneously broken symmetry or because of finite fermionic density effects. After expanding the generally covariant equations in inverse powers of the conductivity, the relativistic analog of the magnetic diffusivity equation is derived in the presence of vortical and magnetic currents. While the anomalous contributions are generally suppressed by the diffusivity, they are shown to disappear in the perfectly conducting limit. When the flow is irrotational, boost-invariant and with vanishing four-acceleration the corresponding evolution equations are explicitly integrated so that the various physic...

  19. Fractional diffusion equations and anomalous diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Evangelista, Luiz Roberto

    2018-01-01

    Anomalous diffusion has been detected in a wide variety of scenarios, from fractal media, systems with memory, transport processes in porous media, to fluctuations of financial markets, tumour growth, and complex fluids. Providing a contemporary treatment of this process, this book examines the recent literature on anomalous diffusion and covers a rich class of problems in which surface effects are important, offering detailed mathematical tools of usual and fractional calculus for a wide audience of scientists and graduate students in physics, mathematics, chemistry and engineering. Including the basic mathematical tools needed to understand the rules for operating with the fractional derivatives and fractional differential equations, this self-contained text presents the possibility of using fractional diffusion equations with anomalous diffusion phenomena to propose powerful mathematical models for a large variety of fundamental and practical problems in a fast-growing field of research.

  20. Kinetic studies of anomalous transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, W.M.

    1990-11-01

    Progress in achieving a physics-based understanding of anomalous transport in toroidal systems has come in large part from investigations based on the proposition that low frequency electrostatic microinstabilities are dominant in the bulk (''confinement'') region of these plasmas. Although the presence here of drift-type modes dependent on trapped particle and ion temperature gradient driven effects appears to be consistent with a number of important observed confinement trends, conventional estimates for these instabilities cannot account for the strong current (I p ) and /or q-scaling frequently found in empirically deduced global energy confinement times for auxiliary-heated discharges. The present paper deals with both linear and nonlinear physics features, ignored in simpler estimates, which could introduce an appreciable local dependence on current. It is also pointed out that while the thermal flux characteristics of drift modes have justifiably been the focus of experimental studies assessing their relevance, other transport properties associated with these microinstabilities should additionally be examined. Accordingly, the present paper provides estimates and discusses the significance of anomalous energy exchange between ions and electrons when fluctuations are present. 19 refs., 3 figs

  1. Flavanone silibinin treatment attenuates nitrogen mustard-induced toxic effects in mouse skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Anil K.; Tewari-Singh, Neera; Inturi, Swetha; Kumar, Dileep [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Orlicky, David J. [Department of Pathology, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Agarwal, Chapla [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); White, Carl W. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045USA (United States); Agarwal, Rajesh, E-mail: Rajesh.Agarwal@UCDenver.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    Currently, there is no effective antidote to prevent skin injuries by sulfur mustard (SM) and nitrogen mustard (NM), which are vesicating agents with potential relevance to chemical warfare, terrorist attacks, or industrial/laboratory accidents. Our earlier report has demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of silibinin, a natural flavanone, in reversing monofunctional alkylating SM analog 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide-induced toxic effects in mouse skin. To translate this effect to a bifunctional alkylating vesicant, herein, efficacy studies were carried out with NM. Topical application of silibinin (1 or 2 mg) 30 min after NM exposure on the dorsal skin of male SKH-1 hairless mice significantly decreased NM-induced toxic lesions at 24, 72 or 120 h post-exposure. Specifically, silibinin treatment resulted in dose-dependent reduction of NM-induced increase in epidermal thickness, dead and denuded epidermis, parakeratosis and microvesication. Higher silibinin dose also caused a 79% and 51%reversal in NM-induced increases in myeloperoxidase activity and COX-2 levels, respectively. Furthermore, silibinin completely prevented NM-induced H2A.X phosphorylation, indicating reversal of DNA damage which could be an oxidative DNA damage as evidenced by high levels of 8-oxodG in NM-exposed mouse skin that was significantly reversed by silibinin. Together, these findings suggest that attenuation of NM-induced skin injury by silibinin is due to its effects on the pathways associated with DNA damage, inflammation, vesication and oxidative stress. In conclusion, results presented here support the optimization of silibinin as an effective treatment of skin injury by vesicants. - Highlights: • Silibinin treatment attenuated nitrogen mustard (NM)-induced skin injury. • Silibinin affects pathways associated with DNA damage, inflammation and vesication. • The efficacy of silibinin could also be associated with oxidative stress. • These results support testing and optimization of

  2. Flavanone silibinin treatment attenuates nitrogen mustard-induced toxic effects in mouse skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Anil K.; Tewari-Singh, Neera; Inturi, Swetha; Kumar, Dileep; Orlicky, David J.; Agarwal, Chapla; White, Carl W.; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Currently, there is no effective antidote to prevent skin injuries by sulfur mustard (SM) and nitrogen mustard (NM), which are vesicating agents with potential relevance to chemical warfare, terrorist attacks, or industrial/laboratory accidents. Our earlier report has demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of silibinin, a natural flavanone, in reversing monofunctional alkylating SM analog 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide-induced toxic effects in mouse skin. To translate this effect to a bifunctional alkylating vesicant, herein, efficacy studies were carried out with NM. Topical application of silibinin (1 or 2 mg) 30 min after NM exposure on the dorsal skin of male SKH-1 hairless mice significantly decreased NM-induced toxic lesions at 24, 72 or 120 h post-exposure. Specifically, silibinin treatment resulted in dose-dependent reduction of NM-induced increase in epidermal thickness, dead and denuded epidermis, parakeratosis and microvesication. Higher silibinin dose also caused a 79% and 51%reversal in NM-induced increases in myeloperoxidase activity and COX-2 levels, respectively. Furthermore, silibinin completely prevented NM-induced H2A.X phosphorylation, indicating reversal of DNA damage which could be an oxidative DNA damage as evidenced by high levels of 8-oxodG in NM-exposed mouse skin that was significantly reversed by silibinin. Together, these findings suggest that attenuation of NM-induced skin injury by silibinin is due to its effects on the pathways associated with DNA damage, inflammation, vesication and oxidative stress. In conclusion, results presented here support the optimization of silibinin as an effective treatment of skin injury by vesicants. - Highlights: • Silibinin treatment attenuated nitrogen mustard (NM)-induced skin injury. • Silibinin affects pathways associated with DNA damage, inflammation and vesication. • The efficacy of silibinin could also be associated with oxidative stress. • These results support testing and optimization of

  3. Metabolism of plant polyphenols in the skin: beneficial versus deleterious effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkina, Liudmila G; Pastore, Saveria; De Luca, Chiara; Kostyuk, Vladimir A

    2008-10-01

    Polyphenols are produced by all higher plants in order to protect them against biotic and abiotic stress such as UV radiation, temperature changes, infections, wounding, and herbivores. When in contact with human skin, polyphenols exert either curative or damaging action depending on their physical-chemical properties, bioavailability through cutaneous barrier, metabolism in the skin, and individual sensitivity. This review will focus on 1) synthesis and metabolism of polyphenols and their role in the plant physiology, 2) non-enzymatic and enzymatic polyphenol transformation in the skin, 3) polyphenols as inhibitors or inducers of inflammatory response in the skin, and 4) photo-protective versus photo-toxic effects of polyphenols. The potential consequences of these controversial effects on the use of plant polyphenols in dermatology and cosmetology will be also discussed.

  4. Anti-Inflammatory and Skin Barrier Repair Effects of Topical Application of Some Plant Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzu-Kai; Zhong, Lily; Santiago, Juan Luis

    2017-01-01

    Plant oils have been utilized for a variety of purposes throughout history, with their integration into foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical products. They are now being increasingly recognized for their effects on both skin diseases and the restoration of cutaneous homeostasis. This article briefly reviews the available data on biological influences of topical skin applications of some plant oils (olive oil, olive pomace oil, sunflower seed oil, coconut oil, safflower seed oil, argan oil, soybean oil, peanut oil, sesame oil, avocado oil, borage oil, jojoba oil, oat oil, pomegranate seed oil, almond oil, bitter apricot oil, rose hip oil, German chamomile oil, and shea butter). Thus, it focuses on the therapeutic benefits of these plant oils according to their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects on the skin, promotion of wound healing and repair of skin barrier. PMID:29280987

  5. Anti-Inflammatory and Skin Barrier Repair Effects of Topical Application of Some Plant Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzu-Kai; Zhong, Lily; Santiago, Juan Luis

    2017-12-27

    Plant oils have been utilized for a variety of purposes throughout history, with their integration into foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical products. They are now being increasingly recognized for their effects on both skin diseases and the restoration of cutaneous homeostasis. This article briefly reviews the available data on biological influences of topical skin applications of some plant oils (olive oil, olive pomace oil, sunflower seed oil, coconut oil, safflower seed oil, argan oil, soybean oil, peanut oil, sesame oil, avocado oil, borage oil, jojoba oil, oat oil, pomegranate seed oil, almond oil, bitter apricot oil, rose hip oil, German chamomile oil, and shea butter). Thus, it focuses on the therapeutic benefits of these plant oils according to their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects on the skin, promotion of wound healing and repair of skin barrier.

  6. Anti-Inflammatory and Skin Barrier Repair Effects of Topical Application of Some Plant Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Kai Lin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant oils have been utilized for a variety of purposes throughout history, with their integration into foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical products. They are now being increasingly recognized for their effects on both skin diseases and the restoration of cutaneous homeostasis. This article briefly reviews the available data on biological influences of topical skin applications of some plant oils (olive oil, olive pomace oil, sunflower seed oil, coconut oil, safflower seed oil, argan oil, soybean oil, peanut oil, sesame oil, avocado oil, borage oil, jojoba oil, oat oil, pomegranate seed oil, almond oil, bitter apricot oil, rose hip oil, German chamomile oil, and shea butter. Thus, it focuses on the therapeutic benefits of these plant oils according to their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects on the skin, promotion of wound healing and repair of skin barrier.

  7. Inhibitory effects of dietary Spirulina platensis on UVB-induced skin inflammatory responses and carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogianti, Flandiana; Kunisada, Makoto; Nakano, Eiji; Ono, Ryusuke; Sakumi, Kunihiko; Oka, Sugako; Nakabeppu, Yusaku; Nishigori, Chikako

    2014-10-01

    Reactive oxygen species produced in response to UVR are important in skin tumor development. We have previously reported that deficiency of the Ogg1 gene, encoding the repair enzyme for 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoG), increases skin tumor incidence in mice upon repetitive UVB exposure and modulation of UVB-induced inflammatory response. Spirulina platensis is used as a human food supplement because it contains abundant nutritional and antioxidant components. Therefore, we investigated the inhibitory effects of S. platensis on UVB-induced skin tumor development in Ogg1 knockout-(KO) mice and the wild-type (WT) counterpart. Dietary S. platensis suppressed tumor induction and development in both genotypes compared with our previous data without S. platensis. Induction of erythema and ear swelling, one of the hallmarks of UVB-induced inflammatory responses, was suppressed in the skin of Ogg1-KO mice and albino hairless mice fed with dietary S. platensis. Compared with untreated mice, S. platensis-administered mice showed significantly reduced 8-oxoG formation in the skin after UVB exposure. Moreover, we found that S. platensis effectively downregulated the signal proteins p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase after UVB exposure especially in Ogg1-KO mice. Our results suggest that S. platensis exerts antitumor effects against UVB irradiation in the skin through its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects.

  8. Soft theorems from anomalous symmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-tin; Wen, Congkao

    2015-12-01

    We discuss constraints imposed by soft limits for effective field theories arising from symmetry breaking. In particular, we consider those associated with anomalous conformal symmetry as well as duality symmetries in supergravity. We verify these soft theorems for the dilaton effective action relevant for the a-theorem, as well as the one-loop effective action for N=4 supergravity. Using the universality of leading transcendental coefficients in the α' expansion of string theory amplitudes, we study the matrix elements of operator R 4 with half maximal supersymmetry. We construct the non-linear completion of R 4 that satisfies both single and double soft theorems up to seven points. This supports the existence of duality invariant completion of R 4.

  9. Soft theorems from anomalous symmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yu-tin [Department of Physics and Astronomy, National Taiwan University,Taipei 10617, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wen, Congkao [I.N.F.N. Sezione di Roma “Tor Vergata”,Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 00133 Roma (Italy)

    2015-12-22

    We discuss constraints imposed by soft limits for effective field theories arising from symmetry breaking. In particular, we consider those associated with anomalous conformal symmetry as well as duality symmetries in supergravity. We verify these soft theorems for the dilaton effective action relevant for the a-theorem, as well as the one-loop effective action for N=4 supergravity. Using the universality of leading transcendental coefficients in the α{sup ′} expansion of string theory amplitudes, we study the matrix elements of operator R{sup 4} with half maximal supersymmetry. We construct the non-linear completion of R{sup 4} that satisfies both single and double soft theorems up to seven points. This supports the existence of duality invariant completion of R{sup 4}.

  10. Effect of saline iontophoresis on skin barrier function and cutaneous irritation in four ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, J; Gross, M; Sage, B; Davis, H T; Maibach, H I

    2000-08-01

    The effect of saline iontophoresis on skin barrier function and irritation was investigated in four ethnic groups (Caucasians, Hispanics, Blacks and Asians). Forty healthy human volunteers were recruited according to specific entry criteria. Ten subjects, five males and five females, were assigned to each ethnic group. Skin barrier function was examined after 4 hours of saline iontophoresis at a current density of 0.2 mA/cm(2) on a 6.5 cm(2) area in terms of the measured responses: transepidermal water loss (TEWL), skin capacitance, skin temperature and visual scores. There were significant differences in TEWL among the ethnic groups prior to patch application. TEWL at baseline in ethnic groups was in the rank order: Caucasian>Asian>Hispanic>Black. Iontophoresis was generally well tolerated, and skin barrier function was not irreversibly affected by iontophoresis in any group. There was no significant skin temperature change, compared to baseline, in any ethnic groups at any observation point. Edema was not observed. At patch removal, the erythema score was elevated in comparison to baseline in all ethnic groups; erythema resolved within 24 hours. Thus, saline iontophoresis produced reversible changes in skin barrier function and irritation in healthy human subjects.

  11. Effects of a cellulose mask synthesized by a bacterium on facial skin characteristics and user satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amnuaikit, Thanaporn; Chusuit, Toon; Raknam, Panithi; Boonme, Prapaporn

    2011-01-01

    Cellulose masks obtained from natural sources such as bacteria are of interest as cosmetic devices for the treatment of dry skin because they not only improve hydration of the skin, but have low toxicity and are biodegradable. The aims of this study were to determine the in vivo effects of a cellulose mask obtained from Acetobacter xylinum on skin characteristics and to evaluate user satisfaction with the product. Thirty healthy Thai volunteers aged 21-40 years participated in the study. The volunteers were randomly separated into a control group and an experimental group. For the control group, volunteers were assigned to apply moist towels to the face for 25 minutes. For the experimental group, the volunteers were assigned to apply the masks, ie, translucent patches which could be fitted onto the face for the same period. The following week, the groups were changed over to the alternative treatment. Skin moisture, sebum, elasticity, texture, dullness, and desquamation levels were assessed using a system used for routine skin counseling before applying the trial product and five minutes after its removal. Degree of satisfaction with use of the cellulose mask was investigated using a five-point rating scale. The cellulose mask increased moisture levels in the skin significantly more than moist towels (P mask product rated around 4/5 on the satisfaction rating scale. A single application of the trial cellulose mask enhanced moisture uptake by facial skin. Users also reported being satisfied with the trial product.

  12. Calcipotriol delivery into the skin as emulgel for effective permeation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naga Sravan Kumar Varma, V.; Maheshwari, P.V.; Navya, M.; Reddy, Sharath Chandra; Shivakumar, H.G.; Gowda, D.V.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work is to formulate and evaluate an emulgel containing calcipotriol for treatment of psoriasis. Emulgels have emerged as a promising drug delivery system for the delivery of hydrophobic drugs. Isopropyl alcohol and polyethylene glycol have been employed as permeation enhancers. Formulation chart is made with seven formulations, evaluated for physical parameters, drug content, viscosity, thixotropy, spreadability, extrudability, mucoadhesion, diffusion studies, skin irritation test along with short term stability studies. Carbopolis is reported to have a direct influence on appearance and viscosity of final formulation. The photomicroscopic evaluations showed the presence of spherical globules in size range of 10–15 μm. Rheograms revealed that all the formulations exhibited pseudoplastic flow. Optimized formulation (F6) had shown 86.42 ± 2.0% drug release at the end of 8 h study. The release rate through dialysis membrane and rat skin is higher when compared to commercial calcipotriol ointment. Hence it is concluded that calcipotriol can be delivered topically with enhanced penetration properties when formulated as emulgel. PMID:25561873

  13. Fractal model of anomalous diffusion

    OpenAIRE

    Gmachowski, Lech

    2015-01-01

    An equation of motion is derived from fractal analysis of the Brownian particle trajectory in which the asymptotic fractal dimension of the trajectory has a required value. The formula makes it possible to calculate the time dependence of the mean square displacement for both short and long periods when the molecule diffuses anomalously. The anomalous diffusion which occurs after long periods is characterized by two variables, the transport coefficient and the anomalous diffusion exponent. An...

  14. The Effects of Advertising Strategies on Consumer Trust: A Case of Skin Care Products in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Velly Anatasia; Sunitarya Sunitarya; Vinda Adriana

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to develop advertising strategies in order to increase consumer trust. Four advertising elements, celebrity endorsement, branding, product attribute, and third party certification, were investigated in this study. Data were collected to answer two research questions: (1) To investigate the advertising strategies of skin care products leading to consumer trust, (2) To know the effects of advertising strategies in skin care products on consumer trust. A 5-point Li...

  15. Effects of skin care with shower therapy on children with atopic dermatitis in elementary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Hiroyuki; Muramatsu, Reiko; Tadaki, Hiromi; Mizuno, Takahisa; Arakawa, Hirokazu; Morikawa, Akihiro

    2009-01-01

    For elementary school children with atopic dermatitis, a skin care program using shower therapy was performed during the school lunch break for 6 weeks from June to July in 2004 and 2005. All 53 participants showed an improvement in their atopic dermatitis during the 6-week periods studied. Skin care with daily showering at an elementary school was thus found to be effective for the treatment of atopic dermatitis.

  16. Anti-Inflammatory and Skin Barrier Repair Effects of Topical Application of Some Plant Oils

    OpenAIRE

    Tzu-Kai Lin; Lily Zhong; Juan Luis Santiago

    2017-01-01

    Plant oils have been utilized for a variety of purposes throughout history, with their integration into foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical products. They are now being increasingly recognized for their effects on both skin diseases and the restoration of cutaneous homeostasis. This article briefly reviews the available data on biological influences of topical skin applications of some plant oils (olive oil, olive pomace oil, sunflower seed oil, coconut oil, safflower seed oil, argan oil, so...

  17. Molecular mechanisms of green tea polyphenols with protective effects against skin photoaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Eunmiri; Kim, Jong-Eun; Kwon, Jung Yeon; Park, Jun Seong; Bode, Ann M; Dong, Zigang; Lee, Ki Won

    2017-05-24

    Whereas green tea has historically been consumed in high quantities in Northeast Asia, its popularity is also increasing in many Western countries. Green tea is an abundant source of plant polyphenols exhibiting numerous effects that are potentially beneficial for human health. Accumulating evidence suggests that green tea polyphenols confer protective effects on the skin against ultraviolet (UV) irradiation-induced acceleration of skin aging, involving antimelanogenic, antiwrinkle, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory effects as well as prevention of immunosuppression. Melanin pigmentation in the skin is a major defense mechanism against UV irradiation, but pigmentation abnormalities such as melasma, freckles, senile lentigines, and other forms of melanin hyperpigmentation can also cause serious health and aesthetic issues. Furthermore, UV irradiation initiates the degradation of fibrillar collagen and elastic fibers, promoting the process of skin aging through deep wrinkle formation and loss of tissue elasticity. UV irradiation-induced formation of free radicals also contributes to accelerated photoaging. Additionally, immunosuppression caused by UV irradiation plays an important role in photoaging and skin carcinogenesis. In this review, we summarize the current literature regarding the antimelanogenic, antiwrinkle, antioxidant, and immunosuppression preventive mechanisms of green tea polyphenols that have been demonstrated to protect against UV irradiation-stimulated skin photoaging, and gauge the quality of evidence supporting the need for clinical studies using green tea polyphenols as anti-photoaging agents in novel cosmeceuticals.

  18. Clinical studies with disposable diapers containing absorbent gelling materials: evaluation of effects on infant skin condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, R L; Seymour, J L; Stone, L C; Milligan, M C

    1987-12-01

    Disposable infant diapers with absorbent gelling material (cross-linked sodium polyacrylates) incorporated into the core were clinically evaluated for their effect on infant skin condition. Absorbent gelling materials tightly hold water and provide pH control by a buffering capacity as well as by helping to segregate urine apart from feces. Four clinical studies were conducted with each following a rigid protocol that controlled for variables of diet and age in addition to the diaper material that may influence the development of diaper dermatitis and helped to control for any inherent bias in the study. This allowed for the controlled assessment of skin condition with respect to diaper type. Absorbent gelling material-containing disposable, conventional (100% cellulose core) disposable, and home-laundered cloth diapers were test products. In these studies 1614 infants were initially enrolled with 522 of them assigned to absorbent gelling material disposable, 738 to conventional disposable, and 354 to home-laundered cloth diapers. Objective measurements of skin wetness (transepidermal water loss) and skin pH, as well as double-blind grading of diaper dermatitis, were the measures of skin condition. Absorbent gelling material disposable diapers were associated with significantly reduced skin wetness, closer to normal skin pH, and lower degrees of diaper dermatitis when compared to conventional disposable or home-laundered cloth diapers. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that better control in the diaper area of skin wetness, skin pH, and the prevention of the mixing of urine and feces produces a better diaper environment.

  19. Anomalous Hall conductivity: Local orbitals approach

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Středa, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 4 (2010), 045115/1-045115/9 ISSN 1098-0121 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : anomalous Hall effect * Berry phase correction * orbital polarization momentum Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.772, year: 2010

  20. The effects of cyclic tensile and stress-relaxation tests on porcine skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remache, D; Caliez, M; Gratton, M; Dos Santos, S

    2018-01-01

    When a living tissue is subjected to cyclic stretching, the stress-strain curves show a shift down with the increase in the number of cycles until stabilization. This phenomenon is referred to in the literature as a preconditioning and is performed to obtain repeatable and predictable measurements. Preconditioning has been routinely performed in skin tissue tests; however, its effects on the mechanical properties of the material such as viscoelastic response, tangent modulus, sensitivity to strain rate, the stress relaxation rate, etc….remain unclear. In addition, various physical interpretations of this phenomenon have been proposed and there is no general agreement on its origin at the microscopic or mesoscopic scales. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the cyclical stretching and the stress-relaxation tests on the mechanical properties of the porcine skin. Cyclic uniaxial tensile tests at large and constant strain were performed on different skin samples. The change in the reaction force, and skin's tangent modulus as a function of the number of cycles, as well as the strain rate effect on the mechanical behavior of skin samples after cycling were investigated. Stress-relaxation tests were also performed on skin samples. The change in the reaction force as a function of relaxation time and the strain rate effect on the mechanical behavior of skin samples after the stress-relaxation were investigated. The mechanical behavior of a skin sample under stress-relaxation test was modeled using a combination of hyperelasticity and viscoelasticity. Overall, the results showed that the mechanical behavior of the skin was strongly influenced by cycling and stress relaxation tests. Indeed, it was observed that the skin's resistance decreased by about half for two hours of cycling; the tangent modulus degraded by nearly 30% and skin samples became insensitive to the strain rates and accumulated progressively an inelastic deformation over time during

  1. Effectiveness of skin protection creams in the prevention of occupational dermatitis: results of a randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winker, Robert; Salameh, Bayda; Stolkovich, Sabine; Nikl, Michael; Barth, Alfred; Ponocny, Elisabeth; Drexler, Hans; Tappeiner, Gerhard

    2009-04-01

    The aim of the trial was to investigate whether the publicized effects of skin protection creams can be replicated in a real occupational setting during activities that expose the skin. A prospective, randomized, four-tailed controlled pilot trial was performed to compare the effect of skin protection and skin care alone or in combination with cleansing against a control group (only cleansing). Two branches were selected for the investigation: the building industry and the timber industry. A total of 1,006 workers from these two branches were recruited, and out of these 485 workers were examined longitudinally for at least three time points over 1 year (lost for follow-up: 430 workers, exclusion: 91 workers). At each time point, as a primary outcome measure, we assessed the condition of the skin at both hands in a blinded manner and the individual was assigned to one of the following categories: no eczema, mild, moderate and severe eczema. As a secondary outcome measure, the worker's transepidermal water loss (TEWL) was measured under standardized conditions at the back of both hands. In addition, the workers were asked to evaluate their skin condition during the study. With regard to differences in the occurrence of eczemas, we found only in workers in building industry without application of skin protection or skin care creams a statistical significant increase in the incidence between the first and the second visit and a statistical significant decrease in the incidence between the second and third visit. When evaluating the secondary outcome-measurement changes in the TEWL values, an improvement was found for the group skin protection and skin care in combination and by skin care alone. Females in the timber industry started with better TEWL values than males, which may be due to better overall skin care. In this group we found an improvement for the group skin protection and skin care in combination and by skin protection alone. For skin protection alone, we

  2. Effects of hypobaric pressure on human skin: implications for cryogen spray cooling (part II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Guillermo; Franco, Walfre; Liu, Jie; Svaasand, Lars O; Nelson, J Stuart

    2005-02-01

    Clinical results have demonstrated that dark purple port wine stain (PWS) birthmarks respond favorably to laser induced photothermolysis after the first three to five treatments. Nevertheless, complete blanching is rarely achieved and the lesions stabilize at a red-pink color. In a feasibility study (Part I), we showed that local hypobaric pressure on PWS human skin prior to laser irradiation induced significant lesion blanching. The objective of the present study (Part II) is to investigate the effects of hypobaric pressures on the efficiency of cryogen spray cooling (CSC), a technique that assists laser therapy of PWS and other dermatoses. Experiments were carried out within a suction cup and vacuum chamber to study the effect of hypobaric pressure on the: (1) interaction of cryogen sprays with human skin; (2) spray atomization; and (3) thermal response of a model skin phantom. A high-speed camera was used to acquire digital images of spray impingement on in vivo human skin and spray cones generated at different hypobaric pressures. Subsequently, liquid cryogen was sprayed onto a skin phantom at atmospheric and 17, 34, 51, and 68 kPa (5, 10, 15, and 20 in Hg) hypobaric pressures. A fast-response temperature sensor measured sub-surface phantom temperature as a function of time. Measurements were used to solve an inverse heat conduction problem to calculate surface temperatures, heat flux, and overall heat extraction at the skin phantom surface. Under hypobaric pressures, cryogen spurts did not produce skin indentation and only minimal frost formation. Sprays also showed shorter jet lengths and better atomization. Lower minimum surface temperatures and higher overall heat extraction from skin phantoms were reached. The combined effects of hypobaric pressure result in more efficient cryogen evaporation that enhances heat extraction and, therefore, improves the epidermal protection provided by CSC. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Fickian dispersion is anomalous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushman, John H.; O'Malley, Dan

    2015-12-01

    The thesis put forward here is that the occurrence of Fickian dispersion in geophysical settings is a rare event and consequently should be labeled as anomalous. What people classically call anomalous is really the norm. In a Lagrangian setting, a process with mean square displacement which is proportional to time is generally labeled as Fickian dispersion. With a number of counter examples we show why this definition is fraught with difficulty. In a related discussion, we show an infinite second moment does not necessarily imply the process is super dispersive. By employing a rigorous mathematical definition of Fickian dispersion we illustrate why it is so hard to find a Fickian process. We go on to employ a number of renormalization group approaches to classify non-Fickian dispersive behavior. Scaling laws for the probability density function for a dispersive process, the distribution for the first passage times, the mean first passage time, and the finite-size Lyapunov exponent are presented for fixed points of both deterministic and stochastic renormalization group operators. The fixed points of the renormalization group operators are p-self-similar processes. A generalized renormalization group operator is introduced whose fixed points form a set of generalized self-similar processes. Power-law clocks are introduced to examine multi-scaling behavior. Several examples of these ideas are presented and discussed.

  4. Antioxidant effects of an ozonized theobroma oil formulation on damaged-inflammatory rat skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, Y.; Diaz, M.F.; Hernandez, F.; Gila, D.; Ga, G.

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether a cosmetic formulation elaborated with ozonized theobroma oil may exert beneficial effects in the restoring of the antioxidant activity on the skin of rats previously irradiated with ultraviolet light. 0.5 g of the formulation was applied on the skin of rats for five days. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT) activity were determined in a homogenate of rat skin. Malondialdehyde (MDA), conjugated dienes (CD) and total hydroperoxide (THP) content were determined as biomarkers of oxidative stress. Using these parameters, antioxidant and oxidant activity, redox index and oxidative stress grade were determined. The total antioxidant activity was significantly increased while the redox index, total oxidant activity and oxidative stress grade decreased significantly in damaged rats treated with the formulation. These results show the antioxidant properties of the cosmetic formulation due to the stimulation of antioxidant enzymes such as SOD and GPx, preventing skin injury induced by ultraviolet irradiation. (Author).

  5. Effect of Tension and Curvature of Skin on Insertion Characteristics of Microneedle Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachikawa, Hiroto; Takano, Naoki; Nishiyabu, Kazuaki; Miki, Norihisa; Ami, Yoshimichi

    Recent MEMS (micro electro mechanical system) fabrication techniques have made it possible to produce painless microneedles precisely enough to be inserted into epidermis layer penetrating the stratum corneum of human skin. This paper presents a testing procedure to evaluate the insertion characteristics of microneedle array using cultured human skin considering the tension and the curvature. First, the biaxial strain applied to the cultured human skin was measured by optical technique with image processing. It was found that almost constant strain could be successfully given within a certain area and that error factors in the experiment except the thickness variation of the cultured skin were negligible. Next, using a microneedle square array for brain machine interface (BMI) application, the effects of biaxial tension and the curvature on insertion characteristics were discussed. Within the above mentioned area with high strain, the needles were successfully inserted.

