Sample records for anodontia

  1. Ectodermal dysplasia with true anodontia

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    Madhu Bala


    Full Text Available The hereditary condition known as ectodermal dysplasia is characterized by the absence or defect of two or more ectodermally derived structures. The most commonly observed forms of ectodermal dysplasia are the hidrotic and hypohidrotic types; discrimination is based on the absence or presence of sweat glands. A case of 8-year-old male child with hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia with complete anodontia of primary as well as secondary dentitions is presented. The child had a short stature, low intelligent quotient (I.Q.,, and was underweight. The patient experienced episodes of high fever, was intolerant to heat, and did not sweat. He exhibited smooth and dry skin, sparse light-colored eyebrows. Dental clinicians can be the first to diagnose ectodermal dysplasia due to the absence of teeth.

  2. 单个后牙缺失伴远端基牙倾斜的树脂黏结固定桥修复研究%Restoration of single posterior tooth anodontia accompanied tilted distal abutment with resin bonded fixed partial denture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁江海; 高飞; 王燕一; 侯康林


    目的 观察树脂黏结固定桥(RBFPD)修复下颌单个后牙缺失合并桥基牙倾斜患者的临床效果,并总结其适应证和设计特点.方法 选择2002-2003年在解放军总医院口腔科就诊的典型下颌单个后牙缺失、远端基牙近中倾斜的患者18例,所有患者基牙倾斜度不超过50°,基牙无明显松动,牙周无异常.根据基牙倾斜和模型观测结果,设计(牙合)支托和固位体的位置和形态,义齿选择普通钛合金烤瓷或钻铬合金烤瓷修复,并在修复体完成后进行5年随访.随访时进行临床检查、X线片检查并询问患者主观感受.结果 远端倾斜基牙平均倾斜33°.随访5年后,2例修复病例修复体脱落,其余义齿功能良好,牙周无明显炎症.基牙以及桥体下方牙龈无明显红肿,X线片示基牙牙周间隙无异常,患者对于修复体的外观及使用情况满意.5年期间修复体的成功率为88.9%.结论 对于伴有基牙倾斜的单个后牙缺失,采用树脂黏结固定桥进行修复的效果可靠,并具有磨牙少、基牙无需进行根管治疗等优点.%Objective To evaluate the restorative effects of customarily designed resin bonded fixed partial denture (RBFPD) on single posterior tooth anodontia accompanied by tilted distal abutment, and summarize the indications and characteristics of RBFPD. Methods From 2002 to 2003, 18 outpatients with single posterior tooth anodontia accompanied by tilted distal abutment were selected for the present study in the Department of Stomatology, General Hospital of People's Liberation Army. The gradient of tilted abutment was less than 50°. All the teeth with abutments were vital without obvious loosening or abnormal periodontal condition. The position and configuration of occlusion rest and retainer of denture were designed according to the inclination of abutment and cast survey. Titanium alloy or cobalt-chromium porcelain fused to metal RBFPD was prescribed, and all patients were

  3. Prosthetic rehabilitation of an adolescent with hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia with partial anodontia: Case report

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    Kaul S


    Full Text Available Ectodermal dysplasia is a hereditary syndrome characterized by dysplasia of tissues of ectodermal origin (hair, skin, nails, and teeth and occasionally, dysplasia of mesodermally derived tissues. The triad of nail dystrophy (onychodysplasia, alopecia, or hypotrichosis (scanty, fine, light hair on the scalp and eyebrows and palmoplantar hypohidrosis is usually accompanied by lack of sweat glands and partial or complete absence of primary and permanent dentition. Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia usually has an X-linked inheritance and affects only males severely, while female heterozygotes show only minor defects. The clinical management of children with ectodermal dysplasia provides a unique opportunity for cooperative effort between the pedodontist and the prosthodontist. The following case report discusses the management of a young boy with hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia. Removable prostheses were employed in the treatment. The aim was to rehabilitate the adolescent prosthodontically and boost him psychologically.

  4. Prosthetic rehabilitation of a preschooler with induced anodontia - A clinical report

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    Shivayogi M Hugar


    Full Text Available A case of prosthetic rehabilitation with complete dentures for a three year nine months old child is presented. Dental prosthesis are frequently used to avoid psychologic, speech, or swallowing problems in preschooler children. The case was followed up for a period of three years. These prosthesis were modified as the child grew and as the permanent teeth erupted into the oral cavity the dentures were trimmed from the areas of erupting teeth to facilitate their eruption.

