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Sample records for anodic materials

  1. Anodic Materials for Electrocatalytic Ozone Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Hai Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ozone has wide applications in various fields. Electrocatalytic ozone generation technology as an alternative method to produce ozone is attractive. Anodic materials have significant effect on the ozone generation efficiency. The research progress on anodic materials for electrocatalytic ozone generation including the cell configuration and mechanism is addressed in this review. The lead dioxide and nickel-antimony-doped tin dioxide anode materials are introduced in detail, including their structure, property, and preparation. Advantages and disadvantages of different anode materials are also discussed.

  2. Anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manthiram, Arumugam; Applestone, Danielle; Yoon, Sukeun

    2017-03-21

    The current disclosure relates to an anode material with the general formula M.sub.ySb-M'O.sub.x--C, where M and M' are metals and M'O.sub.x--C forms a matrix containing M.sub.ySb. It also relates to an anode material with the general formula M.sub.ySn-M'C.sub.x--C, where M and M' are metals and M'C.sub.x--C forms a matrix containing M.sub.ySn. It further relates to an anode material with the general formula Mo.sub.3Sb.sub.7--C, where --C forms a matrix containing Mo.sub.3Sb.sub.7. The disclosure also relates to an anode material with the general formula M.sub.ySb-M'C.sub.x--C, where M and M' are metals and M'C.sub.x--C forms a matrix containing M.sub.ySb. Other embodiments of this disclosure relate to anodes or rechargeable batteries containing these materials as well as methods of making these materials using ball-milling techniques and furnace heating.

  3. New High-Energy Nanofiber Anode Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiangwu; Fedkiw, Peter; Khan, Saad; Huang, Alex; Fan, Jiang

    2013-11-15

    The overall goal of the proposed work was to use electrospinning technology to integrate dissimilar materials (lithium alloy and carbon) into novel composite nanofiber anodes, which simultaneously had high energy density, reduced cost, and improved abuse tolerance. The nanofiber structure allowed the anodes to withstand repeated cycles of expansion and contraction. These composite nanofibers were electrospun into nonwoven fabrics with thickness of 50 μm or more, and then directly used as anodes in a lithium-ion battery. This eliminated the presence of non-active materials (e.g., conducting carbon black and polymer binder) and resulted in high energy and power densities. The nonwoven anode structure also provided a large electrode-electrolyte interface and, hence, high rate capacity and good lowtemperature performance capability. Following are detailed objectives for three proposed project periods. • During the first six months: Obtain anodes capable of initial specific capacities of 650 mAh/g and achieve ~50 full charge/discharge cycles in small laboratory scale cells (50 to 100 mAh) at the 1C rate with less than 20 percent capacity fade; • In the middle of project period: Assemble, cycle, and evaluate 18650 cells using proposed anode materials, and demonstrate practical and useful cycle life (750 cycles of ~70% state of charge swing with less than 20% capacity fade) in 18650 cells with at least twice improvement in the specific capacity than that of conventional graphite electrodes; • At the end of project period: Deliver 18650 cells containing proposed anode materials, and achieve specific capacities greater than 1200 mAh/g and cycle life longer than 5000 cycles of ~70% state of charge swing with less than 20% capacity fade.

  4. Anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunkara, Mahendra Kumar; Meduri, Praveen; Sumanasekera, Gamini

    2014-12-30

    An anode material for lithium-ion batteries is provided that comprises an elongated core structure capable of forming an alloy with lithium; and a plurality of nanostructures placed on a surface of the core structure, with each nanostructure being capable of forming an alloy with lithium and spaced at a predetermined distance from adjacent nanostructures.

  5. Anodized Ti3SiC2 As an Anode Material for Li-ion Microbatteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesfaye, Alexander T; Mashtalir, Olha; Naguib, Michael; Barsoum, Michel W; Gogotsi, Yury; Djenizian, Thierry

    2016-07-06

    We report on the synthesis of an anode material for Li-ion batteries by anodization of a common MAX phase, Ti3SiC2, in an aqueous electrolyte containing hydrofluoric acid (HF). The anodization led to the formation of a porous film containing anatase, a small quantity of free carbon, and silica. By varying the anodization parameters, various oxide morphologies were produced. The highest areal capacity was achieved by anodization at 60 V in an aqueous electrolyte containing 0.1 v/v HF for 3 h at room temperature. After 140 cycles performed at multiple applied current densities, an areal capacity of 380 μAh·cm(-2) (200 μA·cm(-2)) has been obtained, making this new material, free of additives and binders, a promising candidate as a negative electrode for Li-ion microbatteries.

  6. Hollow Nanostructured Anode Materials for Li-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Jun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hollow nanostructured anode materials lie at the heart of research relating to Li-ion batteries, which require high capacity, high rate capability, and high safety. The higher capacity and higher rate capability for hollow nanostructured anode materials than that for the bulk counterparts can be attributed to their higher surface area, shorter path length for Li+ transport, and more freedom for volume change, which can reduce the overpotential and allow better reaction kinetics at the electrode surface. In this article, we review recent research activities on hollow nanostructured anode materials for Li-ion batteries, including carbon materials, metals, metal oxides, and their hybrid materials. The major goal of this review is to highlight some recent progresses in using these hollow nanomaterials as anode materials to develop Li-ion batteries with high capacity, high rate capability, and excellent cycling stability.

  7. Nanocomposite anode materials for sodium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manthiram, Arumugam; Kim Il, Tae; Allcorn, Eric

    2016-06-14

    The disclosure relates to an anode material for a sodium-ion battery having the general formula AO.sub.x--C or AC.sub.x--C, where A is aluminum (Al), magnesium (Mg), titanium (Ti), vanadium (V), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), zirconium (Zr), molybdenum (Mo), tungsten (W), niobium (Nb), tantalum (Ta), silicon (Si), or any combinations thereof. The anode material also contains an electrochemically active nanoparticles within the matrix. The nanoparticle may react with sodium ion (Na.sup.+) when placed in the anode of a sodium-ion battery. In more specific embodiments, the anode material may have the general formula M.sub.ySb-M'O.sub.x--C, Sb-MO.sub.x--C, M.sub.ySn-M'C.sub.x--C, or Sn-MC.sub.x--C. The disclosure also relates to rechargeable sodium-ion batteries containing these materials and methods of making these materials.

  8. Oxide anode materials for solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fergus, Jeffrey W. [Auburn University, Materials Research and Education Center, 275 Wilmore Laboratories, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States)

    2006-07-15

    A major advantage of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) over polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells is their tolerance for the type and purity of fuel. This fuel flexibility is due in large part to the high operating temperature of SOFCs, but also relies on the selection and development of appropriate materials - particularly for the anode where the fuel reaction occurs. This paper reviews the oxide materials being investigated as alternatives to the most commonly used nickel-YSZ cermet anodes for SOFCs. The majority of these oxides form the perovskite structure, which provides good flexibility in doping for control of the transport properties. However, oxides that form other crystal structures, such as the cubic fluorite structure, have also shown promise for use as SOFC anodes. In this paper, oxides are compared primarily in terms of their transport properties, but other properties relative to SOFC anode performance are also discussed. (author)

  9. Na-Ion Battery Anodes: Materials and Electrochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wei; Shen, Fei; Bommier, Clement; Zhu, Hongli; Ji, Xiulei; Hu, Liangbing

    2016-02-16

    The intermittent nature of renewable energy sources, such as solar and wind, calls for sustainable electrical energy storage (EES) technologies for stationary applications. Li will be simply too rare for Li-ion batteries (LIBs) to be used for large-scale storage purposes. In contrast, Na-ion batteries (NIBs) are highly promising to meet the demand of grid-level storage because Na is truly earth abundant and ubiquitous around the globe. Furthermore, NIBs share a similar rocking-chair operation mechanism with LIBs, which potentially provides high reversibility and long cycling life. It would be most efficient to transfer knowledge learned on LIBs during the last three decades to the development of NIBs. Following this logic, rapid progress has been made in NIB cathode materials, where layered metal oxides and polyanionic compounds exhibit encouraging results. On the anode side, pure graphite as the standard anode for LIBs can only form NaC64 in NIBs if solvent co-intercalation does not occur due to the unfavorable thermodynamics. In fact, it was the utilization of a carbon anode in LIBs that enabled the commercial successes. Anodes of metal-ion batteries determine key characteristics, such as safety and cycling life; thus, it is indispensable to identify suitable anode materials for NIBs. In this Account, we review recent development on anode materials for NIBs. Due to the limited space, we will mainly discuss carbon-based and alloy-based anodes and highlight progress made in our groups in this field. We first present what is known about the failure mechanism of graphite anode in NIBs. We then go on to discuss studies on hard carbon anodes, alloy-type anodes, and organic anodes. Especially, the multiple functions of natural cellulose that is used as a low-cost carbon precursor for mass production and as a soft substrate for tin anodes are highlighted. The strategies of minimizing the surface area of carbon anodes for improving the first-cycle Coulombic efficiency are

  10. Carbon Cryogel Silicon Composite Anode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodworth James; Baldwin, Richard; Bennett, William

    2010-01-01

    A variety of materials are under investigation for use as anode materials in lithium-ion batteries, of which, the most promising are those containing silicon. 10 One such material is a composite formed via the dispersion of silicon in a resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) gel followed by pyrolysis. Two silicon-carbon composite materials, carbon microspheres and nanofoams produced from nano-phase silicon impregnated RF gel precursors have been synthesized and investigated. Carbon microspheres are produced by forming the silicon-containing RF gel into microspheres whereas carbon nano-foams are produced by impregnating carbon fiber paper with the silicon containing RF gel to create a free standing electrode. 1-4,9 Both materials have demonstrated their ability to function as anodes and utilize the silicon present in the material. Stable reversible capacities above 400 mAh/g for the bulk material and above 1000 mAh/g of Si have been observed.

  11. Nanocomposite anode materials for sodium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manthiram, Arumugam; Kim Il, Tae; Allcorn, Eric

    2016-06-14

    The disclosure relates to an anode material for a sodium-ion battery having the general formula AO.sub.x--C or AC.sub.x--C, where A is aluminum (Al), magnesium (Mg), titanium (Ti), vanadium (V), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), zirconium (Zr), molybdenum (Mo), tungsten (W), niobium (Nb), tantalum (Ta), silicon (Si), or any combinations thereof. The anode material also contains an electrochemically active nanoparticles within the matrix. The nanoparticle may react with sodium ion (Na.sup.+) when placed in the anode of a sodium-ion battery. In more specific embodiments, the anode material may have the general formula M.sub.ySb-M'O.sub.x--C, Sb-MO.sub.x--C, M.sub.ySn-M'C.sub.x--C, or Sn-MC.sub.x--C. The disclosure also relates to rechargeable sodium-ion batteries containing these materials and methods of making these materials.

  12. Optimization and Domestic Sourcing of Lithium Ion Battery Anode Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, III, D. L.; Yoon, S. [A123 Systems, Inc.

    2012-10-25

    The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between ORNL and A123Systems, Inc. was to develop a low-temperature heat treatment process for natural graphite based anode materials for high-capacity and long-cycle-life lithium ion batteries. Three major problems currently plague state-of-the-art lithium ion battery anode materials. The first is the cost of the artificial graphite, which is heat-treated well in excess of 2000°C. Because of this high-temperature heat treatment, the anode active material significantly contributes to the cost of a lithium ion battery. The second problem is the limited specific capacity of state-of-the-art anodes based on artificial graphites, which is only about 200-350 mAh/g. This value needs to be increased to achieve high energy density when used with the low cell-voltage nanoparticle LiFePO4 cathode. Thirdly, the rate capability under cycling conditions of natural graphite based materials must be improved to match that of the nanoparticle LiFePO4. Natural graphite materials contain inherent crystallinity and lithium intercalation activity. They hold particular appeal, as they offer huge potential for industrial energy savings with the energy costs essentially subsidized by geological processes. Natural graphites have been heat-treated to a substantially lower temperature (as low as 1000-1500°C) and used as anode active materials to address the problems described above. Finally, corresponding graphitization and post-treatment processes were developed that are amenable to scaling to automotive quantities.

  13. High capacity anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Herman A.; Anguchamy, Yogesh Kumar; Deng, Haixia; Han, Yongbon; Masarapu, Charan; Venkatachalam, Subramanian; Kumar, Suject

    2015-11-19

    High capacity silicon based anode active materials are described for lithium ion batteries. These materials are shown to be effective in combination with high capacity lithium rich cathode active materials. Supplemental lithium is shown to improve the cycling performance and reduce irreversible capacity loss for at least certain silicon based active materials. In particular silicon based active materials can be formed in composites with electrically conductive coatings, such as pyrolytic carbon coatings or metal coatings, and composites can also be formed with other electrically conductive carbon components, such as carbon nanofibers and carbon nanoparticles. Additional alloys with silicon are explored.

  14. Anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abouimrane, Ali; Amine, Khalil

    2017-04-11

    An electrochemical device includes a composite material of general Formula (1-x)J-(x)Q wherein: J is a metal carbon alloy of formula Sn.sub.zSi.sub.z'Met.sub.wMet'.sub.w'C.sub.t; Q is a metal oxide of formula A.sub..gamma.M.sub..alpha.M'.sub..alpha.'O.sub..beta.; and wherein: A is Li, Na, or K; M and M' are individually Ge, Mo, Al, Ga, As, Sb, Te, Ti, Ta, Zr, Ca, Mg, Sr, Ba, Li, Na, K, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Nb, Rt, Ru or Cd; Met and Met' are individually Ge, Mo, Al, Ga, As, Sb, Te, Ti, Ta, Zr, Ca, Mg, Sr, Ba, Li, Na, K, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Nb, Rt, Ru or Cd; 0

  15. ANODE CATALYST MATERIALS FOR USE IN FUEL CELLS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2002-01-01

    Catalyst materials having a surface comprising a composition M¿x?/Pt¿3?/Sub; wherein M is selected from the group of elements Fe, Co, Rh and Ir; or wherein M represent two different elements selected from the group comprising Fe, CO, Rh, Ir, Ni, Pd, CU, Ag, Au and Sn; and wherein Sub represents...... a substrate material selected from Ru and Os; the respective components being present within specific ranges, display improved properties for use inanodes for low-temperature fuel cell anodes for PENFC fuel cells and direct methanol fuel cells....

  16. Preparation and properties of antimony thin film anode materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Shufa; CAO Gaoshao; ZHAO Xinbing

    2004-01-01

    Metallic antimony thin films were deposited by magnetron sputtering and electrodeposition. Electrochemical properties of the thin film as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries were investigated and compared with those of antimony powder. It was found that both magnetron sputtering and electrodeposition are easily controllable processes to deposit antimony films with fiat charge/discharge potential plateaus. The electrochemical performances of antimony thin films, especially those prepared with magnetron sputtering, are better than those of antimony powder. The reversible capacities of the magnetron sputtered antimony thin film are above 400 mA h g-1 in the first 15 cycles.

  17. Graphene composites as anode materials in lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazar Atabaki, M.; Kovacevic, R.

    2013-03-01

    Since the world of mobile phones and laptops has significantly altered by a big designer named Steve Jobs, the electronic industries have strived to prepare smaller, thinner and lower weight products. The giant electronic companies, therefore, compete in developing more efficient hardware such as batteries used inside the small metallic or polymeric frame. One of the most important materials in the production lines is the lithium-based batteries which is so famous for its ability in recharging as many times as a user needs. However, this is not an indication of being long lasted, as many of the electronic devices are frequently being used for a long time. The performance, chemistry, safety and above all cost of the lithium ion batteries should be considered when the design of the compounds are at the top concern of the engineers. To increase the efficiency of the batteries a combination of graphene and nanoparticles is recently introduced and it has shown to have enormous technological effect in enhancing the durability of the batteries. However, due to very high electronic conductivity, these materials can be thought of as preparing the anode electrode in the lithiumion battery. In this paper, the various approaches to characterize different types of graphene/nanoparticles and the process of preparing the anode for the lithium-ion batteries as well as their electrical properties are discussed.

  18. Material and Energy Flows in the Production of Cathode and Anode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, Jennifer B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); James, Christine [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Gaines, Linda [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gallagher, Kevin [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dai, Qiang [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kelly, Jarod C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model has been expanded to include four new cathode materials that can be used in the analysis of battery-powered vehicles: lithium nickel cobalt manganese oxide (LiNi0.4Co0.2Mn0.4O2 [NMC]), lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4 [LFP]), lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2 [LCO]), and an advanced lithium cathode (0.5Li2MnO3∙0.5LiNi0.44Co0.25Mn0.31O2 [LMR-NMC]). In GREET, these cathode materials are incorporated into batteries with graphite anodes. In the case of the LMR-NMC cathode, the anode is either graphite or a graphite-silicon blend. Lithium metal is also an emerging anode material. This report documents the material and energy flows of producing each of these cathode and anode materials from raw material extraction through the preparation stage. For some cathode materials, we considered solid state and hydrothermal preparation methods. Further, we used Argonne National Laboratory’s Battery Performance and Cost (BatPaC) model to determine battery composition (e.g., masses of cathode, anode, electrolyte, housing materials) when different cathode materials were used in the battery. Our analysis concluded that cobalt- and nickel-containing compounds are the most energy intensive to produce.

  19. Silicon oxide based high capacity anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Haixia; Han, Yongbong; Masarapu, Charan; Anguchamy, Yogesh Kumar; Lopez, Herman A.; Kumar, Sujeet

    2017-03-21

    Silicon oxide based materials, including composites with various electrical conductive compositions, are formulated into desirable anodes. The anodes can be effectively combined into lithium ion batteries with high capacity cathode materials. In some formulations, supplemental lithium can be used to stabilize cycling as well as to reduce effects of first cycle irreversible capacity loss. Batteries are described with surprisingly good cycling properties with good specific capacities with respect to both cathode active weights and anode active weights.

  20. Modified natural graphite as anode material for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y. P.; Jiang, C.; Wan, C.; Holze, R.

    A concentrated nitric acid solution was used as an oxidant to modify the electrochemical performance of natural graphite as anode material for lithium ion batteries. Results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance, thermogravimmetry, differential thermal analysis, high resolution electron microscopy, and measurement of the reversible capacity suggest that the surface structure of natural graphite was changed, a fresh dense layer of oxides was formed. Some structural imperfections were removed, and the stability of the graphite structure increased. These changes impede decomposition of electrolyte solvent molecules, co-intercalation of solvated lithium ions and movement of graphene planes along the a-axis direction. Concomitantly, more micropores were introduced, and thus, lithium intercalation and deintercalation were favored and more sites were provided for lithium storage. Consequently, the reversible capacity and the cycling behavior of the modified natural graphite were much improved by the oxidation. Obviously, the liquid-solid oxidation is advantageous in controlling the uniformity of the products.

  1. [Hardened anodized aluminum as a replacement material for bracket manufacture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer-Brandies, H; Bönhoff, M

    1994-12-01

    Attention has been repeatedly drawn to the problem of corrosion and the risk of allergic reaction to nickel resulting from the use of stainless steel brackets. In the search for a suitable alternative, manufacturers have turned to thin coating technology using hardened anodized aluminium. Applying resistance to corrosion and abrasion as the criteria to be met, they have selected aluminium alloy type 6082 as the material of choice. Purpose of this study is to examine the physical suitability of this material. Using the above noted alloy, 60 prototype brackets were made with a hardened anodized surface. They were then subjected to the following 3 stress tests: first an abrasion test using a tooth polishing machine, second, a deformation test using a device designed to simulate torque movement, and, third, a corrosion test. The effects on the brackets resulting from the three types of stress were evaluated by light microscopy. A quantitative analysis of the corrosion test was performed by ICP spectrometry. The control group consisted of conventional stainless steel brackets. The light microscopic analysis revealed no evidence of surface damage or signs of deformation in the prototype brackets. The steel brackets, on the other hand, showed clear signs of wear and corrosion. The quantitative analysis of the corrosion solution revealed metallic ion wear of 1.75 ng x mm-2 x h-1 for the prototypes subjected to abrasion. The steel brackets showed at a factor of around 104.6 metallic ion wear of 183 ng x mm-2 x h-1. In addition to this, no Ni ions were found in the corrosion solution of the prototype brackets.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Nanoporous silicon flakes as anode active material for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-You; Lee, Jeong-Hwa; Kim, Han-Jung

    2017-01-01

    Nanoporous-silicon (np-Si) flakes were prepared using a combination of an electrochemical etching process and an ultra-sonication treatment and the electrochemical properties were studied as an anode active material for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). This fabrication method is a simple, reproducible, and cost effective way to make high-performance Si-based anode active materials in LIBs. The anode based on np-Si flakes exhibited a higher performances (lower capacity fade rate, stability and excellent rate capability at high C-rate) than the anode based on Si nanowires. The excellent performance of the np-Si flake anode was attributed to the hollowness (nanoporous structure) of the anode active material, which allowed it to accommodate a large volume change during cycling.

  3. Material and Energy Flows in the Production of Cathode and Anode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, Jennifer B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; James, Christine [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Chemical Engineering and Materials Science Dept.; Gaines, Linda G. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Gallagher, Kevin [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division

    2014-09-30

    The Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model has been expanded to include four new cathode materials that can be used in the analysis of battery-powered vehicles: lithium nickel cobalt manganese oxide (LiNi0.4Co0.2Mn0.4O2 [NMC]), lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4 [LFP]), lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2 [LCO]), and an advanced lithium cathode (0.5Li2MnO3∙0.5LiNi0.44Co0.25Mn0.31O2 [LMR-NMC]). In GREET, these cathode materials are incorporated into batteries with graphite anodes. In the case of the LMR-NMC cathode, the anode is either graphite or a graphite-silicon blend. This report documents the material and energy flows of producing each of these cathode and anode materials from raw material extraction through the preparation stage. For some cathode materials, we considered solid state and hydrothermal preparation methods. Further, we used Argonne National Laboratory’s Battery Performance and Cost (BatPaC) model to determine battery composition (e.g., masses of cathode, anode, electrolyte, housing materials) when different cathode materials were used in the battery. Our analysis concluded that cobalt- and nickel-containing compounds are the most energy intensive to produce.

  4. Trends in Catalytic Activity for SOFC Anode materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossmeisl, Jan; Bessler, W. G.

    2008-01-01

    for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anodes. The reaction energies along the hydrogen oxidation pathway were quantified for both, oxygen spillover and hydrogen spillover mechanisms at the three-phase boundary. The ab initio results are compared to previously-obtained experimental anode activities measured...

  5. Anodic materials for the electrolysis of water. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiori, G.; Mari, C.M.; Perra, B.; Vago, L.; Vitali, P.

    1980-01-01

    Research was conducted in two areas: preparation and characterization of various catalytic materials, similar to NiLa/sub 2/O/sub 4/, in order to verify the possibility of improving the catalytic activity; and optimization of the catalytic film deposition conditions on a cheap substrate and tests at high temperature (110 to 120/sup 0/C) and high current densities (1 A/cm/sup 2/). The modified catalytic materials can be classified in three different groups: NiLa/sub 2/O/sub 4/ mixed oxides doped with different low quantities of cations of various valencies (Li/sup +/, Mg/sup 2 +/, Fe/sup 3 +/); mixed oxides in which Ni has been replaced totally or partially with Co; and NiLa/sub 2/O/sub 3/ mixed oxides in which some sulfur has been substituted for reticular oxygen. The best electrode tested is the mixed Ni-Co non-stoichiometric oxide deposited on Ni. This electrode at 110/sup 0/C and 1 A/cm/sup 2/ shows an E/sub rhe/ potential lower than 1.45 v after more than 400 hr of uninterrupted work as anode in the water decomposition reaction.

  6. Tremella-like Molybdenum Dioxide as an Anode Material for Lithium ion Battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L.C.Yang; Q.S.Gao; Y.H.Zhang; Y.Tang; Y.P.Wu

    2007-01-01

    1 Results Molybdenum dioxide, with excellent chemical and physical properties, has been widely used in various fields[1]. As an anode material for lithium ion battery, it exhibits higher capacity than commercial carbonaceous materials, and proper morphology, structure and particle size are necessary for MoO2 to be employed as an anode material for lithium ion battery[2].We have successfully obtained tremella-like structure self-assembled with hexagonal MoO2 nanosheets via hydrothermal method using ethyl...

  7. Si-Based Anode Materials for Li-Ion Batteries:A Mini Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Delong Ma; Zhanyi Cao; Anming Hu

    2014-01-01

    Si has been considered as one of the most attractive anode materials for Li-ion batteries (LIBs) because of its high gravimetric and volumetric capacity. Importantly, it is also abundant, cheap, and environmentally benign. In this review, we summarized the recent progress in developments of Si anode materials. First, the electrochemical reaction and failure are outlined, and then, we summarized various methods for improving the battery performance, including those of nanostructuring, alloying, forming hierarchic structures, and using suitable binders. We hope that this review can be of benefit to more intensive investigation of Si-based anode materials.

  8. Pulsed laser deposited Si on multilayer graphene as anode material for lithium ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gouri Radhakrishnan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Pulsed laser deposition and chemical vapor deposition were used to deposit very thin silicon on multilayer graphene (MLG on a nickel foam substrate for application as an anode material for lithium ion batteries. The as-grown material was directly fabricated into an anode without a binder, and tested in a half-cell configuration. Even under stressful voltage limits that accelerate degradation, the Si-MLG films displayed higher stability than Si-only electrodes. Post-cycling images of the anodes reveal the differences between the two material systems and emphasize the role of the graphene layers in improving adhesion and electrochemical stability of the Si.

  9. Facile synthesis of reduced graphene oxide-porous silicon composite as superior anode material for lithium-ion battery anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Lian-Sheng; Liu, Jin-Yu; Li, Hong-Yan; Wu, Tong-Shun; Li, Fenghua; Wang, Hao-Yu; Niu, Li

    2016-05-01

    We report a new method for synthesizing reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-porous silicon composite for lithium-ion battery anodes. Rice husks were used as a as a raw material source for the synthesis of porous Si through magnesiothermic reduction process. The as-obtained composite exhibits good rate and cycling performance taking advantage of the porous structure of silicon inheriting from rice husks and the outstanding characteristic of graphene. A considerably high delithiation capacity of 907 mA h g-1 can be retained even at a rate of 16 A g-1. A discharge capacity of 830 mA h g-1 at a current density of 1 A g-1 was delivered after 200 cycles. This may contribute to the further advancement of Si-based composite anode design.

  10. An investigation of anode and cathode materials in photomicrobial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Kenneth; Thorne, Rebecca J; Cameron, Petra J

    2016-02-28

    Photomicrobial fuel cells (p-MFCs) are devices that use photosynthetic organisms (such as cyanobacteria or algae) to turn light energy into electrical energy. In a p-MFC, the anode accepts electrons from microorganisms that are either growing directly on the anode surface (biofilm) or are free floating in solution (planktonic). The nature of both the anode and cathode material is critical for device efficiency. An ideal anode is biocompatible and facilitates direct electron transfer from the microorganisms, with no need for an electron mediator. For a p-MFC, there is the additional requirement that the anode should not prevent light from perfusing through the photosynthetic cells. The cathode should facilitate the rapid reaction of protons and oxygen to form water so as not to rate limit the device. In this paper, we first review the range of anode and cathode materials currently used in p-MFCs. We then present our own data comparing cathode materials in a p-MFC and our first results using porous ceramic anodes in a mediator-free p-MFC.

  11. Durability Prediction of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anode Material under Thermo-Mechanical and Fuel Gas Contaminants Effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iqbal, Gulfam; Guo, Hua; Kang , Bruce S.; Marina, Olga A.

    2011-01-10

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) operate under harsh environments, which cause deterioration of anode material properties and service life. In addition to electrochemical performance, structural integrity of the SOFC anode is essential for successful long-term operation. The SOFC anode is subjected to stresses at high temperature, thermal/redox cycles, and fuel gas contaminants effects during long-term operation. These mechanisms can alter the anode microstructure and affect its electrochemical and structural properties. In this research, anode material degradation mechanisms are briefly reviewed and an anode material durability model is developed and implemented in finite element analysis. The model takes into account thermo-mechanical and fuel gas contaminants degradation mechanisms for prediction of long-term structural integrity of the SOFC anode. The proposed model is validated experimentally using a NexTech ProbostatTM SOFC button cell test apparatus integrated with a Sagnac optical setup for simultaneously measuring electrochemical performance and in-situ anode surface deformation.

  12. Novel Ceramic Materials for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Water Electrolysers' Anodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polonsky, J.; Bouzek, K.; Prag, Carsten Brorson

    2012-01-01

    Tantalum carbide was evaluated as a possible new support for the IrO2 for use in anodes of polymer electrolyte membrane water electrolysers. A series of supported electrocatalysts varying in mass content of iridium oxide was prepared. XRD, powder conductivity measurements and cyclic and linear sw...

  13. Selection of Anodic Material Used in Electrolytic Process for Producing Hypophosphorous Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Sheng WANG; Bing Kui SONG; Xiao Li HAN; Bao Gui ZHANG

    2004-01-01

    Black lead, Ti-Ru and Ti-PbO2 were used as anode and stainless steel was used as cathode.The electrolytic process of producing hypophosphorous acid with four-compartment electrodialytic cell was studied. The comparison of some factors, such as anodic voltage, product concentration and current efficiency, of black lead, Ti-Ru, and Ti-PbO2 electrodes was conducted. As a result, the Ti-PbO2 electrode is the optimal anode material used, it can be in electrolytic process for producing hypophosphorous acid.

  14. A disordered carbon as a novel anode material in lithium-ion cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonino, F.; Brutti, S.; Reale, P.; Scrosati, B. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita ' ' La Sapienza' ' , I-00185 Rome (Italy); Gherghel, L.; Wu, J.; Muellen, K. [Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Ackermannweg 10, D-55124 Mainz (Germany)

    2005-03-22

    The electrochemical behavior of a disordered carbon used as the anode in a lithium battery has been tested. The characteristics of this carbon, especially its specific capacity and cycle life, are such that it is a potentially unique, high-performance anode material for new types of lithium-ion batteries. The Figure shows the specific capacity versus cycle number of the disordered carbon electrode in a lithium-ion cell. (Abstract Copyright [2005], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  15. Carbon Materials Metal/Metal Oxide Nanoparticle Composite and Battery Anode Composed of the Same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Ching-Cheh (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A method of forming a composite material for use as an anode for a lithium-ion battery is disclosed. The steps include selecting a carbon material as a constituent part of the composite, chemically treating the selected carbon material to receive nanoparticles, incorporating nanoparticles into the chemically treated carbon material and removing surface nanoparticles from an outside surface of the carbon material with incorporated nanoparticles. A material making up the nanoparticles alloys with lithium.

  16. Phosphorus-Based Alloy Materials for Advanced Potassium-Ion Battery Anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenchao; Mao, Jianfeng; Li, Sean; Chen, Zhixin; Guo, Zaiping

    2017-02-22

    Potassium-ion batteries (PIBs) are interesting as one of the alternative metal-ion battery systems to lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) due to the abundance and low cost of potassium. We have herein investigated Sn4P3/C composite as a novel anode material for PIBs. The electrode delivered a reversible capacity of 384.8 mA h g(-1) at 50 mA g(-1) and a good rate capability of 221.9 mA h g(-1), even at 1 A g(-1). Its electrochemical performance is better than any anode material reported so far for PIBs. It was also found that the Sn4P3/C electrode displays a discharge potential plateau of 0.1 V in PIBs, slightly higher than for sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) (0.01 V), and well above the plating potential of metal. This diminishes the formation of dendrites during cycling, and thus Sn4P3 is a relatively safe anode material, especially for application in large-scale energy storage, where large amounts of electrode materials are used. Furthermore, a possible reaction mechanism of the Sn4P3/C composite as PIB anode is proposed. This work may open up a new avenue for further development of alloy-based anodes with high capacity and long cycle life for PIBs.

  17. Anodization of Ti-based materials for biomedical applications: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana R. Barjaktarević

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Commercially pure titanium (cpTi and titanium alloys are the most commonly used metallic biomaterials. Biomedical requirements for the successful usage of metallic implant materials include their high mechanical strength, low elastic modulus, excellent biocompatibility and high corrosion resistance. It is evident that the response of a biomaterial implanted into the human body depends entirely on its biocompatibility and surface properties. Therefore, in order to improve the performance of biomaterials in biological systems modification of their surface is necessary. One of most commonly used method of implant materials surface modification is electrochemical anodization and this method is reviewed in the present work.Aim of the presented review article is to explain the electrochemical anodization process and the way in which the nanotubes are formed by anodization on the metallic material surface. Influence of anodizing parameters on the nanotubes characteristics, such as nanotube diameter, length and nanotubular layer thickness, are described, as well as the anodized nanotubes influence on the material surface properties, corrosion resistance and biocompatibility.

  18. Alternative anode materials for solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodenough, John B.; Huang, Yun-Hui [Texas Materials Institute, ETC 9.102, 1 University Station, C2200, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2007-11-08

    The electrolyte of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is an O{sup 2-}-ion conductor. The anode must oxidize the fuel with O{sup 2-} ions received from the electrolyte and it must deliver electrons of the fuel chemisorption reaction to a current collector. Cells operating on H{sub 2} and CO generally use a porous Ni/electrolyte cermet that supports a thin, dense electrolyte. Ni acts as both the electronic conductor and the catalyst for splitting the H{sub 2} bond; the oxidation of H{sub 2} to H{sub 2}O occurs at the Ni/electrolyte/H{sub 2} triple-phase boundary (TPB). The CO is oxidized at the oxide component of the cermet, which may be the electrolyte, yttria-stabilized zirconia, or a mixed oxide-ion/electron conductor (MIEC). The MIEC is commonly a Gd-doped ceria. The design and fabrication of these anodes are evaluated. Use of natural gas as the fuel requires another strategy, and MIECs are being explored for this application. The several constraints on these MIECs are outlined, and preliminary results of this on-going investigation are reviewed. (author)

  19. A mediatorless microbial fuel cell using polypyrrole coated carbon nanotubes composite as anode material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Yongjin; Xiang, Cuili; Yang, Lini [Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Sun, Li-Xian [Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China); School of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Changsha University of Science and Technology, Changsha 410076 (China); Xu, Fen [Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China); Cao, Zhong [School of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Changsha University of Science and Technology, Changsha 410076 (China)

    2008-09-15

    A microbial fuel cell (MFC) was constructed using polypyrrole (PPy) coated carbon nanotubes (CNTs) composite as an anode material and Escherichia coli as the biocatalyst. The composite PPy-CNTs were synthesized by the in situ chemical polymerization of pyrrole on the CNTs using ammonium persulfate as an oxidant. The electrocatalytic behaviors of the composite modified anode were investigated by means of cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and discharge experiments. The PPy-CNTs modified anode showed better electrochemical performance than that of plain carbon paper. The amount of the loading of the composite on the anode was also investigated. The power output of the MFC increased along with the increase of the composite loading. In the absence of exogenous electron mediators, the MFC with the composite modified anode contained 5 mg cm{sup -2} PPy-CNTs exhibited a maximum power density 228 mW m{sup -2}, which is much higher than those reported in the literature so far for E. coli using efficient electron mediators. These results show that the PPy-CNTs composite anode is promising for MFC application. (author)

  20. A new anode material for oxygen evolution in molten oxide electrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allanore, Antoine; Yin, Lan; Sadoway, Donald R

    2013-05-16

    Molten oxide electrolysis (MOE) is an electrometallurgical technique that enables the direct production of metal in the liquid state from oxide feedstock, and compared with traditional methods of extractive metallurgy offers both a substantial simplification of the process and a significant reduction in energy consumption. MOE is also considered a promising route for mitigation of CO2 emissions in steelmaking, production of metals free of carbon, and generation of oxygen for extra-terrestrial exploration. Until now, MOE has been demonstrated using anode materials that are consumable (graphite for use with ferro-alloys and titanium) or unaffordable for terrestrial applications (iridium for use with iron). To enable metal production without process carbon, MOE requires an anode material that resists depletion while sustaining oxygen evolution. The challenges for iron production are threefold. First, the process temperature is in excess of 1,538 degrees Celsius (ref. 10). Second, under anodic polarization most metals inevitably corrode in such conditions. Third, iron oxide undergoes spontaneous reduction on contact with most refractory metals and even carbon. Here we show that anodes comprising chromium-based alloys exhibit limited consumption during iron extraction and oxygen evolution by MOE. The anode stability is due to the formation of an electronically conductive solid solution of chromium(iii) and aluminium oxides in the corundum structure. These findings make practicable larger-scale evaluation of MOE for the production of steel, and potentially provide a key material component enabling mitigation of greenhouse-gas emissions while producing metal of superior metallurgical quality.

  1. Nano-sized carboxylates as anode materials for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoyan Wu; Jie Ma; Yong-Sheng Hu; Hong Li; Liquan Chen

    2014-01-01

    Nano-sized carboxylates Na2C7H3NO4 and Na2C6H2N2O4 were prepared and investigated as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. Both carboxylates exhibit high reversible capacities around 190 mAh/g above a cut-off voltage of 0.8 V vs. Li+/Li, potentially improving the safety of the batteries. In addition, good rate performance and long cycle life of these carboxylates make them promising candidates as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries.

  2. Carbon Cryogel and Carbon Paper-Based Silicon Composite Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodworth, James; Baldwin, Richard; Bennett, William

    2010-01-01

    A variety of materials are under investigation for use as anode materials in lithium-ion batteries, of which, the most promising are those containing silicon. 6 One such material is a composite formed via the dispersion of silicon in a resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) gel followed by pyrolysis. Two silicon-carbon composite materials, carbon microspheres and nanofoams produced from nano-phase silicon impregnated RF gel precursors have been synthesized and investigated. Carbon microspheres are produced by forming the silicon-containing RF gel into microspheres whereas carbon nano-foams are produced by impregnating carbon fiber paper with the silicon containing RF gel to create a free standing electrode. 1-5 Both materials have demonstrated their ability to function as anodes and utilize the silicon present in the material. Stable reversible capacities above 400 mAh/g for the bulk material and above 1000 mAh/g of Si have been observed.

  3. Silicon Composite Anode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries Based on Carbon Cryogels and Carbon Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodworth, James; Baldwin, Richard; Bennett, William

    2010-01-01

    A variety of materials are under investigation for use as anode materials in lithium-ion batteries, of which, the most promising are those containing silicon. One such material is a composite formed via the dispersion of silicon in a resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) gel followed by pyrolysis. Two silicon-carbon composite materials, carbon microspheres and nanofoams produced from nano-phase silicon impregnated RF gel precursors have been synthesized and investigated. Carbon microspheres are produced by forming the silicon-containing RF gel into microspheres whereas carbon nanofoams are produced by impregnating carbon fiber paper with the silicon containing RF gel to create a free standing electrode. Both materials have demonstrated their ability to function as anodes and utilize the silicon present in the material. Stable reversible capacities above 400 mAh/g for the bulk material and above 1000 mAh/g of Si have been observed.

  4. Superstructured Carbon Nanotube/Porous Silicon Hybrid Materials for Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun-Ki; Kang, Shin-Hyun; Choi, Sung-Min

    2015-03-01

    High energy Li-ion batteries (LIBs) are in great demand for electronics, electric-vehicles, and grid-scale energy storage. To further increase the energy and power densities of LIBs, Si anodes have been intensively explored due to their high capacity, and high abundance compared with traditional carbon anodes. However, the poor cycle-life caused by large volume expansion during charge/discharge process has been an impediment to its applications. Recently, superstructured Si materials were received attentions to solve above mentioned problem in excellent mechanical properties, large surface area, and fast Li and electron transportation aspects, but applying superstructures to anode is in early stage yet. Here, we synthesized superstructured carbon nanotubes (CNTs)/porous Si hybrid materials and its particular electrochemical properties will be presented. Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering

  5. Synthesis, Characterization and Testing of Novel Anode and Cathode Materials for Li-Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Ralph E.; Popov, Branko N.

    2002-10-31

    During this program we have synthesized and characterized several novel cathode and anode materials for application in Li-ion batteries. Novel synthesis routes like chemical doping, electroless deposition and sol-gel method have been used and techniques like impedance, cyclic voltammetry and charge-discharge cycling have been used to characterize these materials. Mathematical models have also been developed to fit the experimental result, thus helping in understanding the mechanisms of these materials.

  6. Submicron organic nanofiber devices with different anode-cathode materials: A simple approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henrichsen, Henrik Hartmann; Sturm, Heinz; Bøggild, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The authors present a simple general method for simultaneously producing tens of submicron electrode gaps with different cathode and anode materials on top of nanofibers, nanowires, and nanotubes, with an optional gap size variation. Using this method, an ensemble of para-hexaphenylene (p6P) nano...

  7. Bacterial nanometric amorphous Fe-based oxide: a potential lithium-ion battery anode material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Hideki; Kobayashi, Genki; Sakuma, Ryo; Fujii, Tatsuo; Hayashi, Naoaki; Suzuki, Tomoko; Kanno, Ryoji; Takano, Mikio; Takada, Jun

    2014-04-23

    Amorphous Fe(3+)-based oxide nanoparticles produced by Leptothrix ochracea, aquatic bacteria living worldwide, show a potential as an Fe(3+)/Fe(0) conversion anode material for lithium-ion batteries. The presence of minor components, Si and P, in the original nanoparticles leads to a specific electrode architecture with Fe-based electrochemical centers embedded in a Si, P-based amorphous matrix.

  8. Electrochemical Characteristics of Tin Oxide-Graphite as Anode Material for Lithium-ion Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanaly, Siti Munirah

    2010-03-01

    Tin oxide anode materials used in lithium-ion cells experience large volume changes during charging and discharging which cause substantial losses in capacity. In this work, the tin oxide-graphite composite is proposed as an alternative anode material to overcome this problem. The composite was synthesised from a solution of tin chloride dihydrate and graphite powders with citric acid as the chelating agent. In this sol-gel method, a solid phase is formed through a chemical reaction in a liquid phase at moderate temperature. The technique offers several advantages compared to the solid state synthesis technique such as the ability to maintain the homogeneous mixture of precursors during synthesis and to produce small particles. The electrochemical behaviour of the anode material was investigated by means of galvanostatic charge discharge technique. An initial reversible capacity of 748 mAh/g is obtained and nearly 600 mAh/g was retained upon the reaching the fifth cycle. This study shows that the presence of graphite is able to minimise the agglomeration of tin particles that causes large volume changes during cycling, thereby improving cyclability of the anode material.

  9. Carbon-Coated SnO2 Nanorod Array for Lithium-Ion Battery Anode Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Xiaoxu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Carbon-coated SnO2 nanorod array directly grown on the substrate has been prepared by a two-step hydrothermal method for anode material of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs. The structural, morphological and electrochemical properties were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and electrochemical measurement. When used as anodes for LIBs with high current density, as-obtained array reveals excellent cycling stability and rate capability. This straightforward approach can be extended to the synthesis of other carbon-coated metal oxides for application of LIBs.

  10. Evaluation of anode (electro)catalytic materials for the direct borohydride fuel cell: Methods and benchmarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olu, Pierre-Yves; Job, Nathalie; Chatenet, Marian

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, different methods are discussed for the evaluation of the potential of a given catalyst, in view of an application as a direct borohydride fuel cell DBFC anode material. Characterizations results in DBFC configuration are notably analyzed at the light of important experimental variables which influence the performances of the DBFC. However, in many practical DBFC-oriented studies, these various experimental variables prevent one to isolate the influence of the anode catalyst on the cell performances. Thus, the electrochemical three-electrode cell is a widely-employed and useful tool to isolate the DBFC anode catalyst and to investigate its electrocatalytic activity towards the borohydride oxidation reaction (BOR) in the absence of other limitations. This article reviews selected results for different types of catalysts in electrochemical cell containing a sodium borohydride alkaline electrolyte. In particular, propositions of common experimental conditions and benchmarks are given for practical evaluation of the electrocatalytic activity towards the BOR in three-electrode cell configuration. The major issue of gaseous hydrogen generation and escape upon DBFC operation is also addressed through a comprehensive review of various results depending on the anode composition. At last, preliminary concerns are raised about the stability of potential anode catalysts upon DBFC operation.

  11. Nanoscale Engineering of Heterostructured Anode Materials for Boosting Lithium-Ion Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gen; Yan, Litao; Luo, Hongmei; Guo, Shaojun

    2016-09-01

    Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), as one of the most important electrochemical energy-storage devices, currently provide the dominant power source for a range of devices, including portable electronic devices and electric vehicles, due to their high energy and power densities. The interest in exploring new electrode materials for LIBs has been drastically increasing due to the surging demands for clean energy. However, the challenging issues essential to the development of electrode materials are their low lithium capacity, poor rate ability, and low cycling stability, which strongly limit their practical applications. Recent remarkable advances in material science and nanotechnology enable rational design of heterostructured nanomaterials with optimized composition and fine nanostructure, providing new opportunities for enhancing electrochemical performance. Here, the progress as to how to design new types of heterostructured anode materials for enhancing LIBs is reviewed, in the terms of capacity, rate ability, and cycling stability: i) carbon-nanomaterials-supported heterostructured anode materials; ii) conducting-polymer-coated electrode materials; iii) inorganic transition-metal compounds with core@shell structures; and iv) combined strategies to novel heterostructures. By applying different strategies, nanoscale heterostructured anode materials with reduced size, large surfaces area, enhanced electronic conductivity, structural stability, and fast electron and ion transport, are explored for boosting LIBs in terms of high capacity, long cycling lifespan, and high rate durability. Finally, the challenges and perspectives of future materials design for high-performance LIB anodes are considered. The strategies discussed here not only provide promising electrode materials for energy storage, but also offer opportunities in being extended for making a variety of novel heterostructured nanomaterials for practical renewable energy applications.

  12. Review on recent progress of nanostructured anode materials for Li-ion batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Goriparti, Subrahmanyam

    2014-07-01

    This review highlights the recent research advances in active nanostructured anode materials for the next generation of Li-ion batteries (LIBs). In fact, in order to address both energy and power demands of secondary LIBs for future energy storage applications, it is required the development of innovative kinds of electrodes. Nanostructured materials based on carbon, metal/semiconductor, metal oxides and metal phosphides/nitrides/sulfides show a variety of admirable properties for LIBs applications such as high surface area, low diffusion distance, high electrical and ionic conductivity. Therefore, nanosized active materials are extremely promising for bridging the gap towards the realization of the next generation of LIBs with high reversible capacities, increased power capability, long cycling stability and free from safety concerns. In this review, anode materials are classified, depending on their electrochemical reaction with lithium, into three groups: intercalation/de-intercalation, alloy/de-alloy and conversion materials. Furthermore, the effect of nanoscale size and morphology on the electrochemical performance is presented. Synthesis of the nanostructures, lithium battery performance and electrode reaction mechanisms are also discussed. To conclude, the main aim of this review is to provide an organic outline of the wide range of recent research progresses and perspectives on nanosized active anode materials for future LIBs.

  13. Anodized titania: Processing and characterization to improve cell-materials interactions for load bearing implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Kakoli

    The objective of this study is to investigate in vitro cell-materials interactions using human osteoblast cells on anodized titanium. Titanium is a bioinert material and, therefore, gets encapsulated after implantation into the living body by a fibrous tissue that isolates them from the surrounding tissues. In this work, bioactive nonporous and nanoporous TiO2 layers were grown on commercially pure titanium substrate by anodization process using different electrolyte solutions namely (1) H3PO 4, (2) HF and (3) H2SO4, (4) aqueous solution of citric acid, sodium fluoride and sulfuric acid. The first three electrolytes produced bioactive TiO2 films with a nonporous structure showing three distinctive surface morphologies. Nanoporous morphology was obtained on Ti-surfaces from the fourth electrolyte at 20V for 4h. Cross-sectional view of the nanoporous surface reveals titania nanotubes of length 600 nm. It was found that increasing anodization time initially increased the height of the nanotubes while maintaining the tubular array structure, but beyond 4h, growth of nanotubes decreased with a collapsed array structure. Human osteoblast (HOB) cell attachment and growth behavior were studied using an osteoprecursor cell line (OPC 1) for 3, 7 and 11 days. Colonization of the cells was noticed with distinctive cell-to-cell attachment on HF anodized surfaces. TiO2 layer grown in H2SO4 electrolyte did not show significant cell growth on the surface, and some cell death was also noticed. Good cellular adherence with extracellular matrix extensions in between the cells was noticed for samples anodized with H3PO 4 electrolyte and nanotube surface. Cell proliferation was excellent on anodized nanotube surfaces. An abundant amount of extracellular matrix (ECM) between the neighboring cells was also noticed on nanotube surfaces with filopodia extensions coming out from cells to grasp the nanoporous surface for anchorage. To better understand and compare cell-materials interactions

  14. High capacity anode materials for lithium - ion batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Kudu, Ömer Ulaş

    2017-01-01

    Cataloged from PDF version of article. Thesis (M.S.): Bilkent University, Department of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, İhsan Doğramacı Bilkent University, 2017. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 76-87). Huge energy demand in the world has caused depletion in non - renewable energy sources, and global climate change due to the consumed fuel exhausts. Renewable energy sources are eco - friendly alternatives. Electrochemical energy storage systems (EESS) are useful tool...

  15. Manganese pyridinedicarboxylates: New anode materials for lithium-ion batteries with good cycling performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fei, Hailong, E-mail: feilin09053@gmail.com [College of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, 2 Xueyuan Road, University Town Fuzhou, Fujian 350116 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Materials Chemistry (Ministry of Education), Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Li, Zhiwei; Liu, Xin [College of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, 2 Xueyuan Road, University Town Fuzhou, Fujian 350116 (China)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Manganese 2,3-pyridinedicarboxylate and 2,5-pyridinedicarboxylate. • Firstly tested as anode materials. • High capacity and good cycle stability. - Abstract: It is significant to discover new environmental friendly, sustainable and renewable electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries. Manganese dicarboxylate [Mn{sub 2}(pdc){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}]{sub n}⋅2nH{sub 2}O (pdc = pyridine-2,3-dicarboxylate) is firstly found to be a high-energy anode material for lithium-ion batteries. It shows a high discharge capacity of 573.7 mA h g{sup −1} for the second cycle between a 0.05 and 3.0 V voltage limit at a discharge current density of 500 mA g{sup −1}. The reversible capacity of 457.2 mA h g{sup −1} is remained after 100 cycles with a capacity retention being 79.6%. In addition, it is found that Mn 2,5-pyridinedicarboxyle was also stable anode materials with high capacity.

  16. Relationship between initial efficiency and structure parameters of carbon anode material for Li-ion battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Jian-bin; TANG You-gen; LIANG Yi-zeng; TAN Xin-xin

    2008-01-01

    The initial efficiency is a very important criterion for carbon anode material of Li-ion battery. The relationship between initial efficiency and structure parameters of carbon anode material of Li-ion battery was investigated by an artificial intelligence approach called Random Forests using D10, D50, D90, BET specific surface area and TP density as inputs, initial efficiency as output.The results give good classification performance with 91% accuracy. The variable importance analysis results show the impact of 5 variables on the initial efficiency descends in the order of D90, TP density, BET specific surface area, D50 and D10; smaller D90 and larger TP density have positive impact on initial efficiency. The contribution of BET specific surface area on classification is only 18.74%, which indicates the shortcoming of BET specific surface area as a widely used parameter for initial efficiency evaluation.

  17. Facile synthesis of one-dimensional zinc vanadate nanofibers for high lithium storage anode material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Lei [Key Laboratory of Eco-textiles, Ministry of Education, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); International Joint Research Laboratory for Advanced Functional Textile Materials, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); Fei, Yaqian; Chen, Ke; Li, Dawei; Wang, Xin [Key Laboratory of Eco-textiles, Ministry of Education, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); Wang, Qingqing [Key Laboratory of Eco-textiles, Ministry of Education, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); International Joint Research Laboratory for Advanced Functional Textile Materials, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); Wei, Qufu, E-mail: qfwei@jiangnan.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Eco-textiles, Ministry of Education, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); International Joint Research Laboratory for Advanced Functional Textile Materials, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); Qiao, Hui [Key Laboratory of Eco-textiles, Ministry of Education, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China)

    2015-11-15

    One-dimensional (1D) zinc vanadate (α-Zn{sub 2}V{sub 2}O{sub 7}) nanofibers have been synthesized through electrospinning combined with an annealing process. When used as anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), electrospun 1D α-Zn{sub 2}V{sub 2}O{sub 7} nanofibers exhibit a reversible capacity of ∼708 mAh g{sup −1} after 100 cycles at a current density of 50 mA g{sup −1}. A good rate capability is also achieved even at higher current densities. When cycled at a current density of 2000 mA g{sup −1}, the electrode can still show a reversible capacity of ∼311 mAh g{sup −1}. The excellent cycle performance and rate capability may be due to the 1D nanofiber architectures, mesoporous structures, and relatively large specific surface area, which can provide a short ion diffusion path and continuous electron transportation. Therefore, this work presents a simple and efficient approach for fabrication of 1D α-Zn{sub 2}V{sub 2}O{sub 7} nanofibers, which are promising high-performance anode materials for LIBs. - Highlights: • Electrospun 1D α-Zn{sub 2}V{sub 2}O{sub 7} nanofibers are first synthesized for anode material. • The electrochemical reaction mechanism of this material is discussed. • A reversible capacity of ∼708 mAh g{sup −1} is obtained after 100 cycles at 50 mA g{sup −1}. • 1D α-Zn{sub 2}V{sub 2}O{sub 7} nanofiber anodes show excellent rate capability for LIBs.

  18. All-carbon-based porous topological semimetal for Li-ion battery anode material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junyi; Wang, Shuo; Sun, Qiang

    2017-01-24

    Topological state of matter and lithium batteries are currently two hot topics in science and technology. Here we combine these two by exploring the possibility of using all-carbon-based porous topological semimetal for lithium battery anode material. Based on density-functional theory and the cluster-expansion method, we find that the recently identified topological semimetal bco-C16 is a promising anode material with higher specific capacity (Li-C4) than that of the commonly used graphite anode (Li-C6), and Li ions in bco-C16 exhibit a remarkable one-dimensional (1D) migration feature, and the ion diffusion channels are robust against the compressive and tensile strains during charging/discharging. Moreover, the energy barrier decreases with increasing Li insertion and can reach 0.019 eV at high Li ion concentration; the average voltage is as low as 0.23 V, and the volume change during the operation is comparable to that of graphite. These intriguing theoretical findings would stimulate experimental work on topological carbon materials.

  19. Recovery of valuable metals from anode material of hydrogen-nickel battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Fang; XU Sheng-ming; LI Lin-yan; CHEN Song-zhe; XU Gang; XU Jing-ming

    2009-01-01

    Simultaneous recovery of rare earth, nickel and cobalt resources from the anode material of hydrogen-nickel battery was performed through a hydrometallurgical process. Most of rare earth elements are separated from nickel and cobalt in the form of sulfates when the anode material is firstly leached with sulfuric acid. Then, the precipitated rare earth sulfates are dissolved with sodium hydroxide to form rare earth hydroxides. The rare earth element, zinc and manganese ions in the lixivium are also separated from nickel and cobalt by using PC-88A extractant system, and the organic phase loaded rare earth is stripped with hydrochloric acid. By neutralizing the stripping solution with rare earth hydroxide, the rare earth chloride is obtained. Under the suitable leaching conditions of sulfuric acid 3 mol/L, leaching time 4 h and temperature 95 ℃, 94.5% of rare earth in the anode material is transformed into the sulfate precipitates, and the leaching ratios of nickel and cobalt can approach 99.5%. When the pH value of the extractive system is controlled in the range of 3.0-3.5, the rare earth elements in the lixivium can be extracted completely into the organic phase, and the stripping recovery of the rare earth can reach 98% in the extraction stage. The total recoveries of rare earth, nickel and cobalt are 98.9%, 98.4% and 98.5%, respectively.

  20. Bismuth Nanoparticles Embedded in Carbon Spheres as Anode Materials for Sodium/Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fuhua; Yu, Fan; Zhang, Zhian; Zhang, Kai; Lai, Yanqing; Li, Jie

    2016-02-12

    Sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) are regarded as an attractive alternative to lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) for large-scale commercial applications, because of the abundant terrestrial reserves of sodium. Exporting suitable anode materials is the key to the development of SIBs and LIBs. In this contribution, we report on the fabrication of Bi@C microspheres using aerosol spray pyrolysis technique. When used as SIBs anode materials, the Bi@C microsphere delivered a high capacity of 123.5 mAh g(-1) after 100 cycles at 100 mA g(-1) . The rate performance is also impressive (specific capacities of 299, 252, 192, 141, and 90 mAh g(-1) are obtained under current densities of 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1, and 2 A g(-1) , respectively). Furthermore, the Bi@C microsphere also proved to be suitable LIB anode materials. The excellent electrochemical performance for both SIBs and LIBs can attributed to the Bi@C microsphere structure with Bi nanoparticles uniformly dispersed in carbon spheres.

  1. Enhancement of Electrochemical Stability about Silicon/Carbon Composite Anode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Silicon/carbon (Si/C composite anode materials are successfully synthesized by mechanical ball milling followed by pyrolysis method. The structure and morphology of the composite are characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscope, respectively. The results show that the composite is composed of Si, flake graphite, and phenolic resin-pyrolyzed carbon, and Si and flake graphite are enwrapped by phenolic resin-pyrolyzed carbon, which can provide not only a good buffering matrix but also a conductive network. The Si/C composite also shows good electrochemical stability, in which the composite anode material exhibits a high initial charge capacity of 805.3 mAh g−1 at 100 mA g−1 and it can still deliver a high charge capacity of 791.7 mAh g−1 when the current density increases to 500 mA g−1. The results indicate that it could be used as a promising anode material for lithium ion batteries.

  2. Carbon matrix/SiNWs heterogeneous block as improved reversible anodes material for lithium ion batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao; Wang; Long; Ren; Yundan; Liu; Xuejun; Liu; Kai; Huang; Xiaolin; Wei; Jun; Li; Xiang; Qi; Jianxin; Zhong

    2014-01-01

    A novel carbon matrix/silicon nanowires(SiNWs) heterogeneous block was successfully produced by dispersing SiNWs into templated carbon matrix via a modified evaporation induced self-assembly method. The heterogeneous block was determined by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectra and scanning electron microscopy. As an anode material for lithium batteries, the block was investigated by cyclic voltammograms(CV), charge/discharge tests, galvanostatic cycling performance and A. C. impedance spectroscopy. We show that the SiNWs disperse into the framework, and are nicely wrapped by the carbon matrix. The heterogeneous block exhibits superior electrochemical reversibility with a high specific capacity of 529.3 mAh/g in comparison with bare SiNWs anode with merely about 52.6 mAh/g capacity retention. The block presents excellent cycle stability and capacity retention which can be attributed to the improvement of conductivity by the existence of carbon matrix and the enhancement of ability to relieve the large volume expansion of SiNWs during the lithium insertion/extraction cycle. The results indicate that the as-prepared carbon matrix/SiNWs heterogeneous block can be an attractive and potential anode material for lithium-ion battery applications.

  3. Vanadium-based polyoxometalate as new material for sodium-ion battery anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Steffen; Bucher, Nicolas; Chen, Han-Yi; Al-Oweini, Rami; Sreejith, Sivaramapanicker; Borah, Parijat; Yanli, Zhao; Kortz, Ulrich; Stimming, Ulrich; Hoster, Harry E.; Srinivasan, Madhavi

    2015-08-01

    Affordable energy storage is crucial for a variety of technologies. One option is sodium-ion batteries (NIBs) for which, however, suitable anode materials are still a problem. We report on the application of a promising new class of materials, polyoxometalates (POMs), as an anode in NIBs. Specifically, Na6[V10O28]·16H2O is being synthesized and characterized. Galvanostatic tests reveal a reversible capacity of approximately 276 mA h g-1 with an average discharge potential of 0.4 V vs. Na/Na+, as well as a high cycling stability. The underlying mechanism is rationalized to be an insertion of Na+ in between the [V10O28]6- anions rather than an intercalation into a crystal structure; the accompanying reduction of V+V to V+IV is confirmed by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. Finally, a working full-cell set-up is presented with the POM as the anode, substantiating the claim that Na6[V10O28]·16H2O is a promising option for future high-performing sodium-ion batteries.

  4. Electrolytic deposition of Sn-coated mesocarbon microbeads as anode material for lithium ion battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Min-Jen [Department of Materials Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 40227, Taiwan (China); Jen-Teh Junior College of Medicine, Nursing and Management, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Du-Cheng [Department of Materials Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 40227, Taiwan (China); Ho, Wen-Hsien [Taiwan Textile Research Institute, Taipei 23674, Taiwan (China); Li, Ching-Fei, E-mail: chingfei.li@gmail.com [Phoenix Silicon International Corporation, Hsinchu 30094, Taiwan (China); Shieu, Fuh-Sheng, E-mail: fsshieu@dragon.nchu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 40227, Taiwan (China); Center of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 40227, Taiwan (China)

    2013-11-15

    Deposited of crystalline tin (Sn) coatings on mesocarbon microbead (MCMB) powder as anodes of lithium ion (Li-ion) battery was conducted in the SnSO{sub 4} solution by a cathodic electrochemical synthesis. The Sn-coated MCMB specimens were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and charge/discharge tests. The synthesis condition of Sn-coated MCMB was optimized by considering the agglomeration, size, and adhesion of the samples to the current collectors in the battery. The Sn-coated MCMB electrodes exhibit increased reversible capacity without sacrificing its cycling behavior, compared with bare MCMB electrodes. It is concluded that electrolysis-deposited Sn-coated MCMB electrodes may emerge as a practical and promising anode material for secondary Li-ion batteries.

  5. Sol-gel Method Synthesized Polyhedron SnO_2 Anode Material for Lithium Ion Battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    1 Introduction Tin-based oxides will be promising anode materials for lithium ion batteries due to its high specific capacity, low potential platform, and safety[1]. Many methods have been applied to synthesize SnO2 materials of different morphologies, such as chemical vapor deposition, spray, sol-gel method[2]. Triblock copolymer poly (ethylene oxide)-block-poly (propylene oxide)-block-poly (ethane oxide) (P123) has been used as surfactant to prepare nano-crystalline tin oxide particles[3]. In this pap...

  6. Effects of graphite on Zn-Sb alloys as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The electrochemical properties of multiphases Zn4Sb3C7 and ZnSbC2 as new lithium-ion anode materials wereinvestigated. The composition and microstructures of these multiphase materials were analyzed by XRD and TEM. It wasfound that the addition of graphite modifies the microstructures of pure alloys. The capacities and the cycle stability of theanodes are greatly improved. The reversible capacity of Zn4Sb3C7 reaches as high as 510 mAh/g at the first cycle, andkeeps higher than 300 mAh/g after 10 charge/discharge cycles

  7. Monodisperse porous silicon spheres as anode materials for lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Favors, Zachary; Ionescu, Robert; Ye, Rachel; Bay, Hamed Hosseini; Ozkan, Mihrimah; Ozkan, Cengiz S

    2015-03-05

    Highly monodisperse porous silicon nanospheres (MPSSs) are synthesized via a simple and scalable hydrolysis process with subsequent surface-protected magnesiothermic reduction. The spherical nature of the MPSSs allows for a homogenous stress-strain distribution within the structure during lithiation and delithiation, which dramatically improves the electrochemical stability. To fully extract the real performance of the MPSSs, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were added to enhance the electronic conductivity within the composite electrode structure, which has been verified to be an effective way to improve the rate and cycling performance of anodes based on nano-Si. The Li-ion battery (LIB) anodes based on MPSSs demonstrate a high reversible capacity of 3105 mAh g(-1). In particular, reversible Li storage capacities above 1500 mAh g(-1) were maintained after 500 cycles at a high rate of C/2. We believe this innovative approach for synthesizing porous Si-based LIB anode materials by using surface-protected magnesiothermic reduction can be readily applied to other types of SiOx nano/microstructures.

  8. A new anode material LiMoS2 for use in rechargeable Lithium Ion Batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Shui-jin; AI Chang-chun; LIANG Yong-guang; SUN Ju-tang

    2004-01-01

    The novel applications of molybdenum disulfide in recent research were reviewed, such as in lubricant, catalyst and photoelectrochemical solar cells. Recently, we found that LiMoS2 is a good candidate for new anode materials for lithium ion batteries with high lithium storage capacity.Here, the anode material LiMoS2 was synthesized by a hydrothermal method at 150℃ and the electrochemical characterization as an anode material for lithium ion batteries was examined.put in Teflon-lined stainless steel autoclaves of capacity 40 mL. Distilled water was used to fill the autoclaves to 70 % of the total volume. The autoclaves were maintained at 150℃ for 24 h and then cooled naturally. The resulting dark-gray powders were filled and washed with distilled water,diluted hydrochloric acid and ethanol, successively. The final products were dried at 80℃ for 24 h.The powder X-ray diffraction pattern showed the prepared LiMoS2 was amorphous structure. A test cell using LiMoS2 as the active material was discharged and charged between 3 and 0.01 V with respect to Li metal at a constant current density of C/5 (that is, one lithium per formula unit in 5 hours). During the first discharge, the potential rapidly drops to reach a large plateau at 2.2 V, then slowly drops to the other plateau at 0.8 V, and then continuously decreases down to 0.01V. There is only a plateau at 1.35 V in the subsequent discharge curves. The plateaus of charge potential appear at about 1.9 V.The irreversible loss was 41% in the first cycle. The ratio of discharge and charge is more than 99%in the subsequent cycles. Moreover, the ratio of discharge and charge almost reaches 100% after thedemonstrated that LiMoS2 has a very high capacity and a good cycle-ability as an anode material forlithium ion batteries.

  9. Graphene encapsulated and SiC reinforced silicon nanowires as an anode material for lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Ren, Jian-Guo; Wang, Xin; Chui, Ying-San; Wu, Qi-Hui; Chen, Xianfeng; Zhang, Wenjun

    2013-09-21

    Anode materials play a key role in the performance, in particular the capacity and lifetime, of lithium ion batteries (LIBs). Silicon has been demonstrated to be a promising anode material due to its high specific capacity, but pulverization during cycling and formation of an unstable solid-electrolyte interphase limit its cycle life. Herein, we show that anodes consisting of an active silicon nanowire (Si NW), which is surrounded by a uniform graphene shell and comprises silicon carbide nanocrystals, are capable of serving over 500 cycles in half cells at a high lithium storage capacity of 1650 mA h g(-1). In the anodes, the graphene shell provides a highly-conductive path and prevents direct exposure of Si NWs to electrolytes while the SiC nanocrystals may act as a rigid backbone to retain the integrity of the Si NW in its great deformation process caused by repetitive charging-discharging reactions, resulting in a stable cyclability.

  10. Electrochemical performance of graphene nanosheets as anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Peng; Song, Huaihe; Chen, Xiaohong [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, 100029 Beijing (China)

    2009-06-15

    Graphene nanosheets (GNSs) were prepared from artificial graphite by oxidation, rapid expansion and ultrasonic treatment. The morphology, structure and electrochemical performance of GNSs as anode material for lithium-ion batteries were systematically investigated by high-resolution transmission electron microscope, scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and a variety of electrochemical testing techniques. It was found that GNSs exhibited a relatively high reversible capacity of 672 mA h/g and fine cycle performance. The exchange current density of GNSs increased with the growth of cycle numbers exhibiting the peculiar electrochemical performance. (author)

  11. Methane steam reforming kinetics over Ni-YSZ anode materials for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, David

    energy. The overall efficiency of a fuel cell system operating on natural gas can be significantly improved by having part of the steam reforming take place inside the SOFC stack. In order to avoid large temperature gradients as a result of the highly endothermal steam reforming reaction, the amount...... of internal reforming has to be carefully controlled. The objective of this thesis is to make such a careful control possible by examining the rate of internal steam reforming in SOFCs. The catalytic steam reforming activity of Ni-YSZ anode material was tested both in a packed bed reactor to determine...

  12. Li Metal Anodes and Rechargeable Lithium Metal Batteries. Springer Series in Materials Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jiguang; Xu, Wu; Henderson, Wesley A.

    2017-01-03

    Lithium (Li) metal is an ideal anode material for rechargeable batteries. With the urgent need for the “next generation” rechargeable batteries, such as Li-S, Li-air batteries as well as rechargeable Li metal batteries using Li intercalation compounds as the cathode, the use of Li metal anode has attracted significant interests in recent years. Unfortunately, rechargeable batteries based on Li metal anode have not yet been commercialized mainly due to two barriers: one is the growth of Li dendrites and associated safety hazard, and another is the low Coulombic efficiency (CE) of Li cycling and associated early battery failure due to Li powdering and increasing cell impedance. To have a high CE, minimum side reactions between freshly/native deposited Li and electrolyte has to be minimized. These reactions are proportional to the chemical and electrochemical activity of native Li when they are in direct contact with surrounding electrolyte. They are also proportional to the surface area of deposited Li. This means that high CE of Li deposition/stripping always related to a low surface area Li deposition and suppressed Li dendrite growth. Therefore, the enhancement of CE is a more fundamental factors controlling long term, stable cycling of Li metal anode. In this book, we will first review the general models of the dendrite growth mechanism. The effect of SEI layer on the modeling of Li dendrite growth will also be discussed. Then we will discuss various instruments/tools that are critical for the investigation of Li dendrite growth. In the Chapter 3, various factors which affect CE of Li cycling and dendrite growth will be discussed together with an emphasize on enhancement of CE. Chapter 4 of the book will discuss the specific application of Li metal anode in several key rechargeable Li metal batteries, including Li-air batteries, Li-S batteries and Li metal batteries using intercalation compounds as cathode. At last, the perspective on the future development

  13. Fabrication of highly ordered porous nickel oxide anode materials and their electrochemical characteristics in lithium storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Fengjuan [College of Communications and Electronics Engineering, Qiqihar University, 42 Wenhua Street, Qiqihar, Heilongjiang 161006 (China); National Laboratory for Infrared Physics, Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200083 (China); Li, Qianqian [College of Communications and Electronics Engineering, Qiqihar University, 42 Wenhua Street, Qiqihar, Heilongjiang 161006 (China); Tao, Bairui, E-mail: tbr_sir@163.com [Computer Center, Qiqihar University, 42 Wenhua Street, Qiqihar, Heilongjiang 161006 (China); National Laboratory for Infrared Physics, Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200083 (China); Chu, Paul K. [Department of Physics and Material Sciences, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • NiO/Si-MCP nanocomposites electrocatalysts as anodes in lithium ion batteries. • Si MCP itself is an excellent support for electrocatalyst. • The structure with high surface to volume ratio endows higher mass NiO nanopatricles. • The ordered channel and mesoporous structure permits liquid electrolyte flow easily. • This research may provide a meaning way in integratable lithium-ion batteries. - Abstract: The structure and electrochemical properties of silicon microchannel plates (MCP)-supported NiO nanocomposites (NiO/Si-MCP) synthesized by silicon micromachining, electroless plating, and thermal annealing are investigated as anodes in lithium ion batteries. Galvanostatic charge and discharge results indicate that the NiO/Si-MCP is capable of delivering a higher capacity than the bare nickel-oxide film. At a 1 C current, the NiO/Si-MCP nanocomposite film shows an enormous first discharge capacity of about 3190 mA g{sup −1} and charge capacity of 1977 mA g{sup −1}. After 15 cycles, the NiO/Si-MCP nanocomposite retains a reversible capacity of 1531 mA g{sup −1} with 63.7% of the capacity maintained in the 2nd cycle. The lithium storage capacity is maintained at ∼880 mA h g{sup −1} after 50 discharge/charge cycles and it is much larger than that of NiO and its composites. The enhanced electrochemical performance of the highly ordered three-dimensional materials is attributed to the synergistic effects offered by the silicon microchannel plates in the nickel oxide film subsequently facilitating electrolyte penetration, diffusion, and migration. The structure is promising anode materials in lithium-ion batteries.

