Sample records for anodic polarization

  1. Fabrication and anodic polarization behavior of lead-based porous anodes in zinc electrowinning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A new type of lead-based porous anode in zinc electrowinning was prepared by negative pressure infiltration.The anodie polarization potential and corrosion rate were studied and compared with those of traditional fiat anodes (Pb-0.8%Ag) used in industry.The anode eorrosion rate was determined by anode actual current density and microstructure.The results show that the anodic oxygen evolution potential decreases first and then increases with the decrease of pore diameter.The anodic potential decreases to the lowest value of 1.729 V at the pore diameter of 1.25-1.60 mm.The porous anode can decrease its actual current density and thus decrease the anodic corrosion rate.When the pore diameter is 1.60-2.00 mm,the anodic relative corrosion rate reaches the lowest value of 52.1%.

  2. Polarization Induced Deterioration of Reinforced Concrete with CFRP Anode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Hua Zhu


    Full Text Available This paper investigates the deterioration of reinforced concrete with carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP anode after polarization. The steel in the concrete was first subjected to accelerated corrosion to various extents. Then, a polarization test was performed with the external attached CFRP as the anode and the steel reinforcement as the cathode. Carbon fiber reinforced mortar and conductive carbon paste as contact materials were used to adhere the CFRP anode to the concrete. Two current densities of 1244 and 2488 mA/m2, corresponding to the steel reinforcements were applied for 25 days. Electrochemical parameters were monitored during the test period. The deterioration mechanism that occurred at the CFRP/contact material interface was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD techniques. The increase of feeding voltage and the failure of bonding was observed during polarization process, which might have resulted from the deterioration of the interface between the contact material and CFRP. The formation and accumulation of NaCl crystals at the contact material/CFRP interface were inferred to be the main causes of the failure at the interface.

  3. Three-Dimensional Simulation of SOFC Anode Polarization Characteristics Based on Sub-Grid Scale Model



    Three-dimensional numerical simulation of SOFC anode polarization is conducted with a structure obtained by a focused ion beam and scanning electron microscope (FIB-SEM). Electronic, ionic and gaseous transports with electrochemical reaction are considered. A sub-grid scale model is newly developed and effectively used to evaluate the transport flux in the porous structure. The proposed SGS model shows its potential to reasonably evaluate the transport flux considering the microstructure smal...

  4. Anode activation polarization on Pt(h k l) electrodes in dilute sulphuric acid electrolyte (United States)

    Mann, R. F.; Amphlett, J. C.; Peppley, B. A.; Thurgood, C. P.

    Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells have been under development for many years and appear to be the potential solution for many electricity supply applications. Modelling and computer simulation of PEM fuel cells have been equally active areas of work as a means of developing better understanding of cell and stack operation, facilitating design improvements and supporting system simulation studies. The prediction of activation polarization in our previous PEM modelling work, as in most PEM models, concentrated on the cathode losses. Anode losses are commonly much smaller and tend to be ignored compared to cathode losses. Further development of the anode activation polarization term is being undertaken in order to broaden the application and usefulness of PEM models in general. Previously published work on the kinetics of the hydrogen oxidation reaction using Pt(h k l) electrodes in dilute H 2SO 4 has been examined and further developed for eventual application to the modelling of PEM fuel cells. New correlations for the exchange current density are developed for Pt(1 0 0), Pt(1 1 0) and Pt(1 1 1) electrodes. Predictive equations for the anode activation polarization are also proposed. In addition, terminology has been modified to make the correlation approach and, eventually, the modelling method more easily understood and used by those without an extensive background in electrochemistry.

  5. Characterization of calcium phosphate deposited on valve metal by anodic oxidation with polarity inversion. (United States)

    Okawa, Seigo; Homma, Kikuo; Kanatani, Mitsugu; Watanabe, Kouichi


    Electrochemical deposition of calcium phosphate (CAP) on valve metals such as Ta, Nb, and Zr, was performed by anodic oxidation with alternate polarity inversion at an applied 20 VDC. A saturated hydroxyapatite(HAP)-phosphoric acid solution (pH 3) was used as the electrolyte. FTIR, XRD, and XPS were employed to investigate the detailed characteristics of the deposition. HAP was precipitated on Ta; HAP including brushite and monetite on Nb; and HAP and monetite on Zr. The Ca/P atomic ratios were 1.3-1.5 by XPS, and HPO(4)(2- )bands were detected on Ta by FTIR. Therefore, the HAP precipitated on Ta was a Ca-deficient HAP. In addition, the XPS spectra of the specimens showed that phosphate ions were incorporated into the anodic oxide film. Deposits with nano-grain size were observed by AFM. The results confirmed that CAP with nano-grain size was deposited on valve metals by the anodic oxidation with polarity inversion.

  6. Polarization properties of porous anodic alumina with Y-branched Cu nanowires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuejun Su; Lichun Zhang; Qingshan Li; Dechun Liang


    @@ Porous anodic alumina (PAA) templates with branch structure are fabricated by the two-step anodic oxidation processes, and then the Y-branched Cu nanowires are synthesized in the templates using an alternating current (AC) deposition method. We observe the morphology image of the samples by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and measure the transmission spectrum and the polarization spectrum of the samples by the spectrophotometer. The results show that PAA films with Y-branched Cu nanowires have better transmittance in the near infrared region. An extinction ratio of 15-18 dB and an insertion loss of 0.1-0.4 dB are obtained in this region. Therefore PAA with Y-branched Cu nanowires can be used as a near-infrared micropolarizer, and this kind of micropolarizer would have a promising future in the field of photoelectricity integration.

  7. Effect of anodic polarization on the free-floating parts at Pt/YSZ catalyst electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toghan, Arafat, E-mail: [Lehrstuhl für Physikalische Chemie II, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Egerlandstrasse 3, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, South Valley University, 83523 Qena (Egypt); Institut für Physikalische Chemie und Elektrochemie, Leibniz-Universität Hannover, Callinstrasse 3-3a, D-30167 Hannover (Germany); Imbihl, R. [Institut für Physikalische Chemie und Elektrochemie, Leibniz-Universität Hannover, Callinstrasse 3-3a, D-30167 Hannover (Germany)


    Photoemission electron microscopy (PEEM) was used as spatially resolving method to explore the effect of electrochemical pumping with a positive voltage to porous platinum electrodes interfaced as working electrode to yttrium stabilized zirconia (YSZ). The experiments were conducted under UHV conditions (p ≈ 10{sup −9} mbar). In PEEM a uniform rapid darkening of the Pt surface was observed during anodic polarization followed by the appearance of bright spots on a dark background. The bright spots observed in PEEM images are due to zirconia reduction around electrically isolated Pt islands.

  8. Three-Dimensional Simulation of SOFC Anode Polarization Characteristics Based on Sub-Grid Scale Modeling of Microstructure



    Three-dimensional numerical analysis of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anode polarization is conducted with a microstructure obtained by a focused ion beam and scanning electron microscope (FIB-SEM). Electronic, ionic and gaseous transports with electrochemical reaction are considered in the porous anode. A sub-grid scale (SGS) model is newly developed and effectively used to consider the structural information whose characteristic scale is smaller than calculation grid size. The proposed SGS m...

  9. Anodic galvanostatic polarization of AA2024-T3 aircraft alloy in conventional mineral acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozhukharov, S., E-mail: [Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, 8 “Kliment Okhridski” Blvd, 1756, Sofia (Bulgaria); Girginov, Ch. [Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, 8 “Kliment Okhridski” Blvd, 1756, Sofia (Bulgaria); Avramova, I. [Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Science, 11 “Georgi Bonchev” Str., 1113, Sofia (Bulgaria); Machkova, M. [Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, 8 “Kliment Okhridski” Blvd, 1756, Sofia (Bulgaria)


    The present study is devoted to the determination of the impact of the anodization of AA2024-T3 alloys in HCl, HNO{sub 3}, H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} or H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} on the samples’ surface morphology and properties. Subsequent systematic assessments were performed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersion X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). These observations were combined with Linear Voltammetry (LVA) and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) after 48 and 168 h of exposure to a 3.5% NaCl model corrosive medium. The main result is, that completely different effects were observed in accordance to the acid used. It was established that the monoprotonic acids have a deep destructive effect due to dissolution of the alloy components, whereas the polyprotonic ones possess either indistinguishable influence, or surface film formation. - Highlights: • AA2024 was polarized anodically in 15%{sub wt} acid solutions at 15 mA cm{sup −2} for 2 h. • Four mineral acids were selected for investigation: HCl, HNO{sub 3}, H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}. • SEM, EDX and XPS were applied for morphological description. • Electrochemical characterizations were performed by EIS and linear voltammetry. • The acid used predetermines completely different interaction with the AA2024 alloy.

  10. Sacrificial anode stability and polarization potential variation in a ternary Al-xZn-xMg alloy in a seawater-marine environment (United States)

    Muazu, Abubakar; Aliyu, Yaro Shehu; Abdulwahab, Malik; Idowu Popoola, Abimbola Patricia


    In this paper, the effects of zinc (Zn) and magnesium (Mg) addition on the performance of an aluminum-based sacrificial anode in seawater were investigated using a potential measurement method. Anodic efficiency, protection efficiency, and polarized potential were the parameters used. The percentages of Zn and Mg in the anodes were varied from 2% to 8% Zn and 1% to 4% Mg. The alloys produced were tested as sacrificial anodes for the protection of mild steel in seawater at room temperature. Current efficiency as high as 88.36% was obtained in alloys containing 6% Zn and 1% Mg. The polarized potentials obtained for the coupled (steel/Al-based alloys) are as given in the Pourbaix diagrams, with steel lying within the immunity region/cathodic region and the sacrificial anodes within the anodic region. The protection offered by the sacrificial anodes to the steel after the 7th and 8th week was measured and protection efficiency values as high as 99.66% and 99.47% were achieved for the Al-6%Zn-1%Mg cast anode. The microstructures of the cast anodes comprise of intermetallic structures of hexagonal Mg3Zn2 and body-centered cubic Al2Mg3Zn3. These are probably responsible for the breakdown of the passive alumina film, thus enhancing the anode efficiency.

  11. Butler–Volmer–Monod model for describing bio-anode polarization curves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamelers, H.V.M.; Heijne, ter A.; Stein, N.; Rozendal, R.A.; Buisman, C.J.N.


    A kinetic model of the bio-anode was developed based on a simple representation of the underlying biochemical conversions as described by enzyme kinetics, and electron transfer reactions as described by the Butler–Volmer electron transfer kinetics. This Butler–Volmer–Monod model was well able to des


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOOMER, K.D.


    The effect of the important chemical constituents in the Hanford nuclear waste simulant on the anodic behavior of carbon steel was studied. Specifically, the effect of pH, nitrite concentration, nitrite/nitrate concentration ratios, total organic carbon and the chloride concentration on the open circuit potential, pitting potential and repassivation potential was evaluated. It was found that pH adjusting, although capable of returning the tank chemistry back to specification, did not significantly reduce the corrosivity of the stimulant compared to the present condition. Nitrite was found to be a potent inhibitor for carbon steel. A critical concentration of approximately 1.2M appeared to be beneficial to increase the difference of repassivation potential and open circuit potential considerably and thus prevent pitting corrosion from occurring. No further benefit was gained when increasing nitrite concentration to a higher level. The organic compounds were found to be weak inhibitors in the absence of nitrite and the change of chloride from 0.05M to 0.2M did not alter the anodic behavior dramatically.

  13. Corrosion rate of construction materials in hot phosphoric acid with the contribution of anodic polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouril, M.; Christensen, Erik; Eriksen, S.;


    ). Several grades of stainless steels were tested as well as tantalum, niobium, titanium, nickel alloys and silicon carbide. The corrosion rate was evaluated by means of mass loss at free corrosion potential as well as under various levels of polarization. The only corrosion resistant material in 85...

  14. Effect of Pore Thickness and the State of Polarization on the Optical Properties of Hexagonal Nanoarray of Au/Nanoporous Anodic Alumina Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Shaban


    Full Text Available Hexagonal nanoarrays of Au particles were deposited on nanoporous anodic alumina membrane (NAAM utilizing r.f. magnetron sputtering. The thickness of the NAAMs is adjusted by changing the second anodization time from 5 min to 20 min. The surface morphology, composition, and optical properties are characterized by using SEM, EDX, and spectrophotometer, respectively. The effects of the NAAM thickness and state of polarization on the morphological changes and on the optical properties of the fabricated nanoarrays were addressed. According to the measured optical spectra, the rate of decrease of NAAMs refractive index was found to be 3.825 × 10−4 nm−1. Using the modified Kubelka-Munk radiative transfer model, the energy gap of NAAMs was calculated from diffused reflectance and was decreased from 1.682 to 1.376 as the anodization time increased from 5 to 20 min. Also, the saturation of interference fringes is substantially enhanced, and field enhancement can be achieved due to the excitation and constructive interference of surface plasmon waves by coating NAAMs with the hexagonal nanoarrays of Au. Based on the advantages of the fabrication approach and the enhanced and controlled properties, this new generation of samples can be used as promising building blocks for nanophotonic and nanoelectronics devices.

  15. Synthesis of calcium-phosphorous doped TiO2 nanotubes by anodization and reverse polarization: A promising strategy for an efficient biofunctional implant surface (United States)

    Alves, Sofia A.; Patel, Sweetu B.; Sukotjo, Cortino; Mathew, Mathew T.; Filho, Paulo N.; Celis, Jean-Pierre; Rocha, Luís A.; Shokuhfar, Tolou


    The modification of surface features such as nano-morphology/topography and chemistry have been employed in the attempt to design titanium oxide surfaces able to overcome the current dental implants failures. The main goal of this study is the synthesis of bone-like structured titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotubes enriched with Calcium (Ca) and Phosphorous (P) able to enhance osteoblastic cell functions and, simultaneously, display an improved corrosion behavior. To achieve the main goal, TiO2 nanotubes were synthetized and doped with Ca and P by means of a novel methodology which relied, firstly, on the synthesis of TiO2 nanotubes by anodization of titanium in an organic electrolyte followed by reverse polarization and/or anodization, in an aqueous electrolyte. Results show that hydrophilic bone-like structured TiO2 nanotubes were successfully synthesized presenting a highly ordered nano-morphology characterized by non-uniform diameters. The chemical analysis of such nanotubes confirmed the presence of CaCO3, Ca3(PO4)2, CaHPO4 and CaO compounds. The nanotube surfaces submitted to reverse polarization, presented an improved cell adhesion and proliferation compared to smooth titanium. Furthermore, these surfaces displayed a significantly lower passive current in artificial saliva, and so, potential to minimize their bio-degradation through corrosion processes. This study addresses a very simple and promising multidisciplinary approach bringing new insights for the development of novel methodologies to improve the outcome of osseointegrated implants.

  16. Facilitating skilled right hand motor function in older subjects by anodal polarization over the left primary motor cortex. (United States)

    Hummel, Friedhelm C; Heise, Kirstin; Celnik, Pablo; Floel, Agnes; Gerloff, Christian; Cohen, Leonardo G


    Healthy ageing is accompanied by limitations in performance of activities of daily living and personal independence. Recent reports demonstrated improvements in motor function induced by noninvasive anodal direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the primary motor cortex (M1) in young healthy adults. Here we tested the hypothesis that a single session of anodal tDCS over left M1 could facilitate performance of right upper extremity tasks required for activities of daily living (Jebsen-Taylor hand function test, JTT) in older subjects relative to Sham in a double-blind cross-over study design. We found (a) significant improvement in JTT function with tDCS relative to Sham that outlasted the stimulation period by at least 30 min, (b) that the older the subjects the more prominent this improvement appeared and (c) that consistent with previous results in younger subjects, these effects were not accompanied by any overt undesired side effect. We conclude that anodal tDCS applied over M1 can facilitate performance of skilled hand functions required for activities of daily living in older subjects.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.R. Liu; J.S. Chen; Q. Han; X.J. Wei


    The anodic overvoltage of neodymium electrolysis was determined by slow scanning oscillogram. The effects of some factors, i.e. the temperature, the anodic current density, the concentration of Nd2O3 and the components of the electrolyte were investigated and the approaches to decrease the anodic overvoltage were also discussed. The results show that the anodic overvoltage increases with the anodic current density and decreases with the increasing temperature. The linear relation between the anodic overvoltage and the current density corresponding to Tafel equation is determined to some extent. The anodic overvoltage decreases with the increasing concentrations of LiF and NdF3. It also decreases by controlling the anodic current density properly, increasing the temperature or the concentrations of LiF and NdF3 and the reducing polar distance.

  18. Anodic oxidation

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, Sidney D; Rudd, Eric J; Blomquist, Alfred T; Wasserman, Harry H


    Anodic Oxidation covers the application of the concept, principles, and methods of electrochemistry to organic reactions. This book is composed of two parts encompassing 12 chapters that consider the mechanism of anodic oxidation. Part I surveys the theory and methods of electrochemistry as applied to organic reactions. These parts also present the mathematical equations to describe the kinetics of electrode reactions using both polarographic and steady-state conditions. Part II examines the anodic oxidation of organic substrates by the functional group initially attacked. This part particular

  19. New anodizing process for magnesium alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Sheng-lian; DAI Lei; ZHOU Hai-hui; CHAI Li-yuan; KUANG Ya-fei


    Compact anodic films with high hardness and good corrosion resistance on magnesium alloys were prepared by a new constant voltage and arc-free anodizing process. The effects of anodizing parameters such as applied voltage and electrolyte temperature on the peak current density and the thickness of films were investigated. In addition, the morphologies and corrosion resistance of films were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and potentiodynamic polarization, respectively. The results show that the higher the applied voltage, the higher the peak current density and the thicker the films. However, too high applied voltage may result in breakdown of films and intense sparking which may deteriorate the properties of the anodic films and bring about unsafety. The new anodizing process can be applied in a wide range of temperature. The new anodic films have numbers of pores with the diameter of 0.5 - 5.0 μm which do not transverse the entire film.

  20. 活性炭对流化床阳极半电池极化性能的影响%Influence of activated carbon on the polarization performance of fluidized bed anode half cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖健敏; 仲兆平; 张居兵


    研究了以活性炭纤维(ACF)为燃料的熔融碳酸盐流化床电极燃料电池的极化规律,在温度为650℃、氮气、氧气及CO2流量分别为275 ml/min、10 ml/min和20 ml/min时,半电池的极化性能最好.在此工况下,以ACF为燃料的极化性能比以自制活性炭(橡木锯屑活性炭和竹质活性炭)为燃料稍差,原因是自制活性炭的体积电阻率较小,含氧官能团较多.%Polarization characteristics of fluidized bed electrode fuel cell anode using activated carbon fiber (ACF) as fuel were studied. The polarization performance of half cell was best when the temperature was 650 ℃, the flow of nitrogen, oxygen and CO2 was 275 ml/min, 10 ml/min and 20 ml/min,respectively. Under this working condition, the polarization performance using ACF as fuel was slightly worse compared with using self-made activated carbon (activated carbon based on bamboo and oak wood) .The reason was the volume resistivity of the self-made activated carbon was smaller, the surface oxygen functional groups were more.

  1. Anode Supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cells - Deconvolution of Degradation into Cathode and Anode Contributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Anke; Liu, Yi-Lin; Barfod, Rasmus;


    The degradation of anode supported cells was studied over 1500 h as function of cell polarization either in air or oxygen on the cathode. Based on impedance analysis, contributions of anode and cathode to the increase of total resistance were assigned. Accordingly, the degradation rates of the ca...

  2. The effect of zinc on the aluminum anode of the aluminum-air battery (United States)

    Tang, Yougen; Lu, Lingbin; Roesky, Herbert W.; Wang, Laiwen; Huang, Baiyun

    Aluminum is an ideal material for batteries, due to its excellent electrochemical performance. Herein, the effect of zinc on the aluminum anode of the aluminum-air battery, as an additive for aluminum alloy and electrolytes, has been studied. The results show that zinc can decrease the anodic polarization, restrain the hydrogen evolution and increase the anodic utilization rate.

  3. Advances in aluminum anodizing (United States)

    Dale, K. H.


    White anodize is applied to aluminum alloy surfaces by specific surface preparation, anodizing, pigmentation, and sealing techniques. The development techniques resulted in alloys, which are used in space vehicles, with good reflectance values and excellent corrosive resistance.

  4. XPS, time-of-flight-SIMS and polarization modulation IRRAS study of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin film materials as anode for lithium ion battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Juntao [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Surfaces, CNRS (UMR 7045), Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Paris, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); State Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces, Department of Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Maurice, Vincent [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Surfaces, CNRS (UMR 7045), Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Paris, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France)], E-mail:; Swiatowska-Mrowiecka, Jolanta; Seyeux, Antoine; Zanna, Sandrine; Klein, Lorena [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Surfaces, CNRS (UMR 7045), Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Paris, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Sun Shigang [State Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces, Department of Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China)], E-mail:; Marcus, Philippe [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Surfaces, CNRS (UMR 7045), Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Paris, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France)], E-mail:


    Ultra-thin Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} films (12.0, 17.3 and 29.6 nm thick) were produced on Cr metal by thermal oxidation, and their electrochemical properties in 1 M LiClO{sub 4} in propylene carbonate (PC) were investigated by cyclic voltammetry and chronopotentiometry. The reductive electrolyte decomposition and the conversion/deconversion process were observed and analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), polarization modulation infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). The initial irreversible capacity due to the reduction of electrolyte and the incomplete deconversion process during the first cycle is 70% of the first discharge capacity. A stable charge/discharge capacity of 460 mAh g{sup -1} was obtained in the 3rd to 10th cycles. XPS and PM-IRRAS evidenced the growth of a solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer that is constituted of Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} formed by reductive decomposition of the electrolyte. The SEI layer thickness and/or density is modified by the conversion/deconversion reaction. ToF-SIMS evidenced the volume expansion/shrink resulting from the conversion/deconversion reaction. ToF-SIMS also revealed an incomplete conversion process limited by mass transport, which partitions the oxide into a converted outer part assigned to Li{sub 2}O containing Cr traces and an unconverted inner part ascribed to Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} or lower Cr oxide containing Li. It was found that the deconversion re-homogenizes the oxide film in a single layer but with lithium trapped in it. The present study provides a detailed understanding of the interfacial reaction on the oxide anode undergoing a conversion/deconversion reaction.

  5. Anodized aluminum on LDEF (United States)

    Golden, Johnny L.


    A compilation of reported analyses and results obtained for anodized aluminum flown on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) was prepared. Chromic acid, sulfuric acid, and dyed sulfuric acid anodized surfaces were exposed to the space environment. The vast majority of the anodized surface on LDEF was chromic acid anodize because of its selection as a thermal control coating for use on the spacecraft primary structure, trays, tray clamps, and space end thermal covers. Reports indicate that the chromic acid anodize was stable in solar absorptance and thermal emittance, but that contamination effects caused increases in absorptance on surfaces exposed to low atomic oxygen fluences. There were some discrepancies, however, in that some chromic acid anodized specimens exhibited significant increases in absorptance. Sulfuric acid anodized surfaces also appeared stable, although very little surface area was available for evaluation. One type of dyed sulfuric acid anodize was assessed as an optical baffle coating and was observed to have improved infrared absorptance characteristics with exposure on LDEF.

  6. Anodizing Aluminum with Frills. (United States)

    Doeltz, Anne E.; And Others


    "Anodizing Aluminum" (previously reported in this journal) describes a vivid/relevant laboratory experience for general chemistry students explaining the anodizing of aluminum in sulfuric acid and constrasting it to electroplating. Additions to this procedure and the experiment in which they are used are discussed. Reactions involved are…

  7. Optical Transmittance of Anodically Oxidized Aluminum Alloy (United States)

    Saito, Mitsunori; Shiga, Yasunori; Miyagi, Mitsunobu; Wada, Kenji; Ono, Sachiko


    Optical transmittance and anisotropy of anodic oxide films that were made from pure aluminum and an aluminum alloy (A5052) were studied. The alloy oxide film exhibits an enhanced polarization function, particularly when anodization is carried out at a large current density. It was revealed by chemical analysis that the alloy oxide film contains a larger amount of unoxidized aluminum than the pure-aluminum oxide film. The polarization function can be elucidated by considering unoxidized aluminum particles that are arranged in the columnar structure of the alumina film. Electron microscope observation showed that many holes exist in the alloy oxide film, around which columnar cells are arranged irregularly. Such holes and irregular cell arrangement cause the increase in the amount of unoxidized aluminum, and consequently induces scattering loss.

  8. A Practical Anodic and Cathodic Curve Intersection Model to Understand Multiple Corrosion Potentials of Fe-Based Glassy Alloys in OH- Contained Solutions. (United States)

    Li, Y J; Wang, Y G; An, B; Xu, H; Liu, Y; Zhang, L C; Ma, H Y; Wang, W M


    A practical anodic and cathodic curve intersection model, which consisted of an apparent anodic curve and an imaginary cathodic line, was proposed to explain multiple corrosion potentials occurred in potentiodynamic polarization curves of Fe-based glassy alloys in alkaline solution. The apparent anodic curve was selected from the measured anodic curves. The imaginary cathodic line was obtained by linearly fitting the differences of anodic curves and can be moved evenly or rotated to predict the number and value of corrosion potentials.

  9. Electrically conductive anodized aluminum coatings (United States)

    Alwitt, Robert S. (Inventor); Liu, Yanming (Inventor)


    A process for producing anodized aluminum with enhanced electrical conductivity, comprising anodic oxidation of aluminum alloy substrate, electrolytic deposition of a small amount of metal into the pores of the anodized aluminum, and electrolytic anodic deposition of an electrically conductive oxide, including manganese dioxide, into the pores containing the metal deposit; and the product produced by the process.

  10. Preparation and Properties of Al-Ni Composite Anodic Films on Aluminum Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Xuhui; YE Hao; ZHANG Xiaofeng; ZUO Yu


    Ni element was introduced to aluminum surface by a simple chemical immersion method,and Al-Ni composite anodic films were obtained by following anodizing.The morphology,structure and composition of the Al-Ni anodic films were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM),energy disperse spectroscopy (EDS) and atomic force microscopy(AFM).The electrochemical behaviors of the films were studied by means of polarization measurement and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS).The experimental results show that the A1-Ni composite anodic film is more compact with smaller pore diameters than that of the Al anodic film.The introduction of nickel increases the impedances of both the barrier layer and the porous layer of the anodic films.In NaCl solutions,the Al-Ni composite anodic films show higher impedance values and better corrosion resistance.

  11. Effect of intermetallic phases on the anodic oxidation and corrosion of 5A06 aluminum alloy (United States)

    Li, Song-mei; Li, Ying-dong; Zhang, You; Liu, Jian-hua; Yu, Mei


    Intermetallic phases were found to influence the anodic oxidation and corrosion behavior of 5A06 aluminum alloy. Scattered intermetallic particles were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) after pretreatment. The anodic film was investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and its corrosion resistance was analyzed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and Tafel polarization in NaCl solution. The results show that the size of Al-Fe-Mg-Mn particles gradually decreases with the iron content. During anodizing, these intermetallic particles are gradually dissolved, leading to the complex porosity in the anodic film beneath the particles. After anodizing, the residual particles are mainly silicon-containing phases, which are embedded in the anodic film. Electrochemical measurements indicate that the porous anodic film layer is easily penetrated, and the barrier plays a dominant role in the overall protection. Meanwhile, self-healing behavior is observed during the long immersion time.

  12. Fabrication of independent nickel microstructures with anodizing of aluminum,laser irradiation, and electrodeposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T. Kikuchi; M. Sakairi; H. Takahashi


    Independent microstructures made of Ni metal were fabricated by five sequential processes: porous anodic oxide film for-mation, pore sealing, laser irradiation, Ni electroplating, and removal of the aluminum substrate and anodic oxide films. Aluminumplates and rods were anodized in an oxalic acid solution to form porous type anodic oxide films, and then immersed in boiling dis-tilled water for pore sealing. The anodized and pore-sealed specimens were irradiated with a pulsed neodymium-doped yttrium alu-minum garnet (Nd-YAG) laser beam in a Ni plating solution to remove anodic oxide film locally by rotating and moving up / downwith an XYZθ-stage. Nickel was deposited at the area where film had been removed by cathodic polarization in the solution beforeremoving the aluminum substrate and anodic oxide films in NaOH solutions. Cylindrical or plain network structures were fabricated successfully.

  13. Nickel/Yttria-stabilised zirconia cermet anodes for solid oxide fuel cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Primdahl, Søren


    This thesis deals with the porous Ni/yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) cermet anode on a YSZ electrolyte for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). Such anodes are predominantly operated in moist hydrogen at 700°C to 1000°C, and the most important technological parameters are the polarization resistance and

  14. Lithium batteries, anodes, and methods of anode fabrication

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Lain-Jong


    Prelithiation of a battery anode carried out using controlled lithium metal vapor deposition. Lithium metal can be avoided in the final battery. This prelithiated electrode is used as potential anode for Li- ion or high energy Li-S battery. The prelithiation of lithium metal onto or into the anode reduces hazardous risk, is cost effective, and improves the overall capacity. The battery containing such an anode exhibits remarkably high specific capacity and a long cycle life with excellent reversibility.

  15. Surface Modification of a MCFC Anode by Electrochemical Alloying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Considering the properties of the valve metal alloys with specific corrosion resistance and electrocatalytic ac tivity, an investigation was made to examine if nickel-niobium alloy could serve as the anode material for molten carbo nate fuel cell (MCFC). An attempt was made to produce nickel-niobium surface alloy by an electrochemical process in the molten fluorides and to testify its performance required by the MCFC anode. Experimental results indicated that the corrosion resistance as well as polarization performance of the nickel electrode was improved by the surface alloying.As far as the corrosion resistance and polarization performance is concerned, the nickel-niobium surface alloy can be considered as a candidate material for the anode of MCFC.

  16. Studies of anode sheath phenomena in a Hall-effect thruster discharge (United States)

    Dorf, Leonid


    Crossed electric and magnetic fields devices (plasma thrusters, magnetrons, coaxial plasma guns, plasma opening switches, etc.) are routinely used for plasma production and in other applications. Despite these numerous applications, the fundamental anode sheath phenomena in many of these devices have received surprisingly little experimental scrutiny. We chose a Hall-effect thruster (HT) discharge for our study of the anode sheath. It has been typically assumed in most fluid models of an HT that its steady-state operation requires the presence of a negative anode fall (electron-repelling anode sheath). Such anode fall behavior, opposite to that in typical glow discharges or hollow-anode plasma sources, is the result of a relatively high degree of ionization in HTs, achieved by applying a radial magnetic field transverse to the direction of the discharge current. Our data from non-perturbing probe measurements showed for the first time that the anode fall in HTs can be either negative or positive (electron-attracting anode sheath), depending on conditions at the anode surface. The path for current closure to the anode turns out to be quite subtle in HTs. This path determines the mechanism of the anode fall formation. In varying the magnetic field topology in the channel from a more uniform to a cusp-like one, we uncover intriguing results. For cusp configurations, in which the radial magnetic field changes polarity somewhere along the channel, the anode fall is positive, whereas it is negative for a more uniform field. This polarity difference could be attributed to the decreased electron mobility across the magnetic field in the cusp-like configuration. Our theoretical modeling of the anode sheath correlates well with the experimental results in describing how the magnitude of the sheath varies with the discharge voltage and mass flow rate.

  17. Anodes for alkaline electrolysis (United States)

    Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev


    A method of making an anode for alkaline electrolysis cells includes adsorption of precursor material on a carbonaceous material, conversion of the precursor material to hydroxide form and conversion of precursor material from hydroxide form to oxy-hydroxide form within the alkaline electrolysis cell.

  18. Inert Anode Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This ASME report provides a broad assessment of open literature and patents that exist in the area of inert anodes and their related cathode systems and cell designs, technologies that are relevant for the advanced smelting of aluminum. The report also discusses the opportunities, barriers, and issues associated with these technologies from a technical, environmental, and economic viewpoint.

  19. Movable anode x-ray source with enhanced anode cooling (United States)

    Bird, C.R.; Rockett, P.D.


    An x-ray source is disclosed having a cathode and a disc-shaped anode with a peripheral surface at constant radius from the anode axis opposed to the cathode. The anode has stub axle sections rotatably carried in heat conducting bearing plates which are mounted by thermoelectric coolers to bellows which normally bias the bearing plates to a retracted position spaced from opposing anode side faces. The bellows cooperate with the x-ray source mounting structure for forming closed passages for heat transport fluid. Flow of such fluid under pressure expands the bellows and brings the bearing plates into heat conducting contact with the anode side faces. A worm gear is mounted on a shaft and engages serrations in the anode periphery for rotating the anode when flow of coolant is terminated between x-ray emission events. 5 figs.

  20. Anodic reaction kinetics of electrowinning zinc in system of Zn(Ⅱ)-NH3-NH4Cl-H2O

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨声海; 唐谟堂; 陈艺锋; 唐朝波; 何静


    The anodic reaction kinetics of zinc electrowinning was investigated on the titanium base RuO2 anode in the system of Zn(Ⅱ)-NH3-NH4Cl-H2O. The effects of stirring speed, ammonium chloride concentration and temperature on anodic reaction rate were studied through the curve measurement of potentiostatic polarization. The results reveal that the electrochemically controlled anodic reaction obeys Tafel equation and the anodic reaction order for ammonium chloride is 1. 056, with the apparent activation energy of 40.17 kJ/mol. The general equation of anodic reaction kinetics was obtained.

  1. Introductory lecture on corrosion chemistry: a focus on anodic hydrogen evolution on Al and Mg. (United States)

    Frankel, G S; Fajardo, S; Lynch, B M


    The increase in the rate of hydrogen evolution (HE) on dissolving Mg surfaces with increasing anodic current density or potential, which is sometimes called the negative difference effect, has been the topic of much discussion in recent years. A review of the very recent contributions to this subject is given in this paper. Increased catalytic activity of the corrosion product layer, either from the accumulated impurities or from the Mg oxy-hydroxide itself, is shown to have a minor influence on the anodic HE observed on dissolving Mg at high anodic current densities and potentials. Al exhibits similar characteristics during anodic polarization in concentrated HCl, although the anodic HE rate on Al is less than on Mg. Possible mechanisms for the anodic hydrogen are provided and implications in the area of intergranular corrosion and environmental cracking are discussed.

  2. Anodic Oxidation of Carbon Steel at High Current Densities and Investigation of Its Corrosion Behavior (United States)

    Fattah-Alhosseini, Arash; Khan, Hamid Yazdani


    This work aims at studying the influence of high current densities on the anodization of carbon steel. Anodic protective coatings were prepared on carbon steel at current densities of 100, 125, and 150 A/dm2 followed by a final heat treatment. Coatings microstructures and morphologies were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The corrosion resistance of the uncoated carbon steel substrate and the anodic coatings were evaluated in 3.5 wt pct NaCl solution through electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization measurements. The results showed that the anodic oxide coatings which were prepared at higher current densities had thicker coatings as a result of a higher anodic forming voltage. Therefore, the anodized coatings showed better anti-corrosion properties compared to those obtained at lower current densities and the base metal.

  3. Ideal anodization of silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamani, Z.; Thompson, W.H.; AbuHassan, L.; Nayfeh, M.H. [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1110 W. Green Street, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)


    Silicon has been anodized such that the porous layer is passivated with a homogeneous stretching phase by incorporating H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in the anodization mixture. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy measurements show that the Si{endash}H stretching mode oriented perpendicular to the surface at {approximately}2100cm{sup {minus}1} dominates the spectrum with negligible contribution from the bending modes in the 600{endash}900cm{sup {minus}1} region. Material analysis using Auger electron spectroscopy shows that the samples have very little impurities, and that the luminescent layer is very thin (5{endash}10 nm). Scanning electron microscopy shows that the surface is smoother with features smaller than those of conventional samples. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  4. Influence of terminal electron acceptor availability to the anodic oxidation on the electrogenic activity of microbial fuel cell (MFC). (United States)

    Srikanth, S; Venkata Mohan, S


    The electrogenic activity of microbial fuel cell (MFC) with the function of anode placement from the terminal electron acceptor (TEA) was evaluated. Shorter anode distances from TEA showed higher electrogenesis due to the feasibility of higher electron acceptance as well as their discharge towards TEA. Substrate degradation was also higher at shorter anode placements from TEA due to the optimum substrate availability to the anodic biofilm. Bio-electro kinetics showed significant variation in the catalytic currents and exchange current densities with the function of anode placement indicating its role in electron acceptance and their transfer to the cathode. Anode placement of 3cm showed higher electrogenesis (406.38mW/m(2)) and substrate degradation (63.12%) along with significantly reduced polarization (6.72Ω) and charge transfer resistances compared to other anodic placements. The spacing between electrodes is crucial in accepting electrons as well as their discharge towards TEA which ultimately governs the power generation efficacy.

  5. Kinetics of the zinc anodic dissolution reaction in near neutral EDTA solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Polarization curves of the anodic dissolution reaction of zinc were determined in EDTA solutions of different total molar concentrations (0.05, 0.10, 0.15 and 0.20 mol dm-3, the pH values of which were systematically varied (pH 3.0 – 10.0. The Tafel slopes of the anodic polarization curves are close to 40 mV dec-1 at lower current densities (10-5 – 5x10-4 A cm-2, while at higher current densities (5x10-4 – 10-2 A cm-2 the slopes are in the range of 60 – 120 mV dec-1. The order of the anodic reaction determined from the anodic polarization curves at lower current densities are: z+ (H+ ~ –1/2 for pH 8, while z+(H4Y ~ 1 for all pH values of the examined EDTA solutions. On the basis of these results, two mechanisms of the zinc anodic dissolution reaction are proposed: at pH 8. In both cases the relevant EDTA species directly participate as reactants in the anodic reaction. The dependences of the corrosion potential on pH and on total molar EDTA concentration indicate that the relevant EDTA species take part as reactants in both the cathodic (hydrogen evolution and anodic (zinc dissolution reactions of the zinc corrosion process.

  6. Thin flexible intercalation anodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, S.C.; Cieslak, W.R.; Klassen, S.E.; Lagasse, R.R.


    Poly(acrylonitrile) fibers have been pyrolyzed under various conditions to form flexible carbon yarns capable of intercalating lithium ions. These fibers have also been formed into both woven and non woven cloths. Potentiostatic, potentiodynamic and galvanostatic tests have been conducted with these materials in several electrolytes. In some tests, a potential hold was used after each constant current charge and discharge. These tests have shown some of these flexible materials to reversibly intercalate lithium ions to levels that are suitable for use as a practical battery anode.

  7. Environmentally friendly anodization on AZ31 magnesium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A novel anodization which is environmentally friendly,low voltage and lOW energy consumption was developed to improve corrosion resistance of AZ31 magnesium alloy.The corrosion resistance of the anodic films was studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy(EIS)and potentiodynamic polarization techniques.The microstructure and compositions of films were examined by SEM,XPS and XRD.A new kind of organic additive used in the electrolyte is friendly to the environment.The compact,intact and uniform coating with high hardness can be prepared on AZ31 magnesium alloy by the environmentally friendly anodization,which enhances the corrosion resistance of AZ31 Mg alloy significantly.

  8. Anodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Operating at Low Temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdul Jabbar, Mohammed Hussain

    An important issue that has limited the potential of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) for portable applications is its high operating temperatures (800-1000 ºC). Lowering the operating temperature of SOFCs to 400-600 ºC enable a wider material selection, reduced degradation and increased lifetime....... On the other hand, low-temperature operation poses serious challenges to the electrode performance. Effective catalysts, redox stable electrodes with improved microstructures are the prime requisite for the development of efficient SOFC anodes. The performance of Nb-doped SrT iO3 (STN) ceramic anodes...... at 400ºC. The potential of using WO3 ceramic as an alternative anode materials has been explored. The relatively high electrode polarization resistance obtained, 11 Ohm cm2 at 600 ºC, proved the inadequate catalytic activity of this system for hydrogen oxidation. At the end of this thesis...

  9. Mesoporous Silicon-Based Anodes (United States)

    Peramunage, Dharmasena


    For high-capacity, high-performance lithium-ion batteries. A new high-capacity anode composite based on mesoporous silicon is being developed. With a structure that resembles a pseudo one-dimensional phase, the active anode material will accommodate significant volume changes expected upon alloying and dealloying with lithium (Li).

  10. Electrochemical cell design for the impedance studies of chlorine evolution at DSA anodes (United States)

    Silva, J. F.; Dias, A. C.; Araújo, P.; Brett, C. M. A.; Mendes, A.


    A new electrochemical cell design suitable for the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) studies of chlorine evolution on Dimensionally Stable Anodes (DSA®) has been developed. Despite being considered a powerful tool, EIS has rarely been used to study the kinetics of chlorine evolution at DSA anodes. Cell designs in the open literature are unsuitable for the EIS analysis at high DSA anode current densities for chlorine evolution because they allow gas accumulation at the electrode surface. Using the new cell, the impedance spectra of the DSA anode during chlorine evolution at high sodium chloride concentration (5 mol dm-3 NaCl) and high current densities (up to 140 mA cm-2) were recorded. Additionally, polarization curves and voltammograms were obtained showing little or no noise. EIS and polarization curves evidence the role of the adsorption step in the chlorine evolution reaction, compatible with the Volmer-Heyrovsky and Volmer-Tafel mechanisms.

  11. Electrochemical cell design for the impedance studies of chlorine evolution at DSA(®) anodes. (United States)

    Silva, J F; Dias, A C; Araújo, P; Brett, C M A; Mendes, A


    A new electrochemical cell design suitable for the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) studies of chlorine evolution on Dimensionally Stable Anodes (DSA(®)) has been developed. Despite being considered a powerful tool, EIS has rarely been used to study the kinetics of chlorine evolution at DSA anodes. Cell designs in the open literature are unsuitable for the EIS analysis at high DSA anode current densities for chlorine evolution because they allow gas accumulation at the electrode surface. Using the new cell, the impedance spectra of the DSA anode during chlorine evolution at high sodium chloride concentration (5 mol dm(-3) NaCl) and high current densities (up to 140 mA cm(-2)) were recorded. Additionally, polarization curves and voltammograms were obtained showing little or no noise. EIS and polarization curves evidence the role of the adsorption step in the chlorine evolution reaction, compatible with the Volmer-Heyrovsky and Volmer-Tafel mechanisms.

  12. Electrochemical behaviors of anodic alumina sealed by Ce-Mo in NaCl solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Lian-peng; ZHAO Xu-hui; ZHAO Jing-mao; ZHANG Xiao-feng; ZUO Yu


    The elimination of toxic materials in sealing methods for anodic films on 1070 aluminum alloy was studied. The new process uses chemical treatments in cerium solution and an electrochemical treatment in a molybdate solution. Potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy(EIS) were used to study the influences of sealing methods on the corrosion behavior of anodic films in NaCl solutions. The results show that the Ce-Mo sealing makes the surface structure and morphology of anodic films uniform and compact. Ce and Mo produce a cooperative effect to improve the corrosion resistance of anodic films. Anodic films sealed by Ce-Mo provide high corrosion resistance both in acidic and basic solutions.

  13. A Practical Anodic and Cathodic Curve Intersection Model to Understand Multiple Corrosion Potentials of Fe-Based Glassy Alloys in OH- Contained Solutions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y J Li

    Full Text Available A practical anodic and cathodic curve intersection model, which consisted of an apparent anodic curve and an imaginary cathodic line, was proposed to explain multiple corrosion potentials occurred in potentiodynamic polarization curves of Fe-based glassy alloys in alkaline solution. The apparent anodic curve was selected from the measured anodic curves. The imaginary cathodic line was obtained by linearly fitting the differences of anodic curves and can be moved evenly or rotated to predict the number and value of corrosion potentials.

  14. The electrochemical oxidation of H{sub 2} and CO at patterned Ni anodes of SOFCs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utz, Annika


    In this work, a deeper understanding of the electrochemical oxidation at SOFC anodes was gained by the experimental characterization of patterned Ni anodes in H{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O and CO-CO{sub 2} atmosphere. By high resolution data analysis, the Line Specific Resistance attributed to charge transfer and its dependencies on gas composition, temperature and polarization voltage were identified. Furthermore, the comparison of the performance of patterned and cermet anodes was enabled using a transmission line model. (orig.)

  15. Multi-anode ionization chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolotnikov, Aleksey E. (South Setauket, NY); Smith, Graham (Port Jefferson, NY); Mahler, George J. (Rocky Point, NY); Vanier, Peter E. (Setauket, NY)


    The present invention includes a high-energy detector having a cathode chamber, a support member, and anode segments. The cathode chamber extends along a longitudinal axis. The support member is fixed within the cathode chamber and extends from the first end of the cathode chamber to the second end of the cathode chamber. The anode segments are supported by the support member and are spaced along the longitudinal surface of the support member. The anode segments are configured to generate at least a first electrical signal in response to electrons impinging thereon.

  16. Three-dimensional microstructure of high-performance pulsed-laser deposited Ni-YSZ SOFC anodes. (United States)

    Kennouche, David; Hong, Jongsup; Noh, Ho-Sung; Son, Ji-Won; Barnett, Scott A


    The Ni-yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) anode functional layer in solid oxide fuel cells produced by pulsed laser-deposition was studied using three-dimensional tomography. Anode feature sizes of ~130 nm were quite small relative to typical anodes, but errors arising in imaging and segmentation were shown using a sensitivity analysis to be acceptable. Electrochemical characterization showed that these cells achieved a relatively high maximum power density of 1.4 W cm(-2) with low cell resistance at an operating temperature of 600 °C. The tomographic data showed anode three-phase boundary density of ~56 μm(-2), more than 10 times the value observed in conventional Ni-YSZ anodes. Anode polarization resistance values, predicted by combining the structural data and literature values of three-phase boundary resistance in an electrochemical model, were consistent with measured electrochemical impedance spectra, explaining the excellent intermediate-temperature performance of these cells.

  17. Effect of anodization on corrosion behaviour and biocompatibility of Cp-titanium in simulated body fluid

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Archana Singh; B P Singh; Mohan R Wani; Dinesh Kumar; J K Singh; Vakil Singh


    The objective of this investigation is to study the effectiveness of anodized surface of commercial purity titanium (Cp-Ti) on its corrosion behaviour in simulated body fluid (SBF) and proliferation of osteoblast cells on it, to assess its potentiality as a process of surface modification in enhancing corrosion resistance and osseointegration of dental implants. Highly ordered nano-porous oxide layer, with nano-sized pores, is developed on the surface of Cp-Ti through electrochemical anodization in the electrolyte of aqueous solution of 0.5% HF at 15 V for 30 min at 24 °C. The nano-porous feature of the anodized surface is characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). Pores of some anodized samples are sealed by exposing the anodized surface in boiling water. Corrosion behaviour of the anodized specimen is studied in Ringer’s solution at 30 ± 2 °C, using electrochemical impedance and cyclic polarization technique. Biocompatibility of the anodized surface is accessed using MG63 osteoblast cells. Both corrosion as well as pitting resistance of Cp-Ti in simulated body fluid are found to be highest in the anodized and sealed condition and followed in decreasing order by those of anodized and unanodized ones. Significantly higher MG63 osteoblast cell proliferations are found on the anodized surface than that on the unanodized one. Anodized Cp-Ti develops nano-size surface pores, like that of natural bone. It enhances corrosion and pitting resistance and also the process of osteoblast cell proliferation on Cp-Ti.

  18. Alternative Anodes for the Electrolytic Reduction of Uranium Dioxide (United States)

    Merwin, Augustus

    Reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel is an essential step in closing the nuclear fuel cycle. In order to consume current stockpiles, ceramic uranium dioxide spent nuclear fuel will be subjected to an electrolytic reduction process. The current reduction process employs a platinum anode and a stainless steel alloy 316 cathode in a molten salt bath consisting of LiCl-2wt% Li 2O and occurs at 700°C. A major shortcoming of the existing process is the degradation of the platinum anode under the severely oxidizing conditions encountered during electrolytic reduction. This work investigates alternative anode materials for the electrolytic reduction of uranium oxide. The high temperature and extreme oxidizing conditions encountered in these studies necessitated a unique set of design constraints on the system. Thus, a customized experimental apparatus was designed and constructed. The electrochemical experiments were performed in an electrochemical reactor placed inside a furnace. This entire setup was housed inside a glove box, in order to maintain an inert atmosphere. This study investigates alternative anode materials through accelerated corrosion testing. Surface morphology was studied using scanning electron microscopy. Surface chemistry was characterized using energy dispersive spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Electrochemical behavior of candidate materials was evaluated using potentiodynamic polarization characteristics. After narrowing the number of candidate electrode materials, ferrous stainless steel alloy 316, nickel based Inconel 718 and elemental tungsten were chosen for further investigation. Of these materials only tungsten was found to be sufficiently stable at the anodic potential required for electrolysis of uranium dioxide in molten salt. The tungsten anode and stainless steel alloy 316 cathode electrode system was studied at the required reduction potential for UO2 with varying lithium oxide concentrations. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

  19. Electrically Conductive Anodized Aluminum Surfaces (United States)

    Nguyen, Trung Hung


    Anodized aluminum components can be treated to make them sufficiently electrically conductive to suppress discharges of static electricity. The treatment was conceived as a means of preventing static electric discharges on exterior satin-anodized aluminum (SAA) surfaces of spacecraft without adversely affecting the thermal-control/optical properties of the SAA and without need to apply electrically conductive paints, which eventually peel off in the harsh environment of outer space. The treatment can also be used to impart electrical conductivity to anodized housings of computers, medical electronic instruments, telephoneexchange equipment, and other terrestrial electronic equipment vulnerable to electrostatic discharge. The electrical resistivity of a typical anodized aluminum surface layer lies between 10(exp 11) and 10(exp 13) Omega-cm. To suppress electrostatic discharge, it is necessary to reduce the electrical resistivity significantly - preferably to anodized surface becomes covered and the pores in the surface filled with a transparent, electrically conductive metal oxide nanocomposite. Filling the pores with the nanocomposite reduces the transverse electrical resistivity and, in the original intended outer-space application, the exterior covering portion of the nanocomposite would afford the requisite electrical contact with the outer-space plasma. The electrical resistivity of the nanocomposite can be tailored to a value between 10(exp 7) and 10(exp 12) Omega-cm. Unlike electrically conductive paint, the nanocomposite becomes an integral part of the anodized aluminum substrate, without need for adhesive bonding material and without risk of subsequent peeling. The electrodeposition process is compatible with commercial anodizing production lines. At present, the electronics industry uses expensive, exotic, electrostaticdischarge- suppressing finishes: examples include silver impregnated anodized, black electroless nickel, black chrome, and black copper. In

  20. Alternate Anodes for the Electrolytic Reduction of UO2 (United States)

    Merwin, Augustus; Chidambaram, Dev


    The electrolytic reduction process of UO2 employs a platinum anode and a stainless steel cathode in molten LiCl-LiO2 maintained at 973 K (700 °C). The degradation of platinum under the severely oxidizing conditions encountered during the process is an issue of concern. In this study, Inconel 600 and 718, stainless steel alloy 316, tungsten, nickel, molybdenum, and titanium, were investigated though electrochemical polarization techniques, electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to serve as potential anode materials. Of the various materials investigated, only tungsten exhibited sufficient stability at the required potential in the molten electrolyte. Tungsten anodes were further studied in molten LiCl-LiO2 electrolyte containing 2, 4, and 6 wt pct of Li2O. In LiCl-2 wt pct Li2O tungsten was found to be sufficiently stable to both oxidation and microstructural changes and the stability is attributed to the formation of a lithium-intercalated tungsten oxide surface film. Increase in the concentration of Li2O was found to lead to accelerated corrosion of the anode, in conjunction with the formation of a peroxotungstate oxide film.

  1. Anodic oxide growth on Zr in neutral aqueous solution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Z Tun; J J Noël; D W Shoesmith


    Anodization and subsequent cathodic reactions on a thin-film sample of Zr were studied with in-situ neutron reflectometry (NR) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The NR results during anodization showed the originally 485 Å thick Zr film generally behaved similar to a bulk electrode in neutral solution. The anodization ratio measured at applied potentials increased in steps of 0.5 V was somewhat higher than the value determined by coulometry, while the Pilling Bedworth ratio is in good agreement with published data. Thickening of the oxide layer, accelerated immediately after each potential increase, gradually decreased over several hours, but remained non-zero even after ∼ 12 h. The thickened oxide eventually cracked when its thickness reached ∼ 120 Å, causing loss of passivation. Surprisingly, neither the anodization ratio nor the Pilling Bedworth ratio showed any discontinuity at the time of oxide cracking, and the EIS behaviour remained qualitatively as before. This observation is taken as the evidence that the cracked and intact regions of the electrode behave more or less independently as parallel electrodes. When the potential was eventually switched to cathodic polarity, NR shows, as expected, that the effects of oxide cracking were irreversible. However, the electrode resistance recovered partially suggesting the cracks were rapidly plugged with newly formed oxide.

  2. Single chamber microbial fuel cell with spiral anode for dairy wastewater treatment. (United States)

    Mardanpour, Mohammad Mahdi; Nasr Esfahany, Mohsen; Behzad, Tayebeh; Sedaqatvand, Ramin


    This study reports on the fabrication of a novel annular single chamber microbial fuel cell (ASCMFC) with spiral anode. The stainless steel mesh anode with graphite coating was used as anode. Dairy wastewater, containing complex organic matter, was used as substrate. ASCMFC had been operated for 450 h and results indicated a high open circuit voltage (about 810 mV) compared with previously published results. The maximum power density of 20.2 W/m(3) obtained in this study is significantly greater than the power densities reported in previous studies. Besides, a maximum coulombic efficiency of 26.87% with 91% COD removal was achieved. Good bacterial adhesion on the spiral anode is clearly shown in SEM micrographs. High power density and a successful performance in wastewater treatment in ASCMFC suggest it as a promising alternative to conventional MFCs for power generation and wastewater treatment. ASCMFC performance as a power generator was characterized based on polarization behavior and cell potentials.

  3. Ni3Mo3C as anode catalyst for high-performance microbial fuel cells. (United States)

    Zeng, Li-Zhen; Zhao, Shao-Fei; Li, Wei-Shan


    Ni3Mo3C was prepared by a modified organic colloid method and explored as anode catalyst for high-performance microbial fuel cell (MFC) based on Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae). The prepared sample was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET). The activity of the sample as anode catalyst for MFC based on K. pneumoniae was investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and polarization curve measurement. The results show that the adding of nickel in Mo2C increases the BET surface area of Mo2C and improves the electrocatalytic activity of Mo2C towards the oxidation of microbial fermentation products. The power density of MFC with 3 mg cm(-2) Ni3Mo3C anode is far higher than that of the MFC with carbon felt as anode without any catalyst, which is 19 % higher than that of Mo2C anode and produced 62 % as much as that of Pt anode, indicating that Ni3Mo3C is comparative to noble metal platinum as anode electrocatalyst for MFCs by increasing the loading.

  4. Composite corrosion inhibitors for secondary alkaline zinc anodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Zheng; ZHOU De-rui; ZHANG Cui-fen


    The corrosion inhibition property of PEG600 and In(OH)3 as composite corrosion inhibitors for secondary alkaline zinc electrodes was studied,and the inhibition efficiency was determined as 81.9%.The research focused on the mechanism by the methods of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy,polarization curves and IR spectroscopy.The results indicate that the corrosion inhibition effectiveness is attributed to the joint inhibition of anodic zinc dissolution and cathodic hydrogen evolution.And the anodic process is depressed to a greater extent than the cathodic process.The synergistic mechanism of the composite inhinbitors proves to be the enhancement of adsorption of PEG600 by In(OH)3.Potentiostatic experiment results and SEM images verify the inhibition of dendritic growth by the composite inhibitors.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Kozhevnikova


    Full Text Available Technology of copper anode balls manufacturing by means of cross-wedge rolling method is developed. The technology satisfies the requirements towards anode balls’ crystalline structure, form and geometrical dimensions accuracy.

  6. Hierarchically oriented macroporous anode-supported solid oxide fuel cell with thin ceria electrolyte film. (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Zhang, Yanxiang; Baker, Jeffrey; Majumdar, Prasun; Yang, Zhibin; Han, Minfang; Chen, Fanglin


    Application of anode-supported solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with ceria based electrolyte has often been limited by high cost of electrolyte film fabrication and high electrode polarization. In this study, dense Gd0.1Ce0.9O2 (GDC) thin film electrolytes have been fabricated on hierarchically oriented macroporous NiO-GDC anodes by a combination of freeze-drying tape-casting of the NiO-GDC anode, drop-coating GDC slurry on NiO-GDC anode, and co-firing the electrolyte/anode bilayers. Using 3D X-ray microscopy and subsequent analysis, it has been determined that the NiO-GDC anode substrates have a porosity of around 42% and channel size from around 10 μm at the electrolyte side to around 20 μm at the other side of the NiO-GDC (away from the electrolyte), indicating a hierarchically oriented macroporous NiO-GDC microstructure. Such NiO-GDC microstructure shows a tortuosity factor of ∼1.3 along the thickness direction, expecting to facilitate gas diffusion in the anode during fuel cell operation. SOFCs with such Ni-GDC anode, GDC film (30 μm) electrolyte, and La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3-GDC (LSCF-GDC) cathode show significantly enhanced cell power output of 1.021 W cm(-2) at 600 °C using H2 as fuel and ambient air as oxidant. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) analysis indicates a decrease in both activation and concentration polarizations. This study has demonstrated that freeze-drying tape-casting is a very promising approach to fabricate hierarchically oriented porous substrate for SOFC and other applications.

  7. Aluminum oxide as a dual-functional modifier of Ni-based anodes of solid oxide fuel cells for operation on simulated biogas (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Wang, Wei; Ran, Ran; Tade, Moses O.; Shao, Zongping


    Al2O3 and SnO2 additives are introduced into the Ni-YSZ cermet anode of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) for operation on simulated biogas. The effects of incorporating Al2O3/SnO2 on the electrical conductivity, morphology, coking resistance and catalytic activity for biogas reforming of the cermet anode are systematically studied. The electrochemical performance of the internal reforming SOFC is enhanced by introducing an appropriate amount of Al2O3 into the anode, but it becomes worse with excess alumina addition. For SnO2, a negative effect on the electrochemical performance is demonstrated, although the coking resistance of the anode is improved. For fuel cells operating on biogas, stable operation under a polarization current for 130 h at 750 °C is achieved for a cell with an Al2O3-modified anode, while cells with unmodified or SnO2-modified Ni-YSZ anodes show much poorer stability under the same conditions. The improved performance of the cell with the Al2O3-modified anode mainly results from the suppressed coking and sintering of the anode and from the formation of NiAl2O4 in the unreduced anode. In sum, modifying the anode with Al2O3 may be a useful and facile way to improve the coking resistance and electrochemical performance of the nickel-based cermet anodes for SOFCs.

