Two-phase flow instabilities in a vertical annular channel
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Babelli, I.; Nair, S.; Ishii, M. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)
1995-09-01
An experimental test facility was built to study two-phase flow instabilities in vertical annular channel with emphasis on downward flow under low pressure and low flow conditions. The specific geometry of the test section is similar to the fuel-target sub-channel of the Savannah River Site (SRS) Mark 22 fuel assembly. Critical Heat Flux (CHF) was observed following flow excursion and flow reversal in the test section. Density wave instability was not recorded in this series of experimental runs. The results of this experimental study show that flow excursion is the dominant instability mode under low flow, low pressure, and down flow conditions. The onset of instability data are plotted on the subcooling-Zuber (phase change) numbers stability plane.
Entrainment in vertical annular two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prediction of amount of entrained droplets or entrainment fraction in annular two-phase flow is essential for the estimation of dryout condition and analysis of post dryout heat transfer in light water nuclear reactors and steam boilers. In this study, air-water and organic fluid (Freon-113) annular flow entrainment experiments have been carried out in 9.4 and 10.2 mm diameter test sections, respectively. Both the experiments covered three distinct pressure conditions and wide range of liquid and gas flow conditions. The organic fluid experiments simulated high pressure steam-water annular flow conditions. In each of the experiments, measurements of entrainment fraction, droplet entrainment rate and droplet deposition rate have been performed by using a liquid film extraction method. A simple, explicit and non-dimensional correlation developed by Sawant et al. (2008a) for the prediction of entrainment fraction is further improved in this study in order to account for the existence of critical gas and liquid flow rates below which no entrainment is possible. Additionally, a new correlation is proposed for the estimation of minimum liquid film flow rate at the maximum entrainment fraction condition. The improved correlation successfully predicted the newly collected air-water and Freon-113 entrainment fraction data. Furthermore, the correlations satisfactorily compared with the air-water, helium-water and air-genklene experimental data measured by Willetts (1987). (author)
Characterization and modeling of annular two-phase flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Three aspects of annular two-phase flow are studied: (a) wave motion on falling films, (b) flow transition from downflow to upflow, and (c) the upflow. For the case of wave motion on falling films, it is shown that the assumption of the Nusselt velocity profile for finite-amplitude waves is solution of the wave profile, wave velocity, and velocity components within the wave is developed. An algorithm based on collocation methods is also detailed and can be applied to extend the model to solve for higher order terms in the velocity profile. Comparisons with experimental studies show good agreement. Flow transition and the upflow experiments are conducted in a 5.08 x 10-2m inner diameter, 6.5m long Plexiglas column. The liquid rates are varied from 0 to 0.126 kg/s and the gas rates from 0 to 0.0524 kg/s. At four measuring stations along the length of the column, an electrical conductance technique which employs two electrodes mounted flush with the wall is utilized to measure film thickness and pressure transducers are used to make the pressure measurements. Flow visualization studies indicate that flooding takes place as a result of entrainment from the crests of large waves. The effect of column length and pore size of the feed device on flooding velocities is studied. No previous correlation or theory is found to be fully adequate. A speculative interaction among system parameters is proposed to form a basis for a physical model for flooding phenomena
A research on the mechanisms of transition from annular flow in two-phase pipeline flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Various kinds mechanisms of transitions from two-phase annular flow in tubes were studied and modelled, and the affection factors on the transitions were also discussed. Some mathematical equations and transition criteria for every mechanisms presented were derived, and an unified general criterion for the annular flow transitions in whole range of pipe inclinations was recommended. The boundaries predicted show good agreement with the air-water two-phase experimental data
TWO-PHASE ANNULAR FLOW IN A VERTICALLY MOUNTED VENTURI FLOW METER
Panella, Bruno; Salve, Mario De; Monni, Grazia
2014-01-01
In the present research work, the experimental investigation of a vertical upward annular two-phase flow in a Venturi Flow Meter (VFM) is performed. The pressure drops between the inlet and throat section and between inlet and outlet (irreversible pressure drops) are measured and analyzed. The flow meter is characterized by an inlet diameter of 80 mm and a throat diameter of 40 mm (β=0.5), with equal convergent and divergent angles (θ=21°). The instrument has been tested in a test section, ha...
CFD model of diabatic annular two-phase flow using the Eulerian–Lagrangian approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Highlights: • A CFD model of annular two-phase flow with evaporating liquid film has been developed. • A two-dimensional liquid film model is developed assuming that the liquid film is sufficiently thin. • The liquid film model is coupled to the gas core flow, which is represented using the Eulerian–Lagrangian approach. - Abstract: A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of annular two-phase flow with evaporating liquid film has been developed based on the Eulerian–Lagrangian approach, with the objective to predict the dryout occurrence. Due to the fact that the liquid film is sufficiently thin in the diabatic annular flow and at the pre-dryout conditions, it is assumed that the flow in the wall normal direction can be neglected, and the spatial gradients of the dependent variables tangential to the wall are negligible compared to those in the wall normal direction. Subsequently the transport equations of mass, momentum and energy for liquid film are integrated in the wall normal direction to obtain two-dimensional equations, with all the liquid film properties depth-averaged. The liquid film model is coupled to the gas core flow, which currently is represented using the Eulerian–Lagrangian technique. The mass, momentum and energy transfers between the liquid film, gas, and entrained droplets have been taken into account. The resultant unified model for annular flow has been applied to the steam–water flow with conditions typical for a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR). The simulation results for the liquid film flow rate show favorable agreement with the experimental data, with the potential to predict the dryout occurrence based on criteria of critical film thickness or critical film flow rate
Dynamics of face and annular seals with two-phase flow
Hughes, William F.; Basu, Prithwish; Beatty, Paul A.; Beeler, Richard M.; Lau, Stephen
1988-01-01
A detailed study was made of face and annular seals under conditions where boiling, i.e., phase change of the leaking fluid, occurs within the seal. Many seals operate in this mode because of flashing due to pressure drop and/or heat input from frictional heating. Some of the distinctive behavior characteristics of two phase seals are discussed, particularly their axial stability. The main conclusions are that seals with two phase flow may be unstable if improperly balanced. Detailed theoretical analyses of low (laminar) and high (turbulent) leakage seals are presented along with computer codes, parametric studies, and in particular a simplified PC based code that allows for rapid performance prediction: calculations of stiffness coefficients, temperature and pressure distributions, and leakage rates for parallel and coned face seals. A simplified combined computer code for the performance prediction over the laminar and turbulent ranges of a two phase flow is described and documented. The analyses, results, and computer codes are summarized.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
For the visualization of the phase boundary in annular two-phase flows, the electrical resistance tomography (ERT) technique is introduced. In ERT, a set of predetermined electrical currents is injected trough the electrodes placed on the boundary of the flow passage and the induced electrical potentials are measured on the electrode. With the relationship between the injected currents and the induced voltages, the electrical conductivity distribution across the flow domain is estimated through the image reconstruction algorithm. In this, the conductivity distribution corresponds to the phase distribution. In the application of ERT to two-phase flows where there are only two conductivity values, the conductivity distribution estimation problem can be transformed into the boundary estimation problem. This paper considers a bubble boundary estimation with ERT in annular two-phase flows. As the image reconstruction algorithm, the unscented Kalman filter (UKF) is adopted since from the control theory it is reported that the UKF shows better performance than the extended Kalman filter (EKF) that has been commonly used. We formulated the UKF algorithm to be incorporate into the image reconstruction algorithm for the present problem. Also, phantom experiments have been conducted to evaluate the improvement by UKF
Effect of entrained liquid on turbulent mixing rate between subchannels in annular two-phase flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Turbulent mixing rates of gas and liquid phases between the subchannels have been measured for various air-water two-phase annular flows in a multiple channel consisting of the two identical circular subchannels. In order to study effect of entrained liquid in the gas core on the turbulent mixing rates, experiments were conducted for two types of liquid injection method, i.e., a small bore nozzle placed in the subchannel center and a porous wall, at a fixed gas injection method. The result showed that the effect of entrained liquid on the turbulent mixing rates of both phases is negligibly small. (author)
Entrained liquid fraction prediction in adiabatic and evaporating annular two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Highlights: ► New method to predict the entrained liquid fraction in annular two-phase flow. ► Circular and non-circular tubes, adiabatic and evaporating conditions covered. ► Large underlying experimental database (2460 points). ► New method explicit and fully stand-alone. ► New method based on just 1 dimensionless group: the core flow Weber number. - Abstract: A new method to predict the entrained liquid fraction in annular two-phase flow is presented. The underlying experimental database contains 2460 data points collected from 38 different literature studies for 8 different gas–liquid or vapor–liquid combinations (R12, R113, water–steam, water–air, genklene–air, ethanol–air, water–helium, silicon–air), tube diameters from 5.0 mm to 95.3 mm, pressures from 0.1 to 20.0 MPa and covers both adiabatic and evaporating flow conditions, circular and non-circular channels and vertical upflow, vertical downflow and horizontal flow conditions. Annular flows are regarded here as a special form of a liquid atomization process, where a high velocity confined spray, composed by the gas phase and entrained liquid droplets, flows in the center of the channel dragging and atomizing the annular liquid film that streams along the channel wall. Correspondingly, the liquid film flow is assumed to be shear-driven and the energy required to drive the liquid atomization is assumed to be provided in the form of kinetic energy of the droplet-laden gas core flow, so that the liquid film–gas core aerodynamic interaction is ultimately assumed to control the liquid disintegration process. As such, the new prediction method is based on the core flow Weber number, representing the ratio of the disrupting aerodynamic force to the surface tension retaining force, a single and physically plausible dimensionless group. The new prediction method is explicit, fully stand-alone and reproduces the available data better than existing empirical correlations, including in
Electrical Capacitance Probe Characterization in Vertical Annular Two-Phase Flow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Grazia Monni
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The paper presents the experimental analysis and the characterization of an electrical capacitance probe (ECP that has been developed at the SIET Italian Company, for the measurement of two-phase flow parameters during the experimental simulation of nuclear accidents, as LOCA. The ECP is used to investigate a vertical air/water flow, characterized by void fraction higher than 95%, with mass flow rates ranging from 0.094 to 0.15 kg/s for air and from 0.002 to 0.021 kg/s for water, corresponding to an annular flow pattern. From the ECP signals, the electrode shape functions (i.e., the signals as a function of electrode distances in single- and two-phase flows are obtained. The dependence of the signal on the void fraction is derived and the liquid film thickness and the phase’s velocity are evaluated by means of rather simple models. The experimental analysis allows one to characterize the ECP, showing the advantages and the drawbacks of this technique for the two-phase flow characterization at high void fraction.
A two-dimensional parabolic model for vertical annular two-phase flow
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Fernandez, F.M.; Toledo, A. Alvarez; Paladino, E.E. [Graduate Program in Mechanical Engineering, Universidade Federal de Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, RN (Brazil)], e-mail: emilio@ct.ufrn.br
2010-07-01
This work presents a solution algorithm for predicting hydrodynamic parameters for developing and equilibrium, adiabatic, annular, vertical two-phase flow. It solves mass and momentum transport differential equations for both the core and the liquid film across their entire domains. Thus, the velocity and shear stress distributions from the tube center to the wall are obtained, together with the average film thickness and the pressure gradient, making no use of empirical closure relations nor assuming any known velocity profile to solve the triangular relationship in the liquid film. The model was developed using the Finite Volume Method and an iterative procedure is proposed to solve all flow variables for given phase superficial velocities. The procedure is validated against the analytical solution for laminar flow and experimental data for gas-liquid turbulent flow with entrainment. For the last case, an algebraic turbulence model is used for turbulent viscosity calculation for both, liquid film and gas core. (author)
Effect of wall wettability on droplet entrainment in vertical upward annular two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
To evaluate the effect of wall surface wettability on the characteristics of upward gas-liquid annular two-phase flow in a vertical pipe, an experimental study was performed using two test pipes: an acrylic pipe and a FEP pipe. Measured contact angles on the acrylic and FEP pipe surfaces were 60deg and 80deg, respectively. Basic flow characteristics such as liquid film thickness and liquid entrainment ratio were respectively measured by a laser focus displacement meter and a suction method. At relatively high gas flow rate and low liquid flow rate conditions, a reduction of the surface wettability by the FEP pipe enhanced the interfacial waves on liquid film, and caused an increase in the liquid entrainment ratio and a decrease in the liquid film thickness. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Inverted annular flow can be visualized as a liquid jet-like core surrounded by a vapor annulus. While many analytical and experimental studies of heat transfer in this regime have been performed, there is very little understanding of the basic hydrodynamics of the post-critical heat flux (CHF) flow field. However, a recent experimental study was done that was able to successfully investigate the effects of various steady-state inlet flow parameters on the post-CHF hydrodynamics of the film boiling of a single phase liquid jet. This study was carried out by means of a visual photographic analysis of an idealized single phase core inverted annular flow initial geometry (single phase liquid jet core surrounded by a coaxial annulus of gas). In order to extend this study, a subsequent flow visualization of an idealized two-phase core inverted annular flow geometry (two-phase central jet core, surrounded by a coaxial annulus of gas) was carried out. The objective of this second experimental study was to investigate the effect of steady-state inlet, pre-CHF two-phase jet core parameters on the hydrodynamics of the post-CHF flow field. In actual film boiling situations, two-phase flows with net positive qualities at the CHF point are encountered. Thus, the focus of the present experimental study was on the inverted bubbly, slug, and annular flow fields in the post dryout film boiling region. Observed post dryout hydrodynamic behavior is reported. A correlation for the axial extent of the transition flow pattern between inverted annular and dispersed droplet flow (the agitated regime) is developed. It is shown to depend strongly on inlet jet core parameters and jet void fraction at the dryout point
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Inverted annular flow can be visualized as a liquid jet-like core surrounded by a vapor annulus. While many analytical and experimental studies of heat transfer in this regime have been performed, there is very little understanding of the basic hydrodynamics of the post-CHF flow field. However, a recent experimental study was done that was able to successfully investigate the effects of various steady-state inlet flow parameters on the post-CHF hydrodynamics of the film boiling of a single phase liquid jet. This study was carried out by means of a visual photographic analysis of an idealized single phase core inverted annular flow initial geometry (single phase liquid jet core surrounded by a coaxial annulus of gas). In order to extend this study, a subsequent flow visualization of an idealized two-phase core inverted annular flow geometry (two-phase central jet core, surrounded by a coaxial annulus of gas) was carried out. The objective of this second experimental study was to investigate the effect of steady-state inlet, pre-CHF two-phase jet core parameters on the hydrodynamics of the post-CHF flow field. In actual film boiling situations, two-phase flows with net positive qualities at the CHF point are encountered. Thus, the focus of the present experimental study was on the inverted bubbly, slug, and annular flow fields in the post dryout film boiling region. Observed post dryout hydrodynamic behavior is reported. A correlation for the axial extent of the transition flow pattern between inverted annular and dispersed droplet flow (the agitated regime) is developed. It is shown to depend strongly on inlet jet core parameters and jet void fraction at the dryout point. 45 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs
Drop deposition in annular two-phase flow calculated with Lagrangian Particle Tracking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Highlights: • A new drop size correlation is proposed. • Increased drop size accounts for increased concentration. • LPT model has capability to predict obstacle effect. - Abstract: Lagrangian Particle Tracking is tested for its capability to predict deposition rates in pipes and pipes with obstacle. The drop size is one of the input parameters, which defines in its major part the deposition process. A new correlation is proposed to estimate the drop size, following a systematic analysis of the experimental drop sizes in annular two-phase flow. The Lagrangian Particle Tracking model showed good capability of prediction in the cases where the drop size is known; however, when the drop size is estimated the inaccuracy in calculated deposition rate is high. If the drop size is known at the inlet of the channel, Lagrangian Particle Tracking shows good capability of predicting the deposition increase downstream of the obstacle for steam-water flows of 5, 10 and 15 bar pressure
Experimental investigations of heat transfer at dry patch location in annular two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
New experiments have been performed to investigate heat transfer to water/steam two-phase mixture flowing in annular test section at trans-dryout conditions. The measurements have been carried out in the High-pressure Water Test (HWAT) loop at the Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. The primary objective of the experiment investigations has been to study heat transfer at conditions typical for Boiling Water Reactors (BWR), when heat transfer regime changes from convective boiling to post-dryout heat transfer. The experiments indicate a significant enhancement of heat transfer just upstream of dryout patch. It has been observed that the measured heat transfer coefficient is in good agreement with the Chen correlation for quality less than 30%, however, increasing discrepancy is noted for near-critical quality. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Starting from the rigorous formulation of the conservation equations for mass, momentum and enthalpy, derived for a two-phase flow by volume averaging microscopic balance equations over Eulerian control cells, the article discusses the formulation of the terms describing exchanges between the phases. Two flow regimes are taken into consideration, bubbly flow, applicable for small or medium void fractions, and annular flow, for large void fractions. When lack of knowledge of volume-averaged physical quantities make the rigorously formulated terms useless for computational purposes, modelling of these terms is discussed. 3 figs., 15 refs
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Bottoni, M.; Ajuha, S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Technology Div.; Sengpiel, W. [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fur Reaktorsicherheit
1994-12-31
Starting from the rigorous formulation of the conservation equations for mass, momentum and enthalpy derived for a two-phase flow by volume-averaging microscopic balance equations over Eulerian control cells, the article discusses the formulation of the terms describing exchanges between the phases. Two flow regimes are taken into consideration; bubbly flow, applicable for small or medium void fractions, and annular flow, for large void fractions. When lack of knowledge of volume-averaged physical quantities makes the rigorously formulated terms useless for computational purposes, modeling of these terms is discussed.
Boiling two-phase flow and heat transfer in concentric annular tube
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The boiling flow resistance and heat transfer characteristics is experimentally investigated under the outer tube wall heating condition in a concentric annular tube with 2.1 mm gap size. The results show that the flow resistance in the annular tube is greater than that in circular tube, as well as the boiling heat transfer becomes enhanced. The heat transfer coefficient has close relationship with the pressure, thermal equilibrium quality, mass flux, heat flux, gap size of the annular tube, and heat models as well. The physical explanation about the enhancement boiling heat transfer in the annular tube is proposed with both micro-film evaporation mechanics and bubble disturbance mechanics. The correlations to calculate the flow friction coefficient and heat transfer coefficient are proposed based on the experimental data. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A model is developed to describe the transition from annular flow to intermittent flow in a vertical two-phase flow system. Since the instability of the disturbance wave, which is a dominant wave shape at the boundary between annular flow and intermittent flow, is considered as a governing mechanism, this instability described by the concept of hyperbolicity breaking in the characteristic equation is included in the model. The developed model is validated by comparing its predictions of gas superficial velocity for the transition with experimental data available in the literature, and comparing those with the predictions of the other correlations. The comparison results show that the model gives better predictions for the transition condition than existing correlations, and the effects of fluid properties, geometry and liquid flow rate on the transition are well considered by the developed model. The average of prediction errors is 3% for the present model. The standard deviation of the prediction errors of the model reaches 28%, which is the smallest among the models compared here. (author)
A self-standing two-fluid CFD model for vertical upward two-phase annular flow
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Liu, Y., E-mail: yang_liu@mail.dlut.edu.c [Key Laboratory of Ocean Energy Utilization and Energy Conservation of Ministry of Education, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, Liaoning Province (China); Li, W.Z.; Quan, S.L. [Key Laboratory of Ocean Energy Utilization and Energy Conservation of Ministry of Education, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, Liaoning Province (China)
2011-05-15
Research highlights: A mathematic model for two-phase annular flow is established in this paper. Pressure loss and wall shear stress increase with inlet gas and liquid flow velocities. Droplet mass fraction distribution exhibits a concave profile radially. - Abstract: In this paper, a new two-fluid CFD (computational fluid dynamics) model is proposed to simulate the vertical upward two-phase annular flow. This model solves the basic mass and momentum equations for the gas core region flow and the liquid film flow, where the basic governing equations are accounted for by the commercial CFD package Fluent6.3.26. The liquid droplet flow and the interfacial inter-phase effects are accounted for by the programmable interface of Fluent, UDF (user defined function). Unlike previous models, the present model includes the effect of liquid roll waves directly determined from the CFD code. It is able to provide more detailed and, the most important, self-standing information for both the gas core flow and the film flow as well as the inner tube wall situations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Turbulent mixing rates of gas and liquid phases between adjacent subchannels have been measured for various air-water two-phase annular flows in a multiple channel consisting of two identical circular subchannels. In order to study effect of liquid entrainment in the gas core on the turbulent mixing rates, experiments were conducted for two types of liquid injection method, i.e., a small bore nozzle placed in the subchannel center and a porous wall. The result showed that the effect of liquid entrainment on the turbulent mixing rates of both phases is negligibly small. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Highlights: • Mass transfer in back to back elbows in an out of plane configuration was measured. • Tests were performed under annular two phase air–water conditions. • Highest mass transfer was on the outer wall of the first elbow. • The mass transfer on the second elbow was always less than that in the first elbow. • The mass transfer increased with an increase in the air superficial velocity. - Abstract: The mass transfer in back-to-back elbows arranged in an out of plane configuration has been measured under annular two phase air–water flow conditions. The measurements were performed using a wall dissolving technique with the elbow sections cast from gypsum. Experiments were performed to study the effect of increasing the water and air superficial velocities, and the effect of separation distance between the elbows. The highest mass transfer for all cases occurs on the outer wall of the first elbow, and the magnitude was not affected by the separation distance between the elbows. The maximum mass transfer in the second elbow was approximately 60 percent of the maximum value in the first elbow. The mass transfer increased with an increase in either the water or air superficial velocity, with the air velocity having a greater effect. The roughness development in the upstream pipe was modest, but was significant in the regions of high mass transfer on the first and second elbow
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Highlights: ► Two-phase natural circulation flow induced in insulation gap was investigated. ► Half-scaled non-heating experiments were performed to evaluate flow behavior. ► The loop-integrated momentum equation was formulated and solved asymptotically. ► First-order approximate solution was obtained and agreed with experimental data. - Abstract: The process of two-phase natural circulation flow induced in the annular gap between the reactor vessel and the insulation under external reactor vessel cooling conditions was investigated experimentally and analytically in this study. HERMES-HALF experiments were performed to observe and quantify the induced two-phase natural circulation flow in the annular gap. A half-scaled non-heating experimental facility was designed by utilizing the results of a scaling analysis to simulate the APR1400 reactor and its insulation system. The behavior of the boiling-induced two-phase natural circulation flow in the annular gap was observed, and the liquid mass flow rates driven by the natural circulation loop and the void fraction distribution were measured. Direct flow visualization revealed that choking would occur under certain flow conditions in the minimum gap region near the shear keys. Specifically, large recirculation flows were observed in the minimum gap region for large air injection rates and small outlet areas. Under such conditions, the injected air could not pass through the minimum gap region, resulting in the occurrence of choking near the minimum gap with a periodical air back flow being generated. Therefore, a design modification of the minimum gap region needs to be done to facilitate steam venting and to prevent choking from occurring. To complement the HERMES-HALF experimental effort, an analytical study of the dependence of the induced natural circulation mass flow rate on the inlet area and the volumetric air injection rate was performed using a loop integration of the momentum equation. The loop
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If a flow obstruction such as a spacer is set in a boiling two-phase flow within an annular channel, the inner tube of which is used as a heater, the temperature on the surface of the heater tube is severely affected by the existence of the spacer. In some case the spacer has a cooling effect, and in the other case it causes the dryout of the cooling liquid film on the heating surface resulting in the burnout of the tube. But the burnout mechanism near the spacer is not still clear. In the present paper we discus the influence of the flow obstacle on the occurrence of burnout downstream of the flow obstacle in boiling two-phase upward flow within a vertical annular channel. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
If a flow obstruction such as a spacer is set in a boiling two-phase flow within an annular channel, the inner tube of which is used as a heater, the temperature on the surface of the heater tube is severely affected by the existence of the spacer. In some cases the spacer has a cooling effect, and in the other case it causes the dryout of the cooling liquid film on the heating surface resulting in the burnout of the tube. But the thermo-fluid dynamic mechanism to cause burnout near the spacer is not still clear. In the present paper we discuss the influence of the flow obstacle on the occurrence of burnout downstream of the flow obstacle in boiling two-phase upward flow within a vertical annular channel. (author)
Flow Measurement Model of Ultrasonic Flowmeter for Gas-Liquid Two-Phase Stratified and Annular Flows
Lanchang Xing; Chenquan Hua; Hao Zhu; Wolfgang Drahm
2014-01-01
An error correction model for ultrasonic gas flowmeter was proposed to explore the potential of an ultrasonic flowmeter for metering gas-liquid stratified and annular flows. The gas and liquid mass flowrates could be obtained provided that the gas quality and physical prosperities were known. A single-path ultrasonic flowmeter was investigated and the error of the apparent volumetric flowrate was considered as mainly resulting from the shrinkage of the gas flow path due to the presence of a l...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The identification of flow regime transition is very important part for nuclear safety analysis, improvement and design of mechanical system. There have been many theoretical and experimental attempts to demonstrate flow regime transitions in a horizontal and a vertical pipe, on the other hand, research for the inclined pipe has been rare. Taitel and Dukler proposed a theoretical model for predicting flow regime transitions in a horizontal and near-horizontal pipe. Barnea et al. verified the Taitel and Dukler's model for various inclination angles, and observed that Taitel and Dukler's model well predict the flow regime transition up to inclination angles ±10 .deg., but has limitation in classifying the transition boundary between the smooth and wavy stratified flow. Barnea et al. intensively conducted experiment on the flow regime transition for the whole range of inclination angles from the horizontal to the vertical pipe. Barnea later proposed a unified theoretical model predicting the transition between the annular and intermittent flow, and between the bubbly and intermittent which is valid for the whole range of inclination angles. Also, Barnea summarized flow regime transition models and proposed a unified theoretical model applicable from horizontal to vertical flow. This work, as a preparatory research, is motivated to classify the flow regime, in particular, transition between intermittent and annular flow in an inclined pipe which was constructed in order to describe the condensation heat exchanger in APR+ PAFS
Estimation of shear stress in counter-current gas-liquid annular two-phase flow
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The accuracy of the correlations of the friction factor is important for the counter-current flow (CCF) analysis with two-fluid model. However, existing two fluid model codes use the correlations of friction factors for co-current flow or correlation developed based on the assumption of no wall shear stress. The assessment calculation for two fluid model code with those existing correlations of friction factors shows the falling water flow rate is overestimated. Analytical model is developed to calculate the shear stress distribution in water film at CCF in order to get the information on the shear stress at the interface and the wall. The analytical results with the analysis model and Bharathan's CCF data shows that the wall shear stress acting on the falling water film is almost same order as the interfacial shear stress and the correlations for co-current flow cannot be applied to the counter-current flow. Tentative correlations of the interfacial and the wall friction factors are developed based on the results of the present study. (author)
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When a flow obstruction such as a cylindrical spacer is set in a boiling two-phase flow with-in an annular channel, the inner tube of which is used as a heater, the temperature on the surface of the heating tube is severely affected by its existence. In some cases the cylindrical spacer has a cooling effect, and in the other cases it causes the dryout of the cooling water film on the heating surface resulting in the burnout of the heating tube. In the present paper we have focused our attention on the influence of a flow obstacle on the occurrence of burnout of the heating tube in boiling two-phase flow
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Mori, S.; Fukano, T. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)
2003-07-01
When a flow obstruction such as a cylindrical spacer is set in a boiling two-phase flow with-in an annular channel, the inner tube of which is used as a heater, the temperature on the surface of the heating tube is severely affected by its existence. In some cases the cylindrical spacer has a cooling effect, and in the other cases it causes the dryout of the cooling water film on the heating surface resulting in the burnout of the heating tube. In the present paper we have focused our attention on the influence of a flow obstacle on the occurrence of burnout of the heating tube in boiling two-phase flow.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Annular gas-liquid two phase flow widely occurs in nuclear industry. Various combinations of techniques have been employed in annular gas-liquid two phase flows to measure the flow parameters (e.g. liquid film thickness, gas volume fraction and the phase flow rates). One of the most useful techniques which has proven attractive for many multiphase flow applications is the electrical conductance technique. This paper presents an advanced conductance multiphase Venturi meter (CMVM) which is capable of measuring the gas volume fractions at the inlet and the throat of the Venturi. A new model was investigated to measure the gas flow rate. This model is based on the measurement of the gas volume fractions at the inlet and the throat of the Venturi meter using a conductance technique rather than relying on prior knowledge of the mass flow quality x. We measure conductance using two ring electrodes flush with the inner surface of the Venturi throat and two ring electrodes flush with the inner surface of the Venturi inlet. The basic operation of the electrical conductance technique in a multiphase flow is that the conductance of the mixture depends on the gas volume fraction in the water. An electronic circuit was built and calibrated to give a dc voltage output which is proportional to the conductance of the mixture which can then be related to the water film thickness in annular flow (and hence to the gas volume fraction). It was inferred from the experimental results that the minimum average percentage error of the predicted gas mass flow rates (i.e. -0.0428%) can be achieved at the optimum gas discharge coefficient of 0.932.
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Highlights: → Knowledge of the interfacial wave structure is essential for making an accurate prediction of the amount of entrained droplets. → A new droplet entrainment model based on the force balance of interfacial waves in vertical annular flow. → An analytic wave shape function was developed. → A new droplet entrainment model was validated using the experimental data reported by Hewitt and Pulling and by Keeys et al. - Abstract: Droplets are generated at the interface of annular flow due to an interaction between a liquid film and gas core flow. Therefore, knowledge of the interfacial wave structure is essential for making an accurate prediction of the amount of entrained droplets. A new droplet entrainment model was proposed based on the force balance of interfacial waves in vertical annular flow. An analytic wave shape function was developed reflecting the detailed experimental findings, and was used in the development of a new model. The model was validated using the experimental data reported by Hewitt and Pulling at low pressures and by Keeys et al. at high pressures, which had been performed in adiabatic vertical tubes. The root-mean-square error of the prediction of the amount of entrainment was approximately 27% when the model was implemented into COBRA-TF code, which is approximately 23% less than that determined by the Wuertz model. The models proposed by Okawa et al. and Stevanovic et al. were also implemented into COBRA-TF and compared with the proposed model.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mori, S.; Fukano, T. E-mail: fukanot@mech.kyushu-u.ac.jp
2003-10-01
When a flow obstruction such as a cylindrical spacer is set in a boiling two-phase flow within an annular channel, the inner tube of which is used as a heater, the temperature on the surface of the heating tube is severely affected by its existence. In some cases, the cylindrical spacer has a cooling effect, and in the other cases it causes the dryout of the cooling water film on the heating surface resulting in the burnout of the heating tube. In the present paper, we have focused our attention on the influence of a flow obstacle on the occurrence of burnout of the heating tube in boiling two-phase flow. The results are summarized as follows: - When the heat flux approaches the burnout condition, the wall temperature on the heating tube fluctuates with a large amplitude. And once the wall temperature exceeds the Leidenfrost temperature, the burnout occurs without exception. - The trigger of dryout of the water film which causes the burnout is not the nucleate boiling but the evaporation of the base film between disturbance waves. - The burnout never occurs at the downstream side of the spacer. This is because the dryout area downstream of the spacer is rewetted easily by the disturbance waves.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
When a flow obstruction such as a cylindrical spacer is set in a boiling two-phase flow within an annular channel, the inner tube of which is used as a heater, the temperature on the surface of the heating tube is severely affected by its existence. In some cases, the cylindrical spacer has a cooling effect, and in the other cases it causes the dryout of the cooling water film on the heating surface resulting in the burnout of the heating tube. In the present paper, we have focused our attention on the influence of a flow obstacle on the occurrence of burnout of the heating tube in boiling two-phase flow. The results are summarized as follows: - When the heat flux approaches the burnout condition, the wall temperature on the heating tube fluctuates with a large amplitude. And once the wall temperature exceeds the Leidenfrost temperature, the burnout occurs without exception. - The trigger of dryout of the water film which causes the burnout is not the nucleate boiling but the evaporation of the base film between disturbance waves. - The burnout never occurs at the downstream side of the spacer. This is because the dryout area downstream of the spacer is rewetted easily by the disturbance waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
As the study of two-phase flows is required to assess or optimize the performance of many industrial systems in chemical, thermal or nuclear engineering, this research thesis in fluid mechanics aims at describing the evolution of a two-phase flow in a dispersed annular configuration when passing a convergent nozzle. The study focused on the elaboration of simple, one-dimensional and permanent flows, and is based on experiments performed in the case of a liquid annular injection. The author discusses the mapping of two-phase flows, proposes an overview of their modelling, and proposes a model with its instantaneous local equations and time- and space-averaged equations. He addresses the issues of closure laws for two-field models (friction laws on the walls and at the interfaces, discussion of published experimental results), and of mass transfer laws for three-field models. He reports the development of a droplet carryover rate law and the analysis of published experiments by using the three-field model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mori, Shoji [Yokohama National University, Yokohama 240-8501 (Japan)], E-mail: morisho@ynu.ac.jp; Tominaga, Akira [Ube National College of Technology, Ube 755-8555 (Japan)], E-mail: tominaga@ube-k.ac.jp; Fukano, Tohru [Kurume Institute of University, Fukuoka 830-0052 (Japan)], E-mail: fukanot@cc.kurume-it.ac.jp
2007-12-15
If a flow obstacle, such as a spacer is placed in a boiling two-phase flow within a channel, the temperature on the surface of the heating tube is severely affected by the existence of the spacer. Under certain conditions, a spacer has a cooling effect, and under other conditions, the spacer causes dryout of the cooling water film on the heating surface. The burnout mechanism, which always occurs upstream of a spacer, however, remains unclear. In a previous paper [Fukano, T., Mori, S., Akamatsu, S., Baba, A., 2002. Relation between temperature fluctuation of a heating surface and generation of drypatch caused by a cylindrical spacer in a vertical boiling two-phase upward flow in a narrow annular channel. Nucl. Eng. Des. 217, 81-90], we reported that the disturbance wave has a significant effect on dryout and burnout occurrence and that a spacer greatly affects the behavior of the liquid film downstream of the spacer. In the present study, we examined in detail the influences of a spacer on the heat transfer and film thickness characteristics downstream of the spacer by considering the result in steam-water and air-water systems. The main results are summarized as follows: (1)The spacer averages the liquid film in the disturbance wave flow. As a result, dryout tends not to occur downstream of the spacer. This means that large temperature increases do not occur there. However, traces of disturbance waves remain, even if the disturbance waves are averaged by the spacer. (2)There is a high probability that the location at which burnout occurs is upstream of the downstream spacer, irrespective of the spacer spacing. (3)The newly proposed burnout occurrence model can explain the phenomena that burnout does occur upstream of the downstream spacer, even if the liquid film thickness t{sub Fm} is approximately the same before and behind the spacer.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
If a flow obstacle, such as a spacer is placed in a boiling two-phase flow within a channel, the temperature on the surface of the heating tube is severely affected by the existence of the spacer. Under certain conditions, a spacer has a cooling effect, and under other conditions, the spacer causes dryout of the cooling water film on the heating surface. The burnout mechanism, which always occurs upstream of a spacer, however, remains unclear. In a previous paper [Fukano, T., Mori, S., Akamatsu, S., Baba, A., 2002. Relation between temperature fluctuation of a heating surface and generation of drypatch caused by a cylindrical spacer in a vertical boiling two-phase upward flow in a narrow annular channel. Nucl. Eng. Des. 217, 81-90], we reported that the disturbance wave has a significant effect on dryout and burnout occurrence and that a spacer greatly affects the behavior of the liquid film downstream of the spacer. In the present study, we examined in detail the influences of a spacer on the heat transfer and film thickness characteristics downstream of the spacer by considering the result in steam-water and air-water systems. The main results are summarized as follows: (1)The spacer averages the liquid film in the disturbance wave flow. As a result, dryout tends not to occur downstream of the spacer. This means that large temperature increases do not occur there. However, traces of disturbance waves remain, even if the disturbance waves are averaged by the spacer. (2)There is a high probability that the location at which burnout occurs is upstream of the downstream spacer, irrespective of the spacer spacing. (3)The newly proposed burnout occurrence model can explain the phenomena that burnout does occur upstream of the downstream spacer, even if the liquid film thickness tFm is approximately the same before and behind the spacer
Phase flow rate measurements of annular flows
Al-Yarubi, Qahtan
2010-01-01
In the international oil and gas industry multiphase annular flow in pipelines and wells is extremely important, but not well understood. This thesis reports the development of an efficient and cheap method for measuring the phase flow rates in two phase annular and annular mist flow, in which the liquid phase is electrically conducting, using ultrasonic and conductance techniques. The method measures changes in the conductance of the liquid film formed during annular flow and uses these to c...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Two-phase annular flow with heat transfer is prevalent in many processes such as industrial and energy reformation processes. Recently, advances in high performance electronic chips and the miniaturisation of electronic circuits in which high heat flux will be created and other compact systems such as Integrated Nuclear Power Device (INPD), the refrigeration/air conditioning, automobile environment control systems have resulted in a great demand for developing efficient heat transfer techniques to accommodate these high heat fluxes. It has been studied by many researchers because of its successful application in many areas, but its influence factor and mechanism of heat transfer remain somewhat unknown yet. In order to understand the heat transfer and flow mechanism in the narrow annular channel, experimental and theoretical study of dryout and post-dryout heat transfer of steam-water two-phase flow in annular channel with narrow gap (1.0 mm and 1.5 mm) have been carried out. The working fluid is deionized water. The range of experimental pressure is 1.0 ∼ 6.OMPa. In correspondence with two different narrow gaps, two kinds of test sections were designed. The test sections were made of specially processed straight stainless steel tubes with linearity error less than 0.01% to form narrow concentric annuli. It also needs a good sealed performance at high pressure and high temperature. The experiments were carried out to investigate the characteristics and occurring conditions of the dryout point. The former Soviet researcher Kutateladse's correlation, based on round tube, was quoted and modified to apply barrow annuli under low flow conditions. At full conditions of the influencing factors, such as geometry of test section, pressure, mass flux, heat flux etc., an empirical correlation was developed to apply to bilaterally heated annuli and it had a good agreement with the experimental data A new analytical model for the dryout point of critical quality in
Annular Flow Distribution test
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This report documents the Babcock and Wilcox (B ampersand W) Annular Flow Distribution testing for the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL). The objective of the Annular Flow Distribution Test Program is to characterize the flow distribution between annular coolant channels for the Mark-22 fuel assembly with the bottom fitting insert (BFI) in place. Flow rate measurements for each annular channel were obtained by establishing ''hydraulic similarity'' between an instrumented fuel assembly with the BFI removed and a ''reference'' fuel assembly with the BFI installed. Empirical correlations of annular flow rates were generated for a range of boundary conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
If a flow obstacle such as a spacer is set in a boiling two-phase flow within an annular channel, where the inner tube is used as a heater, the temperature on the surface of the heater tube is severely affected by the existence of the spacer. In some case the spacer has a cooling effect, and in the other case it causes the dryout of the cooling liquid film on the heating surface resulting in the burnout of the tube. The burnout mechanism near the spacer, however, is not still clear. In the present paper we focus our attention on the occurrence of the burnout near a spacer, and discuss the occurrence location of dryout and burnout and the relation between the occurrence of burnout and differential-pressure fluctuation characteristics caused by the disturbance waves passing by a spacer. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mori, Shoji [Yokohama National University, Yokohama 240-8501 (Japan)]. E-mail: morisho@ynu.ac.jp; Fukano, Tohru [Kurume Institute of University, Fukuoka 830-0052 (Japan)]. E-mail: fukanot@cc.kurume-it.ac.jp
2006-05-15
If a flow obstacle such as a spacer is placed in a boiling two-phase flow within a channel, the temperature on the surface of the heating tube is severely affected by the existence of the spacer. Under certain conditions the spacer has a cooling effect, and under other conditions the spacer causes dryout of the cooling water film on the heating surface, resulting in burnout of the tube. The burnout mechanism near the spacer, however, remains unclear. In a previous paper (Fukano, T., Mori, S., Akamatsu, S., Baba, A., 2002. Relation between temperature fluctuation of a heating surface and generation of drypatch caused by a cylindrical spacer in a vertical boiling two-phase upward flow in a narrow annular channel. Nucl. Eng. Des. 217, 81-90), we reported that the disturbance wave has a significant effect on dryout occurrence. Therefore, in the present paper, the relation between dryout, burnout occurrence, and interval between two successive disturbance waves obtained from the differential pressure fluctuation caused by the disturbance waves passing by a spacer, is further discussed in detail.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
If a flow obstacle such as a spacer is placed in a boiling two-phase flow within a channel, the temperature on the surface of the heating tube is severely affected by the existence of the spacer. Under certain conditions the spacer has a cooling effect, and under other conditions the spacer causes dryout of the cooling water film on the heating surface, resulting in burnout of the tube. The burnout mechanism near the spacer, however, remains unclear. In a previous paper (Fukano, T., Mori, S., Akamatsu, S., Baba, A., 2002. Relation between temperature fluctuation of a heating surface and generation of drypatch caused by a cylindrical spacer in a vertical boiling two-phase upward flow in a narrow annular channel. Nucl. Eng. Des. 217, 81-90), we reported that the disturbance wave has a significant effect on dryout occurrence. Therefore, in the present paper, the relation between dryout, burnout occurrence, and interval between two successive disturbance waves obtained from the differential pressure fluctuation caused by the disturbance waves passing by a spacer, is further discussed in detail
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
High-thermal performance PWR (pressurized water reactor) spacer grids require both low pressure loss and high critical heat flux (CHF) properties. Numerical investigations on the effect of angles and position of mixing vanes and to understand in more details the main physical phenomena (wall boiling, entrainment of bubbles in the wakes, recondensation) are required. In the field of fuel assembly analysis or design by means of CFD codes, the overwhelming majority of the studies are carried out using two-equation eddy viscosity models (EVM), especially the standard K-ε model, while the use of Reynolds Stress Transport Models (RSTM) remains exceptional. But extensive testing and application over the past three decades have revealed a number of shortcomings and deficiencies in eddy viscosity models. In fact, the K-ε model is totally blind to rotation effects and the swirling flows can be regarded as a special case of fluid rotation. This aspect is crucial for the simulation of a hot channel in a fuel assembly. In fact, the mixing vanes of the spacer grids generate a swirl in the coolant water, to enhance the heat transfer from the rods to the coolant in the hot channels and to limit boiling. First, we started to evaluate computational fluid dynamics results against the AGATE-mixing experiment: single-phase liquid water tests, with Laser-Doppler liquid velocity measurements upstream and downstream of mixing blades. The comparison of computed and experimental azimuthal (circular component in a horizontal plane) liquid velocity downstream of a mixing vane for the AGATE-mixing test shows that the rotating flow is qualitatively well reproduced by CFD calculations but azimuthal liquid velocity is underestimated with the K-ε model. Before comparing performance of EVM and RSTM models on fuel assembly geometry, we performed calculations with a simpler geometry, the ASU-annular channel case. A wall function model dedicated to boiling flows is also proposed.
Wallis, Graham B.
1989-01-01
Some features of two recent approaches of two-phase potential flow are presented. The first approach is based on a set of progressive examples that can be analyzed using common techniques, such as conservation laws, and taken together appear to lead in the direction of a general theory. The second approach is based on variational methods, a classical approach to conservative mechanical systems that has a respectable history of application to single phase flows. This latter approach, exemplified by several recent papers by Geurst, appears generally to be consistent with the former approach, at least in those cases for which it is possible to obtain comparable results. Each approach has a justifiable theoretical base and is self-consistent. Moreover, both approaches appear to give the right prediction for several well-defined situations.
Interfacial Area and Interfacial Transfer in Two-Phase Flow Systems (Volume IV. Chapters 15-19)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guo, T.; Park, J.; Kojasoy, G.
2003-03-15
Experiments were performed on horizontal air-water bubbly two-phase flow, axial flow, stratified wavy flow, and annular flow. Theoretical studies were also undertaken on interfacial parameters for a horizontal two-phase flow.
Interfacial Area and Interfacial Transfer in Two-Phase Flow Systems (Volume II. Chapters 6-10)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guo, T.; Park, J.; Kojasoy, G.
2003-03-15
Experiments were performed on horizontal air-water bubbly two-phase flow, axial flow, stratified wavy flow, and annular flow. Theoretical studies were also undertaken on interfacial parameters for a horizontal two-phase flow.
Interfacial Area and Interfacial Transfer in Two-Phase Flow Systems (Volume III. Chapters 11-14)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guo, T.; Park, J.; Kojasoy, G.
2003-03-15
Experiments were performed on horizontal air-water bubbly two-phase flow, axial flow, stratified wavy flow, and annular flow. Theoretical studies were also undertaken on interfacial parameters for a horizontal two-phase flow.
Interfacial Area and Interfacial Transfer in Two-Phase Flow Systems (Volume I. Chapters 1-5)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guo, T.; Park, J.; Kojasoy, G.
2003-03-15
Experiments were performed on horizontal air-water bubbly two-phase flow, axial flow, stratified wavy flow, and annular flow. Theoretical studies were also undertaken on interfacial parameters for a horizontal two-phase flow.
Study of film boiling dispersed two phase in narrow annular gap
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Experimental investigation on film boiling dispersed two phase friction pressure drop in narrow annular gap with deionized water was performed in three types of narrow annular gap. The friction pressure drop differences were compared between narrow annular gap and circular channel was compared in the paper. The influence of narrow annular gap on friction pressure drop was examined in this paper. Results showed that the modified Sadatomi's correlation can be used to calculate film boiling dispersed two-phase friction pressure drop in narrow annular gap for engineering application
Håland, Gaute
2010-01-01
The use of multiphase flow meters (MPFMs) increase each year. The main reasons for this are the cost benefits connected to the use of such a meter by eliminating exclusive lines to the test separator and the test separator itself and the demand for a meter that can measure the produced fluids in real time without separating the phases. The MPFMs measures the flow rate by use of different measurement principles and techniques, and in combination of these, e.g. by means of Venturi and void frac...
MICROGRAVITY EXPERIMENTS OF TWO-PHASE FLOW PATTERNS ABOARD MIR SPACE STATION
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
赵建福; 解京昌; 林海; 胡文瑞; A.V. Ivanov; A.Yu. Belyaev
2001-01-01
A first experimental study on two-phase flow patterns at a long-term,steady microgravity condition was conducted on board the Russian Space Station "MIR" in August 1999. Carbogal and air are used as the liquid and the gas phase,respectively. Bubble, slug, slug-annular transitional, and annular flows are observed.A new region of annular flow with lower liquid superficial velocity is discovered,and the region of the slug-annular transitionalfiow is wider than that observed by experiments on board the parabolic aircraft. The main patterns are bubble, slug annular transitional and annular flows based on the experiments on board MIR space station. Some influences on the two-phase flow patterns in the present experiments are discussed.
Two-phase flow in refrigeration systems
Gu, Junjie; Gan, Zhongxue
2013-01-01
Two-Phase Flow in Refrigeration Systems presents recent developments from the authors' extensive research programs on two-phase flow in refrigeration systems. This book covers advanced mass and heat transfer and vapor compression refrigeration systems and shows how the performance of an automotive air-conditioning system is affected through results obtained experimentally and theoretically, specifically with consideration of two-phase flow and oil concentration. The book is ideal for university postgraduate students as a textbook, researchers and professors as an academic reference book, and b
Definition of two-phase flow behaviors for spacecraft design
Reinarts, Thomas R.; Best, Frederick R.; Miller, Katherine M.; Hill, Wayne S.
1991-01-01
Data for complete models of two-phase flow in microgravity are taken from in-flight experiments and applied to an adiabatic flow-regime analysis to study the feasibility of two-phase systems for spacecraft. The data are taken from five in-flight experiments by Hill et al. (1990) in which a two-phase pump circulates a freon mixture and vapor and liquid flow streams are measured. Adiabatic flow regimes are analyzed based on the experimental superficial velocities of liquid and vapor, and comparisons are made with the results of two-phase flow regimes at 1 g. A motion analyzer records the flow characteristics at a rate of 1000 frames/sec, and stratified flow regimes are reported at 1 g. The flow regimes observed under microgravitational conditions are primarily annular and include slug and bubbly-slug regimes. The present data are of interest to the design and analysis of two-phase thermal-management systems for use in space missions.
Laser diagnostics in two phase flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Krueger, S.
2001-06-01
The existence of a huge lack of experimental data from both technical and fundamental two phase flows was mentioned. The development of laser based non-intrusive measurement techniques to overcome this problem were the task of this work. An optical flow algorithm was adapted for the determination of the velocity fields of continuous and dispersed phase in flow systems. It was used as data reduction method for the newly developed gaseous imaging velocimetry (GIV) technique. The measurement technique including the data reduction has been validated by comparing it to the well-established particle image velocimetry (PIV). Its applicability on scalar data from 2D two-phase flows and reacting gaseous flows was demonstrated. Laser based measurement techniques concerning 3D two-phase flows have also been developed. Solutions for the measurement of the velocity field of the gaseous phase in between the droplets as well as of the liquid phase in an automotive DI spray have been given. (orig.)
Program determines two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
When a mixture of a gas and a liquid flows along a horizontal pipe, it is possible to have up to seven different flow patterns. These flow patterns are: 1. Dispersed. When nearly all the liquid is entrained as spray by the gas; 2. Annular. The liquid forms a film around the inside wall of the pipe, and the gas flows at a high velocity as a central core; 3. Bubble. Bubbles of gas move along at about the same velocity as the liquid; 4. Stratified. The liquid flows along the bottom of the pipe and the gas flows above over a smooth gas-liquid interface; 5. Wave. Is similar to stratified except the interface is disturbed by waves moving in the direction of flow; 6. Slug. Waves are picked up periodically in the form of frothy slugs that move at a much greater velocity than the average liquid velocity; 7. Plug. Alternate plugs of liquid and gas move along the pipe
Two-phase flow in fractured rock
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This report gives the results of a three-day workshop on two-phase flow in fractured rock. The workshop focused on two-phase flow processes that are important in geologic disposal of nuclear waste as experienced in a variety of repository settings. The goals and objectives of the workshop were threefold: exchange information; describe the current state of understanding; and identify research needs. The participants were divided into four subgroups. Each group was asked to address a series of two-phase flow processes. The following groups were defined to address these processes: basic flow processes; fracture/matrix interactions; complex flow processes; and coupled processes. For each process, the groups were asked to address these four issues: (1) describe the two-phase flow processes that are important with respect to repository performance; (2) describe how this process relates to the specific driving programmatic issues given above for nuclear waste storage; (3) evaluate the state of understanding for these processes; and (4) suggest additional research to address poorly understood processes relevant to repository performance. The reports from each of the four working groups are given here
Characteristics of low-mass-velocity vertical gas-liquid two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Low-mass-velocity two-phase flow in a vertical pipe shows lower void fraction than high-mass-velocity two-phase flow even though their qualities are the same. In order to clarify the flow characteristics of the low-mass-velocity two-phase flow, air-water two-phase flow experiments were conducted under the froth or annular flow conditions. Experimental results show that wall shear stress is positive even though both gas and liquid superficial velocities are positive. Measured water film average velocity is negative under this condition. These results indicate that local flow reversal should exist along the channel wall. This local flow reversal gives to the low void fraction in low-mass-velocity two-phase flow. It is also clarified that the drift flux model can be applied to the low-mass-velocity two-phase flow with local reversal. (author)
An introduction to two-phase flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This course aims at proposing the necessary background for a rational approach to two-phase flows which are notably present in numerous industrial devices and equipment designed to perform energy transfer or mass transfer. The first part proposes a phenomenological approach to main two-phase flow structures and presents their governing variables. The second part presents some proven measurement techniques. The third part focuses on modelling. It recalls the equation elaboration techniques which are based on basic principles of mechanics and thermodynamics and on the application of different averaging operators to these principles. Some useful models are then presented such as models of pressure loss in a duct. The last chapter addresses some fundamental elements of heat transfers in ebullition and condensation
Modeling of two-phase slug flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
When gas and liquid flow in a pipe, over a range of flow rates, a flow pattern results in which sequences of long bubbles, almost filling the pipe cross section, are successively followed by liquid slugs that may contain small bubbles. This flow pattern, usually called slug flow, is encountered in numerous practical situations, such as in the production of hydrocarbons in wells and their transportation in pipelines; the production of steam and water in geothermal power plants; the boiling and condensation in liquid-vapor systems of thermal power plants; emergency core cooling of nuclear reactors; heat and mass transfer between gas and liquid in chemical reactors. This paper provides a review of two phase slug flow modeling
MHD Generators Operating with Two-Phase Liquid Metal Flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
with a sequence of tests in which the generator performance will be studied at mixture, qualities up to 50%. The trends of the data accumulated to date have been verified by analysis. A second generator in which the two-phase mixture is passed directly through the generator with no. deliberate attempt to form a film is also being studied. Experimental studies of air-water mixtures have shown that the conductivity of two-phase mixtures does not deteriorate excessively until mixture qualities of 30% are reached. A continuous functional relationship between the quality and conductivity exists even though the flow pattern traverses the gamut of two-phase flow regimes, from bubble to dispersed annular. From these tests, it appears that the electrical conduction is also through an annular film which exists in the various flow regimes. Such a generator has been operated successfully at very low qualities and flow rates, < 5%; currently its performance characteristics in the higher quality regime are being investigated. (author)
Two-phase flow measurements at high void fraction by a Venturi meter
Monni, Grazia; Salve, Mario De; Panella, Bruno
2014-01-01
An experimental investigation of a vertical upward annular two-phase flow across a Venturi flow meter has been performed for the measurement of two-phase flow parameters with reference to the experimental simulation of nuclear accidents, as LOCA, characterized by very high void fraction. The pressure drops between the inlet and throat section and between inlet and outlet (irreversible pressure losses) have been measured and analyzed. The Venturi flow meter is characterized by an inlet diamete...
Stability of oscillatory two phase Couette flow
Coward, Adrian V.; Papageorgiou, Demetrios T.
1993-01-01
We investigate the stability of two phase Couette flow of different liquids bounded between plane parallel plates. One of the plates has a time dependent velocity in its own plane, which is composed of a constant steady part and a time harmonic component. In the absence of time harmonic modulations, the flow can be unstable to an interfacial instability if the viscosities are different and the more viscous fluid occupies the thinner of the two layers. Using Floquet theory, we show analytically in the limit of long waves, that time periodic modulations in the basic flow can have a significant influence on flow stability. In particular, flows which are otherwise unstable for extensive ranges of viscosity ratios, can be stabilized completely by the inclusion of background modulations, a finding that can have useful consequences in many practical applications.
Two-Phase Flow in Heterogeneous Media
Ghaffari, Hamed O
2009-01-01
In this study, we investigate the appeared complexity of two-phase flow (air-water) in a heterogeneous soil where the supposed porous media is non-deformable media which is under the time-dependent gas pressure. After obtaining of governing equations and considering the capillary pressure-saturation and permeability functions, the evolution of the models unknown parameters were obtained. In this way, using COMSOL (FEMLAB) and fluid flow-script Module, the role of heterogeneity in intrinsic permeability was analysed. Also, the evolution of relative permeability of wetting and non-wetting fluid, capillary pressure and other parameters were elicited.
