WorldWideScience

Sample records for annular gap model

  1. An Annular Gap Acceleration Model for γ-ray Emission of Pulsars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    If the binding energy of the pulsar's surface is not so high (the case of a neutron star), both negative and positive charges will flow out freely from the surface of the star. An annular free flow model for γ-ray emission of pulsars is suggested. It is emphasized that:(1) Two kinds of acceleration regions (annular and core) need to be taken into account. The annular acceleration region is defined by the magnetic field lines that cross the null charge surface within the light cylinder. (2) If the potential drop in the annular region of a pulsar is high enough (normally the case for young pulsars), charges in both the annular and the core regions could be accelerated and produce primary gamma-rays. Secondary pairs are generated in both regions and stream outwards to power the broadband radiations. (3) The potential drop grows more rapidly in the annular region than in the core region. The annular acceleration process is a key process for producing the observed wide emission beams. (4)The advantages of both the polar cap and outer gap models are retained in this model. The geometric properties of the γ-ray emission from the annular flow are analogous to that presented in a previous work by Qiao et al., which match the observations well. (5) Since charges with different signs leave the pulsar through the annular and the core regions respectively, the current closure problem can be partially solved.

  2. Simulation Of Annular Gap Effect On Performance Of Solar Parabolic-Trough Collector Model TE38 In Bauchi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Egbo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Annular gaps of 0.010m, 0.015m, 0.020m, 0.025m, 0.030m, 0.035m, 0.040m, 0.045m, 0.050m and 0.055m are used to simulate the performance of the solar parabolic-trough collector, while maintaining the same geometric dimension of the reflector, the same absorber-tube design features, as well as the same meteorological and radiation data, employing developed thermal energy equations. The higher the annular gap between the absorber-tube and the enveloping glass-cover, with corresponding increase in the diameter of the enveloping glass-cover, the more is the total heat loss of the system and therefore, the lower is the thermal efficiency of the system.

  3. A magnetorheological valve with both annular and radial fluid flow resistance gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to increase the efficiency of magnetorheological (MR) valves, Ai et al (2006) proposed an MR valve simultaneously possessing annular and radial fluid flow resistance channels with the assumption that the magnetic flux densities at the annular and radial fluid flow gaps are identical. In this paper, an MR valve simultaneously possessing annular and radial fluid flow resistance channels is designed, fabricated, modeled and tested. A model for the developed MR valve is produced and its performances are theoretically predicted based on the average magnetic flux densities in the annular and radial fluid flow gaps through finite element analysis. The theoretical results for the developed MR valve are compared with the experimental results. In addition, the performances of the developed MR valve are theoretically and experimentally compared with those of the MR valve with only annular fluid flow gaps. It has been shown that the theoretical results match well with the experimental results. Mainly attributed to the radial fluid flow gaps, the pressure drops across the MR valve with both annular and radial fluid flow gaps are larger than those across the MR valve with only annular fluid flow gaps for varying valve parameters. The radial fluid flow gaps in the MR valve can reach a higher efficiency and larger controllable range than those by annular fluid flow gaps to some extent

  4. Gap instability of laminar flows in eccentric annular channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piot, Estelle [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5 (Canada); Tavoularis, Stavros, E-mail: stavros.tavoularis@uottawa.ca [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5 (Canada)

    2011-11-15

    Research highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Triangle The critical Reynolds number for flow instability in the narrow gap of an eccentric annular channel with a diameter ratio of 0.28 was determined experimentally. Black-Right-Pointing-Triangle The critical Reynolds number increases with increasing eccentricity in the range 0.5 to 0.8. Black-Right-Pointing-Triangle The 'gap instability' is attributed to the instability of the two shear layers forming on either side of the gap, as the basic flow has an azimuthal variation that contains two inflection points, thus being potentially linearly unstable. - Abstract: Flow visualization has demonstrated that the critical Reynolds number for flow instability in the narrow gap of an annular channel with a diameter ratio of about 0.28 increases with increasing eccentricity e in the range 0.5 < e < 0.8. The critical Reynolds numbers in the wide gap at all eccentricities and in the narrow gap for 0 < e < 0.5 seem to be insensitive to eccentricity. These observations and comparison of the frequencies of transverse flow oscillations at different Reynolds numbers and different eccentricities demonstrate that at least two distinct instability mechanisms are present in annular flows. The one of particular interest in this work arises in narrow gaps and is attributed to the instability of the two shear layers forming on either side of the gap. Linear stability analysis demonstrated that the basic flow in concentric annuli is stable for the considered diameter ratio and range of Reynolds numbers. In contrast, the basic flow in eccentric annuli has an azimuthal variation that contains two inflection points, thus being potentially linearly unstable.

  5. Effects of annular air gaps surrounding an emplaced nuclear waste canister in deep geologic storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annular air spaces surrounding an emplaced nuclear waste canister in deep geologic storage will have significant effects on the long-term performance of the waste form. Addressed specifically in this analysis is the influence of a gap on the thermal response of the waste package. Three dimensional numerical modeling predicts temperature effects for a series of parameter variations, including the influence of gap size, surface emissivities, initial thermal power generation of the canister, and the presence/absence of a sleeve. Particular emphasis is placed on determining the effects these variables have on the canister surface temperature. We have identified critical gap sizes at which the peak transient temperature occurs when gap widths are varied for a range of power levels. It is also shown that high emissivities for the heat exchanging surfaces are desirable, while that of the canister surface has the greatest influence. Gap effects are more pronounced, and therefore more effort should be devoted to optimal design, in situations where the absolute temperature of the near field medium is high. This occurs for higher power level emplacements and in geomedia with low thermal conductivities. Finally, loosely inserting a sleeve in the borehole effectively creates two gaps and drastically raises the canister peak temperature. It is possible to use these results in the design of an optimum package configuration which will maintain the canister at acceptable temperature levels. A discussion is provided which relates these findings to NRC regulatory considerations

  6. Experimental Study on Convective Boiling Heat Transfer in Vertical Narrow Gap Annular Tube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Bin; He Anding; Wang Yueshe; Zhou Fangde

    2001-01-01

    Experiments are conducted to investigate the characteristics of single-phase forced-flow convection and boiling heat transfer of R113 flowing through annular tube with gap of 1, 1.5 and 2.5 mm, and also the visualization test are carried out to get two-phase flow regime. The data show that the Nusselt numbers for the narrow-gap are higher than those predicted by traditional large channel correlation and boiling heat transfer is enhanced. Based on the data obtained in this investigation, correlations for single-phase, forced convection and flow boiling in annular tube of different gap size has been developed.