  14. SYNTHESIS OF NANO-ZnO PARTICLES FOR ALUMINUM METALLURGY AS INERT ANODE MATERIAL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.A.A. Saleh; Y. Fu; X.J. Zhai; Y.C. Zhai; M.M. Elomella; A.L. Zhang

    2004-01-01

    Nano-ZnO particle was produced by evaporating zinc powders in air at air flow-rate from 0.2 to 0.6m3/h. Nano-ZnO particles was formed by the oxidation of the evaporated zinc vapor. X-ray diffraction shows the powders to be ZnO with lattice parameters of a=0.3249nm and c=0.5205nm. The particle size is dependent upon the transit time from the source to the collection area. The size of particles was ranged between 81 to 103nm. The average density resulted was 4.865g/cm3.Normal ZnO and nano-ZnO were investigated to use them in aluminum metallurgy as an inert anode material. A certain amount of both oxides were molded subsequently inserted to the molten cryolite-aluminum oxide to investigate the corrosive behavior of both oxides. When the sintering temperature increased up to 1300 ℃, the weight loss ratio rose to 5.01%-7.33% and up to 7.67%-10.18% for nano-ZnO and normal ZnO, respectively. However, when the samples in the molten cryolite aluminum oxide were put for long time, the corrosive rate was found to be higher. It was found that the corrosive loss weight ratio of nano-ZnO anode was much lower than the normal one made from ordinary-ZnO providing that the nano-ZnO is more possible to be use inert anode material.

  15. Surface-modified graphite for improving electrochemical performance of Li-ion battery anode material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jin-ming; WANG Fu-tian; LIU Mao-huang

    2004-01-01

    The graphite materials have been used as negative electrodes in commercial Li-ion batteries for many years. In order to avoid the exfoliation of graphite sheet in the PC-based electrolyte system, it is necessary to make the surface modification on the graphite material. In this study, the electrochemical behavior of carbon-coated graphite in PC-based electrolyte was investigated by charge and discharge cycling process. The carbon-coated graphite can increase the reversible from 366 mA/g to 399mAh/g and improve cycle ability in the PC-based electrolyte system. So the carbon-coated graphite can become the promising high-capacity anode materials of Li-ion battery.

  16. Heat-treated stainless steel felt as scalable anode material for bioelectrochemical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Kun; Soeriyadi, Alexander H; Feng, Huajun; Prévoteau, Antonin; Patil, Sunil A; Gooding, J Justin; Rabaey, Korneel

    2015-11-01

    This work reports a simple and scalable method to convert stainless steel (SS) felt into an effective anode for bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) by means of heat treatment. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry elucidated that the heat treatment generated an iron oxide rich layer on the SS felt surface. The iron oxide layer dramatically enhanced the electroactive biofilm formation on SS felt surface in BESs. Consequently, the sustained current densities achieved on the treated electrodes (1 cm(2)) were around 1.5±0.13 mA/cm(2), which was seven times higher than the untreated electrodes (0.22±0.04 mA/cm(2)). To test the scalability of this material, the heat-treated SS felt was scaled up to 150 cm(2) and similar current density (1.5 mA/cm(2)) was achieved on the larger electrode. The low cost, straightforwardness of the treatment, high conductivity and high bioelectrocatalytic performance make heat-treated SS felt a scalable anodic material for BESs.

  17. Sodium-intercalated bulk graphdiyne as an anode material for rechargeable batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farokh Niaei, Amir H.; Hussain, Tanveer; Hankel, Marlies; Searles, Debra J.

    2017-03-01

    We present the results of a density functional theory study of sodium storage and mobility on graphdiyne (GDY) and consider the applicability of GDY intercalated with sodium (Na) as an anode material for rechargeable batteries. The maximum capacity, energy barriers for Na diffusion throughout the layers, and expansion of the layers due to Na insertion are determined. The calculations indicate that Na intercalates within the GDY bulk layers with a capacity of NaC5.14 without expansion (316 mA h g-1) and NaC2.57 with expansion of 28% (497 mA h g-1). The energy barrier for movement of Na in the slit pore formed by two GDY bulk layers is found to be 0.82 eV for bulk GDY with an AB-2 stacking, and the barrier for movement through a GDY sheet is found to be 0.12 eV. The barrier for movement in the slit pore formed by sheets becomes even lower for AB-3 stacking, with values of 0.68 and 0.40 eV found for different pathways. Movement from one GDY sheet to another for the AB-3 stacking also has a moderate energy of 0.37 eV. Therefore, GDY intercalated with Na is proposed to have potential as an anode material for rechargeable batteries.

  18. Structures, phase stabilities, and electrical potentials of Li-Si battery anode materials

    KAUST Repository

    Tipton, William W.

    2013-05-28

    The Li-Si materials system holds promise for use as an anode in Li-ion battery applications. For this system, we determine the charge capacity, voltage profiles, and energy storage density solely by ab initio methods without any experimental input. We determine the energetics of the stable and metastable Li-Si phases likely to form during the charging and discharging of a battery. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations are used to model the structure of amorphous Li-Si as a function of composition, and a genetic algorithm coupled to density-functional theory searches the Li-Si binary phase diagram for small-cell, metastable crystal structures. Calculations of the phonon densities of states using density-functional perturbation theory for selected structures determine the importance of vibrational, including zero-point, contributions to the free energies. The energetics and local structural motifs of these metastable Li-Si phases closely resemble those of the amorphous phases, making these small unit cell crystal phases good approximants of the amorphous phase for use in further studies. The charge capacity is estimated, and the electrical potential profiles and the energy density of Li-Si anodes are predicted. We find, in good agreement with experimental measurements, that the formation of amorphous Li-Si only slightly increases the anode potential. Additionally, the genetic algorithm identifies a previously unreported member of the Li-Si binary phase diagram with composition Li5Si2 which is stable at 0 K with respect to previously known phases. We discuss its relationship to the partially occupied Li7Si3 phase. © 2013 American Physical Society.

  19. Evaluation of Al and Some of Its Alloys as Anode Materials vs γ-MnO2 as Cathode Material and Ore Produced γ-MnO2 vs Zn Anode in KOH Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.M.A.Hashem; Kh.S. Abou-El-Sherbini; S. Zein El Abedin; H. Abbas

    2006-01-01

    In this study electrochemical performance of Al and some of its alloys (Al-Zn, Al-Mg and Al-Mn) anodes vs MnO2 cathode were carried out in alkaline solution. The results show that the Al-Zn alloy anode has the best cell capacity among the other alloys. Cell capacity values go in the order Al-Zn>Al-Mg>Al>Al-Mn. This result is probably related to the nature of passive films formed on the surface of the alloys which examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM morphologies of Al and its alloys showed coarse grains of passive films formed on the surface of these anode materials while Al-Mn morphology shows a needle-like structure.Electrolytic manganese dioxide (EMD) produced by electrodepositing on platinum anode from liquor resulting from reduction of low grade pyrolusite ore (β-MnO2) by sulfur slag was characterized as cathode in alkaline Zn-MnO2 batteries. Ore produced sample (EMD1) was performed well in comparison with EMD standard (EMD2) (commercial battery grade electrolytic manganese dioxide, TOSOH-Hellas GH-S). SEM morphology of Zn anode after cell reaction was carried out and showed that Zn anode has fine grains of passive film on its surface.

  20. Microscopic properties of lithium, sodium, and magnesium battery anode materials related to possible dendrite growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jäckle, Markus; Groß, Axel [Institute of Theoretical Chemistry, Ulm University, 89069 Ulm, Germany and Helmholtz Institut Ulm (HIU) Electrochemical Energy Storage, 89069 Ulm (Germany)

    2014-11-07

    Lithium and magnesium exhibit rather different properties as battery anode materials with respect to the phenomenon of dendrite formation which can lead to short-circuits in batteries. Diffusion processes are the key to understanding structure forming processes on surfaces. Therefore, we have determined adsorption energies and barriers for the self-diffusion on Li and Mg using periodic density functional theory calculations and contrasted the results to Na which is also regarded as a promising electrode material in batteries. According to our calculations, magnesium exhibits a tendency towards the growth of smooth surfaces as it exhibits lower diffusion barriers than lithium and sodium, and as an hcp metal it favors higher-coordinated configurations in contrast to the bcc metals Li and Na. These characteristic differences are expected to contribute to the unequal tendencies of these metals with respect to dendrite growth.

  1. Electrochemical properties of some cobalt antimonides as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Xinbing; CAO Gaoshao; ZHANG Lijuan; XIE Jian

    2003-01-01

    Some cobalt antimonides have been prepared and studied as the candidate anode materials for lithium ion batteries. Reversible capacities of 424, 423 and 546 mA@h@g -1 were measured at the first cycle for as-solidified CoSb2, CoSb3 and annealed CoSb3 respectively. A low lithium ions diffusion coefficient in the order of 10-16 m 2@s -1 was estimated from the coulometric titration measurements in the annealed CoSb3 electrode. It was found that the electrochemical properties of fine powders are significantly better than coarse powders. However the SEM picture shows that the nano-sized CoSb3powders gathered to larger granules, which worsens somewhat the capacity retention of the nano-sized materials, although the volume capacities of the annealed and ball milled CoSb3 remain near twice of that of graphite after 50 cycles.

  2. The New Method of XRD Measurement of the Degree of Disorder for Anode Coke Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuo Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative analysis by X-ray powder diffraction of two cokes (pitch coke and petroleum coke shows that their crystal structure changed with increasing temperature. The crystal data processing of the crystallization degree of disorder is used with further improvement of the proposed microcrystalline-stacking fault calculation method. With this improvement it is now possible to obtain the degree of stacking disorder of two cokes applied as anode materials at different graphitization temperatures. Raman spectroscopy verified the accuracy of this method, which is more reliable than the crystal structure refinement using the d002 method. This paper provides the theoretical analysis and interpretation of the relationship between the microstructure model of the material and quantitative data, discharge capacity, and the first charge-discharge efficiency.

  3. Preparation and Characterization of Carbon Coated Silicon Nanoparticle as Anode Material for Li-ion Batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T. Zhancg; L.J. Fu; J. Gao; Y. P. Wu; H.Q. Wu

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction Silicon has been regarded as one of the most promising anode materials for Li-ion batteries. Its theoretical capacity (4 000 mAh/g) is much higher than that of the commercialized graphite (372 mAh/g)[1]. However,the cycle performance of silicon is poor due to the severe volume expansion and shrinkage during Li+ insertion/extraction which results in pulverization of Si particles, eventually losing its Li+ storage ability[2]. To solve this problem, nanosized Si particles were utilized and achieved a partial improvement by reducing the absolute volume change. Nevertheless, a new problem was encountered with nanosized material that small Si particles were aggregated to be larger one during Li+ insertion/extraction, and then pulverized again[3]. In this work, we have succeeded to improve the cycle performance of nanosized Si particles by synthesis of carbon coated silicon nanoparticle.

  4. Electrochemical and Mechanical Failure of Graphite-Based Anode Materials in Li-Ion Batteries for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Lin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Graphite-based anode materials undergo electrochemical reactions, coupling with mechanical degradation during battery operation, can affect or deteriorate the performance of Li-ion batteries dramatically, and even lead to the battery failure in electric vehicle. First, a single particle model (SPM based on kinetics of electrochemical reactions was built in this paper. Then the Li-ion concentration and evolution of diffusion induced stresses (DISs within the SPM under galvanostatic operating conditions were analyzed by utilizing a mathematical method. Next, evolution of stresses or strains in the SPM, together with mechanical degradation of anode materials, was elaborated in detail. Finally, in order to verify the hypothesis aforementioned surface and morphology of the graphite-based anode dismantled from fresh and degraded cells after galvanostatic charge/discharge cycling were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD, field-emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The results show that large volume changes of anode materials caused DISs during Li-ion insertion and extraction within the active particles. The continuous accumulations of DISs brought about mechanical failure of the anode eventually.

  5. Could Borophene Be Used as a Promising Anode Material for High-Performance Lithium Ion Battery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Wu, Zhi-Feng; Gao, Peng-Fei; Zhang, Sheng-Li; Wen, Yu-Hua

    2016-08-31

    The rapid development of electronic products has inspired scientists to design and explore novel electrode materials with an ultrahigh rate of charging/discharging capability, such as two-dimensional (2-D) nanostructures of graphene and MoS2. In this study, another 2-D nanosheet, that is a borophene layer, has been predicted to be utilized as a promising anode material for high-performance Li ion battery based on density functional theory calculations. Our study has revealed that Li atom can combine strongly with borophene surface strongly and easily, and exist as a pure Li(+) state. A rather small energy barrier (0.007 eV) of Li diffusion leads to an ultrahigh diffusivity along an uncorrugated direction of borophene, which is estimated to be 10(4) (10(5)) times faster than that on MoS2 (graphene) at room temperature. A high Li storage capacity of 1239 mA·h/g can be achieved when Li content reaches 0.5. A low average operating voltage of 0.466 V and metallic properties result in that the borophene can be used as a possible anode material. Moreover, the properties of Li adsorption and diffusion on the borophene affected by Ag (111) substrate have been studied. It has been found that the influence of Ag (111) substrate is very weak. Li atom can still bind on the borophene with a strong binding energy of -2.648 eV. A small energy barrier of 0.033 eV can be retained for Li diffusion along the uncorrugated direction, which can give rise to a high Li diffusivity. Besides, the performances of borophene-based Na ion battery have been explored. Our results suggest that an extremely high rate capability could be expected in borophene-based Li ion battery.

  6. Investigation of Metal Oxide/Carbon Nano Material as Anode for High Capacity Lithium-ion Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, James Jianjun; Hong, Haiping

    2014-01-01

    NASA is developing high specific energy and high specific capacity lithium-ion battery (LIB) technology for future NASA missions. Current state-of-art LIBs have issues in terms of safety and thermal stability, and are reaching limits in specific energy capability based on the electrochemical materials selected. For example, the graphite anode has a limited capability to store Li since the theoretical capacity of graphite is 372 mAh/g. To achieve higher specific capacity and energy density, and to improve safety for current LIBs, alternative advanced anode, cathode, and electrolyte materials are pursued under the NASA Advanced Space Power System Project. In this study, the nanostructed metal oxide, such as Fe2O3 on carbon nanotubes (CNT) composite as an LIB anode has been investigated.

  7. Properties and microstructure of NiO/SDC materials for SOFC anode applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Jigui; DENG Liping; ZHANG Benrui; SHI Ping; MENG Guangyao

    2007-01-01

    NiO/SDC composites and Ni/SDC cermets for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anode applications were prepared from nickel oxide (NiO) and samaria doped ceria (SDC) powders by the powder metallurgy process. The physical and mechanical properties, as well as the microstructure of the NiO/SDC composites and the Ni/SDC cermets were investigated. It is shown that the sintering temperature of the NiO/SDC composites and NiO content plays an important role in determining the microstructure and properties of the NiO/SDC composites, which, in turn, influences the microstructure, electrical conductivity, and mechanical properties of the Ni/SDC cermets. The present study demonstrated that composition and tprocess parameters must be appropriately selected to optimize the microstructure and the properties of NiO/SDC materials for solid oxide fuel cell applications.

  8. Electrodeposited gold nanoparticles on carbon nanotube-textile: Anode material for glucose alkaline fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Pasta, Mauro

    2012-06-01

    In the present paper we propose a new anode material for glucose-gluconate direct oxidation fuel cells prepared by electrodepositing gold nanoparticles onto a conductive textile made by conformally coating single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) on a polyester textile substrate. The electrodeposition conditions were optimized in order to achieve a uniform distribution of gold nanoparticles in the 3D porous structure of the textile. On the basis of previously reported studies, the reaction conditions (pH, electrolyte composition and glucose concentration) were tuned in order to achieve the highest oxidation rate, selectively oxidizing glucose to gluconate. The electrochemical characterization was carried out by means of cyclic voltammetry. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Mono-layer BC2 a high capacity anode material for Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardikar, Rahul; Samanta, Atanu; Han, Sang Soo; Lee, Kwang-Ryeol; Singh, Abhishek

    2015-04-01

    Mono-layer of graphene with high surface area compared to the bulk graphite phase, shows less Li uptake. The Li activity or kinetics can be modified via defects and/or substitutional doping. Boron and Nitrogen are the best known dopants for carbonaceous anode materials. In particular, boron doped graphene shows higher capacity and better Li adsorption compared to Nitrogen doped graphene. Here, using first principles density functional theory calculations, we study the spectrum of boron carbide (BCx) mono-layer phases in order to estimate the maximum gravimetric capacity that can be achieved by substitutional doping in graphene. Our results show that uniformly boron doped BC2 phase shows a high capacity of? 1400 mAh/g, much higher than previously reported capacity of BC3. Supported by Korea Institute of Science and Technology.

  10. Nitrogen-rich graphene from small molecules as high performance anode material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Weiwei; Huang, Hao; Shi, Hongyan; Feng, Xun; Song, Wenbo

    2014-10-17

    Nitrogen-rich graphene sheets were successfully achieved via facile thermal condensation of glucose and dicyandiamide at different temperatures during which dicyandiamide acts both as nitrogen source and sacrifice template. Devoid of surfactants or poisonous organic solvents, this small-molecule synthetic approach is a simple and cost-effective way to obtain nitrogen-rich graphene sheets (NRGS) with high specific surface area and large pore volume. Shown to be a promising anode material, the NRGS displayed high reversible capacity, excellent rate capability, and superior cycle performance. The superior lithium-storage performance is ascribed to the unique features of NRGS, including a large quantity of defects due to the high nitrogen doping level, favorable lithium ion transportation channels by virtue of the large surface area, and ultrahigh pore volume, as well as the crumpled two-dimensional structure.

  11. Mn3O4/CNTs composite as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Xiangjun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Transition metal oxides especially manganese oxides are being intensively studied as candidate anode materials for next generation lithium ion batteries in high efficiency energy storage applications. In this paper, Mn3O4/CNTs composite is prepared via a facile one-step solvothermal method. The results of XRD and SEM showed that Mn3O4 uniformly coated on the surface of CNTs. It could deliver a reversible charge capacity of 809.9 mA h g-1 at the current density of 40 mA g-1, and the specific discharge capacity slightly increased from 644.2 mA h g-1 to 796.1 mA h g-1 after 50 cycles at a current density of 160 mA g-1 demonstrating excellent cycling stability.

  12. Defective graphene as promising anode material for Na-ion battery and Ca-ion battery

    CERN Document Server

    Datta, Dibakar; Shenoy, Vivek B

    2013-01-01

    We have investigated adsorption of Na and Ca on graphene with divacancy (DV) and Stone-Wales (SW) defect. Our results show that adsorption is not possible on pristine graphene. However, their adsorption on defective sheet is energetically favorable. The enhanced adsorption can be attributed to the increased charge transfer between adatoms and underlying defective sheet. With the increase in defect density until certain possible limit, maximum percentage of adsorption also increases giving higher battery capacity. For maximum possible DV defect, we can achieve maximum capacity of 1459 mAh/g for Na-ion batteries (NIBs) and 2900 mAh/g for Ca-ion batteries (CIBs). For graphene full of SW defect, we find the maximum capacity of NIBs and CIBs is around 1071 mAh/g and 2142 mAh/g respectively. Our results will help create better anode materials with much higher capacity and better cycling performance for NIBs and CIBs.

  13. Dead lithium phase investigation of Sn-Zn alloy as anode materials for lithium ion battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG ZhaoWen; HU SheJun; HOU XianHua; RU Qiang; YU HongWen; ZHAO LingZhi; LI WeiShan

    2009-01-01

    In this work, based on First-principle plane wave pseudo-potential method, we have carried out an in-depth study on the possible dead lithium phase of Sn-Zn alloy as anode materials for lithium ion batteries. Through investigation, we found that the phases LixSn4Zn4(x = 2, 4, 6, 8) contributed to reversible capacity, while the phases LixSn4Zns-(x-4)(x = 4.74, 7.72) led to capacity loss due to high formation energy, namely, they were the dead lithium phases during the charge/discharge process. And we come up with a new idea that stable lithium alloy phase with high lithiation formation energy (dead lithium phase) can also result in high loss of active lithium ion, besides the traditional expression that the formation of solid electrolyte interface film leads to high capacity loss.

  14. Mechanism of lithium insertion into NiSi2 anode material for lithium ion batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Zhongsheng; JI Shijun; SUN Juncai; TIAN Feng; TIAN Rujin; XIE Jingying

    2006-01-01

    As a promising high capacity anode material for lithium ion batteries, the lithium insertion performance and possible insertion mechanism of binary alloy of NiSi2 were discussed. The initial lithium insertion of crystal NiSi2 can reach up to 600 mAh·g-1 , but large irreversible capacity occurrs simultaneously for serious structure transformation and the irreversible phase forms. XRD and XPS were employed to detect the crystal structure and composition changes produced by lithium insertion. The lithium insertion-extraction behavior of NiSi2 electrode is similar to that of silicon after the first discharge. The structure stability seems related to the non-stoichimometric Ni-Si compound formed by lithium insertion into NiSi2.

  15. Effect of the synthesis method of SnSb anode materials on their electrochemical properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chaoli Yin; Hailei Zhao; Hong Guo; Xianliang Huang; Weihua Qiu

    2007-01-01

    SnSb alloy powders for the anode of Li-ion batteries were synthesized by two kinds of reduction precipitation methods:solution titration and rapid mixing. Two kinds of SnSb alloy powders showed different phase compositions and particle morphologies although the same starting materials were used. The SnSb alloy electrode synthesized by titration exhibits high reversible specific capacity and good cycling stability, whereas the rapid-mixing sample shows high irreversible capacity and fast capacity fade. The broad particle size distribution of SnSb powders synthesized by titration is considered to be responsible for the improvement of cycling stability. The initial charge-discharge efficiency exceeding 80% has been obtained for the titration sample. The electrochemical reaction process of two kinds of synthesized SnSb composite electrodes was characterized by cyclic voltammetry and AC impedance techniques.

  16. Onion-like carbon coated CuO nanocapsules: A highly reversible anode material for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xianguo, E-mail: liuxianguohugh@gmail.com [Anhui Key Laboratory of Metal Materials and Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Anhui University of Technology, Maanshan 243002 (China); Bi, Nannan; Feng, Chao [Anhui Key Laboratory of Metal Materials and Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Anhui University of Technology, Maanshan 243002 (China); Or, Siu Wing [Department of Electrical Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Sun, Yuping [Center for Engineering practice and Innovation Education, Anhui University of Technology, Maanshan 243002 (China); Jin, Chuangui; Li, Weihuo; Xiao, Feng [Anhui Key Laboratory of Metal Materials and Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Anhui University of Technology, Maanshan 243002 (China)

    2014-02-25

    Highlights: • Onion-like carbon–coated CuO nanocapsules have been synthesized. • Onion-like carbon leads to the improved stability and electric conductivity. • CuO/C nanocapsules maintain a reversible capacity of 628.7 mA h g{sup −1} after 50 cycles. -- Abstract: The synthesis and characterization of CuO/C nanocapsules for application as anode material in lithium ion batteries are reported. Introduction of onion-like carbon shell on the CuO nanoparticles leads to the improved stability, electric conductivity and electrochemical performance. When evaluated as potential anode materials for lithium-ion batteries, the novel CuO/C nanocapsules deliver an initial discharge capacity of 1043.9 mA h g{sup −1} at 100 mA g{sup −1} and maintain a high reversible capacity of 628.7 mA h g{sup −1} after 50 charge–discharge cycles, much higher than those of the CuO nanoparticles. A postmortem analysis of the CuO and CuO/C anodes subjected to prolonged cycling reveals the existence of a lower degree of surface cracking and particle breakage in the CuO/C anode than the CuO anode.

  17. Polydopamine as a new modification material to accelerate startup and promote anode performance in microbial fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Qing; An, Jingkun; Li, Junhui; Zhou, Lean; Li, Nan; Wang, Xin

    2017-03-01

    The bacterial anode material is important to the performance of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) because its characteristics affect the biofilm formation and extracellular electron transfer. Here we find that a superhydrophilic semiconductor, polydopamine (PDA), is an effective modification material for the anode to accelerate startup and improve power density. When the activated carbon anode is added with 50% (wt.) PDA, the startup time is 14% shorter than the control (from 88 h to 76 h), with a 31% increase in maximum power density from 613 ± 9 to 803 ± 6 mW m-2, and the Columbic efficiency increases from 19% to 48%. These can be primarily attributed to the abundant functional groups (such as amino group, and catechol functions) introduced by PDA that improve hydrophilicity and extracellular electron transfer. PDA also increases proportions of Proteobacteria and Firmicutes families, indicating that PDA has a selective effect on anode microbial community. Our findings provide a new approach to accelerate anode biofilm formation and enhance MFC power output by modification of biocompatible PDA.

  18. Anode materials for hydrogen sulfide containing feeds in a solid oxide fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roushanafshar, Milad

    SOFCs which can directly operate under high concentration of H2S would be economically beneficial as this reduces the cost of gas purification. H2S is highly reactive gas specie which can poison most of the conventional catalysts. As a result, developing anode materials which can tolerate high concentrations of H2S and also display high activity toward electrochemical oxidation of feed is crucial and challenging for this application. The performance of La0.4Sr0.6TiO3+/-delta -Y0.2Ce0.8O2-delta (LST-YDC) composite anodes in solid oxide fuel cells significantly improved when 0.5% H2 S was present in syngas (40% H2, 60% CO) or hydrogen. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry analyses revealed that the rate of electrochemical oxidation of all fuel components improved when H2S containing syngas was present in the fuel. Electrochemical stability tests performed under potentiostatic condition showed that there was no power degradation for different feeds, and that there was power enhancement when 0.5% H2S was present in various feeds. The mechanism of performance improvement by H2S was discussed. Active anodes were synthesized via wet chemical impregnation of different amounts of La0.4Ce0.6O1.8 (LDC) and La 0.4Sr0.6TiO3 (L4ST) into porous yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ). Co-impregnation of LDC with LS4T significantly improved the performance of the cell from 48 mW.cm-2 (L4ST) to 161 mW.cm -2 (LDC-L4ST) using hydrogen as fuel at 900 °C. The contribution of LDC to this improvement was investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) as well as transmission electron microscopy (TEM). EIS measurements using symmetrical cells showed that the polarization resistance decreased from 3.1¦O.cm 2 to 0.5 O.cm2 when LDC was co-impregnated with LST, characterized in humidified H2 (3% H2O) at 900 °C. In addition, the microstructure of the cell was modified when LDC was impregnated prior to L4ST into the porous YSZ. TEM and SEM

  19. Si doped T6 carbon structure as an anode material for Li-ion batteries: An ab initio study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkamal, A.; Kumar, E. Mathan; Kathirvel, V.; Park, Noejung; Thapa, Ranjit

    2016-11-01

    First-principles calculations are performed to identify the pristine and Si doped 3D metallic T6 carbon structure (having both sp2 and sp3 type hybridization) as a new carbon based anode material. The π electron of C2 atoms (sp2 bonded) forms an out of plane network that helps to capture the Li atom. The highest Li storage capacity of Si doped T6 structure with conformation Li1.7Si1C5 produces theoretical specific capacity of 632 mAh/g which substantially exceeding than graphite. Also, open-circuit voltage (OCV) with respect to Li metal shows large negative when compared to the pristine T6 structure. This indicates modifications in terms of chemical properties are required in anode materials for practical application. Among various doped (Si, Ge, Sn, B, N) configuration, Si doped T6 structure provides a stable positive OCV for high Li concentrations. Likewise, volume expansion study also shows Si doped T6 structure is more stable with less pulverization and substantial capacity losses in comparison with graphite and silicon as an anode materials. Overall, mixed hybridized (sp2 + sp3) Si doped T6 structure can become a superior anode material than present sp2 hybridized graphite and sp3 hybridized Si structure for modern Lithium ion batteries.

  20. Green synthesis of boron doped graphene and its application as high performance anode material in Li ion battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahoo, Madhumita; Sreena, K.P.; Vinayan, B.P.; Ramaprabhu, S., E-mail: ramp@iitm.ac.in

    2015-01-15

    Graphical abstract: Boron doped graphene (B-G), synthesized by simple hydrogen induced reduction technique using boric acid as boron precursor, have more uneven surface as a result of smaller bonding distance of boron compared to carbon, showed high capacity and high rate capability compared to pristine graphene as an anode material for Li ion battery application. - Abstract: The present work demonstrates a facile route for the large-scale, catalyst free, and green synthesis approach of boron doped graphene (B-G) and its use as high performance anode material for Li ion battery (LIB) application. Boron atoms were doped into graphene framework with an atomic percentage of 5.93% via hydrogen induced thermal reduction technique using graphite oxide and boric acid as precursors. Various characterization techniques were used to confirm the boron doping in graphene sheets. B-G as anode material shows a discharge capacity of 548 mAh g{sup −1} at 100 mA g{sup −1} after 30th cycles. At high current density value of 1 A g{sup −1}, B-G as anode material enhances the specific capacity by about 1.7 times compared to pristine graphene. The present study shows a simplistic way of boron doping in graphene leading to an enhanced Li ion adsorption due to the change in electronic states.

  1. Nanoparticle Decorated Ultrathin Porous Nanosheets as Hierarchical Co3O4 Nanostructures for Lithium Ion Battery Anode Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mujtaba, Jawayria; Sun, Hongyu; Huang, Guoyong;

    2016-01-01

    We report a facile synthesis of a novel cobalt oxide (Co3O4) hierarchical nanostructure, in which crystalline core-amorphous shell Co3O4 nanoparticles with a bimodal size distribution are uniformly dispersed on ultrathin Co3O4 nanosheets. When tested as anode materials for lithium ion batteries...

  2. Electrical and Mechanical Performance of Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Used as the Impressed Current Anode Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Hua Zhu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was performed by using carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP as the anode material in the impressed current cathodic protection (ICCP system of steel reinforced concrete structures. The service life and performance of CFRP were investigated in simulated ICCP systems with various configurations. Constant current densities were maintained during the tests. No significant degradation in electrical and mechanical properties was found for CFRP subjected to anodic polarization with the selected applied current densities. The service life of the CFRP-based ICCP system was discussed based on the practical reinforced concrete structure layout.

  3. New Sn-based composites as anode materials for Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboulaich, A.; Mouyane, M.; Robert, F.; Lippens, P.-E.; Olivier-Fourcade, J.; Willmann, P.; Jumas, J.-C.

    A new strategy was developed to synthesize tin-composite materials. The Sn:BPO 4 and Sn:CaSiO 3 composites were obtained by solid state reaction, but the BPO 4 and CaSiO 3 matrices were synthesized by solid state reaction and sol-gel method, respectively. These materials are characterized by X-ray diffraction, 119Sn Mössbauer spectroscopy and electrochemical tests. The results show that these new materials are efficient during electrochemical cycling (500 mAh g -1), because of a good dispersion of Sn particles into the matrix. From the second cycle, charge and discharge reversibility is linked to both reversible Li XSn alloy forming and the modification of the tin particle surface showed by Conversion Electron Mössbauer spectroscopy (CEMS) which allows us to characterize the sample surface. The irreversible capacity observed for the first charge/discharge cycle is due to tin oxide reduction and passivation of the anode surface by electrolyte solution decomposition (SEI layer).

  4. New Sn-based composites as anode materials for Li-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aboulaich, A.; Mouyane, M.; Robert, F.; Lippens, P.-E.; Olivier-Fourcade, J.; Jumas, J.-C. [Laboratoire des Agregats Moleculaires et Materiaux Inorganiques (CNRS UMR 5072), Universite Montpellier II, CC 015, Place E. Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Willmann, P. [Centre National d' Etudes Spatiales, 18 avenue Edouard Belin, 31401 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France)

    2007-12-06

    A new strategy was developed to synthesize tin-composite materials. The Sn:BPO{sub 4} and Sn:CaSiO{sub 3} composites were obtained by solid state reaction, but the BPO{sub 4} and CaSiO{sub 3} matrices were synthesized by solid state reaction and sol-gel method, respectively. These materials are characterized by X-ray diffraction, {sup 119}Sn Moessbauer spectroscopy and electrochemical tests. The results show that these new materials are efficient during electrochemical cycling (500 mAh g{sup -1}), because of a good dispersion of Sn particles into the matrix. From the second cycle, charge and discharge reversibility is linked to both reversible Li{sub X}Sn alloy forming and the modification of the tin particle surface showed by Conversion Electron Moessbauer spectroscopy (CEMS) which allows us to characterize the sample surface. The irreversible capacity observed for the first charge/discharge cycle is due to tin oxide reduction and passivation of the anode surface by electrolyte solution decomposition (SEI layer). (author)

  5. Nanostructured metal oxide-based materials as advanced anodes for lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao Bin; Chen, Jun Song; Hng, Huey Hoon; Lou, Xiong Wen David

    2012-04-21

    The search for new electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) has been an important way to satisfy the ever-growing demands for better performance with higher energy/power densities, improved safety and longer cycle life. Nanostructured metal oxides exhibit good electrochemical properties, and they are regarded as promising anode materials for high-performance LIBs. In this feature article, we will focus on three different categories of metal oxides with distinct lithium storage mechanisms: tin dioxide (SnO(2)), which utilizes alloying/dealloying processes to reversibly store/release lithium ions during charge/discharge; titanium dioxide (TiO(2)), where lithium ions are inserted/deinserted into/out of the TiO(2) crystal framework; and transition metal oxides including iron oxide and cobalt oxide, which react with lithium ions via an unusual conversion reaction. For all three systems, we will emphasize that creating nanomaterials with unique structures could effectively improve the lithium storage properties of these metal oxides. We will also highlight that the lithium storage capability can be further enhanced through designing advanced nanocomposite materials containing metal oxides and other carbonaceous supports. By providing such a rather systematic survey, we aim to stress the importance of proper nanostructuring and advanced compositing that would result in improved physicochemical properties of metal oxides, thus making them promising negative electrodes for next-generation LIBs.

  6. Applications of nano-composite materials for improving the performance of anode-supported electrolytes of SOFCs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong-Jin; Moon, Hwan; Park, Hae-Gu; Yoon, Dae Il; Hyun, Sang-Hoon [School of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei Univ., Seoul 120-749 (Korea)

    2010-01-15

    In order to improve the performance of the anode-supported electrolyte of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), the anode electrode is modified by inserting an anode functional layer of nano-composite powders between a Ni-YSZ electrode and YSZ electrolyte. The NiO-YSZ nano-composite powders are fabricated by coating nano-sized Ni and YSZ particles on the YSZ core particle by the Pechini process. The reduction of the polarization resistance of a single cell that is applied to the anode functional layer is attributed to the increasing reaction of three-phase boundaries (TPBs) within the layer and the micro-structured uniformity in the electrode. Two methods were used, namely tape-casting/dip-coating and tape-casting/co-firing, for studying the performance. It can be concluded that the cell with an anode functional layer thickness (15-20 {mu}m) and a microstructure of NiO-YSZ nano-composite materials which was fabricated by the tape-casting/dip-coating method improved the output power (to 1.3 W cm{sup -2}) at 800 C using hydrogen as fuel and air as an oxidant. (author)

  7. Hybrid Direct Carbon Fuel Cell Performance with Anode Current Collector Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleebeeck, Lisa; Kammer Hansen, Kent

    2015-01-01

    The influence of the current collector on the performance of a hybrid direct carbon fuel cell (HDCFC), consisting of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with a molten carbonate-carbon slurry in contact with the anode, has been investigated using current-voltage curves. Four different anode current...

  8. Ultrathin Li4Ti5O12 nanosheets as anode materials for lithium and sodium storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Xuyong; Zou, Hailin; Xiang, Hongfa; Guo, Xin; Zhou, Tianpei; Wu, Yucheng; Xu, Wu; Yan, Pengfei; Wang, Chong M.; Zhang, Jiguang; Yu, Yan

    2016-06-13

    Two-dimensional Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) nanosheets are prepared via a surfactant assisted hydrothermal process. Polyether (P123) was added as the surfactant to modify the surface and control the microstructure of the hydrothermal products and thus affect the electrochemical performance of the as-synthesized LTO anode material. XRD results show that the addition of P123 can restrain the growth of Li2TiO3 during the hydrothermal process, thus affecting the morphology and enhancing the rate performance of the final products. With the addition of P123, the growth of LTO can be restrained and ultrathin LTO nanosheets can be obtained after high temperature sintering, which is beneficial for the charge transfer and Li+ ion diffusion. The rate performance of these two different LTO materials is very different because of their differences in phase composition and fine morphology. The P123-assisted nanostructured LTO sample (P-LTO) shows a much higher rate capability than the LTO sample without P123, with over 130 mAh g-1 capacity retained at the charge-discharge rate of 64C when used in a lithium battery. For intercalation of larger size Na+ ions, the P-LTO still exhibit a capacity of 115 mAh g-1 at a charge (de-sodiation process) rate of 10C and maintains 96% capacity after 400 cycles

  9. ZnO decorated germanium nanoparticles as anode materials in Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Hee; Park, Song Yi; Lee, Tack Ho; Jeong, Jaeki; Kim, Dong Suk; Swihart, Mark T.; Song, Hyun-Kon; Kim, Jin Young; Kim, Seongbeom

    2017-03-01

    Germanium exhibits high charge capacity and high lithium diffusivity, both are the key requirements for electrode materials in high performance lithium ion batteries (LIBs). However, high volume expansion and segregation from the electrode during charge–discharge cycling have limited use of germanium in LIBs. Here, we demonstrate that ZnO decorated Ge nanoparticles (Ge@ZnO NPs) can overcome these limitations of Ge as an LIB anode material. We produced Ge NPs at high rates by laser pyrolysis of GeH4, then coated them with solution phase synthesized ZnO NPs. Half-cell tests revealed dramatically enhanced cycling stability and higher rate capability of Ge@ZnO NPs compared to Ge NPs. Enhancements arise from the core–shell structure of Ge@ZnO NPs as well as production of metallic Zn from the ZnO layer. These findings not only demonstrate a new surface treatment for Ge NPs, but also provide a new opportunity for development of high-rate LIBs.

  10. Centrifugally-spun carbon microfibers and porous carbon microfibers as anode materials for sodium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirican, Mahmut; Zhang, Xiangwu

    2016-09-01

    Natural abundance and low cost of sodium resources bring forward the sodium-ion batteries as a promising alternative to widely-used lithium-ion batteries. However, insufficient energy density and low cycling stability of current sodium-ion batteries hinder their practical use for next-generation smart power grid and stationary storage applications. Electrospun carbon microfibers have recently been introduced as a high-performance anode material for sodium-ion batteries. However, electrospinning is not feasible for mass production of carbon microfibers due to its complex processing condition, low production rate and high cost. Herein, we report centrifugal spinning, a high-rate and low-cost microfiber production method, as an alternative approach to electrospinning for carbon microfiber production and introduce centrifugally-spun carbon microfibers (CMFs) and porous carbon microfibers (PCMFs) as anode materials for sodium-ion batteries. Electrochemical performance results indicated that the highly porous nature of centrifugally-spun PCMFs led to increased Na+ storage capacity and improved cycling stability. The reversible capacity of centrifugally-spun PCMF anodes at the 200th cycle was 242 mAh g-1, which was much higher than that of centrifugally-spun CMFs (143 mAh g-1). The capacity retention and coulombic efficiency of the centrifugally-spun PCMF anodes were 89.0% and 99.9%, respectively, even at the 200th cycle.

  11. Degradation of 1-hydroxy-2,4-dinitrobenzene from aqueous solutions by electrochemical oxidation: role of anodic material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, Marco A; Sánchez-Salas, José L; Reyna, Silvia; Bandala, Erick R; Peralta-Hernández, Juan M; Martínez-Huitle, Carlos A

    2014-03-15

    Electrochemical oxidation (ECOx) of 1-hydroxy-2,4-dinitrobenzene (or 2,4-dinitrophenol: 2,4-DNP) in aqueous solutions by electrolysis under galvanostatic control was studied at Pb/PbO2, Ti/SnO2, Ti/IrxRuySnO2 and Si/BDD anodes as a function of current density applied. Oxidative degradation of 2,4-DNP has clearly shown that electrode material and the current density applied were important parameters to optimize the oxidation process. It was observed that 2,4-DNP was oxidized at few substrates to CO2 with different results, obtaining good removal efficiencies at Pb/PbO2, Ti/SnO2 and Si/BDD anodes. Trends in degradation way depend on the production of hydroxyl radicals (OH) on these anodic materials, as confirmed in this study. Furthermore, HPLC results suggested that two kinds of intermediates were generated, polyhydroxylated intermediates and carboxylic acids. The formation of these polyhydroxylated intermediates seems to be associated with the denitration step and substitution by OH radicals on aromatic rings, this being the first proposed step in the reaction mechanism. These compounds were successively oxidized, followed by the opening of aromatic rings and the formation of a series of carboxylic acids which were at the end oxidized into CO2 and H2O. On the basis of these information, a reaction scheme was proposed for each type of anode used for 2,4-D oxidation.

  12. Interweaved Si@C/CNTs and CNFs composites as anode materials for Li-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Miao [School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Hou, Xianhua, E-mail: houxh@scnu.edu.cn [School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Engineering Research Center of Materials and Technology for Electrochemical Energy Storage Ministry of Education, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Wang, Jie; Li, Min [School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Hu, Shejun [School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Engineering Research Center of Materials and Technology for Electrochemical Energy Storage Ministry of Education, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Shao, Zongping [Nanjing University of Technology, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing 210009 (China); Liu, Xiang [Institute of Advanced Materials, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing 210009 (China)

    2014-03-05

    Graphical abstract: In summary, a serious of high-energy wet ball milling, closed spray drying and subsequent chemical vapor deposition methods were introduced successfully to fabricated novel Si@C/CNTs and CNFs composites with carbon nanotubes and carbon nanofibres interweaved with carbon coated silicon spherical composites as superior anodes in lithium-ion batteries. The core-shell structure of Si@C composites can accommodate the volume change of electrode during charge and discharge. Meanwhile, the citric acid pyrolyzed carbon was coated on the surface of the silicon perfectly and constructs the connection network of nano silicon particles. Moreover, the carbon nanotubes and carbon nanofibres, which is interweaved with nano-silicon, also allows high electrical conductivity, improved solid–electrolyte interface formation and structural integrity. Compared with pure silicon and Si@C composites, the novel Si@C/CNTs and CNFs composites had the best combination of reversible capacity and cycleablity, and this anode materials exhibited excellent electrochemical performance. The Si/C composite had a fairly high initial discharge capacity of 2168.7 mA h g{sup −1} with an efficiency of 73%, and the discharge capacity of the 50th cycle maintained surprisingly of 1194.9 mA h g{sup −1}. Meanwhile, spray drying and chemical vapor deposition are environmentally friendly, economical, and relatively high-yield method for the production of the Si@C/CNTs and CNFs composites in large quantities. Consequently, the novel Si@C/CNTs and CNFs composite electrodes may be a potential alternative to graphite for high energy density lithium ion batteries. Highlights: • The core/shell structured silicon/carbon composites were prepared by a facile way. • The as-prepared Si@C/CNTs and CNFs composites shows excellent electrochemical performance. • The preparation method has mild experiment conditions and high production rate. • The structure benefited electronic transfer and

  13. Synthesis and electrochemical properties of stannous oxide clinopinacoid as anode material for lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, M Zubair; Wang, Fengping; Rafique, M Yasir; Ali, Shujaat; Din, Rafi Ud; Farooq, M Hassan; Khan, Matiullah; Ali, Murad

    2013-03-01

    Tin monoxide is a significant functional semiconductor material which employed to a wide area of applications especially optical and energy storage devices. Presently, template free hydrothermal technique has been employing to synthesize stannous oxide (SnO) clinopinacoid type controlled morphology using SnCl2 x 2H2O, NH3, and H2O as raw materials. The crystalline phase, morphology, particle size and component were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). FESEM results exhibited the large scale homogeneous growth of clinopinacoid architecture with the obvious size of 5 - 7 micrometers. The XRD results showed that the average crystallite size of the tetragonal phase romarchite SnO was about 29 nm calculated from the FWHM of X-ray diffraction pattern. The dominant Raman active modes A(1g) = 205 cm(-1), B(1g) = 105-107 cm(-1) and about 6 cm(-1) redshift were observed by the Raman spectroscopy, which further confirmed the existence of the nano tetragonal phase SnO. The electrochemical performance of as-synthesized SnO clinopinacoid structure as the anode material for lithium ion batteries was investigated. It was observed that the first discharge capacity of the two samples could reach a very high value of 1502 mA h g(-1) and 1422 mA h g(-1) respectively. The effect of nitrogen concentration on morphology as well as cyclic performance of Li-Ion-batteries was also discussed.

  14. Structural and defect chemistry guidelines for Sr(V,Nb)O3-based SOFC anode materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macías, J; Yaremchenko, A A; Fagg, D P; Frade, J R

    2015-04-28

    Structural and defect chemistry guidelines were used for Nb-substituted SrVO3-δ materials, designed to meet SOFC anode requirements, with emphasis on redox tolerance, thermochemical compatibility with other SOFC materials, electrical conductivity and adjustable changes in oxygen stoichiometry for their prospective impact on electrocatalytic performance. SrV1-xNbxO3-δ (x = 0-0.30) ceramics were prepared by solid-state synthesis and sintered at 1773 K in a reducing atmosphere. XRD and SEM/EDS showed that under these conditions a single-phase cubic perovskite structure appears up to x ≈ 0.25. Electrical conductivity is metallic-like and nearly p(O2)-independent. Although substitution by niobium decreases the conductivity, which still exceeds 100 S cm(-1) for x ≤ 0.20 at temperatures below 1273 K, it also expands the stability domain of the cubic perovskite phase and suppresses partly high thermochemical expansion characteristic of parent SrVO3-δ. The upper p(O2) limit of phase stability was found to shift from ∼2 × 10(-15) atm for the undoped material to ∼2 × 10(-12) atm for x = 0.30, whereas the average thermal expansion coefficient at 773-1223 K decreased from 22.7 × 10(-6) to 13.3 × 10(-6) K(-1). SrV1-xNbxO3-δ perovskites undergo oxidative decomposition in air, which causes dimensional and microstructural changes. However, sluggish kinetics of oxidation under inert gas conditions results in nearly reversible behavior in relatively short-term redox cycles between reducing and inert atmospheres. Subtle structural changes and a close correlation with point defect chemistry clarify these sluggish changes and provide guidelines to retain the metastability.

  15. Ordered CoO/CMK-3 nanocomposites as the anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Haijiao; Jiao, Zheng [Institute of Nanochemistry and Nanobiology, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Shanghai Applied Radiation Institute, School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, Shangda Road 99, Shanghai 200444 (China); Tao, Haihua; Jiang, Yong; Wu, Minghong; Zhao, Bing [Shanghai Applied Radiation Institute, School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, Shangda Road 99, Shanghai 200444 (China)

    2010-05-01

    A novel ordered mesoporous carbon hybrid composite, CoO/CMK-3, is prepared by an infusing method using Co(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}.6H{sub 2}O as the cobalt source. The products are characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption analysis techniques. It is observed that the CoO nanoparticles are loaded in the channels of mesoporous carbon. The mesopore structure of CMK-3 is destroyed gradually with increasing of the CoO content. The electrochemical properties of samples as the anode materials for lithium-ion batteries are studied by galvanostatic method. The results show that the CoO/CMK-3 composites have higher reversible capacities (more than 700 mAh g{sup -1}) and better cycle performance in comparison with the pure mesoporous carbon (CMK-3). Based on the above results, a mechanism is proposed to explain the reason of such a substantial improvement of electrochemical performance in the CoO/CMK-3 composites. (author)

  16. Novel synthesis of tin oxide/graphene aerogel nanocomposites as anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Zheyu [College of Material Science and Engineering, Liaoning Technical University, Fuxin 123000 (China); Energy & Materials Engineering Centre, College of Physics and Materials Science, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Li, Xifei, E-mail: xfli2011@hotmail.com [Energy & Materials Engineering Centre, College of Physics and Materials Science, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Tai, Limin, E-mail: tailimin@163.com [College of Material Science and Engineering, Liaoning Technical University, Fuxin 123000 (China); Song, Haoze; Zhang, Yiyan; Yan, Bo; Fan, Linlin; Shan, Hui [Energy & Materials Engineering Centre, College of Physics and Materials Science, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Li, Dejun, E-mail: dli1961@126.com [Energy & Materials Engineering Centre, College of Physics and Materials Science, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387 (China)

    2015-10-15

    A novel method of mechanical exfoliation followed by hydrothermal approach was proposed to synthesize the tin oxide/graphene aerogels (SnO{sub 2}/GAs) nanocomposites. Homogeneous distribution of SnO{sub 2} nanocrystals on GAs was confirmed by SEM, XRD and TEM characterization. It was found that optimized exfoliation of the SnS{sub 2} is the key factor to obtain high electrochemical lithiation/delithiation performance of the anodes. The as-prepared SnO{sub 2}/GA nanocomposites exhibited high reversible capacity (up to 1086.7 mAh g{sup −1} after 100 cycles) and excellent cycling stability. The improved rate capability was also obtained, for instance, the reversible capacity at a current density of 800 mA g{sup −1} is over 447.9 mAh g{sup −1}, and then recovered to as high as 784.4 mAh g{sup −1} at a current density of 100 mA g{sup −1}. - Highlights: • A novel approach was employed to synthesize the SnO{sub 2}/GA nanocomposites. • The designed SnO{sub 2}/GAs exhibited high reversible capacity and excellent cycling stability. • The volume change challenge of SnO{sub 2} was markedly alleviated by the GA matrix. • The novel synthesis method can be extended for other materials in lithium ion batteries.

  17. Electrochemical performance of polygonized carbon nanofibers as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinjin Jiang; xiaolin Tang; Rui Wu; Haoqiang Lin; Meizhen Qu

    2013-01-01

    Carbon nanofibers with a polygonal cross section (P-CNFs) synthesized using a catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CCVD) technology have been investigated for potential applications in lithium batteries as anode materials.P-CNFs exhibit excellent high-rate capabilities.At a current density as high as 3.7 and 7.4A/g,P-CNFs can still deliver a reversible capacity of 198.4 and 158.2 mAh/g,respectively.To improve their first coulombic efficiency,carbon-coated P-CNFs were prepared through thermal vapor deposition (TVD) of benzene at 900 ℃.The electrochemical results demonstrate that appropriate amount of carbon coating can improve the first coulombic efficiency,the cycling stability and the rate performance of P-CNFs.After carbon coating,P-CNFs gain a weight increase approximately by 103 wt%,with its first coulombic efficiency increasing from 63.1 to 78.4%,and deliver a reversible capacity of 197.4mAh/g at a current density of 3.7 A/g.After dozens of cycles,there is no significant capacity degradation at both low and high current densities.

  18. CuO/C microspheres as anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, X.H., E-mail: drhuangxh@hotmail.com [Academy of Frontier Science, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); School of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Taizhou University, Taizhou 318000 (China); Wang, C.B.; Zhang, S.Y. [Academy of Frontier Science, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Zhou, F., E-mail: fzhou@nuaa.edu.cn [Academy of Frontier Science, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China)

    2011-07-30

    Highlights: > CuO/C composite microspheres have been successfully prepared by calcining the CuCl{sub 2}/resorcinol-formaldehyde gel in argon atmosphere followed by a subsequent oxidation treatment using H{sub 2}O{sub 2} solution. > CuO particles disperse homogenously inside the carbon aerogel microspheres. > Carbon aerogel microspheres have the abilities of alleviating the pulverization, suppressing the aggregation, and enhancing the conductivity of the CuO particles. Therefore, CuO/C composite microspheres exhibit better electrochemical performance than that of pure CuO. - Abstract: CuO/C microspheres are prepared by calcining CuCl{sub 2}/resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) gel in argon atmosphere followed by a subsequent oxidation process using H{sub 2}O{sub 2} solution. The microstructure and morphology of materials are characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transition electron microscopy (TEM). Carbon microspheres have an average diameter of about 2 {mu}m, and CuO particles with the sizes of 50-200 nm disperse in these microspheres. The electrochemical properties of CuO/C microspheres as anode materials for lithium ion batteries are investigated by galvanostatic discharge-charge and cyclic voltammetry (CV) tests. The results show that CuO/C microspheres deliver discharge and charge capacities of 470 and 440 mAh g{sup -1} after 50 cycles, and they also exhibit better rate capability than that of pure CuO. It is believed that the carbon microspheres play an important role in their electrochemical properties.

  19. Remarkable cycle-activated capacity increasing in onion-like carbon nanospheres as lithium battery anode material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jiajun; Zhang, Tong; Zhang, Dong; Zhang, Weiwei; Zhang, Huafang; Liu, Ran; Yao, Mingguang; Liu, Bingbing

    2017-01-01

    Onion-like carbon nanospheres (OCNSs) with an average diameter of 43 nm were produced on a large scale via a combustion method and examined as an anode material for lithium ion batteries. The OCNSs exhibit a remarkable electrochemical cycling behavior and a capacity much higher than that of graphite. The capacity increases significantly with increasing charge-discharge cycles and reaches a value of 178% of the initial value (from 586 mA h g-1to 1045 mA h g-1) after 200 cycles. Further investigation provides unambiguous experimental evidence that such a remarkable capacity increase is related to the stable onion-like structure of the OCNSs and to the existence of large numbers of disordered/short graphitic fragments, which gradually provide more active sites for Li ion storage. The unique electrochemical performance of OCNSs provides a new way to design a high-performance anode material for rechargeable batteries.

  20. Spongelike Nanosized Mn 3 O 4 as a High-Capacity Anode Material for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Jie

    2011-07-12

    Mn3O4 has been investigated as a high-capacity anode material for rechargeable lithium ion batteries. Spongelike nanosized Mn 3O4 was synthesized by a simple precipitation method and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, Raman scattering and scanning electron microscopy. Its electrochemical performance, as an anode material, was evaluated by galvanostatic discharge-charge tests. The results indicate that this novel type of nanosized Mn3O4 exhibits a high initial reversible capacity (869 mA h/g) and significantly enhanced first Coulomb efficiency with a stabilized reversible capacity of around 800 mA h/g after over 40 charge/discharge cycles. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  1. Disordered 3 D Multi-layer Graphene Anode Material from CO2 for Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kassiopeia; Parrish, Riley; Wei, Wei; Liu, Yuzi; Li, Tao; Hu, Yun Hang; Xiong, Hui

    2016-06-22

    We report the application of disordered 3 D multi-layer graphene, synthesized directly from CO2 gas through a reaction with Li at 550 °C, as an anode for Na-ion batteries (SIBs) toward a sustainable and greener future. The material exhibited a reversible capacity of ∼190 mA h g(-1) with a Coulombic efficiency of 98.5 % at a current density of 15 mA g(-1) . The discharge capacity at higher potentials (>0.2 V vs. Na/Na(+) ) is ascribed to Na-ion adsorption at defect sites, whereas the capacity at low potentials (CO2 gas makes it attractive not only as an anode material for SIBs but also to mitigate CO2 emission.

  2. Development of Novel Metal Hydride-Carbon Nanomaterial Based Nanocomposites as Anode Electrode Materials for Lithium Ion Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-30

    Final Progress Report (27-02-2012 To 26-02-2014) Project Title:- Development of novel metal hydride -carbon nanomaterial based nanocomposites as...anode electrode materials for Lithium ion battery Objectives:- The aim of this study is to develop metal hydride –carbon nanomaterial based...be as follows:- Milestone I • Synthesis of nanosized metal hydrides (NMH)-carbon nanotubes (CNT) hybridizing with G (NMH- CNT-G) nanocomposites

  3. Nano Structure Plays an Important Role in the Present and Future Anode Materials of Li-ion Batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tsutomu; Takamura

    2007-01-01

    1 ResultsLi-ion batteries are the most promising secondary batteries for IT and EV applications, where it is required to increase the capacity and power capability to a great extent. In responding to the demand we have been studied on the anode materials especially paying attention on the improved graphite active materials and modified silicon. In both cases we realized that the nano-structured design plays an important role. In this paper the examples of nano-size structure working in the actual materi...

  4. The developments of SnO2/graphene nanocomposites as anode materials for high performance lithium ion batteries: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yuanfu; Fang, Chengcheng; Chen, Guohua

    2016-02-01

    With the increasing energy demands for electronic devices and electrical vehicles, anode materials for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) with high specific capacity, good cyclic and rate performances become one of the focal areas of research. Among the various anode materials, SnO2/graphene nanocomposites have drawn extensive attentions due to their high theoretical specific capacities, low charge potential vs. Li/Li+ and environmental benignity. In this review, the advances, including the synthetic methods and structural optimizations, of the SnO2/graphene nanocomposites as anode materials for LIBs have been reviewed in detail. By providing an in-depth discussion of SnO2/graphene nanocomposites, we aim to demonstrate that the electrochemical performances of SnO2/graphene nanocomposites could be significantly enhanced by rational modifications of morphology and crystal structures, chemical compositions and surface features. Though only focusing on SnO2/graphene-based composites, the concepts and strategies should be referential to other metal oxide/graphene composites.

  5. Hybrid phosphorene/graphene nanocomposite as an anode material for Na-ion batteries: a first-principles study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linxia; Jiang, Zhiqiang; Li, Wei; Gu, Xiao; Huang, Li

    2017-04-01

    The potential application of the hybrid phosphorene/graphene (P/G) composites as an anode material in Na-ion batteries (NIBs) has been explored based on first-principles calculations. The calculated elastic constants reveal that the P/G has an ultrahigh stiffness, which can effectively suppress the undesirable structural deformation during the sodiation and desodiation cycles. Na atoms can strongly bind with the phosphorene single-layer (SP), double-layer (DP), and their composites with graphene (SP/G, DP/G, G/DP/G), and can even cause a sliding between the layers when the DP/G accommodate more Na atoms. The migration of Na in P/G is anisotropic with the minimum energy path along the zigzag channel. The low diffusion barriers of only about several tens of meV ensure the high mobility of Na within the layers, and thus lead to rapid charge/discharge capacity of P/G. The electronic structures show that the hybrid P/G becomes metallic with the Na incorporation, which contributes to the good electric conductivity in P/G. We further demonstrate that the average open circuit voltage (OCV) of DP/G is 0.53 V, which is comparable to other anode materials. These results suggest that P/G composites hold great potential to be a good anode material in NIBs.

  6. Kinetics of the electrolytic Fe+2/Fe+3 oxidation on various anode materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cifuentes, L.

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics of the electrolytic Fe+2/Fe+3 oxidation, relevant to hydro-electrometallurgical processing, have been studied on lead, platinum, ruthenium oxide, iridium oxide and graphite anodes in ferrous sulfate-sulfuric acid solutions. The oxidation rate depends on ferrous sulfate concentration, solution temperature and degree of agitation. Potentiodynamic studies show that: a the highest oxidation rate is obtained on platinum; b lead is unsuitable as anodic material for the said reaction; c the remaining anode materials show a similar and satisfactory performance.

    Se ha estudiado la cinética de la oxidación electrolítica Fe+2/Fe+3 -relevante para el procesamiento hidroelectrometalúrgico- sobre plomo, platino, óxido de rutenio, óxido de iridio y grafito en soluciones de sulfato ferroso en ácido sulfúrico. La velocidad de oxidación depende de la concentración de sulfato ferroso, la temperatura de la solución y el grado de agitación. Estudios potenciodinámicos demuestran que: a las mayores velocidades de oxidación se obtienen sobre platino; b el plomo es inadecuado como material anódico para la reacción mencionada; c los materiales anódicos restantes exhiben un desempeño similar y satisfactorio.

  7. Ferrite-based perovskites as cathode materials for anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, Andreas; Haanappel, Vincent A.C.; Uhlenbruck, Sven; Tietz, Frank; Stoever, Detlev [Institute for Materials and Processes in Energy Systems, Forschungszentrum Juelich, IWV-1, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2005-05-12

    The properties and the applicability of iron- and cobalt-containing perovskites were evaluated as cathodes for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) in comparison to state-of-the-art manganite-based perovskites. The materials examined were La{sub 1-x-y}Sr{sub x}Co{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8}O{sub 3-{delta}} (x=0.2 and 0.4; y=0-0.05), La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}FeO{sub 3-{delta}}, La{sub 0.7}Ba{sub 0.3}Co{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8}O{sub 3-{delta}} and Ce{sub 0.05}Sr{sub 0.95}Co{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8}O{sub 3-{delta}}. The main emphasis was placed on the electrochemical properties of the materials, which were investigated on planar anode-supported SOFCs with 8 mol% yttria-stabilised zirconia (8YSZ) electrolytes. An interlayer of the composition Ce{sub 0.8}Gd{sub 0.2}O{sub 2-{delta}} was placed between the electrolyte and the cathode to prevent undesired chemical reactions between the materials. The sintering temperatures of the cathodes were adapted for each of the materials to obtain similar microstructures. In comparison to the SOFCs with state-of-the-art manganite-based cathodes, SOFCs with La{sub 1-x-y}Sr{sub x}Co{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8}O{sub 3-{delta}} cathodes achieved much higher current densities. Small A-site deficiency and high strontium content had a particularly positive effect on cell performance. The measured current densities of cells with these cathodes were as high as 1.76 A/cm{sup 2} at 800 {sup o}C and 0.7 V, which is about twice the current density of cells with LSM/YSZ cathodes. SOFCs with La{sub 0.58}Sr{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8}O{sub 3-{delta}} cathodes have been operated for more than 5000 h in endurance tests with a degradation of 1.0-1.5% per 1000 h.

  8. Studies on sulfur poisoning and development of advanced anodic materials for waste-to-energy fuel cells applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaza, Fabio; Paoletti, Claudia; LoPresti, Roberto; Simonetti, Elisabetta; Pasquali, Mauro

    Biomass is the renewable energy source with the most potential penetration in energy market for its positive environmental and socio-economic consequences: biomass live cycles for energy production is carbon neutral; energy crops promote alternative and productive utilizations of rural sites creating new economic opportunities; bioenergy productions promote local energy independence and global energy security defined as availability of energy resource supply. Different technologies are currently available for energy production from biomass, but a key role is played by fuel cells which have both low environmental impacts and high efficiencies. High temperature fuel cells, such as molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC), are particularly suitable for bioenergy production because it can be directly fed with biogas: in fact, among its principal constituents, methane can be transformed to hydrogen by internal reforming; carbon dioxide is a safe diluent; carbon monoxide is not a poison, but both a fuel, because it can be discharged at the anode, and a hydrogen supplier, because it can produce hydrogen via the water-gas shift reaction. However, the utilization of biomass derived fuels in MCFC presents different problems not yet solved, such as the poisoning of the anode due to byproducts of biofuel chemical processing. The chemical compound with the major negative effects on cell performances is hydrogen sulfide. It reacts with nickel, the main anodic constituent, forming sulfides and blocking catalytic sites for electrode reactions. The aim of this work is to study the hydrogen sulfide effects on MCFC performances for defining the poisoning mechanisms of conventional nickel-based anode, recommending selection criteria of sulfur-tolerant materials, and selecting advanced anodes for MCFC fed with biogas.

  9. Nanostructured Black Phosphorus/Ketjenblack-Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Composite as High Performance Anode Material for Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Gui-Liang; Chen, Zonghai; Zhong, Gui-Ming; Liu, Yuzi; Yang, Yong; Ma, Tianyuan; Ren, Yang; Zuo, Xiaobing; Wu, Xue-Hang; Zhang, Xiaoyi; Amine, Khalil

    2016-06-08

    Sodium-ion batteries are promising alternatives to lithium-ion batteries for large-scale applications. However, the low capacity and poor rate capability of existing anodes for sodium-ion batteries are bottlenecks for future developments. Here, we report a high performance nanostructured anode material for sodium-ion batteries that is fabricated by high energy ball milling to form black phosphorus/Ketjenblack-multiwalled carbon nanotubes (BPC) composite. With this strategy, the BPC composite with a high phosphorus content (70 wt %) could deliver a very high initial Coulombic efficiency (>90%) and high specific capacity with excellent cyclability at high rate of charge/discharge (∼1700 mAh g(-1) after 100 cycles at 1.3 A g(-1) based on the mass of P). In situ electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, synchrotron high energy X-ray diffraction, ex situ small/wide-angle X-ray scattering, high resolution transmission electronic microscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance were further used to unravel its superior sodium storage performance. The scientific findings gained in this work are expected to serve as a guide for future design on high performance anode material for sodium-ion batteries.

  10. Novel Mg-Doped SrMoO3 Perovskites Designed as Anode Materials for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Cascos

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available SrMo1−xMxO3−δ (M = Fe and Cr, x = 0.1 and 0.2 oxides have been recently described as excellent anode materials for solid oxide fuel cells at intermediate temperatures (IT-SOFC with LSGM as the electrolyte. In this work, we have improved their properties by doping with aliovalent Mg ions at the B-site of the parent SrMoO3 perovskite. SrMo1−xMgxO3−δ (x = 0.1, 0.2 oxides have been prepared, characterized and tested as anode materials in single solid-oxide fuel cells, yielding output powers near 900 mW/cm−2 at 850 °C using pure H2 as fuel. We have studied its crystal structure with an “in situ” neutron power diffraction (NPD experiment at temperatures as high as 800 °C, emulating the working conditions of an SOFC. Adequately high oxygen deficiencies, observed by NPD, together with elevated disk-shaped anisotropic displacement factors suggest a high ionic conductivity at the working temperatures. Furthermore, thermal expansion measurements, chemical compatibility with the LSGM electrolyte, electronic conductivity and reversibility upon cycling in oxidizing-reducing atmospheres have been carried out to find out the correlation between the excellent performance as an anode and the structural features.

  11. Synthesis of Li2Ti3O7 Anode Materials by Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis and Their Electrochemical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki Kodera

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Ramsdellite-type lithium titanate (Li2Ti3O7 powders were synthesized by performing ultrasonic spray pyrolysis, and their chemical and physical properties were characterized by performing Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM, powder X-ray Diffraction (XRD, and Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP analyses. The as-prepared Li2Ti3O7 precursor powders had spherical morphologies with hollow microstructures, but an irregularly shaped morphology was obtained after calcination above 900 °C. The ramsdellite Li2Ti3O7 crystal phase was obtained after the calcination at 1100 °C under an argon/hydrogen atmosphere. The first rechargeable capacity of the Li2Ti3O7 anode material was 168 mAh/g at 0.1 C and 82 mAh/g at 20 C, and the discharge capacity retention ratio was 99% at 1 C after the 500th cycle. The cycle performance of the Li2Ti3O7 anode was also highly stable at 50 °C, demonstrating the superiority of Li2Ti3O7 anode materials reported previously.

  12. Reduced Graphene Oxide/Tin-Antimony Nanocomposites as Anode Materials for Advanced Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Liwen; Zhou, Weidong; Chabot, Victor; Yu, Aiping; Xiao, Xingcheng

    2015-11-11

    Reduced graphene oxides loaded with tin-antimony alloy (RGO-SnSb) nanocomposites were synthesized through a hydrothermal reaction and the subsequent thermal reduction treatments. Transmission electron microscope images confirm that SnSb nanoparticles with an average size of about 20-30 nm are uniformly dispersed on the RGO surfaces. When they were used as anodes for rechargeable sodium (Na)-ion batteries, these as-synthesized RGO-SnSb nanocomposite anodes delivered a high initial reversible capacity of 407 mAh g(-1), stable cyclic retention for more than 80 cycles and excellent cycle stability at ultra high charge/discharge rates up to 30C. The significantly improved performance of the synthesized RGO-SnSb nanocomposites as Na-ion battery anodes can be attributed to the synergetic effects of RGO-based flexible framework and the nanoscale dimension of the SnSb alloy particles (batteries.

  13. Nanoparticle Cookies Derived from Metal-Organic Frameworks: Controlled Synthesis and Application in Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuhai; Chen, Minqi; Xie, Yanyu; Fan, Yanan; Wang, Dawei; Jiang, Ji-Jun; Li, Yongguang; Grützmacher, Hansjörg; Su, Cheng-Yong

    2016-05-01

    The capacity of anode materials plays a critical role in the performance of lithium-ion batteries. Using the nanocrystals of oxygen-free metal-organic framework ZIF-67 as precursor, a one-step calcination approach toward the controlled synthesis of CoO nanoparticle cookies with excellent anodic performances is developed in this work. The CoO nanoparticle cookies feature highly porous structure composed of small CoO nanoparticles (≈12 nm in diameter) and nitrogen-rich graphitic carbon matrix (≈18 at% in nitrogen content). Benefiting from such unique structure, the CoO nanoparticle cookies are capable of delivering superior specific capacity and cycling stability (1383 mA h g(-1) after 200 runs at 100 mA g(-1) ) over those of CoO and graphite.

  14. Nano-crystalline FeOOH mixed with SWNT matrix as a superior anode material for lithium batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingzhong Zou; Weiwei Wen; Jiaxin Li; Yingbin Lin; Heng Lai; Zhigao Huang

    2014-01-01

    Nano-crystalline FeOOH particles (5∼10 nm) have been uniformly mixed with electric matrix of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) for forming FeOOH/SWNT composite via a facile ultrasonication method. Directly using the FeOOH/SWNT composite (containing 15 wt%SWNTs) as anode material for lithium battery enhances kinetics of the Li+ insertion/extraction processes, thereby effectively improving re-versible capacity and cycle performance, which delivers a high reversible capacity of 758 mAh·g-1 under a current density of 400 mA·g-1 even after 180 cycles, being comparable with previous reports in terms of electrochemical performance for FeOOH anode. The good electrochemical performance should be ascribed to the small particle size and nano-crystalline of FeOOH, as well as the good electronic conductivity of SWNT matrix.

  15. Preparation of Advanced Carbon Anode Materials from Mesocarbon Microbeads for Use in High C-Rate Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Dar Fang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mesophase soft carbon (MSC and mesophase graphite (SMG, for use in comparative studies of high C-rate Lithium Ion Battery (LIB anodes, were made by heating mesocarbon microbeads (MCMB at 1300 °C and 3000 °C; respectively. The crystalline structures and morphologies of the MSC, SMG, and commercial hard carbon (HC were investigated by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. Additionally, their electrochemical properties, when used as anode materials in LIBs, were also investigated. The results show that MSC has a superior charging rate capability compared to SMG and HC. This is attributed to MSC having a more extensive interlayer spacing than SMG, and a greater number of favorably-oriented pathways when compared to HC.

  16. Dispersing SnO2 nanocrystals in amorphous carbon as a cyclic durable anode material for lithium ion batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Renzong Hu; Wei Sun; Meiqin Zeng; Min Zhu

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate a facile route for the massive production of SnO2/carbon nanocomposite used as high-capacity anode materials of next-generation lithium-ion batteries. The nanocomposite had a unique structure of ultrafine SnO2 nanocrystals (∼5 nm, 80 wt%) homogeneously dispersed in amorphous carbon matrix. This structure design can well accommodate the volume change of Li+insertion/desertion in SnO2, and prevent the aggregation of the nanosized active materials during cycling, leading to superior cycle performance with stable reversible capacity of 400 mAh/g at a high current rate of 3.3 A/g.