  6. Effects of radioactive hot particles on pig skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaurin, D.G.; Baum, J.W.; Schaefer, C.W. [and others

    1997-06-01

    The purpose of these studies was to determine the incidence and severity of lesions resulting from very localized deposition of dose to skin from small (< 0.5 mm) discrete radioactive particles as produced in the work environments of nuclear reactors. Hanford mini-pigs were exposed, both on a slightly off the skin, to localized replicate doses from 0.31 to 64 Gy (averaged over 1 cm{sup 2} at 70 {mu}m depth unless noted otherwise) using Sc-46, Yb-175, Tm-170, and fissioned UC{sub 2} isotopes having maximum beta-particle energies from about 0.3 to 3 MeV. Erythema and scabs (indicating ulceration) were scored for up to 71 days post-irradiation. The responses followed normal cumulative probability distributions, and therefore, no true threshold could be defined. Hence, 10 and 50% scab incidence rates were deduced using probit analyses. The lowest dose which produced 10% incidence was about 1 Gy for Yb-175 (0.5 MeV maximum energy) beta particle exposures, and about 3 to 9 Gy for other isotopes. The histopathology of lesions was determined at several doses. Single exposures to doses as large as 1,790 Gy were also given, and results were observed for up to 144 days post-exposure. Severity of detriment was estimated by analyzing the results in terms of lesion diameter, persistence, and infection. Over 1,100 sites were exposed. Only two exposed sites became infected after doses near 5000 Gy; the lesions healed quickly on treatment. 105 refs., 145 figs., 47 tabs.

  7. Dosimetric effects of thermoplastic immobilizing devices on skin dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adu-Poku Olivia

    2017-07-01

    This work shows the increase in surface dose caused by thermoplastic immobilizing masks used for positioning and immobilization of patients. Thermoplastics are organic materials which soften when they are heated. They can be formed after softening and retain their final shape when cooled. The use of these thermoplastic masks are relevant during patient treatment. However, it can lead to an increased skin dose. Measurements were done at source-to-surface distance of 80 cm for external radiation beams produced by cobalt 60 using the Farmer type ionization chamber and the Unidos electrometer. Measurements were carried out using various mask thicknesses and no mask material on a solid water phantom. The thermoplastic percentage depth dose (PDD), equivalent thickness of water of the various thicknesses of the mask and surface doses were determined. The increase in the surface dose caused by the thermoplastic mask was compared by looking at the PDD at depth 0 with and without the mask present and was found to increase between 0.76 and 0.79% with no mask for a field size of 5 x 5 cm 2 . It was found that, the presence of the mask shifted the percentage depth dose curve to lower values. The physical thermoplastic thickness was measured to be between 2.30 and 1.80 mm, and the equivalent thicknesses of water, d e , were determined to be 1.2, 1.15, 1.10 and 1.09 and 1.00 mm for the unstretched, 5 cm stretched, 10 cm stretched, 15 cm stretched and 20 cm stretched masks, respectively. This meant that, as the mask thickness decreased, its water equivalent thickness also decreased. The presence of the mask material did not increase the skin dose significantly ( less than 1%). (au)

  8. Histomorphometric study on the effects of Artemisia sieberi extract in mice skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaboutari Jahangir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Skin as the biggest single body organ is always exposing to various injuries, therefore health and healing of its injuries is vital. Artemisia sieberi is a valuable medicinal plant with a long history of indication in folk and modern medicine. Due to different chemical components and antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and cytoprotective properties of Artemisia, this study was conducted to study the histomorphometric effects of Artemisia sieberi (A. sieberi extract on mice skin. Methods: Ninety adult mice were randomly divided in 3 groups. In the treatment group A. sieberi extract dissolved in ethanol & distilled water, in the positive control ethanol & distilled water, and in negative control only distilled water were applied on the shaved dorsum twice daily for 21 days. Mean thickness of epidermis, hypodermis & dermis layers, percentage of collagen fibers and histological evaluation of skin layers were studied in 1, 3, 5, 14 and 21days post treatment. Data were presented as mean± SD and analyzed using one way ANOVA and LSD post hoc tests. The P<0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: A. sieberi extract significantly increased epidermis thickness in day 1, hypodermis, dermis and percentage of collagen fibers in day 3 in comparison to positive and negative control groups. Histology study revealed normal structure of skin and no abnormality was seen. Conclusion: A. sieberi extract can be effective for health and healing of skin injuries by increasing thickness of the skin layers and amount of collagen fibers.

  9. Effects of artificial dawn on sleep inertia, skin temperature, and the awakening cortisol response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van De Werken, Maan; Giménez, Marina C; De Vries, Bonnie; Beersma, Domien G M; Van Someren, Eus J W; Gordijn, Marijke C M

    2010-09-01

    The effect of artificial dawn during the last 30 min of sleep on subsequent dissipation of sleep inertia was investigated, including possible involvement of cortisol and thermoregulatory processes. Sixteen healthy subjects who reported difficulty with waking up participated in random order in a control and an artificial dawn night. Sleep inertia severity was measured by subjective ratings of sleepiness and activation, and by performance on an addition and a reaction time task measured at 1, 15, 30, 45, 60, and 90 min after waking up at habitual wake up time at workdays. At all intervals, saliva samples were collected for cortisol analysis. Sleep electroencephalogram was recorded during the 30 min prior to waking up; core body temperature and skin temperatures were recorded continuously until 90 min after waking up. Subjective sleepiness was significantly decreased and subjective activation increased after waking up in the artificial dawn condition as compared with control, in which lights were turned on at waking up. These effects can be explained by effects of artificial dawn on skin temperature and amount of wakefulness during the 30 min prior to the alarm. Artificial dawn accelerated the decline in skin temperature and in the distal-to-proximal skin temperature gradient after getting up. No significant effects of artificial dawn on performance, core body temperature, and cortisol were found. These results suggest that the physiology underlying the positive effects of artificial dawn on the dissipation of sleep inertia involves light sleep and an accelerated skin temperature decline after awakening.

  10. The GMD Method for Inductance Calculation Applied to Conductors with Skin Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. Aebischer

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The GMD method (geometric mean distance to calculate inductance offers undoubted advantages over other methods. But so far it seemed to be limited to the case where the current is uniformly distributed over the cross section of the conductor, i.e. to DC (direct current. In this paper, the definition of the GMD is extended to include cases of nonuniform distribution observed at higher frequencies as the result of skin effect. An exact relation between the GMD and the internal inductance per unit length for infinitely long conductors of circularly symmetric cross section is derived. It enables much simpler derivations of Maxwell’s analytical expressions for the GMD of circular and annular disks than were known before. Its salient application, however, is the derivation of exact expressions for the GMD of infinitely long round wires and tubular conductors with skin effect. These expressions are then used to verify the consistency of the extended definition of the GMD. Further, approximate formulae for the GMD of round wires with skin effect based on elementary functions are discussed. Total inductances calculated with the help of the derived formulae for the GMD with and without skin effect are compared to measurement results from the literature. For conductors of square cross section, an analytical approximation for the GMD with skin effect based on elementary functions is presented. It is shown that it allows to calculate the total inductance of such conductors for frequencies from DC up to 25 GHz to a precision of better than 1 %.

  11. Surgical treatment of delayed radiation effects in the skin and its indication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilkorn, H.; Drepper, H.

    1987-01-01

    Since 1960 a total of 1200 patients with skin disease as delayed radiation effects were treated at the Hornheide special clinic, 40% of whom received plastic surgery. This requires knowledge of the type of radiation applied and when it was applied, additional harmful influences, exposure, differentiation in cases of ulcers between primary, cumulative, and combination effect, early radiation effects, and late radiation effects. Secondary factors leading possibly to necrosis may be: recidivation of the primary tumours, benign or malignant neoplasms, traumatic injuries such as injections, sampling, tight clothing, chemical factors like therapeuticals for local application, allergies, infections of the skin with bacteria or fungi, osteomyelitis, non-infections skin disease, and internal disease. A precondition for successful dermatological and surgical treatment are a careful review of the previous case history and exact diagnosis. Some clinical cases serve to illustrate the theoretical explanations and point out possibilities for surgical treatment. (TRV) [de

  12. Anomalous Evidence, Confidence Change, and Theory Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmerich, Joshua A; Van Voorhis, Kellie; Wiley, Jennifer

    2016-08-01

    A novel experimental paradigm that measured theory change and confidence in participants' theories was used in three experiments to test the effects of anomalous evidence. Experiment 1 varied the amount of anomalous evidence to see if "dose size" made incremental changes in confidence toward theory change. Experiment 2 varied whether anomalous evidence was convergent (of multiple types) or replicating (similar finding repeated). Experiment 3 varied whether participants were provided with an alternative theory that explained the anomalous evidence. All experiments showed that participants' confidence changes were commensurate with the amount of anomalous evidence presented, and that larger decreases in confidence predicted theory changes. Convergent evidence and the presentation of an alternative theory led to larger confidence change. Convergent evidence also caused more theory changes. Even when people do not change theories, factors pertinent to the evidence and alternative theories decrease their confidence in their current theory and move them incrementally closer to theory change. Copyright © 2015 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  13. Biological effects of brachytherapy using a 32P-patch on the skin of Sencar mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salgueiro, Maria J.; Medina, Vanina; Zubillaga, Marcela

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, specially designed patches containing beta emitters have been developed for contact brachytherapy of skin lesions. The aim of the present work is to evaluate the biological effects of the 32 P-patch on the skin of Sencar mice as a result of a brachytherapy treatment. For this purpose, a 32 P-patch was prepared with Chromic 32 P-phosphate and silicone and the classical model of two-stage skin carcinogenesis was reproduced in Sencar mice. Animals were divided in two main groups in order to perform the contact brachytherapy treatment using schemes of single (SD40 and SD60) and fractionated (FD40 and FD60) doses, with their respective control groups (CSD and CFD). Additionally, a control group without carcinogenic treatment was included in order to apply the 32 P-patch in normal skin. The endpoint to evaluate treatment effects was tumor size after a follow-up period of 44 days and finally, animals were sacrificed in order to get samples of all tumors for histological analysis. Additionally, PCNA staining was evaluated in all groups and the biologically effective dose (BED) of each scheme was calculated taken into account the linear-quadratic model. Erythema, dermatitis and skin ulceration developed in almost all treated animals, but they gradually healed with regeneration of tissue during the follow-up period. Radiation effects on the skin of SD40, SD60, FD40 and FD60 showed a significant reduction of the tumor size with regard to controls, independently of the scheme and the radiation dose considered. PCNA staining scores of groups in the single dose scheme resulted higher for control than for treated tumors, and the same pattern was observed for groups of the fractionated dose scheme. This radioactive 32 P-silicone-patch which, is easy to prepare and use in the treatment of skin diseases and seems promissory as a radioactive device for clinical use. (author)

  14. SKIN PERMEATION ENHANCEMENT EFFECTS OF ASCORBIC ACID AND TRIETHYL CITRATE ON ROFECOXIB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MALAY K. DAS

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The enhancing effect of ascorbic acid and triethyl citrate (TEC on the in vitro skin permeation of rofecoxib across rat epidermis was investigated. Skin pre-treatment with ascorbic acid and TEC at different concentrations, followed by application of rofecoxib gel, showed higher permeation flux than the control condition. The mechanism underlying this permeation enhancement was probed with fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. The FTIR spectra of rat epidermis treated with ascorbic acid revealed that ascorbic acid at low concentration appears to interact with dermal keratin, whereas at higher concentration it appears to interact with both dermal proteins and lipids. The FTIR spectra of rat epidermis treated with TEC showed a decrease in peak heights for both asymmetric and symmetric C-H stretching absorbance, indicating a change in the fluidity of alkyl chains in the intercellular lipids in the stratum corneum (SC. The protein disruption effect of TEC was probably due to the solvation of keratin by the formation of hydrogen bonds between TEC hydroxyl groups and keratin chain C=O groups. Skin pre-treatment with different concentrations of permeation enhancers did not show any significant change in lag time in comparison to control. The amount of rofecoxib retained in the skin after skin pre-treatment with enhancers was found to be higher than in the experiment without skin pre-treatment. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM confirmed the maintenance of skin integrity throughout the permeation experiment. The observed permeation enhancing effects of ascorbic acid and TEC in the present study indicate that a rapid percutaneous absorption of rofecoxib at effective therapeutic levels may facilitate faster anti-inflammatory activity.

  15. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of a Skin Awareness Intervention for Early Detection of Skin Cancer Targeting Men Older Than 50 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Louisa G; Brynes, Joshua; Baade, Peter D; Neale, Rachel E; Whiteman, David C; Youl, Philippa H; Aitken, Joanne F; Janda, Monika

    2017-04-01

    To assess the cost-effectiveness of an educational intervention encouraging self-skin examinations for early detection of skin cancers among men older than 50 years. A lifetime Markov model was constructed to combine data from the Skin Awareness Trial and other published sources. The model incorporated a health system perspective and the cost and health outcomes for melanoma, squamous and basal cell carcinomas, and benign skin lesions. Key model outcomes included Australian costs (2015), quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), life-years, and counts of skin cancers. Univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were undertaken to address parameter uncertainty. The mean cost of the intervention was A$5,298 compared with A$4,684 for usual care, whereas mean QALYs were 7.58 for the intervention group and 7.77 for the usual care group. The intervention was thus inferior to usual care. When only survival gain is considered, the model predicted the intervention would cost A$1,059 per life-year saved. The likelihood that the intervention was cost-effective up to A$50,000 per QALY gained was 43.9%. The model was stable to most data estimates; nevertheless, it relies on the specificity of clinical diagnosis of skin cancers and is subject to limited health utility data for people with skin lesions. Although the intervention improved skin checking behaviors and encouraged men to seek medical advice about suspicious lesions, the overall costs and effects from also detecting more squamous and basal cell carcinomas and benign lesions outweighed the positive health gains from detecting more thin melanomas. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Anomalous Dimensions of Conformal Baryons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pica, Claudio; Sannino, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    We determine the anomalous dimensions of baryon operators for the three color theory as function of the number of massless flavours within the conformal window to the maximum known order in perturbation theory. We show that the anomalous dimension of the baryon is controllably small, within...

  17. Dinotor model for anomalous nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillejo, L.; Goldhaber, A.S.; Jackson, A.D.; Johnson, M.B.

    1986-01-01

    The simplest version of the MIT bag model implies the existence of metastable toroidal bags, with large radius proportional to the enclosed baryon number, and small radius comparable to that of an ordinary nucleon (we refer to those toroidal bags as dinotors). Considerations of various possible instabilities, and of the effects of quark interactions through intermediate gluons, suggest that the metastability is still valid when the model is treated more realistically. These results might provide an explanation for reports of anomalously large interaction cross sections of secondary fragments (''anomalons'') observed in visual track detectors. However, it appears that the most likely characteristics of toroidal bags would not be compatible with those of anomalons, and would not be as easy to detect in emulsions. copyright 1986 Academic Press, Inc

  18. Anomalous Lorentz and CPT violation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinkhamer, F. R.

    2018-01-01

    If there exists Lorentz and CPT violation in nature, then it is crucial to discover and understand the underlying mechanism. In this contribution, we discuss one such mechanism which relies on four-dimensional chiral gauge theories defined over a spacetime manifold with topology ℛ3 × S 1 and periodic spin structure for the compact dimension. It can be shown that the effective gauge-field action contains a local Chern-Simons-like term which violates Lorentz and CPT invariance. For arbitrary Abelian U(1) gauge fields with trivial holonomies in the compact direction, this anomalous Lorentz and CPT violation has recently been established perturbatively with a Pauli-Villars-type regularization and nonperturbatively with a lattice regularization based on Ginsparg-Wilson fermions.

  19. Effects of serine palmitoyltransferase inhibitor ISP-I on the stratum corneum of intact mouse skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizukoshi, Koji; Matsumoto, Katsuo; Hirose, Ryouji; Fujita, Tetsuro; Ishida-Yamamoto, Akemi; Iizuka, Hajime

    2011-01-01

    Serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT) is involved in the ceramide synthesis pathway. We investigated the effects of ISP-I, a potent inhibitor of SPT, on the stratum corneum (SC) of hairless mouse skin. Application of ISP-I for one week resulted in a significant decrease in the amount of ceramide, which was associated with a decrease in SC hydration. However, there was an increase in the number of SC layers and less transepidermal water loss than control. Transmission Electron Microscopy observation revealed that the number of desmosome-like structures in the layers immediately above the stratum granulosum (SG) was significantly increased in ISP-I-treated skin compared to vehicle-treated skin. The activity of serine protease-an enzyme associated with the process of desquamation-was lower in the SC of ISP-I-treated skin than control. Furthermore, immunoelectronmicroscopy revealed that glucosylceramide and corneodesmosin tended to remain in corneocytes and were not secreted into the intercellular spaces of the SC in the ISP-I-treated skin. These results indicate that the application of ISP-I decreases ceramide and skin hydration, while at the same time increases the number of SC layers. The accumulation of corneocyte layers may originate from an aberrant desquamation process related to the decrease in the serine protease activity as well as an alteration in the transport of desquamation-related proteases by lamellar bodies.

  20. Skin alterations induced by long-term exposure to uranium and their effect on permeability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ubios, A.M.; Marzorati, M.; Cabrini, R.L.

    1997-01-01

    The skin is a probable route of incorporation of uranium by percutaneous absorption. The changes in epidermal thickness and their effect on skin permeability after uranium exposure are reported herein. Two experiments (A and B) were performed in Wistar rats weighing 60 g. In experiment A the animals were exposed to U 3 O 8 (0.012 g d - 1 ) in 30 daily topical applications. In experiment B the animals were treated as in experiment A, followed by a period of non-exposure of 60 d. Samples of the treated area of skin were taken for histologic studies and for the study of the skin permeability. The epidermal thickness was measured on the histological sections. Epidermis was thinner in experimental than in control animals in both experiments. The values in the control groups were 41.05 ± 14.03 μm (A) and 38.92 ± 16.50 μm (B) and 21.35 ± 10.29 μm (A) and 24.06 ± 16.50 μm (B) in the experimental groups, the differences being statistically significant. Skin permeability was measured placing skin samples in a diffusion cell, in which the upper compartment was filled with a staining solution. The determinations were made with a spectrophotometer. The results revealed that the skin permeability in both experimental groups was higher than in the respective controls, 65% in experiment A and 77% in experiment B. The results revealed that a long term uranium exposure leads to an epidermal atrophy which in turn results in an increased permeability of the skin. 10 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  1. Fractal model of anomalous diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmachowski, Lech

    2015-12-01

    An equation of motion is derived from fractal analysis of the Brownian particle trajectory in which the asymptotic fractal dimension of the trajectory has a required value. The formula makes it possible to calculate the time dependence of the mean square displacement for both short and long periods when the molecule diffuses anomalously. The anomalous diffusion which occurs after long periods is characterized by two variables, the transport coefficient and the anomalous diffusion exponent. An explicit formula is derived for the transport coefficient, which is related to the diffusion constant, as dependent on the Brownian step time, and the anomalous diffusion exponent. The model makes it possible to deduce anomalous diffusion properties from experimental data obtained even for short time periods and to estimate the transport coefficient in systems for which the diffusion behavior has been investigated. The results were confirmed for both sub and super-diffusion.

  2. Effects of radioactive hot particles on pig skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaurin, D.G.; Baum, J.W.; Schaefer, C.W.

    1997-06-01

    The purpose of these studies was to determine the incidence and severity of lesions resulting from very localized deposition of dose to skin from small ( 2 at 70 μm depth unless noted otherwise) using Sc-46, Yb-175, Tm-170, and fissioned UC 2 isotopes having maximum beta-particle energies from about 0.3 to 3 MeV. Erythema and scabs (indicating ulceration) were scored for up to 71 days post-irradiation. The responses followed normal cumulative probability distributions, and therefore, no true threshold could be defined. Hence, 10 and 50% scab incidence rates were deduced using probit analyses. The lowest dose which produced 10% incidence was about 1 Gy for Yb-175 (0.5 MeV maximum energy) beta particle exposures, and about 3 to 9 Gy for other isotopes. The histopathology of lesions was determined at several doses. Single exposures to doses as large as 1,790 Gy were also given, and results were observed for up to 144 days post-exposure. Severity of detriment was estimated by analyzing the results in terms of lesion diameter, persistence, and infection. Over 1,100 sites were exposed. Only two exposed sites became infected after doses near 5000 Gy; the lesions healed quickly on treatment. 105 refs., 145 figs., 47 tabs

  3. A new topical panthenol-containing emollient: Results from two randomized controlled studies assessing its skin moisturization and barrier restoration potential, and the effect on skin microflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stettler, Hans; Kurka, Peter; Lunau, Nathalie; Manger, Caroline; Böhling, Arne; Bielfeldt, Stephan; Wilhelm, Klaus-Peter; Dähnhardt-Pfeiffer, Stephan; Dähnhardt, Dorothee; Brill, Florian H H; Lenz, Holger

    2017-03-01

    Two randomized, intra-individual comparison studies were performed in healthy subjects to evaluate the skin moisturization and barrier restoration potential of a new topical panthenol-containing emollient (NTP-CE) (Study 1), and its effect on skin microflora (Study 2). In Study 1 (N = 23), two skin areas, one challenged with 0.5% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) solution and one unchallenged, were treated with NTP-CE for 3 weeks. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL), skin hydration, and intercellular lipid lamellae (ICLL) organization were measured at regular intervals during the study. In Study 2 (N = 20), quantitative bacterial cultures were obtained over 6 h from a skin area undergoing wash stress with 10% SDS with subsequent single application of NTP-CE. In Study 1, mean AUC for TEWL reduction from baseline was more pronounced with NTP-CE compared with control (-168.36 vs. -123.38 g/m 2 /h, p = 0.023). NTP-CE use was also associated with statistically significant improvements in stratum corneum hydration and an increase in mean ICLL length from baseline (day 22: 120.61 vs. 35.85 nm/1000 nm 2 , p < 0.001). In Study 2, NTP-CE use had no negative impact on bacterial viability. NTP-CE use has favorable and lasting effects on barrier function and repair as well as skin hydration without negatively influencing bacterial viability.

  4. Effects of cosmetic formulations containing hydroxyacids on sun-exposed skin: current applications and future developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornhauser, Andrija; Coelho, Sergio G; Hearing, Vincent J

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes recent data on the effects of various skin formulations containing hydroxyacids (HAs) and related products on sun-exposed skin. The most frequently used classes of these products, such as α- and β-hydroxyacids, polyhydroxy acids, and bionic acids, are reviewed, and their application in cosmetic formulations is described. Special emphasis is devoted to the safety evaluation of these formulations, particularly on the effects of their prolonged use on sun-exposed skin. We also discuss the important contribution of cosmetic vehicles in these types of studies. Data on the effects of HAs on melanogenesis and tanning are also included. Up-to-date methods and techniques used in those explorations, as well as selected future developments in the cosmetic area, are presented.

  5. Effects of industrial detergents on the barrier function of human skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, G D; Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2000-01-01

    Detergents are involved in the causation of contact dermatitis and in promoting percutaneous absorption of toxic chemicals, but limited information is available to allow an assessment of their relative effects on the skin barrier function. The effect of detergents on skin permeability to water...... and nickel was examined in an in-vitro model using human skin. Twenty-four of the most widely used detergents were studied. After a two-hour exposure to an aqueous detergent solution, penetration of labeled model compounds was followed for 66 hours. Interindividual variation was substantial, but 12...... of the detergents caused statistically significant increases in the penetration of water, nickel, or both. Nonionic detergents were as likely as anionic detergents to have this effect. This study demonstrates that useful information may be obtained by a simple in-vitro method, and that such data may provide a basis...

  6. Effects of Cosmetic Formulations Containing Hydroxyacids on Sun-Exposed Skin: Current Applications and Future Developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrija Kornhauser

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes recent data on the effects of various skin formulations containing hydroxyacids (HAs and related products on sun-exposed skin. The most frequently used classes of these products, such as α- and β-hydroxyacids, polyhydroxy acids, and bionic acids, are reviewed, and their application in cosmetic formulations is described. Special emphasis is devoted to the safety evaluation of these formulations, particularly on the effects of their prolonged use on sun-exposed skin. We also discuss the important contribution of cosmetic vehicles in these types of studies. Data on the effects of HAs on melanogenesis and tanning are also included. Up-to-date methods and techniques used in those explorations, as well as selected future developments in the cosmetic area, are presented.

  7. The effects of Valette on skin and hair: a post-marketing surveillance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, T; Wisser, K H; Dietrich, H

    2000-03-01

    The effects of Valette--an oral contraceptive containing ethinyloestradiol 0.03 mg and the antiandrogenic progestogen dienogest 2.0 mg--on the skin and hair were surveyed over 63,474 cycles in 10,718 women in routine gynaecological practice. Improvements were greatest in women with severe or moderate androgen-related symptoms. After six cycles, < 1% of women had severely greasy hair and 6% had moderate greasiness, compared with 11% and 27% at baseline; fewer hair washes were needed per week. The incidence of severe and moderately greasy skin disorders fell from 16% to < 1%, and from 39% to 7.5%, respectively. Self-assessments indicated less greasy hair and improved greasy skin disorders in 70% and 81% of women, respectively. The overall effect of Valette on the skin and hair was rated very good or good by 87.5% of women. These results confirm previous observations of a beneficial effect of Valette on androgen-related skin and hair conditions.

  8. Effects of collagen tripeptide supplement on skin properties: a prospective, randomized, controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sun Young; Ko, Eun Jung; Lee, Yong Hee; Kim, Byung Gyu; Shin, Hyun Jung; Seo, Dae Bang; Lee, Sang Jun; Kim, Beom Joon; Kim, Myeung Nam

    2014-06-01

    Experimental and clinical trials have indicated that dietary supplements can have beneficial effects on skin health. We investigated to evaluate the effect of daily collagen peptide (CP) supplement on skin properties. Thirty-two healthy volunteers were randomized to receive either no supplement (Group A), CP 3 g (Group B), CP 3 g, and vitamin C 500 mg (Group C), or vitamin C 500 mg (Group D) daily for 12 weeks. Skin properties evaluated included hydration, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), and elasticity using a corneometer, tewameter, and cutometer, respectively. Changes from baseline in the corneometer were statistically significant between Groups A and B (p = 0.011) and Groups A and C (p = 0.004). There were statistically significant differences in cutometer from baseline between Groups A and B (p = 0.005) and Groups A and C (p = 0.015). There was no significant difference from baseline in the corneometer and cutometer between Groups B and C. The greatest changes in TEWL from baseline were seen in Group B, and the second greatest changes were seen in Group C. Daily CP supplementation may improve skin hydration and elasticity, but concomitant intake of low-dose vitamin C did not enhance the effect of CP on skin properties.

  9. Effects of Turmeric (Curcuma longa) on Skin Health: A Systematic Review of the Clinical Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Alexandra R; Branum, Amy; Sivamani, Raja K

    2016-08-01

    Turmeric (Curcuma longa), a commonly used spice throughout the world, has been shown to exhibit antiinflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-neoplastic properties. Growing evidence shows that an active component of turmeric, curcumin, may be used medically to treat a variety of dermatologic diseases. This systematic review was conducted to examine the evidence for the use of both topical and ingested turmeric/curcumin to modulate skin health and function. The PubMed and Embase databases were systematically searched for clinical studies involving humans that examined the relationship between products containing turmeric, curcumin, and skin health. A total of 234 articles were uncovered, and a total of 18 studies met inclusion criteria. Nine studies evaluated the effects of ingestion, eight studies evaluated the effects of topical, and one study evaluated the effects of both ingested and topical application of turmeric/curcumin. Skin conditions examined include acne, alopecia, atopic dermatitis, facial photoaging, oral lichen planus, pruritus, psoriasis, radiodermatitis, and vitiligo. Ten studies noted statistically significant improvement in skin disease severity in the turmeric/curcumin treatment groups compared with control groups. Overall, there is early evidence that turmeric/curcumin products and supplements, both oral and topical, may provide therapeutic benefits for skin health. However, currently published studies are limited and further studies will be essential to better evaluate efficacy and the mechanisms involved. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Effects of fabric thickness and material on apparent 'wet' conductive thermal resistance of knitted fabric 'skin' on sweating manikins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Faming; Lai, Dandan; Shi, Wen; Fu, Ming

    2017-12-01

    Currently, no published standard and research work have addressed the basic requirements on knitted fabric 'skin' on sweating manikins. In this study, we performed 252 experiments to investigate the influence of fabric thickness and material on the apparent 'wet' conductive (or effective) thermal resistance of the fabric 'skin' using a 'Newton' manikin. Four types of cotton fabric 'skin' (fabric thickness: 0.38, 0.54, 0.92 and 1.43mm) and three types of polyester fabric 'skin' (fabric thickness: 0.41, 0.54 and 1.0mm) were selected and their 'wet' conductive thermal resistance was determined. Empirical equations were also developed for each fabric 'skin' to predict wet fabric 'skin' surface temperatures. It was found that both fabric thickness and material significantly affected the apparent 'wet' conductive thermal resistance. Clothing total evaporative resistance determined using thin fabric 'skin' (e.g., CO1, CO2) was normally lower than that determined using thick fabric 'skin' (e.g., CO4). Besides, synthetic fabric 'skin' tended to have a larger apparent 'wet' conductive thermal resistance than the cotton fabric 'skin' due to a smaller amount of moisture contained. Hence, there is a great need to standardize the fabric 'skin' to eliminate the influence of fabric 'skin' on the measurement of clothing evaporative resistance by means of a sweating manikin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of local allergen priming on early, late, delayed-phase, and epicutaneous skin reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weller, FR; Weller, MS; Jansen, HM; deMonchy, JGR

    1996-01-01

    Allergic disease is renected in a chronic inflammatory response to an allergen. It is thought that local allergen priming underlies this chronicity. To assess the effect of allergen priming on the amplitude and histologic effect of the allergic reaction, four sequential, intracutaneous skin tests

  12. Transient performances analysis of wind turbine system with induction generator including flux saturation and skin effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, H.; Zhao, B.; Han, L.

    2010-01-01

    In order to analyze correctly the effect of different models for induction generators on the transient performances of large wind power generation, Wind turbine driven squirrel cage induction generator (SCIG) models taking into account both main and leakage flux saturation and skin effect were...