  8. Porous Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Microstructures for SOFC Anode Fabrication (United States)

    Palakkathodi Kammampata, Sanoop

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are electrochemical devices that convert fuels, such as hydrogen and natural gas, to electricity at high efficiencies, e.g., up to 90 %. SOFCs are emerging as a key technology for energy production that also minimize greenhouse gas emissions compared to conventional thermal power generation. SOFCs, which are normally based on nickel-yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) anodes, undergo degradation with time due to their high operating temperatures and their susceptibility to damage due to anode oxidation (redox cycling) and poisoning. Ni infiltration into porous YSZ scaffolds is considered to be a promising approach for overcoming some of these problems and enhancing their redox tolerance. However, long-term instability of the morphology of these types of anodes is an important problem. The focus of this thesis was therefore to develop methods to form porous YSZ scaffolds and attempt to construct stable Ni-YSZ anodes with reasonable electrochemical performance by infiltration. In this work, the issue of long-term instability was considered to originate from both the porous YSZ scaffold microstructure and the Ni infiltration precursor employed. To study this more closely, two different porous YSZ scaffold microstructures were developed by using tape casting, followed by Ni infiltration using a polymeric precursor, known to form a continuous Ni phase, rather than electrically separated Ni particles. Ni infiltration into porous YSZ scaffolds with large grains (0.5 microm) and large pores (two types of pores: ˜0.5 microm and 5 microm) resulted in extensive Ni particle growth that resulted in poor stability and poor electrochemical performance (0.5 Ω cm2 per electrode at 800°C). Ni infiltration into a scaffold having finer grains and pores (˜200 nm each) resulted in anodes with a much lower polarization resistance of 0.11 Ω cm2 per electrode at 800°C, increasing by ˜5 % after 108 hours at this temperature.

  9. Improvement of stability of trivalent chromium electroplating of Ti based IrO2+Ta2O5 coating anodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Baosong; LIN An; GAN Fuxing


    The preparation process and properties of the thermally prepared Ti anodes coated with IrO2+Ta2O5 was studied. The structure and morphologies of the IrO2+Ta2O5 coatings were determined by XRD and SEM. Their electrochemical properties were studied by polarization curve and cyclic voltammetry. Trivalent chromium electroplating using Ti/IrO2+Ta2O5 anodes is carried out and the results were analyzed. Results show that this anode exhibits excellentelectrochemical activity and stability in sulfate electrolysis. The electrocatalytic activity is determined not only by the content of IrO2 but also the structure and morphology of the anode coatings. The electroplating results indicats that Ti/IrO2+Ta2O5 anodes have excellent capabilities and merits in improving the stability of trivalent chromium electroplating in sulfate system.

  10. Microfabrication of an anodic oxide film by anodizing laser-textured aluminium



    A simple method for the fabrication of microstructures of an aluminium anodic oxide film (anodic alumina) by anodizing laser-textured aluminium is demonstrated. In the process, the aluminium substrate was first textured by a low power laser beam, and then the textured aluminium was subjected to anodizing, to develop a continuous, thick porous layer on the textured surface. Microstructures with a depth of a few to several tens of micrometres were fabricated successfully on the anodic oxide fil...

  11. Ellipsometry of anodic film growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C.G.


    An automated computer interpretation of ellisometer measurements of anodic film growth was developed. Continuous mass and charge balances were used to utilize more fully the time dependence of the ellipsometer data and the current and potential measurements. A multiple-film model was used to characterize the growth of films which proceeds via a dissolution--precipitation mechanism; the model also applies to film growth by adsorption and nucleation mechanisms. The characteristic parameters for film growth describe homogeneous and heterogeneous crystallization rates, film porosities and degree of hydration, and the supersaturation of ionic species in the electrolyte. Additional descriptions which may be chosen are patchwise film formation, nonstoichiometry of the anodic film, and statistical variations in the size and orientation of secondary crystals. Theories were developed to describe the optical effects of these processes. An automatic, self-compensating ellipsometer was used to study the growth in alkaline solution of anodic films on silver, cadmium, and zinc. Mass-transport conditions included stagnant electrolyte and forced convection in a flow channel. Multiple films were needed to characterize the optical properties of these films. Anodic films grew from an electrolyte supersatuated in the solution-phase dissolution product. The degree of supersaturation depended on transport conditions and had a major effect on the structure of the film. Anodic reaction rates were limited by the transport of charge carriers through a primary surface layer. The primary layers on silver, zinc, and cadmium all appeared to be nonstoichiometric, containing excess metal. Diffusion coefficients, transference numbers, and the free energy of adsorption of zinc oxide were derived from ellipsometer measurements. 97 figures, 13 tables, 198 references.

  12. Effect of surface treatments on anodic oxide film growth and electrochemical properties of tantalum used for biomedical applications. (United States)

    Silva, R A; Silva, I P; Rondot, B


    Self-expandable nitinol (nickel-titanium) alloys and 316L stainless steel are the most commonly used materials in the production of coronary stents. However, tantalum (Ta) has already been used to make stents for endovascular surgery and may constitute an alternative to other materials because of its better electrochemical performance, namely its higher corrosion resistance, as well as its radio-opacity. The characterization of wet polished, chemically polished, wet polished anodized, and chemically polished anodized Ta electrodes has been performed in a 0.15 M NaCl solution (simulated body fluid) using Ucorr = f(t) measurements, anodic polarizations, capacity measurements, anodic oxidations, and atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging. Anodic polarization curves have shown that the abnormal current density peak with a maximum value around 1.65 V (critical applied potential, Uc) disappeared for the anodized electrodes indicating a probable relationship between the surface states and the film growth. These results are confirmed by capacity measurements. The behavior of wet polished and chemically polished electrodes during anodic oxidations seemingly indicated that for these particular treatments the film growth is different. The AFM images and roughness measurements have shown that chemical polishing produced smoother electrodes, a fact probably related to the differences in film growth.

  13. [Vernier Anode Design and Image Simulation]. (United States)

    Zhao, Ai-rong; Ni, Qi-liang; Song, Ke-fei


    Based-MCP position-sensitive anode photon-counting imaging detector is good at detecting extremely faint light, which includes micro-channel plate (MCP), position-sensitive anode and readout, and the performances of these detectors are mainly decided by the position-sensitive anode. As a charge division anode, Vernier anode using cyclically varying electrode areas which replaces the linearly varying electrodes of wedge-strip anode can get better resolution and greater electrode dynamic range. Simulation and design of the Vernier anode based on Vernier's decode principle are given here. Firstly, we introduce the decode and design principle of Vernier anode with nine electrodes in vector way, and get the design parameters which are the pitch, amplitude and the coarse wavelength of electrode. Secondly, we analyze the effect of every design parameters to the imaging of the detector. We simulate the electron cloud, the Vernier anode and the detector imaging using Labview software and get the relationship between the pitch and the coarse wavelength of the anode. Simultaneously, we get the corresponding electron cloud for the designing parameters. Based on the result of the simulation and the practical machining demand, a nine electrodes Vernier anode was designed and fabricated which has a pitch of 891 µm, insulation width of 25 µm, amplitude of 50 µm, coarse pixel numbers of 5.

  14. Electrocatalysis of carbon anode in aluminium electrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The anodic overvoltage of the carbon anode in aluminum electrolysis isof the order of 0.6 V at normal current densities. However, it can be reduced somewhat by doping the anode carbon with various inorganic compounds. A new apparatus was designed to improve the precision of overvoltage measurements. Anodes were doped with MgAl2O4 and AlF3 both by impregnation of the coke and by adding powder, and the measured overvoltage was compared with that of undoped samples. For prebake type anodes baked at around 1150 oC, the anodic overvoltage was reduced by 40-60 mV, and for Soderberg type anodes, baked at 950 oC, by 60-80 mV.

  15. Doped Yttrium Chromite-Ceria Composite as a Redox-Stable and Sulfur-Tolerant Anode for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Kyung J.; Coyle, Christopher A.; Marina, Olga A.


    A Ca- and Co-doped yttrium chromite (YCCC) - samaria-doped ceria (SDC) composite was studied in relation to a potential use as a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anode material. Tests performed using the yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte-supported cells revealed that the electrocatalytic activity of the YCCC-SDC anode towards hydrogen oxidation at 800 C was comparable to that of the Ni-YSZ anode. In addition, the YCCC-SDC anode exhibited superior sulfur tolerant characteristics showing less than 10% increase in a polarization resistance, fully reversible, upon exposure to 20 ppm H2S at 800 C. No performance degradation was observed during multiple reduction-oxidation (redox) cycles when the anode was intentionally exposed to the air environment followed by the reduction in hydrogen. The redox tolerance of the YCCC-SDC anode was attributed to the dimensional and chemical stability of the YCCC exhibiting minimal isothermal chemical expansion upon redox cycling.

  16. Effects of Anode Wettability and Slots on Anodic Bubble Behavior Using Transparent Aluminium Electrolytic Cells (United States)

    Zhao, Zhibin; Gao, Bingliang; Feng, Yuqing; Huang, Yipeng; Wang, Zhaowen; Shi, Zhongning; Hu, Xianwei


    Transparent aluminum electrolytic cells were used to study the effects of anode wettability and slots on bubble behavior in a similar environment to that used in industrial cells. Observations were conducted using two types of transparent cells, one with side-observation and the other with a bottom-observation cell design. Anodic bubbles rising process in the side channel is strongly affected by the wettability of the anode. After rising a short distance, the bubbles detach from the anode vertical surface at good-wetting anode cases, while the bubbles still attach to the vertical surface at poor-wetting anode cases. Anode slots of width of 4 mm are able to prevent smaller bubbles from coalescing into larger bubbles and thus decrease the bubble size and gas coverage on the anode. Anode slots also make a contribution in slightly reducing bubble thickness. With the presence of slots, the bubble-induced cell voltage oscillation decreases as well.

  17. Ultra-High Density Single Nanometer-Scale Anodic Alumina Nanofibers Fabricated by Pyrophosphoric Acid Anodizing (United States)

    Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Nishinaga, Osamu; Nakajima, Daiki; Kawashima, Jun; Natsui, Shungo; Sakaguchi, Norihito; Suzuki, Ryosuke O.


    Anodic oxide fabricated by anodizing has been widely used for nanostructural engineering, but the nanomorphology is limited to only two oxides: anodic barrier and porous oxides. Therefore, the discovery of an additional anodic oxide with a unique nanofeature would expand the applicability of anodizing. Here we demonstrate the fabrication of a third-generation anodic oxide, specifically, anodic alumina nanofibers, by anodizing in a new electrolyte, pyrophosphoric acid. Ultra-high density single nanometer-scale anodic alumina nanofibers (1010 nanofibers/cm2) consisting of an amorphous, pure aluminum oxide were successfully fabricated via pyrophosphoric acid anodizing. The nanomorphologies of the anodic nanofibers can be controlled by the electrochemical conditions. Anodic tungsten oxide nanofibers can also be fabricated by pyrophosphoric acid anodizing. The aluminum surface covered by the anodic alumina nanofibers exhibited ultra-fast superhydrophilic behavior, with a contact angle of less than 1°, within 1 second. Such ultra-narrow nanofibers can be used for various nanoapplications including catalysts, wettability control, and electronic devices.

  18. Research on Electrochemical Behavior of Ti-Ir-Ru Anode Coating in Electrolytic Antifouling of Flowing Brine (United States)

    Liang, Chenghao; Huang, Naibao


    By electrochemical techniques, the electrochemical behavior of Ti-Ir-Ru anode coating was studied in electrolytic antifouling of flowing brine. The effect of the brine’s flow rate and the anode/cathode interval on electrolysis was also considered. The results indicated that the brine’s flow rate had remarkable effect on the characteristic of the Ti-Ir-Ru anode. The electrolytic voltage and the evolved active chlorine concentration of Ti-Ir-Ru anode increased with increasing flow rate. Its energy consumption displayed the same variable rule as the electrolytic voltage. But the current density reduced with increasing flow rate. Increasing flow rate favored attenuation of the thickness of mass-transfer control layer and expediting the oxygen’s mass transfer, which accelerated the cathode polarization and the oxygen absorption reaction. The maximal current efficiency for Ti-Ir-Ru anode was obtained at the anode/cathode interval of 5 cm with the current density of 60 mA/cm2. At this point, Ti-Ir-Ru anode also had relatively low electrolytic voltage. The above operating procedure was ideal for electrolyzing flowing brine using Ti-Ir-Ru anode coating.

  19. Plasmonic properties of gold-coated nanoporous anodic alumina with linearly organized pores

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dheeraj Pratap; P Mandal; S Anantha Ramakrishna


    Anodization of aluminium surfaces containing linearly oriented scratches leads to the formation of nanoporous anodic alumina (NAA) with the nanopores arranged preferentially along the scratch marks. NAA, when coated with a thin gold film, support plasmonic resonances. Dark-field spectroscopy revealed that gold-coated NAA with such linearly arranged pores shows a polarization-dependent scattering, that is larger when the incident light is polarized parallel to the scratch direction than when polarized perpendicular to the scratch direction. Fluorescence studies from rhodamine-6G (R6G) molecules dissolved in polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and deposited on these NAA templates showed that fluorescence can be strongly enhanced with the bare NAA due to multiple light scattering in the NAA, while fluorescence from the molecules deposited on gold-coated NAA is strongly quenched due to the strong plasmonic coupling.

  20. Reactions on carbon anodes in aluminium electrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eidet, Trygve


    The consumption of carbon anodes and energy in aluminium electrolysis is higher than what is required theoretically. This thesis studies the most important of the reactions that consume anode materials. These reactions are the electrochemical anode reaction and the airburn and carboxy reactions. The first part of the thesis deals with the kinetics and mechanism of the electrochemical anode reaction using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The second part deals with air and carboxy reactivity of carbon anodes and studies the effects of inorganic impurities on the reactivity of carbon anodes in the aluminium industry. Special attention is given to sulphur since its effect on the carbon gasification is not well understood. Sulphur is always present in anodes, and it is expected that the sulphur content of available anode cokes will increase in the future. It has also been suggested that sulphur poisons catalyzing impurities in the anodes. Other impurities that were investigated are iron, nickel and vanadium, which are common impurities in anodes which have been reported to catalyze carbon gasification. 88 refs., 92 figs., 24 tabs.

  1. The function of microporous layers and the interaction between the anode and cathode in DMFCs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, H. F.; Wang, SY; Pei, PC


    A combined effect of microporous layers (MPLs) on direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) is investigated. From the distribution of the outstanding carbon loading combinations of the cathode MPL and anode MPL as well as the evolutions of polarization curves, a combined effect in which the contributions...... of the two MPLs interdepend is observed. A further discussion indicates that either MPL in DMFCs is of double roles: a side role of obstructing mass transfers and a main role of adjusting an interaction between the anode and cathode. It is inferred that it is the combination of the two roles that produces...

  2. Rare Earth Application in Sealing Anodized Al-Based Metal Matrix Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A new method for corrosion protection of Al-based metal matrixcomposites (MMC) was developed using two-step process, which involves anodizing in H2SO4 solution and sealing in rare earth solution. Corrosion resistance of the treated surface was evaluated with polarization curves.The results showed that the effect of the protection using rare earth sealing is equivalent to that using chromate sealing for Al6061/SiCp. The rare earth metal salt can be an alternative to the toxic chromate for sealing anodized Al MMC.

  3. Self-ordered nanopore arrays through hard anodization assisted by anode temperature ramp (United States)

    Mohammadniaei, M.; Maleki, K.; Kashi, M. Almasi; Ramezani, A.; Mayamei, Y.


    In the present work, hard anodization assisted by anode temperature ramp was employed to fabricate self-ordered nanoporous alumina in the wide range of interpore distances (259-405 nm) in pure oxalic acid and mixture of oxalic and phosphoric acid solutions. Anode temperature ramp technique was employed to adjust the anodization current density to optimize the self-ordering of the nanopore arrays in the interpore range in which no ordered self-assembled hard anodized anodic aluminum oxide has reported. It is found that the certain ratios of oxalic and phosphoric acid solutions in this anodization technique increased self-ordering of the nanopores especially for anodization voltages over the 170 V by increasing alumina's viscous flow which could lead to decrease the overall current density of anodization, yet leveled up by anode temperature ramp. However, below 150 V anodization voltage, the ratio of interpore distance to the anodization voltage of the both anodization techniques was the same (~2 nm/V), while above this voltage, it increased to about 2.2 nm/V.

  4. Structural engineering of nanoporous anodic aluminium oxide by pulse anodization of aluminium. (United States)

    Lee, Woo; Schwirn, Kathrin; Steinhart, Martin; Pippel, Eckhard; Scholz, Roland; Gösele, Ulrich


    Nanoporous anodic aluminium oxide has traditionally been made in one of two ways: mild anodization or hard anodization. The first method produces self-ordered pore structures, but it is slow and only works for a narrow range of processing conditions; the second method, which is widely used in the aluminium industry, is faster, but it produces films with disordered pore structures. Here we report a novel approach termed "pulse anodization" that combines the advantages of the mild and hard anodization processes. By designing the pulse sequences it is possible to control both the composition and pore structure of the anodic aluminium oxide films while maintaining high throughput. We use pulse anodization to delaminate a single as-prepared anodic film into a stack of well-defined nanoporous alumina membrane sheets, and also to fabricate novel three-dimensional nanostructures.

  5. Polarization, political

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Wojcieszak


    Polarization has been studied in three different forms: on a social, group, and individual level. This entry first focuses on the undisputed phenomenon of elite polarization (i.e., increasing adherence of policy positions among the elites) and also outlines different approaches to assessing mass pol

  6. Polar Codes (United States)


    QPSK Gaussian channels . .......................................................................... 39 vi 1. INTRODUCTION Forward error correction (FEC...Capacity of BSC. 7 Figure 5. Capacity of AWGN channel . 8 4. INTRODUCTION TO POLAR CODES Polar codes were introduced by E. Arikan in [1]. This paper...Under authority of C. A. Wilgenbusch, Head ISR Division EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This report describes the results of the project “More reliable wireless

  7. Anodizing And Sealing Aluminum In Nonchromated Solutions (United States)

    Emmons, John R.; Kallenborn, Kelli J.


    Improved process for anodizing and sealing aluminum involves use of 5 volume percent sulfuric acid in water as anodizing solution, and 1.5 to 2.0 volume percent nickel acetate in water as sealing solution. Replaces process in which sulfuric acid used at concentrations of 10 to 20 percent. Improved process yields thinner coats offering resistance to corrosion, fatigue life, and alloy-to-alloy consistency equal to or superior to those of anodized coats produced with chromated solutions.

  8. Polarization holography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolova, L.; Ramanujam, P.S.

    Current research into holography is concerned with applications in optically storing, retrieving, and processing information. Polarization holography has many unique properties compared to conventional holography. It gives results in high efficiency, achromaticity, and special polarization...... properties. This books reviews the research carried out in this field over the last 15 years. The authors provide basic concepts in polarization and the propagation of light through anisotropic materials, before presenting a sound theoretical basis for polarization holography. The fabrication...... and characterization of azobenzene based materials, which remain the most efficient for the purpose, is described in detail. This is followed by a description of other materials that are used in polarization holography. An in-depth description of various applications, including display holography and optical storage...

  9. Anodic Materials for Electrocatalytic Ozone Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Hai Wang


    Full Text Available Ozone has wide applications in various fields. Electrocatalytic ozone generation technology as an alternative method to produce ozone is attractive. Anodic materials have significant effect on the ozone generation efficiency. The research progress on anodic materials for electrocatalytic ozone generation including the cell configuration and mechanism is addressed in this review. The lead dioxide and nickel-antimony-doped tin dioxide anode materials are introduced in detail, including their structure, property, and preparation. Advantages and disadvantages of different anode materials are also discussed.

  10. Enhanced corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of β-type Ti–25Nb–25Zr alloy by electrochemical anodization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Her-Hsiung [Department of Dentistry, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, 112 Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Basic Medical Science, China Medical University, Taichung, 404 Taiwan (China); Department of Biomedical Informatics, Asia University, Taichung, 413 Taiwan (China); Department of Stomatology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, 112 Taiwan (China); Wu, Chia-Ping; Sun, Ying-Sui; Huang, Hsun-Miao [Institute of Oral Biology, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, 112 Taiwan (China); Lee, Tzu-Hsin, E-mail: [School of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, 402 Taiwan (China); Oral Medicine Center, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, 402 Taiwan (China)


    The biocompatibility of implants is largely determined by their surface characteristics. This study presents a novel method for performing electrochemical anodization on β-type Ti–25Nb–25Zr alloy with a low elastic modulus (approximately 70 GPa). This method results in a thin hybrid layer capable of enhancing the surface characteristics of the implants. We investigated the surface topography and microstructure of the resulting Ti–25Nb–25Zr alloy. The corrosion resistance was evaluated using potentiodynamic polarization curve measurements in simulated body fluid. The cytotoxicity was evaluated according to International Organization for Standardization 10993–5 specification. Cell adhesion of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on the test specimens was observed using scanning electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy. The anodization produced a thin (approximately 40 nm-thick) hybrid oxide layer with a nanoporous outer sublayer (pore size < 15 nm) and a dense inner layer. The thin hybrid oxide layer increased the corrosion resistance of the Ti–25Nb–25Zr alloy by increasing the corrosion potential and decreasing both the corrosion rate and passive current. Ti–25Nb–25Zr alloys with and without anodization treatment were non-toxic. Surface nanotopography on the anodized Ti–25Nb–25Zr alloy enhanced protein adsorption and cell adhesion. Our results demonstrate that electrochemical anodization increases the corrosion resistance and cell adhesion of β-type Ti–25Nb–25Zr alloy while providing a lower elastic modulus suitable for implant applications. - Highlights: • An electrochemical anodization was applied to β-type Ti–25Nb–25Zr alloy surface. • Anodized surface had nanoscale hybrid oxide layer. • Anodized surface increased corrosion resistance due to dense inner sublayer. • Anodized surface enhanced cell adhesion due to nanoporous outer sublayer. • Electrochemical anodization has potential as implant surface treatment.

  11. Effect of anodization on the surface characteristics and electrochemical behaviour of zirconium in artificial saliva. (United States)

    Romonti, Daniela E; Gomez Sanchez, Andrea V; Milošev, Ingrid; Demetrescu, Ioana; Ceré, Silvia


    The paper is focused on elaboration of ZrO2 films on pure zirconium via anodizing in phosphoric acid with and without fluoride at constant potentials of 30 V and 60 V. The structure and composition of the films were investigated using scanning electronic microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The composition of the oxides formed at both potentials can be identified as monoclinic ZrO2. In addition to Zr and O, the layers formed in phosphoric acid contain phosphorus originating from the phosphoric acid. When the phosphoric acid solution contains NaF, fluorine is also incorporated into the oxide layer. The oxides formed at a higher voltage have greater roughness than those formed at 30 V. Anodized samples exhibit smaller current densities during anodic polarization compared to the as-received zirconium covered with native oxide.

  12. Anodization process produces opaque, reflective coatings on aluminum (United States)


    Opaque, reflective coatings are produced on aluminum articles by an anodizing process wherein the anodizing bath contains an aqueous dispersion of finely divided insoluble inorganic compounds. These particles appear as uniformly distributed occlusions in the anodic deposit on the aluminum.

  13. Applying ellipsometry to studying the effect of two kinds of rare earth metal salts on anodizing aluminum alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H00G Quan; QIAN Ying; LI Lingjie; ZHANG Shengtao


    The effects of rare earth metal salts (REMs), cerium(Ⅳ) salt and lanthanum (Ⅲ) salt, on the property of anodized coating of LD10 aluminum alloy are studied by corrosion tests including neutral salt spray test and copper accelerated acetic acid immersion test, polarization curves measurement, energy dispersion analyzer of X-Ray(EDAX) analysis, and in situ ellipsometry. The results show that the addition of either of the two REMs in anodizing solution hardly changes the composition of an anodized coating, while increases the thickness of barrier part and reduces the porosity of porous part, which contributed to the improvement of the corrosion resistance of the anodized coating. The results also demonstrate that the effect of cerium salt was better than that of lanthanum salt.

  14. Polarizing cues. (United States)

    Nicholson, Stephen P


    People categorize themselves and others, creating ingroup and outgroup distinctions. In American politics, parties constitute the in- and outgroups, and party leaders hold sway in articulating party positions. A party leader's endorsement of a policy can be persuasive, inducing co-partisans to take the same position. In contrast, a party leader's endorsement may polarize opinion, inducing out-party identifiers to take a contrary position. Using survey experiments from the 2008 presidential election, I examine whether in- and out-party candidate cues—John McCain and Barack Obama—affected partisan opinion. The results indicate that in-party leader cues do not persuade but that out-party leader cues polarize. This finding holds in an experiment featuring President Bush in which his endorsement did not persuade Republicans but it polarized Democrats. Lastly, I compare the effect of party leader cues to party label cues. The results suggest that politicians, not parties, function as polarizing cues.


    aluminum resist corrosion in these solutions. Polyolefin and polyester nonwoven fabrics may be used as separators. Li anodes in propylene carbonate...ization. Electrode test results were used to design, construct and test cells with Li anodes and CuF2 cathodes.

  16. Increased chondrocyte adhesion on nanotubular anodized titanium. (United States)

    Burns, Kevin; Yao, Chang; Webster, Thomas J


    Previous studies have demonstrated increased osteoblast (bone-forming cells) functions (including adhesion, synthesis of intracellular collagen, alkaline phosphatase activity, and deposition of calcium-containing minerals) on titanium anodized to possess nanometer features compared with their unanodized counterparts. Such titanium materials were anodized to possess novel nanotubes also capable of drug delivery. Since titanium has not only experienced wide spread commercial use in orthopedic but also in cartilage applications, the objective of the present in vitro study was for the first time to investigate chondrocyte (cartilage synthesizing cells) functions on titanium anodized to possess nanotubes. For this purpose, titanium was anodized in dilute hydrofluoric acid at 20 V for 20 min. Results showed increased chondrocyte adhesion on anodized titanium with nanotube structures compared with unanodized titanium. Importantly, the present study also provided evidence why. Since material characterization studies revealed significantly greater nanometer roughness and similar chemistry as well as crystallinity between nanotubular anodized and unanodized titanium, the results of the present study highlight the importance of the nanometer roughness provided by anodized nanotubes on titanium for enhancing chondrocyte adhesion. In this manner, the results of the present in vitro study indicated that anodization might be a promising quick and inexpensive method to modify the surface of titanium-based implants to induce better chondrocyte adhesion for cartilage applications.

  17. Growth behavior of anodic oxide formed by aluminum anodizing in glutaric and its derivative acid electrolytes (United States)

    Nakajima, Daiki; Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Natsui, Shungo; Suzuki, Ryosuke O.


    The growth behavior of anodic oxide films formed via anodizing in glutaric and its derivative acid solutions was investigated based on the acid dissociation constants of electrolytes. High-purity aluminum foils were anodized in glutaric, ketoglutaric, and acetonedicarboxylic acid solutions under various electrochemical conditions. A thin barrier anodic oxide film grew uniformly on the aluminum substrate by glutaric acid anodizing, and further anodizing caused the film to breakdown due to a high electric field. In contrast, an anodic porous alumina film with a submicrometer-scale cell diameter was successfully formed by ketoglutaric acid anodizing at 293 K. However, the increase and decrease in the temperature of the ketoglutaric acid resulted in non-uniform oxide growth and localized pitting corrosion of the aluminum substrate. An anodic porous alumina film could also be fabricated by acetonedicarboxylic acid anodizing due to the relatively low dissociation constants associated with the acid. Acid dissociation constants are an important factor for the fabrication of anodic porous alumina films.

  18. Structured SiCu thin films in LiB as anodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polat, B.D., E-mail: [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Istanbul Technical University, Maslak, Istanbul 34469 (Turkey); Eryilmaz, O.L.; Erck, R. [Energy Systems Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Keleş, O., E-mail: [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Istanbul Technical University, Maslak, Istanbul 34469 (Turkey); Erdemir, A. [Energy Systems Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Amine, K. [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)


    Both helical and inclined columnar Si–10 at.% Cu structured thin films were deposited on Cu substrates using glancing angle deposition (GLAD) technique. In order to deposit Cu and Si two evaporation sources were used. Ion assistance was utilized in the first 5 min of the GLAD to enhance the adhesion and the density of the films. These films were characterized by thin film XRD, GDOES, SEM, and EDS. Electrochemical characterizations were made by testing the thin films as anodes in half-cells for 100 cycles. The results showed that the columnar SiCu thin film delivered 2200 mAh g{sup −1}, where the helical one exhibited 2600 mAh g{sup −1}, and, their initial coulombic efficiencies were found to be 38%–50% respectively. For the columnar and the helical thin film anodes, sustainable 520 and 800 mAh g{sup −1} with 90% and 99% coulombic efficiencies were achieved for 100 cycles. These sustainable capacities showed the importance of the thin film structure having nano-sized crystals and amorphous particles. The higher surface area of the helices increases the capacity of the electrode because the contact area of the thin film anode with Li ions is increased, and the polarization which otherwise forms on the anode surface due to SEI formation is decreased. In addition, because of larger interspaces between the helices the ability of the anode to accommodate the volumetric changes is improved, which results in a higher coulombic efficiency and capacity retention during cycling test. - Highlights: • Cu and Si atoms were co-evaporated to form composite thin film. • GLAD is an alternative method to form new electrodes for LIB. • Uses of the composite helices and nanocolumns as anodes were shown experimentally. • IAD was used to improve the adhesion of the structured thin films. • High surface area, porosities and Cu presence improve the Si anode performance.

  19. Electrocatalytic properties and stability of titanium anodes activated by the inorganic sol–gel procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The properties of activated titanium anodes, RuO2–TiO2/Ti and RuO2–TiO2–IrO2/Ti, prepared from oxide sols by the sol–gel procedure, are reviewed. RuO2 and TiO2 sols were synthesized by forced hydrolysis of the corresponding chlorides in acid medium. The morphology of the prepared sols was investigated by transmission electron microscopy. The chemical composition of the RuO2 sol was determined by X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis. The loss of electrocatalytic activity of a RuO2–TiO2/Ti anode during an accelerated stability test was investigated by examination of the changes in the electrochemical characteristics in the potential region of the chlorine and oxygen evolution reaction, as well as on the open circuit potential. These electrochemical characteristics were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and polarization measurements. The changes in electrochemical characteristics of the anode prepared by the sol–gel procedure were compared to the changes registered for an anode prepared by the traditional thermal decomposition of metal chlorides. The comparison indicated that the main cause for the activity loss of the sol–gel prepared anode was the electrochemical dissolution of RuO2, while in the case of thermally prepared anode the loss was mainly caused by the formation of an insulating TiO2 layer in the coating/Ti substrate interphase. The results of an accelerated stability test on RuO2–TiO2/Ti and RuO2–TiO2–IrO2/Ti anodes showed that the ternary coating is considerably more stable than the binary one, which is the consequence of the greater stability of IrO2 in comparison to RuO2.

  20. High-performance anode-supported solid oxide fuel cell with impregnated electrodes (United States)

    Osinkin, D. A.; Bogdanovich, N. M.; Beresnev, S. M.; Zhuravlev, V. D.


    The 61%NiO + 39%Zr0.84Y0.16O1.92 (NiO-YSZ) and 56%NiO + 44%Zr0.83Sc0.16Ce0.01O1.92 (NiO-CeSSZ) composite powders have been prepared using two-steps and one-step combustion synthesis, respectively. The Ni-YSZ anode substrate with a low level of electrical resistance (less than 1 mOhm cm) and porosity of about 53% in the reduced state was fabricated. The functional layer of the anode with the high level of electrochemical activity was made of NiO-CeSSZ. The single anode-supported solid oxide fuel cell with the bi-layer Ni-cermet anode, Zr0.84Sc0.16O1.92 film electrolyte and the Pt + 3% Zr0.84Y0.16O1.92 cathode was fabricated. The power density and the U-I curves of the fuel cell at initial state and after impregnation of the cathode and anode by praseodymium and cerium oxides, respectively, have been measured at different temperatures. The maximum of power density of the initial fuel cell was 0.35 W cm-2 at conditions of wet hydrogen (air) supply to the anode (cathode) at 900 °C. After the electrodes were impregnated, the value of power density increased by seven times and was approximately 2.4 W cm-2 at 0.6 V. It was suggested that after the electrodes impregnation the polarization resistance of the fuel cell was determined by the gas diffusion in the supported anode.

  1. Sprayed-zinc sacrificial anodes for reinforced concrete in marine service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saguees, A.A. [Univ. of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Powers, R.G. [Florida Dept. of Transportation, Gainesville, FL (United States)


    The use of sacrificial anodes consisting of sprayed zinc on the surface of concrete containing corroding reinforcing steel bars was examined in field tests and laboratory experiments. The anodes were sprayed directly onto the external surface of spalled regions of marine substructure elements. Electrical contact between the steel and zinc was achieved efficiently by spraying directly over exposed steel. Field tests were conducted in the Florida Keys and in Tampa Bay. The installations were performed economically and were functional as much as 5 y following placement. Protective current densities reaching 1 mA/ft{sup 2} (1 {micro}A/cm{sup 2}) of the reinforcing steel were achieved. Tests with reinforcing steel probes and with entire reinforcement assemblies showed steel polarization decays (upon temporary disconnection) typically exceeding 100 mV even after several years of service. Laboratory tests revealed concrete resistivity in the marine substructure conditions of interest did not represent a main limiting factor in performance of the galvanic anodes. However, absence of direct wetting of the anode surface could result in long-term loss of adequate current delivery, even when the concrete was in contact with air of 85% relative humidity (RH). Periodic water contact (by seawater mist, splash, or weather exposure) was considered a necessary factor for long-term anode performance. The method was considered a competitive alternative to impressed-current cathodic protection (CP) and a considerable improvement over simple gunite repair of corrosion-damaged substructure concrete.

  2. A new anode material for oxygen evolution in molten oxide electrolysis. (United States)

    Allanore, Antoine; Yin, Lan; Sadoway, Donald R


    Molten oxide electrolysis (MOE) is an electrometallurgical technique that enables the direct production of metal in the liquid state from oxide feedstock, and compared with traditional methods of extractive metallurgy offers both a substantial simplification of the process and a significant reduction in energy consumption. MOE is also considered a promising route for mitigation of CO2 emissions in steelmaking, production of metals free of carbon, and generation of oxygen for extra-terrestrial exploration. Until now, MOE has been demonstrated using anode materials that are consumable (graphite for use with ferro-alloys and titanium) or unaffordable for terrestrial applications (iridium for use with iron). To enable metal production without process carbon, MOE requires an anode material that resists depletion while sustaining oxygen evolution. The challenges for iron production are threefold. First, the process temperature is in excess of 1,538 degrees Celsius (ref. 10). Second, under anodic polarization most metals inevitably corrode in such conditions. Third, iron oxide undergoes spontaneous reduction on contact with most refractory metals and even carbon. Here we show that anodes comprising chromium-based alloys exhibit limited consumption during iron extraction and oxygen evolution by MOE. The anode stability is due to the formation of an electronically conductive solid solution of chromium(iii) and aluminium oxides in the corundum structure. These findings make practicable larger-scale evaluation of MOE for the production of steel, and potentially provide a key material component enabling mitigation of greenhouse-gas emissions while producing metal of superior metallurgical quality.

  3. Electrochemical and microstructural characterization of cyclic redox behaviour of SOFC anodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KONG Jiangrong; SUN Kening; ZHOU Derui; ZHANG Naiqing; QIAO Jinshuo


    The oxidation of Ni to NiO in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anode will result in large bulk volume change, which may change the interfaces of the two phases in the anode cermet and thus may cause significant performance degradation. The reduction and oxidation (redox) of the Ni/YSZ cermet were studied at 800 ℃. Anodic polarization measurements were performed before and after redox cycles. The anode current density at an overpotential of 100 mV kept decreasing during the whole redox treatment. It decreased from 19.11 to 7.95 mA·cm-2 after two redox cycles. Anode supported unit cell was assembled for cell's discharge measurements. Cell performance declined after each redox cycle. The maximum power density decreased from 126.28 to 40.32 mW·cm-2 . The microstructural changes after redox cycling were recorded using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results reveal that after re-oxidation, the Ni gets coarse and has a higher porosity; the nickel network structure turns to be desultory.

  4. Effects Of Anodic Protection On SCC Behavior Of X80 Pipeline Steel In High-pH Carbonate-Bicarbonate Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao W.


    Full Text Available The potentiodynamic polarization test and slow strain rate tensile tests of X80 pipeline steel were performed in 0.5M Na2CO3-1M NaHCO3 solution to study the electrochemical and stress corrosion cracking properties. The results of potentiodynamic polarization test show that there is an obvious stable passive region, about from 0v to 0.8V (SCE, indicating that anodic protection is feasible. The results of slow strain rate tensile tests show that the stress corrosion cracking sensibility is high and cathodic protection effect is restricted due to the hydrogen permeation. However, the elongation, yielding strength and tensile strength all increase with anodic protection. The higher anodic protection potential in the stable passive region is benefit to improve tensile strength and yielding strength. However, the higher elongation is obtained at 0.5V (SCE anodic protection potential.

  5. Application of in situ digital holography to the study of the effect of a magnetic field on the anodic dissolution of iron in thichloroacetic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The effect of a magnetic field on the anodic dissolution of iron in 1.0 mol dm-3 trichloroacetic acid solution was studied by the potentiodynamic polarization method and in situ digital holography. It was found that the magnetohydrodynamic force increased the mass transport, which resulted in a faster anodic dissolution of iron. The effect of the magnetic field was analyzed by holograms and is discussed in terms of the magnetohydrodynamic force.

  6. The Nitrogen-Nitride Anode.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delnick, Frank M.


    Nitrogen gas N 2 can be reduced to nitride N -3 in molten LiCl-KCl eutectic salt electrolyte. However, the direct oxidation of N -3 back to N 2 is kinetically slow and only occurs at high overvoltage. The overvoltage for N -3 oxidation can be eliminated by coordinating the N -3 with BN to form the dinitridoborate (BN 2 -3 ) anion which forms a 1-D conjugated linear inorganic polymer with -Li-N-B-N- repeating units. This polymer precipitates out of solution as Li 3 BN 2 which becomes a metallic conductor upon delithiation. Li 3 BN 2 is oxidized to Li + + N 2 + BN at about the N 2 /N -3 redox potential with very little overvoltage. In this report we evaluate the N 2 /N -3 redox couple as a battery anode for energy storage.

  7. Anodizing of High Electrically Stressed Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, P. [NSTec; Henderson, D. J. [NSTec; Good, D. E. [NSTec; Hogge, K. [NSTec; Mitton, C. V. [NSTec; Molina, I. [NSTec; Naffziger, C. [NSTec; Codova, S. R. [SNL; Ormond, E. U. [SNL


    Anodizing creates an aluminum oxide coating that penetrates into the surface as well as builds above the surface of aluminum creating a very hard ceramic-type coating with good dielectric properties. Over time and use, the electrical carrying components (or spools in this case) experience electrical breakdown, yielding undesirable x-ray dosages or failure. The spool is located in the high vacuum region of a rod pinch diode section of an x-ray producing machine. Machine operators have recorded decreases in x-ray dosages over numerous shots using the reusable spool component, and re-anodizing the interior surface of the spool does not provide the expected improvement. A machine operation subject matter expert coated the anodized surface with diffusion pump oil to eliminate electrical breakdown as a temporary fix. It is known that an anodized surface is very porous, and it is because of this porosity that the surface may trap air that becomes a catalyst for electrical breakdown. In this paper we present a solution of mitigating electrical breakdown by oiling. We will also present results of surface anodizing improvements achieved by surface finish preparation and surface sealing. We conclude that oiling the anodized surface and using anodized hot dip sealing processes will have similar results.

  8. Anode readout for pixellated CZT detectors (United States)

    Narita, Tomohiko; Grindlay, Jonathan E.; Hong, Jaesub; Niestemski, Francis C.


    Determination of the photon interaction depth offers numerous advantages for an astronomical hard X-ray telescope. The interaction depth is typically derived from two signals: anode and cathode, or collecting and non-collecting electrodes. We present some preliminary results from our depth sensing detectors using only the anode pixel signals. By examining several anode pixel signals simultaneously, we find that we can estimate the interaction depth, and get sub-pixel 2-D position resolution. We discuss our findings and the requirements for future ASIC development.

  9. Magnesium anode for chloride ion batteries. (United States)

    Zhao, Xiangyu; Li, Qiang; Zhao-Karger, Zhirong; Gao, Ping; Fink, Karin; Shen, Xiaodong; Fichtner, Maximilian


    A key advantage of chloride ion battery (CIB) is its possibility to use abundant electrode materials that are different from those in Li ion batteries. Mg anode is presented as such a material for the first time and Mg/C composite prepared by ball milling of Mg and carbon black powders or thermally decomposed MgH2/C composite has been tested as anode for CIB. The electrochemical performance of FeOCl/Mg and BiOCl/Mg was investigated, demonstrating the feasibility of using Mg as anode.

  10. Polarized Campuses. (United States)

    Parr, Susan Resneck


    On college campuses, the climate is polarized because of intolerance and discrimination, censorship, factionalism, and anger among students and faculty. As a result, the campus is in danger of becoming dominated by political issues and discouraging the exchange of ideas characteristic of a true liberal arts education. (MSE)

  11. Anode-Free Rechargeable Lithium Metal Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, Jiangfeng [The Joint Center for Energy Storage Research (JCESR), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Adams, Brian D. [The Joint Center for Energy Storage Research (JCESR), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Zheng, Jianming [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Xu, Wu [The Joint Center for Energy Storage Research (JCESR), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Henderson, Wesley A. [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Wang, Jun [A123 Systems Research and Development, Waltham MA 02451 USA; Bowden, Mark E. [Environmental and Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Xu, Suochang [Earth and Biological Science Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Hu, Jianzhi [The Joint Center for Energy Storage Research (JCESR), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Earth and Biological Science Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Zhang, Ji-Guang [The Joint Center for Energy Storage Research (JCESR), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA


    Anode-free rechargeable lithium (Li) batteries (AFLBs) are phenomenal energy storage systems due to their significantly increased energy density and reduced cost relative to Li-ion batteries, as well as ease of assembly owing to the absence of an active (reactive) anode material. However, significant challenges, including Li dendrite growth and low cycling Coulombic efficiency (CE), have prevented their practical implementation. Here, we report for the first time an anode-free rechargeable lithium battery based on a Cu||LiFePO4 cell structure with an extremely high CE (> 99.8%). This results from the utilization of both an exceptionally stable electrolyte and optimized charge/discharge protocols which minimize the corrosion of the in-situ formed Li metal anode.

  12. Masking of aluminum surface against anodizing (United States)

    Crawford, G. B.; Thompson, R. E.


    Masking material and a thickening agent preserve limited unanodized areas when aluminum surfaces are anodized with chromic acid. For protection of large areas it combines well with a certain self-adhesive plastic tape.

  13. Electrochemically exfoliated graphene anodes with enhanced biocurrent production in single-chamber air-breathing microbial fuel cells. (United States)

    Najafabadi, Amin Taheri; Ng, Norvin; Gyenge, Előd


    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) present promising options for environmentally sustainable power generation especially in conjunction with waste water treatment. However, major challenges remain including low power density, difficult scale-up, and durability of the cell components. This study reports enhanced biocurrent production in a membrane-free MFC, using graphene microsheets (GNs) as anode and MnOx catalyzed air cathode. The GNs are produced by ionic liquid assisted simultaneous anodic and cathodic electrochemical exfoliation of iso-molded graphite electrodes. The GNs produced by anodic exfoliation increase the MFC peak power density by over 300% compared to plain carbon cloth (i.e., 2.85Wm(-2) vs 0.66Wm(-2), respectively), and by 90% compared to conventional carbon black (i.e., Vulcan XC-72) anode. These results exceed previously reported power densities for graphene-containing MFC anodes. The fuel cell polarization results are corroborated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy indicating three times lower charge transfer resistance for the GN anode. Material characterizations suggest that the best performing GN samples were of relatively smaller size (~500nm), with higher levels of ionic liquid induced surface functionalization during the electrochemical exfoliation process.

  14. Ultraviolet photoluminescence of porous anodic alumina films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Photoluminescence (PL) properties of porous anodic alumina (PAA) films prepared by using electrochemical anodization technique in a mixed solution of oxalic and sulfuric acid have been investigated. The PAA films have an intensive ultraviolet PL emission around 350 nm, of which a possible PL mechanism has been proposed. It was found that the incorporated oxalic ions, which could transform into PL centers and exist in the PAA films, are responsible for this ultraviolet PL emission.

  15. Anodic growth of titanium dioxide nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    Disclosed is a method of producing nanostructures of titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) by anodisation of titanium (Ti) in an electrochemical cell, comprising the steps of: immersing a non-conducting substrate coated with a layer of titanium, defined as the anode, in an electrolyte solution...... an electrical contact to the layer of titanium on the anode, where the electrical contact is made in the electrolyte solution...

  16. Lithium Ion Battery Anode Aging Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Agubra


    Full Text Available Degradation mechanisms such as lithium plating, growth of the passivated surface film layer on the electrodes and loss of both recyclable lithium ions and electrode material adversely affect the longevity of the lithium ion battery. The anode electrode is very vulnerable to these degradation mechanisms. In this paper, the most common aging mechanisms occurring at the anode during the operation of the lithium battery, as well as some approaches for minimizing the degradation are reviewed.

  17. Lithium Ion Battery Anode Aging Mechanisms


    Victor Agubra; Jeffrey Fergus


    Degradation mechanisms such as lithium plating, growth of the passivated surface film layer on the electrodes and loss of both recyclable lithium ions and electrode material adversely affect the longevity of the lithium ion battery. The anode electrode is very vulnerable to these degradation mechanisms. In this paper, the most common aging mechanisms occurring at the anode during the operation of the lithium battery, as well as some approaches for minimizing the degradation are reviewed.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Professor Anil V. Virkar


    This report summarizes the work done during the entire project period, between October 1, 1999 and March 31, 2003, which includes a six-month no-cost extension. During the project, eight research papers have, either been, published, accepted for publication, or submitted for publication. In addition, several presentations have been made in technical meetings and workshops. The project also has provided support for four graduate students working towards advanced degrees. The principal technical objective of the project was to analyze the role of electrode microstructure on solid oxide fuel cell performance. Prior theoretical work conducted in our laboratory demonstrated that the particle size of composite electrodes has a profound effect on cell performance; the finer the particle size, the lower the activation polarization, the better the performance. The composite cathodes examined consisted of electronically conducting perovskites such as Sr-doped LaMnO{sub 3} (LSM) or Sr-doped LaCoO{sub 3} (LSC), which is also a mixed conductor, as the electrocatalyst, and yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) or rare earth oxide doped CeO{sub 2} as the ionic conductor. The composite anodes examined were mixtures of Ni and YSZ. A procedure was developed for the synthesis of nanosize YSZ by molecular decomposition, in which unwanted species were removed by leaching, leaving behind nanosize YSZ. Anode-supported cells were made using the as-synthesized powders, or using commercially acquired powders. The electrolyte was usually a thin ({approx}10 microns), dense layer of YSZ, supported on a thick ({approx}1 mm), porous Ni + YSZ anode. The cathode was a porous mixture of electrocatalyst and an ionic conductor. Most of the cell testing was done at 800 C with hydrogen as fuel and air as the oxidant. Maximum power densities as high as 1.8 W/cm{sup 2} were demonstrated. Polarization behavior of the cells was theoretically analyzed. A limited amount of cell testing was done using liquid

  19. Fibrous zinc anodes for high power batteries (United States)

    Zhang, X. Gregory

    This paper introduces newly developed solid zinc anodes using fibrous material for high power applications in alkaline and large size zinc-air battery systems. The improved performance of the anodes in these two battery systems is demonstrated. The possibilities for control of electrode porosity and for anode/battery design using fibrous materials are discussed in light of experimental data. Because of its mechanical integrity and connectivity, the fibrous solid anode has good electrical conductivity, mechanical stability, and design flexibility for controlling mass distribution, porosity and effective surface area. Experimental data indicated that alkaline cells made of such anodes can have a larger capacity at high discharging currents than commercially available cells. It showed even greater improvement over commercial cells with a non-conventional cell design. Large capacity anodes for a zinc-air battery have also been made and have shown excellent material utilization at various discharge rates. The zinc-air battery was used to power an electric bicycle and demonstrated good results.

  20. Synthesis of anodic titania nanotubes in Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}/NaF electrolyte: A comparison between anodization time and specimens with biomaterial based approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balakrishnan, M., E-mail: [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore 641 004 (India); Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India); Narayanan, R. [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore 641 004 (India); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Saveetha School of Engineering, Chennai 602 105 (India)


    Surface modification of commercially pure titanium (cp-Ti) has been carried out by electrochemical anodic oxidation at constant voltage for different time periods (0.5, 1, 2 and 4.5 h). Currents developed during the anodization indicate that the nanotubes are formed due to the competition of titania formation and dissolution under the assistance of electric field. Topologies of the anodized titanium change remarkably with time of oxidation. The morphology of the as-prepared nanotubes was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy while the chemistry and crystallinity were characterized by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction respectively. The as-anodized oxide was of amorphous but transformed to anatase and/or rutile crystal structure upon annealing for 3 h at 600 °C. The anatase structure showed excellent apatite-forming ability and produced a compact apatite layer covering the surface completely upon treatment in simulated body fluid (SBF) solution for 30 h. Corrosion of anodized titanium samples was studied in a SBF solution using open circuit potential, polarization and electrochemical impedance measurements and compared with that of non-oxidized titanium. Among these samples, titanium anodized for 4.5 h exhibited superior corrosion properties. - Highlights: • We synthesized TiO{sub 2} nanotubes by anodization in Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}/NaF electrolyte. • Topologies of the anodized titanium change remarkably with oxidation time. • We studied surface morphologies of TiO{sub 2} nanotubes. • TiO{sub 2} nanotubes show superior corrosion resistance.

  1. Nanostructures Using Anodic Aluminum Oxide (United States)

    Valmianski, Ilya; Monton, Carlos M.; Pereiro, Juan; Basaran, Ali C.; Schuller, Ivan K.


    We present two fabrication methods for asymmetric mesoscopic dot arrays over macroscopic areas using anodic aluminum oxide templates. In the first approach, metal is deposited at 45o to the template axis to partially close the pores and produce an elliptical shadow-mask. In the second approach, now underway, nanoimprint lithography on a polymer intermediary layer is followed by reactive ion etching to generate asymmetric pore seeds. Both these techniques are quantified by an analysis of the lateral morphology and lattice of the pores or dots using scanning electron microscopy and a newly developed MATLAB based code (available for free download at The code automatically provides a segmentation of the measured area and the statistics of morphological properties such as area, diameter, and eccentricity, as well as the lattice properties such as number of nearest neighbors, and unbiased angular and radial two point correlation functions. Furthermore, novel user defined statistics can be easily obtained. We will additionally present several applications of these methods to superconducting, ferromagnetic, and organic nanostructures. This work is supported by AFOSR FA9550-10-1-0409

  2. Improvement of corrosion resistance of AZ31 Mg alloy by anodizing with co-precipitation of cerium oxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Salah Abdelghany SALMAN; Ryoichi ICHINO; Masazumi OKIDO


    Anodizing of AZ31 Mg alloy in NaOH solution by co-precipitation of cerium oxide was investigated. The chemical composition and phase structure of the coating film were determined via optical microscopy, SEM and XRD. The corrosion properties of the anodic film were characterized by using potentiodynamic polarization curves in 17 mmol/L NaCl and 0.1 mol/L Na2SO4 solution at 298 K. The corrosion resistance of AZ31 magnesium alloy is significantly improved by adding cerium oxide to alkaline solution. In addition, the surface properties are enhanced and the film contains no crack.

  3. Electrical and Mechanical Performance of Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Used as the Impressed Current Anode Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Hua Zhu


    Full Text Available An investigation was performed by using carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP as the anode material in the impressed current cathodic protection (ICCP system of steel reinforced concrete structures. The service life and performance of CFRP were investigated in simulated ICCP systems with various configurations. Constant current densities were maintained during the tests. No significant degradation in electrical and mechanical properties was found for CFRP subjected to anodic polarization with the selected applied current densities. The service life of the CFRP-based ICCP system was discussed based on the practical reinforced concrete structure layout.

  4. Polar Diving (United States)


    3 July 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows layers exposed by erosion in a trough within the north polar residual cap of Mars, diving beneath a younger covering of polar materials. The layers have, since the Mariner 9 mission in 1972, been interpreted to be composed of a combination of dust and ice in unknown proportions. In this scene, a layer of solid carbon dioxide, which was deposited during the previous autumn and winter, blankets the trough as well as the adjacent terrain. Throughout northern spring, the carbon dioxide will be removed; by summer, the layers will be frost-free. Location near: 81.4oN, 352.2oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Spring

  5. 3D Microstructure Effects in Ni-YSZ Anodes: Influence of TPB Lengths on the Electrochemical Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar M. Pecho


    Full Text Available 3D microstructure-performance relationships in Ni-YSZ anodes for electrolyte-supported cells are investigated in terms of the correlation between the triple phase boundary (TPB length and polarization resistance (Rpol. Three different Ni-YSZ anodes of varying microstructure are subjected to eight reduction-oxidation (redox cycles at 950 °C. In general the TPB lengths correlate with anode performance. However, the quantitative results also show that there is no simplistic relationship between TPB and Rpol. The degradation mechanism strongly depends on the initial microstructure. Finer microstructures exhibit lower degradation rates of TPB and Rpol. In fine microstructures, TPB loss is found to be due to Ni coarsening, while in coarse microstructures reduction of active TPB results mainly from loss of YSZ percolation. The latter is attributed to weak bottlenecks associated with lower sintering activity of the coarse YSZ. The coarse anode suffers from complete loss of YSZ connectivity and associated drop of TPBactive by 93%. Surprisingly, this severe microstructure degradation did not lead to electrochemical failure. Mechanistic scenarios are discussed for different anode microstructures. These scenarios are based on a model for coupled charge transfer and transport, which allows using TPB and effective properties as input. The mechanistic scenarios describe the microstructure influence on current distributions, which explains the observed complex relationship between TPB lengths and anode performances. The observed loss of YSZ percolation in the coarse anode is not detrimental because the electrochemical activity is concentrated in a narrow active layer. The anode performance can be predicted reliably if the volume-averaged properties (TPBactive, effective ionic conductivity are corrected for the so-called short-range effect, which is particularly important in cases with a narrow active layer.

  6. Anodized aluminum on LDEF: A current status of measurements on chromic acid anodized aluminum (United States)

    Golden, Johnny L.


    Chromic acid anodize was used as the exterior coating for aluminum surfaces on LDEF to provide passive thermal control. Chromic acid anodized aluminum was also used as test specimens in thermal control coatings experiments. The following is a compilation and analysis of the data obtained thus far.

  7. New High-Energy Nanofiber Anode Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiangwu; Fedkiw, Peter; Khan, Saad; Huang, Alex; Fan, Jiang


    The overall goal of the proposed work was to use electrospinning technology to integrate dissimilar materials (lithium alloy and carbon) into novel composite nanofiber anodes, which simultaneously had high energy density, reduced cost, and improved abuse tolerance. The nanofiber structure allowed the anodes to withstand repeated cycles of expansion and contraction. These composite nanofibers were electrospun into nonwoven fabrics with thickness of 50 μm or more, and then directly used as anodes in a lithium-ion battery. This eliminated the presence of non-active materials (e.g., conducting carbon black and polymer binder) and resulted in high energy and power densities. The nonwoven anode structure also provided a large electrode-electrolyte interface and, hence, high rate capacity and good lowtemperature performance capability. Following are detailed objectives for three proposed project periods. • During the first six months: Obtain anodes capable of initial specific capacities of 650 mAh/g and achieve ~50 full charge/discharge cycles in small laboratory scale cells (50 to 100 mAh) at the 1C rate with less than 20 percent capacity fade; • In the middle of project period: Assemble, cycle, and evaluate 18650 cells using proposed anode materials, and demonstrate practical and useful cycle life (750 cycles of ~70% state of charge swing with less than 20% capacity fade) in 18650 cells with at least twice improvement in the specific capacity than that of conventional graphite electrodes; • At the end of project period: Deliver 18650 cells containing proposed anode materials, and achieve specific capacities greater than 1200 mAh/g and cycle life longer than 5000 cycles of ~70% state of charge swing with less than 20% capacity fade.

  8. The Role of Anode Manufacturing Processes in Net Carbon Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil Khaji


    Full Text Available Carbon anodes are consumed in electrolysis cells during aluminum production. Carbon consumption in pre-bake anode cells is 400–450 kg C/t Al, considerably higher than the theoretical consumption of 334 kg C/t Al. This excess carbon consumption is partly due to the anode manufacturing processes. Net carbon consumption over the last three years at Emirates Aluminium (EMAL, also known as Emirates Global Aluminium (EGA Al Taweelah was analyzed with respect to anode manufacturing processes/parameters. The analysis indicates a relationship between net carbon consumption and many manufacturing processes, including anode desulfurization during anode baking. Anode desulfurization appears to increase the reaction surface area, thereby helping the Boudouard reaction between carbon and carbon dioxide in the electrolysis zone, as well as reducing the presence of sulfur which could inhibit this reaction. This paper presents correlations noted between anode manufacturing parameters and baked anode properties, and their impact on the net carbon consumption in electrolytic pots. Anode reactivities affect the carbon consumption in the pots during the electrolysis of alumina. Pitch content in anodes, impurities in anodes, and anode desulfurization during baking were studied to find their influence on anode reactivities. The understanding gained through this analysis helped reduce net carbon consumption by adjusting manufacturing processes. For an aluminum smelter producing one million tonnes of aluminum per year, the annual savings could be as much as US $0.45 million for every kg reduction in net carbon consumption.