Silva. EDF two-phase 1D annular model of a CFB boiler furnace
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Montat, D.; Fauquet, Ph. [Electricite de France (EDF), 78 - Chatou (France). Researckh and Development Div.; Lafanechere, L.; Bursi, J.M. [Electricite de France (EDF) (France). Construction Div.
1997-01-01
SILVA computer code is used for the modelling of the thermal-hydraulics and of the combustion of a coal-fired CFBC solid loop. In a first step, only the furnace is considered. The model is based on a 1D annular two phases description of the hydrodynamics. The model is based on particle mass balances and pressure drop calculations. A basic combustion model is incorporated into this model. The coal combustion is divided in two phases, the combustion of volatile matter and the heterogeneous combustion. The model has been developed within LEGO software and can be included into the global model of the solid loop developed by EDF. (author) 26 refs.
Coupling two-phase fluid flow with two-phase darcy flow in anisotropic porous media
Chen, J.
2014-06-03
This paper reports a numerical study of coupling two-phase fluid flow in a free fluid region with two-phase Darcy flow in a homogeneous and anisotropic porous medium region. The model consists of coupled Cahn-Hilliard and Navier-Stokes equations in the free fluid region and the two-phase Darcy law in the anisotropic porous medium region. A Robin-Robin domain decomposition method is used for the coupled Navier-Stokes and Darcy system with the generalized Beavers-Joseph-Saffman condition on the interface between the free flow and the porous media regions. Obtained results have shown the anisotropic properties effect on the velocity and pressure of the two-phase flow. 2014 Jie Chen et al.
Refrigeration. Two-Phase Flow. Flow Regimes and Pressure Drop
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Knudsen, Hans-Jørgen Høgaard
2002-01-01
The note gives the basic definitions used in two-phase flow. Flow regimes and flow regimes map are introduced. The different contributions to the pressure drop are stated together with an imperical correlation from the litterature....
Two Phase Flow Simulation Using Cellular Automata
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The classical mathematical treatment of two-phase flows is based on the average of the conservation equations for each phase.In this work, a complementary approach to the modeling of these systems based on statistical population balances of aut omata sets is presented.Automata are entities defined by mathematical states that change following iterative rules representing interactions with the neighborhood.A model of automata for two-phase flow simulation is presented.This model consists of fie lds of virtual spheres that change their volumes and move around a certain environment.The model is more general than the classical cellular automata in two respects: the grid of cellular automata is dismissed in favor of a trajectory generator, and the rules of interaction involve parameters representing the actual physical interactions between phases.Automata simulation was used to study unsolved two-phase flow problems involving high heat flux rates. One system described in this work consists of a vertical channel with saturated water at normal pressure heated from the lower surface.The heater causes water to boil and starts the bubble production.We used cellular automata to describe two-phase flows and the interaction with the heater.General rule s for such cellular automata representing bubbles moving in stagnant liquid were used, with special attention to correct modeling of different mechanisms of heat transfer.The results of the model were compared to previous experiments and correlations finding good agreement.One of the most important findings is the confirmation of Kutateladze's idea about a close relation between the start of critical heat flux and a change in the flow's topology.This was analyzed using a control volume located in the upper surface of the heater.A strong decrease in the interfacial surface just before the CHF start was encountered.The automata describe quite well some characteristic parameters such as the shape of the local void fraction in the
Flow patterns and pressure drop in horizontal two-phase pipe flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A study was made of the relationship between flow patterns and frictional pressure drop during cocurrent gas-liquid flow in horizontal pipelines. On the basis of a revised flow pattern classification, the key flow pattern transitions were (a) onset of homogeneous flow, (b) onset of separated flow and (c) intermittent-annular transition. The available flow pattern transition observations were compared with the existing correlations for these flow patterns transitions. The onset of homogeneous flow could be satisfactorily predicted by a correlation previously developed by Husain. The onset of separated flow could be predicted by an extension of the work of Wallis and Dobson. None of the existing correlations or any simple extension of correlations were found satisfactory for the annular-intermittent transition. Two theoretical approaches to the intermittent-annular transition were considered. The models were developed on the basis (a) a wave mechanism and (b) entrainment-deposition mechanism. The wave model was considered to provide the most satisfactory correlation of the data. On the basis of these correlations an overall flow pattern map is proposed. The available two-phase pressure drop correlations were compared to the world data on two-phase pressure drop. A world data bank, prepared by the University of Houston and the University of Calgary, was used for this purpose. It was found that an appreciably better fit of two-phase pressure drop in horizontal tubes could be obtained when separate correlations were used for the various flow pattern regions. In the intermittent and annular regions, the Lockhart--Martinelli correlation was best while in the separated flow region Hoogendoorn's correlation was superior. In the homogeneous region, a modified homogeneous approach provided the best agreement
Characteristics of horizontal two-phase helium flow at low mass velocities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Two-phase helium flows experimental and theoretical exploration results, including data on flow regimes, pressure drop, and void fraction, are presented. The circular, annular, and slot channels are examined. All the considered data are for low mass velocities and near-adiabatic conditions
Hydrodynamics of annular-dispersed flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The interfacial drag, droplet entrainment, and droplet size distributions are important for detailed mechanistic modeling of annular dispersed two-phase flow. In view of this, recently developed correlations for these parameters are presented and discussed in this paper. The drag correlations for multiple fluid particle systems have been developed from a similarity hypothesis based on the mixture viscosity model. The results show that the drag coefficient depends on the particle Reynolds number and droplet concentration. The onset on droplet entrainment significantly alters the mechanisms of mass, momentum, and energy transfer between the film and gas core flow as well as the transfer between the two-phase mixture and the wall. By assuming the roll wave entrainment mechanism, the correlations for the amount of entrained droplet as well as for the droplet size distribution have been obtained from a simple model in collaboration with a large number of data
Two-phase flow patterns for flow condensation in small-diameter tubes
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2002-01-01
Two-phase flow patterns have been observed visually to investigate the effects of tube diameter, mass flux and tube inclination on flow condensation in small-diameter tubes. For horizontal or inclined small-diameter tubes, gravity-domination is decreased by shear stress and surface tension on phase change interface, which weakens the stratification of condensate and vapor flow due to the action of gravity perpendicular to flow direction. As decreasing the tube diameter from 5.79 mm to 2.18 mm, the annular or sub-annular flows become prevailing in flow regime map. The existing flow regime maps for macro scale cannot predict the experimental data in the present study.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mosdorf Romuald
2015-06-01
Full Text Available The two-phase flow (water-air occurring in square minichannel (3x3 mm has been analysed. In the minichannel it has been observed: bubbly flow, flow of confined bubbles, flow of elongated bubbles, slug flow and semi-annular flow. The time series recorded by laser-phototransistor sensor was analysed using the recurrence quantification analysis. The two coefficients:Recurrence rate (RR and Determinism (DET have been used for identification of differences between the dynamics of two-phase flow patterns. The algorithm which has been used normalizes the analysed time series before calculating the recurrence plots.Therefore in analysis the quantitative signal characteristicswas neglected. Despite of the neglect of quantitative signal characteristics the analysis of its dynamics (chart of DET vs. RR allows to identify the two-phase flow patterns. This confirms that this type of analysis can be used to identify the two-phase flow patterns in minichannels.
Tracer Partitioning in Two-Phase Flow
Sathaye, K.; Hesse, M. A.
2012-12-01
The concentration distributions of geochemical tracers in a subsurface reservoir can be used as an indication of the reservoir flow paths and constituent fluid origin. In this case, we are motivated by the origin of marked geochemical gradients in the Bravo Dome natural CO2 reservoir in northeastern New Mexico. This reservoir contains 99% CO2 with various trace noble gas components and overlies the formation brine in a sloping aquifer. It is thought that magmatic CO2 entered the reservoir, and displaced the brine. This displacement created gradients in the concentrations of the noble gases. Two models to explain noble gas partitioning in two-phase flow are presented here. The first model assumes that the noble gases act as tracers and uses a first order non-linear partial differential equation to compute the volume fraction of each phase along the displament path. A one-way coupled partial differential equation determines the tracer concentration, which has no effect on the overall flow or phase saturations. The second model treats each noble gas as a regular component resulting in a three-component, two-phase system. As the noble gas injection concentration goes to zero, we see the three-component system behave like the one-way coupled system of the first model. Both the analytical and numerical solutions are presented for these models. For the process of a gas displacing a liquid, we see that a noble gas tracer with greater preference for the gas phase, such as Helium, will move more quickly along the flowpath than a heavier tracer that will more easily enter the liquid phase, such as Argon. When we include partial miscibility of both the major and trace components, these differences in speed are shown in a bank of the tracer at the saturation front. In the three component model, the noble gas bank has finite width and concentration. In the limit where the noble gas is treated as a tracer, the width of the bank is zero and the concentration increases linearly
Two-Phase Flow Pressure Drop in Superhydrophobic Channels
Stevens, Kimberly; Crockett, Julie; Maynes, Daniel R.; Iverson, Brian C.
2015-01-01
Superhydrophobic surfaces promote dropwise condensation, which increases the rate of thermal transport, making them desirable for use in condensers. Adiabatic two-phase flow loops have been constructed to gain insight into the hydrodynamics of two-phase systems, laying the groundwork for further study of condensing flow on superhydrophobic surfaces. A two-phase flow loop to measure pressure drop and visualize the flow patterns of two-phase flow in superhydrophobic channels relative to classic...
Some asymmetric thermohydraulic behaviors of liquid metal-gas two-phase MHD flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper magnetohydrodynamic effect on liquid-metal two-phase flow and heat transfer are summarized based on the measurements made by the present author in NaK-nitrogen flow in a vertical round tube in the presence of a transverse magnetic field. This study covered a wide range of two-phase flow patterns from bubbly flow to annular-dispersed flow, including flow pattern observation, measurements of phase distributions, liquid film behavior, and heat transfer coefficient. Particular emphases are directed towards describing asymmetric thermohydraulic structures induced by the applied magnetic field
Numerical calculation of two-phase flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The theoretical study of time-varying two-phase flow problems in several space dimensions introduces such a complicated set of coupled nonlinear partial differential equations that numerical solution procedures for high-speed computers are required in almost all but the simplest examples. Efficient attainment of realistic solutions for practical problems requires a finite- difference formulation that is simultaneously implicit in the treatment of mass convection, equations of state, and the momentum coupling between phases. Such a method is described, the equations on which it is based are discussed, and its properties are illustrated by means of examples. In particular, the capability for calculating physical instabilities and other time-varying dynamics, at the same time avoiding numerical instability is emphasized. The computer code is applicable to problems in reactor safety analysis, the dynamics of fluidized dust beds, raindrops or aerosol transport, and a variety of similar circumstances, including the effects of phase transitions and the release of latent heat or chemical energy. (U.S.)
Advances in two-phase flow instrumentation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Multiphase flow measurements have become increasingly in a number of process and power systems. However, the need to predict system behavior under transient and accident conditions in nuclear reactors has given impetus to research in this area. Since moving internal interfaces make theoretical predictions difficult, much information for design and supporting analyses is based on experimental observation. The simplest models involving parameters representing mixture density and mixture mass flux, assume thermal equillibrium of the two phases, and are applicable only to a limited number of situations. Most of the parameters, such as interface area and local mixture density, needed for more sophisticated models, are particularly difficult to measure. At present, there are no truly direct methods for measuring local void fraction or mass flux. Local measurements can be taken for a cross-section using, for example, a system of simultaneously quick-closing valves. These valves obtained for the cross section can be integrated, and the result compared with direct measurements for an entire pipeline. Consistent results tend to support the response-model used
Zero-G two phase flow regime modeling in adiabatic flow
Reinarts, Thomas R.; Best, Frederick R.; Wheeler, Montgomery; Miller, Katheryn M.
1993-01-01
Two-phase flow, thermal management systems are currently being considered as an alternative to conventional, single phase systems for future space missions because of their potential to reduce overall system mass, size, and pumping power requirements. Knowledge of flow regime transitions, heat transfer characteristics, and pressure drop correlations is necessary to design and develop two-phase systems. This work is concerned with microgravity, two-phase flow regime analysis. The data come from a recent sets of experiments. The experiments were funded by NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) and conducted by NASA JSC with Texas A&M University. The experiment was on loan to NASA JSC from Foster-Miller, Inc., who constructed it with funding from the Air Force Phillips Laboratory. The experiment used R12 as the working fluid. A Foster-Miller two phase pump was used to circulate the two phase mixture and allow separate measurements of the vapor and liquid flow streams. The experimental package was flown 19 times for 577 parabolas aboard the NASA KC-135 aircraft which simulates zero-G conditions by its parabolic flight trajectory. Test conditions included bubbly, slug and annular flow regimes in 0-G. The superficial velocities of liquid and vapor have been obtained from the measured flow rates and are presented along with the observed flow regimes and several flow regime transition predictions. None of the predictions completely describe the transitions as indicated by the data.
Zero-G two phase flow regime modeling in adiabatic flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Two-phase flow, thermal management systems are currently being considered as an alternative to conventional, single phase systems for future space missions because of their potential to reduce overall system mass, size, and pumping power requirements. Knowledge of flow regime transitions, heat transfer characteristics, and pressure drop correlations is necessary to design and develop two-phase systems. This work is concerned with microgravity, two-phase flow regime analysis. The data come from a recent sets of experiments. The experiments were funded by NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) and conducted by NASA JSC with Texas A ampersand M University. The experiment was on loan to NASA JSC from Foster-Miller, Inc., who constructed it with funding from the Air Force Phillips Laboratory. The experiment used R12 as the working fluid. A Foster-Miller two phase pump was used to circulate the two phase mixture and allow separate measurements of the vapor and liquid flow streams. The experimental package was flown 19 times for 577 parabolas aboard the NASA KC-135 aircraft which simulates zero-G conditions by its parabolic flight trajectory. Test conditions included bubbly, slug and annular flow regimes in 0-G. The superficial velocities of liquid and vapor have been obtained from the measured flow rates and are presented along with the observed flow regimes and several flow regime transition predictions. None of the predictions completely describe the transitions as indicated by the data
Air entrainment into annular water flows in a vertical pipe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An experimental investigation was carried out on air entrainment into water flowing downward in a vertical pipe. Local flow rates of water and air in a fluid layer of annular flow, formed on the pipe wall, were measured precisely by using a small tube probe. Measurements were also made of local flow rates of water and air in bubbly flow downstream of annular water flow. Distributions of local flow rates in the radial direction of the pipe for annular flow regime indicate that the fluid layer consists of a water layer adjacent to the pipe wall and a water-air (two-phase fluid) layer located inside of the water layer. The water-air layer is formed as a result of air entrainment. The departure of air bubbles from a water pool to air phase was found for bubbly flow regime. (author)
Influences of physical properties of two-phase mixture on void fraction in an annular vessel
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Xiao-Ming; BI Qin-Cheng; FENG Quan-Ke; CHEN Ting-Kuan; DU She-Jiao
2004-01-01
To keep the void fraction of two-phase hydrogen in the moderator cell of the cold neutron source (CNS)of China Advanced Research Reactor (CARR) to a specified range, an annular vessel with the same size as the actual moderator cell was used as test section. Deionized water and alcohol, sucrose, and sodium chloride solutions with different concentrations were used as working fluid to find out influences of physical properties, such as density, viscosity and surface tension, of the two-phase mixture on void fraction. The tests proved that the ratio of surface tension to density of liquid phase has great influence on void fraction: the larger the ratio, the smaller the void fraction.Since the ratio of surface tension to density of Freon 113 is lower than that of liquid hydrogen, Freon 113 can be used as a working fluid to study the void fraction in the two-phase hydrogen thermosiphon loop in the CNS of CARR and the results will be conservative.
Two-phase flow characterisation by nuclear magnetic resonance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The results presented in this paper demonstrate the performance of the PFGSE-NMR to obtain a complete characterisation of two-phase flows. Different methods are proposed to characterise air-water flows in different regimes: stationary two-phase flows and flows in transient condition. Finally a modified PFGSE is proposed to analyse the turbulence of air-water bubbly flow. (author)
Adiabatic Steam-Water Annular Flow in an Annular Geometry
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, P. S.; Würtz, J.
1981-01-01
Experimental results for fully developed steam-water annular flow in annular geometries are presented. Rod and tube film flow rates and axial pressure gradients were measured for mass fluxes between 500 and 2000 kg/m2s, steam qualities between 20 and 60 per cent and pressures ranging from 3 to 9...... MPa. It was found that the measured tube film flow rate per unit tube perimeter is always many times greater than the corresponding rod film flow rate. Possible explanations for this asymmetry are discussed....
Flow visualization on flooding phenomena in two phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Flow pattern on flooding phenomena in counter-current two phase flow in vertical tube is experimentally studied by means of dye tracer technique for the following condition: the length -to-diameter ratio L/D=30. Just before flooding, oscillatory motion of the liquid upwards and downwards in the tube is observed. Under flooding conditions, churn flow in the tube is observed. (author)
Flow pattern and heat transfer behavior of boiling two-phase flow in inclined pipes
Liu, Dezhang; Ning, Ouyang
1992-09-01
Movable Electrical Conducting Probe (MECP), a kind of simple and reliable measuring transducer, used for predicting full-flow-path flow pattern in a boiling vapor/liquid two-phase flow is introduced in this paper. When the test pipe is set at different inclination angles, several kinds of flow patterns, such as bubble, slug, churn, intermittent, and annular flows, may be observed in accordance with the locations of MECP. By means of flow pattern analysis, flow field numerical calculations have been carried out, and heat transfer coefficient correlations along full-flow-path derived. The results show that heat transfer performance of boiling two-phase flow could be significantly augmented as expected in some flow pattern zones. The results of the investigation, measuring techniques and conclusions contained in this paper would be a useful reference in foundational research for prediction of flow pattern and heat transfer behavior in boiling two-phase flow, as well as for turbine vane liquid-cooling design.
Two-phase flow measurements using a photochromic dye activation technique
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A novel flow visualization method called photochromic dye activation (PDA) technique has been used to investigate flow structures and mechanisms in various two-phase flow regimes. This non-intrusive flow visualization technique utilizes light activation of a photochromic dye material dissolved in a clear liquid and is a molecular tagging technique, requiring no seed particles. It has been used to yield both quantitative and qualitative flow data in the liquid phase in annular flow, slug flow and stratified-wavy flows. (author)
New concept of analytical method for two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The authors are developing a new analytical method for vertical upward two-phase flow based on a concept that two-phase flow with minimum pressure energy consumption rate is the most stable and easily flowable two-phase flow for the given boundary conditions and, thus, such two-phase flow should be realized actually. Although this concept is applied basically one-dimensionally in the analytical method, gravity convection effect due to density difference between liquid film on the channel wall and two-phase flow core in the central region of the channel is taken into account through a two-dimensional turbulent flow analysis. An air-water two-phase flow experiment was performed to verify the proposed analytical method. In the present paper, results of the experimental analysis with the proposed method are reported. (author)
Chi, Changqing
2016-01-01
Ferrofluids currently are the only type of magnetic liquid materials with wide practical use. The theory on ferrofluids is an example of success to apply statistics to science. Ferrofluids are two-phase liquids consisting of dispersed nanoscale ferromagnetic particles suspended in a carrier fluid. Due to their tiny size, individual ferromagnetic particles clearly exhibit Brownian motions. Only when a large number of randomly-moving particles are subject to an external magnetic field, can they...
Next steps in two-phase flow: executive summary
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
DiPippo, R.
1980-09-01
The executive summary includes the following topics of discussion: the state of affairs; the fundamental governing equations; the one-dimensional mixture model; the drift-flux model; the Denver Research Institute two-phase geothermal flow program; two-phase flow pattern transition criteria; a two-fluid model under development; the mixture model as applied to geothermal well flow; DRI downwell instrumentation; two-phase flow instrumentation; the Sperry Research Corporation downhole pump and gravity-head heat exchanger systems; and the Brown University two-phase flow experimental program. (MHR)
Aspects of two-phase gas--liquid flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A wide range of topics related to current research on liquid-gas flow is reviewed, and the relevance of these topics to the design of heat exchangers is discussed. Information is included on flow patterns; system variables; mathematical models for parallel flow and non-parallel flow; critical two-phase flow; unsteady flow; and types of two-phase flow equipment used in industry. (U.S.)
INFLUENCE OF SURFACTANT ON TWO-PHASE FLOW REGIME AND PRESSURE DROP IN UPWARD INCLINED PIPES
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XIA Guo-dong; CHAI Lei
2012-01-01
The influence of a surfactant on the two-phase flow regime and the pressure drop in upward inclined pipes is investigated for various gas/liquid flow rates.The air/water and air/100 ppm sodium dodecyl sulphate aqueous solution are used as the working fluids.The influence of the surfactant on the two-phase flow regime in upward inclined pipes is investigated using the electrical tomographic technique.For 0°,2.5° and 5° pipe inclinations,the surfactant has obvious effect on the transition from the stratified wavy flow to the annular flow,and the range of the stratified smooth flow regime is also extended to higher gas velocities.For 10°pipe inclination,no stratified flow regime is observed in the air/water flow.In the air/surfactant solution system,however,the stratified flow regime can be found in the range of USG =10m/s-28m/s and USL =0.07 m/s-0.2 m/s.For all inclination angles,the changes of the pressure gradient characteristics are accompanied with the flow pattern transitions.Adding surfactant in a two-phase flow would reduce the pressure gradient significantly in the slug flow and annular flow regimes.In the annular flow regime,the pressure gradient gradually becomes free of the influence of the upward inclined angle,and is only dependent on the property of the two-phase flow.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Water single-phase and nucleate boiling heat transfer were experimentally investigated in vertical annuli with narrow gaps. The experimental data about water single-phase flow and boiling two-phase flow heat transfer in narrow annular channel were accumulated by two test sections with the narrow gaps of 1.0 mm and 1.5 mm. Empirical correlations to predict the heat transfer of the single-phase flow and boiling two-phase flow in the narrow annular channel were obtained, which were arranged in the forms of the Dittus-Boelter for heat transfer coefficients in a single-phase flow and the Jens-Lottes formula for a boiling two-phase flow in normal tubes, respectively. The mechanism of the difference between the normal channel and narrow annular channel were also explored. From experimental results, it was found that the turbulent heat transfer coefficients in narrow gaps are nearly the same to the normal channel in the experimental range, and the transition Reynolds number from a laminar flow to a turbulent flow in narrow annuli was much lower than that in normal channel, whereas the boiling heat transfer in narrow annular gap was greatly enhanced compared with the normal channel. (authors)
Two-phase flow dynamics in ECC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The present report summarizes the achievements within the project ''Two-phase Systems and ECC''. The results during 1978 - 1980 are accounted for in brief as they have been documented in earlier reports. The results during the first half of 1981 are accounted for in greater detail. They contain a new model for the Basset force and test runs with this model using the test code RISQUE. Furthermore, test runs have been performed with TRAC-PD2 MOD 1. This code was implemented on Edwards Pipe Blowdown experiment (a standard test case) and UC-Berkeley Reflooding experiment (a non-standard test case.) (Auth.)
Numerical method for two-phase flow discontinuity propagation calculation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper, we present a class of numerical shock-capturing schemes for hyperbolic systems of conservation laws modelling two-phase flow. First, we solve the Riemann problem for a two-phase flow with unequal velocities. Then, we construct two approximate Riemann solvers: an one intermediate-state Riemann solver and a generalized Roe's approximate Riemann solver. We give some numerical results for one-dimensional shock-tube problems and for a standard two-phase flow heat addition problem involving two-phase flow instabilities
Acoustics of two-phase pipe flows
van Dijk
2005-01-01
Acoustic signals that are recorded in oil pipelines contain information about the flow. In order to extract this information from the pressure recordings, detailed knowledge about the transmission properties of sound waves in the pipes is required.
Flow pattern maps in two phase flow: present panorama
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this work is presented a general panorama on the condition that watch over the related understanding to the pattern maps of flux regimes in the two-phase flow. The revision that has been done no exhaustive treat of flux patterns observed in vertical and horizontal ducts. As resulting of this investigation, it has been to make evident the necessity of lighting up with precision the use of flux pattern maps that they are not framed respect to really two-phase flow, but that they correspond really to the simultaneous flux of a gas and a liquid un miscible flowing in adiabatic conditions. The case more common of late these is the relative to the air-water mixture. The observed necessity has generated in the Thermo fluids Department of National Institute of Nuclear Research the restlessness of realizing experimental studies in this area. This in spite of being motive of research over 40 years and also of counting with a vast reported bibliography, on one the hand it has not conveyed to obtain representations of general character. And on the other hand it has origined a great confusion about the applicability of available information. In the same way it is described the advances developed in the experimental studies in the field of forced convection, as to only phase as one in two phases. (Author)
Stochastic modelling of two-phase flows including phase change
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stochastic modelling has already been developed and applied for single-phase flows and incompressible two-phase flows. In this article, we propose an extension of this modelling approach to two-phase flows including phase change (e.g. for steam-water flows). Two aspects are emphasised: a stochastic model accounting for phase transition and a modelling constraint which arises from volume conservation. To illustrate the whole approach, some remarks are eventually proposed for two-fluid models. (authors)
Thermo-Fluid Dynamics of Two-Phase Flow
Ishii, Mamrou
2011-01-01
"Thermo-fluid Dynamics of Two-Phase Flow, Second Edition" is focused on the fundamental physics of two-phase flow. The authors present the detailed theoretical foundation of multi-phase flow thermo-fluid dynamics as they apply to: Nuclear reactor transient and accident analysis; Energy systems; Power generation systems; Chemical reactors and process systems; Space propulsion; Transport processes. This edition features updates on two-phase flow formulation and constitutive equations and CFD simulation codes such as FLUENT and CFX, new coverage of the lift force model, which is of part
Two-phase-flow models and their limitations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An accurate prediction of transient two-phase flow is essential to safety analyses of nuclear reactors under accident conditions. The fluid flow and heat transfer encountered are often extremely complex due to the reactor geometry and occurrence of transient two-phase flow. Recently considerable progresses in understanding and predicting these phenomena have been made by a combination of rigorous model development, advanced computational techniques, and a number of small and large scale supporting experiments. In view of their essential importance, the foundation of various two-phase-flow models and their limitations are discussed in this paper
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Japan Atomic Energy Agency has developed TPFIT, a detailed two-phase flow analysis code with an advanced interface tracking method, as part of development of a new method of thermal hydraulic design for nuclear reactor cores based on large-scale numerical simulation. In past studies, most attempts to validate TPFIT have been performed under bubbly, slug and churn flow conditions. However, to apply TPFIT to a two-phase flow in fuel assemblies, TPFIT must also be validated for annular and dispersed flow. In this study, TPFIT was applied to a water jet experiment as a first step in validating TPFIT for annular and dispersed flow conditions. The liquid film flowing on fuel rods in an annular two-phase flow was imitated as a water jet. To simulate jet, boundary conditions are important especially for high velocity conditions. In this paper, appropriate boundary condition for high flow rate (high velocity) simulations was evaluated. (author)
Consistent flow regime map and friction factors for two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Many of the existing constitutive models found in large computer codes for two-phase transient flow contain errors and discontinuities. This paper presents a model which can eliminate these difficulties for steam-water flow in vertical pipes. The same model defines the flow regime and the geometry used for the evaluation of both the interphase and wall friction factors. A continuity of models traverses the void fraction domain from small bubbles recombining to larger bubbles, large bubbles elongating into slugs, and long slugs becoming infinite to produce annular flow. The bubble slug transition occurs at a void fraction of Pi/6 and the slug annular transition occurs at Pi/4. Cocurrent and countercurrent flow can be represented with a new flow regime map because the phasic velocity difference and void fraction are used as coordinates. The Moody model is used to obtain all friction factors and substructure sizes determine the roughness. Representative results are obtained from this model to show the reasonableness of the calculated friction forces for a range of flow regimes and phase velocities
Ben-Ran Fu; Chang, T H; Chin Pan
2013-01-01
The present study experimentally investigates the effect of convergence angle of microchannel on two-phase flow and heat transfer during steam condensation. Three condensation regimes, from the inlet to the outlet, are identified: mist/annular flow, injection flow, and slug-bubbly flow. Flow pattern maps are constructed using superficial vapor and liquid velocities as the coordinates, wherein relatively distinct boundaries between the flow patterns can be identified. The experimental results ...
A study on the two-phase flow characteristics of nanofluids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
While a considerable body of research exists regarding enhancements of the heat transfer using nanofluids, the basic hydraulic phenomenon of a nanofluid has not been investigated as much. Several studies were reported related to the pressure drop of nanofluid flow and a few researches on the hydraulic characteristics of two-phase nanofluid flow were conducted. Two-phase Flow Analysis in a Helical Wire Inserted Tube using CFD Code An analysis on the two-phase flow in a helical wire inserted tube using commercial CFD code, CFX11.0, was performed in bubbly flow and annular flow regions. The analysis method was validated with the experimental results of Keishi Takeshima. Bubbly and annular flows in a 10 mm inner diameter tube with varying pitch lengths and inserted wire diameters were simulated using the same analysis methods after validation. The geometry range of p/D was 1-4 and e/D was 0.08-0.12. The results show that the inserted wire with a larger diameter increased swirl flow generation. An increasing swirl flow was seen as the pitch length increased. Regarding pressure loss, smaller pitch lengths and inserted wires with larger diameters resulted in larger pressure loss. The average liquid film thickness increased as the pitch length and the diameter of the inserted wire increased in the annular flow region. Both in the bubbly flow and annular flow regions, the effect of pitch length on swirl flow generation and pressure loss was more significant than that of the inserted wire diameters. An Experimental Study on the Two-Phase Flow Characteristics of Nanofluids The main objective of this study is to investigate the basic hydraulic phenomenon of the nanofluid in the two-phase flow region. For the accomplishment of this objective, a series of experiments have been performed. The first one is the pressure drop and pressure fluctuation measurements in a vertically upward air-water two-phase flow. The air and the water based nanofluid were used as working fluids under
Review on two-phase flow instabilities in narrow spaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Instabilities in two-phase flow have been studied since the 1950s. These phenomena may appear in power generation and heat transfer systems where two-phase flow is involved. Because of thermal management in small size systems, micro-fluidics plays an important role. Typical processes must be considered when the channel hydraulic diameter becomes very small. In this paper, a brief review of two-phase flow instabilities encountered in channels having hydraulic diameters greater than 10 mm are presented. The main instability types are discussed according to the existing experimental results and models. The second part of the paper examines two-phase flow instabilities in narrow spaces. Pool and flow boiling cases are considered. Experiments as well as theoretical models existing in the literature are examined. It was found that several experimental works evidenced these instabilities meanwhile only limited theoretical developments exist in the literature. In the last part of the paper an interpretation of the two-phase flow instabilities linked to narrow spaces are presented. This approach is based on characteristic time scales of the two-phase flow and bubble growth in the capillaries
Gravity Independence of Microchannel Two-Phase Flow Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Most of the amassed two-phase flow and heat transfer knowledge comes from experiments conducted in Earth’s gravity. Space missions span varying gravity...
Experimental study on two-phase gas-liquid flow patterns at normal and reduced gravity conditions
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
赵建福; 解京昌; 林海; 胡文瑞
2001-01-01
Experimental studies have been performed for horizontal two-phase air-water flows at nor-mal and reduced gravity conditions in a square cross-section channel. The experiments at reducedgravity are conducted on board the Russian IL-76 reduced gravity airplane. Four flow patterns, namelybubble, slug, slug-annular transition and annular flows, are observed depending on the liquid and gassuperficial velocities at both conditions. Semi-theoretical Weber number model is developed to includethe shape influence on the slug-annular transition. It is shown that its prediction is in reasonable agree-ment with the experimental slug-annular transition under both conditions. For the case of two-phasegas-liquid flow with large value of the Froude number, the drift-flux model can predict well the observedboundary between bubble and slug flows.
Analytical Evaluation of Two-Phase Natural Circulation Flow Under ERVC condition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The process of two-phase natural circulation flow induced in the annular gap between the reactor vessel and the insulation under external reactor vessel cooling conditions was investigated analytically. HERMES-HALF experiments were performed to observe and quantify the induced two-phase natural circulation flow in the annular gap. A half-scaled non-heating experimental facility was designed by utilizing the results of a scaling analysis to simulate the APR1400 reactor and its insulation system. The behavior of the boiling-induced two-phase natural circulation flow in the annular gap was observed, and the liquid mass flow rates driven by the natural circulation loop and the void fraction distribution were measured. To complement the HERMES-HALF experimental effort, an analytical study of the dependence of the induced natural circulation mass flow rate on the inlet area and the volumetric air injection rate was performed using a loop integration of the momentum equation. The loop-integrated momentum equation was formulated in terms of the dimensionless mass flow rate and the area ratio. Asymptotic solutions were obtained for two limiting cases for which the dimensionless mass flow rate was either very large or very small. First-order approximate solution was also obtained and was found to agree with the experimental data within 20% in most situations. The natural circulation mass flow rate was found to increase as the water inlet area and the volumetric air injection rate were increased. For large inlet areas, the mass flow rate was found to depend almost linearly on the inlet area
Research on one-dimensional two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In Part I the fundamental form of the hydrodynamic basic equations for a one-dimensional two-phase flow (two-fluid model) is described. Discussions are concentrated on the treatment of phase change inertial force terms in the equations of motion and the author's equations of motion which have a remarkable uniqueness on the following three points. (1) To express force balance of unit mass two-phase fluid instead of that of unit volume two-phase fluid. (2) To pick up the unit existing mass and the unit flowing mass as the unit mass of two-phase fluid. (3) To apply the kinetic energy principle instead of the momentum low in the evaluation of steady inertial force term. In these three, the item (1) is for excluding a part of momentum change or kinetic energy change due to mass change of the examined part of fluid, which is independent of force. The item (2) is not to introduce a phenomenological physical model into the evaluation of phase change inertial force term. And the item (3) is for correctly applying the momentum law taking into account the difference of representative velocities between the main flow fluid (vapor phase or liquid phase) and the phase change part of fluid. In Part II, characteristics of various kinds of high speed two-phase flow are clarified theoretically by the basic equations derived. It is demonstrated that the steam-water two-phase critical flow with violent flashing and the airwater two-phase critical flow without phase change can be described with fundamentally the same basic equations. Furthermore, by comparing the experimental data from the two-phase critical discharge test and the theoretical prediction, the two-phase discharge coefficient, CD, for large sharp-edged orifice is determined as the value which is not affected by the experimental facility characteristics, etc. (author)
Adiabatic boiling of two-phase coolant in upward flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A mathematical model of the process of adiabatic boiling (self-condensation) of a two-phase coolant in upward (downward) flow is developed. The model takes account of changes in phase properties with static pressure decrease. The process is investigated numerically. Approximate analytical formulas for design calculations are obtained. It is shown that effects of adiabatic boiling (self-condensation) should be taken into account when calculating two-phase coolant flow in stretched vertical channels
Mechanistic multidimensional analysis of horizontal two-phase flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The purpose of this paper is to discuss the results of analysis of two-phase flow in horizontal tubes. Two flow situations have been considered: gas/liquid flow in a long straight pipe, and similar flow conditions in a pipe with 90 deg. elbow. The theoretical approach utilizes a multifield modeling concept. A complete three-dimensional two-phase flow model has been implemented in a state-of-the-art computational multiphase fluid dynamics (CMFD) computer code, NPHASE. The overall model has been tested parametrically. Also, the results of NPHASE simulations have been compared against experimental data for a pipe with 90 deg. elbow.
Sun, Shufeng; Wu, Yuyuan; Zhao, Rongyi
2001-04-01
According to a separated phase flow model for vertical annular two-phase flow in an annular channel, the liquid film thickness, distributions of velocities and temperatures in the liquid layer are predicted in the range of heat fluxes: 6000-12000 W/m 2, mass flux: 500-1100 kg/m2 s. The pressure drop along the flow channel and heat transfer coefficient are also calculated. The liquid film thickness is in the order of micrometers and heat transfer coefficient is 2800-7800 W/m2 K of liquid nitrogen boiling in narrow annular channels. The measured heat transfer coefficient is 29% higher than the calculated values. With the mass flux increasing and the gap of the annular channel decreasing, pressure drop and heat transfer coefficient increase.
Two-Phase flow instrumentation for nuclear accidents simulation
Monni, G.; De Salve, M.; Panella, B.
2014-11-01
The paper presents the research work performed at the Energy Department of the Politecnico di Torino, concerning the development of two-phase flow instrumentation and of models, based on the analysis of experimental data, that are able to interpret the measurement signals. The study has been performed with particular reference to the design of power plants, such as nuclear water reactors, where the two-phase flow thermal fluid dynamics must be accurately modeled and predicted. In two-phase flow typically a set of different measurement instruments (Spool Piece - SP) must be installed in order to evaluate the mass flow rate of the phases in a large range of flow conditions (flow patterns, pressures and temperatures); moreover, an interpretative model of the SP need to be developed and experimentally verified. The investigated meters are: Turbine, Venturi, Impedance Probes, Concave sensors, Wire mesh sensor, Electrical Capacitance Probe. Different instrument combinations have been tested, and the performance of each one has been analyzed.
Numerical simulation of two phase flows in heat exchangers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The report presents globally the works done by the author in the thermohydraulic applied to nuclear reactors flows. It presents the studies done to the numerical simulation of the two phase flows in the steam generators and a finite element method to compute these flows. (author)
Two phase discharge flow prediction in safety valves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Safety relief valves (SRV) are necessary elements in the protection of any pressurised system and the prediction of the expected discharge flows is an important consideration for the valve sizing to ensure that rupture pressures do not occur. The high speed flows that occur inside the SRV are complex particularly when a two-phase flow is involved and lead to a less capable protection device which result in larger valves compared to single phase flows. In this paper the ability of a CFD based two phase mixture model to predict the critical flows of air and water through a safety valve is examined. An industrial refrigeration safety relief valve of ¼″ inlet bore size has been tested experimentally over a pressure range of 6–15 barg and air mass qualities from 0.1 to 1 when discharging to near atmospheric conditions for a fully open condition. A two-dimensional mixture model consisting of mixture mass, momentum, and energy equations, combined with a liquid mass equation and the standard k–ε turbulence model for mixture turbulent transport has been used to predict the two phase flows through the valve. The mixture model results have been compared with the Homogenous Equilibrium Model (HEM) commonly used for in valve sizing in non flashing two phase flow conditions. The accuracy of the models over the two phase flow range are quantified and discussed
EFFECT OF SURFACTANT ON TWO-PHASE FLOW PATTERNS OF WATER-GAS IN CAPILLARY TUBES
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
Flow patterns of liquid-gas two-phase flow were experimentally investigated. The experiments were carried out in both vertical and horizontal capillary tubes having inner diameters of 1.60 mm. The working liquid was the mixture of water and Sodium Dodecyl Benzoyl Sulfate (SDBS). The working gas was Nitrogen. For the water/SDBS mixture-gas flow in the vertical capillary tube, flow-pattern transitions occurred at lower flow velocities than those for the water-gas flow in the same tube. For the water/SDBS mixture-gas flow in the horizontal capillary tube, surface tension had little effect on the bubbly-intermittent transition and had only slight effect on the plug-slug and slug-annular transitions. However, surface tension had significant effect on the wavy stratified flow regime. The wavy stratified flow regime of water/SDBS mixture-gas flow expanded compared with that of water-gas.
Correlation-measurements of vertical two-phase flow by means of laser beams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vertical annular two-phase flow in a transparent tube with an internal diameter of 10 mm was investigated by means of correlation of the signals induced in two photodiodes by a pair of horizontal, parallel laser beams, modulated by the two-phase water-air mixture. It was proved that there are two different perturbations propagating upwards in the glass tube. The two disturbances are effectively additive at the detectors. The two perturbations were identified as: a) The first comes from water-droplets carried by the air-stream of the annular two-phase flow. b) The second is due to the fluctuations of the water-air interface. The propagation of the two disturbances is reproduced by theoretical models. A method for the determination of the most probable wave length, lambdasub(max), of the interface-fluctuations is also presented. The measurements show a linear dependence of lambdasub(max) on the square of the mean relative velocity between the two phases. A hypothesis on the generation mechanism of the entrained droplets is formulated. (Auth.)
Two-phase flow characteristics analysis code: MINCS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Two-phase flow characteristics analysis code: MINCS (Modularized and INtegrated Code System) has been developed to provide a computational tool for analyzing two-phase flow phenomena in one-dimensional ducts. In MINCS, nine types of two-phase flow models-from a basic two-fluid nonequilibrium (2V2T) model to a simple homogeneous equilibrium (1V1T) model-can be used under the same numerical solution method. The numerical technique is based on the implicit finite difference method to enhance the numerical stability. The code structure is highly modularized, so that new constitutive relations and correlations can be easily implemented into the code and hence evaluated. A flow pattern can be fixed regardless of flow conditions, and state equations or steam tables can be selected. It is, therefore, easy to calculate physical or numerical benchmark problems. (author)
Designing piping systems for two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A wide range of industrial systems, such as thermosiphon reboilers and chemical reactors, involve two-phase gas-liquid flow in conduits. Design of these systems requires information about the flow regime, pressure drop, slug velocity and length, and heat transfer coefficient. An understanding of two-phase flow is critical for the reliable and cost-effective design of such systems. The successful design of a pipeline in two-phase flow, for example, is a two-step process. The first step is the determination of the flow regime. If an undesirable flow regime, such as slug flow, is not anticipated and adequately designed for, the resulting flow pattern can upset a tower control system or cause mechanical failures of piping components. The second step is the calculation of flow parameters such as pressure drop and density to size lines and equipment. Since the mechanism of fluid flow (and heat transfer) depends on the flow pattern, separate flow models are required for different flow patterns
Structure of two-phase slug flow in vertical channels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Based on a suggested model of two-phase slug flow in a wide range of varying regime parameters the available literary data and experimental data obtained by the authors on the intensity of void fraction fluctuations, lengths of slugs and liquid plugs are generalized. It is shown that the magnitude of the void fraction is the determining parameter in the formation of the flow regime and structure. The technique for calculating the characteristic frequency of fluctuations of a two-phase flow is suggested
Two-Phase Slug Flow Experiments with Viscous Liquids
Diaz, Mariana J.C.
2016-01-01
The challenges behind the multiphase transport of oil and gas mixtures are increasing as the oil and gas industry is moving towards production from non-conventional reservoirs and in remote locations. Transport of high viscosity fluids in long multiphase pipelines is a particular challenge. Previous experiments have shown that gas-liquid slug flow is a frequent two-phase flow pattern at high liquid viscosities. The slug flow regime is an unstable flow, which may lead to operati...
Experimental investigation two phase flow in direct methanol fuel cells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC) have received many attentions specifically for portable electronic applications since it utilize methanol which is in liquid form in atmospheric condition and high energy density of the methanol. Thus it eliminates the storage problem of hydrogen. It also eliminates humidification requirement of polymeric membrane which is a problem in PEM fuel cells. Some electronic companies introduced DMFC prototypes for portable electronic applications. Presence of carbon dioxide gases due to electrochemical reactions in anode makes the problem a two phase problem. A two phase flow may occur at cathode specifically at high current densities due to the excess water. Presence of gas phase in anode region and liquid phase in cathode region prevents diffusion of fuel and oxygen to the reaction sites thus reduces the performance of the system. Uncontrolled pressure buildup in anode region increases methanol crossover through membrane and adversely effect the performance. Two phase flow in both anode and cathode region is very effective in the performance of DMYC system and a detailed understanding of two phase flow for high performance DMFC systems. Although there are many theoretical and experimental studies available on the DMFC systems in the literature, only few studies consider problem as a two-phase flow problem. In this study, an experimental set up is developed and species distributions on system are measured with a gas chromatograph. System performance characteristics (V-I curves) is measured depending on the process parameters (temperature, fuel ad oxidant flow rates, methanol concentration etc)
Simulation of Two-Phase Flow in Sloshing Tanks
Luppes, Roel; Veldman, Arthur; Wemmenhove, Rik; Kuzmin, A
2011-01-01
The CFD simulation tool ComFLOW is applied to study the effect of tank motions on two-phase flow phenomena inside a sloshing tank. An improved VOF method is used to assure an accurate description of the fluid displacement. With a novel “gravity-consistent” density averaging method, spurious velociti
Multiparticle imaging velocimetry measurements in two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The experimental flow visualization tool, Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), is being extended to determine the velocity fields in two and three-dimensional, two-phase fluid flows. In the past few years, the technique has attracted quite a lot of interest. PIV enables fluid velocities across a region of a flow to be measured at a single instant in time in global domain. This instantaneous velocity profile of a given flow field is determined by digitally recording particle (microspheres or bubbles) images within the flow over multiple successive video frames and then conducting flow pattern identification and analysis of the data. This paper presents instantaneous velocity measurements in various two and three- dimensional, two-phase flow situations. (author)
Mathematical modeling of disperse two-phase flows
Morel, Christophe
2015-01-01
This book develops the theoretical foundations of disperse two-phase flows, which are characterized by the existence of bubbles, droplets or solid particles finely dispersed in a carrier fluid, which can be a liquid or a gas. Chapters clarify many difficult subjects, including modeling of the interfacial area concentration. Basic knowledge of the subjects treated in this book is essential to practitioners of Computational Fluid Dynamics for two-phase flows in a variety of industrial and environmental settings. The author provides a complete derivation of the basic equations, followed by more advanced subjects like turbulence equations for the two phases (continuous and disperse) and multi-size particulate flow modeling. As well as theoretical material, readers will discover chapters concerned with closure relations and numerical issues. Many physical models are presented, covering key subjects including heat and mass transfers between phases, interfacial forces and fluid particles coalescence and breakup, a...
Numerical simulation of multidimensional two-phase boiling flow in rod bundles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The present paper describes an approach to model two-phase boiling flow in a nuclear rod bundles with multidimensional treatment of the phenomena. The model is based on the two-fluid approach, and is treating 5 different flow fields. The fields are used to describe the two-phase flow structure, which can consist of continuous liquid phase, continuous gas phase, dispersed liquid phase (drops), dispersed gas phase (bubbles) and liquid film. A distinction is made between the continuous liquid phase and the liquid film, since the latter one is described by a quasi 2D field, whereas all other fields are considered in fully 3D space. The governing equations are solved with the CFX code, a widely used and accepted Computational Fluid Dynamics solver developed at AEA Technology, UK. The system of the governing equations is completed with closure relationships to describe interfacial mass, momentum and energy transfer. The droplets diffusion and deposition on the liquid film in annular flow are modelled with the Lagrangian frame of reference. The model is applied for prediction of multidimensional distribution of void fraction in bubbly flow with subcooled boiling heat transfer, and also for prediction of void fraction and liquid film thickness in annular boiling flow. The calculations are compared with measured data and a good agreement is obtained. (author)
Research on one-dimensional two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In the Part I, the author describes about the fundamental form of the hydraulic basic equations for a one-dimensional two-phase flow (two fluid model). Most of the discussions are concentrated on the treatment of phase change inertial force terms in the equations of motion and the author's equations of motion have a strong uniqueness on the following three points in comparison with conventional equations of motion. (1) To express force balance of unit mass two-phase fluid instead of that of unit volume two-phase fluid. (2) To pick up the unit existing mass and the unit flowing mass as the unit mass of two-phase fluid. (3) To apply the kinetic energy principle instead of the momentum low in the evaluation of stational inertia force term. In these three, the item (1) is for excluding a part of momentum change or kinetic energy change due to mass change of the elementary part of fluid, which is independent of force. The item (2) is not to introduce a phenomenological physical model into the evaluation of phase change inertial force term. And the item (3) is for correctly applying the momentum law taking into account the difference of representative velocities between the main flow fluid (vapor phase or liquid phase) and the phase change part of fluid. In the Part II, characteristics of various kinds of high speed two-phase flow are clarified theoretically by using the basic equations derived in the Part I. It is demonstrated that the steam-water two-phase critical flow with violent flashing and the air-water two-phase critical flow without phase change can be described with fundamentally the same basic equations. Furthermore, by comparing the experimental data from the two-phase critical discharge test and the author's theoretical prediction, the two-phase discharge coefficient, CD, for large sharp-edged orifice is determined as the value which is not affected by the experimental facility characteristics, etc.. (J.P.N.)
Stability of interfacial waves in two-phase flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The influence of the interfacial pressure and the flow distribution in the one-dimensional two-fluid model on the stability problems of interfacial waves is discussed. With a proper formulation of the interfacial pressure, the following two-phase phenomena can be predicted from the stability and stationary criteria of the interfacial waves: onset of slug flow, stationary hydraulic jump in a stratified flow, flooding in a vertical pipe, and the critical void fraction of a bubbly flow. It can be concluded that the interfacial pressure plays an important role in the interfacial wave propagation of the two-fluid model. The flow distribution parameter may enhance the flow stability range, but only plays a minor role in the two-phase characteristics. (author). 20 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs
Study on flooding in two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In a countercurrent two-phase flow, where gas phase flows in the upward direction against a gravity-driven liquid downflow, the liquid downflow rate begins to be limited when the gas flow rate exceeds a certain threshold value. This phenomenon, termed 'flooding', may occur during a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) at such locations in reactor coolant system as steam generator (SG) U-tubes in a pressurized water reactor (PWR). Flooding generally tends to reduce the amount of water available for core cooling in emergency situations. Flooding has been studied for various flow conditions and geometries, in particular for vertical channels. Most of these studies were concerned with those situations where the lower entry of the channel is exposed to the gas phase or a gas-continuous two-phase flow, and scarcely dealt with such situations where the liquid is the continuous phase at the channel lower entry. However, in a PWR small-break LOCA, where the reactor coolant inventory is depleted only slowly, the latter situations would be encountered more frequently than the former. The present study is concerned with flooding in a vertical channel whose lower entry is facing to a liquid-continuous two-phase flow. Experiments were conducted using Freon R-113 as a simulant of high-pressure steam-water two-phase flow. Experimental results indicate that flooding for this situation initiates when the two-phase mixture swell level in the channel, which indicates large fluctuations with time, reaches the channel top entry at the peaks of level fluctuations. It was also found that the flooding correlation developed formerly by the authors for air-water flows can be applied to the present R-113 case if the difference in fluid properties are considered appropriately. (author)
TWO-PHASE FLOW PATTERNS IN A 90° BEND AT MICROGRAVITY
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHAO Jianfu; K.S.GABRIEL
2004-01-01
Bends are widely used in pipelines carrying single- and two-phase fluids in both ground and space applications. In particular, they play more important role in space applications due to the extreme spatial constraints. In the present study, a set of experimental data of two-phase flow patterns and their transitions in a 90° bend with inner diameter of 12.7 mm and curvature radius of 76.5 mm at microgravity conditions are reported. Gas and liquid superficial velocities are found to range from (1.0 ～ 23.6)m/s for gas and (0.09 ～ 0.5)m/s for liquid, respectively. Three major flow patterns,namely slug, slug-annular transitional, and annular flows, are observed in this study. Focusing on the differences between flow patterns in bends and their counterparts in straight pipes, detailed analyses of their characteristics are made. The transitions between adjoining flow patterns are found to be more or less the same as those in straight pipes, and can be predicted using Weber number models satisfactorily.The reasons for such agreement are carefully examined.
Safety relief valve performance for two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The performance of main steam safety relief valve has been evaluated with respect only to the steam. In the present study, two-phase flow and subcooled water blow-out tests with model valves were performed in order to evaluate the valve's characteristics and performance. From the test results, it was made clear that not only for the steam but also for the two-phase flow the measurement data were hardly affected by scaling and also that the reaction force of the fluid to the valve stem was hardly dependent upon the void fraction. Analytical study was performed using the two-phase flow model in the valve. The results of the analysis showed good agreement with the test data. It was shown from the test and analysis results that the reaction force of the two-phase flow and subcooled water to the valve stem was almost as much as that of the steam flow, and the integrity of the safety relief valve could be maintained. (author)
Velocity and energy relaxation in two-phase flows
Meyapin, Yannick; Gisclon, Marguerite
2009-01-01
In the present study we investigate analytically the process of velocity and energy relaxation in two-phase flows. We begin our exposition by considering the so-called six equations two-phase model [Ishii1975, Rovarch2006]. This model assumes each phase to possess its own velocity and energy variables. Despite recent advances, the six equations model remains computationally expensive for many practical applications. Moreover, its advection operator may be non-hyperbolic which poses additional theoretical difficulties to construct robust numerical schemes |Ghidaglia et al, 2001]. In order to simplify this system, we complete momentum and energy conservation equations by relaxation terms. When relaxation characteristic time tends to zero, velocities and energies are constrained to tend to common values for both phases. As a result, we obtain a simple two-phase model which was recently proposed for simulation of violent aerated flows [Dias et al, 2010]. The preservation of invariant regions and incompressible li...
Contribution to the study of helium two-phase vertical flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This work aims at a better understanding of the dynamics of helium two-phase flow in a vertical duct. The case of bubble flow is particularly investigated. The most descriptive parameter of two-phase flow is the void fraction. A sensor to measure this parameter was specially designed and calibrated, it is made of a radioactive source and a semiconductor detector. Sensors based on light attenuation were used to study the behaviour of this two-phase flow. The experimental set-up is described. The different flow types were photographed and video filmed. This visualization has allowed to measure the diameter of bubbles and to study their movements in the fluid. Bubble flow then churn and annular flows were observed but slug flow seems not to exist with helium. A modelling based on a Zuber model matches better the experimental results than a Levy type model. The detailed analysis of the signals given by the optical sensors has allowed to highlight a bubble appearance frequency directly linked to the flowrate. (A.C.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In the present study a new measurement technique has been developed, which uses an ultrasonic transmission signal in order to determine the vertical two phase flow pattern. The ultrasonic measurement system developed in the present study not only provides the measurement functions required for the identification of vertical two phase flow pattern but also makes the real time identification possible. Various vertical two phase flow patterns such as bubbly, slug, churn, annular flow etc have been accurately identified with the present ultrasonic measurement system. In addition to the identification of flow patterns, the qualitative information for each flow pattern can be obtained, which includes void fraction in bubbly flow, length of slug bubble and liquid tail characteristics in slug flow, and stable or transient condition of the flow patterns, etc
Controlling two-phase flow in microfluidic systems using electrowetting
Gu, Hao
2011-01-01
Electrowetting (EW)-based digital microfluidic systems (DMF) and droplet-based two-phase flow microfluidic systems (TPF) with closed channels are the most widely used microfluidic platforms. In general, these two approaches have been considered independently. However, integrating the two technologie
Dynamic Modeling of Phase Crossings in Two-Phase Flow
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Søren; Veje, Christian; Willatzen, Morten
2012-01-01
here a numerical implementation and novel study of a fully distributed dynamic one-dimensional model of two-phase flow in a tube, including pressure drop, heat transfer, and variations in tube cross-section. The model is based on a homogeneous formulation of the governing equations, discretized by a...