  5. Prosthetic Rehabilitation in Children: An Alternative Clinical Technique

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    Nádia Carolina Teixeira Marques


    Full Text Available Complete and partial removable dentures have been used successfully in numerous patients with oligodontia and/or anodontia. However, there is little information in the literature regarding the principles and guidelines to prosthetic rehabilitation for growing children. This case report describes the management of a young child with oligodontia as well as the treatment planning and the prosthetic rehabilitation technique.

  6. Christ Siemens Touraine syndrome: A rare case report. (United States)

    Retnakumari, N; Varghese, Manuja; Kannan, V P


    Christ-Siemens-Touraine (CST) is a rare hereditary disorder of X-linked recessive trait, characterized by abnormal development of two or more structures or tissues of ectodermal origin. The common clinical findings include hypodontia, hypohydrosis, hypotrichosis, and onychodysplasia. Although hypodontia is common, anodontia is a rare feature. Most of the patients are suffering from social rejection and consequent psychological trauma because of the facial dysmorphism and absence of multiple teeth. Oral rehabilitation is of prime importance for such patients. This article presents a case in a 5½-year-old boy presenting with altered manifestations affecting almost all the ectodermal structures like skin, hair, nails, teeth, sebaceous glands, sweat glands, salivary glands, mammary glands, and tear glands. He also had complete anodontia and dry mouth. A multidisciplinary treatment was given to the patient with the collaboration of various health professionals. The child gained confidence and was relieved from the psychological impact following the prosthetic rehabilitation. PMID:27080972

  7. Prosthodontic management of anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia

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    Shilpy Gupta


    Full Text Available Ectodermal dysplasia is characterized by the absence or defects of two or more ectodermally derived structures. Anodontia or hypodontia is the most striking dental manifestation. In severe hypodontia, there is lack of alveolar development with consequent protrusion and eversion of the lips. Patients with anhidrotic forms suffer from heat intolerance due to lack of sweat glands and mild infections may lead to death in infancy from hyperthermia. A case of a 4-year-old child with anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia with partial anodontia is presented. Dental, oral, and physical features were taken into consideration in diagnosis and treatment planning for this patient. Clinical management consisted of removable partial prosthesis in maxillary arch and complete denture prosthesis in mandibular arch. The main aim of the treatment was to improve psychological development and to promote better functioning of the stomatognathic system.



    Sharma, Deeksha; Regish K M; Prithviraj, D.R.; Anoop NAIR; Raghavan, Rohit; Rupesh, P L; Robin Singh WARAINCH


    Patients with ectodermal dysplasia or having under‑ gone cleft surgery with anodontia or hypodontia, hypo‑ plastic conical teeth and patients with severely worn dentition are difficult to treat because of the poor remaining tooth structure. These patients often exhibit loss of vertical dimension of occlusion and aesthetic problems and usually need complex prosthetic treatments. Financial constraints or other priorities often restrict one from choosing the most desirabl...

  9. Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia with ankylosis of temporomandibular joint and cleft palate: A rare presentation

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    Manisha Goyal


    Full Text Available The ectodermal dysplasias are a heterogenous group of diseases, which have one or more anomalies of the hair, teeth, nails, and sweat glands. Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED is the most common type and is usually transmitted as an X-linked recessive trait. It is characterized by classical triad of hypotrichosis, anhidrosis/hypohidrosis, and hypodontia/anodontia. Here, we describe an Indian boy affected with HED and rare features including ankylosis of temporomandibular joint and cleft palate.


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    Deeksha SHARMA


    Full Text Available Patients with ectodermal dysplasia or having under‑ gone cleft surgery with anodontia or hypodontia, hypo‑ plastic conical teeth and patients with severely worn dentition are difficult to treat because of the poor remaining tooth structure. These patients often exhibit loss of vertical dimension of occlusion and aesthetic problems and usually need complex prosthetic treatments. Financial constraints or other priorities often restrict one from choosing the most desirable treatment. The overlay removable denture is a covering prosthesis partially supported by natural teeth, tooth roots, or dental implants, providing an efficient alter‑ native of treatment. Clinical reports describe the various applications of overlay dentures.