  13. The effect of compressed air massage on skin blood flow and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, Maurice; Maharaj, Sunil S; Tufts, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Compressed air massage is a new treatment modality that uses air under pressure to massage skin and muscle. It is claimed to improve skin blood flow but this has not been verified. Several pilot studies were undertaken to determine the effects of compressed air massage on skin blood flow and temperature. Skin blood flow (SBF), measured using laser Doppler fluxmetry and skin temperature was recorded under several different situations: (i) treatment, at 1 Bar pressure using a single-hole (5-mm) applicator head, for 1 min at each of several sites on the right and left lower legs, with SBF measured on the dorsum of the left foot; (ii) at the same treatment pressure, SBF was measured over the left tibialis anterior when treatment was performed at different distances from the probe; (iii) SBF and skin temperature of the lower leg were measured with treatment at 0 or 1 Bar for 45 min, using two different applicator heads; (iv) SBF was measured on the dorsum of the foot of 10 subjects with treatment for 1 min at 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 Bar using three different applicator heads. (i) SBF of the left foot was not altered by treatment of the right leg or chest, but was significantly increased during treatment of the left sole and first web, p Compressed air massage causes an immediate increase in SBF, and an immediate fall in SBF when treatment is stopped. The effect appears to be locally and not centrally mediated and is related to the pressure used. Treatment cools the skin for at least 15 min after a 45-min treatment.

  14. Giant magneto-impedance and skin effect in CuBe/CoNiP composite wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, L.P.; Zhao, Z.J.; Zhang, J.C.; Wu, Z.M.; Ruan, J.Z.; Wang, Q.J.; Yang, X.L.

    2006-01-01

    The giant magneto-impedance and skin effect in electroless deposited CuBe/CoNiP composite wires with different diameter of CuBe core are presented, and involves a theoretical approach of the current density distributions in layers. Results show that the strong eddy current in the magnetic CoNiP coating will be induced due to the electromagnetic interactions with the CuBe core. It makes the skin effect strong in the magnetic coating even at very low frequency, and at this, large MI changes can also be observed

  15. A new shielding effectiveness measurement method based on a skin-effect transmission line coupler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kleine-Ostmann

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new convenient material shielding effectiveness measurement method based on a skin-effect transmission line coupler. The method is somewhat similar to the arrangement with two coupled TEM cells known from literature. The transmission line coupler consists of a pair of identical transmission line 2-port devices. Each device contains a coaxial waveguide, with a circular inner conductor and an outer conductor having a square cross section. One side of the outer conductor is left completely open as a slot. The slot is surrounded by a large metal housing to contact the two halves. As a measure for the shielding effectiveness the coupling between the two devices is measured in terms of scattering parameters after the test material is brought between the two halves. The devices can be used in a range from low frequencies to a few GHz.

  16. Condition factor variations over time and trophic position among four species of Characidae from Amazonian floodplain lakes: effects of an anomalous drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribuzy-Neto, I A; Conceição, K G; Siqueira-Souza, F K; Hurd, L E; Freitas, C E C

    2017-08-17

    The effects of extreme droughts on freshwater fish remain unknown worldwide. In this paper, we estimated the condition factor, a measure of relative fitness based on the relationship of body weight to length, in four fish species representing two trophic levels (omnivores and piscivores) from Amazonian floodplain lakes for three consecutive years: 2004, 2005 (an anomalous drought year), and 2006. The two omnivores, Colossoma macropomum and Mylossoma duriventre, exhibited trends consistent with their life cycles in 2004 and 2006: high values during the hydrologic seasons of high water, receding water, and low water, with a drop following reproduction following the onset of rising water. However during the drought year of 2005 the condition factor was much lower than normal during receding and low water seasons, probably as a result of an abnormal reduction in resource availability in a reduced habitat. The two piscivorous piranhas, Serrasalmus spilopleura and S. elongatus, maintained relatively stable values of condition factor over the hydrologic cycles of all three years, with no apparent effect of the drought, probably because the reduction in habitat is counterbalanced by the resulting increase in relative prey density. We suggest that if predictions of increasing drought in the Amazon are correct, predatory species may benefit, at least in the short run, while omnivores may be negatively affected.

  17. Synthetic Effect of Vivid Shark Skin and Polymer Additive on Drag Reduction Reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huawei Chen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Natural shark skin has a well-demonstrated drag reduction function, which is mainly owing to its microscopic structure and mucus on the body surface. In order to improve drag reduction, it is necessary to integrate microscopic drag reduction structure and drag reduction agent. In this study, two hybrid approaches to synthetically combine vivid shark skin and polymer additive, namely, long-chain grafting and controllable polymer diffusion, were proposed and attempted to mimic such hierarchical topography of shark skin without waste of polymer additive. Grafting mechanism and optimization of diffusion port were investigated to improve the efficiency of the polymer additive. Superior drag reduction effects were validated, and the combined effect was also clarified through comparison between drag reduction experiments.

  18. The vasorelaxant effect of adrenomedullin, proadrenomedullin N-terminal 20 peptide and amylin in human skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasbak, Philip; Eskesen, Karen; Lind, Peter Henrik

    2006-01-01

    ) and substance P and to examine the mRNA expression of calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CL-R) and receptor-activity modifying proteins, RAMP1, RAMP 2 and RAMP3 in human subcutaneous arteries. Changes in skin blood flow of the forearm were measured using a Laser Doppler Imager after intradermal injection......In this study we aimed to assess in vivo, the vasodilator effects of adrenomedullin, proadrenomedullin N-terminal 20 peptide (PAMP) and amylin in human skin vasculature and compare the responses to the effects mediated by the endogenous neuropeptides calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP...... of the peptides. The mRNA expression was assessed by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR). CGRP, adrenomedullin and amylin induced concentration-dependent, long-lasting increases in skin blood flow. The response to PAMP was shorter in duration appearing similar...

  19. The effect of ceramide-containing skin care products on eczema resolution duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draelos, Zoe Diana

    2008-01-01

    Eczema is a common dermatologic condition that affects children as well as adults and is related to a defective skin barrier, which is most commonly caused by damage to the intercellular lipids from improper selection of skin cleansers and moisturizers. A new concept in skin care is the incorporation of ceramides into therapeutic cleansers and moisturizers. Ceramides are important components of the intercellular lipids that are necessary to link the protein-rich corneocytes into a waterproof barrier that is capable of protecting the underlying skin tissues and regulating body homeostasis. This study evaluated the effect of both a multilamellar vesicular emulsion (MVE) ceramide-containing liquid cleanser and moisturizing cream plus fluocinonide cream 0.05% compared with a bar cleanser plus fluocinonide cream 0.05% in the treatment of mild to moderate eczema. The addition of an MVE ceramide-containing liquid cleanser and moisturizing cream to a high-potency corticosteroid enhanced the treatment outcome of mild to moderate eczema compared with the use of a bar cleanser and high-potency corticosteroid in reducing disease duration, time to disease clearance, and symptoms. Thus, skin care product selection can have an important clinical effect on the clearance of mild to moderate eczema.

  20. Effect of adjuvants on responses to skin immunization by microneedles coated with influenza subunit vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William C Weldon

    Full Text Available Recent studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of vaccine delivery to the skin by vaccine-coated microneedles; however there is little information on the effects of adjuvants using this approach for vaccination. Here we investigate the use of TLR ligands as adjuvants with skin-based delivery of influenza subunit vaccine. BALB/c mice received 1 µg of monovalent H1N1 subunit vaccine alone or with 1 µg of imiquimod or poly(I:C individually or in combination via coated microneedle patches inserted into the skin. Poly(I:C adjuvanted subunit influenza vaccine induced similar antigen-specific immune responses compared to vaccine alone when delivered to the skin by microneedles. However, imiquimod-adjuvanted vaccine elicited higher levels of serum IgG2a antibodies and increased hemagglutination inhibition titers compared to vaccine alone, suggesting enhanced induction of functional antibodies. In addition, imiquimod-adjuvanted vaccine induced a robust IFN-γ cellular response. These responses correlated with improved protection compared to influenza subunit vaccine alone, as well as reduced viral replication and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the lungs. The finding that microneedle delivery of imiquimod with influenza subunit vaccine induces improved immune responses compared to vaccine alone supports the use of TLR7 ligands as adjuvants for skin-based influenza vaccines.

  1. Evaluation of effects of platelet-rich plasma on human facial skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksel, Esra Pancar; Sahin, Gokhan; Aydin, Fatma; Senturk, Nilgun; Turanli, Ahmet Yasar

    2014-10-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been used for rapid healing and tissue regeneration in many fields of medicine. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of PRP application procedure on human facial skin. PRP was applied thrice at 2-week intervals on the face of ten healthy volunteers. It was applied to individual's forehead, malar area, and jaw by a dermaroller, and injected using a 27-gauge injector into the wrinkles of crow's feet. Participants were asked to grade on a scale from 0 to 5 for general appearance, skin firmness-sagging, wrinkle state and pigmentation disorder of their own face before each PRP procedure and 3 months after the last PRP procedure. While volunteers were evaluating their own face, they were also assessed by three different dermatologists at the same time by the same five-point scale. There was statistically significant difference regarding the general appearance, skin firmness-sagging and wrinkle state according to the grading scale of the patients before and after three PRP applications. Whereas there was only statistically significant difference for the skin firmness-sagging according to the assessment of the dermatologists. PRP application could be considered as an effective procedure for facial skin rejuvenation.

  2. Effect of compositions in nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC on skin hydration and occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loo CH

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available CH Loo,1,2 M Basri,2 R Ismail,1 HLN Lau,1 BA Tejo,2 MS Kanthimathi,3 HA Hassan,1 YM Choo11Malaysian Palm Oil Board, Bandar Baru Bangi, 2Department of Chemistry, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, 3Department of Molecular Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, MalaysiaPurpose: To study the effects of varying lipid concentrations, lipid and oil ratio, and the addition of propylene glycol and lecithin on the long-term physical stability of nanostructured lipid nanocarriers (NLC, skin hydration, and transepidermal water loss.Methods: The various NLC formulations (A1–A5 were prepared and their particle size, zeta potential, viscosity, and stability were analyzed. The formulations were applied on the forearms of the 20 female volunteers (one forearm of each volunteer was left untreated as a control. The subjects stayed for 30 minutes in a conditioned room with their forearms uncovered to let the skin adapt to the temperature (22°C ± 2°C and humidity (50% ± 2% of the room. Skin hydration and skin occlusion were recorded at day one (before treatment and day seven (after treatment. Three measurements for skin hydration and skin occlusion were performed in each testing area.Results: NLC formulations with the highest lipid concentration, highest solid lipid concentration, and additional propylene glycol (formulations A1, A2, and A5 showed higher physical stability than other formulations. The addition of propylene glycol into an NLC system helped to reduce the particle size of the NLC and enhanced its long-term physical stability. All the NLC formulations were found to significantly increase skin hydration compared to the untreated controls within 7 days. All NLC formulations exhibited occlusive properties as they reduced the transepidermal water loss within 7 days. This effect was more pronounced with the addition of propylene glycol or lecithin into an NLC formulation, whereby at least 60% reduction in transepidermal water loss was observed

  3. Anomalous Hall effect and current spin polarization in Co2Fe X Heusler compounds (X =Al , Ga , In , Si , Ge , and Sn ): A systematic ab initio study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hung-Lung; Tung, Jen-Chuan; Guo, Guang-Yu

    2015-04-01

    Co-based Heusler compounds are ferromagnetic with a high Curie temperature and a large magnetization density, and thus are promising for spintronic applications. In this paper, we perform a systematic ab initio study of two principal spin-related phenomena, namely, anomalous Hall effect and current spin polarization, in Co2-based Heusler compounds Co2Fe X (X =Al , Ga , In , Si , Ge , Sn ) in the cubic L2 1 structure within the density functional theory with the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). The accurate all-electron full-potential linearized augmented plane-wave method is used. First, we find that the spin polarization of the longitudinal current (PL) in Co2Fe X (X =Al , Ga , In , Al0.5Si0.5 , and Sn ) is ˜100 % even though that of the electronic states at the Fermi level (PD) is not. Further, the other compounds also have a high current spin polarization with PL>85 %. This indicates that all the Co2Fe X compounds considered are promising for spin-transport devices. Interestingly, PD is negative in Co2Fe X (X =Si , Ge , and Sn ), differing in sign from the PL as well as that from the transport experiments. Second, the calculated anomalous Hall conductivities (AHCs) are moderate, being within 200 S/cm, and agree well with the available experiments on a highly L2 1 ordered Co2FeSi specimen although they differ significantly from the reported experiments on other compounds where the B2 antisite disorders were present. Surprisingly, the AHC in Co2FeSi decreases and then changes sign when Si is replaced by Ge and finally by Sn. Third, the calculated total magnetic moments agree well with the corresponding experimental ones in all the studied compounds except Co2FeSi where a difference of 0.3 μB/f .u . exists. We also perform the GGA plus on-site Coulomb interaction U calculations in the GGA + U scheme. We find that including the U affects the calculated total magnetic moment, spin polarization and AHC significantly, and in most cases, unfortunately

  4. Effects of Radon and UV Exposure on Skin Cancer Mortality in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Hoogh, Kees; Hauri, Dimitri; Vicedo-Cabrera, Ana M.; Schindler, Christian; Huss, Anke; Röösli, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Background: Skin cancer incidence in Switzerland is among the highest in the world. In addition to exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation, radon alpha particles attached to aerosols can adhere to the skin and potentially cause carcinogenic effects. Objectives: We investigated the effects of radon and UV exposure on skin cancer mortality. Methods: Cox proportional hazard regression was used to study the association between exposures and skin cancer mortality in adults from the Swiss National Cohort. Modeled radon exposure and erythemal-weighted UV dose were assigned to addresses at baseline. Effect estimates were adjusted for sex, civil status, mother tongue, education, job position, neighborhood socioeconomic position, and UV exposure from outdoor occupation. Results: The study included 5.2 million adults (mean age 48 y) and 2,989 skin cancer deaths, with 1,900 indicating malignant melanoma (MM) as the primary cause of death. Adjusted hazard ratios (HR) for MM at age 60 were 1.16 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.29) per 100Bq/m3 radon and 1.11 (1.01, 1.23) per W/m2 in UV dose. Radon effects decreased with age. Risk of MM death associated with residential UV exposure was higher for individuals engaged in outdoor work with UV exposure (HR 1.94 [1.17, 3.23]), though not statistically significantly different compared to not working outdoors (HR 1.09 [0.99, 1.21], p=0.09). Conclusions: There is considerable variation in radon and UV exposure across Switzerland. Our study suggests both are relevant risk factors for skin cancer mortality. A better understanding of the role of the UV radiation and radon exposure is of high public health relevance. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP825 PMID:28686556

  5. Biological effects of brachytherapy using a 32P-patch on the skin of Sencar mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salgueiro, M.J.; Collia, N.; Duran, H.; Palmieri, M.; Medina, V.; Ughetti, R.; Nicolini, J.; Zubillaga, M.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, specially designed patches containing beta emitters have been developed for contact brachytherapy of skin lesions. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the biological effects of the 32 P-patch on the skin of Sencar mice as a result of a brachytherapy treatment. For this purpose, a 32 P-patch was prepared with Chromic 32 P-phosphate and silicone and the classical model of two-stage skin carcinogenesis was reproduced in Sencar mice. Animals were divided in six groups. Four groups received the contact brachytherapy treatments using a scheme of a single session of 40 and 60 Gy (SD40 and SD60) and a scheme of two sessions of 40 and 60 Gy each (FD40 and FD60). The other two groups were used as controls of the single (CSD) and the fractionated (CFD) treatments. Radiation doses were estimated with equations derived from the MIRD DOSE scheme, and biologically effective doses (BED) were calculated according to equations derived from the linear-quadratic model. The endpoint to evaluate the treatments effects was tumor size after a follow-up period of 44 days. Finally, animals were sacrificed in order to get samples of all tumors for histological analysis and PCNA staining. Erythema, dermatitis and skin ulceration developed in almost all treated animals, but they gradually healed with regeneration of tissue during the follow-up period. Radiation effects on the skin of SD40, SD60, FD40 and FD60 showed a significant reduction of the tumor size with regard to controls, independently of the scheme and the radiation dose considered. PCNA staining scores of control groups were higher than for treated groups, independently of the scheme and the radiation dose considered. This radioactive 32 P-silicone-patch which is easy to prepare and use in the treatment of skin diseases, seems promising as a radioactive device for clinical use.

  6. Effects of Radon and UV Exposure on Skin Cancer Mortality in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vienneau, Danielle; de Hoogh, Kees; Hauri, Dimitri; Vicedo-Cabrera, Ana M; Schindler, Christian; Huss, Anke; Röösli, Martin

    2017-06-16

    Skin cancer incidence in Switzerland is among the highest in the world. In addition to exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation, radon alpha particles attached to aerosols can adhere to the skin and potentially cause carcinogenic effects. We investigated the effects of radon and UV exposure on skin cancer mortality. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to study the association between exposures and skin cancer mortality in adults from the Swiss National Cohort. Modeled radon exposure and erythemal-weighted UV dose were assigned to addresses at baseline. Effect estimates were adjusted for sex, civil status, mother tongue, education, job position, neighborhood socioeconomic position, and UV exposure from outdoor occupation. The study included 5.2 million adults (mean age 48 y) and 2,989 skin cancer deaths, with 1,900 indicating malignant melanoma (MM) as the primary cause of death. Adjusted hazard ratios (HR) for MM at age 60 were 1.16 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.29) per 100 Bq/m 3 radon and 1.11 (1.01, 1.23) per W/m 2 in UV dose. Radon effects decreased with age. Risk of MM death associated with residential UV exposure was higher for individuals engaged in outdoor work with UV exposure (HR 1.94 [1.17, 3.23]), though not statistically significantly different compared to not working outdoors (HR 1.09 [0.99, 1.21], p =0.09). There is considerable variation in radon and UV exposure across Switzerland. Our study suggests both are relevant risk factors for skin cancer mortality. A better understanding of the role of the UV radiation and radon exposure is of high public health relevance. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP825.

  7. Effects of eight vehicles on transdermal lidocaine penetration in sheep skin in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayldon, W; Narishetty, S; De Rose, G; Rothwell, J; Mills, P C

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated the effects of vehicles on penetration and retention of lidocaine applied to sheep skin in vitro. Thoracic skin from two sheep was clipped of wool and stored at -20 °C, until used. Skin samples were defrosted and mounted in Franz-type diffusion cells, and then one of the following formulations, each saturated with lidocaine, was added: sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) 0.5% in water, SLS 1% in water, dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) 50% in water (wt/wt), DMSO 100%, isopropyl myristate 100% (IPM), water alone, diethylene glycol monoethyl ether (DGME) 50% in water (wt/wt) and DGME 100%. The penetration of lidocaine in each skin sample was measured over 8 h. Significantly greater lidocaine skin concentrations and flux (J(SS)) were achieved with the nonaqueous vehicles, DMSO 100% (P < 0.00001 and P < 0.01, respectively), followed by DGME 100% and IPM (P < 0.00001 and P < 0.01, respectively). The lag time (t(lag)) for lidocaine penetration in the DMSO 100% vehicle was significantly shorter (P < 0.01) compared with all other vehicles except water. Improved transdermal penetration of lidocaine in the DMSO 100% vehicle was likely due to skin barrier disruption, as determined by differences in pre- and post-treatment transepidermal water loss (TEWL). This study has shown that nonaqueous vehicles enhanced penetration of lidocaine in sheep skin to a greater extent than aqueous vehicles, which has implications for topically applied local anaesthesia in sheep. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Effects of pore size, implantation time, and nano-surface properties on rat skin ingrowth into percutaneous porous titanium implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Brad J; Prilutsky, Boris I; Ritter, Jana M; Kelley, Sean; Popat, Ketul; Pitkin, Mark

    2014-05-01

    The main problem of percutaneous osseointegrated implants is poor skin-implant integration, which may cause infection. This study investigated the effects of pore size (Small, 40-100 μm and Large, 100-160 μm), nanotubular surface treatment (Nano), and duration of implantation (3 and 6 weeks) on skin ingrowth into porous titanium. Each implant type was percutaneously inserted in the back of 35 rats randomly assigned to seven groups. Implant extrusion rate was measured weekly and skin ingrowth into implants was determined histologically after harvesting implants. It was found that all three types of implants demonstrated skin tissue ingrowth of over 30% (at week 3) and 50% (at weeks 4-6) of total implant porous area under the skin; longer implantation resulted in greater skin ingrowth (p skin integration with the potential for a safe seal. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Effects of Locally Applied Glycerol and Xylitol on the Hydration, Barrier Function and Morphological Parameters of the Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korponyai, Csilla; Szél, Edit; Behány, Zoltán; Varga, Erika; Mohos, Gábor; Dura, Ágnes; Dikstein, Shabtay; Kemény, Lajos; Erős, Gábor

    2017-02-08

    Glycerol and xylitol hydrate the skin and improve its barrier function over a short period. We studied the effects of glycerol and xylitol on the physiological properties and morphology of the skin after longer-term application. Twelve volunteers with dry skin were examined. Three areas on the arms were determined. Area 1 served as untreated control. The vehicle was applied to area 2, while area 3 was treated twice daily with a formulation containing glycerol (5%) and xylitol (5%) for 14 days. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL), hydration and biomechanical properties of the skin were monitored. Biopsies were taken for routine histology and immunohistochemistry for filaggrin and matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1). The polyols increased the skin hydration and protein quantity of filaggrin, elevated the interdigitation index, decreased the TEWL and improved the biomechanical properties of the skin, but did not change the protein expression of MMP-1. A combination of glycerol and xylitol can be useful additional therapy for dry skin.

  10. Study of the Energy Dependence of the Anomalous Mean Free Path Effect by Means of High-energy ($\\geq$12 GeV/nucleon) Helium Nuclei

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The proposal concerns an extension to higher energies of previous experiments which have provided evidence for anomalously short reaction mean free paths among projectile fragments from heavy ion interactions.\\\\ \\\\ It is intended to provide information on the interaction properties of projectile fragments, mainly 3He, P, D, T as well as of scattered 4He nuclei in passive detectors exposed to beams of energies exceeding those available in previous experim factor of about 7. \\\\ \\\\ Interaction mean free paths and event topologies will be measured in a nuclear emulsion stack (LBL) of 7.5~cm~x~5~cm~x~25~cm dimensions. Decay effects will be recorded by comparing the activity of spallation residues in dense and diluted copper target assemblies (Marburg). Target fragmentation will be studied in a stack of silverchloride crystal foils (Frankfurt) of about 7~cm~x~6~cm~x~1~cm dimensions. The \\alpha beam ejected at EJ~62 will be used to provide both exposures at high intensity of 10|1|2 alphas on th and at low intensity ...

  11. Effect of pore structure on anomalous behaviour of the lithium intercalation into porous V2O5 film electrode using fractal geometry concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Kyu-Nam; Pyun, Su-Il

    2006-01-01

    The effect of pore structure on anomalous behaviour of the lithium intercalation into porous V 2 O 5 film electrode has been investigated in terms of fractal geometry by employing ac-impedance spectroscopy combined with N 2 gas adsorption method and atomic force microscopy (AFM). For this purpose, porous V 2 O 5 film electrodes with different pore structures were prepared by the polymer surfactant templating method. From the analysis of N 2 gas adsorption isotherms and the triangulation analysis of AFM images, it was found that porous V 2 O 5 surfaces exhibited self-similar scaling properties with different fractal dimensions depending upon amount of the polymer surfactant in solution and the spatial cut-off ranges. All the ac-impedance spectra measured on porous V 2 O 5 film electrodes showed the non-ideal behaviour of the charge-transfer reaction and the diffusion reaction, which resulted from the interfacial capacitance dispersion and the frequency dispersion of the diffusion impedance, respectively. From the comparison between the surface fractal dimensions by using N 2 gas adsorption method and AFM, and the analysis of ac-impedance spectra by employing a constant phase element (CPE), it is experimentally confirmed that the lithium intercalation into porous V 2 O 5 film electrode is crucially influenced by the pore surface irregularity and the film surface irregularity

  12. Meloxicam transdermal delivery: effect of eutectic point on the rate and extent of skin permeation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi-Samani, Soliman; Yousefi, Gholamhossein; Mohammadi, Farhad; Ahmadi, Fatemeh

    2014-02-01

    Drug delivery through the skin can transfer therapeutic levels of drugs for pharmacological effects. Analgesics such as NSAIDs have gastrointestinal side effects and topical dosage forms of these drugs are mainly preferred, especially for local pains. Meloxicam is one of NSAIDs with no topical form in the market. In this research, we attempted to quantify the skin permeation of a meloxicam topical preparation and to show how permeation would be increased by using thymol as an enhancer. The effect of eutectic point of drug and thymol mixture on rate and extent of skin permeation was also studied. Different mixtures of thymol and meloxicam (2:8, 4:6, 5:5, 6:4, 8:2) were prepared and their melting point were obtained by differential scanning calorimetry. Then drug permeation was measured using diffusion cells and the Guinea pig skin. Mixtures in ratios 5:5 and 4:6 of meloxicam / thymol showed a new endotherm at 149 and 140°C in DSC thermograms. The permeability of meloxicam from the creams containing 6:4, 5:5 and 4:6 ratios of meloxicam to thymol were 4.71, 15.2, 22.06 µg/cm(2) respectively. This was significantly different from the cream of pure meloxicam (3.76 µg/cm(2)). This study set out to determine that thymol plays as a skin permeation enhancer and increases the meloxicam skin absorption and this enhancement is significant at the eutectic point of drug-enhancer mixture.

  13. Effects of turning on skin-bed interface pressures in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Matthew J; Schwab, Wilhelm; van Oostrom, Johannes H; Gravenstein, Nikolaus; Caruso, Lawrence J

    2010-07-01

    This paper is a report of a study of the effects of lateral turning on skin-bed interface pressures in the sacral, trochanteric and buttock regions, and its effectiveness in unloading at-risk tissue. Minimizing skin-support surface interface pressure is important in pressure ulcer prevention, but the effect of standard patient repositioning on skin interface pressure has not been objectively established. Data were collected from 15 healthy adults from a university-affiliated hospital. Mapped 24-inch x 24-inch (2304 half-inch sensors) interface pressure profiles were obtained in the supine position, followed by lateral turning with pillow or wedge support and subsequent head-of-bed elevation to 30 degrees . Raising the head-of-bed to 30 degrees in the lateral position statistically significantly increased peak interface pressures and total area > or = 32 mmHg. Comparing areas > or = 32 mmHg from all positions, 93% of participants had skin areas with interface pressures > or = 32 mmHg throughout all positions (60 +/- 54 cm(2)), termed 'triple jeopardy areas'. The triple jeopardy area increased statistically significantly with wedges as compared to pillows (153 +/- 99 cm(2) vs. 48 +/- 47 cm(2), P turning by experienced intensive care unit nurses does not reliably unload all areas of high skin-bed interface pressures. These areas remain at risk for skin breakdown, and help to explain why pressure ulcers occur despite the implementation of standard preventive measures. Support materials for maintaining lateral turned positions can also influence tissue unloading and triple jeopardy areas.

  14. Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticle Penetration into the Skin and Effects on HaCaT Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Crosera

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2NPs suspensions (concentration 1.0 g/L in synthetic sweat solution were applied on Franz cells for 24 h using intact and needle-abraded human skin. Titanium content into skin and receiving phases was determined. Cytotoxicity (MTT, AlamarBlue® and propidium iodide, PI, uptake assays was evaluated on HaCat keratinocytes after 24 h, 48 h, and seven days of exposure. After 24 h of exposure, no titanium was detectable in receiving solutions for both intact and damaged skin. Titanium was found in the epidermal layer after 24 h of exposure (0.47 ± 0.33 μg/cm2 while in the dermal layer, the concentration was below the limit of detection. Damaged skin, in its whole, has shown a similar concentration (0.53 ± 0.26 μg/cm2. Cytotoxicity studies on HaCaT cells demonstrated that TiO2NPs induced cytotoxic effects only at very high concentrations, reducing cell viability after seven days of exposure with EC50s of 8.8 × 10−4 M (MTT assay, 3.8 × 10−5 M (AlamarBlue® assay, and 7.6 × 10−4 M (PI uptake, index of a necrotic cell death. Our study demonstrated that TiO2NPs cannot permeate intact and damaged skin and can be found only in the stratum corneum and epidermis. Moreover, the low cytotoxic effect observed on human HaCaT keratinocytes suggests that these nano-compounds have a potential toxic effect at the skin level only after long-term exposure.

  15. Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticle Penetration into the Skin and Effects on HaCaT Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosera, Matteo; Prodi, Andrea; Mauro, Marcella; Pelin, Marco; Florio, Chiara; Bellomo, Francesca; Adami, Gianpiero; Apostoli, Pietro; De Palma, Giuseppe; Bovenzi, Massimo; Campanini, Marco; Filon, Francesca Larese

    2015-08-07

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2NPs) suspensions (concentration 1.0 g/L) in synthetic sweat solution were applied on Franz cells for 24 h using intact and needle-abraded human skin. Titanium content into skin and receiving phases was determined. Cytotoxicity (MTT, AlamarBlue(®) and propidium iodide, PI, uptake assays) was evaluated on HaCat keratinocytes after 24 h, 48 h, and seven days of exposure. After 24 h of exposure, no titanium was detectable in receiving solutions for both intact and damaged skin. Titanium was found in the epidermal layer after 24 h of exposure (0.47 ± 0.33 μg/cm(2)) while in the dermal layer, the concentration was below the limit of detection. Damaged skin, in its whole, has shown a similar concentration (0.53 ± 0.26 μg/cm(2)). Cytotoxicity studies on HaCaT cells demonstrated that TiO2NPs induced cytotoxic effects only at very high concentrations, reducing cell viability after seven days of exposure with EC50s of 8.8 × 10(-4) M (MTT assay), 3.8 × 10(-5) M (AlamarBlue(®) assay), and 7.6 × 10(-4) M (PI uptake, index of a necrotic cell death). Our study demonstrated that TiO2NPs cannot permeate intact and damaged skin and can be found only in the stratum corneum and epidermis. Moreover, the low cytotoxic effect observed on human HaCaT keratinocytes suggests that these nano-compounds have a potential toxic effect at the skin level only after long-term exposure.