  17. Large-Area Carbon Nanosheets Doped with Phosphorus: A High-Performance Anode Material for Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Hongshuai; Shao, Lidong; Zhang, Yan; Zou, Guoqiang; Chen, Jun; Ji, Xiaobo

    2017-01-01

    Large-area phosphorus-doped carbon nanosheets (P-CNSs) are first obtained from carbon dots (CDs) through self-assembly driving from thermal treatment with Na catalysis. This is the first time to realize the conversion from 0D CDs to 2D nanosheets doped with phosphorus. The sodium storage behavior of phosphorus-doped carbon material is also investigated for the first time. As anode material for sodium-ion batteries (SIBs), P-CNSs exhibit superb performances for electrochemical storage of sodium. When cycled at 0.1 A g(-1), the P-CNSs electrode delivers a high reversible capacity of 328 mAh g(-1), even at a high current density of 20 A g(-1), a considerable capacity of 108 mAh g(-1) can still be maintained. Besides, this material also shows excellent cycling stability, at a current density of 5 A g(-1), the reversible capacity can still reach 149 mAh g(-1) after 5000 cycles. This work will provide significant value for the development of both carbon materials and SIBs anode materials.

  18. Marine microbial fuel cell: Use of stainless steel electrodes as anode and cathode materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumas, C.; Basseguy, R.; Etcheverry, L.; Bergel, A. [Laboratoire de Genie Chimique, CNRS-INPT, Toulouse Cedex (France); Mollica, A. [CNR-ISMAR, Genoa (Italy); Feron, D. [SCCME, CEA Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2007-12-01

    Numerous biocorrosion studies have stated that biofilms formed in aerobic seawater induce an efficient catalysis of the oxygen reduction on stainless steels. This property was implemented here for the first time in a marine microbial fuel cell (MFC). A prototype was designed with a stainless steel anode embedded in marine sediments coupled to a stainless steel cathode in the overlying seawater. Recording current/potential curves during the progress of the experiment confirmed that the cathode progressively acquired effective catalytic properties. The maximal power density produced of 4 mW m{sup -2} was lower than those reported previously with marine MFC using graphite electrodes. Decoupling anode and cathode showed that the cathode suffered practical problems related to implementation in the sea, which may found easy technical solutions. A laboratory fuel cell based on the same principle demonstrated that the biofilm-covered stainless steel cathode was able to supply current density up to 140 mA m{sup -2} at +0.05 V versus Ag/AgCl. The power density of 23 mW m{sup -2} was in this case limited by the anode. These first tests presented the biofilm-covered stainless steel cathodes as very promising candidates to be implemented in marine MFC. The suitability of stainless steel as anode has to be further investigated. (author)

  19. Soft chemical synthesis and electrochemical properties of tin oxide-based materials as anodes for lithium ion batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何则强; 李新海; 熊利芝; 吴显明; 刘恩辉; 侯朝辉; 邓凌峰

    2004-01-01

    A novel soft chemical approach was developed to synthesize tin oxide-based powders. The microstructure, morphology, and electrochemical performance of the materials were investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope and electrochemical methods. The results show that the particles of tin oxide-based materials form an interconnected network structure like mesoporous material. The average size of the particles is about 200 nm. The materials deliver a charge capacity of more than 570 mA*h*g-1. And the capacity loss per cycle is about 0.15% after being cycled for 30 times. The good electrochemical performance indicates that tin oxide-based materials are promising anodes for lithium ion batteries.

  20. LiVP2O7/C: A New Insertion Anode Material for High-Rate Lithium-Ion Battery Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Vellaisamy; Kalaiselvi, Nallathamby

    2016-04-18

    LiVP2O7/C, popularly known so far as an environmentally compatible and economically viable lithium battery cathode material, was exploited for the first time as an anode through the current study. LiVP2O7/C was synthesized by adopting oxalyl dihydrazide assisted solution combustion method and explored as an anode material in rechargeable lithium cell assembly. Notably, an initial capacity of 600 mAh g(-1) was exhibited by LiVP2O7/C anode, at the rate of 0.5 C along with an excellent Coulombic efficiency of 99% up to 150 cycles. The title anode demonstrates its suitability for high capacity and high rate applications by way of exhibiting appreciable capacity values of 200, 150, 120, and 110 mAh g(-1), under the influence of 2, 4, 6, and 8 C rates, respectively. Further, LiVP2O7/C anode, when subjected to a high current 10 C rate, exhibits an acceptable capacity of 107 mAh g(-1) up to 500 cycles, which is closer to its theoretical capacity value of 117 mAh g(-1). The study demonstrates the possibility of exploiting LiVP2O7/C as yet another potential anode and thereby opens a newer avenue to explore wide variety of LiMP2O7/C composites for their probable anode behavior in rechargeable lithium batteries.

  1. Electrical Conductivity and Corrosion Resistance of ZnFe2O4-Based Materials Used as Inert Anode for Aluminum Electrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    ZnFe2O4 and ZnFe2O4-based materials were tested to obtain the electrical conductivity and corrosion resistance in melting bath for aluminum electrolysis. The results proved that adequate additives, such as Ni2O3 CuO,Cu, ZnO and CeO2 would increase the electrical conductivity, and the ZnFe2O4-based anodes with these additives were of good corrosion resistance. The current density on anode, the mole ratio of NaF/AlF3 (MR) and the content of alumina in the bath effect the anode corrosion rate in different way.

  2. Two-dimensional layered compound based anode materials for lithium-ion batteries and sodium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiuqiang; Wang, Shijian; Kretschmer, Katja; Wang, Guoxiu

    2017-03-20

    Rechargeable batteries, such as lithium-ion and sodium-ion batteries, have been considered as promising energy conversion and storage devices with applications ranging from small portable electronics, medium-sized power sources for electromobility, to large-scale grid energy storage systems. Wide implementations of these rechargeable batteries require the development of electrode materials that can provide higher storage capacities than current commercial battery systems. Within this greater context, this review will present recent progresses in the development of the 2D material as anode materials for battery applications represented by studies conducted on graphene, molybdenum disulfide, and MXenes. This review will also discuss remaining challenges and future perspectives of 2D materials in regards to a full utilization of their unique properties and interactions with other battery components.

  3. Energy Storage Materials from Nature through Nanotechnology: A Sustainable Route from Reed Plants to a Silicon Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Kopold, Peter; van Aken, Peter A; Maier, Joachim; Yu, Yan

    2015-08-10

    Silicon is an attractive anode material in energy storage devices, as it has a ten times higher theoretical capacity than its state-of-art carbonaceous counterpart. However, the common process to synthesize silicon nanostructured electrodes is complex, costly, and energy-intensive. Three-dimensional (3D) porous silicon-based anode materials have been fabricated from natural reed leaves by calcination and magnesiothermic reduction. This sustainable and highly abundant silica source allows for facile production of 3D porous silicon with very good electrochemical performance. The obtained silicon anode retains the 3D hierarchical architecture of the reed leaf. Impurity leaching and gas release during the fabrication process leads to an interconnected porosity and the reductive treatment to an inside carbon coating. Such anodes show a remarkable Li-ion storage performance: even after 4000 cycles and at a rate of 10 C, a specific capacity of 420 mA h g(-1) is achieved.

  4. Lignin-based active anode materials synthesized from low-cost renewable resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rios, Orlando; Tenhaeff, Wyatt Evan; Daniel, Claus; Dudney, Nancy Johnston; Johs, Alexander; Nunnery, Grady Alexander; Baker, Frederick Stanley

    2016-06-07

    A method of making an anode includes the steps of providing fibers from a carbonaceous precursor, the carbon fibers having a glass transition temperature T.sub.g. In one aspect the carbonaceous precursor is lignin. The carbonaceous fibers are placed into a layered fiber mat. The fiber mat is fused by heating the fiber mat in the presence of oxygen to above the T.sub.g but no more than 20% above the T.sub.g to fuse fibers together at fiber to fiber contact points and without melting the bulk fiber mat to create a fused fiber mat through oxidative stabilization. The fused fiber mat is carbonized by heating the fused fiber mat to at least 650.degree. C. under an inert atmosphere to create a carbonized fused fiber mat. A battery anode formed from carbonaceous precursor fibers is also disclosed.

  5. Electrochemical characteristics of ternary and quadruple lithium silicon nitrides as anode material for lithium ion batteries: the influence of precursors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Zhongsheng; TIAN Feng; SUN Juncai; JI Shijun; XIE Jingying

    2008-01-01

    Ternary and quadruple lithium silicon nitride anode materials for lithium ion batteries with different precursors were prepared by the simple process of high-energy ball milling.High capacity and excellent cyclability were obtained.The influence of precursor introduction on the electrochemical performance of products was investigated.This research reveals that the electrochemical performance of lithium silicon hiaide can be enhanced significantly by doping O.The cyclability of quadruple lithium silicon nitride can be optimized remarkably by controlling the introduction quantity of the precursors.It is possible for the composite to be used as a capacity compensator within a wide voltage cut-off window.

  6. Synthesis and Electrochemical Properties of CNFs-Si Composites as an Anode Material for Li Secondary Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Sil; Park, Heai-Ku; Park, Ho-Seon; Lee, Chang-Seop

    2015-11-01

    We have performed a study on the electrochemical and structural characteristics of CNFs-Si composites which are active anode material for lithium secondary batteries. Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) have been synthesized by Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) using Co and Cu catalysts. The CNFs on the surface of the Si particle can provide a flexible space to relieve the volumetric expansion during a charge. Therefore, the CNFs composites on Si particles were prepared on the basis of the following two processes: (1) CNFs were grown on the simple mechanical mixture of Si particles and catalysts (CNFs/Si); (2) CNFs were grown on the surface of a pyrolytic carbon that was coated with Si particles (CNFs/PC/Si). The morphology and composition of CNFs-Si composites were analyzed by SEM and EDS measurements. Crystallinity and amorphicity were investigated using XRD and Raman spectroscopy. The characteristics of the synthesized CNFs-Si composites were analyzed through XPS, TGA, and BET. The two different CNFs-Si composite materials were evaluated as the anodic material in three different electrode cells. We found that the initial capacity of the CNFs/PC/Si composite electrode was 1,361 mAh/g with retention rate of 28.4%, which was better than the retention rate of 4.9% with the CNFs/Si electrode.

  7. Preparation of Advanced CuO Nanowires/Functionalized Graphene Composite Anode Material for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The copper oxide (CuO nanowires/functionalized graphene (f-graphene composite material was successfully composed by a one-pot synthesis method. The f-graphene synthesized through the Birch reduction chemistry method was modified with functional group “–(CH25COOH”, and the CuO nanowires (NWs were well dispersed in the f-graphene sheets. When used as anode materials in lithium-ion batteries, the composite exhibited good cyclic stability and decent specific capacity of 677 mA·h·g−1 after 50 cycles. CuO NWs can enhance the lithium-ion storage of the composites while the f-graphene effectively resists the volume expansion of the CuO NWs during the galvanostatic charge/discharge cyclic process, and provide a conductive paths for charge transportation. The good electrochemical performance of the synthesized CuO/f-graphene composite suggests great potential of the composite materials for lithium-ion batteries anodes.

  8. Research Progress in Anode Materials for Power Li-ion Batteries%锂离子动力电池负极材料研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    池永庆; 孙彦平

    2012-01-01

    The progress in research of anode materials of lithium-ion batteries is reviewed. The effects of the compositions, the sizes of the anode materials and the operation temperatures on its performance such as specific capacity, specific power, cycle life and charge/discharge rate capability of the battery, are highlighted, as well as the theoretical studies on the anode materials by mathematical modeling the system of full cell or a half cell of the battery. Improving the performance of the anode materials of carbon/graphite and non-carbon/graphite, preparing the high orderly array anode to enhance the dynamical performance of lithium-ion batteries, will be important aspects for further studying; developing mathematical models to simulate the process of charging and discharging for analyzing the anode dynamics is an efficient way to characterize and optimize the anode materials.%综述了锂离子电池负极材料研究进展,着重介绍了负极材料活性成分、材料尺度及操作温度对电池比容量、比功率、循环寿命、充放电倍率性能的影响,以及数模化半电池或全电池系统对负极材料电极性能的理论研究.为了提高锂离子电池动力性能,改进碳/石墨和非碳/石墨负极材料、制备高度有序的阵列负极将成为今后研究的重要方向;建立数学模型模拟充放电过程、分析负极材料的电极动力学特性,是表征、优化负极材料的有效方法.

  9. Ultrahigh capacity anode material for lithium ion battery based on rod gold nanoparticles decorated reduced graphene oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atar, Necip, E-mail: necipatar@gmail.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, Pamukkale University, Denizli (Turkey); Eren, Tanju [Department of Chemical Engineering, Pamukkale University, Denizli (Turkey); Yola, Mehmet Lütfi [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Sinop University, Sinop (Turkey)

    2015-09-01

    In this study, we report the synthesis of rod shaped gold nanoparticles/2-aminoethanethiol functionalized reduced graphene oxide composite (rdAuNPs/AETrGO) and its application as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries. The structure of the rdAuNPs/AETrGO composite was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The electrochemical performance was investigated at different current rates by using a coin-type cell. It was found that the rod shaped gold nanoparticles were highly dispersed on the reduced graphene oxide sheets. Moreover, the rdAuNPs/AETrGO composite showed a high specific gravimetric capacity of about 1320 mAh g{sup −1} and a long-term cycle stability. - Highlights: • We prepared rod shaped gold nanoparticles functionalized reduced graphene oxide. • The nanocomposite was used as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries. • The nanocomposite showed a high specific gravimetric capacity of about 1320 mAh g{sup −1}. • The nanocomposite exhibited a long-term cycle stability.

  10. Ce-doped α-FeOOH nanorods as high-performance anode material for energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Yanjun; Xu, Liqiang; Qian, Yitai

    2016-09-01

    Ce-doped α-FeOOH nanorods with high yields were conveniently prepared by a hydrothermal method followed by an acid-treatment process. It is found that Ce uniformly distributes in the α-FeOOH nanorod nanostructures through elemental mapping analysis. The 0.5 wt% Ce-doped α-FeOOH electrode displayed excellent cycling performance with a high discharge capacity of 830 mA h g-1 after 800 charge/discharge cycles at a high current of 2000 mA g-1. The enhanced electrochemical performance can be attributed to the improved electronic conductivity, Li-ion diffusion kinetics and structure stability after Ce doping. Furthermore, a 0.5 wt% Ce-doped α-FeOOH//LiFePO4 lithium ion cell with an initial discharge capacity of 580 mA h g-1 at 1000 mA g-1 based on the total weight of the anode material has been fabricated for the first time. The obtained 0.5 wt% Ce-doped α-FeOOH electrode as anode material for sodium-ion batteries also exhibits a high initial discharge capacity of 587 mA h g-1 at 100 mA g-1.

  11. Synthesis And Electrochemical Characteristics Of Mechanically Alloyed Anode Materials SnS2 For Li/SnS2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong J.H.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing demand for efficient and economic energy storage, tin disulfide (SnS2, as one of the most attractive anode candidates for the next generation high-energy rechargeable Li-ion battery, have been paid more and more attention because of its high theoretical energy density and cost effectiveness. In this study, a new, simple and effective process, mechanical alloying (MA, has been developed for preparing fine anode material tin disulfides, in which ammonium chloride (AC, referred to as process control agents (PCAs, were used to prevent excessive cold-welding and accelerate the synthesis rates to some extent. Meanwhile, in order to decrease the mean size of SnS2 powder particles and improve the contact areas between the active materials, wet milling process was also conducted with normal hexane (NH as a solvent PCA. The prepared powders were both characterized by X-ray diffraction, Field emission-scanning electron microscopeand particle size analyzer. Finally, electrochemical measurements for Li/SnS2 cells were takenat room temperature, using a two-electrode cell assembled in an argon-filled glove box and the electrolyte of 1M LiPF6 in a mixture of ethylene carbonate(EC/dimethylcarbonate (DMC/ethylene methyl carbonate (EMC (volume ratio of 1:1:1.

  12. Anodic performance in lithium-ion batteries of graphite-like materials prepared from anthracites and unburned carbon concentrates from coal combustion fly ashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Cameán

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical performance as anodes for lithium-ion batteries of graphite-like materials that were prepared from anthracites and unburned carbon concentrates from coal combustion fly ashes by high temperature treatment was investigated by galvanostatic cycling of lithium test cells. Some of the materials prepared have provided reversible capacities up to ~ 310 mA h g-1 after 50 discharge/ charge cycles. These values are similar to those of oil-derived graphite (petroleum coke being the main precursor which is currently used as anodic material in commercial lithium-ion batteries.

  13. Metalated graphene nanoplatelets and their uses as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiantie; Jeon, In-Yup; Choi, Hyun-Jung; Kim, Seok-Jin; Shin, Sun-Hee; Park, Noejung; Dai, Liming; Baek, Jong-Beom

    2017-03-01

    A series of post-transition metals and semimetals in groups IIIA (Al, Ga, In), IVA (Ge, Sn, Pb) and VA (As, Sb, Bi) were introduced onto graphene nanoplatelets (GnPs) by mechanochemical reaction. The selected metals have a lower electronegativity (χ, 1.61 ≤ χ M ≤ 2.18) but a much larger covalent atomic radius (d M = 120-175 pm) than carbon (χ C = 2.55, d C = 77 pm). The effect of the electronegativity and atomic radius of the metalated GnPs (MGnPs, M = Al, Ga, In, Ge, Sn, Pb, As, Sb, or Bi) on the anode performance of lithium-ion batteries was evalusted. Among the series of prepared MGnPs, GaGnP (χ Ga = 1.81, d Ga = 135 pm) in group IIIA, SnGnP (χ Sn = 1.96, d Sn = 140 pm) in group IVA and SbGnP (χ Sb = 2.05, d Sb = 141 pm) in group VA exhibited significantly enhanced performance, including higher capacity, rate capability and initial Coulombic efficiency. Both the experimental results and theoretical calculations indicated that the optimum atomic size (d M ˜ 140 pm) was more significant to the anode performance than electronegativity, allowing not only efficient electrolyte penetration but also fast electron and ion transport across the graphitic layers.

  14. Electrospun fibers for high performance anodes in microbial fuel cells. Optimizing materials and architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Shuiliang

    2010-04-15

    A novel porous conducting nanofiber mat (PCNM) with nanostructured polyaniline (nanoPANi) on the fiber surface was successfully prepared by simple oxidative polymerization. The composite PCNM displayed a core/shell structure with highly rough surface. The thickness and the morphology of PANi layer on the electrospun polyamide (PA) fiber surface could be controlled by varying aniline concentration and temperature. The combination of the advantages of electrospinning technique and nanostructured PANi, let the PA/PANi composite PCNM possess more than five good properties, i.e. high conductivity of 6.759 S.m{sup -1}, high specific surface area of 160 m2.g{sup -1}, good strength of 82.88 MPa for mat and 161.75 MPa for highly aligned belts, good thermal properties with 5% weight loss temperature up to 415 C and excellent biocompatibility. In the PA/PANi composite PCNM, PANi is the only conducting component, its conductivity of 6.759 S.m{sup -1} which is measured in dry-state, is not enough for electrode. Moreover, the conductivity decreases in neutral pH environment due to the de-doping of proton. However, the method of spontaneous growth of nanostructured PANi on electrospun fiber mats provides an effective method to produce porous electrically conducting electrospun fiber mats. The combination advantages of nanostructured PANi with the electrospun fiber mats, extends the applications of PANi and electrospun nanofibers, such as chemical- and bio-sensors, actuators, catalysis, electromagnetic shielding, corrosion protection, separation membranes, electro-optic devices, electrochromic devices, tissue engineering and many others. The electrical conductivity of electrospun PCNM with PANi as the only conducting component is too low for application of as anode in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). So, we turn to electrospun carbon fiber due to its high electrical conductivity and environmental stability. The current density is greatly dependent on the microorganism density of anode

  15. HfO2/porous anodic alumina composite films for multifunctional data storage media materials under electric field control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Li-Qian; Pan, Di-Ya; Li, Jun-Qing; Liu, Li-Hu; Sun, Hui-Yuan

    2017-03-01

    New materials for achieving direct electric field control of ferromagnetism and resistance behavior are highly desirable in the development of multifunctional data storage devices. In this paper, HfO2 nanoporous films have been fabricated on porous anodic alumina (PAA) substrates by DC-reactive magnetron sputtering. Electrically induced resistive switching (RS) and modulated room temperature ferromagnetism are simultaneously found in a Ag/HfO2/PAA/Al (Ag/HP/Al) heterostructure. The switching mechanism between low resistance state and high resistance state is generally attributed to the formation/rupture of conductive filaments which may consist of oxygen vacancies. The combination of the electric field control of magnetization change and RS makes HP films possible for the multifunctional data storage media materials.

  16. Electrospinning synthesis of 3D porous NiO nanorods as anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Kong Xiang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional NiO nanorods were synthesized as anode material by electrospinning method. X-ray diffraction results revealed that the product sintered at 400 °C had impure metallic nickel phase which, however, became pure NiO phase as the sintering temperature rose. Nevertheless, the nanorods sintered at 400, 500 and 600 °C had similar diameters (∼200 nm.The NiO nanorod material sintered at 500 °C was chip-shaped with a diameter of 200 nm and it exhibited a porous 3D structure. The nanorod sintered at 500 °C had the optimal electrochemical performance. Its discharge specific capacity was 1127 mAh·g−1 initially and remained as high as 400 mAh·g−1 at a current density of 55 mA·g−1 after 50 cycles.

  17. Research progress in anode materials for Li-ion battery%锂离子电池负极材料的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武明昊; 陈剑; 王崇; 衣宝廉

    2011-01-01

    综述了近年来锂离子电池负极材料的研究进展,包括碳材料、过渡金属氧化物,锡基和硅基材料等,重点评述了锡基和硅基材料的研究进展,并对锂离子电池负极材料的发展趋势进行了展望.%Research progress in anode materials for Li-ion battery in recent years, including carbon, transition metal oxides, tin based composites and silicon based composites was reviewed. The research progress in tin based and silicon based anode materials was commented emphatically,the development tendency of Li-ion battery anode materials was prospected.

  18. Synthesis and electrochemical performance of ruthenium oxide-coated carbon nanofibers as anode materials for lithium secondary batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Yura; Choi, Jin-Yeong; Park, Heai-Ku; Lee, Chang-Seop

    2016-12-01

    In this study, ruthenium oxide (RuO2) coated carbon nanofibers (CNFs) were synthesized and applied as anode materials of Li secondary batteries. The CNFs were grown on Ni foam via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method after CNFs/Ni foam was put into the 0.01 M RuCl3 solution. The ruthenium oxide-coated CNFs/Ni foam was dried in a dryer at 80 °C. The morphologies, compositions, and crystal quality of RuO2/CNFs/Ni foam were characterized by SEM, EDS, XRD, Raman spectroscopy, and XPS. The electrochemical characteristics of RuO2/CNFs/Ni foam as anode of Li secondary batteries were investigated using three-electrode cell. The RuO2/CNFs/Ni foam was directly employed as a working electrode without any binder, and lithium foil was used as the counter and reference electrodes. LiClO4 (1 M) was employed as electrolyte and dissolved in a mixture of propylene carbonate (PC): ethylene carbonate (EC) in a 1:1 volume ratio. The galvanostatic charge/discharge cycling and cyclic voltammetry measurements were carried out at room temperature by using a battery tester. In particular, synthesized RuO2/CNFs/Ni foam showed the highest retention rate (47.4%). The initial capacity (494 mAh/g) was reduced to 234 mAh/g after 30 cycles.

  19. A silicon nanowire-reduced graphene oxide composite as a high-performance lithium ion battery anode material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jian-Guo; Wang, Chundong; Wu, Qi-Hui; Liu, Xiang; Yang, Yang; He, Lifang; Zhang, Wenjun

    2014-03-21

    Toward the increasing demands of portable energy storage and electric vehicle applications, silicon has been emerging as a promising anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) owing to its high specific capacity. However, serious pulverization of bulk silicon during cycling limits its cycle life. Herein, we report a novel hierarchical Si nanowire (Si NW)-reduced graphene oxide (rGO) composite fabricated using a solvothermal method followed by a chemical vapor deposition process. In the composite, the uniform-sized [111]-oriented Si NWs are well dispersed on the rGO surface and in between rGO sheets. The flexible rGO enables us to maintain the structural integrity and to provide a continuous conductive network of the electrode, which results in over 100 cycles serving as an anode in half cells at a high lithium storage capacity of 2300 mA h g(-1). Due to its [111] growth direction and the large contact area with rGO, the Si NWs in the composite show substantially enhanced reaction kinetics compared with other Si NWs or Si particles.

  20. Processing silicon microparticles recycled from wafer waste via Rapid Thermal Process for lithium-ion battery anode materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hui-Gee; Duh, Jenq-Gong

    2016-12-01

    A vast quantity of waste sludge is generated during the silicon wafers slicing process in semiconductor and photovoltaic industries. Turning the waste powder into high-value products is of strategic importance for industrial processes. The purified Si microparticles (Si-MP) are recycled by a simple and fast procedure, Rapid Thermal Process (RTP). A prominent anodic material of Si-MP/Carbon composite with porous structure is obtained via in-spaced carbonization of water-soluble binder sodium carboxymethyl cellulose during RTP. This strategy provides buffer space, which is constructed by carbon porous continuous conductive framework throughout the entire electrode, to resist local stress and intense volume variation. In addition, a sufficiently electrochemically stable solid-electrolyte interphase layer is accomplished with the coating of SiOx film and amorphous carbon on the surface of Si-MP. Under these circumstances, the enhanced electrodes achieve a first cycle efficiency of approximately 80% and a reversible charge capacity of 800 mAhg-1 over 100 cycles at 0.5 Ag-1 with good retention. Through a green and simple procedure, a remarkable Si-MP embedded carbon-matrix with porous structure is established to achieve commercially high performance Si-MP/C composite anodes and also to resolve the issues of waste disposal.

  1. Effect of tar fractions from coal gasification on nickel-yttria stabilized zirconia and nickel-gadolinium doped ceria solid oxide fuel cell anode materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorente, E.; Berrueco, C.; Millan, M.; Brandon, N. P.

    2013-11-01

    The allowable tar content in gasification syngas is one of the key questions for the exploitation of the full potential of fuel cell concepts with integrated gasification systems. A better understanding of the interaction between tars and the SOFC anodes which leads to carbon formation and deposition is needed in order to design systems where the extent of gas cleaning operations is minimized. Model tar compounds (toluene, benzene, naphthalene) have been used in experimental studies to represent those arising from biomass/coal gasification. However, the use of toluene as a model tar overestimates the negative impact of a real gasification tar on SOFC anode degradation associated with carbon formation. In the present work, the effect of a gasification tar and its distillation fractions on two commercially available fuel cell anodes, Ni/YSZ (yttria stabilized zirconia) and Ni/CGO (gadolinium doped ceria), is reported. A higher impact of the lighter tar fractions was observed, in terms of more carbon formation on the anodes, in comparison with the whole tar sample. The characterization of the recovered tars after contact with the anode materials revealed a shift towards a heavier molecular weight distribution, reinforcing the view that these fractions have reacted on the anode.

  2. Mesoporous Carbon-Tin Nanocomposites as Anode Materials for Li-ion Battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z.W.Zhao; Z.P.Guo; P.Yao; H.K.Liu

    2008-01-01

    A new mesoporous carbon-tin (MC-Sn) nanocomposite has been successfully prepared via a two-step method. From the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations, the tin nanoparticles were decorated on the as-prepared mesoporous carbons. The mesoprous structure of the carbon can effectively buffer the volume changes during the Li-Sn alloying and de-alloying cycles. The as-prepared MC/Sn nanocomposite electrodes exhibited extremely good cycling stability, with the specific capacity of Sn in the composite electrode calculated to be 959.7 mAh-g-1, which amounts to an impressive 96.9% of the theoretical value (990 mAh·g-1). The reversible capacity after 200 cycles is 96.1% of the first cycle reversible capacity, i.e., the capacity fade rate is only 0.0195% per cycle, which is even better than that of commercial graphite-based anodes.

  3. The prospects of phosphorene as an anode material for high-performance lithium-ion batteries: a fundamental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Congyan; Yu, Ming; Anderson, George; Ravinath Dharmasena, Ruchira; Sumanasekera, Gamini

    2017-02-01

    To completely understand lithium adsorption, diffusion, and capacity on the surface of phosphorene and, therefore, the prospects of phosphorene as an anode material for high-performance lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), we carried out density-functional-theory calculations and studied the lithium adsorption energy landscape, the lithium diffusion mobility, the lithium intercalation, and the lithium capacity of phosphorene. We also carried out, for the very first time, experimental measurement of the lithium capacity of phosphorene. Our calculations show that the lithium diffusion mobility along the zigzag direction in the valley of phosphorene was about 7 to 11 orders of magnitude faster than that along the other directions, indicating its ultrafast and anisotropic diffusivity. The lithium intercalation in phosphorene was studied by considering various Li n P16 configurations (n = 1-16) including single-side and double-side adsorptions. We found that phosphorene could accommodate up to a ratio of one Li per P atom (i.e. Li16P16). In particular, we found that, even at a high Li concentration (e.g. x = 1 in Li x P), there was no lithium clustering, and the structure of phosphorene (when fractured) is reversible during lithium intercalation. The theoretical value of the lithium capacity for a monolayer phosphorene is predicted to be above 433 mAh g-1, depending on whether Li atoms are adsorbed on the single side or the double side of phosphorene. Our experimental measurement of the lithium capacity for few-layer phosphorene networks shows a reversible stable value of ˜453 mAh g-1 even after 50 cycles. Our results clearly show that phosphorene, compared to graphene and other two-dimensional materials, has great promise as a novel anode material for high-performance LIBs.

  4. Spinel lithium titanate (Li4Ti5O12) as novel anode material for room-temperature sodium-ion battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Liang; Pan Hui-Lin; Hu Yong-Sheng; Li Hong; Chen Li-Quan

    2012-01-01

    This is the first time that a novel anode material,spinel Li4Ti5O12 which is well known as a “zero-strain” anode material for lithium storage,has been introduced for sodium-ion battery.The Li4Ti5O12 shows an average Na storage voltage of about 1.0 V and a reversible capacity of about 145 mAh/g,thereby making it a promising anode for sodiumion battery.Ex-situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) is used to investigate the structure change in the Na insertion/deinsertion process.Based on this,a possible Na storage mechanism is proposed.

  5. Electrospun fibers for high performance anodes in microbial fuel cells. Optimizing materials and architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Shuiliang

    2010-04-15

    A novel porous conducting nanofiber mat (PCNM) with nanostructured polyaniline (nanoPANi) on the fiber surface was successfully prepared by simple oxidative polymerization. The composite PCNM displayed a core/shell structure with highly rough surface. The thickness and the morphology of PANi layer on the electrospun polyamide (PA) fiber surface could be controlled by varying aniline concentration and temperature. The combination of the advantages of electrospinning technique and nanostructured PANi, let the PA/PANi composite PCNM possess more than five good properties, i.e. high conductivity of 6.759 S.m{sup -1}, high specific surface area of 160 m2.g{sup -1}, good strength of 82.88 MPa for mat and 161.75 MPa for highly aligned belts, good thermal properties with 5% weight loss temperature up to 415 C and excellent biocompatibility. In the PA/PANi composite PCNM, PANi is the only conducting component, its conductivity of 6.759 S.m{sup -1} which is measured in dry-state, is not enough for electrode. Moreover, the conductivity decreases in neutral pH environment due to the de-doping of proton. However, the method of spontaneous growth of nanostructured PANi on electrospun fiber mats provides an effective method to produce porous electrically conducting electrospun fiber mats. The combination advantages of nanostructured PANi with the electrospun fiber mats, extends the applications of PANi and electrospun nanofibers, such as chemical- and bio-sensors, actuators, catalysis, electromagnetic shielding, corrosion protection, separation membranes, electro-optic devices, electrochromic devices, tissue engineering and many others. The electrical conductivity of electrospun PCNM with PANi as the only conducting component is too low for application of as anode in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). So, we turn to electrospun carbon fiber due to its high electrical conductivity and environmental stability. The current density is greatly dependent on the microorganism density of anode

  6. Enhancement of Electrochemical Performance by the Oxygen Vacancies in Hematite as Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Peiyuan; Zhao, Yueying; Lin, Yingwu; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Li, Jianwen; Wang, Wanwan; Fang, Zhen

    2017-01-01

    The application of hematite in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) has been severely limited because of its poor cycling stability and rate performance. To solve this problem, hematite nanoparticles with oxygen vacancies have been rationally designed by a facile sol-gel method and a sequential carbon-thermic reduction process. Thanks to the existence of oxygen vacancies, the electrochemical performance of the as-obtained hematite nanoparticles is greatly enhancing. When used as the anode material in LIBs, it can deliver a reversible capacity of 1252 mAh g-1 at 2 C after 400 cycles. Meanwhile, the as-obtained hematite nanoparticles also exhibit excellent rate performance as compared to its counterparts. This method not only provides a new approach for the development of hematite with enhanced electrochemical performance but also sheds new light on the synthesis of other kinds of metal oxides with oxygen vacancies.

  7. Effects of sulfur doping on graphene-based nanosheets for use as anode materials in lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Young Soo; Le, Viet-Duc; Kim, Haegyeom; Chang, Sung-Jin; Baek, Seung Jae; Park, Sungjin; Kim, Byung Hoon; Kim, Yong-Hyun; Kang, Kisuk; Jin, Hyoung-Joon

    2014-09-01

    Graphene-based nanosheets (GNS) have been studied for use in electrochemical energy storage devices. A deeper understanding about the system is required for achieving enhanced power output and high energy storage. The effects of sulfur doping on the electrochemical properties of GNS are studied for their use as an anode material in lithium-ion batteries. Sulfur doping in GNS contributes to the high specific capacity by providing more lithium storage sites due to Faradaic reactions. In addition, superior rate performance of sulfur-doped GNS (S-GNS) is achieved through the improved electrical conductivity of S-GNS (1743 S m-1), which is two orders of magnitude higher than that of GNS (32 S m-1). In addition, good cyclic stability of S-GNS is maintained even after 500 cycles at a high current density of 1488 mA g-1 (4 C).

  8. One-pot facile synthesis of CuS/graphene composite as anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Hua-Chao; Yang, Xue-Lin; Zhang, Lu-Lu; Ni, Shi-Bing

    2014-11-01

    CuS/graphene composite has been synthesized by the one-pot hydrothermal method using thiourea as the sulfur source and reducing agent. The formation of CuS nanoparticles and the reduction of graphene oxide occur simultaneously during the hydrothermal process, which enables a uniform dispersion of CuS nanoparticles on the graphene nanosheets. The electrochemical performance of CuS/graphene composite was studied as anode materials for lithium ion batteries. The obtained CuS/graphene composite exhibits a relative high reversible capacity and good cycling stability. The good electrochemical performance of CuS/graphene composite can be attributed to graphene, which improves the electronic conductivity of composite and enhances the interfacial stability of electrode and electrolyte.

  9. Effect of carbon coating on electrochemical performance of hard carbons as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Hyuk; Lee, Heon-Young; Oh, Seh-Min; Lee, Seo-Jae; Lee, Ki-Young; Lee, Sung-Man

    Surface modification by a soft-carbon coating is used to improve the electrochemical performance of hard carbons as the negative-electrode (anode) material in lithium-ion batteries. The coating process involves simple heat-treatment of a mixture of coal-tar pitch and hard carbon powders at 1000 °C. The carbon coating significantly reduces the reaction of lithium with surface functional groups or absorbed species caused by air exposure. This is attributed to the effective suppression of the diffusion of both air and water into the hard carbon by the soft-carbon coating, and the better resistance of soft carbon to air. As a result, the charge-discharge coulombic efficiency during cycling, as well as during the first cycle, is improved.

  10. Carbon-coated Ni 20Si 80 alloy-graphite composite as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Heon-Yong; Kim, Young-Lae; Hong, Moon-Ki; Lee, Sung-Man

    A carbon-coated Ni 20Si 80 alloy-graphite composite has been studied as the anode for lithium-ion batteries. The composite is prepared by simple heat-treatment of a mixture of coal tar pitch and a Ni 20Si 80-graphite composite at 900 °C and under argon. The Ni 20Si 80 alloy powders are synthesized by mechanical alloying. The composite demonstrates promising electrochemical properties such as high reversible capacity, excellent cycle performance, and sufficiently high initial charge-discharge coulombic efficiency. This suggests buffering and conductive actions on the main active material, viz., Ni 20Si 80 alloy, of the graphite. These two effects are strongly enhanced by the carbon coating treatment.

  11. A novel ZnO@Ag@Polypyrrole hybrid composite evaluated as anode material for zinc-based secondary cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianhang; Yang, Zhanhong; Feng, Zhaobin; Xie, Xiaoe; Wen, Xing

    2016-04-14

    A novel ZnO@Ag@Polypyrrole nano-hybrid composite has been synthesized with a one-step approach, in which silver-ammonia complex ion serves as oxidant to polymerize the pyrrole monomer. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared spectroscopy (IR) show the existence of metallic silver and polypyrrole. The structure of nano-hybrid composites are characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM), which demonstrates that the surface of ZnO is decorated with nano silver grain coated with polypyrrole. When evaluated as anode material, the silver grain and polypyrrole layer not only suppress the dissolution of discharge product, but also helps to uniform electrodeposition due to substrate effect and its good conductivity, thus shows better cycling performance than bare ZnO electrode does.

  12. A novel ZnO@Ag@Polypyrrole hybrid composite evaluated as anode material for zinc-based secondary cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianhang; Yang, Zhanhong; Feng, Zhaobin; Xie, Xiaoe; Wen, Xing

    2016-04-01

    A novel ZnO@Ag@Polypyrrole nano-hybrid composite has been synthesized with a one-step approach, in which silver-ammonia complex ion serves as oxidant to polymerize the pyrrole monomer. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared spectroscopy (IR) show the existence of metallic silver and polypyrrole. The structure of nano-hybrid composites are characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM), which demonstrates that the surface of ZnO is decorated with nano silver grain coated with polypyrrole. When evaluated as anode material, the silver grain and polypyrrole layer not only suppress the dissolution of discharge product, but also helps to uniform electrodeposition due to substrate effect and its good conductivity, thus shows better cycling performance than bare ZnO electrode does.

  13. High capacity and high rate capability of nanostructured CuFeO 2 anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lin; Wang, Jia-Zhao; Zhu, Xue-Bin; Gao, Xuan-Wen; Liu, Hua-Kun

    Non-toxic, cheap, nanostructured ternary transition metal oxide CuFeO 2 was synthesised using a simple sol-gel method at different temperatures. The effects of the processing temperature on the particle size and electrochemical performance of the nanostructured CuFeO 2 were investigated. The electrochemical results show that the sample synthesised at 650 °C shows the best cycling performance, retaining a specific capacity of 475 mAh g -1 beyond 100 cycles, with a capacity fading of less than 0.33% per cycle. The electrode also exhibits good rate capability in the range of 0.5 C-4 C. At the high rate of 4 C, the reversible capacity of CuFeO 2 is around 170 mAh g -1. It is believed that the ternary transition metal oxide CuFeO 2 is quite acceptable compared with other high performance nanostructured anode materials.

  14. Synthesis of Hierarchical CoO Nano/Microstructures as Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Qin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hierarchical CoO nano/microstructures are synthesized via a hydrothermal method and a subsequent annealed process. When evaluated for use in lithium-ion batteries, hierarchical CoO nano/microstructures show a high initial discharge capacity of 1370 mAh/g and a high reversible capacity of 1148 mAh/g over 20 cycles at a current density of 100 mA/g. Superior rate performance with coulombic efficiency of about 100% upon galvanostatic cycling is also revealed. The excellent electrochemical properties of hierarchical CoO nano/microstructures make it a promising alternative anode material for high power lithium-ion batteries applications.

  15. Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} hollow nanospheres as anode material for enhanced performance in lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasidharan, Manickam [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Saga University, 1 Honjo-machi, Saga 840-8502 (Japan); Gunawardhana, Nanda [Advanced Research Center, Saga University, 1341 Yoga-machi, Saga 840-0047 (Japan); Yoshio, Masaki, E-mail: yoshio@cc.saga-u.ac.jp [Advanced Research Center, Saga University, 1341 Yoga-machi, Saga 840-0047 (Japan); Nakashima, Kenichi, E-mail: nakashik@cc.saga-u.ac.jp [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Saga University, 1 Honjo-machi, Saga 840-8502 (Japan)

    2012-09-15

    Graphical abstract: Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} hollow nanosphere constructed electrode delivers high capacity of 172 mAh g{sup −1} after 250 cycles and maintains structural integrity and excellent cycling stability. Highlights: ► Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} hollow nanospheres synthesis was synthesized by soft-template. ► Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} hollow nanospheres were investigated as anode material in Li-ion battery. ► Nanostructured electrode delivers high capacity of 172 mAh g{sup −1} after 250 cycles. ► The electrode maintains the structural integrity and excellent cycling stability. ► Nanosized shell domain facilitates fast lithium intercalation/deintercalation. -- Abstract: Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} hollow nanospheres of average diameter ca. ∼29 nm and hollow cavity size ca. 17 nm were synthesized using polymeric micelles with core–shell–corona architecture under mild conditions. The hollow particles were thoroughly characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermal (TG/DTA) and nitrogen adsorption analyses. Thus obtained Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} hollow nanospheres were investigated as anode materials for lithium ion rechargeable batteries for the first time. The nanostructured electrode delivers high capacity of 172 mAh g{sup −1} after 250 cycles of charge/discharge at a rate of 0.5 C. More importantly, the hollow particles based electrodes maintains the structural integrity and excellent cycling stability even after exposing to high current density 6.25 A g{sup −1}. The enhanced electrochemical behavior is ascribed to hollow cavity coupled with nanosized Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} shell domain that facilitates fast lithium intercalation/deintercalation kinetics.

  16. Si-SiOx-Al2O3 nanocomposites as high-capacity anode materials for Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyungbae; Kim, Moon-Soo; Choi, Hyerang; Min, Kyeong-Sik; Kim, Ki-Doo; Kim, Jae-Hun

    2017-03-01

    Nanocrystalline Si-embedded SiOx-Al2O3 composite materials were synthesized by a high-energy mechanical milling method, and their potential as an anode material for Li-ion batteries was examined. The starting materials were amorphous SiO2 and Al metal powders. To increase the initial coulombic efficiency of the SiO2-based electrode materials, the amorphous SiO2 was reduced by Al. The reducing medium was decided by calculating the thermodynamic formation energy. During the highenergy milling process, SiO2 was partially reduced and Al was simultaneously oxidized to aluminum oxide, yielding nano Si-embedded composite. The composite was characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and high-resolution transmission microscopy. In electrochemical tests, the reversible capacity of the composite electrode was approximately 850 mAh g-1 with enhanced initial coulombic efficiency of 66%. This performance of the composite electrode was achieved not through carbon incorporation, but through the formation of Si-embedded nanocomposites.

  17. A Co(OH){sub 2}-graphene nanosheets composite as a high performance anode material for rechargeable lithium batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Y.S.; Yang, X.; Liao, X.Z.; Ma, Z.F. [Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ. (China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Chen, J. [Wollongong Univ., NSW (Australia). ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science, Intelligent Polymer Research Inst.

    2010-07-01

    The 2-D structure of graphene provides it with excellent electronic conductivity, and a high surface area. Graphene nanosheets have been investigated for use in lithium-ion (Li-ion) storage applications. In this study nanostructured TiO{sub 2}-graphene hybrid materials were fabricated in order to investigate their potential uses in Li-ion batteries. The study showed that the materials showed significantly enhanced Li-ion insertion and extraction capabilities in TiO{sub 2}. A cobalt oxide (Co(OH){sub 2})-graphene nanosheet was also developed as an advanced anode material for Li-storage. The discharge-charge cycling performance of the material was discussed, as well as the coulombic efficiency of the synthesized samples. Results of the experimental study showed that after 30 cycles, the reversible capacity of the composite achieved approximately 82 per cent of its initial value. The corresponding capacity retentions of the graphene nanosheets and the Co(OH)2 after 30 cycles were approximately 66 per cent and 58 per cent, respectively. 5 refs.

  18. Anodes for alkaline electrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev

    2011-02-01

    A method of making an anode for alkaline electrolysis cells includes adsorption of precursor material on a carbonaceous material, conversion of the precursor material to hydroxide form and conversion of precursor material from hydroxide form to oxy-hydroxide form within the alkaline electrolysis cell.

  19. Synthesis of binder-like molecules covalently linked to silicon nanoparticles and application as anode material for lithium-ion batteries without the use of electrolyte additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assresahegn, Birhanu Desalegn; Bélanger, Daniel

    2017-03-01

    A chemically modified silicon anode is prepared for application as anode in lithium-ion batteries by covalent attachment of polyacrylic acid to enable self-adhesion between the active material particles. The polyacrylic acid polymer is formed by atom transfer radical polymerization using 1-(bromoethyl)benzene initiator groups initially bonded to a hydrogenated silicon surface. The grafting of 1-(bromoethyl)benzene and polyacrylic acid is confirmed by various material characterization techniques. The electrochemical performance of the silicon anodes is also evaluated by galvanostatic cycling. The chemically modified composite silicon anode (with active material loading of 0.9-1 mg cm-2) showed a significantly improved performance in terms of: gravimetric capacitance (more than 2000 mAh g-1) after 300 cycles and 80% capacity retention with an average 99.6% Coulombic efficiency at a current density of 0.34 A g-1. However, the unmodified electrode cycled 75 times in the same conditions only retains 46% of its initial capacity with an average 95.1% Coulombic efficiency. The new composite Si electrode performs better at high charge/discharge rate and allows the use of larger proportion of the active material by reducing the amount of binder. It is noteworthy that these composite silicon electrodes are tested without the use of expensive electrolyte additives.

  20. Uniform Fe3O4 microflowers hierarchical structures assembled with porous nanoplates as superior anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiaoliang; Liu, Yanguo; Arandiyan, Hamidreza;

    2016-01-01

    as anode material for lithium-ion batteries, the as-prepared Fe3O4 microflowers electrodes delivered superior capacity, better cycling stability and rate capability than that of Fe3O4 microspheres electrodes. The improved electrochemical performance was attributed to the microscale flowerlike architecture...

  1. Research progress of anode material for sodium-ion batteries%钠离子电池负极材料的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨绍斌; 董伟; 沈丁; 李思南; 王中将; 张佳民; 孙闻; 张琴

    2016-01-01

    The research status of anode materials in recent years, such as carbons, alloys, metal oxides and soon,were summarized, the performance and storage mechanism of sodiumofthe materials reachedwere introduced. The main problems of these kinds of anode materialsand the solutionwere discussed.The research directions and prospects on anode materialswereforecasted, and thecarbon materials with large layer spacing and less surface area is the most promising candidate anode material for sodium ion battery,and titanate with good structure stability is potential anode materials. Designing and developingnew materials is an important future research field for sodium ion battery.%综述近年来国内外对于碳、合金、金属氧化物等负极材料的研究现状,重点介绍材料的性能以及储钠机理,探讨材料存在的主要问题和解决方法,对负极材料的研究方向以及前景进行展望,指出具有较大层间距和较小比表面积的碳材料是目前最有希望应用于钠离子电池的负极材料,结构稳定性较好的钛酸盐材料是极具潜力的负极材料,设计开发适合的离子电池自身特点的新材料是未来钠电子电池研究的重要方向。

  2. Interconnected sandwich structure carbon/Si-SiO2/carbon nanospheres composite as high performance anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuanjin Du; Mengyan Hou; Dandan Zhou; Yonggang Wang; Congxiao Wang; Yongyao Xia

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, an interconnected sandwich carbon/Si-SiO2/carbon nanospheres composite was prepared by template method and carbon thermal vapor deposition (TVD). The carbon conductive layer can not only efficiently improve the electronic conductivity of Si-based anode, but also play a key role in alleviating the negative effect from huge volume expansion over discharge/charge of Si-based anode. The resulting material delivered a reversible capacity of 1094 mAh/g, and exhibited excellent cycling stability. It kept a reversible capacity of 1050 mAh/g over 200 cycles with a capacity retention of 96%.

  3. The effect of polyaniline on TiO2 nanoparticles as anode materials for lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Haitao; Ncube, Ntombizodwa M; Raju, Kumar; Mphahlele, Nonhlanhla; Mathe, Mkhulu

    2016-01-01

    Polyaniline (PANI) additives have been shown to have a significant effect on titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles as lithium ion battery anode materials. TiO2/PANI composites were prepared using a solid coating method with different ratios of PANI and then characterized using XRD and SEM. These composites have shown increased reversible capacity compared with pure TiO2. At the current rate of 20 and 200 mAg(-1), maximum capacities were also found on 15 % PANI incorporated TiO2 composite with 281 mAh g(-1) and 168.2 mAh g(-1), respectively, and 230 and 99.6 mAh g(-1) were obtained in the case of pure TiO2. Among all the composite materials, 10 % PANI incorporated TiO2 composite exhibited the highest reversible capacity with cycle stability after 100 cycles at the current rate of 200 mAg(-1), suggestive that the optimal ratio is 10 % PANI of TiO2/polyaniline. The cycle stability showed swift fade when the ratio of PANI in the composites exceeded 10 % though the highest initial capacity was achieved on 15 % PANI in the composites. These results suggest that PANI has effectively enhanced the reversible capacity of commercial TiO2, and may be a promising polymer matrix materials for lithium ion batteries.

  4. Mn 3 O 4 −Graphene Hybrid as a High-Capacity Anode Material for Lithium Ion Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hailiang

    2010-10-13

    We developed two-step solution-phase reactions to form hybrid materials of Mn3O4 nanoparticles on reduced graphene oxide (RGO) sheets for lithium ion battery applications. Selective growth of Mn3O 4 nanoparticles on RGO sheets, in contrast to free particle growth in solution, allowed for the electrically insulating Mn3O4 nanoparticles to be wired up to a current collector through the underlying conducting graphene network. The Mn3O4 nanoparticles formed on RGO show a high specific capacity up to ∼900 mAh/g, near their theoretical capacity, with good rate capability and cycling stability, owing to the intimate interactions between the graphene substrates and the Mn 3O4 nanoparticles grown atop. The Mn3O 4/RGO hybrid could be a promising candidate material for a high-capacity, low-cost, and environmentally friendly anode for lithium ion batteries. Our growth-on-graphene approach should offer a new technique for the design and synthesis of battery electrodes based on highly insulating materials. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  5. High reversible capacity of SnO{sub 2}/graphene nanocomposite as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lian Peichao [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, No. 381 Wushan Road, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Zhu Xuefeng [State Key Laboratory of Catalysis, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China); Liang Shuzhao; Li Zhong [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, No. 381 Wushan Road, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Yang Weishen [State Key Laboratory of Catalysis, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China); Wang Haihui, E-mail: hhwang@scut.edu.c [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, No. 381 Wushan Road, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2011-04-30

    Highlights: {yields} Gas-liquid interfacial reaction was used to prepare SnO{sub 2}/graphene nanocomposite. {yields} SnO{sub 2}/graphene nanocomposite as an anode for lithium-ion batteries. {yields} It exhibited high reversible specific capacity and excellent cycle capability. {yields} Graphene sheets can improve the cycling performance and reverible capacity of SnO{sub 2}. - Abstract: A gas-liquid interfacial synthesis approach has been developed to prepare SnO{sub 2}/graphene nanocomposite. The as-prepared nanocomposite was characterized by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller measurements. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy observation revealed the homogeneous distribution of SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles (2-6 nm in size) on graphene matrix. The electrochemical performances were evaluated by using coin-type cells versus metallic lithium. The SnO{sub 2}/graphene nanocomposite prepared by the gas-liquid interface reaction exhibits a high reversible specific capacity of 1304 mAh g{sup -1} at a current density of 100 mA g{sup -1} and excellent rate capability, even at a high current density of 1000 mA g{sup -1}, the reversible capacity was still as high as 748 mAh g{sup -1}. The electrochemical test results show that the SnO{sub 2}/graphene nanocomposite prepared by the gas-liquid interfacial synthesis approach is a promising anode material for lithium-ion batteries.

  6. Penta-graphene: A Promising Anode Material as the Li/Na-Ion Battery with Both Extremely High Theoretical Capacity and Fast Charge/Discharge Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Bo; Li, Yan-Chun; Yu, Xue-Fang; Cheng, Jian-Bo

    2016-12-28

    Recently, a new two-dimensional (2D) carbon allotrope named penta-graphene was theoretically proposed ( Zhang , S. ; et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2015 , 112 , 2372 ) and has been predicted to be the promising candidate for broad applications due to its intriguing properties. In this work, by using first-principles simulation, we have further extended the potential application of penta-graphene as the anode material for a Li/Na-ion battery. Our results show that the theoretical capacity of Li/Na ions on penta-graphene reaches up to 1489 mAh·g(-1), which is much higher than that of most of the previously reported 2D anode materials. Meanwhile, the calculated low open-circuit voltages (from 0.24 to 0.60 V), in combination with the low diffusion barriers (≤0.33 eV) and the high electronic conductivity during the whole Li/Na ions intercalation processes, further show the advantages of penta-graphene as the anode material. Particularly, molecular dynamics simulation (300 K) reveals that Li ion could freely diffuse on the surface of penta-graphene, and thus the ultrafast Li ion diffusivity is expected. Superior performance of penta-graphene is further confirmed by comparing with the other 2D anode materials. The light weight and unique atomic arrangement (with isotropic furrow paths on the surface) of penta-graphene are found to be mainly responsible for the high Li/Na ions storage capacity and fast diffusivity. In this regard, except penta-graphene, many other recently proposed 2D metal-free materials with pentagonal Cairo-tiled structures may be the potential candidates as the Li/Na-ion battery anodes.

  7. A novel strategy to prepare Ge@C/rGO hybrids as high-rate anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bangrun; Wen, Zhaoyin; Jin, Jun; Hong, Xiaoheng; Zhang, Sanpei; Rui, Kun

    2017-02-01

    Germanium is considered as a promising anode material for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) due to its high-capacity. However, owing to the huge volume variation during cycling, the batteries based on germanium anodes usually show poor cyclability and inferior rate capability. Herein, we demonstrated a novel strategy to uniformly anchor the core-shell structured germanium@carbon (Ge@C) on the reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanosheets by the strong adhesion of dopamine. In the resulting Ge@C/rGO hybrid, the amorphous carbon layer and rGO nanosheets can effectively reduce the agglomeration of germanium and provide buffer matrix for the volume change in electrochemical lithium reactions. When used as anode materials for LIBs, Ge@C/rGO hybrids deliver a reversible capacity of 1074.4 mA h g-1 at 2C after 600 cycles (with capacity retention of 96.5%) and high rate capability of 436 mA h g-1 at 20C after 200 cycles. The encouraging electrochemical performance clearly demonstrates that Ge@C/rGO hybrids could be a potential anode material with high capacity, excellent rate capability, and good cycling stability for LIBs.

  8. An investigation of zincite from spent anodic portions of alkaline batteries: An industrial mineral approach for evaluating stock material for recycling potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Heather A.; Borkiewicz, Olaf; Krekeler, Mark P. S.

    The mineralogy of anodic portions of spent alkaline batteries from a leading brand (Duracell) that had been equilibrated in ambient air for approximately 4 months was investigated to determine if material generated from this low energy process may be suitable stock material for recycling. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) identified the bulk of the ambient air oxidized anodic material as zincite (ZnO). Scanning electron microscopy investigation indicates a variety of textures of zincite are present with euhedral hexagonal prisms being the most common crystal form. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis indicates that there are no minor amounts of Mn within the zincite. Transmission electron microscopy investigation indicates a variety of textures exist in the zinc oxide. Impurities in the batteries. A promising applications of zincite are numerous, including the development of new solar cell materials. The spent alkaline battery waste stream may serve as promising resource for driving further development of this sector of the economy.

  9. Three-dimensional tungsten nitride nanowires as high performance anode material for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Qiu, Yongfu; Han, Yi; Guo, Yan; Cheng, Faliang

    2016-08-01

    Nanostructure materials often achieve low capacity when the active material mass loading is high. In this communication, high mass-loading tungsten nitride nanowires (WNNWs) were fabricated on a flexible carbon cloth by hydrothermal method and post annealing. The prepared electrode exhibited remarkable cyclic stability and attractive rate capability for lithium storage. It delivers at a current density of 200 mA g-1, a high capacity of 418 mAh g-1, which is higher than that of conventional graphite. This research opens more opportunity for the fabrication of three-dimensional metal nitrides as negative electrode material for flexible lithium ion batteries.

  10. Double carbon decorated lithium titanate as anode material with high rate performance for lithium-ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifang Ni

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Spinel lithium titanate (Li4Ti5O12 has the advantages of structural stability, however it suffers the disadvantages of low lithium-ion diffusion coefficient as well as low conductivity. In order to solve issues, we reported a simple method to prepare carbon-coated Li4Ti5O12/CNTs (C@Li4Ti5O12/CNTs using stearic acid as surfactant and carbon source to prepare carbon coated nanosized particles. The obtained Li4Ti5O12 particles of 100 nm in size are coated with the carbon layers pyrolyzed from stearic acid and dispersed in CNTs matrix homogeneously. These results show that the synthesized C@Li4Ti5O12/CNTs material used as anode materials for lithium ion batteries, presenting a better high-rate performance (147 mA h g−1 at 20 C. The key factors affecting the high-rate properties of the C@Li4Ti5O12/CNTs composite may be related to the synergistic effects of the CNTs matrix and the carbon- coating layers with conductivity enhancement. Additionally, the amorphous carbon coating is an effective route to ameliorate the rate capability of Li4Ti5O12/CNTs.

  11. In-Situ Crafting of ZnFe₂O₄ Nanoparticles Impregnated within Continuous Carbon Network as Advanced Anode Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Beibei; Han, Cuiping; Li, Bo; He, Yanjie; Lin, Zhiqun

    2016-02-23

    The ability to create a synergistic effect of nanostructure engineering and its hybridization with conductive carbonaceous material is highly desirable for attaining high-performance lithium ion batteries (LIBs). Herein, we judiciously crafted ZnFe2O4/carbon nanocomposites composed of ZnFe2O4 nanoparticles with an average size of 16 ± 5 nm encapsulated within the continuous carbon network as anode materials for LIBs. Such intriguing nanocomposites were yielded in situ via the pyrolysis-induced carbonization of polystyrene@poly(acrylic acid) (PS@PAA) core@shell nanospheres in conjunction with the formation of ZnFe2O4 nanoparticles through the thermal decomposition of ZnFe2O4 precursors incorporated within the PS@PAA nanospheres. By systematically varying the ZnFe2O4 content in the ZnFe2O4/carbon nanocomposites, the nanocomposite containing 79.3 wt % ZnFe2O4 was found to exhibit an excellent rate performance with high capacities of 1238, 1198, 1136, 1052, 926, and 521 mAh g(-1) at specific currents of 100, 200, 500, 1000, 2000, and 5000 mA g(-1), respectively. Moreover, cycling performance of the ZnFe2O4/carbon nanocomposite with 79.3 wt % ZnFe2O4 at specific currents of 200 mA g(-1) delivered an outstanding prolonged cycling stability for several hundred cycles.

  12. Nanotemplated platinum fuel cell catalysts and copper-tin lithium battery anode materials for microenergy devices

    OpenAIRE

    Rohan, James F.; Hasan, Maksudul; Holubowitch, Nicolas E.

    2011-01-01

    Nanotemplated materials have significant potential for applications in energy conversion and storage devices due to their unique physical properties. Nanostructured materials provide additional electrode surface area beneficial for energy conversion or storage applications with short path lengths for electronic and ionic transport and thus the possibility of higher reaction rates. We report on the use of controlled growth of metal and alloy electrodeposited templated nanostructures for energy...

  13. Electrochemical characterization of carbon coated bundle-type silicon nanorod for anode material in lithium ion secondary batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halim, Martin [Center for Energy Convergence, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hwarangno 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Energy and Environmental Engineering, Korea University of Science and Technology, Gwahangno, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jung Sub [Center for Energy Convergence, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hwarangno 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Material Science & Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jeong-Gil [Department of Chemical Engineering, Hannam University, 461-1 Junmin-dong, Yusung-gu, Taejon 305-811 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Joong Kee, E-mail: leejk@kist.re.kr [Center for Energy Convergence, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hwarangno 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Energy and Environmental Engineering, Korea University of Science and Technology, Gwahangno, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-333 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Bundle-type silicon nanorods (BSNR) were synthesized by metal assisted chemical etching. • Novel bundle-type nanorods electrode showed self-relaxant characteristics. • The self-relaxant property was enhanced by increasing the silver concentration. • PAA binder enhanced the self-relaxant property of the silicon material. • Carbon coated BSNR (BSNR@C) has evidently provided better cycle performance. - Abstract: Nanostructured silicon synthesis by surface modification of commercial micro-powder silicon was investigated in order to reduce the maximum volume change over cycle. The surface of micro-powder silicon was modified using an Ag metal-assisted chemical etching technique to produce nanostructured material in the form of bundle-type silicon nanorods. The volume change of the electrode using the nanostructured silicon during cycle was investigated using an in-situ dilatometer. Our result shows that nanostructured silicon synthesized using this method showed a self-relaxant characteristic as an anode material for lithium ion battery application. Moreover, binder selection plays a role in enhancing self-relaxant properties during delithiation via strong hydrogen interaction on the surface of the silicon material. The nanostructured silicon was then coated with carbon from propylene gas and showed higher capacity retention with the use of polyacrylic acid (PAA) binder. While the nano-size of the pore diameter control may significantly affect the capacity fading of nanostructured silicon, it can be mitigated via carbon coating, probably due to the prevention of Li ion penetration into 10 nano-meter sized pores.

  14. 锂离子电池Sn基合金负极材料%Tin-Based Alloy Anode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    褚道葆; 李建; 袁希梅; 李自龙; 魏旭; 万勇

    2012-01-01

    Development of high safety, high energy, low cost and long service life Li ion rechargeable batteries is current a tremendous challenge for power battery application. The performance of the battery mainly depends on the nature of anode and cathode materials. Tin-based alloy is an industrially promising anode material for lithium ion batteries due to its high energy capacity and safety characteristics. In this review, the recent progress in Sn-based alloy anode materials for lithium ion batteries are reviewed. The different preparation methods of Sn- based alloy anodes are summarized. This review focuses on the problems in electrochemical properties of the Sn- based alloy anode and their causes, including the effect of loss of active material, SEI film and oxide film formation, aggregation of alloy particles and generation of dead lithium in the process of the intercalation of lithium ions on the charge and discharge performance of the alloy anode. The research trends in improving the electrochemical performance of the Sn-based alloy anode are prospected.%发展高安全性、高能量、低成本、长寿命锂离子电池是当前动力电池应用面临的巨大挑战。电池的性能主要取决于正负极电极材料的性能。Sn基合金负极具有高能量和安全特性,是一种很有产业化前景的锂离子电池负极材料。本文综述了Sn基合金电极作为锂离子电池负极的最新研究进展,对Sn基合金负极的不同制备方法进行了总结,重点介绍了锡基合金负极材料在电化学性能方面所存在的问题及其原因,包括锡基活性物质的损失、SEI膜和氧化膜的形成、纳米粒子的团聚和锂离子嵌入过程中死锂的产生等影响合金充放电性能的因素,最后展望了以提高Sn基合金负极电化学性能为目的的研究趋势。

  15. Effects of phosphorous incorporation on the microstructure of Si nanoparticles as an anode material for lithium-ion battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Chun-young; Koo, Jeong-boon [Korea Institute of Energy Research, 152 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 304-343 (Korea, Republic of); Graduate School of Energy Science and Technology, Chungnam National University, 99 Deahak-ro Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Bo-yun, E-mail: byjang@kier.re.kr [Korea Institute of Energy Research, 152 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 304-343 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Joon-soo; Lee, Jin-seok [Korea Institute of Energy Research, 152 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 304-343 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung-soo; Han, Moon-hee [Graduate School of Energy Science and Technology, Chungnam National University, 99 Deahak-ro Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-31

    Si nanoparticles were synthesized by inductively coupled plasma and a specially designed double tube reactor. By injection of large amount of PH{sub 3} during the synthesis, the effects of phosphorous incorporation on their microstructures and chemical binding environments were investigated. Injection of PH{sub 3} gas during the synthesis resulted in a change from crystalline to amorphous phase, a reduction of particle size as well as a process yield. All of the above results were attributed to a lower plasma density when higher amount of PH{sub 3} was injected. From energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis, it was revealed that P was doped in Si nanoparticles. However, secondary phases such as P{sub 4} and P{sub 2}O{sub 5} were formed as amorphous ones in nano-scale when a relatively large amount of PH{sub 3} was injected. In addition, those nanoparticles were applied as an active material in the lithium-ion battery's anode. Unexpectedly, amorphous Si nanoparticles with secondary phases showed improved electrochemical properties. P-doping in Si nanoparticles could not directly advance cycling performance by improvement of electrical conductivity of Si nanoparticles. It was rather assumed that a secondary phase influenced and enhanced electrochemical properties by additional capacity due to a formation of Li{sub 3}P and forming an effective buffer against large volumetric change of Si nanoparticles during the charge/discharge. The initial reversible capacity of amorphous Si nanoparticles synthesized with 100 sccm of PH{sub 3} flow rate was 2113 mAh g{sup −1}, and that at the 100th cycle was still about 1000 mAh g{sup −1}, which was twice as high as that of Si nanoparticles synthesized without PH{sub 3} injection. - Highlights: • Silicon nanoparticles with phosphorous were synthesized by inductively coupled plasma. • Effects of phosphorous incorporation on the microstructure

  16. Corrosion rate of construction materials in hot phosphoric acid with the contribution of anodic polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouril, M.; Christensen, Erik; Eriksen, S.;

    2011-01-01

    ). Several grades of stainless steels were tested as well as tantalum, niobium, titanium, nickel alloys and silicon carbide. The corrosion rate was evaluated by means of mass loss at free corrosion potential as well as under various levels of polarization. The only corrosion resistant material in 85...

  17. A Core-Shell Fe/Fe2 O3 Nanowire as a High-Performance Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Zhaolin; Huang, Gang; Liang, Fei; Yin, Dongming; Wang, Limin

    2016-08-16

    The preparation of novel one-dimensional core-shell Fe/Fe2 O3 nanowires as anodes for high-performance lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) is reported. The nanowires are prepared in a facile synthetic process in aqueous solution under ambient conditions with subsequent annealing treatment that could tune the capacity for lithium storage. When this hybrid is used as an anode material for LIBs, the outer Fe2 O3 shell can act as an electrochemically active material to store and release lithium ions, whereas the highly conductive and inactive Fe core functions as nothing more than an efficient electrical conducting pathway and a remarkable buffer to tolerate volume changes of the electrode materials during the insertion and extraction of lithium ions. The core-shell Fe/Fe2 O3 nanowire maintains an excellent reversible capacity of over 767 mA h g(-1) at 500 mA g(-1) after 200 cycles with a high average Coulombic efficiency of 98.6 %. Even at 2000 mA g(-1) , a stable capacity as high as 538 mA h g(-1) could be obtained. The unique composition and nanostructure of this electrode material contribute to this enhanced electrochemical performance. Due to the ease of large-scale fabrication and superior electrochemical performance, these hybrid nanowires are promising anode materials for the next generation of high-performance LIBs.

  18. Pyrolyzed bacterial cellulose: a versatile support for lithium ion battery anode materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Li, Xianglong; Luo, Bin; Yang, Jingxuan; Wang, Xiangjun; Song, Qi; Chen, Shiyan; Zhi, Linjie

    2013-07-22

    A scalable, low-cost and environmentally benign strategy is developed for the facile construction of a unique kind of three-dimensional porous electrode architecture for high-performance lithium ion batteries. The methodology is based on the employment of pyrolyzed bacterial cellulose as a new three-dimensional porous scaffold to support various nanostructured active electrode materials, such as SnO2 and Ge.

  19. Aerosol assisted synthesis of hierarchical tin–carbon composites and their application as lithium battery anode materials

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Juchen

    2013-01-01

    We report a method for synthesizing hierarchically structured tin-carbon (Sn-C) composites via aerosol spray pyrolysis. In this method, an aqueous precursor solution containing tin(ii) chloride and sucrose is atomized, and the resultant aerosol droplets carried by an inert gas are pyrolyzed in a high-temperature tubular furnace. Owing to the unique combination of high reaction temperature and short reaction time, this method is able to achieve a hetero-structure in which small Sn particles (15 nm) are uniformly embedded in a secondary carbon particle. This procedure allows the size and size distribution of the primary Sn particles to be tuned, as well as control over the size of the secondary carbon particles by addition of polymeric surfactant in the precursor solution. When evaluated as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries, the resultant Sn-C composites demonstrate attractive electrochemical performance in terms of overall capacity, electrochemical stability, and coulombic efficiency. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  20. Ultrafine Nb2O5 Nanocrystal Coating on Reduced Graphene Oxide as Anode Material for High Performance Sodium Ion Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Litao; Chen, Gen; Sarker, Swagotom; Richins, Stephanie; Wang, Huiqiang; Xu, Weichuan; Rui, Xianhong; Luo, Hongmei

    2016-08-31

    Ultrafine niobium oxide nanocrystals/reduced graphene oxide (Nb2O5 NCs/rGO) was demonstrated as a promising anode material for sodium ion battery with high rate performance and high cycle durability. Nb2O5 NCs/rGO was synthesized by controllable hydrolysis of niobium ethoxide and followed by heat treatment at 450 °C in flowing forming gas. Transmission electron microscopy images showed that Nb2O5 NCs with average particle size of 3 nm were uniformly deposited on rGO sheets and voids among Nb2O5 NCs existed. The architecture of ultrafine Nb2O5 NCs anchored on a highly conductive rGO network can not only enhance charge transfer and buffer the volume change during sodiation/desodiation process but also provide more active surface area for sodium ion storage, resulting in superior rate and cycle performance. Ex situ XPS analysis revealed that the sodium ion storage mechanism in Nb2O5 could be accompanied by Nb(5+)/Nb(4+) redox reaction and the ultrafine Nb2O5 NCs provide more surface area to accomplish the redox reaction.

  1. AB5-type Hydrogen Storage Alloy Modified with Ti/Zr Used as Anodic Materials in Borohydride Fuel Cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lianbang WANG; Chunan MA; Xinbiao MAO; Yuanming SUN; Seijiro SUDA

    2005-01-01

    Fuel cell using borohydride as the fuel has received much attention. AB5-type hydrogen storage alloy used as the anodic material instead of noble metals has been investigated. In order to restrain the generation of hydrogen and enhance the utilization of borohydride, Ti/Zr metal powders has been added into the parent LmNi4.78Mn0.22 (where Lm is La-richened mischmetal) alloy (LNM) by ball milling and heat treatment methods. It is found that the addition of Ti/Zr metal powders lowers the electrochemical catalytic activity of the electrodes, at the same time, restrains the generation of hydrogen and enhances the utilization of the fuel. All the results show that the hydrogen generation rate or the utilization of the fuel is directly relative to the electrochemical catalytic activity or the discharge capability of the electrodes. The utilization of the fuel increases with discharge current density. It is very important to find a balance between the discharge capability and the utilization of the fuel.