  11. Ectodermal dysplasia - Maxillary and mandibular alveolar reconstruction with dental rehabilitation: A case report and review of the literature

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    Deshpande Sanjeev


    Full Text Available Ectodermal dysplasia is a rare group of inherited disorders characterized by aplasia or dysplasia of tissues of ectodermal origin, such as hair, nails, teeth and skin. Dental manifestations include hypodontia, complete anodontia or malformed teeth. Oral rehabilitation is the major surgical challenge in such patients. It frequently requires alveolar reconstruction followed by dental implants. We report a case of hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia, which was managed with reconstruction of both the upper and the lower alveolus using free fibula flaps with dental rehabilitation using osseointegrated implants.

  12. Diagnosis and Management of a Patient with Congenitally Missing Maxillary First Permanent Molars: A Rare Case Report. (United States)

    Gupta, Megha; Panda, Suman; Mutawwam, Fahad Ahmed; Kariri, Fahad Musawi Mohammed


    Congenitally missing teeth are the most commonly seen dental anomalies. Agenesis of the permanent first molar has the least frequency of all the tooth types, and it usually occurs in association with oligodontia or anodontia. Thus, agenesis of the bilateral maxillary first permanent molar is an extremely rare occurrence, and no such case has been reported in ethnic Saudi Arabian population. We hereby report a case of nonsyndromic bilateral congenitally missing maxillary first permanent molar in an eight-year-old Saudi female patient. Comprehensive oral rehabilitation was done for the patient. The implications of the tooth agenesis are also discussed. The prognosis of this case is presented. PMID:27525130


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    Susi R. Puspita Dewi


    Full Text Available Ectodermal dysplasia is a rare congenital disease that affects several ectodermal structures. This disease is usually transmitted as an x-linked recessive trait in which the gene is carried by female and manifested in male. The orofacial characteristics of ectodermal dysplasia include anodontia or hypodontia, congenital teeth, underdevelopment of alveolar ridges and it is not uncommon for the face of an affected child to take on the appearance characteristic of old age, a prominent forehead, protuberant lips, a depressed nasal bridge, hypotricosis, and hypohidrosis. The treatment to manage orogacial disfigurement may afford the patient some measure of confidence, esthetics, function and speech. This case report describes the diagnosis and treatment of ectodermal dysplasia in an 18 year patient. The treatment included removable complete denture.

  14. Anesthetic management of a pediatric patient with hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia undergoing emergency surgery

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    Elif Oral Ahiskalioglu


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Ectodermal dysplasias are rare conditions with a triad of hypotrichosis, anodontia and anhidrosis. In literature review there have been only a few reports of anesthetic management of patients with ectodermal dysplasias. Hyperthermia is a very serious risk which may occur due to the defect of sweat glands. The present case involves a 10-year-old child with ectodermal dysplasia who presented with an acute abdomen and was considered for an emergency surgery. Our aim was to demonstrate the successful management of this case using a combination of general and epidural anesthesia. It is important for anesthesiologist to have information about this syndrome in case of emergency operations, since it can prevent serious complications and even save lives.

  15. Dento-maxillofacial abnormalities caused by radiotherapy and chemotherapy

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    Park, Cheol Woo; Hwang, Eui Hwang; Lee, Sang Rae [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Kyunghee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    A case of dento-maxillofacial abnormality involving a 10-year-old male patient with a history of esthesioneuroblastoma is presented. This patient had been treated with 54 Gy {sup 60}Co-gamma-radiation to the nasal cavity for 6 weeks and 6 cycles of combination chemotherapy of Cyclophosphamide, Cisplatin, Adriamycin, VM-26 (Teniposide), and DTIC (Dacarbazine) when he was 16 months of age. Five years after cessation of cancer therapy, he was disease free and transferred for extensive dental care to Kyung Hee University Dental Hospital. A clinical and radiologic follow-up over last 4 years showed root stunting, premature closure of the root apices, microdontia, developmental arrest, small crowns, and partial anodontia. Maxillofacial morphology evaluated by cephalometric analysis showed deficiency of maxillary development.