  16. Protective effect of sanguinarine on ultraviolet B-mediated damages in SKH-1 hairless mouse skin: implications for prevention of skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahsan, Haseeb; Reagan-Shaw, Shannon; Eggert, David M; Tan, Thomas C; Afaq, Farrukh; Mukhtar, Hasan; Ahmad, Nihal

    2007-01-01

    Excessive exposure of solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation, particularly its UVB component (280-320 nm), to human skin is the major cause of skin cancers. UV exposure also leads to the development of precancerous conditions such as actinic keratosis and elicits a variety of other adverse effects such as sunburn, inflammation, hyperplasia, immunosuppression and skin aging. Therefore, there is a need to intensify our efforts towards the development of novel mechanism-based approaches/agents for the protection of UVB-mediated damages. Chemoprevention is being investigated as a potential approach for the management of UV damages including skin cancer. We have earlier shown that sanguinarine, a benzophenanthridine alkaloid, inhibits UVB exposure-mediated damages in HaCaT keratinocytes. In this study, to determine the relevance of our in vitro findings to in vivo situations, we assessed the effects of sanguinarine on UVB-mediated damages in SKH-1 hairless mice. Our data demonstrated that a topical application of sanguinarine (5 micromol 0.3 mL(-1) ethanol per mouse), either as a pretreatment (30 min prior to UVB) or posttreatment (5 min after UVB), resulted in a significant decrease in UVB-mediated increases in skin edema, skin hyperplasia and infiltration of leukocytes. Further, sanguinarine treatments (pre and post) also resulted in a significant decrease in UVB mediated (1) generation of H2O2 and (2) increases in the protein levels of markers of tumor promotion/proliferation viz. ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and Kiel antigen-67. Based on this data, we suggest that sanguinarine could be developed as an agent for the management of conditions elicited by UV exposure including skin cancer. However, further detailed studies are needed to support this suggestion.

  17. The deceptive nature of UVA-tanning versus the modest protective effects of UVB-tanning on human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamura, Yoshinori; Coelho, Sergio G.; Schlenz, Kathrin; Batzer, Jan; Smuda, Christoph; Choi, Wonseon; Brenner, Michaela; Passeron, Thierry; Zhang, Guofeng; Kolbe, Ludger; Wolber, Rainer; Hearing, Vincent J.

    2010-01-01

    Summary The relationship between human skin pigmentation and protection from ultraviolet (UV) radiation is an important element underlying differences in skin carcinogenesis rates. The association between UV damage and the risk of skin cancer is clear, yet a strategic balance in exposure to UV needs to be met. Dark skin is protected from UV-induced DNA damage significantly more than light skin due to the constitutively higher pigmentation but an as yet unresolved and important question is what photoprotective benefit, if any, is afforded by facultative pigmentation (i.e. a tan induced by UV exposure). To address that and to compare the effects of various wavelengths of UV, we repetitively exposed human skin to suberythemal doses of UVA and/or UVB over 2 weeks after which a challenge dose of UVA&UVB was given. Although visual skin pigmentation (tanning) elicited by the different UV exposure protocols was similar, the melanin content and UV-protective effects against DNA damage in UVB-tanned skin (but not in UVA-tanned skin) were significantly higher. UVA-induced tans seem to result from the photooxidation of existing melanin and its precursors with some redistribution of pigment granules while UVB stimulates melanocytes to up-regulate melanin synthesis and increases pigmentation coverage, effects that are synergistically stimulated in UVA and UVB-exposed skin. Thus, UVA-tanning contributes essentially no photoprotection, although all types of UV-induced tanning result in DNA and cellular damage which can eventually lead to photocarcinogenesis. PMID:20979596

  18. Phototoxic and modulatory effects of natural products from the skin of Rhinella jimi (Stevaux, 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel V. Brito

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The skin of amphibians possesses a large diversity of biologically active compounds that are associated with the natural defenses of these animals against pathogens. Five different extracts and fractions were obtained from the skin of Rhinella jimi: methanol extract (ME, methanol fractions (MF, chloroform extract of methanol extract (CF, aqueous alkaloid fraction (AAF and aqueous non-alkaloid fraction (ANAF. All fractions were evaluated with respect to their antibiotic modifying activity in standard bacterial strains and multiresistant clinical isolates. Antagonism was detected with kanamycin and gentamicin when combined with substances obtained from the skin of R. jimi. Phototoxic activity was observed in the methanol and chlorophorm fractions, as well as the aqueous non-alkaloid fraction. The antagonistic action was apparently associated with the protection afforded by the bacterial populations that inhabit the skin of this amphibian, preventing colonization by pathogenic fungi. The phototoxic activity demonstrated by natural products from the skin of R. jimi showed an interruption of the bacterial growth after UV exposure. This could indicate an antibacterial effect activated by the UV light, opening a path for carrying the attack by pathogenic fungi, causing the disease related with the amphibian decline.

  19. Antioxidant activities and skin hydration effects of rice bran bioactive compounds entrapped in niosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manosroi, Aranya; Chutoprapat, Romchat; Sato, Yuji; Miyamoto, Kukizo; Hsueh, Kesyin; Abe, Masahiko; Manosroi, Worapaka; Manosroi, Jiradej

    2011-03-01

    Bioactive compounds [ferulic acid (F), gamma-oryzanol (O) and phytic acid (P)] in rice bran have been widely used as antioxidants in skin care products. However, one of the major problems of antioxidants is the deterioration of their activities during long exposure to air and light. Niosomes have been used to entrap many degradable active agents not only for stability improvement, but also for increasing skin hydration. The objective of this study was to determine antioxidant activities [by in vitro ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity) and ex vivo lipid peroxidation inhibition assay] and in vivo human skin hydration effects of gel and cream containing the rice bran extracts entrapped in niosomes. Gel and cream containing the rice bran extracts entrapped in niosomes showed higher antioxidant activity (ORAC value) at 20-28 micromol of Trolox equivalents (TE) per gram of the sample than the placebo gel and cream which gave 16-18 micromolTE/g. Human sebum treated with these formulations showed more lipid peroxidation inhibition activity than with no treatment of about 1.5 times. The three different independent techniques including corneometer, vapometer and confocal Raman microspectroscopy (CRM) indicated the same trend in human skin hydration enhancement of the gel or cream formulations containing the rice bran extracts entrapped in niosomes of about 20, 3 and 30%, respectively. This study has demonstrated the antioxidant activities and skin hydration enhancement of the rice bran bioactive compounds when entrapped in niosomes and incorporated in cream formulations.

  20. Effects of niacin restriction on sirtuin and PARP responses to photodamage in human skin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia A Benavente

    Full Text Available Sirtuins (SIRTs and poly(ADP-ribose polymerases (PARPs, NAD(+-dependent enzymes, link cellular energy status with responses to environmental stresses. Skin is frequently exposed to the DNA damaging effects of UV irradiation, a known etiology in skin cancer. Thus, understanding the defense mechanisms in response to UV, including the role of SIRTs and PARPs, may be important in developing skin cancer prevention strategies. Here, we report expression of the seven SIRT family members in human skin. SIRTs gene expressions are progressively upregulated in A431 epidermoid carcinoma cells (SIRTs1 and 3, actinic keratoses (SIRTs 2, 3, 5, 6, and 7 and squamous cell carcinoma (SIRTs 1-7. Photodamage induces dynamic changes in SIRT expression with upregulation of both SIRT1 and SIRT4 mRNAs. Specific losses of SIRT proteins occur early after photodamage followed by accumulation later, especially for SIRT4. Niacin restriction, which decreases NAD(+, the sirtuin substrate, results in an increase in acetylated proteins, upregulation of SIRTs 2 and 4, increased inherent DNA damage, alterations in SIRT responses to photodamage, abrogation of PARP activation following photodamage, and increased sensitivity to photodamage that is completely reversed by repleting niacin. These data support the hypothesis that SIRTs and PARPs play important roles in resistance to photodamage and identify specific SIRTs that respond to photodamage and may be targets for skin cancer prevention.

  1. A new method for producing "Lotus Effect" on a biomimetic shark skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yunhong; Li, Guangji

    2012-12-15

    Nature has long been an important source of inspiration for mankind to develop artificial ways to mimic the remarkable properties of biological systems. In this work, a new method was explored to fabricate a superhydrophobic dual-biomimetic surface comprising both the shark-skin surface morphology and the lotus leaf-like hierarchical micro/nano-structures. The biomimetic surface possessing shark-skin pattern microstructure was first fabricated by microreplication of shark-skin surface based on PDMS; and then it was treated by flame to form hierarchical micro/nano-structures that can produce lotus effect. The fabricated biomimetic surfaces were characterized with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), water contact angle measurements and liquid drop impact experiments. The results show that the fabricated dual-biomimetic surface possesses both the vivid shark-skin surface morphology and the lotus leaf-like hierarchical micro/nano-structures. It can exhibit excellent superhydrophobicity that the contact angle is as high as 160° and maintain its robustness of the superhydrophobicity during the droplet impact process at a relatively high Weber number. The mechanism of the micromorphology evolution and microstructural changes on the biomimetic shark-skin surface was also discussed here in the process of flame treatment. This method is expected to be developed into a novel and feasible biomimetic surface manufacturing technique. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The effect of environmental humidity and temperature on skin barrier function and dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engebretsen, K A; Johansen, J D; Kezic, S

    2016-01-01

    existing dermatoses. We searched the literature for studies that evaluated the mechanisms behind this phenomenon. Commonly used meteorological terms such as absolute humidity, relative humidity and dew point are explained. Furthermore, we review the negative effect of low humidity, low temperatures...... and different seasons on the skin barrier and on the risk of dermatitis. We conclude that low humidity and low temperatures lead to a general decrease in skin barrier function and increased susceptible towards mechanical stress. Since pro-inflammatory cytokines and cortisol are released by keratinocytes...

  3. Exposure to Non-Extreme Solar UV Daylight: Spectral Characterization, Effects on Skin and Photoprotection

    OpenAIRE

    Marionnet, Claire; Tricaud, Caroline; Bernerd, Fran?oise

    2014-01-01

    The link between chronic sun exposure of human skin and harmful clinical consequences such as photo-aging and skin cancers is now indisputable. These effects are mostly due to ultraviolet (UV) rays (UVA, 320–400 nm and UVB, 280–320 nm). The UVA/UVB ratio can vary with latitude, season, hour, meteorology and ozone layer, leading to different exposure conditions. Zenithal sun exposure (for example on a beach around noon under a clear sky) can rapidly induce visible and well-characterized clinic...

  4. Effects of methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) on tumour and skin responses to hyperthermia in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyakoshi, J.; Oda, W.; Inagaki, C.; Hiraoka, M.; Takahashi, M.; Abe, M.

    1984-01-01

    Effects of methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) (MGBG) on tumour and skin responses to hyperthermia (42degC) were examined in C3H mice. MGBG (50 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally to mice 4 hours before hyperthermic treatment. The tumour (FM3A) growth time was elongated by an amount dependent on the exposure time of treatment at 42degC (60, 90 and 120 min). Pre-treatment of mice with MGBG (50 mg/kg, i.p.) apparently further lengthened the tumour growth time after treatment at 42degC. No significant damage of foot skin was caused by 42degC hyperthermia. Pre-treatment with MGBG did not make the foot skin susceptible to the heating. From these findings, it can be considered that MGBG or related less-toxic compounds may have a clinical advantage for the mild (42degC) hyperthermic treatment in cancer therapy. (author)

  5. Effects of methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) on tumour and skin responses to hyperthermia in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyakoshi, J.; Oda, W.; Inagaki, C. (Kyoto Coll. of Pharmacy (Japan)); Hiraoka, M.; Takahashi, M.; Abe, M. (Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1984-09-01

    Effects of methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) (MGBG) on tumour and skin responses to hyperthermia (42degC) were examined in C3H mice. MGBG (50 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally to mice 4 hours before hyperthermic treatment. The tumour (FM3A) growth time was elongated by an amount dependent on the exposure time of treatment at 42degC (60, 90 and 120 min). Pre-treatment of mice with MGBG (50 mg/kg, i.p.) apparently further lengthened the tumour growth time after treatment at 42degC. No significant damage of foot skin was caused by 42degC hyperthermia. Pre-treatment with MGBG did not make the foot skin susceptible to the heating. From these findings, it can be considered that MGBG or related less-toxic compounds may have a clinical advantage for the mild (42degC) hyperthermic treatment in cancer therapy.

  6. The effect of anaesthesia on the radiosensitivity of rat intestine, foot skin and R-1 tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kal, H.B.; Gaiser, J.F.

    1980-01-01

    A comparison has been made of the effects of Nembutal (sodium pentobarbital) and Ethrane (2-chloro-1,1,2-trifluoroethyldifluoromethyl ether) anaesthesia on the radiation responses of rat intestine, foot skin and R-1 rhabdomyosarcoma. Single-dose experiments under Nembutal or short-lasting Ethrane anaesthesia resulted in equivalent radiosensitivities for the R-1 sarcoma and foot skin, whereas Ethrane induced radiosensitization in the intestine. In the Ethrane anaesthesia lasting 3 hours, and in the split-dose experiments, Ethrane inhibited repair of radiation-induced damage in the R-1 sarcoma and in the foot skin. It is therefore recommended that the use of Ethrane as an anaesthetic should be avoided in experiments designed to investigate repair of damage in fractionated studies or during protracted irradiation treatments. (UK)

  7. [Evaluation of skin-moisturizing effects of oral or percutaneous use of plant ceramides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Satomi; Miyachi, Hayato

    2007-03-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the assay performance of two methods for measuring the water-holding capacity of the skin: Skicon-200 and Tewameter which determine the water content in the stratum corneum and transepidermal water loss, respectively. Based on these findings, we studied the effects of newly developed skin moisturizers made of plant ceramides. The within-run as well as day-to-day reproducibility of the methods were both satisfactory. When rice-derived NIPPN ceramide RC was used topically for 3 weeks by 23 healthy volunteers, the water content in the stratum corneum of the leg was significantly increased to 141% of the baseline value in comparison with that after placebo use (111%) (p Tewameter suggest that the two plant ceramides are promising as skin-moisturizing agents not only for topical use but also for oral use.

  8. Time-dependent effect of rutin on skin fibroblasts membrane disruption following UV radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Gęgotek

    2017-08-01

    In conclusion, highest skin fibroblasts membrane level of rutin occurred in 2–4 h following UVA/B-radiation results in its strongest effect on biomembrane structure and functions and cellular antioxidant system irrespective of the radiation type.

  9. Neutron skin effect of some Mo isotopes in pre-equilibrium reactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The neutron skin effect has been investigated for even isotopes of molybdenum at 25.6. MeV 94−100Mo(p,xn) ... exciton numbers from different radii of even Mo isotopes were used to obtain the corresponding neutron ..... nical applications such as the isotope production alternatives (for producing medical ra- dioisotopes ...

  10. Neutron skin effect of some Mo isotopes in pre-equilibrium reactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The neutron skin effect has been investigated for even isotopes of molybdenum at 25.6 MeV 94−100Mo(, ) reaction using the geometry-dependent hybrid model of pre-equilibrium nuclear reactions. Here the initial neutron/proton exciton numbers were calculated from the neutron/proton densities obtained from an ...

  11. Effect of mixed-sulfonated aluminium phthalocyanine on human skin fibroblasts for photodynamic therapy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ndhundhuma, IM

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available of the study was to evaluate the effect of mixed-sulfonated aluminium phthalocyanine (AlPcSmix) used as photosensitizers for PDT, determined by changes in cell morphology and cell viability of human skin fibroblasts (WS1). Methods. Cells incubated with 5, 10...

  12. Amino acid availability regulates the effect of hyperinsulinemia on skin protein metabolism in pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of amino acid supply and insulin infusion on skin protein kinetics (fractional synthesis rate (FSR), fractional breakdown rate (FBR), and net balance (NB)) in pigs were investigated. Four-month-old pigs were divided into four groups as follows: control, insulin (INS), amino acid (AA), an...

  13. Anti-microbial effect of Nigella sativa seed extract against staphylococcal skin Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafati, Shiva; Niakan, Mohammad; Naseri, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    The development of microbial resistance to the existing anti-microbial agents has become a real challenge and a serious problem facing patients suffering from skin infections. Seeds of Nigella sativa have been used for a long time in folk medicine for the treatment of skin infections. Production of new potent agents is urgently needed, especially for hospitals and health care centers. This study is designed to explore anti-microbial effect of extract from the Nigella sativa seeds against skin pustules infection. The in vivo anti-microbial effect of the Nigella sativa seeds extract at a concentration of 33% on pustules staphylococcal Skin Infections was assessed and compared with standard drug mupirocin on 40 neonates .All neonates were divided and examined into two experimental and control groups randomly. Recovery times were compared between two groups. The mean of recovery time in experimental group was 75/1 with SD= ± 12, and the mean of recovery time in control group was 69/4 with SD = ± 8/7.There was no significant difference in recovery time between two groups (p value = 0/131). In clinical practice, the agent of Nigella Sativa recovered as pustular from tissues of all patients. While the extract was as nearly effective as the standard drug, mupirocin, no side effect was observed.

  14. Temperature effect on the static behaviour of adhesively-bonded metal skin to composite stiffener

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teixeira De Freitas, S.; Sinke, J.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to study the effect of temperature on the static behavior of an hybrid structure consisting of adhesively bonded Fiber Metal Laminate skin to a composite stiffener. This hybrid structure was tested using stiffener pull-off tests, which is a typical set-up used to

  15. Pulse testing in the presence of wellbore storage and skin effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogbe, D.O.; Brigham, W.E.

    1984-08-01

    A pulse test is conducted by creating a series of short-time pressure transients in an active (pulsing) well and recording the observed pressure response at an observation (responding) well. Using the pressure response and flow rate data, the transmissivity and storativity of the tested formation can be determined. Like any other pressure transient data, the pulse-test response is significantly influenced by wellbore storage and skin effects. The purpose of this research is to examine the influence of wellbore storage and skin effects on interference testing in general and on pulse-testing in particular, and to present the type curves and procedures for designing and analyzing pulse-test data when wellbore storage and skin effects are active at either the responding well or the pulsing well. A mathematical model for interference testing was developed by solving the diffusivity equation for radial flow of a single-phase, slightly compressible fluid in an infinitely large, homogeneous reservoir. When wellbore storage and skin effects are present in a pulse test, the observed response amplitude is attenuated and the time lag is inflated. Consequently, neglecting wellbore storage and skin effects in a pulse test causes the calculated storativity to be over-estimated and the transmissivity to be under-estimated. The error can be as high as 30%. New correlations and procedures are developed for correcting the pulse response amplitude and time lag for wellbore storage effects. Using these correlations, it is possible to correct the wellbore storage-dominated response amplitude and time lag to within 3% of their expected values without wellbore storage, and in turn to calculate the corresponding transmissivity and storativity. Worked examples are presented to illustrate how to use the new correction techniques. 45 references.

  16. Chemical and engineering approaches to enable organic field-effect transistors for electronic skin applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, Anatoliy N; Tee, Benjamin C-K; Bettinger, Christopher J; Tok, Jeffrey B-H; Bao, Zhenan

    2012-03-20

    Skin is the body's largest organ and is responsible for the transduction of a vast amount of information. This conformable material simultaneously collects signals from external stimuli that translate into information such as pressure, pain, and temperature. The development of an electronic material, inspired by the complexity of this organ is a tremendous, unrealized engineering challenge. However, the advent of carbon-based electronics may offer a potential solution to this long-standing problem. In this Account, we describe the use of an organic field-effect transistor (OFET) architecture to transduce mechanical and chemical stimuli into electrical signals. In developing this mimic of human skin, we thought of the sensory elements of the OFET as analogous to the various layers and constituents of skin. In this fashion, each layer of the OFET can be optimized to carry out a specific recognition function. The separation of multimodal sensing among the components of the OFET may be considered a "divide and conquer" approach, where the electronic skin (e-skin) can take advantage of the optimized chemistry and materials properties of each layer. This design of a novel microstructured gate dielectric has led to unprecedented sensitivity for tactile pressure events. Typically, pressure-sensitive components within electronic configurations have suffered from a lack of sensitivity or long mechanical relaxation times often associated with elastomeric materials. Within our method, these components are directly compatible with OFETs and have achieved the highest reported sensitivity to date. Moreover, the tactile sensors operate on a time scale comparable with human skin, making them ideal candidates for integration as synthetic skin devices. The methodology is compatible with large-scale fabrication and employs simple, commercially available elastomers. The design of materials within the semiconductor layer has led to the incorporation of selectivity and sensitivity within

  17. Structural and immunological effects of skin cryoablation in a mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Kasuya

    Full Text Available Cryoablation is therapeutically applied for various disorders in several organs, and skin diseases are typical targets as this cryotherapy has been widely used for viral warts, benign tumors, and actinic keratosis. The main mechanisms of cryoablation consist of direct freezing effect on skin constituents, thrombosis formation in microcirculation, and subsequent immunological responses. Among them, however, the immunological mechanism remains unelucidated, and it is an issue how the direct freezing injury induces immunological consequences. We established a mouse cryoablation model with liquid nitrogen applied to the shaved back skin, and used this system to study the immunological excitement. After application of liquid nitrogen, the thermal decrease ratio was -25°C/sec or less and the lowest temperature was less than -100°C, which was sufficient to induce ulceration. Destruction of cornified layer and necrosis of epidermal cells were observed in transmission electron microscopy image, and increased transepidermal water loss and skin permeability were detected by the functional measurements. By flow cytometry, antigen-presenting dendritic cells (DCs, including PDCA1+B220+CD19- plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs and CD11c+ myeloid DCs, as well as neutrophils and macrophages were increased in subcutaneous tissue. In parallel, the mRNA expressions of interferon α1 which are known as pDC-producing cytokines, was elevated. We also found marked degranulation of mast cells, providing a possibility that released histamine attracts pDCs. Finally, FITC migration assay revealed that pDCs and CD11c+ DCs emigrated from the cryoablated skin to the draining lymph nodes. Our study suggests that cryoablation induces destruction of the barrier/epidermis, accumulation of pDCs and CD11c+ DCs to the skin, and migration of DCs to regional lymph nodes. Viral elements or tumor cell lysates released from damaged keratinocytes may stimulate the DCs, thereby leading to antiviral

  18. Anomalous magnetoresistance in amorphous metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuz'menko, V.M.; Vladychkin, A.N.; Mel'nikov, V.I.; Sudovtsev, A.I.

    1984-01-01

    The magnetoresistance of amorphous Bi, Ca, V and Yb films is investigated in fields up to 4 T at low temperatures. For all metals the magnetoresistance is positive, sharply decreases with growth of temperature and depends anomalously on the magnetic field strength. For amorphous superconductors the results agree satisfactorily with the theory of anomalous magnetoresistance in which allowance is made for scattering of electrons by the superconducting fluctuations

  19. Skin penetration and antioxidant effect of cosmeto-textiles with gallic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, C; Martí, M; Barba, C; Lis, M; Rubio, L; Coderch, L

    2016-03-01

    In this work, the antioxidant gallic acid (GA) has been encapsulated in microspheres prepared with poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) and incorporated into polyamide (PA) obtaining the cosmeto-textile. The topical application of the cosmeto-textile provides a reservoir effect in the skin delivery of GA. The close contact of the cosmeto-textile, containing microsphere-encapsulated GA (ME-GA), with the skin and their corresponding occlusion, may be the main reasons that explain the crossing of active principle (GA) through the skin barrier, located in the stratum corneum, and its penetration into the different compartments of the skin, epidermis and dermis. An ex vivo assessment was performed to evaluate the antioxidant effect of the ME-GA on the stratum corneum (SC) using the thiobarbituric acid-reactive species (TBARS) test. The test is based on a non-invasive ex vivo methodology that evaluates lipid peroxides formed in the outermost layers of the SC from human volunteers after UV radiation to determine the effectiveness of an antioxidant. In this case, a ME-GA cosmeto-textile or ME-GA formulation were applied to the skin in vivo and lipid peroxidation (LPO) in the horny layer were determined after UV irradiation. This methodology may be used as a quality control tool to determine ex vivo the percentage of LPO inhibition on human SC for a variety of antioxidants that are topically applied, in this case GA. Results show that LPO formation was inhibited in human SC when GA was applied directly or embedded in the cosmeto-textile, demonstrating the effectiveness of both applications. The percentage of LPO inhibition obtained after both topical applications was approximately 10% for the cosmeto-textile and 41% for the direct application of microspheres containing GA. This methodology could be used to determine the effectiveness of topically applied antioxidants encapsulated in cosmeto-textiles on human SC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Studies on the protection effects of functional foods for skin immune system from radiation damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yee, Sung Tae; Shin, Seong Hae; Kim, Do Sun; Heo, Ji Yun; Kang, Hye In [Sunchon National University, Sunchon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-15

    We evaluated the protective effects of pilot products (HemoHIM and HemoTonic) on the UV-induced skin immune damages as the following. centre dot Protective effects of HemoHIM and HemoTonic against UV using contact hypersensitivity model - Protection against depression of contact hypersensitivity by administration and skin application of HemoHIM and HemoTonic - Induction of dendritic cell differentiation and maturation by HemoHIM and HemoTonic treatment - Improvement of antigen-presenting activity of dedritic cells by HemoHIM and HemoTonic treatment centre dot Protective effects of HemoHIM and HemoTonic on skin immune system against UV-irradiation - Protection of antigen-presenting activity of dendritic cells under UV-irradiation - In vivo protection of antigen-presenting activity of Langerhans cells in UV-irradiated mice centre dot Protective effects of HemoHIM on UV-induced apoptosis of dendritic cells - Inhibition of cell membrane change, mitochondrial potential change, SubG1 cell population, nuclear condensation, and DNA fragmentation in UV-irradiated dendritic cells centre dot Anti-allergic effects of HemoHIM and HemoTonic in human adipocyte HMC-1 cells - Inhibition of allergic histamine release from adipocytes - Inhibition of secretion of inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, TNF-alpha, GM-CSF) - Inhibition of c-kit, tryptase, FcepsilonRI mRNA expression From these results, the developed functional food products (HemoHIM, HemoTonic) showed the protection and recovery of the immune functions in the UV-irradiated skin. It is suggested that these products may be used as a new functional food or cosmetic material for the protection of skin damage and the promotion of recovery

  1. Studies on the protection effects of functional foods for skin immune system from radiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yee, Sung Tae; Shin, Seong Hae; Kim, Do Sun; Heo, Ji Yun; Kang, Hye In

    2007-07-01

    We evaluated the protective effects of pilot products (HemoHIM and HemoTonic) on the UV-induced skin immune damages as the following. · Protective effects of HemoHIM and HemoTonic against UV using contact hypersensitivity model - Protection against depression of contact hypersensitivity by administration and skin application of HemoHIM and HemoTonic - Induction of dendritic cell differentiation and maturation by HemoHIM and HemoTonic treatment - Improvement of antigen-presenting activity of dedritic cells by HemoHIM and HemoTonic treatment · Protective effects of HemoHIM and HemoTonic on skin immune system against UV-irradiation - Protection of antigen-presenting activity of dendritic cells under UV-irradiation - In vivo protection of antigen-presenting activity of Langerhans cells in UV-irradiated mice · Protective effects of HemoHIM on UV-induced apoptosis of dendritic cells - Inhibition of cell membrane change, mitochondrial potential change, SubG1 cell population, nuclear condensation, and DNA fragmentation in UV-irradiated dendritic cells · Anti-allergic effects of HemoHIM and HemoTonic in human adipocyte HMC-1 cells - Inhibition of allergic histamine release from adipocytes - Inhibition of secretion of inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, GM-CSF) - Inhibition of c-kit, tryptase, FcεRI mRNA expression From these results, the developed functional food products (HemoHIM, HemoTonic) showed the protection and recovery of the immune functions in the UV-irradiated skin. It is suggested that these products may be used as a new functional food or cosmetic material for the protection of skin damage and the promotion of recovery

  2. Effects of Vehicles and Enhancers on the Skin Permeation of Phytoestrogenic Diarylheptanoids from Curcuma comosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuntiyasawasdikul, Sarunya; Limpongsa, Ekapol; Jaipakdee, Napaphak; Sripanidkulchai, Bungorn

    2017-04-01

    Curcuma comosa (C. comosa) is widely used in traditional medicine as a dietary supplement for health promotion in postmenopausal women in Thailand. It contains several diarylheptanoids, which are considered to be a novel class of phytoestrogens. However, the diarylheptanoids isolated from the plant rhizome are shown to have low oral bioavailability and faster elimination characteristics. The aim of this study was to investigate the permeation behavior of the active compounds of diarylheptanoids. The effects of binary vehicle systems and permeation enhancers on diarylheptanoids permeation and accumulation within the skin were studied using side-by-side diffusion cells through the porcine ear skin. Among the tested binary vehicle systems, the ethanol/water vehicle appeared to be the most effective system for diarylheptanoids permeation with the highest flux and shortest lag time. The presence of transcutol in the vehicle system significantly increased diarylheptanoid's permeation and accumulation within the skin in a concentration-dependent manner. Although the presence of terpenes in formulation decreased the flux of diarylheptanoids, it raised the amount of diarylheptanoids retained within the skin substantially. Based on the feasibility of diarylheptanoid permeation, C. comosa extract should be further developed into an effective transdermal product for health benefits and hormone replacement therapy.

  3. Effect of piracetam and nimodipine on full-thickness skin burns in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Elif; Dincel, Gungor C

    2016-08-01

    The potential of several drugs for full-thickness skin burns has been investigated, but the treatment of such burns remains a challenge in plastic surgery. The present study was designed to determine the effect of systemic and topical administration of piracetam and nimodipine on full-thickness skin burn wound healing. A total of 36 New Zealand male rabbits were divided into six groups. Full-thickness skin burns were produced in all the groups, except the control group. Piracetam was administered systemically (piracetam-IV) and topically (piracetam-C) for 14 days, and nimodipine was administered systemically (nimodipine-IV) and topically (nimodipine-C) over the burn wounds for 14 days. The sham group underwent burn injury but was not administered any drug. After 21 days, gross examination and histopathological analysis were performed and the results were compared statistically. Nimodipine-C and nimodipine-IV had no effect on burn wound healing. However, both piracetam-IV and piracetam-C significantly enhanced the healing of the full-thickness skin burn wounds, although the latter was more effective, useful and practical in burn wound healing. The histopathological features of the wounds in the piracetam-C group were closer to those of the control group than those of the other groups. Piracetam-C rather than piracetam-IV may promote full-thickness burn wound healing in rabbits. © 2015 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Effects of wall temperature on skin-friction measurements by oil-film interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottini, H; Kurita, M; Iijima, H; Fukagata, K

    2015-01-01

    Wind-tunnel skin-friction measurements with thin-oil-film interferometry have been taken on an aluminum sample to investigate the effects of wall temperature on the accuracy of the technique. The sample has been flush-mounted onto a flat plate with an electric heater at its bottom and mirror-smooth temperature-sensitive paint sprayed on its top. The heater has varied the sample temperature from ambient to 328 K, and the paint has permitted wall temperature measurements on the same area of the skin-friction measurements and during the same test. The measured wall temperatures have been used to calculate the correct oil viscosities, and these viscosities and the constant nominal viscosity at 298 K have been used to calculate two different sets of skin-friction coefficients. These sets have been compared to each other and with theoretical values. This comparison shows that the effects of wall temperature on the accuracy of skin-friction measurements are sensible, and more so as wall temperature differs from 298 K. Nonetheless, they are effectively neutralized by the use of wall temperature measurements in combination with the correct oil viscosity–temperature law. In this regard, the special temperature-sensitive paint developed for this study shows advantages with respect to more traditional wall temperature measurement techniques. (paper)

  5. Contrasting effects of ultraviolet-A and ultraviolet B exposure on induction of contact sensitivity in human skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Lone; Hansen, Henrik; Barker, J. N.