  7. Absolute photonic band gap in 2D honeycomb annular photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A two-dimensional honeycomb annular photonic crystal (PC) is proposed. • The absolute photonic band gap (PBG) is studied. • Annular PCs show larger PBGs than usual air-hole PCs for high refractive index. • Annular PCs with anisotropic rods show large PBGs for low refractive index. • There exist optimal parameters to open largest band gaps. - Abstract: Using the plane wave expansion method, we investigate the effects of structural parameters on absolute photonic band gap (PBG) in two-dimensional honeycomb annular photonic crystals (PCs). The results reveal that the annular PCs possess absolute PBGs that are larger than those of the conventional air-hole PCs only when the refractive index of the material from which the PC is made is equal to 4.5 or larger. If the refractive index is smaller than 4.5, utilization of anisotropic inner rods in honeycomb annular PCs can lead to the formation of larger PBGs. The optimal structural parameters that yield the largest absolute PBGs are obtained

  8. Heat transfer coefficient for flow boiling in an annular mini gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hożejowska, Sylwia; Musiał, Tomasz; Piasecka, Magdalena

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this paper was to present the concept of mathematical models of heat transfer in flow boiling in an annular mini gap between the metal pipe with enhanced exterior surface and the external glass pipe. The one- and two-dimensional mathematical models were proposed to describe stationary heat transfer in the gap. A set of experimental data governed both the form of energy equations in cylindrical coordinates and the boundary conditions. The models were formulated to minimize the number of experimentally determined constants. Known temperature distributions in the enhanced surface and in the fluid helped to determine, from the Robin condition, the local heat transfer coefficients at the enhanced surface - fluid contact. The Trefftz method was used to find two-dimensional temperature distributions for the thermal conductive filler layer, enhanced surface and flowing fluid. The method of temperature calculation depended on whether the area of single-phase convection ended with boiling incipience in the gap or the two-phase flow region prevailed, with either fully developed bubbly flow or bubbly-slug flow. In the two-phase flow, the fluid temperature was calculated by Trefftz method. Trefftz functions for the Laplace equation and for the energy equation were used in the calculations.

  9. Heat transfer coefficient for flow boiling in an annular mini gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hożejowska Sylwia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to present the concept of mathematical models of heat transfer in flow boiling in an annular mini gap between the metal pipe with enhanced exterior surface and the external glass pipe. The one- and two-dimensional mathematical models were proposed to describe stationary heat transfer in the gap. A set of experimental data governed both the form of energy equations in cylindrical coordinates and the boundary conditions. The models were formulated to minimize the number of experimentally determined constants. Known temperature distributions in the enhanced surface and in the fluid helped to determine, from the Robin condition, the local heat transfer coefficients at the enhanced surface – fluid contact. The Trefftz method was used to find two-dimensional temperature distributions for the thermal conductive filler layer, enhanced surface and flowing fluid. The method of temperature calculation depended on whether the area of single-phase convection ended with boiling incipience in the gap or the two-phase flow region prevailed, with either fully developed bubbly flow or bubbly-slug flow. In the two–phase flow, the fluid temperature was calculated by Trefftz method. Trefftz functions for the Laplace equation and for the energy equation were used in the calculations.

  10. Heat transfer models in narrow gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For severe accident assessment in a light water reactor (LWR), heat transfer models in a narrow annular gap between the overheated core debris and the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) are important to evaluate the integrity of RPV and emergency procedures. Some heat transfer models have been proposed as gap cooling CHF (critical heat flux) but the effects of superheat on the heat transfer surface were not taken into account. This paper presents the effects of superheat based on existing data and heat transfer models in a narrow gap. (author)

  11. Mathematical Model of Combustion in Blunt Annular Ceramic Burner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The computer simulation of the combustion process in blast furnace (BF) stove has been studied by using the k-ε-g turbulent diffusion flame model. The combustion process in blunt annular ceramic burner was calculated by using the software. The profiles of gas and air velocity, temperature of the combustion products, concentration of the components, and the shape and length of the flame during combustion have been researched . Compared with the original annular ceramic burner, the new design of the blunt one improves the mixing of the gas and the air significantly, and shortened the length of the flame.

  12. Mathematical model for multicomponent separations on the continuous annular chromatograph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bratzler, R.L.; Begovich, J.M.

    1980-12-01

    A model for multicomponent separations on ion exchange columns has been adapted for use in studying the performance of the continuous annular chromatograph. The model accurately predicts solute peak positions in the column effluent and qualitatively predicts trends in solute effluent resolution as a function of increasing bandwidth of the solute feed pulse. The major virtues of the model are its simplicity in terms of the calculations involved and the fact that it incorporates the nonlinear solute-resin binding isotherms common in many ion exchange separations. Because dispersion effects are not accounted for in the model, discrepancies exist between the shapes of the effluent peaks predicted by the model and those determined experimentally.

  13. Mathematical model for multicomponent separations on the continuous annular chromatograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A model for multicomponent separations on ion exchange columns has been adapted for use in studying the performance of the continuous annular chromatograph. The model accurately predicts solute peak positions in the column effluent and qualitatively predicts trends in solute effluent resolution as a function of increasing bandwidth of the solute feed pulse. The major virtues of the model are its simplicity in terms of the calculations involved and the fact that it incorporates the nonlinear solute-resin binding isotherms common in many ion exchange separations. Because dispersion effects are not accounted for in the model, discrepancies exist between the shapes of the effluent peaks predicted by the model and those determined experimentally

  14. Entrance and exit region friction factor models for annular seal analysis. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elrod, David Alan

    1988-01-01

    The Mach number definition and boundary conditions in Nelson's nominally-centered, annular gas seal analysis are revised. A method is described for determining the wall shear stress characteristics of an annular gas seal experimentally. Two friction factor models are developed for annular seal analysis; one model is based on flat-plate flow theory; the other uses empirical entrance and exit region friction factors. The friction factor predictions of the models are compared to experimental results. Each friction model is used in an annular gas seal analysis. The seal characteristics predicted by the two seal analyses are compared to experimental results and to the predictions of Nelson's analysis. The comparisons are for smooth-rotor seals with smooth and honeycomb stators. The comparisons show that the analysis which uses empirical entrance and exit region shear stress models predicts the static and stability characteristics of annular gas seals better than the other analyses. The analyses predict direct stiffness poorly.

  15. MCNP/MCNPX model of the annular core research reactor.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DePriest, Kendall Russell; Cooper, Philip J.; Parma, Edward J., Jr. (.,; .)

    2006-10-01

    Many experimenters at the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) have a need to predict the neutron/gamma environment prior to testing. In some cases, the neutron/gamma environment is needed to understand the test results after the completion of an experiment. In an effort to satisfy the needs of experimenters, a model of the ACRR was developed for use with the Monte Carlo N-Particle transport codes MCNP [Br03] and MCNPX [Wa02]. The model contains adjustable safety, transient, and control rods, several of the available spectrum-modifying cavity inserts, and placeholders for experiment packages. The ACRR model was constructed such that experiment package models can be easily placed in the reactor after being developed as stand-alone units. An addition to the 'standard' model allows the FREC-II cavity to be included in the calculations. This report presents the MCNP/MCNPX model of the ACRR. Comparisons are made between the model and the reactor for various configurations. Reactivity worth curves for the various reactor configurations are presented. Examples of reactivity worth calculations for a few experiment packages are presented along with the measured reactivity worth from the reactor test of the experiment packages. Finally, calculated neutron/gamma spectra are presented.