  9. Controlling the occurrence of power overshoot by adapting microbial fuel cells to high anode potentials. (United States)

    Zhu, Xiuping; Tokash, Justin C; Hong, Yiying; Logan, Bruce E


    Power density curves for microbial fuel cells (MFCs) often show power overshoot, resulting in inaccurate estimation of MFC performance at high current densities. The reasons for power overshoot are not well understood, but biofilm acclimation and development are known factors. In order to better explore the reasons for power overshoot, exoelectrogenic biofilms were developed at four different anode potentials (-0.46 V, -0.24 V, 0 V, and 0.50 V vs. Ag/AgCl), and then the properties of the biofilms were examined using polarization tests and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The maximum power density of the MFCs was 1200±100 mW/m(2). Power overshoot was observed in MFCs incubated at -0.46 V, but not those acclimated at more positive potentials, indicating that bacterial activity was significantly influenced by the anode acclimation potential. CV results further indicated that power overshoot of MFCs incubated at the lowest anode potential was associated with a decreasing electroactivity of the anodic biofilm in the high potential region, which resulted from a lack of sufficient electron transfer components to shuttle electrons at rates needed for these more positive potentials.

  10. Effect of the layer of anodized 7075-T6 aluminium corrosion properties (United States)

    Montoya Z, R. D.; L, E. Vera; Pineda T, Y.; Cedeño, M. L.


    Aluminium alloys are widely used in various sectors of industry. The 7075-T6 alloy corresponding to an Al-Zn T6, is mostly used as structural component in the aviation industry, due to the good relationship between weight and mechanical properties. However, the negative point of this alloys is the resistance to corrosion, which is why they need to be coated with an anodic film. Different surface treatments, such as anodizing, are used to improve corrosion resistance. Anodizing is an electrolytic process by which a protective layer on aluminium known as “alumina” is formed, this is formed by the passage of an electric current in an acidic electrolyte. This investigation presents a study of the effect of the thickness of layers of alumina deposited by anodized method, in the corrosion resistance of 7075-T6 aluminium. This study was performed by using in a solution of tartaric acid - sulfuric acid and an inorganic salt. To evaluate the influence alumina layer thickness on the corrosion properties some tests were carried out by using the electrochemical spectroscopy impedances (EIS) technique and Tafel polarization curves. It was found that the grown of the thickness of film favourably influences in the corrosion resistance.

  11. Analysis of carbon fiber brush loading in anodes on startup and performance of microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Hutchinson, Adam J.


    Flat carbon anodes placed near a cathode in a microbial fuel cell (MFC) are adversely affected by oxygen crossover, but graphite fiber brush anodes placed near the cathode produce high power densities. The impact of the brush size and electrode spacing was examined by varying the distance of the brush end from the cathode and solution conductivity in multiple MFCs. The startup time was increased from 8 ± 1 days with full brushes (all buffer concentrations) to 13 days (50 mM), 14 days (25 mM) and 21 days (8 mM) when 75% of the brush anode was removed. When MFCs were all first acclimated with a full brush, up to 65% of the brush material could be removed without appreciably altering maximum power. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) showed that the main source of internal resistance (IR) was diffusion resistance, which together with solution resistance reached 100 Ω. The IR using EIS compared well with that obtained using the polarization data slope method, indicating no major components of IR were missed. These results show that using full brush anodes avoids adverse effects of oxygen crossover during startup, although brushes are much larger than needed to sustain high power. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  12. Air-Impregnated Nanoporous Anodic Aluminum Oxide Layers for Enhancing the Corrosion Resistance of Aluminum. (United States)

    Jeong, Chanyoung; Lee, Junghoon; Sheppard, Keith; Choi, Chang-Hwan


    Nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide layers were fabricated on aluminum substrates with systematically varied pore diameters (20-80 nm) and oxide thicknesses (150-500 nm) by controlling the anodizing voltage and time and subsequent pore-widening process conditions. The porous nanostructures were then coated with a thin (only a couple of nanometers thick) Teflon film to make the surface hydrophobic and trap air in the pores. The corrosion resistance of the aluminum substrate was evaluated by a potentiodynamic polarization measurement in 3.5 wt % NaCl solution (saltwater). Results showed that the hydrophobic nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide layer significantly enhanced the corrosion resistance of the aluminum substrate compared to a hydrophilic oxide layer of the same nanostructures, to bare (nonanodized) aluminum with only a natural oxide layer on top, and to the latter coated with a thin Teflon film. The hydrophobic nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide layer with the largest pore diameter and the thickest oxide layer (i.e., the maximized air fraction) resulted in the best corrosion resistance with a corrosion inhibition efficiency of up to 99% for up to 7 days. The results demonstrate that the air impregnating the hydrophobic nanopores can effectively inhibit the penetration of corrosive media into the pores, leading to a significant improvement in corrosion resistance.

  13. Controlling the occurrence of power overshoot by adapting microbial fuel cells to high anode potentials

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Xiuping


    Power density curves for microbial fuel cells (MFCs) often show power overshoot, resulting in inaccurate estimation of MFC performance at high current densities. The reasons for power overshoot are not well understood, but biofilm acclimation and development are known factors. In order to better explore the reasons for power overshoot, exoelectrogenic biofilms were developed at four different anode potentials (-0.46 V, -0.24 V, 0 V, and 0.50 V vs. Ag/AgCl), and then the properties of the biofilms were examined using polarization tests and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The maximum power density of the MFCs was 1200±100 mW/m2. Power overshoot was observed in MFCs incubated at -0.46 V, but not those acclimated atmore positive potentials, indicating that bacterial activitywas significantly influenced by the anode acclimation potential. CV results further indicated that power overshoot of MFCs incubated at the lowest anode potential was associatedwith a decreasing electroactivity of the anodic biofilm in the high potential region,which resulted from a lack of sufficient electron transfer components to shuttle electrons at rates needed for these more positive potentials. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  14. Anodization of carbon fibers on interfacial mechanical properties of epoxy matrix composites. (United States)

    Park, Soo-Jin; Chang, Yong-Hwan; Kim, Yeong-Cheol; Rhee, Kyong-Yop


    The influence of anodic oxidation on the mechanical interfacial properties of carbon-fiber-reinforced epoxy resin composites was investigated. The surface properties of the anodized carbon fibers were studied through the measurement of contact angles and through SEM, XPS, and FT-IR analyses. The mechanical interfacial properties of the composites were studied through measurements of interlaminar shear strength (ILSS), critical stress intensity factor (K(IC)), and critical strain energy release rate (G(IC)). It was shown that the surface functional groups containing oxygen on the anodized carbon fibers exert great effects on the surface energetics of fibers and the mechanical interfacial properties, e.g., ILSS, of the resulting composites. Contact angle measurements based on the wicking rate of a test liquid showed that anodic oxidation lead to an increase in the surface free energy of the carbon fibers, mainly in its specific (or polar) component. In terms of surface energetics, it was found that wetting played an important role in increasing the degree of adhesion at interfaces between the fibers and the resin matrices of the composites.

  15. Anodized Ti3SiC2 As an Anode Material for Li-ion Microbatteries. (United States)

    Tesfaye, Alexander T; Mashtalir, Olha; Naguib, Michael; Barsoum, Michel W; Gogotsi, Yury; Djenizian, Thierry


    We report on the synthesis of an anode material for Li-ion batteries by anodization of a common MAX phase, Ti3SiC2, in an aqueous electrolyte containing hydrofluoric acid (HF). The anodization led to the formation of a porous film containing anatase, a small quantity of free carbon, and silica. By varying the anodization parameters, various oxide morphologies were produced. The highest areal capacity was achieved by anodization at 60 V in an aqueous electrolyte containing 0.1 v/v HF for 3 h at room temperature. After 140 cycles performed at multiple applied current densities, an areal capacity of 380 μAh·cm(-2) (200 μA·cm(-2)) has been obtained, making this new material, free of additives and binders, a promising candidate as a negative electrode for Li-ion microbatteries.

  16. Anodizing color coded anodized Ti6Al4V medical devices for increasing bone cell functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Webster TJ


    Full Text Available Alexandra P Ross, Thomas J WebsterSchool of Engineering and Department of Orthopedics, Brown University, Providence, RI, USAAbstract: Current titanium-based implants are often anodized in sulfuric acid (H2SO4 for color coding purposes. However, a crucial parameter in selecting the material for an orthopedic implant is the degree to which it will integrate into the surrounding bone. Loosening at the bone–implant interface can cause catastrophic failure when motion occurs between the implant and the surrounding bone. Recently, a different anodization process using hydrofluoric acid has been shown to increase bone growth on commercially pure titanium and titanium alloys through the creation of nanotubes. The objective of this study was to compare, for the first time, the influence of anodizing a titanium alloy medical device in sulfuric acid for color coding purposes, as is done in the orthopedic implant industry, followed by anodizing the device in hydrofluoric acid to implement nanotubes. Specifically, Ti6Al4V model implant samples were anodized first with sulfuric acid to create color-coding features, and then with hydrofluoric acid to implement surface features to enhance osteoblast functions. The material surfaces were characterized by visual inspection, scanning electron microscopy, contact angle measurements, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Human osteoblasts were seeded onto the samples for a series of time points and were measured for adhesion and proliferation. After 1 and 2 weeks, the levels of alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium deposition were measured to assess the long-term differentiation of osteoblasts into the calcium depositing cells. The results showed that anodizing in hydrofluoric acid after anodizing in sulfuric acid partially retains color coding and creates unique surface features to increase osteoblast adhesion, proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity, and calcium deposition. In this manner, this study

  17. Porous and mesh alumina formed by anodization of high purity aluminum films at low anodizing voltage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abd-Elnaiem, Alaa M., E-mail: [KACST-Intel Consortium Center of Excellence in Nano-manufacturing Applications (CENA), Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Assiut University, Assiut 71516 (Egypt); Mebed, A.M. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Assiut University, Assiut 71516 (Egypt); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Al-Jouf University, Sakaka 2014 (Saudi Arabia); El-Said, Waleed Ahmed [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Assiut University, Assiut 71516 (Egypt); Abdel-Rahim, M.A. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Assiut University, Assiut 71516 (Egypt)


    Electrochemical oxidation of high-purity aluminum (Al) films under low anodizing voltages (1–10) V has been conducted to obtain anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) with ultra-small pore size and inter-pore distance. Different structures of AAO have been obtained e.g. nanoporous and mesh structures. Highly regular pore arrays with small pore size and inter-pore distance have been formed in oxalic or sulfuric acids at different temperatures (22–50 °C). It is found that the pore diameter, inter-pore distance and the barrier layer thickness are independent of the anodizing parameters, which is very different from the rules of general AAO fabrication. The brand formation mechanism has been revealed by the scanning electron microscope study. Regular nanopores are formed under 10 V at the beginning of the anodization and then serve as a template layer dominating the formation of ultra-small nanopores. Anodization that is performed at voltages less than 5 V leads to mesh structured alumina. In addition, we have introduced a simple one-pot synthesis method to develop thin walls of oxide containing lithium (Li) ions that could be used for battery application based on anodization of Al films in a supersaturated mixture of lithium phosphate and phosphoric acid as matrix for Li-composite electrolyte. - Highlights: • We develop anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) with small pore size and inter-pore distance. • Applying low anodizing voltages onto aluminum film leads to form mesh structures. • The value of anodizing voltage (1–10 V) has no effect on pore size or inter-pore distance. • Applying anodizing voltage less than 5 V leads to mesh structured AAO. • AAO can be used as a matrix for Li-composite electrolytes.

  18. Catalytic surface promotion of highly active La0.85Sr0.15Cr0.8Ni0.2O3-δ anodes for La5.6WO11.4-δ based proton conducting fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solis, C.; Balaguer, M.; Bozza, Francesco;


    in proton conducing anodes and the electrode performance is substantially improved regarding to pure LSC. Ni nanoparticle infiltration further improves the catalytic promotion of the anode, reducing the polarization resistance (R-p) previously limited by low frequency surface related processes. Indeed...

  19. The impact of steam and current density on carbon formation from biomass gasification tar on Ni/YSZ, and Ni/CGO solid oxide fuel cell anodes (United States)

    Mermelstein, Joshua; Millan, Marcos; Brandon, Nigel

    The combination of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and biomass gasification has the potential to become an attractive technology for the production of clean renewable energy. However the impact of tars, formed during biomass gasification, on the performance and durability of SOFC anodes has not been well established experimentally. This paper reports an experimental study on the mitigation of carbon formation arising from the exposure of the commonly used Ni/YSZ (yttria stabilized zirconia) and Ni/CGO (gadolinium-doped ceria) SOFC anodes to biomass gasification tars. Carbon formation and cell degradation was reduced through means of steam reforming of the tar over the nickel anode, and partial oxidation of benzene model tar via the transport of oxygen ions to the anode while operating the fuel cell under load. Thermodynamic calculations suggest that a threshold current density of 365 mA cm -2 was required to suppress carbon formation in dry conditions, which was consistent with the results of experiments conducted in this study. The importance of both anode microstructure and composition towards carbon deposition was seen in the comparison of Ni/YSZ and Ni/CGO anodes exposed to the biomass gasification tar. Under steam concentrations greater than the thermodynamic threshold for carbon deposition, Ni/YSZ anodes still exhibited cell degradation, as shown by increased polarization resistances, and carbon formation was seen using SEM imaging. Ni/CGO anodes were found to be more resilient to carbon formation than Ni/YSZ anodes, and displayed increased performance after each subsequent exposure to tar, likely due to continued reforming of condensed tar on the anode.

  20. Anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manthiram, Arumugam; Applestone, Danielle; Yoon, Sukeun


    The current disclosure relates to an anode material with the general formula M.sub.ySb-M'O.sub.x--C, where M and M' are metals and M'O.sub.x--C forms a matrix containing M.sub.ySb. It also relates to an anode material with the general formula M.sub.ySn-M'C.sub.x--C, where M and M' are metals and M'C.sub.x--C forms a matrix containing M.sub.ySn. It further relates to an anode material with the general formula Mo.sub.3Sb.sub.7--C, where --C forms a matrix containing Mo.sub.3Sb.sub.7. The disclosure also relates to an anode material with the general formula M.sub.ySb-M'C.sub.x--C, where M and M' are metals and M'C.sub.x--C forms a matrix containing M.sub.ySb. Other embodiments of this disclosure relate to anodes or rechargeable batteries containing these materials as well as methods of making these materials using ball-milling techniques and furnace heating.

  1. Influence of Polarization of the Incident Beam on Integrated Intensities in X-Ray Energy-Dispersive Diffractometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, J. Staun; Buras, B.; Jensen, T.


    Polarization measurements of the primary X-ray beam produced by thick copper and tungsten anodes are reported and formulas derived for integrated intensities of Bragg reflections in energy-dispersive diffractometry with the polarization of the primary beam taken into account. It was found...

  2. Synthesis of á-aminonitrile through Anodic Cyanation of N-benzylpiperidine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Ping; Yin Ying-wu


    Electrochemistry behaviors including linear sweep voltammetry and cyclic voltammetry of tertiary cyclic amines with different substituted group were studied. The effect of different substituted group of the nitrogen on the oxidation potential was analyzed. The most suited potential used in αα-aminonitrile synthesis through potentiostatic anodic cyanation of cyclic teritary amines was found. The anodic cyanation of N-alkyl-substituted cyclic six-membered amines including N-benzylpiperidine and N-ethylpiperidine has been investigated. The reaction gives the corresponding á-aminonitrile and carried out at a platinum anode in methanolic solution of the amine, containing 2.5 equivalents of sodium cyanide per mol of substrate. In all the selected amines the introduction of the cyanide group occurs in the position α to the nitrogen atom. We obtained two α-aminonitrile isomers. One is cyanated in the ring, the other is cyanated in the side chain. 1 The reaction mechanism is analyzedt brough analyzing the product of the constant current electrolysis and potentiostatic electrolysis and explained why the difference in the relative amount of isomers of tertiary cyclic amines and in the reactivities of the alkyl group between the ring and the side chain.The amount of isomers could not affect by the anode potential, and decided by the adsorption status at the anode surface and stability of the intermediate.The intermediate formed in anodic cyanation of N-benzylpiperidine is a parallel reaction, so the yield of α-aminonitrile can be increased but the selectivity of the two isomers cannot be increased in the potentiostatic electrolysis.The mechanism of the anode cyanation of N-benzylpiperidine was studied In methanol-water solution, anode cyanation of N-benzylpiperidine gives not only monocyanation product α-cyanoamine but also dicyanation product α, α-dicyanoamine and other byproduct because of overoxidation of N-benzylpiperidine caused by polarization of the anode under

  3. An Insoluble Titanium-Lead Anode for Sulfate Electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferdman, Alla


    The project is devoted to the development of novel insoluble anodes for copper electrowinning and electrolytic manganese dioxide (EMD) production. The anodes are made of titanium-lead composite material produced by techniques of powder metallurgy, compaction of titanium powder, sintering and subsequent lead infiltration. The titanium-lead anode combines beneficial electrochemical behavior of a lead anode with high mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of a titanium anode. In the titanium-lead anode, the titanium stabilizes the lead, preventing it from spalling, and the lead sheathes the titanium, protecting it from passivation. Interconnections between manufacturing process, structure, composition and properties of the titanium-lead composite material were investigated. The material containing 20-30 vol.% of lead had optimal combination of mechanical and electrochemical properties. Optimal process parameters to manufacture the anodes were identified. Prototypes having optimized composition and structure were produced for testing in operating conditions of copper electrowinning and EMD production. Bench-scale, mini-pilot scale and pilot scale tests were performed. The test anodes were of both a plate design and a flow-through cylindrical design. The cylindrical anodes were composed of cylinders containing titanium inner rods and fitting over titanium-lead bushings. The cylindrical design allows the electrolyte to flow through the anode, which enhances diffusion of the electrolyte reactants. The cylindrical anodes demonstrate higher mass transport capabilities and increased electrical efficiency compared to the plate anodes. Copper electrowinning represents the primary target market for the titanium-lead anode. A full-size cylindrical anode performance in copper electrowinning conditions was monitored over a year. The test anode to cathode voltage was stable in the 1.8 to 2.0 volt range. Copper cathode morphology was very smooth and uniform. There was no

  4. An Experimental Investigation of Galvanic Anode Specifications for Suitable Cathodic Corrosion Protection of Low Carbon Steel in Kaduna Metropolitan Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.N. Guma


    Full Text Available The paper stresses corrosion risks from huge underground engineering steel structures within the metropolitan area of Kaduna-a top city in Nigeria. Cathodic protection (CP is examined as an effective, economical and durable method of preventing corrosion of such structures if suitably designed-installed. Variables that can cause wide differences and difficulties in CP designs such as material make, surface area and nature of structure, corrosivity level of environment, etc, are recognized. Some supplementary information that accounts for complexity of such variables which can be used to optimize CP design of the structures was sought experimentally. Relative performances by zinc, pure magnesium and magnesium alloy as common and cheap galvanic anodes were investigated in a laboratory CP of polished bare low carbon steel specimens in soil of surveyed resistivity spectrum 31.9-152.9 ohm-m from the area. Specimens were exposed with and without CP by the anodes at ambient temperature up to 40 days in various samples of the soil. Levels of specimen protections were determined by analysis of obtained information on their corrosion rates and polarized potentials relative to the un-protected ones at 8-day intervals. The analysis indicated that; corrosion of the structures can be optimally reduced to negligible rates by polarizing them to -0.85V versus Cu/CuSO4 electrode with the anodes, pure magnesium is comparatively the best of the anodes for CP of the structures in terms of economy and effectiveness followed by magnesium alloy, and a unit surface area of the anodes can protect up to nearly 1200 units of the structure with the -0.85V protective potential depending on the anode type.

  5. Improving the Performance of SOFC Anodes by Decorating Perovskite with Ni Nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Boulfrad, S.


    In this work (La0.75Sr0.25)0.97Cr0.5Mn0.5O3 (LSCM) perovskite powders were pre-coated with 5 wt% nickel and mixed with different amounts of CGO for testing as anode materials under 3% wet H2. By using scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) with X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), we demonstrated that Ni forms a solid solution in the perovkite phase under oxidizing atmosphere and exsolves in form of nanoparticles under reducing atmospheres. The presence of the catalyst nanoparticles led to a decrease in the anodic activation energy by half and thus the polarization resistance was dropped by 60% at 800¢ªC. The effect of CGO amount will be also discussed.

  6. Cathodic and anodic behavior of steel in water with saprophytic anaerobic bacterial flora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubyanova, V.I.; Emets, G.P.; Norokina, Y.M.


    Saprophytic bacteria in the bacterial communities of overgrowths cause biocorrosion in hydroelectric power plants. In order to study bacteria in overgrowths in the Zaporozhskii reservoir at a depth of 2 m the authors fixed specimens - plate of steel St3 - for 30 days. The potentiodynamic (5 mV/sec) curves of cathodic and anodic polarization of steel St3 in sterile water and also in medium with Bacillus putrificus on the 34th and 57th days of the experiment are shown. The anodic curve of steel after 57 days in the medium with the bacteria containing 30 mg/liter of hydrogen sulfide, has a section with fall of process rate at potentials from -0.35 to -0.20 V; on the curves recorded after 12 and 34 days there are no such sections.

  7. Micropolarizer of Ordered Ni Nanowire Arrays Embedded in Porous Anodic Alumina Membrane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANG Yan-Tao; MENG Guo-Wen; SHAN Wen-Jun; FANG Qi; ZHANG Li-De


    A micropolarizer of nickel nanowire arrays within an anodic alumina membrane (AAM) was fabricated by an-odization of pure Al and electrodeposition of Ni, respectively. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission-electron microscopy reveal that the nanowires are polycrystal and have an average diameter of 70 nm. Spectrophotometer measurements show that the nickel nanowire arrays embedded in the AAM can only transmit polarized light vertical to the wires. An extinction ratio of 25 to 30 dB and an average insertion loss of 1.07dB in the wavelength range of l-2.5fj.rn were obtained, respectively. Thus, Ni nanowire/AAM can be used as a wire grid type micropolarizer.

  8. Anodizing color coded anodized Ti6Al4V medical devices for increasing bone cell functions. (United States)

    Ross, Alexandra P; Webster, Thomas J


    Current titanium-based implants are often anodized in sulfuric acid (H(2)SO(4)) for color coding purposes. However, a crucial parameter in selecting the material for an orthopedic implant is the degree to which it will integrate into the surrounding bone. Loosening at the bone-implant interface can cause catastrophic failure when motion occurs between the implant and the surrounding bone. Recently, a different anodization process using hydrofluoric acid has been shown to increase bone growth on commercially pure titanium and titanium alloys through the creation of nanotubes. The objective of this study was to compare, for the first time, the influence of anodizing a titanium alloy medical device in sulfuric acid for color coding purposes, as is done in the orthopedic implant industry, followed by anodizing the device in hydrofluoric acid to implement nanotubes. Specifically, Ti6Al4V model implant samples were anodized first with sulfuric acid to create color-coding features, and then with hydrofluoric acid to implement surface features to enhance osteoblast functions. The material surfaces were characterized by visual inspection, scanning electron microscopy, contact angle measurements, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Human osteoblasts were seeded onto the samples for a series of time points and were measured for adhesion and proliferation. After 1 and 2 weeks, the levels of alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium deposition were measured to assess the long-term differentiation of osteoblasts into the calcium depositing cells. The results showed that anodizing in hydrofluoric acid after anodizing in sulfuric acid partially retains color coding and creates unique surface features to increase osteoblast adhesion, proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity, and calcium deposition. In this manner, this study provides a viable method to anodize an already color coded, anodized titanium alloy to potentially increase bone growth for numerous implant applications.

  9. Electrode Reaction Pathway in Oxide Anode for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (United States)

    Li, Wenyuan

    Oxide anodes for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) with the advantage of fuel flexibility, resistance to coarsening, small chemical expansion and etc. have been attracting increasing interest. Good performance has been reported with a few of perovskite structure anodes, such as (LaSr)(CrMn)O3. However, more improvements need to be made before meeting the application requirement. Understanding the oxidation mechanism is crucial for a directed optimization, but it is still on the early stage of investigation. In this study, reaction mechanism of oxide anodes is investigated on doped YCrO 3 with H2 fuel, in terms of the origin of electrochemical activity, rate-determining steps (RDS), extension of reactive zone, and the impact from overpotential under service condition to those properties. H2 oxidation on the YCs anodes is found to be limited by charge transfer and H surface diffusion. A model is presented to describe the elementary steps in H2 oxidation. From the reaction order results, it is suggested that any models without taking H into the charge transfer step are invalid. The nature of B site element determines the H2 oxidation kinetics primarily. Ni displays better adsorption ability than Co. However, H adsorption ability of such oxide anode is inferior to that of Ni metal anode. In addition, the charge transfer step is directly associated with the activity of electrons in the anode; therefore it can be significantly promoted by enhancement of the electron activity. It is found that A site Ca doping improves the polarization resistance about 10 times, by increasing the activity of electrons to promote the charge transfer process. For the active area in the oxide anode, besides the traditional three-phase boundary (3PB), the internal anode surface as two-phase boundary (2PB) is proven to be capable of catalytically oxidizing the H2 fuel also when the bulk lattice is activated depending on the B site elements. The contribution from each part is estimated by switching

  10. Silicon Whisker and Carbon Nanofiber Composite Anode (United States)

    Lang, Christopher M.


    Phase II Objectives: Demonstrate production levels of grams per batch; Achieve full cell anode capacity of greater than 1,000 mAh/g at a charge rate of 10 (C/10) and 0 degree C; Establish a full cell cycle life of over 300 cycles; Display an operating temperature of negative 30 degrees C to plus 30 degrees C; Demonstrate a rate capability of C/5 or higher; Deliver to NASA three 2.5 Ah cells (energy density greater than 220 Wh/kg); Exhibit the safety features of the anode and full cells; Design a 1 kWh prismatic battery pack.

  11. Polar Shapelets

    CERN Document Server

    Massey, R; Massey, Richard; Refregier, Alexandre


    The shapelets method for astronomical image analysis is based around the decomposition of localised objects into a series of orthogonal components with particularly convenient mathematical properties. We extend the "Cartesian shapelet" formalism from earlier work, and construct "polar shapelet" basis functions that separate an image into components with explicit rotational symmetries. This provides a more compact representation of typical galaxy shapes, and its physical interpretation is frequently more intuitive. Linear coordinate transformations can be simply expressed using this basis set, and shape measures (including object photometry, astrometry and galaxy morphology estimators) take a naturally elegant form. Particular attention is paid to the analysis of astronomical survey images, and we test shapelet techniques with real data from the Hubble Space Telescope. We present a practical method to automatically optimise the quality of an arbitrary shapelet decomposition in the presence of noise, pixellisat...

  12. Fabrication of TiO{sub 2} nanotubes by anodization of Ti thin films for VOC sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I l Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I nc, N.; Sennik, E. [Gebze Institute of Technology, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, 41400 Kocaeli (Turkey); Oeztuerk, Z.Z., E-mail: [Gebze Institute of Technology, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, 41400 Kocaeli (Turkey); TUeBITAK-Marmara Research Center, Materials Institute, 41470 Gebze-Kocaeli (Turkey)


    Ti thin films were anodized in aqueous HF (0.5 wt.%) and in polar organic (0.5 wt.% NH{sub 4}F + ethylene glycol) electrolytes to form TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays. Ti thin films were deposited on microscope glass substrates and then anodized. Anodization was performed at potentials ranging from 5 V to 20 V for the aqueous HF and from 20 V to 60 V for the polar organic electrolytes over the temperatures range from 0 to 20 Degree-Sign C. The TiO{sub 2} nanotubes were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). It has been observed that anodization of the deposited Ti thin films with aqueous HF solution at 0 Degree-Sign C resulted in nanotube-type structures with diameters in the range of 30-80 nm for an applied voltage of 10 V. In addition, the nanotube-type structure is observed for polar organic electrolyte at room temperature at the anodization voltage higher than 40 V. The volatile organic compound (VOC) sensing properties of TiO{sub 2} nanotubes fabricated using different electrolytes were investigated at 200 Degree-Sign C. The maximum sensor response is obtained for carbon tetrachloride. The sensor response is dependent on porosity of TiO{sub 2}. The highest sensor response is observed for TiO{sub 2} nanotubes which are synthesized using aqueous HF electrolyte and have very high porosity.

  13. Silicon Whisker and Carbon Nanofiber Composite Anode Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) proposes to develop a silicon whisker and carbon nanofiber composite anode for lithium ion batteries on a Phase I program. This anode...

  14. Aluminum microstructures on anodic alumina for aluminum wiring boards. (United States)

    Jha, Himendra; Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Sakairi, Masatoshi; Takahashi, Hideaki


    The paper demonstrates simple methods for the fabrication of aluminum microstructures on the anodic oxide film of aluminum. The aluminum sheets were first engraved (patterned) either by laser beam or by embossing to form deep grooves on the surface. One side of the sheet was then anodized, blocking the other side by using polymer mask to form the anodic alumina. Because of the lower thickness at the bottom part of the grooves, the part was completely anodized before the complete oxidation of the other parts. Such selectively complete anodizing resulted in the patterns of metallic aluminum on anodic alumina. Using the technique, we fabricated microstructures such as line patterns and a simple wiring circuit-board-like structure on the anodic alumina. The aluminum microstructures fabricated by the techniques were embedded in anodic alumina/aluminum sheet, and this technique is promising for applications in electronic packaging and devices.

  15. Fabrication of anodic aluminum oxide with incorporated chromate ions (United States)

    Stępniowski, Wojciech J.; Norek, Małgorzata; Michalska-Domańska, Marta; Bombalska, Aneta; Nowak-Stępniowska, Agata; Kwaśny, Mirosław; Bojar, Zbigniew


    The anodization of aluminum in 0.3 M chromic acid is studied. The influence of operating conditions (like anodizing voltage and electrolyte's temperature) on the nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide geometry (including pore diameter, interpore distance, the oxide layer thickness and pores density) is thoroughly investigated. The results revealed typical correlations of the anodic alumina nanopore geometry with operating conditions, such as linear increase of pore diameter and interpore distance with anodizing voltage. The anodic aluminum oxide is characterized by a low pores arrangement, as determined by Fast Fourier transforms analyses of the FE-SEM images, which translates into a high concentration of oxygen vacancies. Moreover, an optimal experimental condition where chromate ions are being successfully incorporated into the anodic alumina walls, have been determined: the higher oxide growth rate the more chromate ions are being trapped. The trapped chromate ions and a high concentration of oxygen vacancies make the anodic aluminum oxide a promising luminescent material.

  16. Realistic simulation of the Space-borne Compton Polarimeter POLAR (United States)

    Xiao, Hualin


    POLAR is a compact wide field space-borne detector dedicated for precise measurements of the linear polarization of hard x-rays emitted by transient sources. Its energy range sensitivity is optimized for the detection of the prompt emission of Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). POLAR is developed by an international collaboration of China, Switzerland and Poland. It is planned to be launched into space in 2016 onboard the Chinese space laboratory TG2. The energy range of POLAR spans between 50 keV and 500 keV. POLAR detects gamma rays with an array of 1600 plastic scintillator bars read out by 25 muti-anode PMTs (MAPMTs). Polarization measurements use Compton scattering process and are based on detection of energy depositions in the scintillator bars. Reconstruction of the polarization degree and polarization angle of GRBs requires comparison of experimental modulation curves with realistic simulations of the full instrument response. In this paper we present a method to model and parameterize the detector response including efficiency of the light collection, contributions from crosstalk and non-uniformity of MAPMTs as well as dependency on low energy detection thresholds and noise from readout electronics. The performance of POLAR for determination of polarization is predicted with such realistic simulations and carefully cross-checked with dedicated laboratory tests.

  17. Structured SiCu thin films in LiB as anodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polat, Billur Deniz [Istanbul Technical Univ. (Turkey); Eryilmaz, Osman Levent [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Erck, Robert [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Keles, O. [Istanbul Technical Univ. (Turkey); Erdemir, A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Amine, Khalil [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)


    Both helical and inclined columnar Si–10 at.% Cu structured thin films were deposited on Cu substrates using glancing angle deposition (GLAD) technique. In order to deposit Cu and Si two evaporation sources were used. Ion assistance was utilized in the first 5 min of the GLAD to enhance the adhesion and the density of the films. These films were characterized by thin film XRD, GDOES, SEM, and EDS. Electrochemical characterizations were made by testing the thin films as anodes in half-cells for 100 cycles. The results showed that the columnar SiCu thin film delivered 2200 mAh g-1, where the helical one exhibited 2600 mAh g-1, and, their initial coulombic efficiencies were found to be 38%–50% respectively. For the columnar and the helical thin film anodes, sustainable 520 and 800 mAh g-1 with 90% and 99% coulombic efficiencies were achieved for 100 cycles. These sustainable capacities showed the importance of the thin film structure having nano-sized crystals and amorphous particles. The higher surface area of the helices increases the capacity of the electrode because the contact area of the thin film anode with Li ions is increased, and the polarization which otherwise forms on the anode surface due to SEI formation is decreased. In addition, because of larger interspaces between the helices the ability of the anode to accommodate the volumetric changes is improved, which results in a higher coulombic efficiency and capacity retention during cycling test.

  18. Sprayed-zinc sacrificial anodes for reinforced concrete in marine service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saguees, A.A. [Univ. of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering and Mechanics; Powers, R.G. [Florida Department of Transportation, Gainesville, FL (United States). Materials Office


    The use of sacrificial anodes consisting of sprayed zinc on the surface of concrete containing corroding reinforcing steel bars has been examined by means of field tests and laboratory experiments. The anodes are sprayed directly on the external surface of spalled regions of marine substructure elements. Electrical contact between the steel and zinc can be achieved efficiently by directly spraying over exposed steel. Field tests were made in the substructure of bridges in the Florida Keys and in Tampa Bay. The installations were performed economically and were functional after as much as 5 years following placement. Protective current densities reaching 1 mA/ft{sup 2} (1 {micro}A/cm{sup 2}) of the reinforcing steel were achieved routinely. Tests with reinforcing steel probes and with entire reinforcement assemblies showed steel polarization decays (upon temporary disconnection) typically exceeding 100 mV even after several years of service. The laboratory tests revealed that in the marine substructure conditions of interest concrete resistivity does not represent a main limiting factor in the performance of the galvanic anodes. However, absence of direct wetting of the anode surface can result in long-term loss of adequate current delivery, even when the concrete is in contact with air of 85% relative humidity. Periodic water contact (as caused by seawater mist, splash or weather exposure) is considered a necessary factor for long-term anode performance. The method is considered as a competitive alternative to impressed-current cathodic protection systems, and a considerable improvement over simple gunite repair of corrosion damaged substructure concrete.

  19. Silicon-Based Anode and Method for Manufacturing the Same (United States)

    Yushin, Gleb Nikolayevich (Inventor); Luzinov, Igor (Inventor); Zdyrko, Bogdan (Inventor); Magasinski, Alexandre (Inventor)


    A silicon-based anode comprising silicon, a carbon coating that coats the surface of the silicon, a polyvinyl acid that binds to at least a portion of the silicon, and vinylene carbonate that seals the interface between the silicon and the polyvinyl acid. Because of its properties, polyvinyl acid binders offer improved anode stability, tunable properties, and many other attractive attributes for silicon-based anodes, which enable the anode to withstand silicon cycles of expansion and contraction during charging and discharging.

  20. Effects of benzotriazole on anodized film formed on AZ31B magnesium alloy in environmental-friendly electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Xinghua [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin (China); An Maozhong, E-mail: [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin (China); Yang Peixia; Li Haixian; Su Caina [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin (China)


    An environmental-friendly electrolyte of silicate and borate, which contained an addition agent of 1H-benzotriazole (BTA) with low toxicity (LD50 of 965 mg/kg), was used to prepare an anodized film on AZ31B magnesium alloy under the constant current density of 1.5 A/dm{sup 2} at room temperature. Effects of BTA on the properties of the anodized film were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersion spectrometry (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), loss weight measurement, potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), respectively. The results demonstrated that anodized growth process, surface morphology, thickness, phase structure and corrosion resistance of the anodized film were strongly dependant on the BTA concentration, which might be attributed to the formation of an BTA adsorption layer on magnesium substrate surface. When the BTA concentration was 5 g/L in the electrolyte, a compact and thick anodized film could provide excellent corrosion resistance for AZ31B magnesium alloy.

  1. Applications of nano-composite materials for improving the performance of anode-supported electrolytes of SOFCs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong-Jin; Moon, Hwan; Park, Hae-Gu; Yoon, Dae Il; Hyun, Sang-Hoon [School of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei Univ., Seoul 120-749 (Korea)


    In order to improve the performance of the anode-supported electrolyte of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), the anode electrode is modified by inserting an anode functional layer of nano-composite powders between a Ni-YSZ electrode and YSZ electrolyte. The NiO-YSZ nano-composite powders are fabricated by coating nano-sized Ni and YSZ particles on the YSZ core particle by the Pechini process. The reduction of the polarization resistance of a single cell that is applied to the anode functional layer is attributed to the increasing reaction of three-phase boundaries (TPBs) within the layer and the micro-structured uniformity in the electrode. Two methods were used, namely tape-casting/dip-coating and tape-casting/co-firing, for studying the performance. It can be concluded that the cell with an anode functional layer thickness (15-20 {mu}m) and a microstructure of NiO-YSZ nano-composite materials which was fabricated by the tape-casting/dip-coating method improved the output power (to 1.3 W cm{sup -2}) at 800 C using hydrogen as fuel and air as an oxidant. (author)

  2. Effect of porous YSZ scaffold microstructure on the long-term performance of infiltrated Ni-YSZ anodes (United States)

    Buyukaksoy, Aligul; Kammampata, Sanoop P.; Birss, Viola I.


    Ni infiltration into porous YSZ scaffolds is a promising route for the construction of high performing and redox-stable Ni-YSZ anodes for application in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). However, the long-term instability of this type of anode is a critical problem. Here, it is shown that an interconnected Ni film, rather than discrete Ni particles, can be formed inside a porous, pre-sintered YSZ scaffold by using a polymeric Ni-based precursor as the infiltration medium. To understand the effect of the YSZ microstructure on the long-term stability and the electrochemical performance of the resulting composites, two types of Ni-YSZ anodes were investigated. Anodes prepared by polymeric Ni infiltration into a YSZ scaffold with large grains (0.5 μm) and pores (0.5 μm and 5 μm) showed extensive agglomeration in the Ni phase, resulting in poor stability and poor activity. In contrast, Ni infiltration into YSZ scaffolds with finer particle and pore sizes (∼200 nm each) produced anodes with a very small polarization resistance of ca. 0.1 Ω cm2 per electrode at 800 °C. An increase of only ∼5% was seen in the resistance after ca. 110 h at this temperature, achieved by preventing Ni agglomeration.

  3. Direct reforming of biogas on Ni-based SOFC anodes: Modelling of heterogeneous reactions and validation with experiments (United States)

    Santarelli, Massimo; Quesito, Francesco; Novaresio, Valerio; Guerra, Cosimo; Lanzini, Andrea; Beretta, Davide


    This work focuses on the heterogeneous reactions taking place in a tubular anode-supported solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) when the designated fuel is biogas from anaerobic digestion directly feeding the fuel cell. Operational maps of the fuel cell running on direct reforming of biogas were first obtained. Hence a mathematical model incorporating the kinetics of reforming reactions on Ni catalyst was used to predict the gas composition profile along the fuel channel. The model was validated against experimental data based on polarization curves. Also, the anode off-gas composition was collected and analyzed through a gas chromatograph. Finally, the model has been used to predict and analyze the gas composition change along the anode channel to evaluate effectiveness of the direct steam reforming when varying cell temperature, inlet fuel composition and the type of reforming process. The simulations results confirmed that thermodynamic-equilibrium conditions are not fully achieved inside the anode channel. It also outlines that a direct biogas utilization in an anode-supported SOFC is able to provide good performance and to ensure a good conversion of the methane even though when the cell temperature is far from the nominal value.

  4. Improved activity and stability of Ni-Ce0.8Sm0.2O1.9 anode for solid oxide fuel cells fed with methanol through addition of molybdenum (United States)

    Li, Ping; Yu, Baolong; Li, Jiang; Yao, Xueli; Zhao, Yicheng; Li, Yongdan


    Ni-Mo-Ce0.8Sm0.2O1.9 (SDC) composites are prepared and investigated as anodes of solid oxide fuel cells with methanol as fuel. The addition of Mo improves the catalytic activity for methanol pyrolysis and the resistance to carbon deposition of Ni-SDC anode. The anode with a mole ratio of Mo to Ni of 0.03:1 exhibits the lowest polarization resistance. The cell with that anode and SDC-carbonate composite electrolyte shows a maximum power density of 680 mW cm-2 at 700 °C. The stability of the cell is enhanced with the increase of the content of Mo in the anode, which is mainly attributed to the decreased amount of carbon deposits with a high graphitization degree.

  5. The effect of the presence of alcohol in the dispersing phase of oxide sols on the properties of RuO2-TiO2/Ti anodes obtained by the sol–gel procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The effect of the addition of ethanol and 2-propanol to the dispersing phase of TiO2 and RuO2 sols mixture on the morphology and, consequently, on the electrochemical properties of the sol-gel obtained activated titanium anodes was investigated. The properties of the obtained anodes were compared to those obtained by the thermal decomposition of appropriate chloride salts. The morphology of the anode coatings was examined by scanning tunneling microscopy. The electrochemical behaviour was investigated by cyclic voltammetry and by polarization measurements. An accelerated stability test was used for the examination of the stability of the anodes under simultaneous oxygen and chlorine evolution reaction. A dependence of the anode stability on the type of added alcohol is indicated.

  6. Preparation of Porosity-Graded SOFC Anode Substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holtappels, P.; Sorof, C.; Verbraeken, M.C.; Rambert, S.; Vogt, U.


    Porosity graded anode substrates for solid oxide fuel cells are considered to optimise the gas transport through the substrate by maintaining a high electrochemical activity for fuel oxidation at the anode/solid electrolyte interface. In this work, the fabrication of porosity graded anode substrates

  7. Anode heat transfer in a constricted tube arc. (United States)

    Lukens, L. A.; Incropera, F. P.


    The complex energy exchange mechanisms occurring on the most severely heated component of an arc constrictor, the anode, have been investigated. Measurements performed to determine the anode heat flux for a cascade, atmospheric argon arc of the Maecker type are described. The results are used to check the validity of an existing anode heat transfer model.

  8. Cadmium plated steel caps seal anodized aluminum fittings (United States)

    Padden, J.


    Cadmium prevents fracturing of hard anodic coating under torquing to system specification requirements, prevents galvanic coupling, and eliminates need for crush washers, which, though commonly used in industry, do not correct leakage problem experienced when anodized aluminum fittings and anodized aluminum cap assemblies are joined.

  9. Optimizing Misch-Metal Compositions In Metal Hydride Anodes (United States)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Halpert, Gerald


    Electrochemical cells based on metal hydride anodes investigated experimentally in effort to find anode compositions maximizing charge/discharge-cycle performances. Experimental anodes contained misch metal alloyed with various proportions of Ni, Co, Mn, and Al, and experiments directed toward optimization of composition of misch metal.

  10. Anode materials for lithium-ion batteries (United States)

    Sunkara, Mahendra Kumar; Meduri, Praveen; Sumanasekera, Gamini


    An anode material for lithium-ion batteries is provided that comprises an elongated core structure capable of forming an alloy with lithium; and a plurality of nanostructures placed on a surface of the core structure, with each nanostructure being capable of forming an alloy with lithium and spaced at a predetermined distance from adjacent nanostructures.

  11. Anodic Stripping Voltammetry: An Instrumental Analysis Experiment. (United States)

    Wang, Joseph


    Describes an experiment designed to acquaint students with the theory and applications of anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) as well as such ASV problems as contamination associated with trace analysis. The experimental procedure, instrumentation, and materials discussed are designed to minimize cost and keep procedures as simple as possible. (JM)

  12. Characterization of nanopores ordering in anodic alumina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mátéfi-Tempfli, Stefan; Mátéfi-Tempfli, M.; Piraux, L.


    A simple characterization method of the ordering of the nanopores is described for nanoporous anodized aluminium oxides. The method starts with image analysis on scanning electron microscopy representations for the purpose to find repetitive shapes and their centres, i.e. nanopores. Then triangles...

  13. Hybrid anode for semiconductor radiation detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ge; Bolotnikov, Aleksey E; Camarda, Guiseppe; Cui, Yonggang; Hossain, Anwar; Kim, Ki Hyun; James, Ralph B


    The present invention relates to a novel hybrid anode configuration for a radiation detector that effectively reduces the edge effect of surface defects on the internal electric field in compound semiconductor detectors by focusing the internal electric field of the detector and redirecting drifting carriers away from the side surfaces of the semiconductor toward the collection electrode(s).

  14. Low temperature anodic bonding to silicon nitride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weichel, Steen; Reus, Roger De; Bouaidat, Salim;


    Low-temperature anodic bonding to stoichiometric silicon nitride surfaces has been performed in the temperature range from 3508C to 4008C. It is shown that the bonding is improved considerably if the nitride surfaces are either oxidized or exposed to an oxygen plasma prior to the bonding. Both bulk...

  15. Study on selenium extraction from anode slime

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU; Heng


    Taking a copper anode slime as the raw material, a novel process for selenium extraction was studied. The primary selenium recovery can reach above 88.5 % and the quality index of selenium product can be up to 99.5 %. The economic benefit resulted is remarkable and environment has been protected.

  16. Dual-Phase Lithium Metal Anode Containing a Polysulfide-Induced Solid Electrolyte Interphase and Nanostructured Graphene Framework for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries. (United States)

    Cheng, Xin-Bing; Peng, Hong-Jie; Huang, Jia-Qi; Zhang, Rui; Zhao, Chen-Zi; Zhang, Qiang


    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries, with a theoretical energy density of 2600 Wh kg(-1), are a promising platform for high-energy and cost-effective electrochemical energy storage. However, great challenges such as fast capacity degradation and safety concerns prevent it from widespread application. With the adoption of Li metal as the anode, dendritic and mossy metal depositing on the negative electrode during repeated cycles leads to serious safety concerns and low Coulombic efficiency. Herein, we report a distinctive graphene framework structure coated by an in situ formed solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) with Li depositing in the pores as the anode of Li-S batteries. The graphene-based metal anode demonstated a superior dendrite-inhibition behavior in 70 h of lithiation, while the cell with a Cu foil based metal anode was short-circuited after only 4 h of lithiation at 0.5 mA cm(-2). The graphene-modified Li anode with SEI induced by the polysulfide-containing electrolyte improved the Coulombic efficiency to ∼97% for more than 100 cycles, while the control sample with Cu foil as the current collector exhibited huge fluctuations in Coulombic efficiency. The unblocked ion pathways and high electron conductivities of frameworks in the modified metal anode led to the rapid transfer of Li ions through the SEI and endowed the anode framework with an ion conductivity of 7.81 × 10(-2) mS cm(-1), nearly quintuple that of the Cu foil based Li metal anode. Besides, the polarization in the charge-discharge process was halved to 30 mV. The stable and efficient Li deposition was maintained after 2000 cycles. Our results indicated that nanoscale interfacial electrode engineering could be a promising strategy to tackle the intrinsic problems of lithium metal anodes, thus improving the safety of Li-S cells.

  17. Self-ordering behavior of nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) in malonic acid anodization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, W; Nielsch, K; Goesele, U [Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics, Weinberg 2, D-06120 Halle (Germany)


    The self-ordering behavior of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) has been investigated for anodization of aluminum in malonic acid (H{sub 4}C{sub 3}O{sub 4}) solution. In the present study it is found that a porous oxide layer formed on the surface of aluminum can effectively suppress catastrophic local events (such as breakdown of the oxide film and plastic deformation of the aluminum substrate), and enables stable fast anodic oxidation under a high electric field of 110-140 V and {approx}100 mA cm{sup -2}. Studies on the self-ordering behavior of AAO indicated that the cell homogeneity of AAO increases dramatically as the anodization voltage gets higher than 120 V. Highly ordered AAO with a hexagonal arrangement of the nanopores could be obtained in a voltage range 125-140 V. The current density (i.e., the electric field strength (E) at the bottom of a pore) is an important parameter governing the self-ordering of the nanopores as well as the interpore distance (D{sub int}) for a given anodization potential (U) during malonic acid anodization.

  18. Nickel/Yttria-stabilised zirconia cermet anodes for solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Primdahl, S.


    This thesis deals with the porous Ni/yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) cermet anode on a YSZ electrolyte for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). Such anodes are predominantly operated in moist hydrogen at 700 deg. C to 1000 deg. C, and the most important technological parameters are the polarization resistance and the long-term stability. The polarization resistance can be measured by a number of techniques, in the present work impedance spectroscopy has been used extensively. By impedance spectroscopy limiting processes in the anode polarization resistance may often be separated and characterized individually, provided they have a reasonable separation in time constants. Three limiting processes are recognized in impedance spectra obtained on technological Ni/YSZ cermet anodes characterized against a stable reference electrode atmosphere. By parameter studies and illustrative experiments, the two contributions at low and medium frequency have been identified as gas conversion and diffusion limitations, respectively. Both of these effects are concentration limitations relating to the inefficient exchange of fuel gas in the test setup outside the porous cermet. A test setup geometry where these concentration effects are avoided for high-performance electrodes is recommended. The high frequency limitation is demonstrated to relate to the cermet structure. The dependence on gas composition, temperature, adsorbed species (sulfur), isotopes (H/D), sintering temperature and cermet thickness is investigated. Despite these studies and several similar studies by others, the exact chemical or physical nature of the limiting step has not been incontestably identified. However, these is a general consensus in literature about the hydrogen oxidation process taking place on or near to the triple phase boundary (TPB) line, where open gas-filled pores, the continuous electrolyte phase (oxide ion cunductor) and the continuous Ni phase (electronic conductor) meet. The physical thickness

  19. Reconfigurable thz polarizer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention provides a polarizer. The polarizer comprises a first membrane having a first polarization region comprising a first plurality of membrane perforations; a second membrane having a second polarization region comprising a second plurality of membrane perforations; and a support...... with one or more membrane perforations in the second plurality of perforations in a direction normal to the first polarization region or normal to the second polarization region, resulting in corresponding one or more openings in said direction....

  20. Experimental studies of anode sheath phenomena in a hall thruster.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorf, L. A. (Leonid A.); Fisch, N. J.; Raitses, Yevgeny F.


    Both electron-repelling (negative anode fall) and electron-attracting (positive anode fall) anode sheaths in a Hall thruster were identified experimentally by performing accurate, non-disturbing near-anode measurements with biased and emissive probes. An interesting new phenomenon revealed by the probe measurements is that the anode fall changes from positive to negative upon removal of the dielectric coating, which appears on the anode surface during the course of Hall thruster operation. Probe measurements in a Hall thruster with three different magnetic field configurations show that an anode fall at the clean anode is a function of the radial magnetic field profile inside the channel. A positive anode fall formation mechanism suggested in this work is that: (1) when the anode front surface is coated with dielectric, a discharge current closes to the anode at the surfaces that remain conductive, (2) a total thermal electron current toward the conductive area is significantly smaller than the discharge current, therefore an additional electron flux needs to be attracted toward the conductive surfaces by the electronattracting sheath that appears at these surfaces.

  1. Enhancement of hydrogen production in a single chamber microbial electrolysis cell through anode arrangement optimization. (United States)

    Liang, Da-Wei; Peng, Si-Kan; Lu, Shan-Fu; Liu, Yan-Yan; Lan, Fei; Xiang, Yan


    Reducing the inner resistances is crucial for the enhancement of hydrogen generation in microbial electrolysis cells (MECs). This study demonstrates that the optimization of the anode arrangement is an effective strategy to reduce the system resistances. By changing the normal MEC configuration into a stacking mode, namely separately placing the contacted anodes from one side to both sides of cathode in parallel, the solution, biofilm and polarization resistances of MECs were greatly reduced, which was also confirmed with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy analysis. After the anode arrangement optimization, the current and hydrogen production rate (HPR) of MEC could be enhanced by 72% and 118%, reaching 621.3±20.6 A/m3 and 5.56 m3/m3 d respectively, under 0.8 V applied voltage. A maximum current density of 1355 A/m3 with a HPR of 10.88 m3/m3 d can be achieved with 1.5 V applied voltage.

  2. Anodized Nanoporous Titania Thin Films for Dental Application: Structure’ Effect on Corrosion Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Boucheham


    Full Text Available Nanostructured Titania layers formed on the surface of titanium and titanium alloys by anodic oxidation play an important role in the enhancement of their biocompatibility and osseointegration in the human body. For this purpose, we aimed to study in the current work the structural and electrochemical properties of amorphous and crystallized nanostructured TiO2 thin films elaborated on Ti6Al4V substrate by electrochemical anodization in fluoride ions (F– containing electrolyte at 10 V during 15 min and heat treated in air at 550 °C for 2 h. The morphology, chemical composition and phase composition of synthesized layers were investigated using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD. The corrosion resistance improvement of both as-anodized and annealed titania layers was evaluated in 0.9 wt. % NaCl solution with pH = 6.4 at room temperature by means of open circuit potential (Eoc,potentiodynamic polarization (PDYN and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS.

  3. Photoluminescence from Nd Doped Anodic Aluminium Oxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Zhang-Kai; PENG Xiao-Niu; SU Xiong-Rui; HAO Zhong-Hua


    We prepare Nd doped anodic aluminium oxide (Nd:AAO) template by using Nd doped aluminium foils through two-step anodization processes. Photoluminescence (PL) from the Nd:AAO template with the annealing temper-ature higher than 400℃ is observed, and the PL intensity enhanced with the increasing annealing temperature is found. We investigate the crystallization of Nd:AAO template and the excitation wavelength dependence of PL intensity, showing that the PL results from the Nd doped in the template. The approach presented may probably facilitate the fabricating of AAO with good light-emitting property, which can be used in fabrication of multifunctional nanosized films and may find applications in photonic devices.

  4. Investigation of mechanism of anode plasma formation in ion diode with dielectric anode (United States)

    Pushkarev, A.


    The results of investigation of the anode plasma formation in a diode with a passive anode in magnetic insulation mode are presented. The experiments have been conducted using the BIPPAB-450 ion accelerator (350-400 kV, 6-8 kA, 80 ns) with a focusing conical diode with Br external magnetic field (a barrel diode). For analysis of plasma formation at the anode and the distribution of the ions beam energy density, infrared imaging diagnostics (spatial resolution of 1-2 mm) is used. For analysis of the ion beam composition, time-of-flight diagnostics (temporal resolution of 1 ns) were used. Our studies have shown that when the magnetic induction in the A-C gap is much larger than the critical value, the ion beam energy density is close to the one-dimensional Child-Langmuir limit on the entire working surface of the diode. Formation of anode plasma takes place only by the flashover of the dielectric anode surface. In this mode, the ion beam consists primarily of singly ionized carbon ions, and the delay of the start of formation of the anode plasma is 10-15 ns. By reducing the magnetic induction in the A-C gap to a value close to the critical one, the ion beam energy density is 3-6 times higher than that calculated by the one-dimensional Child-Langmuir limit, but the energy density of the ion beam is non-uniform in cross-section. In this mode, the anode plasma formation occurs due to ionization of the anode material with accelerated electrons. In this mode, also, the delay in the start of the formation of the anode plasma is much smaller and the degree of ionization of carbon ions is higher. In all modes occurred effective suppression of the electronic component of the total current, and the diode impedance was 20-30 times higher than the values calculated for the mode without magnetic insulation of the electrons. The divergence of the ion beam was 4.5°-6°.

  5. High performance anode for advanced Li batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lake, Carla [Applied Sciences, Inc., Cedarville, OH (United States)


    The overall objective of this Phase I SBIR effort was to advance the manufacturing technology for ASI’s Si-CNF high-performance anode by creating a framework for large volume production and utilization of low-cost Si-coated carbon nanofibers (Si-CNF) for the battery industry. This project explores the use of nano-structured silicon which is deposited on a nano-scale carbon filament to achieve the benefits of high cycle life and high charge capacity without the consequent fading of, or failure in the capacity resulting from stress-induced fracturing of the Si particles and de-coupling from the electrode. ASI’s patented coating process distinguishes itself from others, in that it is highly reproducible, readily scalable and results in a Si-CNF composite structure containing 25-30% silicon, with a compositionally graded interface at the Si-CNF interface that significantly improve cycling stability and enhances adhesion of silicon to the carbon fiber support. In Phase I, the team demonstrated the production of the Si-CNF anode material can successfully be transitioned from a static bench-scale reactor into a fluidized bed reactor. In addition, ASI made significant progress in the development of low cost, quick testing methods which can be performed on silicon coated CNFs as a means of quality control. To date, weight change, density, and cycling performance were the key metrics used to validate the high performance anode material. Under this effort, ASI made strides to establish a quality control protocol for the large volume production of Si-CNFs and has identified several key technical thrusts for future work. Using the results of this Phase I effort as a foundation, ASI has defined a path forward to commercialize and deliver high volume and low-cost production of SI-CNF material for anodes in Li-ion batteries.

  6. Anode potential influences the structure and function of anodic electrode and electrolyte-associated microbiomes (United States)

    Dennis, Paul G.; Virdis, Bernardino; Vanwonterghem, Inka; Hassan, Alif; Hugenholtz, Phil; Tyson, Gene W.; Rabaey, Korneel


    Three bioelectrochemical systems were operated with set anode potentials of +300 mV, +550 mV and +800 mV vs. Standard Hydrogen Electrode (SHE) to test the hypothesis that anode potential influences microbial diversity and is positively associated with microbial biomass and activity. Bacterial and archaeal diversity was characterized using 16 S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, and biofilm thickness was measured as a proxy for biomass. Current production and substrate utilization patterns were used as measures of microbial activity and the mid-point potentials of putative terminal oxidases were assessed using cyclic voltammetry. All measurements were performed after 4, 16, 23, 30 and 38 days. Microbial biomass and activity differed significantly between anode potentials and were lower at the highest potential. Anodic electrode and electrolyte associated community composition was also significantly influenced by anode potential. While biofilms at +800 mV were thinner, transferred less charge and oxidized less substrate than those at lower potentials, they were also associated with putative terminal oxidases with higher mid-point potentials and generated more biomass per unit charge. This indicates that microbes at +800 mV were unable to capitalize on the potential for additional energy gain due to a lack of adaptive traits to high potential solid electron acceptors and/or sensitivity to oxidative stress.