    1997-01-01

    Ultraviolet-B (UVB), in addition to direct effects on DNA, induces immunological changes in the skin that predispose to the development of skin cancer. Whether ultraviolet-A (UVA) induces similar changes is unknown. This effect can be investigated in humans in vivo using epicutaneous antigens...... as a model of tumour antigens. Volunteers (n = 46) were randomly assigned to received no sensitization, sensitization with the allergen diphenylcyclopropenone (DPCP) on non-UV-exposed normal skin, or sensitization with DPCP on skin exposed to three minimal erythema doses (MED) of either UVA or UVB radiation...... the immunization rate compared with sensitization on non-irradiated skin (P radiation did not result in a decreased immunization rate compared with non-irradiated skin. These results indicate that in humans erythemagenic...

  6. Measuring the effects of topically applied skin optical clearing agents and modeling the effects and consequences for laser therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkruysse, Wim; Khan, Misbah; Choi, Bernard; Svaasand, Lars O.; Nelson, J. Stuart

    2005-04-01

    Human skin prepared with an optical clearing agent manifests reduced scattering as a result of de-hydration and refractive index matching. This has potentially large effects for laser therapies of several skin lesions such as port wine stain, hair removal and tattoo removal. With most topically applied clearing agents the clearing effect is limited because they penetrate poorly through the intact superficial skin layer (stratum corneum). Agent application modi other than topical are impractical and have limited the success of optical clearing in laser dermatology. In recent reports, however, a mixture of lipofylic and hydrofylic agents was shown to successfully penetrate through the intact stratum corneum layer which has raised new interest in this field. Immediately after application, the optical clearing effect is superficial and, as the agent diffuses through the skin, reduced scattering is manifested in deeper skin layers. For practical purposes as well as to maximize therapeutic success, it is important to quantify the reduced scattering as well as the trans-cutaneous transport dynamics of the agent. We determined the time and tissue depth resolved effects of optically cleared skin by inserting a microscopic reflector array in the skin. Depth dependent light intensity was measured by quantifying the signal of the reflector array with optical coherence tomography. A 1-dimensional mass diffusion model was used to estimate a trans-cutaneous transport diffusion constant for the clearing agent mixture. The results are used in Monte Carlo modeling to determine the optimal time of laser treatment after topical application of the optical clearing agent.

  7. Hydrodynamic function of biomimetic shark skin: effect of denticle pattern and spacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Li; Weaver, James C; Thornycroft, Patrick J M; Lauder, George V

    2015-11-18

    The structure of shark skin has been the subject of numerous studies and recently biomimetic shark skin has been fabricated with rigid denticles (scales) on a flexible substrate. This artificial skin can bend and generate thrust when attached to a mechanical controller. The ability to control the manufacture of biomimetic shark skin facilitates manipulation of surface parameters and understanding the effects of changing denticle patterns on locomotion. In this paper we investigate the effect of changing the spacing and arrangement of denticles on the surface of biomimetic shark skin on both static and dynamic locomotor performance. We designed 3D-printed flexible membranes with different denticle patterns and spacings: (1) staggered-overlapped, (2) linear-overlapped, and (3) linear-non-overlapped, and compared these to a 3D-printed smooth-surfaced control. These 3D printed shark skin models were then tested in a flow tank with a mechanical flapping device that allowed us to either hold the models in a stationary position or move them dynamically. We swam the membranes at a frequency of 1 Hz with different heave amplitudes (from ±1 cm to ±3 cm) while measuring forces, torques, self-propelled swimming speed, and cost of transport (COT). Static tests revealed drag reduction of denticle patterns compared to a smooth control at low speeds, but increased drag at speeds above 25 cm s(-1). However, during dynamic (swimming) tests, the staggered-overlapped pattern produced the fastest swimming speeds with no significant increase in the COT at lower heave values. For instance, at a heave frequency of 1 Hz and amplitude of ±1 cm, swimming speed of the staggered-overlapped pattern increased by 25.2% over the smooth control. At higher heave amplitudes, significantly faster self-propelled swimming speeds were achieved by the staggered-overlapped pattern, but with higher COT. Only the staggered-overlapped pattern provides a significant swimming performance advantage over the

  8. Anomalous diffusion of fermions in superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drozdz, S.; Okolowicz, J.; Srokowski, T.; Ploszajczak, M.

    1996-03-01

    Diffusion of fermions in the periodic two-dimensional lattice of fermions is studied. It is shown that effects connected with antisymmetrization of the wave function increase chaoticness of motion. Various types of anomalous diffusion, characterized by a power spectral analysis are found. The nonlocality of the Pauli potential destroys cantori in the phase space. Consequently, the diffusion process is dominated by long free paths and the power spectrum is logarithmic at small frequency limit. (author)

  9. Bi- and polydentate organophosphorous compounds as extractants for actinides from liquid waste (use of effect of anomalous aryl stability increase)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozen, A.M.; Nikolotova, Z.I.; Kartasheva, N.A.

    1988-01-01

    Extraction of actinides (Am) and lanthanides (Eu) from nitric acid liquid wastes by bi-, tri- and polydentate organophosphoric extractants, characteristic of purex-process, and effect of more electronegative aryl groups substitution for alkyl groups in the latter have been studied. The observed increase in distribution factors are explained from the viewpoint of molecular and electronic structure extractants. 10 refs.; 6 figs

  10. Comparison of disposable diapers with fluff absorbent and fluff plus absorbent polymers: effects on skin hydration, skin pH, and diaper dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J A; Leyden, J J; Grove, G L; Raynor, W J

    1989-06-01

    Diaper dermatitis results from the action of a number of physical and chemical factors on the skin. While its etiology is complex, there is agreement that prolonged contact between wet diapers and the skin leading to excessive hydration of the stratum corneum and reduced barrier function is a primary factor. Recent research also indicates that pH elevation resulting from ammonia production increases the probability of skin damage due to fecal enzyme activity. New diapers containing absorbent polymers blended with cellulose fluff in the absorbent core have been developed. The absorbent polymer binds fluids and controls pH in the diaper environment. To assess the effectiveness of these diapers, a clinical study was conducted with approximately 150 infants over 15 weeks, using fluff diapers and absorbent polymer diapers. The results clearly showed that the diapers with absorbent polymer provide a better skin environment than those with fluff only with respect to lower skin wetness and pH control (instrumental measurements). In addition, the clinicians' grades indicated a directional reduction in diaper rash severity.

  11. Modeling the Substrate Skin Effects in Mutual RL Characteristics.,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. de Roest

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this work was to model the influence of the substrateskin effects on the distributed mutual impedance per unit lengthparameters of multiple coupled on-chip interconnects. The proposedanalytic model is based on the frequency-dependent distribution of thecurrent in the silicon substrate and the closed form integrationapproach. It is shown that the calculated frequency-dependentdistributed mutual inductance and the associated mutual resistance arein good agreement with the results obtained from CAD-oriented circuitmodeling technique.

  12. Anomalous Lorentz and CPT violation from a local Chern–Simons-like term in the effective gauge-field action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.J.B. Ghosh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider four-dimensional chiral gauge theories defined over a spacetime manifold with topology R3×S1 and periodic boundary conditions over the compact dimension. The effective gauge-field action is calculated for Abelian U(1 gauge fields Aμ(x which depend on all four spacetime coordinates (including the coordinate x4∈S1 of the compact dimension and have vanishing components A4(x (implying trivial holonomies in the 4-direction. Our calculation shows that the effective gauge-field action contains a local Chern–Simons-like term which violates Lorentz and CPT invariance. This result is established perturbatively with a generalized Pauli–Villars regularization and nonperturbatively with a lattice regularization based on Ginsparg–Wilson fermions.

  13. Anomalous Lorentz and CPT violation from a local Chern-Simons-like term in the effective gauge-field action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, K. J. B.; Klinkhamer, F. R.

    2018-01-01

    We consider four-dimensional chiral gauge theories defined over a spacetime manifold with topology R3 ×S1 and periodic boundary conditions over the compact dimension. The effective gauge-field action is calculated for Abelian U (1) gauge fields Aμ (x) which depend on all four spacetime coordinates (including the coordinate x4 ∈S1 of the compact dimension) and have vanishing components A4 (x) (implying trivial holonomies in the 4-direction). Our calculation shows that the effective gauge-field action contains a local Chern-Simons-like term which violates Lorentz and CPT invariance. This result is established perturbatively with a generalized Pauli-Villars regularization and nonperturbatively with a lattice regularization based on Ginsparg-Wilson fermions.

  14. Anomalous magneto-elastic and charge doping effects in thallium-doped BaFe2As2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefat, Athena S; Li, Li; Cao, Huibo B; McGuire, Michael A; Sales, Brian; Custelcean, Radu; Parker, David S

    2016-02-12

    Within the BaFe2As2 crystal lattice, we partially substitute thallium for barium and report the effects of interlayer coupling in Ba(1-x)Tl(x)Fe2As2 crystals. We demonstrate the unusual effects of magneto-elastic coupling and charge doping in this iron-arsenide material, whereby Néel temperature rises with small x, and then falls with additional x. Specifically, we find that Néel and structural transitions in BaFe2As2 (T(N) = T(s) = 133 K) increase for x = 0.05 (T(N) = 138 K, T(s) = 140 K) from magnetization, heat capacity, resistivity, and neutron diffraction measurements. Evidence from single crystal X-ray diffraction and first principles calculations attributes the stronger magnetism in x = 0.05 to magneto-elastic coupling related to the shorter intraplanar Fe-Fe bond distance. With further thallium substitution, the transition temperatures decrease for x = 0.09 (T(N) = T(s) = 131 K), and this is due to charge doping. We illustrate that small changes related to 3d transition-metal state can have profound effects on magnetism.

  15. Anomalous magneto-elastic and charge doping effects in thallium-doped BaFe2As2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefat, Athena S.; Li, Li; Cao, Huibo B.; McGuire, Michael A.; Sales, Brian; Custelcean, Radu; Parker, David S.

    2016-02-01

    Within the BaFe2As2 crystal lattice, we partially substitute thallium for barium and report the effects of interlayer coupling in Ba1-xTlxFe2As2 crystals. We demonstrate the unusual effects of magneto-elastic coupling and charge doping in this iron-arsenide material, whereby Néel temperature rises with small x, and then falls with additional x. Specifically, we find that Néel and structural transitions in BaFe2As2 (TN = Ts = 133 K) increase for x = 0.05 (TN = 138 K, Ts = 140 K) from magnetization, heat capacity, resistivity, and neutron diffraction measurements. Evidence from single crystal X-ray diffraction and first principles calculations attributes the stronger magnetism in x = 0.05 to magneto-elastic coupling related to the shorter intraplanar Fe-Fe bond distance. With further thallium substitution, the transition temperatures decrease for x = 0.09 (TN = Ts = 131 K), and this is due to charge doping. We illustrate that small changes related to 3d transition-metal state can have profound effects on magnetism.

  16. Exposure to Non-Extreme Solar UV Daylight: Spectral Characterization, Effects on Skin and Photoprotection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Marionnet

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The link between chronic sun exposure of human skin and harmful clinical consequences such as photo-aging and skin cancers is now indisputable. These effects are mostly due to ultraviolet (UV rays (UVA, 320–400 nm and UVB, 280–320 nm. The UVA/UVB ratio can vary with latitude, season, hour, meteorology and ozone layer, leading to different exposure conditions. Zenithal sun exposure (for example on a beach around noon under a clear sky can rapidly induce visible and well-characterized clinical consequences such as sunburn, predominantly induced by UVB. However, a limited part of the global population is exposed daily to such intense irradiance and until recently little attention has been paid to solar exposure that does not induce any short term clinical impact. This paper will review different studies on non-extreme daily UV exposures with: (1 the characterization and the definition of the standard UV daylight and its simulation in the laboratory; (2 description of the biological and clinical effects of such UV exposure in an in vitro reconstructed human skin model and in human skin in vivo, emphasizing the contribution of UVA rays and (3 analysis of photoprotection approaches dedicated to prevent the harmful impact of such UV exposure.

  17. Exposure to non-extreme solar UV daylight: spectral characterization, effects on skin and photoprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marionnet, Claire; Tricaud, Caroline; Bernerd, Françoise

    2014-12-23

    The link between chronic sun exposure of human skin and harmful clinical consequences such as photo-aging and skin cancers is now indisputable. These effects are mostly due to ultraviolet (UV) rays (UVA, 320-400 nm and UVB, 280-320 nm). The UVA/UVB ratio can vary with latitude, season, hour, meteorology and ozone layer, leading to different exposure conditions. Zenithal sun exposure (for example on a beach around noon under a clear sky) can rapidly induce visible and well-characterized clinical consequences such as sunburn, predominantly induced by UVB. However, a limited part of the global population is exposed daily to such intense irradiance and until recently little attention has been paid to solar exposure that does not induce any short term clinical impact. This paper will review different studies on non-extreme daily UV exposures with: (1) the characterization and the definition of the standard UV daylight and its simulation in the laboratory; (2) description of the biological and clinical effects of such UV exposure in an in vitro reconstructed human skin model and in human skin in vivo, emphasizing the contribution of UVA rays and (3) analysis of photoprotection approaches dedicated to prevent the harmful impact of such UV exposure.

  18. The Effects of Advertising Strategies on Consumer Trust: A Case of Skin Care Products in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velly Anatasia

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study was to develop advertising strategies in order to increase consumer trust. Four advertising elements: celebrity endorsement, branding, product attribute, and third party certification were investigated. Data were collected to answer two research questions: (1 To investigate the advertising strategies of skin care products leading to consumer trust, (2 To know the effects of advertising strategies in skin care products on consumer trust. A 5-point Likert scale survey was distributed to the female population in Taipei area. Via online and personal approaches, 266 questionnaires were returned. Targeting on 18-30 years old female skin care product users who stay in Taipei area more than six months, 240 qualified questionnaires were analyzed. The four independent variables are found having a significant relationship with trust in skin care advertising, in which branding has the greatest influence on increasing consumer trust. The control variable which is financial status is not found having statistically significant effect on consumer trust. To conclude, this study is dedicated to the communities in order to optimize their marketing strategies.

  19. Dual Effects of High Protein Diet on Mouse Skin and Colonic Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xuelei; Kim, Eunjung

    2018-01-01

    Chronic inflammation is a major etiology of cancer. Accumulating epidemiological and experimental evidences suggest that intake of high protein diet (HPD) is associated with colitis-associated colon cancer, however, most of the studies were confined in colon. Systemic influence of HPD on inflammation indices in different tissues of an organism has never been studied. We therefore investigated the effect of HPD on mouse skin and colonic inflammation using the well characterized inflammation induction protocol in both tissues (12- O -tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate [TPA] for skin and dextran sodium sulfate [DSS] for colon). ICR mice were grouped to normal diet (ND, 20% casein) or HPD (50% casein) groups. In each diet group, mice were treated with either vehicle (acetone or H 2 O), TPA, TPA and DSS, or DSS. Experimental diet was fed for total 4 weeks. After 1 week of diet feeding, 6.5 nmol of TPA was topically applied twice a week for 2 weeks on the shaved mouse dorsal skin. Drinking water containing 2% DSS was administered for 7 days at the final week of experiment. The results showed that TPA-induced skin hyperplasia, epidermal cell proliferation, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression were reduced in HPD group compared to ND group. In contrast, HPD increased DSS-induced colon mucosal hyperplasia, colonocyte proliferation, COX-2 expression, and plasma nitric oxide compared to ND group. This suggests that HPD exerts differential effect on different tissue inflammation which implies efficacy of protein intervention to human also should be monitored more thoroughly.

  20. Sunscreens: topical and systemic approaches for protection of human skin against harmful effects of solar radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathak, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    This review deals with topical and systemic approaches for protection of human skin against the harmful effects of solar radiation. Two concerns about the deleterious effects of sun exposure involve: (1) acute effects (e.g., sunburn and drug-induced phototoxicity) and (2) potential long-term risks of repeated sun exposures leading to development of solar elastosis, keratoses, induction of both nonmelanoma and melanoma skin cancer, and alteration of immune responses and functions. Action spectra of normal and abnormal reactions of human skin to acute and chronic effects of solar radiation are presented with a view to helping the physician prescribe the appropriate sunscreens. Factors that influence acute effects of sunburn are reviewed. Various artificial methods effective in minimizing or preventing harmful effects of solar radiation, both in normal individuals and in patients with photosensitivity-related problems, are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the commercially available chemical sunscreens and their properties. Sun protection factor (SPF) values of several brand-name formulations determined with a solar simulator under indoor conditions (laboratory) and with solar radiation under natural, field conditions are presented. Factors responsible for variations of SPF values observed under indoor and outdoor conditions are reviewed. Systemic photoprotective agents and their limitations are outlined. The photobiology of melanin pigmentation (the tanning reaction) is briefly discussed, with emphasis on the dangers of using quick-tanning lotions for stimulation of the tanning reaction

  1. Effect of compression stockings on cutaneous microcirculation: Evaluation based on measurements of the skin thermal conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenier, E; Gehin, C; McAdams, E; Lun, B; Gobin, J-P; Uhl, J-F

    2016-03-01

    To study of the microcirculatory effects of elastic compression stockings. In phlebology, laser Doppler techniques (flux or imaging) are widely used to investigate cutaneous microcirculation. It is a method used to explore microcirculation by detecting blood flow in skin capillaries. Flux and imaging instruments evaluate, non-invasively in real-time, the perfusion of cutaneous micro vessels. Such tools, well known by the vascular community, are not really suitable to our protocol which requires evaluation through the elastic compression stockings fabric. Therefore, we involve another instrument, called the Hematron (developed by Insa-Lyon, Biomedical Sensor Group, Nanotechnologies Institute of Lyon), to investigate the relationship between skin microcirculatory activities and external compression provided by elastic compression stockings. The Hematron measurement principle is based on the monitoring of the skin's thermal conductivity. This clinical study examined a group of 30 female subjects, aged 42 years ±2 years, who suffer from minor symptoms of chronic venous disease, classified as C0s, and C1s (CEAP). The resulting figures show, subsequent to the pressure exerted by elastic compression stockings, an improvement of microcirculatory activities observed in 83% of the subjects, and a decreased effect was detected in the remaining 17%. Among the total population, the global average increase of the skin's microcirculatory activities is evaluated at 7.63% ± 1.80% (p compression stockings has a direct influence on the skin's microcirculation within this female sample group having minor chronic venous insufficiency signs. Further investigations are required for a deeper understanding of the elastic compression stockings effects on the microcirculatory activity in venous diseases at other stages of pathology. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Anomalous Cherenkov spin-orbit sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, Sergey

    2011-02-01

    The Cherenkov effect is a well-known phenomenon in the electrodynamics of fast charged particles passing through transparent media. If the particle is faster than the light in a given medium, the medium emits a forward light cone. This beautiful phenomenon has an acoustic counterpart where the role of photons is played by phonons and the role of the speed of light is played by the sound velocity. In this case the medium emits a forward sound cone. Here, we show that in a system with spin-orbit interactions in addition to this normal Cherenkov sound there appears an anomalous Cherenkov sound with forward and backward sound propagation. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the transition from the normal to anomalous Cherenkov sound happens in a singular way at the Cherenkov cone angle. The detection of this acoustic singularity therefore represents an alternative experimental tool for the measurement of the spin-orbit coupling strength.

  3. Anomalous feedback and negative domain wall resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Ran; Xiao, Di; Zhu, Jian-Gang

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic induction can be regarded as a negative feedback effect, where the motive-force opposes the change of magnetic flux that generates the motive-force. In artificial electromagnetics emerging from spintronics, however, this is not necessarily the case. By studying the current-induced domain wall dynamics in a cylindrical nanowire, we show that the spin motive-force exerting on electrons can either oppose or support the applied current that drives the domain wall. The switching into the anomalous feedback regime occurs when the strength of the dissipative torque β is about twice the value of the Gilbert damping constant α . The anomalous feedback manifests as a negative domain wall resistance, which has an analogy with the water turbine. (paper)

  4. Temperature effects on surface pressure-induced changes in rat skin perfusion: implications in pressure ulcer development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, S; Knapp, C F; Donofrio, J C; Salcido, R

    1999-07-01

    The effect of varying local skin temperature on surface pressure-induced changes in skin perfusion and deformation was determined in hairless fuzzy rats (13.5+/-3 mo, 474+/-25 g). Skin surface pressure was applied by a computer-controlled plunger with corresponding skin deformation measured by a linear variable differential transformer while a laser Doppler flowmeter measured skin perfusion. In Protocol I, skin surface perfusion was measured without heating (control, T=28 degrees C), with heating (T=36 degrees C), for control (probe just touching skin, 3.7 mmHg), and at two different skin surface pressures, 18 mmHg and 73 mmHg. Heating caused perfusion to increase at control and 18 mmHg pressure, but not at 73 mmHg. In Protocol II, skin perfusion was measured with and without heating as in Protocol I, but this time skin surface pressure was increased from 3.7 to 62 mmHg in increments of 3.7 mmHg. For unheated skin, perfusion increased as skin surface pressure increased from 3.7 to 18 mmHg. Further increases in surface pressure caused a decrease in perfusion until zero perfusion was reached for pressures over 55 mmHg. Heating increased skin perfusion for surface pressures from 3.7 to 18 mmHg, but not for pressures greater than 18 mmHg. After the release of surface pressure, the reactive hyperemia peak of perfusion increased with heating. In Protocol III, where skin deformation (creep and relaxation) was measured during the application of 3.7 and 18 mmHg, heating caused the tissue to be stiffer, allowing less deformation. It was found that for surface pressures below 18 mmHg, increasing skin temperature significantly increased skin perfusion and tissue stiffness. The clinical significance of these findings may have relevance in evaluating temperature and pressure effects on skin blood flow and deformation as well as the efficacy of using temperature as a therapeutic modality in the treatment of pressure ulcers.

  5. Anomalous dissolution of metals and chemical corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DRAGUTIN M. DRAZIC

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available An overview is given of the anomalous behavior of some metals, in particular Fe and Cr, in acidic aqueous solutions during anodic dissolution. The anomaly is recognizable by the fact that during anodic dissolutionmore material dissolves than would be expected from the Faraday law with the use of the expected valence of the formed ions. Mechanical disintegration, gas bubble blocking, hydrogen embrittlement, passive layer cracking and other possible reasons for such behavior have been discussed. It was shown, as suggested by Kolotyrkin and coworkers, that the reason can be, also, the chemical reaction in which H2O molecules with the metal form metal ions and gaseous H2 in a potential independent process. It occurs simultaneously with the electrochemical corrosion process, but the electrochemical process controls the corrosion potential. On the example of Cr in acid solution itwas shown that the reason for the anomalous behavior is dominantly chemical dissolution, which is considerably faster than the electrochemical corrosion, and that the increasing temperature favors chemical reaction, while the other possible reasons for the anomalous behavior are of negligible effect. This effect is much smaller in the case of Fe, but exists. The possible role of the chemical dissolution reacton and hydrogen evolution during pitting of steels and Al and stress corrosion cracking or corrosion fatigue are discussed.

  6. The Anomalous Magnetic Moment of the Muon

    CERN Document Server

    Jegerlehner, Friedrich

    2008-01-01

    This book reviews the present state of knowledge of the anomalous magnetic moment a=(g-2)/2 of the muon. The muon anomalous magnetic moment amy is one of the most precisely measured quantities in elementary particle physics and provides one of the most stringent tests of relativistic quantum field theory as a fundamental theoretical framework. It allows for an extremely precise check of the standard model of elementary particles and of its limitations. Recent experiments at the Brookhaven National Laboratory now reach the unbelievable precision of 0.5 parts per million, improving the accuracy of previous g-2 experiments at CERN by a factor of 14. A major part of the book is devoted to the theory of the anomalous magnetic moment and to estimates of the theoretical uncertainties. Quantum electrodynamics and electroweak and hadronic effects are reviewed. Since non-perturbative hadronic effects play a key role for the precision test, their evaluation is described in detail. After the overview of theory, the exper...

  7. Anomalous momentum transport from drift waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez, R.R.; Staebler, G.M.

    1993-01-01

    A sheared slab magnetic field model B = B 0 [z + (x/L s )y], with inhomogeneous flows in the y and z directions, is used to perform a fully-kinetic stability analysis of the ion temperature gradient (ITG) and dissipative trapped electron (DTE) modes. The concomitant quasilinear stress components that couple to the local perpendicular (y-component) and parallel (z-component) momentum transport are also calculated and the anomalous perpendicular and parallel viscous stresses obtained. A breakdown of the ITG-induced perpendicular viscous stress is generally observed at moderate values of the sheared perpendicular flow. The ITG-induced parallel viscous stress is generally larger and strongly dependent on the sheared flows. The DTE-induced perpendicular viscous stress may sometimes be negative, tending to cancel the ITG contributions while the DTE-induced parallel viscous stress is generally small. The effect of the perpendicular stress component in the momentum balance equations is generally small while the parallel stress component can dominate the usual neoclassical viscous stress terms. The dominant contribution to parallel viscous stress by the ITG mode suggests that bulk plasma toroidal momentum confinement, like energy confinement, is governed by an anomalous ion loss mechanism. Furthermore, the large anomalous effect suggests that the neoclassical explanation of poloidal flows in tokamaks may be incorrect. The present results are in general agreement with existing experimental observations on momentum transport in tokamaks

  8. Anomalous diffusion process applied to magnetic resonance image enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senra Filho, A. C. da S.; Garrido Salmon, C. E.; Murta Junior, L. O.

    2015-03-01

    Diffusion process is widely applied to digital image enhancement both directly introducing diffusion equation as in anisotropic diffusion (AD) filter, and indirectly by convolution as in Gaussian filter. Anomalous diffusion process (ADP), given by a nonlinear relationship in diffusion equation and characterized by an anomalous parameters q, is supposed to be consistent with inhomogeneous media. Although classic diffusion process is widely studied and effective in various image settings, the effectiveness of ADP as an image enhancement is still unknown. In this paper we proposed the anomalous diffusion filters in both isotropic (IAD) and anisotropic (AAD) forms for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enhancement. Filters based on discrete implementation of anomalous diffusion were applied to noisy MRI T2w images (brain, chest and abdominal) in order to quantify SNR gains estimating the performance for the proposed anomalous filter when realistic noise is added to those images. Results show that for images containing complex structures, e.g. brain structures, anomalous diffusion presents the highest enhancements when compared to classical diffusion approach. Furthermore, ADP presented a more effective enhancement for images containing Rayleigh and Gaussian noise. Anomalous filters showed an ability to preserve anatomic edges and a SNR improvement of 26% for brain images, compared to classical filter. In addition, AAD and IAD filters showed optimum results for noise distributions that appear on extreme situations on MRI, i.e. in low SNR images with approximate Rayleigh noise distribution, and for high SNR images with Gaussian or non central χ noise distributions. AAD and IAD filter showed the best results for the parametric range 1.2 MRI. This study indicates the proposed anomalous filters as promising approaches in qualitative and quantitative MRI enhancement.

  9. Topically applied L-carnitine effectively reduces sebum secretion in human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peirano, Reto I; Hamann, Tina; Düsing, Hans-Jürgen; Akhiani, Mehdi; Koop, Urte; Schmidt-Rose, Thomas; Wenck, Horst

    2012-03-01

      Oily skin condition is caused by an excessive sebaceous gland activity, resulting in an overproduction of sebum, giving the skin an undesired shiny, oily appearance.   To identify an active substance that reduces sebum production in human sebaceous glands by regulating fat metabolism in a natural way.   The effects of L-carnitine on β-oxidation and intracellular lipid content were investigated in vitro using the human sebaceous cell line SZ95. Penetration experiments utilizing pig skin as a model system were performed with a cosmetic formulation containing radioactively labeled L-carnitine. To determine the in vivo effects, a vehicle-controlled, randomized study was carried out using a cosmetic formulation containing 2%l-carnitine for 3 weeks. Sebum production was investigated utilizing the lipid-absorbent Sebutape(®).   SZ95 cells treated with 0.5% or 1% L-carnitine demonstrated a significant concentration-dependent increase in β-oxidation compared to control cells. Following the treatment with L-carnitine, intracellular lipid concentrations decreased significantly in a dose-dependent manner compared with untreated control cells. In skin penetration experiments, topically applied L-carnitine reached the dermis. In addition, topical in vivo application of a formulation containing 2% L-carnitine for 3 weeks significantly decreased the sebum secretion rate compared to the treatment with vehicle.   Our results show that the treatment of human sebocytes with L-carnitine significantly augments β-oxidation and significantly decreases intracellular lipid content in human sebocytes. Topically applied L-carnitine is bioavailable and leads to a significant sebum reduction in vivo. In conclusion, L-carnitine represents a valuable compound, produced naturally within the body, for the topical treatment of oily skin in humans. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. An effective method for skin blood flow measurement using local heat combined with electrical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almalty, A-M R; Petrofsky, J S; Al-Naami, B; Al-Nabulsi, J

    2009-01-01

    Electrical stimulation (ES) is a modality used to increase skin blood flow (SBF) and to aid in wound healing. A greater SBF in non wounded skin is induced if ES is used in a warm environment compared to a thermoneutral environment, where ES is usually applied. Therefore, in this paper, a method to investigate the effect of local heating and ES on the SBF is developed. A total of 33 males (18-40 years) were divided into group G (n = 15) who received the ES during a global heating protocol and group L (n = 18) who received ES during a local heating protocol. In the global heating protocol, ES (30 Hz, 250 micros) was applied for 15 min on the subject's thigh in thermoneutral (25 +/- 0.5 degrees C) and warm (35 +/- 0.5 degrees C) environments. In the local heating protocol, ES was applied for 15 minutes at 25 degrees C, 35 degrees C and 40 degrees C local skin temperatures. A laser Doppler imager measured the SBF in both protocols pre, during, and post ES. The results of the experiment showed the significant differences in the SBFs were found at pre, during, and post ES in a thermoneutral environment or when the skin was locally cooled to 25 degrees C. The SBFs were significantly increased during and post ES after global heating or during local heating at 35 degrees C and 40 degrees C. There were no significant differences in SBFs between the warm environment and at 35 degrees C of local heating. However, the SBF response to ES was the highest at 40 degrees C of local heating. Thus, ES during local heating of the skin, as well as during global heating is an effective method to increase SBF.