  16. Pemakaian Gigi Tiruan Sebagian Pada Penderita Ektodermal Displasia dengan Anondonsia Parsial

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    Rastia Indriyati


    Full Text Available Ectodermal dysplasia is a hereditary disease characterized by a congenital dysplasia of one or more ectodermal structure and their accessory appendeges. The main feature is hypohidrosis, hypotrichosis and hypodontia. Ectodermal dysplasia appear to be ingeritaed as an x-linked recessive trait. Common manifestations include frontal bossing with prominent supraorbital ridges, nasal bridge depression, protuberant lips and defective hair follicles and eyebrows. Intraorally, common findings are hypodontia or anodontia and conical teeth. The treatment is to improve the appearance and oral function included a removable prosthesis. A 5-year-old and 9-year-old male in the same family, described in the case report of ectodermal dysplasia with removable partial dentures

  17. Clinical outcomes of implant therapy in ectodermal dysplasia patients: a systematic review. (United States)

    Wang, Y; He, J; Decker, A M; Hu, J C; Zou, D


    The purpose of this review was to determine the outcome of oral function reconstruction in ectodermal dysplasia (ED) patients who have received dental implant therapy. A search was made of the PubMed and Web of Science databases; key words used were "(ectodermal dysplasia) AND (implant OR implants)", with supplementary retrieval key words "dental implant", "zygomatic implant", "anodontia", and "edentulous". Patient age, use of bone graft, implant site, type of implant, and survival rate of the implants were included in the subsequent data analysis. Forty-five articles published between 1988 and October 2015 were included in this analysis. The cases of a total of 96 patients were retrieved (22 children and 74 adults); these patients received a total of 701 implants. Fourteen implants were removed during a median follow-up time of 24 months. The 24-month implant survival rate was 97.9% in adult subjects and 98.6% in children. Sixty-eight percent of adult patients underwent bone augmentation prior to implant placement. Based on this review, dental implants are commonly used in the oral reconstruction of ED patients. However, long-term data on bone augmentation and implant success are needed, as well as additional clinical evidence on bone resorption, the esthetic outcomes of implant therapy, and physiological considerations in ED patients. PMID:27052318

  18. 单个前牙种植体修复——五年的临床观察与分析%Clinical Study of Implant Supported Single Incisor Crown

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石连水; 周汝俊; 朱玉芬


    目的:对比分析单个前牙种植体的传统临时冠修复和即刻烤瓷冠修复的临床效果。方法:对1992年10月至1995年5月的我院共39例2组前牙种植患者,采用临床四级评分的半定量方法,观察5年后评估两种修复方法的临床效果。结果:即刻烤瓷冠修复的临床效果明显优于临时冠修复。结论:即刻烤瓷冠修复单个前牙种植体是一种切实可行的方法。%To study the clinical effects of prosthesis in immediatd implant at singe anodontia incisor compared with traditional temporary resin veneer crown. Methods: Four level half-quantitative evaluations were to study two group patients with different kinds of prosthesis. Result: Study showed that there was a significant difference between the two kinds of prosthesis on success rats of dental implant. Conclusion: The prosthesis of incisor immediate implant is practical and effective.

  19. Osseointegrated dental implants in growing children: a literature review. (United States)

    Mankani, Nivedita; Chowdhary, Ramesh; Patil, Brijesh A; Nagaraj, E; Madalli, Poornima


    Edentulism is usually associated with the aging patient. However, total or partial tooth loss also affects young individuals, mainly as a result of trauma, decay, anodontia, or congenital and acquired jaw defects involving the alveolar processes. For elderly patients, the use of oral implants has become an accepted treatment modality for edentulism, and most of today's knowledge regarding implants is based on such practice. There has been hesitation to perform implant therapy for growing children; hence, few children to date have been provided with implant-supported construction. Consequently, little is known about the outcome of the osseointegration procedure in young patients, and until now, only a limited number of case presentations have been reported. This article reviews the current literature to discuss the use of dental implants in growing patients and the influence of maxillary and mandibular skeletal and dental growth on the stability of those implants. The literature review was performed through Science Direct, Wileys Blackwell Synergy, PubMed, Google, Embase, Medknow publications, and Springer for references published from 1963 to 2011. It is recommended to wait for the completion of dental and skeletal growth, except for severe cases of ectodermal dysplasia.

  20. Peran Gigi pada Tumbuh Kembang Dentofasial (Laporan Kasus

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    Retno Hayati


    Full Text Available The function of dentition is not only for mastication, the other function is to coordinate the growth of maxilla, midface and mandible. This important function was done through occlusal contact during occlusion. The occlusal surfaces become a link of stomato-gnathic system. This case report showed the midface growth was affected by agenesis. The first case was 10-years old girl with congenital missing 16 and 26. The relationship of upper and lower arch erior was edge to edge and crossbite. In posterior, the occlusal contact were found between upper second primary molars and lower first permanent molars. The second and third cases were 5 and 9-years old boys. They were siblings with ectodermal dysplasias and partial anodontia. The facial profile of these children were concave. The relationship of maxilla and mandible was class III. The manifestation of growth retardation was shown by cephalometric measurement, SN, Ans-Pns, Ptm-A, N-Me, Ans-Me, S-Go were smaller than standard normal children.