  7. The anodizing behavior of aluminum in malonic acid solution and morphology of the anodic films (United States)

    Ren, Jianjun; Zuo, Yu


    The anodizing behavior of aluminum in malonic acid solution and morphology of the anodic films were studied. The voltage-time response for galvanostatic anodization of aluminum in malonic acid solution exhibits a conventional three-stage feature but the formation voltage is much higher. With the increase of electrolyte concentration, the electrolyte viscosity increases simultaneously and the high viscosity decreases the film growth rate. With the concentration increase of the malonic acid electrolyte, the critical current density that initiates local "burning" on the sample surface decreases. For malonic acid anodization, the field-assisted dissolution on the oxide surface is relatively weak and the nucleation of pores is more difficult, which results in greater barrier layer thickness and larger cell dimension. The embryo of the porous structure of anodic film has been created within the linear region of the first transient stage, and the definite porous structure has been established before the end of the first transient stage. The self-ordering behavior of the porous film is influenced by the electrolyte concentration, film thickness and the applied current density. Great current density not only improves the cell arrangement order but also brings about larger cell dimension.

  8. Analysis of bio-anode performance through electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. (United States)

    ter Heijne, Annemiek; Schaetzle, Olivier; Gimenez, Sixto; Navarro, Lucia; Hamelers, Bert; Fabregat-Santiago, Francisco


    In this paper we studied the performance of bioanodes under different experimental conditions using polarization curves and impedance spectroscopy. We have identified that the large capacitances of up to 1 mF·cm(-2) for graphite anodes have their origin in the nature of the carbonaceous electrode, rather than the microbial culture. In some cases, the separate contributions of charge transfer and diffusion resistance were clearly visible, while in other cases their contribution was masked by the high capacitance of 1 mF·cm(-2). The impedance data were analyzed using the basic Randles model to analyze ohmic, charge transfer and diffusion resistances. Increasing buffer concentration from 0 to 50mM and increasing pH from 6 to 8 resulted in decreased charge transfer and diffusion resistances; lowest values being 144 Ω·cm(2) and 34 Ω·cm(2), respectively. At acetate concentrations below 1 mM, current generation was limited by acetate. We show a linear relationship between inverse charge transfer resistance at potentials close to open circuit and saturation (maximum) current, associated to the Butler-Volmer relationship that needs further exploration.

  9. Protection of MOS capacitors during anodic bonding (United States)

    Schjølberg-Henriksen, K.; Plaza, J. A.; Rafí, J. M.; Esteve, J.; Campabadal, F.; Santander, J.; Jensen, G. U.; Hanneborg, A.


    We have investigated the electrical damage by anodic bonding on CMOS-quality gate oxide and methods to prevent this damage. n-type and p-type MOS capacitors were characterized by quasi-static and high-frequency CV-curves before and after anodic bonding. Capacitors that were bonded to a Pyrex wafer with 10 μm deep cavities enclosing the capacitors exhibited increased leakage current and interface trap density after bonding. Two different methods were successful in protecting the capacitors from such damage. Our first approach was to increase the cavity depth from 10 μm to 50 μm, thus reducing the electric field across the gate oxide during bonding from approximately 2 × 105 V cm-1 to 4 × 104 V cm-1. The second protection method was to coat the inside of a 10 μm deep Pyrex glass cavity with aluminium, forming a Faraday cage that removed the electric field across the cavity during anodic bonding. Both methods resulted in capacitors with decreased interface trap density and unchanged leakage current after bonding. No change in effective oxide charge or mobile ion contamination was observed on any of the capacitors in the study.

  10. Chromic acid anodizing of aluminum foil (United States)

    Dursch, H.


    The success of the Space Station graphite/epoxy truss structure depends on its ability to endure long-term exposure to the LEO environment, primarily the effects of atomic oxygen and the temperture cycling resulting from the 94 minute orbit. This report describes the development and evaluation of chromic acid anodized (CAA) aluminum foil as protective coatings for these composite tubes. Included are: development of solar absorptance and thermal emittance properties required of Al foil and development of CAA parameters to achieve these optical properties; developing techniques to CAA 25 ft lengths of Al foil; developing bonding processes for wrapping the Al foil to graphite/epoxy tubes; and atomic oxygen testing of the CAA Al foil. Two specifications were developed and are included in the report: Chromic Acid Anodizing of Aluminum Foil Process Specification and Bonding of Anodized Aluminum Foil to Graphite/Epoxy Tubes. Results show that CAA Al foil provides and excellent protective and thermal control coating for the Space Station truss structure.

  11. Research of nickel’s electrochemical property in sulfuric acid solution by using potentiodynamic polarization curve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekenova Gulmira


    Full Text Available In the presented work in order to deeply study the mechanism of electrode processes that take place while polarizing the nickel electrode in acid solutions by alternating current, potentiodynamic polarization curves were obtained.The detailed study of shapes of polarization curves; their dependence on concentration, temperature, and other physical and chemical parameters, gives opportunity to obtain full information on the nature and kinesthetic of processes taking place on electrode surface. The electrochemical properties of nickel electrode were researched by estimating cyclic potentiodynamic polarization curves in sulfuric acid medium; and the influence of electrolyte concentration, potential giving speed, the temperature of solution on anodic and cathode processes were also studied. The meanings of transfer number (an and diffusion (D coefficient, the reaction order of metal ions during the process of nickel electrode’s anode corrosion in sulfuric acid solution, and the activation energy is estimated. Result of the calculations showed that nickel’s melting process goes in mixed, diffusion-kinetic regime. It was found that the raising of solution’s temperature increases the height of corrosion current. The results of the experiments done during the application of cyclic polarization curves showed that the electrochemical processes that take place in polarization by industrial alternating current in anode and cathode half periods is different from those done in stable current and with more complex mechanism.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anil V. Virkar


    Anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells with Ni + yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) anode, YSZ-samaria-doped ceria (SDC) bi-layer electrolyte and Sr-doped LaCoO{sub 3} (LSC) + SDC cathode were fabricated. Fuel used consisted of H{sub 2} diluted with He, N{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O or CO{sub 2}, mixtures of H{sub 2} and CO, and mixtures of CO and CO{sub 2}. Cell performance was measured at 800 C with above-mentioned fuel gas mixtures and air as oxidant. For a given concentration of the diluent, the cell performance was higher with He as the diluent than with N{sub 2} as the diluent. Mass transport through porous Ni-YSZ anode for H{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O, CO-CO{sub 2} binary systems and H{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O-diluent gas ternary systems was analyzed using multicomponent gas diffusion theory. At high concentrations of the diluent, the maximum achievable current density was limited by the anodic concentration polarization. From this measured limiting current density, the corresponding effective gas diffusivity was estimated. Highest effective diffusivity was estimated for fuel gas mixtures containing H{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O-He mixtures ({approx}0.34 cm{sup 2}/s), and the lowest for CO-CO{sub 2} mixtures ({approx}0.07 cm{sup 2}/s). The lowest performance was observed with CO-CO{sub 2} mixture as a fuel, which in part was attributed to the lowest effective diffusivity of the fuels tested.

  13. Redox Stable Anodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoliang eXiao


    Full Text Available Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs can convert chemical energy from the fuel directly to electrical energy with high efficiency and fuel flexibility. Ni-based cermets have been the most widely adopted anode for SOFCs. However, the conventional Ni-based anode has low tolerance to sulfur-contamination, is vulnerable to deactivation by carbon build-up (coking from direct oxidation of hydrocarbon fuels, and suffers volume instability upon redox cycling. Among these limitations, the redox instability of the anode is particularly important and has been intensively studied since the SOFC anode may experience redox cycling during fuel cell operations even with the ideal pure hydrogen as the fuel. This review aims to highlight recent progresses on improving redox stability of the conventional Ni-based anode through microstructure optimization and exploration of alternative ceramic-based anode materials.

  14. Microstructural degradation of Ni-YSZ anodes for solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thyden, K.


    Ni-YSZ cermets have been used as anode materials in SOFCs for more than 20 years. Despite this fact, the major cause of degradation within the Ni-YSZ anode, namely Ni sintering / coarsening, is still not fully understood. Even if microstructural studies of anodes in tested cells are of technological relevance, it is difficult to identify the effect from isolated parameters such as temperature, fuel gas composition and polarization. Model studies of high temperature aged Ni-YSZ cermets are generally performed in atmospheres containing relatively low concentrations of H2O. In this work, the microstructural degradation in both electrochemically longterm tested cells and high-temperature aged model materials are studied. Since Ni particle sintering / coarsening is attributed to be the major cause of anode degradation, this subject attains the primary focus. A large part of the work is focused on improving microstructural techniques and shows that the application of low acceleration voltages (<= 1 kV) in a FE-SEM makes it possible to obtain two useful types of contrast between the phases in Ni-YSZ composites. By changing between the ordinary lateral SE detector and the inlens detector, using similar microscope settings, two very different sample characteristics are probed: 1) The difference in secondary emission coefficient, delta, between the percolating and non-percolating Ni is maximized in the low-voltage range due to a high delta for the former and the suppression of delta by a positive charge for the latter. This difference yields a contrast between the two phases which is picked up by an inlens secondary electron detector. 2) The difference in backscatter coefficient, eta, between Ni and YSZ is shown to increase with decreasing voltage. The contrast is illustrated in images collected by the normal secondary detector since parts of the secondary signals are generated by backscattered electrons. High temperature aging experiments of model Ni-YSZ anode cermets show

  15. Effects of Anodic Voltages on Microstructure and Properties of Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation Coatings on Biomedical NiTi Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jilin Xu; Fu Liu; Junming Luo; Liancheng Zhao


    Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) coatings,formed under various anodic voltages (320-440 V) on biomedical NiTi alloy,are mainly composed of γ-Al2O3 crystal phase.The evolution of discharging sparks during the PEO process under different anodic voltages was observed.The surface and cross-sectional morphologies,composition,bonding strength,wear resistance and corrosion resistance of the coatings were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM),thin-film X-ray diffraction (TF-XRD),energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS),surface roughness,direct pull-off test,ball-on-disk friction and wear test and potentiodynamic polarization test,respectively.The results showed that the evolution of discharging sparks during the PEO process directly influenced the microstructure of the PEO coatings and further influences the properties.When the anodic voltage increased from 320 V to 400 V,the corrosion resistance and wear resistance of the coatings slowly increased,and all the bonding strength was higher than 60 MPa; further increasing the anodic voltages,especially up to 440 V,although the thickness and γ-Al2O3 crystallinity of the coatings further increased,the microstructure and properties of the coatings were obviously deteriorated.

  16. The Performance of Electron-Mediator Modified Activated Carbon as Anode for Direct Glucose Alkaline Fuel Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zi Li


    Full Text Available Six different electron mediators were immobilized on the activated carbon (AC anode and their effects on performance of a direct glucose alkaline fuel cell were explored. 2-hydroxy-1, 4-naphthoquinone (NQ, methyl viologen (MV, neutral red (NR, methylene blue (MB, 1, 5-dichloroanthraquinone (DA and anthraquinone (AQ were doped in activated carbon (AC, respectively, and pressed on nickel foam to fabricate the anodes. NQ shows comparable performance with MV, but with much lower cost and environmental impact. With NQ-AC anode, the fuel cell attained a peak power density of 16.10 Wm−2, peak current density of 48.09 Am−2, and open circuit voltage of 0.76 V under the condition of 1 M glucose, 3 M KOH, and ambient temperature. Polarization curve, EIS and Tafel measurements were also conducted to explore the mechanism of performance enhancement. The high performance is likely due to the enhanced charge transfer and more reactive sites provided on the anode.

  17. Study on proton-conducting solid oxide fuel cells with a conventional nickel cermet anode operating on dimethyl ether (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Guo, Youmin; Wang, Wei; Su, Chao; Ran, Ran; Wang, Huanting; Shao, Zongping

    This study investigates dimethyl ether (DME) as a potential fuel for proton-conducting SOFCs with a conventional nickel cermet anode and a BaZr 0.4Ce 0.4Y 0.2O 3-δ (BZCY4) electrolyte. A catalytic test demonstrates that the sintered Ni + BZCY4 anode has an acceptable catalytic activity for the decomposition and steam reforming of DME with CO, CH 4 and CO 2 as the only gaseous carbon-containing products. An O 2-TPO analysis demonstrates the presence of a large amount of coke formation over the anode catalyst when operating on pure DME, which is effectively suppressed by introducing steam into the fuel gas. The selectivity towards CH 4 is also obviously reduced. Peak power densities of 252, 280 and 374 mW cm -2 are achieved for the cells operating on pure DME, a DME + H 2O gas mixture (1:3) and hydrogen at 700 °C, respectively. After the test, the cell operating on pure DME is seriously cracked whereas the cell operating on DME + H 2O maintains its original integrity. A lower power output is obtained for the cell operating on DME + H 2O than on H 2 at low temperature, which is mainly due to the increased electrode polarization resistance. The selection of a better proton-conducting phase in the anode is critical to further increase the cell power output.

  18. WFPC2 Polarization Calibration (United States)

    Biretta, J.; McMaster, M.


    We derive a detailed calibration for WFPC2 polarization data which is accurate to about 1.5%. We begin by computing polarizer flats, and show how they are applied to data. A physical model for the polarization effects of the WFPC2 optics is then created using Mueller matricies. This model includes corrections for the instrumental polarization (diattenuation and phase retardance) of the pick-off mirror, as well as the high cross-polarization transmission of the polarizer filter. We compare this model against the on-orbit observations of polarization calibrators, and show it predicts relative counts in the different polarizer/aperture settings to 1.5% RMS accuracy. We then show how this model can be used to calibrate GO data, and present two WWW tools which allow observers to easily calibrate their data. Detailed examples are given illustrationg the calibration and display of WFPC2 polarization data. In closing we describe future plans and possible improvements.

  19. Metasurface polarization splitter

    CERN Document Server

    Slovick, Brian A; Yu, Zhi Gang; Kravchenckou, Ivan I; Briggs, Dayrl P; Moitra, Parikshit; Krishnamurthy, Srini; Valentine, Jason


    Polarization beam splitters, devices that separate the two orthogonal polarizations of light into different propagation directions, are one of the most ubiquitous optical elements. However, traditionally polarization splitters rely on bulky optical materials, while emerging optoelectronic and photonic circuits require compact, chip-scale polarization splitters. Here we show that a subwavelength rectangular lattice of cylindrical silicon Mie resonators functions as a polarization splitter, efficiently reflecting one polarization while transmitting the other. We show that the polarization splitting arises from the anisotropic permittivity and permeability of the metasurface due to the two-fold rotational symmetry of the rectangular unit cell. The high polarization efficiency, low loss, and low profile make these metasurface polarization splitters ideally suited for monolithic integration with optoelectronic and photonic circuits.

  20. Anode characterisation and gas diffusion behaviour in aluminium smelting (United States)

    Putri, Epma; Brooks, Geoffrey; Snook, Graeme; Eick, Ingo


    Over the past century, significant research on different aspects of the Hall-Héroult process has been conducted to increase energy efficiency. Bubble generation at the anode reaction and its contribution to the overall voltage drop in aluminium production holds significant potential for energy saving, yet the details of the gas transport mechanism for bubble nucleation behaviour are not completely understood. The multi-step electrochemical reaction releases predominantly CO2 gas along with CO gas, which is a reduction product formed by reaction of CO2 with the anode carbon. Complicating the reaction is the multiple paths by which the gas can diffuse (either through the porous anode or the electrolyte bath). There has been no detailed investigation of the correlation between gas diffusion as a function of anode and bath properties. In the present study, the porosity measurement techniques in the anode will be used to understand the relation of gas diffusion and anode properties. A porosimetric study was conducted for two different anode samples using mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) and hydrostatic method. The MIP method provides important anode properties information such as density, percent porosity, pore size distribution, permeability, and tortuosity factor which affect gas diffusion and anode performance. The Knudsen number obtained from MIP data shows both Knudsen diffusion and molecular diffusion need to be considered when predicting the effective diffusion.

  1. Ghosting phenomena in single photon counting imagers with Vernier anode. (United States)

    Yang, Hao; Zhao, Baosheng; Qiurong, Yan; Liu, Yong'an; Hu, Huijun


    We provide the ghosting theory of two-dimensional Vernier anode based imagers. The single photon counting detection system based on Vernier anode is constructed. The ghosting, which occurs during the decoding of two-dimensional Vernier anode, and its possible solutions are described in detail. On the basis of the discussion of the decoding algorithm, the ghosting theoretical model is established. Phase conditions on which imaging ghosting can be avoided and the probability distribution function are proposed; the root causes of ghosting of two-dimensional Vernier anode are also discussed.

  2. Anodization of Aluminium using a fast two-step process

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Murugaiya Sridar Ilango; Amruta Mutalikdesai; Sheela K Ramasesha


    Ultra-fast two-step anodization method is developed for obtaining ordered nano-pores on aluminium (Al) foil. First anodization was carried out for 10 min, followed by 3 min of second anodization at high voltage (150 V) compared to previous reports of anodization times of 12 h (40-60 V). The pore dimensions on anodized alumina are 180 nm for pore diameter and 130 nm for inter-pore distance. It was evident that by increasing the anodization voltage to 150 V, the diameter of the pores formed was above 150 nm. The electrolyte and its temperature affect the shape and size of the pore formation. At lower anodization temperature, controlled pore formation was observed. The anodized samples were characterized using the field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) to determine the pore diameter and inter-pore distance. Using UVVisible spectroscopy, the reflectance spectra of anodized samples were measured. The alumina (Al2O3) peaks were identified by x-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. The x-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis confirmed the Al 2p peak at 73.1 eV along with the oxygen O 1s at 530.9 eV and carbon traces C 1s at 283.6 eV.

  3. The corrosion protection of 2219-T87 aluminum by anodizing (United States)

    Danford, M. D.


    Various types of anodizing coatings were studied for 2219-T87 aluminum. These include both type II and type III anodized coats which were water sealed and a newly developed and proprietary Magnaplate HCR (TM) coat. Results indicate that type II anodizing is not much superior to type II anodizing as far as corrosion protection for 2219-T87 aluminum is concerned. Magnaplate HCR (TM) coatings should provide superior corrosion protection over an extended period of time using a coating thickness of 51 microns (2.0 mils).

  4. Excitation of anodized alumina films with a light source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aggerbeck, Martin; Canulescu, Stela; Rechendorff, K.;

    . The UV-VIS reflectance of Ti-doped anodized aluminium films was measured over the wavelength range of 200 nm to 900 nm. Titanium doped-anodized aluminium films with 5-15 wt% Ti were characterized. Changes in the diffuse light scattering of doped anodized aluminium films, and thus optical appearance......Optical properties of anodized aluminium alloys were determined by optical diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of such films. Samples with different concentrations of dopants were excited with a white-light source combined with an integrating sphere for fast determination of diffuse reflectance...

  5. Fibrinogen adsorption onto 316L stainless steel under polarized conditions. (United States)

    Gettens, Robert T T; Gilbert, Jeremy L


    Adsorption of the plasma protein fibrinogen onto electrically polarized 316L stainless steel was observed and quantified using both in situ and ex situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques. Significant differences in fibrinogen adsorption were observed across voltages. Ex situ studies showed significantly lower area coverage (theta) and height of adsorbed Fb on cathodically polarized surfaces when compared to anodically polarized surfaces. Conformational differences in the protein may explain the distinctions in Fb surface area coverage (theta) and height between the anodic and cathodic cases. In situ studies showed significantly slower kinetics of Fb adsorption onto surfaces below -100 mV (vs. Ag/AgCl) compared to surfaces polarized above -100 mV. Electrochemical current density data showed large charge transfer processes (approximately 1 x 10(-5) to 1 x 10(-4) A/cm(2)) taking place on the 316L SS surfaces at voltages below -100 mV (vs. Ag/AgCl). These relatively large current densities point to flux of ionic species away from the surface as a major source of the reduction in adsorption kinetics rather than just hydrophilic or electrostatic effects.

  6. Geographical Income Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azhar, Hussain; Jonassen, Anders Bruun

    In this paper we estimate the degree, composition and development of geographical income polarization based on data at the individual and municipal level in Denmark from 1984 to 2002. Rising income polarization is reconfirmed when applying new polarization measures, the driving force being greater...... inter municipal income inequality. Counter factual simulations show that rising property prices to a large part explain the rise in polarization. One side-effect of polarization is tendencies towards a parallel polarization of residence location patterns, where low skilled individuals tend to live...

  7. Effects of anodizing potential and temperature on the growth of anodic TiO2 and its photoelectrochemical properties (United States)

    Kapusta-Kołodziej, Joanna; Syrek, Karolina; Pawlik, Anna; Jarosz, Magdalena; Tynkevych, Olena; Sulka, Grzegorz D.


    Although nanoporous/nanotubular anodic TiO2 has been broadly investigated, there is still much to be learned about the fabrication, morphological characterization and applications of anodic TiO2 formed in the glycerol-based electrolyte. Nanoporous anodic titanium oxide (ATO) layers on Ti were prepared via a three-step anodization in a glycerol solution containing NH4F (0.38 wt%) and H2O (1.79 wt%). The effects of anodizing potential (30-70 V) and temperature (10-40 °C) on the growth and morphology of ATO layers were investigated in detail. The structural and morphological characterizations of received ATO layers were performed for the studied potentials and temperatures. Moreover, photoelectrochemical properties of formed TiO2 were studied as well. It has been shown, that the morphology of fabricated nanoporous ATO layers are strongly altered by anodizing temperature and potential. Particularly, an interesting finding is that the growth rate gradually increases up to 50 V independently of anodizing temperature and then decreases when anodizing potential increases to 70 V. Moreover, for all investigated anodizing temperatures, the structural features of ATO layers, such as the cell size, inner layer pore diameter, outer layer pore diameter, increase with increasing anodizing potential. The annealing of ATO samples synthesized at 20 °C revealed that the anatase grain size increases with increasing anodizing potential. It is noteworthy to mention that the highest photoconversion efficiency values were observed for samples synthesized at the anodizing temperature of 20 °C and 40 V.

  8. Results from some anode wire aging tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juricic, I.; Kadyk, J.A.


    Using twin setups to test anode wire aging in small gas avalanche tubes, a variety of different gas mixtures were tried and other parameters were varied to study their effects upon the gain drop, nomalized to charge transfer: - 1/Q dI/I. This was found to be quite sensitive to the purity of the gases, and also sensitive to the nominal gain and the gas flow rate. The wire surface material can also significantly affect the aging, as can additives, such as ethanol or water vapor. Certain gas mixtures have been found to be consistent with zero aging at the sensitivity level of this technique.

  9. Nanotube Arrays in Porous Anodic Alumina Membranes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang LI; Naoto KOSHIZAKI; Guanghai LI


    This review summarizes the various techniques developed for fabricating nanotube arrays in porous anodic alumina membranes (AAMs). After a brief introduction to the fabrication process of AAMs, taking carbons, metals, semiconductors, organics, biomoleculars, and heterojunctions as typical examples, attention will be focused on the recently established methods to fabricate nanotubes in AAM, including electrochemical deposition, surface sol-gel, modified chemical vapor deposition, atomic layer deposition, and layer-by-layer growth. Every method is demonstrated by one or two reported results. Finally, this review is concluded with some perspectives on the research directions and focuses on the AAM-based nanotubes fields.

  10. Performance and life-time behaviour of NiCu-CGO anodes for the direct electro-oxidation of methane in IT-SOFCs (United States)

    Sin, A.; Kopnin, E.; Dubitsky, Y.; Zaopo, A.; Aricò, A. S.; La Rosa, D.; Gullo, L. R.; Antonucci, V.

    An anodic cermet of NiCu alloy and gadolinia doped ceria has been investigated for CH 4 electro-oxidation in IT-SOFCs. Polarization curves have been recorded in the temperature range from 650 to 800 °C. A maximum power density of 320 mW cm -2 at 800 °C has been obtained in the presence of dry methane in an electrolyte-supported cell. The electrochemical behaviour during 1300 h operation in dry methane and in the presence of redox-cycles has been investigated at 750 °C; variation of the electrochemical properties during these experiments have been interpreted in terms of anode morphology modifications. The methane cracking process at the anode catalyst has been investigated by analysing the oxidative stripping of deposited carbon species.

  11. Performance and life-time behaviour of NiCu-CGO anodes for the direct electro-oxidation of methane in IT-SOFCs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sin, A.; Kopnin, E.; Dubitsky, Y.; Zaopo, A. [Pirelli Labs S.p.A., Viale Sarca 222, I-20126 Milan (Italy); Arico, A.S.; La Rosa, D.; Gullo, L.R.; Antonucci, V. [CNR-ITAE, Via Salita Santa Lucia Sopra Contesse 5, I-98125 Messina (Italy)


    An anodic cermet of NiCu alloy and gadolinia doped ceria has been investigated for CH{sub 4} electro-oxidation in IT-SOFCs. Polarization curves have been recorded in the temperature range from 650 to 800{sup o}C. A maximum power density of 320mWcm{sup -2} at 800{sup o}C has been obtained in the presence of dry methane in an electrolyte-supported cell. The electrochemical behaviour during 1300h operation in dry methane and in the presence of redox-cycles has been investigated at 750{sup o}C; variation of the electrochemical properties during these experiments have been interpreted in terms of anode morphology modifications. The methane cracking process at the anode catalyst has been investigated by analysing the oxidative stripping of deposited carbon species. (author)

  12. A Translational Polarization Rotator

    CERN Document Server

    Chuss, David T; Pisano, Giampaolo; Ackiss, Sheridan; U-Yen, Kongpop; Ng, Ming wah


    We explore a free-space polarization modulator in which a variable phase introduction between right- and left-handed circular polarization components is used to rotate the linear polarization of the outgoing beam relative to that of the incoming beam. In this device, the polarization states are separated by a circular polarizer that consists of a quarter-wave plate in combination with a wire grid. A movable mirror is positioned behind and parallel to the circular polarizer. As the polarizer-mirror distance is separated, an incident linear polarization will be rotated through an angle that is proportional to the introduced phase delay. We demonstrate a prototype device that modulates Stokes Q and U over a 20% bandwidth.

  13. NESDIS VIIRS Polar Winds (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains the Level 3 Polar Winds Northern and Southern Hemisphere datasets. The Level 3 Polar Winds data from VIIRS for the Arctic and Antarctic from 65...

  14. Graphing Polar Curves (United States)

    Lawes, Jonathan F.


    Graphing polar curves typically involves a combination of three traditional techniques, all of which can be time-consuming and tedious. However, an alternative method--graphing the polar function on a rectangular plane--simplifies graphing, increases student understanding of the polar coordinate system, and reinforces graphing techniques learned…

  15. Plasma polarization spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, Takashi [Department of Engineering Physics and Mechanics, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)


    Polarization of radiation emitted from a plasma reflects the anisotropic properties of the plasma, especially the angular anisotropic distribution of electron velocities. Polarization has been observed on impurity ion lines from the WT-3 tokamak and the GAMMA-10 tandem mirror machines. The soft x-ray laser line from the neonlike germanium was also found polarized. (author)

  16. Polarity at Many Levels (United States)

    Flannery, Maura C.


    An attempt is made to find how polarity arises and is maintained, which is a central issue in development. It is a fundamental attribute of living things and cellular polarity is also important in the development of multicellular organisms and controversial new work indicates that polarization in mammals may occur much earlier than previously…

  17. Alternative Anode Reaction for Copper Electrowinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This report describes a project funded by the Department of Energy, with additional funding from Bechtel National, to develop a copper electrowinning process with lower costs and lower emissions than the current process. This new process also includes more energy efficient production by using catalytic-surfaced anodes and a different electrochemical couple in the electrolyte, providing an alternative oxidation reaction that requires up to 50% less energy than is currently required to electrowin the same quantity of copper. This alternative anode reaction, which oxidizes ferric ions to ferrous, with subsequent reduction back to ferric using sulfur dioxide, was demonstrated to be technically and operationally feasible. However, pure sulfur dioxide was determined to be prohibitively expensive and use of a sulfur burner, producing 12% SO{sub 2}, was deemed a viable alternative. This alternate, sulfur-burning process requires a sulfur burner, waste heat boiler, quench tower, and reaction towers. The electrolyte containing absorbed SO{sub 2} passes through activated carbon to regenerate the ferrous ion. Because this reaction produces sulfuric acid, excess acid removal by ion exchange is necessary and produces a low concentration acid suitable for leaching oxide copper minerals. If sulfide minerals are to be leached or the acid unneeded on site, hydrogen was demonstrated to be a potential reductant. Preliminary economics indicate that the process would only be viable if significant credits could be realized for electrical power produced by the sulfur burner and for acid if used for leaching of oxidized copper minerals on site.

  18. Anodic stripping voltammetry enhancement by redox magnetohydrodynamics. (United States)

    Clark, Emily A; Fritsch, Ingrid


    The effect of an external magnetic field on linear scan anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) in solutions of 10(-6)-10(-7) M concentrations of lead, cadmium, and copper at mercury films on glassy carbon electrodes has been investigated. A high concentration of Hg(2+) was added to the analyte solution to induce a large cathodic current during the deposition step. Therefore, a large Lorentz force from the net flux of charge through the magnetic field resulted in convection due to magnetohydrodynamics. The faster delivery of analytes to the mercury film electrode during deposition caused an increase in the anodic stripping peaks. The effect of varying Hg(2+) concentrations (0-60 mM) and magnetic field strengths (0-1.77 T) on the enhancement of the stripping peaks was investigated. Enhancements as large as 129% for peak currents and 167% for peak areas were observed. An enhancement of approximately 100% was observed when 60 mM Fe(3+) replaced high concentrations of Hg(2+). This method of convection exhibits promise for small-volume ASV analysis with possible improved limits of detection and decreased preconcentration times.

  19. Anodic dissolution of metals in ionic liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew P. Abbott


    Full Text Available The anodic dissolution of metals is an important topic for battery design, material finishing and metal digestion. Ionic liquids are being used in all of these areas but the research on the anodic dissolution is relatively few in these media. This study investigates the behaviour of 9 metals in an ionic liquid [C4mim][Cl] and a deep eutectic solvent, Ethaline, which is a 1:2 mol ratio mixture of choline chloride and ethylene glycol. It is shown that for the majority of metals studied a quasi-passivation of the metal surface occurs, primarily due to the formation of insoluble films on the electrode surface. The behaviour of most metals is different in [C4mim][Cl] to that in Ethaline due in part to the differences in viscosity. The formation of passivating salt films can be decreased with stirring or by increasing the electrolyte temperature, thereby increasing ligand transport to the electrode surface.

  20. New development of anodizing process of magnesium alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Li-qun; LI Di


    Magnesium alloy, a kind of environment-friendly material with promising and excellent properties, is a good choice for a number of applications. The research and development of anodizing on magnesium alloys and its application situation are reviewed, and the anodizing development trend on magnesium alloys is summarized.

  1. Trends in Catalytic Activity for SOFC Anode materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossmeisl, Jan; Bessler, W. G.


    for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anodes. The reaction energies along the hydrogen oxidation pathway were quantified for both, oxygen spillover and hydrogen spillover mechanisms at the three-phase boundary. The ab initio results are compared to previously-obtained experimental anode activities measured...

  2. Virtual cathode microwave generator having annular anode slit (United States)

    Kwan, Thomas J. T.; Snell, Charles M.


    A microwave generator is provided for generating microwaves substantially from virtual cathode oscillation. Electrons are emitted from a cathode and accelerated to an anode which is spaced apart from the cathode. The anode has an annular slit therethrough effective to form the virtual cathode. The anode is at least one range thickness relative to electrons reflecting from the virtual cathode. A magnet is provided to produce an optimum magnetic field having the field strength effective to form an annular beam from the emitted electrons in substantial alignment with the annular anode slit. The magnetic field, however, does permit the reflected electrons to axially diverge from the annular beam. The reflected electrons are absorbed by the anode in returning to the real cathode, such that substantially no reflexing electrons occur. The resulting microwaves are produced with a single dominant mode and are substantially monochromatic relative to conventional virtual cathode microwave generators.

  3. Fabrication of anodic aluminium oxide templates on curved surfaces. (United States)

    Yin, Aijun; Guico, Rodney S; Xu, Jimmy


    Aluminium anodization provides a simple and inexpensive way to obtain nanoporous templates with uniform and controllable pore diameters and periods over a wide range. Moreover, one of the interesting possibilities afforded by the anodization process is that the anodization can take place on arbitrary surfaces, such as curved surfaces, which has not yet been well studied or applied in nanofabrication. In this paper, we characterize the anodization of Al films on silicon substrates with a curved top surface. The structures of the resultant anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) films are examined by scanning electron microscopy. Unique features including cessation, bending, and branching of pore channels are observed in the curved area. Possible growth mechanisms are proposed, which can also contribute to the understanding of the self-organization mechanism in the formation of porous AAO membranes. The new structures may open new opportunities in optical, electronic and electrochemical applications.

  4. Recovery of plutonium from electrorefining anode heels at Savannah River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, J H; Gray, L W; Karraker, D G


    In a joint effort, the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL), Savannah River Plant (SRP), and the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) have developed two processes to recover plutonium from electrorefining anode heel residues. Aqueous dissolution of anode heel metal was demonstrated at SRL on a laboratory scale and on a larger pilot scale using either sulfamic acid or nitric acid-hydrazine-fluoride solutions. This direct anode heel metal dissolution requires the use of a geometrically favorable dissolver. The second process developed involves first diluting the plutonium in the anode heel residues by alloying with aluminum. The alloyed anode heel plutonium can then be dissolved using a nitric acid-fluoride-mercury(II) solution in large non-geometrically favorable equipment where nuclear safety is ensured by concentration control.

  5. Interfacial chemistry of zinc anodes for reinforced concrete structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Covino, B.S. Jr.; Bullard, S.J.; Cramer, S.D.; Holcomb, G.R. [Dept. of Energy, Albany, OR (United States). Albany Research Center; McGill, G.E.; Cryer, C.B. [Oregon Dept. of Transportation, Salem, OR (United States); Stoneman, A. [International Lead Zinc Research Organization, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Carter, R.R. [California Dept. of Transportation, Sacramento, CA (United States)


    Thermally-sprayed zinc anodes are used in both galvanic and impressed current cathodic protection systems for reinforced concrete structures. The Albany Research Center, in collaboration with the Oregon Department of Transportation, has been studying the effect of electrochemical aging on the bond strength of zinc anodes for bridge cathodic protection systems. Changes in anode bond strength and other anode properties can be explained by the chemistry of the zinc-concrete interface. The chemistry of the zinc-concrete interface in laboratory electrochemical aging studies is compared with that of several bridges with thermal-sprayed zinc anodes and which have been in service for 5 to 10 years using both galvanic and impressed current cathodic protection systems. The bridges are the Cape Creek Bridge on the Oregon coast and the East Camino Undercrossing near Placerville, CA. Also reported are interfacial chemistry results for galvanized steel rebar from the 48 year old Longbird Bridge in Bermuda.

  6. Fabrication of anode supported PEN for solid oxide fuel cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢淑红; 崔崑; 夏风; 肖建中


    Fabrication process for anode supported planar PEN of intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) was introduced, in which tape casting and screen printing methods were used. Gd2O3 doped CeO2(GDC) powders were prepared by solid reaction method. Anode tape was produced by tape casting. Electrolyte and cathode were produced by screen printing. The GDC powder's component, thermal expand coefficient, the porosity, density and microstructure of anode and electrolyte were investigated . It was shown that an bi-layer with dense thin electrolyte film and porous anode support and with good coherency of the electrolyte film to the anode could be realized after co-sintering the green tape at 1 350℃ by optimizing the power characteristics of the starting materials in the slurry.

  7. Light-assisted anodized TiO₂ nanotube arrays. (United States)

    Smith, York R; Sarma, Biplab; Mohanty, Swomitra K; Misra, Mano


    Self-assembled arrays of titania nanotubes are synthesized via electrochemical anodization of Ti foils under the presence of UV-vis irradiation. Compared to control samples (anodized without light), the light-assisted anodized samples exhibit larger diameters as well as thicker nanotube walls, whereas the length of the nanotubes remains the same under otherwise similar synthesis conditions. Enhanced photoelectrochemical performance with light-assisted anodized samples under simulated AM 1.5 irradiation is observed by an increase in photocurrent density of 45-73% at 1.23 V (RHE). The enhanced photoelectrochemical performance is correlated to improved charge separation analyzed by Mott-Schottky. A mechanism on the photoeffect during anodization is presented. The morphology and improved properties obtained from the synthesis methodology may also find application in other fields such as sensing and catalysis.

  8. Applications of Carbon Nanotubes for Lithium Ion Battery Anodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyoung-Joon Jin


    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs have displayed great potential as anode materials for lithium ion batteries (LIBs due to their unique structural, mechanical, and electrical properties. The measured reversible lithium ion capacities of CNT-based anodes are considerably improved compared to the conventional graphite-based anodes. Additionally, the opened structure and enriched chirality of CNTs can help to improve the capacity and electrical transport in CNT-based LIBs. Therefore, the modification of CNTs and design of CNT structure provide strategies for improving the performance of CNT-based anodes. CNTs could also be assembled into free-standing electrodes without any binder or current collector, which will lead to increased specific energy density for the overall battery design. In this review, we discuss the mechanism of lithium ion intercalation and diffusion in CNTs, and the influence of different structures and morphologies on their performance as anode materials for LIBs.

  9. Growth of anatase titanium dioxide nanotubes via anodization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ed Adrian Dilla


    Full Text Available In this work, titanium dioxide nanotubes were grown via anodization of sputtered titanium thin films using different anodization parameters in order to formulate a method of producing long anatase titanium dioxide nanotubes intended for solar cell applications. The morphological features of the nanotubes grown via anodization were explored using a Philips XL30 Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope. Furthermore, the grown nanotubes were also subjected to X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy in order to investigate the effect of the predominant crystal orientation of the parent titanium thin film on the crystal phase of the nanotubes. After optimizing the anodization parameters, nanotubes with anatase TiO2 crystal phase and tube length more than 2 microns was produced from parent titanium thin films with predominant Ti(010 crystal orientation and using ammonium fluoride in ethylene glycol as an electrolyte with a working voltage equal to 60V during 1-hour anodization runs.

  10. Development of Planar Metal Supported SOFC with Novel Cermet Anode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blennow Tullmar, Peter; Hjelm, Johan; Klemensø, Trine;


    Metal-supported solid oxide fuel cells are expected to offer several potential advantages over conventional anode (Ni-YSZ) supported cells, such as increased resistance against mechanical and thermal stresses and a reduction in materials cost. When Ni-YSZ based anodes are used in metal supported...... SOFC, electrode material from the active anode layer may interdiffuse with the metallic support during sintering. The purpose of this work is to illustrate how the interdiffusion problem can be circumvented by using an alternative anode design based on porous and electronically conducting layers......, into which electrocatalytically active materials are infiltrated after sintering. The paper presents the recent results on the electrochemical performance and durability of the novel planar metal-supported SOFC design. The results presented in the paper show that the novel cell and anode design has...

  11. Planar metal-supported SOFC with novel cermet anode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blennow Tullmar, Peter; Hjelm, Johan; Klemensø, Trine;


    Metal-supported solid oxide fuel cells are expected to offer several potential advantages over conventional anode (Ni-YSZ) supported cells. For example, increased resistance against mechanical and thermal stresses and a reduction in material costs. When Ni-YSZ based anodes are used in metal...... supported SOFC, elements from the active anode layer may inter-diffuse with the metallic support during sintering. This work illustrates how the inter-diffusion problem can be circumvented by using an alternative anode design based on porous and electronically conducting layers, into which...... electrocatalytically active materials are infiltrated after sintering. The paper presents the electrochemical performance and durability of the novel planar metal-supported SOFC design. The electrode performance on symmetrical cells has also been evaluated. The novel cell and anode design shows a promising performance...

  12. Effect of Fe2+ ions on polarization behavior of X60 steel in CO2 saturated salty water (United States)

    Gu, Jincheng; Feng, Xiangzhu; Lin, Jiaxin; Shi, Weixin; Li, Wenqin


    The effects of ferrous ions on cathodic and anodic polarization behavior of the X60 steel in CO2 saturated salty water were studied by potentio-dynamic polarization method. The results show that the reducing current peak of cathodic polarization is affected significantly if FeCl2 is added to the salty solution of controlled pH, but not the anodic polarization. It is considered that the ferrous ions accelerate the formation of a protective ferrous carbonate film. Films formed by addition of ferrous ions and those formed by ferrous ions produced from steel corrosion have the same forming mechanism. The former can fully meet the formative condition of the film and can play the role of inhibitor.

  13. Modeling of gas transport with electrochemical reaction in nickel-yttria-stabilized zirconia anode during thermal cycling by Lattice Boltzmann method (United States)

    Guo, Pengfei; Guan, Yong; Liu, Gang; Liang, Zhiting; Liu, Jianhong; Zhang, Xiaobo; Xiong, Ying; Tian, Yangchao


    This work reports an investigation of the impact of microstructure on the performance of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) composed of nickel yttria-stabilized zirconia (Ni YSZ). X-ray nano computed tomography (nano-CT) was used to obtain three-dimensional (3D) models of Ni-YSZ composite anode samples subjected to different thermal cycles. Key parameters, such as triple phase boundary (TPB) density, were calculated using 3D reconstructions. The electrochemical reaction occurring at active-TPB was modeled by the Lattice Boltzmann Method for simulation of multi-component mass transfer in porous anodes. The effect of different electrode geometries on the mass transfer and the electrochemical reaction in anodes was studied by TPB distributions measured by nano CT for samples subjected to different thermal cycles. The concentration polarization and the activation polarization were estimated respectively. The results demonstrate that a combined approach involving nano-CT experiments in conjunction with simulations of gas transport and electrochemical reactions using the Lattice Boltzmann method can be used to better understand the relationship between electrode microstructure and performance of nickel yttria-stabilized zirconia anodes.

  14. Effect of RuCl{sub 3} Concentration on the Lifespan of Insoluble Anode for Cathodic Protection on PCCP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, H. W.; Kim, Y. S. [Materials Research Center for Energy and Clean Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of); Chang, H. Y.; Lim, B. T.; Park, H. B. [Power Engineering Research Institute, KEPCO Engineering and Construction Company, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)


    Prestressed Concrete steel Cylinder Pipe (PCCP) is extensively used as seawater pipes for cooling in nuclear power plants. The internal surface of PCCP is exposed to seawater, while the external surface is in direct contact with underground soil. Therefore, materials and strategies that would reduce the corrosion of its cylindrical steel body and external steel wiring need to be employed. To prevent against the failure of PCCP, operators provided a cathodic protection to the pre-stressing wires. The efficiency of cathodic protection is governed by the anodic performance of the system. A mixed metal oxide (MMO) electrode was developed to meet criteria of low over potential and high corrosion resistance. Increasing coating cycles improved the performance of the anode, but cycling should be minimized due to high materials cost. In this work, the effects of RuCl{sub 3} concentration on the electrochemical properties and lifespan of MMO anode were evaluated. With increasing concentration of RuCl{sub 3}, the oxygen evolution potential lowered and polarization resistance were also reduced but demonstrated an increase in passive current density and oxygen evolution current density. To improve the electrochemical properties of the MMO anode, RuCl{sub 3} concentration was increased. As a result, the number of required coating cycles were reduced substantially and the MMO anode achieved an excellent lifespan of over 80 years. Thus, we concluded that the relationship between RuCl{sub 3} concentration and coating cycles can be summarized as follows: No. of coating cycle = 0.48{sup *}[RuCl{sub 3} concentration, M]{sup -0.97}.

  15. Comparative study of formation and corrosion performance of porous alumina and ceramic nanorods formed in different electrolytes by anodization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raj, V., E-mail:; Mumjitha, M., E-mail:


    Highlights: • Alumina–titania coatings were fabricated by anodization in a single step. • The universal and cheap sulphuric acid was used as the reference electrolyte. • The minimum concentration of PTO is used to achieve ceramic nanorods. • Dense ceramic coatings were achieved at low current density and room temperature. • Anodized coatings show better corrosion resistance compared to bare aluminium. -- Abstract: Fabrication of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–TiO{sub 2} nanoceramic coatings on aluminium was carried out in a single step using cost effective sulphuric acid electrolyte with the addition of potassium titanium oxalate (PTO) by anodization method. For comparison, the anodization was also carried out in sulphuric acid electrolyte alone. The effect of composition of the electrolyte, current density and electrolyte concentration on formation and surface characteristics of anodic alumina and ceramic coatings produced from different electrolytes have been investigated. The growth process, surface morphology, nanostructure, distribution of chemical elements, phase constitutions and corrosion resistance of the coatings formed in two different electrolytes were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Tafel polarization technique and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). As the concentration of electrolyte and current density increased, the surface properties of the coating increased up to certain content and beyond that they decreased. Dense, uniform nanoceramic coatings with less surface defects were obtained from sulphuric acid + PTO electrolyte. The corrosion studies reveal that ceramic coating formed in sulphuric acid + PTO electrolyte offers better corrosion resistance compared to the alumina coating formed in sulphuric acid electrolyte.

  16. Polarization effects. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courant, E.


    The use of polarized proton beams in ISABELLE is important for several general reasons: (1) With a single longitudinally polarized proton beam, effects involving parity violation can be identified and hence processes involving weak interactions can be separated from those involving strong and electromagnetic interactions. (2) Spin effects are important in the strong interactions and can be useful for testing QCD. The technique for obtaining polarized proton beams in ISABELLE appears promising, particularly in view of the present development of a polarized proton beam for the AGS. Projections for the luminosity in ISABELLE for collisions of polarized protons - one or both beams polarized with longitudinal or transverse polarization - range from 1/100 to 1 times the luminosity for unpolarized protons.

  17. Fabrication and Characterization of Graded Anodes for Anode-Supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cells by Tape Casting and Lamination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltran-Lopez, J.F.; Laguna-Bercero, M.A.; Gurauskis, Jonas


    Graded anodes for anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are fabricated by tape casting and subsequent cold lamination of plates using different compositions. Rheological parameters are adjusted to obtain stable suspensions for tape casting. The conditions for the tape casting and laminat...

  18. Polarity inversion in polar-nonpolar-polar heterostructures. (United States)

    Cho, S; Youn, S J; Kim, Y; DiVenere, A; Wong, G K; Freeman, A J; Ketterson, J B


    We have observed an epilayer-thickness-dependent polarity inversion for the growth of CdTe on Sb(Bi)/CdTe(111)B. For films with Sb(Bi) thicknesses of less than 40 A (15 A), the CdTe layer shows a B (Te-terminated) face, but it switches to an A (Cd-terminated) face for thicker layers. On the other hand, a CdTe layer grown on Bi(Sb)/CdTe(111)A always shows the A face regardless of Sb or Bi layer thicknesses. In order to address the observations we have performed ab initio calculations, which suggest that the polarity of a polar material on a nonpolar one results from the binding energy difference between the two possible surface configurations.

  19. Development of anode zone using dual-anode system to reduce organic matter crossover in membraneless microbial fuel cells. (United States)

    Kim, Jisu; Kim, Bongkyu; An, Junyeong; Lee, Yoo Seok; Chang, In Seop


    To prevent the occurrence of the organic crossover in membraneless microbial fuel cells (ML-MFCs), dual-anode MFC (DA-MFC) was designed from multi-anode concept to ensure anode zone. The anode zone addressed increase the utilization of organic matter in ML-MFCs, as the result, the organic crossover was prevented and performance of MFCs were enhanced. The maximum power of the DA-MFC was 0.46mW, which is about 1.56 times higher than the ML-MFC (0.29mW). Furthermore, the DA-MFC had advantage in correlation of organic substance concentration and dissolved oxygen concentration, and even electric over-potential. In addition, in terms of cathode fouling, the DA-MFC showed clearer surface. Hence, the anode zone should be considered in the advanced ML-MFC for practically use in wastewater treatment process, and also for scale-up of MFCs.

  20. Calibration of Gamma-ray Burst Polarimeter POLAR

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao, H L; Bao, T W; Batsch, T; Bernasconi, T; Cernuda, I; Chai, J Y; Dong, Y W; Gauvin, N; Kole, M; Kong, M N; Kong, S W; Li, L; Liu, J T; Liu, X; Marcinkowski, R; Orsi, S; Pohl, M; Produit, N; Rapin, D; Rutczynska, A; Rybka, D; Shi, H L; Song, L M; Sun, J C; Szabelski, J; Wu, B B; Wang, R J; Wen, X; Xu, H H; Zhang, L; Zhang, L Y; Zhang, S N; Zhang, X F; Zhang, Y J; Zwolinska, A


    Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) are the strongest explosions in the universe which might be associated with creation of black holes. Magnetic field structure and burst dynamics may influence polarization of the emitted gamma-rays. Precise polarization detection can be an ultimate tool to unveil the true GRB mechanism. POLAR is a space-borne Compton scattering detector for precise measurements of the GRB polarization. It consists of a 40$\\times$40 array of plastic scintillator bars read out by 25 multi-anode PMTs (MaPMTs). It is scheduled to be launched into space in 2016 onboard of the Chinese space laboratory TG2. We present a dedicated methodology for POLAR calibration and some calibration results based on the combined use of the laboratory radioactive sources and polarized X-ray beams from the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility. They include calibration of the energy response, computation of the energy conversion factor vs. high voltage as well as determination of the threshold values, crosstalk contributions...

  1. Electrochemical modification process of anodic alumina membrane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Mei; LIU Jian-hua; LI Song-mei


    The modification procedure of anodic alumina membrane(AAM) was studied. The AAM structure after modification was characterized by nickel nanowires prepared in AAM. Scanning electron microscopy was used to characterize the topography and structure properties of the AAM and nickel nanowires. The transformation of the current during the voltage reduction was studied. The mechanism of current and structure change during modification was discussed. The results show that a root structure produces after the AAM modification. The length of the root structure depends on the velocity of the voltage reduction. Slow voltage reduction leads to a large length of the root structure,otherwise,a short length of the root structure. At the end of the modification,the barrier layer is thin enough to be passed by electrons. Hence,the direct electrodeposition of one-dimensional nanowires can be carried out on the AAM with barrier layer and aluminum matrix successfully without any other treatments.

  2. Ellipsometric investigation of anodic zirconium oxide films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrito, E.M.; Macagno, V.A. (Univ. Nacional de Cordoba, Cordoba (Argentina). Dept. de Fisicoquimica)


    The anodic oxidation of zirconium was studied by in situ ellipsometry together with capacity measurements. The oxides were grown under potentiodynamic, galvanostatic, and potentiostatic conditions up to final potentials of 100 V in 0.5M H[sub 2]SO[sub 4] solution. The refractive index of the oxides changes depending on the growth current. The films were slightly absorbing but their absorption coefficient was independent of the oxide growth conditions. Different methods of surface preparation including etching in hydrofluoric acid-based mixtures, electropolishing and mechanical polishing were used. The surfaces and oxides were characterized by SEM examination and XPS measurements. The surface pretreatment affects both the substrate and the oxide optical constants as well as the rate of oxide growth. The density and dielectric constant of the oxides were calculated performing simultaneous ellipsometric, coulometric, and capacity measurements.

  3. Bacterial adherence to anodized titanium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peremarch, C Perez-Jorge; Tanoira, R Perez; Arenas, M A; Matykina, E; Conde, A; De Damborenea, J J; Gomez Barrena, E; Esteban, J, E-mail:


    The aim of this study was to evaluate Staphylococcus sp adhesion to modified surfaces of anodized titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V). Surface modification involved generation of fluoride-containing titanium oxide nanotube films. Specimens of Ti-6Al-4V alloy 6-4 ELI-grade 23- meets the requirements of ASTM F136 2002A (AMS 2631B class A1) were anodized in a mixture of sulphuric/hydrofluoric acid at 20 V for 5 and 60 min to form a 100 nm-thick porous film of 20 nm pore diameter and 230 nm-thick nanotube films of 100 nm in diameter. The amount of fluorine in the oxide films was of 6% and of 4%, respectively. Collection strains and six clinical strains each of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis were studied. The adherence study was performed using a previously published protocol by Kinnari et al. The experiments were performed in triplicates. As a result, lower adherence was detected for collection strains in modified materials than in unmodified controls. Differences between clinical strains were detected for both species (p<0.0001, Kruskal-Wallis test), although global data showed similar results to that of collection strains (p<0.0001, Kruskal-Wallis test). Adherence of bacteria to modified surfaces was decreased for both species. The results also reflect a difference in the adherence between S. aureus and S. epidermidis to the modified material. As a conclusion, not only we were able to confirm the decrease of adherence in the modified surface, but also the need to test multiple clinical strains to obtain more realistic microbiological results due to intraspecies differences.

  4. Atmospheric pressure arc discharge with ablating graphite anode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemchinsky, V. A. [Keiser University, Fort Lauderdale Campus, FL, 33309, USA; Raitses, Y. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States)


    The anodic carbon arc discharge is used to produce carbon nanoparticles. Recent experiments with the carbon arc at atmospheric pressure helium demonstrated the enhanced ablation rate for narrow graphite anodes resulting in high deposition rates of carbonaceous products on the copper cathode (Fetterman et al 2008 Carbon 46 1322–6). The proposed model explains these results with interconnected steady-state models of the cathode and the anode processes. When considering cathode functioning, the model predicts circulation of the particles in the near-cathode region: evaporation of the cathode material, ionization of evaporated atoms and molecules in the near-cathode plasma, return of the resulting ions to the cathode, surface recombination of ions and electrons followed again by cathode evaporation etc. In the case of the low anode ablation rate, the ion acceleration in the cathode sheath provides the major cathode heating mechanism. In the case of an intensive anode ablation, an additional cathode heating is due to latent fusion heat of the atomic species evaporated from the anode and depositing at the cathode. Using the experimental arc voltage as the only input discharge parameter, the model allows us to calculate the anode ablation rate. A comparison of the results of calculations with the available experimental data shows reasonable agreement.

  5. Effects of Charcoal Addition on the Properties of Carbon Anodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asem Hussein


    Full Text Available Wood charcoal is an attractive alternative to petroleum coke in production of carbon anodes for the aluminum smelting process. Calcined petroleum coke is the major component in the anode recipe and its consumption results in a direct greenhouse gas (GHG footprint for the industry. Charcoal, on the other hand, is considered as a green and abundant source of sulfur-free carbon. However, its amorphous carbon structure and high contents of alkali and alkaline earth metals (e.g., Na and Ca make charcoal highly reactive to air and CO2. Acid washing and heat treatment were employed in order to reduce the reactivity of charcoal. The pre-treated charcoal was used to substitute up to 10% of coke in the anode recipe in an attempt to investigate the effect of this substitution on final anode properties. The results showed deterioration in the anode properties by increasing the charcoal content. However, by adjusting the anode recipe, this negative effect can be considerably mitigated. Increasing the pitch content was found to be helpful to improve the physical properties of the anodes containing charcoal.

  6. Ceramic carbon electrode-based anodes for use in the copper-chlorine thermochemical cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranganathan, S.; Easton, E.B. [Univ. of Ontario Inst. of Technology, Oshawa, ON (Canada). Faculty of Science


    A thermochemical cycle is a process by which water is decomposed into hydrogen and oxygen through a series of chemical reactions. The chemicals that are used in these reactions are regenerated and recycled during the process. Sol-gel chemistry is becoming more common for the synthesis of electrode materials. The sol-gel reaction can be conducted in the presence of a carbon black to form a ceramic carbon electrode (CCE). The resultant CCE structure contains electronically conductive carbon particle pathways that are bound together through the ceramic binder, which can also promote ion transport. The CCE structure also has a high active surface area and is chemically and thermally robust. This paper presented an investigation of CCE materials prepared using 3-aminopropyl trimethoxysilane. Several electrochemical experiments including cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were performed to characterize their suitability as anode electrode materials for use in the electrochemical step of the copper-chlorine thermochemical cycle. Subsequent experiments included the manipulation of the relative ratio of organosilane carbon precursors to gauge its impact on electrode properties and performance. An overview of the materials characterization and electrochemical measurements were also presented. Specifically, the paper presented the experiment with particular reference to the CCE preparation; electrochemical experiments; thermal analysis; and scanning electron microscopy. Results were also provided. These included TGA analysis; scanning electron microscopy analysis; electrochemical characterization; and anodic polarization. Characterization of these CCE material demonstrated that they had good thermal stability, could be used at high temperatures, and were therefore, very promising anode materials. 15 refs., 7 figs.

  7. Transformation and removal of arsenic in groundwater by sequential anodic oxidation and electrocoagulation (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Tong, Man; Yuan, Songhu; Liao, Peng


    Oxidation of As(III) to As(V) is generally essential for the efficient remediation of As(III)-contaminated groundwater. The performance and mechanisms of As(III) oxidation by an as-synthesized active anode, SnO2 loaded onto Ti-based TiO2 nanotubes (Ti/TiO2NTs/Sb-SnO2), were investigated. The subsequent removal of total arsenic by electrocoagulation (EC) was further tested. The Ti/TiO2NTs/Sb-SnO2 anode showed a high and lasting electrochemical activity for As(III) oxidation. 6.67 μM As(III) in synthetic groundwater was completely oxidized to As(V) within 60 min at 50 mA. Direct electron transfer was mainly responsible at the current below 30 mA, while hydroxyl radicals contributed increasingly with the increase in the current above 30 mA. As(III) oxidation was moderately inhibited by the presence of bicarbonate (20 mM), while was dramatically increased with increasing the concentration of chloride (0-10 mM). After the complete oxidation of As(III) to As(V), total arsenic was efficiently removed by EC in the same reactor by reversing electrode polarity. The removal efficiency increased with increasing the current but decreased by the presence of phosphate and silica. Anodic oxidation represents an effective pretreatment approach to increasing EC removal of As(III) in groundwater under O2-limited conditions.

  8. Study on spinel-based inert anode for aluminium electrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Hot press-sintering was adopted to fabricate inert cermets anodes based on the nickel aluminate and nickel ferrite for use in aluminum electrolysis research. The density of samples, fabricated by hot pressing, is close to the theoretic density. At 900℃, the electrical conductivity of the periments. Effect of anode current on nickel ferrite-based and the reason for it were studied. A theory is that a more uniform metal distribution by improving the hot pressing process gives increased corrosion resistance of the anode.

  9. Modelling the initial stage of porous alumina growth during anodization (United States)

    Aryslanova, E. M.; Alfimov, A. V.; Chivilikhin, S. A.


    Artificially on the surface of aluminum there may be build a thick layer of Al2O3, which has a porous structure. In this paper we present a model of growth of porous alumina in the initial stage of anodizing, identifying dependencies anodizing parameters on the rate of growth of the film and the distance between the pores and as a result of the created model equations were found for changes in the disturbance of alumina for the initial stage of anodizing aluminum oxide porous border aluminum-alumina and alumina-electrolyte, with the influence of surface diffusion of aluminum oxide.