Determination of bubble parameters in two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A development of a probe-detector system for measurement of bubble parameters like size, rise velocity and void fraction in two-phase flow is presented. The method uses an electro resistivity probe and a compact electronic circuit has been developed for obtain this purpose. (author)
Fluid dynamics of cryogenic two-phase flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The objective of this study was to examine the flow behavior of a methane hydrate/methane-liquid hydrogen dispersed two-phase fluid through a given design of a moderator chamber for the ESS target system. The calculations under simplified conditions, e.g., taking no account of heat input from outside, have shown that the computer code used, CFX, was able to simulate the behavior of the two-phase flow through the moderator chamber, producing reasonable results up to a certain level of the solid phase fraction, that allowed a continuous flow process through the chamber. Inlet flows with larger solid phase fractions than 40 vol% were found to be a ''problem'' for the computer code. From the computer runs based on fractions between 20 and 40 vol%, it was observed that with increasing solid phase fraction at the inlet, the resulting flow pattern revealed a strong tendency for blockage within the chamber, supported by the ''heavy weight'' of the pellets compared to the carrying liquid. Locations which are prone to the development of such uneven flow behavior are the areas around the turning points in the semispheres and near the exit of the moderator. The considered moderator chamber with horizontal inlet and outlet flow for a solid-liquid two-phase fluid does not seem to be an appropriate design. (orig.)
Two-phase flow measurement by pulsed neutron activation techniques
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Pulsed Neutron Activation (PNA) technique for measuring the mass flow velocity and the average density of two-phase mixtures is described. PNA equipment can be easily installed at different loops, and PNA techniques are non-intrusive and independent of flow regimes. These features of the PNA technique make it suitable for in-situ measurement of two-phase flows, and for calibration of more conventional two-phase flow measurement devices. Analytic relations governing the various PNA methods are derived. The equipment and procedures used in the first air-water flow measurement by PNA techniques are discussed, and recommendations are made for improvement of future tests. In the present test, the mass flow velocity was determined with an accuracy of 2%, and average densities were measured down to 0.08 g/cm3 with an accuracy of 0.04 g/cm3. Both the accuracy of the mass flow velocity measurement and the lower limit of the density measurement are functions of the injected activity and of the total number of counts. By using a stronger neutron source and a larger number of detectors, the measurable density can be decreased by a factor of 12 to .007 g/cm3 for 12.5 cm pipes, and to even lower ranges for larger pipes
High speed motion neutron radiography of two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Current research in the area of two-phase flow utilizes a wide variety of sensing devices, but some limitations exist on the information which can be obtained. Neutron radiography is a feasible alternative to ''see'' the two-phase flow. A system to perform neutron radiographic analysis of dynamic events which occur on the order of several milliseconds has been developed at Oregon State University. Two different methods have been used to radiograph the simulated two-phase flow. These are pulsed, or ''flash'' radiography, and high speed movie neutron radiography. The pulsed method serves as a ''snap-shot'' with an exposure time ranging from 10 to 20 milliseconds. In high speed movie radiography, a scintillator is used to convert neutrons into light which is enhanced by an optical intensifier and then photographed by a high speed camera. Both types of radiography utilize the pulsing capability of the OSU TRIGA reactor. The principle difficulty with this type of neutron radiography is the fogging of the image due to the large amount of scattering in the water. This difficulty can be overcome by using thin regions for the two-phase flow or using heavy water instead of light water. The results obtained in this paper demonstrate the feasibility of using neutron radiography to obtain data in two-phase flow situations. Both movies and flash radiographs have been obtained of air bubbles in water and boiling from a heater element. The neutron radiographs of the boiling element show both nucleate boiling and film boiling. (Auth.)
Two phase flow instabilities in horizontal straight tube evaporator
Liang, Nan; Shuangquan, Shao; Tian, Changqing; Yan, Y. Y.
2010-01-01
Abstract It is essential to ensure the stability of a refrigeration system if the oscillation in evaporation process is the primary cause for the whole system instability. This paper is concerned with an experimental investigation of two phase flow instabilities in a horizontal straight tube evaporator of a refrigeration system. The relationship between pressure drop and mass flow with constant heat flux and evaporation pressure is measured and determined. It is found that there is...
Simulation of two-phase flow with varying surface tension.
Lervåg, Karl Yngve
2008-01-01
This thesis is a study on the effects of varying surface tension along an interface separating two fluids. Varying surface tension leads to tangential forces along the interface. This is often called the Marangoni effect. These forces are discussed in detail, and two test cases are considered to analyse the Marangoni effect, and to verify the present implementation. The first test studies steady-state two-phase flow where the fluids are separated with plane interfaces and the flow is driv...
Two-phase Flow Distribution in Heat Exchanger Manifolds
Vist, Sivert
2004-01-01
The current study has investigated two-phase refrigerant flow distribution in heat exchange manifolds. Experimental data have been acquired in a heat exchanger test rig specially made for measurement of mass flow rate and gas and liquid distribution in the manifolds of compact heat exchangers. Twelve different manifold designs were used in the experiments, and CO2 and HFC-134a were used as refrigerants.
Two-Phase flow instrumentation for nuclear accidents simulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The paper presents the research work performed at the Energy Department of the Politecnico di Torino, concerning the development of two-phase flow instrumentation and of models, based on the analysis of experimental data, that are able to interpret the measurement signals. The study has been performed with particular reference to the design of power plants, such as nuclear water reactors, where the two-phase flow thermal fluid dynamics must be accurately modeled and predicted. In two-phase flow typically a set of different measurement instruments (Spool Piece – SP) must be installed in order to evaluate the mass flow rate of the phases in a large range of flow conditions (flow patterns, pressures and temperatures); moreover, an interpretative model of the SP need to be developed and experimentally verified. The investigated meters are: Turbine, Venturi, Impedance Probes, Concave sensors, Wire mesh sensor, Electrical Capacitance Probe. Different instrument combinations have been tested, and the performance of each one has been analyzed
Design and construction of two phases flow meter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper deals with design of the gamma ray correlometer and flow loop system for measuring the velocity between two parallel cross-sections of a pipeline. In the laboratory, the radioisotope source and detector were collimated by brass with small beam slit respectively. The flow loop system consists of transparent pipeline, adjustable frequency pump and water container. As a result, when the construction of the flow loop and correlometer is completed, the velocity of two phases flow can be measured by the cross-correlation techniques. (Author)
A novel drag force coefficient model for gas–water two-phase flows under different flow patterns
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shang, Zhi, E-mail: shangzhi@tsinghua.org.cn
2015-07-15
Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A novel drag force coefficient model was established. • This model realized to cover different flow patterns for CFD. • Numerical simulations were performed under wide range flow regimes. • Validations were carried out through comparisons to experiments. - Abstract: A novel drag force coefficient model has been developed to study gas–water two-phase flows. In this drag force coefficient model, the terminal velocities were calculated through the revised drift flux model. The revised drift flux is different from the traditional drift flux model because the natural curve movement of the bubble was revised through considering the centrifugal force. Owing to the revisions, the revised drift flux model was to extend to 3D. Therefore it is suitable for CFD applications. In the revised drift flux model, the different flow patterns of the gas–water two-phase flows were able to be considered. This model innovatively realizes the drag force being able to cover different flow patterns of gas–water two-phase flows on bubbly flow, slug flow, churn flow, annular flow and mist flow. Through the comparisons of the numerical simulations to the experiments in vertical upward and downward pipe flows, this model was validated.
Flow regime transition criteria for two-phase flow in a vertical annulus
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Julia, J. Enrique, E-mail: bolivar@emc.uji.es [Departamento de Ingenieria Mecanica y Construccion, Universitat Jaume I., Campus de Riu Sec, 12071 Castellon (Spain); Hibiki, Takashi [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, 400 Central Dr., West Lafayette, IN 47907-2017 (United States)
2011-10-15
Highlights: > Flow regime transition model is presented for two-phase flows in a vertical annulus. > The transition criteria is easy to be implemented in computational codes. > Final equations do not need experimental input. > New developed model shows better predicting capabilities than existing correlations. > New developed model shows good predicting capabilities in boiling flow. - Abstract: In this work, a new flow regime transition model is proposed for two-phase flows in a vertical annulus. Following previous works, the flow regimes considered are bubbly (B), slug (S) or cap-slug (CS), churn (C) and annular (A). The B to CS transition is modeled using the maximum bubble package criteria of small bubbles. The S to C transition takes place for small annulus perimeter flow channels and it is assumed to occur when the mean void fraction over the entire region exceeds that over the slug-bubble section. If the annulus perimeter is larger that the distorted bubble limit the cap-slug flow regime will be considered since in these conditions it is not possible to distinguish between cap and partial-slug bubbles. The CS to C transition is modeled using the maximum bubble package criteria. However, this transition considers the coalescence of cap and spherical bubbles in order to take into account the flow channel geometry. Finally, the C to A transition is modeled assuming two different mechanisms, (a) flow reversal in the liquid film section along large bubbles; (b) destruction on liquid slugs or large waves by entrainment or deformation. In the S to C and C to A flow regime transitions the annulus flow channel is considered as a rectangular flow channel with no side walls. In all the modeled transitions the drift-flux model is used to obtain the final correlations. The final equations for every flow regime transition are easy to be implemented in computational codes and not experimental input is needed. The prediction accuracy of the newly developed model has been
Void fraction measurements in two-phase flow by transmission and scattering of a neutrons beam
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Calibration curves have been obtained which supply average values of void fraction (α) of water-steam two-phase mixtures for bubble, slug, annular and invert annular flow states. The measurements were carried out in simulated models of lucite-air for the steady-state, using the techniques of transmission and diffusion of a thermal neutrons beam. The calibration curves obtained were used for measurements of void fraction in a circuit containing two-phase water-air mixtures, in upward concurrent flow, for slug flow (P sub(max) = 1,06 bar) and annular flow (P sub(max) = 1,33 bar), using the same techniques. In both of the systems, a test section made up of an aluminium (99,9%) tube was used with internal diameter of 25,25 mm and 2,0 mm wall thichness. The beam of neutrons was obtained from a 5 Ci isotopic Am-Be source, thermalised in a cylindrical moderator of paraffin of 500 mm diameter (with H/D=1) which was covered by 2 mm thick cadmium sheets and having in its centre a parallepeliped made from high density polyethilene with the dimensions 240 x 240 x 144 mm. The neutrons escape through a rectangular collimator of 53,0 x 25,25 mm, with a length of 273 mm cut out of a single block of borated paraffin (32% of H3BO3). The experimental results are in good agreement with theorical models in published literature. (Author)
Dynamic modelling for two-phase flow systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Several models for two-phase flow have been studied, developing a thermal-hydraulic analysis code with one of these models. The program calculates, for one-dimensional cases with variable flow area, the transient behaviour of system process variables, when the boundary conditions (heat flux, flow rate, enthalpy and pressure) are functions of time. The modular structure of the code, eases the program growth. In fact, the present work is the basis for a general purpose accident and transient analysis code in nuclear reactors. Code verification has been made against RETRAN-02 results. Satisfactory results have been achieved with the present version of the code. (Author)
Two-fluid model for two-phase flow
Ishii, M.
1987-06-01
The two-fluid model formulation is discussed in detail. The emphasis of the paper is on the three-dimensional formulation and the closure issues. The origin of the interfacial and turbulent transfer terms in the averaged formulation is explained and their original mathematical forms are examined. The interfacial transfer of mass, momentum, and energy is proportional to the interfacial area and driving force. This is not a postulate but a result of the careful examination of the mathematical form of the exact interfacial terms. These two effects are considered separately. Since all the interfacial transfer terms involve the interfacial area concentration, the accurate modeling of the local interfacial area concentration is the first step to be taken for a development of a reliable two-fluid model closure relations. The interfacial momentum interaction has been studied in terms of the standard-drag, lift, virtual mass, and Basset forces. Available analytical and semi-empirical correlations and closure relations are reviewed and existing shortcomings are pointed out. The other major area of importance is the modeling of turbulent transfer in two-phase flow. The two-phase flow turbulence problem is coupled with the phase separation problem even in a steady-state fully developed flow. Thus the two-phase turbulence cannot be understood without understanding the interfacial drag and lift forces accurately. There are some indications that the mixing length type model may not be sufficient to describe the three-dimensional turbulent and flow structures. Although it is a very difficult challenge, the two-phase flow turbulence should be investigated both experimentally and analytically with long time-scale research.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quasi-diabatic two-flow pattern visualizations and measurements of elongated bubble velocity, frequency and length were performed. The tests were run for R134a evaporating in a stainless steel tube with diameter of 2.32 mm, mass velocities from 50 to 600 kg/m2s and saturation temperatures of 22 deg C, 31 deg C and 41 deg C. The tube was heated by applying a direct DC current to its surface. Images from a high-speed video-camera (8000 frames/s) obtained through a transparent tube just downstream of the heated section were used to identify the following flow patterns: bubbly, elongated bubbles, churn and annular. Dryout conditions were also characterized. Local heat transfer results were considered when investigating the presence of stratified flows. The visualized flow patterns were compared against the predictions provided by Barnea et al., Felcar et al. and Revellin and Thome. For the present database, the method recently proposed by Felcar et al. provides the best predictions. Additionally, elongated bubble velocities, frequencies and lengths were determined based on an analysis of high speed videos. Results suggested that the elongated bubble velocity depends on mass velocity, vapor quality and saturation temperature, and is independent of bubble length. The bubble velocity increases with increasing mass velocity and vapor quality and decreases with increasing saturation temperature. Additionally, bubble velocity was correlated as a linear function of the two-phase superficial velocity. (author)
Modeling of Two-Phase Flow through a Rotating Tube with Twin Exit Branches
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sun-Wen Cheng
2000-01-01
Full Text Available A numerical model is proposed to determine the dynamic behavior of single-phase and twophase, two-component flows through a horizontal rotating tube with identical twin exit branches. The working fluid, oil, enters the tube through a radial duct attached at one end and exits into open air through the twin radial branches, one located at midway and the other at the end of the tube. The branch-to-tube diameter ratio, rotational speed, and total oil flow rate are varied. It is experimentally revealed in previous study that the air cavitation occurs at lower speeds, leading to a two-phase flow with the air-oil ratio (void fraction varying with the rotating speed. A unique characteristic in two-phase flow, i.e., hysteresis, is found to exist in both oil flow rates and inlet pressure. In theoretical modeling, the governing flow equations are incorporated by empirical equations for hydraulic head losses. The predicted and measured exit oil flow rates are compared with good agreement in both the single-phase and annular flow regimes. Only qualitative agreement is achieved in the bubbly and bubbly-slug flow regimes. The model can be applied to improve the design and thus enhance the performance of automatic transmission lines, and the cooling efficiency of rotating machines and petroleum drilling process.
Reactor vessel and core two-phase flow ultrasonic densitometer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A local ultrasonic density (LUD) detector has been developed by EG and G Idaho, Inc., at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) reactor vessel and core two-phase flow density measurements. The principle of operating the sensor is the change in propagation time of a torsional ultrasonic wave in a metal transmission line as a function of the density of the surrounding media. A theoretical physics model is presented which represents the total propagation time as a function of the sensor modulus of elasticity and polar moment of inertia. Separate effects tests and two-phase flow tests have been conducted to characterize the detector. Tests show the detector can perform in a 3430C pressurized water reactor environment and measure the average density of the media surrounding the sensor
Two-phase flow experiments through intergranular stress corrosion cracks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Experimental studies of critical two-phase water flow, through simulated and actual intergranular stress corrosion cracks, were performed to obtain data to evaluate a leak flow rate model and investigate acoustic transducer effectiveness in detecting and sizing leaks. The experimental program included a parametric study of the effects of crack geometry, fluid stagnation pressure and temperature, and crack surface roughness on leak flow rate. In addition, leak detection, location, and leak size estimation capabilities of several different acoustic transducers were evaluated as functions of leak rate and transducer position. This paper presents flow rate data for several different cracks and fluid conditions. It also presents the minimum flows rate detected with the acoustic sensors and a relationship between acoustic signal strength and leak flow rate
Controlling two-phase flow in microfluidic systems using electrowetting
Gu, Hao
2011-01-01
Electrowetting (EW)-based digital microfluidic systems (DMF) and droplet-based two-phase flow microfluidic systems (TPF) with closed channels are the most widely used microfluidic platforms. In general, these two approaches have been considered independently. However, integrating the two technologies into one allows to combine the advantages of both worlds: (i) high throughput (from TPF) and (ii) precise control over each individual drop (from EW). Thus the aim of this thesis was to investiga...
Phase appearance or disappearance in two-phase flows
Cordier, Floraine; Degond, Pierre; Kumbaro, Anela
2011-01-01
This paper is devoted to the treatment of specific numerical problems which appear when phase appearance or disappearance occurs in models of two-phase flows. Such models have crucial importance in many industrial areas such as nuclear power plant safety studies. In this paper, two outstanding problems are identified: first, the loss of hyperbolicity of the system when a phase appears or disappears and second, the lack of positivity of standard shock capturing schemes such as the Roe scheme. ...
Controllability and observability in two-phase porous media flow
Van Doren, J.F.M.; Van den Hof, P.M.J.; Bosgra, O.H.; Jansen, J. D.
2013-01-01
Reservoir simulation models are frequently used to make decisions on well locations, recovery optimization strategies etc. The success of these applications is, among other aspects, determined by the controllability and observability properties of the reservoir model. In this paper it is shown how the controllability and observability of two-phase flow reservoir models can be analyzed and quantified with aid of generalized empirical Gramians. The empirical controllability Gramian can be inter...
A diffuse interface model for two-phase ferrofluid flows
Nochetto, Ricardo H.; Salgado, Abner J.; Tomas, Ignacio
2016-01-01
We develop a model describing the behavior of two-phase ferrofluid flows using phase field-techniques and present an energy-stable numerical scheme for it. For a simplified, yet physically realistic, version of this model and the corresponding numerical scheme we prove, in addition to stability, convergence and as by-product existence of solutions. With a series of numerical experiments we illustrate the potential of these simple models and their ability to capture basic phenomenological feat...
Fluctuation model of a nonequilibrium two-phase channel flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An ill-posed Cauchy problem for a model of a nonequilibrium two-phase flow in the barotropic approximation is transformed into a well-posed problem by changing the type of the initial hyperbolic equations. Approximation of fluctuations of the phase velocities by a random delta-correlated process and averaging of the equations over its realizations generate a system of parabolic equations. Results of numerical integration of this system are compared with experiment and calculations by well-known models
Fluctuation model of a nonequilibrium two-phase channel flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Krivoshei, F.A. [Inst. of Engineering Thermophysics, Kiev (Ukraine)
1994-12-01
An ill-posed Cauchy problem for a model of a nonequilibrium two-phase flow in the barotropic approximation is transformed into a well-posed problem by changing the type of the initial hyperbolic equations. Approximation of fluctuations of the phase velocities by a random delta-correlated process and averaging of the equations over its realizations generate a system of parabolic equations. Results of numerical integration of this system are compared with experiment and calculations by well-known models.
Recent advances in two-phase flow numerics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The authors review three topics in the broad field of numerical methods that may be of interest to individuals modeling two-phase flow in nuclear power plants. The first topic is iterative solution of linear equations created during the solution of finite volume equations. The second is numerical tracking of macroscopic liquid interfaces. The final area surveyed is the use of higher spatial difference techniques
Recent advances in two-phase flow numerics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mahaffy, J.H.; Macian, R. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)
1997-07-01
The authors review three topics in the broad field of numerical methods that may be of interest to individuals modeling two-phase flow in nuclear power plants. The first topic is iterative solution of linear equations created during the solution of finite volume equations. The second is numerical tracking of macroscopic liquid interfaces. The final area surveyed is the use of higher spatial difference techniques.
Two-phase flow induced vibrations in CANDU steam generators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The U-Bend region of nuclear steam generators tube bundles have suffered from two-phase cross flow induced vibrations. Tubes in this region have experienced high amplitude vibrations leading to catastrophic failures. Turbulent buffeting and fluid-elastic instability has been identified as the main causes. Previous investigations have focused on flow regime and two-phase flow damping ratio. However, tube bundles in steam generators have vapour generated on the surface of the tubes, which might affect the flow regime, void fraction distribution, turbulent intensity levels and tube-flow interaction, all of which have the potential to change the tube vibration response. A cantilevered tube bundle made of electric cartridges heaters was built and tested in a Freon-11 flow loop at McMaster University. Tubes were arranged in a parallel triangular configuration. The bundle was exposed to two-phase cross flows consisting of different combinations of void from two sources, void generated upstream of the bundle and void generated at the surface of the tubes. Tube tip vibration response was measured optically and void fraction was measured by gamma densitometry technique. It was found that tube vibration amplitude in the transverse direction was reduced by a factor of eight for void fraction generated at the tube surfaces only, when compared to the upstream only void generation case. The main explanation for this effect is a reduction in the correlation length of the turbulent buffeting forcing function. Theoretical calculations of the tube vibration response due to turbulent buffeting under the same experimental conditions predicted a similar reduction in tube amplitude. The void fraction for the fluid-elastic instability threshold in the presence of tube bundle void fraction generation was higher than that for the upstream void fraction generation case. The first explanation of this difference is the level of turbulent buffeting forces the tube bundle was exposed to
Two-phase boundary layer prediction in upward boiling flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In the present work, the numerical modelling of the two-phase turbulent boundary layer in upward boiling flow was investigated. First, non-dimensional liquid velocity and temperature profiles in the two-phase boundary layer were validated on the one-dimensional section of a pipe with prescribed radial void fraction profiles. Simulations were performed on a fine grid with a commercial code CFX-5 using the k-ω turbulence model. A significant deviation of results from the analytical single-phase and two-phase wall functions from the literature was observed. Second, a wall boiling model in a vertical heated pipe was simulated (CFX-5) on the coarse grid. Here the prediction of the two-phase thermal boudary layer was compared to the experimental data, k-ω calculation on the fine grid and against the singlephase analytical wall function. Again a major deviation against single-phase temperature wall function was obtained. Presented analyses suggest that the existing analytical velocity and temperature wall functions cannot be valid for the boiling boundary layer with the high void fraction on the wall. (author)
Flow regime development analysis in adiabatic upward two-phase flow in a vertical annulus
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Julia, J. Enrique [Departamento de Ingenieria Mecanica y Construccion, Universitat Jaume I, Campus de Riu Sec, Castellon 12071 (Spain); Ozar, Basar [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, 400 Central Dr., West Lafayette, IN 47907-2017 (United States); Jeong, Jae-Jun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 150 Dukjin, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Hibiki, Takashi [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, 400 Central Dr., West Lafayette, IN 47907-2017 (United States); Ishii, Mamoru, E-mail: ishii@purdue.ed [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, 400 Central Dr., West Lafayette, IN 47907-2017 (United States)
2011-02-15
In this work radial and axial flow regime development in adiabatic upward air-water two-phase flow in a vertical annulus has been investigated. Local flow regimes have been identified using conductivity probes and neural networks techniques. The inner and outer diameters of the annulus are 19.1 mm and 38.1 mm, respectively. The equivalent hydraulic diameter of the flow channel, D{sub H}, is 19.0 mm and the total length is 4.37 m. The flow regime map includes 1080 local flow regimes identifications in 72 flow conditions within a range of 0.01 m/s <
Characteristics of spatiotemporal intermittency in two phase flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The characteristics of temporal and spatiotemporal intermittent, or slug flow, in two phase flashing flows are analyzed in the context of intermittency transition to chaos. Particularly, the possibility of occurence of generic intermittency routes (Types I, II and III) is investigated in the presence of density wave instability in the system and conclusive evidence for the occurrence of Types I and III is presented. Particularly important is the prediction of the mean slug length and the slug length distribution since the slug flow represents an unfavorable flow regime for gas-liquid transportation in pipes. Identification of two generic intermittency routes automatically gives a quantitative prediction concerning the length distribution of laminar and turbulent (slug) phases. Spatiotemporal analysis, based on the bi-othogonal decoposition and concepts from information theory, provides quantitative characterization and prediction of slug flows and possible mechanism of transition from spatiotemporal intermittency to spatiotemporal chaos (turbulence) is outlined. The analysis of the intermittency in two-phase flows was performed on the experimental data obtained in the study of natural circulation instabilities during small break loss-of-coolant accident. 7 refs., 14 figs
Numerical simulation of two phase flows in heat exchangers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The author gives an overview of his research activity since 1981. He first gives a detailed presentation of properties and equations of two-phase flows in heat exchangers, and of their mathematical and numerical investigation: semi-local equations (mass conservation, momentum conservation and energy conservation), homogenized conservation equations (mass, momentum and enthalpy conservation, boundary conditions), equation closures, discretization, resolution algorithm, computational aspects and applications. Then, he reports the works performed in the field of turbulent flows, hyperbolic methods, low Mach methods, the Neptune project, and parallel computing
Interfacial area measurements in two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A thorough understanding of two-phase flow requires the accurate measurement of the time-averaged interfacial area per unit volume (also called the time-averaged integral specific area). The so-called 'specific area' can be estimated by several techniques described in the literature. These different methods are reviewed and the flow conditions which lead to a rigourous determination of the time-averaged integral specific area are clearly established. The probe technique, involving local measurements seems very attractive because of its large range of application
Modeling and numerical study of two phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This thesis describes the modelization and the simulation of two-phase systems composed of droplets moving in a gas. The two phases interact with each other and the type of model to consider directly depends on the type of simulations targeted. In the first part, the two phases are considered as fluid and are described using a mixture model with a drift relation (to be able to follow the relative velocity between the two phases and take into account two velocities), the two-phase flows are assumed at the equilibrium in temperature and pressure. This part of the manuscript consists of the derivation of the equations, writing a numerical scheme associated with this set of equations, a study of this scheme and simulations. A mathematical study of this model (hyperbolicity in a simplified framework, linear stability analysis of the system around a steady state) was conducted in a frame where the gas is assumed baro-tropic. The second part is devoted to the modelization of the effect of inelastic collisions on the particles when the time of the simulation is shorter and the droplets can no longer be seen as a fluid. We introduce a model of inelastic collisions for droplets in a spray, leading to a specific Boltzmann kernel. Then, we build caricatures of this kernel of BGK type, in which the behavior of the first moments of the solution of the Boltzmann equation (that is mass, momentum, directional temperatures, variance of the internal energy) are mimicked. The quality of these caricatures is tested numerically at the end. (author)
Development of methods for mass flow measurement of non-stationary two-phase flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The topics of the present work are: 1) functioning and testing of a True Mass Flow Meter (TMFM), 2) development of an infra-red absorption measuring process to determine the single components and the mass flows in a non-stationary air/water two-phase flow, 3) presentation of a radionuclide measuring method to measure two-phase mass flow, 4) description of a test stand to calibrate various two-phase mass flow measuring methods. (RW/LH)
Experimental Study on Two-Phase Flow in Horizontal Rectangular Minichannel with Y-Junction
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Agus Santoso
2016-03-01
Full Text Available An experimental study was conducted to investigate two-phase air-water flow characteristics, in horizontal rectangular minichannel with Y-junction. The width (W, the height (H and the hydraulic diameter (DH of the rectangular cross section for the upstream side of the junction are 4.60 mm, 2.50 mm and 3.24 mm, while those for the downstream side are 2.36 mm, 2.50 mm and 2.43 mm. The entire test section was machined from transparent acrylic block, so that the flow structure could be visualized. Liquid single-phase and air-liquid twophase flow experiments were conducted at room temperature. The flow pattern, the bubble velocity, the bubble length, and the void fraction were measured with a high-speed video camera. Pressure profile upstream and downstream from the junction was also measured for the respective flows, and the pressure loss due to the contraction at the junction was determined from the pressure profiles. Two flow patterns, i.e., slug and annular flows, were observed in the fully-developed region apart from the junction. In the analysis, the frictional pressure drop data, the two-phase frictional multiplier data, bubble velocity data, bubble length data and void fraction data were compared with calculations by some correlations in literatures. In addition, new pressure loss coefficient correlations for the pressure drop at the junction has been proposed. Results of such experiment and analysis are described in the present paper.
A state-of-the-art report on modelling of liquid entrainment phenomena in two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Since the interfacial area density of liquid droplet flow is extremely higher than that of general two-phase flows (bubbly, slug, churn, or annular flow), characteristics of interfacial mass, momentum, and heat transfers are also quite different. In this work the modelling of liquid droplet entrainment phenomena is investigated, which is divided into onset of droplet entrainment, droplet size, entrainment amount, and entrainment rate models. The droplet entrainment models of RELAP5/MOD3 and CATHARE2 codes are also covered in this work. Both of the codes use the two-fluid model for two-phase flow. Therefore the entrained droplet and continuous liquid phase are not distinguished from each other by fluid-field equations. But, they are differently simulated by so-called flow regime map. In case of two-fluid model, droplet can exist in annular-mist flow, mist flow, inverted annular-mist flow regimes, etc. In this case, onset of liquid droplet is used as one of the flow-regime transition criteria, and the 'entrainment amount' models to predict the amount of liquid phase that exists as droplet form. Recently three-or four-field models have been developed where the entrained droplet is modelled by a set of field equations. These models use the 'entrainment rate' model as a source term in the mass conservation equation. The last section of this report describes 'liquid entrainment' and 'vapor pull-through' models for horizontal T-junctions. 5 tabs., 40 figs., 47 refs. (Author)
On drag reduction in a two-phase flow
Gatapova, E. Ya.; Ajaev, V. S.; Kabov, O. A.
2015-02-01
Bubbles collected on a local hydrophobic surface with nanocoating in a two-phase flow in a minichannel have been detected experimentally. It has been proposed to use the effect of concentration of gas bubbles on hydrophobic segments of the surface of the channel with contrast wettability for ensuring drag reduction. A two-dimensional flow model with the Navier slip condition in the region of the bubble layer gives criteria of drag reduction, depending on the slip length, dimension of bubbles, and dimension of the segment with nanocoating. The presence of the bubble layer on half of the surface of the channel can increase the flow rate of a liquid flowing through the channel by 40% at a fixed pressure gradient.
Solutal Marangoni instability in layered two-phase flows
Picardo, Jason R; Pushpavanam, S
2015-01-01
In this paper, the instability of layered two-phase flows caused by the presence of a soluble surfactant (or a surface active solute) is studied. The fluids have different viscosities, but are density matched to focus on Marangoni effects. The fluids flow between two flat plates, which are maintained at different solute concentrations. This establishes a constant flux of solute from one fluid to the other in the base state. A linear stability analysis is performed, using a combination of asymptotic and numerical methods. In the creeping flow regime, Marangoni stresses destabilize the flow, provided a concentration gradient is maintained across the fluids. One long wave and two short wave Marangoni instability modes arise, in different regions of parameter space. A well-defined condition for the long wave instability is determined in terms of the viscosity and thickness ratios of the fluids, and the direction of mass transfer. Energy budget calculations show that the Marangoni stresses that drive long and shor...
Two-phase flow and heat transfer under low gravity
Frost, W.
1981-11-01
Spacelab experiment to investigate two-phase flow patterns under gravity uses a water-air mixture experiment. Air and water are circulated through the system. The quality or the mixture or air-water is controlled. Photographs of the test section are made and at the same time pressure drop across the test section is measured. The data establishes a flow regime map under reduced gravity conditions with corresponding pressure drop correlations. The test section is also equipped with an electrical resistance heater in order to allow a flow boiling experiment to be carried out using Freon II. High-speed photographs of the test section are used to determine flow patterns. The temperature gradient and pressure drop along the duct can be measured. Thus, quality change can be measured, and heat transfer calculated.
A real two-phase submarine debris flow and tsunami
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pudasaini, Shiva P.; Miller, Stephen A. [Department of Geodynamics and Geophysics, Steinmann Institute, University of Bonn Nussallee 8, D-53115, Bonn (Germany)
2012-09-26
The general two-phase debris flow model proposed by Pudasaini is employed to study subaerial and submarine debris flows, and the tsunami generated by the debris impact at lakes and oceans. The model, which includes three fundamentally new and dominant physical aspects such as enhanced viscous stress, virtual mass, and generalized drag (in addition to buoyancy), constitutes the most generalized two-phase flow model to date. The advantage of this two-phase debris flow model over classical single-phase, or quasi-two-phase models, is that the initial mass can be divided into several parts by appropriately considering the solid volume fraction. These parts include a dry (landslide or rock slide), a fluid (water or muddy water; e.g., dams, rivers), and a general debris mixture material as needed in real flow simulations. This innovative formulation provides an opportunity, within a single framework, to simultaneously simulate the sliding debris (or landslide), the water lake or ocean, the debris impact at the lake or ocean, the tsunami generation and propagation, the mixing and separation between the solid and fluid phases, and the sediment transport and deposition process in the bathymetric surface. Applications of this model include (a) sediment transport on hill slopes, river streams, hydraulic channels (e.g., hydropower dams and plants); lakes, fjords, coastal lines, and aquatic ecology; and (b) submarine debris impact and the rupture of fiber optic, submarine cables and pipelines along the ocean floor, and damage to offshore drilling platforms. Numerical simulations reveal that the dynamics of debris impact induced tsunamis in mountain lakes or oceans are fundamentally different than the tsunami generated by pure rock avalanches and landslides. The analysis includes the generation, amplification and propagation of super tsunami waves and run-ups along coastlines, debris slide and deposition at the bottom floor, and debris shock waves. It is observed that the
A real two-phase submarine debris flow and tsunami
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The general two-phase debris flow model proposed by Pudasaini is employed to study subaerial and submarine debris flows, and the tsunami generated by the debris impact at lakes and oceans. The model, which includes three fundamentally new and dominant physical aspects such as enhanced viscous stress, virtual mass, and generalized drag (in addition to buoyancy), constitutes the most generalized two-phase flow model to date. The advantage of this two-phase debris flow model over classical single-phase, or quasi-two-phase models, is that the initial mass can be divided into several parts by appropriately considering the solid volume fraction. These parts include a dry (landslide or rock slide), a fluid (water or muddy water; e.g., dams, rivers), and a general debris mixture material as needed in real flow simulations. This innovative formulation provides an opportunity, within a single framework, to simultaneously simulate the sliding debris (or landslide), the water lake or ocean, the debris impact at the lake or ocean, the tsunami generation and propagation, the mixing and separation between the solid and fluid phases, and the sediment transport and deposition process in the bathymetric surface. Applications of this model include (a) sediment transport on hill slopes, river streams, hydraulic channels (e.g., hydropower dams and plants); lakes, fjords, coastal lines, and aquatic ecology; and (b) submarine debris impact and the rupture of fiber optic, submarine cables and pipelines along the ocean floor, and damage to offshore drilling platforms. Numerical simulations reveal that the dynamics of debris impact induced tsunamis in mountain lakes or oceans are fundamentally different than the tsunami generated by pure rock avalanches and landslides. The analysis includes the generation, amplification and propagation of super tsunami waves and run-ups along coastlines, debris slide and deposition at the bottom floor, and debris shock waves. It is observed that the
A real two-phase submarine debris flow and tsunami
Pudasaini, Shiva P.; Miller, Stephen A.
2012-09-01
The general two-phase debris flow model proposed by Pudasaini [1] is employed to study subaerial and submarine debris flows, and the tsunami generated by the debris impact at lakes and oceans. The model, which includes three fundamentally new and dominant physical aspects such as enhanced viscous stress, virtual mass, and generalized drag (in addition to buoyancy), constitutes the most generalized two-phase flow model to date. The advantage of this two-phase debris flow model over classical single-phase, or quasi-two-phase models, is that the initial mass can be divided into several parts by appropriately considering the solid volume fraction. These parts include a dry (landslide or rock slide), a fluid (water or muddy water; e.g., dams, rivers), and a general debris mixture material as needed in real flow simulations. This innovative formulation provides an opportunity, within a single framework, to simultaneously simulate the sliding debris (or landslide), the water lake or ocean, the debris impact at the lake or ocean, the tsunami generation and propagation, the mixing and separation between the solid and fluid phases, and the sediment transport and deposition process in the bathymetric surface. Applications of this model include (a) sediment transport on hill slopes, river streams, hydraulic channels (e.g., hydropower dams and plants); lakes, fjords, coastal lines, and aquatic ecology; and (b) submarine debris impact and the rupture of fiber optic, submarine cables and pipelines along the ocean floor, and damage to offshore drilling platforms. Numerical simulations reveal that the dynamics of debris impact induced tsunamis in mountain lakes or oceans are fundamentally different than the tsunami generated by pure rock avalanches and landslides. The analysis includes the generation, amplification and propagation of super tsunami waves and run-ups along coastlines, debris slide and deposition at the bottom floor, and debris shock waves. It is observed that the
Air-water countercurrent annular flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bharathan, D.
1979-09-01
Countercurrent annular flow of air and water in circular tubes of diameters ranging from 6.4 to 152 mm is investigated. Experimental measurements include liquid fraction, pressure gradients and countercurrent gas and liquid fluxes. Influences of tube end geometries on the countercurrent fluxes are isolated. Analogies between countercurrent flow, open channel flow, and compressible flow are established. Interfacial momentum transfer between the phases are characterized by empirical friction factors. The dependence of interfacial friction factors on tube diameter is shown to yield a basis for extending the present results to larger tubes.
Air-water countercurrent annular flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Countercurrent annular flow of air and water in circular tubes of diameters ranging from 6.4 to 152 mm is investigated. Experimental measurements include liquid fraction, pressure gradients and countercurrent gas and liquid fluxes. Influences of tube end geometries on the countercurrent fluxes are isolated. Analogies between countercurrent flow, open channel flow, and compressible flow are established. Interfacial momentum transfer between the phases are characterized by empirical friction factors. The dependence of interfacial friction factors on tube diameter is shown to yield a basis for extending the present results to larger tubes
STABILITY OF SWIRLING ANNULAR FLOW
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Maršík, František; Trávníček, Zdeněk; Novotný, Pavel; Werner, E.
Kaohsiung : National Pingtung University of Science and Technolog, 2009 - (Tai, C.), s. 32-32 ISBN N. [Pacific Symposium on Flow Visualization and Image Processing /7./ (PSFVIP-7 2009). Kaohsiung (TW), 16.11.2009-19.11.2009] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA200760801; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06031 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : flow stability * swirling jet * thermodynamic stability Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics
Experimental and numerical investigation on two-phase flow instabilities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ruspini, Leonardo Carlos
2013-03-01
Two-phase flow instabilities are experimentally and numerically studied within this thesis. In particular, the phenomena called Ledinegg instability, density wave oscillations and pressure drop oscillations are investigated. The most important investigations regarding the occurrence of two-phase flow instabilities are reviewed. An extensive description of the main contributions in the experimental and analytical research is presented. In addition, a critical discussion and recommendations for future investigations are presented. A numerical framework using a hp-adaptive method is developed in order to solve the conservation equations modelling general thermo-hydraulic systems. A natural convection problem is analysed numerically in order to test the numerical solver. Moreover, the description of an adaptive strategy to solve thermo-hydraulic problems is presented. In the second part of this dissertation, a homogeneous model is used to study Ledinegg, density wave and pressure drop oscillations phenomena numerically. The dynamic characteristics of the Ledinegg (flow excursion) phenomenon are analysed through the simulation of several transient examples. In addition, density wave instabilities in boiling and condensing systems are investigated. The effects of several parameters, such as the fluid inertia and compressibility volumes, on the stability limits of Ledinegg and density wave instabilities are studied, showing a strong influence of these parameters. Moreover, the phenomenon called pressure drop oscillations is numerically investigated. A discussion of the physical representation of several models is presented with reference to the obtained numerical results. Finally, the influence of different parameters on these phenomena is analysed. In the last part, an experimental investigation of these phenomena is presented. The designing methodology used for the construction of the experimental facility is described. Several simulations and a non
Objective characterization of interfacial structures in two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In view of establishing a detailed and reliable measurement technique for characterizing the interfacial structures and identifying flow regimes in two-phase flow, two objective approaches are presented. First, the state-of-the-art four-sensor conductivity probe technique is presented to obtain the detailed local information. The newly designed four-sensor conductivity probe accommodates the double-sensor probe capability. Hence, it can be applied in a wide range of two-phase flow regimes spanning from bubbly to churn-turbulent flows with a measurement error of approximately ± 10%. The signal processing scheme is developed such that it accounts for the missing bubbles and defective signals. Furthermore, it categorizes the acquired parameters into two groups based on bubble cord length information. Local information on the void fraction, interfacial area concentration, Sauter mean diameter, interface velocity for each group of bubbles was obtained successfully. Second, a global measurement technique using the non-intrusive impedance voidmeter and neural networks is presented. In this method, an advanced non-intrusive impedance voidmeter provides global interfacial structure information to neural networks which are used to identify the flow regimes. Both supervised and self-organizing neural network learning paradigms performed flow regime identification successfully. In the application of this global method, two approaches are presented, namely: One based on the Probability Density Function (PDF input method), and another based on the ordered set of void fraction measurements which were acquired in a very short time period (instantaneous direct signal input method). The direct signal input method minimizes the time required for identifying the flow regime
Two-phase flow instability in a parallel multichannel system
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HOU Suxia
2009-01-01
The two-phase flow instabilities observed in through parallel multichannel can be classified into three types, of which only one is intrinsic to parallel multichannel systems. The intrinsic instabilities observed in parallel multichannel system have been studied experimentally. The stable boundary of the flow in such a parallel-channel system are sought, and the nature of inlet flow oscillation in the unstable region has been examined experimentally under various conditions of inlet velocity, heat flux, liquid temperature, cross section of channel and entrance throttling. The results show that parallel multichannel system possess a characteristic oscillation that is quite independent of the magnitude and duration of the initial disturbance, and the stable boundary is influenced by the characteristic frequency of the system as well as by the exit quality when this is low, and upon raising the exit quality and reducing the characteristic frequency, the system increases its instability, and entrance throttling effectively contributes to stabilization of the system.
Mathematical model of two-phase flow in accelerator channel
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
О.Ф. Нікулін
2010-01-01
Full Text Available The problem of two-phase flow composed of energy-carrier phase (Newtonian liquid and solid fine-dispersed phase (particles in counter jet mill accelerator channel is considered. The mathematical model bases goes on the supposition that the phases interact with each other like independent substances by means of aerodynamics’ forces in conditions of adiabatic flow. The mathematical model in the form of system of differential equations of order 11 is represented. Derivations of equations by base physical principles for cross-section-averaged quantity are produced. The mathematical model can be used for estimation of any kinematic and thermodynamic flow characteristics for purposely parameters optimization problem solving and transfer functions determination, that take place in counter jet mill accelerator channel design.
Particle-fluid two-phase flow modeling
Mortensen, G. A.; Trapp, J. A.
This paper describes a numerical scheme and computer program, DISCON, for the calculation of two-phase flows that does not require the use of flow regime maps. This model is intermediate between-thermal instantaneous and the averaged two-fluid model. It solves the Eulerian continuity, momentum, and energy equations for each liquid control volume, and the Lagrangian mass, momentum, energy, and position equations for each bubble. The bubbles are modeled individually using a large representative number of bubbles, thus, avoiding the numerical diffusion associated with Eulerian models. DISCON has been used to calculate the bubbling of air through a column of water and the subcooled boiling of water in a flow channel. The results of these calculations are presented.
Two phase flow models in DxUNSp code platform
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Catalin NAE
2011-09-01
Full Text Available The aim of this work is to find an efficient implementation for a two phase flow model in an existing URANS CFD code platform (DxUNSp, initially based on unsteady URANS equations with a k- turbulence model and various other extensions, ranging from a broad selection of wall laws up to a very efficient LES model. This code has the capability for development for nonreacting/reacting multifluid flows for research applications and is under continuous progress. It is intend to present mainly three aspects of this implementation for unstructured mesh based solvers, for high Reynolds compressible flows: the importance of the 5/7 equation model, performance with respect to a basic test cases and implementation details of the proposed schemes. From a numerical point of view, we propose a new approximation schemes of this system based on the VFRoe-ncv.
Stability of stratified two-phase flows in horizontal channels
Barmak, Ilya; Ullmann, Amos; Brauner, Neima; Vitoshkin, Helen
2016-01-01
Linear stability of stratified two-phase flows in horizontal channels to arbitrary wavenumber disturbances is studied. The problem is reduced to Orr-Sommerfeld equations for the stream function disturbances, defined in each sublayer and coupled via boundary conditions that account also for possible interface deformation and capillary forces. Applying the Chebyshev collocation method, the equations and interface boundary conditions are reduced to the generalized eigenvalue problems solved by standard means of numerical linear algebra for the entire spectrum of eigenvalues and the associated eigenvectors. Some additional conclusions concerning the instability nature are derived from the most unstable perturbation patterns. The results are summarized in the form of stability maps showing the operational conditions at which a stratified-smooth flow pattern is stable. It is found that for gas-liquid and liquid-liquid systems the stratified flow with smooth interface is stable only in confined zone of relatively lo...
Thermohydraulic Behaviour of HeII in Stratified Co-Current Two-Phase Flow at High Vapor Velocities
Rousset, B; Puech, L; Thibault, P; Wolf, P E; Van Weelderen, R
2002-01-01
Recent experiments conducted with a co-current flow of saturated superfluid helium at CEA-Grenoble have shown a transition from stratified two phase flow to droplet mist flow at high vapor velocities. The two phase co-current stratified flow was circulated through a 40 mm inner diameter, 10 m long tube, with a slope ranging between 0 and 1.4%. Mass flow rates and temperatures ranged between 1 and 7 g/s, 1.8 and 2 K respectively. These various conditions allowed a comparison of the flow behavior for same void fraction but different vapor mass flows. Some evidences of atomization without any transition from stratified to annular flow are given.
The PDF method for Lagrangian two-phase flow simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A recent turbulence model put forward by Pope (1991) in the context of PDF modelling has been used. In this approach, the one-point joint velocity-dissipation pdf equation is solved by simulating the instantaneous behaviour of a large number of Lagrangian fluid particles. Closure of the evolution equations of these Lagrangian particles is based on stochastic models and more specifically on diffusion processes. Such models are of direct use for two-phase flow modelling where the so-called fluid seen by discrete inclusions has to be modelled. Full Lagrangian simulations have been performed for shear-flows. It is emphasized that this approach gives far more information than traditional turbulence closures (such as the K-ε model) and therefore can be very useful for situations involving complex physics. It is also believed that the present model represents the first step towards a complete Lagrangian-Lagrangian model for dispersed two-phase flow problems. (authors). 21 refs., 6 figs
Modeling transient two-phase stratified flow in pipelines
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An isothermal, two-fluid model, comprised of separate mass and linear momentum conservation equations for the gas and liquid phases was formulated. Interfacial mass transfer effects were modeled via the black oil method. Both equal and unequal phase pressure formulations were evaluated. The model was used to investigate transient two-phase stratified flow in pipelines. An explicit numerical scheme was used to solve the system of equations. Experimental data were collected in an existing 425 m long, 76.2 mm diameter horizontal pipeline. Good agreement was observed between experimental and predicted results
Interfacial friction in cocurrent upward annular flow
Hossfeld, L. M.; Bharathan, D.; Wallis, G. B.; Richter, H. J.
1982-03-01
Cocurrent upward annular flow is investigated, with an emphasis on correlating and predicting pressure drop. Attention is given to the characteristics of the liquid flow in the film, and the interaction of the core with the film. Alternate approaches are discussed for correlating suitably defined interfacial friction factors. Both approaches are dependent on knowledge of the entrainment in order to make predictions. Dimensional analysis is used to define characteristic parameters of the flow and an effort is made to determine, to the extent possible, the influences of these parameters on the interfacial friction factor.
1-D Two-phase Flow Investigation for External Reactor Vessel Cooling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
During a severe accident, when a molten corium is relocated in a reactor vessel lower head, the RCF(Reactor Cavity Flooding) system for ERVC (External Reactor Vessel Cooling) is actuated and coolants are supplied into a reactor cavity to remove a decay heat from the molten corium. This severe accident mitigation strategy for maintaining a integrity of reactor vessel was adopted in the nuclear power plants of APR1400, AP600, and AP1000. Under the ERVC condition, the upward two-phase flow is driven by the amount of the decay heat from the molten corium. To achieve the ERVC strategy, the two-phase natural circulation in the annular gap between the external reactor vessel and the insulation should be formed sufficiently by designing the coolant inlet/outlet area and gap size adequately on the insulation device. Also the natural circulation flow restriction has to be minimized. In this reason, it is needed to review the fundamental structure of insulation. In the existing power plants, the insulation design is aimed at minimizing heat losses under a normal operation. Under the ERVC condition, however, the ability to form the two-phase natural circulation is uncertain. Namely, some important factors, such as the coolant inlet/outlet areas, flow restriction, and steam vent etc. in the flow channel, should be considered for ERVC design. T-HEMES 1D study is launched to estimate the natural circulation flow under the ERVC condition of APR1400. The experimental facility is one-dimensional and scaled down as the half height and 1/238 channel area of the APR1400 reactor vessel. The air injection method was used to simulate the boiling at the external reactor vessel and generate the natural circulation two-phase flow. From the experimental results, the natural circulation flow rate highly depended on inlet/outlet areas and the circulation flow rate increased as the outlet height as well as the supplied water head increased. On the other hand, the simple analysis using the drift
Construction of the two-phase critical flow test facility
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The two-phase critical test loop facility has been constructed in the KAERI engineering laboratory for the simulation of small break loss of coolant accident entrained with non-condensible gas of SMART. The test facility can operate at 12 MPa of pressure and 0 to 60 C of sub-cooling with 0.5 kg/s of non- condensible gas injection into break flow, and simulate up to 20 mm of pipe break. Main components of the test facility were arranged such that the pressure vessel containing coolant, a test section simulating break and a suppression tank inter-connected with pipings were installed vertically. As quick opening valve opens, high pressure/temperature coolant flows through the test section forming critical two-phase flow into the suppression tank. The pressure vessel was connected to two high pressure N2 gas tanks through a control valve to control pressure in the pressure vessel. Another N2 gas tank was also connected to the test section for the non-condensible gas injection. The test facility operation was performed on computers supported with PLC systems installed in the control room, and test data such as temperature, break flow rate, pressure drop across test section, gas injection flow rate were all together gathered in the data acquisition system for further data analysis. This test facility was classified as a safety related high pressure gas facility in law. Thus the loop design documentation was reviewed, and inspected during construction of the test loop by the regulatory body. And the regulatory body issued permission for the operation of the test facility
Droplets Formation and Merging in Two-Phase Flow Microfluidics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hao Gu
2011-04-01
Full Text Available Two-phase flow microfluidics is emerging as a popular technology for a wide range of applications involving high throughput such as encapsulation, chemical synthesis and biochemical assays. Within this platform, the formation and merging of droplets inside an immiscible carrier fluid are two key procedures: (i the emulsification step should lead to a very well controlled drop size (distribution; and (ii the use of droplet as micro-reactors requires a reliable merging. A novel trend within this field is the use of additional active means of control besides the commonly used hydrodynamic manipulation. Electric fields are especially suitable for this, due to quantitative control over the amplitude and time dependence of the signals, and the flexibility in designing micro-electrode geometries. With this, the formation and merging of droplets can be achieved on-demand and with high precision. In this review on two-phase flow microfluidics, particular emphasis is given on these aspects. Also recent innovations in microfabrication technologies used for this purpose will be discussed.
Droplets formation and merging in two-phase flow microfluidics.
Gu, Hao; Duits, Michel H G; Mugele, Frieder
2011-01-01
Two-phase flow microfluidics is emerging as a popular technology for a wide range of applications involving high throughput such as encapsulation, chemical synthesis and biochemical assays. Within this platform, the formation and merging of droplets inside an immiscible carrier fluid are two key procedures: (i) the emulsification step should lead to a very well controlled drop size (distribution); and (ii) the use of droplet as micro-reactors requires a reliable merging. A novel trend within this field is the use of additional active means of control besides the commonly used hydrodynamic manipulation. Electric fields are especially suitable for this, due to quantitative control over the amplitude and time dependence of the signals, and the flexibility in designing micro-electrode geometries. With this, the formation and merging of droplets can be achieved on-demand and with high precision. In this review on two-phase flow microfluidics, particular emphasis is given on these aspects. Also recent innovations in microfabrication technologies used for this purpose will be discussed. PMID:21731459
Computer simulation of two-phase flow in nuclear reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Two-phase flow models dominate the requirements of economic resources for the development and use of computer codes which serve to analyze thermohydraulic transients in nuclear power plants. An attempt is made to reduce the effort of analyzing reactor transients by combining purpose-oriented modelling with advanced computing techniques. Six principles are presented on mathematical modeling and the selection of numerical methods, along with suggestions on programming and machine selection, all aimed at reducing the cost of analysis. Computer simulation is contrasted with traditional computer calculation. The advantages of run-time interactive access operation in a simulation environment are demonstrated. It is explained that the drift-flux model is better suited than the two-fluid model for the analysis of two-phase flow in nuclear reactors, because of the latter's closure problems. The advantage of analytical over numerical integration is demonstrated. Modeling and programming techniques are presented which minimize the number of needed arithmetical and logical operations and thereby increase the simulation speed, while decreasing the cost. (orig.)
Hydrodynamic Dryout in Two-Phase Flows: Observations of Low Bond Number Systems
Weislogel, Mark M.; McQuillen, John B.
1998-01-01
Dryout occurs readily in certain slug and annular two-phase flows for systems that exhibit partial wetting. The mechanism for the ultimate rupture of the film is attributed to van der Waals forces, but the pace towards rupture is quickened by the surface tension instability (Rayleigh-type) of the annular film left by the advancing slug and by the many perturbations of the free surface present in the Re(sub g) approximately 0(10(exp 3)), Re(sub l) approximately 0(10(exp 4)), and Ca approximately 0(10(exp -1) flows. Results from low-gravity experiments using three different test fluids are presented and discussed. For the range of tests conducted, the effect of increasing viscosity is shown to eliminate the film rupture while the decrease of surface tension via a surfactant additive is shown to dramatically enhance it. Laboratory measurements using capillary tubes are presented which reveal the sensitivity of the dryout phenomena to particulate and surfactant contamination. Rom such observations, dryout due to the hydrodynamic-van der Waals instability can be expected in a certain range of flow parameters in the absence of heat transfer. The addition of heat transfer may only exacerbate the problem by producing thermal transport lines replete with "hot spots." A caution to this effect is issued to future space systems designers concerning the use of partially wetting working fluids.