  1. Ectodermal Dysplasia: Management of Knife-Edged Irregular Ridge and Its Rehabilitation with Hybrid Implant Prosthesis. (United States)

    Revanappa, Prithviraj Doddamane; Gaur, Satyam; Srivastava, Rachana; Patil, Abhishekha; Prithviraj, Shruthi Doddamane


    Ectodermal Dysplasia Syndrome (EDS) is mainly X-linked inherited disorder with male predominance. According to Lyon hypothesis, female patients may show partial expression of EDS. Oral findings include hypodontia, rarely anodontia, protuberant lips, hyposalivation, conical teeth and loss of vertical dimension. The alveolar process fails to develop in the three dimensions. Such patients present a challenge to dental treatment due to an irregular residual ridge. This case report presents oral, functional and aesthetic rehabilitation of a 21-year-old female diagnosed with EDS using implants in the anterior maxilla at the sites of the canines bilaterally. Following, implant placement, it was noted that implant in the region of right canine was labially inclined compared to implant in the region of left canine, but both were centered in the ridge. To manage non-parallelism, one-piece titanium framework was fabricated using computer numeric controlled (CNC) machine. Subsequently, tooth and gingival shade ceramics were fired to simulate natural teeth and compensate for gingival deficiency respectively. The treatment described here restored patient's aesthetics, function, self-confidence and status in society. PMID:27437373

  2. The genetic basis of inherited anomalies of the teeth. Part 1: clinical and molecular aspects of non-syndromic dental disorders. (United States)

    Bailleul-Forestier, Isabelle; Molla, Muriel; Verloes, Alain; Berdal, Ariane


    The genetic control of dental development represents a complex series of events, which can very schematically be divided in two pathways: specification of type, size and position of each dental organ, and specific processes for the formation of enamel and dentin. Several genes linked with early tooth positioning and development, belong to signalling pathways and have morphogenesis regulatory functions in morphogenesis of other organs where they are associated with the signalling pathways. Their mutations often show pleïotropic effects beyond dental morphogenesis resulting in syndromic developmental disorders. Some genes affecting early tooth development (MSX1, AXIN2) are associated with tooth agenesis and systemic features (cleft palate, colorectal cancer). By contrast, genes involved in enamel (AMELX, ENAM, MMP20, and KLK4) and dentin (DSPP) structures are highly specific for tooth. Mutations in these genes have been identified as causes of amelogenesis imperfecta, dentinogenesis imperfecta, dentin dysplasias and anomalies of teeth number (hypo-, oligo and anodontia), which only partially overlap with the classical phenotypic classifications of dental disorders. This review of genetic basis of inherited anomalies describes, in this first paper, the molecular bases and clinical features of inherited non-syndromic teeth disorders. And in a second part, the review focus on genetic syndromes with dental involvement. PMID:18499550

  3. Oculodentodigital dysplasia

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    Dharmil C Doshi


    Full Text Available Oculodentodigital dysplasia is a rare, autosomal dominant disorder with high penetrance and variable expressivity, caused by mutations in the connexin 43 or gap junction protein alpha-1 gene. It has been diagnosed in fewer than 300 people worldwide with an incidence of around 1 in 10 million. It affects many parts of the body, particularly eyes (oculo, teeth (dento, and fingers and/or toes (digital. The common clinical features include facial dysmorphism with thin nose, microphthalmia, syndactyly, tooth anomalies such as enamel hypoplasia, anodontia, microdontia, early tooth loss and conductive deafness. Other less common features are abnormalities of the skin and its appendages, such as brittle nails, sparse hair, and neurological abnormalities. To prevent this syndrome from being overlooked, awareness of possible symptoms is necessary. Early recognition can prevent blindness, dental problems and learning disabilities. Described here is the case of a 21-year-old male who presented to the ophthalmology outpatient department with a complaint of bilateral progressive loss of vision since childhood.