  10. High resolution cross strip anodes for photon counting detectors (United States)

    Siegmund, O. H. W.; Tremsin, A. S.; Vallerga, J. V.; Abiad, R.; Hull, J.


    A new photon counting, imaging readout for microchannel plate sensors, the cross strip (XS) anode, has been investigated. Charge centroiding of signals detected on two orthogonal layers of sense strip sets are used to derive photon locations. The XS anode spatial resolution (<3 μm FWHM) exceeds the spatial resolution of most direct charge sensing anodes, and does so at low gain (<2×10 6). The image linearity and fidelity are high enough to resolve and map 7 μm MCP pores, offering new possibilities for astronomical and other applications.

  11. Inert Anode Life in Low Temperature Reduction Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradford, Donald R.


    The production of aluminum metal by low temperature electrolysis utilizing metal non-consumable anodes and ceramic cathodes was extensively investigated. Tests were performed with traditional sodium fluoride--aluminum fluoride composition electrolytes, potassium fluoride-- aluminum fluoride electrolytes, and potassium fluoride--sodium fluoride--aluminum fluoride electrolytes. All of the Essential First-Tier Requirements of the joint DOE-Aluminum Industry Inert Anode Road Map were achieved and those items yet to be resolved for commercialization of this technology were identified. Methods for the fabrication and welding of metal alloy anodes were developed and tested. The potential savings of energy and energy costs were determined and potential environmental benefits verified.

  12. Polar varieties revisited


    Piene, Ragni


    We recall the definition of classical polar varieties, as well as those of affine and projective reciprocal polar varieties. The latter are defined with respect to a non-degenerate quadric, which gives us a notion of orthogonality. In particular we relate the reciprocal polar varieties to the "Euclidean geometry" in projective space. The Euclidean distance degree and the degree of the focal loci can be expressed in terms of the ranks, i.e., the degrees of the classical polar varieties, and he...

  13. Polarization at SLC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swartz, M.L.


    The SLAC Linear Collider has been designed to readily accommodate polarized electron beams. Considerable effort has been made to implement a polarized source, a spin rotation system, and a system to monitor the beam polarization. Nearly all major components have been fabricated. At the current time, several source and polarimeter components have been installed. The installation and commissioning of the entire system will take place during available machine shutdown periods as the commissioning of SLC progresses. It is expected that a beam polarization of 45% will be achieved with no loss in luminosity. 13 refs., 15 figs.

  14. Polarized negative ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haeberli, W.


    This paper presents a survey of methods, commonly in use or under development, to produce beams of polarized negative ions for injection into accelerators. A short summary recalls how the hyperfine interaction is used to obtain nuclear polarization in beams of atoms. Atomic-beam sources for light ions are discussed. If the best presently known techniques are incorporated in all stages of the source, polarized H/sup -/ and D/sup -/ beams in excess of 10 can probably be achieved. Production of polarized ions from fast (keV) beams of polarized atoms is treated separately for atoms in the H(25) excited state (Lamb-Shift source) and atoms in the H(1S) ground state. The negative ion beam from Lamb-Shift sources has reached a plateau just above 1, but this beam current is adequate for many applications and the somewhat lower beam current is compensated by other desirable characteristics. Sources using fast polarized ground state atoms are in a stage of intense development. The next sections summarize production of polarized heavy ions by the atomic beam method, which is well established, and by optical pumping, which has recently been demonstrated to yield very large nuclear polarization. A short discussion of proposed ion sources for polarized /sup 3/He/sup -/ ions is followed by some concluding remarks.

  15. Na-Ion Battery Anodes: Materials and Electrochemistry. (United States)

    Luo, Wei; Shen, Fei; Bommier, Clement; Zhu, Hongli; Ji, Xiulei; Hu, Liangbing


    The intermittent nature of renewable energy sources, such as solar and wind, calls for sustainable electrical energy storage (EES) technologies for stationary applications. Li will be simply too rare for Li-ion batteries (LIBs) to be used for large-scale storage purposes. In contrast, Na-ion batteries (NIBs) are highly promising to meet the demand of grid-level storage because Na is truly earth abundant and ubiquitous around the globe. Furthermore, NIBs share a similar rocking-chair operation mechanism with LIBs, which potentially provides high reversibility and long cycling life. It would be most efficient to transfer knowledge learned on LIBs during the last three decades to the development of NIBs. Following this logic, rapid progress has been made in NIB cathode materials, where layered metal oxides and polyanionic compounds exhibit encouraging results. On the anode side, pure graphite as the standard anode for LIBs can only form NaC64 in NIBs if solvent co-intercalation does not occur due to the unfavorable thermodynamics. In fact, it was the utilization of a carbon anode in LIBs that enabled the commercial successes. Anodes of metal-ion batteries determine key characteristics, such as safety and cycling life; thus, it is indispensable to identify suitable anode materials for NIBs. In this Account, we review recent development on anode materials for NIBs. Due to the limited space, we will mainly discuss carbon-based and alloy-based anodes and highlight progress made in our groups in this field. We first present what is known about the failure mechanism of graphite anode in NIBs. We then go on to discuss studies on hard carbon anodes, alloy-type anodes, and organic anodes. Especially, the multiple functions of natural cellulose that is used as a low-cost carbon precursor for mass production and as a soft substrate for tin anodes are highlighted. The strategies of minimizing the surface area of carbon anodes for improving the first-cycle Coulombic efficiency are

  16. The impact of the inclination of the anode bottom on anode gas covering in the Hall-Heroult cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poncsak, S.; Kiss, L.I.; Perron, A. [Quebec Univ., Chicoutimi, PQ (Canada). Dept. des Sciences Appliquees; Perron, S. [Alcan Arvida Research and Development Centre, Jonquiere, PQ (Canada)


    The electrical efficiency and the energy consumption of aluminium electrolysis cells is influenced by carbon dioxide bubbles generated at the anode-bath interface. Electrically isolating these carbon-dioxide bubbles increases the ohmic resistance and ultimately, the energy consumption of the aluminium reduction cell. This study examined the impact of the anode inclination and current density on gas coverings and bath velocity for both carbon dioxide-cryolite and air-water systems. A bubble layer simulator based on a Lagrangian description of the bubble layer was constructed to examine these effect. Since the rate of gas production is determined by the applied current density, anode covering can be decreased only by a faster evacuation of the gas from the inter-electrode space. The curvature of the anode bottom promotes the release of the bubbles thereby decreasing the mean value of the covering. New anodes have a square shape with a flat, horizontal bottom. Inhomogeneous current distribution results in non-uniform anode consumption and the corners become progressively rounded during electrolysis. The curvature increases the interelectrode distance around the corner. Results illustrating the effect of the anode curvature on gas covering were obtained through the use of the bubble layer simulator based on the Lagrangian description.14 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  17. Novel structure formation at the bottom surface of porous anodic alumina fabricated by single step anodization process. (United States)

    Ali, Ghafar; Ahmad, Maqsood; Akhter, Javed Iqbal; Maqbool, Muhammad; Cho, Sung Oh


    A simple approach for the growth of long-range highly ordered nanoporous anodic alumina film in H(2)SO(4) electrolyte through a single step anodization without any additional pre-anodizing procedure is reported. Free-standing porous anodic alumina film of 180 microm thickness with through hole morphology was obtained. A simple and single step process was used for the detachment of alumina from aluminum substrate. The effect of anodizing conditions, such as anodizing voltage and time on the pore diameter and pore ordering is discussed. The metal/oxide and oxide/electrolyte interfaces were examined by high resolution scanning transmission electron microscope. The arrangement of pores on metal/oxide interface was well ordered with smaller diameters than that of the oxide/electrolyte interface. The inter-pore distance was larger in metal/oxide interface as compared to the oxide/electrolyte interface. The size of the ordered domain was found to depend strongly upon anodizing voltage and time.

  18. Pre-coating of LSCM perovskite with metal catalyst for scalable high performance anodes

    KAUST Repository

    Boulfrad, Samir


    In this work, a highly scalable technique is proposed as an alternative to the lab-scale impregnation method. LSCM-CGO powders were pre-coated with 5 wt% of Ni from nitrates. After appropriate mixing and adequate heat treatment, coated powders were then dispersed into organic based vehicles to form a screen-printable ink which was deposited and fired to form SOFC anode layers. Electrochemical tests show a considerable enhancement of the pre-coated anode performances under 50 ml/min wet H2 flow with polarization resistance decreased from about 0.60cm2 to 0.38 cm2 at 900 C and from 6.70 cm2 to 1.37 cm2 at 700 C. This is most likely due to the pre-coating process resulting in nano-scaled Ni particles with two typical sizes; from 50 to 200 nm and from 10 to 40 nm. Converging indications suggest that the latter type of particle comes from solid state solution of Ni in LSCM phase under oxidizing conditions and exsolution as nanoparticles under reducing atmospheres. Copyright © 2013, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Optical appearance of AC anodized Al/TiO2 composite coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bordo, Kirill; Gudla, Visweswara Chakravarthy; Ambat, Rajan;


    AC anodization of Friction Stir Processed (FSP) surface composites of Al/TiO2 was systematically investigated with an aim to understand the effect of the anodization parameters on the optical appearance of the anodic layer. FSP-treated Al samples were anodized at different frequencies and voltage...

  20. Ohmic resistance affects microbial community and electrochemical kinetics in a multi-anode microbial electrochemical cell (United States)

    Dhar, Bipro Ranjan; Ryu, Hodon; Santo Domingo, Jorge W.; Lee, Hyung-Sool


    Multi-anode microbial electrochemical cells (MxCs) are considered as one of the most promising configurations for scale-up of MxCs, but understanding of anode kinetics in multiple anodes is limited in the MxCs. In this study we assessed microbial community and electrochemical kinetic parameters for biofilms on individual anodes in a multi-anode MxC to better comprehend anode fundamentals. Microbial community analysis targeting 16S rRNA Illumina sequencing showed that Geobacter genus was abundant (87%) only on the biofilm anode closest to a reference electrode (low ohmic energy loss) in which current density was the highest among three anodes. In comparison, Geobacter populations were less than 1% for biofilms on other two anodes distant from the reference electrode (high ohmic energy loss), generating small current density. Half-saturation anode potential (EKA) was the lowest at -0.251 to -0.242 V (vs. standard hydrogen electrode) for the closest biofilm anode to the reference electrode, while EKA was as high as -0.134 V for the farthest anode. Our study proves that electric potential of individual anodes changed by ohmic energy loss shifts biofilm communities on individual anodes and consequently influences electron transfer kinetics on each anode in the multi-anode MxC.

  1. Formation and disruption of current paths of anodic porous alumina films by conducting atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyoshi, K., E-mail: [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Nigo, S.; Inoue, J.; Sakai, O.; Kitazawa, H.; Kido, G. [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan)


    Anodic porous alumina (APA) films have a honeycomb cell structure of pores and a voltage-induced bi-stable switching effect. We have applied conducting atomic force microscopy (CAFM) as a method to form and to disrupt current paths in the APA films. A bi-polar switching operation was confirmed. We have firstly observed terminals of current paths as spots or areas typically on the center of the triangle formed by three pores. In addition, though a part of the current path showed repetitive switching, most of them were not observed again at the same position after one cycle of switching operations in the present experiments. This suggests that a part of alumina structure and/or composition along the current paths is modified during the switching operations.

  2. Microstructural degradation of Ni-YSZ anodes for solid oxide fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thydén, Karl Tor Sune


    are of technological relevance, it is difficult to identify the effect from isolated parameters such as temperature, fuel gas composition and polarization. Model studies of high temperature aged Ni-YSZ cermets are generally performed in atmospheres containing relatively low concentrations of H2O. In this work......, the microstructural degradation in both electrochemically longterm tested cells and high-temperature aged model materials are studied. Since Ni particle sintering / coarsening is attributed to be the major cause of anode degradation, this subject attains the primary focus. A large part of the work is focused......-reforming catalysis. In the context of electrochemically tested and technologically relevant cells, the majority of the microstructural work is performed on a cell tested at 850°C under relatively severe conditions for 17,500 hours. It is demonstrated that the major Ni rearrangements take place at the interface...

  3. The effect of antimony presence in anodic copper on kinetics and mechanism of anodic dissolution and cathodic deposition of copper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Z.D.


    Full Text Available The influence of the presence of Sb atoms, as foreign metal atoms in anode copper, on kinetics, and, on the mechanism of anodic dissolution and cathodic deposition of copper in acidic sulfate solution has been investigated. The galvanostatic single-pulse method has been used. Results indicate that presence of Sb atoms in anode copper increase the exchange current density as determined from the Tafel analysis of the electrode reaction. It is attributed to the increase of the crystal lattice parameter determined from XRD analysis of the electrode material.

  4. Anodic slimes formation in copper electrowinning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ipinza, J.


    Full Text Available The slime formation in acidic electrolytes of copper with several metallic impurities has been studied. On Pb-Ca-Sn anode surface firstly the formation of PbSO4 takes place, then, it is transformed in PbO2, which covers the anode surface. It was experimentally established the formation of a manganese dioxide double layer at the anode. This layer was always composed of a thick external layer of non-adhering and easily removable scales, and of a thin internal layer, which adheres relatively well to the surface of the electrode. It was found that the manganese dioxide present in the slime is of different nature: a non-adhering layer produced by electrolysis (ε-MnO2 on the PbO2 surface and a pure chemical precipitate in the solution (β- MnO2. Lead sulfate was found on the β-MnO2layer when iron was in the electrolyte. When arsenic or antimony was present in the electrolyte, the slime was lead sulfate and amorphous compounds of those ions. Slime of Chilean electrowinning (EW plants is also discussed.

    Se estudió la formación de borras anódicas debido a la presencia de varias impurezas metálicas en electrólitos de cobre. Sobre la superficie de un ánodo de Pb-Ca-Sn se forma primero PbSO4 y luego se transforma en PbO2, el cual cubre la superficie del ánodo. Se estableció experimentalmente la formación de una doble capa de dióxido de manganeso en el ánodo. Esta estuvo siempre compuesta por una capa externa gruesa, no adherente y de fácil remoción, y otra interna delgada y adherida a la superficie del electrodo. Se encontró que los óxidos de manganeso en las borras eran de distinta naturaleza: una capa no adherente producida por electrólisis sobre la superficie de PbO2 (ε-MnO2 y una producida sólo por precipitación química en la solución (β-MnO2. A1 existir hierro en el electrólito se encontró sulfato de

  5. The Evolution of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Nickel-Yttria Stabilized Zirconia Anodes Studied Using Electrochemical and Three-Dimensional Microstructural Characterizations (United States)

    Kennouche, David O.

    This thesis focuses on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs). The 21st century will see major changes in the way energy is produced, stored, and used around the world. SOFCs, which provide an efficient, scalable, and low-pollution alternative method for electricity generation, are expected to play an important role. SOFCs can also be operated in electrolysis mode for energy storage, important since health and economic reasons are causing a shift towards intermittent renewable energy resources. However, multiple limitations mainly linked to cost and durability have prevented the expansion of this technology to mass markets. This work focuses on the Nickel - Yttria Stabilized Zirconia (Ni-YSZ) anode that is widely used in SOFCs. Coarsening of Ni in the Ni-YSZ anode has been widely cited as a primary cause of long-term SOFC degradation. While there have been numerous studies of Ni coarsening reported, these have typically only tracked the evolution of Ni particle size, not the entire microstructure, and have typically not been correlated directly with electrochemical performance. In this thesis, the advanced tomography techniques Focused Ion Beam - Scanning Electron Microscopy (FIB-SEM) tomography and Trans- mission X-ray Microscopy (TXM) have been utilized to enable insight into the evolution of Ni-YSZ structure and how it relates to performance degradation. Extensive anode aging studies were done for relatively short times using temperatures higher than in normal SOFC operation in order to accelerate microstructural evolution. In addition the microstructure changes were correlated with changes in anode polarization resistance. While most of the measurements were done by comparing different anodes aged under different conditions, the first example of a "pseudo in situ" measurement where the same anode was 3D imaged repeatedly with intervening aging steps, was also demonstrated. A microstructural evolution model that focuses on the active three-phase boundary density was

  6. Nanocomposite anode materials for sodium-ion batteries (United States)

    Manthiram, Arumugam; Kim Il, Tae; Allcorn, Eric


    The disclosure relates to an anode material for a sodium-ion battery having the general formula AO.sub.x--C or AC.sub.x--C, where A is aluminum (Al), magnesium (Mg), titanium (Ti), vanadium (V), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), zirconium (Zr), molybdenum (Mo), tungsten (W), niobium (Nb), tantalum (Ta), silicon (Si), or any combinations thereof. The anode material also contains an electrochemically active nanoparticles within the matrix. The nanoparticle may react with sodium ion (Na.sup.+) when placed in the anode of a sodium-ion battery. In more specific embodiments, the anode material may have the general formula M.sub.ySb-M'O.sub.x--C, Sb-MO.sub.x--C, M.sub.ySn-M'C.sub.x--C, or Sn-MC.sub.x--C. The disclosure also relates to rechargeable sodium-ion batteries containing these materials and methods of making these materials.

  7. Topics in Chemical Instrumentation: CII. Automated Anodic Stripping Voltammetry. (United States)

    Stock, John T.; Ewing, Galen W., Ed.


    Presents details of anodic stripping analysis (ASV) in college chemistry laboratory experiments. Provides block diagrams of the analyzer system, circuitry and power supplies of the automated stripping analyzer, and instructions for implementing microcomputer control of the ASV. (CS)

  8. Anodic aluminium oxide catalytic membranes for asymmetric epoxidation. (United States)

    Cho, So-Hye; Walther, Nolan D; Nguyen, SonBinh T; Hupp, Joseph T


    Catechol-functionalized (salen)Mn complexes can be supported on mesoporous anodized aluminium oxide disks to yield catalytic membranes that are highly active in the enantioselective epoxidation of olefins when being deployed in a forced-through-flow reactor.

  9. Formation of complex anodic films on porous alumina matrices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Alexander Zahariev; Assen Girginov


    The kinetics of growth of complex anodic alumina films was investigated. These films were formed by filling porous oxide films (matrices) having deep pores. The porous films (matrices) were obtained voltastatically in (COOH)2 aqueous solution under various voltages. The filling was done by re-anodization in an electrolyte solution not dissolving the film. Data about the kinetics of re-anodization depending on the porosity of the matrices were obtained. On the other hand, the slopes of the kinetic curves during reanodization were calculated by two equations expressing the dependence of these slopes on the ionic current density. A discrepancy was ascertained between the values of the calculated slopes and those experimentally found. For this discrepancy a possible explanation is proposed, related to the temperature increase in the film, because of that the real current density significantly increases during re-anodization.

  10. Effect of processing on structural features of anodic aluminum oxides (United States)

    Erdogan, Pembe; Birol, Yucel


    Morphological features of the anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates fabricated by electrochemical oxidation under different processing conditions were investigated. The selection of the polishing parameters does not appear to be critical as long as the aluminum substrate is polished adequately prior to the anodization process. AAO layers with a highly ordered pore distribution are obtained after anodizing in 0.6 M oxalic acid at 20 °C under 40 V for 5 minutes suggesting that the desired pore features are attained once an oxide layer develops on the surface. While the pore features are not affected much, the thickness of the AAO template increases with increasing anodization treatment time. Pore features are better and the AAO growth rate is higher at 20 °C than at 5 °C; higher under 45 V than under 40 V; higher with 0.6 M than with 0.3 M oxalic acid.

  11. Formation of anodic aluminum oxide with serrated nanochannels. (United States)

    Li, Dongdong; Zhao, Liang; Jiang, Chuanhai; Lu, Jia G


    We report a simple and robust method to self-assemble porous anodic aluminum oxide membranes with serrated nanochannels by anodizing in phosphoric acid solution. Due to high field conduction and anionic incorporation, an increase of anodizing voltage leads to an increase of the impurity levels and also the field strength across barrier layer. On the basis of both experiment and simulation results, the initiation and formation of serrated channels are attributed to the evolution of oxygen gas bubbles followed by plastic deformation in the oxide film. Alternating anodization in oxalic and phosphoric acids is applied to construct multilayered membranes with smooth and serrated channels, demonstrating a unique way to design and construct a three-dimensional hierarchical system with controllable morphology and composition.

  12. Oxide anode materials for solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fergus, Jeffrey W. [Auburn University, Materials Research and Education Center, 275 Wilmore Laboratories, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States)


    A major advantage of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) over polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells is their tolerance for the type and purity of fuel. This fuel flexibility is due in large part to the high operating temperature of SOFCs, but also relies on the selection and development of appropriate materials - particularly for the anode where the fuel reaction occurs. This paper reviews the oxide materials being investigated as alternatives to the most commonly used nickel-YSZ cermet anodes for SOFCs. The majority of these oxides form the perovskite structure, which provides good flexibility in doping for control of the transport properties. However, oxides that form other crystal structures, such as the cubic fluorite structure, have also shown promise for use as SOFC anodes. In this paper, oxides are compared primarily in terms of their transport properties, but other properties relative to SOFC anode performance are also discussed. (author)

  13. Impact of anode microstructure on solid oxide fuel cells. (United States)

    Suzuki, Toshio; Hasan, Zahir; Funahashi, Yoshihiro; Yamaguchi, Toshiaki; Fujishiro, Yoshinobu; Awano, Masanobu


    We report a correlation between the microstructure of the anode electrode of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and its electrochemical performance for a tubular design. It was shown that the electrochemical performance of the cell was extensively improved when the size of constituent particles was reduced so as to yield a highly porous microstructure. The SOFC had a power density of greater than 1 watt per square centimeter at an operating temperature as low as 600 degrees C with a conventional zirconia-based electrolyte, a nickel cermet anode, and a lanthanum ferrite perovskite cathode material. The effect of the hydrogen fuel flow rate (linear velocity) was also examined for the optimization of operating conditions. Higher linear fuel velocity led to better cell performance for the cell with higher anode porosity. A zirconia-based cell could be used for a low-temperature SOFC system under 600 degrees C just by optimizing the microstructure of the anode electrode and operating conditions.

  14. Silicon Whisker and Carbon Nanofiber Composite Anode Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) has successfully developed a silicon whisker and carbon nanofiber composite anode for lithium ion batteries on a Phase I program. PSI...

  15. Hollow Nanostructured Anode Materials for Li-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Jun


    Full Text Available Abstract Hollow nanostructured anode materials lie at the heart of research relating to Li-ion batteries, which require high capacity, high rate capability, and high safety. The higher capacity and higher rate capability for hollow nanostructured anode materials than that for the bulk counterparts can be attributed to their higher surface area, shorter path length for Li+ transport, and more freedom for volume change, which can reduce the overpotential and allow better reaction kinetics at the electrode surface. In this article, we review recent research activities on hollow nanostructured anode materials for Li-ion batteries, including carbon materials, metals, metal oxides, and their hybrid materials. The major goal of this review is to highlight some recent progresses in using these hollow nanomaterials as anode materials to develop Li-ion batteries with high capacity, high rate capability, and excellent cycling stability.

  16. Two-phase flow in anode flow field of a small direct methanol fuel cell in different gravities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    An in-situ visualization of two-phase flow inside anode flow bed of a small liquid fed direct methanol fuel cells in normal and reduced gravity has been conducted in a drop tower.The anode flow bed con-sists of 11 parallel straight channels.The length,width and depth of single channel,which had rec-tangular cross section,are 48.0,2.5 and 2.0mm,respectively.The rib width was 2.0mm.The experi-mental results indicated that when the fuel cell orientation is vertical,two-phase flow pattern in anode channels can evolve from bubbly flow in normal gravity into slug flow in microgravity.The size of bub-bles in the reduced gravity is also bigger.In microgravity,the bubbles rising speed in vertical channels is obviously slower than that in normal gravity.When the fuel cell orientation is horizontal,the slug flow in the reduced gravity has almost the same characteristic with that in normal gravity.It implies that the effect of gravity on two-phase flow is small and the bubbles removal is governed by viscous drag.When the gas slugs or gas columns occupy channels,the performance of liquid fed direct methanol fuel cells is failing rapidly.It infers that in long-term microgravity,flow bed and operating condition should be optimized to avoid concentration polarization of fuel cells.

  17. Two-phase flow in anode flow field of a small direct methanol fuel cell in different gravities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Hang; WU Feng; YE Fang; ZHAO JianFu; WAN ShiXin; L(U) CuiPing; MA ChongFang


    An in-situ visualization of two-phase flow inside anode flow bed of a small liquid fed direct methanol fuel cells in normal and reduced gravity has been conducted in a drop tower. The anode flow bed con-sists of 11 parallel straight channels. The length, width and depth of single channel, which had rec-tangular cross section, are 48.0, 2.5 and 2.0 mm, respectively. The rib width was 2.0 ram. The experi-mental results indicated that when the fuel cell orientation is vertical, two-phase flow pattern in anode channels can evolve from bubbly flow in normal gravity into slug flow in microgravity. The size of bub-bles in the reduced gravity is also bigger. In microgravity, the bubbles rising speed in vertical channels is obviously slower than that in normal gravity. When the fuel cell orientation is horizontal, the slug flow in the reduced gravity has almost the same characteristic with that in normal gravity. It implies that the effect of gravity on two-phase flow is small and the bubbles removal is governed by viscous drag. When the gas slugs or gas columns occupy channels, the performance of liquid fed direct methanol fuel cells is failing rapidly. It infers that in long-term microgravity, flow bed and operating condition should be optimized to avoid concentration polarization of fuel cells.

  18. Performance evaluation of a liquid tin anode solid oxide fuel cell operating under hydrogen, argon and coal (United States)

    Khurana, Sanchit; LaBarbera, Mark; Fedkin, Mark V.; Lvov, Serguei N.; Abernathy, Harry; Gerdes, Kirk


    A liquid tin anode solid oxide fuel cell is constructed and investigated under different operating conditions. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) is used to reflect the effect of fuel feed as the EIS spectra changes significantly on switching the fuel from argon to hydrogen. A cathode symmetric cell is used to separate the impedance from the two electrodes, and the results indicate that a major contribution to the charge-transfer and mass-transfer impedance arises from the anode. The OCP of 0.841 V for the cell operating under argon as a metal-air battery indicates the formation of a SnO2 layer at the electrolyte/anode interface. The increase in the OCP to 1.1 V for the hydrogen fueled cell shows that H2 reduces the SnO2 film effectively. The effective diffusion coefficients are calculated using the Warburg element in the equivalent circuit model for the experimental EIS data, and the values of 1.9 10-3 cm2 s-1 at 700 °C, 2.3 10-3 cm2 s-1 at 800 °C and 3.5 10-3 cm2 s-1 at 900 °C indicate the system was influenced by diffusion of hydrogen in the system. Further, the performance degradation over time is attributed to the irreversible conversion of Sn to SnO2 resulting from galvanic polarization.

  19. Stainless steel anodes for alkaline water electrolysis and methods of making (United States)

    Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev


    The corrosion resistance of stainless steel anodes for use in alkaline water electrolysis was increased by immersion of the stainless steel anode into a caustic solution prior to electrolysis. Also disclosed herein are electrolyzers employing the so-treated stainless steel anodes. The pre-treatment process provides a stainless steel anode that has a higher corrosion resistance than an untreated stainless steel anode of the same composition.

  20. Preparation of Porous Alumina Film on Aluminum Substrate by Anodization in Oxalic Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Self-ordering of the cell arrangement of the anodic porous alumina was prepared in oxalic acid solution at a constant potential of 40V and at a temperature of 20°C. The honeycomb structure made by one step anodization method and two step anodization method is different.Pores in the alumina film prepared by two step anodization method were more ordered than those by one step anodization method.

  1. Planetary polarization nephelometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banfield, D.; Dissly, R.; Mishchenko, M.; Muñoz, O.; Roos-Serote, M.; Stam, D.M.; Volten, H.; Wilson, A.


    We have proposed to develop a polarization nephelometer for use on future planetary descent probes. It will measure both the scattered intensity and polarization phase functions of the aerosols it encounters descending through an atmosphere. These measurements will be taken at two wavelengths separa

  2. Polarization modulators for CMBPol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ade, P A R; Savini, G [Cardiff University, School of Physics and Astronomy, Queens Buildings, The Parade, Cardiff, CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Chuss, D T [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 665, Greenbelt, MD, 20771 (United States); Hanany, S [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota/Twin Cities, Minneapolis, MN, 55455 (United States); Haynes, V; Pisano, G [University of Manchester, School of Physics and Astronomy - Alan Turing Building, Upper Brooke street, Manchester, M13 4PL (United Kingdom); Keating, B G [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0424 (United States); Kogut, A [Code 665 Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Ruhl, J E [Physics Department, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, 44106 (United States); Wollack, E J [Observational Cosmology Laboratory, NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)


    We review a number of technologies that are candidates for active polarization modulators for CMBPol. The technologies are appropriate for instruments that use bolometric detectors and include birefringent crystal-based and metal-mesh-based half-wave plates, variable phase polarization modulator, Faraday rotator, and photolithographed modulators. We also give a current account of the status of millimeter-wave orthomode transducers.

  3. Polar Code Validation (United States)


    SUMMARY OF POLAR ACHIEVEMENTS ..... .......... 3 3. POLAR CODE PHYSICAL MODELS ..... ............. 5 3.1 PL- ASMA Su ^"ru5 I1LS SH A...of this problem. 1.1. The Charge-2 Rocket The Charge-2 payload was launched on a Black Brant VB from White Sands Mis- sile Range in New Mexico in

  4. Plasma polarization spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwamae, Atsushi; Inoue, Takeru; Tanaka, Akihiro; Kawakami, Kazuki; Fujimoto, Takashi [Kyoto Univ., Dept. of Engineering Physics, Kyoto (Japan)


    Polarization of radiation emitted from plasma reflects the anisotropic properties of the plasma, especially the angular isotropic distribution of electron velocities. Polarization has been observed on impurity ion lines from the WT-3 tokamak and GAMMA 10 tandem mirror device. (author)

  5. Polar Cap Patch Dynamics (United States)


    cap arcs Citation: Hosokawa, K., J. I. Moen, K. Shiokawa, and Y. Otsuka ( 2011 ), Motion of polar cap arcs , J. Geophys. Res. , 116 , A01305, doi...K., J. I. Moen, K. Shiokawa, and Y. Otsuka , (2011), Decay of polar cap patch, J. Geophys. Res., 116, A05308, doi:10.1029/2010JA016287, Abstract. We

  6. Polarized Light: Three Demonstrations. (United States)

    Goehmann, Ruth; Welty, Scott


    Describes three demonstrations used in the Chicago Museum of Science and Industry polarized light show. The procedures employed are suitable for the classroom by using smaller polarizers and an overhead projector. Topic areas include properties of cellophane tape, nondisappearing arrows, and rope through a picket fence. (JN)



    Palik, E.; Bermudez, V.


    Ellipsometric measurements have been carried out during growth and etch back of anodic oxides on Si in 2M KOH. Pronounced variations in ψ and Ɗ occur as etching proceeds through the SiO2/Si interface and also during the initial stages of re-anodization. The results are interpreted in terms of changes in the stoichiometry and thickness of an SiOx (0⩽x⩽2) connective layer.

  8. Formation and Morphology of Anodic Oxide Films of Ti

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The morphology and structure of the oxide films of Ti in H3PO4 were investigated by galvanostatic anodization, SEM and XRD. The oxide film grew from some pores in the grooves to layered microdomains as increasing anodizing voltage. The crystallinity of the oxide films decreased with the increase of the concentration of the electrolyte. The model has been proposed for the growth of the oxide films by two steps, i.e. by uniform thickening and by local deposition.

  9. A predictive fatigue life model for anodized 7050 aluminium alloy


    Chaussumier, Michel; Mabru, Catherine; Shahzad, Majid; Chieragatti, Rémy; Rezaï-Aria, Farhad


    International audience; The objective of this study is to predict fatigue life of anodized 7050 aluminum alloy specimens. In the case of anodized 7050-T7451 alloy, fractographic observations of fatigue tested specimens showed that pickling pits were the predominant sites for crack nucleation and subsequent failure. It has been shown that fatigue failure was favored by the presence of multiple cracks. From these experimental results, a fatigue life predictive model has been developed including...

  10. Parallel Polarization State Generation (United States)

    She, Alan; Capasso, Federico


    The control of polarization, an essential property of light, is of wide scientific and technological interest. The general problem of generating arbitrary time-varying states of polarization (SOP) has always been mathematically formulated by a series of linear transformations, i.e. a product of matrices, imposing a serial architecture. Here we show a parallel architecture described by a sum of matrices. The theory is experimentally demonstrated by modulating spatially-separated polarization components of a laser using a digital micromirror device that are subsequently beam combined. This method greatly expands the parameter space for engineering devices that control polarization. Consequently, performance characteristics, such as speed, stability, and spectral range, are entirely dictated by the technologies of optical intensity modulation, including absorption, reflection, emission, and scattering. This opens up important prospects for polarization state generation (PSG) with unique performance characteristics with applications in spectroscopic ellipsometry, spectropolarimetry, communications, imaging, and security.

  11. Parallel Polarization State Generation

    CERN Document Server

    She, Alan


    The control of polarization, an essential property of light, is of wide scientific and technological interest. The general problem of generating arbitrary time-varying states of polarization (SOP) has always been mathematically formulated by a series of linear transformations, i.e. a product of matrices, imposing a serial architecture. Here we show a parallel architecture described by a sum of matrices. The theory is experimentally demonstrated by modulating spatially-separated polarization components of a laser using a digital micromirror device that are subsequently beam combined. This method greatly expands the parameter space for engineering devices that control polarization. Consequently, performance characteristics, such as speed, stability, and spectral range, are entirely dictated by the technologies of optical intensity modulation, including absorption, reflection, emission, and scattering. This opens up important prospects for polarization state generation (PSG) with unique performance characteristi...

  12. Optimal Conditions for Fast Charging and Long Cycling Stability of Silicon Microwire Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries, and Comparison with the Performance of Other Si Anode Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Quiroga-González


    Full Text Available Cycling tests under various conditions have been performed for lithium ion battery anodes made from free-standing silicon microwires embedded at one end in a copper current collector. Optimum charging/discharging conditions have been found for which the anode shows negligible fading (< 0.001% over 80 cycles; an outstanding result for this kind of anodes. Several performance parameters of the anode have been compared to the ones of other Si anode concepts, showing that especially the capacity as well as the rates of charge flow per nominal area of anode are the highest for the present anode. With regard to applications, the specific parameters per area are more important than the specific gravimetric parameters like the gravimetric capacity, which is good for comparing the capacity between materials but not enough for comparing between anodes.

  13. Effects of electrolyte components on properties of Al alloy anode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Zheng-qing; ZUO Lie; PANG Xu; ZENG Su-min


    The effects of Na2SnO3, In(OH)3 and Na2SnO3+In(OH)3 on the properties of Al alloy anode were studied in alkaline medium at 25 ℃. The self-corrosion rate of Al alloy anode was studied by method of H2 immersed in aqueous medium, and the electrochemical properties of Al alloy anode were tested via galvanostatic discharge and dynamic potential methods. The results show that the self-corrosion rate of Al alloy anode in 4 mol/L NaOH+3 mol/L NaAlO2 medium can be minimized by adding Na2SnO3, In(OH)3 and Na2SnO3+ In(OH)3. Na2SnO3, In(OH)3 and Na2SnO3+In(OH)3 make Al anodic potential shift positively in galvanostatic discharging. The most effective additive of Al alloy anode in 4 mol/L NaOH+3 mol/L NaAlO2 medium is 0.075 mol/L Na2SnO3+0.005 mol/L In(OH)3, integrating self-corrosion rate and electrochemical properties.

  14. Copper anode corrosion affects power generation in microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Xiuping


    Non-corrosive, carbon-based materials are usually used as anodes in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). In some cases, however, metals have been used that can corrode (e.g. copper) or that are corrosion resistant (e.g. stainless steel, SS). Corrosion could increase current through galvanic (abiotic) current production or by increasing exposed surface area, or decrease current due to generation of toxic products from corrosion. In order to directly examine the effects of using corrodible metal anodes, MFCs with Cu were compared with reactors using SS and carbon cloth anodes. MFCs with Cu anodes initially showed high current generation similar to abiotic controls, but subsequently they produced little power (2 mW m-2). Higher power was produced with microbes using SS (12 mW m-2) or carbon cloth (880 mW m-2) anodes, with no power generated by abiotic controls. These results demonstrate that copper is an unsuitable anode material, due to corrosion and likely copper toxicity to microorganisms. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Microbial community composition is unaffected by anode potential

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Xiuping


    There is great controversy on how different set anode potentials affect the performance of a bioelectrochemical system (BES). It is often reported that more positive potentials improve acclimation and performance of exoelectrogenic biofilms, and alter microbial community structure, while in other studies relatively more negative potentials were needed to achieve higher current densities. To address this issue, the biomass, electroactivity, and community structure of anodic biofilms were examined over a wide range of set anode potentials (-0.25, -0.09, 0.21, 0.51, and 0.81 V vs a standard hydrogen electrode, SHE) in single-chamber microbial electrolysis cells. Maximum currents produced using a wastewater inoculum increased with anode potentials in the range of -0.25 to 0.21 V, but decreased at 0.51 and 0.81 V. The maximum currents were positively correlated with increasing biofilm biomass. Pyrosequencing indicated biofilm communities were all similar and dominated by bacteria most similar to Geobacter sulfurreducens. Differences in anode performance with various set potentials suggest that the exoelectrogenic communities self-regulate their exocellular electron transfer pathways to adapt to different anode potentials. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  16. Formation of Anodic Aluminum Oxide with Branched and Meshed Pores. (United States)

    Kim, Byeol; Lee, Jin Seok


    Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO), with a self-ordered hexagonal array, is important for various applications in nanofabrication including as the fabrication of nanotemplates and other nanostructures. With the consideration, there have been many efforts to control the characteristic parameters of porous anodic alumina by adjustment of the anodizing conditions such as the electrolyte, temperature, applied potential, and Al purity. In particular, impurities in Al are changing the morphology of an alumina film; however, the formation mechanism has not yet been explained. In this work, we anodized a high purity (99.999%, Al(high)) and low purity (99.8%, Al(low)) aluminum foil by a two-step anodization process in an oxalic acid solution or phosphoric acid. It was found that the purity of aluminum foil has influenced the morphology of the alumina film resulting in branched and meshed pores. Also, electrochemical analysis indicated that the branched and meshed pores in the low-purity Al foil formed by the presence of impurities. Impurities act as defects and change the general growth mechanism for pore formation by inducing an electric field imbalance during anodization. This work contributes to the research field of topographical chemistry and applied fields including nanofabrication.

  17. Superhydrophobicity of Bionic Alumina Surfaces Fabricated by Hard Anodizing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Li; Feng Du; Xianli Liu; Zhonghao Jiang; Luquan Ren


    Bionic alumina samples were fabricated on convex dome type aluminum alloy substrate using hard anodizing technique.The convex domes on the bionic sample were fabricated by compression molding under a compressive stress of 92.5 MPa.The water contact angles of the as-anodized bionic samples were measured using a contact angle meter (JC2000A) with the 3 μL water drop at room temperature.The measurement of the wetting property showed that the water contact angle of the unmodified as-anodized bionic alumina samples increases from 90° to 137° with the anodizing time.The increase in water contract angle with anodizing time arises from the gradual formation of hierarchical structure or composite structure.The structure is composed of the micro-scaled alumina columns and pores.The height of columns and the depth of pores depend on the anodizing time.The water contact angle increases significantly from 96° to 152° when the samples were modified with self-assembled monolayer of octadecanethiol (ODT),showing a change in the wettability from hydrophobicity to super-hydrophobicity.This improvement in the wetting property is attributed to the decrease in the surface energy caused by the chemical modification.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李威力; 闫永贵; 陈光; 马力


    通过合金化方法,在Al-Zn-In三元牺牲阳极中依次添加Mg、Ti、Ga、Mn、Sn等元素,炼制不同成分的铝合金牺牲阳极。采用电化学性能测试、极化曲线测量及扫描电子显微镜分析等手段分析了合金元素对铝合金牺牲阳极性能的影响。结果表明,随着添加元素种类的增加,牺牲阳极电化学性能提高。在Al-Zn-In三元阳极中加入Mg和Ti,阳极溶解形貌更加均匀;加入Ga与Sn后,阳极的开路电位与工作电位负移;加入Mn后阳极的电流效率提高。%Elements such as Mg,Ti,Ga,Mn and Sn were added to the Al-Zn-In based ternary anode in order using alloying method and the aluminum sacrificial anodes with different incorporated elements were cast.The electrochemical performance test,polarization plots and scanning electron microscope technique were carried out to analyze the influence of several familiar elements to the performance of the aluminum anode.The experiment results indicated that with the increase of the adding element the anode electrochemical performance was improved.When the elements of Mg and Ti were added to Al-Zn-In ternary anode the dissolution morphology was more uniform.When Ga and Sn were added,the anode open-circuit potential and closed-circuit potential were more negative.When Mn was added,the current efficiency was promoted.

  19. A method to localize gamma-ray bursts using POLAR

    CERN Document Server

    Suarez-Garcia, E; Hajdas, W; Lamanna, G; Lechanoine-Leluc, C; Marcinkowski, R; Mtchedlishvili, A; Orsi, S; Pohl, M; Produit, N; Rapin, D; Rybka, D; Vialle, J -P; 10.1016/j.nima.2010.10.006


    The hard X-ray polarimeter POLAR aims to measure the linear polarization of the 50-500 keV photons arriving from the prompt emission of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). The position in the sky of the detected GRBs is needed to determine their level of polarization. We present here a method by which, despite of the polarimeter incapability of taking images, GRBs can be roughly localized using POLAR alone. For this purpose scalers are attached to the output of the 25 multi-anode photomultipliers (MAPMs) that collect the light from the POLAR scintillator target. Each scaler measures how many GRB photons produce at least one energy deposition above 50 keV in the corresponding MAPM. Simulations show that the relative outputs of the 25 scalers depend on the GRB position. A database of very strong GRBs simulated at 10201 positions has been produced. When a GRB is detected, its location is calculated searching the minimum of the chi2 obtained in the comparison between the measured scaler pattern and the database. This GRB lo...

  20. Ceria-Based Anodes for Next Generation Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (United States)

    Mirfakhraei, Behzad

    Mixed ionic and electronic conducting materials (MIECs) have been suggested to represent the next generation of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anodes, primarily due to their significantly enhanced active surface area and their tolerance to fuel components. In this thesis, the main focus has been on determining and tuning the physicochemical and electrochemical properties of ceria-based MIECs in the versatile perovskite or fluorite crystal structures. In one direction, BaZr0.1Ce0.7Y0.1 M0.1O3-delta (M = Fe, Ni, Co and Yb) (BZCY-M) perovskites were synthesized using solid-state or wet citric acid combustion methods and the effect of various transition metal dopants on the sintering behavior, crystal structure, chemical stability under CO2 and H 2S, and electrical conductivity, was investigated. BZCY-Ni, synthesized using the wet combustion method, was the best performing anode, giving a polarization resistance (RP) of 0.4 O.cm2 at 800 °C. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis showed that this was due to the exsolution of catalytic Ni nanoparticles onto the oxide surface. Evolving from this promising result, the effect of Mo-doped CeO 2 (nCMO) or Ni nanoparticle infiltration into a porous Gd-doped CeO 2 (GDC) anode (in the fluorite structure) was studied. While 3 wt. % Ni infiltration lowered RP by up to 90 %, giving 0.09 O.cm2 at 800 °C and exhibiting a ca. 5 times higher tolerance towards 10 ppm H2, nCMO infiltration enhanced the H2 stability by ca. 3 times, but had no influence on RP. In parallel work, a first-time study of the Ce3+ and Ce 4+ redox process (pseudocapacitance) within GDC anode materials was carried out using cyclic voltammetry (CV) in wet H2 at high temperatures. It was concluded that, at 500-600 °C, the Ce3+/Ce 4+ reaction is diffusion controlled, probably due to O2- transport limitations in the outer 5-10 layers of the GDC particles, giving a very high capacitance of ca. 70 F/g. Increasing the temperature ultimately

  1. Impurity-defect structure of anodic aluminum oxide produced by two-sided anodizing in tartaric acid (United States)

    Chernyakova, K. V.; Vrublevsky, I. A.; Ivanovskaya, M. I.; Kotsikau, D. A.


    Porous aluminum oxide is prepared in a 0.4 M aqueous solution of tartaric acid by two-sided anodizing. Fourier Transform IR spectroscopy (FTIR) data reveal the presence, in the alumina, of unoxidized tartarate ions, as well as products of their partial (radical organic products and CO) and complete (CO2) oxidation. Carboxylate ions and elemental carbon contained in the anodic oxide impart a gray color to the films.

  2. Impact de la preparation des anodes crues et des conditions de cuisson sur la fissuration dans des anodes denses (United States)

    Amrani, Salah

    La fabrication de l'aluminium est realisee dans une cellule d'electrolyse, et cette operation utilise des anodes en carbone. L'evaluation de la qualite de ces anodes reste indispensable avant leur utilisation. La presence des fissures dans les anodes provoque une perturbation du procede l'electrolyse et une diminution de sa performance. Ce projet a ete entrepris pour determiner l'impact des differents parametres de procedes de fabrication des anodes sur la fissuration des anodes denses. Ces parametres incluent ceux de la fabrication des anodes crues, des proprietes des matieres premieres et de la cuisson. Une recherche bibliographique a ete effectuee sur tous les aspects de la fissuration des anodes en carbone pour compiler les travaux anterieurs. Une methodologie detaillee a ete mise au point pour faciliter le deroulement des travaux et atteindre les objectifs vises. La majorite de ce document est reservee pour la discussion des resultats obtenus au laboratoire de l'UQAC et au niveau industriel. Concernant les etudes realisees a l'UQAC, une partie des travaux experimentaux est reservee a la recherche des differents mecanismes de fissuration dans les anodes denses utilisees dans l'industrie d'aluminium. L'approche etait d'abord basee sur la caracterisation qualitative du mecanisme de la fissuration en surface et en profondeur. Puis, une caracterisation quantitative a ete realisee pour la determination de la distribution de la largeur de la fissure sur toute sa longueur, ainsi que le pourcentage de sa surface par rapport a la surface totale de l'echantillon. Cette etude a ete realisee par le biais de la technique d'analyse d'image utilisee pour caracteriser la fissuration d'un echantillon d'anode cuite. L'analyse surfacique et en profondeur de cet echantillon a permis de voir clairement la formation des fissures sur une grande partie de la surface analysee. L'autre partie des travaux est basee sur la caracterisation des defauts dans des echantillons d'anodes crues

  3. Fully solution-processed, transparent organic power-generating polarizer (United States)

    Chou, Wei-Yu; Hsu, Fang-Chi; Chen, Yang-Fang


    We fabricate transparent organic power-generating polarizer by all solution process. Based on the conventional indium–tin-oxide-coated glass as the bottom cathode, the subsequent layers are prepared by a combination of solution processing methods. Sprayed silver nanowires film serves as the top anode and can transmit greater than 80% of the visible light with sheet resistance of 16 Ω/□. By adopting the quasi-bilayer structure for the photoactive layer composed of rubbed polymer donors to produce anisotropic optical property underneath fullerene acceptors, the finished device demonstrates a power conversion efficiency of 1.36% with unpolarized light, a dichroic ratio of 3.2, and a high short circuit current ratio of 2.6 with polarized light. Our proposed fabrication procedures of devices take into account not only the cost-effective production, but also the flexibility of devices for applying in flexible, scalable circuits to advance the development of future technology.

  4. Effect of ionic conductivity of zirconia electrolytes on polarization properties of various electrodes in SOFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Masahiro; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Manabu [Yamanashi Univ., Kofu (Japan)


    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) have been intensively investigated because, in principle, their energy conversion efficiency is fairly high. Lowering the operating temperature of SOFCs from 1000{degrees}C to around 800{degrees}C is desirable for reducing serious problems such as physical and chemical degradation of the constructing materials. The object of a series of the studies is to find a clue for achieving higher electrode performances at a low operating temperature than those of the present level. Although the polarization loss at electrodes can be reduced by using mixed-conducting ceria electrolytes, or introducing the mixed-conducting (reduced zirconia or ceria) laver on the conventional zirconia electrolyte surface, no reports are available on the effect of such an ionic conductivity of electrolytes on electrode polarizations. High ionic conductivity of the electrolyte, of course, reduces the ohmic loss. However, we have found that the IR-free polarization of a platinum anode attached to zirconia electrolytes is greatly influenced by the ionic conductivity, {sigma}{sub ion}, of the electrolytes used. The higher the {sigma}{sub ion}, the higher the exchange current density, j{sub 0}, for the Pt anode in H{sub 2} at 800 {approximately} 1000{degrees}C. It was indicated that the H{sub 2} oxidation reaction rate was controlled by the supply rate of oxide ions through the Pt/zirconia interface which is proportional to the {sigma}{sub ion}. Recently, we have proposed a new concept of the catalyzed-reaction layers which realizes both high-performances of anodes and cathodes for medium-temperature operating SOFCs. We present the interesting dependence of the polarization properties of various electrodes (the SDC anodes with and without Ru microcatalysts, Pt cathode, La(Sr)MnO{sub 3} cathodes with and without Pt microcatalysts) on the {sigma}{sub ion} of various zirconia electrolytes at 800 {approximately} 1000{degrees}C.

  5. Influence of polarization extinction ratio on distributed polarization coupling detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Tian-hua; TANG Feng; JING Wen-cai; ZHANG Hong-xia; JIA Da-gong; YU Chang-song; ZHOU Ge; ZHANG Yi-mo


    Distributed polarization coupling in polarization-maintaining fibers can be detected by using a white light Michelsonin terferorneter. This technique usually requires that only one polarization mode is excited. However, in practical measurement,the injection polarization direction could not be exactly aligned to one of the principal axes of the PMF, so the influence of the polarization extinction ratio should be considered. Based on the polarization coupling theory, the influence of theincident polarization extinction on the measurement result is evaluated and analyzed, and a method for distributed polarization coupling detection is developed when both two orthogonal eigenmodes are excited.

  6. Kinetics of enhanced adsorption by polarization for organic pollutants on activated carbon fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Yanhe; QUAN Xie; ZHAO Huimin; CHEN Shuo; ZHAO Yazhi


    The adsorption kinetics for model pollutants on activated carbon fiber(ACF)by polarization was investigated in this work.Kinetics data obtained for the adsorption of these model pollutants at open-circuit.400 mV,and -400 mV polarization were applied to the Lagergren equation,and adsorption rate constants(Ka)were determined.With the anodic polarization of 400 mV,the capacity of sodium phenoxide was increased from 0.0083 mmol/g at open circuit to 0.18 mmol/g,and a 17-fold enhancement was achieved;however,the capacity of p-nitrophenol was decreased from 2.93 mmol/g at open-circuit to 2.65 mmol/g.With the cathodal polarization of -400 mV,the capacity of aniline was improved from 3.60 mmol/g at open-circuit to 3.88 mmol/g;however,the capacity of sodium dodecylben zene sulfonate was reduced from 2.20 mmol/g at open-circuit to 1.59 mmol/g.The enhancement for electrosorption changed with different groups substituting.Anodic polarization enhances the adsorption of benzene with the electron donating group.But whether anodic or not,cathodal polarization had less effect on the adsorption of electron-accepting aromatic compounds,and decreased the adsorption capacity of benzene-bearing donor-conjugate bridge-acceptor,while increasing its adsorption rate.Electrostatic interaction played a very important role in the electrosorption of ion-pollutants.

  7. Effect of Pulse Polarity on Thresholds and on Non-monotonic Loudness Growth in Cochlear Implant Users. (United States)

    Macherey, Olivier; Carlyon, Robert P; Chatron, Jacques; Roman, Stéphane


    Most cochlear implants (CIs) activate their electrodes non-simultaneously in order to eliminate electrical field interactions. However, the membrane of auditory nerve fibers needs time to return to its resting state, causing the probability of firing to a pulse to be affected by previous pulses. Here, we provide new evidence on the effect of pulse polarity and current level on these interactions. In experiment 1, detection thresholds and most comfortable levels (MCLs) were measured in CI users for 100-Hz pulse trains consisting of two consecutive biphasic pulses of the same or of opposite polarity. All combinations of polarities were studied: anodic-cathodic-anodic-cathodic (ACAC), CACA, ACCA, and CAAC. Thresholds were lower when the adjacent phases of the two pulses had the same polarity (ACCA and CAAC) than when they were different (ACAC and CACA). Some subjects showed a lower threshold for ACCA than for CAAC while others showed the opposite trend demonstrating that polarity sensitivity at threshold is genuine and subject- or electrode-dependent. In contrast, anodic (CAAC) pulses always showed a lower MCL than cathodic (ACCA) pulses, confirming previous reports. In experiments 2 and 3, the subjects compared the loudness of several pulse trains differing in current level separately for ACCA and CAAC. For 40 % of the electrodes tested, loudness grew non-monotonically as a function of current level for ACCA but never for CAAC. This finding may relate to a conduction block of the action potentials along the fibers induced by a strong hyperpolarization of their central processes. Further analysis showed that the electrodes showing a lower threshold for ACCA than for CAAC were more likely to yield a non-monotonic loudness growth. It is proposed that polarity sensitivity at threshold reflects the local neural health and that anodic asymmetric pulses should preferably be used to convey sound information while avoiding abnormal loudness percepts.

  8. Growth behavior of anodic porous alumina formed in malic acid solution (United States)

    Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi; Suzuki, Ryosuke O.


    The growth behavior of anodic porous alumina formed on aluminum by anodizing in malic acid solutions was investigated. High-purity aluminum plates were electropolished in CH3COOH/HClO4 solutions and then anodized in 0.5 M malic acid solutions at 293 K and constant cell voltages of 200-350 V. The anodic porous alumina grew on the aluminum substrate at voltages of 200-250 V, and a black, burned oxide film was formed at higher voltages. The nanopores of the anodic oxide were only formed at grain boundaries of the aluminum substrate during the initial stage of anodizing, and then the growth region extended to the entire aluminum surface as the anodizing time increased. The anodic porous alumina with several defects was formed by anodizing in malic acid solution at 250 V, and oxide cells were approximately 300-800 nm in diameter.

  9. Conductive Polymeric Binder for Lithium-Ion Battery Anode (United States)

    Gao, Tianxiang

    Tin (Sn) has a high-specific capacity (993 mAhg-1) as an anode material for Li-ion batteries. To overcome the poor cycling performance issue caused by its large volume expansion and pulverization during the charging and discharging process, many researchers put efforts into it. Most of the strategies are through nanostructured material design and introducing conductive polymer binders that serve as matrix of the active material in anode. This thesis aims for developing a novel method for preparing the anode to improve the capacity retention rate. This would require the anode to have high electrical conductivity, high ionic conductivity, and good mechanical properties, especially elasticity. Here the incorporation of a conducting polymer and a conductive hydrogel in Sn-based anodes using a one-step electrochemical deposition via a 3-electrode cell method is reported: the Sn particles and conductive component can be electrochemically synthesized and simultaneously deposited into a hybrid thin film onto the working electrode directly forming the anode. A well-defined three dimensional network structure consisting of Sn nanoparticles coated by conducting polymers is achieved. Such a conductive polymer-hydrogel network has multiple advantageous features: meshporous polymeric structure can offer the pathway for lithium ion transfer between the anode and electrolyte; the continuous electrically conductive polypyrrole network, with the electrostatic interaction with elastic, porous hydrogel, poly (2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid-co-acrylonitrile) (PAMPS) as both the crosslinker and doping anion for polypyrrole (PPy) can decrease the volume expansion by creating porous scaffold and softening the system itself. Furthermore, by increasing the amount of PAMPS and creating an interval can improve the cycling performance, resulting in improved capacity retention about 80% after 20 cycles, compared with only 54% of that of the control sample without PAMPS. The cycle

  10. In situ characterization of nanoscale catalysts during anodic redox processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Renu [National Institute of Standards and Technology; Crozier, Peter [Arizona State University; Adams, James [Arizona State University


    Controlling the structure and composition of the anode is critical to achieving high efficiency and good long-term performance. In addition to being a mixed electronic and ionic conductor, the ideal anode material should act as an efficient catalyst for oxidizing hydrogen, carbon monoxide and dry hydrocarbons without de-activating through either sintering or coking. It is also important to develop novel anode materials that can operate at lower temperatures to reduce costs and minimized materials failure associated with high temperature cycling. We proposed to synthesize and characterize novel anode cermets materials based on ceria doped with Pr and/or Gd together with either a Ni or Cu metallic components. Ceria is a good oxidation catalyst and is an ionic conductor at room temperature. Doping it with trivalent rare earths such as Pr or Gd retards sintering and makes it a mixed ion conductor (ionic and electronic). We have developed a fundamental scientific understanding of the behavior of the cermet material under reaction conditions by following the catalytic oxidation process at the atomic scale using a powerful Environmental Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope (ESTEM). The ESTEM allowed in situ monitoring of structural, chemical and morphological changes occurring at the cermet under conditions approximating that of typical fuel-cell operation. Density functional calculations were employed to determine the underlying mechanisms and reaction pathways during anode oxidation reactions. The dynamic behavior of nanoscale catalytic oxidation of hydrogen and methane were used to determine: ? Fundamental processes during anodic reactions in hydrogen and carbonaceous atmospheres ? Interfacial effects between metal particles and doped ceria ? Kinetics of redox reaction in the anode material

  11. Corrosion Behaviour of Titanium Anodized Film in Different Corrosive Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Sunil D. Kahar


    Full Text Available Anodizing is an electrochemical process in which thickness of the natural oxide layer is increased and converted it into a decorative, durable, corrosion-resistant film. Titanium is used as a biocompatible material in human implants due to its excellent corrosion and wears resistance. Stable, continuous, highly adherent, and protective oxide films can be developed on titanium using various acid or alkaline baths. Anodizing of titanium generates a spectrum of different color without use of dyes. This spectrum of color dependent on the thickness of the oxide, voltage ranges, interference of light reflecting off the oxide surface and reflecting off the underlying metal surface. The anodized film of Titanium is mainly consists of TiO2 or mixtures of TiO2 & Ti2O3 etc. In the present work, Pure Titanium plate has been anodized using bath of Chromic Acid at different voltage range. The anodized film is characterized by visual observation, SEM & EDAX analysis & A.C Impedance Spectroscopy, while the corrosion studies were performed using Potentiodynamic studies were performed in 3.5% NaCl & 0.1N H2SO4. The Results show that the anodized film of Titanium show different spectrum of colors from Brown-Violet-Tea or Peacock. SEM & EDAX analyses show that the anodized film of Titanium is mainly made up of TiO2 and Ti2O3. Potentiodynamic study implies that the film developed on Titanium using the bath of Chromic Acid exhibits good corrosion resistance. The A.C. Impedance study shows that the film is more compact, adherent and more uniform in chromic acid bath.