  11. Bodily Sensory Inputs and Anomalous Bodily Experiences in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: Evaluation of the Potential Effects of Sound Feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Tajadura-Jiménez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Neuroscientific studies have shown that human's mental body representations are not fixed but are constantly updated through sensory feedback, including sound feedback. This suggests potential new therapeutic sensory approaches for patients experiencing body-perception disturbances (BPD. BPD can occur in association with chronic pain, for example in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS. BPD often impacts on emotional, social, and motor functioning. Here we present the results from a proof-of-principle pilot study investigating the potential value of using sound feedback for altering BPD and its related emotional state and motor behavior in those with CRPS. We build on previous findings that real-time alteration of the sounds produced by walking can alter healthy people's perception of their own body size, while also resulting in more active gait patterns and a more positive emotional state. In the present study we quantified the emotional state, BPD, pain levels and gait of twelve people with CRPS Type 1, who were exposed to real-time alteration of their walking sounds. Results confirm previous reports of the complexity of the BPD linked to CRPS, as participants could be classified into four BPD subgroups according to how they mentally visualize their body. Further, results suggest that sound feedback may affect the perceived size of the CRPS affected limb and the pain experienced, but that the effects may differ according to the type of BPD. Sound feedback affected CRPS descriptors and other bodily feelings and emotions including feelings of emotional dominance, limb detachment, position awareness, attention and negative feelings toward the limb. Gait also varied with sound feedback, affecting the foot contact time with the ground in a way consistent with experienced changes in body weight. Although, findings from this small pilot study should be interpreted with caution, they suggest potential applications for regenerating BDP and its related

  12. Iontophoresis of a model peptide across human skin in vitro: effects of iontophoresis protocol, pH, and ionic strength on peptide flux and skin impedance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craane-van Hinsberg, W H; Bax, L; Flinterman, N H; Verhoef, J; Junginger, H E; Boddé, H E

    1994-09-01

    This study deals with effects of electrical (current density, frequency and duty cycle) and chemical (buffer pH and ionic strength) conditions on the flux of the octapeptide, 9-desglycinamide, 8-arginine-vasopressin (DGAVP), through dermatomed human skin. A pulsed constant current was applied during iontophoresis. The anode faced the anatomical surface of the skin samples inside the diffusion cells. The resistive and capacitative components of the equivalent electrical circuit of human skin could be calculated by fitting the voltage response to a bi-exponential equation. The skin resistance prior to iontophoresis varied between 20 and 60 k omega.cm2. During iontophoresis a decrease of skin resistance and an increase of the series capacitances was observed, which were most pronounced during the first hour of iontophoresis; thereafter both quantities gradually levelled off to an apparent steady state value. The reduction of the resistance during iontophoresis increased non-linearly with increasing current density between 0.013-0.64 mA.cm-2. The steady state resistance and capacitances did not vary significantly with frequency and duty cycle of the current pulse. There was no pH dependence of skin resistance at steady state. Between pH 4 and 10, the steady state peptide flux had a bell-shaped pH-dependence with a maximum of 0.17 nmol.cm-2.h-1 at pH 7.4, which is close to the I.E.P. of the peptide. Lowering the ionic strength from 0.15 to 0.015 M NaCl increased the steady state flux at pH 5 and pH 8 by a factor 5 to 0.28 +/- 0.21 and 0.48 +/- 0.37 nmol.cm-2.h-1, respectively. Together these observations suggested that DGAVP is transported predominantly by volume flow.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Protective effect of porphyra-334 on UVA-induced photoaging in human skin fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Jina; Park, Su-Jin; Kim, In-Hye; Choi, Youn Hee; Nam, Taek-Jeong

    2014-09-01

    The significant increase in life expectancy is closely related to the growing interest in the impact of aging on the function and appearance of the skin. Skin aging is influenced by several factors, and solar ultraviolet (UV) irradiation is considered one of the most important causes of skin photoaging. The aim of this study was to examine the anti-photoaging role of porphyra-334 from Porphyra (P.) yezoensis, a mycosporine-like amino acid (MAA), using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and electrospray ionization‑mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). In the present study, extracted UV‑absorbing compounds from P. yezoensis included palythine, asterina-330 and porphyra-334. Porphyra-334 was the most abundant MAA in P. yezoensis, and it was therefore used for conducting antiphotoaging experiments. The effect of porphyra-334 on the prevention of photoaging was investigated by measuring reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) levels, as well as extracellular matrix (ECM) components and protein expression in UVA‑irradiated human skin fibroblasts. Porphyra-334 suppressed ROS production and the expression of MMPs following UVA irradiation, while increasing levels of ECM components, such as procollagen, type I collagen, elastin. These results suggest that porphyra-334 has various applications in cosmetics and toiletries because of its anti‑photoaging activities and may serve as a novel anti-aging agent.

  14. Therapeutic Effects of Erythroid Differentiation Regulator 1 on Imiquimod-Induced Psoriasis-Like Skin Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Eun Kim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is a common skin disease accompanied by chronic inflammation. In previous studies, erythroid differentiation regulator 1 (ERDR1 was shown to have a negative correlation with proinflammatory cytokine IL-18. However, the role of ERDR1 in the inflammatory skin disease psoriasis has not been evaluated. In this study, to investigate the role of ERDR1 in psoriasis, recombinant ERDR1 was injected intraperitoneally into a psoriasis mouse model. Recombinant ERDR1 (rERDR1 significantly alleviated the symptoms of psoriasis-like skin inflammation and reduced the mRNA of various psoriasis-related markers, including keratin 14, S100A8, and Th17-related cytokines IL-17 and IL-22, suggesting that rERDR1 exerts therapeutic effects on psoriasis via the regulation of Th17 functions. Additionally, the expression of CCL20, a well-known Th17 attracting chemokine, was determined. CCL20 expression significantly decreased in the rERDR1-injected group compared with the vehicle (PBS-injected group. CCR6 expression in the psoriatic lesional skin was also decreased by rERDR1 administration, implying the inhibition of CCR6-expressing Th17 cell chemotaxis via the downregulation of CCL20. Taken together, this study provides the first evidence that ERDR1 may be a potential therapeutic target for psoriasis.

  15. In vivo THz imaging of human skin: Accounting for occlusion effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qiushuo; Parrott, Edward P J; He, Yuezhi; Pickwell-MacPherson, Emma

    2018-02-01

    In vivo terahertz (THz) imaging of human skin needs to be done in reflection geometry due to the high attenuation of THz light by water in the skin. To aid the measurement procedure, there is typically an imaging window onto which the patient places the area of interest. The window enables better pulse alignment and helps keep the patient correctly positioned during the measurement. In this paper, we demonstrate how the occlusion caused by the skin contact with the imaging window during the measurement affects the THz response. By studying both rapid point measurements and imaging over an area of a human volar forearm, we find that even 5 seconds of occlusion affects the THz response. As the occlusion time increases, the skin surface water content increases, resulting in the reduction of the amplitude of the reflected THz pulse, especially in the first 3 minutes. Furthermore, it was found that the refractive index of the volar forearm increased by 10% to 15% after 20 minutes of occlusion. In this work, we examine and propose a model for the occlusion effects due to the quartz window with a view to compensating for its influence. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Effect of Red Clover Isoflavones over Skin, Appendages, and Mucosal Status in Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Lipovac

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Evaluate in postmenopausal women the effect of red clover extract (RCE isoflavones over subjective status of skin, appendages, and several mucosal sites. Method. Postmenopausal women (n=109 were randomly assigned to receive either two daily capsules of the active compound (80 mg RCE, Group A or placebo of equal appearance (Group B for a 90-day period. After a washout period of 7 days, medication was crossed over and taken for 90 days more. Subjective improvement of skin, appendages, and several mucosal site status was assessed for each studied group at 90 and 187 days using a visual analogue scale (VAS. In addition, libido, tiredness, and urinary, sleep, and mood complaints were also evaluated. Results. Women after RCE intervention (both groups reported better subjective improvement of scalp hair and skin status, libido, mood, sleep, and tiredness. Improvement of urinary complaints, nail, body hair, and mucosa (oral, nasal, and ocular status did not differ between treatment phases (intra- and intergroup. Overall satisfaction with treatment was reported higher after RCE intervention (both groups as compared to placebo. Conclusion. RCE supplementation exerted a subject improvement of scalp hair and skin status as well as libido, mood, sleep, and tiredness in postmenopausal women.

  17. The effect of using different regions of interest on local and mean skin temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniar, Nirav; Bach, Aaron J E; Stewart, Ian B; Costello, Joseph T

    2015-01-01

    The dynamic nature of tissue temperature and the subcutaneous properties, such as blood flow, fatness, and metabolic rate, leads to variation in local skin temperature. Therefore, we investigated the effects of using multiple regions of interest when calculating weighted mean skin temperature from four local sites. Twenty-six healthy males completed a single trial in a thermonetural laboratory (mean ± SD): 24.0 (1.2)°C; 56 (8%) relative humidity; International Standards using digital infrared thermography. A 50 mm × 50 mm, defined by strips of aluminium tape, created six unique regions of interest, top left quadrant, top right quadrant, bottom left quadrant, bottom right quadrant, centre quadrant and the entire region of interest, at each of the local sites. The largest potential error in weighted mean skin temperature was calculated using a combination of a) the coolest and b) the warmest regions of interest at each of the local sites. Significant differences between the six regions interest were observed at the neck (Plimits of agreement for these differences was 0.2-0.5 °C. Although we observed differences in local and mean skin temperature based on the region of interest employed, these differences were minimal and are not considered physiologically meaningful. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Glutathione Derivative, GSH Monoethyl Ester, May Effectively Whiten Skin but GSH Does Not

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    Bo Young Chung

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Glutathione in its reduced form (GSH is an antioxidant and also is involved in pheomelanin formation. Thus, it has been long believed that GSH has a skin whitening effect. However, its actual or direct effect is unproven. We evaluated the anti-melanogenic effects of GSH and its derivatives in vitro. We examined change of melanogenesis and its related proteins by GSH itself and its derivatives, including GSH monoethyl ester (GSH-MEE, GSH diethyl ester (GSH-DEE and GSH monoisopropyl ester (GSH-MIPE in Melan-A cells, Mel-Ab cells, and B16F10 cells. GSH and GSH-MEE did not display cytotoxic activity, but GSH-MIPE and GSH-DEE did. Intriguingly, GSH itself had no inhibitory effect on melanin production or intracellular tyrosinase activity. Rather, it was GSH-MEE and GSH-MIPE that profoundly reduced the amount of melanin and intracellular tyrosinase activity. Thus, GSH-MEE was selected as a suitable candidate skin-whitening agent and it did not alter melanogenesis-associated proteins such as microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF, tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein (TRP-1, and TRP-2, but it did increase the amount of suggested pheomelanin and suggested pheomelanin/eumelanin ratio. GSH-MEE was effective for anti-melanogenesis, whereas GSH itself was not. GSH-MEE could be developed as a safe and efficient agent for the treatment of hyperpigmentation skin disorders.

  19. Radioprotective effect of c-ski on rat skin fibroblast in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xia; Li Ping; Zhang En; Liu Ping; Zhou Ping; Zhou Yuanguo

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To examine radioprotective effect of c-ski on rat skin fibroblast in vitro and explore its possible mechanism. Methods: The effect of soft X-ray irradiation at dose varied from 2 to 8 Gy on cell apoptosis in rat skin fibroblast were determined by flow cytometry with Annexin-V-FITC-PI labelling. The effect of c-ski gene transfection on cell apoptosis was evaluated after soft X-ray irradiation of 4 Gy. The protein expressions of Bax and Bcl-2 after c-ski gene transfection were measured with the Western blot method. Results: Soft X-ray irradiation increases cell apoptosis, and the increase is proportional to the irradiation dose. Apoptosis ratio increases with time since the irradiation, and reaches its peak at 36h after the irradiation, c-ski gene was observed to markedly decrease apoptosis index at 24 h after soft X-ray irradiation of 4 Gy compared to the control group, significant increase of the protein expression of Bcl-2 was observed. C-ski gene was found no significant effect on the protein expression of Bax. Conclusion: c-ski gene can decrease radiation sensitivity of skin fibroblast, promoting Bcl-2 protein expression is one of its possible mechanism for this radioprotective effects. (authors)

  20. Rare associations of tetralogy of Fallot with anomalous left coronary artery from pulmonary artery and totally anomalous pulmonary venous connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Supratim; Rao, Suresh G; Kulkarni, Snehal

    2016-06-01

    We describe the cases of two patients with tetralogy of Fallot, aged 4 years and 8 months, who were incidentally detected to have concomitant anomalous left coronary artery from pulmonary artery and total anomalous pulmonary venous connection, respectively, on preoperative imaging. They underwent surgical correction with good mid-term outcomes. In this study, we discuss the embryological basis, physiological effects, and review the literature of these two unusual associations. Awareness of these rare associations will avoid missed diagnoses and consequent surgical surprises.

  1. Skin photoprotective and antiageing effects of a combination of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis and grapefruit (Citrus paradisi polyphenols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Nobile

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Plant polyphenols have been found to be effective in preventing ultraviolet radiation (UVR-induced skin alterations. A dietary approach based of these compounds could be a safe and effective method to provide a continuous adjunctive photoprotection measure. In a previous study, a combination of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis and grapefruit (Citrus paradisi extracts has exhibited potential photoprotective effects both in skin cell model and in a human pilot trial. Objective: We investigated the efficacy of a combination of rosemary (R. officinalis and grapefruit (C. paradisi in decreasing the individual susceptibility to UVR exposure (redness and lipoperoxides and in improving skin wrinkledness and elasticity. Design: A randomised, parallel group study was carried out on 90 subjects. Furthermore, a pilot, randomised, crossover study was carried out on five subjects. Female subjects having skin phototype from I to III and showing mild to moderate chrono- or photoageing clinical signs were enrolled in both studies. Skin redness (a* value of CIELab colour space after UVB exposure to 1 minimal erythemal dose (MED was assessed in the pilot study, while MED, lipoperoxides (malondialdehyde skin content, wrinkle depth (image analysis, and skin elasticity (suction and elongation method were measured in the main study. Results: Treated subjects showed a decrease of the UVB- and UVA-induced skin alterations (decreased skin redness and lipoperoxides and an improvement of skin wrinkledness and elasticity. No differences were found between the 100 and 250 mg extracts doses, indicating a plateau effect starting from 100 mg extracts dose. Some of the positive effects were noted as short as 2 weeks of product consumption. Conclusions: The long-term oral intake of Nutroxsun™ can be considered to be a complementary nutrition strategy to avoid the negative effects of sun exposure. The putative mechanism for these effects is most likely to take place

  2. Effect of low dose UVB irradiation on the migratory properties and functional capacities of human skin dendritic cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richters, C. D.; Reits, E. A.; van Pelt, A. M.; Hoekstra, M. J.; van Baare, J.; Du Pont, J. S.; Kamperdijk, E. W.

    1996-01-01

    We recently described the 'spontaneous' migration of skin dendritic cells out of human split skin during culture. Since newly infiltrating cells from the circulation are excluded, this in vitro model is very suitable for studying the effect of UVB irradiation on the migratory properties, phenotype

  3. Effects of single and repeated exposure to biocidal active substances on the barrier function of the skin in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buist, H.E.; Sandt, J.J.M. van de; Burgsteden, J.A. van; Heer, C. de

    2005-01-01

    The dermal route of exposure is important in worker exposure to biocidal products. Many biocidal active substances which are used on a daily basis may decrease the barrier function of the skin to a larger extent than current risk assessment practice addresses, due to possible skin effects of

  4. Effects of the German skin cancer screening programme on melanoma incidence and indicators of disease severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautmann, F; Meier, F; Seidler, A; Schmitt, J

    2016-11-01

    In Germany a nationwide melanoma screening programme for adults aged ≥ 35 years was introduced in July 2008. Evidence on utilization and effects is limited. To examine the uptake and effects of the German nationwide screening programme. This analysis is based on pseudonymized outpatient routine data of a German health insurance company covering data of > 2 million individuals from Saxony for the years 2005-2012. Cases of melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) were identified using an algorithm based on the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses were applied to determine the utilization of the screening programme and effects on skin cancer incidence and disease severity as a proxy for prognosis. Overall, 38·0% of eligible persons (≥ 35 years) were screened at least once between July 2008 and December 2012. The annual participation rate was 12·4%. Out of 533 393 persons screened, melanoma and NMSC were diagnosed in 0·3% and 2·5%, respectively. The 6-month melanoma incidence per 100 000 insured persons decreased from 12·8 before screening introduction (January to June 2008) to 10·2 after introduction (July to December 2008). NMSC incidence increased from 173·8 to 175·5 per 100 000. The numbers of screening participants receiving interferon alpha and/or being diagnosed with lymph node and/or distant metastasis (8·6%, 5·9%, 1·5%, respectively) were lower than in nonparticipants (11·2%, 8·5%, 3·5%). These differences were not significant. The results suggest that the introduction of a generic skin cancer screening programme in Germany was not associated with significant changes in incidence. No firm conclusions regarding the effects of skin cancer screening on prognosis can be drawn. Longer follow-up and linkage with clinical registry data are necessary to clarify the effect of screening participation on incidence and prognosis. © 2016 British Association of Dermatologists.

  5. Enhanced barrier functions and anti-inflammatory effect of cultured coconut extract on human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soomin; Jang, Ji Eun; Kim, Jihee; Lee, Young In; Lee, Dong Won; Song, Seung Yong; Lee, Ju Hee

    2017-08-01

    Natural plant oils have been used as a translational alternative to modern medicine. Particularly, virgin coconut oil (VCO) has gained popularity because of its potential benefits in pharmaceutical, nutritional, and cosmetic applications. Cultured coconut extract (CCE) is an alternative end product of VCO, which undergoes a further bacterial fermentation process. This study aimed to investigate the effects of CCE on human skin. We analyzed the expression of skin barrier molecules and collagens after applying CCE on human explanted skin. To evaluate the anti-inflammatory properties of CCE, the expression of inflammatory markers was analyzed after ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation. The CCE-treated group showed increased expression of cornified cell envelope components, which contribute to protective barrier functions of the stratum corneum. Further, the expression of inflammatory markers was lower in the CCE-treated group after exposure to UVB radiation. These results suggest an anti-inflammatory effect of CCE against UVB irradiation-induced inflammation. Additionally, the CCE-treated group showed increased collagen and hyaluronan synthase-3 expression. In our study, CCE showed a barrier-enhancing effect and anti-inflammatory properties against ex vivo UVB irradiation-induced inflammation. The promising effect of CCE may be attributed to its high levels of polyphenols and fatty acid components. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of a desogestrel-containing oral contraceptive on the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, H I; Kempers, S; Akin, M D; Dunlap, F; Whiting, D; Norbart, T C

    2000-12-01

    This pilot study evaluated the effects of a desogestrel-containing oral contraceptive (DSG-OC) on facial seborrhea (oiliness), acne and related factors in otherwise healthy women with moderate facial acne vulgaris. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 41 women received DSG-OC (50/100/150 microg desogestrel plus 35/30/30 microg ethinylestradiol given in a 7/7/7 day regimen) and 41 received placebo for six cycles. Seborrhea and skin assessments, and hormone analyses were performed regularly. Analyses of sebum output (measured using Sebutape) indicated that the effect of DSG-OC on the skin varied with facial area. Compared with placebo, DSG-OC had a statistically significant effect on the cheeks (60% relative reduction in sebum output; p = 0.02), and a non-significant effect on the forehead (30% relative reduction in sebum output). Acne lesion counts did not differ significantly between groups. Both patient and investigator assessments of skin condition (visual analog scale) indicated significant improvements with DSG-OC compared with placebo. The reduced sebum output with DSG-OC is associated with a three-fold increase in sex hormone binding globulin, as well as an expected decrease in free testosterone and other androgens that were found in this group. These results suggest that DSG-OC reduces facial oiliness and may be a useful contraceptive choice for women with this problem.

  7. Enhancing Effect of Chiral Enhancer Linalool on Skin Permeation of Naproxen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xia; Rong, Yi; Zhang, Liang; Ye, Jin-cui

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the permeation-enhancing effect of dl-linalool, d-linalool, and l-linalool on model drugs across excised rat skin and the effect of linalool on the ceramides in stratum corneum lipids. In vitro skin permeation studies were performed with Valia-Chien diffusion cells, and the permeation samples were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography with chiral stationary phase. Infrared spectroscopy was used to investigate the effect of linalool on stratum corneum lipids. When the donor vehicles added with 1% dl-linalool, 1% d-linalool, or 1% l-linalool, the steady-state skin permeation rate of naproxen was (2.47±0.63), (1.53±0.54), (1.73±0.48) μg·cm(-2)·h(-1), respectively, which is 2.49, 1.55, and 1.75 times (all Plinalool on naproxen was found significantly greater than that of d-linalool and l-linalool (both Plinalool shifted to higher wave number on 2.09 cm(-1) of asymmetric CH2 stretching vibrations in attenuated total reflection-fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis. However, stratum corneum treated with d-linalool and l-linalool did not display this phenomenon. The disturbing degree of dl-linalool on stratum corneum lipids (ceramides) is different from that of linalool enantiomers, suggesting their different enhancing effect on the same drug.

  8. Investigating the sonophoresis effect on the permeation of diclofenac sodium using 3D skin equivalent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldwaikat, Mai; Alarjah, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound temporally increases skin permeability by altering stratum corneum SC function (sonophoresis). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of variable ultrasound conditions on the permeation of diclofenac sodium DS with range of physicochemical properties through EpiDerm™. Permeation studies were carried out in vitro using Franz diffusion cell. HPLC method was used for the determination of the concentration of diclofenac sodium in receiving compartment. Parameters like ultrasound frequency, application time, amplitude, and mode of sonication and distance of ultrasound horn from skin were investigated, and the conditions where the maximum enhancement rate obtained were determined. Application of ultrasound enhanced permeation of diclofenac sodium across EpiDerm™ by fivefolds. The most effective enhancing parameters were power sonication of 20kHz frequency, 20% amplitude at continuous mode for 5min. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Effects of Cr3+ ions on electrophysiological parameters of isolated skin of toad Pleurodema thaul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Guzman Jofre

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of the toxicity of chromium (Cr3+ ions, it was explored the damaging effects that this ion could induce in cell membranes. The measurement of the effects induced by Cr3+ ions on electrophysiological parameters of short-circuit current and on the potential difference were investigated using the outer side (mucosal and the inner side (serosal of toad Pleurodema thaul skin. The results showed a decreased on electrophysiological parameters when it were administered concentrations of 33, 100 and 200 μM of Cr3+, the results also suggest that the administration of Cr3+ inhibits the ion transport in toad skin by the interaction of Cr3+ with lipid bilayers or protein constituents of membrane, and not by an inhibition of the active transport of ions across Na+ channels.

  10. The effect of social norms messaging regarding skin carotenoid concentrations among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wengreen, Heidi J; Nix, Elizabeth; Madden, Gregory J

    2017-09-01

    Descriptive social-normative messaging positively influences short-term dietary choices and healthy food intake. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of descriptive normative messages on college students' skin carotenoid concentrations (a biomarker of carotenoid-containing fruit and vegetable [FV] intake) over an 8-week period. 251 college students consented to participate and 74% completed the study. Students were randomly assigned to groups who, following a baseline evaluation of skin-carotenoid levels, were told how their score ranked within a peer group of college students attending the same university (Individualized Normative group), that their score was in the lower 20th percentile of the peer group (Manipulated Normative group), or were given no information about their score or the peer group (Control group). Skin carotenoid concentrations were reassessed 8 weeks after the normative messages were presented or withheld. Skin carotenoid levels of those in the Manipulated Normative group increased significantly more than did scores of those in the Control group (t (126) = 3.74, p students' self-reported FV intake did not increase. This finding suggests normative messaging can influence behavior for up to 8 weeks, but future research must better evaluate if the increase in skin carotenoids reflects increased FV consumption, increased consumption of carotenoid-containing FV (with decreased consumption of other FV), or is accounted for by some other behavior change (e.g., increased use of supplements). These findings support further exploration of normative messaging as a technique for producing the long-term behavior change needed to impact public health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of skin barrier disruption on immune responses to topically applied cross-reacting material, CRM(197), of diphtheria toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godefroy, S; Peyre, M; Garcia, N; Muller, S; Sesardic, D; Partidos, C D

    2005-08-01

    The high accessibility of the skin and the presence of immunocompetent cells in the epidermis makes this surface an attractive route for needle-free administration of vaccines. However, the lining of the skin by the stratum corneum is a major obstacle to vaccine delivery. In this study we examined the effect of skin barrier disruption on the immune responses to the cross-reacting material CRM(197), a nontoxic mutant of diphtheria toxin (DTx) that is considered as a vaccine candidate. Application of CRM(197), together with cholera toxin (CT), onto the tape-stripped skin of mice elicited antibody responses that had anti-DTx neutralizing activity. Vaccine delivery onto mildly ablated skin or intact skin did not elicit any detectable anti-CRM(197) antibodies. Mice immunized with CRM(197) alone onto the tape-stripped skin mounted a vigorous antigen-specific proliferative response. In contrast, the induction of cellular immunity after CRM(197) deposition onto mildly ablated or intact skin was adjuvant dependent. Furthermore, epidermal cells were activated and underwent apoptosis that was more pronounced when the stratum corneum was removed by tape stripping. Overall, these findings highlight the potential for transcutaneous delivery of CRM(197) and establish a correlation between the degree of barrier disruption and levels of antigen-specific immune responses. Moreover, these results provide the first evidence that the development of a transcutaneous immunization strategy for diphtheria, based on simple and practical methods to disrupt the skin barrier, is feasible.

  12. The impact of skin decontamination on the time window for effective treatment of percutaneous VX exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosen, M J A; van den Berg, R M; de Jong, A L; van der Schans, M J; Noort, D; Langenberg, J P

    2017-04-01

    The main goal of the present study was to obtain insight into depot formation and penetration following percutaneous VX poisoning, in order to identify an appropriate decontamination window that can enhance or support medical countermeasures. The study was executed in two phases, using the hairless guinea pig as an animal model. In the first phase the effect of various decontamination regimens on levels of free VX in skin and plasma were studied as well as on blood cholinesterase levels. Animals were exposed to 0.5 mg/kg VX and were not decontaminated (control), decontaminated with RSDL once at 15 or 90 min after exposure or three times at 15, 25 and 35 (10-min interval) or 15, 45 and 75 min after exposure (30-min interval). There was no significant effect of any of the decontamination regimens on the 6-h survival rate of the animals. However, all animals that had been decontaminated 15 min after exposure, showed a survival rate of more than 90%, compared to 50-60% in animals that were not decontaminated or decontaminated at 90 min after exposure. In the second phase of the study, hairless guinea pigs were exposed to 1 mg/kg VX on the shoulder, followed either by decontamination with RSDL (10 min interval), conventional treatment on indication of clinical signs or a combination thereof. It appeared that a thorough, repeated decontamination alone could not save the majority of the animals. A 100% survival rate was observed in the group that received a combination of decontamination and treatment. In conclusion, the effects of VX exposure could be influenced by various RSDL decontamination regimens. The results in freely moving animals showed that skin decontamination, although not fully effective in removing all VX from the skin and skin depot is crucial to support pharmacological intervention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The effect of ginkgo biloba extract on radiosensitivity of mouse skin and jejunal crypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Kyung Hwan; Ha, Sung Whan [Seoul National Univ. Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-06-01

    Ginkgo biloba extract(GBE) is known to increase the peripheral blood circulation. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of GBE on the acute normal tissue radiation reaction. C3H mice were divided into two groups, radiation alone and two doses GBE plus radiation, for both acute skin reaction and jejunal crypt assay. GBE was given i.p. one hour before irradiation with priming dose given one day earlier. Thirty to Fifty Gy for acute skin reaction and 11 to 14 Gy for jejunal crypt were irradiated to right hind leg and whole body, respectively. Radiation doses(RD{sub 50}) for peak skin score of 2.0 were 44.2Gy(40.6-48.2Gy) for radiation alone and 44.4Gy(41.6-47.4Gy) for two doses GBE plus radiation, showing no effect of GBE on acute radiation skin damage. The numbers of regenerating jejunal crypts per circumference were also almost the same for each radiation dose level(p=0.57-0.94), and the mean lethal doses(D{sub o}) were 1.80Gy(1.57-2.09Gy) for radiation alone and 1.88Gy(1.65-2.18Gy) for two doses GBE plus radiation, indicating no effect of GBE on jejunal crypt cell survival after radiation. GBE doesn't increase acute normal tissue radiation reaction in this model system. As GBE was verified to enhance radiation effect on tumor, high therapeutic gain is expected when GBE is combined with radiation therapy.

  14. [Vaseline protection of the skin from the effects of the sealant Uniherm-6].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulakov, N A; Novikov, V E; Loseva, V A; Makushkina, V K; Kozlov, N B; Iakushev, P F; Bondarev, D P

    1990-01-01

    The article presents a set of newly elaborated specific techniques of the indication of protective pastes and ointments penetrability into the sealants. The techniques are based on the sealant's colour reactions to iron chloride spirits solution. It was established that skin protecting silicone creams, EIR-1 and HIOT pastes were sealant resistant for 4-6 minutes only. Medicinal vaseline displayed its protection properties for 6 hours, thus demonstrating its greater effectiveness when used in industrial conditions.