  2. A comparative study of electrochemical properties of two kinds of carbon nanotubes as anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Shubin; Huo, Junping; Song, Huaihe; Chen, Xiaohong [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, 100029 Beijing (China)

    2008-01-01

    Two kinds of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), i.e., short carbon nanotubes (CNTs-1) synthesized by co-pyrolysis method and long carbon nanotubes (CNTs-2) produced using common CVD technique were comparatively investigated as anode materials for lithium ion batteries via transmission electron microscope (TEM), high-resolution TEM and a variety of electrochemical testing techniques. The test results showed that the reversible capacities of CNTs-1 electrode were 266 and 170 mAh g{sup -1} at the current densities of 0.2 and 0.8 mA cm{sup -2}, respectively, which were almost twice those of CNTs-2 electrode. The larger voltage hysteresis in CNTs-2 electrode was not only related to the surface functional groups on CNTs, but also to the surface resistance of CNTs, which results in greater hindrance and higher overvoltage during lithium extraction from electrode. The kinetics properties of these two CNTs electrodes were compared by AC impedance measurements. It was found that, both the surface film and charge-transfer resistances of CNTs-1 were significantly lower than those of CNTs-2; the lithium diffusion coefficient (D{sub Li}) of both CNTs electrodes decreased as the drop of voltage, but the magnitude of the D{sub Li} variation of CNTs-1 electrode was smaller than that of CNTs-2 electrode, indicating CNTs-1 exhibited higher electrochemical activity and more favorable kinetic properties during charge and discharge process. (author)

  3. A comparative study of electrochemical properties of two kinds of carbon nanotubes as anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Shubin; Huo Junping [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, 100029 Beijing (China); Song Huaihe [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, 100029 Beijing (China)], E-mail: songhh@mail.buct.edu.cn; Chen Xiaohong [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, 100029 Beijing (China)

    2008-01-01

    Two kinds of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), i.e., short carbon nanotubes (CNTs-1) synthesized by co-pyrolysis method and long carbon nanotubes (CNTs-2) produced using common CVD technique were comparatively investigated as anode materials for lithium ion batteries via transmission electron microscope (TEM), high-resolution TEM and a variety of electrochemical testing techniques. The test results showed that the reversible capacities of CNTs-1 electrode were 266 and 170 mAh g{sup -1} at the current densities of 0.2 and 0.8 mA cm{sup -2}, respectively, which were almost twice those of CNTs-2 electrode. The larger voltage hysteresis in CNTs-2 electrode was not only related to the surface functional groups on CNTs, but also to the surface resistance of CNTs, which results in greater hindrance and higher overvoltage during lithium extraction from electrode. The kinetics properties of these two CNTs electrodes were compared by AC impedance measurements. It was found that, both the surface film and charge-transfer resistances of CNTs-1 were significantly lower than those of CNTs-2; the lithium diffusion coefficient (D{sub Li}) of both CNTs electrodes decreased as the drop of voltage, but the magnitude of the D{sub Li} variation of CNTs-1 electrode was smaller than that of CNTs-2 electrode, indicating CNTs-1 exhibited higher electrochemical activity and more favorable kinetic properties during charge and discharge process.

  4. One-pot synthesis of tin-borophosphate-carbon composites as anode materials for Li-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouyane, Mohamed [Institut Charles Gerhardt, UMR 5253 CNRS, Université de Montpellier, CC 1502, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); LUSAC (EA 4253), Université de Caen Basse Normandie, 50130 Cherbourg-Octeville (France); Jumas, Jean-Claude; Olivier-Fourcade, Josette [Institut Charles Gerhardt, UMR 5253 CNRS, Université de Montpellier, CC 1502, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Cassaignon, Sophie [UPMC (UMR7574 CNRS), Chimie de la Matière Condensée de Paris (France); Collège de France, 11 place Marcelin Berthelot, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Jordy, Christian [SAFT, Direction de la Recherche, 111–113 Bd Alfred Daney, 33074 Bordeaux (France); Lippens, Pierre-Emmanuel, E-mail: lippens@univ-montp2.fr [Institut Charles Gerhardt, UMR 5253 CNRS, Université de Montpellier, CC 1502, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France)

    2016-01-15

    Sn{sub x}(Ca{sub 0.05}B{sub 0.975}P{sub 0.975}O{sub 3.95}){sub 1−x}/C composites as anode material for Li-ion batteries, with x=0.83 and x=0.71 were synthesized by a facile route including cellulose as carbon source. The composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and {sup 119}Sn Mössbauer spectroscopy. In the latter case, different tin phases were found in the composite including the Sn{sup II}-based amorphous interface between metallic tin and borophosphate particles that improves the dispersion of the active species. The best electrochemical performances were obtained for x=0.71 that were further improved by ball-milled the composite with a small amount of carbon black. - Graphical abstract: {sup 119}Sn Mössbauer spectra of Sn{sub x}(Ca{sub 0.05}B{sub 0.975}P{sub 0.975}O{sub 3.95}){sub 1−x}/C composites with x=0.83 (a) and x=0.71 (b).

  5. Synthesis and Characterization of Silicon Nanoparticles Inserted into Graphene Sheets as High Performance Anode Material for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Silicon nanoparticles have been successfully inserted into graphene sheets via a novel method combining freeze-drying and thermal reduction. The structure, electrochemical performance, and cycling stability of this anode material were characterized by SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, charge/discharge cycling, and cyclic voltammetry (CV. CV showed that the Si/graphene nanocomposite exhibits remarkably enhanced cycling performance and rate performance compared with bare Si nanoparticles for lithium ion batteries. XRD and SEM showed that silicon nanoparticles inserted into graphene sheets were homogeneous and had better layered structure than the bare silicon nanoparticles. Graphene sheets improved high rate discharge capacity and long cycle-life performance. The initial capacity of the Si nanoparticles/graphene keeps above 850 mAhg−1 after 100 cycles at a rate of 100 mAg−1. The excellent cycle performances are caused by the good structure of the composites, which ensured uniform electronic conducting sheet and intensified the cohesion force of binder and collector, respectively.

  6. Boron-Doped Anatase TiO2 as a High-Performance Anode Material for Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Baofeng; Zhao, Fei; Du, Guodong; Porter, Spencer; Liu, Yong; Zhang, Peng; Cheng, Zhenxiang; Liu, Hua Kun; Huang, Zhenguo

    2016-06-29

    Pristine and boron-doped anatase TiO2 were prepared via a facile sol-gel method and the hydrothermal method for application as anode materials in sodium-ion batteries (SIBs). The sol-gel method leads to agglomerated TiO2, whereas the hydrothermal method is conducive to the formation of highly crystalline and discrete nanoparticles. The structure, morphology, and electrochemical properties were studied. The crystal size of TiO2 with boron doping is smaller than that of the nondoped crystals, which indicates that the addition of boron can inhibit the crystal growth. The electrochemical measurements demonstrated that the reversible capacity of the B-doped TiO2 is higher than that for the pristine sample. B-doping also effectively enhances the rate performance. The capacity of the B-doped TiO2 could reach 150 mAh/g at the high current rate of 2C and the capacity decay is only about 8 mAh/g over 400 cycles. The remarkable performance could be attributed to the lattice expansion resulting from B doping and the shortened Li(+) diffusion distance due to the nanosize. These results indicate that B-doped TiO2 can be a good candidate for SIBs.

  7. Relationship between anode material, supporting electrolyte and current density during electrochemical degradation of organic compounds in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzmán-Duque, Fernando L. [Grupo de diagnóstico y control de la contaminación, Facultad de ingeniería, Universidad de Antioquia, A.A. 1226, Medellín (Colombia); Palma-Goyes, Ricardo E. [Grupo de Investigación en Remediación Ambiental y Biocatálisis, Instituto de Química, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquía Udea, A.A. 1226, Medellín (Colombia); González, Ignacio [Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Departamento de Química, Av. San Rafael Atlixco No 186, C.P 09340, México D.F (Mexico); Peñuela, Gustavo [Grupo de diagnóstico y control de la contaminación, Facultad de ingeniería, Universidad de Antioquia, A.A. 1226, Medellín (Colombia); Torres-Palma, Ricardo A., E-mail: rtorres@matematicas.udea.edu.co [Grupo de Investigación en Remediación Ambiental y Biocatálisis, Instituto de Química, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquía Udea, A.A. 1226, Medellín (Colombia)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Pathway and efficiency are linked to the current-electrode–electrolyte interaction. • Unlike BDD, IrO{sub 2} route was independent of current but dependent on the electrolyte. • IrO{sub 2}/SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} and IrO{sub 2}/Cl{sup −} routes were via IrO{sub 3} and chlorine species, respectively. • BDD/SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} and IrO{sub 2}/Cl{sup −} systems were favored at low and high currents, respectively. - Abstract: Taking crystal violet (CV) dye as pollutant model, the electrode, electrolyte and current density (i) relationship for electro-degrading organic molecules is discussed. Boron-doped diamond (BDD) or Iridium dioxide (IrO{sub 2}) used as anode materials were tested with Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} or NaCl as electrolytes. CV degradation and generated oxidants showed that degradation pathways and efficiency are strongly linked to the current density-electrode–electrolyte interaction. With BDD, the degradation pathway depends on i: If i < the limiting current density (i{sub lim}), CV is mainly degraded by ·OH radicals, whereas if i > i{sub lim}, generated oxidants play a major role in the CV elimination. When IrO{sub 2} was used, CV removal was not dependent on i, but on the electrolyte. Pollutant degradation in Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} on IrO{sub 2} seems to occur via IrO{sub 3}; however, in the presence of NaCl, degradation was dependent on the chlorinated oxidative species generated. In terms of efficiency, the Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} electrolyte showed better results than NaCl when BDD anodes were employed. On the contrary, NaCl was superior when combined with IrO{sub 2}. Thus, the IrO{sub 2}/Cl{sup −} and BDD/SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} systems were better at removing the pollutant, being the former the most effective. On the other hand, pollutant degradation with the BDD/SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} and IrO{sub 2}/Cl{sup −} systems is favored at low and high current densities, respectively.

  8. Micro- and nanomorphology coexisting in titanium dioxide coating for application as anode material in secondary lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, Wen-Chi, E-mail: wenchilo694@gmail.com; Chu, Hou-Jen; He, Ju-Liang

    2015-03-31

    Titanium dioxide has recently attracted attention as an anode material for use in lithium-ion batteries, owing to its high reversible capacity and durable charge/discharge characteristics. The aim of the study is to combine micro-arc oxidation (MAO) and post-alkali treatment to realize an anatase titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) scaffold layer on titanium plates. Using this combination, coexisting micro- and nanomorphology can be realized in the TiO{sub 2} layer. This increases the specific surface area of the TiO{sub 2} layer and thereby improves the charge capacity and charge/discharge rate of the anode. The effectiveness of MAO to fabricate a micrometer-scale porous TiO{sub 2} structure on titanium plate, and the formation of nano-flakes by alkali treatment on porous anatase TiO{sub 2} layer was demonstrated. Further, numerous 40–80 nm alkali-treatment-induced nano-flakes grew all over the oxide surface, substantially increasing its specific surface area. The measured electrochemical properties demonstrate that at potentials of − 1.98 V and − 0.56 V vs. Ag/AgCl, lithium ions were respectively inserted into and extracted from the TiO{sub 2} layer with nano-flakes. The nano-flakes promote faster lithium-ion insertion and extraction and higher associated number of charge than the MAO TiO{sub 2}. The detailed charging/discharging kinetic processes of the MAO, annealed MAO, alkali-treated MAO, and annealed and alkali-treated MAO specimens were determined using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, thus providing further insight into the performance of the TiO{sub 2} coating. - Highlights: • A micrometer-scale porous crystalline TiO{sub 2} layer was fabricated by MAO. • After alkali treatment, the oxide surface exhibits numerous pores. • The layer was composed of predominantly anatase and minor rutile. • Optimum solution temperature and NaOH concentration yielded nano-flaky morphology. • Such morphology leads to the increase performance of the treated

  9. Electrochemical properties of Si/(FeSiB) anode materials prepared by high-energy mechanical milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Ho Tak; Loka, Chadrasekhar [Department of Advanced Materials Engineering, Kongju National University, Cheonan City 330-717 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kee-Sun, E-mail: kslee@kongju.ac.kr [Department of Advanced Materials Engineering, Kongju National University, Cheonan City 330-717 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jong Soo; Lee, Sang Han [Research Institute, MK electronics, Yongin City 449-821 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-01

    Highlights: • Si-embedded in less-active FeSiB nano-composite structures synthesized. • Capacity of Si anode is 540 mAh g{sup −1} and 533 mAh g{sup −1} after the 3rd and 50th cycle. • The nano-composite exhibited 99% efficiency until the 50th cycle. • Cracks or voids in coin cells are rarely observed during cycling. • Elastic recoverable energy range of FeSiB is 2.96 times higher than Si. -- Abstract: Nano-structured composite with overall atomic composition Si{sub 60}/(FeSiB){sub 40} has been synthesized by high-energy mechanical milling (HEMM) for Lithium-ion rechargeable batteries as anode material. Crystal structure, microstructure, electrochemical properties, elastic modulus and Vickers hardness (H{sub V}) have been observed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), electrochemical test and nano-indentation test. With increasing milling time from 6 to 10 h, we observed a relatively homogeneous structure comprised of nano-crystalline active silicon (Si) embedded in less active FeSiB matrix phase. Electrochemical properties of 10 h milled nano-composite powder offers low capacity fade, high coulombic efficiency from 3rd cycle (540 mAh g{sup −1}) to until 102nd cycle (495 mAh g{sup −1}). The coulombic efficiencies of both 6 and 10 h milled powders are 98% and 99%, respectively. Coin cell cross sections of 6 and 10 h milled powders showed evidence for the void formation during lithiation and delithiation. Nano-indentation results exhibited that the amorphous FeSiB flakes have 2.96 times higher recoverable energy than Si. Resultant composite powders showed high irreversible capacity and stable lithiation and delithiation due to the reduced particle size, increased surface area and the highly elastic FeSiB matrix phase. Research reveals that the obtained nano-composite can be a promising candidate for lithium-ion rechargeable batteries.

  10. Hard carbon as anode material in lithium batteries: Synthesis and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baertsch, M.C.; Schmid, L.; Baiker, A.; Novak, P.

    2003-03-01

    Hard carbon is a possible alternative as negative electrode material for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. A fast production of hard carbon can be reached if the curing time of the precursor is short. Due to the promising results from literature regarding epoxy resin as precursor we produced hard carbon from a commercially available fast-setting epoxy resin. The surface area and pore structure properties of the carbon powder were investigated with gas adsorption methods. The carbon particle size distribution was ana-lysed with a laser diffraction instrument. (author)

  11. CoSb3-graphite composite anode material for lithium ion batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Jian; CAO Gaoshao; ZHAO Xinbing

    2005-01-01

    The CoSb3-graphite composite was prepared by ball-milling. The electrochemical performance of the composite material was evaluated using the lithium ion model cell Li / LiPF6 (EC + DMC) / CoSb3C4. It was found that the CoSb3C4 composite shows higher reversible capacity than the pure CoSb3 alloy, and its first reversible (Li-ions removal) capacity reaches 721 Ma·h·g-1, which exceeds the theoretical capacity (550 Ma.h.g-1) of CoSb3C4.

  12. Facile synthesis of a MoO2-Mo2C-C composite and its application as favorable anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yanping; Wang, Shaofeng; Zhong, Yijun; Cai, Rui; Li, Li; Shao, Zongping

    2016-03-01

    A composite of MoO2-Mo2C-C is fabricated through a facile ion-exchange route for the first time as an alternative anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). A macroporous cinnamic anion-exchange resin interacts with ammonium molybdate tetrahydrate in aqueous solution, and the product is then calcined under an inert gas atmosphere. The interaction between the resin and ammonium molybdate tetrahydrate results in an atomic level dispersion of the molybdenum over the organic carbon precursor (resin), while the calcination process allows the formation of MoO2 and Mo2C as well as the pyrolysis of resin to solid carbon. According to field-emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements, ultrafine MoO2 and Mo2C nanoparticles are uniformly dispersed but firmly attached within an amorphous carbon framework. When evaluated as an anode material, the as-synthesized sample exhibits superior electrochemical performance. The specific discharge capacity is as high as 1491 mA h g-1 in the first cycle and 724 mA h g-1 over 50 cycles at a current density of 0.2 A g-1. This simple, environmentally friendly, low-cost and easily scaled up method, has significant potential for mass industrial production of MoO2-based material as next-generation anode material of LIBs with wide application capability.

  13. Novel Hybrid Nanoparticles of Vanadium Nitride/Porous Carbon as an Anode Material for Symmetrical Supercapacitor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yunlong Yang; Kuiwen Shen; Ying Liu; Yongtao Tan; Xiaoning Zhao; Jiayu Wu; Xiaoqin Niu; Fen Ran

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid materials of vanadium nitride and porous carbon nanoparticles (VN/PCNPs) were fabricated by a facile pyrolysis process of vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) xerogel and melamine at relatively low temperature of 800 ?C for supercapacitor application. The effects of the feed ratio of V2O5 to melamine (r), and nitrogen flow rate on the microstructure and electrochemical performance were also investigated. It was found that the size of the as-synthesized nanoparticles is about 20 nm. Both r value and N2 flow rate have enormous impacts on morphology and microstructure of the nanoparticle, which correspondingly determined the electrochemical performance of the material. The VN/C hybrid nanoparticles exhibited high capacitive properties, and a maximum specific capacitance of 255.0 F g-1 was achieved at a current density of 1.0 A g-1 in 2 M KOH aqueous electrolyte and the potential range from 0 to -1.15 V. In addition, symmetrical supercapacitor fabricated with the as-synthesized VN/PCNPs presents a high specific capacitance of 43.5 F g-1 at 0.5 A g-1 based on the entire cell, and an energy density of 8.0 Wh kg-1 when the power density was 575 W kg-1. Even when the power density increased to 2831.5 W kg-1, the energy density still remained 6.1 Wh kg-1.

  14. Preparation and characterisation of SOFC anodic materials based on Ce-Cu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuerte, A.; Valenzuela, R.X. [CIEMAT, Departamento de Energia, Av. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Daza, L. [CIEMAT, Departamento de Energia, Av. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Catalisis y Petroleoquimica (CSIC), Marie Curie 2, Campus Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2007-06-10

    Ce-Cu mixed oxide precursors with varing Ce:Cu atomic ratio have been prepared by freeze-drying and microemulsion coprecipitation methods. Nanostructured particles having different properties have been obtained. Physicochemical properties have been studied with X-ray diffraction, UV-vis spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption-desorption, mercury intrusion porosimetry, ICP-AES, conductivity measurement and thermal expansion coefficient. All samples show fluorite structure with slight copper surface enrichment for samples having high copper content. Microemulsion method allows the introduction of a large quantity of copper into the cerium oxide structure, obtaining a nanostructured mixed oxide of high surface area. On the other hand, freeze-drying samples does not show evidence of copper incorporation to the lattice of cerium oxide. All materials have a thermal expansion coefficient similar to other components of SOFC. (author)

  15. Pyrolitic carbon from biomass precursors as anode materials for lithium batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephan, A. Manuel [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chonbuk National University, Chonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Karaikudi 630006 (India); Kumar, T. Prem [Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Karaikudi 630006 (India); Ramesh, R. [Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Karaikudi 630006 (India); Thomas, Sabu [School of Chemical Sciences, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam 686560 (India); Jeong, Soo Kyung [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chonbuk National University, Chonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Nahm, Kee Suk [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chonbuk National University, Chonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: nahmks@chonbuk.ac.kr

    2006-08-25

    Disordered carbonaceous materials were synthesized by the pyrolysis of banana fibers treated with pore-forming substances such as ZnCl{sub 2} and KOH. X-ray diffraction studies indicated a carbon structure with a large number of disorganized single layer carbon sheets. Addition of porogenic agent led to remarkable changes in the structure and morphology of the carbonaceous products. The product obtained with ZnCl{sub 2} treatment gave first-cycle lithium insertion and de-insertion capacities of 3325 and 400 mAh g{sup -1}, respectively. Lower capacities only could be realized in the subsequent cycles, although the coulombic efficiency increased upon cycling, which in the 10th cycle was 95%.

  16. Porous nano-structured Co3O4 anode materials generated from coordination-driven self-assembled aggregates for advanced lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Danhua; Geng, Hongbo; Wang, Jiaqing; Zheng, Junwei; Pan, Yue; Cao, Xueqin; Gu, Hongwei

    2014-08-21

    A simple and scalable coordination-derived method for the synthesis of porous Co3O4 hollow nanospheres is described here. The initially formed coordination-driven self-assembled aggregates (CDSAAs) could act as the precursor followed by calcination treatment. Then the porous hollow Co3O4 nanospheres are obtained, in which the primary Co3O4 nanoparticles are inter-dispersed. When the nanospheres are used as anode materials for lithium storage, they show excellent coulombic efficiency, high lithium storage capacity and superior cycling performance. In view of the facile synthesis and excellent electrochemical performance obtained, this protocol to fabricate special porous hollow frameworks could be further extended to other metal oxides and is expected to improve the practicality of superior cycle life anode materials with large volume excursions for the development of the next generation of LIBs.

  17. The capacity fading mechanism and improvement of cycling stability in MoS2-based anode materials for lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Haibo; Li, Feng; Hu, Chenli; Liang, Pei; Cao, Dan; Chen, Xiaoshuang

    2016-02-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) layered MoS2 nanosheets possess great potential as anode materials for lithium ion batteries (LIBs), but they still suffer from poor cycling performance. Improving the cycling stability of electrode materials depends on a deep understanding of their dynamic structural evolution and reaction kinetics in the lithiation process. Herein, thermodynamic phase diagrams and the lithiation dynamics of MoS2-based nanostructures with the intercalation of lithium ions are studied by using first-principles calculations and ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. Our results demonstrate that the continuous intercalation of Li ions induces structural destruction of 2H phase MoS2 nanosheets in the discharge process that follows a layer-by-layer dissociation mechanism. Meanwhile, the intercalation of Li ions leads to a structural transition of MoS2 nanosheets from the 2H to the 1T phase due to the ultralow transition barriers (∼0.1 eV). We find that the phase transition can slow down the dissociation of MoS2 nanosheets during lithiation. The result can be applied to explain extensive experimental observation of the fast capacity fading of MoS2-based anode materials between the first and the subsequent discharges. To suppress the dissociation of MoS2 nanosheets in the lithiation process, we propose a strategy by constructing a sandwich-like graphene/MoS2/graphene structure that indicates high chemical stability, superior conductivity, and high Li-ion mobility in the charge/discharge process, implying the possibility to induce an improvement in the anode cycling performance. This work opens a new route to rational design layered transition-metal disulfide (TMD) anode materials for LIBs with superior cycling stability and electrochemical performance.

  18. Structural and electrochemical studies of a hexaphenylbenzene pyrolysed soft carbon as anode material in lithium batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonino, Franco; Brutti, Sergio; Piana, Michele; Natale, Sergio; Scrosati, Bruno [Chemistry Department, University ' La Sapienza' , P. le A. Moro 5, 00185 Roma (Italy); Gherghel, Lileta; Muellen, Klaus [Max-Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Ackermannweg 10, 55124 Mainz (Germany)

    2006-04-25

    XRD, SEM micrographs, BET analyses and typical electrochemical experiments (cyclic voltammetry, step voltammetry and Li insertion/deinsertion at constant current) have been carried out to characterize a new type of soft carbons obtained by pyrolysis of hexaphenylbenzene (HPB). By means of XRD and cyclic voltammetry at least three different type of sites for lithium storage were found. The first is graphite like type with d{sub 002} graphene layer distance greater than pure graphite; the second is associated to disordered volumes among crystallites and the third is represented by Li sites at the hydrogen-terminated edges of hexagonal carbon fragments, characterized by higher energy in comparison with simple insertion sites. These last two types of sites are able to store some extra lithium, compared to pure graphite. BET analyses and cyclic voltammetries demonstrate the key role of the milling time on the characteristics and properties of this HPB pyrolysed carbon. Specific capacities shown by this pyrolysed material in Li coin-type cell have been also reported. (author)

  19. In situ X-ray diffraction characterization of NiSe2 as a promising anode material for sodium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Xing; Li, Jiao; Zheng, Fenghua; Wu, Peng; Pan, Qichang; Xiong, Xunhui; Yang, Chenghao; Liu, Meilin

    2017-03-01

    Reduced graphene oxide (rGO) homogenously wrapped nickel diselenide (NiSe2/rGO) hybrid has been prepared by a facile one-spot hydrothermal method. When investigated as anode material for sodium ion batteries (SIBs), NiSe2/rGO hybrid delivers a high reversible capacity (433 mAh g-1 at 100 mA g-1), superior rate performance (406, 386, 366, 347 and 318 mAh g-1 at 200, 500, 1000, 2000 and 5000 mA g-1, respectively) and excellent cycling stability (a capacity retention of 346 mAh g-1 after 1000 cycles at 1000 mA g-1) within the 0.4-3.0 V voltage range. In situ XRD analysis and ex situ SEM/TEM measurement reveal that the high capacity of NiSe2/rGO is originated from the combined Na+ intercalation and conversion reactions. These results validate the impact of voltage range on electrochemical property, providing a new route to rationalize the limiting factors that affect the performance of NiSe2 anode material. The facile synthesis and superior electrochemical performance of the NiSe2/rGO hybrid render it a promising anode material for SIBs.

  20. Fluorine-Doped Tin Oxide Nanocrystal/Reduced Graphene Oxide Composites as Lithium Ion Battery Anode Material with High Capacity and Cycling Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Haiping; Shi, Liyi; Wang, Zhuyi; Liu, Jia; Zhu, Jiefang; Zhao, Yin; Zhang, Meihong; Yuan, Shuai

    2015-12-16

    Tin oxide (SnO2) is a kind of anode material with high theoretical capacity. However, the volume expansion and fast capability fading during cycling have prevented its practical application in lithium ion batteries. Herein, we report that the nanocomposite of fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) is an ideal anode material with high capacity, high rate capability, and high stability. The FTO conductive nanocrystals were successfully anchored on RGO nanosheets from an FTO nanocrystals colloid and RGO suspension by hydrothermal treatment. As the anode material, the FTO/RGO composite showed high structural stability during the lithiation and delithiation processes. The conductive FTO nanocrystals favor the formation of stable and thin solid electrolyte interface films. Significantly, the FTO/RGO composite retains a discharge capacity as high as 1439 mAhg(-1) after 200 cycles at a current density of 100 mAg(-1). Moreover, its rate capacity displays 1148 mAhg(-1) at a current density of 1000 mAg(-1).

  1. An in situ method of creating metal oxide–carbon composites and their application as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Zichao

    2011-01-01

    Transition metal oxides are actively investigated as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), and their nanocomposites with carbon frequently show better performance in galvanostatic cycling studies, compared to the pristine metal oxide. An in situ, scalable method for creating a variety of transition metal oxide-carbon nanocomposites has been developed based on free-radical polymerization and cross-linking of poly(acrylonitrile) in the presence of the metal oxide precursor containing vinyl groups. The approach yields a cross-linked polymer network, which uniformly incorporates nanometre-sized transition metal oxide particles. Thermal treatment of the organic-inorganic hybrid material produces nearly monodisperse metal oxide nanoparticles uniformly embedded in a porous carbon matrix. Cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic cycling electrochemical measurements in a lithium half-cell are used to evaluate the electrochemical properties of a Fe3O 4-carbon composite created using this approach. These measurements reveal that when used as the anode in a lithium battery, the material exhibits stable cycling performance at both low and high current densities. We further show that the polymer/nanoparticle copolymerization approach can be readily adapted to synthesize metal oxide/carbon nanocomposites based on different particle chemistries for applications in both the anode and cathode of LIBs. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  2. The effect of particle size, morphology and C-rates on 3D structured Co3O4 inverse opal conversion mode anode materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, David; Geaney, Hugh; Carroll, Elaine; Garvey, Shane; Lonergan, Alex; O’Dwyer, Colm

    2017-02-01

    Engineering Co3O4 nanoparticles into highly ordered, 3D inverse opal (IO) structures is shown to significantly improve their performance as more efficient conversion mode Li-ion anode materials. By comparison with Co3O4 microparticles, the advantages of the porous anode architecture are clearly shown. The inverse opal material markedly enhances specific capacity and capacity retention. The impact of various C rates on the rate of the initial charge demonstrates that higher rate charging (10 C) was much less destructive to the inverse opal structure than charging at a slow rate (0.1 C). Slower C rates that affect the IO structure resulted in higher specific capacities (more Li2O) as well as improved capacity retention. The IO structures cycle as CoO, which improves Coulombic efficiency and limits volumetric changes, allowing rate changes more efficiently. This work demonstrates how 3D IOs improve conversion mode anode material performance in the absence of additive or binders, thus enhancing mass transport of Li2O charge–discharge product through the open structure. This effect mitigates clogging by structural changes at slow rates (high capacity) and is beneficial to the overall electrochemical performance.

  3. Discussion on Anode Material for Lithium Ion Battery%对锂离子电池正极材料的探讨与研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗雨晗

    2015-01-01

    Lithium ion battery is currently widely used ,which has the advantage of long life cycle ,no memory effect , high energy density , large specific capacity , high voltage and smaller volume , etc . Lithium ion battery mainly consists of four parts ,including electrolyte ,membrane ,cathode materials and anode materials .Among them ,the cost of anode material occupies a higher proportion in the total cost ,which is about 40% .Each performance index of the lithium ions are related to the quality of anode materials , so anode material is the core part for lithium ion battery ,which is very crucial .At the same time ,the performance of the battery's anode material can also reduce the manufacturing cost of the lithium battery ,which has a great significance for the industrialization of electric vehicles .%锂离子电池目前应用广泛,有循环寿命长、无记忆效应、能量密度大、比容量大、电池电压高、体积较小等优点。锂离子电池主要由电解液、隔膜、负极材料和正极材料四大部分构成,其中,正极材料的成本在总成本中所占有的比例较高,大约为40%,锂离子的各项性能指标均与正极材料的好坏有密切关系,所以,锂离子正极材料是组成锂离子电池的核心部分,是非常关键的材料,同时,电池正极材料的性能也可以使锂电池的制作成本降低,对于电动汽车的产业化也有较大的意义。

  4. Anodic oxidation

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, Sidney D; Rudd, Eric J; Blomquist, Alfred T; Wasserman, Harry H

    2013-01-01

    Anodic Oxidation covers the application of the concept, principles, and methods of electrochemistry to organic reactions. This book is composed of two parts encompassing 12 chapters that consider the mechanism of anodic oxidation. Part I surveys the theory and methods of electrochemistry as applied to organic reactions. These parts also present the mathematical equations to describe the kinetics of electrode reactions using both polarographic and steady-state conditions. Part II examines the anodic oxidation of organic substrates by the functional group initially attacked. This part particular

  5. LiMnBO₃ nanobeads as an innovative anode material for high power lithium ion capacitor applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliyappan, Karthikeyan; Amaresh, Samuthirapandiyan; Lee, Yun-Sung

    2014-07-23

    A novel approach was made to fabricate lithium ion hybrid capacitor (Li-HC) having LiMnBO3 nanobead (LMB-NB) anode and polyaniline nanofiber (PANI) cathode in 1 M LiPF6 organic electrolyte. LMB-NB and PANI nanofibers were synthesized using urea assisted microwave-solvothermal method and chemical polymerization process, respectively. The PANI/LMB-NB cell showed improved electrochemical capacitive behavior as compared to activated carbon (AC)/LMB-NB cell due to the characteristic conductivity and the morphological feature of PANI as well as LMB-NB electrodes. A discharge capacitance (DCcell) of ∼125 F g(-1) was obtained at a current density of 1 A g(-1) between the potential range 0 and 3 V for PANI/LMB-NB cell, while AC/LMB-NB cell delivered only 77 F g(-1) at the same current density. Moreover, PANI/LMB-NB cell exhibited excellent rate performance with the DCcell of about 55 F g(-1) at 2.25 A g(-1) and still retained 94% of the initial value after 30 000 charge-discharge cycles. In addition, maximum energy and power densities of 42 Wh kg(-1) and 5350 W kg(-1), respectively, were achieved from PANI/LMB-NB cell. The obtained DCcell, energy, and power densities along with prolonged cyclic life for PANI/LMB-NB cell are some of the best ever reported values for Li-HC as compared to the cells constructed with various lithium intercalating materials.

  6. Defective Ti2Nb10O27.1: an advanced anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chunfu; Yu, Shu; Zhao, Hua; Wu, Shunqing; Wang, Guizhen; Yu, Lei; Li, Yanfang; Zhu, Zi-Zhong; Li, Jianbao; Lin, Shiwei

    2015-12-01

    To explore anode materials with large capacities and high rate performances for the lithium-ion batteries of electric vehicles, defective Ti2Nb10O27.1 has been prepared through a facile solid-state reaction in argon. X-ray diffractions combined with Rietveld refinements indicate that Ti2Nb10O27.1 has the same crystal structure with stoichiometric Ti2Nb10O29 (Wadsley-Roth shear structure with A2/m space group) but larger lattice parameters and 6.6% O2- vacancies (vs. all O2- ions). The electronic conductivity and Li+ion diffusion coefficient of Ti2Nb10O27.1 are at least six orders of magnitude and ~2.5 times larger than those of Ti2Nb10O29, respectively. First-principles calculations reveal that the significantly enhanced electronic conductivity is attributed to the formation of impurity bands in Ti2Nb10O29-x and its conductor characteristic. As a result of the improvements in the electronic and ionic conductivities, Ti2Nb10O27.1 exhibits not only a large initial discharge capacity of 329 mAh g-1 and charge capacity of 286 mAh g-1 at 0.1 C but also an outstanding rate performance and cyclability. At 5 C, its charge capacity remains 180 mAh g-1 with large capacity retention of 91.0% after 100 cycles, whereas those of Ti2Nb10O29 are only 90 mAh g-1 and 74.7%.

  7. α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}@C nanorings as anode materials for high performance lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Le; Li, Zhenzhen; Fu, Wenming; Li, Fagen [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Ningbo University, Ningbo (China); Wang, Jun, E-mail: wjnaf@ustc.edu [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Ningbo University, Ningbo (China); Wang, Wenzhong [School of Science, Minzu University of China, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2015-10-25

    α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}@C core–shell nanorings are prepared by a facile large-scale two-step route incorporating a hydrothermal method and a carbon coated progress. Its structure and morphology are characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscope, and thermogravimetry. It is found that the as-prepared composite is composed of α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}@C nanorings of about 148 nm in outer diameter, 50 nm in thickness, and 115 nm in length. These α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}@C nanorings are enwrapped with ∼3 nm thick carbon shell. And the electrodes exhibit longer cycle life (815 mAhg{sup −1} after cycling 160 times) at high current rate (1000 mAg{sup −1}) compared with that of bare α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanorings (810 mAhg{sup −1} after cycling 30 times). The improved performance of the composite is attributed to the bondage from carbon shell, which can enhance the electronic conductivity and structural stability of α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanorings. - Highlights: • α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}@C core–shell nanorings are prepared by a facile two-step route. • The α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}@C nanorings are firstly reported as anode materials for LIBs. • The nanorings show a high capacity of 815 mAhg{sup −1} at 1 Ag{sup -1} after 160 cycles.

  8. Effects of anode active materials to the storage-capacity fading on commercial lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Gunho; Park, Jounghwan; Lee, Jinuk [Energy Business Division, Samsung SDI Co. Ltd., Sungsung-Dong, Cheonan-Si, Chungcheongnam-Do 330-300 (Korea); Kim, Sinja; Jung, Inho [Corporate R and D Center, Samsung SDI Co. Ltd., Sungsung-Dong, Cheonan-Si, Chungcheongnam-Do 330-300 (Korea)

    2007-12-06

    Thermal storage of prismatic Li-ion cell with different types of anodes has been performed at 60 C for 15 days to 30 days. The results were compared for two anodes: natural-like graphite (NLG) with styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR, 2.5 wt.%) binder and artificial graphite (AG) with polyvinylidene fluoride (PVdF, 6 wt.%) as binder. The storage-capacity fading behavior of the commercial Li-ion cell was studied by dissection the storage cells and analyzing their electrodes and solid electrolyte interphase (SEI), allows lithium-ion transfer but prevents electron migration using SEM, DSC, FT-IR, XRD and impedance analysis. Side-reaction and transformation of the passivation film on NLG anode contributed the capacity loss. Self-discharge of NLG cell due to high specific surface area was one of the main factors for capacity fading. Impedance analysis revealed that the interfacial resistance at NLG anode was larger than that of the AG anode. The increase of lithium alkylcarbonate and lithium carbonate due to reductive decomposition of electrolyte with storage time decreased the charge and increased the interfacial resistance. (author)

  9. Effects of anode active materials to the storage-capacity fading on commercial lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Gunho; Park, Jounghwan; Lee, Jinuk; Kim, Sinja; Jung, Inho

    Thermal storage of prismatic Li-ion cell with different types of anodes has been performed at 60 °C for 15 days to 30 days. The results were compared for two anodes: natural-like graphite (NLG) with styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR, 2.5 wt.%) binder and artificial graphite (AG) with polyvinylidene fluoride (PVdF, 6 wt.%) as binder. The storage-capacity fading behavior of the commercial Li-ion cell was studied by dissection the storage cells and analyzing their electrodes and solid electrolyte interphase (SEI), allows lithium-ion transfer but prevents electron migration using SEM, DSC, FT-IR, XRD and impedance analysis. Side-reaction and transformation of the passivation film on NLG anode contributed the capacity loss. Self-discharge of NLG cell due to high specific surface area was one of the main factors for capacity fading. Impedance analysis revealed that the interfacial resistance at NLG anode was larger than that of the AG anode. The increase of lithium alkylcarbonate and lithium carbonate due to reductive decomposition of electrolyte with storage time decreased the charge and increased the interfacial resistance.

  10. Novel silicon/carbon nano-branches synthesized by reacting silicon with methyl chloride: A high performing anode material in lithium ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wenfeng; Wang, Yanhong; Tan, Qiangqiang; Zhong, Ziyi; Su, Fabing

    2016-11-01

    To overcome the existing technical barriers of pulverization and fast capacity fading of Si/C composite anodes in lithium ion batteries and to low their production cost, we have developed a facile method for preparing Si/C nano-branches (Si/C NBs) by reacting commercial Si microparticles directly with CH3Cl gas over Cu-based catalyst particles followed by a simple post treatment. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and Raman spectroscopy. It was found that the diameter and the length of Si/C NBs were ∼70 nm and ∼6 μm, respectively. When used as the anode materials for lithium ion batteries, they displayed excellent electrochemical properties with an average specific capacity of 849 mA h g-1 at a current density of 50 mA g-1. The much improved electrochemical performance is attributed to the unique branched nanostructure and the coated carbon layer on the surface, which can effectively increase the electrical conductivity and buffer the volume change. This work provides a simple and low-cost route to prepare Si/C anode materials with novel branched nanostructure for lithium ion batteries.

  11. Theoretical Study of Si(x) Ge(y)Li(z) (x=4-10, y=1-10, z=0-10) Clusters for Designing of Novel Nanostructured Materials to be Utilized as Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-16

    life for applications in portable electronic devices and electric vehicles. Currently, the graphite anode is the most commercially used due to its...AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2015-0088 Theoretical Study of Novel Nanostructured Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries Mario Sanchez-Vazquez CENTRO DE INVESTIGACION...SiGeLi Clusters for Design of Novel Nanostructured Materials to Be Utilized as Anodes for Lithium-ion Batteries 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b.  GRANT NUMBER

  12. Mesoporous Silicon-Based Anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peramunage, Dharmasena

    2015-01-01

    For high-capacity, high-performance lithium-ion batteries. A new high-capacity anode composite based on mesoporous silicon is being developed. With a structure that resembles a pseudo one-dimensional phase, the active anode material will accommodate significant volume changes expected upon alloying and dealloying with lithium (Li).

  13. Surface morphology and surface energy of anode materials influence power outputs in a multi-channel mediatorless bio-photovoltaic (BPV) system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombelli, Paolo; Zarrouati, Marie; Thorne, Rebecca J; Schneider, Kenneth; Rowden, Stephen J L; Ali, Akin; Yunus, Kamran; Cameron, Petra J; Fisher, Adrian C; Ian Wilson, D; Howe, Christopher J; McCormick, Alistair J

    2012-09-21

    Bio-photovoltaic cells (BPVs) are a new photo-bio-electrochemical technology for harnessing solar energy using the photosynthetic activity of autotrophic organisms. Currently power outputs from BPVs are generally low and suffer from low efficiencies. However, a better understanding of the electrochemical interactions between the microbes and conductive materials will be likely to lead to increased power yields. In the current study, the fresh-water, filamentous cyanobacterium Pseudanabaena limnetica (also known as Oscillatoria limnetica) was investigated for exoelectrogenic activity. Biofilms of P. limnetica showed a significant photo response during light-dark cycling in BPVs under mediatorless conditions. A multi-channel BPV device was developed to compare quantitatively the performance of photosynthetic biofilms of this species using a variety of different anodic conductive materials: indium tin oxide-coated polyethylene terephthalate (ITO), stainless steel (SS), glass coated with a conductive polymer (PANI), and carbon paper (CP). Although biofilm growth rates were generally comparable on all materials tested, the amplitude of the photo response and achievable maximum power outputs were significantly different. ITO and SS demonstrated the largest photo responses, whereas CP showed the lowest power outputs under both light and dark conditions. Furthermore, differences in the ratios of light : dark power outputs indicated that the electrochemical interactions between photosynthetic microbes and the anode may differ under light and dark conditions depending on the anodic material used. Comparisons between BPV performances and material characteristics revealed that surface roughness and surface energy, particularly the ratio of non-polar to polar interactions (the CQ ratio), may be more important than available surface area in determining biocompatibility and maximum power outputs in microbial electrochemical systems. Notably, CP was readily outperformed by all

  14. The Progress of Sodium-Ion Battery Anode Material%钠离子电池负极材料的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洁; 杨占旭

    2016-01-01

    Sodium ion batteries have attracted tremendous attentions due to its rich resources,low cost,high efficiency and good chemical stability,and can satisfy people's demand for energy in the new era,which are considered a top alternative to lithium-ion batteries.The research progress on sodium ion battery anode materials are reviewed in details in this paper, including carbon-based materials,low voltage metal phosphates,the sodium storage alloys,metal oxides,titanium-based materials,and other negative electrode materials.Then the characteristics of anode materials are discussed.Finally,some future directions for sodium-ion battery anode materials are pointed out.%钠离子电池具有资源丰富、成本低、效率高、化学性能稳定等优点,成为锂离子电池 的理想替代品.主要阐述了钠离子电池负极材料的研究进展,包括碳基负极材料、低电压金属磷酸盐负极材料、合金类储钠负极材料、金属氧化物负极材料、钛酸盐类负极材料及其他负极材料,并对各类负极材料的性能进行了评价,最后对钠离子电池负极材料的发展方向做出了展望.

  15. Facile Sol-Gel/Spray-Drying Synthesis of Interweaved Si@TiO2&CNTs Hybrid Microsphere as Superior Anode Materials for Li-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiyun; Hou, Xianhua; Li, Yana; Ru, Qiang; Qin, Haiqing; Hu, Shejun

    2016-11-01

    A unique intertwined structure of silicon-based composite (Si@TiO2&CNTs) has been synthesized by sol-gel and spray drying methods. The Si@TiO2&CNTs is mainly composed of three kinds of materials:the prepared nanosilicon particles, TiO2, and carbon nanotubes (CNTs). A layer of TiO2 particles is found effective for enhancing the electrical conductivity and structure stability of the silicon particles. Additionally, the twisted CNTs are beneficial to build a better conductive network, consequently improving the anode working conditions when the cell is charged or discharged. As a lithium ion battery anode, a specific capacity of approximately 1521 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles is obtained.

  16. A rationally designed dual role anode material for lithium-ion and sodium-ion batteries: case study of eco-friendly Fe3O4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariharan, Srirama; Saravanan, Kuppan; Ramar, Vishwanathan; Balaya, Palani

    2013-02-28

    Identifying dual role electrode materials capable of storing both lithium and sodium are thought to be highly relevant, as these materials could find potential applications simultaneously in lithium and sodium ion batteries. In this regard, the concept of dual alkali storage is demonstrated in Fe(3)O(4) anode material undergoing conversion reaction. To enable improved storage, a rational active material and electrode design is proposed. Accordingly, the following features were simultaneously incorporated into the design: (i) an optimal particle size, (ii) a conducting matrix, (iii) adequately large active material surface area and (iv) strong electrode material-current collector integrity. Electrodes incorporating this rational design exhibit excellent high rate performance and impressive cyclability during lithium storage. For instance, Fe(3)O(4) electrodes deliver a charge capacity of 950 mAh g(-1) at 1.2 C (~2.6 times higher than graphite and 5.4 times higher than Li(4)Ti(5)O(12)). Further, these electrodes show no signs of capacity fade even up to 1100 cycles. Impressively, the cells could also be charged-discharged to 65% of their theoretical capacity in just 5 min or 12 C (11.11 A g(-1)). The rate performance and cyclability of lithium storage achieved here are amongst the highest reported values in the literature for the conversion reaction in Fe(3)O(4). Besides lithium storage, the dual role of this anode is shown by demonstrating its sodium storage ability by conversion reaction for the first time.

  17. Ultrafast synthesis of MoS2 or WS2-reduced graphene oxide composites via hybrid microwave annealing for anode materials of lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, Duck Hyun; Jo, Changshin; Kim, Jae Young; Lee, Jinwoo; Lee, Jae Sung

    2015-11-01

    An ultrafast and simple strategy to synthesize metal sulfides (MoS2 and WS2) anchored on reduced graphene oxide (RGO) composites is reported as anode materials for lithium ion batteries (LIBs). Metal sulfide nanocrystals with homogeneous dispersion onto conducting RGO sheets are obtained in only 45 s by hybrid microwave annealing (HMA) method. The synthesized materials, especially MoS2/RGO composite, exhibit a high Li capacity, an excellent rate capability, and a stable cycling performance, comparable to the reported best MS2/carbon composite electrodes. The results highlight the effectiveness of HMA method to fabricate the metal sulfide/RGO composites with excellent electric properties.

  18. Multi-walled carbon nanotube-reinforced porous iron oxide as a superior anode material for lithium ion battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pang, Xin-Jing; Zhang, Juan; Qi, Gong-Wei; Dai, Xiao-Hui; Zhou, Jun-Ping [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, No. 27, Shanda Nan Rd., Jinan 250100 (China); Zhang, Shu-Yong, E-mail: syzhang@sdu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, No. 27, Shanda Nan Rd., Jinan 250100 (China); National Key Lab of Crystal, Shandong University, No. 27, Shanda Nan Rd., Jinan 250100 (China)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Electrochemical performance of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} is improved by combining different approaches. • Porous Cu substrate is used to enlarge surface area and improve conductivity. • MWCNT is used to reinforce the electrode structure and change morphology of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. • Reversible capacity, capacity retention and high-rate performance are improved. - Abstract: Multi-walled carbon nanotube-reinforced porous iron oxide (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/MWCNT) is synthesized by a two-step approach with porous Cu substrate serving as current collector. Porous Cu substrate is prepared through electroless deposition with hydrogen bubble serving as template. Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/MWCNT composites are prepared by the electrodeposition of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} in the presence of dispersed MWCNTs from a Fe{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} solution with MWCNT suspension. Results showed that Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} forms granular nanoparticles on the porous Cu substrate with several MWCNTs embedded in it. Adding MWCNTs changes the morphology of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. Smooth Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, smooth Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/MWCNT, and porous Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} composites are also prepared for comparison. When used as anode materials, porous Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/MWCNT composites have a reversible capacity of approximately 601 mA h g{sup −1} at the 60th cycle at a cycling rate of 100 mA g{sup −1}. This value is higher than that of the other materials. The reversible capacity at a cycling rate of 10,000 mA g{sup −1} is approximately 50% of that at 100 mA g{sup −1}. Therefore, the MWCNT-reinforced porous Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} composite exhibits much better reversible capacity, capacity retention, and high-rate performance than the other samples. This finding can be ascribed to the porous structure of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, better conductivity of porous Cu substrate and MWCNTs, and the morphology change of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles upon the addition of MWCNTs.

  19. Metal-decored graphites as anode materials for use in lithium-ion accumulators; Metalldekorierte Graphite als Anodenmaterialien fuer den Einsatz in Lithium-Ionen-Akkumulatoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Licht, Bjoern Karl

    2015-01-28

    Graphitic materials are currently the most frequently used anode materials for lithium ion batteries (LIB). This type of battery is considered to be the ideal application for energy storage in electromobility or in mobile devices that require a high power density. Although intercalated graphite has only about 8 % of the gravimetric energy density of lithium metal, these materials are preferred due to safety reasons. However, by chemical modification of the surface, the electrochemical performance of graphite can be enhanced. In the thesis presented at hand, a novel synthesis route for the preparation of homogenous metal depositions on graphite is shown. The reaction proceeds via a gas phase reaction by the thermal decomposition of metal carboxylates. The decomposition process was analyzed by thermogravimetry and gas phase analysis. In comparison to the unmodified graphite, copper-coated graphite shows in increased capacity and cycle stability when used as anode materials in LIBs. Special emphasis should be placed on an improved adhesion of the active material on the copper current collector. The proven catalytic activity of the metal depositions not only enables a use in battery devices but could also be innovating for catalytic processes such as chlorine-alkali electrolysis.

  20. FeS anchored reduced graphene oxide nanosheets as advanced anode material with superior high-rate performance for alkaline secondary batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shangguan, Enbo; Guo, Litan; Li, Fei; Wang, Qin; Li, Jing; Li, Quanmin; Chang, Zhaorong; Yuan, Xiao-Zi

    2016-09-01

    A new nanocomposite formulation of the iron-based anode for alkaline secondary batteries is proposed. For the first time, FeS nanoparticles anchored on reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanosheets are synthesized via a facile, environmentally friendly direct-precipitation approach. In this nanocomposite, FeS nanoparticles are anchored uniformly and tightly on the surface of RGO nanosheets. As an alkaline battery anode, the FeS@RGO electrode delivers a superior high-rate charge/discharge capability and outstanding cycling stability, even at a condition without any conductive additives and a high electrode loading of ∼40 mg cm-2. At high charge/discharge rates of 5C, 10C and 20C (6000 mA g-1), the FeS@RGO electrode presents a specific capacity of ∼288, 258 and 220 mAh g-1, respectively. Moreover, the FeS@RGO electrode exhibits an admirable long cycling stability with a superior capacity retention of 87.6% for 300 cycles at a charge/discharge rate of 2C. The excellent electrochemical properties of the FeS@RGO electrode can be stemmed from the high specific surface area, peculiar electric conductivity and robust sheet-anchored structure of the FeS@RGO nanocomposite. By virtue of its superior fast charge/discharge properties, the FeS@RGO nanocomposite is suitable as an advanced anode material for high-performance alkaline secondary batteries.

  1. Green synthesis of mesoporous ZnFe2O4/C composite microspheres as superior anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lingmin; Hou, Xianhua; Hu, Shejun; Wang, Jie; Li, Min; Su, Chao; Tade, Moses O.; Shao, Zongping; Liu, Xiang

    2014-07-01

    The commercialized LIBs employing graphite as anodes currently suffer a series of problems from the safety, theoretical capacity (372 mAh g-1) and rate capability. Herein, self-assembly mesoporous Zn ferrite (ZnFe2O4) microsphere embedded into carbon network has been synthesized by a facile method in the presence of citric acid. The Zn ferrites as an anode material with novel structure demonstrate superior electrochemical performance, with enhanced specific reversible capacity (∼1100 mAh g-1 at the specific current of 0.05 A g-1 after 100 cycles), excellent rate capability (more than 500 mAh g-1 even at the specific current of 1.1 A g-1) and good cycleability with little fading (∼97.6% after 100 cycles). The excellent cycling performance is associated with the loose Zn ferrite microsphere with numerous mesopores embedded into the carbon network, which can accommodate the severe mechanism strains and provides good electrical contact and conductivity. The superior electrochemical performance may facilitate ZnFe2O4 to be a promising alternative anode in lithium ion battery.

  2. Synthesis of nickel oxide nanospheres by a facile spray drying method and their application as anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Anguo, E-mail: hixiaoanguo@126.com; Zhou, Shibiao; Zuo, Chenggang; Zhuan, Yongbing; Ding, Xiang

    2015-10-15

    Graphical abstract: NiO nanospheres prepared by a facile spray drying method show high lithium ion storage performance as anode of lithium ion battery. - Highlights: • NiO nanospheres are prepared by a spray drying method. • NiO nanospheres are composed of interconnected nanoparticles. • NiO nanospheres show good lithium ion storage properties. - Abstract: Fabrication of advanced anode materials is indispensable for construction of high-performance lithium ion batteries. In this work, nickel oxide (NiO) nanospheres are fabricated by a facial one-step spray drying method. The as-prepared NiO nanospheres show diameters ranging from 100 to 600 nm and are composed of nanoparticles of 30–50 nm. As an anode for lithium ion batteries, the electrochemical properties of the NiO nanospheres are investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic charge/discharge tests. The specific reversible capacity of NiO nanospheres is 656 mA h g{sup −1} at 0.1 C, and 476 mA h g{sup −1} at 1 C. The improvement of electrochemical properties is attributed to nanosphere structure with large surface area and short ion/electron transfer path.

  3. Synthesis and electrochemical performance of mesoporous SiO{sub 2}–carbon nanofibers composite as anode materials for lithium secondary batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyun, Yura; Choi, Jin-Yeong [Department of Chemistry, Keimyung University (Korea, Republic of); Park, Heai-Ku [Department of Chemical Engineering, Keimyung University (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Jae Young [Department of Chemistry, Keimyung University (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Chang-Seop, E-mail: surfkm@kmu.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry, Keimyung University (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Mesoporous SiO{sub 2}–carbon nanofibers composite synthesized on Ni foam without any binder. • This composite was directly applied as anode material of Li secondary batteries. • Showed the highest initial (2420 mAh/g) and discharging (2092 mAh/g) capacity. • This material achieved a retention rate of 86.4% after 30 cycles. - Abstract: In this study, carbon nanofibers (CNFs) and mesoporous SiO{sub 2}–carbon nanofibers composite were synthesized and applied as the anode materials in lithium secondary batteries. CNFs and mesoporous SiO{sub 2}–CNFs composite were grown via chemical vapor deposition method with iron-copper catalysts. Mesoporous SiO{sub 2} materials were prepared by sol–gel method using tetraethylorthosilicate as the silica source and cetyltrimethylammoniumchloride as the template. Ethylene was used as the carbon source and passes into a quartz reactor of a tube furnace heated to 600 °C, and the temperature was maintained at 600 °C for 10 min to synthesize CNFs and mesoporous SiO{sub 2}–CNFs composite. The electrochemical characteristics of the as-prepared CNFs and mesoporous SiO{sub 2}–CNFs composite as the anode of lithium secondary batteries were investigated using a three-electrode cell. In particular, the mesoporous SiO{sub 2}–CNFs composites synthesized without binder after depositing mesoporous SiO{sub 2} on Ni foam showed the highest charging and discharging capacity and retention rate. The initial capacity (2420 mAh/g) of mesoporous SiO{sub 2}–CNFs composites decreased to 2092 mAh/g after 30 cycles at a retention rate of 86.4%.

  4. Peak position differences observed during XPS sputter depth profiling of the SEI on lithiated and delithiated carbon-based anode material for Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, S.; Hoffmann, M.; Zier, M.

    2017-04-01

    The ability of delivering chemical information from peak shift phenomena has ever since made X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) an ideal tool for material characterization in Li-ion batteries (LIB). Upon investigation, charging is inevitable as most of the chemical species involved are non-conducting. Thus, the binding energy (BE) scale must be corrected to allow an accurate interpretation of the results. This is usually done using the peak position of the ubiquitous surface carbon contamination detectable for all Li-ion battery relevant materials. We herein report on the occurrence of peak shift phenomena that can be observed when investigating surface layers on graphite anodes using sputter depth-profiling. These shifts, however, are not related to classical static electric charging, but are depending on the state of charge (lithiation) of the anode material. The observations presented are in agreement with previous findings on other Li-containing materials and are obviously caused by the presence of Li in its elemental state. As aging and failure mechanisms in LIBs are closely linked to electrolyte reaction products on electrode surfaces it is of high importance to draw the correct conclusions on their chemical origin from XP spectra. In order to avoid misinterpretation of the BE positions, implanted Ar can be used for identification of relevant peak positions and species involved in the phenomena observed.

  5. Enhanced cycle stability of micro-sized Si/C anode material with low carbon content fabricated via spray drying and in situ carbonization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Dingsheng; Gao, Mingxia, E-mail: gaomx@zju.edu.cn; Pan, Hongge; Liu, Yongfeng; Wang, Junhua; Li, Shouquan; Ge, Hongwei

    2014-08-01

    Highlights: • Micro-sized Si/C composites were fabricated via. spray drying and carbonization. • Multi-morphology carbon was formed in the Si/C composites. • Si/C composite with 5.6 wt.% C provides significant improved cycling stability. • Multi-morphology carbon plays effective role in improving the electrochemical property. • The method provides potential for mass production of superior Si-based anode materials. - Abstract: Micro-sized Si/C composites with in situ introduced carbon of multi-morphology were fabricated via spray drying a suspension of commercial micro-sized Si and citric acid followed by a carbonization. Different ratios of Si to citric acid were used to optimize the composition and structure of the composites and thus the electrochemical performance. Carbon flakes including crooked and flat ones were well dispersed in between the Si particles, forming Si/C composites. Floc-like carbon layers and carbon fragments were also found to cover partially the Si particles. The Si/C composite with a low carbon content of 5.6 wt.% provides an initial reversible capacity of 2700 mA h/g and a capacity of 1860 mA h/g after 60 cycles at a current density of 100 mA/g as anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), which are much higher than those of pristine Si and the Si/C composites with higher carbon content. The mechanism of the enhancement of electrochemical performance of the micro-sized Si/C composite is discussed. The fabrication method and the structure design of the composites offer valuable potential in developing adaptable Si-based anode materials for industrial applications.

  6. Chinese patent analysis on anode materials for lithium-ion battery%锂离子电池负极材料中国专利分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王仙宁; 凌锋; 潘薇; 刘会景

    2016-01-01

    通过对中国发明专利数据进行挖掘和计量分析,总结了锂离子电池负极材料的专利申请情况、行业发展现状、地域分布及重点创新主体的专利技术布局。结果表明,锂离子电池负极材料经过几年的持续增长后,专利申请趋势放缓。通过对专利进行地域分析,了解到中国本土申请人和日本申请人申请了大量的专利;国内申请人主要集中在广东、上海、北京及浙江。通过分析一些重点企业申请的专利技术布局可以了解目前市场上的负极材料技术热点。%Based on the data mining and patentometric analysis of Chinese invention patents,an overview of anode materials for lithium-ion battery is presented. The results show that the lithium ion battery anode materials have achieved sustained growth for several years,but now the growth speed has slowed down. According to the nationality analysis of the applicants,a large number of patents are from Chinese and Japanese applicants and the domestic applicants are mainly from Guangdong, Shanghai,Beijing and Zhejiang. In addition,with analysis of the patents from key companies,we can better understand the technology hotspots distribution of anode materials for lithium-ion battery.

  7. Enhanced Structural Integrity and Electrochemical Performance of AlPO4-Coated MoO2 Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    OpenAIRE

    López-Pérez, José I.; Edwin O. Ortiz-Quiles; Habiba, Khaled; Jiménez-Rodríguez, Mariel; Brad R. Weiner; Morell, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    AlPO4 nanoparticles were synthesized via chemical deposition method and used for the surface modification of MoO2 to improve its structural stability and electrochemical performance. Structure and surface morphology of pristine and AlPO4-coated MoO2 anode material were characterized by electron microscopy imaging (SEM and TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). AlPO4 nanoparticles were observed, covering the surface of MoO2. Surface analyses show that the synthesized AlPO4 is amorphous, and the sur...

  8. Leaching lithium from the anode electrode materials of spent lithium-ion batteries by hydrochloric acid (HCl).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yang; Li, Feng; Zhu, Haochen; Li, Guangming; Huang, Juwen; He, Wenzhi

    2016-05-01

    Spent lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are considered as an important secondary resource for its high contents of valuable components, such as lithium and cobalt. Currently, studies mainly focus on the recycling of cathode electrodes. There are few studies concentrating on the recovery of anode electrodes. In this work, based on the analysis result of high amount of lithium contained in the anode electrode, the acid leaching process was applied to recycle lithium from anode electrodes of spent LIBs. Hydrochloric acid was introduced as leaching reagent, and hydrogen peroxide as reducing agent. Within the range of experiment performed, hydrogen peroxide was found to have little effect on lithium leaching process. The highest leaching recovery of 99.4wt% Li was obtained at leaching temperature of 80°C, 3M hydrochloric acid and S/L ratio of 1:50g/ml for 90min. The graphite configuration with a better crystal structure obtained after the leaching process can also be recycled.

  9. How much does size really matter? Exploring the limits of graphene as Li ion battery anode material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, H.; Varzi, A.; Pellegrini, V.; Dinh, D. A.; Raccichini, R.; Del Rio-Castillo, A. E.; Prato, M.; Colombo, M.; Cingolani, R.; Scrosati, B.; Passerini, S.; Bonaccorso, F.

    2017-02-01

    We unravel the role of flake dimensionality on the lithiation/de-lithiation processes and electrochemical performance of anodes based on few-(FLG) and multi-layer graphene (MLG) flakes prepared by liquid phase exfoliation (LPE) of pristine graphite. The flakes are sorted by lateral size (from 380 to 75 nm) and thickness from 20 (MLG) to 2 nm (FLG) exploiting a sedimentation-based separation in centrifugal field and, finally, deposited onto Cu disks for the realization of four binder-free anodes. The electrochemical results show that decreasing lateral size and thickness leads to an increase of the initial specific capacity from ≈590 to ≈1270mAhg-1. However, an increasing irreversible capacity is also associated to the reduction of flakes' size. We find, in addition, that the preferential Li ions storage by adsorption rather than intercalation in small lateral size (<100 nm) FLG flakes has a detrimental effect on the average de-lithiation voltage, resulting on low voltage efficiency of these anodes. We believe that the results reported in this work, provide the guidelines for the practical exploitation of graphene-based electrodes.

  10. Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles embedded in ordered mesoporous carbon with enhanced performance as an anode material for Li-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Junsu; Kim, Gil-Pyo [Seoul National University (SNU), World Class University (WCU) Program of Chemical Convergence for Energy and Environment C2E2, School of Chemical and Biological Engineering, College of Engineering, Institute of Chemical Processes (Korea, Republic of); Umh, Ha Nee [Kwangwoon University, Department of Chemical Engineering (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Inho; Park, Soomin [Seoul National University (SNU), World Class University (WCU) Program of Chemical Convergence for Energy and Environment C2E2, School of Chemical and Biological Engineering, College of Engineering, Institute of Chemical Processes (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Younghun [Kwangwoon University, Department of Chemical Engineering (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Jongheop, E-mail: jyi@snu.ac.kr [Seoul National University (SNU), World Class University (WCU) Program of Chemical Convergence for Energy and Environment C2E2, School of Chemical and Biological Engineering, College of Engineering, Institute of Chemical Processes (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    A Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}/ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) nanocomposite, in which Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles (NPs), with an average size of about 10 nm homogeneously embedded in the OMC framework, are prepared for use as an anode material in Li-ion batteries. The composite is prepared by a one-pot synthesis based on the solvent evaporation-induced co-self-assembly of a phenolic resol, a triblock copolymer F127, and Co(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}{center_dot}6H{sub 2}O, followed by carbonization and oxidation. The resulting material has a high reversible capacity of {approx}1,025 mA h g{sup -1} after 100 cycles at a current density of 0.1 A g{sup -1}. The enhanced cycling stability and rate capability of the composite can be attributed to the combined mesoporous nanostructure which provides efficient pathways for Li-ion transport and the homogeneous distribution of the Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} NPs in the pore wall of the OMC, which prevents aggregation. These findings suggest that the OMC has promise for use as a carbon metric for metals and metal oxides as an anode material in high performance Li-ion batteries.

  11. Ultrasmall Fe2O3 nanoparticles/MoS2 nanosheets composite as high-performance anode material for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Bin; Sun, Yue; Liu, Lianlian; Li, Chunyan; Yu, Changjian; Zhang, Xitian; Chen, Yujin

    2017-02-01

    Coupling ultrasmall Fe2O3 particles (~4.0 nm) with the MoS2 nanosheets is achieved by a facile method for high-performance anode material for Li-ion battery. MoS2 nanosheets in the composite can serve as scaffolds, efficiently buffering the large volume change of Fe2O3 during charge/discharge process, whereas the ultrasmall Fe2O3 nanoparticles mainly provide the specific capacity. Due to bigger surface area and larger pore volume as well as strong coupling between Fe2O3 particles and MoS2 nanosheets, the composite exhibits superior electrochemical properties to MoS2, Fe2O3 and the physical mixture Fe2O3+MoS2. Typically, after 140 cycles the reversible capacity of the composite does not decay, but increases from 829 mA h g‑1 to 864 mA h g‑1 at a high current density of 2 A g‑1. Thus, the present facile strategy could open a way for development of cost-efficient anode material with high-performance for large-scale energy conversion and storage systems.

  12. Ultrasmall Fe2O3 nanoparticles/MoS2 nanosheets composite as high-performance anode material for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Bin; Sun, Yue; Liu, Lianlian; Li, Chunyan; Yu, Changjian; Zhang, Xitian; Chen, Yujin

    2017-01-01

    Coupling ultrasmall Fe2O3 particles (~4.0 nm) with the MoS2 nanosheets is achieved by a facile method for high-performance anode material for Li-ion battery. MoS2 nanosheets in the composite can serve as scaffolds, efficiently buffering the large volume change of Fe2O3 during charge/discharge process, whereas the ultrasmall Fe2O3 nanoparticles mainly provide the specific capacity. Due to bigger surface area and larger pore volume as well as strong coupling between Fe2O3 particles and MoS2 nanosheets, the composite exhibits superior electrochemical properties to MoS2, Fe2O3 and the physical mixture Fe2O3+MoS2. Typically, after 140 cycles the reversible capacity of the composite does not decay, but increases from 829 mA h g−1 to 864 mA h g−1 at a high current density of 2 A g−1. Thus, the present facile strategy could open a way for development of cost-efficient anode material with high-performance for large-scale energy conversion and storage systems. PMID:28218313

  13. PbLi2Ti6O14: A novel high-rate long-life anode material for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Qian, Shangshu; Yu, Haoxiang; Yan, Lei; Lin, Xiaoting; Yang, Ke; Long, Nengbing; Shui, Miao; Shu, Jie

    2016-10-01

    As a novel anode material, PbLi2Ti6O14 is prepared by a traditional solid state method at a calcination temperature of 900 °C. Structural analysis and electrochemical tests prove that PbLi2Ti6O14 possesses a good crystallinity and superior performance. PbLi2Ti6O14, composed of particles with 400 nm in length and 300 nm in width, exhibits an initial charge capacity of 155.1 mAh g-1 at 100 mA g-1 and maintains at 147.9 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles, with capacity retention as high as 95.4%. Especially, the reversible capacity of PbLi2Ti6O14 can stabilize at 101.6 mAh g-1 after 1000 cycles at a high current density of 1000 mA g-1, with capacity retention of 87.5%. Besides, the lithium storage behavior in PbLi2Ti6O14 is also studied by various in-situ and ex-situ methods. It is found that the lithiation/delithiation process in PbLi2Ti6O14 is a highly reversible reaction. All these results demonstrate that PbLi2Ti6O14 may be an impressive anode material in the near future.

  14. Flake-by-flake ZnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} as a high capacity anode material for lithium-ion battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Xiong [School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Engineering Research Center of Materials and Technology for Electrochemical Energy Storage (Ministry of Education), Guangzhou 510006 (China); Ru, Qiang, E-mail: rq7702@yeah.net [School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Engineering Research Center of Materials and Technology for Electrochemical Energy Storage (Ministry of Education), Guangzhou 510006 (China); Laboratory of Quantum Information Technology, School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Zhang, Beibei; Hu, Shejun; An, Bonan [School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Engineering Research Center of Materials and Technology for Electrochemical Energy Storage (Ministry of Education), Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2014-02-05

    Highlights: • The ZnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} with porous structure was prepared by co-precipitation method. • Flake-by-flake used in ZnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} was studied for the first time. • The as-prepared ZCO shows excellent electrochemical performances. • The preparation method has mild experiment conditions and high production rate. -- Abstract: A novel flake-by-flake ZnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} (ZCO) with porous nanostructure is prepared by a typical and facile co-precipitation method using oxalic acid as complex agent. XRD, SEM, and TEM analyses show the as-prepared ZCO nanoparticles have a high purity and a good crystallinity, and the ZCO nanoflakes with a thickness of 30–80 nm are composed of uniform ZCO nanocrystals with a diameter of 20–40 nm. The novel structure with enough free space is beneficial to improving the electrochemical performance. The as-prepared ZCO used as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries exhibits a high specific capacity of 1275 mA h/g at a current rate of 100 mA/g after 50 cycles, as well as a high power capability at elevated current rates, i.e., 1130 and 730 mA h/g at current rates of 500 and 3000 mA/g, respectively. It has a great prospect for the application of anode materials for lithium-ion batteries.

  15. Interfacial effect on the electrochemical properties of the layered graphene/metal sulfide composites as anode materials for Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yagang; Chen, Biao; Zhao, Naiqin; Shi, Chunsheng; He, Chunnian; Li, Jiajun; Liu, Enzuo

    2016-09-01

    The layered graphene/metal sulfide composites exhibit excellent electrochemical properties as anode materials for lithium ion battery, due to the synergistic effect between metal sulfide and graphene which still needs to be further understood. In this study, Li adsorption and diffusion on MoS2 and SnS2 monolayers and Li2S surface, as well as at their interfaces with graphene, are systematically investigated through first-principles calculations. The analysis of charge density difference, Bader charge, and density of states indicates that the adsorbed Li atoms interact with both the S atoms at metal sulfide surfaces and C atoms in graphene, resulting in larger Li adsorption energies at the interfaces compared with that on the corresponding surfaces, but with almost no enhancement of the energy barriers for Li atom diffusion. The enhanced Li adsorption capability at Li2S/G interface contributes to the extra storage capacity of graphene/metal sulfide composites. Furthermore, the synergistic mechanism between metal sulfide and graphene is revealed. Moreover, band structure analysis shows the electronic conductivity is enhanced with the incorporation of graphene. The results corroborate the interfacial pseudocapacity-like Li atom storage mechanism, and are helpful for the design of layered graphene/metal sulfide composites as anode materials for lithium ion batteries.

  16. Integrating 3D Flower-Like Hierarchical Cu2NiSnS4 with Reduced Graphene Oxide as Advanced Anode Materials for Na-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Shuang; Wang, Sai; Li, Lin; Zhu, Yun-hai; Zhang, Xin-bo; Yan, Jun-min

    2016-04-13

    Development of an anode material with high performance and low cost is crucial for implementation of next-generation Na-ion batteries (NIBs) electrode, which is proposed to meet the challenges of large scale renewable energy storage. Metal chalcogenides are considered as promising anode materials for NIBs due to their high theoretical capacity, low cost, and abundant sources. Unfortunately, their practical application in NIBs is still hindered because of low conductivity and morphological collapse caused by their volume expansion and shrinkage during Na(+) intercalation/deintercalation. To solve the daunting challenges, herein, we fabricated novel three-dimensional (3D) Cu2NiSnS4 nanoflowers (CNTSNs) as a proof-of-concept experiment using a facile and low-cost method. Furthermore, homogeneous integration with reduced graphene oxide nanosheets (RGNs) endows intrinsically insulated CNTSNs with superior electrochemical performances, including high specific capacity (up to 837 mAh g(-1)), good rate capability, and long cycling stability, which could be attributed to the unique 3D hierarchical structure providing fast ion diffusion pathway and high contact area at the electrode/electrolyte interface.