  12. High-capacity nanocarbon anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Haitao; Sun, Xianzhong; Zhang, Xiong; Lin, He; Wang, Kai; Ma, Yanwei, E-mail:


    Highlights: • The nanocarbon anodes in lithium-ion batteries deliver a high capacity of ∼1100 mA h g{sup −1}. • The nanocarbon anodes exhibit excellent cyclic stability. • A novel structure of carbon materials, hollow carbon nanoboxes, has potential application in lithium-ion batteries. - Abstract: High energy and power density of secondary cells like lithium-ion batteries become much more important in today’s society. However, lithium-ion battery anodes based on graphite material have theoretical capacity of 372 mA h g{sup −1} and low charging-discharging rate. Here, we report that nanocarbons including mesoporous graphene (MPG), carbon tubular nanostructures (CTN), and hollow carbon nanoboxes (HCB) are good candidate for lithium-ion battery anodes. The nanocarbon anodes have high capacity of ∼1100, ∼600, and ∼500 mA h g{sup −1} at 0.1 A g{sup −1} for MPG, CTN, and HCB, respectively. The capacity of 181, 141, and 139 mA h g{sup −1} at 4 A g{sup −1} for MPG, CTN, and HCB anodes is retained. Besides, nanocarbon anodes show high cycling stability during 1000 cycles, indicating formation of a passivating layer—solid electrolyte interphase, which support long-term cycling. Nanocarbons, constructed with graphene layers which fulfill lithiation/delithiation process, high ratio of graphite edge structure, and high surface area which facilitates capacitive behavior, deliver high capacity and improved rate-capability.

  13. The influence of coating solution and calcination condition on the durability of Ir1-xSnxO2/Ti anodes for oxygen evolution (United States)

    Kato, Zenta; Kashima, Ryo; Tatsumi, Kohei; Fukuyama, Shinnosuke; Izumiya, Koichi; Kumagai, Naokazu; Hashimoto, Koji


    For oxygen formation without forming chlorine in seawater electrolysis for hydrogen production we have been using the anode consisting of three layers of MnO2-type multiple oxide catalyst, intermediate layer and titanium substrate. The intermediate layer was used for prevention of oxidation of the titanium substrate during anodic polarization for oxygen evolution and was prepared by calcination of butanol solutions of H2IrCl6 and SnCl4 coated on titanium. The protectiveness of Ir1-xSnxO2 layer formed was directly examined using Ir1-xSnxO2/Ti anodes in H2SO4 solution changing the preparation conditions of the layer. When the sum of Ir4+ and Sn4+ was 0.1 M, the highest protectiveness was observed at 0.06 M Sn4+. Although an increase in calcination temperature led to the formation of Ir1-x-ySnxTiyO2 triple oxide with a slightly lower catalytic activity for oxygen evolution, the anode calcined at 450 °C showed the highest protectiveness.

  14. Dynamic nuclear spin polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuhrmann, H.B. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany)


    Polarized neutron scattering from dynamic polarized targets has been applied to various hydrogenous materials at different laboratories. In situ structures of macromolecular components have been determined by nuclear spin contrast variation with an unprecedented precision. The experiments of selective nuclear spin depolarisation not only opened a new dimension to structural studies but also revealed phenomena related to propagation of nuclear spin polarization and the interplay of nuclear polarisation with the electronic spin system. The observation of electron spin label dependent nuclear spin polarisation domains by NMR and polarized neutron scattering opens a way to generalize the method of nuclear spin contrast variation and most importantly it avoids precontrasting by specific deuteration. It also likely might tell us more about the mechanism of dynamic nuclear spin polarisation. (author) 4 figs., refs.

  15. Coordenadas polares: curvas maravillosas


    Norberto Jaime Chau Pérez; Roy Wil Sánchez Gutiérrez


    Se presenta una actividad colaborativa en la que se trabaja el tema coordenadas polares. Se presentan los objetivos de aprendizaje, el desarrollo de la actividad, los conocimientos previos necesarios y recomendaciones para una aplicación posterior.

  16. Time Domain Induced Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiandaca, Gianluca; Auken, Esben; Christiansen, Anders Vest


    Time-domain-induced polarization has significantly broadened its field of reference during the last decade, from mineral exploration to environmental geophysics, e.g., for clay and peat identification and landfill characterization. Though, insufficient modeling tools have hitherto limited the use...... of time-domaininduced polarization for wider purposes. For these reasons, a new forward code and inversion algorithm have been developed using the full-time decay of the induced polarization response, together with an accurate description of the transmitter waveform and of the receiver transfer function......%. Furthermore, the presence of low-pass filters in time-domain-induced polarization instruments affects the early times of the acquired decays (typically up to 100 ms) and has to be modeled in the forward response to avoid significant loss of resolution. The developed forward code has been implemented in a 1D...

  17. Political Competition and Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Christian

    This paper considers political competition and the consequences of political polarization when parties are better informed about how the economy functions than voters are. Specifically, parties know the cost producing a public good, voters do not. An incumbent's choice of policy acts like a signal...... for costs before an upcoming election. It is shown that the more polarized the political parties the more distorted the incumbent's policy choice....

  18. Polar Warming Drivers (United States)

    McDunn, T. L.; Bougher, S. W.; Mischna, M. A.; Murphy, J. R.


    Polar warming is a dynamically induced temperature enhancement over mid-to-high latitudes that results in a reversed (poleward) meridional temperature gradient. This phenomenon was recently characterized over the 40-90 km altitude region [1] based on nearly three martian years of Mars Climate Sounder observations [2, 3]. Here we investigate which forcing mechanisms affect the magnitude and distribution of the observed polar warming by conducting simulations with the Mars Weather Research and Forecasting General Circulation Model [4, 5]. We present simulations confirming the influence topography [6] and dust loading [e.g., 7] have upon polar warming. We then present simulations illustrating the modulating influence gravity wave momentum deposition exerts upon polar warming, consistent with previous modeling studies [e.g., 8]. The results of this investigation suggest the magnitude and distribution of polar warming in the martian middle atmosphere is modified by gravity wave activity and that the characteristics of the gravity waves that most significantly affect polar warming vary with season. References: [1] McDunn, et al., 2012 (JGR), [2]Kleinböhl, et al., 2009 (JGR), [3] Kleinböhl, et al., 2011 (JQSRT), [4] Richardson, et al., 2007 (JGR), [5] Mischna, et al., 2011 (Planet. Space Sci.), [6] Richardson and Wilson, 2002 (Nature), [7] Haberle, et al., 1982 (Icarus), [8] Barnes, 1990 (JGR).

  19. Polarization properties of linearly polarized parabolic scaling Bessel beams (United States)

    Guo, Mengwen; Zhao, Daomu


    The intensity profiles for the dominant polarization, cross polarization, and longitudinal components of modified parabolic scaling Bessel beams with linear polarization are investigated theoretically. The transverse intensity distributions of the three electric components are intimately connected to the topological charge. In particular, the intensity patterns of the cross polarization and longitudinal components near the apodization plane reflect the sign of the topological charge.

  20. Hybrid intelligent PID control design for PEMFC anode system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui-min WANG; Ying-ying ZHANG; Guang-yi CAO


    Control design is important for proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) generator. This work researched the anode system of a 60-kW PEMFC generator. Both anode pressure and humidity must he maintained at ideal levels during steady operation. In view of characteristics and requirements of the system, a hybrid intelligent PID controller is designed specifically based on dynamic simulation. A single neuron PI controller is used for anode humidity by adjusting the water injection to the hydrogen cell. Another incremental PID controller, based on the diagonal recurrent neural network (DRNN) dynamic identification, is used to control anode pressure to be more stable and exact by adjusting the hydrogen flow rate. This control strategy can avoid the coupling problem of the PEMFC and achieve a more adaptive ability. Simulation results showed that the control strategy can maintain both anode humidity and pressure at ideal levels regardless of variable load, nonlinear dynamic and coupling characteristics of the system. This work will give some guides for further control design and applications of the total PEMFC generator.

  1. Unstable Behavior of Anodic Arc Discharge for Synthesis of Nanomaterials (United States)

    Gershman, Sophia; Raitses, Yevgeny


    Fast imaging and electrical current measurements reveal unstable behavior of the carbon arc discharge for synthesis of nanomaterials. The arc column and the arc attachment region to the anode move in a somewhat sporadic way with a characteristic time in a 10-3 sec range. The arc exhibits a negative differential resistance before the arc motion occurs. A physical mechanism is proposed based on the thermal processes in the arc plasma region interacting with the ablating anode which leads to the shift of the arc to a new anode region. According to the transient heat transfer analysis, the time needed to heat a new anode region is also in a 10-3 sec range. For a 0.6 cm diameter anode used in our experiments, this time yields a frequency of about 200-300 Hz, comparable to the measured frequency of the arc motion. The voltage and current measurements show oscillations with a similar characteristic frequency. The thermal model is indirectly supported by the measured negative differential resistance of the arc discharge during arc oscillations. The observed unstable behavior of the arc may be responsible for the mixing of the flow of nanoparticles during the synthesis of nanoparticles leading to poor selectivity typical for the arc synthesis. The work was supported by US DOE under Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  2. Studies on black anodic coatings for spacecraft thermal control applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uma Rani, R.; Subba Rao, Y.; Sharma, A.K. [ISRO Satellite Centre, Bangalore (India). Thermal Systems Group


    An inorganic black colouring process using nickel sulphate and sodium sulphide was investigated on anodized aluminium alloy 6061 to provide a flat absorber black coating for spacecraft thermal control applications. Influence of colouring process parameters (concentration, pH) on the physico-optical properties of black anodic film was investigated. The nature of black anodic film was evaluated by the measurement of film thickness, micro hardness and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy studies confirmed the presence of nickel and sulphur in the black anodic coating. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to evaluate the corrosion resistance of the coating. The environmental tests, namely, humidity, corrosion resistance, thermal cycling and thermo vacuum performance tests were used to evaluate the space worthiness of the coating. Optical properties of the film were measured before and after each environmental test to ascertain its stability in harsh space environment. The black anodic films provide higher thermal emittance ({proportional_to} 0.90) and solar absorptance ({proportional_to} 0.96) and their high stability during the environmental tests indicated their suitability for space and allied applications. (orig.)

  3. The surface treatment on oxide film of pure titanium Part 1. The effect of Anodic oxidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ge Wang; Xiangrong Cheng


    that the open circuit potential (OCP) of the anodic oxide was very stable at 0mV. Natural oxide increased quickly from -50 mV to -40mV and plateaued 350s later at -40mV. The curve of anodic polarization in the same liquid showed that the polarized current was 100 times lower than that of natural oxide film. In artificial seawater (ASW) the OCP of the anodic oxide was stable at -90mV. Natural oxide in ASW did not stop rising from -480mV to -310mV during 1000s. The active current appeared to be much greater than that of the anodic oxide film. Conclusion: The color of the oxide film may be related to the thickness and influenced the future prosthetics as an implant. So gold was chosen as the ideal color. The reason was not clear why the rule of altering at peak 2.55 and 2.34 below the surface titanium oxides. The stability and corrosive-resistance of the anodic oxide film was much higher than that of natural oxide film. Anodic oxidation was a good way to enhance the pure titanium corrosive-resistance in vitro.

  4. Polarized Light Microscopy (United States)

    Frandsen, Athela F.


    Polarized light microscopy (PLM) is a technique which employs the use of polarizing filters to obtain substantial optical property information about the material which is being observed. This information can be combined with other microscopy techniques to confirm or elucidate the identity of an unknown material, determine whether a particular contaminant is present (as with asbestos analysis), or to provide important information that can be used to refine a manufacturing or chemical process. PLM was the major microscopy technique in use for identification of materials for nearly a century since its introduction in 1834 by William Fox Talbot, as other techniques such as SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy), FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy), XPD (X-ray Powder Diffraction), and TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy) had not yet been developed. Today, it is still the only technique approved by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for asbestos analysis, and is often the technique first applied for identification of unknown materials. PLM uses different configurations in order to determine different material properties. With each configuration additional clues can be gathered, leading to a conclusion of material identity. With no polarizing filter, the microscope can be used just as a stereo optical microscope, and view qualities such as morphology, size, and number of phases. With a single polarizing filter (single polars), additional properties can be established, such as pleochroism, individual refractive indices, and dispersion staining. With two polarizing filters (crossed polars), even more can be deduced: isotropy vs. anisotropy, extinction angle, birefringence/degree of birefringence, sign of elongation, and anomalous polarization colors, among others. With the use of PLM many of these properties can be determined in a matter of seconds, even for those who are not highly trained. McCrone, a leader in the field of polarized light microscopy, often

  5. [Polar and non polar notations of refraction]. (United States)

    Touzeau, O; Gaujoux, T; Costantini, E; Borderie, V; Laroche, L


    Refraction can be expressed by four polar notations which correspond to four different combinations of spherical or cylindrical lenses. Conventional expressions of refraction (plus and minus cylinder notation) are described by sphere, cylinder, and axis. In the plus cylinder notation, the axis visualizes the most powerful meridian. The axis usually corresponds to the bow tie axis in curvature maps. Plus cylinder notation is also valuable for all relaxing procedures (i.e., selective suture ablation, arcuate keratotomy, etc.). In the cross-cylinder notation, two orthogonal cylinders can describe (without the sphere component) the actual refraction of both the principal meridians. This notation must be made before performing the vertex calculation. Using an association of a Jackson cross-cylinder and a spherical equivalent, refraction can be broken down into two pure components: astigmatism and sphere. All polar notations of refraction may perfectly characterize a single refraction but are not suitable for statistical analysis, which requires nonpolar expression. After doubling the axis, a rectangular projection breaks down the Jackson cross-cylinder, which has a polar axis, into two Jackson cross-cylinders on the 0 degrees /90 degrees and 45 degrees /135 degrees axis. This procedure results in the loss of the directional nature of the data. Refraction can be written in a nonpolar notation by three rectangular coordinates (x,y,z), which can also represent the spherocylinder by one point in a dioptric space. These three independent (orthogonal) variables have a concrete optical significance: a spherical component, a direct/inverse (WTR/ATR) component, and an oblique component of the astigmatism. Finally, nonpolar notations are useful for statistical analysis and graphical representation of refraction.

  6. Polarized nuclear target based on parahydrogen induced polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Budker, M.P. Ledbetter, S. Appelt, L.S. Bouchard, B. Wojtsekhowski


    We discuss a novel concept of a polarized nuclear target for accelerator fixed-target scattering experiments, which is based on parahydrogen induced polarization (PHIP). One may be able to reach a 33% free-proton polarization in the ethane molecule. The potential advantages of such a target include operation at zero magnetic field, fast ({approx}100 HZ) polarization oscillation (akin to polarization reversal), and operation with large intensity of an electron beam.

  7. Cylindrically Polarized Nondiffracting Optical Pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Ornigotti, Marco; Szameit, Alexander


    We extend the concept of radially and azimuthally polarized optical beams to the polychromatic domain by introducing cylindrically polarized nondiffracting optical pulses. In particular, we discuss in detail the case of cylindrically polarized X-waves, both in the paraxial and nonparaxial regime. The explicit expressions for the electric and magnetic fields of cylindrically polarized X-waves is also reported.

  8. Sequential Polarity-Reversing Circuit (United States)

    Labaw, Clayton C.


    Proposed circuit reverses polarity of electric power supplied to bidirectional dc motor, reversible electro-mechanical actuator, or other device operating in direction depending on polarity. Circuit reverses polarity each time power turned on, without need for additional polarity-reversing or direction signals and circuitry to process them.

  9. Tunable structural color of anodic tantalum oxide films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng Cui-Cui; Cai Yun-Yu; Dai En-Mei; Liang Chang-Hao


    Tantalum (Ta) oxide films with tunable structural color were fabricated easily using anodic oxidation.The structure,components,and surface valence states of the oxide filns were investigated by using gazing incidence X-ray diffractometry,X-ray photoelectron microscopy,and surface analytical techniques.Their thickness and optical properties were studied by using spectroscopic ellipsometry and total reflectance spectrum.Color was accurately defined using L*a*b* scale.The thickness of compact Ta2O5 films was linearly dependent on anodizing voltage.The film color was tunable by adjusting the anodic voltage.The difference in color appearance resulted from the interference behavior between the interfaces of air-oxide and oxide-metal.

  10. Mixed conductor anodes: Ni as electrocatalyst for hydrogen conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Primdahl, S.; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg


    Five types of anodes for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are examined on an yttria-stabilised zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte by impedance spectroscopy at 850 degreesC in hydrogen. The examined porous anodes are a Ni/Zr(0.92)Y(0.16)O(2.08) (Ni/YSZ) cermet, a Ni/Ce(0.9)Gd(0.1)O(1.95) (Ni/CGI) cermet, a Ce...... conductors (MIEC's), distinctly in the low-frequency part of the impedance spectra. An effect of isotope exchange (H(2)/H(2)O to D(2)/D(2)O) is observed for all anodes. The low-frequency limitation is suggested to be hydrogen adsorption and/or dissociation on the surface of MIEC electrodes, (C) 2002 Elsevier...

  11. Surface of Alumina Films after Prolonged Breakdowns in Galvanostatic Anodization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Girginov


    Full Text Available Breakdown phenomena are investigated at continuous isothermal (20∘C and galvanostatic (0.2–5 mA cm−2 anodizing of aluminum in ammonium salicylate in dimethylformamide (1 M AS/DMF electrolyte. From the kinetic (-curves, the breakdown voltage ( values are estimated, as well as the frequency and amplitude of oscillations of formation voltage ( at different current densities. The surface of the aluminum specimens was studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM. Data on topography and surface roughness parameters of the electrode after electric breakdowns are obtained as a function of anodization time. The electrode surface of anodic films, formed with different current densities until the same charge density has passed (2.5 C cm−2, was assessed. Results are discussed on the basis of perceptions of avalanche mechanism of the breakdown phenomena, due to the injection of electrons and their multiplication in the volume of the film.

  12. Advanced Micro/Nanostructures for Lithium Metal Anodes. (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Li, Nian-Wu; Cheng, Xin-Bing; Yin, Ya-Xia; Zhang, Qiang; Guo, Yu-Guo


    Owning to their very high theoretical capacity, lithium metal anodes are expected to fuel the extensive practical applications in portable electronics and electric vehicles. However, unstable solid electrolyte interphase and lithium dendrite growth during lithium plating/stripping induce poor safety, low Coulombic efficiency, and short span life of lithium metal batteries. Lately, varies of micro/nanostructured lithium metal anodes are proposed to address these issues in lithium metal batteries. With the unique surface, pore, and connecting structures of different nanomaterials, lithium plating/stripping processes have been regulated. Thus the electrochemical properties and lithium morphologies have been significantly improved. These micro/nanostructured lithium metal anodes shed new light on the future applications for lithium metal batteries.

  13. Progress in Nano-Engineered Anodic Aluminum Oxide Membrane Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrard Eddy Jai Poinern


    Full Text Available The anodization of aluminum is an electro-chemical process that changes the surface chemistry of the metal, via oxidation, to produce an anodic oxide layer. During this process a self organized, highly ordered array of cylindrical shaped pores can be produced with controllable pore diameters, periodicity and density distribution. This enables anodic aluminum oxide (AAO membranes to be used as templates in a variety of nanotechnology applications without the need for expensive lithographical techniques. This review article is an overview of the current state of research on AAO membranes and the various applications of nanotechnology that use them in the manufacture of nano-materials and devices or incorporate them into specific applications such as biological/chemical sensors, nano-electronic devices, filter membranes and medical scaffolds for tissue engineering.

  14. Assistant Anode in a Cathodic Arc Plasma Source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张涛; Paul K. Chu; 张荟星; Ian G. Brown


    The performance and characteristics of a cathodic arc plasma source, consisting of a titanium cathode, an anode with and without a tungsten mesh, and a coil producing a focusing magnetic field between the anode and cathode,are investigated. The high transparency and large area of the mesh allow a high plasma flux to penetrate the anode from the cathodic arc. The mesh helps to decrease the arc resistance and the ignition voltage of the cathodic arc in the focusing magnetic field, and to increase the life of the source, which means that the source makes the cathodic arc easily and greatly stabilized during the operation when a focusing magnetic field exists in the source.

  15. Fabrication of alumina films with laminated structures by ac anodization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyo Segawa


    Full Text Available Anodization techniques by alternating current (ac are introduced in this review. By using ac anodization, laminated alumina films are fabricated. Different types of alumina films consisting of 50–200 nm layers were obtained by varying both the ac power supply and the electrolyte. The total film thickness increased with an increase in the total charge transferred. The thickness of the individual layers increased with the ac voltage; however, the anodization time had little effect on the film thickness. The laminated alumina films resembled the nacre structure of shells, and the different morphologies exhibited by bivalves and spiral shells could be replicated by controlling the rate of increase of the applied potentials.

  16. Anodic passivation of Pb-Ag-Nd anode in fluoride-containing H2SO4 solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟晓聪; 蒋良兴; 刘芳洋; 李劼; 刘业翔


    An attempt was made to build up a thick and compact oxide layer rapidly by pre-treating the Pb-Ag-Nd anode in fluoride-containing H2SO4 solution. The passivation reaction of Pb-Ag-Nd anode during pre-treatment process was investigated using cyclic voltammetry, linear scanning voltammetry, environmental scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. The results show that PbF2 and PbSO4 are formed near the potential of Pb/PbSO4 couple. The pre-treatment in fluoride-containing H2SO4 solution contributes to the formation of a thick, compact and adherent passive film. Furthermore, pre-treatment in fluoride-containing H2SO4 solution also facilitates the formation of PbO2 on the anodic layer, and the reason could be attributed to the formation of more PbF2 and PbSO4 during the pre-treatment which tend to transform to PbO2 during the following electrowinning process. In addition, the anodic layer on anode with pre-treatment in fluoride-containing H2SO4 solution is thick and compact, and its predominant composition isβ-PbO2. In summary, the pre-treatment in fluoride-containing H2SO4 solution benefits the formation of a desirable protective layer in a short time.

  17. POLAR: A Space-borne X-Ray Polarimeter for Transient Sources

    CERN Document Server



    POLAR is a novel compact Compton X-ray polarimeter designed to measure the linear polarization of the prompt emission of Gamma Ray Bursts (GRB) and other strong transient sources such as soft gamma repeaters and solar flares in the energy range 50-500 keV. A detailed measurement of the polarization from astrophysical sources will lead to a better understanding of the source geometry and emission mechanisms. POLAR is expected to observe every year several GRBs with a minimum detectable polarization smaller than 10%, thanks to its large modulation factor, effective area, and field of view. POLAR consists of 1600 low-Z plastic scintillator bars, divided in 25 independent modular units, each read out by one flat-panel multi-anode photomultiplier. The design of POLAR is reviewed, and results of tests of one modular unit of the engineering and qualification model (EQM) of POLAR with synchrotron radiation are presented. After construction and testing of the full EQM, we will start building the flight model in 2011, ...

  18. Polar low monitoring (United States)

    Bobylev, Leonid; Zabolotskikh, Elizaveta; Mitnik, Leonid


    Polar lows are intense mesoscale atmospheric low pressure weather systems, developing poleward of the main baroclinic zone and associated with high surface wind speeds. Small size and short lifetime, sparse in-situ observations in the regions of their development complicate polar low study. Our knowledge of polar lows and mesocyclones has come almost entirely during the period of satellite remote sensing since, by virtue of their small horizontal scale, it was rarely possible to analyse these lows on conventional weather charts using only the data from the synoptic observing network. However, the effects of intense polar lows have been felt by coastal communities and seafarers since the earliest times. These weather systems are thought to be responsible for the loss of many small vessels over the centuries, although the nature of the storms was not understood and their arrival could not be predicted. The actuality of the polar low research is stipulated by their high destructive power: they are a threat to such businesses as oil and gas exploration, fisheries and shipping. They could worsen because of global warming: a shrinking of sea ice around the North Pole, which thawed to its record minimum in the summer of 2007, is likely to give rise to more powerful storms that form only over open water and can cause hurricane-strength winds. Therefore, study of polar lows, their timely detection, tracking and forecasting represents a challenge for today meteorology. Satellite passive microwave data, starting from Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) onboard Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellite, remain invaluable source of regularly available remotely sensed data to study polar lows. The sounding in this spectral range has several advantages in comparison with observations in visible and infrared ranges and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data: independence on day time and clouds, regularity and high temporal resolution in Polar Regions. Satellite

  19. Polarization twist in perovskite ferrielectrics (United States)

    Kitanaka, Yuuki; Hirano, Kiyotaka; Ogino, Motohiro; Noguchi, Yuji; Miyayama, Masaru; Moriyoshi, Chikako; Kuroiwa, Yoshihiro


    Because the functions of polar materials are governed primarily by their polarization response to external stimuli, the majority of studies have focused on controlling polar lattice distortions. In some perovskite oxides, polar distortions coexist with nonpolar tilts and rotations of oxygen octahedra. The interplay between nonpolar and polar instabilities appears to play a crucial role, raising the question of how to design materials by exploiting their coupling. Here, we introduce the concept of ‘polarization twist’, which offers enhanced control over piezoelectric responses in polar materials. Our experimental and theoretical studies provide direct evidence that a ferrielectric perovskite exhibits a large piezoelectric response because of extended polar distortion, accompanied by nonpolar octahedral rotations, as if twisted polarization relaxes under electric fields. The concept underlying the polarization twist opens new possibilities for developing alternative materials in bulk and thin-film forms.

  20. Polarization twist in perovskite ferrielectrics. (United States)

    Kitanaka, Yuuki; Hirano, Kiyotaka; Ogino, Motohiro; Noguchi, Yuji; Miyayama, Masaru; Moriyoshi, Chikako; Kuroiwa, Yoshihiro


    Because the functions of polar materials are governed primarily by their polarization response to external stimuli, the majority of studies have focused on controlling polar lattice distortions. In some perovskite oxides, polar distortions coexist with nonpolar tilts and rotations of oxygen octahedra. The interplay between nonpolar and polar instabilities appears to play a crucial role, raising the question of how to design materials by exploiting their coupling. Here, we introduce the concept of 'polarization twist', which offers enhanced control over piezoelectric responses in polar materials. Our experimental and theoretical studies provide direct evidence that a ferrielectric perovskite exhibits a large piezoelectric response because of extended polar distortion, accompanied by nonpolar octahedral rotations, as if twisted polarization relaxes under electric fields. The concept underlying the polarization twist opens new possibilities for developing alternative materials in bulk and thin-film forms.

  1. Polarization twist in perovskite ferrielectrics (United States)

    Kitanaka, Yuuki; Hirano, Kiyotaka; Ogino, Motohiro; Noguchi, Yuji; Miyayama, Masaru; Moriyoshi, Chikako; Kuroiwa, Yoshihiro


    Because the functions of polar materials are governed primarily by their polarization response to external stimuli, the majority of studies have focused on controlling polar lattice distortions. In some perovskite oxides, polar distortions coexist with nonpolar tilts and rotations of oxygen octahedra. The interplay between nonpolar and polar instabilities appears to play a crucial role, raising the question of how to design materials by exploiting their coupling. Here, we introduce the concept of ‘polarization twist’, which offers enhanced control over piezoelectric responses in polar materials. Our experimental and theoretical studies provide direct evidence that a ferrielectric perovskite exhibits a large piezoelectric response because of extended polar distortion, accompanied by nonpolar octahedral rotations, as if twisted polarization relaxes under electric fields. The concept underlying the polarization twist opens new possibilities for developing alternative materials in bulk and thin-film forms. PMID:27586824

  2. Oxygen-producing inert anodes for SOM process (United States)

    Pal, Uday B


    An electrolysis system for generating a metal and molecular oxygen includes a container for receiving a metal oxide containing a metallic species to be extracted, a cathode positioned to contact a metal oxide housed within the container; an oxygen-ion-conducting membrane positioned to contact a metal oxide housed within the container; an anode in contact with the oxygen-ion-conducting membrane and spaced apart from a metal oxide housed within the container, said anode selected from the group consisting of liquid metal silver, oxygen stable electronic oxides, oxygen stable crucible cermets, and stabilized zirconia composites with oxygen stable electronic oxides.

  3. Overview of SOFC Anode Interactions with Coal Gas Impurities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O. A. Marina; L. R. Pederson; R. Gemmen; K. Gerdes; H. Finklea; I. B. Celik


    An overview of the results of SOFC anode interactions with phosphorus, arsenic, selenium, sulfur, antimony, and hydrogen chloride as single contaminants or in combinations is discussed. Tests were performed using both anode- and electrolyte-supported cells in synthetic and actual coal gas for periods greater than 1000 hours. Post-test analyses were performed to identify reaction products formed and their distribution, and compared to phases expected from thermochemical modeling. The ultimate purpose of this work is to establish maximum permissible concentrations for impurities in coal gas, to aid in the selection of appropriate coal gas clean-up technologies.

  4. Optical properties of porous anodic alumina embedded Cu nanocomposite films (United States)

    Liu, Huiyuan; Sun, Huiyuan; Liu, Lihu; Hou, Xue; Jia, Xiaoxuan


    Porous anodic alumina embedded Cu with iridescent colors were fabricated in copper sulfate electrolyte. The films display highly saturated colors after being synthesized by an ac electrodeposition method. Tunable color in the films is obtained by adjusting anodization time, and can be adjusted across the entire visible range. Theoretical results of the changes in the structural color according to the Bragg-Snell formula are consistent with the experimental results. The films could be used in many areas including decoration, display and multifunctional anti-counterfeiting applications.

  5. Tin-phosphate glass anode for sodium ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Honma


    Full Text Available The electrochemical property of tin-phosphate (designate as GSPO glass anode for the sodium ion battery was studied. During the first charge process, sodium ion diffused into GSPO glass matrix and due to the reduction of Sn2+ to Sn0 state sodiated tin metal nano-size particles are formed in oxide glass matrix. After the second cycle, we confirmed the steady reversible reaction ∼320 mAh/g at 0–1 V cutoff voltage condition by alloying process in NaxSn4. The tin-phosphate glass is a promising candidate of new anode active material that realizes high energy density sodium ion batteries.

  6. Metal-Supported SOFC with Ceramic-Based Anode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blennow Tullmar, Peter; Klemensø, Trine; Persson, Åsa Helen;


    materials are infiltrated after sintering. Initial area specific resistance as low as 0.3 cm2 at 700 ºC has been obtained with power densities > 1 Wcm-2. The initial results on the chemical compatibility, electrochemical performance, and galvanostatic durability of a ceramic based (Nb-doped SrTiO3...... the metal-supported cell concept can be combined with ceramic-based anode materials, such as Nb-doped SrTiO3. The paper shows that a metal-supported cell can have excellent performance by only having electronically conducting phases in the anode backbone structure, into which electrocatalytically active...

  7. Cylindrical Three-Dimensional Porous Anodic Alumina Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro M. Resende


    Full Text Available The synthesis of a conformal three-dimensional nanostructure based on porous anodic alumina with transversal nanopores on wires is herein presented. The resulting three-dimensional network exhibits the same nanostructure as that obtained on planar geometries, but with a macroscopic cylindrical geometry. The morphological analysis of the nanostructure revealed the effects of the initial defects on the aluminum surface and the mechanical strains on the integrity of the three-dimensional network. The results evidence the feasibility of obtaining 3D porous anodic alumina on non-planar aluminum substrates.

  8. The approach curve method for large anode-cathode distances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mammana, Victor P.; Monteiro, Othon R.; Fonseca, Leo R.C.


    An important technique used to characterize field emission is the measurement of the emitted current against electric field (IxE). In this work we discuss a procedure for obtaining IxE data based on multiple approach curves. We show that the simulated features obtained for an idealized uniform surface matches available experimental data for small anode-cathode distances, while for large distances the simulation predicts a departure from the linear regime. We also discuss the shape of the approach curves for large anode-cathode distances for a cathode made of carbon nanotubes.

  9. Anodic oxidation of stilbenes bearing electron-withdrawing ring substituents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halas, Summer M.; Okyne, Kwame; Fry, Albert J


    A number of disubstituted stilbenes bearing either two strong electron-withdrawing groups or one electron-withdrawing and one electron-donating group were synthesized and anodically oxidized in a divided cell in methanol at a carbon anode. A variety of types of products were obtained, most of which have never been observed upon oxidation of alkenes not bearing electron-withdrawing groups. A mechanistic scheme involving 2-methoxy-1,2-diarylethyl cations as key intermediates can account for all of the observed products. The nature of the products from each alkene is strongly correlated with the sum of the Hammett {sigma}{sup +} values of the ring substituents.

  10. Stresses in sulfuric acid anodized coatings on aluminum (United States)

    Alwitt, R. S.; Xu, J.; Mcclung, R. C.


    Stresses in porous anodic alumina coatings have been measured for specimens stabilized in air at different temperatures and humidities. In ambient atmosphere the stress is tensile after anodic oxidation and is compressive after sealing. Exposure to dry atmosphere causes the stress to change to strongly tensile, up to 110 MPa. The stress increase is proportional to the loss of water from the coating. These changes are reversible with changes in humidity. Similar reversible effects occur upon moderate temperature changes. The biaxial modulus of the coating is about 100 GPa.

  11. Disordered anodes for Ni-metal rechargeable battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Kwo-hsiung; Wang, Lixin; Mays, William C.


    An electrochemical cell is provided that includes a structurally and compositionally disordered electrochemically active alloy material as an anode active material with unexpected capacity against a nickel hydroxide based cathode active material. The disordered metal hydroxide alloy includes three or more transition metal elements and is formed in such a way so as to produce the necessary disorder in the overall system. When an anode active material includes nickel as a predominant, the resulting cells represent the first demonstration of a functional Ni/Ni cell.

  12. Mesoporous Silicon-Based Anodes for High Capacity, High Performance Li-ion Batteries Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A new high capacity anode composite based on mesoporous silicon is proposed. By virtue of a structure that resembles a pseudo one-dimensional phase, the active anode...

  13. Performance of thermal-sprayed zinc anodes treated with humectants in cathodic protection systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bullard, Sophie J.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Holcomb, Gordon R.; Russell, James H.; Bennett, John E. (JE Bennett Consulting Inc.); Milius, John K. (Corrosion Restoration Tech.); Cryer, Curtis B. (Oregon Dept. of Transportation); Soltesz, Steven M. (Oregon Dept. of Transportation)


    Thermal-sprayed Zn anodes are used for impressed current cathodic protection (ICCP) systems in Oregon's reinforced concrete coastal bridges to minimize corrosion damage. Thermal-sprayed Zn performs well as an ICCP anode but the voltage requirement can increase with increasing electrochemical age. It also performs well as a galvanic (GCP) anode but current output can decrease with increasing electrochemical age. Past research has shown that increasing moisture at the Zn anode-concrete interface improves the operation of the thermal-sprayed Zn anode. Humectants, hygroscopic materials that are applied to the surface of the Zn-anode, can increase the moisture at the zinc-concrete interface, thereby improving the performance and extending the anode service life. Results are given for humectant-treated (LiBr and LiNO3) thermal-sprayed Zn anodes used in the laboratory electrochemical aging studies and in field studies on the Yaquina Bay Bridge, Oregon, USA.

  14. Formation of crystalline TiO2 by anodic oxidation of titanium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zixue Su; Linjie Zhang; Feilong Jiang; Maochun Hongn


    Formation of crystalline TiO2 (anatase) films by anodic oxidation of titanium foils in ethylene glycol (EG) based electrolytes at room temperature has been investigated. By varying the anodizing parameters such as the amounts of water and NH4F added, applied voltage and anodization time, anodic TiO2 films with different crystalline structures were obtained. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) characterizations were employed to determine the morphologies and crystalline structures of as-prepared anodic TiO2 films. The results indicate that crystallization of anodic TiO2 films was generally facilitated by high fluoride concentration, high applied voltage and longer anodization time, and the formation of anodic TiO2 films with best crystallinity could only be achieved when optimized amounts of water were added.

  15. Depolarized SnO2-based gas anodes for electrowinning of silver in molten chlorides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao S.


    Full Text Available SnO2-based porous anodes were prepared and the behavior of gas bubbles on the porous anodes with different original coarse grain size, immersed in ethanol to simulate molten chlorides, was primarily investigated. SnO2-based porous anodes were used as gas anodes for the electrowinning of silver in CaCl2-NaCl-CaO-AgCl melts at 680°C. Hydrogen was introduced to the anode/electrolyte interface through the gas anode. Carbon was used as the cathode. Obvious depolarization of the anode potential was observed after the introduction of hydrogen comparing with no reducing gas introduced, indicating the involvement of hydrogen in the anode reaction. Metallic silver was deposited on the cathode.

  16. Effects of sodium tartrate anodizing on fatigue life of TA15 titanium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Chunjuan


    Full Text Available Anodizing is always used as an effective surface modification method to improve the corrosion resistance and wear resistance of titanium alloy. The sodium tartrate anodizing is a new kind of environmental anodizing method. In this work, the effects of sodium tartrate anodizing on mechanical property were studied. The oxide film was performed on the TA15 titanium alloy using sodium tartrate as the film former. The effects of this anodizing and the traditional acid anodizing on the fatigue life of TA15 alloy were compared. The results show that the sodium tartrate anodizing just caused a slight increase of hydrogen content in the alloy, and had a slight effect on the fatigue life. While, the traditional acid anodizing caused a significant increase of hydrogen content in the substrate and reduced the fatigue life of the alloy significantly.

  17. Anodization and Optical Appearance of Sputter Deposited Al-Zr Coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudla, Visweswara Chakravarthy; Canulescu, Stela; Shabadi, Rajashekhara


    Anodized Al alloy components are extensively used in various applications like architectural, decorative and automobiles for corrosion protection and/or decorative optical appearance. However, tailoring the anodized layer for specific optical appearance is limited due to variation in composition...

  18. Anode materials for hydrogen sulfide containing feeds in a solid oxide fuel cell (United States)

    Roushanafshar, Milad

    SOFCs which can directly operate under high concentration of H2S would be economically beneficial as this reduces the cost of gas purification. H2S is highly reactive gas specie which can poison most of the conventional catalysts. As a result, developing anode materials which can tolerate high concentrations of H2S and also display high activity toward electrochemical oxidation of feed is crucial and challenging for this application. The performance of La0.4Sr0.6TiO3+/-delta -Y0.2Ce0.8O2-delta (LST-YDC) composite anodes in solid oxide fuel cells significantly improved when 0.5% H2 S was present in syngas (40% H2, 60% CO) or hydrogen. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry analyses revealed that the rate of electrochemical oxidation of all fuel components improved when H2S containing syngas was present in the fuel. Electrochemical stability tests performed under potentiostatic condition showed that there was no power degradation for different feeds, and that there was power enhancement when 0.5% H2S was present in various feeds. The mechanism of performance improvement by H2S was discussed. Active anodes were synthesized via wet chemical impregnation of different amounts of La0.4Ce0.6O1.8 (LDC) and La 0.4Sr0.6TiO3 (L4ST) into porous yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ). Co-impregnation of LDC with LS4T significantly improved the performance of the cell from 48 (L4ST) to 161 -2 (LDC-L4ST) using hydrogen as fuel at 900 °C. The contribution of LDC to this improvement was investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) as well as transmission electron microscopy (TEM). EIS measurements using symmetrical cells showed that the polarization resistance decreased from 3.1¦ 2 to 0.5 O.cm2 when LDC was co-impregnated with LST, characterized in humidified H2 (3% H2O) at 900 °C. In addition, the microstructure of the cell was modified when LDC was impregnated prior to L4ST into the porous YSZ. TEM and SEM

  19. Electrical Resistance Measurements and Microstructural Characterization of the Anode/Interconnect Contact in Simulated Anode-Side SOFC Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harthøj, Anders; Alimadadi, Hossein; Holt, Tobias


    in phase transformation of the steel and in formation of oxides with a poor electrical conductivity in the anode. In this study, the area specific resistance (ASR) of the steel Crofer 22 APU, in contact with a Ni/YSZ anode with and without a tape casted CeO2 barrier layer was measured in simulated SOFC....... The zone is austenitic at the exposure temperature but transforms to ferrite during cooling. When a CeO2 nickel diffusion barrier layer was used The ASR was considerably higher. These results imply that nickel diffusion is not only detrimental: It leads to microstructural instability but also results......Metallic interconnects in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stacks are often in direct contact with a nickel/yttria stabilized zirconia (Ni/YSZ) cermet anode. Interdiffusion between the two components may occur at the operating temperature of 700–850◦C. The alteration of chemical composition can result...

  20. A lunar polar expedition (United States)

    Dowling, Richard; Staehle, Robert L.; Svitek, Tomas


    Advanced exploration and development in harsh environments require mastery of basic human survival skill. Expeditions into the lethal climates of Earth's polar regions offer useful lessons for tommorrow's lunar pioneers. In Arctic and Antarctic exploration, 'wintering over' was a crucial milestone. The ability to establish a supply base and survive months of polar cold and darkness made extensive travel and exploration possible. Because of the possibility of near-constant solar illumination, the lunar polar regions, unlike Earth's may offer the most hospitable site for habitation. The World Space Foundation is examining a scenario for establishing a five-person expeditionary team on the lunar north pole for one year. This paper is a status report on a point design addressing site selection, transportation, power, and life support requirements.

  1. On polarization in biomembranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zecchi, Karis Amata

    close to physiological conditions, making these effects biologically relevant. In this work, we consider the case of asymmetric membranes which can display spontaneous polarization in the absence of a field. Close to the phase transition, we find that the membrane displays piezoelectric, flexoelectric...... and thermoelectric behaviour. In particular, the membrane capacitance is a nonlinear function of the applied voltage. Furthermore, in the presence of spontaneous polarization, our thermodynamical description is able to explain the outward rectified current-voltage relationship measured on synthetic lipid bilayers....... Due to the nonlinear dependence of the membrane capacitance and conductance on voltage and the presence of spontaneous polarization, the traditional equivalent circuit of the membrane is not an accurate description in physiological conditions. An updated equivalent circuit of the lipid bilayer is here...

  2. [Polar body diagnosis]. (United States)

    Montag, M; van der Ven, K; van der Ven, H


    Polar body diagnosis (PBD) is a diagnostic method for the indirect genetic analysis of oocytes. Polar bodies are by-products of the meiotic cell cycle which have no influence on further embryo development. The biopsy of polar bodies can be accomplished either by zona drilling or laser drilling within a very short time period. The paternal contribution to the genetic constitution of the developing embryo cannot be diagnosed by PBD. The major application of PBD is the detection of maternally derived chromosomal aneuploidies and translocations in oocytes. For these indications, PBD may offer a viable alternative to blastomere biopsy as the embryo's integrity remains unaffected in contrast to preimplantation genetic diagnosis by blastomere biopsy. The fast development in the field of molecular diagnostics will also influence PBD and probably allow a more general diagnosis in the future.

  3. Impact of nanostructured anode on low-temperature performance of thin-film-based anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells (United States)

    Park, Jung Hoon; Han, Seung Min; Yoon, Kyung Joong; Kim, Hyoungchul; Hong, Jongsup; Kim, Byung-Kook; Lee, Jong-Ho; Son, Ji-Won


    The impact of a nanostructured Ni-yttria-stabilized zirconia (Ni-YSZ) anode on low-temperature solid oxide fuel cell (LT-SOFC) performance is investigated. By modifying processing techniques for the anode support, anode-supported SOFCs based on thin-film (∼1 μm) electrolytes (TF-SOFCs) with and without the nanostructured Ni-YSZ (grain size ∼100 nm) anode are fabricated and a direct comparison of the TF-SOFCs to reveal the role of the nanostructured anode at low temperature is made. The cell performance of the nanostructured Ni-YSZ anode significantly increases as compared to that of the cell without it, especially at low temperatures (500 °C). The electrochemical analyses confirm that increasing the triple-phase boundary (TPB) density near the electrolyte and anode interface by the particle-size reduction of the anode increases the number of sites available for charge transfer. Thus, the nanostructured anode not only secures the structural integrity of the thin-film components over it, it is also essential for lowering the operating temperature of the TF-SOFC. Although it is widely considered that the cathode is the main factor that determines the performance of LT-SOFCs, this study directly proves that anode performance also significantly affects the low-temperature performance.

  4. 电解铜箔用涂层钛阳极表面结垢的去除%Descaling of oxide-coated titanium anode for manufacturing of electrolytic copper foils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐海清; 胡耀红; 陈力格; 秦足足; 廖磊华; 张招贤


    采用X射线衍射(XRD)、X射线荧光光谱分析(XRF)测试了失效电解铜箔用钛阳极表面结垢成分,考察了BH−阳极除垢剂对电解铜箔用钛阳极表面结垢的去除效果,通过循环伏安曲线、极化曲线、强化寿命测试分析了 BH−阳极除垢剂对钛阳极电催化活性的影响,给出了电解铜箔用钛阳极在应用过程中的维护措施。结果表明,BH−阳极除垢剂可以有效去除结垢而不会破坏钛阳极表面的贵金属涂层,有利于延长钛阳极的寿命。%The composition of scale formed on surface of failure titanium anode used for manufacturing of electrolytic copper foils was examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF). The effectiveness of BH anode descaling agent on the oxide-titanium anode used for electrolytic copper foils was studied and its influence on electrocatalytic activity of the anode was analyzed through cyclic voltammetry, polarization curve measurement, and accelerated service life test. The maintenance methods for oxide-coated titanium anode during the manufacturing of electrolytic copper foils were presented. The results indicated that the BH anode descaling agent removes the scales effectively, and has no damage to the precious metal oxide coating, extending the service life of the oxide-coated titanium anode.

  5. Preparation and influence of performance of anodic catalysts for direct methanol fuel cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhenbo; YIN Geping; SHI Pengfei


    This research aims at increasing the utilization of platinum-ruthenium alloy (Pt-Ru) catalysts and thus lowering the catalyst loading in anodes for methanol electrooxidation.The direct methanol fuel cell's (DMFC) anodic catalysts,Pt-Ru/C,were prepared by chemical reduction with a reducing agent added in two kinds of solutions under different circumstances.The reducing agent was added in hot solution with the protection of inert gases or just air,and in cold solution with inert gases.The catalysts were treated at different temperatures.Their performance was tested by cyclic voltammetry and potentiostatic polarization by utilizing their inherent powder microelectrode in 0.5 mol/L CH3OH and 0.5 mol/L H2SO4 solution.The structures and micro-surface images ofthe catalysts were determined and observed by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy,respectively.The catalyst prepared in inert gases showed a better catalytic performance for methanol electrooxidation than that prepared in air.It resulted in a more homogeneous distribution of the Pt-Ru alloy in carbon.Its size is small,only about 4.5 nm.The catalytic performance is affected by the order of the reducing agent added.The performance of the catalyst prepared by adding the reductant at constant temperature of the solution is better than that prepared by adding it in the solution at 0℃ and then heating it up to the reducing temperature.The structure of the catalyst was modified,and there was an increase in the conversion of ruthenium into the alloyed state and an increase in particle size with the ascension of heat treatment temperature.In addition,the stability of the catalyst was improved after heat treatment.

  6. Corrosion Behavior of Anodic Oxidized TiO2 Film in Seawater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Min; WANG Wei; HE Benlin; SUN Mingliang; YIN Yansheng; LIU Lan; ZOU Wuyuan; XU Xuefei


    TiO2 films were formed on metallic titanium substrates by the anodic oxidation method in H2SO4 solution under the 80V D.C..Phase component and microstructure were characterized by X-ray diffraction(XRD)and scanning electron microscopy(SEM).Water contact angles on titanium oxide film surface were measured under both dark and sunlight illumination conditions.Corrosion tests were carried out in seawater under different illumination conditions by electrochemistry impedance spectrum(EIS)and polarization curves.The result showed that the TiO2 film prepared by the anodic oxidation method was anatase with a uniform structure and without obvious pores or cracks on its surface.The average water contact angle of the film was 116.4 ° in dark,in contrast to an angle of 42.7 ° under the UV illumination for 2 hours,which demonstrates good hydrophobic property.The anti-corrosion behavior of the TiO2 film was declining with the extended immersion time.Under dark conditions,however,the hydrophobic TiO2 film retarded the water infiltrating into the substrate.The impedance changed slowly and the corrosion current density was 2 orders of magnitude lower than that with the film illuminated by sunlight.All of those mentioned above indicate that the TiO2 film possesses much better performance under dark condition,and it can be applied as an engineering material under dark seawater environment.

  7. The surface evolution of La0.4Sr0.6TiO3+δ anode in solid oxide fuel cells: Understanding the sulfur-promotion effect (United States)

    Yan, Ning; Zanna, Sandrine; Klein, Lorena H.; Roushanafshar, Milad; Amirkhiz, Babak S.; Zeng, Yimin; Rothenberg, Gadi; Marcus, Philippe; Luo, Jing-Li


    The ideal solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) can be powered by readily available hydrocarbon fuels containing impurities. While this is commonly recognized as a key advantage of SOFC, it also, together with the elevated operating temperature, becomes the main barrier impeding the in-situ or operando investigations of the anode surface chemistry. Here, using a well-designed quenching experiment, we managed to characterize the near-surface structure of La0.4Sr0.6TiO3+δ (LST) anode in SOFCs fuelled by H2S-containing methane. This new method enabled us to clearly observe the surface amorphization and sulfidation of LST under simulated SOFC operating conditions. The ∼1 nm-thick two dimensional sulfur-adsorbed layer was on top of the disordered LST, containing -S, -SH and elemental sulfur species. In SOFC test, such "poisoned" anode showed increased performances: a ten-fold enhanced power density enhancement (up to 30 mW cm-2) and an improved open circuit voltage (from 0.69 V to 1.17 V). Moreover, its anodic polarization resistance in methane decreased to 21.53 Ω cm2, a difference of 95% compared with the sulfur-free anode. Control experiments confirmed that once the adsorbed sulfur species were removed electrochemically, methane conversion slowed down simultaneously till full stop.

  8. Facile one-step forming of NiO and yttrium-stabilized zirconia composite anodes with straight open pores for planar solid oxide fuel cell using phase-inversion tape casting method (United States)

    Huang, Hua; Lin, Jie; Wang, Yunlong; Wang, Shaorong; Xia, Changrong; Chen, Chusheng


    The anode of NiO and yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) with straight open pores is prepared by phase-inversion tape casting method. In the as-prepared green tape, its top and middle layers are derived from a slurry of NiO and YSZ, while the bottom layer from a slurry of graphite. The graphite layer is eliminated by calcination at elevated temperatures, leaving the finger-like porous layer exposed to the gas phase. A cell supported on the as-prepared anode substrate exhibits satisfactory electrochemical performances with a maximum power density of 780 mW cm-2 at 800 °C. The cell dose not show a convex-up curvature in I-V plots at high current density as often observed for most anode-supported cells, indicating the absence of concentration polarization which is in turn attributed to the open pore structure of the phase-inversion derived anode. The phase inversion tape casting technique explored in the present study involves almost the same equipments as and similar procedures to the conventional tape casting, and after further optimization it may become a simple and effective technique for mass production of anodes for SOFCs.

  9. New compact neutron polarizer (United States)

    Krist, Th; Kennedy, S. J.; Hicks, T. J.; Mezei, F.

    A new type of a neutron polarizing bender was developed in co-operation with BENSC and ANSTO. It is based upon bent thin silicon wafers coated on one side with SiFeCo polarizing supermirrors and on the other side with Gd. Initial tests at BENSC in a 300 Oe magnetic field yielded a transmission of spin-up neutrons of about 55% over an angle range of 0.75° and flipping ratios > 30. Subsequent tests at ANSTO at 1200 Oe yielded a transmission of 48% with a flipping ratio > 45.

  10. Internal polarized targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinney, E.R.; Coulter, K.; Gilman, R.; Holt, R.J.; Kowalczyk, R.S.; Napolitano, J.; Potterveld, D.H.; Young, L. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Mishnev, S.I.; Nikolenko, D.M.; Popov, S.G.; Rachek, I.A.; Temnykh, A.B.; Toporkov, D.K.; Tsentalovich, E.P.; Wojtsekhowski, B.B. (AN SSSR, Novosibirsk (USSR). Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki)


    Internal polarized targets offer a number of advantages over external targets. After a brief review of the basic motivation and principles behind internal polarized targets, the technical aspects of the atomic storage cell will be discussed in particular. Sources of depolarization and the means by which their effects can be ameliorated will be described, especially depolarization by the intense magnetic fields arising from the circulating particle beam. The experience of the Argonne Novosibirsk collaboration with the use of a storage cell in a 2 GeV electron storage ring will be the focus of this technical discussion. 17 refs., 11 figs.

  11. Microwave Frequency Polarizers (United States)

    Ha, Vien The; Mirel, Paul; Kogut, Alan J.


    This article describes the fabrication and analysis of microwave frequency polarizing grids. The grids are designed to measure polarization from the cosmic microwave background. It is effective in the range of 500 to 1500 micron wavelength. It is cryogenic compatible and highly robust to high load impacts. Each grid is fabricated using an array of different assembly processes which vary in the types of tension mechanisms to the shape and size of the grids. We provide a comprehensive study on the analysis of the grids' wire heights, diameters, and spacing.

  12. Aluminum/MoO3 anode thin films: an effective anode structure for highperformance flexible organic optoelectronics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ding Lei; Zhang Fanghui; Ma Ying; Zhang Maili


    We report Al/MoO3 thin film used as a complex anode in high-performance OLEDs.The unique efficacy of the device was found to result from the enhanced injection of holes into the commonly used hole-transporting molecules due to a large reduction in the interface dipole at the anode/organic interface.The superior optical characteristics are attributed to a strong cavity effect,Due to the ease of processing Al/MoO3 we successfully demonstrated large-area flexible OLEDs on plastic substrates with uniform emission.

  13. Metal hydrides: an innovative and challenging conversion reaction anode for lithium-ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Aymard


    Full Text Available The state of the art of conversion reactions of metal hydrides (MH with lithium is presented and discussed in this review with regard to the use of these hydrides as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. A focus on the gravimetric and volumetric storage capacities for different examples from binary, ternary and complex hydrides is presented, with a comparison between thermodynamic prediction and experimental results. MgH2 constitutes one of the most attractive metal hydrides with a reversible capacity of 1480 mA·h·g−1 at a suitable potential (0.5 V vs Li+/Li0 and the lowest electrode polarization (2, TiH2, complex hydrides Mg2MHx and other Mg-based hydrides. The reversible conversion reaction mechanism of MgH2, which is lithium-controlled, can be extended to others hydrides as: MHx + xLi+ + xe− in equilibrium with M + xLiH. Other reaction paths—involving solid solutions, metastable distorted phases, and phases with low hydrogen content—were recently reported for TiH2 and Mg2FeH6, Mg2CoH5 and Mg2NiH4. The importance of fundamental aspects to overcome technological difficulties is discussed with a focus on conversion reaction limitations in the case of MgH2. The influence of MgH2 particle size, mechanical grinding, hydrogen sorption cycles, grinding with carbon, reactive milling under hydrogen, and metal and catalyst addition to the MgH2/carbon composite on kinetics improvement and reversibility is presented. Drastic technological improvement in order to the enhance conversion process efficiencies is needed for practical applications. The main goals are minimizing the impact of electrode volume variation during lithium extraction and overcoming the poor electronic conductivity of LiH. To use polymer binders to improve the cycle life of the hydride-based electrode and to synthesize nanoscale composite hydride can be helpful to address these drawbacks. The development of high-capacity hydride anodes should be inspired by the emergent

  14. Metal hydrides: an innovative and challenging conversion reaction anode for lithium-ion batteries. (United States)

    Aymard, Luc; Oumellal, Yassine; Bonnet, Jean-Pierre


    The state of the art of conversion reactions of metal hydrides (MH) with lithium is presented and discussed in this review with regard to the use of these hydrides as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. A focus on the gravimetric and volumetric storage capacities for different examples from binary, ternary and complex hydrides is presented, with a comparison between thermodynamic prediction and experimental results. MgH2 constitutes one of the most attractive metal hydrides with a reversible capacity of 1480 mA·h·g(-1) at a suitable potential (0.5 V vs Li(+)/Li(0)) and the lowest electrode polarization (hydrides Mg2MH x and other Mg-based hydrides. The reversible conversion reaction mechanism of MgH2, which is lithium-controlled, can be extended to others hydrides as: MH x + xLi(+) + xe(-) in equilibrium with M + xLiH. Other reaction paths-involving solid solutions, metastable distorted phases, and phases with low hydrogen content-were recently reported for TiH2 and Mg2FeH6, Mg2CoH5 and Mg2NiH4. The importance of fundamental aspects to overcome technological difficulties is discussed with a focus on conversion reaction limitations in the case of MgH2. The influence of MgH2 particle size, mechanical grinding, hydrogen sorption cycles, grinding with carbon, reactive milling under hydrogen, and metal and catalyst addition to the MgH2/carbon composite on kinetics improvement and reversibility is presented. Drastic technological improvement in order to the enhance conversion process efficiencies is needed for practical applications. The main goals are minimizing the impact of electrode volume variation during lithium extraction and overcoming the poor electronic conductivity of LiH. To use polymer binders to improve the cycle life of the hydride-based electrode and to synthesize nanoscale composite hydride can be helpful to address these drawbacks. The development of high-capacity hydride anodes should be inspired by the emergent nano-research prospects which

  15. The physics of polarization (United States)

    Landi Degl'Innocenti, Egidio

    This course is intended to give a description of the basic physical concepts which underlie the study and the interpretation of polarization phenomena. Apart from a brief historical introduction (Sect. 1), the course is organized in three parts. A first part (Sects. 2 - 6) covers the most relevant facts about the polarization phenomena that are typically encountered in laboratory applications and in everyday life. In Sect. 2, the modern description of polarization in terms of the Stokes parameters is recalled, whereas Sect. 3 is devoted to introduce the basic tools of laboratory polarimetry, such as the Jones calculus and the Mueller matrices. The polarization phenomena which are met in the reflection and refraction of a beam of radiation at the separation surface between two dielectrics, or between a dielectric and a metal, are recalled in Sect. 4. Finally, Sect. 5 gives an introduction to the phenomena of dichroism and of anomalous dispersion and Sect. 6 summarizes the polarization phenomena that are commonly encountered in everyday life. The second part of this course (Sects. 7-14) deals with the description, within the formalism of classical physics, of the spectro-polarimetric properties of the radiation emitted by accelerated charges. Such properties are derived by taking as starting point the Liénard and Wiechert equations that are recalled and discussed in Sect. 7 both in the general case and in the non-relativistic approximation. The results are developed to find the percentage polarization, the radiation diagram, the cross-section and the spectral characteristics of the radiation emitted in different phenomena particularly relevant from the astrophysical point of view. The emission of a linear antenna is derived in Sect. 8. The other Sections are devoted to Thomson scattering (Sect. 9), Rayleigh scattering (Sect. 10), Mie scattering (Sect. 11), bremsstrahlung radiation (Sect. 12), cyclotron radiation (Sect. 13), and synchrotron radiation (Sect. 14

  16. The corrosion protection of several aluminum alloys by chromic acid and sulfuric acid anodizing (United States)

    Danford, M. D.