  4. A case report of ectodermal dysplasia anhidrotic%无汗型外胚叶发育不全1例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄玉辉; 赖文莉; 王璟


    Congenitally total anodontia is congenital absence of all or most teeth, and also is a performance of ectodermal dysplasia syndrome. It is a kind of genetic disease, which represents complex group of diseases characterized by various defects in teeth, hair, skin, and so on, which is divided into two categories as ectodermal dysplasia anhidrotic (EDA) or called hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia and hidrotic ectodermal dysplasia. In addition to teeth, hair, skin and other structural abnormalities, patients of EDA are lack of sweat glands, who can not regulate body temperature, hidrotic type have normal sweat glands.%先天性无牙症是先天完全无牙或大多数牙齿先天缺失,常是外胚叶发育不全综合征的一种表现.外胚叶发育不全综合征是一类遗传性疾病,表现为牙齿先天缺失、毛发稀疏和皮肤异常等多种症状.本病分为2类:一类为无汗型外胚叶发育不全(EDA)或称少汗型外胚叶发育不全,另一类为有汗型外胚叶发育不全.除了牙齿、毛发、皮肤等结构异常外,EDA患者皮肤无汗腺或少汗腺,故其体温调节有障碍;有汗型患者则汗腺正常.

  5. Mutation analysis by direct and whole exome sequencing in familial and sporadic tooth agenesis (United States)

    Salvi, Alessandro; Giacopuzzi, Edoardo; Bardellini, Elena; Amadori, Francesca; Ferrari, Lia; De Petro, Giuseppina; Borsani, Giuseppe; Majorana, Alessandra


    Dental agenesis is one of the most common congenital craniofacial abnormalities. Dental agenesis can be classified, relative to the number of missing teeth (excluding third molars), as hypodontia (1 to 5 missing teeth), oligodontia (6 or more missing teeth), or anodontia (lack of all teeth). Tooth agenesis may occur either in association with genetic syndromes, based on the presence of other inherited abnormalities, or as a non-syndromic trait, with both familiar and sporadic cases reported. In this study, we enrolled 16 individuals affected by tooth agenesis, prevalently hypodontia, and we carried out direct Sanger sequencing of paired box 9 (PAX9) and Msh homeobox 1 (MSX1) genes in 9 subjects. Since no mutations were identified, we performed whole exome sequencing (WES) in the members of 5 families to identify causative gene mutations either novel or previously described. Three individuals carried a known homozygous disease mutation in the Wnt family member 10A (WNT10A) gene (rs121908120). Interestingly, two of these individuals were siblings and also carried a heterozygous functional variant in EDAR-associated death domain (EDARADD) (rs114632254), another disease causing gene, generating a combination of genetic variants never described until now. The analysis of exome sequencing data in the members of other 3 families highlighted new candidate genes potentially involved in tooth agenesis and considered suitable for future studies. Overall, our study confirmed the major role played by WNT10A in tooth agenesis and the genetic heterogeneity of this disease. Moreover, as more genes are shown to be involved in tooth agenesis, WES analysis may be an effective approach to search for genetic variants in familiar or sporadic tooth agenesis, at least in more severe clinical manifestations. PMID:27665865

  6. Cenozoic Methane-Seep Faunas of the Caribbean Region.

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    Steffen Kiel

    Full Text Available We report new examples of Cenozoic cold-seep communities from Colombia, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Trinidad, and Venezuela, and attempt to improve the stratigraphic dating of Cenozoic Caribbean seep communities using strontium isotope stratigraphy. Two seep faunas are distinguished in Barbados: the late Eocene mudstone-hosted 'Joes River fauna' consists mainly of large lucinid bivalves and tall abyssochrysoid gastropods, and the early Miocene carbonate-hosted 'Bath Cliffs fauna' containing the vesicomyid Pleurophopsis, the mytilid Bathymodiolus and small gastropods. Two new Oligocene seep communities from the Sinú River basin in Colombia consist of lucinid bivalves including Elongatolucina, thyasirid and solemyid bivalves, and Pleurophopsis. A new early Miocene seep community from Cuba includes Pleurophopsis and the large lucinid Meganodontia. Strontium isotope stratigraphy suggests an Eocene age for the Cuban Elmira asphalt mine seep community, making it the oldest in the Caribbean region. A new basal Pliocene seep fauna from the Dominican Republic is characterized by the large lucinid Anodontia (Pegophysema. In Trinidad we distinguish two types of seep faunas: the mudstone-hosted Godineau River fauna consisting mainly of lucinid bivalves, and the limestone-hosted Freeman's Bay fauna consisting chiefly of Pleurophopsis, Bathymodiolus, and small gastropods; they are all dated as late Miocene. Four new seep communities of Oligocene to Miocene age are reported from Venezuela. They consist mainly of large globular lucinid bivalves including Meganodontia, and moderately sized vesicomyid bivalves. After the late Miocene many large and typical 'Cenozoic' lucinid genera disappeared from the Caribbean seeps and are today known only from the central Indo-Pacific Ocean. We speculate that the increasingly oligotrophic conditions in the Caribbean Sea after the closure of the Isthmus of Panama in the Pliocene may have been unfavorable for such large