Strongly coupled dispersed two-phase flows; Ecoulements diphasiques disperses fortement couples
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zun, I.; Lance, M.; Ekiel-Jezewska, M.L.; Petrosyan, A.; Lecoq, N.; Anthore, R.; Bostel, F.; Feuillebois, F.; Nott, P.; Zenit, R.; Hunt, M.L.; Brennen, C.E.; Campbell, C.S.; Tong, P.; Lei, X.; Ackerson, B.J.; Asmolov, E.S.; Abade, G.; da Cunha, F.R.; Lhuillier, D.; Cartellier, A.; Ruzicka, M.C.; Drahos, J.; Thomas, N.H.; Talini, L.; Leblond, J.; Leshansky, A.M.; Lavrenteva, O.M.; Nir, A.; Teshukov, V.; Risso, F.; Ellinsen, K.; Crispel, S.; Dahlkild, A.; Vynnycky, M.; Davila, J.; Matas, J.P.; Guazelli, L.; Morris, J.; Ooms, G.; Poelma, C.; van Wijngaarden, L.; de Vries, A.; Elghobashi, S.; Huilier, D.; Peirano, E.; Minier, J.P.; Gavrilyuk, S.; Saurel, R.; Kashinsky, O.; Randin, V.; Colin, C.; Larue de Tournemine, A.; Roig, V.; Suzanne, C.; Bounhoure, C.; Brunet, Y.; Tanaka, A.T.; Noma, K.; Tsuji, Y.; Pascal-Ribot, S.; Le Gall, F.; Aliseda, A.; Hainaux, F.; Lasheras, J.; Didwania, A.; Costa, A.; Vallerin, W.; Mudde, R.F.; Van Den Akker, H.E.A.; Jaumouillie, P.; Larrarte, F.; Burgisser, A.; Bergantz, G.; Necker, F.; Hartel, C.; Kleiser, L.; Meiburg, E.; Michallet, H.; Mory, M.; Hutter, M.; Markov, A.A.; Dumoulin, F.X.; Suard, S.; Borghi, R.; Hong, M.; Hopfinger, E.; Laforgia, A.; Lawrence, C.J.; Hewitt, G.F.; Osiptsov, A.N.; Tsirkunov, Yu. M.; Volkov, A.N.
2003-07-01
dissipation in particle-driven gravity current; a model for highly concentrated suspensions in a diffusive turbulence. Topic 6: strongly coupled two-phase flows involving reacting flows, phase change: microparticle formation in a reacting flow; crystallization and melting in two-phase flows from a non-equilibrium thermodynamics viewpoint; study of a statistical modeling of turbulent flows with very variable density, application to atomization; breakup mechanisms in coaxial atomization; application of Batchelor's fluidized bed stability analysis for wispy-annular flow; unsteady effects induced by non-uniformities of particle concentration in a two-phase boundary layer; one-way and two-way coupled gas-particle flows over a blunt body: the role of particle particle collisions and the shielding effect; particulate aerosols spreading in the planetary boundary layer on complex terrain. Model development and validation examples.
Non-equilibrium effects in transient two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Depressurisation tests were carried out on Refrigerant 113 liquid flowing in a horizontal pipeline, under conditions where vapour was formed by flash evaporation. The tests covered a range of initial velocities up to 2.1 m/s in a 51 mm diameter glass pipeline at starting pressure around 1.5 bar and with varying rates of depressurisation. Measurements were made of local pressure and temperature, circulation rate, pressure difference and void fraction variation over a test section length of 2m. The local pressure and temperature measurements give a direct indication of non-equilibrium effects. The vapour formed during the flash evaporation process quickly formed a stratified type flow and a theoretical model was developed on this basis. The model includes the transient two phase low conservation equations allied to a heat transfer equation. Satisfactory agreement between theoretical predictions and experimental results was obtained. (author)
Two-Phase Flow Complexity in Heterogeneous Media
Ghaffari, Hamed O
2009-01-01
In this study, we investigate the appeared complexity of two-phase flow (air/water) in a heterogeneous soil where the supposed porous media is non-deformable media which is under the timedependent gas pressure. After obtaining of governing equations and considering the capillary pressuresaturation and permeability functions, the evolution of the model unknown parameters were obtained. In this way, using COMSOL (FEMLAB) and fluid flow/script Module, the role of heterogeneity in intrinsic permeability was analysed. Also, the evolution of relative permeability of wetting and non-wetting fluid, capillary pressure and other parameters were elicited. In the last part, a complex network approach to analysis of emerged patterns will be employed.
Flooding in counter-current two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Flooding is a phenomenon which is best described as the transition from counter-current to co-current flow. Early notice was taken of this phenomenon in the chemical engineering industry. Flooding also plays an important role in the field of two-phase heat transfer since it is a limit for many systems involving counter-current flow. Practical applications of flooding limited processes include wickless thermosyphons and the emergency core cooling system (ECCS) of pressurized water nuclear reactors. The phenomenon of flooding also is involved in the behavior of nuclear reactor core materials during severe accident conditions where flooding is one of the mechanisms governing the motion of the molten fuel pin cladding
The Condensation effect on the two-phase flow stability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
considering riser condensation and of correcting the localized friction due to the presence of the two-phase mixture in the two-phase region.These effects are more important for high heating power and high inlet subcooling. CAREM 25 nuclear power reactor is investigated to get the stability boundary map. The flow instability regions are appeared at low and high core power. In the low heat flux range, the trends of the thermal equilibrium - equal velocity (homogeneous) model and the thermal non equilibrium - non equal velocity model are the same because the steam quality is small.In the high heat flux range, for the subcooled boiling number and the phase change number, the marginal stability boundaries are crossed in a point, determining tow different regions, of high and low inlet subcooling.For the first region, the steam quality calculation of the first model is greater and has the effect of stabilizing the system more than the second one.For the second region, the two-phase region length calculation of the first model is smaller and has the effect of stabilizing the system less than the second one. In general, the model predicts a more stable system with an increase in inlet restriction or riser condensation or system pressure or a decrease in exit restriction
Tsunami Generated by a Two-Phase Submarine Debris Flow
Pudasaini, S. P.
2012-04-01
The general two-phase debris flow model proposed by Pudasaini (2011) is employed to study subaerial and submarine debris flows, and the tsunami generated by the debris impact at lakes and oceans. The model includes several essential physical aspects, including Mohr-Coulomb plasticity for the solid stress, while the fluid stress is modelled as a solid volume fraction gradient enhanced non-Newtonian viscous stress. The generalized interfacial momentum transfer includes the viscous drag, buoyancy, and the virtual mass. The generalized drag covers both the solid-like and fluid-like contributions, and can be applied to linear to quadratic drags. Strong couplings exist between the solid and the fluid momentum transfer. The advantage of the real two-phase debris flow model over classical single-phase or quasi-two-phase models is that by considering the solid (and/or the fluid) volume fraction appropriately, the initial mass can be divided into several (even mutually disjoint) parts; a dry (landslide or rock slide), a fluid (water or muddy water; e.g., dams, rivers), and a general debris mixture material as needed in real flow simulations. This offers a unique and innovative opportunity within a single framework to simultaneously simulate (a) the sliding debris (or landslide), (b) the water lake or ocean, (c) the debris impact at the lake or ocean, (d) tsunami generation and propagation, (e) mixing and separation between the solid and the fluid phases, and (f) sediment transport and deposition process in the bathymetric surface. The new model is applied to two-phase subaerial and submarine debris flows. Benchmark numerical simulations reveal that the dynamics of the debris impact induced tsunamis are fundamentally different than the tsunami generated by pure rock avalanche and landslides. Special attention is paid to study the basic features of the debris impact to the mountain lakes or oceans. This includes the generation, amplification and propagation of the multiple
Solutal Marangoni instability in layered two-phase flow
Picardo, Jason; Radhakrishna, T. G.; Pushpavanam, S.
2015-11-01
In this work, the instability of layered two-phase flow caused by the presence of a surface-active solute is studied. The fluids are density matched to focus on surfactant effects. The fluids flow between two flat plates, which are maintained at different solute concentrations. This establishes a constant flux of soluble surfactant from one fluid to the other, in the base state. A linear stability analysis is carried out, supported by energy budget calculations. The flow is first analyzed in the creeping flow regime. Long wave as well as short wave Marangoni instabilities are identified, each with a distinct energy signature. The short wave instability manifests as two distinct modes, characterized by the importance of interfacial deformations or lack thereof. The primary instability switches between these different modes as parameters are varied. The effect of small but finite inertia on these solutal Marangoni modes is then examined. The effect of soluble surfactant on a finte inertia flow is also studied, with focus on the transition from the viscosity-induced instability to solutal Marangoni instability. This analysis is relevant to microfluidic applications, such as solvent extraction, in which mass transfer is carried out between stratified immiscible fluids.
Wall function approach for boiling two-phase flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
One of the important goals of the NURESIM project is to assess and improve the simulation capability of the three-dimensional two-fluid codes for prediction of local boiling flow processes. The boiling flow is strongly affected by local mechanisms in the turbulent boundary layer near the heated wall. Wall-to-fluid transfer models for boiling flow with the emphasis on near-wall treatment are being addressed in the paper. Since the computational grid of the 3D two-fluid models is too coarse to resolve the variable gradients in the near-wall region, the use of wall functions is a common approach to model the liquid velocity and temperature profile adjacent to the heated wall. The wall function model for momentum, based on the surface roughness analogy has been discussed and implemented in the NEPTUNECFD code. The model has been validated on several upward boiling flow experiments, differing in the geometry, working fluid and operating conditions. The simulations with the new wall function model show an improved prediction of flow parameters over the boiling boundary layer. Furthermore, a wall function model for the energy equation, based on enhanced two-phase wall friction has been derived and validated.
Stability of stratified two-phase flows in horizontal channels
Barmak, I.; Gelfgat, A.; Vitoshkin, H.; Ullmann, A.; Brauner, N.
2016-04-01
Linear stability of stratified two-phase flows in horizontal channels to arbitrary wavenumber disturbances is studied. The problem is reduced to Orr-Sommerfeld equations for the stream function disturbances, defined in each sublayer and coupled via boundary conditions that account also for possible interface deformation and capillary forces. Applying the Chebyshev collocation method, the equations and interface boundary conditions are reduced to the generalized eigenvalue problems solved by standard means of numerical linear algebra for the entire spectrum of eigenvalues and the associated eigenvectors. Some additional conclusions concerning the instability nature are derived from the most unstable perturbation patterns. The results are summarized in the form of stability maps showing the operational conditions at which a stratified-smooth flow pattern is stable. It is found that for gas-liquid and liquid-liquid systems, the stratified flow with a smooth interface is stable only in confined zone of relatively low flow rates, which is in agreement with experiments, but is not predicted by long-wave analysis. Depending on the flow conditions, the critical perturbations can originate mainly at the interface (so-called "interfacial modes of instability") or in the bulk of one of the phases (i.e., "shear modes"). The present analysis revealed that there is no definite correlation between the type of instability and the perturbation wavelength.
Thread-annular flow in vertical pipes
Frei, Ch.; Lüscher, P.; Wintermantel, E.
2000-05-01
Thread injection is a promising method for different minimally invasive medical applications. This paper documents an experimental study dealing with an axially moving thread in annular pipe flow. Mass flow and axial force on the thread are measured for a 0.46 mm diameter thread in pipes with diameters between 0.55 and 1.35 mm. The experiments with thread velocities of up to 1.5 ms[minus sign]1 confirm the findings of theoretical studies that for clinical requirements the radius ratio between thread and pipe is crucial for the adjustments of mass ow and force on the thread.
Two-phase flow heat transfer in nuclear reactor systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Complete text of publication follows: Heat transfer and phase change phenomena in two-phase flows are often encountered in nuclear reactor systems and are therefore of paramount importance for their optimal design and safe operation.The complex phenomena observed especially during transient operation of nuclear reactor systems necessitate extensive theoretical and experimental investigations. This special issue brings seven research articles of high quality. Though small in number, they cover a wide range of topics, presenting high complexity and diversity of heat transfer phenomena in two-phase flow. In the last decades a vast amount of research has been devoted to theoretical work and computational simulations, yet the experimental work remains indispensable for understanding of two-phase flow phenomena and for model validation purposes. This is reflected also in this issue, where only one article is purely experimental, while three of them deal with theoretical modelling and the remaining three with numerical simulations. The experimental investigation of the critical heat flux (CHF) phenomena by means of photographic study is presented in the paper of J. Park et al. They have used a high-speed camera system to observe the transient boiling characteristics on a thin horizontal cylinder submerged in a pool of water or highly wetting liquid. Experiments show that the initial boiling process is strongly affected by the properties and wettability of the liquid. The authors have stressed the importance of the local scale observation leading to better understanding of the transient CHF phenomena. In the article of G. Espinosa-Paredes et al. a theoretical work concerning the derivation of transport equations for two-phase flow is presented. The author proposes a novel approach based on derivation of nonlocal volume averaged equations which contain new terms related to nonlocal transport effects. These non-local terms act as coupling elements between the phenomena
Phase appearance or disappearance in two-phase flows
Cordier, Floraine; Kumbaro, Anela
2011-01-01
This paper is devoted to the treatment of specific numerical problems which appear when phase appearance or disappearance occurs in models of two-phase flows. Such models have crucial importance in many industrial areas such as nuclear power plant safety studies. In this paper, two outstanding problems are identified: first, the loss of hyperbolicity of the system when a phase appears or disappears and second, the lack of positivity of standard shock capturing schemes such as the Roe scheme. After an asymptotic study of the model, this paper proposes accurate and robust numerical methods adapted to the simulation of phase appearance or disappearance. Polynomial solvers are developed to avoid the use of eigenvectors which are needed in usual shock capturing schemes, and a method based on an adaptive numerical diffusion is designed to treat the positivity problems. An alternate method, based on the use of the hyperbolic tangent function instead of a polynomial, is also considered. Numerical results are presente...
Equations of two-phase flow in spray chamber
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李新禹; 张志红; 金星; 徐杰
2009-01-01
The downstream water-air heat and moisture transfer system in a moving coordinate was studied. The relationship between the diameter of the misted droplets and the spray pressure was determined. Based on the theory of the relative velocity,the two-phase flow mode of the spray chamber and the efficiency equation for heat and moisture exchange were established. Corrections were carried out for the efficiency equation with spray pressure of 157 kPa. The results show that the pressure plays an important part in determining the efficiency of heat and moisture exchange. When the spray pressure is less than 157 kPa,better coincidence is noticed between the theoretical analysis and the test results with the error less than 6%. Greater error will be resulted in the case when the spray pressure is beyond 157 kPa. After the correction treatment,the coincidence between the theoretical and the experimental results is greatly improved.
Unsteady interfacial coupling of two-phase flow models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The primary coolant circuit in a nuclear power plant contains several distinct components (vessel, core, pipes,...). For all components, specific codes based on the discretization of partial differential equations have already been developed. In order to obtain simulations for the whole circuit, the interfacial coupling of these codes is required. The approach examined within this work consists in coupling codes by providing unsteady information through the coupling interface. The numerical technique relies on the use of an interface model, which is combined with the basic strategy that was introduced by Greenberg and Leroux in order to compute approximations of steady solutions of non-homogeneous hyperbolic systems. Three different coupling cases have been examined: (i) the coupling of a one-dimensional Euler system with a two-dimensional Euler system; (ii) the coupling of two distinct homogeneous two-phase flow models; (iii) the coupling of a four-equation homogeneous model with the standard two-fluid model. (author)
Thermo-fluid dynamic theory of two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A detailed discussion on the formulation of various mathematical models of two-phase flows based on the conservation laws of mass, momentum and energy is presented. Special emphasises have been put on the local instant formulation and on the time-averaged macroscopic models. Two important models have been presented: 1) the two-fluid model which is formulated by considering each phase separately, and 2) the diffusion model which is formulated by considering the mixture as a whole, thus it is expressed in terms of three mixture conservation equations of mass, momentum and energy with one additional diffusion equation. The present formulation can be used to obtain the wall laws by analyses, i.e., the friction factors and heat transfer coefficients. The high-light of the report is the proposed constitutive laws with special emphasis on the interfacial exchange terms as well as on the turbulent transfer terms
Measurement of two-phase flow momentum with force transducers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper reports on two strain-gage-based drag transducers developed to measure two-phase flow in simulated pressurized water reactor (PWR) test facilities. One transducer, a drag body (DB), was designed to measure the bidirectional average momentum flux passing through an end box. The second drag sensor, a break through detector (BTD), was designed to sense liquid downflow from the upper plenum to the core region. After prototype sensors passed numerous acceptance tests, transducers were fabricated and installed in two experimental test facilities, one in Japan and one in West Germany. High-quality data were extracted from both the DBs and BTDs for a variety of loss-of-coolant (LOCA) scenarios. The information collected from these sensors has added to the understanding of the thermohydraulic phenomena that occur during the refill/reflood stage of a LOCA in PWR
Two-phase flow simulation of aeration on stepped spillway
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHENG Xiangju; LUO Lin; ZHAO Wenqian; LI Ran
2004-01-01
Stepped spillways have existed as escape works for a very long time. It is found that water can trap a lot of air when passing through steps and then increasing oxygen content in water body, so stepped spillways can be used as a measure of re-aeration and to improve water quality of water body. However, there is no reliable theoretical method on quantitative calculation of re-aeration ability for the stepped spillways. By introducing an air-water two-phase flow model, this paper used k-ε turbulence model to calculate the characteristic variables of free-surface aeration on stepped spillway. The calculated results fit with the experimental results well. It supports that the numerical modeling method is reasonable and offers firm foundation on calculating re-aeration ability of stepped spillways. The simulation approach can provide a possible optimization tool for designing stepped spillways of more efficient aeration capability.
Numerical modeling of two-phase transonic flow
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Halama, Jan; Benkhaldoun, F.; Fořt, Jaroslav
2010-01-01
Roč. 80, č. 88 (2010), s. 1624-1635. ISSN 0378-4754 Grant ostatní: GA ČR(CZ) GA201/08/0012 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : two-phase flow * condensation * fractional step method Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 0.812, year: 2010 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=MImg&_imagekey=B6V0T-4VNK68X-2-R&_cdi=5655&_user=640952&_pii=S0378475409000421&_origin=search&_coverDate=04%2F30%2F2010&_sk=999199991&view=c&wchp=dGLzVlb-zSkWb&md5=5ba607428fac339a3e5f67035d3996d0&ie=/sdarticle.pdf
Studies of Two-Phase Flow Dynamics and Heat Transfer at Reduced Gravity Conditions
Witte, Larry C.; Bousman, W. Scott; Fore, Larry B.
1996-01-01
The ability to predict gas-liquid flow patterns is crucial to the design and operation of two-phase flow systems in the microgravity environment. Flow pattern maps have been developed in this study which show the occurrence of flow patterns as a function of gas and liquid superficial velocities as well as tube diameter, liquid viscosity and surface tension. The results have demonstrated that the location of the bubble-slug transition is affected by the tube diameter for air-water systems and by surface tension, suggesting that turbulence-induced bubble fluctuations and coalescence mechanisms play a role in this transition. The location of the slug-annular transition on the flow pattern maps is largely unaffected by tube diameter, liquid viscosity or surface tension in the ranges tested. Void fraction-based transition criteria were developed which separate the flow patterns on the flow pattern maps with reasonable accuracy. Weber number transition criteria also show promise but further work is needed to improve these models. For annular gas-liquid flows of air-water and air- 50 percent glycerine under reduced gravity conditions, the pressure gradient agrees fairly well with a version of the Lockhart-Martinelli correlation but the measured film thickness deviates from published correlations at lower Reynolds numbers. Nusselt numbers, based on a film thickness obtained from standard normal-gravity correlations, follow the relation, Nu = A Re(sup n) Pr(exp l/3), but more experimental data in a reduced gravity environment are needed to increase the confidence in the estimated constants, A and n. In the slug flow regime, experimental pressure gradient does not correlate well with either the Lockhart-Martinelli or a homogeneous formulation, but does correlate nicely with a formulation based on a two-phase Reynolds number. Comparison with ground-based correlations implies that the heat transfer coefficients are lower at reduced gravity than at normal gravity under the same
Unsteady flow analysis of a two-phase hydraulic coupling
Hur, N.; Kwak, M.; Lee, W. J.; Moshfeghi, M.; Chang, C.-S.; Kang, N.-W.
2016-06-01
Hydraulic couplings are being widely used for torque transmitting between separate shafts. A mechanism for controlling the transmitted torque of a hydraulic system is to change the amount of working fluid inside the system. This paper numerically investigates three-dimensional turbulent flow in a real hydraulic coupling with different ratios of charged working fluid. Working fluid is assumed to be water and the Realizable k-ɛ turbulence model together with the VOF method are used to investigate two-phase flow inside the wheels. Unsteady simulations are conducted using the sliding mesh technique. The primary wheel is rotating at a fixed speed of 1780 rpm and the secondary wheel rotates at different speeds for simulating different speed ratios. Results are investigated for different blade angles, speed ratios and also different water volume fractions, and are presented in the form of flow patterns, fluid average velocity and also torques values. According to the results, blade angle severely affects the velocity vector and the transmitted torque. Also in the partially-filled cases, air is accumulated in the center of the wheel forming a toroidal shape wrapped by water and the transmitted torque sensitively depends on the water volume fraction. In addition, in the fully-filled case the transmitted torque decreases as the speed ration increases and the average velocity associated with lower speed ratios are higher.
Particle migration in two-phase, viscoelastic flows
Jaensson, Nick; Hulsen, Martien; Anderson, Patrick
2014-11-01
Particles suspended in creeping, viscoelastic flows can migrate across stream lines due to gradients in normal stresses. This phenomenon has been investigated both numerically and experimentally. However, particle migration in the presence of fluid-fluid interfaces is hardly studied. We present results of simulations in 2D and 3D of rigid spherical particles in two-phase flows, where either one or both of the fluids are viscoelastic. The fluid-fluid interface is assumed to be diffuse and is described using Cahn-Hilliard theory. The particle boundary is assumed to be sharp and is described by a boundary-fitted, moving mesh. The governing equations are solved using the finite element method. We show that differences in normal stresses between the two fluids can induce a migration of the particle towards the interface in a shear flow. Depending on the magnitude of the surface tension and the properties of the fluids, particle migration can be halted due to the induced Laplace pressure, the particle can be adsorbed at the interface, or the particle can cross the interface into the other fluid. Dutch Polymer Institute (DPI), P.O. Box 902, 5600 AX Eindhoven, The Netherlands.
Critical two-phase flow through rough slits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The knowledge of the two-phase mass flow rate through a crack in the wall of nuclear or chemical reactor components is very important under the leak-before-break criterion point of view. For providing a qualified analytical tool for calculating critical mass flow rates through such a crack a detailed test program was carried out using subcooled water up to pressures of 14 MPa. A real crack and several simulated cracks (rough slits) were examined experimentally. The important parameters such as inlet pressure, subcooling temperature of water, slit width, and inner surface roughness were varied in a wide range and the measured data compared with calculated values from different models. The data comparison indicates that the model published by Pana leads to predictions which agree best with the observed data. First calculations were carried out using the friction coefficient ζ, which results from single phase flow measurements. A correlation has been developed to calculate ζ from the geometrical dimensions of the crack and was integrated into an advanced version of the Pana model. The modified Pana model was qualified against some hundreds of test values. The measured data were predicted with a relative standard deviation of less than 20%. (orig.)
Uncertainty analysis of two-phase flow pressure drop calculations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Siqueira, Cezar A.M.; Costa, Bruno M.P.; Fonseca Junior, Roberto da; Gonalves, Marcelo de A.L. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
2004-07-01
The simulation of multiphase flow in pipes is usually performed by petroleum engineers with two main purposes: design of new pipelines and production systems; diagnosis of flow assurance problems in existing systems. The tools used for this calculation are computer codes that use published pressure drop correlations developed for steady-state two-phase flow, such as Hagedorn-Brown, Beggs and Brill and others. Each one of these correlations is best suited for a given situation and the engineer must find out the best option for each particular case, based on his experience. In order to select the best correlation to use and to analyze the results of the calculation, the engineer must determine the reliability of computed values. The uncertainty of the computation is obtained by considering uncertainties of the correlation adopted, of the calculation algorithm and the input data. This paper proposes a method to evaluate the uncertainties of this type of calculation and presents an analysis of these uncertainties. The uncertainty analysis also allows the identification of the parameters that are more significant for the final uncertainty of the simulation. Therefore it makes possible to determine which are the input parameters that must be determined with higher accuracy and the ones that may have lower accuracy, without reducing the reliability of the results. (author)
Simulation of two-phase flows by domain decomposition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This thesis deals with numerical simulations of compressible fluid flows by implicit finite volume methods. Firstly, we studied and implemented an implicit version of the Roe scheme for compressible single-phase and two-phase flows. Thanks to Newton method for solving nonlinear systems, our schemes are conservative. Unfortunately, the resolution of nonlinear systems is very expensive. It is therefore essential to use an efficient algorithm to solve these systems. For large size matrices, we often use iterative methods whose convergence depends on the spectrum. We have studied the spectrum of the linear system and proposed a strategy, called Scaling, to improve the condition number of the matrix. Combined with the classical ILU pre-conditioner, our strategy has reduced significantly the GMRES iterations for local systems and the computation time. We also show some satisfactory results for low Mach-number flows using the implicit centered scheme. We then studied and implemented a domain decomposition method for compressible fluid flows. We have proposed a new interface variable which makes the Schur complement method easy to build and allows us to treat diffusion terms. Using GMRES iterative solver rather than Richardson for the interface system also provides a better performance compared to other methods. We can also decompose the computational domain into any number of sub-domains. Moreover, the Scaling strategy for the interface system has improved the condition number of the matrix and reduced the number of GMRES iterations. In comparison with the classical distributed computing, we have shown that our method is more robust and efficient. (author)
Development of two-phase Flow Model, 'SOBOIL', for Sodium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The objective of this research is to develop a sodium two-phase flow analysis model, 'SOBOIL', for the assessment of the initial stage of the KALIMER HCDA (Hypotherical Core Disruptive Accident). The 'SOBOIL' is basically similar to the multi-bubble slug ejection model used in SAS2A[1]. When a bubble is formed within the liquid slug, the bubble fills the whole cross section of the coolant channel except for a film left on the cladding or on the structure. Up to nine bubbles, separated by the liquid slugs, are allowed in the channel at any time. Each liquid slug flow rate in the model is performed in 2 steps. In the first step, the preliminary flow rate in the liquid slug is calculated neglecting the effect of changes in the vapor bubble pressures over the time step. The temperature and pressure distributions, and interface velocity at the interface between the liquid slug and vapor bubble are also calculated during this process. The new vapor temperature and pressure are then determined from the balance between the net energy transferred into the vapor and the change of the vapor energy. The liquid flow is finally calculated considering the change of the vapor pressure over a time step and the calculation is repeated until specified elapsed time is met. Continuous effort, therefore, must be made on the examination and improvement for the model to become reliable. To this end, much interest must be concentrated in the relevant international collaborations for access to a reference model or test data for the verification
Development of gas-liquid two-phase flow interfacial structure in a confined bubbly flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In gas-liquid two-phase flow systems, the interfacial structure specifies the geometric capability of the interfacial transfer of mass, momentum, and energy between the two phases. In view of this, extensive experiments have been carried out in an air-water upward two-phase flow through a test section of 20-cm in width and 1-cm in gap. In it, the local two-phase flow parameters were acquired by the double-sensor conductivity probe at three different elevations in a wide range of the bubbly flow conditions. The acquired local parameters include void fraction ( α), interfacial area concentration (ai), bubble velocity (Ub), bubble Sauter mean diameter (Dsm) and bubble frequency. By taking advantage of the transparent two-dimensional flow path, the flow regime map was constructed through flow visualization. Examination of the measured parameters reveals the development of the interfacial structure due to bubble interactions. (author)
Wei Wang; Wei Cheng; Kai Li; Chen Lou; Jing Gong
2013-01-01
A systematic work on the prediction of flow patterns transition of the oil-water two-phase flows is carried out under a wide range of oil phase viscosities, where four main flow regimes are considered including stratified, dispersed, core-annular, and intermittent flow. For oil with a relatively low viscosity, VKH criterion is considered for the stability of stratified flow, and critical drop size model is distinguished for the transition of o/w and w/o dispersed flow. For o...
Numerical methods for two-phase flow with contact lines
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Walker, Clauido
2012-07-01
This thesis focuses on numerical methods for two-phase flows, and especially flows with a moving contact line. Moving contact lines occur where the interface between two fluids is in contact with a solid wall. At the location where both fluids and the wall meet, the common continuum descriptions for fluids are not longer valid, since the dynamics around such a contact line are governed by interactions at the molecular level. Therefore the standard numerical continuum models have to be adjusted to handle moving contact lines. In the main part of the thesis a method to manipulate the position and the velocity of a contact line in a two-phase solver, is described. The Navier-Stokes equations are discretized using an explicit finite difference method on a staggered grid. The position of the interface is tracked with the level set method and the discontinuities at the interface are treated in a sharp manner with the ghost fluid method. The contact line is tracked explicitly and its dynamics can be described by an arbitrary function. The key part of the procedure is to enforce a coupling between the contact line and the Navier-Stokes equations as well as the level set method. Results for different contact line models are presented and it is demonstrated that they are in agreement with analytical solutions or results reported in the literature.The presented Navier-Stokes solver is applied as a part in a multiscale method to simulate capillary driven flows. A relation between the contact angle and the contact line velocity is computed by a phase field model resolving the micro scale dynamics in the region around the contact line. The relation of the microscale model is then used to prescribe the dynamics of the contact line in the macro scale solver. This approach allows to exploit the scale separation between the contact line dynamics and the bulk flow. Therefore coarser meshes can be applied for the macro scale flow solver compared to global phase field simulations
Studies of Two-Phase Gas-Liquid Flow in Microgravity. Ph.D. Thesis, Dec. 1994
Bousman, William Scott
1995-01-01
Two-phase gas-liquid flows are expected to occur in many future space operations. Due to a lack of buoyancy in the microgravity environment, two-phase flows are known to behave differently than those in earth gravity. Despite these concerns, little research has been conducted on microgravity two-phase flow and the current understanding is poor. This dissertation describes an experimental and modeling study of the characteristics of two-phase flows in microgravity. An experiment was operated onboard NASA aircraft capable of producing short periods of microgravity. In addition to high speed photographs of the flows, electronic measurements of void fraction, liquid film thickness, bubble and wave velocity, pressure drop and wall shear stress were made for a wide range of liquid and gas flow rates. The effects of liquid viscosity, surface tension and tube diameter on the behavior of these flows were also assessed. From the data collected, maps showing the occurrence of various flow patterns as a function of gas and liquid flow rates were constructed. Earth gravity two-phase flow models were compared to the results of the microgravity experiments and in some cases modified. Models were developed to predict the transitions on the flow pattern maps. Three flow patterns, bubble, slug and annular flow, were observed in microgravity. These patterns were found to occur in distinct regions of the gas-liquid flow rate parameter space. The effect of liquid viscosity, surface tension and tube diameter on the location of the boundaries of these regions was small. Void fraction and Weber number transition criteria both produced reasonable transition models. Void fraction and bubble velocity for bubble and slug flows were found to be well described by the Drift-Flux model used to describe such flows in earth gravity. Pressure drop modeling by the homogeneous flow model was inconclusive for bubble and slug flows. Annular flows were found to be complex systems of ring-like waves and a
Study on two-phase flow dynamics in steam injectors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Analytical and experimental studies have been conducted on large-scale steam injectors for a next-generation reactor. The steam injectors are simple, compact, passive steam jet pumps for a steam-injector-driven passive core injection system (SI-PCIS) or steam-injector-driven primary loop recirculation system (SI-PLR). In order to check the feasibility of such large-scale steam injectors, we developed the separate-two-phase flow models installed in the PHOENICS Code, and scale-model tests were conducted for both SI-PCIS and SI-PLR. A 1/2 scale SI-PCIS model achieved a discharge pressure of almost 8 MPa with 7 MPa steam and 0.4 MPa water, and a 1/5 scale SI-PLR model attained a discharge pressure of 12.5 MPa with 3 MPa steam and 7 MPa water. Both results are in good agreement with the analysis, confirming the feasibility of both systems. The systems will help to simplify the next generation of BWRs. (author)
DNS and LES of two-phase flows with cavitation
Hickel, Stefan
2014-01-01
We report on recent progress in the physical and numerical modeling of compressible two-phase flows that involve phase transition between the liquid and gaseous state of the fluid. The high-speed dynamics of cavitation bubbles is studied in well-resolved simulations (DNS) with a sharp-interface numerical model on a micro scale. The underlying assumption of the employed evaporation/condensation model is that phase change occurs in thermal non-equilibrium and that the associated timescale is larger than that of the wave dynamics. Results for the collapse of a spherical vapor bubble close to a solid wall are discussed for three different bubble-wall configurations. The major challenge for such numerical investigations is to accurately reproduce the dynamics of the interface between liquid and vapor during the entire collapse process, including the high-speed dynamics of the late stages, where compressibility of both phases plays a decisive role. Direct interface resolving simulations are intractable for real wor...
Hybrid dynamic modeling for two phase flow condensers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper, a hybrid modeling approach is proposed to describe the dynamic behavior of the two phase flow condensers used in air-conditioning and refrigeration systems. The model is formulated based on fundamental energy and mass balance governing equations, and thermodynamic principles, while some constants and less important variables that change very little during normal operation, such as cross-sectional areas, mean void fraction, the derivative of the saturation enthalpy with respect to pressure, etc., are lumped into several unknown parameters. These parameters are then obtained by experimental data using least squares identification method. The proposed modeling method takes advantages of both physical and empirical modeling approaches, can accurately predict the transient behaviors in real-time and significantly reduce the computational burden. Other merits of the proposed approach are that the order of the model is very low and all the state variables can be easily measured. These advantages make it easy to be applied to model based control system design. The model validation studies on an experimental system show that the model predicts the system dynamic well. -- Highlights: • A hybrid modeling approach is proposed to describe the dynamic behavior of condensers. • This modeling approach balances the trade-offs between complexity and accuracy. • The model order is very low and all the state variables are available for measurement. • The model validation studies show that the model predicts the system dynamic well. • The model is suitable for dynamic analysis and model-based controller design
Experimental and Theoretical Studies on Two-Phase Flows.
Koh, Christopher James
This thesis, comprised of two parts, deals with the flow of suspensions. Part I concerns specifically with the stability of a single drop translating through a quiescent, unbounded suspending fluid at low Reynolds number. The evolution of the shape of an initially nonspherical drop as it translates is studied numerically and experimentally. For finite capillary numbers, it is shown that the drop reverts to a sphere provided that the initial deformation is small enough. However, beyond certain critical initial deformation, the drop deforms continuously. For initially prolate shapes, the drop elongates with the formation of a tail; for initially oblate shapes, the drop flattens with the formation of a cavity at its rear. Experiments extend the numerical results. It is found that initially unstable prolate drops break up into multiple droplets, while initially unstable oblate drops deform in double-emulsion drops. Part II of this thesis considers the flow of high concentration solid suspensions through a rectangular channel. By adapting the well-known Laser Doppler Anemometry, an experimental technique is developed to measure the velocity as well as particle volume fraction of the suspension. A crucial element in these experiments is the reduction of the optical turbidity of the suspension. To accomplish this goal, a systematic method based on refractive-index-matching of the two phases is employed. Experimental results show that the velocity profile is blunted while the concentration profile has a maximum near the center. The qualitative features of the experimental data compare reasonably well with theoretical predictions based on the shear-induced particle migration theory.
Dynamic modeling strategy for flow regime transition in gas-liquid two-phase flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In modeling gas-liquid two-phase flows, the concept of flow regime has been widely used to characterize the global interfacial structure of the flows. Nearly all constitutive relations that provide closures to the interfacial transfers in two-phase flow models, such as the two-fluid model, are often flow regime dependent. Currently, the determination of the flow regimes is primarily based on flow regime maps or transition criteria, which were developed for steady-state, fully-developed flows and have been widely applied in nuclear reactor system safety analysis codes. As two-phase flows are dynamic in nature (fully-developed two-phase flows generally do not exist in real applications), it is of importance to model the flow regime transition dynamically to be able to predict two-phase flows more accurately. The present work aims to develop a dynamic modeling strategy to determine flow regimes in gas-liquid two-phase flows through introduction of interfacial area transport equations (IATEs) within the framework of a two-fluid model. The IATE is a transport equation that models the interfacial area concentration by considering the creation and destruction of the interfacial area, such as the fluid particle (bubble or liquid droplet) disintegration, boiling and evaporation; and fluid particle coalescence and condensation, respectively. For the flow regimes beyond bubbly flows, a two-group IATE has been proposed, in which bubbles are divided into two groups based on their size and shapes, namely group-1 and group-2 bubbles. A preliminary approach to dynamically identify the flow regimes is discussed, in which discriminators are based on the predicted information, such as the void fraction and interfacial area concentration. The flow regime predicted with this method shows good agreement with the experimental observations. (author)
Stability of cantilevered coaxial shells with internal and annular flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper is a theoretical study of the stability of cantilevered coaxial cylindrical shells conveying incompressible fluid in the annular space in- between and within the inner shell. The viscous effects of the mean flow are taken into account, but the perturbations of the equilibrium state on the basis of which stability is assessed is carried out by means of potential flow theory, thus neglecting unsteady viscous effects which are known to become important for narrow annular flows. Shell displacements are described by Flugge's equations of motion. Solution of the coupled fluid-structure equations is carried out by means of the Fourier Transform Method. The main finding of this research is that stability is lost by flutter for internal flow, according to both the inviscid and viscous variants of the theory; for annular flow, however, whereas inviscid theory predicts loss of stability by flutter, viscous theory (with dissipative effects included) predicts that the shell loses stability by divergence and then, at appreciably higher flow, by flutter. Reduction of the annular gap generally destabilizes the system; while increased steady viscous effects slightly stabilize the system for internal flow, they strongly destabilize it for annular flow. Increasing the length of the shell destabilizes the system for both internal and annular flows. The presence of internal flow in addition to annular flow tends to stabilize the system vis-a-vis the case of annular flow, but only at low flow velocities, having the opposite effect at higher flows; the same effects arise when the main flow is internal and an annular flow added to the system
Flow instabilities in two-phase flow system with and without phase change
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The gas-liquid two-phase flow of various types, such as single component or multiple components, and boiling two-phase flow or insulated two-phase flow, exist in piping systems, and the undesirable phenomena for the operation of systems such as the large scale pulsation of flow rate and the uneven distribution of flow may occur according to the condition. Generally these phenomena are called unstable flow. The author has carried out the research on unstable flow with air-water two-phase flow system, but a question arose to what extent the results in air-water system are applicable to boiling system. The unstable flow is explained with some examples. In this study, the similarity of pulsation in boiling system and insulated system was clarified, using the examples of pressure drop oscillation and flow rate distribution, and the theory to treat them in unified way was presented. The range of discussion is limited to the phenomena that do not depend on the microstructure of flow. The experimental setups were Freon boiling system, air-water capillary system and air-water vertical tube system. The characteristics of pressure drop oscillation and the fundamental mechanism, the theoretical analysis of pressure drop oscillation, the uneven distribution of flow rate in parallel tubes, the stability of flow rate distribution, and the numerical simulation are reported. (Kako, I.)
Prediction of a subcooled boiling flow with advanced two-phase flow models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Highlights: ► In this study, advanced two-phase flow models were examined to enhance the prediction capability of subcooled boiling flows for the CFD code. ► They consist of Sγ bubbles size, new wall boiling and two-phase logarithmic wall function models. ► The benchmark calculation confirms that advanced two-phase flow models show good prediction results. - Abstract: Prediction of bubble size which governs interfacial transfer terms between the two phases is of importance for an accurate prediction of the subcooled boiling flow. In the present work, a mechanistic bubbles size model, Sγ was examined to enhance the prediction capability of subcooled boiling flows for the CFD (computational fluid dynamics) code. In addition to this, advanced subcooled boiling models such as new wall boiling and two-phase logarithmic wall function models were also applied for an improvement of energy partitioning and two-phase turbulence models, respectively. The benchmark calculation against the DEBORA subcooled boiling data confirms that the Sγ bubble size model with the two advanced subcooled boiling models shows good prediction results and is applicable to the wide range of flow conditions that are expected in the nominal and postulated accidental conditions of a nuclear power plant.
Hot-film anemometer measurements in adiabatic two-phase flow through a vertical duct
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A hot-film anemometer (HFA) probe was used to obtain local measurements of void fraction and bubble frequency in a vertically oriented, high aspect ratio duct containing R-134a under selected adiabatic two-phase flow conditions. Data were obtained along a narrow dimension scan over the range 0.03 ≤ bar Z ≤ 0.80, where bar Z is the distance from the wall normalized with the duct spacing dimension. The void fraction profiles displayed large gradients in the near-wall regions and broad maxima near the duct centerline. The trends in the bubble frequency data generally follow those for the local void fraction data. However, the relatively large number of bubbles at higher pressure implies a larger magnitude of the interfacial area concentration, for the same cross-sectional average void fraction. For the two annular flow conditions tested, analysis of the HFA output voltage signal enabled identification of three distinct regions of the flow field; liquid film with dispersed bubbles, interfacial waves, and continuous vapor with dispersed droplets
On the Stable Numerical Approximation of Two-Phase Flow with Insoluble Surfactant
Barrett, John W; Nürnberg, Robert
2013-01-01
We present a parametric finite element approximation of two-phase flow with insoluble surfactant. This free boundary problem is given by the Navier--Stokes equations for the two-phase flow in the bulk, which are coupled to the transport equation for the insoluble surfactant on the interface that separates the two phases. We combine the evolving surface finite element method with an approach previously introduced by the authors for two-phase Navier--Stokes flow, which maintains good mesh properties. The derived finite element approximation of two-phase flow with insoluble surfactant can be shown to be stable. Several numerical simulations demonstrate the practicality of our numerical method.
A New Void Fraction Measurement Method for Gas-Liquid Two-Phase Flow in Small Channels
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Huajun Li
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Based on a laser diode, a 12 × 6 photodiode array sensor, and machine learning techniques, a new void fraction measurement method for gas-liquid two-phase flow in small channels is proposed. To overcome the influence of flow pattern on the void fraction measurement, the flow pattern of the two-phase flow is firstly identified by Fisher Discriminant Analysis (FDA. Then, according to the identification result, a relevant void fraction measurement model which is developed by Support Vector Machine (SVM is selected to implement the void fraction measurement. A void fraction measurement system for the two-phase flow is developed and experiments are carried out in four different small channels. Four typical flow patterns (including bubble flow, slug flow, stratified flow and annular flow are investigated. The experimental results show that the development of the measurement system is successful. The proposed void fraction measurement method is effective and the void fraction measurement accuracy is satisfactory. Compared with the conventional laser measurement systems using standard laser sources, the developed measurement system has the advantages of low cost and simple structure. Compared with the conventional void fraction measurement methods, the proposed method overcomes the influence of flow pattern on the void fraction measurement. This work also provides a good example of using low-cost laser diode as a competent replacement of the expensive standard laser source and hence implementing the parameter measurement of gas-liquid two-phase flow. The research results can be a useful reference for other researchers’ works.
Wei-Yang Xie; Xiao-Ping Li; Lie-Hui Zhang; Xiao-Hua Tan; Jun-Chao Wang; Hai-Tao Wang
2015-01-01
After multistage fracturing, the flowback of fracturing fluid will cause two-phase flow through hydraulic fractures in shale gas reservoirs. With the consideration of two-phase flow and desorbed gas transient diffusion in shale gas reservoirs, a two-phase transient flow model of multistage fractured horizontal well in shale gas reservoirs was created. Accurate solution to this flow model is obtained by the use of source function theory, Laplace transform, three-dimensional eigenvalue method, ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We design a dual-sensor multi-electrode conductance probe to measure the flow parameters of gas–liquid two-phase flows in a vertical pipe with an inner diameter of 20 mm. The designed conductance probe consists of a phase volume fraction sensor (PVFS) and a cross-correlation velocity sensor (CCVS). Through inserting an insulated flow deflector in the central part of the pipe, the gas–liquid two-phase flows are forced to pass through an annual space. The multiple electrodes of the PVFS and the CCVS are flush-mounted on the inside of the pipe wall and the outside of the flow deflector, respectively. The geometry dimension of the PVFS is optimized based on the distribution characteristics of the sensor sensitivity field. In the flow loop test of vertical upward gas–liquid two-phase flows, the output signals from the dual-sensor multi-electrode conductance probe are collected by a data acquisition device from the National Instruments (NI) Corporation. The information transferring characteristics of local flow structures in the annular space are investigated using the transfer entropy theory. Additionally, the kinematic wave velocity is measured based on the drift velocity model to investigate the propagation behavior of the stable kinematic wave in the annular space. Finally, according to the motion characteristics of the gas–liquid two-phase flows, the drift velocity model based on the flow patterns is constructed to measure the individual phase flow rate with higher accuracy. (paper)
Zhai, Lu-Sheng; Bian, Peng; Han, Yun-Feng; Gao, Zhong-Ke; Jin, Ning-De
2016-04-01
We design a dual-sensor multi-electrode conductance probe to measure the flow parameters of gas-liquid two-phase flows in a vertical pipe with an inner diameter of 20 mm. The designed conductance probe consists of a phase volume fraction sensor (PVFS) and a cross-correlation velocity sensor (CCVS). Through inserting an insulated flow deflector in the central part of the pipe, the gas-liquid two-phase flows are forced to pass through an annual space. The multiple electrodes of the PVFS and the CCVS are flush-mounted on the inside of the pipe wall and the outside of the flow deflector, respectively. The geometry dimension of the PVFS is optimized based on the distribution characteristics of the sensor sensitivity field. In the flow loop test of vertical upward gas-liquid two-phase flows, the output signals from the dual-sensor multi-electrode conductance probe are collected by a data acquisition device from the National Instruments (NI) Corporation. The information transferring characteristics of local flow structures in the annular space are investigated using the transfer entropy theory. Additionally, the kinematic wave velocity is measured based on the drift velocity model to investigate the propagation behavior of the stable kinematic wave in the annular space. Finally, according to the motion characteristics of the gas-liquid two-phase flows, the drift velocity model based on the flow patterns is constructed to measure the individual phase flow rate with higher accuracy.
Numerical simulation for gas-liquid two-phase flow in pipe networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The complex pipe network characters can not directly presented in single phase flow, gas-liquid two phase flow pressure drop and void rate change model. Apply fluid network theory and computer numerical simulation technology to phase flow pipe networks carried out simulate and compute. Simulate result shows that flow resistance distribution is non-linear in two phase pipe network
Two parametric flow measurement in gas-liquid two-phase flow
Chen, Z.; Chen, C.; Xu, Y.; Zhao, Z.
The importance and current development of two parametric measurement during two-phase flow are briefly reviewed in this paper. Gas-liquid two-phase two parametric metering experiments were conducted by using an oval gear meter and a sharp edged orifice mounted in series in a horizontal pipe. Compressed air and water were used as gas and liquid phases respectively. The correlations, which can be used to predict the total flow rate and volumetric quality of two-phase flow or volumetric flow rate of each phase, have also been proposed in this paper. Comparison of the calculated values of flow rate of each phase from the correlations with the test data showed that the root mean square fractional deviation for gas flow rate is 2.9 percent and for liquid flow rate 4.4 percent. The method proposed in this paper can be used to measure the gas and liquid flow rate in two-phase flow region without having to separate the phases.
Geometric effects of 90-degree vertical elbows on global two-phase flow parameters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Geometric effects of 90-degree vertical elbows on global two-phase flow parameters, in particular pressure drop and flow regime transition are investigated. Pressure measurements are obtained along the test section over a wide range of flow conditions in both single-phase and two-phase flow conditions. A two-phase pressure drop correlation analogous to Lockhart-Martinelli correlation is proposed to predict the minor loss across the elbows. Flow visualization is performed to study the effect of elbows on the two-phase flow regime transition. Modified flow regime maps for horizontal and vertical-downward two-phase flow are obtained which demonstrate that downstream of the elbows flow regime transition boundaries deviate significantly from the conventional flow regime transition boundaries. (author)
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xinghua HUANG; Li WANG; Feng JIA
2008-01-01
A wavelet-transform based approach for flow regime identification in horizontal tube bundles under vertical upward cross-flow condition was presented. Tests on two-phase flow pattern of R 134a were conducted under low mass velocity and flow boiling conditions over Time series of differential pressure fluctuations were mea-sured and analyzed with discrete wavelet transform. Different time-scale characteristics in bubbly flow, churn flow and annular flow were analyzed. The wavelet energy distributions over scales were found to be appropriate for flow regime identification. Based on the wavelet energy distribution over characteristic scales, a criterion of flow regime identification was proposed. The comparison with experiment results show that it is feasible to use the dis-crete wavelet transform as the tool of flow regime iden-tification in horizontal tube bundles under vertical upward cross-flow condition.
Interfacial friction in low flowrate vertical annular flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
During boil-off and reflood transients in nuclear reactors, the core liquid inventory and inlet flowrate are largely determined by the interfacial friction in the reactor core. For these transients, annular flow occurs at relatively modest liquid flowrates and at the low heat fluxes typical of decay heat conditions. The resulting low vapor Reynolds numbers, are out of the data range used to develop the generally accepted interfacial friction relations for annular flow. In addition, most existing annular flow data comes from air/liquid adiabatic experiments with fully developed flows. By contrast, in a reactor core, the flow is continuously developing along the heated length as the vapor flowrate increases and the flow regimes evolve from bubbly to annular flow. Indeed, the entire annular flow regime may exist only over tens of L/D's. Despite these limitations, many of the advanced reactor safety analysis codes employ the Wallis model for interfacial friction in annular flow. Our analyses of the conditions existing at the end-of-reflood in the PERICLES tests have indicated that the Wallis model seriously underestimates the interfacial shear for low vapor velocity cocurrent upflow. To extend the annular flow data base to diabatic low flowrate conditions, the DADINE tests were re-analyzed. In these tests, both pressure drop and local cross-section averaged void fractions were measured. Thus, both the wall and interfacial shear can be deduced. Based on the results of this analysis, a new correlation is proposed for interfacial friction in annular flow. (authors). 5 figs., 12 refs
EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF AIR-WATER TWO-PHASE FLOW IN PARALLEL HELICALLY COILED PIPES
Panella, Bruno
2012-01-01
The air-water two-phase flow in a 12 mm inner diameter parallel helically coiled pipes is investigated with three different coils diameters. Void fraction, flow rate distribution and two-phase pressure drops along the pipes in the parallel channels are measured. The test two-phase pressure drops are compared with theoretical ones, in terms of multipliers and friction factors. The instabilities arisen during the experimental tests are investigated and are related to the void fraction and flow ...
Mass flow rate measurements in two-phase mixtrues with stagnation probes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Applications of stagnation probes to the measurement of mass flow rate in two-phase flows are discussed. Descriptions of several stagnation devices, which have been evaluated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, are presented along with modeling techniques and two-phase flow data
Mass flow rate measurements in two-phase mixtrues with stagnation probes. [PWR
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fincke, J.R.; Deason, V.A.
1979-01-01
Applications of stagnation probes to the measurement of mass flow rate in two-phase flows are discussed. Descriptions of several stagnation devices, which have been evaluated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, are presented along with modeling techniques and two-phase flow data.
Turbulence modification in vertical upward annular flow passing through a throat section
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Experimental studies on the turbulence modification in annular two-phase flow passing through a throat section were carried out. The turbulence modification in multi-phase flow due to the interactions between two-phases is one of the most interesting scientific issues and has attracted research attention. In this study, the gas-phase turbulence modification in annular flow due to the gas-liquid phase interaction is experimentally investigated. The annular flow passing through a throat section is under the transient state due to the changing cross sectional area of the channel and resultantly the superficial velocities of both phases are changed compared with a fully developed flow in a straight pipe. The measurements for the gas-phase turbulence were precisely performed by using a constant temperature hot-wire anemometer, and made clear the turbulence structure such as velocity profiles, fluctuation velocity profiles. The behavior of the interfacial waves in the liquid film flow such as the ripple or disturbance waves was also observed. The measurements for the liquid film thickness by the electrode needle method were also performed to measure the base film thickness, mean film thickness, maximum film thickness and wave height of the ripple or the disturbance waves
Elazhary, Amr Mohamed; Soliman, Hassan M.
2012-10-01
An experimental study was conducted in order to investigate two-phase flow regimes and fully developed pressure drop in a mini-size, horizontal rectangular channel. The test section was machined in the form of an impacting tee junction in an acrylic block (in order to facilitate visualization) with a rectangular cross-section of 1.87-mm height on 20-mm width on the inlet and outlet sides. Pressure drop measurement and flow regime identification were performed on all three sides of the junction. Air-water mixtures at 200 kPa (abs) and room temperature were used as the test fluids. Four flow regimes were identified visually: bubbly, plug, churn, and annular over the ranges of gas and liquid superficial velocities of 0.04 ≤ JG ≤ 10 m/s and 0.02 ≤ JL ≤ 0.7 m/s, respectively, and a flow regime map was developed. Accuracy of the pressure-measurement technique was validated with single-phase, laminar and turbulent, fully developed data. Two-phase experiments were conducted for eight different inlet conditions and various mass splits at the junction. Comparisons were conducted between the present data and former correlations for the fully developed two-phase pressure drop in rectangular channels with similar sizes. Wide deviations were found among these correlations, and the correlations that agreed best with the present data were identified.
Two-Phase Flow in Circular Secondary Sedimentation Tanks
Matko, T. I. R.
1997-01-01
The main objective of this work was to optimise a numerical model to predict the flow in circular secondary sedimentation tanks. The numerical models in the literature were reviewed and the new opportunities for research were identified. Single-phase flow characteristics of two circular sedimentation tanks were investigated using the CFD program, CFX-F3D. The flow in the circular clarifiers were modelled in two dimensions (axial and radial) and using the standard k-E turbule...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Highlights: ► Visual observation of two-phase flow regimes during downward flow in a return bend. ► Bubble and vapor slug dynamical behaviors in downward slug flow are reported. ► Perturbation lengths up- and downstream of the return bend have been investigated. ► Measurement of 285 pressure drop data points for HFO-1234yf, R-134a and R-410A. -- Abstract: This paper provides a qualitative visual observation of the two-phase flow patterns for HFO-1234yf and R-134a during downward flow in a vertical 6.7 mm inner diameter glass return bend. The different flow regimes observed are: slug, intermittent and annular flows. Bubble and vapor slug dynamical behaviors in downward slug flow are reported for HFO-1234yf. In addition, to determine the perturbation lengths up- and downstream of the return bend, the total pressure drop has been measured at different pressure tap location up- and downstream of the singularity. Furthermore, 285 pressure drop data points measured for two-phase flow of HFO-1234yf, R-134a and R-410A in vertical downward flow return bends are presented. The flow behavior in the return bend, which is subjected to the complex combined actions of gravity and centrifugal force was expressed in terms of the vapor Froude number. This experimental pressure drop database, which is included in the appendix, is compared to four well-known prediction methods available in the literature
Fluiddynamic critical two-phase (gas/liquid) flow state in non ideal flow geometries
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Friedel, L. [Technische Univ. Hamburg-Harburg, Hamburg (Germany)
2001-07-01
During the emergency venting of pressurized, in most cases partially liquid loaded reactors across safety devices or in the course of the intentionally controlled depressurisation, resp., degassing of such production equipment across a throttle valve a two-phase flow can establish due to the occurring level swell. In the context of the equipment sizing for safety and economical reasons a maximum mass discharge, resp., critical velocity in the transfer piping system or device is an issue. Indeed, analytical methods for the critical two-phase mass flow prediction are only available for ideal nozzle or pipe flow. In principle, they look like simple derivatives of the ideal model used in (compressible) gas dynamics. In contrast to the explanations in text books referring to the case of an ideal nozzle flow such a characteristic flow state does not establish in the device. This is, amongst others, the consequence of wall detachment of the flow, establishment of an inhomogeneous velocity field across the flow controlling cross section, local random cavitation or flashing/condensation incipience, multiple choking in the transfer piping system and corresponding back pressure change. As a consequence, the experimental maximum mass flow will depend, e.g., on the experimenter's pragmatism as well as capability and the metering quality installed in the test rig as well as, strictly speaking, it can only be valid for the individual specimen due to non avoidable manufacturing tolerances. An example for such a pragmatical approach is the recently proposed short-cut safety valve sizing method by T. Lenzing et al. The basis is formed by the isentropic homogeneous two-phase nozzle flow model, leading under all conditions to a discharge coefficient value in two-phase flow of less than unity. The essential features of the method are thermodynamic and fluiddynamic equilibrium between the phases. (orig.)