    The corrosion protection afforded 7075-T6, 7075-T3, 6061-T6, and 2024-T3 aluminum alloys by chromic acid and sulfuric acid anodizing was examined using electrochemical techniques. From these studies, it is concluded that sulfuric acid anodizing provides superior corrosion protection compared to chromic acid anodizing.

  17. Polarized Proton Collisions at RHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Bai, Mei; Alekseev, Igor G; Alessi, James; Beebe-Wang, Joanne; Blaskiewicz, Michael; Bravar, Alessandro; Brennan, Joseph M; Bruno, Donald; Bunce, Gerry; Butler, John J; Cameron, Peter; Connolly, Roger; De Long, Joseph; Drees, Angelika; Fischer, Wolfram; Ganetis, George; Gardner, Chris J; Glenn, Joseph; Hayes, Thomas; Hseuh Hsiao Chaun; Huang, Haixin; Ingrassia, Peter; Iriso, Ubaldo; Laster, Jonathan S; Lee, Roger C; Luccio, Alfredo U; Luo, Yun; MacKay, William W; Makdisi, Yousef; Marr, Gregory J; Marusic, Al; McIntyre, Gary; Michnoff, Robert; Montag, Christoph; Morris, John; Nicoletti, Tony; Oddo, Peter; Oerter, Brian; Osamu, Jinnouchi; Pilat, Fulvia Caterina; Ptitsyn, Vadim; Roser, Thomas; Satogata, Todd; Smith, Kevin T; Svirida, Dima; Tepikian, Steven; Tomas, Rogelio; Trbojevic, Dejan; Tsoupas, Nicholaos; Tuozzolo, Joseph; Vetter, Kurt; Wilinski, Michelle; Zaltsman, Alex; Zelenski, Anatoli; Zeno, Keith; Zhang, S Y


    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider~(RHIC) provides not only collisions of ions but also collisions of polarized protons. In a circular accelerator, the polarization of polarized proton beam can be partially or fully lost when a spin depolarizing resonance is encountered. To preserve the beam polarization during acceleration, two full Siberian snakes were employed in RHIC to avoid depolarizing resonances. In 2003, polarized proton beams were accelerated to 100~GeV and collided in RHIC. Beams were brought into collisions with longitudinal polarization at the experiments STAR and PHENIX by using spin rotators. RHIC polarized proton run experience demonstrates that optimizing polarization transmission efficiency and improving luminosity performance are significant challenges. Currently, the luminosity lifetime in RHIC is limited by the beam-beam effect. The current state of RHIC polarized proton program, including its dedicated physics run in 2005 and efforts to optimize luminosity production in beam-beam limite...

  18. Nanocomposite anode materials for sodium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manthiram, Arumugam; Kim Il, Tae; Allcorn, Eric


    The disclosure relates to an anode material for a sodium-ion battery having the general formula AO.sub.x--C or AC.sub.x--C, where A is aluminum (Al), magnesium (Mg), titanium (Ti), vanadium (V), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), zirconium (Zr), molybdenum (Mo), tungsten (W), niobium (Nb), tantalum (Ta), silicon (Si), or any combinations thereof. The anode material also contains an electrochemically active nanoparticles within the matrix. The nanoparticle may react with sodium ion (Na.sup.+) when placed in the anode of a sodium-ion battery. In more specific embodiments, the anode material may have the general formula M.sub.ySb-M'O.sub.x--C, Sb-MO.sub.x--C, M.sub.ySn-M'C.sub.x--C, or Sn-MC.sub.x--C. The disclosure also relates to rechargeable sodium-ion batteries containing these materials and methods of making these materials.

  19. Reactivity descriptors for direct methanol fuel cell anode catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferrin, Peter; Nilekar, Anand Udaykumar; Greeley, Jeff


    We have investigated the anode reaction in direct methanol fuel cells using a database of adsorption free energies for 16 intermediates on 12 close-packed transition metal surfaces calculated with periodic, self-consistent, density functional theory (DFT-GGA). This database, combined with a simple...

  20. Effect of surface anodization on stability of orthodontic microimplant (United States)

    Karmarker, Sanket; Yu, Wonjae


    Objective To determine the effect of surface anodization on the interfacial strength between an orthodontic microimplant (MI) and the rabbit tibial bone, particularly in the initial phase after placement. Methods A total of 36 MIs were driven into the tibias of 3 mature rabbits by using the self-drilling method and then removed after 6 weeks. Half the MIs were as-machined (n = 18; machined group), while the remaining had anodized surfaces (n = 18; anodized group). The peak insertion torque (PIT) and the peak removal torque (PRT) values were measured for the 2 groups of MIs. These values were then used to calculate the interfacial shear strength between the MI and cortical bone. Results There were no statistical differences in terms of PIT between the 2 groups. However, mean PRT was significantly greater for the anodized implants (3.79 ± 1.39 Ncm) than for the machined ones (2.05 ± 1.07 Ncm) (p orthodontic MIs may enhance their early-phase retention capability, thereby ensuring a more reliable source of absolute anchorage. PMID:23112925

  1. Multichannel discharge between jet electrolyte cathode and jet electrolyte anode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shakirova, E. F.; Gaitsin, Al. F.; Son, E. E.


    We present the results of an experimental study of multichannel discharge between a jet electrolyte cathode and jet electrolyte anode within a wide range of parameters. We pioneer the reveal of the burning particularities and characteristics of multichannel discharge with jet electrolyte and droplet

  2. Synthesis and characterization of anodized titanium-oxide nanotube arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Michael Z. [ORNL; Lai, Peng [University of Cincinnati; Bhuiyan, Md S [ORNL; Tsouris, Costas [ORNL; Gu, Baohua [ORNL; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [ORNL; Gabitto, Jorge [Prairie View A& M University; Harrison, L. D. [Prairie View A& M University


    Anodized titanium-oxide containing highly ordered, vertically oriented TiO2 nanotube arrays is a nanomaterial architecture that shows promise for diverse applications. In this paper, an anodization synthesis using HF-free aqueous solution is described. The anodized TiO2 film samples (amorphous, anatase, and rutile) on titanium foils were characterized with scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy. Additional characterization in terms of photocurrent generated by an anode consisting of a titanium foil coated by TiO2 nanotubes was performed using an electrochemical cell. A platinum cathode was used in the electrochemical cell. Results were analyzed in terms of the efficiency of the current generated, defined as the ratio of the difference between the electrical energy output and the electrical energy input divided by the input radiation energy, with the goal of determining which phase of TiO2 nanotubes leads to more efficient hydrogen production. It was determined that the anatase crystalline structure converts light into current more efficiently and is therefore a better photocatalytic material for hydrogen production via photoelectrochemical splitting of water.

  3. The corrosion protection of aluminum by various anodizing treatments (United States)

    Danford, Merlin D.


    Corrosion protection to 6061-T6 aluminum, afforded by both teflon-impregnated anodized coats (Polylube and Tufram) and hard-anodized coats (water sealed and dichromate sealed), was studied at both pH 5.5 and pH 9.5, with an exposure period of 28 days in 3.5 percent NaCl solution (25 C) for each specimen. In general, corrosion protection for all specimens was better at pH 9.5 than at pH 5.5. Protection by a Tufram coat proved superior to that afforded by Polylube at each pH, with corrosion protection by the hard-anodized, water-sealed coat at pH 9.5 providing the best protection. Electrochemical work in each case was corroborated by microscopic examination of the coats after exposure. Corrosion protection by Tufram at pH 9.5 was most comparable to that of the hard-anodized samples, although pitting and some cracking of the coat did occur.

  4. Ceria Electrocatalysis Compared to Nickel Using Pattern Anodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patel, H.C.; Biradar, N.; Venkataraman, V.; Aravind, P.V.


    Ceria and nickel pattern anodes are prepared and tested in order to gain a fundamental insight into the electrochemical oxidation of hydrogen on either of these surfaces. It is found that ceria is highly active towards electrochemical oxidation of hydrogen with lower polarisation resistance because

  5. Recovery of Silver and Gold from Copper Anode Slimes (United States)

    Chen, Ailiang; Peng, Zhiwei; Hwang, Jiann-Yang; Ma, Yutian; Liu, Xuheng; Chen, Xingyu


    Copper anode slimes, produced from copper electrolytic refining, are important industrial by-products containing several valuable metals, particularly silver and gold. This article provides a comprehensive overview of the development of the extraction processes for recovering silver and gold from conventional copper anode slimes. Existing processes, namely pyrometallurgical processes, hydrometallurgical processes, and hybrid processes involving the combination of pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical technologies, are discussed based in part on a review of the form and characteristics of silver and gold in copper anode slimes. The recovery of silver and gold in pyrometallurgical processes is influenced in part by the slag and matte/metal chemistry and related characteristics, whereas the extraction of these metals in hydrometallurgical processes depends on the leaching reagents used to break the structure of the silver- and gold-bearing phases, such as selenides. By taking advantage of both pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical techniques, high extraction yields of silver and gold can be obtained using such combined approaches that appear promising for efficient extraction of silver and gold from copper anode slimes.

  6. Direct borohydride fuel cell using Ni-based composite anodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Jia; Sahai, Yogeshwar; Buchheit, Rudolph G. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, 2041 College Rd., Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)


    In this study, nickel-based composite anode catalysts consisting of Ni with either Pd on carbon or Pt on carbon (the ratio of Ni:Pd or Ni:Pt being 25:1) were prepared for use in direct borohydride fuel cells (DBFCs). Cathode catalysts used were 1 mg cm{sup -2} Pt/C or Pd electrodeposited on activated carbon cloth. The oxidants were oxygen, oxygen in air, or acidified hydrogen peroxide. Alkaline solution of sodium borohydride was used as fuel in the cell. High power performance has been achieved by DBFC using non-precious metal, Ni-based composite anodes with relatively low anodic loading (e.g., 270 mW cm{sup -2} for NaBH{sub 4}/O{sub 2} fuel cell at 60 C, 665 mW cm{sup -2} for NaBH{sub 4}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} fuel cell at 60 C). Effects of temperature, oxidant, and anode catalyst loading on the DBFC performance were investigated. The cell was operated for about 100 h and its performance stability was recorded. (author)

  7. Experimental breakdown of selected anodized aluminum samples in dilute plasmas (United States)

    Grier, Norman T.; Domitz, Stanley


    Anodized aluminum samples representative of Space Station Freedom structural material were tested for electrical breakdown under space plasma conditions. In space, this potential arises across the insulating anodized coating when the spacecraft structure is driven to a negative bias relative to the external plasma potential due to plasma-surface interaction phenomena. For anodized materials used in the tests, it was found that breakdown voltage varied from 100 to 2000 volts depending on the sample. The current in the arcs depended on the sample, the capacitor, and the voltage. The level of the arc currents varied from 60 to 1000 amperes. The plasma number density varied from 3 x 10 exp 6 to 10 exp 3 ions per cc. The time between arcs increased as the number density was lowered. Corona testing of anodized samples revealed that samples with higher corona inception voltage had higher arcing inception voltages. From this it is concluded that corona testing may provide a method of screening the samples.

  8. Aerogel and xerogel composites for use as carbon anodes (United States)

    Cooper, John F.; Tillotson, Thomas M.; Hrubesh, Lawrence W.


    Disclosed herein are aerogel and xerogel composite materials suitable for use as anodes in fuel cells and batteries. Precursors to the aerogel and xerogel compounds are infused with inorganic polymeric materials or carbon particles and then gelled. The gels are then pyrolyzed to form composites with internal structural support.

  9. Use of magnetite as anode for electrolysis of water (United States)

    Halley, J. W.; Schofield, A.; Berntson, B.


    We have studied the oxidation of magnetite to Fe2O3 in an electrolytic cell in which the anode is magnetite and the cathode is platinum. We report cyclic voltammagram data consistent with the hypothesis that magnetite, without oxygen gas production but with hydrogen gas production at the cathode, is occurring. The reaction occurs at a potential at the anode of about 0.3 V vs SCE in 1 M NaOH electrolyte, consistent with colloid experiments which also estimated the equilibrium potential of the hypothesized reaction. Electrode characterization results using BET, XEDS, and macroscopic volume and mass measurements are reported, as well as the measurements of the amount of hydrogen gas generated per unit current. The quantity of gas generated is also consistent with our hypothesis concerning the electrode chemistry. Some samples exhibit evidence of two oxidation reactions occurring at the anode and a possible interpretation of these is also discussed. These results suggest the use of magnetite as an anode in a cell electrolysing water to produce hydrogen gas and Fe2O3. In such an electrolyser, the electrical energy cost of producing hydrogen gas could be significantly lower than the cost in a standard electrolyser. The measured steady state currents, equivalent to about 400 mA/g of magnetite, are too low to make a practical electrolyser. We briefly discuss several ways in which the currents might be increased to the levels required.

  10. A review of liquid metal anode solid oxide fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This review discusses recent advances in a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC variant that uses liquid metal electrodes (anodes with the advantage of greater fuel tolerance and the ability to operate on solid fuel. Key features of the approach are discussed along with the technological and research challenges that need to be overcome for scale-up and commercialisation.

  11. Manufacturing of anode supported SOFCs: Processing parameters and their influence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramousse, Severine; Menon, Mohan; Brodersen, Karen;


    The establishment of low cost, highly reliable and reproducible manufacturing processes has been focused for commercialization of SOFC technology. A major challenge in the production chain is the manufacture of anode-supported planar SOFC's single cells in which each layer in a layered structure ...

  12. Optimal Set Anode Potentials Vary in Bioelectrochemical Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Wagner, Rachel C.


    In bioelectrochemical systems (BESs), the anode potential can be set to a fixed voltage using a potentiostat, but there is no accepted method for defining an optimal potential. Microbes can theoretically gain more energy by reducing a terminal electron acceptor with a more positive potential, for example oxygen compared to nitrate. Therefore, more positive anode potentials should allow microbes to gain more energy per electron transferred than a lower potential, but this can only occur if the microbe has metabolic pathways capable of capturing the available energy. Our review of the literature shows that there is a general trend of improved performance using more positive potentials, but there are several notable cases where biofilm growth and current generation improved or only occurred at more negative potentials. This suggests that even with diverse microbial communities, it is primarily the potential of the terminal respiratory proteins used by certain exoelectrogenic bacteria, and to a lesser extent the anode potential, that determines the optimal growth conditions in the reactor. Our analysis suggests that additional bioelectrochemical investigations of both pure and mixed cultures, over a wide range of potentials, are needed to better understand how to set and evaluate optimal anode potentials for improving BES performance. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  13. Novel Ceramic Materials for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Water Electrolysers' Anodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polonsky, J.; Bouzek, K.; Prag, Carsten Brorson


    Tantalum carbide was evaluated as a possible new support for the IrO2 for use in anodes of polymer electrolyte membrane water electrolysers. A series of supported electrocatalysts varying in mass content of iridium oxide was prepared. XRD, powder conductivity measurements and cyclic and linear sw...

  14. Prelithiated Silicon Nanowires as an Anode for Lithium Ion Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Nian


    Silicon is one of the most promising anode materials for the next-generation high-energy lithium ion battery (LIB), while sulfur and some other lithium-free materials have recently shown high promise as cathode materials. To make a full battery out of them, either the cathode or the anode needs to be prelithiated. Here, we present a method for prelithiating a silicon nanowire (SiNW) anode by a facile self-discharge mechanism. Through a time dependence study, we found that 20 min of prelithiation loads ∼50% of the full capacity into the SiNWs. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies show that the nanostructure of SiNWs is maintained after prelithiation. We constructed a full battery using our prelithiated SiNW anode with a sulfur cathode. Our work provides a protocol for pairing lithium-free electrodes to make the next-generation high-energy LIB. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  15. Newer polyanionic bio-composite anode for sodium ion batteries (United States)

    Karuppiah, Saravanan; Vellingiri, Suganya; Nallathamby, Kalaiselvi


    NASICON frame work Na3V2(PO4)3 (NVP), wrapped by nitrogen and sulfur doped bio-carbon matrix derived from human hair (HHC) has been investigated for its anode behavior in SIBs. Basically, NVP is bestowed with a crystal structure of 3D open framework and a moderate theoretical capacity of 118 mAh g-1, which are the twin advantages and motivation behind the selection of this material. Prepared through a simple, scalable and facile method, the key problems associated with pristine NVP electrode material, such as inferior conductivity and severe volume change have been mitigated to a great extent through the formation of a composite containing HHC. Herein, HHC is a cheap and eco-friendly composite additive, obtained from a universal bio-waste, viz., human hair and hence NVP/HHC qualifies itself as a green composite. Interestingly, NVP/HHC-10 (in-situ) and NVP/HHC-20 (ex-situ) anodes show excellent electrochemical performance in terms of cycling stability up to 500 cycles and rate capability @ 2 A g-1, which are superior than similar category NVP anodes reported in the literature. Further, post cycling structure and morphology of NVP/HHC composite anodes evidence the appreciable stability bestowed with the select composition, which is found to get maintained upon extended cycles and even after rate capability test.

  16. Detailed characterization of anode-supported SOFCs by impedance spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, R.; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg; Klemensø, Trine;


    Anode-supported thin electrolyte cells are studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The aim is to describe how the losses of this type of cells are distributed at low current density (around open-circuit voltage) as a function of temperature. An equivalent circuit consisting...

  17. Polarity Specific Suppression Effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation for Tinnitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Joos


    Full Text Available Tinnitus is the perception of a sound in the absence of an external auditory stimulus and affects 10–15% of the Western population. Previous studies have demonstrated the therapeutic effect of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS over the left auditory cortex on tinnitus loudness, but the effect of this presumed excitatory stimulation contradicts with the underlying pathophysiological model of tinnitus. Therefore, we included 175 patients with chronic tinnitus to study polarity specific effects of a single tDCS session over the auditory cortex (39 anodal, 136 cathodal. To assess the effect of treatment, we used the numeric rating scale for tinnitus loudness and annoyance. Statistical analysis demonstrated a significant main effect for tinnitus loudness and annoyance, but for tinnitus annoyance anodal stimulation has a significantly more pronounced effect than cathodal stimulation. We hypothesize that the suppressive effect of tDCS on tinnitus loudness may be attributed to a disrupting effect of ongoing neural hyperactivity, independent of the inhibitory or excitatory effects and that the reduction of annoyance may be induced by influencing adjacent or functionally connected brain areas involved in the tinnitus related distress network. Further research is required to explain why only anodal stimulation has a suppressive effect on tinnitus annoyance.

  18. Are you positive? Electric dipole polarity discrimination in the yellow stingray, Urobatis jamaicensis. (United States)

    Siciliano, Avery M; Kajiura, Stephen M; Long, John H; Porter, Marianne E


    It is well established that elasmobranchs can detect dipole electric fields. However, it is unclear whether they can discriminate between the anode and cathode. To investigate this subject, we employed a behavioral assay to determine the discriminatory ability of the yellow stingray, Urobatis jamaicensis. We conditioned stingrays with food rewards to bite either the anode (n=5) or the cathode (n=6) of a direct-current dipole located on the floor of an experimental tank. All individuals successfully performed the task after 18 to 22 days. Stingrays were then tested in experimental sessions when they were rewarded only after they identified the correct pole. Stingrays successfully discriminated between the poles at a rate greater than chance, ranging among individuals from a mean of 66% to 93% correct. During experimental sessions, stingrays conditioned to distinguish the anode performed similarly to those conditioned to distinguish the cathode. We hypothesize that the ability to discriminate anode from cathode is physiologically encoded, but its utility in providing spatial information under natural conditions remains to be demonstrated. The ability to discriminate polarity may eliminate ambiguity in induction-based magnetoreception and facilitate navigation with respect to the geomagnetic field.

  19. No More Polarization, Please!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mia Reinholt

    The organizational science literature on motivation has for long been polarized into two main positions; the organizational economic position focusing on extrinsic motivation and the organizational behavior position emphasizing intrinsic motivation. With the rise of the knowledge economy and the ......The organizational science literature on motivation has for long been polarized into two main positions; the organizational economic position focusing on extrinsic motivation and the organizational behavior position emphasizing intrinsic motivation. With the rise of the knowledge economy...... and the increasing levels of complexities it entails, such polarization is not fruitful in the attempt to explain motivation of organizational members. This paper claims that a more nuanced perspective on motivation, acknowledging the co-existence of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, the possible interaction...... between the two as well as different types of motivations filling in the gap between the two polar types, is urgently needed in the organizational science literature. By drawing on the research on intrinsic and extrinsic motivation conducted in social psychology and combining this with contributions from...

  20. Variable polarity arc welding (United States)

    Bayless, E. O., Jr.


    Technological advances generate within themselves dissatisfactions that lead to further advances in a process. A series of advances in welding technology which culminated in the Variable Polarity Plasma Arc (VPPA) Welding Process and an advance instituted to overcome the latest dissatisfactions with the process: automated VPPA welding are described briefly.

  1. Saturn's Polar Atmosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Sayanagi, Kunio M; Dyudina, Ulyana A; Fletcher, Leigh N; Sánchez-Lavega, Agustin; West, Robert A


    This book chapter, Saturn's Polar Atmosphere, is to be published by Cambridge University Press as part of a multi-volume work edited by Kevin Baines, Michael Flasar, Norbert Krupp, and Thomas Stallard, entitled "Saturn in the 21st Century." This chapter reviews the state of our knowledge about Saturn's polar atmosphere that has been revealed through Earth- and space-based observation as well as theoretical and numerical modeling. In particular, the Cassini mission to Saturn, which has been in orbit around the ringed planet since 2004, has revolutionized our understanding of the planet. The current review updates a previous review by Del Genio et al (2009; Saturn Atmospheric Structure and Dynamics, Chapter 7 of "Saturn from Cassini-Huygens"), written after Cassini's primary mission phase that ended in 2008, by focusing on the north polar region of Saturn and comparing it to the southern high latitudes. Two prominent features in the northern high latitudes are the northern hexagon and the north polar vortex; we...

  2. Polarized parton distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Florian, D.; Epele, L.N.; Fanchiotti, H.; Garcia Canal, C.A.; Sassot, R. (Laboratorio de Fisica Teorica, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, C.C. 67-1900 La Plata (Argentina))


    We analyze spin-dependent parton distributions consistent with the most recent measurements of the spin-dependent deep inelastic scattering structure functions and obtained in the framework of the spin dilution model. Predictions for the doubly polarized proton-proton Drell-Yan asymmetry, for the high [ital p][sub [ital T

  3. Polarity-specific cortical effects of transcranial direct current stimulation in primary somatosensory cortex of healthy humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert eRehmann


    Full Text Available Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS is a noninvasive stimulation method that has been shown to modulate the excitability of the motor and visual cortices in human subjects in a polarity dependent manner in previous studies. The aim of our study was to investigate whether anodal and cathodal tDCS can also be used to modulate the excitability of the human primary somatosensory cortex (S1. We measured paired-pulse suppression (PPS of somatosensory evoked potentials in 36 right-handed volunteers before and after anodal, cathodal or sham stimulation over the right non-dominant S1. Paired-pulse stimulation of the median nerve was performed at the dominant and non-dominant hand. After anodal tDCS, PPS was reduced in the ipsilateral S1 compared to sham stimulation, indicating an excitatory effect of anodal tDCS. In contrast, PPS in the stimulated left hemisphere was increased after cathodal tDCS, indicating an inhibitory effect of cathodal tDCS. Sham stimulation induced no pre-post differences. Thus, tDCS can be used to modulate the excitability of S1 in polarity-dependent manner, which can be assessed by paired-pulse suppression. An interesting topic for further studies could be the investigation of direct correlations between sensory changes and excitability changes induced by tDCS.

  4. Polarized nuclear target based on parahydrogen induced polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budker, D., E-mail: [Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-7300 (United States); Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Ledbetter, M.P. [Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-7300 (United States); Appelt, S. [Central Institute for Electronics, Research Center Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Bouchard, L.S. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, California NanoSystems Institute, Biomedical Engineering IDP, Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Wojtsekhowski, B. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States)


    We discuss a novel concept of a polarized nuclear target for accelerator fixed-target scattering experiments, which is based on parahydrogen induced polarization (PHIP). One may be able to reach a 33% free-proton polarization in the ethane molecule. The potential advantages of such a target include operation at zero magnetic field, fast ({approx}100Hz) polarization oscillation (akin to polarization reversal), and operation with large intensity of an electron beam. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Novel concept for polarized nuclear targets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The target features fast reversal and operates at near-zero magnetic field. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Based on the technique of parahydrogen induced polarization that is revolutionizing NMR and enables NMR/MRI without magnets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Competitive figure-of-merit for polarized targets.

  5. Optimization and Domestic Sourcing of Lithium Ion Battery Anode Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, III, D. L.; Yoon, S. [A123 Systems, Inc.


    The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between ORNL and A123Systems, Inc. was to develop a low-temperature heat treatment process for natural graphite based anode materials for high-capacity and long-cycle-life lithium ion batteries. Three major problems currently plague state-of-the-art lithium ion battery anode materials. The first is the cost of the artificial graphite, which is heat-treated well in excess of 2000°C. Because of this high-temperature heat treatment, the anode active material significantly contributes to the cost of a lithium ion battery. The second problem is the limited specific capacity of state-of-the-art anodes based on artificial graphites, which is only about 200-350 mAh/g. This value needs to be increased to achieve high energy density when used with the low cell-voltage nanoparticle LiFePO4 cathode. Thirdly, the rate capability under cycling conditions of natural graphite based materials must be improved to match that of the nanoparticle LiFePO4. Natural graphite materials contain inherent crystallinity and lithium intercalation activity. They hold particular appeal, as they offer huge potential for industrial energy savings with the energy costs essentially subsidized by geological processes. Natural graphites have been heat-treated to a substantially lower temperature (as low as 1000-1500°C) and used as anode active materials to address the problems described above. Finally, corresponding graphitization and post-treatment processes were developed that are amenable to scaling to automotive quantities.

  6. Analysis of polarization methods for elimination of power overshoot in microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Watson, Valerie J.


    Polarization curves from microbial fuel cells (MFCs) often show an unexpectedly large drop in voltage with increased current densities, leading to a phenomenon in the power density curve referred to as "power overshoot". Linear sweep voltammetry (LSV, 1 mV s- 1) and variable external resistances (at fixed intervals of 20 min) over a single fed-batch cycle in an MFC both resulted in power overshoot in power density curves due to anode potentials. Increasing the anode enrichment time from 30 days to 100 days did not eliminate overshoot, suggesting that insufficient enrichment of the anode biofilm was not the primary cause. Running the reactor at a fixed resistance for a full fed-batch cycle (~ 1 to 2 days), however, completely eliminated the overshoot in the power density curve. These results show that long times at a fixed resistance are needed to stabilize current generation by bacteria in MFCs, and that even relatively slow LSV scan rates and long times between switching circuit loads during a fed-batch cycle may produce inaccurate polarization and power density results for these biological systems. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The effect of bi presence as impurities in anodic copper on kinetics and mechanism of anodic dissolution and cathodic deposition of copper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Zvonimir D.


    Full Text Available The influence of Bi, as foreign metal atoms in anode copper, on kinetics and mechanism of anodic dissolution and cathodic deposition of copper in acidic sulfate solution was investigated using the galvanostatic single-pulse method. Results indicate that presence of Bi atoms in anode copper increases the exchange current density, as determined from the Tafel analysis of the electrode reaction, which is attributed to the increase of the crystal lattice parameter determined from XRD analysis of the electrode material.

  8. Electrically polarized micro-arc oxidized TiO2 coatings with enhanced surface hydrophilicity. (United States)

    Ma, Chufan; Nagai, Akiko; Yamazaki, Yuko; Toyama, Takeshi; Tsutsumi, Yusuke; Hanawa, Takao; Wang, Wei; Yamashita, Kimihiro


    The use of micro-arc oxidation titania (MAO TiO2) coatings to modify titanium surfaces improves the biocompatibility of implant surfaces. To obtain hydrophilic MAO TiO2 coating surfaces electric polarization, which induces surface electric fields in the materials and produces surface charges, was performed in this study. Electric polarization of the MAO TiO2 coatings was confirmed by measuring the thermally stimulated depolarization current. After electric polarization treatment the MAO TiO2 coatings did not exhibit any obvious changes in surface roughness, morphology, or phase components. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results indicated that electric polarization resulted in oxidation of the cathodic-faced surfaces and reduction of the anodic-faced surfaces. This result suggests that the existence of a concentration gradient of oxide ions/oxygen vacancies produced the stored space charge in the coatings. Reduction of the deionized water contact angle on the polarized MAO TiO2 surfaces was maintained for longer periods compared with the non-polarized surface. Our study demonstrated that metastable electric fields across the MAO TiO2 coating produced by electric polarization made it durably wettable by reducing the interfacial surface tension between the material and water.

  9. Anode purge strategy optimization of the polymer electrode membrane fuel cell system under the dead-end anode operation (United States)

    Hu, Zhe; Yu, Yi; Wang, Guangjin; Chen, Xuesong; Chen, Pei; Chen, Jun; Zhou, Su


    Dead-ended anode (DEA) mode is commonly applied in fuel cell vehicles for the hydrogen purge at the anode side, to reduce fuel waste and enhance fuel cell efficiency. Anode purge is necessary and is definitely important with respect to removing liquid water and accumulated nitrogen in the gas diffusion layer and the flow field of the DEA-mode fuel cell. In this paper, the effect of different purge strategies on the stack performance and system efficiency is investigated experimentally using fast data acquisition and advanced tools, such as the fast cell voltage measurement (CVM) system and the mass spectrum. From the fast data acquisition, the voltage stability, liquid water and nitrogen concentration measurement in the anode exhaust are compared and analyzed under different purge strategy designs and using different purge valves. The results show that under the optimal purge strategy, the DEA fuel cell stack can achieve the desired stability and system efficiency based on the analysis of the cell voltage and purge volume. Moreover, the diameter of the purge valve has a great impact on the voltage stability because a diameter change will result in a different pressure drop and purge volume when the purge valve is open.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    Just as He-3 --> can be approximately characterized as a polarized neutron target, polarized Li-6D has been advocated as a good isoscalar nuclear target for the extraction of the polarized gluon content of the nucleon. The original argument rests upon a presumed ''alpha + deuteron'' picture of Li-6,

  11. Pilot study of mechanism of property-modified anode in aluminum electrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖劲; 杨建红; 胡国荣; 赖延清; 王先黔; 刘业翔


    On the basis of serial laboratory research and industrial test, the mechanism of saving energy and reducing carbon consumption of property-modified prebaked anode in aluminum electrolysis was discussed. It is considered that the anodic over voltage is affected by the concentration of carbon monoxide surrounding anode. The property-modified prebaked anode can restrain the production of carbon monoxide. The reason of reducing carbon consumption was also analyzed, the result shows that besides physical action, chemical action also exists in the process where additives change the reaction rate of anodes.

  12. Laser-Ultrasonic Measurement of Elastic Properties of Anodized Aluminum Coatings (United States)

    Singer, F.

    Anodized aluminum oxide plays a great role in many industrial applications, e.g. in order to achieve greater wear resistance. Since the hardness of the anodized films strongly depends on its processing parameters, it is important to characterize the influence of the processing parameters on the film properties. In this work the elastic material parameters of anodized aluminum were investigated using a laser-based ultrasound system. The anodized films were characterized analyzing the dispersion of Rayleigh waves with a one-layer model. It was shown that anodizing time and temperature strongly influence Rayleigh wave propagation.

  13. Internal reforming over nickel/zirconia anodes in SOFCS operating on methane: influence of anode formulation, pre-treatment and operating conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finnerty, C.M.; Ormerod, R.M. [Birchall Centre of Inorganic Chemistry and Materials Science, Department of Chemistry, Keele Univ. (United Kingdom)


    Internal methane reforming over nickel/zirconia cermet anodes has been studied in detail using a thin-walled extruded zirconia tubular SOFC reactor. The influence of anode formulation, anode pre-treatment, operating temperature and methane/steam ratio on the reforming characteristics, resistance to carbon deposition and durability of the anode have been investigated under actual operating conditions. Post-reaction TPO has been used to determine the amount of carbon deposition and its strength of interaction with the anode. A 90-vol.% nickel/zirconia anode shows higher activity than a 50-vol.% Ni anode at higher reforming temperatures, and shows very good durability. Pre-reducing the anodes in H{sub 2} at 1173 K leads to a more active reforming catalyst. Carbon is removed from the anodes in two processes during TPO, suggesting two types of carbon species. As the reforming temperature increases both carbon types are removed at higher temperature, and there is an increase in the relative population of the more strongly bound form of carbon. (orig.)

  14. North Polar Cap (United States)


    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] This week we will be looking at five examples of laminar wind flow on the north polar cap. On Earth, gravity-driven south polar cap winds are termed 'catabatic' winds. Catabatic winds begin over the smooth expanse of the cap interior due to temperature differences between the atmosphere and the surface. Once begun, the winds sweep outward along the surface of the polar cap toward the sea. As the polar surface slopes down toward sealevel, the wind speeds increase. Catabatic wind speeds in the Antartic can reach several hundreds of miles per hour. In the images of the Martian north polar cap we can see these same type of winds. Notice the streamers of dust moving downslope over the darker trough sides, these streamers show the laminar flow regime coming off the cap. Within the trough we see turbulent clouds of dust, kicked up at the trough base as the winds slow down and enter a chaotic flow regime. The horizontal lines in these images are due to framelet overlap and lighting conditions over the bright polar cap. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 86.5, Longitude 64.5 East (295.5 West). 40 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen

  15. Invalidation manner and mechanism of new type NbO electrolytic capacitor anode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jian; YI Dan-qing; WEN Jun-jie; LIU Hui-qun; ZHONG Hui


    Niobium suboxide powder was pressed and sintered in vacuum into NbO electrolytic capacitor sintered anode..High voltage and constant current formation experiment was performed on NbO electrolytic capacitor anode,during which electrolyte was 0.01 % Ha PO4 solution, temperature was 90 C and current was 50 mA per gram sample. Through the relationship between anode voltage and time and scanning electron microscopy(SEM) images of invalidated anode and normal forming anode, invalidation manner and mechanism of NbO electrolytic capacitor anode were discussed. The results show that, the main invalidation manner of NbO electrolytic capacitor anode is not short circuit but open circuit, which is different to that of traditional Ta electrolytic capacitor anode. The reason of invalidation is that anode oxide film whose thickness increases gradually penetrates the "connection neck" among anode powder particles, which leads to the open circuit invalidation of anode. Compared with Ta electrolytic capacitor,NbO electrolytic capacitor has better security.

  16. Gradient Control of the Adhesive Force between Ti/TiO2 Nanotubular Arrays Fabricated by Anodization (United States)

    Zhao, Minghui; Li, Jidong; Li, Yubao; Wang, Jian; Zuo, Yi; Jiang, Jiaxing; Wang, Huanan


    The poor control of the adhesion of TiO2 nanotubes (TNTs) layers to a non-anodized titanium (Ti) substrate has limited their widespread application, because the stripping mechanism has not yet been revealed. Here, we report a novel method to control the detachment of TNTs by post-treatment of the as-fabricated samples in protic and aprotic solvents with different polarities. Post-treatment using an organic solvent of lower polarity increases the adhesion of the tube layer, in contrast to the spontaneous detachment of the TNT layer after treatment using a solvent of higher polarity. The structure and the composition at the rupture interface were studied to explore the mechanism of the stripping behavior. Based on our experimental results and previous studies, a hypothesis of a hydrogen-assisted cracking (HAC) mechanism was proposed to explain the mechanism of TNTs' natural detachment and the control over of TNTs' stripping behaviors by post-treatment, in which the presence of protons at the interface between the TNT layer and the Ti substrate play an important role in controlling the two layers' cohesion. In summary, this method and mechanism hold promise to be used as a tool for the design and fabrication of TNT-related materials in future.

  17. Effect of electromagnetic force and anode gas on electrolyte flow in aluminum electrolysis cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Nai-jun; XIA Xiao-xia; BAO Sheng-zhong


    Based on the commercial computational fluid dynamics software CFX-4.3, electrolyte flow fields in a 156 kA pre-baked anode aluminum electrolysis cell were investigated in three different cases where the electrolyte melt was driven by different kinds of force, i.e. electromagnetic force only, the anode gas drag force only and both of the former two forces. The results show that when electromagnetic force was introduced only, most of the electrolyte moves horizontally; when anode gas drag force was introduced only, the electrolyte flows mainly around each anode with small circulation; when electromagnetic force and anode gas drag force were both introduced together, the structure of the electrolyte flow fields and the velocity of electrolyte are similar to that of the case where only anode gas drag force is used. The electrolyte flow fields are mainly determined by the anode gas drag force.

  18. Structural features of anodic oxide films formed on aluminum substrate coated with self-assembled microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asoh, Hidetaka [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Kogakuin University, 2665-1 Nakano, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0015 (Japan)], E-mail:; Uchibori, Kota; Ono, Sachiko [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Kogakuin University, 2665-1 Nakano, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0015 (Japan)


    The structural features of anodic oxide films formed on an aluminum substrate coated with self-assembled microspheres were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. In the first anodization in neutral solution, the growth of a barrier-type film was partially suppressed in the contact area between the spheres and the underlying aluminum substrate, resulting in the formation of ordered dimple arrays in an anodic oxide film. After the subsequent second anodization in acid solution at a voltage lower than that of the first anodization, nanopores were generated only within each dimple. The nanoporous region could be removed selectively by post-chemical etching using the difference in structural dimensions between the porous region and the surrounding barrier region. The mechanism of anodic oxide growth on the aluminum substrate coated with microspheres through multistep anodization is discussed.

  19. Polarization singularity anisotropy: determining monstardom

    CERN Document Server

    Dennis, Mark R


    C points, that is isolated points of circular polarization in transverse fields of varying polarization, are classified morphologically into three distinct types, known as lemons, stars and monstars. These morphologies are interpreted here according to two natural parameters associated with the singularity, namely the anisotropy of the C point, and the polarization azimuth on the anisotropy axis. In addition to providing insight into singularity morphology, this observation applies to the densities of the various morphologies in isotropic random polarization speckle fields.

  20. Polarization of a Helium-Neon Laser. (United States)

    Jones, Edwin R.


    Describes an experiment that involves measuring the intensity of laser light passed by a linear polarizer. Discusses polarization effects, orthogonal polarizations, instrumentation, and further experiments. (JRH)

  1. Planar cell polarity signaling: a common mechanism for cellular polarization. (United States)

    Jenny, Andreas; Mlodzik, Marek


    Epithelial cells frequently display--in addition to the common apical-basolateral polarity--a polarization within the plane of the epithelium. This is commonly referred to as planar cell polarity (PCP) or tissue polarity. Examples of vertebrate PCP include epithelial patterning in the skin and inner ear, and also the morphogenetic movements of mesenchymal cells during convergent extension at gastrulation. In Drosophila, all adult epithelial structures of the cuticle are polarized within the plane. This review presents recent results and new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the establishment of PCP, and compares and contrasts the intriguing similarities between PCP signaling in Drosophila and vertebrates.

  2. Polarized electrogowdy spacetimes censored

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nungesser, Ernesto, E-mail: ernesto.nungesser@aei.mpg.d [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut, Am Muehlenberg 1, 14476 Potsdam (Germany)


    A sketch of the proof of strong cosmic censorship is presented for a class of solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell equations, those with polarized Gowdy symmetry. A key element of the argument is the observation that by means of a suitable choice of variables the central equations in this problem can be written in a form where they are identical to the central equations for general (i.e. non-polarized) vacuum Gowdy spacetimes. Using this it is seen that the results of Ringstroem on strong cosmic censorship in the vacuum case have implications for the Einstein-Maxwell case. Working out the geometrical meaning of these analytical results leads to the main conclusion.

  3. Galactic Diffuse Polarized Emission

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ettore Carretti


    Diffuse polarized emission by synchrotron is a key tool to investigate magnetic fields in the Milky Way, particularly the ordered component of the large scale structure. Key observables are the synchrotron emission itself and the RM is by Faraday rotation. In this paper the main properties of the radio polarized diffuse emission and its use to investigate magnetic fields will be reviewed along with our current understanding of the galactic magnetic field and the data sets available. We will then focus on the future perspective discussing RM-synthesis – the new powerful instrument devised to unlock the information encoded in such an emission – and the surveys currently in progress like S-PASS and GMIMS.

  4. Measuring Polarization with DASI

    CERN Document Server

    Leitch, E M; Pryke, C L; Reddall, B; Sandberg, E S; Dragovan, M; Carlstrom, J E; Halverson, N W; Holzapfel, W L


    We describe an experiment to measure the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) with the Degree Angular Scale Interferometer (DASI), a compact microwave interferometer optimized to detect CMB anisotropy at multipoles 140 to 900. The telescope has operated at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole research station since 2000 January. The telescope was retrofit as a polarimeter during the 2000--2001 austral summer, and throughout the 2001 and 2002 austral winters has made observations of the CMB with sensitivity to all four Stokes parameters. The telescope performance has been extensively characterized through observations of artificial sources, the Moon, and polarized and unpolarized Galactic sources. In 271 days of observation, DASI has differenced the CMB fluctuations in two fields to an rms noise level of 2.8 uK.

  5. Protons accumulation during anodic phase turned to advantage for oxygen reduction during cathodic phase in reversible bioelectrodes. (United States)

    Blanchet, Elise; Pécastaings, Sophie; Erable, Benjamin; Roques, Christine; Bergel, Alain


    Reversible bioelectrodes were designed by alternating acetate and oxygen supply. It was demonstrated that the protons produced and accumulated inside the biofilm during the anodic phase greatly favored the oxygen reduction reaction when the electrode was switched to become the biocathode. Protons accumulation, which hindered the bioanode operation, thus became an advantage for the biocathode. The bioanodes, formed from garden compost leachate under constant polarization at -0.2 V vs. SCE, were able to support long exposure to forced aeration, with only a slight alteration of their anodic efficiency. They produced a current density of 16±1.7 A/m2 for acetate oxidation and up to -0.4 A/m2 for oxygen reduction. Analysis of the microbial communities by 16S rRNA pyrosequencing revealed strong selection of Chloroflexi (49±1%), which was not observed for conventional bioanodes not exposed to oxygen. Chloroflexi were found as the dominant phylum of electroactive biofilms for the first time.

  6. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy study in micro-grain structured amorphous silicon anodes for lithium-ion batteries (United States)

    Paloukis, Fotis; Elmasides, Costas; Farmakis, Filippos; Selinis, Petros; Neophytides, Stylianos G.; Georgoulas, Nikolaos


    In this paper, a study of the lithiation mechanism of micro-grain structured silicon anode is presented. Micro-grain amorphous silicon was deposited on special copper foil and it is shown that after several decades of galvanostatic cycles, it preserves its granular nature with minor degradation. In order to shed light on the lithiation mechanisms of the micro-grain silicon, Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) was conducted on silicon half-cells at various State-of-Charge (SoC) and various discharging current values and the Solid-Electrolyte Interphase (SEI) RSEI and polarization resistance Rpol were determined. Results reveal that Rpol highly increases for cell voltages lower than 0.2 V and it strongly depends on the discharging C-rate. From X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) measurements combined with surface sputtering, the existence of a LixSiyOz interlayer between SEI and silicon is confirmed, which is believed to play an important role to the lithium kinetics. Finally, combining our results, a lithiation mechanism of the micro-grain silicon anode is proposed.

  7. Polarization Diffusion from Spacetime Uncertainty

    CERN Document Server

    Contaldi, Carlo; Philpott, Lydia


    A model of Lorentz invariant random fluctuations in photon polarization is presented. The effects are frequency dependent and affect the polarization of photons as they propagate through space. We test for this effect by confronting the model with the latest measurements of polarization of Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) photons.

  8. Alternating-Polarity Arc Welding (United States)

    Schwinghamer, R. J.


    Brief reversing polarity of welding current greatly improves quality of welds. NASA technical memorandum recounts progress in art of variable-polarity plasma-arc (VPPA) welding, with emphasis on welding of aluminum-alloy tanks. VPPA welders offer important advantages over conventional single-polarity gas/tungsten arc welders.

  9. Polarization losses in reflector antennas (United States)

    Safak, M.; Yazgan, E.


    Various definitions for polarization-loss efficiency of Cassegrainian and front-fed reflectors are compared. The effects of flare angle, feed taper and the feed pattern asymmetry on the polarization-loss efficiency are investigated. The definitions based on aperture fields are shown to be inadequate and far fields must be used for calculating the polarization losses.

  10. The Gamma-Ray Burst Polarimeter - POLAR onboard the China’s Spacelab “Tiangong-2” (United States)



    POLAR is a novel compact space-borne Compton polarimeter conceived for a precise measurement of hard X-ray/Gamma-ray polarization and optimized for the detection of the prompt emission of Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRB) in the energy range 50 - 500 keV. The future detailed measurement of the polarization of GRB will lead to a better understanding of its radiation region geometry and emission mechanisms. Thanks to its remarkable properties on large effective area, field of view (4.14 sr or 1/3 of the visible sky) and obvious modulation factor, POLAR will be able to reach a minimum detectable polarization (1-σ level) of about 3% for several GRB measurements per year. POLAR consists of 25 detector modular units (DMU). Each DMU is composed of 64 low-Z plastic scintillator bars, read out by a flat-panel multi-anode photomultipliers and ASIC front-end electronics. The incoming photons undergo Compton scattering in the bars and produce a modulation pattern. Simulations and hard X-ray synchrotron radiation experiments have shown that the polarization degree and angle can be retrieved from this pattern with the accuracy necessary for pinning down the GRB mechanisms. A full flight model of POLAR has been constructed, in view of a flight on the Chinese spacelab TG-2 expected in 2016. The design of POLAR, Monte-Carlo simulation analysis as well as the performance test results will be all addressed in details in this talk.

  11. Polarization induced doped transistor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing, Huili (Grace); Jena, Debdeep; Nomoto, Kazuki; Song, Bo; Zhu, Mingda; Hu, Zongyang


    A nitride-based field effect transistor (FET) comprises a compositionally graded and polarization induced doped p-layer underlying at least one gate contact and a compositionally graded and doped n-channel underlying a source contact. The n-channel is converted from the p-layer to the n-channel by ion implantation, a buffer underlies the doped p-layer and the n-channel, and a drain underlies the buffer.

  12. Transverse polarization in ; production

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Saurabh D Rindani


    With the use of transverse polarization (TP), a CP-odd and T-odd observable can be constructed when the final-state particles are self-conjugate. In the case of production, this observable can be used to probe a certain effective four-point + - CP-violating coupling, not accessible without TP. Effective CP-violating coupling does not contribute to this observable. A similar observable in production can be used to probe + - four-point couplings.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott A. Barnett; Jiang Liu; Yuanbo Lin


    This work was carried out to achieve a better understanding of how SOFC anodes work with real fuels. The motivation was to improve the fuel flexibility of SOFC anodes, thereby allowing simplification and cost reduction of SOFC power plants. The work was based on prior results indicating that Ni-YSZ anode-supported SOFCs can be operated directly on methane and natural gas, while SOFCs with novel anode compositions can work with higher hydrocarbons. While these results were promising, more work was clearly needed to establish the feasibility of these direct-hydrocarbon SOFCs. Basic information on hydrocarbon-anode reactions should be broadly useful because reformate fuel gas can contain residual hydrocarbons, especially methane. In the Phase I project, we have studied the reaction mechanisms of various hydrocarbons--including methane, natural gas, and higher hydrocarbons--on two kinds of Ni-containing anodes: conventional Ni-YSZ anodes and a novel ceramic-based anode composition that avoid problems with coking. The effect of sulfur impurities was also studied. The program was aimed both at achieving an understanding of the interactions between real fuels and SOFC anodes, and providing enough information to establish the feasibility of operating SOFC stacks directly on hydrocarbon fuels. A combination of techniques was used to provide insight into the hydrocarbon reactions at these anodes during SOFC operation. Differentially-pumped mass spectrometry was be used for product-gas analysis both with and without cell operation. Impedance spectroscopy was used in order to understand electrochemical rate-limiting steps. Open-circuit voltages measurements under a range of conditions was used to help determine anode electrochemical reactions. Life tests over a wide range of conditions were used to establish the conditions for stable operation of anode-supported SOFC stacks directly on methane. Redox cycling was carried out on ceramic-based anodes. Tests on sulfur tolerance of

  14. PEPPo: Using a Polarized Electron Beam to Produce Polarized Positrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adeyemi, Adeleke H. [Hampton Univ., Hampton, VA (United States); et al.


    Polarized positron beams have been identified as either an essential or a significant ingredient for the experimental program of both the present and next generation of lepton accelerators (JLab, Super KEK B, ILC, CLIC). An experiment demonstrating a new method for producing polarized positrons has been performed at the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility at Jefferson Lab. The PEPPo (Polarized Electrons for Polarized Positrons) concept relies on the production of polarized e⁻/e⁺ pairs from the bremsstrahlung radiation of a longitudinally polarized electron beam interacting within a high-Z conversion target. PEPPo demonstrated the effective transfer of spin-polarization of an 8.2 MeV/c polarized (P~85%) electron beam to positrons produced in varying thickness tungsten production targets, and collected and measured in the range of 3.1 to 6.2 MeV/c. In comparison to other methods this technique reveals a new pathway for producing either high-energy or thermal polarized positron beams using a relatively low polarized electron beam energy (~10MeV) .This presentation will describe the PEPPo concept, the motivations of the experiment and high positron polarization achieved.

  15. Polar Business Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Caisse


    Full Text Available Polar business design aims to enable entrepreneurs, managers, consultants, researchers, and business students to better tackle model-based analysis, creation, and transformation of businesses, ventures, and, more generically, collective endeavors of any size and purpose. It is based on a systems-thinking approach that builds on a few interrelated core concepts to create holistic visual frameworks. These core concepts act as poles linked by meaningful dyads, flows, and faces arranged in geometric shapes. The article presents two such polar frameworks as key findings in an ongoing analytic autoethnography: the three-pole Value−Activity−Stakeholder (VAS triquetra and the four-pole Offer−Creation−Character−Stakeholder (OCCS tetrahedron. The VAS triquetra is a more aggregated model of collective endeavors. The OCCS tetrahedron makes a trade-off between a steeper learning curve and deeper, richer representation potential. This article discusses how to use these two frameworks as well as their limits, and explores the potential that polar business design offers for future research.

  16. Performance of Zinc Anodes for Cathodic Protection of Reinforced Concrete Bridges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Covino, Bernard S. Jr.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Holcomb, Gordon R.; Russell, James H.; Collins, W. Keith; Laylor, Martin H.; Cryer, Curtis B.


    Operation of thermal spray zinc (Zn) anodes for cathodic protection (CP) of reinforced concrete structures was investigated in laboratory and field studies conducted by the Albany Research Center (ARC) in collaboration with the Oregon Department of Transportation. The purposes of the research presented in this report were: evaluate the need for preheating concrete to improve the adhesion of the anode; estimate the service life of thermal spray Zn CP anodes; determine the optimum thickness for Zn CP anodes; characterize the anode-concrete interfacial chemistry; and correlate field and laboratory results. Laboratory studies involved accelerated electrochemical aging of thermal sprayed Zn anodes on concrete slabs, some of which were periodically wetted while others were unwetted. Concrete used in the slabs contained either 1.2 or 3 kg NaCl /m3 (2 or 5 lbs NaCl /yd3) as part of the concrete mix design. The Zn anodes were applied to the slabs using the twin wire arc-spray technique. Half of the slabs were preheated to 120-160 C (250-320 F) to improve the initial Zn anode bond strength and the other half were not. Accelerated aging was done at a current density of 0.032 A/m2 (3 mA/ft2), 15 times that used on Oregon DOT Coastal bridges, i.e, . 0.0022 A/m2 (0.2 mA/ft2) Cores from the Cape Creek Bridge (OR), the Richmond San Rafael Bridge (CA), and the East Camino Underpass (CA) were used to study the anode-concrete interfacial chemistry, to relate the chemistry to electrochemical age at the time of sampling, and to compare the chemistry of the field anodes to the chemistry of anodes from the laboratory studies. Cores from a CALTRANS study of a silane sealant used prior to the application of the Zn anodes and cores with galvanized rebar from the Longbird Bridge (Bermuda) were also studied. Aged laboratory and field anodes were characterized by measuring some or all of the following parameters: thickness, bond strength, anode-concrete interfacial chemistry, bulk chemistry

  17. The Impact of Strong Cathodic Polarization on SOC Electrolyte Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreka, Kosova; Hansen, Karin Vels; Jacobsen, Torben


    of impurities at the grain boundaries, electrode poisoning, delamination or cracks of the electrolyte etc., have been observed in cells operated at such conditions, lowering the lifetime of the cell1,2. High polarizations are observed at the electrolyte/cathode interface of an electrolysis cell operated at high...... current density. In case of a cell voltage above 1.6 V, p-type and n-type electronic conductivity are often observed at the anode and cathode respectively3. Hence, a considerable part of the current is lost as leakage through the electrolyte, thus lowering the efficiency of the cell considerably.......One of the most promising reversible energy conversion/storage technologies is that of Solid Oxide Fuel/Electrolysis Cells (SOFC/SOEC, collectively termed SOC). Long term durability is typically required for such devises to become economically feasible, hence considerable amount of work has...

  18. H2 and CO oxidation process at the three-phase boundary of Cu-ceria cermet anode for solid oxide fuel cell (United States)

    Zheng, Minghao; Wang, Shuang; Li, Mei; Xia, Changrong


    Cu-ceria cermets have been widely investigated as the anode materials for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) that operated with hydrocarbon fuels. However, the anode reaction processes are not clear yet, especially those at the ceria-Cu-gas three phase boundary (3 PB). This work investigates samaria-doped ceria (SDC)-Cu-gas 3 PB reaction kinetics for the oxidation of H2 and CO, the products from hydrocarbons via external and internal reforming. Electrochemical conductivity relaxation measurement demonstrates that Cu is a synergistic catalyst that can significantly increase the reaction rate. The reaction at 3 PB contributes 81.3/66.8% of H2/CO oxidation when 5.4% SDC surface is covered with Cu particles. Combining with AC impedance analysis, elementary steps are proposed for the reaction at 3 PB. Water vapor combining to oxygen vacancy and carbon monoxide transforming to carbonate are the rate-determining steps for the oxidation of H2 and CO, respectively. Cu-SDC has shown much higher catalytic activity, i.e. about fivefold reaction rate, for the oxidation of CO than H2. In addition, Cu-SDC electrodes exhibit lower interfacial polarization resistance and lower activation energy for the electrochemical oxidation of CO than H2. Consequently, CO is easier to be oxidized than H2 when the Cu-ceria anode is fueled with syngas, the reforming product from hydrocarbons.

  19. Effect of nickel content on the anodic dissolution and passivation of zinc–nickel alloys in alkaline solutions by potentiodynamic and potentiostatic techniques

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abdel-Rahman El-Sayed; Hany M Abd El-Lateef; Hossnia S Mohran


    The effect of systematic increase of Ni on the anodic dissolution and passivation of Zn–Ni alloys in various concentrations of KOH solution (0.1–1 M) was investigated. The anodic dissolution and passivation behaviour for each pure Zn and Ni in the same studied solutions was also investigated, and the obtained data were compared. Potentiodynamic and potentiostatic methods were used, and the corrosion layer formed on each electrode surface was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results of the anodic potentiodynamic measurements exhibited that the polarization curves showed active/passive transition in the case of Ni and active/pseudopassive in the case of both Zn and its alloys. The results showed that the increase in Ni content increases the activation energy (a) and decreases the dissolution rate of the alloys in KOH solution, and the lowest dissolution rate was obtained at 10% Ni. The results of both potentiodynamic and potentiostatic measurements exhibit sudden increase in current density which is observed at certain positive potential (+0.42 V .SCE) in the case of the investigated alloys. This indicates that the addition of Ni to Zn promotes the electrochemical reaction (in the passive region). However, the passivation potential shifted to more positive direction with the increase in Ni content in the alloy.

  20. Si nanowire arrays as anodes in Li ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foell, H.; Hartz, H.; Ossei-Wusu, E.; Carstensen, J.; Riemenschneider, O. [Institute for Materials Science, Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel (Germany)


    Si nanowires can incorporate large amounts of Li without fracturing and are thus prime candidates for anodes in Li ion batteries. Anodes made from Si nanowires offer a specific capacity per gram more then 10 times larger than the present graphite standard. It is shown how optimized Si nanowire arrays embedded in Cu can be produced in a relatively simple way employing macropore etching in Si followed by chemical etching and Cu galvanic deposition. First tests of these arrays in half-cells and batteries demonstrated a substantially increased capacity, small irreversible losses and cycle stability. In particular more than 60 charge/discharge cycles could be realized without loss of capacity. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  1. Accelerated creep of Ni-YSZ anodes during reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Greco, Fabio; Ni, De Wei


    load-carrying component. In this work we report on a new creep-reduction phenomenon observed to take place during the reduction process itself, where stresses are relaxed at a rate much faster (~×104) than during operation where the anode is in fully reduced state. Furthermore, samples exposed...... by the thermomechanical history of the stack (e.g. sintering temperature, time at temperature etc.). During operation the stress state will depend on time as stresses are relaxed by creep processes. Creep has mainly been studied at operating conditions, where the Ni-YSZ anode is in the reduced state and YSZ is the main......To evaluate the reliability of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stacks during operation the stress field must be known at all times. This is influenced by external loads, the operating conditions, the particular design of the stack components and their mechanical properties and finally...