  16. Modeling and analysis of thermoacoustic instabilities in an annular combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Sandeep; Sayadi, Taraneh; Le Chenadec, Vincent; Schmid, Peter

    2015-11-01

    A simplified model is introduced to study thermo-acoustic instabilities in axisymmetric combustion chambers. Such instabilities can be triggered when correlations between heat-release and pressure oscillations exist, leading to undesirable effects. Gas turbine designs typically consist of a periodic assembly of N identical units; as evidenced by documented studies, the coupling across sectors may give rise to unstable modes, which are the highlight of this study. In the proposed model, the governing equations are linearized in the acoustic limit, with each burner modeled as a one-dimensional system, featuring acoustic damping and a compact heat source. The coupling between the burners is accounted for by solving the two-dimensional wave equation over an annular region, perpendicular to the burners, representing the chamber's geometry. The discretization of these equations results in a set of coupled delay-differential equations, that depends on a finite set of parameters. The system's periodicity is leveraged using a recently developed root-of-unity formalism (Schmid et al., 2015). This results in a linear system, which is then subjected to modal and non-modal analysis to explore the influence of the coupled behavior of the burners on the system's stability and receptivity.

  17. Modelling Gender Pay Gaps

    OpenAIRE

    Olsen, W K., Jamie Morgan.

    2004-01-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARYIntroductionThere has been little change in the full-time gender pay gap since the mid 1990s andin the female part-time/male full-time pay gap since the mid 1970s. The gender gapin hourly earnings for those employed full-time in Britain in 2003 was 18 per cent,while that between women working part-time and men working full-time was 40 percent.This research uses statistical methods to identify how much of the gender pay gap isassociated with different factors. The data set ana...

  18. The fluctuating gap model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Xiaobin

    2011-01-15

    The quasi-one-dimensional systems exhibit some unusual phenomenon, such as the Peierls instability, the pseudogap phenomena and the absence of a Fermi-Dirac distribution function line shape in the photoemission spectroscopy. Ever since the discovery of materials with highly anisotropic properties, it has been recognized that fluctuations play an important role above the three-dimensional phase transition. This regime where the precursor fluctuations are presented can be described by the so called fluctuating gap model (FGM) which was derived from the Froehlich Hamiltonian to study the low energy physics of the one-dimensional electron-phonon system. Not only is the FGM of great interest in the context of quasi-one-dimensional materials, liquid metal and spin waves above T{sub c} in ferromagnets, but also in the semiclassical approximation of superconductivity, it is possible to replace the original three-dimensional problem by a directional average over effectively one-dimensional problem which in the weak coupling limit is described by the FGM. In this work, we investigate the FGM in a wide temperature range with different statistics of the order parameter fluctuations. We derive a formally exact solution to this problem and calculate the density of states, the spectral function and the optical conductivity. In our calculation, we show that a Dyson singularity appears in the low energy density of states for Gaussian fluctuations in the commensurate case. In the incommensurate case, there is no such kind of singularity, and the zero frequency density of states varies differently as a function of the correlation lengths for different statistics of the order parameter fluctuations. Using the density of states we calculated with non-Gaussian order parameter fluctuations, we are able to calculate the static spin susceptibility which agrees with the experimental data very well. In the calculation of the spectral functions, we show that as the correlation increases, the

  19. The fluctuating gap model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quasi-one-dimensional systems exhibit some unusual phenomenon, such as the Peierls instability, the pseudogap phenomena and the absence of a Fermi-Dirac distribution function line shape in the photoemission spectroscopy. Ever since the discovery of materials with highly anisotropic properties, it has been recognized that fluctuations play an important role above the three-dimensional phase transition. This regime where the precursor fluctuations are presented can be described by the so called fluctuating gap model (FGM) which was derived from the Froehlich Hamiltonian to study the low energy physics of the one-dimensional electron-phonon system. Not only is the FGM of great interest in the context of quasi-one-dimensional materials, liquid metal and spin waves above Tc in ferromagnets, but also in the semiclassical approximation of superconductivity, it is possible to replace the original three-dimensional problem by a directional average over effectively one-dimensional problem which in the weak coupling limit is described by the FGM. In this work, we investigate the FGM in a wide temperature range with different statistics of the order parameter fluctuations. We derive a formally exact solution to this problem and calculate the density of states, the spectral function and the optical conductivity. In our calculation, we show that a Dyson singularity appears in the low energy density of states for Gaussian fluctuations in the commensurate case. In the incommensurate case, there is no such kind of singularity, and the zero frequency density of states varies differently as a function of the correlation lengths for different statistics of the order parameter fluctuations. Using the density of states we calculated with non-Gaussian order parameter fluctuations, we are able to calculate the static spin susceptibility which agrees with the experimental data very well. In the calculation of the spectral functions, we show that as the correlation increases, the quasi

  20. Experimental and numerical study of heat transfer in an annular gap without axial flow with a rotating inner cylinder; Etude experimentale et numerique des transferts de chaleur en espace annulaire sans debit axial et avec cylindre interieur tournant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouafia, M. [Cemif, Centre d`Etudes mecanique d`ile-de-France, 91 - Evry (France); Ziouchi, A. [IAP de Boumerdes (Algeria); Bertin, Y.; Saulnier, J.B. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 86 - Poitiers (France). Laboratoire d`etudes thermiques, UMR 6608

    1999-07-01

    The convective heat transfer between the walls of an annular gap with a rotating inner cylinder are studied experimentally and numerically. Two geometrical configurations are analysed: the surfaces of the cylinders are either smooth, or the moving wall is smooth and the other is axially grooved. The experimental study allowed us to appreciate the increase of heat transfer in the presence of grooves for values of Taylor number up to 2.10{sup 7}. The study of the flow and of the heat transfer has also been conducted by numerical simulation by means of three-dimensional laminar model for the grooved gap, and of an axisymmetric model for the smooth gap; the comparison of numerical and experimental data have shown a good agreement of the Nusselt number for values of Taylor number up to 4.10{sup 5}. (authors) 16 refs.

  1. Advanced eddy current technique for measurement of annular gap between pressure tube and calandria tube in Indian Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Indian Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs), the PT (pressure tube) is designed to be nominally concentric with the encircling CT (calandria tube). Due to various factors PT becomes eccentric with respect to CT over the life of reactor. If this becomes excessive, hot PT will come in contact with cold CT. Such a cold spot could act as potential location for initiating blister formation and premature failure of PT. Hence it is important to periodically measure annular gap between PT and CT. An advanced eddy current technique has been successfully developed and incorporated in BARCIS (BARC Channel Inspection System) for measurement of PT-CT gap. (author). 4 refs., 3 figs

  2. Modelling Air and Water Two-Phase Annular Flow in a Small Horizontal Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jun; Yao, Yufeng; Arini, Antonino; McIiwain, Stuart; Gordon, Timothy

    2016-06-01

    Numerical simulation using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been carried out to study air and water two-phase flow in a small horizontal pipe of an inner diameter of 8.8mm, in order to investigate unsteady flow pattern transition behaviours and underlying physical mechanisms. The surface liquid film thickness distributions, determined by either wavy or full annular flow regime, are shown in reasonable good agreement with available experimental data. It was demonstrated that CFD simulation was able to predict wavy flow structures accurately using two-phase flow sub-models embedded in ANSYS-Fluent solver of Eulerian-Eulerian framework, together with a user defined function subroutine ANWAVER-UDF. The flow transient behaviours from bubbly to annular flow patterns and the liquid film distributions revealed the presence of gas/liquid interferences between air and water film interface. An increase of upper wall liquid film thickness along the pipe was observed for both wavy annular and full annular scenarios. It was found that the liquid wavy front can be further broken down to form the water moisture with liquid droplets penetrating upwards. There are discrepancies between CFD predictions and experimental data on the liquid film thickness determined at the bottom and the upper wall surfaces, and the obtained modelling information can be used to assist further 3D user defined function subroutine development, especially when CFD simulation becomes much more expense to model full 3D two-phase flow transient performance from a wavy annular to a fully developed annular type.