Stability of stratified two-phase flows in inclined channels
Barmak, Ilya; Ullmann, Amos; Brauner, Neima
2016-01-01
Linear stability of stratified gas-liquid and liquid-liquid plane-parallel flows in inclined channels is studied with respect to all wavenumber perturbations. The main objective is to predict parameter regions in which stable stratified configuration in inclined channels exists. Up to three distinct base states with different holdups exist in inclined flows, so that the stability analysis has to be carried out for each branch separately. Special attention is paid to the multiple solution regions to reveal the feasibility of non-unique stable stratified configurations in inclined channels. The stability boundaries of each branch of steady state solutions are presented on the flow pattern map and are accompanied by critical wavenumbers and spatial profiles of the most unstable perturbations. Instabilities of different nature are visualized by streamlines of the neutrally stable perturbed flows, consisting of the critical perturbation superimposed on the base flow. The present analysis confirms the existence of ...
A software technique for flow-rate measurement in horizontal two-phase flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Darwich, T.D.; Toral, H.; Archer, J.S. (Imperial Company (EG))
1991-08-01
This paper presents a software technique for measuring individual phase flow rates in two-phase flow. The technique is based on the extraction, classification, and identification of stochastic features from turbulent pressure and void-fraction waveforms. Experiments in a horizontal air/water loop showed that a set of stochastic features is uniquely related to the individual phase flow rates. The software flowmeter is calibrated in situ by compilation of feature sets related to individual phase flow rates in a data base. On-line flow-rate measurement is made by a pattern recognition technique that identifies the best match to the measured feature vector from the calibration data base.
Liang, Fachun; Zheng, Hongfeng; Yu, Hao; Sun, Yuan
2016-03-01
A novel ultrasonic pulse echo method is proposed for flow pattern identification in a horizontal pipe with gas-liquid two-phase flow. A trace of echoes reflected from the pipe’s internal wall rather than the gas-liquid interface is used for flow pattern identification. Experiments were conducted in a horizontal air-water two-phase flow loop. Two ultrasonic transducers with central frequency of 5 MHz were mounted at the top and bottom of the pipe respectively. The experimental results show that the ultrasonic reflection coefficient of the wall-gas interface is much larger than that of the wall-liquid interface due to the large difference in the acoustic impedance of gas and liquid. The stratified flow, annular flow and slug flow can be successfully recognized using the attenuation ratio of the echoes. Compared with the conventional ultrasonic echo measurement method, echoes reflected from the inner surface of a pipe wall are independent of gas-liquid interface fluctuation, sound speed, and gas and liquid superficial velocities, which makes the method presented a promising technique in field practice.
Transient two-phase flow of cryogenic fluid in a vertical transfer line during the cooldown process
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The analytical and numerical modeling for prediction of the thermo-fluid parameters of the cooldown process of a vertical tube carrying cryogenic liquid are presented. Formulation of the problem is based on flow patterns observed in the experimental studies. In this model, the flow field consists of four distinct regions of fully liquid, inverted annular film boiling, dispersed flow film boiling, and fully vapor. For the fully liquid and fully vapor regions, the one-dimensional form of the mass, momentum, and energy conservation equations are used. For the two-phase regions, the volume-averaged, one-dimensional two-fluid model conservation equations are applied. In addition, a one-dimensional energy equation is formulated to determine the tube-wall history. The numerical approximations are based on the finite-difference technique. Calculations for inverted annular flow are based on a semi-implicit model while computations for the wall, fully liquid, and dispersed flow regions are performed explicitly. Comparison of calculated results with experimental data for water and liquid nitrogen are presented
A MODEL FOR PREDICTING PHASE INVERSION IN OIL-WATER TWO-PHASE PIPE FLOW
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
GONG Jing; LI Qing-ping; YAO Hai-yuan; YU Da
2006-01-01
Experiments of phase inversion characteristics for horizontal oil-water two-phase flow in a stainless steel pipe loop (25.7 mm inner diameter,52 m long) are conducted. A new viewpoint is brought forward about the process of phase inversion in oil-water two-phase pipe flow. Using the relations between the total free energies of the pre-inversion and post-inversion dispersions, a model for predicting phase inversion in oil-water two-phase pipe flow has been developed that considers the characteristics of pipe flow. This model is compared against other models with relevant data of phase inversion in oil-water two-phase pipe flow. Results indicate that this model is better than other models in terms of calculation precision and applicability. The model is useful for guiding the design for optimal performance and safety in the operation of oil-water two-phase pipe flow in oil fields.
Mathematical models for two-phase stratified pipe flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Biberg, Dag
2005-06-01
The simultaneous transport of oil, gas and water in a single multiphase flow pipe line has for economical and practical reasons become common practice in the gas and oil fields operated by the oil industry. The optimal design and safe operation of these pipe lines require reliable estimates of liquid inventory, pressure drop and flow regime. Computer simulations of multiphase pipe flow have thus become an important design tool for field developments. Computer simulations yielding on-line monitoring and look ahead predictions are invaluable in day-to-day field management. Inaccurate predictions may have large consequences. The accuracy and reliability of multiphase pipe flow models are thus important issues. Simulating events in large pipelines or pipeline systems is relatively computer intensive. Pipe-lines carrying e.g. gas and liquefied gas (condensate) may cover distances of several hundred km in which transient phenomena may go on for months. The evaluation times associated with contemporary 3-D CFD models are thus not compatible with field applications. Multiphase flow lines are therefore normally simulated using specially dedicated 1-D models. The closure relations of multiphase pipe flow models are mainly based on lab data. The maximum pipe inner diameter, pressure and temperature in a multiphase pipe flow lab is limited to approximately 0.3 m, 90 bar and 60{sup o}C respectively. The corresponding field values are, however, much higher i.e.: 1 m, 1000 bar and 200{sup o}C respectively. Lab data does thus not cover the actual field conditions. Field predictions are consequently frequently based on model extrapolation. Applying field data or establishing more advanced labs will not solve this problem. It is in fact not practically possible to acquire sufficient data to cover all aspects of multiphase pipe flow. The parameter range involved is simply too large. Liquid levels and pressure drop in three-phase flow are e.g. determined by 13 dimensionless parameters
Mechanisms for two phase flow in porous media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
For a better understanding of transport mechanisms in soil for a system with two phases of immiscible liquids the physics of porous media gives again important contributions. In this report, the considerations mainly concentrate on horizontal transport. Our approach is based on the similarity solution of the transport equation which reduces a given nonlinear partial differential equation (PDE) to an ordinary differential equation (ODE). It can be seen, how dimensionless similarity solutions of the ODE depend, in addition to the similarity variable, on two parameters: - the capillary number Nc, giving the ratio of capillary forces and viscous forces, and - the ratio of the viscosities of the two liquid phases. It is shown, under which conditions different mechanisms of transport are to be expected, such as - a completely stable displacement or - an unstable displacement, related to viscous fingering (DLA, Diffusion Limited Aggregation) or to capillary fingering (IP, Invasion Percolation). These mechanisms are also strongly dependent on certain critical exponents (characteristic for DLA or IP). These relations are discussed in our report. Again, for some regions of saturation, mechanisms of displacement are either clearly dominated - by imbibition (e.g. water pushing oil) or - by drain (e.g. oil pushing water). Some of the results are also transformed again from the similarity solution of the ODE to a solution of the PDE (with space- and time coordinates). It is seen, that even with this somewhat simplified approach, we obtain a considerable spectrum of mechanisms. (orig.)
Wire-mesh sensors for two-phase flow investigations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In the annual report 1996 a new wire-mesh sensor for gas-liquid flows was presented. It was used to visualise the cavitation bubble behind a fast acting shut-off valve in a pipeline with a time resolution of over 1000 frames per second for the first time. In the last two years the sensor was applied to an air-water flow in a vertical pipeline (inner diameter D=51.2 mm) to study the flow structure in a wide range of superficial velocities. Besides the void fraction distributions, the high resolution of the sensor allows to calculate bubble size distributions from the primary measuring data. It was possible to study the evolution of the bubble size distribution along the flow path with growing distance from the gas injection (inlet length, L). (orig.)
Measurements of local two-phase flow parameters in a boiling flow channel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Local two-phase flow parameters were measured lo investigate the internal flow structures of steam-water boiling flow in an annulus channel. Two kinds of measuring methods for local two-phase flow parameters were investigated. These are a two-conductivity probe for local vapor parameters and a Pitot cube for local liquid parameters. Using these probes, the local distribution of phasic velocities, interfacial area concentration (IAC) and void fraction is measured. In this study, the maximum local void fraction in subcooled boiling condition is observed around the heating rod and the local void fraction is smoothly decreased from the surface of a heating rod to the channel center without any wall void peaking, which was observed in air-water experiments. The distributions of local IAC and bubble frequency coincide with those of local void fraction for a given area-averaged void fraction. (author)
Interchannel stability analysis of oscillatory instable parallel channel two phase flow regimes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Conditions for interchannel hydrodynamic stability of oscillatory unstable parallel channel two-phase flow regimes are being analysed. For experimental determined transfer functions Nyquist diagrams for one-phase and two-phase flow regimes are being considered. The results are presented show interchannel stability oscillatory unstable linear experimental regimes and interchannel instability nonlinear experimental regimes
Modelling of two-phase flow based on separation of the flow according to velocity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The thesis concentrates on the development work of a physical one-dimensional two-fluid model that is based on Separation of the Flow According to Velocity (SFAV). The conventional way to model one-dimensional two-phase flow is to derive conservation equations for mass, momentum and energy over the regions occupied by the phases. In the SFAV approach, the two-phase mixture is divided into two subflows, with as distinct average velocities as possible, and momentum conservation equations are derived over their domains. Mass and energy conservation are treated equally with the conventional model because they are distributed very accurately according to the phases, but momentum fluctuations follow better the flow velocity. Submodels for non-uniform transverse profile of velocity and density, slip between the phases within each subflow and turbulence between the subflows have been derived. The model system is hyperbolic in any sensible flow conditions over the whole range of void fraction. Thus, it can be solved with accurate numerical methods utilizing the characteristics. The characteristics agree well with the used experimental data on two-phase flow wave phenomena Furthermore, the characteristics of the SFAV model are as well in accordance with their physical counterparts as of the best virtual-mass models that are typically optimized for special flow regimes like bubbly flow. The SFAV model has proved to be applicable in describing two-phase flow physically correctly because both the dynamics and steady-state behaviour of the model has been considered and found to agree well with experimental data This makes the SFAV model especially suitable for the calculation of fast transients, taking place in versatile form e.g. in nuclear reactors
Modelling of two-phase flow based on separation of the flow according to velocity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Narumo, T. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Nuclear Energy
1997-12-31
The thesis concentrates on the development work of a physical one-dimensional two-fluid model that is based on Separation of the Flow According to Velocity (SFAV). The conventional way to model one-dimensional two-phase flow is to derive conservation equations for mass, momentum and energy over the regions occupied by the phases. In the SFAV approach, the two-phase mixture is divided into two subflows, with as distinct average velocities as possible, and momentum conservation equations are derived over their domains. Mass and energy conservation are treated equally with the conventional model because they are distributed very accurately according to the phases, but momentum fluctuations follow better the flow velocity. Submodels for non-uniform transverse profile of velocity and density, slip between the phases within each subflow and turbulence between the subflows have been derived. The model system is hyperbolic in any sensible flow conditions over the whole range of void fraction. Thus, it can be solved with accurate numerical methods utilizing the characteristics. The characteristics agree well with the used experimental data on two-phase flow wave phenomena Furthermore, the characteristics of the SFAV model are as well in accordance with their physical counterparts as of the best virtual-mass models that are typically optimized for special flow regimes like bubbly flow. The SFAV model has proved to be applicable in describing two-phase flow physically correctly because both the dynamics and steady-state behaviour of the model has been considered and found to agree well with experimental data This makes the SFAV model especially suitable for the calculation of fast transients, taking place in versatile form e.g. in nuclear reactors. 45 refs. The thesis includes also five previous publications by author.
Experimental study on flow pattern transitions for inclined two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper, experimental data on flow pattern transition of inclination angles from 0-90 are presented. A test section is constructed 2 mm long and I.D 1inch using transparent material. The test section is supported by aluminum frame that can be placed with any arbitrary inclined angles. The air-water two-phase flow is observed at room temperature and atmospheric condition using both high speed camera and void impedance meter. The signal is sampled with sampling rate 1kHz and is analyzed under fully-developed condition. Based on experimental data, flow pattern maps are made for various inclination angles. As increasing the inclination angels from 0 to 90, the flow pattern transitions on the plane jg-jf are changed, such as stratified flow to plug flow or slug flow or plug flow to bubbly flow. The transition lines between pattern regimes are moved or sometimes disappeared due to its inclined angle
Two-phase flow research using the learjet apparatus
Mcquillen, John B.; Neumann, Eric S.
1995-01-01
Low-gravity, gas-liquid flow research can be conducted aboard the NASA Lewis Learjet, the Lewis DC-9, or the Johnson Space Center KC-135. Air and water solutions serve as the test liquids in cylindrical test sections with an inner diameter of 1.27 cm and lengths up to 1.5 m. Superficial velocities range from 0.1 to 1.1 m/sec for liquids and from 0.1 to 25 m/sec for air. Flow rate, differential pressure, void fraction, film thickness, wall-shear stress, and acceleration data are measured and recorded throughout the 20 sec duration of the experiment. Flow is visualized by photographing at 400 frames with a high-speed, 16-mm camera.
Two-phase slug flow in vertical and inclined tubes
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
1996-01-01
Gas-liquid slug flow is investigated experimentally in vertical and inclined tubes.The non-invasive measuremnts of the gas-liquid slug flow are taken by using the EKTAPRO 1000 High Speed Motion Analyzer.The information on the velocity of the Talyor bubble,the size distribution of the dispersed bubbles in the liquid slugs and some characteristics of the liquid film around the Taylor bubble are obtained.The experimental results are in good agreement with the available data.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wei-Yang Xie
2015-01-01
Full Text Available After multistage fracturing, the flowback of fracturing fluid will cause two-phase flow through hydraulic fractures in shale gas reservoirs. With the consideration of two-phase flow and desorbed gas transient diffusion in shale gas reservoirs, a two-phase transient flow model of multistage fractured horizontal well in shale gas reservoirs was created. Accurate solution to this flow model is obtained by the use of source function theory, Laplace transform, three-dimensional eigenvalue method, and orthogonal transformation. According to the model’s solution, the bilogarithmic type curves of the two-phase model are illustrated, and the production decline performance under the effects of hydraulic fractures and shale gas reservoir properties are discussed. The result obtained in this paper has important significance to understand pressure response characteristics and production decline law of two-phase flow in shale gas reservoirs. Moreover, it provides the theoretical basis for exploiting this reservoir efficiently.
Experimental Studies on the Measurement of Oil-water Two-phase Flow
Ma, Longbo; Zhang, Hongjian; Hua, Yuefang; Zhou, Hongliang
2007-06-01
Oil-water two-phase flow measurement was investigated with a Venturi meter and double-U Coriolis meter in this work. Based on the Venturi differential pressure and the quality of two-phase flow, a model for measuring oil-water mass flow rate was developed, in which fluid asymmetry of oil-water two-phase flow was considered. However, measuring the quality of two-phase flow on-line is rather difficult at present. Though double-U Coriolis meter can provide accurate measurement of two-phase flow, it can not provide desired respective mass flow rate. Therefore, a double-parameter measurement method with Venturi meter and double-U Coriolis meter is proposed. According to the flow rate requirement of Venturi, a new flow regime identification method based on Support Vector Machine (SVM) has been developed for the separated flow and the dispersed flow. With the Venturi model developed in this paper and mass flow rate of oil-water mixture measured with double-U Coriolis meter, mixture mass flow rate, oil mass flow rate and water mass flow rate could be obtained by the correlation. Experiments of flow rate measurement of oil-water two-phase flow were carried out in the horizontal tube with 25mm inner diameter. The water fraction range is from 5% to 95%. Experimental results showed that the flow regime could be identified well with SVM, and the relative error of the total mass flow rate and respective mass flow rate of oil-water two-phase flow was less than ±1.5% and ±10%, respectively.
Experimental on two sensors combination used in horizontal pipe gas-water two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gas-water two phase flow phenomenon widely exists in production and living and the measurement of it is meaningful. A new type of long-waist cone flow sensor has been designed to measure two-phase mass flow rate. Six rings structure of conductance probe is used to measure volume fraction and axial velocity. The calibration of them have been made. Two sensors have been combined in horizontal pipeline experiment to measure two-phase flow mass flow rate. Several model of gas-water two-phase flow has been discussed. The calculation errors of total mass flow rate measurement is less than 5% based on the revised homogeneous flow model
Experimental on two sensors combination used in horizontal pipe gas-water two-phase flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wu, Hao; Dong, Feng [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Process Measurement and Control, School of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Tianjin University, Tianjin (China)
2014-04-11
Gas-water two phase flow phenomenon widely exists in production and living and the measurement of it is meaningful. A new type of long-waist cone flow sensor has been designed to measure two-phase mass flow rate. Six rings structure of conductance probe is used to measure volume fraction and axial velocity. The calibration of them have been made. Two sensors have been combined in horizontal pipeline experiment to measure two-phase flow mass flow rate. Several model of gas-water two-phase flow has been discussed. The calculation errors of total mass flow rate measurement is less than 5% based on the revised homogeneous flow model.
Experimental on two sensors combination used in horizontal pipe gas-water two-phase flow
Wu, Hao; Dong, Feng
2014-04-01
Gas-water two phase flow phenomenon widely exists in production and living and the measurement of it is meaningful. A new type of long-waist cone flow sensor has been designed to measure two-phase mass flow rate. Six rings structure of conductance probe is used to measure volume fraction and axial velocity. The calibration of them have been made. Two sensors have been combined in horizontal pipeline experiment to measure two-phase flow mass flow rate. Several model of gas-water two-phase flow has been discussed. The calculation errors of total mass flow rate measurement is less than 5% based on the revised homogeneous flow model.
A continuum theory for two-phase flows of particulate solids: application to Poiseuille flows
Monsorno, Davide; Varsakelis, Christos; Papalexandris, Miltiadis V.
2015-11-01
In the first part of this talk, we present a novel two-phase continuum model for incompressible fluid-saturated granular flows. The model accounts for both compaction and shear-induced dilatancy and accommodates correlations for the granular rheology in a thermodynamically consistent way. In the second part of this talk, we exercise this two-phase model in the numerical simulation of a fully-developed Poiseuille flow of a dense suspension. The numerical predictions are shown to compare favorably against experimental measurements and confirm that the model can capture the important characteristics of the flow field, such as segregation and formation of plug zones. Finally, results from parametric studies with respect to the initial concentration, the magnitude of the external forcing and the width of the channel are presented and the role of these physical parameters is quantified. Financial Support has been provided by SEDITRANS, an Initial Training Network of the European Commission's 7th Framework Programme
Dispersed Two-Phase Flow Simulation and Parameters Optimisation
Achou, Yapi Donatien
2016-01-01
The numerical solution of differential equations is an algorithmic process with various parameters controlling the accuracy, stability and computational time of the simulation. In Computational Fluid Mechanics (CFD) there are numerous softwares designed to solve multiphase flow problems. One such software is OpenFoam, an open-source CFD software. In this thesis we use OpenFoam to simulate two special cases: first the rising of a single air bubble in liquid water, and then a turbulent disperse...
Two-Dimensional Numerical Simulation of Boiling Two-Phase Flow of Liquid Nitrogen
Ishimoto, Jun; Oike, Mamoru; Kamijo, Kenjiro
Two-dimensional characteristics of the boiling two-phase flow of liquid nitrogen in a duct flow are numerically investigated to contribute to the further development of new high-performance cryogenic engineering applications. First, the governing equations of the boiling two-phase flow of liquid nitrogen based on the unsteady drift-flux model are presented and several flow characteristics are numerically calculated taking account the effect of cryogenic flow states. Based on the numerical results, a two-dimensional structure of the boiling two-phase flow of liquid nitrogen is shown in detail, and it is found that the phase change of liquid nitrogen occurs in quite a short time interval compared with that of two-phase pressurized water at high temperature. Next, it is clarified that the distributions of pressure and the void fraction in a two-phase flow show a tendency different from those of fluids at room temperature because of the decrease in sound velocity due to large compressibility and the rapid phase change velocity in a cryogenic two-phase mixture flow. According to these numerical results, the fundamental characteristics of the cryogenic two-phase flow are predicted. The numerical results obtained will contribute to advanced cryogenic industrial applications.
Radiogauging to investigate two phase flow. Graduation report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
New measuring methods are developed and are tested with the small reactor simulator MIDAS (Mini Dodewaard ASsembly). The purpose of this work is to be able to measure accurately as many different properties of the flow as possible in the coming bigger simulator SIDAS (Simulated Dodewaard ASsembly). In SIDAS the flow around a fuel assembly of the Dutch Dodewaard reactor will be simulated. An extensive evaluation of the gamma detection system showed that the detection system could be simplified strongly. The simplified system is used to measure the radial and axial distribution of the void fraction in the core of MIDAS for three different operating conditions. Two new measuring methods have been developed and tested. A method to estimate the probability density of the void fraction in time. Due to the nonlinear relation between transmission and void fraction the determined average value of the void fraction in general will contain a systematic error. In this investigation it is shown that this error can be maximally 7.5% in MIDAS and maximally 25% in SIDAS. Therefore a new measuring method has been developed in which the true probability density of the void fraction in time is approximated by two different values of the void fraction, each with a certain probability. With this new method firstly the average void fraction can be determined much more precisely and secondly it often can be used to determine the flow pattern. (orig./WL)
Analysis of Developing Gas/liquid Two-Phase Flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Elena A. Tselishcheva; Michael Z. Podowski; Steven P. Antal; Donna Post Guillen; Matthias Beyer; Dirk Lucas
2010-06-01
The goal of this work is to develop a mechanistically based CFD model that can be used to simulate process equipment operating in the churn-turbulent regime. The simulations were performed using a state-of-the-art computational multiphase fluid dynamics code, NPHASE–CMFD [Antal et al,2000]. A complete four-field model, including the continuous liquid field and three dispersed gas fields representing bubbles of different sizes, was first carefully tested for numerical convergence and accuracy, and then used to reproduce the experimental results from the TOPFLOW test facility at Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V. Institute of Safety Research [Prasser et al,2007]. Good progress has been made in simulating the churn-turbulent flows and comparison the NPHASE-CMFD simulations with TOPFLOW experimental data. The main objective of the paper is to demonstrate capability to predict the evolution of adiabatic churn-turbulent gas/liquid flows. The proposed modelling concept uses transport equations for the continuous liquid field and for dispersed bubble fields [Tselishcheva et al, 2009]. Along with closure laws based on interaction between bubbles and continuous liquid, the effect of height on air density has been included in the model. The figure below presents the developing flow results of the study, namely total void fraction at different axial locations along the TOPFLOW facility test section. The complete model description, as well as results of simulations and validation will be presented in the full paper.
Three dimensional, two phases flow simulation around a cylinder
Ducrocq, Thomas; Ludovic, Cassan
2015-04-01
Fishways are facilities build on the obstacles in river, as dams, to allow the free circulation of migratory fishes. This study focuses on "natural fishpasses" which are high slopes channels composed of blocks rows arranged in staggered. The characterization of the flow structure in this kind of fishways is the aim of the study even if the present first approach is achieved on a single block to validate the model. On one hand, three dimensional simulations are carried with several turbulence closure (k-É, k-ω, RNG-k-ɛ). The VOF model is used to track the free surface. The computation run by the software OpenFOAM which enables to do massively parallel computing. On the other hand, experiments are conducted on a flume in the lab in order to compare the results. The tested configurations are, an emerged cylinder, no slope (i.e 0%) and flows of 10 and 20L/s. The objectif is the comparison of the free surface flow between experiments and simulation results at high Froude number. The results show a good agreement between the experiments and the simulations. The perspective is the simulation of a full fishpasse.
The kinematics of moving flow regime interfaces in two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Flow regimes are important in two-phase flow modeling for the selection of two-phase flow models and constitutive relations. This paper deals with the time-dependent location of flow regime transition zones or interfaces, notably the locations of boiling incipience and mixture levels. Regime interfaces in one-dimensional transient two-phase flow are classified and their equations of motion are presented. Kinematic or density jump propagation velocities are contrasted with kinematic wave velocities. An algorithm is presented for the numerical integration of the general equations for mixture level tracking in an Eulerian mesh of finite differences. The algorithm is free of numerical diffusion at the position of sharp discontinuities in void fraction and density. Solutions are presented in graphical form for oscillatory inlet velocity and time-invariant uniform wall heating and for the case of no liquid carryover. The method is useful for modeling thermohydraulic transients in nuclear reactor components under conditions of smallbreak loss of coolant accidents
Hydrodynamic stability of inverted annular flow in an adiabatic simulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In experiments, inverted annular flow was simulated adiabatically with turbulent water jets, issuing downward from long aspect nozzles, enclosed in gas annuli. Velocities, diameters, and gas species were varied, and core jet length, shape, break-up mode, and dispersed-core droplet sizes were recorded at approximately 750 data points. Inverted annular flow was observed to develop into inverted slug flow at low relative velocities, and into dispersed droplet flow at high relative velocities. For both of the above transitions from inverted annular flow, a correlation for core jet length was developed by extending work done on free liquid jets to include this new, coaxial, jet disintegration phenomenon. The result, showing length dependence upon diameter, jet Reynolds number, jet Weber number, void fraction, and gas Weber number, correlates the data well, especially at moderate-to-large relative velocities
Parallel Instabilities in Two-Phase Flow in Porous Media
Vassvik, Morten
2014-01-01
Two immiscible fluids flowing in parallel with respect to the interface separating them in a two-dimensional porous medium has been studied using a dynamic network model. Two immiscible fluids, one wetting and the other non-wetting moving in parallel is a complicated process that haven't gotten much attention. It is found that there is a competition between imbibition and drainage displacements at the pore-scale along the front separating the two fluids due to an external force driving b...
Enhanced two phase flow in heat transfer systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tegrotenhuis, Ward E; Humble, Paul H; Lavender, Curt A; Caldwell, Dustin D
2013-12-03
A family of structures and designs for use in devices such as heat exchangers so as to allow for enhanced performance in heat exchangers smaller and lighter weight than other existing devices. These structures provide flow paths for liquid and vapor and are generally open. In some embodiments of the invention, these structures can also provide secondary heat transfer as well. In an evaporate heat exchanger, the inclusion of these structures and devices enhance the heat transfer coefficient of the evaporation phase change process with comparable or lower pressure drop.
Experimental Investigation of Two-Phase Flow in Rock Salt
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Malama, Bwalya; Howard, Clifford L.
2014-07-01
This Test Plan describes procedures for conducting laboratory scale flow tests on intact, damaged, crushed, and consolidated crushed salt to measure the capillary pressure and relative permeability functions. The primary focus of the tests will be on samples of bedded geologic salt from the WIPP underground. However, the tests described herein are directly applicable to domal salt. Samples being tested will be confined by a range of triaxial stress states ranging from atmospheric pressure up to those approximating lithostatic. Initially these tests will be conducted at room temperature, but testing procedures and equipment will be evaluated to determine adaptability to conducting similar tests under elevated temperatures.
SIMULATION OF LOW-CONCENTRATION SEDIMENT-LADEN FLOW BASED ON TWO-PHASE FLOW THEORY
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
Low concentration sediment-laden flow is usually involved in water conservancy, environmental protection, navigation and so on. In this article, a mathematical model for low-concentration sediment-laden flow was suggested based on the two-phase flow theory, and a solving scheme for the mathematical model in curvilinear grids was worked out. The observed data in the Zhang River in China was used for the verification of the model, and the calculated results of the water level, velocity and river bed deformation are in agreement with the observed ones.
Investigation of oil-air two-phase mass flow rate measurement using Venturi and void fraction sensor
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Hong-jian; YUE Wei-ting; HUANG Zhi-yao
2005-01-01
Oil-air two-phase flow measurement was investigated with a Venturi and void fraction meters in this work. This paper proposes a new flow rate measurement correlation in which the effect of the velocity ratio between gas and liquid was considered.With the pressure drop across the Venturi and the void fraction that was measured by electrical capacitance tomography apparatus,both mixture flow rate and oil flow rate could be obtained by the correlation. Experiments included bubble-, slug-, wave and annular flow with the void fraction ranging from 15% to 83%, the oil flow rate ranging from 0.97 kg/s to 1.78 kg/s, the gas flow rate ranging up to 0.018 kg/s and quality ranging nearly up to 2.0%. The root-mean-square errors of mixture mass flow rate and that ofoil mass flow rate were less than 5%. Furthermore, coefficients of the correlation were modified based on flow regimes, with the results showing reduced root-mean-square errors.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oliveira, Livia Alves [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Nuclear Engineering Institute (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: livia@lasme.coppe.ufrj.br; Cunha Filho, Jurandyr; Su, Jian [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Nuclear Engineering Program], Emails: cunhafilho@lasme.coppe.ufrj.br, sujian@lasme.coppe.ufrj.br; Faccini, Jose Luiz Horacio [Nuclear Engineering Institute (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: faccini@ien.gov.br
2010-07-01
In this paper a flow visualization study was performed for two-phase gas-liquid flow in horizontal and slightly inclined tubes. The test section consists of a 2.54 cm inner diameter stainless steel circular tube, followed by a transparent acrylic tube with the same inner diameter. The working fluids were air and water, with liquid superficial velocities ranging from 0:11 to 3:28 m/s and gas superficial velocities ranging from 0:27 to 5:48 m/s. Flow visualization was executed for upward flow at 5 deg and 10 deg and downward flow at 2:5 deg, 5 deg and 10 deg, as well as for horizontal flow. The visualization technique consists of a high-speed digital camera that records images at rates of 125 and 250 frames per second of a concurrent air-water mixture through a transparent part of the tube. From the obtained images, the flow regimes were identified (except for annular flow), observing the effect of inclination angles on flow regime transition boundaries. Finally, the experimental results were compared with empirical and theoretical flow pattern maps available in literature. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Highlights: • Analysis of the two-phase flow structure in minichannel. • Innovative use of stereology methods and hi-speed photography. • Application of stereological parameters to flow monitoring. - Abstract: The paper describes a method of two-phase flow structure evaluation for minichannels. The two-phase flow structure appears in gas–liquid mixture. The research is based on innovative approach, with the use of stereology methods. Evaluation of the flow structure is made by image analysis. The images are obtained with high-speed visualization technique. The applied stereological analysis is based on the linear methods – the random secants method and directed secants method. Development of mini heat exchangers requires knowledge of the two-phase flow phenomena. The major result of conducted research is that for each flow structure there is a set of stereological parameters, enabling the quantitative estimation of the two-phase flow. It has been found that the interrelation of stereological parameters, during the change of the flow structure, can be used for controlling the operating conditions. The basic conclusion is that the knowledge about the character of the changes taking place in the flow structure may be used for constant process adjustment for various two-phase gas–liquid or gas–solid systems
Rotordynamic Analysis of Textured Annular Seals With Multiphase (Bubbly Flow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gérard PINEAU
2011-09-01
Full Text Available For some applications it must be considered that the flow in the annular seal contains a mixture of liquid and gas. The multiphase character of the flow is described by the volume fraction of gas (usually air contained in the liquid under the form of bubbles.The fluid is then a homogenous mixture of air and liquid all thru the annular seal. Its local gas volume fraction depends on the pressure field and is calculated by using a simplified form of the Rayleigh-Plesset equation.The influence of such of a multiphase (bubbly flow on the dynamic characteristics of a straight annular seal is minimal because the volume of the fluid is reduced.The situation is quite different for textured annular (damper seals provided with equally spaced deep cavities intended to increase the damping capabilities and to reduce the leakage flow rate.As a by-product, the volume of the fluid in the seal increases drastically and the compressibility effects stemming from the bubbly nature of the flow are largely increased even for a low gas volume fraction. The present work depicts the influence of the gas volume fraction on the dynamic characteristics of a textured annular seal. It is shown that variations of the gas volume fraction between 1% and 0.1% can lead to frequency dependent stiffness, damping and added mass coefficients.
Two-phase fluid flow in geometric packing.
Paiva, Aureliano Sancho S; Oliveira, Rafael S; Andrade, Roberto F S
2015-12-13
We investigate how a plug of obstacles inside a two-dimensional channel affects the drainage of high viscous fluid (oil) when the channel is invaded by a less viscous fluid (water). The plug consists of an Apollonian packing with, at most, 17 circles of different sizes, which is intended to model an inhomogeneous porous region. The work aims to quantify the amount of retained oil in the region where the flow is influenced by the packing. The investigation, carried out with the help of the computational fluid dynamics package ANSYS-FLUENT, is based on the integration of the complete set of equations of motion. The study considers the effect of both the injection speed and the number and size of obstacles, which directly affects the porosity of the system. The results indicate a complex dependence in the fraction of retained oil on the velocity and geometric parameters. The regions where the oil remains trapped is very sensitive to the number of circles and their size, which influence in different ways the porosity of the system. Nevertheless, at low values of Reynolds and capillary numbers Re<4 and n(c)≃10(-5), the overall expected result that the volume fraction of oil retained decreases with increasing porosity is recovered. A direct relationship between the injection speed and the fraction of oil is also obtained. PMID:26527816
Development of high pressure two-phase choked flow analysis methodology in complex piping system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Choked flow mechanism, characteristics of two-phase flow sound velocity and compressibility effects on flow through various piping system components are studied to develop analysis methodology for high pressure two-phase choked flow in complex piping system which allows choking flow rate evaluation and piping system design related analysis. Piping flow can be said choked if Mach number is equal to 1 and compressibility effects can be accounted through modified incompressible formula in momentum equation. Based on these findings, overall analysis system is developed to study thermal-hydraulic effects on steady-state piping system flow and future research items are presented. (Author)
Two-phase bounded acceleration traffic flow model: Analytical solutions and applications
LEBACQUE, JP
2003-01-01
The present paper describes a two phase traffic flow model. One phase is traffic equilibrium: flow and speed are functions of density, and traffic acceleration is low. The second phase is characterized by constant acceleration. This model extends first order traffic flow models and recaptures the fact that traffic acceleration is bounded. The paper show how to calculate analytical solutions of the two-phase model for dynamic traffic situations, provides a set of calculation rules, and analyze...
Flow visualization study of inverted U-bend two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A hot-leg U-bend experiment was performed. The experimental condition simulated the two-phase flow in a B and W primary loop during a small break loss of coolant accident or during some other abnormal transients. The loop design was based on the scaling criteria developed previously and the loop was operated either in a natural circulation mode or in a forced circulation mode using nitrogen gas and water. The two-phase flow regimes at the hot-leg were identified on the basis of visual observation. The phase separation at the top of the inverted U-bend was observed at low gas flow rate. The void fractions were measured using differential pressure transducers and compared with the prediction from the drift-flux model. The natural circulation flow interruption occurred in two different modes, namely, quasi-periodic and semi-permanent modes. This phenomenon is mainly dependent on the difference in the hydrostatic head in the riser and downcomer, and the flow regime at hot-leg. Besides this flow interruption phenomenon, dynamic flow instabilities of considerable amplitudes have been observed
Critical heat flux and flow pattern for water flow in annular geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An experimental study on critical heat flux (CHF) and two-phase flow visualization has been performed for water flow in internally-heated, vertical, concentric annuli under near atmospheric pressure. Tests have been done under stable forced-circulation, upward and downward flow conditions with three test sections of relatively large gap widths (heated length = 0.6 m, inner diameter 19 mm, outer diameter = 29, 35 and 51 mm). The outer wall of the test section was made up of the transparent Pyrex tube to allow the observation of flow patterns near the CHF occurrence. The CHF mechanism was changed in the order of flooding, churn-to-annular flow transition and local dryout under a large bubble in churn flow as the flow rate was increased from zero to higher values. Observed parametric trends are consistent with the previous understanding except that the CHF for downward flow is considerably lower than that for the upward flow. In addition to the experiment, selected CHF correlations for annuli are assessed based on 1156 experimental data from various sources. The Doerffer et al. (1994); Barnett (1966); Jannsen and Kervinen (1963); Levitan and Lantsman (1977) correlations show reasonable predictions for wide parameter ranges, among which the Doerffer et al. (1994) correlation shows the widest parameter ranges and a possibility of further improvement. However, there is no correlation predicting the low-pressure, low-flow CHF satisfactorily. (orig.)
Single and two-phase flow fluid dynamics in parallel helical coils
De Salve, M.; Orio, M.; Panella, B.
2014-04-01
The design of helical coiled steam generators requires the knowledge of the single and two-phase fluid dynamics. The present work reports the results of an experimental campaign on single-phase and two phase pressure drops and void fraction in three parallel helicoidal pipes, in which the total water flow rate is splitted by means of a branch. With this test configuration the distribution of the water flow rate in the helicoidal pipes and the phenomena of the instability of the two-phase flow have been experimentally investigated.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A theoretical model for predicting the threshold of instability for two phase flow in a natural circulation loop is presented. The model calculates the flow transient caused by a step disturbance of the heat input, and is based upon the conservation laws of mass, momentum and energy in one dimensional form. Empirical correlations are used in the model for estimating the void fractions and the two-phase flow pressure drops. The equations are solved numerically in a finite difference approximation coded for a digital computer. An experimental study of the hydrodynamic instability and dynamic burnout in two-phase flow has been performed in a natural circulation loop in the pressure range from 10 to 70 atg. The test sections were round ducts of 20, 30 and 36 mm inner diameter and 4890 mm heated length. The experimental results showed that within the ranges tested, the stability of the flow increases with increasing pressure and increasing throttling before the test section, but decreases with increasing Inlet subcooling and increasing throttling after the test section. Comparing the natural circulation burnout steam qualities with corresponding forced circulation data shoved that the former data were low by a factor up to 2.5. However, by applying inlet throttling of the flow the burnout values approached and finally coincided with the forced circulation data. The present experimental results as well as data available from other sources have been compared with the stability thresholds obtained with the theoretical model. The comparisons included circular, annular and rod cluster geometries, and the agreement between the experimental and theoretical stability limits was good. Finally the application of the experimental and theoretical results on the assessment of boiling heavy water reactor design is discussed
Development of One Dimensional Hyperbolic Coupled Solver for Two-Phase Flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Eoi Jin; Kim, Jong Tae; Jeong, Jae June
2008-08-15
The purpose of this study is a code development for one dimensional two-phase two-fluid flows. In this study, the computations of two-phase flow were performed by using the Roe scheme which is one of the upwind schemes. The upwind scheme is widely used in the computational fluid dynamics because it can capture discontinuities clearly such as a shock. And this scheme is applicable to multi-phase flows by the extension methods which were developed by Toumi, Stadtke, etc. In this study, the extended Roe upwind scheme by Toumi for two-phase flow was implemented in the one-dimensional code. The scheme was applied to a shock tube problem and a water faucet problem. This numerical method seems efficient for non oscillating solutions of two phase flow problems, and also capable for capturing discontinuities.
Critical Regimes of Two-Phase Flows with a Polydisperse Solid Phase
Barsky, Eugene
2010-01-01
This book brings to light peculiarities of the formation of critical regimes of two-phase flows with a polydisperse solid phase. A definition of entropy is formulated on the basis of statistical analysis of these peculiarities. The physical meaning of entropy and its correlation with other parameters determining two-phase flows are clearly defined. The interrelations and main differences between this entropy and the thermodynamic one are revealed. The main regularities of two-phase flows both in critical and in other regimes are established using the notion of entropy. This parameter serves as a basis for a deeper insight into the physics of the process and for the development of exhaustive techniques of mass exchange estimation in such flows. The book is intended for graduate and postgraduate students of engineering studying two-phase flows, and to scientists and engineers engaged in specific problems of such fields as chemical technology, mineral dressing, modern ceramics, microelectronics, pharmacology, po...
Numerical simulation of multi-dimensional two-phase flow based on flux vector splitting
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Staedtke, H.; Franchello, G.; Worth, B. [Joint Research Centre - Ispra Establishment (Italy)
1995-09-01
This paper describes a new approach to the numerical simulation of transient, multidimensional two-phase flow. The development is based on a fully hyperbolic two-fluid model of two-phase flow using separated conservation equations for the two phases. Features of the new model include the existence of real eigenvalues, and a complete set of independent eigenvectors which can be expressed algebraically in terms of the major dependent flow parameters. This facilitates the application of numerical techniques specifically developed for high speed single-phase gas flows which combine signal propagation along characteristic lines with the conservation property with respect to mass, momentum and energy. Advantages of the new model for the numerical simulation of one- and two- dimensional two-phase flow are discussed.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
1999-01-01
The mechanism for transporting liquid from the bottom of the pipe to the top still to be established in the prediction of the film thickness distribution in horizontal annular two-phase flow.To resolve this issue,using five parallel-wire conductance probes,time records of local liquid film thickness at five circumferential positions were collected.The characteristics of circumferential liquid film thickness profiles and its variation with gas and liquid velocities were obtained.The basic features of probability distribution function,probability density function,auto-correlation,cross-correlation and power spectrum density function of the disturbance waves in annular flow were studied respectively.The characterstics of circumferential profiles of disturbance waves and its variation with gas and liquid velocities were presented.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
It is a classical method by using analysis of differential pressure fluctuation signal to identify two-phase flow pattern. The method which uses trait peak in the frequency-domain will result confusion between bubble flow and intermittent flow due to the influence of gas speed. Considering the spatial geometric significance of two-phase slow patterns and using the differential pressure gauge as a sensor, the Strouhal number 'Sr' is taken as the basis for distinguishing flow patterns. Using Strouhal number 'Sr' to identify flow pattern has clear physical meaning. The experimental results using the spatial analytical technique to measure the flow pattern are also given
Structural developments of turbulent two-phase flow in large pipes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In connection with the thermohydraulic problems of two-phase flow that may be encountered under certain operating conditions in piping systems containing heat sources and sinks such as a CANDU reactor heat transport system, this study investigates some of the turbulent characteristics of both cocurrent air-water two-phase flow and single phase flow in large pipes with horizontal orientation. Pitot tubes together with hot film anemometry have been shown to be an adequate measurement system in turbulent dispersed two-phase flow. A practical semi-empirical formula has been developed to predict local mixture velocity as a function of differential head read by Pitot tube, local void fraction, flow pattern constant, gas-liquid properties, momentum transfer factor and two-phase flow quality. The structural developments of the dispersed mixture velocity was studied along a straight horizontal PVC run and expressed in terms of the radial distance and the pipeline length. A correlation is introduced to determine the local mixture velocity in terms of radial and streamwise distance, two-phase flow quality, gas and liquid densities. A similar correlation is presented to predict the local developments of the void fraction. In addition to those normalized correlations, hypothetical interpretations of the experienced phenonema are presented. It was found that the mixture velocity is significantly influenced by the volumetric mixing ratio of both phases. Conclusions are drawn in the special cases of turbulent single and two-phase flow
Hasan, Abbas; Lucas, Gary
2007-01-01
In two phase flow, differential pressures technique can be used to measure the volume fraction of the gas phase. In the case where no restriction is available in the pipeline, the differential pressure technique can be used only in vertical or inclined pipelines. Two phase air-water pressure drop across a Venturi meter may change its sign from positive to negative due to change in the compressibility of the gas phase. In other words, the inlet of the venturi (upstream section) is not...
Two-phase flow operational maps for multi-microchannel evaporators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Highlights: • New operational maps for several different micro-evaporators are presented. • Inlet micro-orifices prevented flow instability, back flow, and flow maldistribution. • Eight different operating regimes were distinguished. • The flashing two-phase flow without back flow operating regime is preferred. -- Abstract: The current paper presents new operational maps for several different multi-microchannel evaporators, with and without any inlet restrictions (micro-orifices), for the two-phase flow of refrigerants R245fa, R236fa, and R1234ze(E). The test fluids flowed in 67 parallel channels, each having a cross-sectional area of 100 × 100 μm2. In order to emulate the power dissipated by active components in a 3D CMOS CPU chip, two aluminium microheaters were sputtered onto the back-side of the test section providing a 0.5 cm2 each. Without any inlet restrictions in the micro-evaporator, significant parallel channel flow instabilities, vapor back flow, and flow maldistribution led to high-amplitude and high-frequency temperature and pressure oscillations. Such undesired phenomena were then prevented by placing restrictions at the inlet of each channel. High-speed flow visualization distinguished eight different operating regimes of the two-phase flow depending on the tested operating conditions. Therefore, the preferred operating regimes can be easily traced. In particular, flashing two-phase flow without back flow appeared to be the best operating regime without any flow and temperature instabilities
Mixed Model for Silt-Laden Solid-Liquid Two-Phase Flows
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
唐学林; 徐宇; 吴玉林
2003-01-01
The kinetic theory of molecular gases was used to derive the governing equations for dense solid-liquid two-phase flows from a microscopic flow characteristics viewpoint by multiplying the Boltzmann equation for each phase by property parameters and integrating over the velocity space. The particle collision term was derived from microscopic terms by comparison with dilute two-phase flow but with consideration of the collisions between particles for dense two-phase flow conditions and by assuming that the particle-phase velocity distribution obeys the Maxwell equations. Appropriate terms from the dilute two-phase governing equations were combined with the dense particle collision term to develop the governing equations for dense solid-liquid turbulent flows. The SIMPLEC algorithm and a staggered grid system were used to solve the discretized two-phase governing equations with a Reynolds averaged turbulence model. Dense solid-liquid turbulent two-phase flows were simulated for flow in a duct. The simulation results agree well with experimental data.
Numerical study for two phase flow in the near nozzle region of turbine combustors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In the present study flow conditions in the near nozzle region of the combustion chamber have been investigated. There exists two-phase flow in this region. The overall performance and pollutant formation in the combustion chamber have been investigated. There exists two-phase flow in this region. The overall performance and pollutant formation in the combustion zone largely depends on the spray field in the near nozzle region the studies are conducted to determined the effects of multi jets on the flow pattern in the near nozzle region The phase doppler particle analyzer (PDPA) has been used to measure the velocities and sizes of the droplets. The flow field of two-phase liquid drop-air jets is formed from three injectors arranged in t line. Furthermore the two-phase flow field has been analyzed numerically also. The numerical analysis consists of two computational models, namely (i) 3 non-evaporating two-phase jets, (II) 3 evaporating two phase jets. The Eulerian-Eulerian approach in incorporated in both the numerical models. Since the flow is turbulent, a two-equation model (k-Epsilon) is implemented in the numerical analysis. Numerical solution of the conservation equation is obtained using PHOENICS computer code. Boundary conditions are provided from the experimental measurements. Numerical domain for the two models of the analysis starts at some distance (about 10 diameters of the injector orifice) where the atomization process is complete and droplet size and velocity could be measured experimentally. (author)
Non-local two phase flow momentum transport in S BWR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The non-local momentum transport equations derived in this work contain new terms related with non-local transport effects due to accumulation, convection, diffusion and transport properties for two-phase flow. For instance, they can be applied in the boundary between a two-phase flow and a solid phase, or in the boundary of the transition region of two-phase flows where the local volume averaging equations fail. The S BWR was considered to study the non-local effects on the two-phase flow thermal-hydraulic core performance in steady-state, and the results were compared with the classical local averaging volume conservation equations. (Author)
Modified Diffusion Flux Model for Analysis of Turbulent Gas-Particle Two-Phase Flows
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YANG Ruichang; ZHOU Weiduo; FUKUDA Kenji; JU Zejian; SHANG Zhi
2005-01-01
A modified diffusion flux model (DFM) was developed to analyze turbulent multi-dimensional gas-particle two-phase flows. In the model, the solid particles move in a modified acceleration field, , which includes the effects of various forces on the particles as if all the forces have the same effect on the particles as the gravity. The accelerations due to various forces are then taken into account in the calculation of the diffusion velocities of the solid particles in the gas-particle two-phase flow. The DFM was used to numerically simulate the gas-solid two-phase flow behind a vertical backward-facing step. The numerical simulation compared well with experimental data and numerical results using both the k-ε-Ap and k-ε-kp two-fluid models available in the literature. The comparison shows that the modified diffusion flux model correctly simulates the turbulent gas-particle two-phase flow.
Non-local two phase flow momentum transport in S BWR
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Espinosa P, G.; Salinas M, L.; Vazquez R, A., E-mail: gepe@xanum.uam.mx [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Iztapalapa, Area de Ingenieria en Recursos Energeticos, Apdo. Postal 55-535, 09340 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico)
2015-09-15
The non-local momentum transport equations derived in this work contain new terms related with non-local transport effects due to accumulation, convection, diffusion and transport properties for two-phase flow. For instance, they can be applied in the boundary between a two-phase flow and a solid phase, or in the boundary of the transition region of two-phase flows where the local volume averaging equations fail. The S BWR was considered to study the non-local effects on the two-phase flow thermal-hydraulic core performance in steady-state, and the results were compared with the classical local averaging volume conservation equations. (Author)
Programs and calculations of heat transfer in two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Problems of physical simulation of hydrodynamics and heat exchange processes in two-phase flows of coolants in nuclear reactors are discussed. Programs RELAP-4 and TRAC, used for the analysis of reactor safety, are described
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In order to evaluate an influence of earthquake acceleration to the boiling two-phase flow behavior in nuclear reactors, numerical simulations were performed under the simulated earthquake condition. The two-phase flow analysis code, ACE-3D, was modified as the influence of the earth quake acceleration can calculate. To check out if the modification is adequate, a series of calculations were carried out and the following summaries were derived; 1) the void fraction in the fuel bundle receives the influence of the earthquake, 2) the liquid-phase in the two-phase flow moves in the same direction as the direction of oscillation due to the inputted earthquake acceleration, and 3) due to the density difference in comparison with the liquid phase, the gas phase of that moves in the direction opposite to the oscillating direction. This study enabled visualized evaluation of the boiling two-phase flow behavior in the nuclear reactors at the earthquake condition. (author)
Two-phase air-water stratified flow measurement using ultrasonic techniques
Fan, Shiwei; Yan, Tinghu; Yeung, Hoi
2014-04-01
In this paper, a time resolved ultrasound system was developed for investigating two-phase air-water stratified flow. The hardware of the system includes a pulsed wave transducer, a pulser/receiver, and a digital oscilloscope. The time domain cross correlation method is used to calculate the velocity profile along ultrasonic beam. The system is able to provide velocities with spatial resolution of around 1mm and the temporal resolution of 200μs. Experiments were carried out on single phase water flow and two-phase air-water stratified flow. For single phase water flow, the flow rates from ultrasound system were compared with those from electromagnetic flow (EM) meter, which showed good agreement. Then, the experiments were conducted on two-phase air-water stratified flow and the results were given. Compared with liquid height measurement from conductance probe, it indicated that the measured velocities were explainable.
Numerical simulation of the two-phase flows in a hydraulic coupling by solving VOF model
Luo, Y.; Zuo, Z. G.; Liu, S. H.; Fan, H. G.; Zhuge, W. L.
2013-12-01
The flow in a partially filled hydraulic coupling is essentially a gas-liquid two-phase flow, in which the distribution of two phases has significant influence on its characteristics. The interfaces between the air and the liquid, and the circulating flows inside the hydraulic coupling can be simulated by solving the VOF two-phase model. In this paper, PISO algorithm and RNG k-ɛ turbulence model were employed to simulate the phase distribution and the flow field in a hydraulic coupling with 80% liquid fill. The results indicate that the flow forms a circulating movement on the torus section with decreasing speed ratio. In the pump impeller, the air phase mostly accumulates on the suction side of the blades, while liquid on the pressure side; in turbine runner, air locates in the middle of the flow passage. Flow separations appear near the blades and the enclosing boundaries of the hydraulic coupling.
Numerical simulation of the two-phase flows in a hydraulic coupling by solving VOF model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The flow in a partially filled hydraulic coupling is essentially a gas-liquid two-phase flow, in which the distribution of two phases has significant influence on its characteristics. The interfaces between the air and the liquid, and the circulating flows inside the hydraulic coupling can be simulated by solving the VOF two-phase model. In this paper, PISO algorithm and RNG k–ε turbulence model were employed to simulate the phase distribution and the flow field in a hydraulic coupling with 80% liquid fill. The results indicate that the flow forms a circulating movement on the torus section with decreasing speed ratio. In the pump impeller, the air phase mostly accumulates on the suction side of the blades, while liquid on the pressure side; in turbine runner, air locates in the middle of the flow passage. Flow separations appear near the blades and the enclosing boundaries of the hydraulic coupling
Personal view of educating two-phase flow and human resource development as a nuclear engineer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
As an engineer who has devoted himself in the nuclear industry for almost three decades, the author gave a personal view on educating two-phase flow and developing human resources. An expected role of universities in on-going discussions of collaboration among industry-government-academia is introduced. Reformation of two-phase flow education is discussed from two extreme viewpoints, the basic structure of physics and the practical system analysis. (author)
Two-phase flow and heat transfer symposium-workshop. Proceedings of condensed papers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Two-phase flow applications are found in a wide range of engineering systems, such as boiling water reactors, conventional steam boilers, evaporators of refrigeration systems, and evaporative and condensive heat exchangers in chemical and petroleum industries. Over the past two decades, two-phase flow instability problems have been a challenge to many investigators. Such instabilities could induce boiling crisis, disturb control systems and/or cause mechanical damage. It is important to be able to predict the conditions under which a two-phase flow system will perform without instability. Therefore, the understanding of two-phase flow phenomena is extremely important for the design, control and performance prediction of such systems. Because of the recent energy crisis, many other two-phase flow problems have also become important. Some of them are the modeling of the loss of coolant accident in pressurized water nuclear reactors, scaling up of fluidized bed reactors for converting coal to clean gaseous and liquid fuels, and design of heat exchangers for liquified natural gas, and design of heat exchangers for liquified natural gas. There is a need to provide researchers and engineers in this field with an opportunity to exchange their experience and ideas in order to assess the state-of-the-art of two-phase flow and heat transfer studies, and to establish a basis for identification of areas of future research and application. This symposium provides the latest information on the status of two-phase flow and heat transfer research, development and applications. It also establish a rational basis for identification of areas of two-phase flow and heat transfer for further research and application
Numerical simulation of two-phase gas-liquid flows in inclined and vertical pipelines
Loilier, P.