  7. Clinical parameters of the local anesthetic effects of bupivacaine applied with and without a vasoconstrictor in oral implantology

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    Duka Miloš


    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Bupivacaine (Marcaine®, homologue of mepivacaine, chemically related to lidocaine, is used as a local anesthetic for local infiltration, peripheral nerve block, retrobulbar block, symphathetic block, and caudal and epidural anesthesia. The aim of this investigation was to determine and to compare clinical parameters of the local anesthetic effects of bupivacaine applied with and without a vasoconstrictor. Methods. This investigation included a total of 30 randomly selected patients, who ranged in age from 30−60 years, with partial or total anodontia in the molar region of the mandible. These patients with total or partial edentulous molar part of the mandible, scheduled for dental implantation placement, were asked to participate in the study. In the first phase of the investigation, the patients were subjected to local anesthesia with 3.5 cm3 of 0.5% bupivacaine with a vasoconstrictor (adrenalin, 1: 200 000 in the right side of the mandible. After administering local anesthesia, the placement of blade, cylindrical, transdental (B.C.T. implants was performed. In the second stage of the investigation, in 7−10 days period after the first oral surgery, the patients were subjected to local anesthesia with 3.5 cm3 of 0.5% bupivacaine, but without a vasoconstrictor, in the left side of the mandible. After administering local anesthesia, the placement of B.C.T. implants was performed. During the performance of both oral surgery procedures, the following clinical parameters of the local anesthetic effects were monitored: latent period, duration and the potency of anesthesia, and the evaluation of the postoperative pain level. Results. The latent period under local anesthesia with 3.5 cm3 of 0.5% bupivacaine and vasoconstrictor was statistically significantly shorter than without vasoconstrictor. The duration of local anesthesia was longer without vasoconstrictor. There was no difference in the potency of anesthesia with or without a

  8. Ectodermal dysplasias: the p63 tail. (United States)

    Tadini, G; Santagada, F; Brena, M; Pezzani, L; Nannini, P


    Various combinations of limb anomalies, ectodermal dysplasias and orofacial clefts characterize heterozygous mutations in the transcription factor gene p63. The causative gene is crucial during embryonic ontogenesis, mostly in the development of limbs and other ectodermal derived tissues. The pattern of mutations in six different p63-related syndromes (EEC syndrome, AEC syndrome, ADULT syndrome, LMS syndrome, RHS syndrome, SHFM syndrome) shows genotype-phenotype correlations. The most frequent p63 mutation syndrome is the EEC syndrome, characterized by ectrodactyly, ectodermal dysplasia and cleft lip/palate. Ectodermal dysplasia is characterized by ectrodactyly often associated with syndactyly, sparse hair, dry skin, hypo-anodontia, dysplastic nails and alterations in sebaceous glands, mammary glands and nipples. The third hallmark of the EEC syndrome is orofacial clefting, in particular lip and palate. p63 mutations also cause the other five inherited syndromes: symptoms are overlapping, but each of these diseases has its own characteristic phenotypic features: for instance AEC syndrome (ankyloblepharon-ectodermal defects-cleft lip/palate) has as distinctive feature ankyloblepharon, while mammary glands and nipples hypoplasia are frequent findings in LMS syndrome and in ADULT syndrome (acro-dermato-ungual-lacrimal-tooth syndrome). The latter can be distinguished from other p63 syndromes by the absence of orofacial clefting and by prominent ectodermal signs. The narrowest genotype-phenotype correlation is in the EEC and AEC syndromes. All EEC missense mutations are clustered in the DNA binding domain and do not bind to DNA; in contrast, all missens mutations reported in AEC syndrome are localized in the α-motif domain, and it has been demonstrated that they disrupt interaction with other proteins. LMS and ADULT syndrome have their own unique mutated amino-acid residues. Only two amino-acid residues are known to be mutated amongst ADULT syndrome: asparagines 6 and