  3. The Organisational Gap Model for Hotel Management

    OpenAIRE

    Maja Uran

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the development of the organisational gap model for hotel management. It descries a management measurement instrument that helps to assess the 3 organizational service gaps that are preconditions for delivering service quality (the positioning gap, specification gap and evaluation gap). The described theoretical model was constructed based upon the four organisational gaps of the Parasuraman et al. service quality model, then redefined and reassessed. Data were gathered o...

  4. Three-dimensional numerical simulation of a continuously rotating detonation in the annular combustion chamber with a wide gap and separate delivery of fuel and oxidizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolov, S. M.; Dubrovskii, A. V.; Ivanov, V. S.

    2016-07-01

    The possibility of integrating the Continuous Detonation Chamber (CDC) in a gas turbine engine (GTE) is demonstrated by means of three-dimensional (3D) numerical simulations, i. e., the feasibility of the operation process in the annular combustion chamber with a wide gap and with separate feeding of fuel (hydrogen) and oxidizer (air) is proved computationally. The CDC with an upstream isolator damping pressure disturbances propagating towards the compressor is shown to exhibit a gain in the total pressure of 15% as compared with the same combustion chamber operating in the deflagration mode.

  5. Annular pancreas

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001142.htm Annular pancreas To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. An annular pancreas is a ring of pancreatic tissue that encircles ...

  6. The Organisational Gap Model for Hotel Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Uran

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of the organisational gap model for hotel management. It descries a management measurement instrument that helps to assess the 3 organizational service gaps that are preconditions for delivering service quality (the positioning gap, specification gap and evaluation gap. The described theoretical model was constructed based upon the four organisational gaps of the Parasuraman et al. service quality model, then redefined and reassessed. Data were gathered on the sample of 500 questionnaires from the Slovenian hotel industry and analysed with exploratory factor analysis and structural equation modelling. The results can be useful guidelines for hotel management on how to improve the service delivery process.

  7. Silva. EDF two-phase 1D annular model of a CFB boiler furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montat, D.; Fauquet, Ph. [Electricite de France (EDF), 78 - Chatou (France). Researckh and Development Div.; Lafanechere, L.; Bursi, J.M. [Electricite de France (EDF) (France). Construction Div.

    1997-01-01

    SILVA computer code is used for the modelling of the thermal-hydraulics and of the combustion of a coal-fired CFBC solid loop. In a first step, only the furnace is considered. The model is based on a 1D annular two phases description of the hydrodynamics. The model is based on particle mass balances and pressure drop calculations. A basic combustion model is incorporated into this model. The coal combustion is divided in two phases, the combustion of volatile matter and the heterogeneous combustion. The model has been developed within LEGO software and can be included into the global model of the solid loop developed by EDF. (author) 26 refs.

  8. Concentration Measurements in a Cold Flow Model Annular Combustor Using Laser Induced Fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Douglas C.

    1996-01-01

    A nonintrusive concentration measurement method is developed for determining the concentration distribution in a complex flow field. The measurement method consists of marking a liquid flow with a water soluble fluorescent dye. The dye is excited by a two dimensional sheet of laser light. The fluorescent intensity is shown to be proportional to the relative concentration level. The fluorescent field is recorded on a video cassette recorder through a video camera. The recorded images are analyzed with image processing hardware and software to obtain intensity levels. Mean and root mean square (rms) values are calculated from these intensity levels. The method is tested on a single round turbulent jet because previous concentration measurements have been made on this configuration by other investigators. The previous results were used to comparison to qualify the current method. These comparisons showed that this method provides satisfactory results. 'Me concentration measurement system was used to measure the concentrations in the complex flow field of a model gas turbine annular combustor. The model annular combustor consists of opposing primary jets and an annular jet which discharges perpendicular to the primary jets. The mixing between the different jet flows can be visualized from the calculated mean and rms profiles. Concentration field visualization images obtained from the processing provide further qualitative information about the flow field.

  9. Laser Doppler velocimeter measurements and laser sheet imaging in an annular combustor model. M.S. Thesis, Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwenger, Richard Dale

    1995-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted in annular combustor model to provide a better understanding of the flowfield. Combustor model configurations consisting of primary jets only, annular jets only, and a combination of annular and primary jets were investigated. The purpose of this research was to provide a better understanding of combustor flows and to provide a data base for comparison with computational models. The first part of this research used a laser Doppler velocimeter to measure mean velocity and statistically calculate root-mean-square velocity in two coordinate directions. From this data, one Reynolds shear stress component and a two-dimensional turbulent kinetic energy term was determined. Major features of the flowfield included recirculating flow, primary and annular jet interaction, and high turbulence. The most pronounced result from this data was the effect the primary jets had on the flowfield. The primary jets were seen to reduce flow asymmetries, create larger recirculation zones, and higher turbulence levels. The second part of this research used a technique called marker nephelometry to provide mean concentration values in the combustor. Results showed the flow to be very turbulent and unsteady. All configurations investigated were highly sensitive to alignment of the primary and annular jets in the model and inlet conditions. Any imbalance between primary jets or misalignment of the annular jets caused severe flow asymmetries.

  10. Interpreting the nature of Northern and Southern Annular Mode variability in CMIP5 Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenzinger, V.; Osprey, S. M.

    2015-11-01

    Characteristic timescales for the Northern Annular Mode (NAM) and Southern Annular Mode (SAM) variability are diagnosed in historical simulations submitted to the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) and are compared to the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts ERA-Interim data. These timescales are calculated from geopotential height anomaly spectra using a recently developed method, where spectra are divided into low-frequency (Lorentzian) and high-frequency (exponential) parts to account for stochastic and chaotic behaviors, respectively. As found for reanalysis data, model spectra at high frequencies are consistent with low-order chaotic behavior, in contrast to an AR1 process at low frequencies. This places the characterization of the annular mode timescales in a more dynamical rather than purely stochastic context. The characteristic high-frequency timescales for the NAM and SAM derived from the model spectra at high frequencies are ˜5 days, independent of season, which is consistent with the timescales of ERA-Interim. In the low-frequency domain, however, models are slightly biased toward too long timescales, but within the error bars, a finding which is consistent with previous studies of CMIP3 models. For the SAM, low-frequency timescales in November, December, January, and February are overestimated in the models compared to ERA-Interim. In some models, the overestimation in the SAM austral summer timescale is partly due to interannual variability, which can inflate these timescales by up to ˜40% in the models but only accounts for about 5% in the ERA-Interim reanalysis.