  17. A novel material Li{sub 2}NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}: Preparation and performance as anode of lithium ion battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Keqiang, E-mail: dkeqiang@263.net [College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei, 050024 (China); Zhao, Jing [College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei, 050024 (China); Zhou, Jinming, E-mail: zhoujm@iccas.ac.cn [College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei, 050024 (China); Zhao, Yongbo; Chen, Yuying; Liu, Likun [College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei, 050024 (China); Wang, Li [Institute of Nuclear & New Energy Technology, Beijing Key Lab of Fine Ceramics, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China); He, Xiangming, E-mail: hexm@tsinghua.edu.cn [Institute of Nuclear & New Energy Technology, Beijing Key Lab of Fine Ceramics, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China); Guo, Zhanhu, E-mail: zguo10@utk.edu [Integrated Composites Laboratory (ICL), Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Department, University of Tennessee Knoxville, Knoxville, NT, 37996 (United States)

    2016-07-01

    For the first time, the preparation and characterization of a novel anode material Li{sub 2}NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} are reported in this work. The preparation of Li{sub 2}NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} is conducted under the air conditions by using a subsection calcination method. The influence of annealing periods on the properties of the resultant materials is thoroughly explored. The characteristics of the materials are mainly examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge-discharge tests and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results of the XRD patterns effectively demonstrate the formation of crystalline Li{sub 2}NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, and the SEM images indicate that particles with octahedron crystal morphology are prepared and the 9 h-annealed sample has the smallest particle size among all the prepared samples. The results of electrochemical measurements reveal that 9 h-calcined sample delivers a high specific capacity of 203 mAh g{sup −1} after 20 cycles at a current density of 100 mA g{sup −1}. The successful preparation of Li{sub 2}NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} is believed to be able to trigger the research work concerning the novel group of Li{sub 2}MFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} materials. - Highlights: • A novel anode material Li{sub 2}NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} was prepared under the air conditions. • Li{sub 2}NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} showed well-defined octahedron crystal morphology. • 9 h-annealed Li{sub 2}NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} delivered a capacity of 203 mAh g{sup −1}.

  18. Pulsed laser deposited Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanostructured thin film on graphene as anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khamlich, S., E-mail: skhamlich@gmail.com [UNESCO-UNISA Africa Chair in Nanosciences-Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Muckleneuk Ridge, PO Box 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), iThemba LABS-National Research Foundation, 1 Old Faure Road, Somerset West 7129, PO Box 722, Somerset West, Western Cape Province (South Africa); Nuru, Z.Y. [UNESCO-UNISA Africa Chair in Nanosciences-Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Muckleneuk Ridge, PO Box 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), iThemba LABS-National Research Foundation, 1 Old Faure Road, Somerset West 7129, PO Box 722, Somerset West, Western Cape Province (South Africa); Bello, A.; Fabiane, M.; Dangbegnon, J.K.; Manyala, N. [Department of Physics, SARChI Chair in Carbon Technology and Materials, Institute of Applied Materials, University of Pretoria, Pretoria (South Africa); Maaza, M. [UNESCO-UNISA Africa Chair in Nanosciences-Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Muckleneuk Ridge, PO Box 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), iThemba LABS-National Research Foundation, 1 Old Faure Road, Somerset West 7129, PO Box 722, Somerset West, Western Cape Province (South Africa)

    2015-07-15

    Graphical abstract: A different approach for the fabrication of an anode material system that comprises pulsed laser-deposited (PLD) Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} grown on few layer graphene (FLG) by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) was used. The electrochemical performance of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanostructured thin film was improved by FLG, which make it a promising candidate for future lithium-ion batteries application. - Highlights: • Pulsed laser deposition technique was used to deposit Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} on few-layer graphene (FLG). • FLG improved the electrochemical performance of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanostructured thin film. • Good stable cycle of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}/FLG/Ni electrode make it one of the promise anode materials for future lithium-ion batteries. - Abstract: Pulsed laser deposition technique was used to deposit Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanostructured thin film on a chemical vapor deposited few-layer graphene (FLG) on nickel (Ni) substrate for application as anode material for lithium-ion batteries. The experimental results show that graphene can effectively enhance the electrochemical property of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}. For Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin film deposited on Ni (Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Ni), a discharge capacity of 747.8 mA h g{sup −1} can be delivered during the first lithiation process. After growing Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin film on FLG/Ni, the initial discharge capacity of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}/FLG/Ni was improved to 1234.5 mA h g{sup −1}. The reversible lithium storage capacity of the as-grown material is 692.2 mA h g{sup −1} after 100 cycles, which is much higher than that of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Ni (111.3 mA h g{sup −1}). This study reveals the differences between the two material systems and emphasizes the role of the graphene layers in improving the electrochemical stability of the Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanostructured thin film.

  19. Biomass carbon micro/nano-structures derived from ramie fibers and corncobs as anode materials for lithium-ion and sodium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qiang; Zhang, Zhenghao; Yin, Shengyu; Guo, Zaiping; Wang, Shiquan; Feng, Chuanqi

    2016-08-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) rod-like carbon micro-structures derived from natural ramie fibers and two-dimensional (2D) carbon nanosheets derived from corncobs have been fabricated by heat treatment at 700 °C under argon atomsphere. The structure and morphology of the as-obtained ramie fiber carbon (RFC) and corncob carbon (CC) were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) technique. The electrochemical performances of the biomass carbon-based anode in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) were investigated. When tested as anode material for lithium ion batteries, both the RFC microrods and CC nanosheets exhibited high capacity, excellent rate capability, and stable cyclability. The specific capacity were still as high as 489 and 606 mAhg-1 after 180 cycles when cycled at room temperature in a 3.0-0.01 V potential (vs. Li/Li+) window at current density of 100 mAg-1, respectively, which are much higher than that of graphite (375 mAhg-1) under the same current density. Although the anodes in sodium ion batteries showed poorer specific capability than that in lithium-ion batteries, they still achieve a reversible sodium intercalation capacity of 122 and 139 mAhg-1 with similar cycling stability. The feature of stable cycling performance makes the biomass carbon derived from natural ramie fibers and corncobs to be promising candidates as electrodes in rechargeable sodium-ion batteries and lithium-ion batteries.

  20. Biomass carbon micro/nano-structures derived from ramie fibers and corncobs as anode materials for lithium-ion and sodium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Qiang; Zhang, Zhenghao [Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Ministry-of-Education Key Laboratory for Synthesis and Applications of Organic Functional Molecules, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); Yin, Shengyu [College of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Wuhan Technology and Business University, Wuhan 430065 (China); Guo, Zaiping [Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Ministry-of-Education Key Laboratory for Synthesis and Applications of Organic Functional Molecules, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); Institute for Superconducting & Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Wang, Shiquan [Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Ministry-of-Education Key Laboratory for Synthesis and Applications of Organic Functional Molecules, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); Feng, Chuanqi, E-mail: cfeng@hubu.edu.cn [Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Ministry-of-Education Key Laboratory for Synthesis and Applications of Organic Functional Molecules, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China)

    2016-08-30

    Highlights: • Ramie fibers and corncobs are used as precursors to prepare the biomass carbons. • The ramie fiber carbon (RFC) took on morphology of 3D micro-rods. • The corncob carbon (CC) possessed a 2D nanosheets structure. • Both RFC and CC exhibited outstanding electrochemical performances in LIBs and SIBs systems. - Abstract: Three-dimensional (3D) rod-like carbon micro-structures derived from natural ramie fibers and two-dimensional (2D) carbon nanosheets derived from corncobs have been fabricated by heat treatment at 700 °C under argon atomsphere. The structure and morphology of the as-obtained ramie fiber carbon (RFC) and corncob carbon (CC) were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) technique. The electrochemical performances of the biomass carbon-based anode in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) were investigated. When tested as anode material for lithium ion batteries, both the RFC microrods and CC nanosheets exhibited high capacity, excellent rate capability, and stable cyclability. The specific capacity were still as high as 489 and 606 mAhg{sup −1} after 180 cycles when cycled at room temperature in a 3.0–0.01 V potential (vs. Li/Li{sup +}) window at current density of 100 mAg{sup −1}, respectively, which are much higher than that of graphite (375 mAhg{sup −1}) under the same current density. Although the anodes in sodium ion batteries showed poorer specific capability than that in lithium-ion batteries, they still achieve a reversible sodium intercalation capacity of 122 and 139 mAhg{sup −1} with similar cycling stability. The feature of stable cycling performance makes the biomass carbon derived from natural ramie fibers and corncobs to be promising candidates as electrodes in rechargeable sodium-ion batteries and lithium-ion batteries.

  1. Interface investigations of a commercial lithium ion battery graphite anode material by sputter depth profile X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niehoff, Philip; Passerini, Stefano; Winter, Martin

    2013-05-14

    Here we provide a detailed X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) study of the electrode/electrolyte interface of a graphite anode from commercial NMC/graphite cells by intense sputter depth profiling using a polyatomic ion gun. The uniqueness of this method lies in the approach using 13-step sputter depth profiling (SDP) to obtain a detailed model of the film structure, which forms at the electrode/electrolyte interface often noted as the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI). In addition to the 13-step SDP, several reference experiments of the untreated anode before formation with and without electrolyte were carried out to support the interpretation. Within this work, it is shown that through charging effects during X-ray beam exposure chemical components cannot be determined by the binding energy (BE) values only, and in addition, that quantification by sputter rates is complicated for composite electrodes. A rough estimation of the SEI thickness was carried out by using the LiF and graphite signals as internal references.

  2. Structural and microstructural characterization of tin(II oxide useful as anode material in lithium rechargeable batteries obtained from a different synthesis route at room temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Alberto Macías

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Tin (II oxide has been proposed as potential anode material in lithium rechargeable batteries. Different methods to obtain such compound have been developed with relative difficulty due to the fact that Sn(II is easily oxidized to Sn(IV. We have applied a different methodology to synthesize SnO-romarchite by modifying the solvent nature of the controlled precipitation route using acetic acid and not water. Although the formation of Sn(IV oxide could not be completely avoided, X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the synthesis of metastable tin(II oxide as major phase at room temperature. In depth analysis using Popa's model for Rietveld refinement allows to precise that the material corresponds to small and distorted crystallites, very anisotropic in size. SEM technique confirmed the microstructure is build of flower-like agglomerates of ~15 µm, in turn made of plate-like individual grains that remind the crystallite structure anisotropy.

  3. Direct Access to Mesoporous Crystalline TiO2/Carbon Composites with Large and Uniform Pores for Use as Anode Materials in Lithium Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jinwoo [Pohang Univ. of Science and Technology (POSTECH) (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Yoon S. [Seoul National Univ. (Korea, Republic of); Warren, Scott C. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Kamperman, Marleen [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Oh, Seung M. [Seoul National Univ. (Korea, Republic of); DiSalvo, Francis J. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Wiesner, Ulrich [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

    2011-01-07

    Mesoporous and highly crystalline TiO2 (anatase)/carbon composites with large (>5 nm) and uniform pores were synthesized using PI-b-PEO block copolymers as structure directing agents. Pore sizes could be tuned by utilizing block copolymers with different molecular weights. The resulting mesoporous TiO2/carbon was successfully used as an anode material for Li ion batteries. Without addition of conducting aid (Super P), the electrode showed high capacity during the first insertion/desertion cycle due to carbon wiring inside the walls of mesoporous TiO2/carbon. The electrode further showed stable cycle performance up to 50 cycles and the specific charge capacity at 30 C was 38 mA h (g of TiO2)-1, which indicates CCM-TiO2/carbon can be used as a material for high rate use.

  4. Effects of adding alumina to the nickel-zirconia anode materials for solid oxide fuel cells and a two-step sintering method for half-cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiao; Dong, Xiaolei; Li, Ming; Wang, Haiqian

    2016-03-01

    The co-sintering process of half-cells has an important effect on the flatness and performance of solid oxide fuel cells. In this study, we report a two-step sintering method to fabricate flat three-layer half-cells. The first sintering step is a freestanding sintering process at a low temperature (1280 °C). The second sintering step is a constrained sintering process at 1400 °C. The shrinkage of the anode support layer (ASL) and the curvature of the half-cell can be adjusted by adding Al2O3 into the ASL in the first sintering step. Effects of Al2O3 addition on the NiO-YSZ anode material are also studied. We find that NiO reacts with Al2O3 to form NiAl2O4 spinel at the early sintering stage. This reaction transiently promotes the grain growth of NiO. Once the reaction terminates and the NiAl2O4 spinel is formed, the grain growth of NiO will be suppressed, even at higher sintering temperatures. Our results indicate that by a proper amount (approximately 0.2 wt%) of Al2O3 addition, smaller NiO grains can be obtained while the side effects of NiAl2O4 are negligible, which is favorable to increase the conductivity and stability of the ASL, and can enhance the performance of SOFC.

  5. Coaxial MoS2@Carbon Hybrid Fibers: A Low-Cost Anode Material for High-Performance Li-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Zhou

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A low-cost bio-mass-derived carbon substrate has been employed to synthesize MoS2@carbon composites through a hydrothermal method. Carbon fibers derived from natural cotton provide a three-dimensional and open framework for the uniform growth of MoS2 nanosheets, thus hierarchically constructing coaxial architecture. The unique structure could synergistically benefit fast Li-ion and electron transport from the conductive carbon scaffold and porous MoS2 nanostructures. As a result, the MoS2@carbon composites—when serving as anodes for Li-ion batteries—exhibit a high reversible specific capacity of 820 mAh·g−1, high-rate capability (457 mAh·g−1 at 2 A·g−1, and excellent cycling stability. The use of bio-mass-derived carbon makes the MoS2@carbon composites low-cost and promising anode materials for high-performance Li-ion batteries.

  6. Graphene-Wrapped Anatase TiO2 Nanofibers as High-Rate and Long-Cycle-Life Anode Material for Sodium Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Yeolmae; Jung, Ji-Won; Park, Kyusung; Kim, Il-Doo

    2015-09-01

    Anatase TiO2 has been suggested as a potential sodium anode material, but the low electrical conductivity of TiO2 often limits the rate capability, resulting in poor electrochemical properties. To address this limitation, we propose graphene-wrapped anatase TiO2 nanofibers (rGO@TiO2 NFs) through an effective wrapping of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets on electrospun TiO2 NFs. To provide strong electrostatic interaction between the graphene oxide (GO) sheets and the TiO2 NFs, poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) was used to induce a positively charged TiO2 surface by the immobilization of the -NH3+ group and to promote bonding with the negatively charged carboxylic acid (-COO-) and hydroxyl (-O-) groups on the GO. A sodium anode electrode using rGO@TiO2 NFs exhibited a significantly improved initial capacity of 217 mAh g-1, high capacity retention (85% after 200 cycles at 0.2C), and a high average Coulombic efficiency (99.7% from the second cycle to the 200th cycle), even at a 5C rate, compared to those of pristine TiO2 NFs. The improved electrochemical performances stem from highly conductive properties of the reduced GO which is effectively anchored to the TiO2 NFs.

  7. 锂二次电池负极材料的研究进展%Research on Anode Materials for Li-Ion Batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽娟; 李涛; 赵新兵; 周邦昌

    2000-01-01

    综述了现代锂离子二次电池负极材料研究的三个重点方向即碳材料、锡基负极材料、Sn-Fe-C合金材料。这三种材料在锂嵌入与脱出的过程中都形成活性物质/惰性基体物质结构的材料,其中活性物质与锂反应提供容量,惰性物质维持基本结构保证循环寿命。分析了形成活性物质/惰性基体物质结构的过程及储锂机理。%Studies of carbonaceous materials, tin-based materials and Sn-Fe-C alloying materials for anode materials of lithium ion secondary battery have been reviewed. The three kinds of materials have a common structural character which is during the course of lithium intercalated and deintercalated the materials formed active/inactive structure. The active center reacts with lithium providing capacity and inactive matrix acts as network providing cycling life. The physical mechanism for lithium insertion and the active/inactive structure have been analyzed.

  8. 锂离子电池用石墨烯基负极材料的研究进展%Research progress in graphene-based anode material for Li-ion battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高云雷; 赵东林; 白利忠; 景磊

    2012-01-01

    综述了石墨烯和石墨烯基复合材料作为锂离子电池负极材料的研究进展,重点论述了金属氧化物/石墨烯复合材料,对石墨烯基复合材料的发展趋势进行了展望.%Research progress in Li-ion battery anode material ineluding graphene and graphene-based composite was reviewed. Metal oxide/graphene composite was mainly discussed,the development trend of graphene-based anode material was prospected.

  9. Preparation and application of a titanium dioxide/graphene oxide anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siwińska-Stefańska, Katarzyna; Kurc, Beata

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes the synthesis and physicochemical properties of a new type of titania/graphene oxide (TA/GO) composite. Titania powder was synthesized via the sol-gel method, and its surface was functionalized with N-2-(aminoethyl)-3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (AAPTS) to increase its adhesion to graphene oxide. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), non-invasive back scattering (NIBS), porous structure parameters (low-temperature nitrogen sorption), degree of modification of titania and TA/GO determined by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), impedance analysis, charging/discharging and cyclic voltammetry were carried out. At a current density of 50 mA g-1, the good cyclability exhibited by the TA/GO anode can be readily retained at 370 mAh g-1 after 50 cycles, which is outstanding among the TiO2 composites reported in the literature.

  10. Effect of graphene nanosheet addition on the electrochemical performance of anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Peng [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Key Laboratory of Carbon Fiber and Functional Polymers, Ministry of Education, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Beijing Research Institute of Chemical Industry, SINOPEC, Beijing 100013 (China); Song Huaihe, E-mail: songhh@mail.buct.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Key Laboratory of Carbon Fiber and Functional Polymers, Ministry of Education, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Chen Xiaohong [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Key Laboratory of Carbon Fiber and Functional Polymers, Ministry of Education, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Ma Lulu [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Key Laboratory of Carbon Fiber and Functional Polymers, Ministry of Education, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Rice University, Houston 77005 (United States); Wang Guohua; Wang Feng [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Key Laboratory of Carbon Fiber and Functional Polymers, Ministry of Education, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2011-03-04

    The structure and electronic properties of graphene nanosheet (GNS) render it a promising conducting agent in a lithium-ion battery. A graphite electrode loaded with GNS exhibits superior electrochemical properties including higher rate performance, increased specific capacity and better cycle performance compared with that obtained by adding the traditional conducting agent-acetylene black. The high-quality sp{sup 2} carbon lattice, quasi-two-dimensional crystal structure and high aspect ratio of GNS provide the basis for a continuous conducting network to counter the decrease in electrode conductivity with increasing number of cycles, and guarantee efficient and fast electronic transport throughout the anode. Effects of GNS loading content on the electrochemical properties of graphite electrode are investigated and results indicate that the amount of conductive additives needed is decreased by using GNS. The kinetics and mechanism of lithium-storage for a GNS-loaded electrode are explored using a series of electrochemical testing techniques.

  11. Facile scalable synthesis of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}/carbon nanotube hybrids as superior anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Zhiguo; Xu, Weiwei [Key Lab of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry of Ministry of Education, and the College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); Huang, Tao [Department of Chemistry, Fudan University, Shanghai 210024 (China); Li, Maolin; Wang, Wanren; Liu, Yanping; Mao, Chaochao; Meng, Fanli; Wang, Mengjiao [Key Lab of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry of Ministry of Education, and the College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); Cheng, Minghai [Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Yu, Aishui [Department of Chemistry, Fudan University, Shanghai 210024 (China); Guo, Xiaohui, E-mail: guoxh2009@nwu.edu.cn [Key Lab of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry of Ministry of Education, and the College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China)

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}/MWCNT hybrids were synthesized via strong ultra-sonication assisted shaking processes. The resultant samples as anode electrode display enhanced cycling performance and rate capability compared with pure Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} particle. - Highlights: • Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}/MWCNT hybrids were synthesized via ultra-sonication assisted shaking process. • The resulting Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles are highly dispersed onto MWCNT network backbone. • Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}/MWCNT hybrid displays highly enhanced lithium storage properties. • The present synthetic approach is facile, controllable, and scalable. - Abstract: In this report, Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}/multiple-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) hybrid materials were synthesized via strong ultrasonication-assisted shaking and magnetic stirring processes. The prepared samples were well characterized by utilizing powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Raman spectroscopy techniques. Results indicated that the resulting Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were highly dispersed in the MWCNT network backbone and further form Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}/MWCNT hybrid materials. The obtained Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}/MWCNT hybrids can be employed as anode electrode in Lithium-ion batteries and deliver as high as discharge capacity of 1250 mA h g{sup −1} at a current density of 0.2 C, additionally, 81% of the discharge capacity for sample 2 with 20 wt.% MWCNT loading could be retained after 70 cycles, which could be associated with the specific hybrid structure of the electrode as well as the addition of MWCNT. Most importantly, the present synthetic approach is facile, controllable, and scalable, which allowing it more easily adapted to prepare other hybrid materials with specific architectures.

  12. Novel synthetic approach for 1, 4-dihydroxyanthraquinone and the development of its Lithiated salts as anode material for aqueous rechargeable Lithium-ion batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Gurukar, Suresh Shivappa

    2015-08-17

    The influence of organic electrode materials in the field of lithium ion battery is becoming a keen interest for the present generation scientists. Here we are reporting a novel method of synthesis of electrode material by the combination of sono-chemical and thermal methods. The advantages of organic active material towards lithium ion battery are of core interest of this study. The structural confirmations are by FT-IR, 1H NMR, MALDI-TOF Mass Spectroscopy and powder XRD data. The electrochemical properties of Lithiated-1,4-dihydroxyanthraquinone were studied using electrochemical-techniques such as Cyclic Voltammetry, Galvanostatic Cyclic Potential Limitation and Potentiostatic Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy. The satisfactory results towards stability of active species in the aqueous media, reasonable discharge capacity with 0.9 V average voltages and agreeable cycling performance during charge-discharge process with reproducibility are achieved. For the construction of the full cell, the anode material was coupled with the LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 as a cathode material.

  13. 3D network single-phase Ni0.9Zn0.1O as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Guoyong; Guo, Xueyi; Cao, Xiao;

    2016-01-01

    A novel 3D network single-phase Ni0.9Zn0.1O has been designed and synthesized by calcining a special metal-organic precursor (MOP) (MeO2C3H6, Me=Ni and Zn, the molar ratio of Ni: Zn=9:1) as the self-sacrificing template for the first time. Comparing with NiO or the mixture of NiO and ZnO, the new...... to the new mechanism, the anode material shows a low initial discharge platform around ~ 0.5 V (vs. Li+/Li). The first discharge voltage is lower than typical transition-metal oxides, which generally have higher initial discharge plateau around 1.0 V (vs. Li+/Li). It is shown that the novel 3D network single...

  14. An upper limit of Cr-doping level to Retain Zero-strain Characteristics of Li4Ti5O12 Anode Material for Li-ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hannah; Jeong, Tae-Gyung; Yun, Su-Won; Lee, Eun-Kyung; Park, Shin-Ae; Kim, Yong-Tae

    2017-01-01

    Since Li4Ti5O12 as a promising anode material in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) has a poor rate performance due to low electronic conductivity, a doping of Li4Ti5O12 with heterogeneous atoms has been considered to overcome this problem. Herein, we report that there is an upper limit of doping level to maintain the zero strain characteristics of Li4Ti5O12 lattice during charge/discharge process. By using synchrotron studies, it was revealed that the Li+ diffusivity was maximized at a certain doping level for which the conductivity was markedly increased with maintaining the zero strain characteristics. However, with more doses of dopants over the upper limit, the lattice shrank and therefore the Li+ diffusivity decreased, although the electronic conductivity was further increased in comparison with the optimal doping level. PMID:28233818

  15. Layered nickel sulfide-reduced graphene oxide composites synthesized via microwave-assisted method as high performance anode materials of sodium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Wei; Chen, Taiqiang; Lu, Ting; Chua, Daniel H. C.; Pan, Likun

    2016-01-01

    Layered nickel sulfide (NS)-reduced graphene oxide (RGO) composites are prepared via a simple microwave-assisted method and subsequent annealing in N2/H2 atmosphere. A detailed array of characterization tools are used to study their morphology, structure and electrochemical performance. It was found that these composites exhibit significantly improved sodium-ion storage ability as compared with pure NS under galvanostatic cycling at a specific current of 100 mA g-1 in a potential limitation of 0.005-3.0 V. Furthermore, the composite with the RGO content of 35 wt.% achieves a high maximum reversible specific capacity of about 391.6 mAh g-1 at a specific current of 100 mA g-1 after 50 cycles. These results prove that NS-RGO composites are highly promising when applied directly as anode materials in sodium-ion batteries.

  16. Synthesis of SnO2 pillared carbon using long chain alkylamine grafted graphene oxide: an efficient anode material for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, M. Jeevan Kumar; Ryu, Sung Hun; Shanmugharaj, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    With the objective of developing new advanced composite materials that can be used as anodes for lithium ion batteries (LIBs), herein we describe the synthesis of SnO2 pillared carbon using various alkylamine (hexylamine; dodecylamine and octadecylamine) grafted graphene oxides and butyl trichlorotin precursors followed by its calcination at 500 °C for 2 h. While the grafted alkylamine induces crystalline growth of SnO2 pillars, thermal annealing of alkylamine grafted graphene oxide results in the formation of amorphous carbon coated graphene. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) results reveal the successful formation of SnO2 pillared carbon on the graphene surface. X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy characterization corroborates the formation of rutile SnO2 crystals on the graphene surface. A significant rise in the BET surface area is observed for SnO2 pillared carbon, when compared to pristine GO. Electrochemical characterization studies of SnO2 pillared carbon based anode materials showed an enhanced lithium storage capacity and fine cyclic performance in comparison with pristine GO. The initial specific capacities of SnO2 pillared carbon are observed to be 1379 mA h g-1, 1255 mA h g-1 and 1360 mA h g-1 that decrease to 750 mA h g-1, 643 mA h g-1 and 560 mA h g-1 depending upon the chain length of grafted alkylamine on the graphene surface respectively. Electrochemical impedance spectral analysis reveals that the exchange current density of SnO2 pillared carbon based electrodes is higher, corroborating its enhanced electrochemical activity in comparison with GO based electrodes.With the objective of developing new advanced composite materials that can be used as anodes for lithium ion batteries (LIBs), herein we describe the synthesis of SnO2 pillared carbon using various alkylamine (hexylamine; dodecylamine and octadecylamine) grafted graphene oxides and butyl trichlorotin precursors

  17. Synthesis and electrochemical performance of cable-like copper vanadates/polypyrrole nanobelts as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shaoyan; Hou, Menghua; Hou, Linlin; Lu, Min

    2016-08-01

    Cable-like CuV2O6/polypyrrole (CVO/PPy) nanobelts have been synthesized via in-situ oxidative polymerization of pyrrole monomers on the surface of hydrothermally synthesized α-CuV2O6 (CVO) nanobelts. The microscope analysis revealed that the diameter of cable-like CVO/PPy nanobelts focused on 80-110 nm and the shell thickness was about 10-30 nm. The electrochemical properties of the cable-like CVO/PPy nanobelts as anode materials were systematically investigated and compared with bare α-CuV2O6 nanobelts. It was found that the electrochemical performance of the CVO/PPy nanobelts was significantly enhanced. The results suggest that the conductive PPy nanolayer coating help to preserve high capacity, maintain high electrochemical stability, and reduce charge transfer resistance during cycling performance.

  18. A three-dimensional porous MoP@C hybrid as a high-capacity, long-cycle life anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xia; Sun, Pingping; Qin, Jinwen; Wang, Jianqiang; Xiao, Ying; Cao, Minhua

    2016-05-01

    Metal phosphides are great promising anode materials for lithium-ion batteries with a high gravimetric capacity. However, significant challenges such as low capacity, fast capacity fading and poor cycle stability must be addressed for their practical applications. Herein, we demonstrate a versatile strategy for the synthesis of a novel three-dimensional porous molybdenum phosphide@carbon hybrid (3D porous MoP@C hybrid) by a template sol-gel method followed by an annealing treatment. The resultant hybrid exhibits a 3D interconnected ordered porous structure with a relatively high surface area. Benefiting from its advantages of microstructure and composition, the 3D porous MoP@C hybrid displays excellent lithium storage performance as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries in terms of specific capacity, cycling stability and long-cycle life. It presents stable cycling performance with a high reversible capacity up to 1028 mA h g-1 at a current density of 100 mA g-1 after 100 cycles. By ex situ XRD, HRTEM, SAED and XPS analyses, the 3D porous MoP@C hybrid was found to follow the Li-intercalation reaction mechanism (MoP + xLi+ + e- LixMoP), which was further confirmed by ab initio calculations based on density functional theory.Metal phosphides are great promising anode materials for lithium-ion batteries with a high gravimetric capacity. However, significant challenges such as low capacity, fast capacity fading and poor cycle stability must be addressed for their practical applications. Herein, we demonstrate a versatile strategy for the synthesis of a novel three-dimensional porous molybdenum phosphide@carbon hybrid (3D porous MoP@C hybrid) by a template sol-gel method followed by an annealing treatment. The resultant hybrid exhibits a 3D interconnected ordered porous structure with a relatively high surface area. Benefiting from its advantages of microstructure and composition, the 3D porous MoP@C hybrid displays excellent lithium storage performance as an

  19. Hydrothermal synthesis of Zn4SO4(OH)6·5H2O and its application as anode material for nickel/zinc batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈国平; 桑商斌; 黄可龙; 唐有根; 唐赞谦; 杨占红

    2004-01-01

    The anode material Zn4SO4 (OH)6 · 5H2O for nickle/zinc batteries was synthesized by hydrothermal method and was identified by XRD techniques. TG/DAT measurements reveal that the products lose lattice water at 145 ℃ and decompose to 3ZnO · ZnSO4 at 274 ℃. Cyclic voltammetry and recharging/discharging results show thatCV curves have good symmetry, the ratio of oxidation area to reduction area for each curve is about 1, and the peak potential EPa and EPc have little change with the scanning rate. At 50th circle, more than 65 % of theoretical capacity is obtained while at the same condition, zinc oxide electrode only remains 35% of theoretical capacity.

  20. Fabrication of boron-doped carbon fibers by the decomposition of B4C and its excellent rate performance as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huiqi; Ma, Canliang; Yang, Xueteng; Han, Tao; Tao, Zechao; Song, Yan; Liu, Zhanjun; Guo, Quangui; Liu, Lang

    2015-03-01

    A facile route, for the first time, was developed to fabricate boron-doped carbon fibers (BDCFs). Boron was doped into mesosphere pitch-based carbon fibers (CFs) by exposing the CFs in a vapor of boron by the decomposition of boron carbide. The microstructure of BDCFs was characterized by SEM, TEM, XRD and Raman spectroscopy. When used as anode materials for the lithium-ion batteries, BDCFs electrode exhibits an improved performance. Concretely, the specific capacity of BDCFs still had a value of over 400 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles. Moreover, BDCFs exhibits better rate capability and less hysteresis in comparison to the pristine CFs. Such enhanced lithium storage capability can be attributed to the improvement of graphitization properties and the high amount of defects induced by boron.

  1. A Novel Ion-exchange Method for the Synthesis of Nano-SnO/micro-C Hybrid Structure as High Capacity Anode Material in Lithium Ion Batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi Tan; Zhenhua Sun; Qi Guo; Haihua Wang; Dangsheng Su

    2013-01-01

    A novel and simple ion-exchange method was developed for the synthesis of nano-SnO/micro-C hybrid structure.The structure of the as prepared nano-SnO/micro-C was directly revealed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM)and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).SnO particles with the size about 25 nm were well confined in amorphous carbon microparticles.Carbon matrix in micrometer scale not only acts as a protective buffer for the SnO nanoparticles during the battery cycling processes,but also avoids the shortcomings of nanostructures,such as low tap density and potential safety threats.Electrochemical behaviors of the nano-SnO/micro-C were tested as anode material in lithium ion batteries.The initial reversible capacity is 508 mA h g-1,and the reversible capacity after 60 cycles is 511 mA h g-1,indicating good capacity retention ability.

  2. Preparation of anatase TiO2 with assistance of surfactant OP-10 and its electrochemical properties as an anode material for lithium ion batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YI Jin; TAN Chunlin; LI Weishan; LEI Jianfei; HAO Liansheng

    2010-01-01

    With the assistance of nonionic surfactant(OP-10)and surface-selective surfactant(CH3COOH),anatase TiO2 was prepared as an anode material for lithium ion batteries.The morphology,the crystal structure,and the electrochemical properties of the prepared anatase TiO2 were characterized by scanning electron microscopy(SEM),X-ray diffraction(XRD),electrochemical impedance spectroscopy(EIS),and galvanostatic charge and discharge test.The result shows that the prepared anatase TiO2 has high discharge capacity and good cyclic stability.The maximum discharge capacity is 313 mAh·g-1,and there is no significant capacity decay from the second cycle.

  3. Soft template strategy to synthesize iron oxide-titania yolk-shell nanoparticles as high-performance anode materials for lithium-ion battery applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Joohyun; Um, Ji Hyun; Ahn, Jihoon; Yu, Seung-Ho; Sung, Yung-Eun; Lee, Jin-Kyu

    2015-05-18

    Yolk-shell-structured nanoparticles with iron oxide core, void, and a titania shell configuration are prepared by a simple soft template method and used as the anode material for lithium ion batteries. The iron oxide-titania yolk-shell nanoparticles (IO@void@TNPs) exhibit a higher and more stable capacity than simply mixed nanoparticles of iron oxide and hollow titania because of the unique structure obtained by the perfect separation between iron oxide nanoparticles, in combination with the adequate internal void space provided by stable titania shells. Moreover, the structural effect of IO@void@TNPs clearly demonstrates that the capacity retention value after 50 cycles is approximately 4 times that for IONPs under harsh operating conditions, that is, when the temperature is increased to 80 °C.

  4. Anatase-TiO{sub 2}/CNTs nanocomposite as a superior high-rate anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jinlong [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Feng, Haibo; Jiang, Jianbo [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Qian, Dong, E-mail: qiandong6@vip.sina.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Li, Junhua; Peng, Sanjun [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Liu, Youcai, E-mail: liuyoucai@126.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2014-08-01

    Highlights: • Anatase-TiO{sub 2}/CNTs nanocomposite was prepared by a facile and scalable hydrolysis route. • The composite exhibits super-high rate capability and excellent cycling stability for LIBs. • The nanocomposite shows great potential as a superior anode material for LIBs. - Abstract: Anatase-TiO{sub 2}/carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with robust nanostructure is fabricated via a facile two-step synthesis by ammonia water assisted hydrolysis and subsequent calcination. The as-synthesized nanocomposite was characterized employing X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry, Raman spectrophotometry, thermal gravimetric analysis, transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and selected area electronic diffraction, and its electrochemical properties as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic discharge/charge test and electrochemical impendence spectroscopy. The results show that the pure anatase TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles with diameters of about 10 nm are uniformly distributed on/among the CNTs conducting network. The as-synthesized nanocomposite exhibits remarkably improved performances in LIBs, especially super-high rate capability and excellent cycling stability. Specifically, a reversible capacity as high as 92 mA h g{sup −1} is achieved even at a current density of 10 A g{sup −1} (60 C). After 100 cycles at 0.1 A g{sup −1}, it shows good capacity retention of 185 mA h g{sup −1} with an outstanding coulombic efficiency up to 99%. Such superior Li{sup +} storage properties demonstrate the reinforced synergistic effects between the nano-sized TiO{sub 2} and the interweaved CNTs network, endowing the nanocomposite with great application potential in high-power LIBs.

  5. One-step solution combustion synthesis of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/C nano-composites as anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Peiyang; Deng, Jiachun; Li, Ying [Nano-Energy Inorganic Materials Laboratory, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Liang, Wei, E-mail: liangwei@tyut.edu.cn [Nano-Energy Inorganic Materials Laboratory, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Wang, Kun [Nano-Energy Inorganic Materials Laboratory, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Kang, Litao, E-mail: kangltxy@gmail.com [Nano-Energy Inorganic Materials Laboratory, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Zeng, Shaozhong; Yin, Shanhui; Zhao, Zhigang [Chery Automobile Co. Ltd., Wuhu 241006 (China); Liu, Xuguang; Yang, Yongzhen [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Gao, Feng [State Key Laboratory of Coal Conversion, Institute of Coal Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan 030001 (China)

    2014-03-25

    Highlights: • Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/C composite anode materials were prepared by a solution combustion process. • The carbon content could be adjusted by regulating the ratio of oxidizer/fuel. • The Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/C composite showed capacity 470 mA h g{sup −1} at the 80th cycle at 125 mA g{sup −1}. -- Abstract: This article describes a one-step solution combustion route (within 30 min at 350 °C in air) to prepare Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} anode materials for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) from Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}⋅9H{sub 2}O solution with citric acid. XRD, SEM-EDX and TEM showed that the product consisted a mixture of nano-sized α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} crystals that agglomerated into porous particles. Significantly, in situ formed carbon could be introduced into the product (i.e., Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/C nano-composites) by simply increasing the dosage of citric acid in the precursor solution. The as-prepared Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/C nano-composite exhibited high reversible capacities of 470 and 419 mA h g{sup −1} at the 80th and 200th cycles with a current density of 125 mA g{sup −1}, which are much higher than those of counterparts without carbon (i.e., Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nano-particles). Comparison experiments correlated with the performance improvement of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/C nano-composites with in situ formed carbon, well-developed mesopores and relatively high specific surface areas.

  6. Progress in Graphene and its Composites as Anode Material for Lithium-ion Battery%石墨烯及其复合材料作为锂离子电池负极材料的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵阳; 黄英; 王秋芬; 王潇雅; 宗蒙; 何倩

    2012-01-01

    Graphene as the lithium-ion battery anode material shows excellent electrochemical performance. In this paper, the research of the anode-material of graphene, the metal/graphene composites, metal-oxide/graphene composites and other composites of grapheme were introduced. The advantge of graphene-anode material and the application prospects of graphene-based composite materials in lithium-ion battery anode materials are described.%石墨烯作为一种锂离子电池负极材料表现出优异的电化学性能.本文介绍了石墨烯负极材料、金属/石墨烯复合材料、金属氧化物/石墨烯复合材料和其他石墨烯复合材料的研究现状,阐述了石墨烯作为负极材料的优越性,展望了石墨烯及其复合复合材料在锂离子电池负极材料中的应用前景.

  7. Ideal anodization of silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamani, Z.; Thompson, W.H.; AbuHassan, L.; Nayfeh, M.H. [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1110 W. Green Street, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    1997-06-01

    Silicon has been anodized such that the porous layer is passivated with a homogeneous stretching phase by incorporating H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in the anodization mixture. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy measurements show that the Si{endash}H stretching mode oriented perpendicular to the surface at {approximately}2100cm{sup {minus}1} dominates the spectrum with negligible contribution from the bending modes in the 600{endash}900cm{sup {minus}1} region. Material analysis using Auger electron spectroscopy shows that the samples have very little impurities, and that the luminescent layer is very thin (5{endash}10 nm). Scanning electron microscopy shows that the surface is smoother with features smaller than those of conventional samples. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  8. Bio-inspired 2-line ferrihydrite as a high-capacity and high-rate-capability anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Hideki; Ukita, Masahiro; Sakuma, Ryo; Nakanishi, Makoto; Fujii, Tatsuo; Imanishi, Nobuyuki; Takada, Jun

    2016-10-01

    A high-capacity and high-rate-capability anode material for lithium-ion batteries, silicon-doped iron oxyhydroxide or 2-line ferrihydrite (2Fh), was prepared by mixing iron nitrate powder, tetraethyl orthosilicate, 2-propanol, and ammonium hydrogen carbonate powder at room temperature. The design of this material was inspired by a bacteriogenic product, a nanometric amorphous iron-based oxide material containing small amounts of structural Si. The atomistic structure of the prepared Si-doped 2Fh was strongly affected by the Si molar ratio [x = Si/(Fe + Si)]. Its crystallinity gradually decreased as the Si molar ratio increased, with a structural variation from nanocrystalline to amorphous at x = 0.25. The sample with x = 0.20 demonstrated the best Li storage performance. The developed material exhibited a high capacity of ∼400 mAh g-1 at the 25th cycle in the voltage range of 0.3-3.0 V and at a current rate of 9 A g-1, which was three times greater than that of the Si-free 2Fh. This indicates that Si-doping into the 2Fh structure realizes good rate capability, which are presumably because of the specific nanocomposite structure of iron-based electrochemical centers embedded in the Si-based amorphous matrix, generated by reversible Li insertion/deinsertion process.

  9. Thin flexible intercalation anodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, S.C.; Cieslak, W.R.; Klassen, S.E.; Lagasse, R.R.

    1994-10-01

    Poly(acrylonitrile) fibers have been pyrolyzed under various conditions to form flexible carbon yarns capable of intercalating lithium ions. These fibers have also been formed into both woven and non woven cloths. Potentiostatic, potentiodynamic and galvanostatic tests have been conducted with these materials in several electrolytes. In some tests, a potential hold was used after each constant current charge and discharge. These tests have shown some of these flexible materials to reversibly intercalate lithium ions to levels that are suitable for use as a practical battery anode.

  10. Anatase TiO2@C composites with porous structure as an advanced anode material for Na ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiaodong; Zhang, Zhian; Du, Ke; Lai, Yanqing; Fang, Jing; Li, Jie

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we propose a facile strategy to synthesize the porous structure TiO2@C composites through a two-step method, in which the precursor of MIL-125(Ti) was firstly prepared by solvent thermal method and then calcined under inert atmosphere. When employed as anodes for Na ion batteries, TiO2@C composites can exhibit a superior cyclability with a reversible sodium storage capacity of 148 mAh g-1 at the current density 0.5 A g-1 after 500 cycles and an excellent rate performance with a capacity of 88.9 mAh g-1 even the current reached to 2.5 A g-1 due to the dispersion of anatase TiO2 throughout amorphous carbon matrix and the synergistic effect between the anatase TiO2 nanocrystals and carbon matrix, which can availably enhance the electric conductivity and alleviate the volumetric variation of TiO2 during the insertion/extraction process of Na+.

  11. Synthesis of Mesoporous ZnO Nanosheets via Facile Solvothermal Method as the Anode Materials for Lithium-ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Huang, Lanyan; Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Yongguang; Zhou, Guofu

    2016-12-01

    Mesoporous ZnO nanosheets are synthesized through a room temperature solvothermal method. Transmission and scanning electronic microscopy observations indicate that as-prepared ZnO hierarchical aggregates are composed and assembled by nanosheets with a length of 1-2 μm and a thickness of 10-20 nm, and interlaced ZnO nanosheets irregularly stack together, forming a three-dimensional network. Furthermore, large mesopores are embedded in the walls of ZnO nanosheets, confirmed by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) measurement. Accordingly, the resulting ZnO anode exhibits a high and stable specific discharge capacity of 421 mAh g(-1) after 100 cycles at 200 mA g(-1) and a good rate capability. Such electrochemical performance could be attributed to the multiple synergistic effects of its mesoporous nanosheet structure, which can not only provide a large specific surface area for lithium storage, but also favor the ion transport and electrolyte diffusion.

  12. Hard carbon nanoparticles as high-capacity, high-stability anodic materials for Na-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Lifen; Cao, Yuliang; Henderson, Wesley A.; Sushko, Maria L.; Shao, Yuyan; Xiao, Jie; Wang, Wei; Engelhard, Mark H.; Nie, Zimin; Liu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Hard carbon nanoparticles (HCNP) were synthesized by the pyrolysis of a polyaniline precursor. The measured Na+ cation diffusion coefficient (10-13-10-15cm2s-1) in the HCNP obtained at 1150 °C is two orders of magnitude lower than that of Li+ in graphite (10-10-13-15cm2s-1), indicating that reducing the carbon particle size is very important for improving electrochemical performance. These measurements also enable a clear visualization of the stepwise reaction phases and rate changes which occur throughout the insertion/extraction processes in HCNP, The electrochemical measurements also show that the nano-sized HCNP obtained at 1150 °C exhibited higher practical capacity at voltages lower than 1.2 V (vs. Na/Na⁺), as well as a prolonged cycling stability, which is attributed to an optimum spacing of 0.366 nm between the graphitic layers and the nano particular size resulting in a low-barrier Na+ cation insertion. These results suggest that HCNP is a very promising high-capacity/stability anode for low cost sodium-ion batteries (SIBs).

  13. Unique Urchin-like Ca2Ge7O16 Hierarchical Hollow Microspheres as Anode Material for the Lithium Ion Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan; Feng, Chuanqi; Liu, Hua Kun; Guo, Zaiping

    2015-06-01

    Germanium is an outstanding anode material in terms of electrochemical performance, especially rate capability, but its developments are hindered by its high price because it is rare in the crust of earth, and its huge volume variation during the lithium insertion and extraction. Introducing other cheaper elements into the germanium-based material is an efficient way to dilute the high price, but normally sacrifice its electrochemical performance. By the combination of nanostructure design and cheap element (calcium) introduction, urchin-like Ca2Ge7O16 hierarchical hollow microspheres have been successfully developed in order to reduce the price and maintain the good electrochemical properties of germanium-based material. The electrochemical test results in different electrolytes show that ethylene carbonate/dimethyl carbonate/diethyl carbonate (3/4/3 by volume) with 5 wt% fluoroethylene carbonate additive is the most suitable solvent for the electrolyte. From the electrochemical evaluation, the as-synthesized Ca2Ge7O16 hollow microspheres exhibit high reversible specific capacity of up to 804.6 mA h g-1 at a current density of 100 mA g-1 after 100 cycles and remarkable rate capability of 341.3 mA h g-1 at a current density of 4 A g-1. The growth mechanism is proposed based on our experimental results on the growth process.

  14. Highly porous NiCo2O4 Nanoflakes and nanobelts as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries with excellent rate capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Anjon Kumar; Su, Dawei; Chen, Shuangqiang; Xie, Xiuqiang; Wang, Guoxiu

    2014-09-10

    Highly porous NiCo2O4 nanoflakes and nanobelts were synthesized by using a hydrothermal technique, followed by calcination of the NiCo2O4 precursors. The as-synthesized materials were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller methods. The NiCo2O4 nanoflakes and nanobelts were applied as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. Owing to the unique porous structural features, the NiCo2O4 nanoflakes and nanobelts exhibited high specific capacities of 1033 and 1056 mA h g(-1), respectively, and good cycling stability and rate capability. These exceptional electrochemical performances could be ascribed to the remarkable structural feature with a high surface area and void spaces within the surface of nanoflakes and nanobelts, which provide large contact areas between electrolyte and active materials for electrolyte diffusion and cushion the volume variation during the lithium-ion insertion/extraction process.

  15. Morphology-controlled synthesis and electrochemical performance of NiCo2O4 as anode material in lithium-ion battery application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shan; Lu, Lin; Zhang, Qing; Zheng, Hao; Liu, Lian; Yin, Shengyu; Wang, Shiquan; Li, Guohua; Feng, Chuanqi

    2015-09-01

    Mixed-valence oxide precursors were synthesized by a solvothermal method using NiSO4, CoSO4, and NH4HCO3 as raw materials. The precursors were heat-treated in a muffle furnace at 500 °C to obtain the products (NiCo2O4). The samples were characterized by X-ray diffractometer, thermogravimetric, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The results show that dumbbells, microspheres, and particle-like NiCo2O4 were successfully synthesized by changing the volume of solvent and solvothermal temperature. The NiCo2O4 microspheres (prepared at 180 °C with 30 ml solvent) as anode material for lithium-ion battery, exhibit a reversible discharge capacity of 1160 mAh g-1 and good cycling stability (729 mAh g-1 after 50 cycles) at a constant current of 100 mA g-1 in the voltage range of 0.01-3.0 V due to its high crystallinity and uniform porous morphology. Hence, the synthetic method could be extended to other high-capacity ternary metal oxide materials for lithium-ion battery application.

  16. Unique Urchin-like Ca2Ge7O16 Hierarchical Hollow Microspheres as Anode Material for the Lithium Ion Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan; Feng, Chuanqi; Liu, Hua Kun; Guo, Zaiping

    2015-01-01

    Germanium is an outstanding anode material in terms of electrochemical performance, especially rate capability, but its developments are hindered by its high price because it is rare in the crust of earth, and its huge volume variation during the lithium insertion and extraction. Introducing other cheaper elements into the germanium-based material is an efficient way to dilute the high price, but normally sacrifice its electrochemical performance. By the combination of nanostructure design and cheap element (calcium) introduction, urchin-like Ca2Ge7O16 hierarchical hollow microspheres have been successfully developed in order to reduce the price and maintain the good electrochemical properties of germanium-based material. The electrochemical test results in different electrolytes show that ethylene carbonate/dimethyl carbonate/diethyl carbonate (3/4/3 by volume) with 5 wt% fluoroethylene carbonate additive is the most suitable solvent for the electrolyte. From the electrochemical evaluation, the as-synthesized Ca2Ge7O16 hollow microspheres exhibit high reversible specific capacity of up to 804.6 mA h g(-1) at a current density of 100 mA g(-1) after 100 cycles and remarkable rate capability of 341.3 mA h g(-1) at a current density of 4 A g(-1). The growth mechanism is proposed based on our experimental results on the growth process.

  17. Coated/Sandwiched rGO/CoSx Composites Derived from Metal-Organic Frameworks/GO as Advanced Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Dongming; Huang, Gang; Zhang, Feifei; Qin, Yuling; Na, Zhaolin; Wu, Yaoming; Wang, Limin

    2016-01-22

    Rational composite materials made from transition metal sulfides and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) are highly desirable for designing high-performance lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Here, rGO-coated or sandwiched CoSx composites are fabricated through facile thermal sulfurization of metal-organic framework/GO precursors. By scrupulously changing the proportion of Co(2+) and organic ligands and the solvent of the reaction system, we can tune the forms of GO as either a coating or a supporting layer. Upon testing as anode materials for LIBs, the as-prepared CoSx -rGO-CoSx and rGO@CoSx composites demonstrate brilliant electrochemical performances such as high initial specific capacities of 1248 and 1320 mA h g(-1) , respectively, at a current density of 100 mA g(-1) , and stable cycling abilities of 670 and 613 mA h g(-1) , respectively, after 100 charge/discharge cycles, as well as superior rate capabilities. The excellent electrical conductivity and porous structure of the CoSx /rGO composites can promote Li(+) transfer and mitigate internal stress during the charge/discharge process, thus significantly improving the electrochemical performance of electrode materials.

  18. Morphology-controlled synthesis and electrochemical performance of NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} as anode material in lithium-ion battery application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Shan; Lu, Lin; Zhang, Qing; Zheng, Hao; Liu, Lian; Yin, Shengyu; Wang, Shiquan, E-mail: wsqhao@126.com; Li, Guohua; Feng, Chuanqi [Hubei University, Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Ministry-of-Education Key Laboratory for Synthesis and Applications of Organic Functional Molecules (China)

    2015-09-15

    Mixed-valence oxide precursors were synthesized by a solvothermal method using NiSO{sub 4}, CoSO{sub 4}, and NH{sub 4}HCO{sub 3} as raw materials. The precursors were heat-treated in a muffle furnace at 500 °C to obtain the products (NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4}). The samples were characterized by X-ray diffractometer, thermogravimetric, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The results show that dumbbells, microspheres, and particle-like NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} were successfully synthesized by changing the volume of solvent and solvothermal temperature. The NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} microspheres (prepared at 180 °C with 30 ml solvent) as anode material for lithium-ion battery, exhibit a reversible discharge capacity of 1160 mAh g{sup −1} and good cycling stability (729 mAh g{sup −1} after 50 cycles) at a constant current of 100 mA g{sup −1} in the voltage range of 0.01–3.0 V due to its high crystallinity and uniform porous morphology. Hence, the synthetic method could be extended to other high-capacity ternary metal oxide materials for lithium-ion battery application.

  19. Development of mats composed by TiO{sub 2} and carbon dual electrospun nanofibers: A possible anode material in microbial fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Gomez, Nora A.; Balderas-Renteria, Isaias [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Av. Universidad S/N Cd. Universitaria San Nicolás de los Garza Nuevo León, C.P. 66451 México (Mexico); Garcia-Gutierrez, Domingo I. [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, Av. Universidad S/N Cd. Universitaria San Nicolás de los Garza Nuevo León, C.P. 66451 México (Mexico); Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Centro de Innovación, Investigación y Desarrollo en Ingeniería y Tecnología, PIIT, Av. Universidad S/N Cd. Universitaria San Nicolás de los Garza Nuevo León, C.P. 66451 México (Mexico); Mosqueda, Hugo A. [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, Av. Universidad S/N Cd. Universitaria San Nicolás de los Garza Nuevo León, C.P. 66451 México (Mexico); and others

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Dual nanofiber of TiO{sub 2}–C/C showed excellent electrical performance. • TiO{sub 2}–C/C dual nanofiber can host a dense biofilm of electroactivated Escherichia coli. • Dual nanofibers can be applied as anode to obtain electricity in microbial fuel cells. - Abstract: A new material based on TiO{sub 2(rutile)}–C{sub (semi-graphitic)}/C{sub (semi-graphitic)} dual nanofiber mats is presented, whose composition and synthesis methodology are fundamental factors for the development of exoelectrogenic biofilms on its surface. Therefore, this material shows the required characteristics for possible applications in the bioconversion process of an organic substrate to electricity in a microbial fuel cell. Chronoamperometry, cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and electrical conductivity analyses showed excellent electrical performance of the material for the application intended; a resistance as low as 3.149 Ω was able to be measured on this material. Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies confirmed the morphology sought on the material for the application intended, dual nanofibres TiO{sub 2(rutile)}–C{sub (semi-graphitic)}/C{sub (semi-graphitic)} with a side by side configuration. The difference in composition of the fibers forming the dual nanofibers was clearly observed and confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS), and their crystal structure was evident in the results obtained from selected area electron diffraction (SAED) studies. This nanostructured material presented a high surface area and is biocompatible, given that it can host a dense biofilm of electroactivated Escherichia coli. In this study, the maximum current density obtained in a half microbial fuel cell was 8 A/m{sup 2} (0.8 mA/cm{sup 2})

  20. Alkali-Metal-Ion-Functionalized Graphene Oxide as a Superior Anode Material for Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Fang; Li, Yu-Han; Liu, Dai-Huo; Guo, Jin-Zhi; Sun, Hai-Zhu; Zhang, Jing-Ping; Wu, Xing-Long

    2016-06-06

    Although graphene oxide (GO) has large interlayer spacing, it is still inappropriate to use it as an anode for sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) because of the existence of H-bonding between the layers and ultralow electrical conductivity which impedes the Na(+) and e(-) transformation. To solve these issues, chemical, thermal, and electrochemical procedures are traditionally employed to reduce GO nanosheets. However, these strategies are still unscalable, consume high amounts of energy, and are expensive for practical application. Here, for the first time, we describe the superior Na storage of unreduced GO by a simple and scalable alkali-metal-ion (Li(+) , Na(+) , K(+) )-functionalized process. The various alkali metals ions, connecting with the oxygen on GO, have played different effects on morphology, porosity, degree of disorder, and electrical conductivity, which are crucial for Na-storage capabilities. Electrochemical tests demonstrated that sodium-ion-functionalized GO (GNa) has shown outstanding Na-storage performance in terms of excellent rate capability and long-term cycle life (110 mAh g(-1) after 600 cycles at 1 A g(-1) ) owing to its high BET area, appropriate mesopore, high degree of disorder, and improved electrical conductivity. Theoretical calculations were performed using the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) to further study the Na-storage capabilities of functionalized GO. These calculations have indicated that the Na-O bond has the lowest binding energy, which is beneficial to insertion/extraction of the sodium ion, hence the GNa has shown the best Na-storage properties among all comparatives functionalized by other alkali metal ions.

  1. Characteristics and Electrochemical Performance of Si-Carbon Nanofibers Composite as Anode Material for Binder-Free Lithium Secondary Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Yura; Park, Heai-Ku; Park, Ho-Seon; Lee, Chang-Seop

    2015-11-01

    The carbon nanofibers (CNFs) and Si-CNFs composite were synthesized using a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method with an iron-copper catalyst and silicon-covered Ni foam. Acetylene as a carbon source was flowed into the quartz reactor of a tubular furnace heated to 600 degrees C. This temperature was maintained for 10 min to synthesize the CNFs. The morphologies, compositions, and crystal quality of the prepared CNFs were characterized by Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The electrochemical characteristics of the Si-CNFs composite as an anode of the Li secondary batteries were investigated using a three-electrode cell. The as-deposited Si-CNF composite on the Ni foam was directly employed as an working electrode without any binder, and lithium foil was used as the counter and reference electrode. A glass fiber separator was used as the separator membrane. Two kinds of electrolytes were employed; 1) 1 M LiPF6 was dissolved in a mixture of EC (ethylene carbonate): PC (propylene carbonate): EMC (Ethyl methyl carbonate) in a 1:1:1 volume ratio and 2) 1 M LiClO4 was dissolved in a mixture of propylene carbonate (PC): ethylene carbonate (EC) in a 1:1 volume ratio. The galvanostatic charge-discharge cycling and cyclic voltammetry measurements were carried out at room temperature by using a battery tester. The resulting Si-CNFs composite achieved the large discharge capacity of 613 mAh/g and much improved cycle-ability with the retention rate of 87% after 20 cycles.

  2. 锂离子电池锡-碳复合负极材料的研究进展%Research progress of tin-carbon composite anode material for Li-ion battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任建国; 闫润宝; 何向明; 蒲薇华; 赵海雷

    2011-01-01

    With the advantage of high capacity and high density, alloy materials are expected to be the preferred anode materials for next-generation lithium-ion battery with high energy density. The great volume expansion/contraction during lithiation/delithiation leads to the cracking and pulverizing of alloy material. With the loss of electronic contact within the pulverized alloy particles, the capacity of alloy anode fades rapidly. The nanostructured composite is an ideal choice to improve the cycling stability of alloy anode material. The research progress of Sn-based alloy-carbon composite anode materials for Li-ion battery was reviewed in this paper. It is pointed out that alloy/carbon composite is an effective way for improving the cycling performance of Sn-based alloy anode.%合金材料具有高容量、高密度的优势,有望成为新一代高容量锂离子电池的负极材料.合金材料在锂化过程中产生较大的体积膨胀,易开裂粉化,活性物质内部丧失电接触,电极容量衰减迅速.米复合结构是提高合金负极材料循环稳定性的有效途径.述了锂离子电池Sn基合金-碳复合负极材料的研究进展,指出纳米合金-碳复合结构是提高Sn基合金负极循环性能的有效手段.

  3. Reactions on carbon anodes in aluminium electrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eidet, Trygve

    1997-12-31

    The consumption of carbon anodes and energy in aluminium electrolysis is higher than what is required theoretically. This thesis studies the most important of the reactions that consume anode materials. These reactions are the electrochemical anode reaction and the airburn and carboxy reactions. The first part of the thesis deals with the kinetics and mechanism of the electrochemical anode reaction using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The second part deals with air and carboxy reactivity of carbon anodes and studies the effects of inorganic impurities on the reactivity of carbon anodes in the aluminium industry. Special attention is given to sulphur since its effect on the carbon gasification is not well understood. Sulphur is always present in anodes, and it is expected that the sulphur content of available anode cokes will increase in the future. It has also been suggested that sulphur poisons catalyzing impurities in the anodes. Other impurities that were investigated are iron, nickel and vanadium, which are common impurities in anodes which have been reported to catalyze carbon gasification. 88 refs., 92 figs., 24 tabs.

  4. Electrically Conductive Anodized Aluminum Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trung Hung

    2006-01-01

    Anodized aluminum components can be treated to make them sufficiently electrically conductive to suppress discharges of static electricity. The treatment was conceived as a means of preventing static electric discharges on exterior satin-anodized aluminum (SAA) surfaces of spacecraft without adversely affecting the thermal-control/optical properties of the SAA and without need to apply electrically conductive paints, which eventually peel off in the harsh environment of outer space. The treatment can also be used to impart electrical conductivity to anodized housings of computers, medical electronic instruments, telephoneexchange equipment, and other terrestrial electronic equipment vulnerable to electrostatic discharge. The electrical resistivity of a typical anodized aluminum surface layer lies between 10(exp 11) and 10(exp 13) Omega-cm. To suppress electrostatic discharge, it is necessary to reduce the electrical resistivity significantly - preferably to anodized surface becomes covered and the pores in the surface filled with a transparent, electrically conductive metal oxide nanocomposite. Filling the pores with the nanocomposite reduces the transverse electrical resistivity and, in the original intended outer-space application, the exterior covering portion of the nanocomposite would afford the requisite electrical contact with the outer-space plasma. The electrical resistivity of the nanocomposite can be tailored to a value between 10(exp 7) and 10(exp 12) Omega-cm. Unlike electrically conductive paint, the nanocomposite becomes an integral part of the anodized aluminum substrate, without need for adhesive bonding material and without risk of subsequent peeling. The electrodeposition process is compatible with commercial anodizing production lines. At present, the electronics industry uses expensive, exotic, electrostaticdischarge- suppressing finishes: examples include silver impregnated anodized, black electroless nickel, black chrome, and black copper. In

  5. An investigation into the doping and crystallinity of anodically fabricated titania nanotube arrays: Towards an efficient material for solar energy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allam Abdel-Motalib, Nageh Khalaf

    The primary focus of this dissertation was to improve the properties of the anodically fabricated TiO2 nanotube arrays; notably its band gap and crystallinity while retaining its tubular structure unaffected. The underlying hypothesis was that controlling the crystallinity and band gap while retaining the tubular structure will result in an enormous enhancement of the photoconversion capability of the material. To this end, a direct one-step facile approach for the in-situ doping of TiO2 nanotube arrays during their electrochemical fabrication in both aqueous and non-aqueous electrolytes has been investigated. The effect of doping on the morphology, optical and photoelectrochemical properties of the fabricated nanotube arrays is discussed. In an effort to improve the crystallinity of the anodically fabricated TiO2 nanotube arrays while retaining the tubular morphology, novel processing routes have been investigated to fabricate crystalline TiO 2 nanotube array electrodes. For the sake of comparison, the nanotubes were annealed at high temperature using the conventionally used procedure. The samples were found to be stable up to temperatures around 580°C, however, higher temperatures resulted in crystallization of the titanium support which disturbed the nanotube architecture, causing it to partially and gradually collapse and densify. The maximum photoconversion efficiency for water splitting using 7 mum-TiO2 nanotube arrays electrodes annealed at 580°C was measured to be about 10% under UV illumination. We investigated the effect of subsequent low temperature crystallization step. Rapid infrared (IR) annealing was found to be an efficient technique for crystallizing the nanotube array films within a few minutes. The IR-annealed 7mum-nanotube array films showed significant photoconversion efficiencies (eta=13.13%) upon their use as photoanodes to photoelectrochemically split water under UV illumination. This was related, in part, to the reduction in the barrier

  6. Bamboo carbon assisted sol–gel synthesis of Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} anode material with enhanced electrochemical activity for lithium ion battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Guoen; He, Jiarong [Institute of Biomaterial, College of Science, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Song, Xinjian [Laboratory of Biological Resources Protection and Utilization of Hubei Province, Hubei Minzu University, Enshi 445000 (China); Huang, Xueyan [Institute of Biomaterial, College of Science, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Yu, Xiaoyuan, E-mail: yuxiaoyuan@scau.edu.cn [Institute of Biomaterial, College of Science, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Fang, Yueping [Institute of Biomaterial, College of Science, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Chen, Dongyang, E-mail: dongyang.chen@northwestern.edu [Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208-3113 (United States)

    2015-02-05

    Highlights: • Bamboo carbon is employed to assist the synthesis of spinel Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} anode material (BC-LTO). • Bamboo carbon helps to reduce particle size and narrow size distribution of Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} material. • BC-LTO anode material exhibits high capacities and excellent cycling performance. • BC-LTO anode displays excellent rate-capability and enhanced reversibility. - Abstract: To control the morphology of inorganic electrode materials for high performance lithium ion batteries, bamboo carbon with highly ordered three-dimensional microscopic porosity was employed to act as a template to confine the growth of spinel Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} anode nanoparticle in its sol–gel synthesis. The bamboo carbon was removed by high temperature calcination thereafter to produce pure spinel Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} (BC-LTO). The electrochemical properties of BC-LTO were thoroughly evaluated in lithium ion batteries and compared with the electrochemical properties of the spinel Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} synthesized without bamboo carbon template (P-LTO). The crystal structures of BC-LTO and P-LTO were identified as the same spinel structure by X-ray diffraction. The positive effects of adding bamboo carbon during the electrode synthesis were observed to be reducing both the particle size and size distribution of BC-LTO as evidenced by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cyclic voltammetry (CV) analysis demonstrated that BC-LTO had a higher lithium insertion/extraction reversibility than P-LTO. The BC-LTO anode delivered a capacity of 160 mAh g{sup −1} after 50 cycles at a rate of 0.2 C, much higher than the P-LTO anode which only delivered 139 mAh g{sup −1} under the same conditions. Detailed galvanostatic charge/discharge tests using various current rates were carried out, and the results demonstrated that BC-LTO is a promising candidate anode material for high performance lithium ion batteries. The bamboo carbon

  7. Columbia/Willamette Skill Builders Consortium. Final Performance Report. Appendix 5B Anodizing Inc. (Aluminum Extrusion Manufacturing). Basic Measurement Math. Instructors' Reports and Sample Curriculum Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Marjorie; And Others

    Anodizing, Inc., Teamsters Local 162, and Mt. Hood Community College (Oregon) developed a workplace literacy program for workers at Anodizing. These workers did not have the basic skill competencies to benefit from company training efforts in statistical process control and quality assurance and were not able to advance to lead and supervisory…

  8. Electrochemical properties of CoFe3Sb12 as potential anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵新兵; 钟耀东; 曹高劭

    2004-01-01

    A skutterudite-related antimonide, CoFe3Sb12,was prepared with vacuum melting.XRD analysis showed the material contained Sb, FeSb2, CoSb2 and CoSb3 phases.The electrochemical properties of the ball-milled CoFe3Sb12-10wt% graphite composite were studied using pure lithium as the reference electrode. A maximal lithium inserting capacity of about 860 mAh/g was obtained in the first cycle.The reversible capacity of the material was about 560mAh/g in the first cycle and decreased to ca.320 mAh/g and 250 mAh/g after 10 and 20 cycles respectively.Ex-situ XRD analyses showed that the antimonides in the pristine material were decomposed after the first discharge and that antimony was the active element for lithium to insert into the host material.

  9. Carbon-Coated Fe3O4/VOx Hollow Microboxes Derived from Metal-Organic Frameworks as a High-Performance Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhi-Wei; Wen, Tao; Liang, Kuang; Jiang, Yi-Fan; Zhou, Xiao; Shen, Cong-Cong; Xu, An-Wu

    2017-02-01

    As the ever-growing demand for high-performance power sources, lithium-ion batteries with high storage capacities and outstanding rate performance have been widely considered as a promising storage device. In this work, starting with metal-organic frameworks, we have developed a facile approach to the synthesis of hybrid Fe3O4/VOx hollow microboxes via the process of hydrolysis and ion exchange and subsequent calcination. In the constructed architecture, the hollow structure provides an efficient lithium ion diffusion pathway and extra space to accommodate the volume expansion during the insertion and extraction of Li(+). With the assistance of carbon coating, the obtained Fe3O4/VOx@C microboxes exhibit excellent cyclability and enhanced rate performance when employed as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries. As a result, the obtained Fe3O4/VOx@C delivers a high Coulombic efficiency (near 100%) and outstanding reversible specific capacity of 742 mAh g(-1) after 400 cycles at a current density of 0.5 A g(-1). Moreover, a remarkable reversible capacity of 556 mAh g(-1) could be retained even at a current density of 2 A g(-1). This study provides a fundamental understanding for the rational design of other composite oxides as high-performance electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries.

  10. First Introduction of NiSe2 to Anode Material for Sodium-Ion Batteries: A Hybrid of Graphene-Wrapped NiSe2/C Porous Nanofiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jung Sang; Lee, Seung Yeon; Kang, Yun Chan

    2016-03-01

    The first-ever study of nickel selenide materials as efficient anode materials for Na-ion rechargeable batteries is conducted using the electrospinning process. NiSe2-reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-C composite nanofibers are successfully prepared via electrospinning and a subsequent selenization process. The electrospun nanofibers giving rise to these porous-structured composite nanofibers with optimum amount of amorphous C are obtained from the polystyrene to polyacrylonitrile ratio of 1/4. These composite nanofibers also consist of uniformly distributed single-crystalline NiSe2 nanocrystals that have a mean size of 27 nm. In contrast, the densely structured bare NiSe2 nanofibers formed via selenization of the pure NiO nanofibers consist of large crystallites. The initial discharge capacities of the NiSe2-rGO-C composite and bare NiSe2 nanofibers at a current density of 200 mA g-1 are 717 and 755 mA h g-1, respectively. However, the respective 100th-cycle discharge capacities of the former and latter are 468 and 35 mA h g-1. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements reveal the structural stability of the composite nanofibers during repeated Na-ion insertion and extraction processes. The excellent Na-ion storage properties of these nanofibers are attributed to this structural stability.

  11. Facile hybridization of Ni@Fe2O3 superparticles with functionalized reduced graphene oxide and its application as anode material in lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backert, Gregor; Oschmann, Bernd; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz; Mueller, Franziska; Lieberwirth, Ingo; Balke, Benjamin; Tremel, Wolfgang; Passerini, Stefano; Zentel, Rudolf

    2016-09-15

    In our present work we developed a novel graphene wrapping approach of Ni@Fe2O3 superparticles, which can be extended as a concept approach for other nanomaterials as well. It uses sulfonated reduced graphene oxide, but avoids thermal treatments and use of toxic agents like hydrazine for its reduction. The modification of graphene oxide is achieved by the introduction of sulfate groups accompanied with reduction and elimination reactions, due to the treatment with oleum. The successful wrapping of nanoparticles is proven by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The developed composite material shows strongly improved performance as anode material in lithium-ion batteries (compared to unwrapped Ni@Fe2O3) as it offers a reversible capacity of 1051mAhg(-1) after 40 cycles at C/20, compared with 460mAhg(-1) for unwrapped Ni@Fe2O3. The C rate capability is also improved by the wrapping approach, as specific capacities for wrapped particles are about twice of those offered by unwrapped particles. Additionally, the benefit for the use of the advanced superparticle morphology is demonstrated by comparing wrapped Ni@Fe2O3 particles with wrapped Fe2O3 nanorice.

  12. Rational design of mixed ionic and electronic conducting perovskite oxides for solid oxide fuel cell anode materials: A case study for doped SrTiO3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suthirakun, Suwit; Xiao, Guoliang; Ammal, Salai Cheettu; Chen, Fanglin; zur Loye, Hans-Conrad; Heyden, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The effect of p- and n-type dopants on ionic and electronic conductivity of SrTiO3 based perovskites were investigated both computationally and experimentally. Specifically, we performed density functional theory (DFT) calculations of Na- and La-doped SrTiO3 and Na- and Nb-doped SrTiO3 systems. Constrained ab initio thermodynamic calculations were used to evaluate the phase stability and reducibility of doped SrTiO3 under both oxidizing and reducing synthesis conditions, as well as under anodic solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) conditions. The density of states (DOS) of these materials was analyzed to study the effects of p- and n-doping on the electronic conductivity. Furthermore, Na- and La-doped SrTiO3 and Na- and Nb-doped SrTiO3 samples were experimentally prepared and the conductivity was measured to confirm our computational predictions. The experimental observations are in very good agreement with the theoretical predictions that doping n-doped SrTiO3 with small amounts of p-type dopants promotes both the ionic and electronic conductivity of the material. This doping strategy is valid independent of p- and n-doping site and permits the synthesis of perovskite based mixed ionic/electronic conductors.