  15. Antimicrobial effect of polyphenols from apple skins on human bacterial pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto,María Rosa; Rinsdahl Canavosio,Matías Andrés; Manca de Nadra,María Cristina

    2006-01-01

    Apples possess many beneficial properties for the human health related with their high content in phenolic compounds. The antimicrobial effect of these compounds from the skin of two apple varieties, Royal Gala and Granny Smith, against human pathogens was examined. The phenolic compounds were extracted with the following solvents: A, acetone: water: acetic acid; B, ethyl acetate: methanol: water and C, ethanol: water. Total phenolic, flavonoid and non-flavonoid contents were analyzed in the ...

  16. Cutaneous exposure to vesicant phosgene oxime: Acute effects on the skin and systemic toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari-Singh, Neera; Goswami, Dinesh G; Kant, Rama; Croutch, Claire R; Casillas, Robert P; Orlicky, David J; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2017-02-15

    Phosgene Oxime (CX), an urticant or nettle agent categorized as a vesicant, is a potential chemical warfare and terrorist weapon. Its exposure can result in widespread and devastating effects including high mortality due to its fast penetration and ability to cause immediate severe cutaneous injury. It is one of the least studied chemical warfare agents with no effective therapy available. Thus, our goal was to examine the acute effects of CX following its cutaneous exposure in SKH-1 hairless mice to help establish a relevant injury model. Results from our study show that topical cutaneous exposure to CX vapor causes blanching of exposed skin with an erythematous ring, necrosis, edema, mild urticaria and erythema within minutes after exposure out to 8h post-exposure. These clinical skin manifestations were accompanied with increases in skin thickness, apoptotic cell death, mast cell degranulation, myeloperoxidase activity indicating neutrophil infiltration, p53 phosphorylation and accumulation, and an increase in COX-2 and TNFα levels. Topical CX-exposure also resulted in the dilatation of the peripheral vessels with a robust increase in RBCs in vessels of the liver, spleen, kidney, lungs and heart tissues. These events could cause a drop in blood pressure leading to shock, hypoxia and death. Together, this is the first report on effects of CX cutaneous exposure, which could help design further comprehensive studies evaluating the acute and chronic skin injuries from CX topical exposure and elucidate the related mechanism of action to aid in the identification of therapeutic targets and mitigation of injury. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Transdermal glyceryl trinitrate (nitroglycerin in healthy persons: acute effects on skin temperature and hemodynamic orthostatic response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Maria Augusta Boeckh Haebisch

    Full Text Available In order to find an explanation for individual reactions to transdermal glyceryl trinitrate (GTN we studied the skin temperature and hemodynamic reactions in 63 healthy persons. The data were obtained before and after the application of GTN and Glycerin (GL placebo patches, during one hour. The skin temperature was measured on both forearms, the local (left sided and systemic (right sided reaction on GTN was related to the skin fold and the calculated body fat content. The bilateral rise of skin temperature and its duration was higher and longer in obese than in lean persons mainly in obese women. The UV induced thermo and the later photothermoreaction (Erythema was reduced on the left forearm after the application of GTN and GL patches. The observed hemodynamic GTN effect confirmed known postural reactions, such as decreased arterial pressure (ΔmAP = -2.9%, increased heart rate (ΔHR = +7,4% and QTc prolongation (ΔQTc = +4,9% in upright position. An adverse drug effect with increased mean blood pressure (ΔmAP = +12% and increased heart rate (ΔHR = + 10.4% mainly in supine position was observed in 11 % of the participants, but only in men. Such a reaction was already described by Murell, 1879. Individual GTN effects were analyzed and related to habits and family history. In male smokers and in persons with hypertensive and diabetic close relatives, the hypotensive GTN effect was accentuated in supine position. In the upright position the group with hypertensives in the family presented a moderate hypotensive reaction without secondary tachycardia and the smokers presented only a slightly increased heart rate. Our observations suggest that individual reactions to transdermal glyceryl trinitrate (GTN with its active component nitric oxide (NO depends on physiological conditions, related to endogenous vasoactive substances, mainly the interaction with EDRF (the endogenous NO and the activity of the Renin-Angiotensin System.

  18. Protective effect of transparent film dressing on proton therapy induced skin reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whaley Jonathan T

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Proton therapy can result in clinically significant radiation dermatitis. In some clinical scenarios, such as lung or breast cancer, the risk of severe radiation dermatitis may limit beam arrangement and prescription doses. Patients undergoing proton therapy for prostate cancer commonly develop mild radiation dermatitis. Herein, we report the outcomes of two prostate cancer patients whose radiation dermatitis appears to have been substantially diminished by transparent film dressings (Beekley stickers. Methods This is a descriptive report of the skin toxicity observed in two patients undergoing proton therapy for prostate cancer at a single institution in 2011. A phantom dosimetric study was performed to evaluate the impact of a transparent film dressing on a beam’s spread out Bragg peak (SOBP. Results Two patients with low risk prostate cancer were treated with proton therapy to a total dose of 79.2Gy (RBE in 1.8 Gy (RBE fractions using two opposed lateral beams daily. Both patients had small circular (2.5 cm diameter transparent adhesive markers placed on their skin to assist with daily alignment. Patient 1 had markers in place bilaterally for the entirety of treatment. Patient 2 had a marker in place for three weeks on one side and six weeks on the other. Over the course of therapy, both men developed typical Grade 1 radiation dermatitis (asymptomatic erythema on their hips; however, in both patients, the erythema was substantially decreased beneath the markers. Patient 2 demonstrated less attenuation and thus greater erythema in the skin covered for three weeks compared to the skin covered for six weeks. The difference in skin changes between the covered and uncovered skin persisted for at least 1 month. A phantom study of double scattered beam SOBP with and without the marker in the beam path showed no gross dosimetric effect. Conclusions Transparent adhesive markers appear to have attenuated radiation dermatitis in

  19. Protective effect of transparent film dressing on proton therapy induced skin reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whaley, Jonathan T; Kirk, Maura; Cengel, Keith; McDonough, James; Bekelman, Justin; Christodouleas, John P

    2013-01-01

    Proton therapy can result in clinically significant radiation dermatitis. In some clinical scenarios, such as lung or breast cancer, the risk of severe radiation dermatitis may limit beam arrangement and prescription doses. Patients undergoing proton therapy for prostate cancer commonly develop mild radiation dermatitis. Herein, we report the outcomes of two prostate cancer patients whose radiation dermatitis appears to have been substantially diminished by transparent film dressings (Beekley stickers). This is a descriptive report of the skin toxicity observed in two patients undergoing proton therapy for prostate cancer at a single institution in 2011. A phantom dosimetric study was performed to evaluate the impact of a transparent film dressing on a beam’s spread out Bragg peak (SOBP). Two patients with low risk prostate cancer were treated with proton therapy to a total dose of 79.2Gy (RBE) in 1.8 Gy (RBE) fractions using two opposed lateral beams daily. Both patients had small circular (2.5 cm diameter) transparent adhesive markers placed on their skin to assist with daily alignment. Patient 1 had markers in place bilaterally for the entirety of treatment. Patient 2 had a marker in place for three weeks on one side and six weeks on the other. Over the course of therapy, both men developed typical Grade 1 radiation dermatitis (asymptomatic erythema) on their hips; however, in both patients, the erythema was substantially decreased beneath the markers. Patient 2 demonstrated less attenuation and thus greater erythema in the skin covered for three weeks compared to the skin covered for six weeks. The difference in skin changes between the covered and uncovered skin persisted for at least 1 month. A phantom study of double scattered beam SOBP with and without the marker in the beam path showed no gross dosimetric effect. Transparent adhesive markers appear to have attenuated radiation dermatitis in these two patients without affecting the SOBP. One patient may

  20. A simple derivation for the skin effect in a round wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Glenn S.

    2014-03-01

    The skin effect in a round wire is an important electromagnetic phenomenon with practical consequences; however, it is usually not presented in any detail at the undergraduate level but reserved for graduate study. The purpose of this paper is to remedy this situation by providing a simple derivation for the skin effect in a round wire that only requires background usually familiar to these students: Maxwell’s equations in integral form, integral calculus (specifically integration of a power) and some elementary properties of series. Graphical results are used to clearly show the current concentrating near the surface as the frequency increases and the accompanying increase in the resistance and decrease in the inductance of the wire. A brief review of the history of the subject shows that several of the scientists familiar to students made contributions to our understanding of the skin effect in a round wire; they include J C Maxwell, Lord Rayleigh, Lord Kelvin, O Heaviside and J J Thomson. The validity of the theory is demonstrated by comparing results from the theory with resistances and inductances measured by some of the early pioneers of wireless communication.

  1. A simple derivation for the skin effect in a round wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Glenn S

    2014-01-01

    The skin effect in a round wire is an important electromagnetic phenomenon with practical consequences; however, it is usually not presented in any detail at the undergraduate level but reserved for graduate study. The purpose of this paper is to remedy this situation by providing a simple derivation for the skin effect in a round wire that only requires background usually familiar to these students: Maxwell’s equations in integral form, integral calculus (specifically integration of a power) and some elementary properties of series. Graphical results are used to clearly show the current concentrating near the surface as the frequency increases and the accompanying increase in the resistance and decrease in the inductance of the wire. A brief review of the history of the subject shows that several of the scientists familiar to students made contributions to our understanding of the skin effect in a round wire; they include J C Maxwell, Lord Rayleigh, Lord Kelvin, O Heaviside and J J Thomson. The validity of the theory is demonstrated by comparing results from the theory with resistances and inductances measured by some of the early pioneers of wireless communication. (paper)

  2. Histological effects of occlusive dressing on healing of incisional skin wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Naoto; Kiyosawa, Tomoharu

    2014-12-01

    Occlusive dressing is widely accepted and used to manage skin ulcers. However, with respect to its application to incisional wounds, most studies have been conducted about the clinical effects on incisional healing of surgical sites. Studies of the histological effects of occlusive dressing for incisional wounds have been few. The aim of this study was to clarify the histological effects of occlusive dressings on healing of incisional skin wounds. Rat dorsal skin was incised down to the panniculus and sutured immediately. Dressing types included 2-octyl cyanoacrylate and hydrocolloid materials as occlusive dressings and no-dressing as the open therapy. Histological examination and dermoscopic observation were performed 1, 2, 4 and 7 days after surgery. The findings from each dressing type were compared. In the open therapy group, the upper portion of the edge of incision was necrosed minimally and finally healed with wide scar formation. However, in the occlusive dressing groups, micronecrosis of the incision edge seen in the no-dressing group was not observed, healing was more rapid and the remaining scar was finer. Occlusive dressing can prevent micronecrosis of the incision edge, resulting in rapid and excellent healing. This study shows that the efficacy of and supports the use of occlusive dressing in incisional wound management. © 2012 The Authors. International Wound Journal © 2012 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Effect of balanced low pressure drying of curcuma longa leaf on skin immune activation activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Wooseok; Lim, Hye Won; Lee, Hyeon Yong

    2014-01-01

    The effect of balanced low pressure drying pretreatment associated with ultrasonication extraction (BU) on the enhancement of skin immune modulatory activities of Curcuma longa leaf was studied by comparing with conventional hot air drying (HE), freeze drying (FE) and balanced low pressure drying (BE) pretreatment processes. In considering skin immune activation activities such as the inhibition of hyaluronidase activity, the BU extract showed ca. 10% higher than those of HE, and even higher than that of the FE extract. Nitric oxide production from macrophage of the BU extract in adding 1.0 mg/mL was increased up to 16.5 μM. When measuring inhibition of IL-6 and TNF-a production from the human T lymphocytes (T cell), the BU extract also showed 53% and 78% of inhibition effect, respectively. It is found that the BU extract could effectively suppress the expression levels of skin inflammation related genes such as Cox-2 and iNOS, down to 80% and 85% compared to the control, respectively. Balanced low pressure drying process was especially active on dehydration of the leaves with minimizing the destruction and making easier elution of the bioactive substances, which resulted in higher extraction yield and better biological activities.

  4. Antibacterial effects of protruding and recessed shark skin micropatterned surfaces of polyacrylate plate with a shallow groove.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Akihiko; Terui, Yusuke; Horie, Chihiro; Fukui, Takashi; Masuzawa, Toshiyuki; Sugawara, Shintaro; Shigeta, Kaku; Shigeta, Tatsuo; Igarashi, Kazuei; Kashiwagi, Keiko

    2014-12-01

    Antibacterial effects in terms of biofilm formation and swarming motility were studied using polyacrylate plates having protruding or recessed shark skin micropatterned surfaces with a shallow groove (2 μm pattern width and spacing, 0.4 μm pattern height). It was found that biofilm formation and swarming motility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were strongly inhibited by the shark skin pattern plates with a shallow (0.4 μm) pattern height. Biofilm formation of Staphylococcus aureus was also strongly inhibited. Live bacteria were located on the pattern rather than in the spacing. When the shape of pattern was a linear ridge instead of shark skin, the antibacterial effects were weaker than seen with the shark skin pattern. The results indicate that the pattern of shark skin is important for decreasing bacterial infection even with a shallow feature height. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies.

  5. Effect of controlled laser microporation on drug transport kinetics into and across the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachhav, Y G; Summer, S; Heinrich, A; Bragagna, T; Böhler, C; Kalia, Y N

    2010-08-17

    The objectives of this study were to investigate a novel laser microporation technology ( P.L.E.A.S.E. Painless Laser Epidermal System) and to determine the effect of pore number and depth on the rate and extent of drug delivery across the skin. In addition, the micropores were visualized by confocal laser scanning microscopy and histological studies were used to determine the effect of laser fluence (energy applied per unit area) on pore depth. Porcine ear skin was used as the membrane for both the pore characterization and drug transport studies. Confocal images in the XY-plane revealed that the pores were typically 150-200 microm in diameter. Histological sections confirmed that fluence could be used to effectively control pore depth - low energy application (4.53 and 13.59 J/cm(2)) resulted in selective removal of the stratum corneum (20-30 microm), intermediate energies (e.g., 22.65 J/cm(2)) produced pores that penetrated the viable epidermis (60-100 microm) and higher application energies created pores that reached the dermis (>150-200 microm). The effects of pore number and pore depth on molecular transport were quantified by comparing lidocaine delivery kinetics across intact and porated skin samples. After 24h, cumulative skin permeation of lidocaine with 0 (control), 150, 300, 450 and 900 pores was 107+/-46, 774+/-110, 1400+/-344, 1653+/-437 and 1811+/-642 microg/cm(2), respectively; there was no statistically significant difference between 300, 450 and 900 pore data - probably due to the effect of drug depletion since >50% of the applied dose was delivered. Importantly, increasing fluence did not produce a statistically significant increase in lidocaine permeation; after 24h, cumulative lidocaine permeation was 1180+/-448, 1350+/-445, 1240+/-483 and 1653+/-436 microg/cm(2) at fluences of 22.65, 45.3, 90.6 and 135.9 J/cm(2), respectively. Thus, shallow pores were equally effective in delivering lidocaine. Increasing lidocaine concentration in the

  6. Anomalous couplings at LEP2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayolle, D.

    2002-01-01

    In its second phase, LEP has allowed to study four fermion processes never observed before. Results are presented on the charged triple gauge boson couplings (TGC) from the W-pair, Single W and Single γ production. The anomalous quartic gauge couplings (QGC) are constrained using production of WWγ, νν-barγγ and Z γγ final states. Finally, limits on the neutral anomalous gauge couplings (NGC) using the Z γ and ZZ production processes are also reported. All results are consistent with the Standard Model expectations. (authors)

  7. Sacha Inchi Oil (Plukenetia volubilis L.), effect on adherence of Staphylococus aureus to human skin explant and keratinocytes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Aspajo, German; Belkhelfa, Haouaria; Haddioui-Hbabi, Laïla; Bourdy, Geneviève; Deharo, Eric

    2015-08-02

    Plukenetia volubilis L. (Euphorbiaceae) is a domesticated vine distributed from the high-altitude Andean rain forest to the lowlands of the Peruvian Amazon. Oil from the cold-pressed seeds, sold under the commercial name of Sacha Inchi Oil (SIO) is actually much in favour because it contains a high percentage of omega 3 and omega 6, and is hence used as a dietary supplement. SIO is also used traditionally for skin care, in order to maintain skin softness, and for the treatment of wounds, insect bites and skin infections, in a tropical context where the skin is frequently damaged. This study was designed in order to verify whether the traditional use of SIO for skin care would have any impact on Staphylococcus aureus growth and skin adherence, as S. aureus is involved in many skin pathologies (impetigo, folliculitis, furuncles and subcutaneous abscesses) being one if the main pathogens that can be found on the skin. Therefore, our objective was to assess SIO bactericidal activity and interference with adherence to human skin explants and the keratinocyte cell line. Cytotoxicity on that cells was also determined. The activity of SIO was compared to coconut oil (CocO), which is widely used for skin care but has different unsaturated fatty acids contents. Laboratory testing with certified oil, determined antibacterial activity against radio labelled S. aureus. Cytotoxic effects were measured with XTT on keratinocyte cells and with neutral red on human skin explants; phenol was used as cytotoxic control. Adherence assays were carried out by mixing H3-labelled S. aureus bacteria with keratinocyte cells and human skin explants, incubated with oils 2h before (to determine the inhibition of adherence, assimilated to a preventive effect) or 2h after the contact of the biological material with S. aureus (to assess the detachment of the bacteria, assimilated to a curative effect). Residual radioactivity measured after washings made it possible to determine the adherence

  8. Time-dependent effect of rutin on skin fibroblasts membrane disruption following UV radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gęgotek, Agnieszka; Bielawska, Katarzyna; Biernacki, Michał; Dobrzyńska, Izabela; Skrzydlewska, Elżbieta

    2017-08-01

    Chronic exposure of the skin to solar UV radiation induces a number of biological alterations, including a redox imbalance; therefore, there is an urgent need for skin cells protective compounds. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of natural, previously extensively examined, polyphenol with antioxidant properties - rutin, on UV-induced skin fibroblasts membrane disruption. Accordingly, fibroblasts exposed to UVA and UVB irradiation were incubated with rutin (12h before and/or up to 24h after irradiation), and the structural and metabolic changes were examined. Rutin penetration through the fibroblast phospholipid bilayer was aided by UVA-induced bilitranslocase activity 2-4h after irradiation, while UVB irradiation led to enhanced phospholipid peroxidation and higher membrane permeability to facilitate the interaction of rutin with phospholipids. Lipidomic analysis revealed that 4h of rutin treatment also partially prevented UVA/B-induced increase in phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine level, as well as their membrane localization, which resulted in an enhanced zeta potential in the cells and liposomes. Moreover, rutin 2h following irradiation, in a various degree, prevented the increased in phospholipase A2 activity and ROS generation, and partially protected against the reduction of arachidonic and linoleic acids level and the lipid peroxidation product 4-hydroxynonenal level increase. Rutin effectively prevented against decrease in glutathione peroxidase, glutathione and vitamins E and C activities/levels, particularly 2h following UVA irradiation. In conclusion, highest skin fibroblasts membrane level of rutin occurred in 2-4h following UVA/B-radiation results in its strongest effect on biomembrane structure and functions and cellular antioxidant system irrespective of the radiation type. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of Substance P in Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis virulence: Implication for skin homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awa eNdiaye

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis are two major skin associated bacteria, and Substance P (SP is a major skin neuropeptide. Since bacteria are known to sense and response to many human hormones, we investigated the effects of SP on Staphylococci virulence in reconstructed human epidermis model and HaCaT keratinocytes. We show that SP is stimulating the virulence of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis in a reconstructed human epidermis model. qRT-PCR array analysis of 64 genes expressed by keratinocytes in the response to bacterial infection revealed a potential link between the action of SP on Staphylococci and skin physiopathology. qRT-PCR and direct assay of cathelicidin and human β-defensin 2 secretion also provided that demonstration that the action of SP on bacteria is independent of antimicrobial peptide expression by keratinocytes. Considering an effect of SP on S. aureus and S. epidermidis, we observed that SP increases the adhesion potential of both bacteria on keratinocytes. However, SP modulates the virulence of S. aureus and S. epidermidis through different mechanisms. The response of S. aureus is associated with an increase in Staphylococcal Enterotoxin C2 (SEC2 production and a reduction of exolipase processing whereas in S. epidermidis the effect of SP appears mediated by a rise in biofilm formation activity. The Thermo unstable ribosomal Elongation factor Ef-Tu was identified as the SP-interacting protein in S. aureus and S. epidermidis. SP appears as an inter-kingdom communication factor involved in the regulation of bacterial virulence and essential for skin microflora homeostasis.

  10. Effects of oral intake of kimchi-derived Lactobacillus plantarum K8 lysates on skin moisturizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hangeun; Kim, Hye Rim; Jeong, Bong Jun; Lee, Seung Su; Kim, Tae-Rahk; Jeong, Ji Hye; Lee, Miyeong; Lee, Sinai; Lee, Jong Suk; Chung, Dae Kyun

    2015-01-01

    Skin is the soft outer covering of vertebrates that provides protection from pathogenic infection, physical damage, or UV irradiation, and controls body temperature and water content. In this study, we examined the effects of oral intake of kimchi-derived Lactobacillus plantarum K8 lysates on skin moisturizing. In an in vitro study, we observed that the hyaluronic acid content increased in HaCaT cells treated with L. plantarum K8 lysates. Oral administration of L. plantarum K8 lysates effectively attenuated the horny layer formation and decreased epidermal thickening in DNCB-treated SKH-1 hairless mice skin. The damage to barrier function was reduced after 8 weeks of oral administration of L. plantarum K8 lysates as compared with that in the atopic dermatitis mice. For the test with volunteers, we manufactured experimental candy containing 2.1% L. plantarum K8 lysates, while control candy did not contain bacterial lysate. A significant increase in hydration in the experimental candy-administered group as compared with the control candy-administered group was observed on the face after 4 and 8 weeks, and on the forearm after 4 weeks. Decreases in horny layer thickness and TEWL value were observed on the face and forearm of the experimental group. Together, the in vitro cell line and in vivo mouse studies revealed that L. plantarum K8 lysates have a moisturizing effect. A clinical research study with healthy volunteers also showed an improvement in barrier repair and function when volunteers took L. plantarum K8 lysates-containing candy. Thus, our results suggest that L. plantarum K8 lysates may help to improve skin barrier function.

  11. Structural controls on anomalous transport in fractured porous rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edery, Yaniv; Geiger, Sebastian; Berkowitz, Brian

    2016-07-01

    Anomalous transport is ubiquitous in a wide range of disordered systems, notably in fractured porous formations. We quantitatively identify the structural controls on anomalous tracer transport in a model of a real fractured geological formation that was mapped in an outcrop. The transport, determined by a continuum scale mathematical model, is characterized by breakthrough curves (BTCs) that document anomalous (or "non-Fickian") transport, which is accounted for by a power law distribution of local transition times ψ>(t>) within the framework of a continuous time random walk (CTRW). We show that the determination of ψ>(t>) is related to fractures aligned approximately with the macroscopic direction of flow. We establish the dominant role of fracture alignment and assess the statistics of these fractures by determining a concentration-visitation weighted residence time histogram. We then convert the histogram to a probability density function (pdf) that coincides with the CTRW ψ>(t>) and hence anomalous transport. We show that the permeability of the geological formation hosting the fracture network has a limited effect on the anomalous nature of the transport; rather, it is the fractures transverse to the flow direction that play the major role in forming the long BTC tail associated with anomalous transport. This is a remarkable result, given the complexity of the flow field statistics as captured by concentration transitions.

  12. Effects of Ionizing Radiation on Murine Gene Expression in Skin and Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Masahiro; Schreurs, Ann-Sofie; Shirazi-Fard, Yasaman; Alwood, Joshua; Tahimic, Candice; Sowa, Marianne B.; Globus, Ruth K.

    2017-01-01

    Long duration spaceflight causes a negative calcium balance and reduces bone density in astronauts. The potential for exposure to space radiation to contribute to lasting decrements in bone mass is not yet understood. Sustained changes to bone mass have a relatively long latency for development, however skin is a radiation sensitive organ and changes in skin gene expression may serve as an early radiation biomarker of exposures and may correlate with adverse effects on skeletal tissue. Previous studies have shown that FGF18 gene expression levels of hair follicles collected from astronauts on the ISS rose over time. In the hair follicle, FGF18 signaling mediates radioresistance in the telogen by arresting the cell cycle, and FGF18 has the potential to function as a radioprotector. In bone, FGF18 appears to regulate cell proliferation and differentiation positively during osteogenesis and negatively during chondrogenesis. Cellular defense responses to radiation are shared by a variety of organs, hence in this study, we examined whether radiation induced gene expression changes in skin may be predictive of the responses of skeletal tissue to radiation exposure. We have examined oxidative stress and growth arrest pathways in mouse skin and long bones by measuring gene expression levels via quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) after exposure to total body irradiation (TBI). To investigate the effects of irradiation on gene expression, we used skin and femora (cortical shaft) from the following treatment groups: control (normally loaded, sham-irradiated), and TBI (0.5 Gy Fe-56 600 MeV/n and 0.5 Gy H-1 150 MeV/n). Animals were euthanized one and 11 days post-IR. Statistical analysis was performed via a Student's ttest. In skin samples one day after IR, skin expression of FGF18 was significantly greater (3.8X) than sham-irradiated controls (3.8X), but did not differ 11 days post TBI. Expression levels of other radiation related genes (Nfe2l2, Trp53, Cdkn1a, FoxO3

  13. The effectiveness of using a bath oil to reduce signs of dry skin: A randomized controlled pragmatic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottner, Jan; Kanti, Varvara; Dobos, Gabor; Hahnel, Elisabeth; Lichterfeld-Kottner, Andrea; Richter, Claudia; Hillmann, Kathrin; Vogt, Annika; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike

    2017-01-01

    Dry skin (xerosis cutis) is increasingly recognized as a relevant health problem in daily life and in health and nursing care. The use of bath additives such as oils is common to reduce dry skin, but empirical evidence supporting this practice is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of using a bath oil additive in improving skin barrier function and ameliorating dry skin in comparison to non-oil containing skin cleansers for bathing or showering. Single centre randomized observer blind pragmatic parallel group trial. Outpatient/community care. Volunteers showing clinically mild to moderate dry skin recruited from the city of Berlin. Healthy children and adults were randomly assigned to use either a commercially available bath oil or to continue using their regular non-oil containing skin cleansers every other day over a study period of 28days. Skin barrier parameters and the severity of dry skin were assessed at baseline and at two follow-up visits at the study centre. Transepidermal water loss was the primary outcome. All sixty participants randomized completed the trial. Median age was 32.5 (IQR 8.3 to 69) years. At the end of study the mean transepidermal water loss in the intervention group was statistically significant lower compared to the control group (mean difference -1.9 (95% CI -3.1 to -0.8) g/m 2 /h). Stratum corneum hydration was statistically significantly higher in the intervention group at the end of the study. Skin surface pH and roughness were comparable in both groups and remained unchanged, while both groups showed a trend to improvement in dry skin symptoms CONCLUSIONS: This pragmatic trial provides empirical evidence that the regular use of the investigated bath oil is effective in improving the skin barrier function in children and adults with mild dry skin when used in routine skin care and supports its use as a basic element for the management of a broad spectrum of dry skin conditions. Clinical

  14. Functional behavior of the anomalous magnetic relaxation observed in melt-textured YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-δ} samples showing the paramagnetic Meissner effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, F.T., E-mail: fabio.dias@ufpel.edu.br [Instituto de Física e Matemática, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Caixa Postal 354, 96010-900, Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Vieira, V.N.; Garcia, E.L. [Instituto de Física e Matemática, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Caixa Postal 354, 96010-900, Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Wolff-Fabris, F.; Kampert, E. [Dresden High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, 01314, Dresden (Germany); Gouvêa, C.P. [National Institute of Metrology, Quality and Technology (Inmetro), Material Metrology Division, 25250-020, Duque de Caxias, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Schaf, J. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, 91501-970, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Obradors, X.; Puig, T. [Institut de Ciència de Materials de Barcelona, CSIC, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193, Bellaterra (Spain); Roa, J.J. [Departamento de Ciencia de Materiales e Ingeniería Metalúrgica, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, 08028, Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Paramagnetic Meissner effect observed up to 5T in FCC and FCW measurements. • Time effects evidenced by irreversibilities between FCC and FCW measurements. • Strong time effects causing an anomalous paramagnetic relaxation. • Paramagnetic relaxation governed by different flux dynamics in different intervals. • An interpretative analysis to identify the flux dynamics in the relaxation process. - Abstract: We have studied the functional behavior of the field-cooled (FC) magnetic relaxation observed in melt-textured YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-δ} (Y123) samples with 30 wt% of Y{sub 2}Ba{sub 1}Cu{sub 1}O{sub 5} (Y211) phase, in order to investigate anomalous paramagnetic moments observed during the experiments. FC magnetic relaxation experiments were performed under controlled conditions, such as cooling rate and temperature. Magnetic fields up to 5T were applied parallel to the ab plane and along the c-axis. Our results are associated with the paramagnetic Meissner effect (PME), characterized by positive moments during FC experiments, and related to the magnetic flux compression into the samples. After different attempts our experimental data could be adequately fitted by an exponential decay function with different relaxation times. We discuss our results suggesting the existence of different and preferential flux dynamics governing the anomalous FC paramagnetic relaxation in different time intervals. This work is one of the first attempts to interpret this controversial effect in a simple analysis of the pinning mechanisms and flux dynamics acting during the time evolution of the magnetic moment. However, the results may be useful to develop models to explain this interesting and still misunderstood feature of the paramagnetic Meissner effect.

  15. Printing tattoo effect after use of Dermabond®Prineo® Skin closure system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabeer Ahmad Wani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abdominoplasty is a very common procedure in the plastic surgery practice and may lead to a variety of unfavorable results including incision site complications. The surgical adhesives system, which entered into daily practice to replace the need for subcuticular closure for skin, saves time and may have better wound appearance. Dermabond® Prineo® Skin Closure System (Ethicon Inc., Somerville, NJ, USA has two major components: 2–Octyl cyanoacrylate glue and a flexible, self-adhesive polyester mesh. It can be used with or without sutures, and has the added benefit of waterproofing, and microbial resistance. It also saves time. This case describes a male patient who experienced a “printing tattoo” effect following an elective procedure of abdominoplasty and the results after this closure system was used.