  11. Modeling Mist to Annular Flow Development in the Discharge of a Compressor

    OpenAIRE

    Wujek, Scott S.; Hrnjak, Predrag S.

    2012-01-01

    A model has been created to describe the development of flow leaving a compressor as it transitions from mist to annular flow. Flow parameters such as the drop size, drop speed, drop concentration, film thickness, and film velocity change as a function of length. Parameters such as refrigerant flow rates, oil in circulation ratios, and fluid properties are accounted for in these models. While some flow development work is found in the open literature for air-water or steam-water flows, little...

  12. Gap Model for Dual Customer Values

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Lun; TANG Xiaowo

    2008-01-01

    The customer value, the key problem in customer relationship management (CRM), was studied to construct a gap model for dual customer values. A basic description of customer values is given, and then the gaps between products and services in different periods for the customers and companies are analyzed based on the product or service life-cycle. The main factors that influence the perceived customer value were analyzed to define the "recognized value gap" and a gap model for the dual customer values was constructed to supply companies with a tool to analyze existing customer value gaps and improve customer relationship management.

  13. Annular Planar Monopole Antennas

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Z. N.; Ammann, Max; Chia, W.Y. W.; See, T.S. P.

    2002-01-01

    A type of annular planar monopole antenna is presented. The impedance and radiation characteristics of the monopole with different holes and feed gaps are experimentally examined. The measured results demonstrate that the proposed antenna is capable of providing significantly broad impedance bandwidth with acceptable radiation performance.

  14. Development of heat transfer models for gap cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a severe accident of a light water reactor (LWR), heat transfer models in a narrow annular gap between superheated core debris and a reactor pressure vessel (RPV) are important to evaluate the integrity of RPV and emergency procedures. This paper discusses the effects of superheat on the heat flux based on existing data. In low superheat conditions, the heat flux in the narrow gap is higher than the heat flux in pool nucleate boiling due to restricted flow area. It approaches the nucleate boiling heat flux as superheat increasing and reaches a critical value subject to the counter-current flow limiting (CCFL) at the top end of the gap. A heat transfer correlation was derived as a function of dimensionless superheat and a Kutateladze-type CCFL correlation was deduced for critical heat flux (CHF) restricted by CCFL, which gave good prediction for a wide range of the CHF data. Effect of an angle of inclination of the gap could also be incorporated in the CCFL correlation. In high superheat conditions, the heat flux in the narrow gap maintains a similar shape to the pool boiling curve but shifts the position to a higher superheated side than the pool boiling except film boiling, which could be expressed by the typical pool film boiling correlation. Incorporating quench test data, the heat flux correlation was derived as a function of dimensionless superheat using the same formula for the low superheat and the Kutateladze-type CCFL correlation was deduced for CHF. The CHF at the high superheat was 3-4 times as large as CHF at the low superheat and this difference was well predicted by different flow patterns in the gap and the balance of pressure gradients between gas and liquid phases. (author)

  15. Modeling of Focused Acoustic Field of a Concave Multi-annular Phased Array Using Spheroidal Beam Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余立立; 寿文德; 惠春

    2012-01-01

    A theoretical model of focused acoustic field for a multi-annular phased array on concave spherical surface is proposed. In this model, the source boundary conditions of the spheroidal beam equation (SBE) for multi-annular phased elements are studied. Acoustic field calculated by the dynamic focusing model of SBE is compared with numerical results of the O'Neil and Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov (KZK) model, respectively. Axia/dynamic focusing and the harmonic effects are presented. The results demonstrate that the dynamic focusing model of SBE is good valid for a concave multi-annular phased array with a large aperture angle in the linear or nonlinear field.

  16. Multiphysics Modeling of an Annular Linear Induction Pump With Applications to Space Nuclear Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilbane, J.; Polzin, K. A.

    2014-01-01

    An annular linear induction pump (ALIP) that could be used for circulating liquid-metal coolant in a fission surface power reactor system is modeled in the present work using the computational COMSOL Multiphysics package. The pump is modeled using a two-dimensional, axisymmetric geometry and solved under conditions similar to those used during experimental pump testing. Real, nonlinear, temperature-dependent material properties can be incorporated into the model for both the electrically-conducting working fluid in the pump (NaK-78) and structural components of the pump. The intricate three-phase coil configuration of the pump is implemented in the model to produce an axially-traveling magnetic wave that is qualitatively similar to the measured magnetic wave. The model qualitatively captures the expected feature of a peak in efficiency as a function of flow rate.

  17. A two-dimensional parabolic model for vertical annular two-phase flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, F.M.; Toledo, A. Alvarez; Paladino, E.E. [Graduate Program in Mechanical Engineering, Universidade Federal de Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, RN (Brazil)], e-mail: emilio@ct.ufrn.br

    2010-07-01

    This work presents a solution algorithm for predicting hydrodynamic parameters for developing and equilibrium, adiabatic, annular, vertical two-phase flow. It solves mass and momentum transport differential equations for both the core and the liquid film across their entire domains. Thus, the velocity and shear stress distributions from the tube center to the wall are obtained, together with the average film thickness and the pressure gradient, making no use of empirical closure relations nor assuming any known velocity profile to solve the triangular relationship in the liquid film. The model was developed using the Finite Volume Method and an iterative procedure is proposed to solve all flow variables for given phase superficial velocities. The procedure is validated against the analytical solution for laminar flow and experimental data for gas-liquid turbulent flow with entrainment. For the last case, an algebraic turbulence model is used for turbulent viscosity calculation for both, liquid film and gas core. (author)

  18. Kalman filter-based gap conductance modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geometric and thermal property uncertainties contribute greatly to the problem of determining conductance within the fuel-clad gas gap of a nuclear fuel pin. Accurate conductance values are needed for power plant licensing transient analysis and for test analyses at research facilities. Recent work by Meek, Doerner, and Adams has shown that use of Kalman filters to estimate gap conductance is a promising approach. A Kalman filter is simply a mathematical algorithm that employs available system measurements and assumed dynamic models to generate optimal system state vector estimates. This summary addresses another Kalman filter approach to gap conductance estimation and subsequent identification of an empirical conductance model

  19. An entrance region friction factor model applied to annular seal analysis - Theory versus experiment for smooth and honeycomb seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elrod, D.; Nelson, C.; Childs, D.

    1989-01-01

    A friction factor model is developed for the entrance-region of a duct. The model is used in an annular gas seal analysis similar to Nelson's (1984). Predictions of the analysis are compared to experimental results for a smooth-stator/smooth-rotor seal and three honeycomb-stator/smooth-rotor seals. The model predicts a leakage and direct damping well. The model overpredicts the dependence of cross-coupled stiffness on fluid prerotation. The model predicts direct stiffness poorly.