  13. Influence of lithium precursors and calcination atmospheres on graphene sheets-modified nano-Li4Ti5O12 anode material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Ting; Yuan, Tao; Zhang, Weimin; Ma, Jingjing; Zhang, Chunming; He, Yu-Shi; Liao, Xiao-Zhen; Ma, Zi-Feng

    2015-07-01

    The influence of Li precursors and calcination atmospheres on the reaction mechanisms, physical properties and electrochemical performance of graphene sheets (GS)-modified nano-Li4Ti5O12 (LTO/GS) has been systematically investigated. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and mass spectrometry (MS) results demonstrate the lithium precursor containing carboxyl anion such as lithium acetate (LiAc) and Li2CO3 interact with oxygen groups of graphene oxide (GO) by strong hydrogen bonds to restrict the morphology and the phase formation of products. We also notice from the thermogravimetry (TG) and MS results that the consumption of GS is proportional to oxygen content of lithium precursor. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and X-ray photoelectric spectroscopy (XPS) results indicate that the product calcined in reducing atmosphere possess smaller electrochemical polarization due to more reduced Ti3+ on the surface of the product. The LTO/GS sample with LiOH as Li precursor calcined in diluted hydrogen atmosphere show the best electrochemical performance with a capacity of 134.4 mAh g-1 at 10C discharge rate and very stable cycling life with a 98.6% capacity retention after 800 cycles at 40C rate. This study not only provides an optimization of Li precursor and calcination condition for LTO/GS anode material, but also guides any future one-step syntheses of lithium composite materials with GO participation.

  14. TiO2-B Nanoribbons Anchored with NiO Nanosheets as Hybrid Anode Materials for Rechargeable Lithium ion Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, J. Y.; Shen, J.X.; Wang, T.L.

    2015-01-01

    A new type of TiO2-B nanoribbon anchored with NiO nanosheets (TiO2@NiO) is synthesized via a hydrothermal process and a subsequent homogeneous precipitation method. XRD analysis indicates that TiO2-B and cubic NiO phases exist in the composites. According to SEM images, the morphology of the TiO2......@NiO hybrid material is unique, similar to that of leaf mosaic in biological systems. According to electrochemical investigations, the nanostructured hybrid material as an anode exhibits superior initial charge/discharge capacity and capacity retentions. The initial discharge capacity of the TiO2@Ni......O hybrid nanostructure is 395 mA h g−1, and the capacity remains 380 mA h g−1 after 50 charge/discharge cycles, which is about 96.2% capacity retention and 7.8% higher than that of pristine TiO2-B nanoribbons....

  15. Development of anode material based on La-substituted SrTiO{sub 3} perovskites doped with manganese and/or gallium for SOFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escudero, M.J. [Dpto Energia, CIEMAT, Av. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); School of Chemistry, Purdie Building, University of St Andrews, St Andres, Fife KY16 9ST (United Kingdom); Irvine, J.T.S. [School of Chemistry, Purdie Building, University of St Andrews, St Andres, Fife KY16 9ST (United Kingdom); Daza, L. [Dpto Energia, CIEMAT, Av. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Catalisis y Petroleoquimica (CSIC), Campus Cantoblanco, C/Marie Curie 2, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-07-01

    Materials based on La-substituted SrTiO{sub 3} perovskites doped with manganese and/or gallium for SOFC have been studied as novel anodes for solid oxide fuel cell. La{sub 4}Sr{sub 8}Ti{sub 11}Mn{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}O{sub 38-{delta}} (0 {<=} x {<=} 1) oxides were synthesized by solid state reaction and the influences of the manganese and/or gallium content on the structure, morphology, thermal properties and electrical conductivity of these materials has been investigated. All compounds show cubic structure with a space group Pm-3m. These compounds presented high electrical conductivity values under reducing atmosphere between 7.9 and 6.8 S cm{sup -1} at 900 C. For the composition x {>=} 0.5, the thermal expansion coefficient in both reducing and oxidizing atmosphere are close to that of SOFC electrolytes (8YSZ, CGD). In general, the substitution of Ga by Mn causes a slight reduction in each of the following, lattice parameter, degree of oxygen loss on reduction, thermal expansion coefficient, and electrical conductivity. (author)

  16. h-BN Nanosheets as 2D Substrates to Load 0D Fe3O4 Nanoparticles: A Hybrid Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Zhi-Qiang; Liu, Yi-Tao; Xie, Xu-Ming; Ye, Xiong-Ying; Zhu, Xiao-Dong

    2016-03-18

    h-BN, as an isoelectronic analogue of graphene, has improved thermal mechanical properties. Moreover, the liquid-phase production of h-BN is greener since harmful oxidants/reductants are unnecessary. Here we report a novel hybrid architecture by employing h-BN nanosheets as 2D substrates to load 0D Fe3O4 nanoparticles, followed by phenol/formol carbonization to form a carbon coating. The resulting carbon-encapsulated h-BN@Fe3O4 hybrid architecture exhibits synergistic interactions: 1) The h-BN nanosheets act as flexible 2D substrates to accommodate the volume change of the Fe3O4 nanoparticles; 2) The Fe3O4 nanoparticles serve as active materials to contribute to a high specific capacity; and 3) The carbon coating not only protects the hybrid architecture from deformation but also keeps the whole electrode highly conductive. The synergistic interactions translate into significantly enhanced electrochemical performances, laying a basis for the development of superior hybrid anode materials.

  17. Highly uniform Co9S8 nanoparticles grown on graphene nanosheets as advanced anode materials for improved Li-storage performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shumin; Wang, Jinxian; Wang, Jianwei; Zhang, Feifei; Wang, Limin

    2016-12-01

    A Co9S8/GNS (graphene nanosheets) nanocomposites has been synthesized via a facile solvothermal approach followed by thermal treatment in nitrogen at 500 °C using graphite oxide sheets, CoCl2·6H2O and thiourea as the starting materials. Highly uniform Co9S8 nanoparticles with a size of about 80-90 nm are evenly grafted on the surface of GNS, forming a unique Co9S8/GNS hybrid nanostructure. When evaluated as anode materials for lithium ion batteries, impressive electrochemical performances of the as-prepared nanocomposites are achieved compared to that of pure bulk Co9S8, with an high reversible capacity of 1480 mAh g-1. Moreover, the as-synthesized nanocomposites present excellent cycling durability and high-rate capability. The improvement in the electrochemical properties could be attributed to the well-designed structure of the Co9S8/GNS nanocomposite which possesses large number of accessible active sites for lithium-ion insertion, fast ion diffusion rate and good electronic conductivity.

  18. Nanoparticulate Mn3O4/VGCF composite conversion-anode material with extraordinarily high capacity and excellent rate capability for lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Feng; Yuan, Anbao; Xu, Jiaqiang

    2014-10-22

    In this work, highly conductive vapor grown carbon fiber (VGCF) was applied as an electrically conductive agent for facile synthesis of a nanoparticulate Mn3O4/VGCF composite material. This material exhibits super high specific capacity and excellent rate capability as a conversion-anode for lithium ion batteries. Rate performance test result demonstrates that at the discharge/charge current density of 0.2 A g(-1) a reversible capacity of ca. 950 mAh g(-1) is delivered, and when the current rate is increased to a high current density of 5 A g(-1), a reversible capacity of ca. 390 mAh g(-1) is retained. Cyclic performance examination conducted at the current density of 0.5 A g(-1) reveals that in the initial 20 cycles the reversible capacity decreases gradually from 855 to 747 mAh g(-1). However, since then, it increases gradually with cycle number increasing, and after 200 cycles an extraordinarily high reversible capacity of 1391 mAh g(-1) is achieved.

  19. Influence of Sc3+ doping in B-site on electrochemical performance of Li4Ti5O12 anode materials for lithium-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaoyao; Zhang, Chunming; Lin, Ye; Xiong, Ding-Bang; Wang, Dan; Wu, Xiaoyan; He, Dannong

    2014-03-01

    Anode materials Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) and Sc-doped Li4Ti4.95Sc0.05O12-δ (LTSO) for lithium-ion batteries are both successfully synthesized by the modified sol-gel method with ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) and citric acid (CA) as a bi-components chelating agent. The samples are characterized by XRD, BET, XPS, EDX and SEM. The dopant Sc totally enters into the 16d sites of the spinel structure of LTO, and then further affects its morphology and property. The LTSO powder exhibits a 3D network morphology and its grain size is about 200 nm. The LTSO electrode material exhibits an excellent initial discharge capacities of 174 and 94 mAh g-1 at 1 C and 40 C, respectively. The reversible capacities of LTSO at different current rates remain nearly 100% after 50 cycles, which are compared with the capacities of the second cycles. Sc3+ doping can greatly improve the electronic conductivity of LTO which is demonstrated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Cyclic voltammetry measurements also reveal that LTSO has small polarization resistance due to the high electrical conductivity and Li-ion apparent diffusion rate.

  20. Electrochemical Characterization of Li4Ti5O12/C Anode Material Prepared by Starch-Sol-Assisted Rheological Phase Method for Li-Ion Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenpo Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Li4Ti5O12/C composite was synthesized by starch-sol-assisted rheological phase method using inexpensive raw material starch as carbon coating precursor. The Li4Ti5O12/C powder was characterized using XRD, SEM, and TG techniques. The synthesized Li4Ti5O12 crystallites are cohesively covered by conductive carbon from starch sol which leads to increased conductivity, and the particle size of Li4Ti5O12/C is about 500 nm. The electrochemical performance of Li4Ti5O12/C was characterized by galvanostatic charge/discharge and EIS methods, and the results show that the Li4Ti5O12/C presents a high discharge capacity, high rate capability, and long cycle life. The capacity retention was at 87% (500 cycles at 1C and 73.0% (2000 cycles at 20C indicating promising high rate performance of Li4Ti5O12/C as anode material for lithium ion battery.

  1. Carbon-Free Porous Zn2GeO4 Nanofibers as Advanced Anode Materials for High-Performance Lithium Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huan-Huan; Wu, Xing-Long; Zhang, Lin-Lin; Fan, Chao-Ying; Wang, Hai-Feng; Li, Xiao-Ying; Sun, Hai-Zhu; Zhang, Jing-Ping; Yan, Qingyu

    2016-11-23

    In this work, carbon-free, porous, and micro/nanostructural Zn2GeO4 nanofibers (p-ZGONFs) have been prepared via a dissolution-recrystallization-assisted electrospinning technology. The successful electrospinning to fabricate the uniform p-ZGONFs mainly benefits from the preparation of completely dissolved solution, which avoids the sedimentation of common Ge-containing solid-state precursors. Electrochemical tests demonstrate that the as-prepared p-ZGONFs exhibit superior Li-storage properties in terms of high initial reversible capacity of 1075.6 mA h g(-1), outstanding cycling stability (no capacity decay after 130 cycles at 0.2 A g(-1)), and excellent high-rate capabilities (e.g., still delivering a capacity of 384.7 mA h g(-1) at a very high current density of 10 A g(-1)) when used as anode materials for lithium ion batteries (LIBs). All these Li-storage properties are much better than those of Zn2GeO4 nanorods prepared by a hydrothermal process. The much enhanced Li-storage properties should be attributed to its distinctive structural characteristics including the carbon-free composition, plentiful pores, and macro/nanostructures. Carbon-free composition promises its high theoretical Li-storage capacity, and plentiful pores cannot only accommodate the volumetric variations during the successive lithiation/delithiation but can also serve as the electrolyte reservoirs to facilitate Li interaction with electrode materials.

  2. Metal-organic framework derived Fe2O3@NiCo2O4 porous nanocages as anode materials for Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Gang; Zhang, Leilei; Zhang, Feifei; Wang, Limin

    2014-04-01

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with high surface areas and uniform microporous structures have shown potential application in many fields. Here we report a facial strategy to synthesize Fe2O3@NiCo2O4 porous nanocages by annealing core-shell Co3[Fe(CN)6]2@Ni3[Co(CN)6]2 nanocubes in air. The obtained samples have been systematically characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM and N2 adsorption-desorption analysis. The results show that the Fe2O3@NiCo2O4 porous nanocages have an average diameter of 213 nm and a shell thickness of about 30 nm. As anode materials for Li-ion batteries, the Fe2O3@NiCo2O4 porous nanocages exhibit a high initial discharge capacity of 1311.4 mA h g-1 at a current density of 100 mA g-1 (about 0.1 C). The capacity is retained at 1079.6 mA h g-1 after 100 cycles. The synergistic effect of the different components and the porous hollow structure contributes to the outstanding performance of the composite electrode.Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with high surface areas and uniform microporous structures have shown potential application in many fields. Here we report a facial strategy to synthesize Fe2O3@NiCo2O4 porous nanocages by annealing core-shell Co3[Fe(CN)6]2@Ni3[Co(CN)6]2 nanocubes in air. The obtained samples have been systematically characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM and N2 adsorption-desorption analysis. The results show that the Fe2O3@NiCo2O4 porous nanocages have an average diameter of 213 nm and a shell thickness of about 30 nm. As anode materials for Li-ion batteries, the Fe2O3@NiCo2O4 porous nanocages exhibit a high initial discharge capacity of 1311.4 mA h g-1 at a current density of 100 mA g-1 (about 0.1 C). The capacity is retained at 1079.6 mA h g-1 after 100 cycles. The synergistic effect of the different components and the porous hollow structure contributes to the outstanding performance of the composite electrode. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Detailed supplementary figures. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr06041a

  3. A redox-stable direct-methane solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with Sr2FeNb0.2Mo0.8O6-δ double perovskite as anode material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Hanping; Tao, Zetian; Liu, Shun; Yang, Yating

    2016-09-01

    Development of high-performing and redox-stable ceramic oxide electrode materials is a crucial technical step for direct hydrocarbon solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) operating at intermediate temperatures (550-700 °C). Here we report a nickel-free double perovskite, Sr2FeNb0.2Mo0.8O6-δ (SFNM20), for SOFC anode, and this anode shows outstanding performances with high resistance against carbon build-up and redox cycling in hydrocarbon fuels. At 800 °C, the SFNM20 anode shows electrical conductivity of 5.3 S cm-1 in 5% H2 and peak power densities of 520 and 380 mW cm-2 using H2 and CH4 as the fuel, respectively. The cell exhibits a very stable performance under different constant current loads in H2 and CH4 at 700 °C and high redox stability against the gas environment changes in the anode chamber. In addition, the electrode is structurally stable in various fuels, suggesting that it is a feasible material candidate for the electrode of high-performing SOFCs.

  4. Effect of the Side Chains and Anode Material on Thermal Stability and Performance of Bulk-Heterojunction Solar Cells Using DPP(TBFu2 Derivatives as Donor Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Kovalenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An optimized fabrication of bulk-heterojunction solar cells (BHJ SCs based on previously reported diketopyrrolopyrrole donor, ethyl-hexylated DPP(TBFu2, as well as two new DPP(TBFu2 derivatives with ethyl-hexyl acetate and diethyl acetal solubilizing side-chains and PC60BM as an acceptor is demonstrated. Slow gradual annealing of the solar cell causing the effective donor-acceptor reorganization, and as a result higher power conversion efficiency (PCE, is described. By replacing a hole transporting layer PEDOT:PSS with MoO3 we obtained higher PCE values as well as higher thermal stability of the anode contact interface. DPP(TBFu2 derivative containing ethyl-hexyl acetate solubilizing side-chains possessed the best as-cast self-assembly and high crystallinity. However, the presence of ethyl-hexyl acetate and diethyl acetal electrophilic side-chains stabilizes HOMO energy of isolated DPP(TBFu2 donors with respect to the ethyl-hexylated one, according to cyclic voltammetry.

  5. Enhanced apatite-forming ability and antibacterial activity of porous anodic alumina embedded with CaO-SiO2-Ag2O bioactive materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Siyu; Li, Xiaohong; Yang, Pengan; Ni, Shirong; Hong, Feng; Webster, Thomas J

    2016-01-01

    In this study, to provide porous anodic alumina (PAA) with bioactivity and anti-bacterial properties, sol-gel derived bioactive CaO-SiO2-Ag2O materials were loaded onto and into PAA nano-pores (termed CaO-SiO2-Ag2O/PAA) by a sol-dipping method and subsequent calcination of the gel-glasses. The in vitro apatite-forming ability of the CaO-SiO2-Ag2O/PAA specimens was evaluated by soaking them in simulated body fluid (SBF). The surface microstructure and chemical property before and after soaking in SBF were characterized. Release of ions into the SBF was also measured. In addition, the antibacterial properties of the samples were tested against Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). The results showed that CaO-SiO2-Ag2O bioactive materials were successfully decorated onto and into PAA nano-pores. In vitro SBF experiments revealed that the CaO-SiO2-Ag2O/PAA specimens dramatically enhanced the apatite-forming ability of PAA in SBF and Ca, Si and Ag ions were released from the samples in a sustained and slow manner. Importantly, E. coli and S. aureus were both killed on the CaO-SiO2-Ag2O/PAA (by 100%) samples compared to PAA controls after 3 days of culture. In summary, this study demonstrated that the CaO-SiO2-Ag2O/PAA samples possess good apatite-forming ability and high antibacterial activity causing it to be a promising bioactive coating candidate for implant materials for orthopedic applications.

  6. MoO2-ordered mesoporous carbon hybrids as anode materials with highly improved rate capability and reversible capacity for lithium-ion battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ailian; Li, Caixia; Tang, Rui; Yin, Longwei; Qi, Yongxin

    2013-08-28

    A novel hybrid of MoO2-ordered mesoporous carbon (MoO2-OMC) was prepared through a two-step solvothermal chemical reaction route. The electrochemical performances of the mesoporous MoO2-OMC hybrids were examined using galvanostatical charge-discharge, cyclic voltammetry, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. The MoO2-OMC hybrid exhibits significantly improved electrochemical performance of high reversible capacity, high-rate capability, and excellent cycling performance as an anode electrode material for Li ion batteries. It is revealed that the MoO2-OMC hybrid could deliver the first discharge capacity of 1641.8 mA h g(-1) with an initial Coulombic efficiency of 63.6%, and a reversible capacity as high as 1049.1 mA h g(-1) even after 50 cycles at a current density of 100 mA g(-1), much higher than the theoretical capacity of MoO2 (838 mA h g(-1)) and OMC materials. The MoO2-OMC hybrid demonstrates an excellent high rate capability with capacity of ∼600 mA h g(-1) even at a charge current density of 1600 mA g(-1) after 50 cycles, which is approximately 11.1 times higher than that of the OMC (54 mA h g(-1)) materials. The improved rate capability and reversible capacity of the MoO2-OMC hybrid are attributed to a synergistic reaction between the MoO2 nanoparticles and mesoporous OMC matrices. It is noted that the electrochemical performance of the MoO2-OMC hybrid is evidently much better than the previous MoO2-based hybrids.

  7. Studies of Nano-sized Co3O4 as Anode Materials for Lithium-ion Batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG, Fenga; ZHAN, Hui; ZHOU, Yun-Hong

    2003-01-01

    The structural evolution of the Co3O4 fine powders prepared by rheological phase reaction and pyrolysis method upon different temperature has been investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) topography. The electrochemical performance of Co3O4electrode materials for Li-ion batteries is studied in the form of Li/Co3O4 cells. The reversible capacity as high as 930 mAh/g for the Co3O4 sample heat-treated at 600 C is achieved and sustained over 30 times charge-discharge cycles at room temperature. The detailed information concerning the reaction mechanism of Co3O4 active material together with lithium ion is obtained through ex-situ XRD topography, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis and cyclic voltammetry (CV) technique. And it is revealed that a "two-step" reaction is involved in the charge and discharge of the Li/Co3O4 cells, in which Co3O4 active material is reversibly reduced into xCo·(3 - x )CoO and then into metallic Co.

  8. Improved electrochemical performance of Ag-modified Li4Ti5O12 anode material in a broad voltage window

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yan-Rong Zhu; Ting-Feng Yi; Hong-Tao Ma; Yong-Quan Ma; Li-Juan Jiang; Rong-Sun Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Li4Ti5O12/Ag composites were synthesized by a solid-state method. The effect of Ag modification on the physical and electrochemical properties is discussed by the characterizations of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, cycling and rate tests. The lattice parameter of Li4Ti5O12 with a low Ag content is almost not changed, but the lattice parameter becomes larger due to the high content of Ag. Li4Ti5O12/Ag material has a uniform particle size which is about 1 m. Modification of appropriate Ag is beneficial to the reversible intercalation and deintercalation of Li+. Modification of Ag not only decreases the charge transfer resistance of Li4Ti5O12 material, but also improves the diffusion coefficient of lithium ion. Li4Ti5O12/Ag (3 mass%) material has the lowest charge transfer resistance, the highest diffusion coefficient of lithium ion and the best rate cycling performance.

  9. Improving the Cycling Life of Aluminum and Germanium Thin Films for use as Anodic Materials in Li-Ion Batteries.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudak, Nicholas [Dominican Univ., River Forest, IL (United States); Huber, Dale L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gulley, Gerald [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The cycling of high-capacity electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries results in significant volumetric expansion and contraction, and this leads to mechanical failure of the electrodes. To increase battery performance and reliability, there is a drive towards the use of nanostructured electrode materials and nanoscale surface coatings. As a part of the Visiting Faculty Program (VFP) last summer, we examined the ability of aluminum oxide and gold film surface coatings to improve the mechanical and cycling properties of vapor-deposited aluminum films in lithium-ion batteries. Nanoscale gold coatings resulted in significantly improved cycling behavior for the thinnest aluminum films whereas aluminum oxide coatings did not improve the cycling behavior of the aluminum films. This summer we performed a similar investigation on vapor-deposited germanium, which has an even higher theoretical capacity per unit mass than aluminum. Because the mechanism of lithium-alloying is different for each electrode material, we expected the effects of coating the germanium surface with aluminum oxide or gold to differ significantly from previous observations. Indeed, we found that gold coatings gave only small or negligible improvements in cycling behavior of germanium films, but aluminum oxide (Al2O3) coatings gave significant improvements in cycling over the range of film thicknesses tested.

  10. Graphitic Carbon-Coated FeSe2 Hollow Nanosphere-Decorated Reduced Graphene Oxide Hybrid Nanofibers as an Efficient Anode Material for Sodium Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jung Sang; Lee, Jung-Kul; Kang, Yun Chan

    2016-04-01

    A novel one-dimensional nanohybrid comprised of conductive graphitic carbon (GC)-coated hollow FeSe2 nanospheres decorating reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanofiber (hollow nanosphere FeSe2@GC-rGO) was designed as an efficient anode material for sodium ion batteries and synthesized by introducing the nanoscale Kirkendall effect into the electrospinning method. The electrospun nanofibers transformed into hollow nanosphere FeSe2@GC-rGO hybrid nanofibers through a Fe@GC-rGO intermediate. The discharge capacities of the bare FeSe2 nanofibers, nanorod FeSe2-rGO-amorphous carbon (AC) hybrid nanofibers, and hollow nanosphere FeSe2@GC-rGO hyrbid nanofibers at a current density of 1 A g-1 for the 150th cycle were 63, 302, and 412 mA h g-1, respectively, and their corresponding capacity retentions measured from the 2nd cycle were 11, 73, and 82%, respectively. The hollow nanosphere FeSe2@GC-rGO hybrid nanofibers delivered a high discharge capacity of 352 mA h g-1 even at an extremely high current density of 10 A g-1. The enhanced electrochemical properties of the hollow nanosphere FeSe2@GC-rGO composite nanofibers arose from the synergetic effects of the FeSe2 hollow morphology and highly conductive rGO matrix.

  11. Electrosynthesized Ni-Al Layered Double Hydroxide-Pt Nanoparticles as an Inorganic Nanocomposite and Potentate Anodic Material for Methanol Electrooxidation in Alkaline Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biuck Habibi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Ni-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH-Pt nanoparticles (PtNPs as an inorganic nano-composite was electrosynthesized on the glassy carbon electrode (GCE by a facile and fast two-step electrochemical process. Structure and physicochemical properties of PtNPs/Ni-Al LDH/GCE were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and electrochemical methods. Then, electrocatalytic and stability characterizations of the PtNPs/Ni-Al LDH/GCE for methanol oxidation in alkaline media were investigated in detail by cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry, and chronopotentiometry measurements. PtNPs/Ni-Al LDH/GCE exhibited higher electrocatalytic activity than PtNPs/GCE and Ni-Al LDH/GCE. Also, the resulted chronoam-perograms indicated that the PtNPs/Ni-Al LDH/GCE has a better stability. Copyright © 2017 BCREC GROUP. All rights reserved Received: 30th March 2016; Revised: 29th July 2016; Accepted: 9th September 2016 How to Cite: Habibi, B., Ghaderi, S. (2017. Electro Synthesized Ni-Al Layered Double Hydroxide-Pt Nanoparticles as an Inorganic Nanocomposite and Potentate Anodic Material for Methanol Electro-Oxidation in Alkaline Media. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 12(1: 1-13 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.12.1.460.1-13 Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.12.1.460.1-13

  12. Preparation and Electrochemical Performance of Nano-Co3O4 Anode Materials from Spent Li-Ion Batteries for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuanyue Hu; Jun Guo; Jin Wen; Yangxi Peng

    2013-01-01

    A hydrometallurgical process for the recovery of cobalt oxalate from spent lithium-ion batteries was used to recycle cobalt compound by using alkali leaching,reductive acid leaching and chemical deposition of cobalt oxalate.The recycled cobalt oxalate was used to synthesize nano-Co3O4 anode material by sol-gel method.The samples were characterized by thermal gravity analysis and differential thermal analysis (TGA/DTA),X-ray diffraction (XRD),scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and charge/discharge measurements.The influence of molar ratio of Co2+ to citric acid and calcination temperature on the structure and electrochemical performance of nano-Co3O4 was evaluated.As the molar ratio of Co2+ to citric acid is 1:1,the face-centered cubic (fcc) Co3O4 powder shows the discharge capacity of 760.9 mA h g-1,the high coulombic efficiency of 99.7% in the first cycle at the current density of 125 mA g-1,and the excellent cycling performance with the reversible capacity of 442.3 mA h g-1 after 20 cycles at the current density of 250 mA g-1.

  13. Investigation of a porous NiSi2/Si composite anode material used for lithium-ion batteries by X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dong; Jia, Haiping; Rana, Jatinkumar; Placke, Tobias; Klöpsch, Richard; Schumacher, Gerhard; Winter, Martin; Banhart, John

    2016-08-01

    Local structural changes in a porous NiSi2/Si composite anode material are investigated by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. It is observed that the NiSi2 phase shows a strong metal-metal bond character and no clear changes can be observed in XANES during lithiation and de-lithiation. The variation of the number of nearest neighbors of the Ni atom for the 1st coordinate Ni-Si shell and σ2 in the 1st cycle, both determined by refinement, demonstrates that NiSi2 can partially react with lithium during discharge and charge. A partially reversible non-stoichiometric compound NiSi2-y is formed during cell operation, the crystal structure of which is the same as that of the NiSi2 phase. It can be concluded that NiSi2 in the composite not only accommodates the pronounced volume changes caused by the lithium uptake into silicon, but also contributes to the reversible capacity of the cell.

  14. Post-annealing effects on the electrochemical performance of a Si/TiSi2 heteronanostructured anode material prepared by mechanical alloying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Min-Seon; Lee, Taeg-Woo; Park, Jung-Bae; Lim, Sung-Hwan; Lee, Sung-Man

    2017-03-01

    A change in the microstructure of Ti-Si alloys synthesized by high-energy mechanical milling through post-annealing significantly enhances their electrochemical performances as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). The microstructures of ball-milled and post-annealed powders are investigated using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). The Si phase is uniformly distributed on the silicide (TiSi2) matrix. The individual Si domains of the mechanical alloying (MA) sample consist of amorphous and crystalline regions with a diffuse interface between the two phases. When MA powder is annealed at 600 °C, the Si phase has a well-developed nanocrystalline microstructure: a multi-grain structure with random orientation of nanometric crystal domains. Annealing at 600 °C causes a significant improvement in electrochemical performance parameters like cycling stability and rate capability. However, when annealed at 800 °C, the electrochemical performances deteriorate due to an increase in the size of Si domains.

  15. High performance amorphous-Si@SiOx/C composite anode materials for Li-ion batteries derived from ball-milling and in situ carbonization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dingsheng; Gao, Mingxia; Pan, Hongge; Wang, Junhua; Liu, Yongfeng

    2014-06-01

    Amorphous-Si@SiOx/C composites with amorphous Si particles as core and coated with a double layer of SiOx and carbon are prepared by ball-milling crystal micron-sized silicon powders and carbonization of the citric acid intruded in the ball-milled Si. Different ratios of Si to citric acid are used in order to optimize the electrochemical performance. It is found that SiOx exists naturally at the surfaces of raw Si particles and its content increases to ca. 24 wt.% after ball-milling. With an optimized Si to citric acid weight ratio of 1/2.5, corresponding to 8.4 wt.% C in the composite, a thin carbon layer is coated on the surfaces of a-Si@SiOx particles, moreover, floc-like carbon also forms and connects the carbon coated a-Si@SiOx particles. The composite provides a capacity of 1450 mA h g-1 after 100 cycles at a current density of 100 mA g1, and a capacity of 1230 mA h g-1 after 100 cycles at 500 mA g1 as anode material for lithium-ion batteries. Effects of ball-milling and the addition of citric acid on the microstructure and electrochemical properties of the composites are revealed and the mechanism of the improvement in electrochemical properties is discussed.

  16. Co3V2O8 Sponge Network Morphology Derived from Metal-Organic Framework as an Excellent Lithium Storage Anode Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soundharrajan, Vaiyapuri; Sambandam, Balaji; Song, Jinju; Kim, Sungjin; Jo, Jeonggeun; Kim, Seokhun; Lee, Seulgi; Mathew, Vinod; Kim, Jaekook

    2016-04-01

    Metal-organic framework (MOF)-based synthesis of battery electrodes has presntly become a topic of significant research interest. Considering the complications to prepare Co3V2O8 due to the criticality of its stoichiometric composition, we report on a simple MOF-based solvothermal synthesis of Co3V2O8 for use as potential anodes for lithium battery applications. Characterizations by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, high resolution electron microscopy, and porous studies revealed that the phase pure Co3V2O8 nanoparticles are interconnected to form a sponge-like morphology with porous properties. Electrochemical measurements exposed the excellent lithium storage (∼1000 mAh g(-1) at 200 mA g(-1)) and retention properties (501 mAh g(-1) at 1000 mA g(-1) after 700 cycles) of the prepared Co3V2O8 electrode. A notable rate performance of 430 mAh g(-1) at 3200 mA g(-1) was also observed, and ex situ investigations confirmed the morphological and structural stability of this material. These results validate that the unique nanostructured morphology arising from the use of the ordered array of MOF networks is favorable for improving the cyclability and rate capability in battery electrodes. The synthetic strategy presented herein may provide solutions to develop phase pure mixed metal oxides for high-performance electrodes for useful energy storage applications.

  17. Electrochemical performance of potassium-doped wüstite nanoparticles supported on graphene as an anode material for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Dong-Won; Jeong, Jae-Hoon; Han, Sang-Wook; Oh, Eun-Suok

    2016-05-01

    A graphene composite with potassium-doped FeO nanoparticles (K-FeO/graphene) is synthesized by the thermal diffusion of potassium into Fe2O3/graphene using polyol reduction. This is applied as anode material in lithium ion batteries in order to enhance the electrochemical performance of conventional iron oxides (hematite or magnetite). Rhombohedral Fe2O3 crystals are transformed into face-centered cubic FeO crystals, which show a broad d-spacing (5.2 Å) between their (111) crystal planes, by the calcination of potassium-added Fe2O3/graphene. Because of its structural characteristics, the K-FeO/graphene composite demonstrates an excellent discharge capacity of 1776 mA h g-1 at the 50th cycle at a current of 100 mA h g-1 with stable capacity retention. Even with the very high current density of 18.56 A g-1, its capacity remains at 851 mA h g-1 after 800 cycles.

  18. Mesoporous MFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (M = Mn, Co, and Ni) for anode materials of lithium-ion batteries: Synthesis and electrochemical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Lianfeng, E-mail: duanlf@mail.ccut.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Structural Materials, Ministry of Education, and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Changchun University of Technology, Changchun 130012 (China); Wang, Yuanxin; Wang, Linan [Key Laboratory of Advanced Structural Materials, Ministry of Education, and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Changchun University of Technology, Changchun 130012 (China); Zhang, Feifei [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wang, Limin [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • MFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (M = Mn, Co, and Ni) are synthesized by a template-free hydrothermal method. • The mesoporous morphology is formed by self-assembly of crystal nucleus. • The mesporous MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} have the active phase and the synergy for Li-ion storage. - Abstract: The MFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (M = Mn, Co, and Ni) mesoporous spheres with an average diameter of 250 nm were synthesized through a template-free hydrothermal method. The mesoporous MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} with a large surface area of 87.5 m{sup 2}/g and an average pore size of 27.52 nm were obtained. As the anode materials for Li-ion batteries, the mesoporous MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} exhibits excellent initial charge and discharge capacities of 1010 and 642.5 mA h/g. After 50 cycles, the discharge capacity could still remain at 379 mA h/g. The results showed that the active phase and the synergy between different metal oxides greatly improved the electrochemical performance, and the mesoporous composite could stabilize the structure of the electrodes.

  19. A Facile Synthesis of ZnCo2O4 Nanocluster Particles and the Performance as Anode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yue; Zeng, Weijia; Li, Lin; Zhang, Yuzi; Dong, Yingnan; Cao, Dianxue; Wang, Guiling; Lucht, Brett L.; Ye, Ke; Cheng, Kui

    2017-04-01

    ZnCo2O4 nanocluster particles (NCPs) were prepared through a designed hydrothermal method, with the assistance of a surfactant, sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate. The crystalline structure and surface morphology of ZnCo2O4 were investigated by XRD, XPS, SEM, TEM, and BET analyses. The results of SEM and TEM suggest a clear nanocluster particle structure of cubic ZnCo2O4 ( 100 nm in diameter), which consists of aggregated primary nanoparticles ( 10 nm in diameter), is achieved. The electrochemical behavior of synthesized ZnCo2O4 NCPs was investigated by galvanostatic discharge/charge measurements and cyclic voltammetry. The ZnCo2O4 NCPs exhibit a high reversible capacity of 700 mAh g-1 over 100 cycles under a current density of 100 mA g-1 with an excellent coulombic efficiency of 98.9% and a considerable cycling stability. This work demonstrates a facile technique designed to synthesize ZnCo2O4 NCPs which show great potential as anode materials for lithium ion batteries.

  20. CuLi2Sn and Cu2LiSn: Characterization by single crystal XRD and structural discussion towards new anode materials for Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürtauer, Siegfried; Effenberger, Herta S.; Flandorfer, Hans

    2014-12-01

    The stannides CuLi2Sn (CSD-427095) and Cu2LiSn (CSD-427096) were synthesized by induction melting of the pure elements and annealing at 400 °C. The phases were reinvestigated by X-ray powder and single-crystal X-ray diffractometry. Within both crystal structures the ordered CuSn and Cu2Sn lattices form channels which host Cu and Li atoms at partly mixed occupied positions exhibiting extensive vacancies. For CuLi2Sn, the space group F-43m. was verified (structure type CuHg2Ti; a=6.295(2) Å; wR2(F²)=0.0355 for 78 unique reflections). The 4(c) and 4(d) positions are occupied by Cu atoms and Cu+Li atoms, respectively. For Cu2LiSn, the space group P63/mmc was confirmed (structure type InPt2Gd; a=4.3022(15) Å, c=7.618(3) Å; wR2(F²)=0.060 for 199 unique reflections). The Cu and Li atoms exhibit extensive disorder; they are distributed over the partly occupied positions 2(a), 2(b) and 4(e). Both phases seem to be interesting in terms of application of Cu-Sn alloys as anode materials for Li-ion batteries.

  1. Multiscale anode materials in lithium ion batteries by combining micro- with nanoparticles: design of mesoporous TiO2 microfibers@nitrogen doped carbon composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wei; Rechberger, Felix; Primc, Darinka; Niederberger, Markus

    2015-09-07

    TiO2 has been considered as a promising anode material for lithium ion batteries. However, its poor rate capability originating from the intrinsically low lithium ion diffusivity and its poor electronic conductivity hampers putting such an application into practice. Both issues can be addressed by nanostructure engineering and conductive surface coating. Herein, we report a template-assisted synthesis of micron sized TiO2 fibers consisting of a mesoporous network of anatase nanoparticles of about 7.5 nm and coated by N doped carbon. In a first step, an amorphous layer of TiO2 was deposited on cobalt silicate nanobelts and subsequently transformed into crystalline anatase nanoparticles by hydrothermal treatment. The N doped carbon coating was realized by in situ polymerization of dopamine on the crystalline TiO2 followed by annealing under N2. After removal of the template, we obtained the final mesoporous TiO2 fibers@N doped carbon composite. Electrochemical tests revealed that the composite electrode exhibited excellent electrochemical properties in terms of specific capacity, rate performance and long term stability.

  2. Synthesis of TiO{sub 2} by electrochemical method from TiCl{sub 4} solution as anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nur, Adrian, E-mail: adriannur@staff.uns.ac.id; Purwanto, Agus; Jumari, Arif; Dyartanti, Endah R.; Sari, Sifa Dian Permata; Hanifah, Ita Nur [Research Group of Advanced Material, Department of Chemical Engineering, Sebelas Maret University, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36 A Kentingan, Surakarta Indonesia 57126 (Indonesia)

    2016-02-08

    Metal oxide combined with graphite becomes interesting composition. TiO{sub 2} is a good candidate for Li ion battery anode because of cost, availability of sufficient materials, and environmentally friendly. TiO{sub 2} gravimetric capacity varied within a fairly wide range. TiO{sub 2} crystals form highly depends on the synthesis method used. The electrochemical method is beginning to emerge as a valuable option for preparing TiO{sub 2} powders. Using the electrochemical method, the particle can easily be controlled by simply adjusting the imposed current or potential to the system. In this work, the effects of some key parameters of the electrosynthesis on the formation of TiO{sub 2} have been investigated. The combination of graphite and TiO{sub 2} particle has also been studied for lithium-ion batteries. The homogeneous solution for the electrosynthesis of TiO{sub 2} powders was TiCl{sub 4} in ethanol solution. The electrolysis was carried out in an electrochemical cell consisting of two carbon electrodes with dimensions of (5 × 2) cm. The electrodes were set parallel with a distance of 2.6 cm between the electrodes and immersed in the electrolytic solution at a depth of 2 cm. The electrodes were connected to the positive and negative terminals of a DC power supply. The electrosynthesis was performed galvanostatically at 0.5 to 2.5 hours and voltages were varied from 8 to 12 V under constant stirring at room temperature. The resulted suspension was aged at 48 hrs, filtered, dried directly in an oven at 150°C for 2 hrs, washed 2 times, and dried again 60 °C for 6 hrs. The particle product has been used to lithium-ion battery as anode. Synthesis of TiO{sub 2} particle by electrochemical method at 10 V for 1 to 2.5 hrs resulted anatase and rutile phase.

  3. Progress in Research of Iron Oxide Composite Anode Materials for Li-ion Battery%氧化铁基锂离子电池负极材料研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田嘉铭; 王静; 杨金萍; 赵清清

    2014-01-01

    铁氧化物负极材料具有理论容量高、放电平台低、合成方法简单、对环境友好等特点,受到研究者的关注。综述了铁氧化物负极材料在锂离子电池中的应用、制备方法等方面的最新研究进展,介绍了提高铁氧化物材料电化学性能的方式,提出铁氧化物负极材料可望提高锂离子电池的综合性能。%The more attention has been paid to the iron oxide anode materials for lithium ion battery due to their special characteristics such as higher theoretical capacity, low discharge potential, simple synthesis methods and friendly to the environment.Recent progress was reviewed on the applications, preparation methods of iron oxide anode materials in lithium ion batteries.The method of increasing the electrochemical performance was introduced.The iron oxide anode materials is hopeful to increase the gen-eral performances of lithium ion battery materials.

  4. One-pot hydrothermal synthesis of Nitrogen-doped graphene as high-performance anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Zheng; Ju, Zhicheng; Zhao, Yulong; Wan, Jialu; Zhu, Yabo; Qiang, Yinghuai; Qian, Yitai

    2016-05-01

    Nitrogen-doped (N-doped) graphene has been prepared by a simple one-step hydrothermal approach using hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) as single carbon and nitrogen source. In this hydrothermal process, HMTA pyrolyzes at high temperature and the N-doped graphene subsequently self-assembles on the surface of MgO particles (formed by the Mg powder reacting with H2O) during which graphene synthesis and nitrogen doping are simultaneously achieved. The as-synthesized graphene with incorporation of nitrogen groups possesses unique structure including thin layer thickness, high surface area, mesopores and vacancies. These structural features and their synergistic effects could not only improve ions and electrons transportation with nanometer-scale diffusion distances but also promote the penetration of electrolyte. The N-doped graphene exhibits high reversible capacity, superior rate capability as well as long-term cycling stability, which demonstrate that the N-doped graphene with great potential to be an efficient electrode material. The experimental results provide a new hydrothermal route to synthesize N-doped graphene with potential application for advanced energy storage, as well as useful information to design new graphene materials.

  5. Increased chondrocyte adhesion on nanotubular anodized titanium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Kevin; Yao, Chang; Webster, Thomas J

    2009-03-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated increased osteoblast (bone-forming cells) functions (including adhesion, synthesis of intracellular collagen, alkaline phosphatase activity, and deposition of calcium-containing minerals) on titanium anodized to possess nanometer features compared with their unanodized counterparts. Such titanium materials were anodized to possess novel nanotubes also capable of drug delivery. Since titanium has not only experienced wide spread commercial use in orthopedic but also in cartilage applications, the objective of the present in vitro study was for the first time to investigate chondrocyte (cartilage synthesizing cells) functions on titanium anodized to possess nanotubes. For this purpose, titanium was anodized in dilute hydrofluoric acid at 20 V for 20 min. Results showed increased chondrocyte adhesion on anodized titanium with nanotube structures compared with unanodized titanium. Importantly, the present study also provided evidence why. Since material characterization studies revealed significantly greater nanometer roughness and similar chemistry as well as crystallinity between nanotubular anodized and unanodized titanium, the results of the present study highlight the importance of the nanometer roughness provided by anodized nanotubes on titanium for enhancing chondrocyte adhesion. In this manner, the results of the present in vitro study indicated that anodization might be a promising quick and inexpensive method to modify the surface of titanium-based implants to induce better chondrocyte adhesion for cartilage applications.

  6. Nitrogen-doped carbon/graphene hybrid anode material for sodium-ion batteries with excellent rate capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huan; Jia, Mengqiu; Cao, Bin; Chen, Renjie; Lv, Xinying; Tang, Renjie; Wu, Feng; Xu, Bin

    2016-07-01

    Nitrogen-doped carbon/graphene (NCG) hybrid materials were prepared by an in-situ polymerization and followed pyrolysis for sodium-ion batteries. The NCG has a large interlayer distance (0.360 nm) and a high nitrogen content of 7.54 at%, resulting in a high reversible sodium storage capacity of 336 mAh g-1 at 30 mA g-1. The NCG shows a sandwich-like structure, i.e. nitrogen-doped carbon nanosheets closely coated on both sides of graphene. The carbon nanosheets shorten the ion diffusion distance, while the sandwiched graphene with high electronic conductivity guarantees fast electron transport, making the NCG exhibit excellent rate capability (94 mAh g-1 at 5 A g-1). It also exhibits good cycle stability with a capacity retention of 89% after 200 cycles at 50 mA g-1.

  7. Masking of aluminum surface against anodizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, G. B.; Thompson, R. E.

    1969-01-01

    Masking material and a thickening agent preserve limited unanodized areas when aluminum surfaces are anodized with chromic acid. For protection of large areas it combines well with a certain self-adhesive plastic tape.

  8. Influence of the operating parameters over the current efficiency and corrosion rate in the Hall-Heroult aluminum cell with tin oxide anode substrate material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Virgil Constantin

    2015-01-01

    A systematic laboratory study was conducted on current efficiency and corrosion obtalned in cryolite–alumina melts with SnO2–Sb2O3–CuO ceramic inert anodes. The current efficiency (CE) was determined by measuring the total amount of oxygen evolved at the anode and was found to be~95%. The influence of operating parameters (inter-elec-trode distance, temperature and current density) was evaluated. The quantitative interdependencies as wel as the ranges of CE optimal values were established (2–3 cm, 940–960 °C and 0.7–0.8 A·cm−2). The corrosion process of these anodes was evaluated by the mass loss method. The evaluation also took care of the corrosion data, as the prob-lem of the anode corrosion appeared to be the maln obstacle for the use of those anodes in the commercial cel s. Low-ering of the ACD up to 2 cm did not aggravate anode corrosion.

  9. Magnesium anode for chloride ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiangyu; Li, Qiang; Zhao-Karger, Zhirong; Gao, Ping; Fink, Karin; Shen, Xiaodong; Fichtner, Maximilian

    2014-07-23

    A key advantage of chloride ion battery (CIB) is its possibility to use abundant electrode materials that are different from those in Li ion batteries. Mg anode is presented as such a material for the first time and Mg/C composite prepared by ball milling of Mg and carbon black powders or thermally decomposed MgH2/C composite has been tested as anode for CIB. The electrochemical performance of FeOCl/Mg and BiOCl/Mg was investigated, demonstrating the feasibility of using Mg as anode.

  10. Advances in aluminum anodizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, K. H.

    1969-01-01

    White anodize is applied to aluminum alloy surfaces by specific surface preparation, anodizing, pigmentation, and sealing techniques. The development techniques resulted in alloys, which are used in space vehicles, with good reflectance values and excellent corrosive resistance.

  11. An Insoluble Titanium-Lead Anode for Sulfate Electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferdman, Alla

    2005-05-11

    The project is devoted to the development of novel insoluble anodes for copper electrowinning and electrolytic manganese dioxide (EMD) production. The anodes are made of titanium-lead composite material produced by techniques of powder metallurgy, compaction of titanium powder, sintering and subsequent lead infiltration. The titanium-lead anode combines beneficial electrochemical behavior of a lead anode with high mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of a titanium anode. In the titanium-lead anode, the titanium stabilizes the lead, preventing it from spalling, and the lead sheathes the titanium, protecting it from passivation. Interconnections between manufacturing process, structure, composition and properties of the titanium-lead composite material were investigated. The material containing 20-30 vol.% of lead had optimal combination of mechanical and electrochemical properties. Optimal process parameters to manufacture the anodes were identified. Prototypes having optimized composition and structure were produced for testing in operating conditions of copper electrowinning and EMD production. Bench-scale, mini-pilot scale and pilot scale tests were performed. The test anodes were of both a plate design and a flow-through cylindrical design. The cylindrical anodes were composed of cylinders containing titanium inner rods and fitting over titanium-lead bushings. The cylindrical design allows the electrolyte to flow through the anode, which enhances diffusion of the electrolyte reactants. The cylindrical anodes demonstrate higher mass transport capabilities and increased electrical efficiency compared to the plate anodes. Copper electrowinning represents the primary target market for the titanium-lead anode. A full-size cylindrical anode performance in copper electrowinning conditions was monitored over a year. The test anode to cathode voltage was stable in the 1.8 to 2.0 volt range. Copper cathode morphology was very smooth and uniform. There was no

  12. Synthesis of NiCo2O4 Microellipsoids as Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hao; Xu, Shan; Li, Lin; Feng, Chuanqi; Wang, Shiquan

    2016-10-01

    NiCo2O4 microellipsoids have been synthesized by a rheological-phase hydrothermal method to obtain the precursors followed by annealing at 450°C for 4 h. The effects of different hydrothermal temperatures (140°C to 180°C) on the morphologies and electrochemical properties of the final product were systematically investigated. NiCo2O4 microellipsoids synthesized at 180°C exhibited the best electrochemical properties, with high reversible capacity (921 mAh g-1 at current density of 100 mA g-1) and good cycling stability (820 mAh g-1 even after 100 cycles), compared with other samples. They also delivered discharge capacity of 586 mAh g-1 at relatively high current density of 800 mA g-1. The remarkable electrochemical performance of the NiCo2O4 microellipsoids can be attributed to their high surface area. These results indicate that NiCo2O4 microellipsoids could be a promising electrode material for lithium-ion batteries.

  13. Octahedral Tin Dioxide Nanocrystals Anchored on Vertically Aligned Carbon Aerogels as High Capacity Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingkai; Liu, Yuqing; Zhang, Yuting; Li, Yiliao; Zhang, Peng; Yan, Yan; Liu, Tianxi

    2016-01-01

    A novel binder-free graphene - carbon nanotubes - SnO2 (GCNT-SnO2) aerogel with vertically aligned pores was prepared via a simple and efficient directional freezing method. SnO2 octahedrons exposed of {221} high energy facets were uniformly distributed and tightly anchored on multidimensional graphene/carbon nanotube (GCNT) composites. Vertically aligned pores can effectively prevent the emersion of “closed” pores which cannot load the active SnO2 nanoparticles, further ensure quick immersion of electrolyte throughout the aerogel, and can largely shorten the transport distance between lithium ions and active sites of SnO2. Especially, excellent electrical conductivity of GCNT-SnO2 aerogel was achieved as a result of good interconnected networks of graphene and CNTs. Furthermore, meso- and macroporous structures with large surface area created by the vertically aligned pores can provide great benefit to the favorable transport kinetics for both lithium ion and electrons and afford sufficient space for volume expansion of SnO2. Due to the well-designed architecture of GCNT-SnO2 aerogel, a high specific capacity of 1190 mAh/g with good long-term cycling stability up to 1000 times was achieved. This work provides a promising strategy for preparing free-standing and binder-free active electrode materials with high performance for lithium ion batteries and other energy storage devices. PMID:27510357

  14. Borophene as an anode material for Ca, Mg, Na or Li ion storage: A first-principle study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, Bohayra; Dianat, Arezoo; Rahaman, Obaidur; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio; Rabczuk, Timon

    2016-10-01

    Borophene, the boron atom analogue to graphene, being atomic thick have been just recently experimentally fabricated. In this work, we employ first-principles density functional theory calculations to investigate the interaction of Ca, Mg, Na or Li atoms with single-layer and free-standing borophene. We first identified the most stable binding sites and their corresponding binding energies as well and then we gradually increased the ions concentration. Our calculations predict strong binding energies of around 4.03 eV, 2.09 eV, 2.92 eV and 3.28 eV between the borophene substrate and Ca, Mg, Na or Li ions, respectively. We found that the binding energy generally decreases by increasing the ions content. Using the Bader charge analysis, we evaluate the charge transfer between the adatoms and the borophene sheet. Our investigation proposes the borophene as a 2D material with a remarkably high capacity of around 800 mA h/g, 1960 mA h/g, 1380 mA h/g and 1720 mA h/g for Ca, Mg, Na or Li ions storage, respectively. This study can be useful for the possible application of borophene for the rechargeable ion batteries.

  15. Octahedral Tin Dioxide Nanocrystals Anchored on Vertically Aligned Carbon Aerogels as High Capacity Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingkai; Liu, Yuqing; Zhang, Yuting; Li, Yiliao; Zhang, Peng; Yan, Yan; Liu, Tianxi

    2016-08-01

    A novel binder-free graphene - carbon nanotubes - SnO2 (GCNT-SnO2) aerogel with vertically aligned pores was prepared via a simple and efficient directional freezing method. SnO2 octahedrons exposed of {221} high energy facets were uniformly distributed and tightly anchored on multidimensional graphene/carbon nanotube (GCNT) composites. Vertically aligned pores can effectively prevent the emersion of “closed” pores which cannot load the active SnO2 nanoparticles, further ensure quick immersion of electrolyte throughout the aerogel, and can largely shorten the transport distance between lithium ions and active sites of SnO2. Especially, excellent electrical conductivity of GCNT-SnO2 aerogel was achieved as a result of good interconnected networks of graphene and CNTs. Furthermore, meso- and macroporous structures with large surface area created by the vertically aligned pores can provide great benefit to the favorable transport kinetics for both lithium ion and electrons and afford sufficient space for volume expansion of SnO2. Due to the well-designed architecture of GCNT-SnO2 aerogel, a high specific capacity of 1190 mAh/g with good long-term cycling stability up to 1000 times was achieved. This work provides a promising strategy for preparing free-standing and binder-free active electrode materials with high performance for lithium ion batteries and other energy storage devices.

  16. Structural and electrochemical studies of a hexa phenylbenzene pyro lysed soft carbon as anode material in lithium batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonino, Franco [Chemistry Department, University ' La Sapienza' , P. le A. Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy)]. E-mail: bonino@uniromal.it; Brutti, Sergio [Chemistry Department, University ' La Sapienza' , P. le A. Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Piana, Michele [Chemistry Department, University ' La Sapienza' , P. le A. Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Natale, Sergio [Chemistry Department, University ' La Sapienza' , P. le A. Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Scrosati, Bruno [Chemistry Department, University ' La Sapienza' , P. le A. Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Gherghel, Lileta [Max-Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Ackermannweg 10, 55124 Mainz (Germany); Muellen, Klaus [Max-Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Ackermannweg 10, 55124 Mainz (Germany)

    2006-04-25

    XRD, Sem micrographs, Bet analyses and typical electrochemical experiments (cyclic voltammetry, step voltammetry and Li insertion/de insertion at constant current) have been carried out to characterize a new type of soft carbons obtained by pyrolysis of hexa phenylbenzene (Hb). By means of XRD and cyclic voltammetry at least three different type of sites for lithium storage were found. The first is graphite like type with d {sub 002} graph ene layer distance greater than pure graphite; the second is associated to disordered volumes among crystallities and the third is represented by Li sites at the hydrogen-terminated edges of hexagonal carbon fragments, characterized by higher energy in comparison with simple insertion sites. These last two types of sites are able to store some extra lithium, compared to pure graphite. BET analyses and cyclic voltammetries demonstrate the key role of the milling time on the characteristics and properties of this HPB pyrolysed carbon. Specific capacities shown by this pyrolysed material in Li coin-type cell have been also reported.

  17. Fabrication of anodic aluminum oxide with incorporated chromate ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stępniowski, Wojciech J.; Norek, Małgorzata; Michalska-Domańska, Marta; Bombalska, Aneta; Nowak-Stępniowska, Agata; Kwaśny, Mirosław; Bojar, Zbigniew

    2012-10-01

    The anodization of aluminum in 0.3 M chromic acid is studied. The influence of operating conditions (like anodizing voltage and electrolyte's temperature) on the nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide geometry (including pore diameter, interpore distance, the oxide layer thickness and pores density) is thoroughly investigated. The results revealed typical correlations of the anodic alumina nanopore geometry with operating conditions, such as linear increase of pore diameter and interpore distance with anodizing voltage. The anodic aluminum oxide is characterized by a low pores arrangement, as determined by Fast Fourier transforms analyses of the FE-SEM images, which translates into a high concentration of oxygen vacancies. Moreover, an optimal experimental condition where chromate ions are being successfully incorporated into the anodic alumina walls, have been determined: the higher oxide growth rate the more chromate ions are being trapped. The trapped chromate ions and a high concentration of oxygen vacancies make the anodic aluminum oxide a promising luminescent material.

  18. Improved electrochemical performance of nitrogen doped TiO2-B nanowires as anode materials for Li-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongquan; Fu, Qiang; Xu, Qiaoling; Yan, Xiao; Zhang, Rongyu; Guo, Zhendong; Du, Fei; Wei, Yingjin; Zhang, Dong; Chen, Gang

    2015-07-28

    N-doped TiO2-B nanowires are prepared by the solvothermal method using TiN nanoparticles as the starting material. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows that the N dopants preferentially occupy the interstitial sites of TiO2-B up to a content of ∼0.55 at%. Above this critical value, the N dopants will substitute the oxygen atoms which improve the electronic conductivity of TiO2-B. The maximum proportion of substituted-N in the TiO2-B nanowires is ∼1.3 at%. Raman scattering shows that the substituted-N strengthens the Ti(1)-O1-Ti(2) and O1-Ti(1)-O3 bonds of TiO2-B. This improves the stability of the corresponding local structures, thus reducing the distortion of the Li(+) diffusion channel along the b-axis of TiO2-B. As a result, the substituted-N has more of an impact on the electrochemical properties of TiO2-B than the interstitial-N does. The TiO2-B nanowires containing substituted-N dopants exhibit a remarkably enhanced electrochemical performance compared to pure TiO2-B. They show a discharge capacity of 153 mA h g(-1) at the 20 C rate with a capacity retention of 76% after 1000 cycles. In addition, they can deliver a discharge capacity of 100 mA h g(-1) at an ultra-high rate of 100 C, indicating their great potential in high power lithium ion batteries.

  19. Synthesis and electrochemical performance of bud-like FeS{sub 2} microspheres as anode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Dong, E-mail: zhangdong_1005@163.com [China National Product Quality Supervision Inspection Center of Builder' s Finish Hardware Material, Hangzhou 310019 (China); Wu, Guojian [China National Product Quality Supervision Inspection Center of Builder' s Finish Hardware Material, Hangzhou 310019 (China); Xiang, Jiayuan [Narada Power Source Co., Ltd, Hangzhou 311305 (China); Jin, Jun; Cai, Yubin [China National Product Quality Supervision Inspection Center of Builder' s Finish Hardware Material, Hangzhou 310019 (China); Li, Guoliang [Architectural Design and Research Institute of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou 310006 (China)

    2013-05-01

    Highlights: ► Bud-like FeS{sub 2} microshperes was synthesized through solvothermal reaction with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). ► Bud-like microshperes in the range of 2.0–3.0 μm are built by nanoflakes with the size of 0.5–1 μm in width and length. ► The bud-like FeS{sub 2} is investigated by many tests such as CV, GITT and EIS. ► The bud-like powder shows the highest initial specific capacity, coulombic efficiency and lowest polarization. -- Abstract: Bud-like FeS{sub 2} powder was synthesized by a solvothermal method with the help of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). The bud-like FeS{sub 2} microshperes with the diameters of 2.0–3.0 μm were consisted of the submicro-flakes with 0.5–1μm in width and length, and about 60 nm in thickness. As an anode material for Li-ion batteries, the bud-like FeS{sub 2} delivered initial specific discharge capacity of 773 and 749 mAh g{sup −1}, and could sustain 387 and 368 mAh g{sup −1} after 30 cycles at current densities of 45 and 89 mA g{sup −1}, respectively, much higher than the solid one obtained without PVP. The bud-like FeS{sub 2} microshperes also showed large diffusion coefficient of Li-ions (D{sub Li}+) calculated by Galvanostatic intermittent titration (GITT). The improved electrochemical performance of bud-like FeS{sub 2} was due to the unique structure which provides large contact area between the FeS{sub 2} microspheres and electrolyte, decreased polarization and large D{sub Li}+, leading to enhanced electrode reaction kinetics.

  20. High rate capability of TiO{sub 2}/nitrogen-doped graphene nanocomposite as an anode material for lithium–ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Dandan; Li, Dongdong; Wang, Suqing [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Wushan Road, Guangzhou (China); Zhu, Xuefeng; Yang, Weishen [State Key Laboratory of Catalysis, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian (China); Zhang, Shanqing [Centre for Clean Environment and Energy, Environmental Futures Centre and Griffith School of Environment, Gold Coast Campus, Griffith University, QLD 4222 (Australia); Wang, Haihui, E-mail: hhwang@scut.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Wushan Road, Guangzhou (China)

    2013-06-05

    Highlights: ► TiO{sub 2}/N-doped graphene composite was synthesized by a gas/liquid interfacial method. ► The nanocomposite was used to fabricate lithium-ion batteries. ► Its electrochemical performance was evaluated for the first time. ► The anode material exhibits a good cycling performance and rate capability. -- Abstract: TiO{sub 2}/nitrogen-doped graphene nanocomposite was synthesized by a facile gas/liquid interface reaction. The structure and morphology of the sample were analyzed by X-ray diffraction analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The results indicate that nitrogen atoms were successfully doped into graphene sheets. The TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (8–13 nm in size) were homogenously anchored on the nitrogen-doped graphene sheets through gas/liquid interface reaction. The as-prepared TiO{sub 2}/nitrogen-doped graphene nanocomposite shows a better electrochemical performance than the TiO{sub 2}/graphene nanocomposite and the bare TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. TiO{sub 2}/nitrogen-doped graphene nanocomposite exhibits excellent cycling stability and shows high capacity of 136 mAh g{sup −1} (at a current density of 1000 mA g{sup −1}) after 80 cycles. More importantly, a high reversible capacity of 109 mAh g{sup −1} can still be obtained even at a super high current density of 5000 mA g{sup −1}. The superior electrochemical performance is attributed to the good electronic conductivity introduced by the nitrogen-doped graphene sheets and the positive synergistic effect between nitrogen-doped graphene sheets and TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles.

  1. Potassium-doped copper oxide nanoparticles synthesized by a solvothermal method as an anode material for high-performance lithium ion secondary battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thi, Trang Vu; Rai, Alok Kumar; Gim, Jihyeon; Kim, Jaekook, E-mail: jaekook@chonnam.ac.kr

    2014-06-01

    A simple and efficient approach was developed to synthesize CuO nanoparticles with improved electrochemical performance. Potassium (K{sup +})-doped CuO nanoparticles were synthesized by a simple and cost-effective solvothermal method followed by annealing at 500 °C for 5 h under air atmosphere. For comparison, an undoped CuO sample was also synthesized under the same conditions. X-ray diffraction analysis demonstrates that the K{sup +} ion doping caused no change in the phase structure, and highly crystalline K{sub x}Cu{sub 1−x}O{sub 1−δ} (x = 0.10) powder without any impurity was obtained. As an anode material for a lithium ion battery, the K{sup +}-doped CuO nanoparticle electrode exhibited better capacity retention with a reversible capacity of over 354.6 mA h g{sup −1} for up to 30 cycles at 0.1 C, as well as a high charge capacity of 162.3 mA h g{sup −1} at a high current rate of 3.2 C, in comparison to an undoped CuO electrode (275.9 mA h g{sup −1} at 0.1 C and 68.9 mA h g{sup −1} at 3.2 C). The high rate capability and better cycleability of the doped electrode can be attributed to the influence of the K{sup +} ion nanostructure on the increased electronic conductivity, diffusion efficiency, and kinetic properties of CuO during the lithiation and delithiation process.

  2. Potassium-doped copper oxide nanoparticles synthesized by a solvothermal method as an anode material for high-performance lithium ion secondary battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thi, Trang Vu; Rai, Alok Kumar; Gim, Jihyeon; Kim, Jaekook

    2014-06-01

    A simple and efficient approach was developed to synthesize CuO nanoparticles with improved electrochemical performance. Potassium (K+)-doped CuO nanoparticles were synthesized by a simple and cost-effective solvothermal method followed by annealing at 500 °C for 5 h under air atmosphere. For comparison, an undoped CuO sample was also synthesized under the same conditions. X-ray diffraction analysis demonstrates that the K+ ion doping caused no change in the phase structure, and highly crystalline KxCu1-xO1-δ (x = 0.10) powder without any impurity was obtained. As an anode material for a lithium ion battery, the K+-doped CuO nanoparticle electrode exhibited better capacity retention with a reversible capacity of over 354.6 mA h g-1 for up to 30 cycles at 0.1 C, as well as a high charge capacity of 162.3 mA h g-1 at a high current rate of 3.2 C, in comparison to an undoped CuO electrode (275.9 mA h g-1 at 0.1 C and 68.9 mA h g-1 at 3.2 C). The high rate capability and better cycleability of the doped electrode can be attributed to the influence of the K+ ion nanostructure on the increased electronic conductivity, diffusion efficiency, and kinetic properties of CuO during the lithiation and delithiation process.

  3. Cu0.02Ti0.94Nb2.04O7: An advanced anode material for lithium-ion batteries of electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Lin, Chunfu; Lin, Shiwei; Chen, Yongjun; Li, Jianbao

    2016-10-01

    To explore advanced anode materials for lithium-ion batteries of electric vehicles, Cu2+/Nb5+ co-doped TiNb2O7 is studied. Cu0.02Ti0.94Nb2.04O7 is successfully fabricated using a facile solid-state reaction. X-ray diffraction analyses combined with Rietveld refinements demonstrate that the trace Cu2+/Nb5+ co-doping does not destroy the shear ReO3 crystal structure of TiNb2O7 but increases the lattice parameters and unit cell volume. Specific surface area tests and scanning electron microscopy images reveal a smaller average particle size in Cu0.02Ti0.94Nb2.04O7. Due to the increased unit cell volume and free 3d electrons in Cu2+ ions, the Li+-ion diffusion coefficient and electronic conductivity of Cu0.02Ti0.94Nb2.04O7 are respectively enhanced by 14.8 times and at least 220 times. Consequently, Cu0.02Ti0.94Nb2.04O7 exhibits advanced electrochemical properties in terms of specific capacity, rate capability and cyclic stability. At 0.1 C, it delivers a large first-cycle discharge/charge capacity of 346/315 mAh g-1. At 10 C, it still provides a large capacity of 182 mAh g-1 with tiny loss of only 1.2% over 1000 cycles. In sharp contrast, TiNb2O7 shows a small capacity of only 90 mAh g-1 and large loss of 59.8%. Therefore, Cu0.02Ti0.94Nb2.04O7 possesses great potential for the application in lithium-ion batteries for electric vehicles.

  4. A facile method for in-situ synthesis of SnO{sub 2}/graphene as a high performance anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Guiliang [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum, Qingdao 266580 (China); Wu, Mingbo, E-mail: wumb@upc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum, Qingdao 266580 (China); Wang, Ding [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai 200093 (China); Yin, Linghong; Ye, Jiashun; Deng, Shenzhen; Zhu, Zhiyuan; Ye, Wenjun [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum, Qingdao 266580 (China); Li, Zhongtao, E-mail: liztao@upc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum, Qingdao 266580 (China)

    2014-10-01

    Highlights: • A facile, economic, and environment-friendly technique is proposed for in-situ synthesis of SnO{sub 2}/graphene nanocomposites. • The effects of Sn{sup 4+}/graphene oxide ratio on their structures as well as electrochemical behaviors are found playing important roles. • SnO{sub 2}/GN-50 with 50% SnO{sub 2} exhibits a stable capacity of 540 mAh g{sup −1} after 90 cycles at a current density of 100 mA g{sup −1}. • The excellent electrochemical performance of SnO{sub 2}/GN-50 is ascribed to the synergistic effect of a unique combination of SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles and graphene sheets. - Abstract: A facile, moderate, and environment-friendly method for in-situ preparation of SnO{sub 2}/graphene nanocomposites (SnO{sub 2}/GNs) was proposed. The structures and morphology as well as electrochemical behaviors of SnO{sub 2}/GNs with varied proportions of SnO{sub 2} and graphene were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, transmission electron microscopy and relevant electrochemical property tests. The results reveal that the ratios of SnO{sub 2} to graphene have a significant effect on the structures and properties of SnO{sub 2}/GNs. SnO{sub 2}/GN-50 containing 50% SnO{sub 2} delivers a high specific capacity of 540 mAh g{sup −1} even after 90 cycles at a current density of 100 mA g{sup −1}, which is attributed to the synergistic effect of a unique combination of SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles and graphene sheets, indicating that SnO{sub 2}/GNs might have a promising future as anode material in Li-ion batteries.

  5. Synthesis of Mesoporous Lithium Titanate Thin Films and Monoliths as an Anode Material for High-Rate Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcı, Fadime Mert; Kudu, Ömer Ulaş; Yılmaz, Eda; Dag, Ömer

    2016-12-23

    Mesoporous Li4 Ti5 O12 (LTO) thin film is an important anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Mesoporous films could be prepared by self-assembly processes. A molten-salt-assisted self-assembly (MASA) process is used to prepare mesoporous thin films of LTOs. Clear solutions of CTAB, P123, LiNO3 , HNO3 , and Ti(OC4 H9 )4 in ethanol form gel-like meso-ordered films upon either spin or spray coating. In the assembly process, the CTAB/P123 molar ratio of 14 is required to accommodate enough salt species in the mesophase, in which the Li(I) /P123 ratio can be varied between molar ratios of 28 and 72. Calcination of the meso-ordered films produces transparent mesoporous spinel LTO films that are abbreviated as Cxx-yyy-zzz or CAxx-yyy-zzz (C=calcined, CA=calcined-annealed, xx=Li(I) /P123 molar ratio, and yyy=calcination and zzz=annealing temperatures in Celsius) herein. All samples were characterized by using XRD, TEM, N2 -sorption, and Raman techniques and it was found that, at all compositions, the LTO spinel phase formed with or without an anatase phase as an impurity. Electrochemical characterization of the films shows excellent performance at different current rates. The CA40-350-450 sample performs best among all samples tested, yielding an average discharge capacity of (176±1) mA h g(-1) at C/2 and (139±4) mA h g(-1) at 50 C and keeping 92 % of its initial discharge capacity upon 50 cycles at C/2.

  6. Highly redox-resistant solid oxide fuel cell anode materials based on La-doped SrTiO3 by catalyst impregnation strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, X.; Sasaki, K.

    2016-07-01

    An anode backbone using 40 wt% (ZrO2)0.89(Sc2O3)0.1(CeO2)0.01 (SSZ)-Sr0.9La0.1TiO3 (SLT) cermet was prepared for SSZ electrolyte-supported SOFC single cells. 15 mgcm-2 Ce0.9Gd0.1O2 (GDC) was impregnated to totally cover the SSZ-SLT anode backbone surface acting as a catalyst, and the cell voltage achieved 0.865 V at 200 mAcm-2 using (La0.75Sr0.25)0.98MnO3 (LSM)-SSZ cathode in 3%-humidified hydrogen fuel at 800 °C. Cell performance was substantially improved from 0.865 V to >0.97 V when 0.03 mgcm-2 Pd or Ni was further incorporated as a secondary catalyst into the anode layer. 50 redox cycles were performed to investigate redox stability of this high performance anode. It was found that even after the 50 redox cycle long-term degradation test, cell voltage at 200 mAcm-2 was retained around 0.94 V, higher than the cell performance using the conventional Ni-SSZ cermet anode. The catalytically-active reaction sites at ceria-Pd or ceria-Ni may account for the excellent performance, and the extremely low metal catalyst concentration prevent serious metal aggregation in achieving excellent redox stability.

  7. 固体氧化物燃料电池阳极材料Ni—SDC的制备及性能研究%Preparation and Performance of Anode Materials Ni-SDC for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐丽晶; 张岩

    2012-01-01

    The effect of Micro-structure and material composition through synthesizing the intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel Smo. 15 02- (SDC) and testing electrochemical properties on the cell ( performance was researched IT-SOFC) anode material Ni-Ce0.85%通过对中温固体氧化物燃料电池(IT—SOFC)阳极材料M—ce0.05Sm0.15O2-δ(SDC)的合成和电化学性能的测试,研究了微结构及材料组分对阳极性能的影响.