2006-01-01
The present thesis describes the advances made in modelling two-phase flows in inclined pipes using a transient one-dimensional approach. The research is a developement of an existing numerical methodology, capable of simulating stratified and slugging two-phase flows in horizontal or inclined single pipes. The aim of the present work is to extend the capabilities of the approach in order (i) to account for the effect of the pipe topography in the numerical solution of the two-...
Two-phase flow modeling of cirtical heat flux for subcooled and low quality flow boiling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A two-phase flow model developed to predict a critical heat flux (CHF) in the subcooled and low quality flow boiling. The CHF formula was derived from the local conservation equations of mass, energy and momentum, together with appropriate constitutive relations. The limiting transverse interchange of mass flux crossing the interface of the bubbly layer and core region is represented, in the local momentum conservation equation, by taking account of the convective shear effects due to the drag force on the wallattaced bubbles. Comparison between the predictions by the proposed model and the experimental CHF data from several sources shows good agrrement over a wide range of flow conditions ( 2≤P≤20 MPa, 1≤D≤37.5 mm, 0.035 ≤L≤6 m, 450 ≤G≤7500 kg/m2s, αexit≤0.8). Also the model correctly accounts for the effects of flow variables
Two-phase flow void fraction measurement using gamma ray attenuation technique
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The present work deals with experimental void fraction measurements in two-phase water-nitrogen flow, by using a gamma ray attenuation technique. Several upward two-phase flow regimes in a vertical tube were simulated. The water flow was varied from 0.13 to 0.44 m3/h while the nitrogen flow was varied between 0.01 and 0.1 m3/h. The mean volumetric void fraction was determined based on the measured linear void fraction for each flow condition. The results were compared with other authors data and showed a good agreement. (author)
Simulation of throttle flow with two phase and single phase homogenous equilibrium model
Koukouvinis, P.; Gavaises, M.
2015-12-01
This paper aims to compare the results of two commonly used methods for the simulation of cavitating flows; one is the two phase mass transfer approach and the other is a homogenous equilibrium model. Both methodologies are compared in a shock tube and a throttle flow, which resembles the constrictions in Diesel injector passages. The mass transfer rate in the two phase model plays the fundamental role in affecting how close to equilibrium the model is; by increasing the mass transfer the two phase model comes close to the homogenous equilibrium model.
Measurement of local two-phase flow parameters of nanofluids using conductivity double-sensor probe
Park Yu sun; Chang Soon
2011-01-01
Abstract A two-phase flow experiment using air and water-based γ-Al2O3 nanofluid was conducted to observe the basic hydraulic phenomenon of nanofluids. The local two-phase flow parameters were measured with a conductivity double-sensor two-phase void meter. The void fraction, interfacial velocity, interfacial area concentration, and mean bubble diameter were evaluated, and all of those results using the nanofluid were compared with the corresponding results for pure water. The void fract...
Dynamic behavior of pipes conveying gas–liquid two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Highlights: • Dynamic behavior of pipes conveying gas–liquid two-phase flow was analyzed. • The generalized integral transform technique (GITT) was applied. • Excellent convergence behavior and long-time stability were shown. • Effects of volumetric quality and volumetric flow rate on dynamic behavior were studied. • Normalized volumetric-flow-rate stability envelope of dynamic system was determined. - Abstract: In this paper, the dynamic behavior of pipes conveying gas–liquid two-phase flow was analytically and numerically investigated on the basis of the generalized integral transform technique (GITT). The use of the GITT approach in the analysis of the transverse vibration equation lead to a coupled system of second order differential equations in the dimensionless temporal variable. The Mathematica's built-in function, NDSolve, was employed to numerically solve the resulting transformed ODE system. The characteristics of gas–liquid two-phase flow were represented by a slip-ratio factor model that was devised and used for similar problems. Good convergence behavior of the proposed eigenfunction expansions is demonstrated for calculating the transverse displacement at various points of pipes conveying air–water two-phase flow. Parametric studies were performed to analyze the effects of the volumetric gas fraction and the volumetric flow rate on the dynamic behavior of pipes conveying air–water two-phase flow. Besides, the normalized volumetric-flow-rate stability envelope for the dynamic system was obtained
DSMC simulation of two-phase plume flow with UV radiation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Jie; Liu, Ying; Wang, Ning; Jin, Ling [College of Aerospace Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha, Hunan, 410073 (China)
2014-12-09
Rarefied gas-particle two-phase plume in which the phase of particles is liquid or solid flows from a solid propellant rocket of hypersonic vehicle flying at high altitudes, the aluminum oxide particulates not only impact the rarefied gas flow properties, but also make a great difference to plume radiation signature, so the radiation prediction of the rarefied gas-particle two-phase plume flow is very important for space target detection of hypersonic vehicles. Accordingly, this project aims to study the rarefied gas-particle two-phase flow and ultraviolet radiation (UV) characteristics. Considering a two-way interphase coupling of momentum and energy, the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method is developed for particle phase change and the particle flow, including particulate collision, coalescence as well as separation, and a Monte Carlo ray trace model is implemented for the particulate UV radiation. A program for the numerical simulation of the gas-particle two-phase flow and radiation in which the gas flow nonequilibrium is strong is implemented as well. Ultraviolet radiation characteristics of the particle phase is studied based on the calculation of the flow field coupled with the radiation calculation, the radiation model for different size particles is analyzed, focusing on the effects of particle emission, absorption, scattering as well as the searchlight emission of the nozzle. A new approach may be proposed to describe the rarefied gas-particle two-phase plume flow and radiation transfer characteristics in this project.
Dynamic behavior of pipes conveying gas–liquid two-phase flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
An, Chen, E-mail: anchen@cup.edu.cn [Offshore Oil/Gas Research Center, China University of Petroleum-Beijing, Beijing 102249 (China); Su, Jian, E-mail: sujian@lasme.coppe.ufrj.br [Nuclear Engineering Program, COPPE, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, CP 68509, Rio de Janeiro 21941-972 (Brazil)
2015-10-15
Highlights: • Dynamic behavior of pipes conveying gas–liquid two-phase flow was analyzed. • The generalized integral transform technique (GITT) was applied. • Excellent convergence behavior and long-time stability were shown. • Effects of volumetric quality and volumetric flow rate on dynamic behavior were studied. • Normalized volumetric-flow-rate stability envelope of dynamic system was determined. - Abstract: In this paper, the dynamic behavior of pipes conveying gas–liquid two-phase flow was analytically and numerically investigated on the basis of the generalized integral transform technique (GITT). The use of the GITT approach in the analysis of the transverse vibration equation lead to a coupled system of second order differential equations in the dimensionless temporal variable. The Mathematica's built-in function, NDSolve, was employed to numerically solve the resulting transformed ODE system. The characteristics of gas–liquid two-phase flow were represented by a slip-ratio factor model that was devised and used for similar problems. Good convergence behavior of the proposed eigenfunction expansions is demonstrated for calculating the transverse displacement at various points of pipes conveying air–water two-phase flow. Parametric studies were performed to analyze the effects of the volumetric gas fraction and the volumetric flow rate on the dynamic behavior of pipes conveying air–water two-phase flow. Besides, the normalized volumetric-flow-rate stability envelope for the dynamic system was obtained.
Branch Quality Control of Gas-Liquid Two-Phase Flow Using a Novel T-Junction Type Distributor
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
FaChun Liang; Jing Chen; JinLong Wang; Hao Yu
2014-01-01
In order to eliminate mal-distribution and ensure the side arm to produce desirable gas quality a special distributor is proposed. The experimental distributor mainly consists of a straight through section, a gas extraction line, a liquid extraction line and a side arm branch. A gas orifice and a liquid orifice are mounted at the gas and liquid extraction line respectively to control the outlet gas quality. The diameter of the liquid orifice was set to 2�50 mm and three gas orifices with different size ( dG = 2�65, 5�00, 10�00 mm) were tested. The experiments were carried out at an air-water two-phase flow loop. The gas superficial velocity ranged from 6�0 to 20�0 m/s and the liquid superficial velocity was in the range of 0�02-0�18 m/s. Flow patterns such as wave flow, slug flow and annular flow were observed. The gas quality of the side arm branch was found mainly determined by the flow area ratio of the gas orifice to the liquid orifice and independent of gas and liquid superficial velocity, flow patterns and extraction flux.
Analytical solution of laminar-laminar stratified two-phase flows with curved interfaces
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brauner, N.; Rovinsky, J.; Maron, D.M. [Tel-Aviv Univ. (Israel)
1995-09-01
The present study represents a complete analytical solution for laminar two-phase flows with curved interfaces. The solution of the Navier-Stokes equations for the two-phases in bipolar coordinates provides the `flow monograms` describe the relation between the interface curvature and the insitu flow geometry when given the phases flow rates and viscosity ratios. Energy considerations are employed to construct the `interface monograms`, whereby the characteristic interfacial curvature is determined in terms of the phases insitu holdup, pipe diameter, surface tension, fluids/wall adhesion and gravitation. The two monograms are then combined to construct the system `operational monogram`. The `operational monogram` enables the determination of the interface configuration, the local flow characteristics, such as velocity profiles, wall and interfacial shear stresses distribution as well as the integral characteristics of the two-phase flow: phases insitu holdup and pressure drop.
Analytical solution of laminar-laminar stratified two-phase flows with curved interfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The present study represents a complete analytical solution for laminar two-phase flows with curved interfaces. The solution of the Navier-Stokes equations for the two-phases in bipolar coordinates provides the 'flow monograms' describe the relation between the interface curvature and the insitu flow geometry when given the phases flow rates and viscosity ratios. Energy considerations are employed to construct the 'interface monograms', whereby the characteristic interfacial curvature is determined in terms of the phases insitu holdup, pipe diameter, surface tension, fluids/wall adhesion and gravitation. The two monograms are then combined to construct the system 'operational monogram'. The 'operational monogram' enables the determination of the interface configuration, the local flow characteristics, such as velocity profiles, wall and interfacial shear stresses distribution as well as the integral characteristics of the two-phase flow: phases insitu holdup and pressure drop
Improvement of image processing algorithms for annular flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Annular flow occurs in a wide range of industrial heat-transfer equipment, including the top of a BWR core, in the steam generator of a PWR, and in postulated accident scenarios including critical heat flux (CHF) by dryout. The modeling of annular flow often requires information regarding the average thickness of liquid film at the periphery of the flow channel as a measurement of film roughness (film roughness concept). More recently, two-region modeling efforts require wave intermittency as a measurement of disturbance wave (as opposed to base film thickness) contribution to gas-to-liquid momentum transfer and pressure loss. The present work focuses on the characterization of film behaviors in annular flow using quantitative visualization. The data reduction codes for planar laser-induced flourescence (PLIF) imaging and back-lit quartz tube imaging have been further developed to improve measurement accuracy. Film thickness distribution (base film and wave), disturbance wave length, and wave intermittency estimates have been updated and applied to a recent two-region annular flow model. Outputs of average film thickness, pressure gradient, and average wave velocity have been modeled with mean absolute errors of 8.70%, 17.42%, and 19.14%, respectively. (author)
Simulation of two-phase flow for compressible and nearly incompressible regimes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A new finite element formulation for compressible and nearly incompressible problems is applied to the analysis of two-phase flows.The method allows the analysis of nearly incompressible flows without resorting to the incompressible fluid model. Thus, the fluid equation of state is not discarded from the model. This feature is of foremost importance for the approach adopted in this work, where the thermodynamic behaviour of the mixture is constructed from the thermodynamic behaviour of the individual phases. Numerical examples of two-phase steam-water mixtures are presented. The models employed to characterise turbulence and the two-phase mixture are rather simple. Nevertheless, the examples presented show good qualitative behaviour and serve to indicate further developments towards the computational simulation of two-phase flows. (author)
Single and two-phase flow pressure drop for CANFLEX bundle
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Park, Joo Hwan; Jun, Ji Su; Suk, Ho Chun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Dimmick, G. R.; Bullock, D. E. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Ontario (Canada)
1998-12-31
Friction factor and two-phase flow frictional multiplier for a CANFLEX bundle are newly developed and presented in this paper. CANFLEX as a 43-element fuel bundle has been developed jointly by AECL/KAERI to provide greater operational flexibility for CANDU reactor operators and designers. Friction factor and two-phase flow frictional multiplier have been developed by using the experimental data of pressure drops obtained from two series of Freon-134a (R-134a) CHF tests with a string of simulated CANFLEX bundles in a single phase and a two-phase flow conditions. The friction factor for a CANFLEX bundle is found to be about 20% higher than that of Blasius for a smooth circular pipe. The pressure drop predicted by using the new correlations of friction factor and two-phase frictional multiplier are well agreed with the experimental pressure drop data of CANFLEX bundle within {+-} 5% error. 11 refs., 5 figs. (Author)
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Gao Zhong-Ke; Hu Li-Dan; Jin Ning-De
2013-01-01
We generate a directed weighted complex network by a method based on Markov transition probability to represent an experimental two-phase flow.We first systematically carry out gas-liquid two-phase flow experiments for measuring the time series of flow signals.Then we construct directed weighted complex networks from various time series in terms of a network generation method based on Markov transition probability.We find that the generated network inherits the main features of the time series in the network structure.In particular,the networks from time series with different dynamics exhibit distinct topological properties.Finally,we construct two-phase flow directed weighted networks from experimental signals and associate the dynamic behavior of gas-liquid two-phase flow with the topological statistics of the generated networks.The results suggest that the topological statistics of two-phase flow networks allow quantitative characterization of the dynamic flow behavior in the transitions among different gas-liquid flow patterns.
Gas-liquid two-phase flow across a bank of micropillars
Krishnamurthy, Santosh; Peles, Yoav
2007-04-01
Adiabatic nitrogen-water two-phase flow across a bank of staggered circular micropillars, 100μm long with a diameter of 100μm and a pitch-to-diameter ratio of 1.5, was investigated experimentally for Reynolds number ranging from 5 to 50. Flow patterns, void fraction, and pressure drop were obtained, discussed, and compared to large scale as well as microchannel results. Two-phase flow patterns were determined by flow visualization, and a flow map was constructed as a function of gas and liquid superficial velocities. Significant deviations from conventional scale systems, with respect to flow patterns and trend lines, were observed. A unique flow pattern, driven by surface tension, was observed and termed bridge flow. The applicability of conventional scale models to predict the void fraction and two-phase frictional pressure drop was also assessed. Comparison with a conventional scale void fraction model revealed good agreement, but was found to be in a physically wrong form. Thus, a modified physically based model for void fraction was developed. A two-phase frictional multiplier was found to be a strong function of mass flux, unlike in previous microchannel studies. It was observed that models from conventional scale systems did not adequately predict the two-phase frictional multiplier at the microscale, thus, a modified model accounting for mass flux was developed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We generate a directed weighted complex network by a method based on Markov transition probability to represent an experimental two-phase flow. We first systematically carry out gas—liquid two-phase flow experiments for measuring the time series of flow signals. Then we construct directed weighted complex networks from various time series in terms of a network generation method based on Markov transition probability. We find that the generated network inherits the main features of the time series in the network structure. In particular, the networks from time series with different dynamics exhibit distinct topological properties. Finally, we construct two-phase flow directed weighted networks from experimental signals and associate the dynamic behavior of gas-liquid two-phase flow with the topological statistics of the generated networks. The results suggest that the topological statistics of two-phase flow networks allow quantitative characterization of the dynamic flow behavior in the transitions among different gas—liquid flow patterns. (general)
An assessment of the annular flow transition criteria and interphase friction models in RELAP5/MOD2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An assessment of the annular flow transition criteria and interphase friction models for two-phase flow in tubes used in RELAP5/MOD2 code is described. The assessment examines the theoretical bases for the criteria and models and considers the results of comparisons with experimental data. Several deficiencies in the transition criteria are identified and appropriate improvements proposed. The interphase friction models are found to be adequate for PWR analyses. (author)
Frequency response of forced circulation boiling two-phase flow to inlet flow modulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper presents theoretical analysis and experimental data on the dynamic behavior of two-phase flow in a vertical boiling channel. Continuous, energy and momentum equations are linearized on the basis of small perturbation, and flow to exit void fraction and pressure drop transfer functions are obtained. Experimental frequency response functions are measured with statistical method using Freon-113 as the working fluid over a frequency range of 0.02 to 3 Hz. The data cover mass flux of 450 to 1800 kg/m2s, inlet subcooling of 2 to 300C and various heat flux levels. Influence of flow rate, inlet subcooling and heat flux on frequency response and comparison between experimental and theoretical results are described. (author)
Forced convection flow boiling and two-phase flow phenomena in a microchannel
Na, Yun Whan
2008-07-01
The present study was performed to numerically analyze the evaporation phenomena through the liquid-vapor interface and to investigate bubble dynamics and heat transfer behavior during forced convective flow boiling in a microchannel. Flow instabilities of two-phase flow boiling in a microchannel were studied as well. The main objective of this research is to investigate the fundamental mechanisms of two-phase flow boiling in a microchannel and provide predictive tools to design thermal management systems, for example, microchannel heat sinks. The numerical results obtained from this study were qualitatively and quantitatively compared with experimental results in the open literature. Physical and mathematical models, accounting for evaporating phenomena through the liquid-vapor interface in a microchannel at constant heat flux and constant wall temperature, have been developed, respectively. The heat transfer mechanism is affected by the dominant heat conduction through the thin liquid film and vaporization at the liquid-vapor interface. The thickness of the liquid film and the pressure of the liquid and vapor phases were simultaneously solved by the governing differential equations. The developed semi-analytical evaporation model that takes into account of the interfacial phenomena and surface tension effects was used to obtain solutions numerically using the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method. The effects of heat flux 19 and wall temperature on the liquid film were evaluated. The obtained pressure drops in a microchannel were qualitatively consistent with the experimental results of Qu and Mudawar (2004). Forced convective flow boiling in a single microchannel with different channel heights was studied through a numerical simulation to investigate bubble dynamics, flow patterns, and heat transfer. The momentum and energy equations were solved using the finite volume method while the liquid-vapor interface of a bubble is captured using the VOF (Volume of Fluid
Stratified two-phase flow pattern modulation in a horizontal tube by the mesh pore cylinder surface
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Highlights: ► A phase separation concept was proposed to modulate flow pattern in a tube. ► The cross section of the tube is divided into an annular region and an inner region. ► Stratified flow pattern was successfully modulated. ► Liquid can be within the mesh pore cylinder with gas contacting with the tube wall surface. ► The idea was expected to enhance the condensation heat transfer. - Abstract: Condensation heat transfer has been studied in the past century due to its wide applications in energy and power systems. The key scientific issue is the thick liquid thickness near the tube wall along the condenser tube length. The fabricated microstructures on the inner wall are the conventional technique to improve the performance. Here a passive phase separation concept was proposed to create distinct phase distribution. An empty cylinder made of a single layer of mesh pore surface was suspended in a tube, dividing the tube into an annular region and an inner region. The mesh pore surface prevents gas phase entering the inner region but sucks liquid towards the inner region. Thus largest possibility for gas directly contacted with the inner wall surface is ensured. An air/water two-phase flow experiment was performed and the stratified flow pattern modulation was investigated. When the liquid level in the horizontal tube is relatively higher, the liquid can be thoroughly within the mesh cylinder to form the “gas-floating-liquid” mode. The whole inner tube wall surface is covered by the gas phase. If the liquid content is relatively smaller, partial liquid can be sucked into the mesh cylinder. The contact area between the inner tube wall and gas is increased. The stratified flow pattern modulation is expected to significantly enhance the condensation heat transfer under low mass fluxes which is being verified by our continuous experiment
A combined experimental-numerical approach for two-phase flow boiling in a minichannel
Hożejowska Sylwia; Grabowski Mirosław
2016-01-01
The paper addresses experimental and numerical modeling of the two-phase flows in an asymmetrically heated horizontal minichannel. Experimental measurements concerned flows of evaporating ethanol in a minichannel with rectangular cross section 1.8mm × 2 mm. In order to observe the flows, measuring system was designed and built. The system measured and recorded basic heat and flow parameters of flowing fluid, and the temperature of external surface of the heater by using infrared camera and re...
Measurement of turbulent diffusivity of both gas and liquid phases in quasi-2D two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The turbulent diffusion process has been studied experimentally by observing a tracer plume emitted continuously from a line source in a uniform, quasi-2D two-phase flow. The test section was a vertical, relatively narrow, concentric annular channel consisting of two large pipes. Air and water were used as the working fluids, and methane and acid organge II were used as tracers for the respective phases. Measurements of local, time-averaged tracer concentrations were made by means of a sampling method and image processing for bubbly flows and churn flows, and the turbulent diffusivity, the coefficient of turbulent diffusion, was determined from the concentration distributions measured. The diffusivities for the gas and liquid phases, εDG and εDL respectively, are presented and compared with each other in this paper. When a flow is bubbly, εDG is close to or slightly smaller than εDL. In a churn flow, on the contrary, εDG is much greater than εDL. Regarding bubbly flow, a plausible model on turbulent diffusivity of the liquid phase is presented and examined by the present data. (orig.)
Experimental study on two-phase flow in horizontal tube bundle using SF6-water
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
It is important to know the flow structure in industrial products that use gas-liquid two-phase flow. The gas-liquid density ratio is one of the most important parameters in the simulation of flow structure. In this study, a vertical upward two-phase flow in a horizontal tube bundle, which occurs frequently on the shell side of heat exchangers such as PWR steam generators, was measured. This test facility can simulate the behaviors of water-vapor two-phase flow at high pressures (5.6 MPaabs) by using sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) gas for the gas phase and water for liquid phase at ambient temperatures and low pressures. These results were compared with the values generated by previous empirical equations to verify soundness of this facility and measurement method. (author)
Computational Two-phase Flow Analysis for Subcooled Boiling in Annulus Channel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The interfacial area concentration (IAC) is one of the most important parameters with respect to the interfacial transfer terms between two phases. In recent researches, the IAC transport equation has been developed for adiabatic bubbly flow or nucleate boiling flow. That can make it possible to analyze the two phase flow dynamically, instead of the conventional static approach for modeling IAC. This study is a part of the development of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code for investigating the boiling flow with two-fluid model and IAC transport equation. Multi-dimensional approach was utilized in order to overcome the limitation in one dimensional analysis of two-phase flow. As the step for checking the robustness of the developed code, the problem for subcooled boiling was benchmarked
Analysis of forced convective transient boiling by homogeneous model of two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Transient forced convective boiling is of practical importance in relation to the accident analysis of nuclear reactor etc. For large length-to-diameter ratio, the transient boiling characteristics are predicted by transient two-phase flow calculations. Based on homogeneous model of two-phase flow, the transient forced convective boiling for power and flow transients are analysed. Analytical expressions of various parameters of transient two-phase flow have been obtained for several simple cases of power and flow transients. Based on these results, heat flux, velocity and time at transient CHF condition are predicted analytically for step and exponential power increases, and step, exponential and linear velocity decreases. The effects of various parameters on heat flux, velocity and time at transient CHF condition have been clarified. Numerical approach combined with analytical method is proposed for more complicated cases. Solution method for pressure transient are also described. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this study, fluctuating force acting on pipe turning section due to two-phase flow is considered. A novel tool to predict upward two-phase flow induced force fluctuations is developed. In order to eliminate tool's dependencies on experimental measurement input, creation of artificial void signal (AVS) was considered by carefully analyzing area-averaged void fraction properties, including probability density and frequency spectra from 36 flow conditions. Generated AVS was successfully coupled with the predictive tool, and as a result, it is capable of predicting fluctuating force magnitude and dominant force frequency from the inlet superficial velocities alone. The tool is applicable for small inner diameter pipe (<∼10 cm) consist of 0-90 degree turning element, and covers two-phase flow regime up to churn-turbulent flow. (author)
Flow regime identification and analysis in adiabatic upward two-phase flow in an annulus geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The main objective of this work is to identify and analyze two-phase flow regimes in adiabatic upward flow conditions in an concentric annulus geometry with an inner diameter of 19.1 mm and an outer diameter of 38.1 mm, at three axial locations (z/DH: 51.5, 148.8, 229.9). In this regard, both Global Flow Regimes (GFRs) and Local Flow Regimes (LFRs) have been identified. In both cases, neural networks techniques have been used to obtain objective identification results. However, the flow regime indicator will be different depending on the type of flow regime: the cumulative probability distribution function (CPDF) of the area averaged void fraction obtained by impedance meters in the case of GFRs and the CPDF of the bubble chord length measured by a four-sensor conductivity probe in the case of LFRs. The GFRs maps have been compared with those obtained in previous research works and flow regime transitions existing correlations. The LFRs have been identified in five radial locations. The LFRs combinations maps have been compared with the GFRs and those combinations obtained in round pipes. (author)
Flow regime identification using chaotic characteristics of two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chaotic nature of two-phase flow is investigated for its dependency upon the flow regime by constructing the pseudo phase space with the time sequential impedance signals of the void fraction. In order to construct the pseudo phase space, the autocorrelation function (ACF) and the average mutual information (AMI) for the delayed time, and the false nearest neighborhood (FNN) for the dimensions as the embedding parameters were employed here. It was found that the delayed time and embedded dimension are highly dependent upon the flow regime. To visualize the trajectory of signals in the phase space, a density map is produced by the projection of the trajectory into the two-dimensional plane which is correspondent with the two-dimensional probability distribution functions (2D-PDF). Since the density map of 2D-PDF showed clear distinction of flow patterns, we developed a method to identify flow regime by applying simple classification rules to the density map. The proposed method successfully identifies the flow regimes of the experimental data of impedance signals for the void fraction produced flow regime map for the vertical channel with diameter of 25.4 and 50.8 mm
Application of non-equilibrium thermodynamics to two-phase flows with a change of phase
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this report we use the methods of non-equilibrium thermodynamics in two-phase flows. This paper follows a prior one in which we have studied the conservation laws and derived the general equations of two-phase flow. In the first part the basic ideas of thermodynamics of irreversible systems are given. We follow the classical point of view. The second part is concerned with the derivation of a closed set of equations for the two phase elementary volume model. In this model we assume that the elementary volume contains two phases and that it is possible to define a volumetric local concentration. To obtain the entropy balance we can choose either the reversibility of the barycentric motion or the reversibility of each phase. We adopt the last assumption and our derivation is the same as this of I.Prigogine and P. Mazur about the hydrodynamics of liquid helium. The scope of this work is not to find a general solution to the problems of two phase flows but to obtain a new set of equations which may be used to explain some characteristic phenomena of two-phase flow such as wave propagation or critical states. (author)
IMPROVED SUBGRID SCALE MODEL FOR DENSE TURBULENT SOLID-LIQUID TWO-PHASE FLOWS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
TANG Xuelin; QIAN Zhongdong; WU Yulin
2004-01-01
The dense solid-phase governing equations for two-phase flows are obtained by using the kinetic theory of gas molecules. Assuming that the solid-phase velocity distributions obey the Maxwell equations, the collision term for particles under dense two-phase flow conditions is also derived.In comparison with the governing equations of a dilute two-phase flow, the solid-particle's governing equations are developed for a dense turbulent solid-liquid flow by adopting some relevant terms from the dilute two-phase governing equations. Based on Cauchy-Helmholtz theorem and Smagorinsky model,a second-order dynamic sub-grid-scale (SGS) model, in which the sub-grid-scale stress is a function of both the strain-rate tensor and the rotation-rate tensor, is proposed to model the two-phase governing equations by applying dimension analyses. Applying the SIMPLEC algorithm and staggering grid system to the two-phase discretized governing equations and employing the slip boundary conditions on the walls, the velocity and pressure fields, and the volumetric concentration are calculated. The simulation results are in a fairly good agreement with experimental data in two operating cases in a conduit with a rectangular cross-section and these comparisons imply that these models are practical.
Measurement of local two-phase flow parameters of nanofluids using conductivity double-sensor probe
Park, Yu Sun; Chang, Soon Heung
2011-12-01
A two-phase flow experiment using air and water-based γ-Al2O3 nanofluid was conducted to observe the basic hydraulic phenomenon of nanofluids. The local two-phase flow parameters were measured with a conductivity double-sensor two-phase void meter. The void fraction, interfacial velocity, interfacial area concentration, and mean bubble diameter were evaluated, and all of those results using the nanofluid were compared with the corresponding results for pure water. The void fraction distribution was flattened in the nanofluid case more than it was in the pure water case. The higher interfacial area concentration resulted in a smaller mean bubble diameter in the case of the nanofluid. This was the first attempt to measure the local two-phase flow parameters of nanofluids using a conductivity double-sensor two-phase void meter. Throughout this experimental study, the differences in the internal two-phase flow structure of the nanofluid were identified. In addition, the heat transfer enhancement of the nanofluid can be resulted from the increase of the interfacial area concentration which means the available area of the heat and mass transfer.
Measurement of local two-phase flow parameters of nanofluids using conductivity double-sensor probe
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Park Yu sun
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract A two-phase flow experiment using air and water-based γ-Al2O3 nanofluid was conducted to observe the basic hydraulic phenomenon of nanofluids. The local two-phase flow parameters were measured with a conductivity double-sensor two-phase void meter. The void fraction, interfacial velocity, interfacial area concentration, and mean bubble diameter were evaluated, and all of those results using the nanofluid were compared with the corresponding results for pure water. The void fraction distribution was flattened in the nanofluid case more than it was in the pure water case. The higher interfacial area concentration resulted in a smaller mean bubble diameter in the case of the nanofluid. This was the first attempt to measure the local two-phase flow parameters of nanofluids using a conductivity double-sensor two-phase void meter. Throughout this experimental study, the differences in the internal two-phase flow structure of the nanofluid were identified. In addition, the heat transfer enhancement of the nanofluid can be resulted from the increase of the interfacial area concentration which means the available area of the heat and mass transfer.
Flow Visualisation of Annular Liquid Sheet Instability & Atomisation
Duke, Daniel; Soria, Julio
2012-01-01
Fluid dynamics videos of unstable thin annular liquid sheets are presented in this short paper. These videos are to be presented in the Gallery of Fluid Motion for the American Physical Society 65th Annual Meeting of the Division of Fluid Dynamics in San Diego, CA, 18-20 November 2012. An annular sheet of thickness h=1mm and mean radius R=18.9mm is subjected to aerodynamic axial shear from co-flowing air at various shear rates on both the inner and outer surface at a liquid sheet Reynolds Number of Re=500.
Numerical investigation of the mechanism of two-phase flow instability in parallel narrow channels
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hu, Lian [Key Laboratory of Low-grade Energy Utilization Technologies and Systems, Chongqing University (China); Chen, Deqi, E-mail: chendeqi@cqu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Low-grade Energy Utilization Technologies and Systems, Chongqing University (China); CNNC Key Laboratory on Nuclear Reactor Thermal Hydraulics Technology, Nuclear Power Institute of China, Chengdu 610041 (China); Huang, Yanping, E-mail: hyanping007@163.com [CNNC Key Laboratory on Nuclear Reactor Thermal Hydraulics Technology, Nuclear Power Institute of China, Chengdu 610041 (China); Yuan, Dewen; Wang, Yanling [CNNC Key Laboratory on Nuclear Reactor Thermal Hydraulics Technology, Nuclear Power Institute of China, Chengdu 610041 (China); Pan, Liangming [Key Laboratory of Low-grade Energy Utilization Technologies and Systems, Chongqing University (China)
2015-06-15
Highlights: • A mathematical model is proposed to predict the two-phase flow instability. • The mathematical model predicted result agrees well with the experimental result. • Oscillation characteristics of the two-phase flow instability is discussed in detail. - Abstract: In this paper, the mechanism of two-phase flow instability in parallel narrow channels is studied theoretically, and the characteristic of the flow instability is discussed in detail. Due to the significant confining effect of the narrow channel on the vapor–liquid interface, the two-phase flow resistance in the narrow channel is probably different from that in conventional channel. Therefore, the vapor confined number (N{sub conf}), defined by the size of narrow channel and bubble detachment diameter, is considered in the “Chisholm B model” to investigate the two-phase flow pressure drop. The flow instability boundaries are plotted in parameter plane with phase-change-number (N{sub pch}) and subcooling-number (N{sub sub}) under different working conditions. It is found that the predicted result agrees well with the experimental result. According to the predicted result, the oscillation behaviors near the flow instability boundary indicate that the Supercritical Hopf bifurcation appears in high sub-cooled region and the Subcritical Hopf bifurcation appears in low sub-cooled region. Also, a detailed analysis about the effects of key parameters on the characteristic of two-phase flow instability and the flow instability boundary is proposed, including the effects of inlet subcooling, heating power, void distribution parameter and drift velocity.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
孙斌; 张宏建; 岳伟挺
2004-01-01
For acquiring the flow regime information of two-phase flow, a flow regime identification method using the Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT) combined with Radial Basis Function neural networks was put forward. In this study, oil-gas two-phase flow in horizontal pipe was taken as the experimental object, differential pressure signals coming from Venturi tube were handled by Hilbert-Huang Transform,and characteristic vector closely associated with the flow regime were obtained. Flow regime was identified by using Radial Basis Function neural networks. While oil flux was in the range of 4. 2 to 7.0 m3 · h-1 and gas flux was 0 to 30 m3 · h-1, this method showed high identification precision for bubble flow, slug flow,churn flow and annular flow et al. The experimental study showed that this method could precisely identify the flow regime and could be used easily.
Multi-needle capacitance probe for non-conductive two-phase flows
Monrós-Andreu, G.; Martinez-Cuenca, R.; Torró, S.; Escrig, J.; Hewakandamby, B.; Chiva, S.
2016-07-01
Despite its variable degree of application, intrusive instrumentation is the most accurate way to obtain local information in a two-phase flow system, especially local interfacial velocity and local interfacial area parameters. In this way, multi-needle probes, based on conductivity or optical principles, have been extensively used in the past few decades by many researchers in two-phase flow investigations. Moreover, the signal processing methods used to obtain the time-averaged two-phase flow parameters in this type of sensor have been thoroughly discussed and validated by many experiments. The objective of the present study is to develop a miniaturized multi-needle probe, based on capacitance measurements applicable to a wide range of non-conductive two-phase flows and, thus, to extend the applicability of multi-needle sensor whilst also maintaining a signal processing methodology provided in the literature for conductivity probes. Results from the experiments performed assess the applicability of the proposed sensor measurement principle and signal processing method for the bubbly flow regime. These results also provide an insight into the sensor application for more complex two-phase flow regimes.
Two-phase gas bubble-liquid boundary layer flow along vertical and inclined surfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The behavior of a two-phase gas bubble-liquid boundary layer along vertical and inclined porous surfaces with uniform gas injection is investigated experimentally and analytically. Using argon gas and water as the working fluids, a photographical study of the two-phase boundary layer flow has been performed for various angles of inclination ranging from 450 to 1350 and gas injection rates ranging from 0.01 to 0.1 m/s. An integral method has been employed to solve the system of equations governing the two-phase motion. The effects of the gas injection rate and the angle of inclination on the growth of the boundary layer have been determined. The predicted boundary layer thickness is found to be in good agreement with the experimental results. The calculated axial liquid velocity and the void fraction in the two-phase region are also presented along with the observed flow behavior
Bubble Generation in a Flowing Liquid Medium and Resulting Two-Phase Flow in Microgravity
Pais, S. C.; Kamotani, Y.; Bhunia, A.; Ostrach, S.
1999-01-01
The present investigation reports a study of bubble generation under reduced gravity conditions, using both a co-flow and a cross-flow configuration. This study may be used in the conceptual design of a space-based thermal management system. Ensuing two-phase flow void fraction can be accurately monitored using a single nozzle gas injection system within a continuous liquid flow conduit, as utilized in the present investigation. Accurate monitoring of void fraction leads to precise control of heat and mass transfer coefficients related to a thermal management system; hence providing an efficient and highly effective means of removing heat aboard spacecraft or space stations. Our experiments are performed in parabolic flight aboard the modified DC-9 Reduced Gravity Research Aircraft at NASA Lewis Research Center, using an air-water system. For the purpose of bubble dispersion in a flowing liquid, we use both a co-flow and a cross-flow configuration. In the co-flow geometry, air is introduced through a nozzle in the same direction with the liquid flow. On the other hand, in the cross-flow configuration, air is injected perpendicular to the direction of water flow, via a nozzle protruding inside the two-phase flow conduit. Three different flow conduit (pipe) diameters are used, namely, 1.27 cm, 1.9 cm and 2.54 cm. Two different ratios of nozzle to pipe diameter (D(sub N))sup * are considered, namely (D(sub N))sup * = 0.1 and 0.2, while superficial liquid velocities are varied from 8 to 70 cm/s depending on flow conduit diameter. It is experimentally observed that by holding all other flow conditions and geometry constant, generated bubbles decrease in size with increase in superficial liquid velocity. Detached bubble diameter is shown to increase with air injection nozzle diameter. Likewise, generated bubbles grow in size with increasing pipe diameter. Along the same lines, it is shown that bubble frequency of formation increases and hence the time to detachment of a
Study of two-phase flow thermal-hydraulics during bottom reflooding of nuclear reactor cores
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Based on experimental observation of two-phase flow void fraction behavior during reflooding, and empirical correlation is proposed for fitting reflooding two-phase void fraction distribution. The empirical void fraction distribution is used to correct Hsu's transition boiling correlation for the effect of local void fraction. The UCLA Multi-Channel Reflood Model for analysis of reflooding thermal hydraulics is reviewed. Simple methods proposed for treatment of two-phase phenomena and core multi-dimensional effects are shown to be adequate. The model predictions are shown to be adequate. The model predictions are shown to compare well with experiment
Two-phase flow measurements with advanced instrumented spool pieces and local conductivity probes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A series of two-phase, air-water and steam-water tests performed with instrumented spool pieces and with conductivity probes obtained from Atomic Energy of Canada, Ltd. is described. The behavior of the three-beam densitometer, turbine meter, and drag flowmeter is discussed in terms of two-phase models. Application of some two-phase mass flow models to the recorded spool piece data is made and preliminary results are shown. Velocity and void fraction information derived from the conductivity probes is presented and compared to velocities and void fractions obtained using the spool piece instrumentation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shim, Hee-Sang; Kim, Kyung Mo; Hur, Do Haeng [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seung Hyun; Kim, Ji Hyun [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)
2015-05-15
Since the occurrence of a Surry-2 pipe rupture accident, a lot of effort has been made to prevent FAC of carbon steel piping. Some of the chemicals were suggested as a corrosion inhibitor. A platinum decoration was applied as another prevention strategy of carbon steel thinning. The severe FAC-damaged carbon steel pipings were replaced by tolerant materials such as SA335 Gr.P22. However, some components such as the piping materials between moisture separator and turbine have still suffered from the FAC degradation. This work provides a coating method to prevent the FAC degradation of the SA106 Gr.B, which is a piping material between moisture separator and high-pressure turbine, under two-phase flow. We suggested the coating materials to prevent FAC of SA106Gr.B under two-phase water-vapor flow. The FAC resistance of SA106Gr.B was improved with 5 times by electroless-deposited Ni-P protective layer. Other coating materials also enhanced the tolerance up to 5 times for the FAC in a condition of 150 .deg. C and 3.8 bar at 9.5 compared to non-coated SA106Gr.B.
Fast X-ray imaging of two-phase flows: Application to cavitating flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A promising method based on fast X-ray imaging has been developed to investigate the dynamics and the structure of complex two-phase flows. It has been applied in this work on cavitating flows created inside a Venturi-type test section and helped therefore to better understand flows inside cavitation pockets. Seeding particles were injected into the flow to trace the liquid phase. Thanks to the characteristics of the beam provided by the APS synchrotron (Advance Photon Source, USA), high definition X-ray images of the flow containing simultaneously information for both liquid and vapour were obtained. Velocity fields of both phases were thus calculated using image cross-correlation algorithms. Local volume fractions of vapour have also been obtained using local intensities of the images. Beforehand however, image processing is required to separate phases for velocity measurements. Validation methods of all applied treatments were developed, they allowed to characterise the measurement accuracy. This experimental technique helped us to have more insight into the dynamic of cavitating flows and especially demonstrates the presence of significant slip velocities between phases. (author)
Features concerning capillary pressure and the effect on two-phase and three-phase flow
2008-01-01
The effect of capillary pressure related to immiscible WAG (Water Alternate Gas) is studied by use of a numerical simulator. The capillary pressure is found to have a significant effect on the pressure gradient and the total oil production both in two-phase and three-phase flow situations. When the capillary pressure is included in the simulation the total oil production is considerably lower than when the capillary pressure is neglected. Experimentally measured two-phase capil...
Hydraulic Behaviour of He II in Stratified Counter-Current Two-Phase Flow
Rousset, B; Jäger, B; Van Weelderen, R; Weisend, J G
1998-01-01
Future large devices using superconducting magnets or RF cavities (e.g. LHC or TESLA) need He II two-phase flow for cooling. The research carried out into counter-current superfluid two-phase flow was the continuation of work on co-current flow and benefited from all the knowledge acquired both experimentally and theoretically. Experiments were conducted on two different pipe diameters (40 and 65 m m I.D. tube) for slopes ranging between 0 and 2%, and for temperatures ranging between 1.8 and 2 K. This paper introduces the theoretical model, describes the tests, and provides a critical review of the results obtained in He II counter current two-phase flow.
A New Appraoch to Modeling Immiscible Two-phase Flow in Porous Media
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yuan, Hao; Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan
based on Rapoport-Leas Equation and Film Model, a systematic literature review of the LBM CFD methods including the particle-based LBM and porous-medium-based LBM for multiphase flow, and the sample calculation of particle-based LBM in a random porous medium. Finally we come to present a new approach to......In this work we present a systematic literature review regarding the macroscopic approaches to modeling immiscible two-phase flow in porous media, the formulation process of the incorporate PDE based on Film Model(viscous coupling), the calculation of saturation profile around the transition zone...... modeling immiscible two-phase flow in porous media. The suggested approach to immiscible two-phase flow in porous media describes the dispersed mesoscopic fluids’ interfaces which are highly influenced by the injected interfacial energy and the local interfacial energy capacity. It reveals a new...
Two-phase flow transients and the stability of once-through steam generators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The study of the behaviour of once-through steam-generators and in particular of their stability (occurence of self-sustained oscillations for example) requires the calculation under transient conditions of once-through two phase flows. Starting from the general conservation principles, and to allow the review of the necessary assumptions and models, the ideal description of the development and use of a practical mathematical model is made. It is thus possible to introduce rationally the constitutive laws which are necessary for the two phase flow description, as also the concepts of superabondant constitutive law and of coherence of the mathematical model (in practice of the computer program). The conservation principles impose compatibility constraints to the various elementary models (i.e. to the constitutive equations) which have to be put in the computer program. With the assumption of one dimensional flow, six partial differential equations appear to be necessary for the transient description of two-phase flows
The questions of liquid metal two-phase flow modelling in the FBR core channels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The two-fluid model representation for calculations of two-phase flow characteristics in the FBR fuel pin bundles with liquid metal cooling is presented and analysed. Two conservation equations systems of the mass, momentum and energy have been written for each phase. Components accounted the mass-, momentum- and heat transfer throughout the interface occur in the macro-field equations after the averaging procedure realisation. The pattern map and correlations for two-fluid model in vertical liquid metal flows are presented. The description of processes interphase mass- and heat exchange and interphase friction is determined by the two-phase flow regime. The opportunity of the liquid metal two-phase flow regime definition is analysed. (author)
Developments in the research of air-water two-phase flows in turbomachinery
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Recently, engineering problems associated with two-phase flows in turbomachinery have become increasingly important in relation to the safety analysis of nuclear reactors or the usage of low quality energy resources; the research on this subject has been promoted. It is a really knotty problem caused by the multiform flow patterns as well as the variety of its applications. However, the mechanics in two-phase machines may involve similar phenomena. In this paper, developments of the research of air-water mixtures in turbomachinery will be briefly reviewed, and the mechanics of two-phase flows in rotating flow fields and the prediction methods of the performance of turbomachinery based on some analytical models are discussed. (author)
Visualization and measurement of two-phase flow in tight rod bundle by neutron tomography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Neutron tomography thermal-hydraulic measurement technique is originally developed based on the neutron radiography, computed tomography and two-phase flow measurement techniques. The purpose of the developing is to measure the void fraction distribution in the Reduced-Moderation Water Reactor which is a water-cooled breeder reactor designed by the JAERI as a future reactor. We have visualized and measured the void distribution of air/water two-phase flow and boiling flow in tight-lattice rod bundles. We used the research reactor JRR-3 as a neutron source. Three-dimensional data can be obtained in order to evaluate the numerical analysis codes. In this manuscript, the neutron tomography system, comparison between the reconstruction methods of computed tomography and examples of the measured two-phase flow data which was taken in the 7 rod bundle with a gap between rods of 1.0 mm. (author)
Hierarchy of two-phase flow models for autonomous control of cryogenic loading operation
Luchinskiy, Dmitry G.; Ponizovskaya-Devine, Ekaterina; Hafiychuk, Vasyl; Kashani, Ali; Khasin, Michael; Timucin, Dogan; Sass, Jared; Perotti, Jose; Brown, Barbara
2015-12-01
We report on the development of a hierarchy of models of cryogenic two-phase flow motivated by NASA plans to develop and maturate technology of cryogenic propellant loading on the ground and in space. The solution of this problem requires models that are fast and accurate enough to identify flow conditions, detect faults, and to propose optimal recovery strategy. The hierarchy of models described in this presentation is ranging from homogeneous moving- front approximation to separated non-equilibrium two-phase cryogenic flow. We compare model predictions with experimental data and discuss possible application of these models to on-line integrated health management and control of cryogenic loading operation.
Elastic instability in stratified core annular flow
Bonhomme, Oriane; Leng, Jacques; Colin, Annie
2010-01-01
We study experimentally the interfacial instability between a layer of dilute polymer solution and water flowing in a thin capillary. The use of microfluidic devices allows us to observe and quantify in great detail the features of the flow. At low velocities, the flow takes the form of a straight jet, while at high velocities, steady or advected wavy jets are produced. We demonstrate that the transition between these flow regimes is purely elastic -- it is caused by viscoelasticity of the polymer solution only. The linear stability analysis of the flow in the short-wave approximation captures quantitatively the flow diagram. Surprisingly, unstable flows are observed for strong velocities, whereas convected flows are observed for low velocities. We demonstrate that this instability can be used to measure rheological properties of dilute polymer solutions that are difficult to assess otherwise.
Burnout in climbing film two phase flow a review of theories of the mechanism
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burnout data for annular flow are examined and it is shown that for qualities above (say) 10% the burnout heat flux is a function only of pressure, D1/2G and quality to within the errors in the experimental data. The various burnout models are examined and none are found to predict the trends given by the above function. The literature on droplet deposition, entrainment and onset of annular flow is studied to see if any new light can be thrown on the problem of burnout. Actual values for the deposition rate of droplets in a boiling channel are derived and it is hoped that these will provide a basis for further studies of possible burnout models. (author)
Pressure drop modeling and comparisons with experiments for single- and two-phase sodium flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Highlights: → We present further validation of the TRACE code to sodium two-phase flow modeling. → We qualify correlations for pressure-loss modeling in tube and bundle geometries. → The validation is done on the basis of experiments from the Ispra Research Center. → We give recommendations for the modeling of pressure drop in sodium two-phase flow. - Abstract: The thermal-hydraulic code TRACE is currently being extended at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) for enabling the study of sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) core behavior during transients in which boiling is anticipated. An accurate prediction of pressure losses across fuel bundles - under both single- and two-phase sodium flow conditions - is necessary in this context. The present paper addresses the assessment, and implementation in TRACE, of appropriate friction factor models for round tubes and wire-wrapped fuel bundles, as well as local pressure drop models for grid spacers. Validity of the implemented correlations has been confirmed via the analysis of a range of experiments conducted earlier at the Joint Research Centre, Ispra. The measurements utilized are those of single- and two-phase pressure loss for sodium flow in tubes and 12-pin bundles, as a function of the inlet velocity under quasi steady-state conditions. The reported study thus represents an important further development step for the reliable simulation of two-phase sodium flow in TRACE.
Application of x-ray CT scanner to two-phase flow measurement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The recent advance of the thermo-hydraulic analysis codes for LWRs is conspicuous, and regarding the momentum, heat and mass transfer between steam/water two phases, more detailed information has been obtained. For this purpose, many researches have been carried out for visually grasping the aspect of two-phase flow. Also in the field of two-phase flow study, the X-ray CT scanners which can visualize the state of flow without disturbing it and also can quantify it can be regarded as very attractive measuring instrument. A number of the examples of the application of X-ray CT scanners to two-phase flow measurement have been published. In this report, the principle of the measurement using X-ray CT scanners is briefly explained, and the application of X-ray CT scanners to the two-phase flow measurement in a horizontal pipe and in a fuel assembly of a nuclear reactor is outlined. For the experiment, an industrial X-ray CT scanner TOSCANER 3200 made by Toshiba Corp. was used mainly for the measurement of the distribution of void fraction. It may be considered that this technology of void fraction measurement has been established. In the case of the measurement at higher temperature and pressure, more studies are necessary. (Kako, I.)
A Derivation of the Nonlocal Volume-Averaged Equations for Two-Phase Flow Transport
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gilberto Espinosa-Paredes
2012-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper a detailed derivation of the general transport equations for two-phase systems using a method based on nonlocal volume averaging is presented. The local volume averaging equations are commonly applied in nuclear reactor system for optimal design and safe operation. Unfortunately, these equations are limited to length-scale restriction and according with the theory of the averaging volume method, these fail in transition of the flow patterns and boundaries between two-phase flow and solid, which produce rapid changes in the physical properties and void fraction. The non-local volume averaging equations derived in this work contain new terms related with non-local transport effects due to accumulation, convection diffusion and transport properties for two-phase flow; for instance, they can be applied in the boundary between a two-phase flow and a solid phase, or in the boundary of the transition region of two-phase flows where the local volume averaging equations fail.
Two-phase flow in membrane processes: A technology with a future
Wibisono, Y.; Cornelissen, E.R.; Kemperman, A.J.B.; Meer, van der W.G.J.; Nijmeijer, K.
2014-01-01
Worldwide, the application of a (gas/liquid) two-phase flow in membrane processes has received ample scientific deliberation because of its potential to reduce concentration polarization and membrane fouling, and therefore enhance membrane flux. Gas/liquid flows are now used to promote turbulence an
Experimental study on average frictional pressure drop of gas-liquid two-phase pulsatile flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The gas-liquid two-phase pulsatile flow was studied in a rectangular channel with 40 mm × 3 mm cross section under different periods, flow rate amplitudes and its mean values (mean Re1<10000, mean Reg<800). There was difference between the single phase pulsatile flow and the gas-liquid two-phase pulsatile flow, and pulsation period and amplitude were not sensitive for the average frictional pressure drop. There was no significant difference on the values and distribution between the calculation deviations in pulsatile flow and the calculation deviations in steady flow by using different empirical formulas. Almost all of the relative deviations were less than 20%, and the relative deviations of Mishima-Hibiki method and Lee-Lee method were less than 10%. The results show that the empirical formulas for the two-phase steady flow frictional pressure drop are also suitable for the calculation of the average value of two-phase pulsatile flow. (authors)
Numerical simulation of air-water two-phase flow over stepped spillways
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHENG; Xiangju; CHEN; Yongcan
2006-01-01
Stepped spillways for significant energy dissipation along the chute have gained interest and popularity among researchers and dam engineers. Due to the complexity of air-water two-phase flow over stepped spillways, the finite volume computational fluid dynamics module of the FLUENT software was used to simulate the main characteristics of the flow. Adopting the RNG k-ε turbulence model, the mixture flow model for air-water two-phase flow was used to simulate the flow field over stepped spillway with the PISO arithmetic technique. The numerical result successfully reproduced the complex flow over a stepped spillway of an experiment case, including the interaction between entrained air bubbles and cavity recirculation in the skimming flow regime, velocity distribution and the pressure profiles on the step surface as well. The result is helpful for understanding the detailed information about energy dissipation over stepped spillways.
Impedance void-meter and neural networks for vertical two-phase flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Most two-phase flow measurements, including void fraction measurements, depend on correct flow regime identification. There are two steps towards successful identification of flow regimes: one is to develop a non-intrusive instrument to demonstrate area-averaged void fluctuations, the other to develop a non-linear mapping approach to perform objective identification of flow regimes. A non-intrusive impedance void-meter provides input signals to a neural mapping approach used to identify flow regimes. After training, both supervised and self-organizing neural network learning paradigms performed flow regime identification successfully. The methodology presented holds considerable promise for multiphase flow diagnostic and measurement applications. (author)
Two-phase wall function for modeling of turbulent boundary layer in subcooled boiling flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Full text of publication follows: The heat transfer and phase-change mechanisms in the subcooled flow boiling are governed mainly by local multidimensional mechanisms near the heated wall, where bubbles are generated. The structure of such 'wall boiling flow' is inherently non-homogeneous and is further influenced by the two-phase flow turbulence, phase-change effects in the bulk, interfacial forces and bubble interactions (collisions, coalescence, break-up). In this work the effect of two-phase flow turbulence on the development of subcooled boiling flow is considered. Recently, the modeling of two-phase flow turbulence has been extensively investigated. A notable progress has been made towards deriving reliable models for description of turbulent behaviour of continuous (liquid) and dispersed phase (bubbles) in the bulk flow. However, there is a lack of investigation considering the modeling of two-phase flow boundary layer. In most Eulerian two-fluid models standard single-phase wall functions are used for description of turbulent boundary layer of continuous phase. That might be a good approximation at adiabatic flows, but their use for boundary layers with high concentration of dispersed phase is questionable. In this work, the turbulent boundary layer near the heated wall will be modeled with the so-called 'two-phase' wall function, which is based on the assumption of additional turbulence due to bubble-induced stirring in the boundary layer. In the two-phase turbulent boundary layer the wall function coefficients strongly depend on the void fraction. Moreover, in the turbulent boundary layer with nucleating bubbles, the bubble size variation also has a significant impact on the liquid phase. As a basis, the wall function of Troshko and Hassan (2001), developed for adiabatic bubbly flows will be used. The simulations will be performed by a general-purpose CFD code CFX-4.4 using additional models provided by authors. The results will be compared to the boiling
Two-phase flow and transport in the air cathode of proton exchange membrane fuel cells
Wang, Z. H.; Wang, C. Y.; Chen, K. S.