  20. Replacement of annular domain with trapezoidal domain in computational modeling of nonaqueous-phase-liquid dissolution-front propagation problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Chong-bin; Thomas POULET; Klaus REGENAUER-LIEB

    2015-01-01

    In order to simulate the instability phenomenon of a nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL) dissolution front in a computational model, the intrinsic characteristic length is commonly used to determine the length scale at which the instability of the NAPL dissolution front can be initiated. This will require a huge number of finite elements if a whole NAPL dissolution system is simulated in the computational model. Even though modern supercomputers might be used to tackle this kind of NAPL dissolution problem, it can become prohibitive for commonly-used personal computers to do so. The main purpose of this work is to investigate whether or not the whole NAPL dissolution system of an annular domain can be replaced by a trapezoidal domain, so as to greatly reduce the requirements for computer efforts. The related simulation results have demonstrated that when the NAPL dissolution system under consideration is in a subcritical state, if the dissolution pattern around the entrance of an annulus domain is of interest, then a trapezoidal domain cannot be used to replace an annular domain in the computational simulation of the NAPL dissolution system. However, if the dissolution pattern away from the vicinity of the entrance of an annulus domain is of interest, then a trapezoidal domain can be used to replace an annular domain in the computational simulation of the NAPL dissolution system. When the NAPL dissolution system under consideration is in a supercritical state, a trapezoidal domain cannot be used to replace an annular domain in the computational simulation of the NAPL dissolution system.

  1. An assessment of the annular flow transition criteria and interphase friction models in RELAP5/MOD2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An assessment of the annular flow transition criteria and interphase friction models for two-phase flow in tubes used in RELAP5/MOD2 code is described. The assessment examines the theoretical bases for the criteria and models and considers the results of comparisons with experimental data. Several deficiencies in the transition criteria are identified and appropriate improvements proposed. The interphase friction models are found to be adequate for PWR analyses. (author)

  2. Flow Stability Model for Fan/Compressors with Annular Duct and Novel Casing Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiaohua; SUN Dakun; SUN Xiaofeng; WANG Xiaoyu

    2012-01-01

    A three-dimensional compressible flow stability model is presented in this paper,which focuses on stall inception of multi-stage axial flow compressors with a finite large radius annular duct configuration for the first time.It is shown that under some assumptions,the stability equation can be obtained yielding from a group of homogeneous equations.The stability can be judged by the non-dimensional imaginary part of the resultant complex frequency eigenvalue.Further more,based on the analysis of the unsteady phenomenon caused by casing treatment,the function of casing treatment has been modeled by a wall impedance condition which is included in the stability model through the eigenvalues and the corresponding eigenfunctions of the system.Finally,some experimental investigation and two numerical evaluation cases are conducted to validate this model and emphasis is placed on numerically studying the sensitivity of the setup of different boundary conditions on the stall inception of axial flow fan/compressors.A novel casing treatment which consists ofa backchamber and a perforated plate is suggested,and it is noted that the open area ratio of the casing treatment is less than 10%,and is far smaller than conventional casing treatment with open area ratio of over 50%,which could result in stall margin improvement without obvious efficiency loss of fan/compressors.

  3. A simple analytical model to study and control azimuthal instabilities in annular combustion chambers

    OpenAIRE

    Parmentier, Jean-François; Salas, Pablo; Wolf, Pierre; Staffelbach, Gabriel; Nicoud, Franck; Poinsot, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    This study describes a simple analytical method to compute the azimuthal modes appearing in annular combustion chambers and help analyzing experimental, acoustic and large eddy simulation (LES) data obtained in these combustion chambers. It is based on a one-dimensional zero Mach number formulation where N burners are connected to a single annular chamber. A manipulation of the corresponding acoustic equations in this configuration leads to a simple dispersion relation which can be solved by ...

  4. Quantifying paleo-reconstruction skill of the Southern Annular Mode in a model framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huiskamp, Willem; McGregor, Shayne; Batehup, Ryan

    2016-04-01

    The Southern Annular Mode (SAM) is the leading mode of atmospheric variability in the Southern Hemisphere. It impacts rainfall and surface air temperature throughout the hemisphere and is also responsible for a significant proportion of the variability in air-sea carbon exchange. The recent positive trend in the SAM over the last ~40 years has been linked to potential changes in ocean heat and carbon uptake, which could have a significant impact on the rate of anthropogenic warming. To investigate whether trends like this have occurred in the past, and how they may affect regional climate and atmospheric CO2, paleo-reconstructions of the SAM have been created spanning roughly the last millennium. Using the GFDL CM2.1 climate model, we attempt to assess the expected skill of these reconstructions using a pseudo-proxy approach and the popular weighted Composite Plus Scaling reconstruction method. This study covers non-stationary proxy-SAM relationships, the effects of calibration period length on reconstruction skill, the number of sites included in a reconstruction and the problem of relying too heavily on a single continent when sourcing proxies. We find that maximising the calibration window size, as well as sourcing proxies from a geographically diverse range of sites provides the most reliable reconstructions, accounting for up up to 58% of the model SAM variability (with realistic 31 year calibration window and 70 proxies).

  5. Spin gap in a spiral staircase model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiselev, M.N. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Wuerzburg Universitaet, Am Hubland, D-97074 Wuerzburg (Germany)]. E-mail: kiselev@physik.uni-wuerzburg.de; Aristov, D.N. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Heisenbergstrasse 1, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Kikoin, K. [Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2005-04-30

    We investigate the formation of spin gap in one-dimensional models characterized by the groups with hidden symmetries. We introduce a new class of Hamiltonians for description of spin staircases-the spin systems intermediate between 2-leg ladders and S=1 spin chains. The spin exchange anisotropy along legs is described by the angle of spiral twist. The properties of a special case of spin rotator chain (SRC) corresponding to a flat 1-leg ladder is considered by means of fermionization approach based on Jordan-Wigner transformation. The influence of dynamical hidden symmetries on the scaling properties of the spin gap is discussed.

  6. Transient mathematical model for the axial annular fluid flow caused by drillpipe motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Hudson F.; Ramalho, Vanessa A.O.; Negrao, Cezar O.R.; Junqueira, Silvio L.M. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. Academico de Mecanica. Lab. de Ciencias Termicas]. E-mails: hudsonhfk@yahoo.com.br; vanessinha123@gmail.com; negrao@utfpr.edu.br; silvio@utfpr.edu.br; Martins, Andre Leibsohn [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES). Tecnologia de Engenharia de Pocos (TEP)]. E-mail: aleibsohn@petrobras.com.br

    2008-07-01

    The axial movement of drill pipes is a common operation in oil well drilling. This motion displaces the drilling fluid and causes pressure changes in the borehole. The descending pipe movement increases the pressure at the bottomhole (surge) and its extraction reduces it (swab). If the bottomhole pressure overcomes the formation fracture pressure, circulation loss may take place. On the other hand, if the pressure within the well is smaller than the pore pressure, kicks can occur. In order to maintain the bottomhole pressure within the formation fracture and pore pressures, the drill pipe must be moved slowly and therefore, the task becomes quite time consuming. The current work presents a mathematical model to predict surge and swab pressures in annular spaces. The approach is based on conservation equations of mass and momentum. The fluid flow is considered laminar, one-dimensional, compressible, isothermal and transient. The fluid is regarded as Newtonian with constant compressibility. The viscous effect is lumped and the concept of friction factor is applied. The governing differential equations are non-linear and therefore, they are solved numerically by the finite volume method. A sensitivity analysis of the flow parameters is carried out. For instance, the pressure wave propagation is observed for low compressibility fluids. Pressure oscillation is observed for low aspect ratio ratios. (author)