  8. Releasing metal catalysts via phase transition: (NiO)0.05-(SrTi0.8Nb0.2O3)0.95 as a redox stable anode material for solid oxide fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Guoliang; Wang, Siwei; Lin, Ye; Zhang, Yanxiang; An, Ke; Chen, Fanglin

    2014-11-26

    Donor-doped perovskite-type SrTiO3 experiences stoichiometric changes at high temperatures in different Po2 involving the formation of Sr or Ti-rich impurities. NiO is incorporated into the stoichiometric strontium titanate, SrTi0.8Nb0.2O3-δ (STN), to form an A-site deficient perovskite material, (NiO)0.05-(SrTi0.8Nb0.2O3)0.95 (Ni-STN), for balancing the phase transition. Metallic Ni nanoparticles can be released upon reduction instead of forming undesired secondary phases. This material design introduces a simple catalytic modification method with good compositional control of the ceramic backbones, by which transport property and durability of solid oxide fuel cell anodes are largely determined. Using Ni-STN as anodes for solid oxide fuel cells, enhanced catalytic activity and remarkable stability in redox cycling have been achieved. Electrolyte-supported cells with the cell configuration of Ni-STN-SDC anode, La0.8Sr0.2Ga0.87Mg0.13O3 (LSGM) electrolyte, and La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3 (LSCF) cathode produce peak power densities of 612, 794, and 922 mW cm(-2) at 800, 850, and 900 °C, respectively, using H2 as the fuel and air as the oxidant. Minor degradation in fuel cell performance resulted from redox cycling can be recovered upon operating the fuel cells in H2. Such property makes Ni-STN a promising regenerative anode candidate for solid oxide fuel cells.

  9. Bio-Inspired Hierarchical Nanofibrous Fe3O4-TiO2-Carbon Composite as a High-Performance Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shun; Wang, Mengya; Luo, Yan; Huang, Jianguo

    2016-07-13

    A bioinspired hierarchical nanofibrous Fe3O4-TiO2-carbon composite was fabricated by employing natural cellulose substance (e.g., filter paper) as both the scaffold and the carbon source and showed improved electrochemical performances when it is employed as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries. FeOOH nanoparticles were first grown uniformly onto the surface of the titania thin-layer precoated cellulose nanofibers, and thereafter, the as-prepared FeOOH-TiO2-cellulose composite was calcined and carbonized in argon atmosphere at 500 °C for 6 h to produce the Fe3O4-TiO2-carbon composite. The resultant composite possesses a hierarchical structure that was faithfully inherited from the initial cellulose substance, which was composed of titania-coated carbon fibers with corncob-like shaped Fe3O4 nanoparticles immobilized on the surfaces. The diameter of the composite nanofiber is ca. 100-200 nm, and the diameter of the Fe3O4 nanoparticle is about 30 nm, which is coated with an ultrathin carbon layer with a thickness about 3 nm. This composite displayed superior lithium-ion storage performance. It showed a first-cycle discharge capacity of 1340 mAh/g, delivering a stable reversible capacity of ca. 525 mAh/g after 100 charge-discharge cycles at a current density of 100 mA/g, and the efficiency is as high as ca. 95% of the theoretical value. This is much higher than those of the commercial Fe3O4 powder (160 mAh/g) and the Fe3O4-carbon counter material (310 mAh/g). It was demonstrated that the thin titania precoating layer (thickness ca. 3-5 nm) is necessary for the high content loading of the Fe3O4 nanoparticles onto the carbon nanofibers. Owing to the unique three-dimensional porous network structure of the carbon-fiber scaffold, together with the ultrathin outer carbon-coating layer, the composite showed significantly improved cycling stability and rate capability.

  10. International comparison of Cd content in a quality control material of Navajuelas (Tagelus dombeii) determined by anodic stripping voltammetry, atomic absorption spectrometry and neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queirolo, F. (Universidad Catolica del Norte, Antofagasta (Chile). Dept. of Chemistry Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Angewandte Physikalische Chemie Universidad de Extremadura, Badajoz (Spain). Dept. of Analytical Chemistry and Electrochemistry); Ostapczuk, P. (Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Angewandte Physikalische Chemie); Valenta, P.; Stegen, S. (Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Angewandte Physikalische Chemie Universidad de Extremadura, Badajoz (Spain). Dept. of Analytical Chemistry and Electrochemistry); Marin, C.; Vinagre, F.; Sanchez, A. (Universidad de Extremadura, Badajoz (Spain). Dept. of Analytical Chemistry and Electrochemistry)

    1991-05-01

    The determination of Cd was performed by neutron activation analysis (NAA), atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) with flame or in the electrothermal mode and anodic stripping voltammetry in the differential pulse mode (DPASV) and the square wave mode (SWASV). (orig./EF).

  11. Lithium Ion Battery Anode Aging Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Agubra

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Degradation mechanisms such as lithium plating, growth of the passivated surface film layer on the electrodes and loss of both recyclable lithium ions and electrode material adversely affect the longevity of the lithium ion battery. The anode electrode is very vulnerable to these degradation mechanisms. In this paper, the most common aging mechanisms occurring at the anode during the operation of the lithium battery, as well as some approaches for minimizing the degradation are reviewed.

  12. Lithium Ion Battery Anode Aging Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Victor Agubra; Jeffrey Fergus

    2013-01-01

    Degradation mechanisms such as lithium plating, growth of the passivated surface film layer on the electrodes and loss of both recyclable lithium ions and electrode material adversely affect the longevity of the lithium ion battery. The anode electrode is very vulnerable to these degradation mechanisms. In this paper, the most common aging mechanisms occurring at the anode during the operation of the lithium battery, as well as some approaches for minimizing the degradation are reviewed.

  13. Fibrous zinc anodes for high power batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X. Gregory

    This paper introduces newly developed solid zinc anodes using fibrous material for high power applications in alkaline and large size zinc-air battery systems. The improved performance of the anodes in these two battery systems is demonstrated. The possibilities for control of electrode porosity and for anode/battery design using fibrous materials are discussed in light of experimental data. Because of its mechanical integrity and connectivity, the fibrous solid anode has good electrical conductivity, mechanical stability, and design flexibility for controlling mass distribution, porosity and effective surface area. Experimental data indicated that alkaline cells made of such anodes can have a larger capacity at high discharging currents than commercially available cells. It showed even greater improvement over commercial cells with a non-conventional cell design. Large capacity anodes for a zinc-air battery have also been made and have shown excellent material utilization at various discharge rates. The zinc-air battery was used to power an electric bicycle and demonstrated good results.

  14. Synthesis of nano structured particles for Li-ion cathodic and anodic materials obtained by spray pyrolysis; Sintesis de particulas nanoestructuradas para materiales catodicos y anodicos obtenidos mediante Spray Prolisis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, L. S.; Meatza, I. de; Martin, M. I.; Boynao, I.; Cantero, I.; Rabanal, M. E.

    2010-07-01

    The development of the nano technology has contributed to improve the electrochemical properties in rechargeable batteries. The Spray Pyrolysis method allows to obtain nano structured materials with spherical morphology, narrow particle size distribution and compositional homogeneity. Nano structured particles have been prepared in this work to be used as anodic and cathodic materials in lithium-ion batteries. Among the cathodic materials, the Na-Si-Con (Li{sub 3}Fe{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}) structure and the olivine (LiFePO{sub 4}) phases have been synthesised. The Na-Si-Con iron phosphate favours the accommodation of the ion host, the diffusion and thermal stability. The olivine structure has an open three-dimensional network, favourable for hosting Lithium ions. The characterization by X ray diffraction, electron microscopy (scanning and transmission) and electron diffraction have allowed to identify a mix of crystalline phases of LiFePO{sub 4} (Olivine) and Li{sub 3}Fe{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} (Na-Si-Con). Thermal treatments produce porous particles. The tryphilite phase (olivine) appears after a thermal treatment at 800 degree centigrade/12h. Electrochemical results confirm the presence of the Na-Si-Con and olivine phases. Among the materials for being used as anode, the titanium oxides have been classified as good candidates as lithium ion host. The synthesis results in different experimental conditions for obtaining spherical and nano structured titanium oxide particles are presented. (Author)

  15. 锂离子电池中石墨烯基金属氧化物负极材料的制备和应用%Preparation and application of lithium ion batteries graphene-based metal oxide anode materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄磊; 张艳华; 涂铭旌

    2014-01-01

    石墨烯是一种单原子层厚度的石墨材料,具有良好的电学、力学和热学性质。其作为锂离子电池电极材料时,能有效提高各项电化学性能,具有良好的应用前景。综述了锂离子电池中石墨烯基金属氧化物负极材料的制备方法,及石墨烯薄片和金属氧化物之间不同的复合结构和强烈的协同作用对提高石墨烯基负极材料电化学性能的作用。%Graphene was a single atomic layer thickness of graphite material,with good electrical,mechanical and thermal properties.When it was used as the electrode materials for lithium ion batteries,could effectively improve the various electrochemical performance,and it had a good application prospect.This paper summa-rized the preparation method of anode material of metallic oxide based graphene in the lithium ion battery,and different composite structure between graphene nanosheets and metal oxide,the structure had strong synergis-tic effect in improving the electrochemical performance of anode material of metallic oxide based graphene.

  16. Anodizing color coded anodized Ti6Al4V medical devices for increasing bone cell functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Webster TJ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Alexandra P Ross, Thomas J WebsterSchool of Engineering and Department of Orthopedics, Brown University, Providence, RI, USAAbstract: Current titanium-based implants are often anodized in sulfuric acid (H2SO4 for color coding purposes. However, a crucial parameter in selecting the material for an orthopedic implant is the degree to which it will integrate into the surrounding bone. Loosening at the bone–implant interface can cause catastrophic failure when motion occurs between the implant and the surrounding bone. Recently, a different anodization process using hydrofluoric acid has been shown to increase bone growth on commercially pure titanium and titanium alloys through the creation of nanotubes. The objective of this study was to compare, for the first time, the influence of anodizing a titanium alloy medical device in sulfuric acid for color coding purposes, as is done in the orthopedic implant industry, followed by anodizing the device in hydrofluoric acid to implement nanotubes. Specifically, Ti6Al4V model implant samples were anodized first with sulfuric acid to create color-coding features, and then with hydrofluoric acid to implement surface features to enhance osteoblast functions. The material surfaces were characterized by visual inspection, scanning electron microscopy, contact angle measurements, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Human osteoblasts were seeded onto the samples for a series of time points and were measured for adhesion and proliferation. After 1 and 2 weeks, the levels of alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium deposition were measured to assess the long-term differentiation of osteoblasts into the calcium depositing cells. The results showed that anodizing in hydrofluoric acid after anodizing in sulfuric acid partially retains color coding and creates unique surface features to increase osteoblast adhesion, proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity, and calcium deposition. In this manner, this study

  17. Anode-Free Rechargeable Lithium Metal Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, Jiangfeng [The Joint Center for Energy Storage Research (JCESR), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Adams, Brian D. [The Joint Center for Energy Storage Research (JCESR), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Zheng, Jianming [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Xu, Wu [The Joint Center for Energy Storage Research (JCESR), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Henderson, Wesley A. [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Wang, Jun [A123 Systems Research and Development, Waltham MA 02451 USA; Bowden, Mark E. [Environmental and Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Xu, Suochang [Earth and Biological Science Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Hu, Jianzhi [The Joint Center for Energy Storage Research (JCESR), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Earth and Biological Science Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Zhang, Ji-Guang [The Joint Center for Energy Storage Research (JCESR), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA

    2016-08-18

    Anode-free rechargeable lithium (Li) batteries (AFLBs) are phenomenal energy storage systems due to their significantly increased energy density and reduced cost relative to Li-ion batteries, as well as ease of assembly owing to the absence of an active (reactive) anode material. However, significant challenges, including Li dendrite growth and low cycling Coulombic efficiency (CE), have prevented their practical implementation. Here, we report for the first time an anode-free rechargeable lithium battery based on a Cu||LiFePO4 cell structure with an extremely high CE (> 99.8%). This results from the utilization of both an exceptionally stable electrolyte and optimized charge/discharge protocols which minimize the corrosion of the in-situ formed Li metal anode.

  18. Microscopical characterization of carbon materials derived from coal and petroleum and their interaction phenomena in making steel electrodes, anodes and cathode blocks for the Microscopy of Carbon Materials Working Group of the ICCP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predeanu, G.; Panaitescu, C.; Bălănescu, M.; Bieg, G.; Borrego, A.G.; Diez, M. A.; Hackley, Paul C.; Kwiecińska, B.; Marques, M.; Mastalerz, Maria; Misz-Kennan, M.; Pusz, S.; Suarez-Ruiz, I.; Rodrigues, S.; Singh, A. K.; Varma, A. K.; Zdravkov, A.; Zivotić, D.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the evaluation of petrographic textures representing the structural organization of the organic matter derived from coal and petroleum and their interaction phenomena in the making of steel electrodes, anodes and cathode blocks.This work represents the results of the Microscopy of Carbon Materials Working Group in Commission III of the International Committee for Coal and Organic Petrology between the years 2009 and 2013. The round robin exercises were run on photomicrograph samples. For textural characterization of carbon materials the existing ASTM classification system for metallurgical coke was applied.These round robin exercises involved 15 active participants from 12 laboratories who were asked to assess the coal and petroleum based carbons and to identify the morphological differences, as optical texture (isotropic/anisotropic), optical type (punctiform, mosaic, fibre, ribbon, domain), and size. Four sets of digital black and white microphotographs comprising 151 photos containing 372 fields of different types of organic matter were examined. Based on the unique ability of carbon to form a wide range of textures, the results showed an increased number of carbon occurrences which have crucial role in the chosen industrial applications.The statistical method used to evaluate the results was based on the “raw agreement indices”. It gave a new and original view on the analysts' opinion by not only counting the correct answers, but also all of the knowledge and experience of the participants. Comparative analyses of the average values of the level of overall agreement performed by each analyst in the exercises during 2009–2013 showed a great homogeneity in the results, the mean value being 90.36%, with a minimum value of 83% and a maximum value of 95%.

  19. Anodized aluminum on LDEF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Johnny L.

    1993-01-01

    A compilation of reported analyses and results obtained for anodized aluminum flown on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) was prepared. Chromic acid, sulfuric acid, and dyed sulfuric acid anodized surfaces were exposed to the space environment. The vast majority of the anodized surface on LDEF was chromic acid anodize because of its selection as a thermal control coating for use on the spacecraft primary structure, trays, tray clamps, and space end thermal covers. Reports indicate that the chromic acid anodize was stable in solar absorptance and thermal emittance, but that contamination effects caused increases in absorptance on surfaces exposed to low atomic oxygen fluences. There were some discrepancies, however, in that some chromic acid anodized specimens exhibited significant increases in absorptance. Sulfuric acid anodized surfaces also appeared stable, although very little surface area was available for evaluation. One type of dyed sulfuric acid anodize was assessed as an optical baffle coating and was observed to have improved infrared absorptance characteristics with exposure on LDEF.

  20. Anodizing Aluminum with Frills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doeltz, Anne E.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    "Anodizing Aluminum" (previously reported in this journal) describes a vivid/relevant laboratory experience for general chemistry students explaining the anodizing of aluminum in sulfuric acid and constrasting it to electroplating. Additions to this procedure and the experiment in which they are used are discussed. Reactions involved are…

  1. Research progress in transition metal oxides based on conversion mechanism as the anode materials for Li-ion batteries%转化型过渡金属氧化物负极材料的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾晖; 王强; 王康平; 宋金保

    2014-01-01

    综述了近年来过渡金属氧化物 MxOy (M= Fe,Ni,Co,Cu)作为锂离子电池负极材料在锂离子电池中的应用。我们分别将过渡金属氧化物的两种形态(粉体和薄膜),与电化学性能之间的关联性进行了总结和探讨,并对过渡金属氧化物作为锂离子电池负极材料的发展前景进行了展望。%In recent years,research progress on transition metal oxides MxOy(M= Fe,Ni,Co,Cu) as anode materials for lithium ion batteries was reviewed.Emphasis is placed on the generaliza-tion and discussion of the relationship between the two status (powder and films )and electro-chemical properties of transition metal oxides materials.And the development prospect of transi-tion metal oxides as anode materials is also reviewed.

  2. 微生物燃料电池阳极材料的最新研究进展%Latest research progress of anode materials in microbial fuel cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈妹琼; 程发良; 郭文显; 张敏; 柳鹏

    2015-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) with microbe as catalysts is promising novel technology with the potential to degrade organic sewage and produce electricity. The novel research progress of anode materials in MFCs was reviewed, especial y the influence of treatment of carbon basic materials and their functional modifications on the performance of electricity prodution. The existing problems of large scale application of anode electrode materials in current MFCs were analyzed. The application future of MFCs was prospected.%微生物燃料电池以微生物为催化剂,既可以处理废水又可以产生电能,是一种具有很好应用前景的新兴技术。综述了近年来用于微生物燃料电池阳极材料的最新研究进展,着重综述了炭材料的处理、炭材料的修饰对微生物燃料电池产电性能影响的研究进展。分析了微生物燃料电池阳极材料大规模应用主要存在的问题,并对微生物燃料电池的应用前景做出展望。

  3. Controlled thermal sintering of a metal-metal oxide-carbon ternary composite with a multi-scale hollow nanostructure for use as an anode material in Li-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hwan Jin; Zhang, Kan; Choi, Jae-Man; Song, Min Sang; Park, Jong Hyeok

    2014-03-11

    We report a synthetic scheme for preparing a SnO2-Sn-carbon triad inverse opal porous material using the controlled sintering of Sn precursor-infiltrated polystyrene (PS) nanobead films. Because the uniform PS nanobead film, which can be converted into carbon via a sintering step, uptakes the precursor solution, the carbon can be uniformly distributed throughout the Sn-based anode material. Moreover, the partial carbonization of the PS nanobeads under a controlled Ar/oxygen environment not only produces a composite material with an inverse opal-like porous nanostructure but also converts the Sn precursor/PS into a SnO2-Sn-C triad electrode.

  4. 植物碳化材料做电极用于生物电解产氢研究%Hydrogen Production from Microbial Electrolysis Cell Using Carbonized Plant Material as Anode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡储昊; 王秋辰; 罗丽雯; 徐苏云

    2016-01-01

    利用微生物电解池处理废水,可同步实现再生氢能源回收。本文将天然植物碳化处理后得到的材料作为微生物电解池的阳极,并探究不同植物原料对电解池产氢效率的影响。实验选取玉米棒、杏鲍菇和木屑作为原材料,通过高温管式炉焙烧碳化,扫描电镜观察发现三种植物在碳化处理后,呈现出不同特征的三维多孔结构。将这些碳化材料应用于微生物电解制氢,通过观测微生物电解池的电流变化趋势、产氢效率以及底物降解效率来对比材料性能。综合分析表明,玉米棒作为电极原材料是最合适的,它在碳化后形成的三维多孔结构适合微生物附着,也具备较好的导电性能,从而可以促进微生物电解池产氢。%Microbial electrolysis cell ( MEC ) is capable of producing hydrogen as a kind of clean energy and accomplishing wastewater treatment simultaneously. The present study utilized the carbonized plant materials as the anodes of MEC, and evaluated the influence of different raw materials on hydrogen production efficiency in MEC. Different natural macroporous carbon MEC electrodes were fabricated from corn stem, king mushroom and sawdust. After simple carbonization in tube furnace, these three natural materials presented their unique three-dimensional porous structures. These natural materials were then used as anodes in MEC system for hydrogen production. Three materials were compared in terms of current generation tendency, hydrogen production and substrate degradation efficiencies. Results showed that the carbon material derived from corn stem was the most suitable material, because bacteria can easily adhere to its three-dimensional porous structure, which made electron transfer more efficiently between bacteria and anode and thus promote the hydrogen production of MEC system.

  5. Research progress in titanium dioxide nanotube arrays as three-dimensional anode materials%三维负极材料二氧化钛纳米管阵列的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭晓旭; 唐谊平; 曹华珍; 郑国渠

    2011-01-01

    The synthetic methods of titanium dioxide ( TiO2) nanotube arrays (TNTAs) such as template method and anodic oxidation method were summarized, the effects of TNTAs' structure and modification on the electro chemical performance of the electrode were reviewed. The research directions of TNTAs used as three-dimensional anode material of Li-ion battery, such as surface modification, loading high electric conductivity and high capacity material, developing metastable TiO2(B) nanoarrays with high capacity, were pointed out.%综述了二氧化钛(TiO2)纳米管阵列(TNTAs)的常用制备方法——模板法和阳极氧化法,以及TNTAs结构特征和表面改性对电极电化学性能的影响.指出表面改性,负载高导电率和高容量物质,以及开发高容量的亚稳态晶型TiO2(B)纳米阵列等,是TNTAs作为锂离子电池三维纳米负极材料的研究方向.

  6. Energy Storage: Nitrogen-Doped Ordered Mesoporous Anatase TiO2 Nanofibers as Anode Materials for High Performance Sodium-Ion Batteries (Small 26/2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ying; Liu, Xiaowu; Yang, Zhenzhong; Gu, Lin; Yu, Yan

    2016-07-01

    On page 3522, Y. Yu and co-workers fabricate nitrogen-doped ordered mesoporous TiO2 nanofibers (denoted as N-MTO) by electrospinning and subsequent nitridation treatment. Nitrogen atoms are successfully doped into the TiO2 lattice, accompanied by the formation of Ti(3+) and oxygen vacancies, contributing to the improvement of electronic conductivity of TiO2 . When used as an anode for a sodium-ion battery, the N-MTO demonstrates excellent rate capability and superior long cycling performance.

  7. Anodizing color coded anodized Ti6Al4V medical devices for increasing bone cell functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Alexandra P; Webster, Thomas J

    2013-01-01

    Current titanium-based implants are often anodized in sulfuric acid (H(2)SO(4)) for color coding purposes. However, a crucial parameter in selecting the material for an orthopedic implant is the degree to which it will integrate into the surrounding bone. Loosening at the bone-implant interface can cause catastrophic failure when motion occurs between the implant and the surrounding bone. Recently, a different anodization process using hydrofluoric acid has been shown to increase bone growth on commercially pure titanium and titanium alloys through the creation of nanotubes. The objective of this study was to compare, for the first time, the influence of anodizing a titanium alloy medical device in sulfuric acid for color coding purposes, as is done in the orthopedic implant industry, followed by anodizing the device in hydrofluoric acid to implement nanotubes. Specifically, Ti6Al4V model implant samples were anodized first with sulfuric acid to create color-coding features, and then with hydrofluoric acid to implement surface features to enhance osteoblast functions. The material surfaces were characterized by visual inspection, scanning electron microscopy, contact angle measurements, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Human osteoblasts were seeded onto the samples for a series of time points and were measured for adhesion and proliferation. After 1 and 2 weeks, the levels of alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium deposition were measured to assess the long-term differentiation of osteoblasts into the calcium depositing cells. The results showed that anodizing in hydrofluoric acid after anodizing in sulfuric acid partially retains color coding and creates unique surface features to increase osteoblast adhesion, proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity, and calcium deposition. In this manner, this study provides a viable method to anodize an already color coded, anodized titanium alloy to potentially increase bone growth for numerous implant applications.

  8. Electrically conductive anodized aluminum coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwitt, Robert S. (Inventor); Liu, Yanming (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A process for producing anodized aluminum with enhanced electrical conductivity, comprising anodic oxidation of aluminum alloy substrate, electrolytic deposition of a small amount of metal into the pores of the anodized aluminum, and electrolytic anodic deposition of an electrically conductive oxide, including manganese dioxide, into the pores containing the metal deposit; and the product produced by the process.

  9. Redox Stable Anodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoliang eXiao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs can convert chemical energy from the fuel directly to electrical energy with high efficiency and fuel flexibility. Ni-based cermets have been the most widely adopted anode for SOFCs. However, the conventional Ni-based anode has low tolerance to sulfur-contamination, is vulnerable to deactivation by carbon build-up (coking from direct oxidation of hydrocarbon fuels, and suffers volume instability upon redox cycling. Among these limitations, the redox instability of the anode is particularly important and has been intensively studied since the SOFC anode may experience redox cycling during fuel cell operations even with the ideal pure hydrogen as the fuel. This review aims to highlight recent progresses on improving redox stability of the conventional Ni-based anode through microstructure optimization and exploration of alternative ceramic-based anode materials.

  10. Development of Planar Metal Supported SOFC with Novel Cermet Anode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blennow Tullmar, Peter; Hjelm, Johan; Klemensø, Trine;

    2009-01-01

    Metal-supported solid oxide fuel cells are expected to offer several potential advantages over conventional anode (Ni-YSZ) supported cells, such as increased resistance against mechanical and thermal stresses and a reduction in materials cost. When Ni-YSZ based anodes are used in metal supported...... SOFC, electrode material from the active anode layer may interdiffuse with the metallic support during sintering. The purpose of this work is to illustrate how the interdiffusion problem can be circumvented by using an alternative anode design based on porous and electronically conducting layers......, into which electrocatalytically active materials are infiltrated after sintering. The paper presents the recent results on the electrochemical performance and durability of the novel planar metal-supported SOFC design. The results presented in the paper show that the novel cell and anode design has...

  11. Double Core-Shell Si@C@SiO2 for Anode Material of Lithium-Ion Batteries with Excellent Cycling Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tao; Tian, Xiaodong; Li, Xiao; Wang, Kai; Liu, Zhanjun; Guo, Quangui; Song, Yan

    2017-02-10

    Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) composed of silicon (Si) anodes suffer from severe capacity decay because of the volume expansion deriving from the formation of Li15 Si4 alloy. In this study, we prepared a double core-shell Si@C@SiO2 nanostructure by the modified Stöber method. In the process of Si lithiation, the carbon layer alleviates the large pressure slightly then the silica shell restricts the lithiation degree of Si. The combination of carbon interlayer and silica shell guarantees structural integrity and avoids further decay of capacity because of the formation of stable solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) films. The resultant Si@C@SiO2 presents remarkable cycling stability with capacity decay of averagely 0.03 % per cycle over 305 cycles at 200 mA g(-1) , an improvement on Si@C (0.22 %) by more than a factor of 7. This encouraging result demonstrates that the designation involved in this work is effective for mitigating the capacity decay of Si-based anodes for LIBs.

  12. Disodium terephthalate (Na{sub 2}C{sub 8}H{sub 4}O{sub 4}) as high performance anode material for low-cost room-temperature sodium-ion battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Liang; Hu, Yong-Sheng; Li, Hong; Armand, Michel; Chen, Liquan [Key Laboratory for Renewable Energy, Beijing Key Laboratory for New, Energy Materials and Devices, Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Zhao, Junmei [Key Laboratory of Green Process and Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Zhou, Zhibin [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China)

    2012-08-15

    In this contribution, a cheap organic material, disodium terephthalate, Na{sub 2}C{sub 8}H{sub 4}O{sub 4}, has been firstly evaluated as a novel anode for room-temperature Na-ion batteries. The material exhibits a high reversible capacity of 250 mAh/g with excellent cycleability. The average Na storage voltage is approximately 0.43 V vs. Na{sup +}/Na. A thin layer of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating on the electrode surface derived from the atomic layer deposition technique is effective in further enhancing Na storage performance. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. New development of anodizing process of magnesium alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Li-qun; LI Di

    2004-01-01

    Magnesium alloy, a kind of environment-friendly material with promising and excellent properties, is a good choice for a number of applications. The research and development of anodizing on magnesium alloys and its application situation are reviewed, and the anodizing development trend on magnesium alloys is summarized.

  14. A novel porous coral-like Zn0.5Ni0.5Co2O4 as an anode material for lithium ion batteries with excellent rate performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiong; Ru, Qiang; Mo, Yudi; Guo, Lingyun; Hu, Shejun; An, Bonan

    2014-12-01

    A novel porous coral-like Zn0.5Ni0.5Co2O4 (ZNCO) is prepared by a facile co-precipitation method using oxalic acid as complex agent, and the ZnCo2O4 (ZCO) nanospheres and NiCo2O4 (NCO) nanoflakes are also prepared for comparison. The obtained products are systematically characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results demonstrate that the controlled metallic elements doping has significant effects on the nanostructure and electrochemical performance of the samples. Compared with the ZCO nanospheres and NCO nanoflakes, the coral-like ZNCO materials with enough free space as anodes in lithium ion batteries (LIBs) exhibit a high initial coulombic efficiency of 84%, a high specific capacity of ∼1445 mAh g-1 at a current rate of 100 mA g-1 after 50 cycles, and ∼730 mAh g-1 at a current rate of 1500 mA g-1 after 200 cycles, as well as an excellent rate capability at elevated current rates, such as, ∼1080 and ∼425 mAh g-1 at current rates of 500 and 6000 mA g-1, respectively. This work presents a meaningful way for the preparation of mixed metal oxides with porous nanostructure as superior anodes for lithium ion batteries.

  15. 锂离子电池负极材料Li4Ti5O12的研究概况%Research on Li4Ti5O12anode materials for lithium-ion battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊勇利; 李文升

    2011-01-01

    The research development of anode materials Li4Ti5O12 for Li-ion battery was reviewed in the recent ten years, including structure, synthesis, modification, application. and etc., which was expected to provide some help for commerical applications of LiTiO12 anode, realize some techical breaks, and explore the earlier apolication to power Li-ion battery.%对近10年来锂离子电池负极材料Li4 Ti5 O(12)研究概况如结构、合成方法、改性、应用等方面情况进行综述,以期在Li4Ti5012的商业化应用研究方面提供帮助,实现一些技术突破,为Li4Ti5O12早日应用于动力锂离子电池上做一些探索.

  16. Optimal Conditions for Fast Charging and Long Cycling Stability of Silicon Microwire Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries, and Comparison with the Performance of Other Si Anode Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Quiroga-González

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Cycling tests under various conditions have been performed for lithium ion battery anodes made from free-standing silicon microwires embedded at one end in a copper current collector. Optimum charging/discharging conditions have been found for which the anode shows negligible fading (< 0.001% over 80 cycles; an outstanding result for this kind of anodes. Several performance parameters of the anode have been compared to the ones of other Si anode concepts, showing that especially the capacity as well as the rates of charge flow per nominal area of anode are the highest for the present anode. With regard to applications, the specific parameters per area are more important than the specific gravimetric parameters like the gravimetric capacity, which is good for comparing the capacity between materials but not enough for comparing between anodes.

  17. Mesoporous anatase TiO2 nanorods as thermally robust anode materials for Li-ion batteries: detailed insight into the formation mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seisenbaeva, Gulaim A; Nedelec, Jean-Marie; Daniel, Geoffrey; Tiseanu, Carmen; Parvulescu, Vasile; Pol, Vilas G; Abrego, Luis; Kessler, Vadim G

    2013-12-16

    Uniformly mesoporous and thermally robust anatase nanorods were produced with quantitative yield by a simple and efficient one-step approach. The mechanism of this process was revealed by insertion of Eu(3+) cations from the reaction medium as luminescent probes. The obtained structure displays an unusually high porosity, an active surface area of about 300 m(2) g(-1) and a specific capacity of 167 mA h g(-1) at a C/3 rate, making it attractive as an anode electrode for Li-ion batteries. An additional attractive feature is its remarkable thermal stability; heating to 400 °C results in a decrease in the active surface area to a still relatively high value of 110 m(2) g(-1) with conservation of open mesoporosity. Thermal treatment at 800 °C or higher, however, causes transformation into a non-porous rutile monolith, as commonly observed with nanoscale titania.

  18. Carbon-wrapped MnO nanodendrites interspersed on reduced graphene oxide sheets as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Boli; Li, Dan; Liu, Zhengjiao; Gu, Lili; Xie, Wenhe; Li, Qun; Guo, Pengqian; Liu, Dequan; He, Deyan

    2017-02-01

    Carbon-wrapped MnO nanodendrites interspersed on reduced graphene oxide sheets (C-MnO/rGO) were prepared on nickel foam by a facile vacuum filtration and a subsequent thermal treatment. As a binder-free anode of lithium-ion battery, the nanodendritic structure of C-MnO accommodates the huge volume expansion and shortens the diffusion length for lithium ion and electron, rGO sheets prevent C-MnO nanodendites from aggregation and offer a good electronic conduction. As a result, the electrode with such a novel architecture delivers superior electrochemical properties including high reversible capacity, excellent rate capability and cycle stability. Moreover, MnO nanodendrites change to nanoparticles wrapped in graphene sheets during the lithiation/delithiation process, which is a more beneficial microstructure to further increase the specific capacity and cycle life of the electrode.

  19. Freestanding manganese dioxide nanosheet network grown on nickel/polyvinylidene fluoride coaxial fiber membrane as anode materials for high performance lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Luo, Zhongping; Xiao, Qizhen; Sun, Tianlei; Lei, Gangtie; Li, Zhaohui; Li, Xiaojing

    2015-11-01

    A novel manganese dioxide (MnO2) nanosheet network grown on nickel/polyvinylidene fluoride (Ni/PVDF) coaxial fiber membrane is successfully fabricated by a three-step route: the polyvinylidene fluoride fiber membrane is prepared by electrospinning method, and then the Ni(shell)/PVDF(core) coaxial fiber membrane with core-shell structure can be obtained by the electroless deposition, and finally the manganese dioxide nanosheet network grown on Ni/PVDF coaxial fiber membrane can be achieved by using a simple hydrothermal treatment. This as-prepared binder-free and flexible composite membrane is directly used as anode for lithium ion batteries. The excellent electrochemical performance of the composite membrane can be attributed to the unique combinative effects of nanosized MnO2 network and conductive Ni/PVDF fiber matrix as well as the porous structure of composite fiber membrane.

  20. The effect of zinc on the aluminum anode of the aluminum-air battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yougen; Lu, Lingbin; Roesky, Herbert W.; Wang, Laiwen; Huang, Baiyun

    Aluminum is an ideal material for batteries, due to its excellent electrochemical performance. Herein, the effect of zinc on the aluminum anode of the aluminum-air battery, as an additive for aluminum alloy and electrolytes, has been studied. The results show that zinc can decrease the anodic polarization, restrain the hydrogen evolution and increase the anodic utilization rate.

  1. Applications of Carbon Nanotubes for Lithium Ion Battery Anodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyoung-Joon Jin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs have displayed great potential as anode materials for lithium ion batteries (LIBs due to their unique structural, mechanical, and electrical properties. The measured reversible lithium ion capacities of CNT-based anodes are considerably improved compared to the conventional graphite-based anodes. Additionally, the opened structure and enriched chirality of CNTs can help to improve the capacity and electrical transport in CNT-based LIBs. Therefore, the modification of CNTs and design of CNT structure provide strategies for improving the performance of CNT-based anodes. CNTs could also be assembled into free-standing electrodes without any binder or current collector, which will lead to increased specific energy density for the overall battery design. In this review, we discuss the mechanism of lithium ion intercalation and diffusion in CNTs, and the influence of different structures and morphologies on their performance as anode materials for LIBs.

  2. Planar metal-supported SOFC with novel cermet anode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blennow Tullmar, Peter; Hjelm, Johan; Klemensø, Trine;

    2011-01-01

    Metal-supported solid oxide fuel cells are expected to offer several potential advantages over conventional anode (Ni-YSZ) supported cells. For example, increased resistance against mechanical and thermal stresses and a reduction in material costs. When Ni-YSZ based anodes are used in metal...... supported SOFC, elements from the active anode layer may inter-diffuse with the metallic support during sintering. This work illustrates how the inter-diffusion problem can be circumvented by using an alternative anode design based on porous and electronically conducting layers, into which...... electrocatalytically active materials are infiltrated after sintering. The paper presents the electrochemical performance and durability of the novel planar metal-supported SOFC design. The electrode performance on symmetrical cells has also been evaluated. The novel cell and anode design shows a promising performance...

  3. Anodic Stripping Voltammetry: An Instrumental Analysis Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Joseph

    1983-01-01

    Describes an experiment designed to acquaint students with the theory and applications of anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) as well as such ASV problems as contamination associated with trace analysis. The experimental procedure, instrumentation, and materials discussed are designed to minimize cost and keep procedures as simple as possible. (JM)

  4. Study on selenium extraction from anode slime

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU; Heng

    2005-01-01

    Taking a copper anode slime as the raw material, a novel process for selenium extraction was studied. The primary selenium recovery can reach above 88.5 % and the quality index of selenium product can be up to 99.5 %. The economic benefit resulted is remarkable and environment has been protected.

  5. A hexangular ring-core NiCo2O4 porous nanosheet/NiO nanoparticle composite as an advanced anode material for LIBs and catalyst for CO oxidation applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yanyan; Xu, Liqiang; Zhai, Yanjun; Li, Aihua; Chen, Xiaoxia

    2015-10-11

    A porous hexangular ring-core NiCo2O4 nanosheet/NiO nanoparticle composite has been synthesized using a hydrothermal method followed by an annealing process in air. The as-obtained composite as an anode material exhibits a high initial discharge capacity of 1920.6 mA h g(-1) at a current density of 100 mA g(-1) and the capacity is retained at 1567.3 mA h g(-1) after 50 cycles. When it is utilized as a catalyst for CO oxidation, complete CO conversion is achieved at 115 °C and a catalytic life test demonstrates the good stability of the composite.

  6. Advance in Li4Ti5O12 anode material for lithium ion power batteries%锂离子动力电池负极材料Li4Ti5O12的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宏宇; 杨洪; 谭晓兰; 李峰; 何显峰

    2011-01-01

    The "zero strain" Li4Ti5O12 possesses the prominent structural stability and electrochemical performance,which is the ideal option for lithium ion power batteries. Here, the advance of Li4Ti5O12used as the anode material for lithium ion power batteries was reviewed in terms of safety, cycleability, rate capability and low temperature performance. Furthermore, the investigations of LiCoO2/Li4Ti5O12 batteries series in our labs were also discussed in detail. The results show that Li4Ti5O12 is a promising anode material for commercial lithium ion power batteries, which exhibits attractive performance, especially in safety and cycleability.%"零应变"材料Li4Ti5O12具有突出结构稳定性和电化学性能,是锂离子动力电池负极材料的理想材料.结合动力电池的关键性能.如安全性能、循环性能、倍率性能以及低温性能,详细介绍了Li4Ti5O12作为锂离子动力电池负极材料在这几个方面的研究现状,并结合自制LiCoO2/Li4Ti5O12系列电池就上述关键性能进行了研究.结果表明,Li,Ti50,:作为负极材料的锂离子电池具有较好的性能,安全性能和循环性能突出,有望成为商业化锂离子动力电池的负极材料.

  7. Hydrothermal synthesis of Li4-xNaxTi5O12 and Li4-xNaxTi5O12/graphene composites as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Jiping

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A potential Lithium-ion battery anode material Li4-xNaxTi5O12 (0≤x≤0.15 has been synthesized via a facile hydrothermal method with short processing time and low temperature. The XRD and FE-SEM results indicate that samples with Na-doped are well-crystallized and have more homogeneous particle distributions with smaller overall particle size in the range of 300-600nm. Electrochemical tests reveal that Na-doped samples exhibit impressive specific capacity and cycle stability compared to pristine Li4Ti5O12 at high rate. The Li3.9Na0.1Ti5O12 electrode deliver an initial specific discharge capacity of 169mAh/g at 0.5C and maintained at 150.4mAh/g even after 40 cycles with the reversible retention of 88.99%. Finally, a simple solvothermal reduction method was used to fabricate Li3.9Na0.1Ti5O12/graphene(Li3.9Na0.1Ti5O12/G composite. Galvanostatic charge-discharge tests demonstrate that this sample has remarkable capacities of 197.4mAh/g and 175.5mAh/g at 0.2C and 0.5C rate, respectively. This indicates that the Li3.9Na0.1Ti5O12/G composite is a promising anode material for using in lithium-ion batteries.

  8. Lithium batteries, anodes, and methods of anode fabrication

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Lain-Jong

    2016-12-29

    Prelithiation of a battery anode carried out using controlled lithium metal vapor deposition. Lithium metal can be avoided in the final battery. This prelithiated electrode is used as potential anode for Li- ion or high energy Li-S battery. The prelithiation of lithium metal onto or into the anode reduces hazardous risk, is cost effective, and improves the overall capacity. The battery containing such an anode exhibits remarkably high specific capacity and a long cycle life with excellent reversibility.

  9. An electrochemical and structural study of highly uniform tin oxide nanowires fabricated by a novel, scalable solvoplasma technique as anode material for sodium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Santanu; Schuppert, Nicholas; Bates, Alex; Jasinski, Jacek; Hong, Jong-Eun; Choi, Moon Jong; Park, Sam

    2017-04-01

    A novel solvoplasma based technique was used to fabricate highly uniform SnO2 nanowires (NWs) for application as an anode in sodium-ion batteries (SIBs). This technique is scalable, rapid, and utilizes a rigorous cleaning process to produce very pure SnO2 NWs with enhanced porosity; which improves sodium-ion hosting and reaction kinetics. The batch of NWs obtained from the plasma process were named the ;as-made; sample and after cleaning the ;pure; sample. Structural characterization showed that the as-made sample has a K+ ion impurity which is absent in the pure samples. The pure samples have a higher maximum specific capacity, 400.71 mAhg-1, and Coulombic efficiency, 85%, compared to the as-made samples which have a maximum specific capacity of 174.69 mAhg-1 and Coulombic efficiency of 74% upon cycling. A study of the electrochemical impedance spectra showed that the as-made samples have a higher interfacial and diffusion resistance than the pure samples and resistances increased after 50 cycles of cell operation for both samples due to progressive electrode degradation. Specific energy vs specific power plots were employed to analyze the performance of the system with respect to the working conditions.

  10. Reduced graphene oxide/carbon nanotubes sponge: A new high capacity and long life anode material for sodium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Dong; Xu, Xingtao; Lu, Ting; Hu, Bingwen; Chua, Daniel H. C.; Pan, Likun

    2016-06-01

    Reduced graphene oxide/carbon nanotubes (CNTs) sponge (GCNTS) is fabricated via a simple freeze drying of graphene oxide/CNTs mixed solution and subsequent thermal treatment in nitrogen atmosphere, and used as anodes for sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) for the first time. The morphology, structure and electrochemical performance of GCNTS are characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms, galvanostatic charge/discharge tests, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, respectively. The results show that GCNTS with 20 wt % CNTs has a highest charge capacity of 436 mA h g-1 after 100 cycles at a current density of 50 mA g-1 and even at a high current density of 10 A g-1, a capacity of 195 mA h g-1 is maintained after 7440 cycles. The high capacity, excellent rate performance and long life cycling enable the GCNTS to be a promising candidate for practical SIBs.

  11. Scalable synthesis of core-shell structured SiOx/nitrogen-doped carbon composite as a high-performance anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lu; Wang, Weikun; Wang, Anbang; Yuan, Keguo; Jin, Zhaoqing; Yang, Yusheng

    2016-06-01

    In this work, a novel core-shell structured SiOx/nitrogen-doped carbon composite has been prepared by simply dispersing the SiOx particles, which are synthesized by a thermal evaporation method from an equimolar mixture of Si and SiO2, into the dopamine solution, followed by a carbonization process. The SiOx core is well covered by the conformal and homogeneous nitrogen-doped carbon layer from the pyrolysis of polydopamine. By contrast with the bare SiOx, the electrochemical performance of the as-prepared core-shell structured SiOx/nitrogen-doped carbon composite has been improved significantly. It delivers a reversible capacity of 1514 mA h g-1 after 100 cycles at a current density of 100 mA g-1 and 933 mA h g-1 at 2 A g-1, much higher than those of commercial graphite anodes. The nitrogen-doped carbon layer ensures the excellent electrochemical performance of the SiOx/C composite. In addition, since dopamine can self-polymerize and coat virtually any surface, this versatile, facile and highly efficient coating process may be widely applicable to obtain various composites with uniform nitrogen-doped carbon coating layer.

  12. Research progress of surface modification on spinel Li4 Ti5O12 anode materials for Li-ion battery%尖晶石 Li4Ti5O12负极材料表面改性研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    房子魁; 袁静; 郝国栋; 朱彦荣; 伊廷锋

    2014-01-01

    “零应变”Li4 Ti5 O 12负极材料由于具有非常稳定的结构和优秀的倍率循环性能,因而受到广泛关注。本文综述了近年来国内外 Li4 Ti5 O 12负极材料的掺杂改性的研究现状,并探讨和总结了改性后材料的电化学性能,最后对 Li4 Ti5 O 12负极材料的应用前景进行了展望。%"zero_strain"Li4 Ti5 O 12 attracts widespread attention for its stable structure and excel_lent cycling performance used as anode material for Li_ion battery.Recent progress on surface modification of Li4 Ti5 O 12 anode material is reviewed,and the electrochemical properties of the modified anode materials are discussed and summarized.At last,the application prospect of Li4 Ti5 O 12 anode material is viewed.

  13. Performance of thermal-sprayed zinc anodes treated with humectants in cathodic protection systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bullard, Sophie J.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Holcomb, Gordon R.; Russell, James H.; Bennett, John E. (JE Bennett Consulting Inc.); Milius, John K. (Corrosion Restoration Tech.); Cryer, Curtis B. (Oregon Dept. of Transportation); Soltesz, Steven M. (Oregon Dept. of Transportation)

    2001-01-01

    Thermal-sprayed Zn anodes are used for impressed current cathodic protection (ICCP) systems in Oregon's reinforced concrete coastal bridges to minimize corrosion damage. Thermal-sprayed Zn performs well as an ICCP anode but the voltage requirement can increase with increasing electrochemical age. It also performs well as a galvanic (GCP) anode but current output can decrease with increasing electrochemical age. Past research has shown that increasing moisture at the Zn anode-concrete interface improves the operation of the thermal-sprayed Zn anode. Humectants, hygroscopic materials that are applied to the surface of the Zn-anode, can increase the moisture at the zinc-concrete interface, thereby improving the performance and extending the anode service life. Results are given for humectant-treated (LiBr and LiNO3) thermal-sprayed Zn anodes used in the laboratory electrochemical aging studies and in field studies on the Yaquina Bay Bridge, Oregon, USA.

  14. Fabrication of anode supported PEN for solid oxide fuel cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢淑红; 崔崑; 夏风; 肖建中

    2004-01-01

    Fabrication process for anode supported planar PEN of intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) was introduced, in which tape casting and screen printing methods were used. Gd2O3 doped CeO2(GDC) powders were prepared by solid reaction method. Anode tape was produced by tape casting. Electrolyte and cathode were produced by screen printing. The GDC powder's component, thermal expand coefficient, the porosity, density and microstructure of anode and electrolyte were investigated . It was shown that an bi-layer with dense thin electrolyte film and porous anode support and with good coherency of the electrolyte film to the anode could be realized after co-sintering the green tape at 1 350℃ by optimizing the power characteristics of the starting materials in the slurry.

  15. Inert Anode Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1999-07-01

    This ASME report provides a broad assessment of open literature and patents that exist in the area of inert anodes and their related cathode systems and cell designs, technologies that are relevant for the advanced smelting of aluminum. The report also discusses the opportunities, barriers, and issues associated with these technologies from a technical, environmental, and economic viewpoint.

  16. Research Progress of High Capacity Si Based Anode Material for Li-Ion Battery%锂离子电池用高容量合金类硅基负极材料研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈龙; 董爱想; 乔永民; 吴敏昌

    2012-01-01

      锡、硅负极材料由于具有高的比容量等优点,成为提高锂离子电池能量密度的首选负极材料。首先介绍了目前产业界开发锡、硅负极材料的进展,并从商业化的角度比较了这两类材料在开发工艺及实际使用电性能方面的区别。进一步从基础研发角度重点阐述了不同结构的硅基材料(单质硅、硅氧化物、硅碳复合物及硅合金)的电性能改性研究进展,指出了具有工业化前景的工艺方法。%  Tin and Silicon-based compounds are the research focuses of high capacity anode material for lithium ion batteries. The research progress of Si&Sn materials is introduced, and their process development from commercial perspective is also compared. The electrochemical behaviors modification progresses of Si materials, which are crystal silicon、silicon oxygen compound, Si/C composite and silicon alloy, have been reported. The process route which is fit for industrialization has been provided.

  17. Molybdenum doped Pr0.5Ba0.5MnO3-δ (Mo-PBMO) double perovskite as a potential solid oxide fuel cell anode material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yi-Fei; Zhang, Ya-Qian; Hua, Bin; Behnamian, Yashar; Li, Jian; Cui, Shao-Hua; Li, Jian-Hui; Luo, Jing-Li

    2016-01-01

    A layered Mo doped Pr0.5Ba0.5MnO3-δ (Mo-PBMO) double perovskite oxide was prepared by a modified sol-gel method and the properties of the fabricated material are characterized by various technologies. The results of X-ray diffraction (XRD), H2-temperature programmed reduction (H2-TPR), NH3-temperature programmed desorption (NH3-TPD), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) demonstrate that the treatment in reducing atmosphere at high temperature lead to a significant phase transformation of the material to a single cubic phase as well as with the Mo in multiple oxidized states. Such character leads to the production of large amount of oxygen deficiency with facilitated oxygen diffusion. The electrochemical performance tests of half-cell and single cell SOFCs exhibit the promoted effect of Mo on catalytic activity for the oxidation of H2 and CH4, indicating that Mo-PBMO could serve as an anode material candidate for SOFCs.

  18. Effects of structural patterns and degree of crystallinity on the performance of nanostructured ZnO as anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Liang, E-mail: xiaoliang@whut.edu.cn; Mei, Daidi; Cao, Minglei; Qu, Deyu; Deng, Bohua

    2015-04-05

    Highlights: • Effects of structural patterns on nanostructured ZnO anode are studied. • Structural patterns with sufficient inner spacing show better capacity retention. • Capacity of nanostructured ZnO increase with the increasing of crystallinity. • Crystallized ZnO with inner spacing are expected to have good performance. - Abstract: The effects of structural patterns and degree of crystallinity on the electrochemical performance of ZnO were systematically studied using a controllable synthesis. The microspheres assembled with distorted nanosheets, hexagonal nanorods and radial assembly of nanorods of ZnO were successfully prepared by the hydrothermal reaction of zinc nitrate, hexamethylenetetramine and different amount of trisodium citrate. ZnO microspheres were calcinated at different temperatures (300, 600 and 900 °C) to increase their degree of crystallization. Constant current charge and discharge measurements show that the capacity retention of the microspheres and radial assembled nanorods are higher than that of hexagonal nanorods. This may be due to their inner spacing of specific structure patterns that can accommodate and restrain the volume changes during cycling. Additionally, the capacity of ZnO microspheres can be improved by short-time calcinations at 600 or 900 °C for their crystallization. The studies of differential capacity versus potential plots indicate that the enhanced degree of crystallization facilitates the alloying and dealloying of the reduction products of ZnO. Therefore, both large specific capacity and good capacity retention can be expected with highly crystallized specific nanostructures of ZnO with the sufficient inner spacing. The ZnO microspheres calcinated at 600 °C show the best performance with a specific capacity of 1328.2 mA h g{sup −1} for the first cycle and 662.8 mA h g{sup −1} for the 50th cycle at 0.1 C with an operating potential of 0.05–3.00 V.

  19. Movable anode x-ray source with enhanced anode cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, C.R.; Rockett, P.D.

    1987-08-04

    An x-ray source is disclosed having a cathode and a disc-shaped anode with a peripheral surface at constant radius from the anode axis opposed to the cathode. The anode has stub axle sections rotatably carried in heat conducting bearing plates which are mounted by thermoelectric coolers to bellows which normally bias the bearing plates to a retracted position spaced from opposing anode side faces. The bellows cooperate with the x-ray source mounting structure for forming closed passages for heat transport fluid. Flow of such fluid under pressure expands the bellows and brings the bearing plates into heat conducting contact with the anode side faces. A worm gear is mounted on a shaft and engages serrations in the anode periphery for rotating the anode when flow of coolant is terminated between x-ray emission events. 5 figs.

  20. 锰基锂正极半导体材料禁带特性研究%Study on the band gap character of Mn-base lithium anode material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴汉杰; 梁兴华; 黄美红; 宋清清; 刘浩

    2015-01-01

    For doping Ni and Fe solid material, studying on Mn-base lithium anode material by using high temperature synthesis method, the preparation of the Mn-Base lithium anode semiconductor material LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4, LiNi0.5Mn1.5Fe0.1O4 and LiNi0.5Mn1.5Fe0.2O4. The crystal structure of the sample was analyzed and collected through X-ray diffractometry (XRD), It also tested spectrum features of the material by using ultraviolet visible spectrophotometer, The character of charge-discharge were showed by high precision electrical tester. Testing results showed that Mn-base lithium anode semiconducting material was diamond structure, crystal structure was space group of Fd3m and the cubic crystal system. When absorption coefficient of ultraviolet visible light of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4, LiNi0.5Mn1.5Fe0.1O4 and LiNi0.5Mn1.5Fe0.2O4 were respectively 0.830, 0.839 and 0.857, the width of the band gap were respectively 2.24e V, 2.22e V, 1.85eV. Electrical characteristics tests indicated that there were two charge–discharge platforms and between 3.45 V and 4.8 V in the semi-finished products of the battery.%采用高温合成法对掺杂Ni和Fe固体物质锰基锂正极材料进行研究,制备出锰基锂正极半导体材料LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4,LiNi0.5Mn1.5Fe0.1O4和LiNi0.5Mn1.5Fe0.2O4,利用X射线衍射仪分析该产物的晶体结构,运用紫外可见光纤光谱仪测试该材料的光谱特征,采用高精度电池测试仪测试半电池的充放电特性.测试结果表明:锰基锂正极半导体材料为立方尖晶石结构,其晶体结构是立方晶系,Fd3m空间群.LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4,LiNi0.5Mn1.5Fe0.1O4和LiNi0.5Mn1.5Fe0.2O4的紫外可见光吸收系数分别处于0.830,0.839和0.857时,禁带宽度分别为0.989 eV,0.966 eV和0.922 eV.半电池电特性测试表明:充放电电压范围处于3.45 V~4.8 V区间,充放电出现了2个平台.

  1. Efficient and stable iron based perovskite La0.9Ca0.1Fe0.9Nb0.1O3-δ anode material for solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiaowei; Zhou, Xiaoliang; Tian, Yu; Wu, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Jun; Zuo, Wei; Gong, Xiaobo; Guo, Zhanhu

    2016-06-01

    A novel La0.9Ca0.1Fe0.9Nb0.1O3-δ (LCFNb) perovskite for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) anode is prepared by means of the citrate-nitrate route and composited with Ce0.8Sm0.2O1.9 (SDC) by impregnation method to form nano-scaled LCFNb/SDC anode catalytic layers. The single cells with LCFNb and LCFNb/SDC impregnated anodes both achieve relatively high power output with maximum power densities (MPDs) reaching up to 610, 823 mW·cm-2 in H2 at 800 °C, respectively, presenting a high potential of LCFNb for use as SOFCs anode. The power outputs of the single cells with LCFNb/SDC composite anode in CO and syngas (COsbnd H2 mixture) are almost identical to that in H2 at each testing temperature. This composite anode also presents excellent durability in both H2 and CO for as long as 50 h, showing desirable anti-reduction and carbon deposition resistance abilities. Besides, the cell output is stable in 100 ppm H2Ssbnd H2 atmospheres for 20 h at a current density of 600 mA·cm-2 with negligible sulfur accumulation on the anode surface. Hence, a novel iron based perovskite LCFNb anode with remarkable cell performance, carbon deposition resistance and sulfur poisoning tolerance for SOFCs is successfully obtained.

  2. Laser-Ultrasonic Measurement of Elastic Properties of Anodized Aluminum Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, F.

    Anodized aluminum oxide plays a great role in many industrial applications, e.g. in order to achieve greater wear resistance. Since the hardness of the anodized films strongly depends on its processing parameters, it is important to characterize the influence of the processing parameters on the film properties. In this work the elastic material parameters of anodized aluminum were investigated using a laser-based ultrasound system. The anodized films were characterized analyzing the dispersion of Rayleigh waves with a one-layer model. It was shown that anodizing time and temperature strongly influence Rayleigh wave propagation.

  3. The effect of antimony presence in anodic copper on kinetics and mechanism of anodic dissolution and cathodic deposition of copper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Z.D.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the presence of Sb atoms, as foreign metal atoms in anode copper, on kinetics, and, on the mechanism of anodic dissolution and cathodic deposition of copper in acidic sulfate solution has been investigated. The galvanostatic single-pulse method has been used. Results indicate that presence of Sb atoms in anode copper increase the exchange current density as determined from the Tafel analysis of the electrode reaction. It is attributed to the increase of the crystal lattice parameter determined from XRD analysis of the electrode material.

  4. The effect of bi presence as impurities in anodic copper on kinetics and mechanism of anodic dissolution and cathodic deposition of copper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Zvonimir D.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of Bi, as foreign metal atoms in anode copper, on kinetics and mechanism of anodic dissolution and cathodic deposition of copper in acidic sulfate solution was investigated using the galvanostatic single-pulse method. Results indicate that presence of Bi atoms in anode copper increases the exchange current density, as determined from the Tafel analysis of the electrode reaction, which is attributed to the increase of the crystal lattice parameter determined from XRD analysis of the electrode material.

  5. Disordered anodes for Ni-metal rechargeable battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Kwo-hsiung; Wang, Lixin; Mays, William C.

    2016-11-22

    An electrochemical cell is provided that includes a structurally and compositionally disordered electrochemically active alloy material as an anode active material with unexpected capacity against a nickel hydroxide based cathode active material. The disordered metal hydroxide alloy includes three or more transition metal elements and is formed in such a way so as to produce the necessary disorder in the overall system. When an anode active material includes nickel as a predominant, the resulting cells represent the first demonstration of a functional Ni/Ni cell.

  6. 高性能锂离子电池SiO/C复合负极材料研究%High-performance SiO/C Composite Anode Material for Lithium Ion Battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余德馨; 杨学林; 石长川; 张鹏昌

    2011-01-01

    以SiO为硅源,柠檬酸为碳源,通过高能球磨和高温热解制备了一种循环性能优异的锂离子电池SiO/C复合负极材料.采用X-射线衍射仪(XRD)、扫描电子显微镜(SEM)对复合材料的物相和形貌进行了表征.具有孔状结构的柠檬酸热解碳对纳米SiO不仅具有良好的包覆效果,也能有效缓冲电化学嵌脱锂过程中硅颗粒释放出来的体积变化.电化学性能测试表明,SiO/C复合负极材料电极循环100次后容量仍高达803.1 mA·h/g,容量保持率为89%.%SiO/C composite anode material with high capacity, high cycling stability for lithium ion battery is synthesized by high-energy mechanical milling and subsequent heat treatment using silicon-monoxide and citric acid as raw materials. The phase composition and micro morphology of the composite material are investigated by the X-ray diffractometer(XRD) and scanning electron microscope(SEM), indicating nano-sized SiO particles was coated by pyrolytic carbon with porous feature. SiO/C composite electrode presents excellent electrochemical performance with reversible capacity as high as 803.1 mA·h/g and capacity retention rate of 89% after 100 cycles.

  7. 锰氧化物/石墨烯复合材料作为锂离子电池负极的研究%A study on MnO_x/graphene composites as anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高云雷; 赵东林; 沈曾民

    2012-01-01

    The precursor of Mn hybrid material was synthesized by a modified Hummers method and MnOx/graphene composites were obtained through a reduction in nitrogen and hydrogen atmosphere at 400℃.The composite material was investigated as anode materials for lithium ion batteries via scanning and transmission electron microscopy(TEM),X-ray diffraction(XRD) and a variety of electrochemical testing techniques.Experimental results showed that nano-particles of manganese oxide were well dispersed on the surface of graphene sheets.The first reversible capacity of the prepared composite was as high as 876mAh/g at current density of 50mA/g.After 30 cycles,the reversible specific capacity was still maintain at more than 700mAh/g.%以天然石墨为原料,采用改进的Hummers法合成含Mn的氧化石墨;400℃条件下氢气还原制备了锰氧化物/石墨烯复合材料。利用XRD、SEM和TEM对所制备的复合材料进行了表征。结果表明锰氧化物(MnOx)颗粒均匀地分布在石墨烯片层表面。将复合材料作为锂离子电池负极进行研究,在50mA/g电流密度下,首次库伦效率为70.4%,可逆容量达876mAh/g,并且具有良好的循环性能,在30次循环后仍保持在700mAh/g以上。

  8. Direct Synthesis of Carbon-Doped TiO2-Bronze Nanowires as Anode Materials for High Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goriparti, Subrahmanyam; Miele, Ermanno; Prato, Mirko; Scarpellini, Alice; Marras, Sergio; Monaco, Simone; Toma, Andrea; Messina, Gabriele C; Alabastri, Alessandro; De Angelis, Francesco; Manna, Liberato; Capiglia, Claudio; Zaccaria, Remo Proietti

    2015-11-18

    Carbon-doped TiO2-bronze nanowires were synthesized via a facile doping mechanism and were exploited as active material for Li-ion batteries. We demonstrate that both the wire geometry and the presence of carbon doping contribute to the high electrochemical performance of these materials. Direct carbon doping for example reduces the Li-ion diffusion length and improves the electrical conductivity of the wires, as demonstrated by cycling experiments, which evidenced remarkably higher capacities and superior rate capability over the undoped nanowires. The as-prepared carbon-doped nanowires, evaluated in lithium half-cells, exhibited lithium storage capacity of ∼306 mA h g(-1) (91% of the theoretical capacity) at the current rate of 0.1C as well as excellent discharge capacity of ∼160 mAh g(-1) even at the current rate of 10 C after 1000 charge/discharge cycles.

  9. Structural stabilities, surface morphologies and electronic properties of spinel LiTi2O4 as anode materials for lithium-ion battery: A first-principles investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Yu, Hai-Tao; Xie, Ying; Li, Ming-Xia; Yi, Ting-Feng; Guo, Chen-Feng; Song, Qing-Shan; Lou, Ming; Fan, Shan-Shan

    2016-07-01

    The thermodynamic stabilities, surface morphologies, and electronic structures of the LiTi2O4 compound were investigated by the first-principles methods. The formation enthalpies and lattice constants of LixTi2O4 decrease at first and then increase again. This phenomenon is related to the balance between Lisbnd O attractions and Lisbnd Li repulsions. Population analysis revealed that pure ionic and strong covalent bonds are formed respectively between lithium and oxygen and between titanium and oxygen in LiTi2O4 material. These interactions are very crucial for the thermodynamic stability of the compounds. The surface stability was considered as functions of the chemical potentials, and five terminations, (100)-Ti2O4, (110)-Ti2O4, (210)-Ti2O4, (111)-LiTiO4, and (310)-Ti2O8ones, are dominant in the stability diagram. Our calculation showed that a particle morphology with mono (110) facet can be obtained at Ti- and/or O-moderate conditions, and this morphology will be very helpful for improving the rate performance of the material via reduction of the lithium diffusion distance. Furthermore, partially filled electronic states at the Fermi energy were confirmed for bulk LiTi2O4 and some of the surfaces, and they are responsible for the excellent electronic conductivity of the material. Further calculations showed that the work functions are sensitive to the stoichiometry of the surfaces.

  10. Influence of the C/Sn Ratio on the Synthesis and Lithium Electrochemical Insertion of Tin-Supported Graphite Materials Used as Anodes for Li-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cédric Mercier

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel composites consisting of tin particles associated to graphite were prepared by chemical reduction of tin(+2 chloride by t-BuONa-activated sodium hydride in the presence of graphite. The samples obtained using various C/Sn ratios were investigated by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and elemental analyses. The largest tin particles associated to graphite layers were observed for the material with a C/Sn ratio of 16. For the materials with C/Sn ratios of 42 and 24, SEM and TEM experiments demonstrated that Sn aggregates of ca. 250 nm length and composed of Sn particles with an average diameter of ca. 50 nm were homogeneously distributed at the surface of graphite. Electrodes prepared from the C/Sn=42 material exhibit a high reversible capacity of over 470 mAhg−1 up to twenty cycles with stable cyclic performances.

  11. One-pot rapid synthesis of core-shell structured NiO@TiO2 nanopowders and their excellent electrochemical properties as anode materials for lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seung Ho; Lee, Jong-Heun; Kang, Yun Chan

    2013-12-21

    Core-shell structured NiO@TiO2 nanopowders for application as anode materials for lithium ion batteries are prepared by one-pot flame spray pyrolysis from aqueous spray solution containing Ni and Ti components. A new formation mechanism of the core-shell structured nanopowders in the flame spray pyrolysis is proposed. Composite nanopowders are first formed by surface growth and coagulation from NiO and TiO2 vapors. A small amount of TiO2 in composite powders disturbs the crystallization of TiO2. Therefore, the TiO2 component moves out to the surface of the powders forming an amorphous shell during the formation of single crystalline NiO. The initial discharge and charge capacities of the NiO@TiO2 nanopowders at a current density of 300 mA g(-1) are 1302 and 937 mA h g(-1), respectively. The discharge capacities of the pure NiO and NiO@TiO2 nanopowders after 80 cycles are 542 and 970 mA h g(-1), respectively. The capacity retentions of the pure NiO and NiO@TiO2 nanopowders after 80 cycles measured after the first cycles are 75 and 108%, respectively.

  12. Synthesis of free-standing MnO2/reduced graphene oxide membranes and electrochemical investigation of their performances as anode materials for half and full lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaojun; Wang, Gang; Wang, Hui

    2016-10-01

    MnO2 nanotubes/reduced graphene oxide (MnO2/RGO) membranes with different MnO2 contents are successfully synthesized by a facile two-step method including vacuum filtration and subsequent thermal reduction route. The MnO2 nanotubes obtained are 38 nm in diameter and homogeneously imbedded in RGO sheets as spacers. The synthesized MnO2/RGO membranes exhibit excellent mechanical flexibilities and free-standing properties. Using the membranes directly as anode materials for lithium batteries (LIBs), the membranes for half LIBs show superb cycling stabilities and rate performances. Importantly, the electrochemical performances of MnO2/RGO membranes show a strong dependence on the MnO2 nanotube contents in the hybrids. In addition, our results show that the hybrid membranes with 49.0 wt% MnO2 nanotube in half LIBs achieve a high reversible capacity of 1006.7 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles at a current density of 0.1 A g-1, which is higher lithium storage capacity than that of reported MnO2-carbon electrodes. Furthermore, the synthesized full cell (MnO2/RGO//LiCoO2) system also exhibit excellent electrochemical performances, which can be attributed to the unique microstructures of MnO2 and GRO, coupled with the strong synergistic interaction between MnO2 nanotubes and GRO sheets.

  13. Investigation of mechanism of anode plasma formation in ion diode with dielectric anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushkarev, A.

    2015-10-01

    The results of investigation of the anode plasma formation in a diode with a passive anode in magnetic insulation mode are presented. The experiments have been conducted using the BIPPAB-450 ion accelerator (350-400 kV, 6-8 kA, 80 ns) with a focusing conical diode with Br external magnetic field (a barrel diode). For analysis of plasma formation at the anode and the distribution of the ions beam energy density, infrared imaging diagnostics (spatial resolution of 1-2 mm) is used. For analysis of the ion beam composition, time-of-flight diagnostics (temporal resolution of 1 ns) were used. Our studies have shown that when the magnetic induction in the A-C gap is much larger than the critical value, the ion beam energy density is close to the one-dimensional Child-Langmuir limit on the entire working surface of the diode. Formation of anode plasma takes place only by the flashover of the dielectric anode surface. In this mode, the ion beam consists primarily of singly ionized carbon ions, and the delay of the start of formation of the anode plasma is 10-15 ns. By reducing the magnetic induction in the A-C gap to a value close to the critical one, the ion beam energy density is 3-6 times higher than that calculated by the one-dimensional Child-Langmuir limit, but the energy density of the ion beam is non-uniform in cross-section. In this mode, the anode plasma formation occurs due to ionization of the anode material with accelerated electrons. In this mode, also, the delay in the start of the formation of the anode plasma is much smaller and the degree of ionization of carbon ions is higher. In all modes occurred effective suppression of the electronic component of the total current, and the diode impedance was 20-30 times higher than the values calculated for the mode without magnetic insulation of the electrons. The divergence of the ion beam was 4.5°-6°.

  14. Atmospheric pressure arc discharge with ablating graphite anode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemchinsky, V. A. [Keiser University, Fort Lauderdale Campus, FL, 33309, USA; Raitses, Y. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2015-05-18

    The anodic carbon arc discharge is used to produce carbon nanoparticles. Recent experiments with the carbon arc at atmospheric pressure helium demonstrated the enhanced ablation rate for narrow graphite anodes resulting in high deposition rates of carbonaceous products on the copper cathode (Fetterman et al 2008 Carbon 46 1322–6). The proposed model explains these results with interconnected steady-state models of the cathode and the anode processes. When considering cathode functioning, the model predicts circulation of the particles in the near-cathode region: evaporation of the cathode material, ionization of evaporated atoms and molecules in the near-cathode plasma, return of the resulting ions to the cathode, surface recombination of ions and electrons followed again by cathode evaporation etc. In the case of the low anode ablation rate, the ion acceleration in the cathode sheath provides the major cathode heating mechanism. In the case of an intensive anode ablation, an additional cathode heating is due to latent fusion heat of the atomic species evaporated from the anode and depositing at the cathode. Using the experimental arc voltage as the only input discharge parameter, the model allows us to calculate the anode ablation rate. A comparison of the results of calculations with the available experimental data shows reasonable agreement.

  15. In situ characterization of nanoscale catalysts during anodic redox processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Renu [National Institute of Standards and Technology; Crozier, Peter [Arizona State University; Adams, James [Arizona State University

    2013-09-19

    Controlling the structure and composition of the anode is critical to achieving high efficiency and good long-term performance. In addition to being a mixed electronic and ionic conductor, the ideal anode material should act as an efficient catalyst for oxidizing hydrogen, carbon monoxide and dry hydrocarbons without de-activating through either sintering or coking. It is also important to develop novel anode materials that can operate at lower temperatures to reduce costs and minimized materials failure associated with high temperature cycling. We proposed to synthesize and characterize novel anode cermets materials based on ceria doped with Pr and/or Gd together with either a Ni or Cu metallic components. Ceria is a good oxidation catalyst and is an ionic conductor at room temperature. Doping it with trivalent rare earths such as Pr or Gd retards sintering and makes it a mixed ion conductor (ionic and electronic). We have developed a fundamental scientific understanding of the behavior of the cermet material under reaction conditions by following the catalytic oxidation process at the atomic scale using a powerful Environmental Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope (ESTEM). The ESTEM allowed in situ monitoring of structural, chemical and morphological changes occurring at the cermet under conditions approximating that of typical fuel-cell operation. Density functional calculations were employed to determine the underlying mechanisms and reaction pathways during anode oxidation reactions. The dynamic behavior of nanoscale catalytic oxidation of hydrogen and methane were used to determine: ? Fundamental processes during anodic reactions in hydrogen and carbonaceous atmospheres ? Interfacial effects between metal particles and doped ceria ? Kinetics of redox reaction in the anode material

  16. High performance anode for advanced Li batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lake, Carla [Applied Sciences, Inc., Cedarville, OH (United States)

    2015-11-02

    The overall objective of this Phase I SBIR effort was to advance the manufacturing technology for ASI’s Si-CNF high-performance anode by creating a framework for large volume production and utilization of low-cost Si-coated carbon nanofibers (Si-CNF) for the battery industry. This project explores the use of nano-structured silicon which is deposited on a nano-scale carbon filament to achieve the benefits of high cycle life and high charge capacity without the consequent fading of, or failure in the capacity resulting from stress-induced fracturing of the Si particles and de-coupling from the electrode. ASI’s patented coating process distinguishes itself from others, in that it is highly reproducible, readily scalable and results in a Si-CNF composite structure containing 25-30% silicon, with a compositionally graded interface at the Si-CNF interface that significantly improve cycling stability and enhances adhesion of silicon to the carbon fiber support. In Phase I, the team demonstrated the production of the Si-CNF anode material can successfully be transitioned from a static bench-scale reactor into a fluidized bed reactor. In addition, ASI made significant progress in the development of low cost, quick testing methods which can be performed on silicon coated CNFs as a means of quality control. To date, weight change, density, and cycling performance were the key metrics used to validate the high performance anode material. Under this effort, ASI made strides to establish a quality control protocol for the large volume production of Si-CNFs and has identified several key technical thrusts for future work. Using the results of this Phase I effort as a foundation, ASI has defined a path forward to commercialize and deliver high volume and low-cost production of SI-CNF material for anodes in Li-ion batteries.