  16. Radioprotective effects of Aloe vera leaf extract on skin of Swiss mice after gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehlot, Prashasnika; Saini, M.R.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Biological effects of radiation are detrimental to life. Skin being a cell-renewal system is one of the best organ for studying radiation induced effects and their modulation by antioxidants. An attempt has been made to evaluate radioprotective efficacy of Aloe vera leaf extract on skin in Swiss mice (1g/kg body wt/day). The mice selected from inbreed colony were divided into two groups. The first group was given Aloe vera extract orally for 15th consecutive days and served as experimental group while the other group received DDW (vol. equal to Aloe extract) to serve as control group. On the 15th day, after 30 min of above treatment animals of both the groups were exposed to 2 Gy gamma irradiation and autopsied on 6h 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21 days. DNA as well as total protein decreases in control group as compared to the normal value. Surprisingly, in experimental group, DNA and protein increases in comparison to the control group. Thus, Aloe vera were found to have positive influence against radiation induced alterations on skin of Swiss albino mice

  17. Skin effect suppression for Cu/CoZrNb multilayered inductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Noriyuki; Endo, Yasushi; Yamaguchi, Masahiro

    2012-04-01

    The Cu/Co85Zr3Nb12 multilayer is studied as a conductor of a spiral inductor to suppress the skin effect at the 5 GHz range (matches IEEE 802.11 a standard) using negative-permeability in CoZrNb films beyond the ferromagnetic resonance frequency. The skin effect suppression becomes remarkable when the thickness of Cu in each period of the multilayer, tCu, is less than the skin depth of Cu at the targeting frequency. For the 5 GHz operation, tCu ≤ 750 nm. The resistance of the Cu/CoZrNb multilayered spiral inductor decreases as much as 8.7%, while keeping the same inductance of 1.1 nH as that of a similar air core. Accordingly, Q = 16. Therefore, the proposed method can contribute to realize a high-Q spiral inductor. We also study the potentially applicable frequency of this method. Given a soft magnetic material with Ms = 105 emu/cc and Hk = 5 Oe, the method can be applied at 700 MHz, the lowermost carrier frequency band for the 4th generation cellular phone system.

  18. Skin decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moehrle, G.

    1975-01-01

    A general survey of skin decontamination is given. The success of every decontamination treatments depends mainly on the speed, but also on the care, with which the action is taken. The best way to remove the skin contaminants is thorough washing under lukewarm running water with mild soap and a soft brush. This washing is to be repeated several times for a period of several minutes. If results are not satisfactory, light duty detergents and wetting agents available commercially may also be used. Some solutions which have proved useful are mentioned. The decontamination solutions are best used in the order given. When one has no satisfactory decontamination effect, the next one is to be used. If necessary, these agents must be used several times in the stated order as long as this does not involve too much strain for the skin. All the decontamination measures mentioned refer, of course, to intact healthy skin. After decontamination has been completed, the skin should be treated with a protective cream

  19. Isolation, identification, and pathological effects of beach sand bacterial extract on human skin keratinocytesin vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhan, Fazli; Shahzad, Raheem; Tauseef, Isfahan; Haleem, Kashif Syed; Rehman, Atta-Ur; Mahmood, Sajid; Lee, In-Jung

    2018-01-01

    Beaches are recreational spots for people. However, beach sand contains harmful microbes that affect human health, and there are no established methods for either sampling and identifying beach-borne pathogens or managing the quality of beach sand. This study was conducted with the aim of improving human safety at beaches and augmenting the quality of the beach experience. Beach sand was used as a resource to isolate bacteria due to its distinctive features and the biodiversity of the beach sand biota. A selected bacterial isolate termed FSRS was identified as Pseudomonas stutzeri using 16S rRNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis, and the sequence was deposited in the NCBI GenBank database under the accession number MF599548. The isolated P. stutzeri bacterium was cultured in Luria-Bertani growth medium, and a crude extract was prepared using ethyl acetate to examine the potential pathogenic effect of P. stutzeri on human skin. A human skin keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT) was used to assess cell adhesion, cell viability, and cell proliferation using a morphological analysis and a WST-1 assay. The crude P. stutzeri extract inhibited cell adhesion and decreased cell viability in HaCaT cells. We concluded that the crude extract of P. stutzeri FSRS had a strong pathological effect on human skin cells. Beach visitors frequently get skin infections, but the exact cause of the infections is yet to be determined. The beach sand bacterium P. stutzeri may, therefore, be responsible for some of the dermatological problems experienced by people visiting the beach.

  20. Effects of the Airway Obstruction on the Skin Microcirculation in Patients with Bronchial Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonova, I V; Kosyakova, N I; Tankanag, A V; Chemeris, N K

    Pulmonary hemodynamic disorders depend on the inflammatory phases and severity of the obstructive syndrome. However, the effect of asthma bronchial obstruction on the state of peripheral hemodynamics remains insufficiently known. To study the effects of airway obstruction on skin blood flow parameters and its regulatory systems in patients with persistent atopic bronchial asthma in the remission state. A comparative study of the skin peripheral blood flow in patients with bronchial asthma with severe airway obstruction (1st group) and without obstruction (2nd group) was conducted. 20 patients with confirmed diagnosis of atopic asthma of 50–74 years old participated in the study. All patients received basic therapy in a constant dosing of high doses of inhaled glucocorticosteroids/long-acting beta-2-agonists. The control group included 20 healthy volunteers without evidence of bronchial obstruction. The study lasted for 3 months. The forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) was used to evaluate the bronchial obstruction by spirometry technique. Skin blood perfusion changes were recorded by laser Doppler flowmetry at rest and in response to short-term local ischemia. Registered peripheral blood flow signals were examined using the amplitude temporal filtering in five frequency intervals to identify the functional features of the peripheral blood flow regulation systems. Consistent two-fold decrease of the oscillation amplitudes was found in the neurogenic interval at rest (p=0.031), as well as in the myogenic (p=0.043; p=0.031) and endothelial intervals (p=0.037; p≤0.001) both at rest and during the postocclusive reactive hyperemia respectively in the 1st group of patients with bronchial obstruction (FEV1 obstruction, FEV1 >80%) in comparison to control subjects. The presence of bronchial obstruction has a significant impact on the changes of the amplitudes of skin blood flow oscillations in patients with bronchial asthma in the myogenic, neurogenic and endothelial

  1. The effect of diethylene glycol monoethyl ether on skin penetration ability of diclofenac acid nanosuspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pireddu, Rosa; Sinico, Chiara; Ennas, Guido; Schlich, Michele; Valenti, Donatella; Murgia, Sergio; Marongiu, Francesca; Fadda, Anna Maria; Lai, Francesco

    2018-02-01

    The poor ability of many drugs to cross skin layers is the main limiting factor for the exploitation of the transdermal route for drug delivery. As a consequence, several approaches have been proposed to overcome the skin barrier, such as the inclusion of penetration enhancers in the topically applied drug solutions and emulsions. In this work, the penetration enhancer diethylene glycol monoethyl ether was included in novel diclofenac acid nanocrystal formulations, developed using the wet media milling technique and Poloxamer 188 as stabilizer. The nanosuspensions were characterized by different techniques such as scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray powder diffractometry, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and photon correlation spectroscopy. The influence of diethylene glycol monoethyl ether on (trans)dermal delivery of diclofenac nanosuspensions was evaluated by in vitro studies using Franz diffusion cells and pig skin. demonstrated that the presence of diethylene glycol monoethyl ether influences the Poloxamer 188 ability to stabilize the nanocrystals during the milling process, leading to larger particles as compared to penetration enhancer-free nanosuspensions. As previously reported, the in vitro permeation studies indicate the nanosizing as a key factor in the dermal penetration of topically applied diclofenac. Surprisingly enough, the inclusion of increasing amounts of the penetration enhancer in the formulation decreased the diclofenac accumulation in the stratum corneum, while showing no significant effect on the drug delivered to the epidermis. Overall, the present results exclude a synergistic effect of the nanosizing approach and the addition of diethylene glycol monoethyl ether in regard to the skin penetration of diclofenac applied as a nanosuspension. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Isolation, identification, and pathological effects of beach sand bacterial extract on human skin keratinocytes in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazli Subhan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Beaches are recreational spots for people. However, beach sand contains harmful microbes that affect human health, and there are no established methods for either sampling and identifying beach-borne pathogens or managing the quality of beach sand. Method This study was conducted with the aim of improving human safety at beaches and augmenting the quality of the beach experience. Beach sand was used as a resource to isolate bacteria due to its distinctive features and the biodiversity of the beach sand biota. A selected bacterial isolate termed FSRS was identified as Pseudomonas stutzeri using 16S rRNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis, and the sequence was deposited in the NCBI GenBank database under the accession number MF599548. The isolated P. stutzeri bacterium was cultured in Luria–Bertani growth medium, and a crude extract was prepared using ethyl acetate to examine the potential pathogenic effect of P. stutzeri on human skin. A human skin keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT was used to assess cell adhesion, cell viability, and cell proliferation using a morphological analysis and a WST-1 assay. Result The crude P. stutzeri extract inhibited cell adhesion and decreased cell viability in HaCaT cells. We concluded that the crude extract of P. stutzeri FSRS had a strong pathological effect on human skin cells. Discussion Beach visitors frequently get skin infections, but the exact cause of the infections is yet to be determined. The beach sand bacterium P. stutzeri may, therefore, be responsible for some of the dermatological problems experienced by people visiting the beach.

  3. The effects of quercetin-loaded PLGA-TPGS nanoparticles on ultraviolet B-induced skin damages in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xianbing; Zeng, Xiaowei; Zhang, Xudong; Cao, Wei; Wang, Yilin; Chen, Houjie; Wang, Teng; Tsai, Hsiang-I; Zhang, Ran; Chang, Danfeng; He, Shuai; Mei, Lin; Shi, Xiaojun

    2016-04-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation has deleterious effects on living organisms, and functions as a tumor initiator and promoter. Multiple natural compounds, like quercetin, have been shown the protective effects on UV-induced damage. However, quercetin is extremely hydrophobic and limited by its poor percutaneous permeation and skin deposition. Here, we show that quercetin-loaded PLGA-TPGS nanoparticles could overcome low hydrophilicity of quercetin and improve its anti-UVB effect. Quercetin-loaded NPs can significantly block UVB irradiation induced COX-2 up-expression and NF-kB activation in Hacat cell line. Moreover, PLGA-TPGS NPs could efficiently get through epidermis and reach dermis. Treatment of mice with quercetin-loaded NPs also attenuates UVB irradiation-associated macroscopic and histopathological changes in mice skin. These results demonstrated that copolymer PLGA-TPGS could be used as drug nanocarriers against skin damage and disease. The findings provide an external use of PLGA-TPGS nanocarriers for application in the treatment of skin diseases. Skin is the largest organ in the body and is subjected to ultraviolet (UV) radiation damage daily from the sun. Excessive exposure has been linked to the development of skin cancer. Hence, topically applied agents can play a major role in skin protection. In this article, the authors developed quercetin-loaded PLGA-TPGS nanoparticles and showed their anti-UVB effect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of topical corticosteroid and tacrolimus on ceramides and irritancy to sodium lauryl sulphate in healthy skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersted, Jakob Mutanu; Høgh, Julie Kaae; Hellegren, Lars I

    2011-01-01

    . For evaluation of the skin barrier, transepidermal water loss, erythema and electrical capacitance were measured. The ceramide/cholesterol ratio was increased in betamethasone- (p¿=¿0.008) and tacrolimus-treated (p¿=¿0.025) skin compared with emollient-treated skin. No differences in ceramide subgroups were......The skin barrier, located in the stratum corneum, is influenced mainly by the lipid and protein composition of this layer. In eczematous diseases impairment of the skin barrier is thought to be of prime importance. Topical anti-inflammatory drugs and emollients are the most widely used eczema...... treatments. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of topically applied corticosteroid, tacrolimus and emollient on stratum corneum lipids and barrier parameters. Nineteen healthy volunteers participated in the study. Both forearms of the subjects were divided into four areas, which were treated...

  5. The effect of UV-B on the immune responses with the skin cells of the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Kenji

    1995-01-01

    The effect of UV-B radiation on immune responses was evaluated by radiation of rat spleen and skin epidermal cells in vitro. The radiation deteriorated the immune responses without influencing the viability of the irradiated cells. The mitogenic blastogenesis of the spleen cells was inhibited. The stimulatory effect of the spleen and skin cells was inhibited in mixed lymphocyte cultures. The cytotoxicity of spleen cells was decreased. The susceptibility of target skin cells to natural cytotoxicity was decreased. Therefore, UV-B radiation causes changes in the cell membrane resulting in the inhibition of immune responses. (author)

  6. Kinesio taping influences the mechanical behaviour of the skin of the low back: A possible pathway for functionally relevant effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimino, Stephanie R; Beaudette, Shawn M; Brown, Stephen H M

    2018-01-23

    Despite claims of functional benefits of kinesio tape application, little mechanistic evidence exists to support physiological pathways to achieve these benefits. As kinesio tape is adhered directly to the skin, it can be supposed that any pathway needs to first achieve effects at this level. To address this, two layers of the skin, the combined epidermis and dermis, as well as the hypodermis were studied. Specifically, -kinematic measures of skin surface stretch and retraction, as well as ultrasound measures of skin thickness, were made along all edges of kinesio tape applied over the low back. Results demonstrated that the more superficial skin layer (combined epidermis and dermis), but not the deeper hypodermis, was significantly stretched (p = .0001) and thinner (p = .0016) at either end of the tape, and significantly retracted (p tape. These results were partly dependent upon spine posture; skin retraction along the tape edges was only apparent in neutral and flexed (but not extended) spine postures, while skin thinning at the tape ends was only apparent in neutral and extended (but not flexed) spine postures. Hypodermal thickness was not affected by kinesio tape application at any location or in any posture. In summary, measured deformations at the skin surface and within the epidermal and dermal regions provide plausible pathways through which kinesio tape could achieve its claimed benefits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of Chongkukjang on histamine-induced skin wheal response: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyang-Im Baek

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: Oral administration of CKJ for 12 weeks resulted in a reduction of the skin wheal response to histamine, with no apparent adverse effects. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01402141.

  8. Effect of dietary zinc proteinate supplementation on growth performance, and skin and meat quality of male and female broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, H M; Lee, H R; Jo, C; Lee, S K; Lee, B D

    2012-01-01

    1. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary zinc proteinate (ZP) supplementation on growth performance and on skin and meat quality of male and female broiler chicks. 2. A total of 240 1-d-old male and 240 1-d-old female broiler chicks were randomly distributed into 24 floor pens (12 replicate pens/sex; 20 birds/pen) and were given either 0 (Control diet) or 40 mg/kg ZP (ZP 40), resulting in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. 3. The growth performance of male and female broiler chicks was not affected by the ZP supplementation, but the males showed significantly higher growth performance than did females. 4. ZP supplementation increased the total thickness of skin in both sexes, and males had thicker skin than females. It also increased the collagen content of skin, but not that of meat. Males had higher skin collagen contents than did females, but no sex difference was found in the meat collagen contents. 5. ZP supplementation did not affect the shear force values of skin and meat; however, males had higher shear force values of back skin than females. ZP supplementation increased the zinc contents of thigh meat and plasma in both sexes. Males had higher zinc contents in back skin than females. 6. It is concluded that dietary ZP supplementation could increase the skin quality of broiler chicks in both sexes, particularly in female broilers, without any effect on growth performance. Male broilers have better growth performance and skin quality than females.

  9. [Preparation and antimicrobial effect of aromatic, natural and bacteriostatic foot wash with skin care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Su-Hua; Zhao, Guo-Xiang; Yang, Xiao-Dong; Xu, Ling-Ling

    2013-06-01

    To prepare the aromatic, natural and bacteriostatic foot wash with skin care and research the inhibition effect on the different bacteria and pathogenic fungus which cause dermatophytosis. It was prepared by using Sophoraflavescens and Dictamnus dasycarpus as materials with the addition of Aloe extract, essential oil, surfactant, etc. The antifungal and antibacterial activity was researched by the levitation liquid quantitative method. The foot wash smelled faintly scent. The use of this product can produce a rich foam. The inhibitory rate were all more than 90%. The preparation process of the foot wash was simple. It has obviously bacteriostatic and fungistatic effect.

  10. Effect of synthetic vernix biofilms on barrier recovery of damaged mouse skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudshoorn, Marion H M; Rissmann, Robert; van der Coelen, Dennis; Hennink, Wim E; Ponec, Maria; Bouwstra, Joke A

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate whether topical application of synthetic biofilms supports and accelerates the recovery of the murine skin barrier, disrupted by sequential tape stripping. Therefore, various biofilms were applied topically on disrupted mouse skin to determine which formulation could improve barrier function, as was observed previously for the natural biofilm vernix caseosa (VC). The biofilms [i.e. particles (synthetic corneocytes) embedded in a synthetic lipid matrix] mimic closely the physicochemical properties and structure of VC. Various formulations were prepared using different particle:lipid ratios, particles with different initial water content and uncoated or lipid-coated particles. It was observed that application of all tested formulations improved the skin barrier recovery rate and reduced crust formation and epidermal hyperproliferation. However, only one of the biofilms [i.e. B1; composed of uncoated particles with 50% (w/w) initial water content and particle:lipid ratio of 2:1] mimicked the effects of native VC most closely. This indicates the importance of the presence of individual components, i.e. barrier lipids and water, as well as the ratio of these components. Consequently, these observations suggest the potential use of this biofilm treatment clinically.

  11. The effect of mesenchymal stem cells combined with platelet-rich plasma on skin wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudian-Sani, Mohammad-Reza; Rafeei, Fatemeh; Amini, Razieh; Saidijam, Massoud

    2018-03-04

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent stem cells that have the potential of proliferation, high self-renewal, and the potential of multilineage differentiation. The differentiation potential of the MSCs in vivo and in vitro has caused these cells to be regarded as potentially appropriate tools for wound healing. After the burn, trauma or removal of the tumor of wide wounds is developed. Although standard treatment for skin wounds is primary healing or skin grafting, they are not always practical mainly because of limited autologous skin grafting. Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), Google Scholar, PubMed (NLM), LISTA (EBSCO), and Web of Science have been searched. For clinical use of the MSCs in wound healing, two key issues should be taken into account: First, engineering biocompatible scaffolds clinical use of which leads to the least amount of side effects without any immunologic response and secondly, use of stem cells secretions with the least amount of clinical complications despite their high capability of healing damage. In light of the MSCs' high capability of proliferation and multilineage differentiation as well as their significant role in modulating immunity, these cells can be used in combination with tissue engineering techniques. Moreover, the MSCs' secretions can be used in cell therapy to heal many types of wounds. The combination of MSCs and PRP aids wound healing which could potentially be used to promote wound healing. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Meta-analysis of the effectiveness of surgical scalpel or diathermy in making abdominal skin incisions.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ahmad, Nasir Zaheer

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Surgical scalpels are traditionally used to make skin incisions. Diathermy incisions on contrary are less popular among the surgeons. The aim of this meta-analysis was to compare the effectiveness of both techniques and address the common fallacies about diathermy incisions. METHODS: A literature search of MEDLINE and Cochrane databases was done, using the keywords diathermy, cold scalpel, and incisions. Eleven clinical trials comparing both methods of making skin incisions were selected for meta-analysis. The end points compared included postoperative wound infection, pain in first 24 hours after surgery, time taken to complete the incisions, and incision-related blood loss. RESULTS: Postoperative wound infection rate was comparable in both techniques (P = 0.147, odds ratio = 1.257 and 95% CI = 0.923-1.711). Postoperative pain was significantly less with diathermy incisions in first 24 hours (P = 0.031, weighted mean difference = 0.852 and 95% CI = 0.076-1.628). Similarly, the time taken to complete the incision and incision-related blood loss was significantly less with diathermy incisions (95% CI = 0.245-0.502 and 0.548-1.020, respectively). CONCLUSION: Diathermy incisions are equally prone to get wound infection, as do the incisions made with scalpel. Furthermore, lower incidence of early postoperative pain, swiftness of the technique, and a reduced blood loss are the encouraging facts supporting routine use of diathermy for abdominal skin incisions after taking careful precautions.

  13. Effect of a neutron skin on collective dipoles modes in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, D.D.; Van Isacker, P.; Nagarajan, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    One of the principal motivations for accelerated radioactive beams is to probe nuclear structure at the limits of nuclear stability. For neutron-rich nuclei, an indication of the new phenomena which may occur has already appeared, in the guise of the neutron halo discovered in very light nuclei. More generally, a steadily increasing neutron skin thickness is expected as the neutron excess increases. The presence of such a mantle of dominantly neutron matter will then particularly affect the properties of collective modes involving the out-of-phase motion of neutrons and protons. This paper explores the effect of the neutron skin thickness on the isovector M1 and E1 modes in medium and heavy mass nuclei. A simple model is used, couched in terms of classical oscillations of neutron and proton densities. The treatment includes the open-quotes pygmyclose quotes E1 mode, which corresponds to motion of the core against the loosely-bound neutrons in the mantle and predicts a significant lowering of this mode, even at relatively modest values of the skin thickness

  14. Effects of bosentan on collagen type I synthesis on in vitro culture of scleroderma skin fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Soldano

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the effects of a non-selective endothelin (ETA/B receptors antagonist, on collagen type I (COLI synthesis on in vitro culture of scleroderma (SSc skin fibroblasts (Fb. Fb were obtained from skin biopsies of 6 female SSc patients (mean age 64. 1±6 years, after informed consent and Ethical Committee Approval. Cells were treated with endothelin-I [ET-I, 100nM] for 24 and 48 hrs, pre-treated for I hr with ETA/B receptors antagonist [10nM] alone or followed by ET-I for 24 and 48 hrs. Untreated Fb were used as controls. Immunocytochemistry and western blot analysis were performed to evaluate COLI synthesis. ET-I increased COLI synthesis both at 24 and 48 hrs when compared to controls. ETA/B receptor antagonost blocks the increased COLI synthesis ET-I-mediated both at 24 and 48 hrs vs. ET-I. Results showed that ET-I receptors blockage by ETA/B receptors antagonist might prevent the excessive synthesis of COLI, supporting its positive action in the management of skin fibrosis.

  15. The effects of uncoated paper on skin moisture and transepidermal water loss in bedridden patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yong Soon; Kim, Hyun Jung; Moon, Nam-Kyung; Ahn, Young Hee; Kim, Kyoung-Ok

    2012-09-01

    The aims of this study were to measure skin moisture and transepidermal water loss after application of uncoated paper and to compare skin moisture and transepidermal water loss after use of uncoated paper and disposable underpads. The study was a cross-over, prospective, open-labeled, randomized trial. Bedridden patients aged≥18 years at a medical center in Korea were included. Treatment order was randomly assigned using block randomization, with a block size of 4 and an assignment rate of one-by-one. Skin moisture was measured using a Corneometer 825 and transepidermal water loss was measured using a Tewameter 300. Skin moisture after application of an uncoated paper was significantly lower than observed after application of a disposable underpad (mean 40.6 and SD 13.1 vs. mean 64.6 and SD 23.7, p<0.001). Transepidermal water loss also showed greater health scores after using uncoated paper (mean 11.1 and SD 5.7 g/m2/hour) than after applying a disposable underpad (mean 23.2 and SD 11.1 g/m2 /hour, p<0.001). There were no statistical between-group differences in room temperature, relative humidity, and body temperature. We found that uncoated paper was helpful in avoiding excessive moisture without adverse effects. As indicated by the results of this study, uncoated paper can be applied to bed-ridden patients who required incontinence care. Nurses may consider using uncoated paper as one of nursing methods in the routine care of bed-ridden patients for moisture control. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Effect of ionization and vehicle on skin absorption and penetration of azelaic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Wu, Xiaohong; Jia, Weibu; Zhang, Michelle C; Tan, Fengping; Zhang, Jerry

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of ionization and vehicle of topical formulations on skin absorption and penetration of azelaic acid (AZA). In vitro transport of AZA was determined for two topical formulations containing AZA with pH values of 3.9 and 4.9, respectively. FINACEA(®) (15% AZA gel), a US Food and Drug Administration approved drug for treatment of acne and rosacea, was also used for comparison. Release profile and flux of AZA were determined in an in vitro hairless mouse skin model using Franz Diffusion Cell. The data have shown that a higher concentration of AZA is retained in the epidermis/dermis layer and the whole skin for the formulation with pH = 4.9 as compared to that with pH = 3.9 at an active loading level of 2.82 mg/cm(2). In addition, the flux of ionized species of AZA in the pH 4.9 formulation (128.4 ± 35.9 μg/cm(2)/h) is approximately five-fold greater than that in the pH 3.9 formulation (27.7 ± 4.0 μg/cm(2)/h). The results suggest that the ionized AZA penetrates through the skin and accounts for majority of the total flux. This study has demonstrated that the penetration and absorption of AZA show a strong pH- and vehicle-dependency. Solubilization is the rate-limiting step in percutaneous absorption of AZA.

  17. Integrated Experimental and Computational Approach to Understand the Effects of Heavy Ion Radiation on Skin Homeostasis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    von Neubeck, Claere; Shankaran, Harish; Geniza, Matthew; Kauer, Paula M.; Robinson, Robert J.; Chrisler, William B.; Sowa, Marianne B.

    2013-08-08

    The effects of low dose high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation on human health are of concern for both space and clinical exposures. As epidemiological data for such radiation exposures are scarce for making relevant predictions, we need to understand the mechanism of response especially in normal tissues. Our objective here is to understand the effects of heavy ion radiation on tissue homeostasis in a realistic model system. Towards this end, we exposed an in vitro three dimensional skin equivalent to low fluences of Neon (Ne) ions (300 MeV/u), and determined the differentiation profile as a function of time following exposure using immunohistochemistry. We found that Ne ion exposures resulted in transient increases in the tissue regions expressing the differentiation markers keratin 10, and filaggrin, and more subtle time-dependent effects on the number of basal cells in the epidermis. We analyzed the data using a mathematical model of the skin equivalent, to quantify the effect of radiation on cell proliferation and differentiation. The agent-based mathematical model for the epidermal layer treats the epidermis as a collection of heterogeneous cell types with different proliferation/differentiation properties. We obtained model parameters from the literature where available, and calibrated the unknown parameters to match the observed properties in unirradiated skin. We then used the model to rigorously examine alternate hypotheses regarding the effects of high LET radiation on the tissue. Our analysis indicates that Ne ion exposures induce rapid, but transient, changes in cell division, differentiation and proliferation. We have validated the modeling results by histology and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The integrated approach presented here can be used as a general framework to understand the responses of multicellular systems, and can be adapted to other epithelial tissues.

  18. EFFECT OF FEED DEPRIVATION TIME ON BACTERIAL CONTAMINATION OF SKIN AND CARCASS IN MEAT GOATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Vanguru

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that diet and feed deprivation time prior to slaughter can influence the fecal shedding of bacteria in goats. This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of feed deprivation time (FDT on skin and carcass bacterial counts. Thirty-two Boer × Spanish goats (BW = 18.8 ± 0.82 kg were randomly assigned to one of 4 FDT (0, 9, 18, or 27 h before slaughter. Immediately after slaughter and evisceration, the pH values of rumen liquor and cecal digesta were determined. Rumen and rectal content samples were collected and transported to the laboratory for culture and determination of microbial load. Initial pH of Longissimus muscle (LM was determined at 15 min postmortem on each carcass. Swab samples were collected from skin (leg; 25 cm2 area and carcass (flank, brisket and leg; 75 cm2 area of each animal to assess the bacterial load. The 27-h FDT group had higher (P 0.05 by FDT.  The microbial counts of rumen and fecal contents were not influenced by FDT.  The E. coli, total coliform (TCC, and total plate counts of rumen content were 2.93, 3.14, and 6.08 log10CFU/g, respectively, and those of fecal contents were 3.56, 7.25 and 6.81 log10CFU/g, respectively. The FDT had no effect on the initial (pH = 6.87 of LM. The E. coli, TCC, and aerobic plate counts on skin were 1.13, 1.49, and 3.78 log10CFU/cm2, respectively, and those on carcasses were 1.51, 1.65, and 3.11 log10CFU/cm2, respectively. Both skin and carcass microbial counts were not affected (P > 0.05 by FDT. The results indicate that feed deprivation time alone up to 27 h may not significantly influence gut, skin, or carcass microbial loads.

  19. Stem cell recovering effect of copper-free GHK in skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hye-Ryung; Kang, Youn-A; Ryoo, Sun-Jong; Shin, Jung-Won; Na, Jung-Im; Huh, Chang-Hun; Park, Kyoung-Chan

    2012-11-01

    The peptide Gly-His-Lys (GHK) is a naturally occurring copper(II)-chelating motifs in human serum and cerebrospinal fluid. In industry, GHK (with or without copper) is used to make hair and skin care products. Copper-GHK plays a physiological role in the process of wound healing and tissue repair by stimulating collagen synthesis in fibroblasts. We also reported that copper-GHK promotes the survival of basal stem cells in the skin. However, the effects of copper-free GHK (GHK) have not been investigated well. In this study, the effects of GHK were studied using cultured normal human keratinocytes and skin equivalent (SE) models. In monolayer cultured keratinocytes, GHK increased the proliferation of keratinocytes. When GHK was added during the culture of SE models, the basal cells became more cuboidal than control model. In addition, there was linear and intense staining of α6 and β1 integrin along the basement membrane. The number of p63 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen positive cells was also significantly increased in GHK-treated SEs than in control SEs. Western blot and slide culture experiment showed that GHK increased the expression of integrin by keratinocytes. All these results showed that GHK increased the stemness and proliferative potential of epidermal basal cells, which is associated with increased expression of integrin. In conclusion, copper-free GHK showed similar effects with copper-GHK. Thus, it can be said that copper-free GHK can be used in industry to obtain the effects of copper-GHK in vivo. Further study is necessary to explore the relationship between copper-free GHK and copper-GHK. Copyright © 2012 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Anomalous atomic volume of alpha-Pu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kollar, J.; Vitos, Levente; Skriver, Hans Lomholt

    1997-01-01

    We have performed full charge-density calculations for the equilibrium atomic volumes of the alpha-phase light actinide metals using the local density approximation (LDA) and the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). The average deviation between the experimental and the GGA atomic radii is 1.......3%. The comparison between the LDA and GGA results show that the anomalously large atomic volume of alpha-Pu relative to alpha-Np can be ascribed to exchange-correlation effects connected with the presence of low coordinated sites in the structure where the f electrons are close to the onset of localization...