Two-phase flow and transport of reactants and products in the air cathode of proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells is studied analytically and numerically. Single- and two-phase regimes of water distribution and transport are classified by a threshold current density corresponding to first appearance of liquid water at the membrane/cathode interface. When the cell operates above the threshold current density, liquid water appears and a two-phase zone forms within the porous cathode. A two-phase, multicomponent mixture model in conjunction with a finite-volume-based computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique is applied to simulate the cathode operation in this regime. The model is able to handle the situation where a single-phase region co-exists with a two-phase zone in the air cathode. For the first time, the polarization curve as well as water and oxygen concentration distributions encompassing both single- and two-phase regimes of the air cathode are presented. Capillary action is found to be the dominant mechanism for water transport inside the two-phase zone of the hydrophilic structure. The liquid water saturation within the cathode is predicted to reach 6.3% at 1.4 A cm -2 for dry inlet air.
Multidimensional two-phase flow regime distribution in a PWR downcomer during an LBLOCA refill phase
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The multidimensional countercurrent two-phase flow regimes that occur in a pressurized-water reactor (PWR) vessel downcomer during the refill phase of a large-break loss-of-coolant accident are studied using a transparent 1/10 scale model of a PWR vessel. The various flow regimes and their distribution in the downcomer have been identified and mapped for a range of air-water flooding experiments. The two-phase flow patterns that are identified in the downcomer included various types of film flows, droplet flows, countercurrent churn flows and cocurrent flows depending on the flooding condition. Through observation of the two-phase flow dynamics it was deduced that the physical mechanisms associated with the flooding processes could be separated into a liquid entrainment process and a film flow reversal process. In addition to the above exercise, the effect of non-uniform injection of water into the downcomer via different combinations of cold leg was studied similarly by determining flooding curves and flow pattern maps. It was found that differences in the flooding characteristic were noticeable for various water inlet configurations when compared with the uniform injection case. The differences could be explained qualitatively in terms of the flooding mechanisms identified previously by examining the flow patterns in the downcomer for the non-uniform injection tests. ((orig.))
Analysis of data obtained in two-phase flow tests of primary heat transport pumps
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This report analyzes data obtained in two-phase flow tests of primary heat transport pumps performed during the period 1980-1983. Phenomena which have been known to cause pump-induced flow oscillations in pressurized piping systems under two-phase conditions are reviewed and the data analyzed to determine whether any of the identified phenomena could have been responsible for the instabilities observed in those tests. Tentative explanations for the most severe instabilities are given based on those analyses. It is shown that suction pipe geometry probably plays an important role in promoting instabilities, so additional experiments to investigate the effect of suction pipe geometry on the stability of flow in a closed pipe loop under two-phase conditions are recommended
OPTIMIZATION DESIGN OF GAS-PARTICLE TWO-PHASE AXIAL-FLOW FAN
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2000-01-01
Based on the shaping theory of writhed blade in streamline design, the geometric shape of blade is designed and then computational formulas for the dynamic design of fan with writhed the blades in gas-particle two-phase axial-flow are derived with the two-phase continuum coupling model. Concurrently, the correlation between the structure of impeller and flow-field dynamic functional parameters is presented. Further, the software for the optimization design of gas-particle two-phase axial-flow fan with writhed blades is obtained. By means of the available software, a sample fan is formed with its all dynamic characteristic curves and geometric shape. Finally, the conclusion on the effect of particles on fan running is reached, quantitatively and qualitatively, as is expected in the fan industry.
Droplet sizes, dynamics and deposition in vertical annular flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The role of droplets in vertical upwards annular flow is investigated, focusing on the droplet size distributions, dynamics, and deposition phenomena. An experimental program was performed based on a new laser optical technique developed in these laboratories and implemented here for annular flow. This permitted the simultaneous measurement of droplet size, axial and radial velocity. The dependence of droplet size distributions on flow conditions is analyzed. The Upper-Log Normal function proves to be a good model for the size distribution. The mechanism controlling the maximum stable drop size was found to result from the interaction of the pressure fluctuations of the turbulent flow of the gas core with the droplet. The average axial droplet velocity showed a weak dependence on gas rates. This can be explained once the droplet size distribution and droplet size-velocity relationship are analyzed simultaneously. The surprising result from the droplet conditional analysis is that larger droplet travel faster than smaller ones. This dependence cannot be explained if the drag curves used do not take into account the high levels of turbulence present in the gas core in annular flow. If these are considered, then interesting new situations of multiplicity and stability of droplet terminal velocities are encountered. Also, the observed size-velocity relationship can be explained. A droplet deposition is formulated based on the particle inertia control. This permitted the calculation of rates of drop deposition directly from the droplet size and velocities data
Mechanistic multidimensional analysis of two-phase flow in horizontal tube with 90 deg elbow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The development of modeling and simulation capabilities of two-phase flow and heat transfer is very important for the design, operation and safety of nuclear reactors. Whereas a significant progress in this field has been made over the recent years, further advancements are clearly needed for new concepts of advanced (Generation-IV in particular) reactors. Difficulties in analyzing gas/liquid flows are due to the fact that such two-phase mixtures can assume several different flow patterns, each characterized by flow-regime specific interfacial phenomena of mass, momentum and energy transfer. The level of difficulty increases even further in the case of a complex tube geometries and spatial orientations. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the results of the analysis of a two-phase flow in a horizontal pipe with a 90-degree elbow. The overall objective of the present work is the development of a 3-dimensional computational model of a two-phase high-Reynolds number turbulent flow. The overall new model has been encoded in the next-generation Computational Multiphase Fluid Dynamics (CMFD) computer code, NPHASE. The model has been tested parametrically and the results of NPHASE calculations have been compared against experimental data. It has been demonstrated that the proposed model is consistent both physically and numerically, the predictions are in a reasonable agreement with the measurements
Analysis of void fraction distributions and prediction of DNB in boiling two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Analyses were carried out for the void fraction distributions in boiling two-phase flow in various flow channel such as round tube, rectangular pipe. Based on the simple assumptions of bubble shape, distribution of bubble number density were calculated based on the models of bubble diffusion considering bubbles due to boiling. Some of the models of turbulence structure and turbulent bubble diffusion in non-boiling two-phase flow which are well established are applied to the boiling two-phase flow with appropriate modification considering the effect of bubble growth and detachment from heated wall. From the distributions of bubble number density, void fraction distributions were calculated based on the simple assumption of bubble shape. The calculated void fraction distributions show the wall peak of which magnitude depends upon heat flux, bubble size hydraulic diameter of flow passage, bubble dispersion coefficient etc. Extensive parameter survey of these parameters on the void fraction distributions were carried out and mechanisms of bubble behaviors in boiling two-phase flow were considered in details. The predicted void fraction distributions reasonably agree with experimental data. Based on the calculated void fraction distributions, DNB heat flux were predicted with simple model where DNB occurs the wall peak void fraction exceeds the certain value. Although the model is quite simple, reasonable prediction of DNB was shown to become possible. (author)
Analysis of water hammer in two-component two-phase flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The water hammer phenomena caused by a sudden valve closure in air-water two-phase flows must be clarified for the safety analysis of LOCA in reactors and further for the safety of boilers, chemical plants, pipe transport of fluids such as petroleum and natural gas. In the present paper water hammer phenomena caused by a sudden valve closure in two-component two-phase flow are investigated theoretically and experimentally. The phenomena are more complicated that in single phase-flow due to the fact of the presence of compressible component. Basic partial differential equations based on a one-dimensional homogeneous flow model are solved by the method of characteristic. The analysis is extended to include friction in a two-phase mixture depending on the local flow pattern. The profiles of the pressure transients, the propagation velocity of pressure waves and the effect of valve closure on the transient pressure are found. Different two-phase flow pattern and frictional pressure drop correlations were used including Baker, Chesholm and Beggs ampersand Bril correlations
Conceptual plan: Two-Phase Flow Laboratory Program for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Salado Two-Phase Flow Laboratory Program was established to address concerns regarding two-phase flow properties and to provide WIPP-specific, geologically consistent experimental data to develop more appropriate correlations for Salado rock to replace those currently used in Performance Assessment models. Researchers in Sandia's Fluid Flow and Transport Department originally identified and emphasized the need for laboratory measurements of Salado threshold pressure and relative permeability. The program expanded to include the measurement of capillary pressure, rock compressibility, porosity, and intrinsic permeability and the assessment of core damage. Sensitivity analyses identified the anhydrite interbed layers as the most likely path for the dissipation of waste-generated gas from waste-storage rooms because of their relatively high permeability. Due to this the program will initially focus on the anhydrite interbed material. The program may expand to include similar rock and flow measurements on other WIPP materials including impure halite, pure halite, and backfill and seal materials. This conceptual plan presents the scope, objectives, and historical documentation of the development of the Salado Two-Phase Flow Program through January 1993. Potential laboratory techniques for assessing core damage and measuring porosity, rock compressibility, capillary and threshold pressure, permeability as a function of stress, and relative permeability are discussed. Details of actual test designs, test procedures, and data analysis are not included in this report, but will be included in the Salado Two-Phase Flow Laboratory Program Test Plan pending the results of experimental and other scoping activities in FY93
Investigation on two-phase flow instability in steam generator of integrated nuclear reactor
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
1996-01-01
In the pressure range of 3-18MPa,high pressure steam-water two-phase flow density wave instability in vertical upward parallel pipes with inner diameter of 12mm is studied experimentally.The oscillation curves of two-phase flow instability and the effects of several parameters on the oscillation threshold of the system are obtained.Based on the small pertubation linearization method and the stability principles of automatic control system,a mathematical model is developed to predict the characteristics of density wave instability threshold.The predictions of the model are in good agreement with the experimental results.
A study on nuclear propulsion using gas-solid two-phase flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Miyato, Naoaki; Kataoka, Isao; Serizawa, Akimi [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering
1997-05-01
A solid core nuclear rocket has been considered a candidate for the first manned mission to Mars. The reason is that the solid core nuclear rocket has higher specific impulse than a chemical rocket. But its engine thrust is as much as that of the chemical rocket. We have thought of use of gas-solid two-phase flow for higher engine thrust on nuclear thermal propulsion and examined the effect of gas-solid two-phase flow on the engine thrust and the specific impulse of the solid core nuclear rocket. (author)
Two-phase flow stability structure in a natural circulation system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhou, Zhiwei [Nuclear Engineering Laboratory Zurich (Switzerland)
1995-09-01
The present study reports a numerical analysis of two-phase flow stability structures in a natural circulation system with two parallel, heated channels. The numerical model is derived, based on the Galerkin moving nodal method. This analysis is related to some design options applicable to integral heating reactors with a slightly-boiling operation mode, and is also of general interest to similar facilities. The options include: (1) Symmetric heating and throttling; (2) Asymmetric heating and symmetric throttling; (3) Asymmetric heating and throttling. The oscillation modes for these variants are discussed. Comparisons with the data from the INET two-phase flow stability experiment have qualitatively validated the present analysis.
Two-Phase Flow Measurements with 252Cf: Design Aspects and Considerations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
For many years 252Cf has been used for measuring moisture content, particularly in the ground's soil, by detecting the amount of slowing down (thermalization) of the source's fission neutrons by the hydrogen nuclei in water. The same concept has been employed for measuring the phase volume fraction in two-phase flows. Although the principle of using neutron slowing down to measure hydrogen content is basic and straightforward, its application in a confined and evolving medium such as two-phase flow can be challenging. This paper identifies some of these challenges and presents some approaches for dealing with them
Theoretical studies of fluid-structure interactions in two-phase flow through vibration models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
On the basis of reduced characteristic equations for calculation of continuity, momentum and energy of a two-phase flow, relations are derived for a substitute of the gas-fluid mixture, covering position and time-dependent density and velocity data, and are verified by a boiling fluid model. The results are applied to a 1D and a 2D vibration model (pendulum in two-phase flow), taking into account the flui-structure interaction and the calculation of eigenfrequencies and damping. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Forschungszentrum Rossendorf (FZR) e. V. is constructing a new large-scale test facility, TOPFLOW, for thermalhydraulic single effect tests. The acronym stands for transient two phase flow test facility. It will mainly be used for the investigation of generic and applied steady state and transient two phase flow phenomena and the development and validation of models of computational fluid dynamic (CFD) codes. The manual of the test facility must always be available for the staff in the control room and is restricted condition during operation of personnel and also reconstruction of the facility. (orig./GL)
Analytical Simulation of Flow and Heat Transfer of Two-Phase Nanofluid (Stratified Flow Regime
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohammad Abbasi
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Nanofluids have evoked immense interest from researchers all around the globe due to their numerous potential benefits and applications in important fields such as cooling electronic parts, cooling car engines and nuclear reactors. An analytical study of fluid flow of in-tube stratified regime of two-phase nanofluid has been carried out for CuO, Al2O2, TiO3, and Au as applied nanoparticles in water as the base liquid. Liquid film thickness, convective heat transfer coefficient, and dryout length have been calculated. Among the considered nano particles, Al2O3 and TiO2 because of providing more amounts of heat transfer along with longer lengths of dryout found as the most appropriate nanoparticles to achieve cooling objectives.
Technique and apparatus for two-phase systems analysis directly in a flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Method and apparatus for X-ray spectrum analysis of flowing material, and particularly where the material has two phases such as a suspension. A flow of gas or floats are used to separate the flowing material from an X-ray window in a casing containing an X-ray source and detector, which casing is located directly in the stream of flowing material. The gas flow provides a protective curtain across the window. An electrode structure is moveably mounted adjacent to the window and enables the solid state phase to be deposited for separated analysis of the solid and liquid phases of the flowing material
Two-phase fluid flow measurements in small diameter channels using real-time neutron radiography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A series of real-time, neutron radiography, experiments are ongoing at the Texas A and M Nuclear Science Center Reactor (NSCR). These tests determine the resolving capabilities for radiographic imaging of two phase water and air flow regimes through small diameter flow channels. Though both film and video radiographic imaging is available, the real-time video imaging was selected to capture the dynamic flow patterns with results that continue to improve. (author)
Monitoring Gas Void Fraction In Two-Phase Flow With Acoustic Emission
Addali, Abdulmajid
2010-01-01
The two-phase gas/liquid flow phenomenon can be encountered over a range of gas and liquid flow rates in the chemical engineering industry, particularly in oil and gas production transportation pipelines. Monitoring and measurement of their characteristics, such as the gas void fraction, are necessary to minimise the disruption of downstream process facilities. Thus, over the last decade, the investigation, development and use of multiphase flow metering system have been a major focus for the...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The secondary side of the nuclear power plant steam generator is working in a two-phase convective boiling process in which two-phase flow instability must be avoided in design. The time domain method was used to study the two-phase flow instability in a vertical up-flow tube. One-dimensional model was established and a numerical program was compiled. Two-phase flow density-wave instability was simulated, and transient parameter distribution in the tube during the dynamic process was presented. The program was also used to analyze the effects of mass velocity, system pressure, and inlet sub-cooling on flow instability. The result shows that the transient parameter distribution from the program agree well with the experimental results, and it can predict the instability boundary, which is more accurate than that of the usually used Khabenski nomographic method. (authors)
Modelling of interfacial area and turbulence in two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Full text of publication follows: Computational Two-Fluid Dynamics (CTFD) modelling is still under development. The single pressure two-fluid model is widely used as a model basis for the multidimensional simulation of typical two-phase flow phenomena, e.g. void and pressure wave propagation, phase transitions, sharp interface movements, thermal and mechanical non-equilibrium /1/. The conservation equations based on an averaging procedure are written for each phase allowing both phases to co-exist at any point in space. The local volumetric fraction alone, one of the solution variables of the two-fluid model, is not sufficient to describe the topology of the two phases and consequently the flow regime can not be determined by the two-fluid model. A determination of the flow situation requires additional knowledge of the interface. The concentration of the interfacial area is one of the key parameters that gives information of the flow pattern. It is also an important parameter for the modelling of interfacial friction forces and interfacial transfer terms. The modelling of a transport equation for the interfacial area concentration covering the whole two-phase flow range is outlined in this paper. In this transport equation the forces acting on the interface and mass transfer are modelled. Observed phenomena, e.g. bubble coalescence or disintegration, are not explicitly modelled, they are the result of the interacting forces on bubble interface. Thus the modelling is mainly based on first principles and is largely free from empiricism /2/. First validation calculations will be presented. For the modelling of turbulence in two-phase flows new transport equations for the turbulent kinetic energy and its dissipation are proposed, where turbulent shear stress for two-phase flows will be modelled. Beyond this the new turbulence model differentiates between turbulent scales and the usual constants of the dissipation rate equation are modelled /2/. A first verification
Nonlinear analysis of gas-water/oil-water two-phase flow in complex networks
Gao, Zhong-Ke; Wang, Wen-Xu
2014-01-01
Understanding the dynamics of multi-phase flows has been a challenge in the fields of nonlinear dynamics and fluid mechanics. This chapter reviews our work on two-phase flow dynamics in combination with complex network theory. We systematically carried out gas-water/oil-water two-phase flow experiments for measuring the time series of flow signals which is studied in terms of the mapping from time series to complex networks. Three network mapping methods were proposed for the analysis and identification of flow patterns, i.e. Flow Pattern Complex Network (FPCN), Fluid Dynamic Complex Network (FDCN) and Fluid Structure Complex Network (FSCN). Through detecting the community structure of FPCN based on K-means clustering, distinct flow patterns can be successfully distinguished and identified. A number of FDCN’s under different flow conditions were constructed in order to reveal the dynamical characteristics of two-phase flows. The FDCNs exhibit universal power-law degree distributions. The power-law exponent ...
Film boiling on spheres in single- and two-phase flows.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu, C.; Theofanous, T. G.
2000-08-29
Film boiling on spheres in single- and two-phase flows was studied experimentally and theoretically with an emphasis on establishing the film boiling heat transfer closure law, which is useful in the analysis of nuclear reactor core melt accidents. Systematic experimentation of film boiling on spheres in single-phase water flows was carried out to investigate the effects of liquid subcooling (from 0 to 40 C), liquid velocity (from 0 to 2 m/s), sphere superheat (from 200 to 900 C), sphere diameter (from 6 to 19 mm), and sphere material (stainless steel and brass) on film boiling heat transfer. Based on the experimental data a general film boiling heat transfer correlation is developed. Utilizing a two-phase laminar boundary-layer model for the unseparated front film region and a turbulent eddy model for the separated rear region, a theoretical model was developed to predict the film boiling heat transfer in all single-phase regimes. The film boiling from a sphere in two-phase flows was investigated both in upward two-phase flows (with void fraction from 0.2 to 0.65, water velocity from 0.6 to 3.2 m/s, and steam velocity from 3.0 to 9.0 m/s) and in downward two-phase flows (with void fraction from 0.7 to 0.95, water velocity from 1.9 to 6.5 m/s, and steam velocity from 1.1 to 9.0 m/s). The saturated single-phase heat transfer correlation was found to be applicable to the two-phase film boiling data by making use of the actual water velocity (water phase velocity), and an adjustment factor of (1 - {alpha}){sup 1/4} (with a being the void fraction) for downward flow case only. Slight adjustments of the Reynolds number exponents in the correlation provided an even better interpretation of the two-phase data. Preliminary experiments were also conducted to address the influences of multi-sphere structure on the film boiling heat transfer in single- and two-phase flows.
Film boiling on spheres in single- and two-phase flows. Final report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu, C.; Theofanous, T.G.
1994-12-01
Film boiling on spheres in single- and two-phase flows was studied experimentally and theoretically with an emphasis on establishing the film boiling heat transfer closure law, which is useful in the analysis of nuclear reactor core melt accidents. Systematic experimentation of film boiling on spheres in single-phase water flows was carried out to investigate the effects of liquid subcooling (from 0 to 40{degrees}C), liquid velocity (from 0 to 2 m/s), sphere superheat (from 200 to 900{degrees}C), sphere diameter (from 6 to 19 mm), and sphere material (stainless steel and brass) on film boiling heat transfer. Based on the experimental data a general film boiling heat transfer correlation is developed. Utilizing a two-phase laminar boundary-layer model for the unseparated front film region and a turbulent eddy model for the separated rear region, a theoretical model was developed to predict the film boiling heat transfer in all single-phase regimes. The film boiling from a sphere in two-phase flows was investigated both in upward two-phase flows (with void fraction from 0.2 to 0.65, water velocity from 0.6 to 3.2 m/s, and steam velocity from 3.0 to 9.0 m/s) and in downward two-phase flows (with void fraction from 0.7 to 0.95, water velocity from 1.9 to 6.5 m/s, and steam velocity from 1.1 to 9.0 m/s). The saturated single-phase heat transfer correlation was found to be applicable to the two-phase film boiling data by making use of the actual water velocity (water phase velocity), and an adjustment factor of (1-{alpha}){sup 1/4} (with {alpha} being the void fraction) for downward flow case only. Slight adjustments of the Reynolds number exponents in the correlation provided an even better interpretation of the two-phase data. Preliminary experiments were also conducted to address the influences of multisphere structure on the film boiling heat transfer in single- and two-phase flows.
New four-sensor probe theory for multi-dimensional two-phase flow measurement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper has newly developed a complete four-sensor probe measurement theory of local instantaneous 3D bubble velocity vector, local instantaneous bubble diameter and local instantaneous interfacial normal unit vector and local time-averaged interfacial area concentration (IAC) in a multi-dimensional two-phase flow by assuming the bubbles to be spherical. The newly-developed theory has opened a way for the measurement of bubble diameter with a four-sensor probe. The conventional IAC, 3D bubble velocity vector and interfacial normal unit vector measurement theories of a four-sensor probe have become an example of the newly-developed theory when the bubbles have much larger sizes than a four-sensor probe. Spherical bubbles in a practical two-phase flow are distinguished from non-spherical bubbles by introducing a bubble deviation coefficient from spherical shape. Based on the spherical bubbles, the newly-developed theory was employed to measure local parameters in a two-phase flow. Its measurement results were checked against void fraction measurement using differential pressure (DP) gauges, superficial gas velocity measurement using gas flow meters, bubble diameter measurement using photographic image and IAC measurement using the conventional four-sensor probe theory. The satisfactory comparing results show that the newly-developed theory can perform the accurate and reliable measurements for practical multi-dimensional two-phase flow. (author)
A new correlation of two-phase frictional pressure drop for condensing flow in pipes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Highlights: • Survey of two-phase frictional pressure drop (THFPD) experimental data of condensing flow is conducted. • Applicability of the existing THFPD correlations to condensing flow is assessed. • A new THFPD correlation for condensing flow in pipes is proposed. -- Abstract: The calculation of two-phase frictional pressure drop for condensing flow in pipes is essential in many areas. Although numerous studies concerning this issue have been conducted, an accurate correlation is still required. In this paper, an overall survey of correlations and experimental investigations of two-phase frictional pressure drop is carried out. There 525 experimental data points of 9 refrigerants are gathered from literature, with hydraulic diameter from 0.1 to 10.07 mm, mass flux from 20 to 800 kg/m2 s, and heat flux from 2 to 55.3 kW/m2. The 29 existing correlations are evaluated against the experimental database, among which the best one has a mean absolute relative deviation (MARD) of 25.2%. Based on all the experimental data, a new correlation which has an MARD of 19.4% is proposed, improving significantly the prediction of two-phase frictional pressure drop for pipe condensing flow
A two-phase flow model of the Rayleigh endash Taylor mixing zone
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Rayleigh endash Taylor instability of an interface separating fluids of distinct density is driven by an acceleration across the interface. Low order statistical moments of fluctuating fluid quantities characterize the hydrodynamics of the mixing zone. A new model is proposed for the momentum coupling between the two phases. This model is validated against computational data for compressible flows, including flows near the incompressible limit. Our main result is a zero parameter first order closure for ensemble averaged two phase flow equations. We do not, however, fully solve the closure problem, as the equations we derive are missing an (internal) boundary condition along any surface for which either phase goes to zero volume fraction. In this sense, the closure problem is reduced from a volume to a surface condition, rather than being solved completely. We compare two formulations of the statistical moments, one based on two phase flow and the other on turbulence models. These formulations describe different aspects of the mixing process. For the problem considered, the two phase flow moments appear to be preferable, in that they subsume the turbulence moments but not conversely. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics
Pigging analysis for gas-liquid two phase flow in pipelines
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A new method to analyze transient phenomena caused by pigging in gas-liquid two-phase flow is developed. During pigging, a pipeline is divided into three sections by two moving boundaries, namely the pig and the leading edge of the liquid slug in front of the pig. The basic equations are mass, momentum and energy conservation equations. The boundary conditions at the moving boundaries are determined from the mass conservation across the boundaries, etc. A finite difference method is used to solve the equations numerically. The method described above is also capable of analyzing transient two-phase flow caused by pressure and flow rate changes. Thus the over-all analysis of transient two-phase flow in pipelines becomes possible. A series of air-water two-phase flow pigging experiments was conducted using 105.3 mm diameter and 1436.5 m long test pipeline. The agreement between the measured and the calculated results is very good
The FDF or LES/PDF method for turbulent two-phase flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chibbaro, S [Institut Jean Le Rond D' Alembert University Pierre et Marie Curie et CNRS UMR7190, 4, place Jussieu 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Minier, Jean-Pierre, E-mail: sergio.chibbaro@upmc.fr [EDF R and D Division Quai Wattiou 78100 Chatou France (France)
2011-12-22
In this paper, a new formalism for the filtered density function (FDF) approach is developed for the treatment of turbulent polydispersed two-phase flows in LES simulations. Contrary to the FDF used for turbulent reactive single-phase flows, the present formalislm is based on Lagrangian quantities and, in particular, on the Lagrangian filtered mass density function (LFMDF) as the central concept. This framework allows modeling and simulation of particle flows for LES to be set in a rigorous context and various links with other approaches to be made. In particular, the relation between LES for particle simulations of single-phase flows and Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) is put forward. Then, the discussion and derivation of possible subgrid stochastic models used for Lagrangian models in two-phase flows can set in a clear probabilistic equivalence with the corresponding LFMDF.
The FDF or LES/PDF method for turbulent two-phase flows
Chibbaro, Sergio
2011-01-01
In this paper, a new formalism for the filtered density function (FDF) approach is developed for the treatment of turbulent polydispersed two-phase flows in LES simulations. Contrary to the FDF used for turbulent reactive single-phase flows, the present formalislm is based on Lagrangian quantities and, in particular, on the Lagrangian filtered mass density function (LFMDF) as the central concept. This framework allows modeling and simulation of particle flows for LES to be set in a rigorous context and various links with other approaches to be made. In particular, the relation between LES for particle simulations of single-phase flows and Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) is put forward. Then, the discussion and derivation of possible subgrid stochastic models used for Lagrangian models in two-phase flows can set in a clear probabilistic equivalence with the corresponding LFMDF.
Two-phase flow in the cooling circuit of a cryogenic rocket engine
Preclik, D.
1992-07-01
Transient two-phase flow was investigated for the hydrogen cooling circuit of the HM7 rocket engine. The nuclear reactor code ATHLET/THESEUS was adapted to cryogenics and applied to both principal and prototype experiments for validation and simulation purposes. The cooling circuit two-phase flow simulation focused on the hydrogen prechilling and pump transient phase prior to ignition. Both a single- and a multichannel model were designed and employed for a valve leakage flow, a nominal prechilling flow, and a prechilling with a subsequent pump-transient flow. The latter case was performed in order to evaluate the difference between a nominal and a delayed turbo-pump start-up. It was found that an extension of the nominal prechilling sequence in the order of 1 second is sufficient to finally provide for liquid injection conditions of hydrogen which, as commonly known, is undesirable for smooth ignition and engine starting transients.
Critical equilibrium two-phase flow with quasi-constant slip
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
On the basis of the mass-, momentum- and energy-conservation equations, assuming a quasi-constant slip, a mathematical model of the critical non-homogeneous equilibrium two-phase flow is developed. The slip is varied to find the maximum of the critical mass flow rate for low qualities. For qualities greater than 0.1 it is found that the critical mass flow rate has no extreme values and approaches a constant value when the slip increases. Following the concept of Henry and Fauske the model is extended to describe non-homogeneous non-equilibrium two-phase flows, too. The comparison with published experimental data demonstrates that the theory can approximate well different experimental results on determination of the local critical mass flow rate. (orig.)
Analysis of turbulent structure of boiling two-phase flow and prediction of CHF
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Analyses were carried out based on the basic equation of bubble number density based on appropriate turbulence model and bubble dispersion coefficient. The calculated distribution of bubble number density was converted to the void fraction distribution with the assumption of spherical bubble. The value of peak void fraction depended upon heat flux, liquid inlet flux, bubble diameter, bubble dispersion coefficient and flow passage diameter. Using void fraction distribution and basic equations and constitutive equations of turbulence, turbulence structure in boiling two-phase flow was analyzed. The result indicated that turbulent velocity distribution showed complicated behaviors compared with single-phase flow and averaged velocity showed flattened distribution compared with single-phase flow. In boiling two-phase flow, it is shown the turbulence generation term due to boiling bubble plays important contribution to the turbulence structure. Based on the results of prediction of void fraction distributions, an attempt will be carried out to predict DNB heat flux. (author)
A state-of-the-art report on two-phase critical flow modelling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This report reviews and analyses two-phase, critical flow models. The purposes of the report are (1) to make a knowledge base for the full understanding and best-estimate of two-phase, critical flow, (2) to analyse the model development trend and to derive the direction of further studies. A wide range of critical flow models are reviewed. Each model, in general, predicts critical flow well only within specified conditions. The critical flow models of best-estimate codes are special process model included in the hydrodynamic model. The results of calculations depend on the nodalization, discharge coefficient, and other user's options. The following topics are recommended for continuing studies: improvement of two-fluid model, development of multidimensional model, data base setup and model error evaluation, and generalization of discharge coefficients. 24 figs., 5 tabs., 80 refs. (Author)
A state-of-the-art report on two-phase critical flow modelling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jung, Jae Joon; Jang, Won Pyo; Kim, Dong Soo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)
1993-09-01
This report reviews and analyses two-phase, critical flow models. The purposes of the report are (1) to make a knowledge base for the full understanding and best-estimate of two-phase, critical flow, (2) to analyse the model development trend and to derive the direction of further studies. A wide range of critical flow models are reviewed. Each model, in general, predicts critical flow well only within specified conditions. The critical flow models of best-estimate codes are special process model included in the hydrodynamic model. The results of calculations depend on the nodalization, discharge coefficient, and other user`s options. The following topics are recommended for continuing studies: improvement of two-fluid model, development of multidimensional model, data base setup and model error evaluation, and generalization of discharge coefficients. 24 figs., 5 tabs., 80 refs. (Author).
Entropy analysis on non-equilibrium two-phase flow models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Karwat, H.; Ruan, Y.Q. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany)
1995-09-01
A method of entropy analysis according to the second law of thermodynamics is proposed for the assessment of a class of practical non-equilibrium two-phase flow models. Entropy conditions are derived directly from a local instantaneous formulation for an arbitrary control volume of a structural two-phase fluid, which are finally expressed in terms of the averaged thermodynamic independent variables and their time derivatives as well as the boundary conditions for the volume. On the basis of a widely used thermal-hydraulic system code it is demonstrated with practical examples that entropy production rates in control volumes can be numerically quantified by using the data from the output data files. Entropy analysis using the proposed method is useful in identifying some potential problems in two-phase flow models and predictions as well as in studying the effects of some free parameters in closure relationships.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Augyrond, L
1998-04-01
This work aims at a better understanding of the dynamics of helium two-phase flow in a vertical duct. The case of bubble flow is particularly investigated. The most descriptive parameter of two-phase flow is the void fraction. A sensor to measure this parameter was specially designed and calibrated, it is made of a radioactive source and a semiconductor detector. Sensors based on light attenuation were used to study the behaviour of this two-phase flow. The experimental set-up is described. The different flow types were photographed and video filmed. This visualization has allowed to measure the diameter of bubbles and to study their movements in the fluid. Bubble flow then churn and annular flows were observed but slug flow seems not to exist with helium. A modelling based on a Zuber model matches better the experimental results than a Levy type model. The detailed analysis of the signals given by the optical sensors has allowed to highlight a bubble appearance frequency directly linked to the flowrate. (A.C.) 83 refs.
Heat transfer to liquid sodium flowing through annular channel, (4)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An experimental study was carried out to clarify the heat transfer characteristics of liquid sodium flowing turbulently through an annular channel. For a concentric condition, average psi(=average epsilonH/epsilonM) was found to agree with that proposed by Aoki or Ramm for circular tube. For eccentric conditions, circumferential temperature variations around the inner wall were measured and Nusselt numbers were evaluated. Numerical calculations were also made for temperature fields and compared with the measurements. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Two-phase flow can trigger vibration phenomena that are not well predicted by models like the homogeneous model. Concerning the steam generator of a Candu type reactor, these vibrations may lead to the failure of tubes. The coupling between thermo-hydraulic and vibration phenomena requires models that treat sliding between liquid and vapor phases. The purpose of this work is to study a series of experiments performed in a freon loop. These experiments simulate a two-phase flow through a bundle of tubes. Most estimations of vibratory parameters are based on the assumption of a uniform distribution of the void fraction. An optic probe has been used to measure the void fraction. The first part of this study is devoted to the processing of the response spectra given by the probe. The second part presents an estimation of the void fraction given by different models, a comparison between experimental and theoretical results allows to discuss their validity range. (A.C.)
Interfacial friction in cocurrent upward annular flow. Final report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cocurrent upward annular flow is investigated, with an emphasis on correlating and predicting pressure drop. Attention is given to the characteristics of the liquid flow in the film, and the interaction of the core with the film. Alternate approaches are discussed for correlating suitably defined interfacial friction factors. Both approaches are dependent on knowledge of the entrainment in order to make predictions. Dimensional analysis is used to define characteristic parameters of the flow and an effort is made to determine, to the extent possible, the influences of these parameters on the interfacial friction factor
A boundary element approach to estimate the free surface in stratified two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Two-phase flows widely exist in many industries. Measuring the phase distribution in two-phase flow is important for the optimization and control of some industrial processes. Electrical resistance tomography (ERT) is a promising non-intrusive visualization technique for monitoring the two-phase flow. However, due to its nonlinear and ill-posed character, high-quality image reconstruction is difficult and some iterative approach is time consuming. In this paper, a boundary element approach is presented for directly estimating the free-surface in two-phase flow using ERT. The unknown free surface is parameterized by a Bézier curve. Coefficients of its control points are estimated by minimizing a residual function using the iterative Levenberg–Marquardt method. To speed up the estimation process, the physical model of ERT is formulated using a boundary element method. Based on this formulation, the forward problem is fast solved through a small size system matrix and the Jacobian matrix is efficiently calculated using an analytic method. After several numerical experiments, this approach is proved fast and precise and several factors influencing the estimation quality are analyzed based on these simulations. (paper)
Using the conductometric technique for two-phase flow parameter definition in heat power engineering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Data are given on using conductometric transducers of steam and gas content for control and measuring of thermal power coolant parameters. Basic relations for the calculation of two-phase flow-conductivity are given as well. The potentialities of lead-in wires, measuring circuits, transducer structures used are briefly analyzed
Comparison of Two-Phase Pipe Flow in OpenFOAM with a Mechanistic Model
Shuard, Adrian M.; Mahmud, Hisham B.; King, Andrew J.
2016-03-01
Two-phase pipe flow is a common occurrence in many industrial applications such as power generation and oil and gas transportation. Accurate prediction of liquid holdup and pressure drop is of vast importance to ensure effective design and operation of fluid transport systems. In this paper, a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) study of a two-phase flow of air and water is performed using OpenFOAM. The two-phase solver, interFoam is used to identify flow patterns and generate values of liquid holdup and pressure drop, which are compared to results obtained from a two-phase mechanistic model developed by Petalas and Aziz (2002). A total of 60 simulations have been performed at three separate pipe inclinations of 0°, +10° and -10° respectively. A three dimensional, 0.052m diameter pipe of 4m length is used with the Shear Stress Transport (SST) k - ɷ turbulence model to solve the turbulent mixtures of air and water. Results show that the flow pattern behaviour and numerical values of liquid holdup and pressure drop compare reasonably well to the mechanistic model.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The undertaken study is an examination of a two phase dispersed air bubble mixing flow within a rectangular vessel. The technique of Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) is utilized in order to obtain non-invasive velocity measurements of the resulting bubbly flow field and its induced effects upon a surrounding liquid medium. The method provides not only a visualization of the various patterns and structures of a given flow field, but also yields quantitative full-field instantaneous velocity data from both phases of a two phase system in a concurrent manner. PIV is a rapidly advancing flow visualization technique in which the instantaneous velocity profile of a given flow field is determined by photographically recording tracer particle and/or bubble images within the flow at discrete instances in time, and then conducting computational analysis of the digitized data. The use of developed analysis algorithms which perform a point-by-point matching of particle and bubble images from one digital image frame to the next subsequently allows reconstruction of the respective instantaneous velocity profiles. The ability to simultaneously measure the velocity fields of both components of a two phase flow is an important contribution toward the goal of developing improved correlations for flow regime determination as well as improved models for key two phase flow parameters such as the interfacial drag. In this work, results were obtained which indicate that the described PIV method is an effective tool in the study of the specific interactions which occur between components in a wide variety of multiphase systems. (author)
A simple model for two-phase slug flow induced damping
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The two-phase flows are prevalent in various industrial fields such as nuclear engineering, chemical engineering and the petroleum industry. At high speeds, flows through piping may generate significant excitation forces, particularly at joints and bends in piping systems. Interestingly, the flows may also generate significant damping forces which can be desirable from a vibration damping point of view. The question of exactly how internal two-phase flows generate damping remains largely unanswered. Indeed so is the question for external two-phase flows, which are even more complex. The problem addressed in this study is related to the behavior of tubular structures subjected to internal two-phase slug flow or nearly slug flow. The observation of slug flow subjected to transverse vibration led to consideration of the effects of sloshing liquid slugs due to the external vibration. Indeed, in flow visualization tests, the upper free surface of the slugs in vertical flow was found to deform significantly as the tube vibrated. This suggested a possible mechanism for energy transfer from the structure to the fluid which could be (at least partially) responsible for the observed two-phase flow-induced damping. An analytical model is developed aimed at incorporating the most basic sloshing effects of liquid slugs travelling through a tube at low speed. The first part of the work demonstrates that considering slugs as as simple points masses travelling through the tube leads only to low energy transfer from the tube to the flow and thus cannot explain the level of energy transfer observed in experimental damping tests. In the second part of the work, the flow dynamics within the slug are modeled to account for linear order free surface oscillations related to first mode sloshing. Numerical solution of the resulting equations shows that the energy transfer is much higher and results in damping levels of the same order as found in experimental measurements. The results
Blob population dynamics during immiscible two-phase flows in reconstructed porous media
Yiotis, A. G.; Talon, L.; Salin, D.
2013-03-01
We study the dynamics of nonwetting liquid blobs during immiscible two-phase flows in stochastically reconstructed porous domains predominantly saturated by a wetting fluid. The flow problem is solved explicitly using a Lattice-Boltzmann model that captures both the bulk phase and interfacial dynamics of the process. We show that the nonwetting blobs undergo a continuous life cycle of dynamic breaking up and coalescence producing two populations of blobs, a mobile and a stranded one, that exchange continuously mass between them. The process reaches a “steady state” when the rates of coalescence and breaking up become equal, and the macroscopic flow variables remain practically constant with time. At steady state, mass partitioning between mobile and immobile populations depends strongly on the applied Bond number Bo and the initial nonwetting phase distributions. Three flow regimes are identified: a single-phase flow Darcy-type regime at low Bo numbers, a non-Darcy two-phase flow regime at intermediate values of Bo, where the capillary number scales as Ca∝Bo2, and a Darcy-type two-phase flow regime at higher values of Bo. Our numerical results are found to be in good agreement with recent experimental and theoretical works.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An accurate subchannel database is crucial for modeling the multidimensional two-phase flow in a rod bundle and for validating subchannel analysis codes. Based on available reference, it can be said that a point-measurement sensor for acquiring void fractions and bubble velocity distributions do not infer interactions of the subchannel flow dynamics, such as a cross flow and flow distribution, etc. In order to acquire multidimensional two-phase flow in a 10×10 rod bundle with an o.d. of 10 mm and 3110 mm length, a new sensor consisting of 11-wire by 11-wire and 10-rod by 10-rod electrodes was developed. Electric potential in the proximity region between two wires creates a void fraction in the center subchannel region, like a so-called wire mesh sensor. A unique aspect of the devised sensor is that the void fraction near the rod surface can be estimated from the electric potential in the proximity region between one wire and one rod. The additional 400 points of void fraction and phasic velocity in 10×10 bundle can therefore be acquired. The devised sensor exhibits the quasi three-dimensional flow structures, i.e. void fraction, phasic velocity and bubble chord length distributions. These quasi three-dimensional structures exhibit the complexity of two-phase flow dynamics, such as coalescence and the breakup of bubbles in transient phasic velocity distributions. (author)
STABILITY OF VORTEX STREET IN GAS-LIQUID TWO-PHASE FLOW
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Li Yong-guang; Lin Zong-hu
2003-01-01
The stability of the Karmen vortex street in gas-liquid two-phase flow was studied experimentally and theoretically. The values of the parameter h/l characterizing the vortex street structure (I.e., the ratio of the vortex street width to the distance between two vortexes) for a stable vortex street in gas-liquid two-phase flow were obtained for the first time. The parameter h/l was proved to be a variable, not a constant as in single-phase flow. H/l is related to the upstream fluid void fraction. In gas-liquid two-phase fluid flow to form a steady vortex street is more difficult than in a single-phase fluid flow. Because in the unsteady vortex shedding the vortex shedding band frequency is broader than the one in the single phase fluid flow, so it is easier to induce the cross-cylinder resonance than in the single phase fluid flow, and this case should give rise to the attention of engineers.
Numerical approach of multi-field two-phase flow models in the OVAP code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Full text of publication follows: A significant progress has been made in modeling the complexity of vapor-liquid two-phase flow. Different three-dimensional models exist in order to simulate the evolution of parameters which characterize a two-phase model. These models can be classified into various groups depending on the inter-field coupling. A hierarchy of increasing physical complexity can be defined. The simplest group corresponds to the homogeneous mixture models where no interactions are taken into account. Another group is constituted by the two-fluid models employing physically important interfacial forces between two-phases, liquid, and water. The last group is multi-field modeling where inter-field couplings can be taken into account at different degrees, such as the MUltiple Size Group modeling [2], the consideration of separate equations for the transport and generation of mass and momentum for each field under the assumption of the same energy for all the fields of the same phase, and a full multi-field two-phase model [1]. The numerical approach of the general three-dimensional two-phase flow is by complexity of the phenomena a very challenging task; the ideal numerical method should be at the same time simple in order to apply to any model, from equilibrium to multi-field model and conservative in order to respect the fundamental conservation physical laws. The approximate Riemann solvers have the good properties of conservation of mass, momentum and energy balance and have been extended successfully to two-fluid models [3]- [5]. But, the up-winding of the flux is based on the Eigen-decomposition of the two-phase flow model and the computation of the Eigen-structure of a multi-field model can be a high cost procedure. Our contribution will present a short review of the above two-phase models, and show numerical results obtained for some of them with an approximate Riemann solver and with lower-complexity alternative numerical methods that do not
Hydrodynamics of single- and two-phase flow in inclined rod arrays
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Required inputs for thermal-hydraulic codes are constitutive relations for fluid-solid flow resistance, in single-phase flow, and interfacial momentum exchange (relative phase motion), in two-phase flow. An inclined rod array air-water experiment was constructed to study the hydrodynamics of multidimensional porous medium flow in rod arrays. Velocities, pressures, bubble distributions, and void fractions were measured in inline and rotational square rod arrays of P/d = 1.5, at 0, 30, 45, and 90 degree inclinations to the vertical flow direction. Constitutive models for single-phase flow resistance are reviewed, new comprehensive models developed, and an assessment with previously published and new data made. The principle of superimposing one-dimensional correlations proves successful for turbulent single-phase inclined flow. For bubbly two-phase yawed flow through incline rod arrays a new flow separation phenomena was observed and modeled. Bubbles of diameters significantly smaller than the rod diameter travel along the rod axis, while larger diameter bubbles move through the rod array gaps. The outcome is a flow separation not predictable with current interfacial momentum exchange models. This phenomenon was not observed in rotated square rod arrays. Current interfacial momentum exchange models were confirmed for this rod arrangement. Models for the two phase flow resistance multiplier for cross flow were reviewed and compared with data from cross and yawed flow rod arrays. Both drag and lift components of the multiplier were well predicted by the homogenous model. Other models reviewed overpredicted the data by a factor of two
An experimental study on the local two phase distributions in the ERVC flow channel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
During ex-vessel cooling two-phase flow around the outside of the inverted hemisphere geometry of the lower reactor head results in a variety void fraction distributions. To study the local features of the void fraction distribution we performed an experimental study with a quarter-circle geometry test section to simulate the RPV lower head. Air is injected in the test section to simulate the two phase flow phenomena and a conductivity probe is used to measure the local void fraction distribution. The test results show that the local void fraction near the bottom of the lower head is a wall peak distribution which then transitions to a near-wall peak distribution near the top of the lower head, and eventually develops into a center-peak distribution outside of the cylindrical shell. A sensitivity study has shown that the air flow rate has a significant effect on the local void fraction distribution in the flow channel. (author)
Velocity measurements in the liquid metal flow driven by a two-phase inductor
Pedcenko, A; Priede, J; Gerbeth, G; Hermann, R
2013-01-01
We present the results of velocity measurements obtained by ultrasonic Doppler velocimetry and local potential probes in the flow of GaInSn eutectic melt driven by a two-phase inductor in a cylindrical container. This type of flow is expected in a recent modification to the floating zone technique for the growth of small-diameter single intermetallic compound crystals. We show that the flow structure can be changed from the typical two toroidal vortices to a single vortex by increasing the phase shift between the currents in the two coils from 0 to 90 degrees. The latter configuration is thought to be favourable for the growth of single crystals. The flow is also computed numerically and a reasonable agreement with the experimental results is found. The obtained results may be useful for the design of combined two-phase electromagnetic stirrers and induction heaters for metal or semiconductor melts.
Some applications of mixed finite elements to an ultra compressible or a two phase flow computations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An homogeneous model solving two phase flow equations leads to study Euler equations as for compressible flow. An application of mixed element method built for Navier-Stokes equations is presented with a semi-implicit scheme (2D and 3D case). Some theoretical results about stability and approximation have been obtained and numerical tests have been performed and have given satisfactory results: the first one is a computation in a steam generator and the second one about a nozzle study
Two-phase flow in steam turbines: EDF R and D division investigations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This report outlines the investigations on wet steam flows in steam turbines. All the softwares developed in the framework of these studies enables analysis of different aspects of these types of flows. The use of two phase codes based on 2 fluid models, which has achieved a sufficient progress, and the integration of the condensation programme in a transonic non stationary code will constitute a second step for these studies, enhancing what has already been achieved in this field
Models and numerical methods for two-phase flow of CO2 in pipes
Reinertsen, Aleksander
2015-01-01
Key to the transport phase of carbon capture and storage (CCS) is understanding the behavior of liquid or supercritical CO2 in pipelines, and the consequences of cracks and pipe depressurization. It is therefore useful to develop mathematical models and numerical methods for two-phase flow of CO2 in pipes in order to better predict such behavior. Such developed tools can also be useful in fluid structure- interaction models. Key to simulating single or multiphase flows is the formulation ...
Analysis of water hammer in two-component two-phase flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The water hammer phenomena caused by a sudden valve closure in air-water two-phase flows must be clarified for the safety analysis of LOCA in reactors and further for the safety of boilers, chemical plants, pipe transport of fluids such as petroleum and natural gas. In the present work water hammer phenomena caused by sudden valve closure in two-component two-phase flows are investigated theoretically and experimentally. The phenomena are more complicated than in single phase-flows due to the fact of the presence of compressible component. Basic partial differential equations based on a one-dimensional homogeneous flow model are solved by the method of characteristic. The analysis is extended to include friction in a two-phase mixture depending on the local flow pattern. The profiles of the pressure transients, the propagation velocity of pressure waves and the effect of valve closure on the transient pressure are found. Different two-phase flow pattern and frictional pressure drop correlations were used including Baker, Chesholm and Beggs and Bril correlations. The effect of the flow pattern on the characteristic of wave propagation is discussed primarily to indicate the effect of void fraction on the velocity of wave propagation and on the attenuation of pressure waves. Transient pressure in the mixture were recorded at different air void fractions, rates of uniform valve closure and liquid flow velocities with the aid of pressure transducers, transient wave form recorders interfaced with an on-line pc computer. The results are compared with computation, and good agreement was obtained within experimental accuracy
Use of the electromagnetic flowmeter in a two-phase flow
Bernier, R. N.; Brennen, C. E.
1983-01-01
The use of the transverse field electromagnetic meter for two-phase flows is investigated. It is shown both experimentally and theoretically that this device measures the average velocity of the continuous liquid phase provided this has some minimum electrical conductivity. The calibration is quite independent of void fraction, flow regime, axisymmetric velocity profile, or the electrical conductivity of the continuous liquid phase. The dynamic capability of the meter for use in measuring uns...
Startup Characteristics of a Centrifugal Pump Delivering Gas-Liquid Two-Phase Flow
Yu-Liang Zhang; Jun-Jian Xiao; Jian-Ping Yu; Ying-Yu Ji
2014-01-01
The transient performance of centrifugal pumps during the startup period has drawn more and more attention in recent years due to urgent engineering needs. In order to make certain the transient startup characteristics of a high specific-speed prototype centrifugal pump delivering the gas-liquid two-phase flow, the transient flows inside the pump are numerically simulated during the startup period using the dynamic slip region method in this paper. The results show that the difference in head...
A new set of equations describing immiscible two-phase flow in homogeneous porous media
Hansen, Alex; Bedeaux, Dick; Kjelstrup, Signe; Savani, Isha; Vassvik, Morten
2016-01-01
Based on a simple scaling assumption concerning the total flow rate of immiscible two-phase flow in a homogeneous porous medium under steady-state conditions and a constant pressure drop, we derive two new equations that relate the total flow rate to the flow rates of each immiscible fluid. By integrating these equations, we present two integrals giving the flow rate of each fluid in terms of the the total flow rate. If we in addition assume that the flow obeys the relative permeability (generalized Darcy) equations, we find direct expressions for the two relative permeabilities and the capillary pressure in terms of the total flow rate. Hence, only the total flow rate as a function of saturation at constant pressure drop across the porous medium needs to be measured in order to obtain all three quantities. We test the equations on numerical and experimental systems.
Stochastic Discrete Equation Method (sDEM) for two-phase flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A new scheme for the numerical approximation of a five-equation model taking into account Uncertainty Quantification (UQ) is presented. In particular, the Discrete Equation Method (DEM) for the discretization of the five-equation model is modified for including a formulation based on the adaptive Semi-Intrusive (aSI) scheme, thus yielding a new intrusive scheme (sDEM) for simulating stochastic two-phase flows. Some reference test-cases are performed in order to demonstrate the convergence properties and the efficiency of the overall scheme. The propagation of initial conditions uncertainties is evaluated in terms of mean and variance of several thermodynamic properties of the two phases
An algebraic stress/flux model for two-phase turbulent flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An algebraic stress model (ASM) for turbulent Reynolds stress and a flux model for turbulent heat flux are proposed for two-phase bubbly and slug flows. These mathematical models are derived from the two-phase transport equations for Reynolds stress and turbulent heat flux, and provide Cμ, a turbulent constant which defines the level of eddy viscosity, as a function of the interfacial terms. These models also include the effect of heat transfer. When the interfacial drag terms and the interfacial momentum transfer terms are absent, the model reduces to a single-phase model used in the literature
Simulation of two-phase flows and numerical evaluation of interfacial area
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rising bubbles are simulated numerically as one of the fundamental two-phase flow phenomena using the two-component two-phase lattice Boltzmann method, since sharp interfaces are obtained and the coalescence and breakup of bubbles are simulated easily. The variation of interfacial area is measured for one or two rising bubbles. It is found that the interfacial area decreases during the coalescence of two bubbles while it increases during the breakup of a bubble. The change in the interfacial area is shown to correspond to the change in the shape of the bubbles. (authors)
Simulation of two-phase flows and numerical evaluation of interfacial area
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rising bubbles are simulated numerically as one of the fundamental two-phase flow phenomena using the two-component two-phase lattice Boltzmann method, since sharp interfaces are obtained and the coalescence and breakup of bubbles are simulated easily. The variation of interfacial area is measured for one or two rising bubbles. It is found that the interfacial area decreases during the coalescence of two bubbles while it increases during the breakup of a bubble. The change in the interfacial area is shown to correspond to the change in the shape of the bubbles. (author)
Stochastic Discrete Equation Method (sDEM) for two-phase flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abgrall, R., E-mail: remi.abgrall@inria.fr [Institut für Mathematik, Universität Zürich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zürich (Switzerland); Congedo, P.M., E-mail: pietro.congedo@inria.fr [INRIA Bordeaux-Sud-Ouest, Equipe Cardamom, 200 Avenue de la Vieille Tour, 33405 Talence (France); Geraci, G., E-mail: ggeraci@stanford.edu [Flow Physics and Computational Engineering, Stanford University, 488 Escondido Mall, Building 500, Stanford, CA 94305-3035 (United States); Rodio, M.G., E-mail: maria-giovanna.rodio@inria.fr [INRIA Bordeaux-Sud-Ouest, Equipe Cardamom, 200 Avenue de la Vieille Tour, 33405 Talence (France)
2015-10-15
A new scheme for the numerical approximation of a five-equation model taking into account Uncertainty Quantification (UQ) is presented. In particular, the Discrete Equation Method (DEM) for the discretization of the five-equation model is modified for including a formulation based on the adaptive Semi-Intrusive (aSI) scheme, thus yielding a new intrusive scheme (sDEM) for simulating stochastic two-phase flows. Some reference test-cases are performed in order to demonstrate the convergence properties and the efficiency of the overall scheme. The propagation of initial conditions uncertainties is evaluated in terms of mean and variance of several thermodynamic properties of the two phases.
Validation of NEPTUNE-CFD two-phase flow models using experimental data
Jorge Pérez Mañes; Victor Hugo Sánchez Espinoza; Sergio Chiva Vicent; Michael Böttcher; Robert Stieglitz
2014-01-01
This paper deals with the validation of the two-phase flow models of the CFD code NEPTUNEC-CFD using experimental data provided by the OECD BWR BFBT and PSBT Benchmark. Since the two-phase models of CFD codes are extensively being improved, the validation is a key step for the acceptability of such codes. The validation work is performed in the frame of the European NURISP Project and it was focused on the steady state and transient void fraction tests. The influence of different NEPTUNE-CFD ...