  7. Flow Measurement Model of Ultrasonic Flowmeter for Gas-Liquid Two-Phase Stratified and Annular Flows

    OpenAIRE

    Lanchang Xing; Chenquan Hua; Hao Zhu; Wolfgang Drahm

    2014-01-01

    An error correction model for ultrasonic gas flowmeter was proposed to explore the potential of an ultrasonic flowmeter for metering gas-liquid stratified and annular flows. The gas and liquid mass flowrates could be obtained provided that the gas quality and physical prosperities were known. A single-path ultrasonic flowmeter was investigated and the error of the apparent volumetric flowrate was considered as mainly resulting from the shrinkage of the gas flow path due to the presence of a l...

  8. [Granuloma annulare].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butsch, F; Weidenthaler-Barth, B; von Stebut, E

    2015-11-01

    Granuloma annulare is a benign, chronic inflammatory skin disease. Its pathogenesis is still unclear, but reports on infections as a trigger can be found. In addition, some authors reported an association with other systemic disease, e.g., cancer, trauma, and diabetes mellitus; however, these have not been verified. The clinical picture of granuloma annulare ranges from the localized form predominantly at the extremities to disseminated, subcutaneous, or perforating forms. Diagnosis is based on the typical clinical presentation which may be confirmed by a biopsy. Histologically, necrobiotic areas within granulomatous inflammation are typical. The prognosis of the disease is good with spontaneous resolution being frequently observed, especially in localized forms. Disseminated manifestations tend to persist longer, and recurrences are reported. When choosing between different therapeutic options, the benign disease character versus the individual degree of suffering and the potential therapy side effects must be considered. For local treatment, topical application of corticosteroids is most common. Disseminated forms can be treated systemically with corticosteroids for several weeks; alternatively, dapsone, hydroxychloroquine, retinoids, fumaric acid, cyclosporine, and anti-TNFα appear to be effective. PMID:26487494

  9. Adaptive Linked Gap Element for FE-Based Gap Conductance Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A light water reactor (LWR) fuel rod consists of a zirconium alloy cladding tube and uranium dioxide pellets with a slight gap between them. The modeling of the heat transfer across the gap between fuel pellets and the protective cladding is essential to understanding the fuel behavior under irradiated conditions. Based on the Ross and Stoute model, the gap conductance that specifies the temperature gradient within the gap is very sensitive to the gap thickness in a certain region. Many researchers have been being developing fuel performance codes based on a finite element method (FE) to calculate the temperature, stress, and strain for a multidimensional analysis. The gap conductance model for multi-dimension is a difficult issue in terms of convergence and nonlinearity because the gap conductance is a function of gap thickness which depends on the mechanical analysis at each iteration step. In this paper, an adaptive linked gap element (AGE) has been proposed to resolve the convergence issue and nonlinear characteristic of multidimensional gap conductance. The elements that link the node of a pellet surface with the node of the cladding surface virtually are generated, so as to transfer heat as a function of gap thickness at every iteration step. To evaluate the proposed methodology for the simulation of the gap conductance, a thermo-mechanical coupled FE model has been established using ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL). In terms of the calculation accuracy and convergence efficiency, the proposed model has been evaluated for variable cases. (author)

  10. Analysis of Design Variables of Annular Linear Induction Electromagnetic Pump using an MHD Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Jae Sik; Kim, Hee Reyoung [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The generated force is affected by lots of factors including electrical input, hydrodynamic flow, geometrical shape, and so on. These factors, which are the design variables of an ALIP, should be suitably analyzed to optimally design an ALIP. Analysis on the developed pressure and efficiency of the ALIP according to the change of design variables is required for the ALIP satisfying requirements. In this study, the design variables of the ALIP are analyzed by using ideal MHD analysis model. Electromagnetic force and efficiency are derived by analyzing the main design variables such as pump core length, inner core diameter, flow gap and turns of coils. The developed pressure and efficiency of the ALIP were derived and analyzed on the change of the main variables such as pump core length, inner core diameter, flow gap, and turns of coils of the ALIP.

  11. Dynamic Model of Gap Loop for HCW Mill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jing-ming; YANG Qiu-xia; CHE Hai-jun; CHANG Ling-fang

    2004-01-01

    The hydraulic automatic gauge control system using gap loop for cold mill was designed. The stiffness of HCW cold mill was defined for gap loop, and the dynamic model of gauge control system for gap loop was built with mechanism analysis. The stiffness for gap loop and the cylinder displacement loop were measured.

  12. Theoretical and pragmatic modelling of governing equations for a two-phase flow in bubbly and annular flow regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starting from the rigorous formulation of the conservation equations for mass, momentum and enthalpy, derived for a two-phase flow by volume averaging microscopic balance equations over Eulerian control cells, the article discusses the formulation of the terms describing exchanges between the phases. Two flow regimes are taken into consideration, bubbly flow, applicable for small or medium void fractions, and annular flow, for large void fractions. When lack of knowledge of volume-averaged physical quantities make the rigorously formulated terms useless for computational purposes, modelling of these terms is discussed. 3 figs., 15 refs

  13. Theoretical and pragmatic modeling of governing equations for two-phase flow in bubbly and annular flow regimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bottoni, M.; Ajuha, S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Technology Div.; Sengpiel, W. [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fur Reaktorsicherheit

    1994-12-31

    Starting from the rigorous formulation of the conservation equations for mass, momentum and enthalpy derived for a two-phase flow by volume-averaging microscopic balance equations over Eulerian control cells, the article discusses the formulation of the terms describing exchanges between the phases. Two flow regimes are taken into consideration; bubbly flow, applicable for small or medium void fractions, and annular flow, for large void fractions. When lack of knowledge of volume-averaged physical quantities makes the rigorously formulated terms useless for computational purposes, modeling of these terms is discussed.