  2. Improved SOFC performance with continuously graded anode functional layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhenhua; Xu, Ping [Department of Chemistry, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Zhang, Naiqing; Sun, Kening [Academy of Fundamental and Interdisciplinary Sciences, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150001 (China); Qiao, Jinshuo [Academy of Fundamental and Interdisciplinary Sciences, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150001 (China); Post-doctoral Research Center of Civil Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150001 (China)


    Continuously graded anode functional layers (CG-AFLs) were fabricated on the Ni-YSZ anode substrates by electrophoretic co-deposition (EPD) technique. The microstructure and composition of the CG-AFLs were investigated. The result showed that uniform and graded structure in AFL was obtained. The single cells were constructed on the basis of CG-AFLs, with a maximum output power density greater than 1.10 W cm{sup -2} obtained at 800 C for the cell with 9.8 {mu}m-thick CG-AFL. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) indicated that the excellent cell performance was contributed to the enlargement of triple phase boundary (TPB) by adding the CG-AFL. (author)

  3. Carbon Cryogel Silicon Composite Anode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries (United States)

    Woodworth James; Baldwin, Richard; Bennett, William


    A variety of materials are under investigation for use as anode materials in lithium-ion batteries, of which, the most promising are those containing silicon. 10 One such material is a composite formed via the dispersion of silicon in a resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) gel followed by pyrolysis. Two silicon-carbon composite materials, carbon microspheres and nanofoams produced from nano-phase silicon impregnated RF gel precursors have been synthesized and investigated. Carbon microspheres are produced by forming the silicon-containing RF gel into microspheres whereas carbon nano-foams are produced by impregnating carbon fiber paper with the silicon containing RF gel to create a free standing electrode. 1-4,9 Both materials have demonstrated their ability to function as anodes and utilize the silicon present in the material. Stable reversible capacities above 400 mAh/g for the bulk material and above 1000 mAh/g of Si have been observed.

  4. Recent trends in binder pitches for reduction anodes (United States)

    Turner, Nigel R.


    The properties of coal tar pitches have changed more in the last eight years than in the previous 40. Over the same period of time, the understanding of the influence of these properties on anodes has increased greatly. The definition of a good-quality pitch for the manufacture of anodes for the primary aluminum industry has changed radically. Pitches that would have been rejected 15 years ago are now preferred and are in high demand. Changes have been led in equal proportion by the pitch producers and by the primary aluminum industry. The increased pace of change will continue as the quest for higher performance is unending. Further advances will be achieved through closer cooperation between producer and user to define and redefine pitch quality in terms of what is the best compromise between what the customer wants and what the producer can practicably manufacture.

  5. High quality 3D shapes by silicon anodization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, Alexey; Kovacs, Andras; Mescheder, Ulrich [Institute for Applied Research and Faculty of Computer and Electrical Engineering, Hochschule Furtwangen University, Robert-Gerwig-Platz 1, 78120 Furtwangen (Germany)


    In this paper some process considerations and optimizations of anodization for three-dimensional (3D)-structuring of silicon are discussed. For the shape controlling of etched form different approaches, such as frontside masking design, local backside doping and surface pre-structuring are presented. Influences of the opening size and etch depth on the shape of the etching form are investigated. The surface quality of the resulting 3D structures is critically dependent on the specific process parameters and process flow. Best surface quality was obtained for electropolishing in 7 wt.% hydrofluoric acid (HF) at applied current densities of 100-300 mA/cm{sup 2}. Application of 3D silicon forms for injection moulding is demonstrated and further implementations of the process for optical and fluidic devices are discussed. 3D silicon shapes fabricated using anodization process with local backside doping design. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. Mineralization of aqueous pentachlorophenolate by anodic contact glow discharge electrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haiming Yang; Meguru Tezuka


    Exhaustive mineralization of pentachlorophenolate ion (PCP) in phosphate buffer was carried out using anodic contact glow discharge electrolysis (CGDE), in which plasma was sustained between the electrolyte and anode. During CGDE, PCP degraded smoothly. The amount of total organic carbon decreased significantly, indicating the eventual conversion of the carbon atoms of benzene nucleus to inorganic carbons. Furthermore, chlorine atoms in PCP were liberated as chloride ions. As a primary intermediate product, 2,3,5,6-tetrachloro-1,4-benzoquinone was detected, and oxalate and formate as byproducts were also found. It was revealed that disappearance of PCP obeyed first-order kinetics. The reaction rate was generally unaffected by both O2 and inert gases in the cell, although it decreased by raising initial pH of solution. In addition, a plausible reaction pathway involving hydroxyl radical was proposed.

  7. Reviving the lithium metal anode for high-energy batteries (United States)

    Lin, Dingchang; Liu, Yayuan; Cui, Yi


    Lithium-ion batteries have had a profound impact on our daily life, but inherent limitations make it difficult for Li-ion chemistries to meet the growing demands for portable electronics, electric vehicles and grid-scale energy storage. Therefore, chemistries beyond Li-ion are currently being investigated and need to be made viable for commercial applications. The use of metallic Li is one of the most favoured choices for next-generation Li batteries, especially Li-S and Li-air systems. After falling into oblivion for several decades because of safety concerns, metallic Li is now ready for a revival, thanks to the development of investigative tools and nanotechnology-based solutions. In this Review, we first summarize the current understanding on Li anodes, then highlight the recent key progress in materials design and advanced characterization techniques, and finally discuss the opportunities and possible directions for future development of Li anodes in applications.

  8. Niobium-doped strontium titanates as SOFC anodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blennow Tullmar, Peter; Kammer Hansen, Kent; Wallenberg, L. Reine;


    been synthesized with a recently developed modified glycine-nitrate process. The synthesized powders have been calcined and sintered in air or in 9% H(2) / N(2) between 800 - 1400 degrees C. After calcination the samples were single phase Nb-doped strontium titanate with grain sizes of less than 100 nm...... in diameter on average. The phase purity, defect structure, and microstructure of the materials have been analyzed with SEM, XRD, and TGA. The electrical conductivity of the Nb-doped titanate decreased with increasing temperature and showed a phonon scattering conduction mechanism with sigma > 120 S...... ability of the Nb-doped titanates to be used as a part of a SOFC anode. However, the catalytic activity of the materials was not sufficient and it needs to be improved if titanate based materials are to be realized as constituents in SOFC anodes....

  9. Recycling rice husks for high-capacity lithium battery anodes. (United States)

    Jung, Dae Soo; Ryou, Myung-Hyun; Sung, Yong Joo; Park, Seung Bin; Choi, Jang Wook


    The rice husk is the outer covering of a rice kernel and protects the inner ingredients from external attack by insects and bacteria. To perform this function while ventilating air and moisture, rice plants have developed unique nanoporous silica layers in their husks through years of natural evolution. Despite the massive amount of annual production near 10(8) tons worldwide, so far rice husks have been recycled only for low-value agricultural items. In an effort to recycle rice husks for high-value applications, we convert the silica to silicon and use it for high-capacity lithium battery anodes. Taking advantage of the interconnected nanoporous structure naturally existing in rice husks, the converted silicon exhibits excellent electrochemical performance as a lithium battery anode, suggesting that rice husks can be a massive resource for use in high-capacity lithium battery negative electrodes.

  10. Hydroxyapatite growth on anodic TiO2 nanotubes. (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Hiroaki; Macak, Jan M; Müller, Lenka; Kunze, Julia; Müller, Frank; Greil, Peter; Virtanen, Sannakaisa; Schmuki, Patrik


    In the present work, we study the growth of hydroxyapatite formation on different TiO(2) nanotube layers. The nanotube layers were fabricated by electrochemical anodization of titanium in fluoride-containing electrolytes. To study various nanotube lengths, layers with an individual tube diameter of 100 nm were grown to a thickness of approximately 2 mum or 500 nm. The ability to form apatite on the nanotube layers was examined by immersion tests combined with SEM, XRD and FT-IR investigations. For reference, experiments were also carried out on compact anodic TiO(2) layers. The results clearly show that the presence of the nanotubes on a titanium surface enhances the apatite formation and that the 2-mum thick nanotube layer triggers deposition faster than the thinner layers. Tubes annealed to anatase, or a mixture of anatase and rutile are clearly more efficient in promoting apatite formation than the tubes in their "as-formed" amorphous state.

  11. Novel trench gate field stop IGBT with trench shorted anode (United States)

    Xudong, Chen; Jianbing, Cheng; Guobing, Teng; Houdong, Guo


    A novel trench field stop (FS) insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) with a trench shorted anode (TSA) is proposed. By introducing a trench shorted anode, the TSA-FS-IGBT can obviously improve the breakdown voltage. As the simulation results show, the breakdown voltage is improved by a factor of 19.5% with a lower leakage current compared with the conventional FS-IGBT. The turn off time of the proposed structure is 50% lower than the conventional one with less than 9% voltage drop increased at a current density of 150 A/cm2. Additionally, there is no snapback observed. As a result, the TSA-FS-IGBT has a better trade-off relationship between the turn off loss and forward drop. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61274080) and the Postdoctoral Science Foundation of China (No. 2013M541585).

  12. Polarized Emission from Interstellar Dust

    CERN Document Server

    Vaillancourt, J E


    Observations of far-infrared (FIR) and submillimeter (SMM) polarized emission are used to study magnetic fields and dust grains in dense regions of the interstellar medium (ISM). These observations place constraints on models of molecular clouds, star-formation, grain alignment mechanisms, and grain size, shape, and composition. The FIR/SMM polarization is strongly dependent on wavelength. We have attributed this wavelength dependence to sampling different grain populations at different temperatures. To date, most observations of polarized emission have been in the densest regions of the ISM. Extending these observations to regions of the diffuse ISM, and to microwave frequencies, will provide additional tests of grain and alignment models. An understanding of polarized microwave emission from dust is key to an accurate measurement of the polarization of the cosmic microwave background. The microwave polarization spectrum will put limits on the contributions to polarized emission from spinning dust and vibrat...

  13. Elite Polarization and Public Opinion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robison, Joshua; Mullinix, Kevin


    Elite polarization has reshaped American politics and is an increasingly salient aspect of news coverage within the United States. As a consequence, a burgeoning body of research attempts to unravel the effects of elite polarization on the mass public. However, we know very little about how...... polarization is communicated to the public by news media. We report the results of one of the first content analyses to delve into the nature of news coverage of elite polarization. We show that such coverage is predominantly critical of polarization. Moreover, we show that unlike coverage of politics focused...... on individual politicians, coverage of elite polarization principally frames partisan divisions as rooted in the values of the parties rather than strategic concerns. We build on these novel findings with two survey experiments exploring the influence of these features of polarization news coverage on public...

  14. Optimization of polarization lidar structure (United States)

    Abramochkin, Alexander I.; Kaul, Bruno V.; Tikhomirov, Alexander A.


    The problems of the polarization lidar transceiver optimization are considered. The basic features and the optimization criteria of lidar polarization units are presented and the comparative analysis of polarization units is fulfilled. We have analyzed optical arrangements of the transmitter to form the desired polarization state of sounding radiation. We have also considered various types of lidar receiving systems: (1) one-channel, providing measurement of Stocks parameters at a successive change of position of polarization analyzers in the lidar receiver, and (2) multichannel, where each channel has a lens, an analyzer, and a photodetector. In the latter case measurements of Stocks parameters are carried out simultaneously. The optimization criteria of the polarization lidar considering the atmospheric state are determined with the purpose to decrease the number of polarization devices needed.

  15. Differential Pulse Anodic Stripping Voltammetry for Mercury Determination



    In the present work voltammetric investigations have been performed on HgCl2 aqueous solutions prepared from a Cz 9024 reagent. Carbon paste electrode (CPE), eriochrome black T modified carbon paste electrode (MCPE/EBT) and KCl 1M as background electrolyte, were involved within the experimental procedures. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) has been performed in order to compare the behaviour of the two electrodes in both K3[Fe(CN)6] and mercury calibration aqueous solution. Differential pulse anodic st...

  16. Hydroxyapatite electrodeposition on anodized titanium nanotubes for orthopedic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parcharoen, Yardnapar [Department of Biological Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok (Thailand); Kajitvichyanukul, Puangrat [Center of Excellence on Environmental Research and Innovation, Faculty of Engineering, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok (Thailand); Sirivisoot, Sirinrath [Department of Biological Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok (Thailand); Termsuksawad, Preecha, E-mail: [Division of Materials Technology, School of Energy, Environment and Materials, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, 126 Pracha Uthit Rd., Bang Mod, ThungKhru, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)


    Highlights: • We found that different anodization time of titanium significantly effects on nanotube length which further impacts adhesion strength of hydroxyapatite coating layers. • Adhesion strength of Hydroxyapatite (HA) coated on titanium dioxide nanotubes is better than that of HA coated on titanium plate. • Hydroxyapatite coated on titanium dioxide nanotubes showed higher cell density and better spreading of MC3T3-E1 cells (bone-forming cells) than that coated on titanium plate surface. - Abstract: Nanotubes modification for orthopedic implants has shown interesting biological performances (such as improving cell adhesion, cell differentiation, and enhancing osseointegration). The purpose of this study is to investigate effect of titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanotube feature on performance of hydroxyapatite-coated titanium (Ti) bone implants. TiO{sub 2} nanotubes were prepared by anodization using ammonium fluoride electrolyte (NH{sub 4}F) with and without modifiers (PEG400 and Glycerol) at various potential forms, and times. After anodization, the nanotubes were subsequently annealed. TiO{sub 2} nanotubes were characterized by scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffractometer. The amorphous to anatase transformation due to annealing was observed. Smooth and highly organized TiO{sub 2} nanotubes were found when high viscous electrolyte, NH{sub 4}F in glycerol, was used. Negative voltage (−4 V) during anodization was confirmed to increase nanotube thickness. Length of the TiO{sub 2} nanotubes was significantly increased by times. The TiO{sub 2} nanotube was electrodeposited with hydroxyapatite (HA) and its adhesion was estimated by adhesive tape test. The result showed that nanotubes with the tube length of 560 nm showed excellent adhesion. The coated HA were tested for biological test by live/dead cell straining. HA coated on TiO{sub 2} nanotubes showed higher cells density, higher live cells, and more spreading of MC3T3-E1 cells than that

  17. Fabrication of titanium oxide nanotube arrays by anodic oxidation (United States)

    Zhao, Jianling; Wang, Xiaohui; Chen, Renzheng; Li, Longtu


    The formation of titanium oxide nanotube arrays on titanium substrates was investigated in HF electrolytes. Under optimized electrolyte and oxidation conditions, well-ordered nanotubes of titania were fabricated. Topologies of the anodized titanium change remarkably along with the changing of applied voltages, electrolyte concentration and oxidation time. Electrochemical determination and scanning electron microscope indicate the nanotubes are formed due to the competition of titania formation and dissolution under the assistance of electric field. A possible growth mechanism has also been presented.

  18. Influence of anodization parameters on the volume expansion of anodic aluminum oxide formed in mixed solution of phosphoric and oxalic acids (United States)

    Kao, Tzung-Ta; Chang, Yao-Chung


    The growth of anodic alumina oxide was conducted in the mixed solution of phosphoric and oxalic acids. The influence of anodizing voltage, electrolyte temperature, and concentration of phosphoric and oxalic acids on the volume expansion of anodic aluminum oxide has been investigated. Either anodizing parameter is chosen to its full extent of range that allows the anodization process to be conducted without electric breakdown and to explore the highest possible volume expansion factor. The volume expansion factors were found to vary between 1.25 and 1.9 depending on the anodizing parameters. The variation is explained in connection with electric field, ion transport number, temperature effect, concentration, and activity of acids. The formation of anodic porous alumina at anodizing voltage 160 V in 1.1 M phosphoric acid mixed with 0.14 M oxalic acid at 2 °C showed the peak volume expansion factor of 1.9 and the corresponding moderate growth rate of 168 nm/min.

  19. Analysis of nanopore arrangement and structural features of anodic alumina layers formed by two-step anodizing in oxalic acid using the dedicated executable software (United States)

    Zaraska, Leszek; Stępniowski, Wojciech J.; Sulka, Grzegorz D.; Ciepiela, Eryk; Jaskuła, Marian


    Anodic porous alumina layers were fabricated by a two-step self-organized anodization in 0.3 M oxalic acid under various anodizing potentials ranging from 30 to 60 V at two different temperatures (10 and 17 ∘C). The effect of anodizing conditions on structural features and pore arrangement of AAO was investigated in detail by using the dedicated executable publication combined with ImageJ software. With increasing anodizing potential, a linear increase of the average pore diameter, interpore distance, wall thickness and barrier layer thickness, as well as a decrease of the pore density, were observed. In addition, the higher pore diameter and porosity values were obtained for samples anodized at the elevated temperature, independently of the anodizing potential. A degree of pore order was investigated on the basis of Delaunay triangulations (defect maps) and calculation of pair distribution or angle distribution functions (PDF or ADF), respectively. All methods confirmed that in order to obtain nanoporous alumina with the best, hexagonal pore arrangement, the potential of 40 V should be applied during anodization. It was confirmed that the dedicated executable publication can be used to a fast and complex analysis of nanopore arrangement and structural features of nanoporous oxide layers.

  20. Tracer Studies of the Influence of Foreign Substances at the Surface of the Electrodes. I. Polarization Phenomena; Accion de las sustancias extranas en la superficie de los electrodos. Estudio mediante radiotrazadores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llopis, J.; Gamboa, J. M.; Arizmendi, L.


    Radioactive stearic acid ({sup 1}4C) has been used to determine the number of molecular layers present on copper electrode surfaces and its distribution. The stability of these layers under the experimental conditions has been studied and it has been shown that its presence has no influence on the anodic and cathodic polarization. an increase of these polarizations has been observed with mixed multilayers of stearic acid and sterolamide. (Author) 13 refs.

  1. Development of hollow anode penning ion source for laboratory application (United States)

    Das, B. K.; Shyam, A.; Das, R.; Rao, A. D. P.


    The research work presented here focuses for the development of miniature penning type ion source. One hollow anode penning type ion source was developed in our laboratory. The size of the ion source is 38 mm diameter and 55 mm length. The ion source consists of two cathodes, a hollow anode and one piece of rare earth permanent magnet. The plasma was created in the plasma region between cathodes and the hollow anode. The J × B force in the region helps for efficient ionization of the gas even in the high vacuum region˜1×10 -5 Torr. The ions were extracted in the axial direction with help of the potential difference between the electrodes and the geometry of the extraction angle. The effect of the extraction electrode geometry for efficient extraction of the ions from the plasma region was examined. This ion source is a self extracted ion source. The self extracted phenomena reduce the cost and the size of the ion source. The extracted ion current was measured by a graphite probe. An ion current of more than 200 μA was observed at the probe placed 70 mm apart from the extraction electrode. In this paper, the structure of the ion source, effect of operating pressure, potential difference and the magnetic field on the extracted ion current is reported.

  2. A new short-anoded IGBT with high emission efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Weizhong; Zhang Bo; Li Zehong; Ren Min; Li Zhaoji


    A novel short-anoded insulated-gate bipolar transistor (SA-IGBT) with double emitters is proposed.At the on-state,the new structure shows extraordinarily high emission efficiency.Moreover,with a short-contacted anode,it further enhances the hole emission efficiency because of the crowding of the electrons.The forward voltage drop VF of this structure is 1.74 V at a current density 100 of A/cm2.Compared to the conventional NPT IGBT (1.94 V),segment-anode IGBT (SA-NPN 2.1 V),and conventional SA-IGBT (2.33 V),VF decreased by 10%,17% and 30%,respectively.Furthermore,no NDR has been detected comparing to the SA-IGBT.At the offstate,there is a channel for extracting excessive carriers in the drift region.The turn-off loss Eoff of this proposed structure is 8.64 mJ/cm2.Compared to the conventional NPT IGBT (15.3 mJ/cm2),SA-NPN IGBT (12.8 mJ/cm2),and SA-IGBT (12.1 mJ/cm2),Eoff decreased by 43.7%,32% and 28%,respectively.

  3. A new short-anoded IGBT with high emission efficiency (United States)

    Weizhong, Chen; Bo, Zhang; Zehong, Li; Min, Ren; Zhaoji, Li


    A novel short-anoded insulated-gate bipolar transistor (SA-IGBT) with double emitters is proposed. At the on-state, the new structure shows extraordinarily high emission efficiency. Moreover, with a short-contacted anode, it further enhances the hole emission efficiency because of the crowding of the electrons. The forward voltage drop VF of this structure is 1.74 V at a current density 100 of A/cm2. Compared to the conventional NPT IGBT (1.94 V), segment-anode IGBT (SA-NPN 2.1 V), and conventional SA-IGBT (2.33 V), VF decreased by 10%, 17% and 30%, respectively. Furthermore, no NDR has been detected comparing to the SA-IGBT. At the off-state, there is a channel for extracting excessive carriers in the drift region. The turn-off loss Eoff of this proposed structure is 8.64 mJ/cm2. Compared to the conventional NPT IGBT (15.3 mJ/cm2), SA-NPN IGBT (12.8 mJ/cm2), and SA-IGBT (12.1 mJ/cm2), Eoff decreased by 43.7%, 32% and 28%, respectively.

  4. Controlling interferometric properties of nanoporous anodic aluminium oxide. (United States)

    Kumeria, Tushar; Losic, Dusan


    A study of reflective interference spectroscopy [RIfS] properties of nanoporous anodic aluminium oxide [AAO] with the aim to develop a reliable substrate for label-free optical biosensing is presented. The influence of structural parameters of AAO including pore diameters, inter-pore distance, pore length, and surface modification by deposition of Au, Ag, Cr, Pt, Ni, and TiO2 on the RIfS signal (Fabry-Perot fringe) was explored. AAO with controlled pore dimensions was prepared by electrochemical anodization of aluminium using 0.3 M oxalic acid at different voltages (30 to 70 V) and anodization times (10 to 60 min). Results show the strong influence of pore structures and surface modifications on the interference signal and indicate the importance of optimisation of AAO pore structures for RIfS sensing. The pore length/pore diameter aspect ratio of AAO was identified as a suitable parameter to tune interferometric properties of AAO. Finally, the application of AAO with optimised pore structures for sensing of a surface binding reaction of alkanethiols (mercaptoundecanoic acid) on gold surface is demonstrated.

  5. Hydroxyapatite electrodeposition on anodized titanium nanotubes for orthopedic applications (United States)

    Parcharoen, Yardnapar; Kajitvichyanukul, Puangrat; Sirivisoot, Sirinrath; Termsuksawad, Preecha


    Nanotubes modification for orthopedic implants has shown interesting biological performances (such as improving cell adhesion, cell differentiation, and enhancing osseointegration). The purpose of this study is to investigate effect of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotube feature on performance of hydroxyapatite-coated titanium (Ti) bone implants. TiO2 nanotubes were prepared by anodization using ammonium fluoride electrolyte (NH4F) with and without modifiers (PEG400 and Glycerol) at various potential forms, and times. After anodization, the nanotubes were subsequently annealed. TiO2 nanotubes were characterized by scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffractometer. The amorphous to anatase transformation due to annealing was observed. Smooth and highly organized TiO2 nanotubes were found when high viscous electrolyte, NH4F in glycerol, was used. Negative voltage (-4 V) during anodization was confirmed to increase nanotube thickness. Length of the TiO2 nanotubes was significantly increased by times. The TiO2 nanotube was electrodeposited with hydroxyapatite (HA) and its adhesion was estimated by adhesive tape test. The result showed that nanotubes with the tube length of 560 nm showed excellent adhesion. The coated HA were tested for biological test by live/dead cell straining. HA coated on TiO2 nanotubes showed higher cells density, higher live cells, and more spreading of MC3T3-E1 cells than that growing on titanium plate surface.

  6. Nanocarbon-Coated Porous Anodic Alumina for Bionic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Aramesh


    Full Text Available A highly-stable and biocompatible nanoporous electrode is demonstrated herein. The electrode is based on a porous anodic alumina which is conformally coated with an ultra-thin layer of diamond-like carbon. The nanocarbon coating plays an essential role for the chemical stability and biocompatibility of the electrodes; thus, the coated electrodes are ideally suited for biomedical applications. The corrosion resistance of the proposed electrodes was tested under extreme chemical conditions, such as in boiling acidic/alkali environments. The nanostructured morphology and the surface chemistry of the electrodes were maintained after wet/dry chemical corrosion tests. The non-cytotoxicity of the electrodes was tested by standard toxicity tests using mouse fibroblasts and cortical neurons. Furthermore, the cell–electrode interaction of cortical neurons with nanocarbon coated nanoporous anodic alumina was studied in vitro. Cortical neurons were found to attach and spread to the nanocarbon coated electrodes without using additional biomolecules, whilst no cell attachment was observed on the surface of the bare anodic alumina. Neurite growth appeared to be sensitive to nanotopographical features of the electrodes. The proposed electrodes show a great promise for practical applications such as retinal prostheses and bionic implants in general.

  7. Polymer nanoimprinting using an anodized aluminum mold for structural coloration (United States)

    Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Nishinaga, Osamu; Natsui, Shungo; Suzuki, Ryosuke O.


    Polymer nanoimprinting of submicrometer-scale dimple arrays with structural coloration was demonstrated. Highly ordered aluminum dimple arrays measuring 530-670 nm in diameter were formed on an aluminum substrate via etidronic acid anodizing at 210-270 V and subsequent anodic oxide dissolution. The nanostructured aluminum surface led to bright structural coloration with a rainbow spectrum, and the reflected wavelength strongly depends on the angle of the specimen and the period of the dimple array. The reflection peak shifts gradually with the dimple diameter toward longer wavelength, reaching 800 nm in wavelength at 670 nm in diameter. The shape of the aluminum dimple arrays were successfully transferred to a mercapto-ester ultra-violet curable polymer via self-assembled monolayer coating and polymer replications using a nanoimprinting technique. The nanostructured polymer surfaces with positively and negatively shaped dimple arrays also exhibited structural coloration based on the periodic nanostructure, and reflected light mostly in the visible region, 400-800 nm. This nanostructuring with structural coloration can be easily realized by simple techniques such as anodizing, SAM coating, and nanoimprinting.

  8. Structure of anodized Al–Zr sputter deposited coatings and effect on optical appearance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudla, Visweswara Chakravarthy [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Canulescu, Stela [Department of Photonics Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Shabadi, Rajashekhara [Unité Matériaux et Transformations, Université Lille1, 59655 Villeneuve ‘Ascq (France); Rechendorff, Kristian [Tribology Centre, Danish Technological Institute, DK-8000 Århus C (Denmark); Dirscherl, Kai [Danish Fundamental Metrology, DK-2800 Kgs., Lyngby (Denmark); Ambat, Rajan, E-mail: [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)


    Highlights: • Microstructure of magnetron sputtered Al–Zr coatings on AA6060 under as coated and heat treated condition. • Effect of heat treatment and precipitation of Al–Zr–Si (τ{sub 1}) phase on optical appearance of anodized layer. • Partial oxidation of τ{sub 1} precipitates after anodizing and relation to darkening of the anodized layer. • Oxidized region of τ{sub 1} precipitates was amorphous while unoxidized region retained crystallinity. • Unoxidized metallic τ{sub 1} in amorphous anodic alumina acts as light absorption centres and causes darkening after anodizing. - Abstract: The mechanism of interaction of light with the microstructure of anodized layer giving specific optical appearance is investigated using Al–Zr sputter deposited coating as a model system on an AA6060 substrate. Differences in the oxidative nature of various microstructural components result in the evolution of typical features in the anodized layer, which are investigated as a function of microstructure and correlated with its optical appearance. The Zr concentration in the coating was varied from 6 wt.% to 23 wt.%. Heat treatment of the coated samples was carried out at 550 °C for 4 h in order to evolve Al–Zr based second phase precipitates in the microstructure. Anodizing was performed using 20 wt.% sulphuric acid at 18 °C with an intention to study the effect of anodizing on the Al–Zr based precipitates in the coating. Detailed microstructural characterization of the coating and anodized layer was carried out using high resolution scanning and transmission electron microscopy, grazing incidence X-ray diffraction analysis, glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy, and optical appearance using spectrophotometry. The evolution of microstructure in the anodized layer as a function of anodizing parameters and their influence on the interaction of light is investigated and the results in general are applicable to discolouration of anodized layer on

  9. Polar Direct Drive (United States)

    Skupsky, S.


    Direct drive offers the potential of higher target gain on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) than x-ray drive: The initial direct-drive target design had a 1-D gain of 45 and consisted primarily of a pure cryogenic DT shell. Using the expected levels of target and laser nonuniformities for the NIF, two-dimensional (2-D) hydrodynamic simulations predicted target gains around 30.(P.W. McKenty et al.), Phys. Plasmas 8, 2315 (2001). More-recent designs have shown that higher target gains could be obtained by replacing a portion of the DT shell with ``wetted'' CH foam and by using adiabat shaping: (1) Higher-Z material (C) in the foam increases laser absorption by about 40% (from 60% absorption to 85%).(S. Skupsky et al.), in Inertial Fusion Sciences and Applications 2001, edited by K. Tanaka et al. (Elsevier, Paris, 2002), p. 240. (2) Adiabat shaping allows the main portion of the fuel to be placed on a lower adiabat without compromising target stability.(V.N. Goncharov et al.), Phys. Plasmas 10, 1906 (2003). These direct-drive concepts can be tested on the NIF, long before that facility is converted to a direct-drive (spherically symmetric) irradiation configuration. Using the NIF x-ray-drive beam configuration, some of the near-polar beams could be pointed to better illuminate the target's equator. These more-oblique, equatorial beams will have lower absorption and reduced drive efficiency than the polar beams. One strategy to compensate for the difference in polar and equatorial drive is to reduce the irradiation at the poles and employ different pulse shapes to accommodate the time-dependent variations in drive and absorption. This concept of polar direct drive (PDD) has been studied using the 2-D hydrocode DRACO to determine the requirements for achieving ignition and moderate target gain for the NIF. Experiments on the OMEGA laser will examine the effects of oblique irradiation on target drive. Results of simulations for different direct-drive target designs

  10. Polar Cap Retreat (United States)


    13 August 2004 This red wide angle Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a view of the retreating seasonal south polar cap in the most recent spring in late 2003. Bright areas are covered with frost, dark areas are those from which the solid carbon dioxide has sublimed away. The center of this image is located near 76.5oS, 28.2oW. The scene is large; it covers an area about 250 km (155 mi) across. The scene is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left.

  11. Circularly polarized antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Steven; Zhu, Fuguo


    This book presents a comprehensive insight into the design techniques for different types of CP antenna elements and arrays In this book, the authors address a broad range of topics on circularly polarized (CP) antennas. Firstly, it introduces to the reader basic principles, design techniques and characteristics of various types of CP antennas, such as CP patch antennas, CP helix antennas, quadrifilar helix antennas (QHA), printed quadrifilar helix antennas (PQHA), spiral antenna, CP slot antennas, CP dielectric resonator antennas, loop antennas, crossed dipoles, monopoles and CP horns. Adva

  12. Facile synthesis of reduced graphene oxide-porous silicon composite as superior anode material for lithium-ion battery anodes (United States)

    Jiao, Lian-Sheng; Liu, Jin-Yu; Li, Hong-Yan; Wu, Tong-Shun; Li, Fenghua; Wang, Hao-Yu; Niu, Li


    We report a new method for synthesizing reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-porous silicon composite for lithium-ion battery anodes. Rice husks were used as a as a raw material source for the synthesis of porous Si through magnesiothermic reduction process. The as-obtained composite exhibits good rate and cycling performance taking advantage of the porous structure of silicon inheriting from rice husks and the outstanding characteristic of graphene. A considerably high delithiation capacity of 907 mA h g-1 can be retained even at a rate of 16 A g-1. A discharge capacity of 830 mA h g-1 at a current density of 1 A g-1 was delivered after 200 cycles. This may contribute to the further advancement of Si-based composite anode design.

  13. Normalized polarization ratios for the analysis of cell polarity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raz Shimoni

    Full Text Available The quantification and analysis of molecular localization in living cells is increasingly important for elucidating biological pathways, and new methods are rapidly emerging. The quantification of cell polarity has generated much interest recently, and ratiometric analysis of fluorescence microscopy images provides one means to quantify cell polarity. However, detection of fluorescence, and the ratiometric measurement, is likely to be sensitive to acquisition settings and image processing parameters. Using imaging of EGFP-expressing cells and computer simulations of variations in fluorescence ratios, we characterized the dependence of ratiometric measurements on processing parameters. This analysis showed that image settings alter polarization measurements; and that clustered localization is more susceptible to artifacts than homogeneous localization. To correct for such inconsistencies, we developed and validated a method for choosing the most appropriate analysis settings, and for incorporating internal controls to ensure fidelity of polarity measurements. This approach is applicable to testing polarity in all cells where the axis of polarity is known.

  14. Influence of polar cap currents on pulsar polarization

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, D


    We have developed a model for the polarization of curvature radiation for pulsars by taking into account the polar cap induced perturbation on the nonrotating (slowly rotating) dipolar magnetic field, where the rotation effects such as aberration and retardation can be ignored. We have simulated a set of typical pulse profiles to understand the role of induced magnetic field on radio emission of pulsars, and found to be significantly influencing the profile structure and polarization. Our model indicates that the intensity components and the polarization angle inflection point can get shifted to either leading or trailing side depending upon the prevailing conditions in the viewing geometry, the non-uniformity in source distribution (modulation) and the polar cap current induced perturbation. Also, we find an evidence for the origin of symmetric type circular polarization in addition to antisymmetric type. Our model predicts for a stronger trailing component compared to that on leading side of a given cone.

  15. Alliages intermétalliques du magnésium, anodes pour MAFC ? Magnesium intermetallic alloys, anodes for MAFC?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montagné Pierre


    Full Text Available Des composés intermétalliques sélectionnés ont été étudiés en vue d'une utilisation en remplacement de l'anode métallique dans des batteries de type métal air. Ces composés présentent des structures cristallines très différentes : structure lamellaire pour MgB2, structure covalente simple pour Mg2Si et structure complexe basée sur un empilement compact de polyèdres pour Mg2Al3. Les meilleurs résultats sont obtenus pour ce dernier composé avec une réactivité vis-à-vis des électrolytes testés sensiblement inférieure à celle du magnésium et une cinétique de réaction plus lente. Le potentiel en fonctionnement au sein de la batterie est sensiblement plus faible que celui du magnésium mais il présente une stabilité remarquable au cours du temps. Selected intermetallic compounds have been studied as anodic materials in metal air fuel cells. These compounds have different structural types, MgB2 displays a lamellar structure, Mg2Si a simple covalent structure while Mg2Al3 has a complex structure based on compact polyhedral packing. Best electrochemical results are obtained for the latter, with a lower reactivity towards magnesium in the two electrolytes and with lower kinetics of reaction. The operating potential of the battery with a Mg2Al3 anode is noticeably lower than with a Mg anode, but it presents a very good stability over time.

  16. Electrochemical aging of humectant-treated thermal-sprayed zinc anodes for cathodic protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Covino, B.S. Jr.; Holcomb, G.R.; Bullard, S.J.; Russell, J.H.; Cramer, S.D.; Bennett, J.E.; Laylor, H.M.


    Humectants, substances that promote the retention of moisture, were studied to determine their effectiveness in improving the performance and extending the service life of both new and previously-aged thermal-sprayed Zn anodes used in impressed current (ICCP) and galvanic cathodic protection (GCP) systems for steel-reinforced concrete structures. Potassium acetate, lithium nitrate, and lithium bromide were applied to a series of thermal-sprayed Zn-coated concrete slabs before starting the ICCP or GCP experiment. All of the humectants altered the behavior of the thermal-sprayed Zn anodes. LiNO{sub 3} was the most beneficial for ICCP anodes and LiBr was the most beneficial for GCP anodes. Circuit resistances for ICCP anodes and galvanic current density for GCP anodes are compared on the basis of electrochemical aging, humidity, and type of humectant.

  17. Photoelectrochemical evidence of nitrogen incorporation during anodizing sputtering--deposited Al-Ta alloys. (United States)

    Zaffora, A; Santamaria, M; Di Franco, F; Habazaki, H; Di Quarto, F


    Anodic films were grown to 20 V on sputtering-deposited Al-Ta alloys in ammonium biborate and borate buffer solutions. According to glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy, anodizing in ammonium containing solution leads to the formation of N containing anodic layers. Impedance measurements did not evidence significant differences between the dielectric properties of the anodic films as a function of the anodizing electrolyte. Photoelectrochemical investigation allowed evidencing that N incorporation induces a red-shift in the light absorption threshold of the films due to the formation of allowed localized states inside their mobility gap. The estimated Fowler threshold for the internal photoemission processes of electrons resulted to be independent of the anodizing electrolyte confirming that N incorporation does not appreciably affect the density of states distribution close to the conduction band mobility edge. The transport of photogenerated carriers has been rationalized according to the Pai-Enck model of geminate recombination.

  18. Anode Simulation and Cathode Design for Electrolytic Dressing of Diamond Profile Wheel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU Feng; YU Aibing; TAN Yefa


    The design methods of anode and cathode are proposed for precision profile grinding. Based on the electrolytic machining theory, electrolytic equilibrium condition and Faraday′s law of electrolysis are applied to establishing the mathematical model of profile diamond dressing process-es. A finite element method (FEM) program is developed to solve the inverse boundary problem of Laplace′s equation. Desired anode contour or cathode shape is determined by computing the distribution of electric potential layer by layer. Electrolytic machining experiment is carried out to verify the simulated anode shape. The research result shows that shape deviation between designed cathode and profile wheel increases with the value of angle between feed rate and the normal to anode surface. The shape of simulated anode is consistent with the contour of metal-bonded diamond profile wheel for a given cathode. Based on the anode contour, cathode shape can also be designed accurately.

  19. Nanoporous silicon flakes as anode active material for lithium-ion batteries (United States)

    Kim, Young-You; Lee, Jeong-Hwa; Kim, Han-Jung


    Nanoporous-silicon (np-Si) flakes were prepared using a combination of an electrochemical etching process and an ultra-sonication treatment and the electrochemical properties were studied as an anode active material for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). This fabrication method is a simple, reproducible, and cost effective way to make high-performance Si-based anode active materials in LIBs. The anode based on np-Si flakes exhibited a higher performances (lower capacity fade rate, stability and excellent rate capability at high C-rate) than the anode based on Si nanowires. The excellent performance of the np-Si flake anode was attributed to the hollowness (nanoporous structure) of the anode active material, which allowed it to accommodate a large volume change during cycling.

  20. Carbon Nanofibers Modified Graphite Felt for High Performance Anode in High Substrate Concentration Microbial Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youliang Shen


    Full Text Available Carbon nanofibers modified graphite fibers (CNFs/GF composite electrode was prepared for anode in high substrate concentration microbial fuel cells. Electrochemical tests showed that the CNFs/GF anode generated a peak current density of 2.42 mA cm−2 at a low acetate concentration of 20 mM, which was 54% higher than that from bare GF. Increase of the acetate concentration to 80 mM, in which the peak current density of the CNFs/GF anode greatly increased and was up to 3.57 mA cm−2, was seven times as that of GF anode. Morphology characterization revealed that the biofilms in the CNFs/GF anode were much denser than those in the bare GF. This result revealed that the nanostructure in the anode not only enhanced current generation but also could tolerate high substrate concentration.

  1. The effects of anodization parameters on titania nanotube arrays and dye sensitized solar cells (United States)

    Xie, Z. B.; Adams, S.; Blackwood, D. J.; Wang, J.


    Ordered, closely packed, and vertically oriented titania nanotube arrays with lengths exceeding 10 µm were fabricated by anodization of titanium foils. The effects of anodization voltage and time on the microstructural morphology and the photovoltaic performance of dye sensitized solar cells based on the titania nanotube arrays were investigated. On increasing the anodization voltage or time, the increase in active surface area leads to enhanced photovoltaic currents and thereby an overall higher performance of the dye sensitized solar cells. The efficiency enhancement with rising anodization voltage exceeds the increase in the outer surface area of the nanotubes, indicating that the active surface area is further enlarged by a more accessible inner surface of the nanotube arrays grown with a higher anodization voltage. A promising efficiency of 3.67% for dye sensitized solar cells based on anodized titania nanotube arrays was achieved under AM1.5, 100 mW cm-2 illumination.

  2. The effects of anodization parameters on titania nanotube arrays and dye sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Z B; Adams, S; Blackwood, D J; Wang, J [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117574 (Singapore)], E-mail:


    Ordered, closely packed, and vertically oriented titania nanotube arrays with lengths exceeding 10 {mu}m were fabricated by anodization of titanium foils. The effects of anodization voltage and time on the microstructural morphology and the photovoltaic performance of dye sensitized solar cells based on the titania nanotube arrays were investigated. On increasing the anodization voltage or time, the increase in active surface area leads to enhanced photovoltaic currents and thereby an overall higher performance of the dye sensitized solar cells. The efficiency enhancement with rising anodization voltage exceeds the increase in the outer surface area of the nanotubes, indicating that the active surface area is further enlarged by a more accessible inner surface of the nanotube arrays grown with a higher anodization voltage. A promising efficiency of 3.67% for dye sensitized solar cells based on anodized titania nanotube arrays was achieved under AM1.5, 100 mW cm{sup -2} illumination.

  3. Exciton quenching at PEDOT:PSS anode in polymer blue-light-emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbaszadeh, D.; Wetzelaer, G. A. H. [Molecular Electronics, Zernike Institute for Advanced Materials, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG, Groningen (Netherlands); Dutch Polymer Institute, P.O. Box 902, 5600 AX, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Nicolai, H. T. [TNO/Holst Centre, High Tech Campus 31, 5605 KN, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Blom, P. W. M., E-mail: [Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Ackermannweg 10, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)


    The quenching of excitons at the poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonic acid) (PEDOT:PSS) anode in blue polyalkoxyspirobifluorene-arylamine polymer light-emitting diodes is investigated. Due to the combination of a higher electron mobility and the presence of electron traps, the recombination zone shifts from the cathode to the anode with increasing voltage. The exciton quenching at the anode at higher voltages leads to an efficiency roll-off. The voltage dependence of the luminous efficiency is reproduced by a drift-diffusion model under the condition that quenching of excitons at the PEDOT:PSS anode and metallic cathode is of equal strength. Experimentally, the efficiency roll-off at high voltages due to anode quenching is eliminated by the use of an electron-blocking layer between the anode and the light-emitting polymer.

  4. Superhydrophilicity of a nanofiber-covered aluminum surface fabricated via pyrophosphoric acid anodizing (United States)

    Nakajima, Daiki; Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Natsui, Shungo; Suzuki, Ryosuke O.


    A superhydrophilic aluminum surface covered by numerous alumina nanofibers was fabricated via pyrophosphoric acid anodizing. High-density anodic alumina nanofibers grow on the bottom of a honeycomb oxide via anodizing in concentrated pyrophosphoric acid. The water contact angle on the nanofiber-covered aluminum surface decreased with time after a 4 μL droplet was placed on the surface, and a superhydrophilic behavior with a contact angle measuring 2.2° was observed within 2 s; this contact angle is considerably lower than those observed for electropolished and porous alumina-covered aluminum surfaces. There was no dependence of the superhydrophilicity on the density of alumina nanofibers fabricated via different constant voltage anodizing conditions. The superhydrophilic property of the surface covered by anodic alumina nanofibers was maintained during an exposure test for 359 h. The quick-drying and snow-sliding behaviors of the superhydrophilic aluminum covered with anodic alumina nanofibers were demonstrated.

  5. An Analysis of Mechanical Properties of Anodized Aluminum Film at High Stress (United States)

    Zhao, Xixi; Wei, Guoying; Yu, Yundan; Guo, Yuemei; Zhang, Ao


    In this paper, a new environmental-friendly electrolyte containing sulfuric acid and tartaric acid has been used as the substitute of chromic acid for anodization. The work discussed the influence of anodizing voltages on the fatigue life of anodized Al 2024-T3 by performing fatigue tests with 0.1 stress ratio (R) at 320 MPa. Meanwhile the fatigue cycles to failure, yield strength, tensile strength and fracture surface of anodic films at different conditions were investigated. The results showed that the fatigue life of anodized and sealed specimens reduced a lot compared to aluminum alloy, which can be attributed to the crack sites initiated at the oxide layer. The fracture surface analyses also revealed that the number of crack initiation sites enlarged with the increase of anodizing voltage.

  6. Optimization of Aluminum Anodization Conditions for the Fabrication of Nanowires by Electrodeposition (United States)

    Fucsko, Viola


    Anodized alumina nanotemplates have a variety of potential applications in the development of nanotechnology. Alumina nanotemplates are formed by oxidizing aluminum film in an electrolyte solution.During anodization, aluminum oxidizes, and, under the proper conditions, nanometer-sized pores develop. A series of experiments was conducted to determine the optimal conditions for anodization. Three-micrometer thick aluminum films on silicon and silicon oxide substrates were anodized using constant voltages of 13-25 V. 0.1-0.3M oxalic acid was used as the electrolyte. The anodization time was found to increase and the overshooting current decreased as both the voltage and the electrolyte concentrations were decreased. The samples were observed under a scanning electron microscope. Anodizing with 25V in 0.3M oxalic acid appears to be the best process conditions. The alumina nanotemplates are being used to fabricate nanowires by electrodeposition. The current-voltage characteristics of copper nanowires have also been studied.

  7. Anodic oxidation with doped diamond electrodes: a new advanced oxidation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraft, Alexander; Stadelmann, Manuela; Blaschke, Manfred


    Boron-doped diamond anodes allow to directly produce OH{center_dot} radicals from water electrolysis with very high current efficiencies. This has been explained by the very high overvoltage for oxygen production and many other anodic electrode processes on diamond anodes. Additionally, the boron-doped diamond electrodes exhibit a high mechanical and chemical stability. Anodic oxidation with diamond anodes is a new advanced oxidation process (AOP) with many advantages compared to other known chemical and photochemical AOPs. The present work reports on the use of diamond anodes for the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal from several industrial wastewaters and from two synthetic wastewaters with malic acid and ethylenediaminetetraacetic (EDTA) acid. Current efficiencies for the COD removal between 85 and 100% have been found. The formation and subsequent removal of by-products of the COD oxidation has been investigated for the first time. Economical considerations of this new AOP are included.

  8. Investigation of carbon supported PtW catalysts as CO tolerant anodes at high temperature in proton exchange membrane fuel cell (United States)

    Hassan, Ayaz; Paganin, Valdecir A.; Ticianelli, Edson A.


    The CO tolerance mechanism and the stability of carbon supported PtW electrocatalysts are evaluated in the anode of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) at two different temperatures. The electrocatalysts are characterized by energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron spectroscopy. Employed electrochemical techniques include cyclic voltammetry, CO stripping, fuel cell polarization, and online mass spectrometry. At a cell temperature of 85 °C, the PtW/C catalyst shows higher CO tolerance compared to Pt/C due an electronic effect of WOx in the Pt 5d band, which reduces the CO adsorption. An increase in hydrogen oxidation activity in the presence of CO is observed for both the catalysts at a higher temperature, due to the decrease of the Pt-CO coverage. A reduction in the current densities occurs for the PtW/C catalyst in both polarization curves and cyclic voltammograms after 5000 cycles of the anode in the range of 0.1-0.7 V vs. RHE at 50 mVs-1. This decrease in performance is assigned to the dissolution of W, with a consequent increase in the membrane resistivity. However, the observed decline of performance is small either in the presence of pure H2 or in the presence of H2/CO.

  9. A Kinetic Study on the Anodic Desorption of Interface Corrosion Inhibitor%缓蚀剂阳极脱附的动力学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪的华; 江俊伟; 卜宪章; 甘复兴; 邹津耘


    The kinetics of inhibitor desorption on iron surface were investigated by potentiodynamic, differential polarization curve, cyclic polarization experiment, as well as potential step method. It was found that the anodic desorption exists an incubation time, and the measured kinetic curves of inhibitor desorption are “S” type, showing an autocatalytic process. The desorptin rate is depended on the desorption potential as well as the stability of inhibitor adsorption. The more stable the adsorption of inhibitoris, the more positive the Edes and the faster the desorption rateis. A new desorption mechanism was proposed on the basis of experimental results. According to this mechanism, the anodic desorption of inhibitor is more probably due to the competitive adsorption between inhibitor and intermediate produced in the anodic dissolution process of iron.%运用极化曲线、微分极化曲线、循环极化和恒电位暂态等方法研究了缓蚀剂阳极脱附的动力学行为,结果表明:缓蚀剂阳极脱附存在一个明显的诱导期,具有“S”型的脱附动力学曲线,呈自催化反应特征;外加电位越正,缓蚀剂脱附速度越快,脱附的诱导期越短;覆盖度高的稳定吸附层,脱附电位更正,脱附速度也更快.据此提出了缓蚀剂的阳极脱附是由于阳极极化条件下电极过程吸附态中间产物的竞争吸附使得缓蚀剂发生自加速脱附的新机制.

  10. Surface morphology and surface energy of anode materials influence power outputs in a multi-channel mediatorless bio-photovoltaic (BPV) system. (United States)

    Bombelli, Paolo; Zarrouati, Marie; Thorne, Rebecca J; Schneider, Kenneth; Rowden, Stephen J L; Ali, Akin; Yunus, Kamran; Cameron, Petra J; Fisher, Adrian C; Ian Wilson, D; Howe, Christopher J; McCormick, Alistair J


    Bio-photovoltaic cells (BPVs) are a new photo-bio-electrochemical technology for harnessing solar energy using the photosynthetic activity of autotrophic organisms. Currently power outputs from BPVs are generally low and suffer from low efficiencies. However, a better understanding of the electrochemical interactions between the microbes and conductive materials will be likely to lead to increased power yields. In the current study, the fresh-water, filamentous cyanobacterium Pseudanabaena limnetica (also known as Oscillatoria limnetica) was investigated for exoelectrogenic activity. Biofilms of P. limnetica showed a significant photo response during light-dark cycling in BPVs under mediatorless conditions. A multi-channel BPV device was developed to compare quantitatively the performance of photosynthetic biofilms of this species using a variety of different anodic conductive materials: indium tin oxide-coated polyethylene terephthalate (ITO), stainless steel (SS), glass coated with a conductive polymer (PANI), and carbon paper (CP). Although biofilm growth rates were generally comparable on all materials tested, the amplitude of the photo response and achievable maximum power outputs were significantly different. ITO and SS demonstrated the largest photo responses, whereas CP showed the lowest power outputs under both light and dark conditions. Furthermore, differences in the ratios of light : dark power outputs indicated that the electrochemical interactions between photosynthetic microbes and the anode may differ under light and dark conditions depending on the anodic material used. Comparisons between BPV performances and material characteristics revealed that surface roughness and surface energy, particularly the ratio of non-polar to polar interactions (the CQ ratio), may be more important than available surface area in determining biocompatibility and maximum power outputs in microbial electrochemical systems. Notably, CP was readily outperformed by all

  11. Polarized proton collider at RHIC (United States)

    Alekseev, I.; Allgower, C.; Bai, M.; Batygin, Y.; Bozano, L.; Brown, K.; Bunce, G.; Cameron, P.; Courant, E.; Erin, S.; Escallier, J.; Fischer, W.; Gupta, R.; Hatanaka, K.; Huang, H.; Imai, K.; Ishihara, M.; Jain, A.; Lehrach, A.; Kanavets, V.; Katayama, T.; Kawaguchi, T.; Kelly, E.; Kurita, K.; Lee, S. Y.; Luccio, A.; MacKay, W. W.; Mahler, G.; Makdisi, Y.; Mariam, F.; McGahern, W.; Morgan, G.; Muratore, J.; Okamura, M.; Peggs, S.; Pilat, F.; Ptitsin, V.; Ratner, L.; Roser, T.; Saito, N.; Satoh, H.; Shatunov, Y.; Spinka, H.; Syphers, M.; Tepikian, S.; Tominaka, T.; Tsoupas, N.; Underwood, D.; Vasiliev, A.; Wanderer, P.; Willen, E.; Wu, H.; Yokosawa, A.; Zelenski, A. N.


    In addition to heavy ion collisions (RHIC Design Manual, Brookhaven National Laboratory), RHIC will also collide intense beams of polarized protons (I. Alekseev, et al., Design Manual Polarized Proton Collider at RHIC, Brookhaven National Laboratory, 1998 [2]), reaching transverse energies where the protons scatter as beams of polarized quarks and gluons. The study of high energy polarized protons beams has been a long term part of the program at BNL with the development of polarized beams in the Booster and AGS rings for fixed target experiments. We have extended this capability to the RHIC machine. In this paper we describe the design and methods for achieving collisions of both longitudinal and transverse polarized protons in RHIC at energies up to s=500 GeV.

  12. Polarization and Polarimetry: A Review

    CERN Document Server

    Trippe, S


    Polarization is a basic property of light and is fundamentally linked to the internal geometry of a source of radiation. Polarimetry complements photometric, spectroscopic, and imaging analyses of sources of radiation and has made possible multiple astrophysical discoveries. In this article I review (i) the physical basics of polarization: electromagnetic waves, photons, and parameterizations; (ii) astrophysical sources of polarization: scattering, synchrotron radiation, active media, and the Zeeman, Goldreich-Kylafis, and Hanle effects, as well as interactions between polarization and matter (like birefringence, Faraday rotation, or the Chandrasekhar-Fermi effect); (iii) observational methodology: on-sky geometry, influence of atmosphere and instrumental polarization, polarization statistics, and observational techniques for radio, optical, and X/gamma wavelengths; and (iv) science cases for astronomical polarimetry: solar and stellar physics, planetary system bodies, interstellar matter, astrobiology, astro...

  13. Formation of polar ring galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Bournaud, F


    Polar ring galaxies are peculiar systems in which a gas rich, nearly polar ring surrounds an early-type or elliptical host galaxy. Two formation scenarios for these objects have been proposed: they are thought to form either in major galaxy mergers or by tidal accretion of the polar material from a gas rich donor galaxy. Both scenarios are studied through N-body simulations including gas dynamics and star formation. Constraints on physical parameters are drawn out, in order to determine which scenario is the most likely to occur. Polar ring galaxies from each scenario are compared with observations and we discuss whether the accretion scenario and the merging scenario account for observational properties of polar ring galaxies. The conclusion of this study is that the accretion scenario is both the most likely and the most supported by observations. Even if the merging scenario is rather robust, most polar ring galaxies are shown to be the result of tidal gas accretion events.

  14. Numerical Study of Heterogeneous Reactions in an SOFC Anode With Oxygen Addition


    Hao, Yong; Goodwin, David G.


    Previous experimental studies have shown that addition of smallamounts of oxygen to a hydrocarbon fuel stream can controlcoking in the anode, while relatively large amounts of oxygenare present in the fuel stream in single-chamber SOFCs. Inorder to rationally design an anode for such use, it isimportant to understand the coupled catalytic oxidation /reforming chemistry and diffusion within the anode under SOFCoperating conditions. In this study, the heterogeneous catalyticreactions in the ano...

  15. Numerical Study of Heterogeneous Reactions in an SOFC Anode with Oxygen Addition


    Hao, Yong; Goodwin, David G.


    Previous experimental studies have shown that addition of small amounts of oxygen to a hydrocarbon fuel stream can control coking in the anode, while relatively large amounts of oxygen are present in the fuel stream in single-chamber solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). In order to rationally design an anode for such use, it is important to understand the coupled catalytic oxidation/reforming chemistry and diffusion within the anode under SOFC operating conditions. In this study, the heterogeneous...

  16. Improvement in SOFC anode performance by finely-structured Ni/YSZ cermet prepared via heterocoagulation. (United States)

    Sunagawa, Yoji; Yamamoto, Katsutoshi; Muramatsu, Atsushi


    A novel preparation technique for a nanostructured anode for a solid oxide fuel cell is investigated. By mixing nanometer-sized NiO and YSZ powders in a pH-controlled aqueous media, a fine mixture of nanoparticles is successfully obtained through heterocoagulation. The anode prepared from thus prepared mixture has a large triple phase boundary and shows a great improvement in the anode performance by increasing the electric conductivity and effective surface area.

  17. Formation and dielectric properties of anodic oxide films on Zr–Al alloys


    Koyama, Shun; Aoki, Yoshitaka; Nagata, Shinji; Habazaki, Hiroki


    Zr–Al alloys containing up to 26 at.% aluminum, prepared by magnetron sputtering, have been anodized in 0.1 mol dm−3 ammonium pentaborate electrolyte, and the structure and dielectric properties of the resultant anodic oxide films have been examined by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, and AC impedance spectroscopy. The anodic oxide film formed on zirconium consists of monoclinic and tetragonal ZrO2 with the fo...

  18. Silicon oxide based high capacity anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Haixia; Han, Yongbong; Masarapu, Charan; Anguchamy, Yogesh Kumar; Lopez, Herman A.; Kumar, Sujeet


    Silicon oxide based materials, including composites with various electrical conductive compositions, are formulated into desirable anodes. The anodes can be effectively combined into lithium ion batteries with high capacity cathode materials. In some formulations, supplemental lithium can be used to stabilize cycling as well as to reduce effects of first cycle irreversible capacity loss. Batteries are described with surprisingly good cycling properties with good specific capacities with respect to both cathode active weights and anode active weights.

  19. Polarized Electrons for Linear Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Clendenin, J E; Garwin, E L; Kirby, R E; Luh, D A; Maruyama, T; Prescott, C Y; Sheppard, J C; Turner, J; Prepost, R


    Future electron-positron linear colliders require a highly polarized electron beam with a pulse structure that depends primarily on whether the acceleration utilizes warm or superconducting rf structures. The International Linear Collider (ILC) will use cold structures for the main linac. It is shown that a dc-biased polarized photoelectron source such as successfully used for the SLC can meet the charge requirements for the ILC micropulse with a polarization approaching 90%.

  20. Cell Polarity Signaling in Arabidopsis


    Yang, Zhenbiao


    Cell polarization is intimately linked to plant development, growth, and responses to the environment. Major advances have been made in our understanding of the signaling pathways and networks that regulate cell polarity in plants owing to recent studies on several model systems, e.g., tip growth in pollen tubes, cell morphogenesis in the leaf epidermis, and polar localization of PINs. From these studies we have learned that plant cells use conserved mechanisms such as Rho family GTPases to i...