Two-phase flow measurements with 252Cf: Design aspects and considerations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
For many years 252Cf has been used for measuring moisture content, particularly in the ground's soil, by detecting the amount of slowing down (thermalization) of the source's fission neutrons by the hydrogen nuclei in water. The same concept has been employed for measuring the phase volume fraction in two-phase flows. Although two-phase boiling water measurements are in principle similar to those relating to moisture content, they present different challenges. Unlike the extended, stable, and reasonably uniform medium of the ground, two-phase flow measurements are conducted for a limited amount of fluid enclosed within a duct with metallic or polymer walls, and the phenomenon evolves with time, often rapidly, as phase transformation occurs in a heterogeneous fashion. These aspects demand special attention to design details. Although the principle of using neutron slowing down to measure hydrogen content is basic and straightforward, its application in a confined and evolving medium such as two-phase flow can be challenging. This paper identifies some of these challenges and presents some approaches for dealing with them
Approaches to myosin modelling in a two-phase flow model for cell motility
Kimpton, L. S.; Whiteley, J. P.; Waters, S. L.; Oliver, J. M.
2016-04-01
A wide range of biological processes rely on the ability of cells to move through their environment. Mathematical models have been developed to improve our understanding of how cells achieve motion. Here we develop models that explicitly track the cell's distribution of myosin within a two-phase flow framework. Myosin is a small motor protein which is important for contracting the cell's actin cytoskeleton and enabling cell motion. The two phases represent the actin network and the cytosol in the cell. We start from a fairly general description of myosin kinetics, advection and diffusion in the two-phase flow framework, then identify a number of sub-limits of the model that may be relevant in practice, two of which we investigate further via linear stability analyses and numerical simulations. We demonstrate that myosin-driven contraction of the actin network destabilizes a stationary steady state leading to cell motion, but that rapid diffusion of myosin and rapid unbinding of myosin from the actin network are stabilizing. We use numerical simulation to investigate travelling-wave solutions relevant to a steadily gliding cell and we consider a reduction of the model in which the cell adheres strongly to the substrate on which it is crawling. This work demonstrates that a number of existing models for the effect of myosin on cell motility can be understood as different sub-limits of our two-phase flow model.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In view of the need to determine void fraction and flow regime of vapor-liquid two-phase flow in the steam generator test model, domestic made optical probe was applied on a small-scale freon two-phase flow test rig. Optical probe signals were collected at a sampling rate up to 500 Hz and converted into digital form. Both the time signal, and the amplitude probability density function and FFT spectrum function calculated thereof were analysed in the time and frequency domains respectively. The threshold characterizing vapor or liquid contact with the probe tip was determined from the air-water two-phase flow pressure drop test results. Then, the boiling freon two-phase flow void fraction was determined by single threshold method, and compared with numerical heat transfer computation. Typical patterns which were revealed by the above-mentioned time signal and the functions were found corresponding to distinct flow regimes, as corroborated by visual observation. The experiment shows that the optical probe was a promising technique for two-phase flow void fraction measurement and flow regime identification (3 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.)
Modeling and numerical analysis of non-equilibrium two-phase flows
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We are interested in the numerical approximation of two-fluid models of nonequilibrium two-phase flows described by six balance equations. We introduce an original splitting technique of the system of equations. This technique is derived in a way such that single phase Riemann solvers may be used: moreover, it allows a straightforward extension to various and detailed exchange source terms. The properties of the fluids are first approached by state equations of ideal gas type and then extended to real fluids. For the construction of numerical schemes , the hyperbolicity of the full system is not necessary. When based on suitable kinetic unwind schemes, the algorithm can compute flow regimes evolving from mixture to single phase flows and vice versa. The whole scheme preserves the physical features of all the variables which remain in the set of physical states. Several stiff numerical tests, such as phase separation and phase transition are displayed in order to highlight the efficiency of the proposed method. The document is a PhD thesis divided in 6 chapters and two annexes. They are entitled: 1. - Introduction (in French), 2. - Two-phase flow, modelling and hyperbolicity (in French), 3. - A numerical method using upwind schemes for the resolution of two-phase flows without exchange terms (in English), 4. - A numerical scheme for one-phase flow of real fluids (in English), 5. - An upwind numerical for non-equilibrium two-phase flows (in English), 6. - The treatment of boundary conditions (in English), A.1. The Perthame scheme (in English) and A.2. The Roe scheme (in English)
Single- and Two-Phase Flow Characterization Using Optical Fiber Bragg Gratings
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Virgínia H.V. Baroncini
2015-03-01
Full Text Available Single- and two-phase flow characterization using optical fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs is presented. The sensor unit consists of the optical fiber Bragg grating positioned transversely to the flow and fixed in the pipe walls. The hydrodynamic pressure applied by the liquid or air/liquid flow to the optical fiber induces deformation that can be detected by the FBG. Given that the applied pressure is directly related to the mass flow, it is possible to establish a relationship using the grating resonance wavelength shift to determine the mass flow when the flow velocity is well known. For two phase flows of air and liquid, there is a significant change in the force applied to the fiber that accounts for the very distinct densities of these substances. As a consequence, the optical fiber deformation and the correspondent grating wavelength shift as a function of the flow will be very different for an air bubble or a liquid slug, allowing their detection as they flow through the pipe. A quasi-distributed sensing tool with 18 sensors evenly spread along the pipe is developed and characterized, making possible the characterization of the flow, as well as the tracking of the bubbles over a large section of the test bed. Results show good agreement with standard measurement methods and open up plenty of opportunities to both laboratory measurement tools and field applications.
Structure of air-water two-phase flow in helically coiled tubes
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Air-water two-phase flow in helically coiled tubes is investigated experimentally to elucidate the effects of centrifugal acceleration on the flow regime map and the spatial and the temporal flow structure distribution. Three kinds of test tubes with 20 mm inner diameters including a straight tube are used to compare the turbulent flow structure. Superficial velocities up to 6 m/s are tested so that the centrifugal Froude number covers a range from 0 to 3. The interfacial structure is photographed from two directions by a high-speed video system with synchronized measurement of local pressure fluctuations. The results reveal that the flow transition line alters due to centrifugal force acting on the liquid phase in the tube. In particular, the bubbly flow regime is narrowed significantly. The pressure fluctuation amplitude gets large relatively to the average pressure loss as void fraction increases. The frequency spectra of the pressure fluctuation have plural peaks in the case of strong curvature, implying that the periodicity of slugging two-phase flow is collapsed by an internal secondary flow activated inside the liquid phase. Moreover, under large Froude number conditions, the substantial velocity of the gas phase that biases to the inner side of the helical coil is slower than the total superficial velocity because the liquid flow is allowed to pass through the outer side and so resembles a radial stratified flow
Flow pattern based correlations of two-phase pressure drop in rectangular microchannels
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Choi, Chiwoong, E-mail: chiwoongchoi@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang, San 31, Hyoja Dong 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Moohwan [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang, San 31, Hyoja Dong 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)
2011-12-15
Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Glass microchannels with embedded pressure ports were fabricated to obtain accurate measurements. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The assessments of seven HFM (Homogeneous Flow Model) and ten SFM (Separated Flow Model) were conducted. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The results indicate models shows best estimations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In addition, the pressure drop is well agreed with flow pattern tendency. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Based on two-phase flow patterns, new correlations were proposed for both homogeneous and separated flow types. - Abstract: Numerous pressure drop correlations for microchannels have been proposed; most of them can be classified as either a homogeneous flow model (HFM) or a separated flow model (SFM). However, the predictions of these correlations have not been compared directly because they were developed in experiments conducted under a range of conditions, including channel shape, the number of channels, channel material and the working fluid. In this study, single rectangular microchannels with different aspect ratios and hydraulic diameters were fabricated in a photosensitive glass. Adiabatic water-liquid and Nitrogen-gas two-phase flow experiments were conducted using liquid superficial velocities of 0.06-1.0 m/s, gas superficial velocities of 0.06-72 m/s and hydraulic diameters of 141, 143, 304, 322 and 490 {mu}m. A pressure drop in microchannels was directly measured through embedded ports. The flow pattern was visualized using a high-speed camera and a long-distance microscope. A two-phase pressure drop in the microchannel was highly related to the flow pattern. Data were used to assess seven different HFM viscosity models and ten SFM correlations, and new correlations based on flow patterns were proposed for both HFMs and SFMs.
Flow pattern based correlations of two-phase pressure drop in rectangular microchannels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Highlights: ► Glass microchannels with embedded pressure ports were fabricated to obtain accurate measurements. ► The assessments of seven HFM (Homogeneous Flow Model) and ten SFM (Separated Flow Model) were conducted. ► The results indicate models shows best estimations. ► In addition, the pressure drop is well agreed with flow pattern tendency. ► Based on two-phase flow patterns, new correlations were proposed for both homogeneous and separated flow types. - Abstract: Numerous pressure drop correlations for microchannels have been proposed; most of them can be classified as either a homogeneous flow model (HFM) or a separated flow model (SFM). However, the predictions of these correlations have not been compared directly because they were developed in experiments conducted under a range of conditions, including channel shape, the number of channels, channel material and the working fluid. In this study, single rectangular microchannels with different aspect ratios and hydraulic diameters were fabricated in a photosensitive glass. Adiabatic water-liquid and Nitrogen-gas two-phase flow experiments were conducted using liquid superficial velocities of 0.06–1.0 m/s, gas superficial velocities of 0.06–72 m/s and hydraulic diameters of 141, 143, 304, 322 and 490 μm. A pressure drop in microchannels was directly measured through embedded ports. The flow pattern was visualized using a high-speed camera and a long-distance microscope. A two-phase pressure drop in the microchannel was highly related to the flow pattern. Data were used to assess seven different HFM viscosity models and ten SFM correlations, and new correlations based on flow patterns were proposed for both HFMs and SFMs.
Electroosmotic flow and Joule heating in preparative continuous annular electrochromatography.
Laskowski, René; Bart, Hans-Jörg
2015-09-01
An openFOAM "computational fluid dynamic" simulation model was developed for the description of local interaction of hydrodynamics and Joule heating in annular electrochromatography. A local decline of electrical conductivity of the background eluent is caused by an electrokinetic migration of ions resulting in higher Joule heat generation. The model equations consider the Navier-Stokes equation for incompressible fluids, the energy equation for stationary temperature fields, and the mass transfer equation for the electrokinetic flow. The simulations were embedded in commercial ANSYS Fluent software and in open-source environment openFOAM. The annular gap (1 mm width) contained an inorganic C8 reverse-phase monolith as stationary phase prepared by an in situ sol-gel process. The process temperature generated by Joule heating was determined by thermal camera system. The local hydrodynamics in the prototype was detected by a gravimetric contact-free measurement method and experimental and simulated values matched quite well. PMID:25997390
Simulation of horizontal pipe two-phase slug flows using the two-fluid model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ortega Malca, Arturo J. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Nucleo de Simulacao Termohidraulica de Dutos (SIMDUT); Nieckele, Angela O. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica
2005-07-01
Slug flow occurs in many engineering applications, mainly in the transport of hydrocarbon fluids in pipelines. The intermittency of slug flow causes severe unsteady loading on the pipelines carrying the fluids, which gives rise to design problems. Therefore, it is important to be able to predict the onset and development of slug flow as well as slug characteristics. The present work consists in the simulation of two-phase flow in slug pattern through horizontal pipes using the two-fluid model in its transient and one-dimensional form. The advantage of this model is that the flow field is allowed to develop naturally from a given initial conditions as part of the transient calculation; the slug evolves automatically as a product of the computed flow development. Simulations are then carried out for a large number of flow conditions that lead a slug flow. (author)
Two-phase flow regime transition in large diameter vertical pipes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The two-phase flow regime transition in a large diameter (I.D.=200mm) vertical pipe was experimentally investigated using a dual-sensor optical probe. The flow transitions from bubbly to chum without an intermediate slug flow regime as the air flow rate is increased. The transition boundaries developed for bubbly to slug flow in small diameter pipes are compared to the bubbly to chum flow transition of the present experiment. The bubbly to chum transition occurs at a void fraction of about 0.15 compared to 0.25 for bubbly to slug transition in small diameter pipes. The radial distribution of bubble diameter, bubble frequency, bubble velocity and local void fraction were obtained using a dual-sensor optical probe at different flow conditions. The Probability Density Function (PDF) and Cumulative Distribution Function (CDF) of the bubble velocity and size are used to study the flow regime transition in the large diameter pipe. (author)
Heat transfer coefficient for flow boiling in an annular mini gap
Hożejowska, Sylwia; Musiał, Tomasz; Piasecka, Magdalena
2016-03-01
The aim of this paper was to present the concept of mathematical models of heat transfer in flow boiling in an annular mini gap between the metal pipe with enhanced exterior surface and the external glass pipe. The one- and two-dimensional mathematical models were proposed to describe stationary heat transfer in the gap. A set of experimental data governed both the form of energy equations in cylindrical coordinates and the boundary conditions. The models were formulated to minimize the number of experimentally determined constants. Known temperature distributions in the enhanced surface and in the fluid helped to determine, from the Robin condition, the local heat transfer coefficients at the enhanced surface - fluid contact. The Trefftz method was used to find two-dimensional temperature distributions for the thermal conductive filler layer, enhanced surface and flowing fluid. The method of temperature calculation depended on whether the area of single-phase convection ended with boiling incipience in the gap or the two-phase flow region prevailed, with either fully developed bubbly flow or bubbly-slug flow. In the two-phase flow, the fluid temperature was calculated by Trefftz method. Trefftz functions for the Laplace equation and for the energy equation were used in the calculations.
Experimental study of micron size droplets in a two phase flow in a converging - diverging nozzle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The fluid present in a pressurized vessel in normal operation is generally a mono-phase one. In accidental regime (a breach for example), a two-phase (ring and/or dispersed) flow appears and the flow is submitted to large accelerations when passing through the breach, and is then dispersed in the atmosphere. This research thesis reports an experimental simulation of an accident by generating, through a discharge of an upstream vessel into a downstream vessel, a strongly accelerated gaseous-liquid two-phase flow, with an essentially dispersed configuration in a convergent-divergent nozzle. In order to characterize the speed and diameter evolution of the dispersed liquid phase, the author reports a comparative study of two different liquid aerosols: micron-size droplets of di-octyl phthalate (DOP) of known concentration and diameter, and water droplets obtained by heterogeneous spontaneous condensation
Air-water two-phase vertical upward flow regime identification with cross-sectional visualization
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The paper presents flow regime identification in two-phase vertical pipe with 30 mm diameter using a high-speed camera and a wire-mesh sensor. In experiments, the wire-mesh sensor which consists of 16x16 wires is installed 2800 mm away from the entrance for capturing the local instantaneous phase distribution, and the high-speed camera which can monitor two-phase flow at the maximum 500,000 fps is set up in order to obtain the axial images at that time. The experimental observations for flow regime identification are compared with existing semi-theoretical model. The comparison results show a good agreement between them. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Laribi, S. (SONATRACH Centre de Recherche et Developpement, Boumerdes (Algeria)); Bertin, H.; Quintard, M. (Laboratoire ' Energetique et Phenomenes de Transfert' -ENSAM, URA CNRS 873, Talence (France))
1995-01-01
Experimental and theoretical results for two-phase flow in vertically stratified systems, the flow being normal to the strata, are presented. The experimental study is focused on the following points: (a) the initial oil-drainage process and the evolution of the water distribution during the capillary equilibrium process, and (b) the time evolution of the saturation fields during water-flooding experiments. Saturation fields were measured using a [gamma]-rays attenuation system. The physics of two-phase flow through vertically stratified porous media can be analysed by a large-scale averaging method. This methodology is described briefly; reference is made to previous publications for detailed presentation. The water-flooding experiments were interpreted using the large-scale averaging method, first in the quasi-static case, second using a simplified closure problem taking into account dynamic effects. The results show a better agreement between experimental and theoretical results when dynamic effects are taken into account
Interfacial structures of confined air-water two-phase bubbly flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, S.; Ishii, M.; Wu, Q.; McCreary, D.; Beus, S.G.
2000-08-01
The interfacial structure of the two-phase flows is of great importance in view of theoretical modeling and practical applications. In the present study, the focus is made on obtaining detailed local two-phase parameters in the air-water bubbly flow in a rectangular vertical duct using the double-sensor conductivity probe. The characteristic wall-peak is observed in the profiles of the interracial area concentration and the void fraction. The development of the interfacial area concentration along the axial direction of the flow is studied in view of the interfacial area transport and bubble interactions. The experimental data is compared with the drift flux model with C{sub 0} = 1.35.
A two-phase solid/fluid model for dense granular flows including dilatancy effects
Mangeney, Anne; Bouchut, Francois; Fernandez-Nieto, Enrique; Koné, El-Hadj; Narbona-Reina, Gladys
2016-04-01
Describing grain/fluid interaction in debris flows models is still an open and challenging issue with key impact on hazard assessment [{Iverson et al.}, 2010]. We present here a two-phase two-thin-layer model for fluidized debris flows that takes into account dilatancy effects. It describes the velocity of both the solid and the fluid phases, the compression/dilatation of the granular media and its interaction with the pore fluid pressure [{Bouchut et al.}, 2016]. The model is derived from a 3D two-phase model proposed by {Jackson} [2000] based on the 4 equations of mass and momentum conservation within the two phases. This system has 5 unknowns: the solid and fluid velocities, the solid and fluid pressures and the solid volume fraction. As a result, an additional equation inside the mixture is necessary to close the system. Surprisingly, this issue is inadequately accounted for in the models that have been developed on the basis of Jackson's work [{Bouchut et al.}, 2015]. In particular, {Pitman and Le} [2005] replaced this closure simply by imposing an extra boundary condition at the surface of the flow. When making a shallow expansion, this condition can be considered as a closure condition. However, the corresponding model cannot account for a dissipative energy balance. We propose here an approach to correctly deal with the thermodynamics of Jackson's model by closing the mixture equations by a weak compressibility relation following {Roux and Radjai} [1998]. This relation implies that the occurrence of dilation or contraction of the granular material in the model depends on whether the solid volume fraction is respectively higher or lower than a critical value. When dilation occurs, the fluid is sucked into the granular material, the pore pressure decreases and the friction force on the granular phase increases. On the contrary, in the case of contraction, the fluid is expelled from the mixture, the pore pressure increases and the friction force diminishes. To
Time-resolved Fast Neutron Radiography of Air-water Two-phase Flows
Zboray, Robert; Dangendorf, Volker; Mor, Ilan; Tittelmeier, Kai; Bromberger, Benjamin; Prasser, Horst-Michael
Neutron imaging, in general, is a useful technique for visualizing low-Z materials (such as water or plastics) obscured by high-Z materials. However, when significant amounts of both materials are present and full-bodied samples have to be examined, cold and thermal neutrons rapidly reach their applicability limit as the samples become opaque. In such cases one can benefit from the high penetrating power of fast neutrons. In this work we demonstrate the feasibility of time-resolved, fast neutron radiography of generic air-water two-phase flows in a 1.5 cm thick flow channel with Aluminum walls and rectangular cross section. The experiments have been carried out at the high-intensity, white-beam facility of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany. Exposure times down to 3.33 ms have been achieved at reasonable image quality and acceptable motion artifacts. Different two-phase flow regimes such as bubbly slug and churn flows have been examined. Two-phase flow parameters like the volumetric gas fraction, bubble size and bubble velocities have been measured.
Analysis of nanoscale two-phase flow of argon using molecular dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Verma, Abhishek Kumar; Kumar, Rakesh [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur - 208016 (India)
2014-12-09
Two phase flows through micro and nanochannels have attracted a lot of attention because of their immense applicability to many advanced fields such as MEMS/NEMS, electronic cooling, bioengineering etc. In this work, a molecular dynamics simulation method is employed to study the condensation process of superheated argon vapor force driven flow through a nanochannel combining fluid flow and heat transfer. A simple and effective particle insertion method is proposed to model phase change of argon based on non-periodic boundary conditions in the simulation domain. Starting from a crystalline solid wall of channel, the condensation process evolves from a transient unsteady state where we study the influence of different wall temperatures and fluid wall interactions on interfacial and heat transport properties of two phase flows. Subsequently, we analyzed transient temperature, density and velocity fields across the channel and their dependency on varying wall temperature and fluid wall interaction, after a dynamic equilibrium is achieved in phase transition. Quasi-steady nonequilibrium temperature profile, heat flux and interfacial thermal resistance were analyzed. The results demonstrate that the molecular dynamics method, with the proposed particle insertion method, effectively solves unsteady nonequilibrium two phase flows at nanoscale resolutions whose interphase between liquid and vapor phase is typically of the order of a few molecular diameters.
Two-phase distribution in the vertical flow line of a domestic wet central heating system
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ge Y.T.
2013-04-01
Full Text Available The theoretical and experimental aspects of bubble distribution in bubbly two-phase flow are reviewed in the context of the micro bubbles present in a domestic gas fired wet central heating system. The latter systems are mostly operated through the circulation of heated standard tap water through a closed loop circuit which often results in water supersaturated with dissolved air. This leads to micro bubble nucleation at the primary heat exchanger wall, followed by detachment along the flow. Consequently, a bubbly two-phase flow characterises the flow line of such systems. The two-phase distribution across the vertical and horizontal pipes was measured through a consideration of the volumetric void fraction, quantified through photographic techniques. The bubble distribution in the vertical pipe in down flow conditions was measured to be quasi homogenous across the pipe section with a negligible reduction in the void fraction at close proximity to the pipe wall. Such a reduction was more evident at lower bulk fluid velocities.
Analysis of nanoscale two-phase flow of argon using molecular dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Two phase flows through micro and nanochannels have attracted a lot of attention because of their immense applicability to many advanced fields such as MEMS/NEMS, electronic cooling, bioengineering etc. In this work, a molecular dynamics simulation method is employed to study the condensation process of superheated argon vapor force driven flow through a nanochannel combining fluid flow and heat transfer. A simple and effective particle insertion method is proposed to model phase change of argon based on non-periodic boundary conditions in the simulation domain. Starting from a crystalline solid wall of channel, the condensation process evolves from a transient unsteady state where we study the influence of different wall temperatures and fluid wall interactions on interfacial and heat transport properties of two phase flows. Subsequently, we analyzed transient temperature, density and velocity fields across the channel and their dependency on varying wall temperature and fluid wall interaction, after a dynamic equilibrium is achieved in phase transition. Quasi-steady nonequilibrium temperature profile, heat flux and interfacial thermal resistance were analyzed. The results demonstrate that the molecular dynamics method, with the proposed particle insertion method, effectively solves unsteady nonequilibrium two phase flows at nanoscale resolutions whose interphase between liquid and vapor phase is typically of the order of a few molecular diameters
Computational Analysis of a Two-phase Flow with an Interfacial Area Transport Equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
For the analysis of a two-phase flow with boiling or condensation, the interaction between two phases such as the interfacial momentum or heat transfer is proportional to the interfacial area. So the interfacial area concentration (IAC), which is defined as the area of interface per unit volume, is one of the most important parameters governing the behavior of each phase. IAC transport equation has been developed for the adiabatic bubbly flow or nucleate boiling flow. It describes the transport phenomena of the IAC with the source term for adiabatic interaction and phase change. In order to implement the IAC transport equation and analyze the characteristics of a two-phase flow, this study focuses on the development of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code for investigating a boiling flow with a two-fluid model. As the step for checking the robustness of the developed code, the experiment of a subcooled boiling in a vertical annulus channel was analyzed to validate the capability of the IAC transport equation
Two-Phase Flow Simulations In a Natural Rock Fracture using the VOF Method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Crandall, Dustin; Ahmadi, Goodarz; Smith, Duane H., Bromhal, Grant
2010-01-01
Standard models of two-phase flow in porous media have been shown to exhibit several shortcomings that might be partially overcome with a recently developed model based on thermodynamic principles (Hassanizadeh and Gray, 1990). This alternative two-phase flow model contains a set of new and non-standard parameters, including specific interfacial area. By incorporating interfacial area production, destruction, and propagation into functional relationships that describe the capillary pressure and saturation, a more physical model has been developed. Niessner and Hassanizadeh (2008) have examined this model numerically and have shown that the model captures saturation hysteresis with drainage/imbibition cycles. Several static experimental studies have been performed to examine the validity of this new thermodynamically based approach; these allow the determination of static parameters of the model. To date, no experimental studies have obtained information about the dynamic parameters required for the model. A new experimental porous flow cell has been constructed using stereolithography to study two-phase flow phenomena (Crandall et al. 2008). A novel image analysis tool was developed for an examination of the evolution of flow patterns during displacement experiments (Crandall et al. 2009). This analysis tool enables the direct quantification of interfacial area between fluids by matching known geometrical properties of the constructed flow cell with locations identified as interfaces from images of flowing fluids. Numerous images were obtained from two-phase experiments within the flow cell. The dynamic evolution of the fluid distribution and the fluid-fluid interface locations were determined by analyzing these images. In this paper, we give a brief introduction to the thermodynamically based two-phase flow model, review the properties of the stereolithography flow cell, and show how the image analysis procedure has been used to obtain dynamic parameters for the
Two-Phase Flow Simulations In a Natural Rock Fracture using the VOF Method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Standard models of two-phase flow in porous media have been shown to exhibit several shortcomings that might be partially overcome with a recently developed model based on thermodynamic principles (Hassanizadeh and Gray, 1990). This alternative two-phase flow model contains a set of new and non-standard parameters, including specific interfacial area. By incorporating interfacial area production, destruction, and propagation into functional relationships that describe the capillary pressure and saturation, a more physical model has been developed. Niessner and Hassanizadeh (2008) have examined this model numerically and have shown that the model captures saturation hysteresis with drainage/imbibition cycles. Several static experimental studies have been performed to examine the validity of this new thermodynamically based approach; these allow the determination of static parameters of the model. To date, no experimental studies have obtained information about the dynamic parameters required for the model. A new experimental porous flow cell has been constructed using stereolithography to study two-phase flow phenomena (Crandall et al. 2008). A novel image analysis tool was developed for an examination of the evolution of flow patterns during displacement experiments (Crandall et al. 2009). This analysis tool enables the direct quantification of interfacial area between fluids by matching known geometrical properties of the constructed flow cell with locations identified as interfaces from images of flowing fluids. Numerous images were obtained from two-phase experiments within the flow cell. The dynamic evolution of the fluid distribution and the fluid-fluid interface locations were determined by analyzing these images. In this paper, we give a brief introduction to the thermodynamically based two-phase flow model, review the properties of the stereolithography flow cell, and show how the image analysis procedure has been used to obtain dynamic parameters for the
Design and construction of an experiment for two-phase flow in fractured porous media
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ayala, R.E.G.; Aziz, K.
1993-08-01
In numerical reservoir simulation naturally fractured reservoirs are commonly divided into matrix and fracture systems. The high permeability fractures are usually entirely responsible for flow between blocks and flow to the wells. The flow in these fractures is modeled using Darcy`s law and its extension to multiphase flow by means of relative permeabilities. The influence and measurement of fracture relative permeability for two-phase flow in fractured porous media have not been studied extensively, and the few works presented in the literature are contradictory. Experimental and numerical work on two-phase flow in fractured porous media has been initiated. An apparatus for monitoring this type of flow was designed and constructed. It consists of an artificially fractured core inside an epoxy core holder, detailed pressure and effluent monitoring, saturation measurements by means of a CT-scanner and a computerized data acquisition system. The complete apparatus was assembled and tested at conditions similar to the conditions expected for the two-phase flow experiments. Fine grid simulations of the experimental setup-were performed in order to establish experimental conditions and to study the effects of several key variables. These variables include fracture relative permeability and fracture capillary pressure. The numerical computations show that the flow is dominated by capillary imbibition, and that fracture relative permeabilities have only a minor influence. High oil recoveries without water production are achieved due to effective water imbibition from the fracture to the matrix. When imbibition is absent, fracture relative permeabilities affect the flow behavior at early production times.
Conceptual plan: Two-Phase Flow Laboratory Program for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Howarth, S.M.
1993-07-01
The Salado Two-Phase Flow Laboratory Program was established to address concerns regarding two-phase flow properties and to provide WIPP-specific, geologically consistent experimental data to develop more appropriate correlations for Salado rock to replace those currently used in Performance Assessment models. Researchers in Sandia`s Fluid Flow and Transport Department originally identified and emphasized the need for laboratory measurements of Salado threshold pressure and relative permeability. The program expanded to include the measurement of capillary pressure, rock compressibility, porosity, and intrinsic permeability and the assessment of core damage. Sensitivity analyses identified the anhydrite interbed layers as the most likely path for the dissipation of waste-generated gas from waste-storage rooms because of their relatively high permeability. Due to this the program will initially focus on the anhydrite interbed material. The program may expand to include similar rock and flow measurements on other WIPP materials including impure halite, pure halite, and backfill and seal materials. This conceptual plan presents the scope, objectives, and historical documentation of the development of the Salado Two-Phase Flow Program through January 1993. Potential laboratory techniques for assessing core damage and measuring porosity, rock compressibility, capillary and threshold pressure, permeability as a function of stress, and relative permeability are discussed. Details of actual test designs, test procedures, and data analysis are not included in this report, but will be included in the Salado Two-Phase Flow Laboratory Program Test Plan pending the results of experimental and other scoping activities in FY93.
Hydrodynamics of single- and two-phase flow in inclined rod arrays
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Required inputs for thermal-hydraulic codes are constitutive relations for fluid-solid flow resistance, in single-phase flow, and interfacial momentum exchange (relative phase motion), in two-phase flow. An inclined rod array air-water experiment was constructed to study the hydrodynamics of multidimensional porous medium flow in rod arrays. Velocities, pressures, and bubble distributions were measured in square rod arrays of P/d = 1.5, at 0, 30, 45, and 90 degree inclinations to the vertical flow direction. Constitutive models for single-phase flow resistance are reviewed, new comprehensive models developed, and an assessment with previously published and new data made. The principle of superimposing one-dimensional correlations proves successful for turbulent single-phase inclined flow. For bubbly two-phase incline flow a new flow separation phenomena was observed and modeled. A two-region liquid velocity model is developed to explain the experimentally observed phenomena. Fundamental data for bubbles rising in rod arrays were also taken
Zhang, P.; Fu, X.
2009-10-01
Application of liquid nitrogen to cooling is widely employed in many fields, such as cooling of the high temperature superconducting devices, cryosurgery and so on, in which liquid nitrogen is generally forced to flow inside very small passages to maintain good thermal performance and stability. In order to have a full understanding of the flow and heat transfer characteristics of liquid nitrogen in micro-tube, high-speed digital photography was employed to acquire the typical two-phase flow patterns of liquid nitrogen in vertically upward micro-tubes of 0.531 and 1.042 mm inner diameters. It was found from the experimental results that the flow patterns were mainly bubbly flow, slug flow, churn flow and annular flow. And the confined bubble flow, mist flow, bubble condensation and flow oscillation were also observed. These flow patterns were characterized in different types of flow regime maps. The surface tension force and the size of the diameter were revealed to be the major factors affecting the flow pattern transitions. It was found that the transition boundaries of the slug/churn flow and churn/annular flow of the present experiment shifted to lower superficial vapor velocity; while the transition boundary of the bubbly/slug flow shifted to higher superficial vapor velocity compared to the results of the room-temperature fluids in the tubes with the similar hydraulic diameters. The corresponding transition boundaries moved to lower superficial velocity when reducing the inner diameter of the micro-tubes. Time-averaged void fraction and heat transfer characteristics for individual flow patterns were presented and special attention was paid to the effect of the diameter on the variation of void fraction.
Two phase flow in a PWR vessel downcomer during a refill phase of LOCA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The refill stage of the Hypothetical Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA), of a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR), has been the subject of considerable analysis and experimental study even through it is a very unlikely event. The Large Break Loss of Coolant Accident has been studied extensively in PWR systems to assess the effectiveness of the emergency core cooling system to maintain the fuel rods within safe temperature level. A particular phase of the transient, known as the Refill phase may be reached when the emergency core coolant, inject via the cold legs could be prevented from completely entering the core due to opposing flow of steam in the annular downcomer of the PWR vessel. Under certain conditions the upward flowing steam can hold-up the liquid and by-pass it around the downcomer annulus to the break. Experiments were performed at close to atmospheric pressure in a polycarbonate 1/10th - scale model of a typical four loop Westinghouse pressurized Water Reactor. The objective of the study was to identify hydraulic conditions and flow regimes that exist during the refill stage of a LOCA in the PWR downcomer, and to study the effects of various liquid inlet conditions (non-uniform liquid injection) into the downcomer on the flooding characteristics. The tests were performed using air and water at the working fluids to simulate the refill process under thermal equilibrium conditions. The effect of hot leg penetrations (blockages) on the flooding characteristics was also investigated and studied. The results were plotted using the Wallis J* parameter, and the mean annular circumference w (was used as the characteristic dimension). The flow regimes types and their spatial distribution in the PWR vessel downcomer for air-water counter-current flow were mapped, presented and discussed. The controlling mechanisms for the flooding were postulated and discussed. The flow pattern maps associated with various liquid modes were constructed. In addition the corresponding
Effects of Particles Collision on Separating Gas–Particle Two-Phase Turbulent Flows
Sihao, L. V.
2013-10-10
A second-order moment two-phase turbulence model incorporating a particle temperature model based on the kinetic theory of granular flow is applied to investigate the effects of particles collision on separating gas–particle two-phase turbulent flows. In this model, the anisotropy of gas and solid phase two-phase Reynolds stresses and their correlation of velocity fluctuation are fully considered using a presented Reynolds stress model and the transport equation of two-phase stress correlation. Experimental measurements (Xu and Zhou in ASME-FED Summer Meeting, San Francisco, Paper FEDSM99-7909, 1999) are used to validate this model, source codes and prediction results. It showed that the particles collision leads to decrease in the intensity of gas and particle vortices and takes a larger effect on particle turbulent fluctuations. The time-averaged velocity, the fluctuation velocity of gas and particle phase considering particles colli-sion are in good agreement with experimental measurements. Particle kinetic energy is always smaller than gas phase due to energy dissipation from particle collision. Moreover, axial– axial and radial–radial fluctuation velocity correlations have stronger anisotropic behaviors. © King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals 2013
Hydrodynamics of two phase flow through homogeneous and stratified porous layers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An experimental investigation of two-phase flow through porous layers formed of nonheated glass particles has been made. The effect of particle size, particle size distribution, bed porosity and bed stratification on void fraction and pressure drop through particulate beds formed in a cylindrical and rectangular test section has been investigated. A model based on drift flux approach has been developed for the void fraction in homogeneous beds. Using the two phase friction pressure drop data, the relative permeabilities of the two phases have been concluded with void fraction. The void fraction and two-phase friction pressure gradient in beds composed of mixtures of spherical particles as well as sharps of different nominal sizes have also been examined. It is found that the models for single size particles are also applicable to mixtures of particles if a mean particle diameter for the mixture is defined. The observations in stratified beds indicate depletion or build up of voids at the interface between high and low permeability regions. Blocking of the flow into one of the layers of laterally stratified beds caused the pressures at different horizontal locations at the same bed height to be different from each other
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An experimental and analytical study on the mass flux and reaction force of water single-phase and steam-water two-phase jets discharged from a thin nozzle was carried out. The mass flux of water jet is well predicted using the Bernoulli's equation with the contraction coefficient, but the recovery of contraction at the nozzle exit should be considered to evaluate the reaction force. The L/D of the nozzle affects the mass flux and reaction force of the two-phase jet, i.e., the mass flux decreases and the reaction force increases with the L/D. The behavior of high-temperature water jet is similar to that of the water jet if the L/D is smaller or nozzle inlet pressure is higher. The behaviors of the mass flux and the reaction force show hysteresis depending on the decrease or increase of nozzle inlet pressure. The mass flux and reaction force can be well predicted by the critical flow analysis based on a separated flow model with the non-equilibrium parameter. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hamada, Hirotsugu [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center; Takahashi, Minoru; Inoue, Akira; Aritomi, Masanori [Tokyo Inst. of Tech. (Japan)
2003-01-01
An experimental and analytical study on the mass flux and reaction force of water single-phase and steam-water two-phase jets discharged from a thin nozzle was carried out. The mass flux of water jet is well predicted using the Bernoulli's equation with the contraction coefficient, but the recovery of contraction at the nozzle exit should be considered to evaluate the reaction force. The L/D of the nozzle affects the mass flux and reaction force of the two-phase jet, i.e., the mass flux decreases and the reaction force increases with the L/D. The behavior of high-temperature water jet is similar to that of the water jet if the L/D is smaller or nozzle inlet pressure is higher. The behaviors of the mass flux and the reaction force show hysteresis depending on the decrease or increase of nozzle inlet pressure. The mass flux and reaction force can be well predicted by the critical flow analysis based on a separated flow model with the non-equilibrium parameter. (author)
Two-Phase Immiscible Flows in Porous Media: The Mesocopic Maxwell–Stefan Approach
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Shapiro, Alexander
2015-01-01
We develop an approach to coupling between viscous flows of the two phases in porous media, based on the Maxwell–Stefan formalism. Two versions of the formalism are presented: the general form, and the form based on the interaction of the flowing phases with the interface between them. The last...... approach is supported by the description of the flow on the mesoscopic level, as coupled boundary problems for the Brinkmann or Stokes equations. It becomes possible, in some simplifying geometric assumptions, to derive exact expressions for the phenomenological coefficients in the Maxwell–Stefan transport...
Simulation Experiments in Electromagnetic Tomography Well Logging in Two-phase flow
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wu Xiling; Zhao Yanwei
2006-01-01
Electromagnetic Computer Tomography (ECT) is a method to probe the interior of an inhomogeneous medium via surface measurement in a non-linear way. Due to the great differences in conductivity and permittivity between oil and water in the well, Electromagnetic Tomography Well Logging (ETWL), a new flow imaging measurement system, is proposed to describe the distribution and movement of oil/water two-phase flow in the well by scanning the detected region and applying a suitable data processing algorithm. The results of the numerical simulation and physical modeling show that the system could provide a clear image of the flow profile.
Study on two-phase natural circulation flow instability by using Bifurcation Theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Through the concept of characteristic flow rate (CFR) a nonlinear analysis method--Bifurcation Theory could be used to analyze the thermo-hydraulic instability of Two-phase Natural Circulation Flow (TPNCF) systems. By constructing solution diagram of dynamic system based on CFR (Xu et al, 1994), the stable and unstable flow regimes can be described and the transition boundaries can be predicted in terms of real bifurcation method. The theoretical predictions agree fairly well with experimental results reported by Xu (1994). Further research for wider range of parameters is desirable
Single and two-phase flows on chemical and biomedical engineering
Antonio, Martins; Rui, Lima
2012-01-01
""Single or two-phase flows are ubiquitous in most natural process and engineering systems. Examples of systems or process include, packed bed reactors, either single phase or multiphase, absorber and adsorber separation columns, filter beds, plate heat exchangers, flow of viscoelastic fluids in polymer systems, or the enhanced recovery of oil, among others. In each case the flow plays a central role in determining the system or process behaviour and performance. A better understanding of the underlying physical phenomena and the ability to describe the phenomena properly are both crucial to
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A research program on Two-phase flow stability in a natural circulation system has been executed in the Institute of Nuclear Energy Technology (INET), Tsinghua University in the development process of Nuclear Heating Reactor for the resent ten years. Two sets of experiment facility (HRTL-5 and HRTL-200) were erected, which serve as the simulator to the primary circuit of the nuclear heating reactor NHR-5 and NHR-200 separately, and were used for investigation on their thermo-physical behavior. Very important and useful results have been reached. The investigation presented, is one of the subject in the above mentioned research program. The main objective of the investigation is to develop a practical technology and method in engineering, based on general control theory, for distinguishing two-phase flow stability and identifying safety margin by using system identification method. By combining the two-phase flow stability theory in thermo-physics field with the system stability theory and system identification method in information science field, a thermo-hydraulic experiment technology with new concept was developed. The experiment was carried out on the thermohydraulic test system HRTL-5. Using reverse repeat pseudo-random sequences of heating power as the input signal sources and the measured flow rate as response function in the test, Two-phase flow stability and stability margin of the natural circulation system were investigated with analyzing the system pulse response function, Decay Ratio, and stability boundary under different operation conditions. The results are compared with that by using conventional method. The test system, test method and obtained typical results are provided
Simulation experiments for hot-leg U-bend two-phase flow phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In order to study the two-phase natural circulation and flow termination during a small break loss of coolant accident in LWR, simulation experiments have been performed. Based on the two-phase flow scaling criteria developed under this program, an adiabatic hot leg U-bend simulation loop using nitrogen gas and water and a Freon 113 boiling and condensation loop were built. The nitrogen-water system has been used to isolate key hydrodynamic phenomena from heat transfer problems, whereas the Freon loop has been used to study the effect of phase changes and fluid properties. Various tests were carried out to establish the basic mechanism of the flow termination and reestablishment as well as to obtain essential information on scale effects of parameters such as the loop frictional resistance, thermal center, U-bend curvature and inlet geometry. In addition to the above experimental study, a preliminary modeling study has been carried out for two-phase flow in a large vertical pipe at relatively low gas fluxes typical of natural circulation conditions
A Simple and Efficient Diffuse Interface Method for Compressible Two-Phase Flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In nuclear reactor safety and optimization there are key issues that rely on in-depth understanding of basic two-phase flow phenomena with heat and mass transfer. For many reasons, to be discussed, there is growing interest in the application of two-phase flow models to provide diffuse, but nevertheless resolved, simulation of interfaces between two immiscible compressible fluids - diffuse interface method (DIM). Because of its ability to dynamically create interfaces and to solve interfaces separating pure media and mixtures for DNS-like (Direct Numerical Simulation) simulations of interfacial flows, we examine the construction of a simple, robust, fast, and accurate numerical formulation for the 5-equation Kapila et al. (1) reduced two-phase model. Though apparently simple, the Kapila et al. model contains a volume fraction differential transport equation containing a nonlinear, non-conservative term which poses serious computational challenges. To circumvent the difficulties encountered with the single velocity and single pressure Kapila et al. (1) multiphase flow model, a 6-equation relaxation hyperbolic model is built to solve interface problems with compressible fluids. In this approach, pressure non-equilibrium is first restored, followed by a relaxation to an asymptotic solution which is convergent to the solutions of the Kapila et al. reduced model. The apparent complexity introduced with this extended hyperbolic model actually leads to considerable simplifications regarding numerical resolution, and the various ingredients used by this method are general enough to consider future extensions to problems involving complex physics
Numerical methods for limit problems in two-phase flow models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Numerical difficulties are encountered during the simulation of two-phase flows. Two issues are studied in this thesis: the simulation of phase transitions on one hand, and the simulation of both compressible and incompressible flows in the other hand. Un asymptotic study has shown that the loss of hyperbolicity of the bi fluid model was responsible for the difficulties encountered by the Roe scheme during the simulation of phase transitions. Robust and accurate polynomial schemes have thus been developed. To tackle the occasional lack of positivity of the solution, a numerical treatment based on adaptive diffusion was proposed and allowed to simulate with accuracy the test-cases of a boiling channel with creation of vapor and a tee-junction with separation of the phases. In a second part, an all-speed scheme for compressible and incompressible flows have been proposed. This pressure-based semi-implicit asymptotic preserving scheme is conservative, solves an elliptic equation on the pressure, and has been designed for general equations of state. The scheme was first developed for the full Euler equations and then extended to the Navier-Stokes equations. The good behaviour of the scheme in both compressible and incompressible regimes have been investigated. An extension of the scheme to the two-phase mixture model was implemented and demonstrated the ability of the scheme to simulate two-phase flows with phase change and a water-steam equation of state. (author)
A Novel Hyperbolization Procedure for The Two-Phase Six-Equation Flow Model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Samet Y. Kadioglu; Robert Nourgaliev; Nam Dinh
2011-10-01
We introduce a novel approach for the hyperbolization of the well-known two-phase six equation flow model. The six-equation model has been frequently used in many two-phase flow applications such as bubbly fluid flows in nuclear reactors. One major drawback of this model is that it can be arbitrarily non-hyperbolic resulting in difficulties such as numerical instability issues. Non-hyperbolic behavior can be associated with complex eigenvalues that correspond to characteristic matrix of the system. Complex eigenvalues are often due to certain flow parameter choices such as the definition of inter-facial pressure terms. In our method, we prevent the characteristic matrix receiving complex eigenvalues by fine tuning the inter-facial pressure terms with an iterative procedure. In this way, the characteristic matrix possesses all real eigenvalues meaning that the characteristic wave speeds are all real therefore the overall two-phase flowmodel becomes hyperbolic. The main advantage of this is that one can apply less diffusive highly accurate high resolution numerical schemes that often rely on explicit calculations of real eigenvalues. We note that existing non-hyperbolic models are discretized mainly based on low order highly dissipative numerical techniques in order to avoid stability issues.
Analysis of one-dimensional nonequilibrium two-phase flow using control volume method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A one-dimensional numerical analysis model was developed for prediction of rapid flow transient behavior involving boiling. This model was based on six conservation equations of time averaged parameters of gas and liquid behavior. These equations were solved by using a control volume method with an explicit time integration. This model did not use staggered mesh scheme, which had been commonly used in two-phase flow analysis. Because void fraction and velocity of each phase were defined at the same location in the present model, effects of void fraction on phase velocity calculation were treated directly without interpolation. Though non-staggered mesh scheme was liable to cause numerical instability with zigzag pressure field, stability was achieved by employing the Godunov method. In order to verify the present analytical model, Edwards' pipe blow down and Zaloudek's initially subcooled critical two-phase flow experiments were analyzed. Stable solutions were obtained for rarefaction wave propagation with boiling and transient two-phase flow behavior in a broken pipe by using this model. (author)
Experimental study of seismic vibration effect on two-phase flow
Chen, Shao-Wen
This study is to investigate the seismic vibration effects on two-phase flow. Based on the seismic characteristics found in literature, the properties for designing a test facility to simulate vibration and the test conditions for adiabatic and diabatic (subcooled boiling) two-phase flows have been chosen. In order to perform this experiment, an annulus test section has been built and attached to a vibration module. For experimental investigation and visualization of two-phase flow, Pyrex-glass tubes have been utilized as a transparent test section and stainless steel instrumentation ports are designed to acquire experimental data. In the design process, calculations considering the resonance, natural frequency, structural deflection, material properties and vibration conditions for the vibration structure have been performed to choose a suitable vibration beam. The motion equations of the eccentric cam are also analyzed with respect to displacement (vibration amplitude), velocity and acceleration. Each design process is set for the goal of an economical, reliable and controllable vibration condition for the two-phase flow test section. In addition, the scaling laws for geometric similarity, hydrodynamic similarity and thermal similarity are taken into account for the annulus test section to simulate a fuel assembly sub-channel of a prototypic boiling water reactor (BWR). Potential hydrodynamic and thermal effects for two-phase flow under seismic vibration are broken down and analyzed in detail. Based on the 1-D drift-flux model, the hydrodynamics effects are discussed with respect to the possible variations of distribution parameters, C0, and drift velocity, >, caused by the changes of the void distribution, bubble diameter and flow regimes. Sensitivity studies are carried out for analyzing these potential hydrodynamic effects. In addition, the void generation relations in a diabatic (subcooled boiling) two-phase flow system are taken into account for analyses of
Burkholder, Michael B.; Litster, Shawn
2016-05-01
In this study, we analyze the stability of two-phase flow regimes and their transitions using chaotic and fractal statistics, and we report new measurements of dynamic two-phase pressure drop hysteresis that is related to flow regime stability and channel water content. Two-phase flow dynamics are relevant to a variety of real-world systems, and quantifying transient two-phase flow phenomena is important for efficient design. We recorded two-phase (air and water) pressure drops and flow images in a microchannel under both steady and transient conditions. Using Lyapunov exponents and Hurst exponents to characterize the steady-state pressure fluctuations, we develop a new, measurable regime identification criteria based on the dynamic stability of the two-phase pressure signal. We also applied a new experimental technique by continuously cycling the air flow rate to study dynamic hysteresis in two-phase pressure drops, which is separate from steady-state hysteresis and can be used to understand two-phase flow development time scales. Using recorded images of the two-phase flow, we show that the capacitive dynamic hysteresis is related to channel water content and flow regime stability. The mixed-wettability microchannel and in-channel water introduction used in this study simulate a polymer electrolyte fuel cell cathode air flow channel.
Simon, Moritz
2013-01-01
Motivated by applications in subsurface CO2 sequestration, we investigate constrained optimal control problems with partially miscible two-phase flow in porous media. The objective is, e.g., to maximize the amount of trapped CO2 in an underground reservoir after a fixed period of CO2 injection, where the time-dependent injection rates in multiple wells are used as control parameters. We describe the governing two-phase two-component Darcy flow PDE system and formulate the optimal control problem. For the discretization we use a variant of the BOX method, a locally conservative control-volume FE method. The timestep-wise Lagrangian of the control problem is implemented as a functional in the PDE toolbox Sundance, which is part of the HPC software Trilinos. The resulting MPI parallelized Sundance state and adjoint solvers are linked to the interior point optimization package IPOPT. Finally, we present some numerical results in a heterogeneous model reservoir.
Adaptive moving grid methods for two-phase flow in porous media
Dong, Hao
2014-08-01
In this paper, we present an application of the moving mesh method for approximating numerical solutions of the two-phase flow model in porous media. The numerical schemes combine a mixed finite element method and a finite volume method, which can handle the nonlinearities of the governing equations in an efficient way. The adaptive moving grid method is then used to distribute more grid points near the sharp interfaces, which enables us to obtain accurate numerical solutions with fewer computational resources. The numerical experiments indicate that the proposed moving mesh strategy could be an effective way to approximate two-phase flows in porous media. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Experimental study on steam-water two-phase flow frictional pressure drops in helical coils
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
1997-01-01
Experiments of steam-water two-phase flow frictional pressure drop in a vertical helical coil were carried out in the high-pressure water test loop of Xi'an jiaotong University,The coil is made of stainless steel tube with an inner diameter of 16mm,the helix diameter measured from tube axis to tube axis is 1.3m,and helix angle of the coil is 3.65°,The experimental conditions are:pressurep=4-18MPa,mass velocity G=400-1400kg/(m2.s),inner wall heat flux q=100-700kW/m2,Based on these data,a correlation for predicting the steam-water two-phase flow frictional pressure drop was derived,it can be used for the design of steam generator of HTGR.
Performance of WPA Conductivity Sensor during Two-Phase Fluid Flow in Microgravity
Carter, Layne; O'Connor, Edward W.; Snowdon, Doug
2003-01-01
The Conductivity Sensor designed for use in the Node 3 Water Processor Assembly (WPA) was based on the existing Space Shuttle application for the fuel cell water system. However, engineering analysis has determined that this sensor design is potentially sensitive to two-phase fluid flow (gadliquid) in microgravity. The source for this sensitivity is the fact that gas bubbles will become lodged between the sensor probe and the wall of the housing without the aid of buoyancy in l-g. Once gas becomes lodged in the housing, the measured conductivity will be offset based on the volume of occluded gas. A development conductivity sensor was flown on the NASA Microgravity Plan to measure the offset, which was determined to range between 0 and 50%. Based on these findings, a development program was initiated at the sensor s manufacturer to develop a sensor design fully compatible with two-phase fluid flow in microgravity.
Cerroni, D.; Fancellu, L.; Manservisi, S.; Menghini, F.
2016-06-01
In this work we propose to study the behavior of a solid elastic object that interacts with a multiphase flow. Fluid structure interaction and multiphase problems are of great interest in engineering and science because of many potential applications. The study of this interaction by coupling a fluid structure interaction (FSI) solver with a multiphase problem could open a large range of possibilities in the investigation of realistic problems. We use a FSI solver based on a monolithic approach, while the two-phase interface advection and reconstruction is computed in the framework of a Volume of Fluid method which is one of the more popular algorithms for two-phase flow problems. The coupling between the FSI and VOF algorithm is efficiently handled with the use of MEDMEM libraries implemented in the computational platform Salome. The numerical results of a dam break problem over a deformable solid are reported in order to show the robustness and stability of this numerical approach.
Numerical simulation on vapor-liquid two-phase flow of the secondary circuit steam generator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Taken the steam generator of Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station as the proto- type, the 'unit pipe' three-dimensional physical model of steam generator was established under the guidance of the similarity principle. Adopting Particle model and thermal phase change model, numerical simulation was implemented on two-phase flow and boiling heat transfer characteristics of the secondary circuit in steam generator based on CFX software. The results show that heat transfer coefficient and cross-section void fraction increase along the height of tubes at full load. The error of average heat transfer coefficient is 8.4% between numerical simulation and Rohsenow empirical correlation. The export mass fraction is consistent with the actual operating parameters of Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station The successful application of thermal phase change model to two-phase flow numerical simulation of the steam generator can supply reference for thermal-hydraulic accurate analysis of the steam generator. (authors)
A weighted residual approach to two-phase flow problems in nuclear systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Great effort has been spent toward the development of advanced two-phase flow codes which are able to describe the behaviour of steam-water mixtures in the coolant system of nuclear reactors. Most of this effort concentrated on modelling aspects; the numerical techniques employed in these newly developed codes are all based on the Finite Difference approach. During the past few years a novel method has been developed which seems to overcome some of the difficulties encountered in FD-applications. It is an asymmetric, separated region, weighted residual method. This paper describes recent refinements of the method which have been motivated by particular needs of two-phase flow problems. (author)
Kou, Jisheng
2013-01-01
A class of discontinuous Galerkin methods with interior penalties is presented for incompressible two-phase flow in heterogeneous porous media with capillary pressures. The semidiscrete approximate schemes for fully coupled system of two-phase flow are formulated. In highly heterogeneous permeable media, the saturation is discontinuous due to different capillary pressures, and therefore, the proposed methods incorporate the capillary pressures in the pressure equation instead of saturation equation. By introducing a coupling approach for stability and error estimates instead of the conventional separate analysis for pressure and saturation, the stability of the schemes in space and time and a priori hp error estimates are presented in the L2(H 1) for pressure and in the L∞(L2) and L2(H1) for saturation. Two time discretization schemes are introduced for effectively computing the discrete solutions. © 2013 Societ y for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.
A continuity based semi-implicit method for thermal non-equilibrium two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A continuity coupled semi-implicit method is presented for an application to thermal non-equilibrium two-phase flows in light water nuclear reactors (LWRs). A two-fluid three-field model is adopted and a multi-dimensional unstructured grid is used for complicated geometries. The phase change and the time derivative terms appearing in the continuity equations are implemented implicitly in the pressure correction step. The energy equations are decoupled from the momentum equations for a faster convergence. A verification of the present numerical method was carried out against a set of test problems which includes single and two-phase flows. The results are also compared to those of the semi-implicit ICE method, where the energy equations are coupled with the momentum equation for a pressure correction. (author)
Two-phase flow dynamics during boiling of R134a refrigerant in minichannels
Khovalyg, D. M.; Baranenko, A. V.
2015-03-01
This study is devoted to complex experimental investigation of two-phase flow boiling of R134a refrigerant in a minichannel having a hydraulic diameter of 540 μm at heat fluxes up to 70 kW/m2 and mass fluxes up to 700 kg/(m2 s). Flow regimes, pressure drop, heat transfer coefficient, and behavior of instabilities are analyzed as functions of vapor quality. On the basis of experimental data, the methods for calculating two-phase pressure drop in a minichannel with a diameter of about 500 μm are determined, and new correlation is proposed for estimating the heat-transfer coefficient; the region of stable boiling of the refrigerant is also determined.