  17. Dual phase Li4Ti5O12-TiO2 hierarchical hollow microspheres as anode materials for high rate lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Kunxu; Hu, Guoxin

    2017-01-01

    Dual phase Li4Ti5O12-TiO2 hierarchical hollow microspheres composed of nanosheets are successfully fabricated by the calcination of hydrothermal product obtained from lithium peroxotitanate complex solution. Low-cost industrial H2TiO3 particles are chosen as titanium sources, which is significant for the inexpensive and large-scale production of Li4Ti5O12-TiO2 composite material. The Li4Ti5O12-TiO2 electrode yields excellent rate capability (151, 139 and 134 mA h g-1 at 10, 20 and 25 C, respectively) and good cycling stability (96% capacity retention after 500 cycles at 10 C). The mesoporous hierarchical morphology and high grain boundary density are likely the contributing factors to the excellent electrochemical performance of Li4Ti5O12-TiO2 composite.

  18. Synthesis and electrochemical performance of hole-rich Li4Ti5O12 anode material for lithium-ion secondary batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Weibo; Zhuang, Zhenyuan; Yang, Yanmin; Zhang, Ruidan; Lin, Zhiya; Lin, Yingbin; Huang, Zhigao

    2016-06-01

    Hole-rich Li4Ti5O12 composites are synthesized by spray drying using carbon nanotubes as additives in precursor solution, subsequently followed calcinated at high temperature in air. The structure, morphology, and texture of the as-prepared composites are characterized with XRD, Raman, BET and SEM techniques. The electrochemical properties of the as-prepared composites are investigated systematically by charge/discharge testing, cyclic voltammograms and AC impedance spectroscopy, respectively. In comparison with the pristine Li4Ti5O12, the hole-rich Li4Ti5O12 induced by carbon nanotubes exhibits superior electrochemical performance, especially at high rates. The obtained excellent electrochemical performances of should be attributed to the hole-rich structure of the materials, which offers more connection-area with the electrolyte, shorter diffusion-path length as well faster migration rate for both Li ions and electrons during the charge/discharge process.

  19. Impact of anode microstructure on solid oxide fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Toshio; Hasan, Zahir; Funahashi, Yoshihiro; Yamaguchi, Toshiaki; Fujishiro, Yoshinobu; Awano, Masanobu

    2009-08-14

    We report a correlation between the microstructure of the anode electrode of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and its electrochemical performance for a tubular design. It was shown that the electrochemical performance of the cell was extensively improved when the size of constituent particles was reduced so as to yield a highly porous microstructure. The SOFC had a power density of greater than 1 watt per square centimeter at an operating temperature as low as 600 degrees C with a conventional zirconia-based electrolyte, a nickel cermet anode, and a lanthanum ferrite perovskite cathode material. The effect of the hydrogen fuel flow rate (linear velocity) was also examined for the optimization of operating conditions. Higher linear fuel velocity led to better cell performance for the cell with higher anode porosity. A zirconia-based cell could be used for a low-temperature SOFC system under 600 degrees C just by optimizing the microstructure of the anode electrode and operating conditions.

  20. Superior electrochemical performance of mesoporous Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/CNT nanocomposites as anode material for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas, Syed Mustansar, E-mail: qau_abbas@yahoo.com [Nanoscience and Catalysis Division, National Centre for Physics, Islamabad (Pakistan); Department of Chemistry, Quaid-e-Azam University, Islamabad (Pakistan); Ali, Saqib, E-mail: drsa54@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Quaid-e-Azam University, Islamabad (Pakistan); Niaz, Niaz Ahmad [Department of Physics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan (Pakistan); Ali, Nisar; Ahmed, Rashid [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Ahmad, Nisar [Nanoscience and Catalysis Division, National Centre for Physics, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2014-10-25

    Graphical abstract: The mesoporous Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/CNT nanocomposite synthesized via a modified co-precipitation method in combination with subsequent calcination was applied in the negative electrode materials for lithium ion batteries and exhibited high electrochemical performance. - Highlights: • Nanocomposite of functionalized CNTs with Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles is prepared. • Good quality interfacial adhesion between CNTs and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} matrix. • High discharge capacity of 1093 mA h g{sup −1} after 50 cycles. • 50th Cycle coulombic efficiency of 98.4% at a current density of 100 mA g{sup −1}. - Abstract: A series of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/CNT nanocomposites are effectively synthesized by an in situ chemical co-precipitation technique. The structure, morphology and chemical composition of synthesized nanocomposites are analyzed by X-ray diffraction, Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The electrochemical performance of synthesized nanocomposites is tested by cyclic voltammetry (CV), charge/discharge studies and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The carbon nanotubes are nicely dispersed in the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles for all the nanocomposites. Due to the synergistic effect arising from Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes, the electrochemical properties of pure Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} material is considerably enhanced. A discharge capacity of 1093 mA h g{sup −1} is demonstrated by Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}–7%CNT nanocomposite at a current density of 100 mA g{sup −1} with a high columbic efficiency of 98.4%. Moreover, this nanocomposite shows a stable cycling and rate performance at higher current densities. Hence, based on the above studies, such Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/CNT nanocomposite could be a possible contributor for lithium ion batteries.

  1. Copper anode corrosion affects power generation in microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Xiuping

    2013-07-16

    Non-corrosive, carbon-based materials are usually used as anodes in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). In some cases, however, metals have been used that can corrode (e.g. copper) or that are corrosion resistant (e.g. stainless steel, SS). Corrosion could increase current through galvanic (abiotic) current production or by increasing exposed surface area, or decrease current due to generation of toxic products from corrosion. In order to directly examine the effects of using corrodible metal anodes, MFCs with Cu were compared with reactors using SS and carbon cloth anodes. MFCs with Cu anodes initially showed high current generation similar to abiotic controls, but subsequently they produced little power (2 mW m-2). Higher power was produced with microbes using SS (12 mW m-2) or carbon cloth (880 mW m-2) anodes, with no power generated by abiotic controls. These results demonstrate that copper is an unsuitable anode material, due to corrosion and likely copper toxicity to microorganisms. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Effects of the Use of Pore Formers on Performance of an Anode supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haslam, J J; Pham, A; Chung, B W; DiCarlo, J F; Glass, R S

    2003-12-04

    The effects of amount of pore former used to produce porosity in the anode of an anode supported planar solid oxide fuel cell were examined. The pore forming material utilized was rice starch. The reduction rate of the anode material was measured by Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) to qualitatively characterize the gas transport within the porous anode materials. Fuel cells with varying amounts of porosity produced by using rice starch as a pore former were tested. The performance of the fuel cell was the greatest with an optimum amount of pore former used to create porosity in the anode. This optimum is believed to be related to a trade off between increasing gas diffusion to the active three-phase boundary region of the anode and the loss of performance due to the replacement of active three-phase boundary regions of the anode with porosity.

  3. Modification of carbon nanotubes by CuO-doped NiO nanocomposite for use as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustansar Abbas, Syed, E-mail: qau_abbas@yahoo.com [Nanoscience and Catalysis Division, National Centre for Physics, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Department of Chemistry, Quaid-e-Azam University, Islamabad (Pakistan); Tajammul Hussain, Syed [Nanoscience and Catalysis Division, National Centre for Physics, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Ali, Saqib [Department of Chemistry, Quaid-e-Azam University, Islamabad (Pakistan); Ahmad, Nisar [Department of Chemistry, Hazara University, Mansehra (Pakistan); Ali, Nisar [Department of Physics, University of Punjab, Lahore (Pakistan); Abbas, Saghir [Department of Chemistry, Quaid-e-Azam University, Islamabad (Pakistan); Ali, Zulfiqar [Nanoscience and Catalysis Division, National Centre for Physics, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); College of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Punjab, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2013-06-15

    CuO-doped NiO (CuNiO) with porous hexagonal morphology is fabricated via a modified in-situ co-precipitation method and its nanocomposite is prepared with carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The electrochemical properties of CuNiO/CNT nanocomposite are investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge–discharge tests and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Since Cu can both act as conductor and a catalyst, the CuNiO/CNT nanocomposite exhibits higher initial coulombic efficiency (82.7% of the 2nd cycle) and better capacity retention (78.6% on 50th cycle) than bare CuNiO (78.9% of the 2nd cycle), CuO/CNT (76.8% of the 2nd cycle) and NiO/CNT (77.7% of the 2nd cycle) at the current density of 100 mA /g. This high capacity and good cycling ability is attributed to the partial substitution of Cu{sup +2} for Ni{sup +2}, resulting in an increase of holes concentration, and therefore improved p-type conductivity along with an intimate interaction with CNTs providing large surface area, excellent conduction, mechanical strength and chemical stability. - Graphical abstract: The porous CuNiO/CNT nanocomposite synthesized via a modified co-precipitation method in combination with subsequent calcination was applied in the negative electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries and exhibited high electrochemical performance. - Highlights: • CuO doped NiO/CNTs nano composite is achieved via a simple co-precipitation method. • Monodispersity, shape and sizes of sample particles is specifically controlled. • Good quality adhesion between CNTs and CuNiO is visible from TEM image. • High electrochemical performance is achieved. • Discharge capacity of 686 mA h/g after 50 cycles with coulombic efficiency (82.5%)

  4. Elaboration, physical and electrochemical characterizations of CO tolerant PEMFC anode materials. Study of platinum-molybdenum and platinum-tungsten alloys and composites; Elaborations et caracterisations electrochimiques et physiques de materiaux d'anode de PEMFC peu sensibles a l'empoisonnement par CO: etude d'alliages et de composites a base de platine-molybdene et de platine-tungstene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peyrelade, E.

    2005-06-15

    PEMFC development is hindered by the CO poisoning ability of the anode platinum catalyst. It has been previously shown that the oxidation potential of carbon monoxide adsorbed on the platinum atoms can be lowered using specific Pt based catalysts, either metallic alloys or composites. The objective is then to realize a catalyst for which the CO oxidation is compatible with the working potential of a PEMFC anode. In our approach, to enhance the CO tolerance of platinum based catalyst supported on carbon, we studied platinum-tungsten and platinum-molybdenum alloys and platinum-metal oxide materials (Pt-WO{sub x} and Pt-MoO{sub x}). The platinum based alloys demonstrate a small effect of the second metal towards the oxidation of carbon monoxide. The platinum composites show a better tolerance to carbon monoxide. Electrochemical studies on both Pt-MoO{sub x} and Pt-WO{sub x} demonstrate the ability of the metal-oxides to promote the ability of Pt to oxidize CO at low potentials. However, chrono-amperometric tests reveal a bigger influence of the tungsten oxide. Complex chemistry reactions on the molybdenum oxide surface make it more difficult to observe. (author)

  5. Aerogel and xerogel composites for use as carbon anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, John F.; Tillotson, Thomas M.; Hrubesh, Lawrence W.

    2008-08-12

    Disclosed herein are aerogel and xerogel composite materials suitable for use as anodes in fuel cells and batteries. Precursors to the aerogel and xerogel compounds are infused with inorganic polymeric materials or carbon particles and then gelled. The gels are then pyrolyzed to form composites with internal structural support.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of graphene nanosheets-cobalt oxide composites as anode material%石墨烯纳米片-氧化亚钴负极材料制备与表征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柏大伟; 何雨石; 阳炳检; 廖小珍; 马紫峰

    2011-01-01

    采用水热法结合,500℃高温焙烧制备了新型高性能锂离子电池负极材料石墨烯纳米片-氧化亚钴(GNS-CoO)复合材料.采用XRD及TEM等手段对石墨烯纳米片-氧化亚钴复合材料结构和形貌进行表征,并对其电化学性能进行测试.结果表明,石墨烯纳米片-氧化亚钴复合材料的循环性能明显优于氧化亚钴,以200 mA/g进行充放电得到首次放电比容量为1040.2 mAh/g,50次循环后放电比容量为1027.8 mAh/g,显示出良好的循环稳定性.%A graphene nanosheets-CoO(GNS-CoO) composite as a high performance anode material for lithium-ion battery was firstly prepared by a hydrothermal method and then calcined at 500 ℃. The structure, morphology and electrochemical performance of the obtained samples were systematically investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and electrochemical measurements. The test results show that cycle performance of GNS-CoO is obviously better than cobalt oxide; the specific discharge capacity of GNS-CoO attains to 1 040.2 mAh/g in the first cycle at a current density of 200 mA/g; after 50 cycles, the reversible specific capacity of GNS-CoO can still reach about 1 027.8 mAh/g.

  7. Performance of Y0.9Sr0.1Cr0.9Fe0.1O3-δ as a sulfur-tolerant anode material for intermediate temperate solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Yun-Fei; Zhong, Qin; Xu, Dan-Dan; Zhao, Xiao-Lu; Tan, Wen-Yi

    2014-03-01

    Perovskite-type Y0.9Sr0.1Cr0.9Fe0.1O3-δ maintained good chemical stability under a H2S-containing atmosphere based on results from X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) in our previous study. In this research, the YSCF-based anode was studied using H2 and H2S-containing fuels. The activity of an electrode is closely related to its material composition, lattice structure, physic-chemical properties, and morphologic structure. Therefore, the characteristics of the YSCF powders and the cell were analyzed by XRD, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analysis, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The conductivities of YSCF were evaluated by four-probe method in 10% H2-N2, 1% H2S-N2 and air, respectively. Thermodynamic calculations and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis have been used to investigate the stability of the elements in YSCF upon exposure to hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in hydrogen (H2) over a range of partial pressures of sulfur (pS2) and oxygen (pO2) that are representative of fuel cell operating conditions. In addition, the performance of the complete cell (YSCF-SDC|SDC|Ag) under H2S and H2 fuel mixtures was also evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) and I-V and I-P curves. The emergence of FeSO4 in the sulfur treatment should play an important role in preventing further sulfur-poisoning.

  8. Alternative Anodes for the Electrolytic Reduction of Uranium Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merwin, Augustus

    Reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel is an essential step in closing the nuclear fuel cycle. In order to consume current stockpiles, ceramic uranium dioxide spent nuclear fuel will be subjected to an electrolytic reduction process. The current reduction process employs a platinum anode and a stainless steel alloy 316 cathode in a molten salt bath consisting of LiCl-2wt% Li 2O and occurs at 700°C. A major shortcoming of the existing process is the degradation of the platinum anode under the severely oxidizing conditions encountered during electrolytic reduction. This work investigates alternative anode materials for the electrolytic reduction of uranium oxide. The high temperature and extreme oxidizing conditions encountered in these studies necessitated a unique set of design constraints on the system. Thus, a customized experimental apparatus was designed and constructed. The electrochemical experiments were performed in an electrochemical reactor placed inside a furnace. This entire setup was housed inside a glove box, in order to maintain an inert atmosphere. This study investigates alternative anode materials through accelerated corrosion testing. Surface morphology was studied using scanning electron microscopy. Surface chemistry was characterized using energy dispersive spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Electrochemical behavior of candidate materials was evaluated using potentiodynamic polarization characteristics. After narrowing the number of candidate electrode materials, ferrous stainless steel alloy 316, nickel based Inconel 718 and elemental tungsten were chosen for further investigation. Of these materials only tungsten was found to be sufficiently stable at the anodic potential required for electrolysis of uranium dioxide in molten salt. The tungsten anode and stainless steel alloy 316 cathode electrode system was studied at the required reduction potential for UO2 with varying lithium oxide concentrations. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

  9. Conductive Polymeric Binder for Lithium-Ion Battery Anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Tianxiang

    Tin (Sn) has a high-specific capacity (993 mAhg-1) as an anode material for Li-ion batteries. To overcome the poor cycling performance issue caused by its large volume expansion and pulverization during the charging and discharging process, many researchers put efforts into it. Most of the strategies are through nanostructured material design and introducing conductive polymer binders that serve as matrix of the active material in anode. This thesis aims for developing a novel method for preparing the anode to improve the capacity retention rate. This would require the anode to have high electrical conductivity, high ionic conductivity, and good mechanical properties, especially elasticity. Here the incorporation of a conducting polymer and a conductive hydrogel in Sn-based anodes using a one-step electrochemical deposition via a 3-electrode cell method is reported: the Sn particles and conductive component can be electrochemically synthesized and simultaneously deposited into a hybrid thin film onto the working electrode directly forming the anode. A well-defined three dimensional network structure consisting of Sn nanoparticles coated by conducting polymers is achieved. Such a conductive polymer-hydrogel network has multiple advantageous features: meshporous polymeric structure can offer the pathway for lithium ion transfer between the anode and electrolyte; the continuous electrically conductive polypyrrole network, with the electrostatic interaction with elastic, porous hydrogel, poly (2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid-co-acrylonitrile) (PAMPS) as both the crosslinker and doping anion for polypyrrole (PPy) can decrease the volume expansion by creating porous scaffold and softening the system itself. Furthermore, by increasing the amount of PAMPS and creating an interval can improve the cycling performance, resulting in improved capacity retention about 80% after 20 cycles, compared with only 54% of that of the control sample without PAMPS. The cycle

  10. Multi-anode ionization chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolotnikov, Aleksey E. (South Setauket, NY); Smith, Graham (Port Jefferson, NY); Mahler, George J. (Rocky Point, NY); Vanier, Peter E. (Setauket, NY)

    2010-12-28

    The present invention includes a high-energy detector having a cathode chamber, a support member, and anode segments. The cathode chamber extends along a longitudinal axis. The support member is fixed within the cathode chamber and extends from the first end of the cathode chamber to the second end of the cathode chamber. The anode segments are supported by the support member and are spaced along the longitudinal surface of the support member. The anode segments are configured to generate at least a first electrical signal in response to electrons impinging thereon.

  11. Facile Synthesis of Carbon-Coated Spinel Li4Ti5O12/Rutile-TiO2 Composites as an Improved Anode Material in Full Lithium-Ion Batteries with LiFePO4@N-Doped Carbon Cathode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping; Zhang, Geng; Cheng, Jian; You, Ya; Li, Yong-Ke; Ding, Cong; Gu, Jiang-Jiang; Zheng, Xin-Sheng; Zhang, Chao-Feng; Cao, Fei-Fei

    2017-02-22

    The spinel Li4Ti5O12/rutile-TiO2@carbon (LTO-RTO@C) composites were fabricated via a hydrothermal method combined with calcination treatment employing glucose as carbon source. The carbon coating layer and the in situ formed rutile-TiO2 can effectively enhance the electric conductivity and provide quick Li(+) diffusion pathways for Li4Ti5O12. When used as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries, the rate capability and cycling stability of LTO-RTO@C composites were improved in comparison with those of pure Li4Ti5O12 or Li4Ti5O12/rutile-TiO2. Moreover, the potential of approximately 1.8 V rechargeable full lithium-ion batteries has been achieved by utilizing an LTO-RTO@C anode and a LiFePO4@N-doped carbon cathode.

  12. Metal-Supported SOFC with Ceramic-Based Anode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blennow Tullmar, Peter; Klemensø, Trine; Persson, Åsa Helen;

    2011-01-01

    materials are infiltrated after sintering. Initial area specific resistance as low as 0.3 cm2 at 700 ºC has been obtained with power densities > 1 Wcm-2. The initial results on the chemical compatibility, electrochemical performance, and galvanostatic durability of a ceramic based (Nb-doped SrTiO3...... the metal-supported cell concept can be combined with ceramic-based anode materials, such as Nb-doped SrTiO3. The paper shows that a metal-supported cell can have excellent performance by only having electronically conducting phases in the anode backbone structure, into which electrocatalytically active...

  13. Preparation of Aluminum Nanomesh Thin Films from an Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template as Transparent Conductive Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiwen; Chen, Yulong; Qiu, Mingxia; Yu, Hongyu; Zhang, Xinhai; Sun, Xiao Wei; Chen, Rui

    2016-02-01

    We have employed anodic aluminum oxide as a template to prepare ultrathin, transparent, and conducting Al films with a unique nanomesh structure for transparent conductive electrodes. The anodic aluminum oxide template is obtained through direct anodization of a sputtered Al layer on a glass substrate, and subsequent wet etching creates the nanomesh metallic film. The optical and conductive properties are greatly influenced by experimental conditions. By tuning the anodizing time, transparent electrodes with appropriate optical transmittance and sheet resistance have been obtained. The results demonstrate that our proposed strategy can serve as a potential method to fabricate low-cost TCEs to replace conventional indium tin oxide materials.

  14. Development of an inert ceramic anode to reduce energy consumption in magnesium production. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The objective of this work is to develop a dimensionally stable ceramic anode for production of magnesium metal in electrolytic cells, replacing the graphite anodes currently used by The Dow Chemical Company magnesium business. The work is based on compositional and design technology for a ceramic anode developed in the former Central Research Inorganic Laboratory. The approach selected is to use a ceramic semiconductor tube as the material to interface with the bath and gaseous atmosphere in the cell. The testing goal was to demonstrate six anodes surviving a 30 day test lifetime with acceptable wear rates and electrical performance in a laboratory scale magnesium cell test. State of the art slip casting techniques were used and advanced in the pursuit of a virtually flaw free ceramic anode shell. Novel core materials were also invented to allow for the complete, crack free fabrication of the laboratory scale anode. Two successive anodes were tested and exceeded the 30 day cell lifetime goal with excellent wear characteristics. More aggressive testing of the ceramic anode revealed that the anode had a rather narrow operating region.

  15. Electrochemical Evaluation of Thin-Film Li-Si Anodes Prepared by Plasma Spraying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GUIDOTTI,RONALD A.; REINHARDT,FREDERICK W.; SCHARRER,GREGORY L.

    1999-09-08

    Thin-film electrodes of a plasma-sprayed Li-Si alloy were evaluated for use as anodes in high-temperature thermally activated (thermal) batteries. These anodes were prepared using 44% Li/56% Si (w/w) material as feed material in a special plasma-spray apparatus under helium or hydrogen, to protect this air- and moisture-sensitive material during deposition. Anodes were tested in single cells using conventional pressed-powder separators and lithiated pyrite cathodes at temperatures of 400 to 550 C at several different current densities. A limited number of 5-cell battery tests were also conducted. The data for the plasma-sprayed anodes was compared to that for conventional pressed-powder anodes. The performance of the plasma-sprayed anodes was inferior to that of conventional pressed-powder anodes, in that the cell emfs were lower (due to the lack of formation of the desired alloy phases) and the small porosity of these materials severely limited their rate capability. Consequently, plasma-sprayed Li-Si anodes would not be practical for use in thermal batteries.

  16. Full Ceramic Fuel Cells Based on Strontium Titanate Anodes, An Approach Towards More Robust SOFCs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtappels, Peter; Irvine, J.T.S.; Iwanschitz, B.;

    2013-01-01

    The persistent problems with Ni-YSZ cermet based SOFCs, with respect to redox stability and tolerance towards sulfur has stimulated the development of a full ceramic cell based on strontium titanate(ST)- based anodes and anode support materials, within the EU FCH JU project SCOTAS-SOFC. Three...

  17. Anode modification with formic acid: A simple and effective method to improve the power generation of microbial fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Weifeng; Cheng, Shaoan, E-mail: shaoancheng@zju.edu.cn; Guo, Jian

    2014-11-30

    Highlights: • Carbon cloth anode is modified with formic acid by a simple and reliable approach. • The modification significantly enhances the power output of microbial fuel cells. • The modified anode surface favors the bacterial attachment and growth on anode. • The electron transfer rate of anode is promoted. - Abstract: The physicochemical properties of anode material directly affect the anodic biofilm formation and electron transfer, thus are critical for the power generation of microbial fuel cells (MFCs). In this work, carbon cloth anode was modified with formic acid to enhance the power production of MFCs. Formic acid modification of anode increased the maximum power density of a single-chamber air-cathode MFC by 38.1% (from 611.5 ± 6 mW/m{sup 2} to 877.9 ± 5 mW/m{sup 2}). The modification generated a cleaner electrode surface and a reduced content of oxygen and nitrogen groups on the anode. The surface changes facilitated bacterial growth on the anode and resulted in an optimized microbial community. Thus, the electron transfer rate on the modified anodes was enhanced remarkably, contributing to a higher power output of MFCs. Anode modification with formic acid could be an effective and simple method for improving the power generation of MFCs. The modification method holds a huge potential for large scale applications and is valuable for the scale-up and commercialization of microbial fuel cells.

  18. Surface Modification of a MCFC Anode by Electrochemical Alloying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Considering the properties of the valve metal alloys with specific corrosion resistance and electrocatalytic ac tivity, an investigation was made to examine if nickel-niobium alloy could serve as the anode material for molten carbo nate fuel cell (MCFC). An attempt was made to produce nickel-niobium surface alloy by an electrochemical process in the molten fluorides and to testify its performance required by the MCFC anode. Experimental results indicated that the corrosion resistance as well as polarization performance of the nickel electrode was improved by the surface alloying.As far as the corrosion resistance and polarization performance is concerned, the nickel-niobium surface alloy can be considered as a candidate material for the anode of MCFC.

  19. Anodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Operating at Low Temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdul Jabbar, Mohammed Hussain

    An important issue that has limited the potential of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) for portable applications is its high operating temperatures (800-1000 ºC). Lowering the operating temperature of SOFCs to 400-600 ºC enable a wider material selection, reduced degradation and increased lifetime....... On the other hand, low-temperature operation poses serious challenges to the electrode performance. Effective catalysts, redox stable electrodes with improved microstructures are the prime requisite for the development of efficient SOFC anodes. The performance of Nb-doped SrT iO3 (STN) ceramic anodes...... at 400ºC. The potential of using WO3 ceramic as an alternative anode materials has been explored. The relatively high electrode polarization resistance obtained, 11 Ohm cm2 at 600 ºC, proved the inadequate catalytic activity of this system for hydrogen oxidation. At the end of this thesis...

  20. High-capacity nanocarbon anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Haitao; Sun, Xianzhong; Zhang, Xiong; Lin, He; Wang, Kai; Ma, Yanwei, E-mail: ywma@mail.iee.ac.cn

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • The nanocarbon anodes in lithium-ion batteries deliver a high capacity of ∼1100 mA h g{sup −1}. • The nanocarbon anodes exhibit excellent cyclic stability. • A novel structure of carbon materials, hollow carbon nanoboxes, has potential application in lithium-ion batteries. - Abstract: High energy and power density of secondary cells like lithium-ion batteries become much more important in today’s society. However, lithium-ion battery anodes based on graphite material have theoretical capacity of 372 mA h g{sup −1} and low charging-discharging rate. Here, we report that nanocarbons including mesoporous graphene (MPG), carbon tubular nanostructures (CTN), and hollow carbon nanoboxes (HCB) are good candidate for lithium-ion battery anodes. The nanocarbon anodes have high capacity of ∼1100, ∼600, and ∼500 mA h g{sup −1} at 0.1 A g{sup −1} for MPG, CTN, and HCB, respectively. The capacity of 181, 141, and 139 mA h g{sup −1} at 4 A g{sup −1} for MPG, CTN, and HCB anodes is retained. Besides, nanocarbon anodes show high cycling stability during 1000 cycles, indicating formation of a passivating layer—solid electrolyte interphase, which support long-term cycling. Nanocarbons, constructed with graphene layers which fulfill lithiation/delithiation process, high ratio of graphite edge structure, and high surface area which facilitates capacitive behavior, deliver high capacity and improved rate-capability.

  1. Results from some anode wire aging tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juricic, I.; Kadyk, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    Using twin setups to test anode wire aging in small gas avalanche tubes, a variety of different gas mixtures were tried and other parameters were varied to study their effects upon the gain drop, nomalized to charge transfer: - 1/Q dI/I. This was found to be quite sensitive to the purity of the gases, and also sensitive to the nominal gain and the gas flow rate. The wire surface material can also significantly affect the aging, as can additives, such as ethanol or water vapor. Certain gas mixtures have been found to be consistent with zero aging at the sensitivity level of this technique.

  2. 石墨烯用作锂离子电池负极材料的电化学性能%Electrochemical performance of graphene sheets as anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高云雷; 赵东林; 白利忠; 张霁明; 张凡; 谢卫刚

    2012-01-01

    We prepared high quality graphene sheets with a curled morphology consisting of a thin wrinkled paper-like structure and fewer layers (1-4 layers) has been prepared from natural graphite by oxidation, hydrogen reduction at 400 ℃ and ultrasonic treatment. Graphene sheets were investigated as anode material for lithium ion batteries by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and a variety of electrochemical testing techniques. The electrochemical performance testing results showed that the first reversible specific capacity of the graphene sheet electrode was as high as 1005 mAh/g at a current density of 0.2 mA/cm2. After 30 cycles the reversible specific capacity was still maintained at 609 mAh/g. Even at a high current density of 1 mA/cm^2, the reversible specific capacity could remain at 576 mAh/g after 30 cycles. These results indicate that the prepared high quality graphene sheets we prepared possess excellent electrochemical performances for lithium storage.%以天然鳞片石墨为原料,通过氧化、离心分离、低温氢气还原和超声分散处理制备了高品质的石墨烯片(1-4层)。采用透射电镜(TEM)、高分辨透射电镜(HRTEM)、傅里叶变换红外光谱(FT-IR)、拉曼光谱、X-射线衍射(XRD)等测试方法对石墨烯的结构和形貌进行了研究。通过恒流充放电、循环伏安法(CV)和交流阻抗(EIS)等手段研究了石墨烯用作锂离子电池负极材料的电化学性能。结果表明在0.2 mA/cm2的电流密度下石墨烯首次可逆比容量为1005 mAh/g,经过30个循环后放电比容量保持在609 mAh/g,在大电流密度下放电容量仍然能保持576 mAh/g,表明石墨烯负极材料具有优异的倍率性能。

  3. Electrochemical performance of nitrogen-doped graphene as anode material for lithium ion batteries%氮掺杂石墨烯作为锂离子电池负极材料的电化学性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高云雷; 赵东林; 白利忠; 张霁明; 孔莹

    2012-01-01

      以天然石墨为原料,通过氧化、快速热膨胀和超声分散制备石墨烯。将氧化石墨与三聚氰胺在氮气下950℃反应合成氮掺杂石墨烯。通过扫描电子显微镜(SEM)、透射电子显微镜(TEM)、 X射线衍射(XRD)以及红外光谱(FTIR)、X射线能谱(XPS)等测试方法对氮掺杂石墨烯的形貌、结构进行分析。结果表明,该方法合成了薄层状氮掺杂石墨烯。采用恒流充放电和循环伏安法等手段测试氮掺杂石墨烯、石墨烯和天然石墨作为锂离子电池负极材料的电化学性能,比较研究了三者用作锂离子电池负极材料的电化学性能,结果表明氮掺杂石墨烯负极材料具有优异的电化学能和独特的储锂机制%  Graphene sheets (GSs) have been prepared from natural flake graphite by oxidation, rapid expansion and ultrasonic treatment. Graphene oxide (GO) was further annealed at the presence of melamine at 950 ℃ and transferred into nitrogen-doped grapheme (N-GSs). The samples were characterized via scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Electrochemical performances of nitrogen-doped graphene, graphene and graphite as anode materials for lithium ion batteries were investigated using galvanostatic charge-discharge and cyclic voltammetry methods. It was found that the prepared N-GSs exhibited a relatively higher cycling stability and larger specific capacity compared with the pristine nature graphite and GSs. Cyclic voltammograms results indicate that the higher cycling stability may be associated with more structural defects during cycling.

  4. Synthesis of Cu2O/reduced graphene oxide composites as anode materials for lithium ion batteries%锂离子电池用氧化亚铜/石墨烯负极材料的制备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜果春; 李新海; 王志兴; 郭华军; 张倩; 彭文杰

    2013-01-01

    A facile way was used to synthesize Cu2O/reduced graphene oxide (rGO) composites with octahedron-like morphology in aqueous solution without any surfactant. TEM images of the obtained Cu2O/rGOs reveal that the Cu2O particles and rGO distribute hierarchically and the primary Cu2O particles are encapsulated well in the graphene nanosheets. The electrochemical performance of Cu2O/rGOs is enhanced compared with bare Cu2O when they are employed as anode materials for lithium ion batteries. The Cu2O/rGO composites maintain a reversible capacity of 348.4 mA⋅h/g after 50 cycles at a current density of 100 mA/g. In addition, the composites retain 305.8 mA⋅h/g after 60 cycles at various current densities of 50, 100, 200, 400 and 800 mA/g.%在不添加表面活性剂的水溶液体系中,采用水合肼作为还原剂制备得到具有八面体形貌的氧化亚铜/石墨烯复合材料。透射电镜分析表明:氧化亚铜颗粒与石墨烯在复合物中呈多层次分布,而且氧化亚铜一次颗粒很好地嵌入在石墨烯层间。相比于纯氧化亚铜,氧化亚铜/石墨烯复合材料作为锂离子电池负极材料的电化学性能得到了显著的改善。在100 mA/g的电流密度下循环50次后,氧化亚铜/石墨烯复合物的可逆比容量高达348.4 mA⋅h/g,同时,在不同倍率下(50,100,200,400,800 mA/g)循环60次后,其可恢复容量仍达305.8 mA⋅h/g。

  5. 化学镀制备锡-锌-镍合金锂离子电池阳极材料%Electroless Deposition of Sn-Zn-Ni Alloy Film for Anodic Materials of Lithium Ion Batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李峰; 张世超

    2012-01-01

    Sn-Zn-Ni ternary alloy film was prepared on copper foil and foam copper respectively by a modified electroless plating process* which used both of sodium borohydride and sodium hypophosphite as reducing agents and was combined with alkaline tin disproportionating reaction. X-ray diffraction (XRD) . Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) , and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) were used to characterize the phases, morphology and composition of the films respectively on both copper foil and copper foam. The EDS results show that the elements,such as Sn, Zn and Ni can be found in the coating. By optimizing, the mass fraction of zinc in the coating can reach 25 %. A three-dimensional porous foam copper used as substrate to deposit Sn-Zn-Ni ternary alloy film, and then the film is coated with glucose-derived carbon-rich polysaccharide by a hydrothermal approach. When it is used as anode materials in lithium ion batteries, the reversible lithium storage capacity of more than 400 mA ? H " g"1 can be after 10 cycles.%应用经过改进的化学镀工艺,即:采用硼氢化钠、次磷酸钠同时作为还原剂,结合锡的碱性歧化反应,分别在铜箔及泡沫铜上制备Sn-Zn-Ni三元合金镀层.用X射线衍射仪(XRD)、扫描电子显微镜(SEM)、X射线能量衍射谱(EDS)分析镀层的结构与组成.结果表明:镀层中含有锡、锌、镍三种元素;优化沉积条件,镀层中锌的质量分数可达25%.采用三维多孔泡沫铜为基体,制备化学镀层并对其进行水热葡萄糖碳包覆处理.作为锂离子电池阳极材料,充放电循环10周,放电容量仍可保持在400mA·h·g-1以上.

  6. Corrosion Behaviour of Titanium Anodized Film in Different Corrosive Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Sunil D. Kahar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Anodizing is an electrochemical process in which thickness of the natural oxide layer is increased and converted it into a decorative, durable, corrosion-resistant film. Titanium is used as a biocompatible material in human implants due to its excellent corrosion and wears resistance. Stable, continuous, highly adherent, and protective oxide films can be developed on titanium using various acid or alkaline baths. Anodizing of titanium generates a spectrum of different color without use of dyes. This spectrum of color dependent on the thickness of the oxide, voltage ranges, interference of light reflecting off the oxide surface and reflecting off the underlying metal surface. The anodized film of Titanium is mainly consists of TiO2 or mixtures of TiO2 & Ti2O3 etc. In the present work, Pure Titanium plate has been anodized using bath of Chromic Acid at different voltage range. The anodized film is characterized by visual observation, SEM & EDAX analysis & A.C Impedance Spectroscopy, while the corrosion studies were performed using Potentiodynamic studies were performed in 3.5% NaCl & 0.1N H2SO4. The Results show that the anodized film of Titanium show different spectrum of colors from Brown-Violet-Tea or Peacock. SEM & EDAX analyses show that the anodized film of Titanium is mainly made up of TiO2 and Ti2O3. Potentiodynamic study implies that the film developed on Titanium using the bath of Chromic Acid exhibits good corrosion resistance. The A.C. Impedance study shows that the film is more compact, adherent and more uniform in chromic acid bath.

  7. p-Type semiconducting nickel oxide as an efficiency-enhancing anodal interfacial layer in bulk heterojunction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Michael D; Buchholz, Donald B; Marks, Tobin J; Chang, Robert P. H.

    2014-11-25

    The present invention, in one aspect, relates to a solar cell. In one embodiment, the solar cell includes an anode, a p-type semiconductor layer formed on the anode, and an active organic layer formed on the p-type semiconductor layer, where the active organic layer has an electron-donating organic material and an electron-accepting organic material.

  8. Tin-phosphate glass anode for sodium ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Honma

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical property of tin-phosphate (designate as GSPO glass anode for the sodium ion battery was studied. During the first charge process, sodium ion diffused into GSPO glass matrix and due to the reduction of Sn2+ to Sn0 state sodiated tin metal nano-size particles are formed in oxide glass matrix. After the second cycle, we confirmed the steady reversible reaction ∼320 mAh/g at 0–1 V cutoff voltage condition by alloying process in NaxSn4. The tin-phosphate glass is a promising candidate of new anode active material that realizes high energy density sodium ion batteries.

  9. Progress in Nano-Engineered Anodic Aluminum Oxide Membrane Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrard Eddy Jai Poinern

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The anodization of aluminum is an electro-chemical process that changes the surface chemistry of the metal, via oxidation, to produce an anodic oxide layer. During this process a self organized, highly ordered array of cylindrical shaped pores can be produced with controllable pore diameters, periodicity and density distribution. This enables anodic aluminum oxide (AAO membranes to be used as templates in a variety of nanotechnology applications without the need for expensive lithographical techniques. This review article is an overview of the current state of research on AAO membranes and the various applications of nanotechnology that use them in the manufacture of nano-materials and devices or incorporate them into specific applications such as biological/chemical sensors, nano-electronic devices, filter membranes and medical scaffolds for tissue engineering.

  10. Prelithiated Silicon Nanowires as an Anode for Lithium Ion Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Nian

    2011-08-23

    Silicon is one of the most promising anode materials for the next-generation high-energy lithium ion battery (LIB), while sulfur and some other lithium-free materials have recently shown high promise as cathode materials. To make a full battery out of them, either the cathode or the anode needs to be prelithiated. Here, we present a method for prelithiating a silicon nanowire (SiNW) anode by a facile self-discharge mechanism. Through a time dependence study, we found that 20 min of prelithiation loads ∼50% of the full capacity into the SiNWs. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies show that the nanostructure of SiNWs is maintained after prelithiation. We constructed a full battery using our prelithiated SiNW anode with a sulfur cathode. Our work provides a protocol for pairing lithium-free electrodes to make the next-generation high-energy LIB. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  11. STUDY OF ANODIC OVERVOLTAGE IN NEODYMIUM ELECTROLYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.R. Liu; J.S. Chen; Q. Han; X.J. Wei

    2003-01-01

    The anodic overvoltage of neodymium electrolysis was determined by slow scanning oscillogram. The effects of some factors, i.e. the temperature, the anodic current density, the concentration of Nd2O3 and the components of the electrolyte were investigated and the approaches to decrease the anodic overvoltage were also discussed. The results show that the anodic overvoltage increases with the anodic current density and decreases with the increasing temperature. The linear relation between the anodic overvoltage and the current density corresponding to Tafel equation is determined to some extent. The anodic overvoltage decreases with the increasing concentrations of LiF and NdF3. It also decreases by controlling the anodic current density properly, increasing the temperature or the concentrations of LiF and NdF3 and the reducing polar distance.

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGY FOR ANODE BALL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Kozhevnikova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Technology of copper anode balls manufacturing by means of cross-wedge rolling method is developed. The technology satisfies the requirements towards anode balls’ crystalline structure, form and geometrical dimensions accuracy.

  13. Carbon Coated Helical Carbon Nanotubes used as Anode Materials of Li-ion Battery%用作锂离子电池负极材料的包碳螺旋结构碳纳米管

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵进; 任玉荣; 李国强; 黄小兵; 周固民; 瞿美臻

    2011-01-01

    The helical carbon nanotubes (HCNTs) was modified with carbon through thermal vapor deposition (TVD) of benzene at 900 ℃, and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, transmission electronic microscope, scanning electronic microscope and Brunau-Emmertt-Teller method. The specific surface area of the HCNTs decreased after carbon coating. The obtained carbon coated HCNTs used as anode materials of Li-ion battery were studied. The results revealed that appropriate amount of carbon coating could improve the first columbic efficiency, the cycling stability and rate charge/discharge performance of the HCNTs. After 45 min carbon coating, HCNTs gained a weight increase approximately 220wt%, with its first columbic efficiency increasing from 59.2% to 77.8%, and delivered a discharge capacity of 265.6, 245.7, 196.0, 163.2 mAh/g at the rates of 1.0C, 2.0C, 5.0C and 10.0C, respectively. After 95 cycles at 10.0C, its discharge capacity retention was 93.3%. Although excessive carbon coating could further improve the first coulumbic efficiency and cycling stability of HCNTs, it also degraded the rate capability.%以苯为碳源,在900℃下采用TVD(thermal vapor deposition)法对螺旋结构碳纳米管(Helical carbon nanotubes,HCNTs)进行了包碳修饰,采用XRD、SEM、TEM、BET等检测方法对所制备材料进行了表征分析.包碳后HCNTs的比表面积明显降低.研究了包碳HCNTs用作锂离子电池负极材料的性能,结果显示适量包碳不仅提高了HCNTs的首次库仑效率,而且改善了其循环稳定性和倍率充放电性能.当TVD包碳45 min、HCNTs增重约220 wt%时,首次库仑效率从59.2%提高到77.8%,在1.0C、2.0C、5.0C以及10.0C倍率下的放电比容量分别为265.6、245.7、196.0、163.2 mAh/g,在10.0C下循环95次后放电比容量保持率为93.3%.过多的碳包覆虽然会进一步提高材料的首次库仑效率和循环稳定性,但会导致其倍率性能变差.

  14. One-pot solvothermal synthesis of Co{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}C{sub 2}O{sub 4} and their application as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ang, Wei An Elijah [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Energy Research Institute @ NTU (ERI-N), Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637553 (Singapore); Cheah, Yan Ling; Wong, Chui Ling [Energy Research Institute @ NTU (ERI-N), Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637553 (Singapore); Hng, Huey Hoon [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Madhavi, Srinivasan, E-mail: madhavi@ntu.edu.sg [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Energy Research Institute @ NTU (ERI-N), Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637553 (Singapore); TUM CREATE Center for Electromobility, 1 CREATE Way, #10-02 CREATE Tower, Singapore 138602 (Singapore)

    2015-07-25

    Graphical abstract: MnC{sub 2}O{sub 4} exhibited good cycling stability while CoC{sub 2}O{sub 4} showed severe capacity fading phenomenon after 40 cycles. Notably, mixed solid solution having Co{sub 0.52}Mn{sub 0.48}C{sub 2}O{sub 4} composition improved the specific reversible discharge capacity to a stable value of ∼1000 mA h g{sup −1} (1 C-rate). - Highlights: • Mixed metal oxalates are synthesized by solvothermal method for the first time. • We control morphologies by varying solvent mixtures and transition metal types. • Li/Co{sub 0.52}Mn{sub 0.48}C{sub 2}O{sub 4} is the best capacity and rate-performing cell in this study. • The positive synergistic effect is attributed to optimal Co:Mn mole ratio. • Properties of Co give high capacity values while Mn give good cycling stability. - Abstract: A facile one-pot solvothermal route has been developed to synthesize phase pure M{sub x}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}⋅2H{sub 2}O (M = Mn, Co; 0 < x ⩽ 1) microstructures without employing any hard/soft template and their electrochemical performance in lithium-ion batteries has been systematically investigated. Morphology, microstructure and composition of the synthesized materials are characterized by field emission-scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Anhydrous micron-sized MnC{sub 2}O{sub 4} and CoC{sub 2}O{sub 4} exhibits specific reversible discharge capacity of ∼800 and 950 mA h g{sup −1} respectively, at 1 C-rate. MnC{sub 2}O{sub 4} exhibited good cycling stability while CoC{sub 2}O{sub 4} showed severe capacity fading phenomenon after 40 cycles, thereafter attaining 400–600 mA h g{sup −1} for all C-rates. Interestingly, mixed solid solution having Co{sub 0.52}Mn{sub 0.48}C{sub 2}O{sub 4} composition improved the specific reversible discharge capacity to a stable value of ∼1000 mA h g{sup −1} (1 C-rate), which is one of the highest reported values for such oxalates. The cycling stability of this

  15. Composite lithium metal anode by melt infusion of lithium into a 3D conducting scaffold with lithiophilic coating

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Zheng; Lin, Dingchang; Zhao, Jie; Lu, Zhenda; Liu, Yayuan; Liu, Chong; Lu, Yingying; Wang, Haotian; Yan, Kai; Tao, Xinyong; Cui, Yi

    2016-01-01

    This research paper presents a novel strategy for the fabrication of metal–scaffold composite materials. Particularly, molten lithium metal is infused into a surface-modified three-dimensional matrix with a “lithiophilic” coating. The resulting lithium–scaffold composite was used as battery anodes and exhibited superior performance compared with bare lithium metal anodes. Whereas the emphasis of this study is on lithium anodes, our present work opens up a direction for realization of other me...

  16. Evolution of Anode Porosity under Air Oxidation: The Unveiling of the Active Pore Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois Chevarin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The carbon anode, used in aluminum electrolysis (Hall–Héroult process, is over-consumed by air oxidation and carboxy-reaction (with CO2. Several anode features may affect this over-consumption, such as impurity content, graphitization level and anode porosity features (e.g., porosity volume fraction or pore size distribution. The two first parameters are basically related to the quality of raw materials and coke calcination conditions. Anode porosity is, however, greatly affected by anode manufacturing conditions, and is possible to be modified, to some extent, by adjusting the anode recipe and the processing parameters. This work aims to investigate the effect of anode porosity on its air reactivity. Baked anode samples were prepared in laboratory scale and then crushed into powder form (−4760 + 4000 µm. The recipe for anode preparation was similar to a typical industrial recipe, except that in the lab scale no butt particles were used in the recipe. Anode particles were then gasified at six different conversion levels (0, 5, 15, 25, 35 and 50 wt % under air at 525 °C. The porosity was characterized in several pore size ranges, measured by nitrogen adsorption and mercury intrusion (0.0014–0.020, 0.002–0.025, 0.025–0.100, 0.1–40.0 and superior at 40 µm. The volume variation of each pore range, as a function of carbon conversion, was assessed and used to determine the size of the most active pores for air oxidation. The most active pore size was found to be the pores inferior at 40 µm before 15 wt % of gasification and pores superior at 40 µm between 15 and 50 wt % of carbon conversion. Limitation of pore size range could be used as an additional guideline, along with other targets such as high homogeneity and density, to set the optimum anode manufacturing parameters.

  17. Standard test method for laboratory evaluation of magnesium sacrificial anode test specimens for underground applications

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1997-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a laboratory procedure that measures the two fundamental performance properties of magnesium sacrificial anode test specimens operating in a saturated calcium sulfate, saturated magnesium hydroxide environment. The two fundamental properties are electrode (oxidation potential) and ampere hours (Ah) obtained per unit mass of specimen consumed. Magnesium anodes installed underground are usually surrounded by a backfill material that typically consists of 75 % gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O), 20 % bentonite clay, and 5 % sodium sulfate (Na2SO4). The calcium sulfate, magnesium hydroxide test electrolyte simulates the long term environment around an anode installed in the gypsum-bentonite-sodium sulfate backfill. 1.2 This test method is intended to be used for quality assurance by anode manufacturers or anode users. However, long term field performance properties may not be identical to property measurements obtained using this laboratory test. Note 1—Refer to Terminology G 15 for terms used ...

  18. A multiscale physical model for the transient analysis of PEM water electrolyzer anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Luiz Fernando L; Laref, Slimane; Mayousse, Eric; Jallut, Christian; Franco, Alejandro A

    2012-08-07

    Polymer electrolyte membrane water electrolyzers (PEMWEs) are electrochemical devices that can be used for the production of hydrogen. In a PEMWE the anode is the most complex electrode to study due to the high overpotential of the oxygen evolution reaction (OER), not widely understood. A physical bottom-up multi-scale transient model describing the operation of a PEMWE anode is proposed here. This model includes a detailed description of the elementary OER kinetics in the anode, a description of the non-equilibrium behavior of the nanoscale catalyst-electrolyte interface, and a microstructural-resolved description of the transport of charges and O(2) at the micro and mesoscales along the whole anode. The impact of different catalyst materials on the performance of the PEMWE anode, and a study of sensitivity to the operation conditions are evaluated from numerical simulations and the results are discussed in comparison with experimental data.

  19. Electrical transport through single-wall carbon nanotube-anodic aluminum oxide-aluminum heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukkola, Jarmo; Rautio, Aatto; Sala, Giovanni; Pino, Flavio; Tóth, Géza; Leino, Anne-Riikka; Mäklin, Jani; Jantunen, Heli; Uusimäki, Antti; Kordás, Krisztián; Gracia, Eduardo; Terrones, Mauricio; Shchukarev, Andrey; Mikkola, Jyri-Pekka

    2010-01-01

    Aluminum foils were anodized in sulfuric acid solution to form thick porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) films of thickness ~6 µm. Electrodes of carboxyl-functionalized single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) thin films were inkjet printed on the anodic oxide layer and the electrical characteristics of the as-obtained SWCNT-AAO-Al structures were studied. Nonlinear current-voltage transport and strong temperature dependence of conduction through the structure was measured. The microstructure and chemical composition of the anodic oxide layer was analyzed using transmission and scanning electron microscopy as well as x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Schottky emission at the SWCNT-AAO and AAO-Al interfaces allowed by impurity states in the anodic aluminum oxide film together with ionic surface conduction on the pore walls of AAO gives a reasonable explanation for the measured electrical conduction. Calcined AAO is proposed as a dielectric material for SWCNT-field effect transistors.

  20. Electrochemical behaviors of anodic alumina sealed by Ce-Mo in NaCl solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Lian-peng; ZHAO Xu-hui; ZHAO Jing-mao; ZHANG Xiao-feng; ZUO Yu

    2006-01-01

    The elimination of toxic materials in sealing methods for anodic films on 1070 aluminum alloy was studied. The new process uses chemical treatments in cerium solution and an electrochemical treatment in a molybdate solution. Potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy(EIS) were used to study the influences of sealing methods on the corrosion behavior of anodic films in NaCl solutions. The results show that the Ce-Mo sealing makes the surface structure and morphology of anodic films uniform and compact. Ce and Mo produce a cooperative effect to improve the corrosion resistance of anodic films. Anodic films sealed by Ce-Mo provide high corrosion resistance both in acidic and basic solutions.

  1. Microfabrication of an anodic oxide film by anodizing laser-textured aluminium

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    A simple method for the fabrication of microstructures of an aluminium anodic oxide film (anodic alumina) by anodizing laser-textured aluminium is demonstrated. In the process, the aluminium substrate was first textured by a low power laser beam, and then the textured aluminium was subjected to anodizing, to develop a continuous, thick porous layer on the textured surface. Microstructures with a depth of a few to several tens of micrometres were fabricated successfully on the anodic oxide fil...

  2. Anodic dissolution of metals in ionic liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew P. Abbott

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The anodic dissolution of metals is an important topic for battery design, material finishing and metal digestion. Ionic liquids are being used in all of these areas but the research on the anodic dissolution is relatively few in these media. This study investigates the behaviour of 9 metals in an ionic liquid [C4mim][Cl] and a deep eutectic solvent, Ethaline, which is a 1:2 mol ratio mixture of choline chloride and ethylene glycol. It is shown that for the majority of metals studied a quasi-passivation of the metal surface occurs, primarily due to the formation of insoluble films on the electrode surface. The behaviour of most metals is different in [C4mim][Cl] to that in Ethaline due in part to the differences in viscosity. The formation of passivating salt films can be decreased with stirring or by increasing the electrolyte temperature, thereby increasing ligand transport to the electrode surface.

  3. Ellipsometry of anodic film growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C.G.

    1978-08-01

    An automated computer interpretation of ellisometer measurements of anodic film growth was developed. Continuous mass and charge balances were used to utilize more fully the time dependence of the ellipsometer data and the current and potential measurements. A multiple-film model was used to characterize the growth of films which proceeds via a dissolution--precipitation mechanism; the model also applies to film growth by adsorption and nucleation mechanisms. The characteristic parameters for film growth describe homogeneous and heterogeneous crystallization rates, film porosities and degree of hydration, and the supersaturation of ionic species in the electrolyte. Additional descriptions which may be chosen are patchwise film formation, nonstoichiometry of the anodic film, and statistical variations in the size and orientation of secondary crystals. Theories were developed to describe the optical effects of these processes. An automatic, self-compensating ellipsometer was used to study the growth in alkaline solution of anodic films on silver, cadmium, and zinc. Mass-transport conditions included stagnant electrolyte and forced convection in a flow channel. Multiple films were needed to characterize the optical properties of these films. Anodic films grew from an electrolyte supersatuated in the solution-phase dissolution product. The degree of supersaturation depended on transport conditions and had a major effect on the structure of the film. Anodic reaction rates were limited by the transport of charge carriers through a primary surface layer. The primary layers on silver, zinc, and cadmium all appeared to be nonstoichiometric, containing excess metal. Diffusion coefficients, transference numbers, and the free energy of adsorption of zinc oxide were derived from ellipsometer measurements. 97 figures, 13 tables, 198 references.

  4. Surface nanotopography of an anodized Ti–6Al–7Nb alloy enhances cell growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Her-Hsiung [Department of Dentistry, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Basic Medical Science, China Medical University, Taichung 404, Taiwan (China); Department of Biomedical Informatics, Asia University, Taichung 413, Taiwan (China); Department of Stomatology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Wu, Chia-Ping [Institute of Oral Biology, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Sun, Ying-Sui [Department of Dentistry, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Yang, Wei-En [Institute of Oral Biology, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Lee, Tzu-Hsin, E-mail: biomaterials@hotmail.com [School of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Oral Medicine Center, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • An electrochemical anodization was applied to α/β-type Ti–6Al–7Nb alloy surface. • Anodized surface had a nontoxic nanoporous topography. • Anodized surface increased proteins adsorption due to nanotopography. • Anodized surface enhanced cell growth due to nanotopography. • Electrochemical anodization has potential as implant surface treatment. - Abstract: The α/β-type Ti–6Al–7Nb alloy is a potential replacement for α/β-type Ti–6Al–4V alloy, which is widely used in biomedical implant applications. The biological response to implant material is dependent on the surface characteristics of the material. In the present study, a simple and fast process was developed to perform an electrochemical anodization treatment on Ti–6Al–7Nb alloy. The proposed process yielded a thin surface nanotopography, which enhanced cell growth on the Ti–6Al–7Nb alloy. The surface characteristics, including the morphology, wettability, and protein adsorption, were investigated, and the cytotoxicity was evaluated according to International Organization for Standardization 10993-5 specifications. Cell adhesion of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on the test specimens was observed via fluorescence microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The anodization process produced a surface nanotopography (pore size <100 nm) on anodized Ti–6Al–7Nb alloy, which enhanced the wettability, protein adsorption, cell adhesion, cell migration, and cell mineralization. The results showed that the surface nanotopography produced using the proposed electrochemical anodization process enhanced cell growth on anodized Ti–6Al–7Nb alloy for implant applications.

  5. Alternate Anodes for the Electrolytic Reduction of UO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merwin, Augustus; Chidambaram, Dev

    2015-01-01

    The electrolytic reduction process of UO2 employs a platinum anode and a stainless steel cathode in molten LiCl-LiO2 maintained at 973 K (700 °C). The degradation of platinum under the severely oxidizing conditions encountered during the process is an issue of concern. In this study, Inconel 600 and 718, stainless steel alloy 316, tungsten, nickel, molybdenum, and titanium, were investigated though electrochemical polarization techniques, electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to serve as potential anode materials. Of the various materials investigated, only tungsten exhibited sufficient stability at the required potential in the molten electrolyte. Tungsten anodes were further studied in molten LiCl-LiO2 electrolyte containing 2, 4, and 6 wt pct of Li2O. In LiCl-2 wt pct Li2O tungsten was found to be sufficiently stable to both oxidation and microstructural changes and the stability is attributed to the formation of a lithium-intercalated tungsten oxide surface film. Increase in the concentration of Li2O was found to lead to accelerated corrosion of the anode, in conjunction with the formation of a peroxotungstate oxide film.

  6. Experimental breakdown of selected anodized aluminum samples in dilute plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grier, Norman T.; Domitz, Stanley

    1992-01-01

    Anodized aluminum samples representative of Space Station Freedom structural material were tested for electrical breakdown under space plasma conditions. In space, this potential arises across the insulating anodized coating when the spacecraft structure is driven to a negative bias relative to the external plasma potential due to plasma-surface interaction phenomena. For anodized materials used in the tests, it was found that breakdown voltage varied from 100 to 2000 volts depending on the sample. The current in the arcs depended on the sample, the capacitor, and the voltage. The level of the arc currents varied from 60 to 1000 amperes. The plasma number density varied from 3 x 10 exp 6 to 10 exp 3 ions per cc. The time between arcs increased as the number density was lowered. Corona testing of anodized samples revealed that samples with higher corona inception voltage had higher arcing inception voltages. From this it is concluded that corona testing may provide a method of screening the samples.

  7. Newer polyanionic bio-composite anode for sodium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuppiah, Saravanan; Vellingiri, Suganya; Nallathamby, Kalaiselvi

    2017-02-01

    NASICON frame work Na3V2(PO4)3 (NVP), wrapped by nitrogen and sulfur doped bio-carbon matrix derived from human hair (HHC) has been investigated for its anode behavior in SIBs. Basically, NVP is bestowed with a crystal structure of 3D open framework and a moderate theoretical capacity of 118 mAh g-1, which are the twin advantages and motivation behind the selection of this material. Prepared through a simple, scalable and facile method, the key problems associated with pristine NVP electrode material, such as inferior conductivity and severe volume change have been mitigated to a great extent through the formation of a composite containing HHC. Herein, HHC is a cheap and eco-friendly composite additive, obtained from a universal bio-waste, viz., human hair and hence NVP/HHC qualifies itself as a green composite. Interestingly, NVP/HHC-10 (in-situ) and NVP/HHC-20 (ex-situ) anodes show excellent electrochemical performance in terms of cycling stability up to 500 cycles and rate capability @ 2 A g-1, which are superior than similar category NVP anodes reported in the literature. Further, post cycling structure and morphology of NVP/HHC composite anodes evidence the appreciable stability bestowed with the select composition, which is found to get maintained upon extended cycles and even after rate capability test.

  8. Ceramic anode catalyst for dry methane type molten carbonate fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagawa, T.; Yanase, A.; Goto, S.; Yamaguchi, M.; Kondo, M.

    Oxide catalyst materials for methane oxidation were examined in order to develop the anode electrode for molten carbonate type fuel cell (MCFC). As a primary selection, oxides such as lanthanum (La 2O 3) and samarium (Sm 2O 3) were selected from screening experiments of TPD, TG and tubular reactor. Composite materials of these oxides with titanium fine powder were assembled into a cell unit for MCFC as the anode electrode. Steady-state activities were observed with these anode electrode materials when hydrogen was used as a fuel. When methane was directly charged to anode as a fuel (dry methane operation), a power generation with steady state was observed on both lanthanum and samarium composites after gradual decrease of open circuit electromotive force (OCV) and closed circuit current (CCI). The steady-state activity held as long as 144 h of continuous operation.

  9. Niobium-doped strontium titanates as SOFC anodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blennow Tullmar, Peter; Kammer Hansen, Kent; Wallenberg, L. Reine;

    2008-01-01

    been synthesized with a recently developed modified glycine-nitrate process. The synthesized powders have been calcined and sintered in air or in 9% H(2) / N(2) between 800 - 1400 degrees C. After calcination the samples were single phase Nb-doped strontium titanate with grain sizes of less than 100 nm...... in diameter on average. The phase purity, defect structure, and microstructure of the materials have been analyzed with SEM, XRD, and TGA. The electrical conductivity of the Nb-doped titanate decreased with increasing temperature and showed a phonon scattering conduction mechanism with sigma > 120 S...... ability of the Nb-doped titanates to be used as a part of a SOFC anode. However, the catalytic activity of the materials was not sufficient and it needs to be improved if titanate based materials are to be realized as constituents in SOFC anodes....

  10. [Vernier Anode Design and Image Simulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ai-rong; Ni, Qi-liang; Song, Ke-fei

    2015-12-01

    Based-MCP position-sensitive anode photon-counting imaging detector is good at detecting extremely faint light, which includes micro-channel plate (MCP), position-sensitive anode and readout, and the performances of these detectors are mainly decided by the position-sensitive anode. As a charge division anode, Vernier anode using cyclically varying electrode areas which replaces the linearly varying electrodes of wedge-strip anode can get better resolution and greater electrode dynamic range. Simulation and design of the Vernier anode based on Vernier's decode principle are given here. Firstly, we introduce the decode and design principle of Vernier anode with nine electrodes in vector way, and get the design parameters which are the pitch, amplitude and the coarse wavelength of electrode. Secondly, we analyze the effect of every design parameters to the imaging of the detector. We simulate the electron cloud, the Vernier anode and the detector imaging using Labview software and get the relationship between the pitch and the coarse wavelength of the anode. Simultaneously, we get the corresponding electron cloud for the designing parameters. Based on the result of the simulation and the practical machining demand, a nine electrodes Vernier anode was designed and fabricated which has a pitch of 891 µm, insulation width of 25 µm, amplitude of 50 µm, coarse pixel numbers of 5.

  11. Binder-free graphene and manganese oxide coated carbon felt anode for high-performance microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Changyong; Liang, Peng; Yang, Xufei; Jiang, Yong; Bian, Yanhong; Chen, Chengmeng; Zhang, Xiaoyuan; Huang, Xia

    2016-07-15

    A novel anode was developed by coating reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and manganese oxide (MnO2) composite on the carbon felt (CF) surface. With a large surface area and excellent electrical conductivity, this binder-free anode was found to effectively enhance the enrichment and growth of electrochemically active bacteria and facilitate the extracellular electron transfer from the bacteria to the anode. A microbial fuel cell (MFC) equipped with the rGO/MnO2/CF anode delivered a maximum power density of 2065mWm(-2), 154% higher than that with a bare CF anode. The internal resistance of the MFC with this novel anode was 79Ω, 66% lower than the regular one's (234Ω). Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analyses affirmed that the rGO/MnO2 composite significantly increased the anodic reaction rates and facilitated the electron transfer from the bacteria to the anode. The findings from this study suggest that the rGO/MnO2/CF anode, fabricated via a simple dip-coating and electro-deposition process, could be a promising anode material for high-performance MFC applications.

  12. Electrocatalysis of carbon anode in aluminium electrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The anodic overvoltage of the carbon anode in aluminum electrolysis isof the order of 0.6 V at normal current densities. However, it can be reduced somewhat by doping the anode carbon with various inorganic compounds. A new apparatus was designed to improve the precision of overvoltage measurements. Anodes were doped with MgAl2O4 and AlF3 both by impregnation of the coke and by adding powder, and the measured overvoltage was compared with that of undoped samples. For prebake type anodes baked at around 1150 oC, the anodic overvoltage was reduced by 40-60 mV, and for Soderberg type anodes, baked at 950 oC, by 60-80 mV.

  13. Effects of Anode Wettability and Slots on Anodic Bubble Behavior Using Transparent Aluminium Electrolytic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhibin; Gao, Bingliang; Feng, Yuqing; Huang, Yipeng; Wang, Zhaowen; Shi, Zhongning; Hu, Xianwei

    2017-02-01

    Transparent aluminum electrolytic cells were used to study the effects of anode wettability and slots on bubble behavior in a similar environment to that used in industrial cells. Observations were conducted using two types of transparent cells, one with side-observation and the other with a bottom-observation cell design. Anodic bubbles rising process in the side channel is strongly affected by the wettability of the anode. After rising a short distance, the bubbles detach from the anode vertical surface at good-wetting anode cases, while the bubbles still attach to the vertical surface at poor-wetting anode cases. Anode slots of width of 4 mm are able to prevent smaller bubbles from coalescing into larger bubbles and thus decrease the bubble size and gas coverage on the anode. Anode slots also make a contribution in slightly reducing bubble thickness. With the presence of slots, the bubble-induced cell voltage oscillation decreases as well.

  14. Fabrication and anodic polarization behavior of lead-based porous anodes in zinc electrowinning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A new type of lead-based porous anode in zinc electrowinning was prepared by negative pressure infiltration.The anodie polarization potential and corrosion rate were studied and compared with those of traditional fiat anodes (Pb-0.8%Ag) used in industry.The anode eorrosion rate was determined by anode actual current density and microstructure.The results show that the anodic oxygen evolution potential decreases first and then increases with the decrease of pore diameter.The anodic potential decreases to the lowest value of 1.729 V at the pore diameter of 1.25-1.60 mm.The porous anode can decrease its actual current density and thus decrease the anodic corrosion rate.When the pore diameter is 1.60-2.00 mm,the anodic relative corrosion rate reaches the lowest value of 52.1%.

  15. A comparative study of graphene-coated stainless steel fiber felt and carbon cloth as anodes in MFCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Junxian; Liu, Zhongliang; Li, Yanxia; Yang, Siqi; Zhou, Yu

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated the stainless steel-based materials and their potential in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) anode application. Herein, AISI 316L stainless steel fiber felts (SSFFs) were used as anodes in MFCs and their performance was compared with the carbon cloth anode MFCs. The experimental results showed that the unmodified carbon cloth (CC) anode had a better performance than the unmodified SSFF anode. However, after coating a thin layer of graphene (GN) on SSFF and CC, the power density of the MFC equipped with the modified SSFF was 2,143 mW m(-2), much higher than that of the graphene-modified CC-MFC which was only 1,018 mW m(-2). The experimental results proved that the use of durable metallic backbones combined with a thin layer of carbon nanoparticles offers exciting opportunities in the advancement of MFC anode design.

  16. Ultra-High Density Single Nanometer-Scale Anodic Alumina Nanofibers Fabricated by Pyrophosphoric Acid Anodizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Nishinaga, Osamu; Nakajima, Daiki; Kawashima, Jun; Natsui, Shungo; Sakaguchi, Norihito; Suzuki, Ryosuke O.

    2014-12-01

    Anodic oxide fabricated by anodizing has been widely used for nanostructural engineering, but the nanomorphology is limited to only two oxides: anodic barrier and porous oxides. Therefore, the discovery of an additional anodic oxide with a unique nanofeature would expand the applicability of anodizing. Here we demonstrate the fabrication of a third-generation anodic oxide, specifically, anodic alumina nanofibers, by anodizing in a new electrolyte, pyrophosphoric acid. Ultra-high density single nanometer-scale anodic alumina nanofibers (1010 nanofibers/cm2) consisting of an amorphous, pure aluminum oxide were successfully fabricated via pyrophosphoric acid anodizing. The nanomorphologies of the anodic nanofibers can be controlled by the electrochemical conditions. Anodic tungsten oxide nanofibers can also be fabricated by pyrophosphoric acid anodizing. The aluminum surface covered by the anodic alumina nanofibers exhibited ultra-fast superhydrophilic behavior, with a contact angle of less than 1°, within 1 second. Such ultra-narrow nanofibers can be used for various nanoapplications including catalysts, wettability control, and electronic devices.

  17. Direct Utilization of Liquid Fuels in SOFC for Portable Applications: Challenges for the Selection of Alternative Anodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Cimenti

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC have the advantage of being able to operate with fuels other than hydrogen. In particular, liquid fuels are especially attractive for powering portable applications such as small power generators or auxiliary power units, in which case the direct utilization of the fuel would be convenient. Although liquid fuels are easier to handle and transport than hydrogen, their direct use in SOFC can lead to anode deactivation due to carbon formation, especially on traditional nickel/yttria stabilized zirconia (Ni/YSZ anodes. Significant advances have been made in anodic materials that are resistant to carbon formation but often these materials are less electrochemically active than Ni/YSZ. In this review the challenges of using liquid fuels directly in SOFC, in terms of gas-phase and catalytic reactions within the anode chamber, will be discussed and the alternative anode materials so far investigated will be compared.

  18. Fracture strength of micro-tubular solid oxide fuel cell anode in redox cycling experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pusz, Jakub; Smirnova, Alevtina; Mohammadi, Alidad; Sammes, Nigel M. [Department of Chemical, Materials, and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Connecticut, 44 Weaver Road, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States)

    2007-01-01

    The maximum fracture strength of Ni/8YSZ anodes exposed to several redox cycles is compared. The anodes were fabricated using fine and coarse particle size powders. Fine-structured powders show a 77% increase in mechanical strength after exposure to three redox cycles. The coarse-structured material did not produce similar results and redox cycling resulted in gradual decrease in the mechanical stability of the supports. The impact of redox cycling on the microstructure was evaluated using SEM. Fine-structured anodes tend to agglomerate leading to decreased porosity. Coarse anodes did not show any significant changes in microstructure while exposed to redox cycling. The electrochemical performance evaluated under load conditions, and after the first redox cycle, indicates a 40% improvement for the cell fabricated using a fine-structured anode powder. The increase in performance is believed to be due to better adhesion between the anode material and the Ni current collector. The cell fabricated using a coarse-structured anode powder did not recover after the redox cycle. (author)

  19. [Electricity generation by the microbial fuel cells using carbon nanotube as the anode].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Peng; Fan, Ming-zhi; Cao, Xiao-xin; Huang, Xia; Peng, Yin-ming; Wang, Shuo; Gong, Qian-ming; Liang, Ji

    2008-08-01

    The characteristic of anode plays an important role in the performance of the microbial fuel cell (MFC). Thus, carbon nanotube (CN), flexible graphite (FG) and activated carbon (AC) were used as anode material in this study, and the performances of three MFCs (CN-MFC, FG-MFC and AC-MFC) were studied. The results show that CN is a kind of suitable material to be used as anode in the MFC. The maximal power densities of CN-MFC, FG-MFC and AC-MFC are 402,354 and 274 mW/m2, respectively. The CN-MFC shows a higher power density and coulombic efficiency compared with FG-MFC and AC-MFC. The CN-anode can reduce the internal resistance obviously. The internal resistances of CN-MFC, AC-MFC and FG-MFC are 263, 301 and 381 omega, respectively. The protein contents on the CN-anode, AC-anode and FG-anode are 149, 132 and 92 microg/cm2 after stable operation, and there is a positive relation between the protein content and internal resistance. The conductivity of the three types of MFCs from high to low was FG-MFC, CN-MFC and AC-MFC, which was accordant with the ohmic resistance. The stable times of CN-MFC, FG-MFC and AC-MFC, which were needed to measure the internal resistances, were 1800, 1200 and 300 s respectively.

  20. Cyclability study of silicon-carbon composite anodes for lithium-ion batteries using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)