  14. Quantitative analysis of disc degeneration using axial T2 mapping in a percutaneous annular puncture model in rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chai, Jee Won; Kim, Su Jin [Dept. of Radiology, SMG-SNU Boramae Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Heung Sik; Lee, Joon Woo [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Sung Hwan [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    To evaluate T2 relaxation time change using axial T2 mapping in a rabbit degenerated disc model and determine the most correlated variable with histologic score among T2 relaxation time, disc height index, and Pfirrmann grade. Degenerated disc model was made in 4 lumbar discs of 11 rabbits (n = 44) by percutaneous annular puncture with various severities of an injury. Lumbar spine lateral radiograph, MR T2 sagittal scan and MR axial T2 mapping were obtained at baseline and 2 weeks and 4 weeks after the injury in 7 rabbits and at baseline and 2 weeks, 4 weeks, and 6 weeks after the injury in 4 rabbits. Generalized estimating equations were used for a longitudinal analysis of changes in T2 relaxation time in degenerated disc model. T2 relaxation time, disc height index and Pfirrmann grade were correlated with the histologic scoring of disc degeneration using Spearman's rho test. There was a significant difference in T2 relaxation time between uninjured and injured discs after annular puncture. Progressive decrease in T2 relaxation time was observed in injured discs throughout the study period. Lower T2 relaxation time was observed in the more severely injured discs. T2 relaxation time showed the strongest inverse correlation with the histologic score among the variables investigated (r = -0.811, p < 0.001). T2 relaxation time measured with axial T2 mapping in degenerated discs is a potential method to assess disc degeneration.

  15. Fuel distribution measurements in a model low NOx double annular combustor using laser induced fluorescence

    OpenAIRE

    Lockett, R. D.; Greenhalgh, D.A.

    2010-01-01

    Planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) was employed in a three sector, low NOx double annular combustor in order to characterise the combusting fuel spray. Naphthalene was employed as a fluorescent agent in odourless kerosene in order to determine the behavior of the light fractions in the fuel vapour, and the light to medium fractions in the fuel spray, while 2,5 di-phenyl oxizol (ppo) was employed to determine the behavior of the heavy fractions in the fuel spray. Counter-swirl air blast ...

  16. Heat Transfer Modeling of an Annular On-Line Spray Water Cooling Process for Electric-Resistance-Welded Steel Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zejun; Han, Huiquan; Ren, Wei; Huang, Guangjie

    2015-01-01

    On-line spray water cooling (OSWC) of electric-resistance-welded (ERW) steel pipes can replace the conventional off-line heat treatment process and become an important and critical procedure. The OSWC process improves production efficiency, decreases costs, and enhances the mechanical properties of ERW steel pipe, especially the impact properties of the weld joint. In this paper, an annular OSWC process is investigated based on an experimental simulation platform that can obtain precise real-time measurements of the temperature of the pipe, the water pressure and flux, etc. The effects of the modes of annular spray water cooling and related cooling parameters on the mechanical properties of the pipe are investigated. The temperature evolutions of the inner and outer walls of the pipe are measured during the spray water cooling process, and the uniformity of mechanical properties along the circumferential and longitudinal directions is investigated. A heat transfer coefficient model of spray water cooling is developed based on measured temperature data in conjunction with simulation using the finite element method. Industrial tests prove the validity of the heat transfer model of a steel pipe undergoing spray water cooling. The research results can provide a basis for the industrial application of the OSWC process in the production of ERW steel pipes. PMID:26201073

  17. Heat Transfer Modeling of an Annular On-Line Spray Water Cooling Process for Electric-Resistance-Welded Steel Pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zejun; Han, Huiquan; Ren, Wei; Huang, Guangjie

    2015-01-01

    On-line spray water cooling (OSWC) of electric-resistance-welded (ERW) steel pipes can replace the conventional off-line heat treatment process and become an important and critical procedure. The OSWC process improves production efficiency, decreases costs, and enhances the mechanical properties of ERW steel pipe, especially the impact properties of the weld joint. In this paper, an annular OSWC process is investigated based on an experimental simulation platform that can obtain precise real-time measurements of the temperature of the pipe, the water pressure and flux, etc. The effects of the modes of annular spray water cooling and related cooling parameters on the mechanical properties of the pipe are investigated. The temperature evolutions of the inner and outer walls of the pipe are measured during the spray water cooling process, and the uniformity of mechanical properties along the circumferential and longitudinal directions is investigated. A heat transfer coefficient model of spray water cooling is developed based on measured temperature data in conjunction with simulation using the finite element method. Industrial tests prove the validity of the heat transfer model of a steel pipe undergoing spray water cooling. The research results can provide a basis for the industrial application of the OSWC process in the production of ERW steel pipes.

  18. Cold neutron tomography of annular coolant flow in a double subchannel model of a boiling water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dryout of the liquid coolant film on fuel pins at the top of boiling water reactor (BWR) cores constitutes the type of heat transfer crisis relevant for the conditions of high void fractions. It is a limiting factor in the thermal power, and therefore the economy, of BWRs. Ongoing research on multiphase annular flow, specifically the liquid film thickness, is fundamental not only to nuclear reactor safety and operation but also to that of evaporators, condensers, and pipelines in a general industrial context. We have performed cold neutron tomography of adiabatic air water annular flow in a scaled up model of the subchannel geometry found in BWR fuel assemblies today. All imaging has been performed at the ICON beamline at the neutron spallation source SINQ at the Paul Scherrer Institut in Switzerland. Neutron tomography is shown to excel in investigating the interactions of air water two phase flows with spacer vanes of different geometry. The high resolution, high contrast measurements provide spatial distributions of the coolant on top of the surfaces of the spacer, including the vanes, and in the subchannel downstream of the spacers.

  19. Cold neutron tomography of annular coolant flow in a double subchannel model of a boiling water reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kickhofel, J. L.; Zboray, R.; Damsohn, M.; Kaestner, A.; Lehmann, E. H.; Prasser, H.-M.

    2011-09-01

    Dryout of the liquid coolant film on fuel pins at the top of boiling water reactor (BWR) cores constitutes the type of heat transfer crisis relevant for the conditions of high void fractions. It is a limiting factor in the thermal power, and therefore the economy, of BWRs. Ongoing research on multiphase annular flow, specifically the liquid film thickness, is fundamental not only to nuclear reactor safety and operation but also to that of evaporators, condensers, and pipelines in a general industrial context. We have performed cold neutron tomography of adiabatic air water annular flow in a scaled up model of the subchannel geometry found in BWR fuel assemblies today. All imaging has been performed at the ICON beamline at the neutron spallation source SINQ at the Paul Scherrer Institut in Switzerland. Neutron tomography is shown to excel in investigating the interactions of air water two phase flows with spacer vanes of different geometry. The high resolution, high contrast measurements provide spatial distributions of the coolant on top of the surfaces of the spacer, including the vanes, and in the subchannel downstream of the spacers.

  20. Review of seismic gaps and gap model for the South American subduction zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Frank; Dahm, Torsten; Hainzl, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    The seismic gap hypothesis describes a long-period decrease of the probability of earthquake occurrence after major earthquakes, as a consequence of the induced stress shadow. The gap model assumes that the continuous build-up of tectonic strain and stress is released by characteristic major earthquakes. The size of the characteristic earthquakes is for instance controlled by structural heterogeneities or the geometry of the plate boundaries. The gap model is commonly accepted by geologists and a fundamental assumption of our approaches to estimate seismic hazard and time dependent earthquake probability. Interestingly, systematic and rigorous tests to verify the seismic gap model have often failed. In this study we analyze the historical record of major earthquakes at the South American plate boundary with a special look to seismic gaps. The aim of our study is to compare and proof different seismic gap models. We discuss whether the characteristic earthquakes assumption is justified for the South American plate boundary. Two different gap models are discussed: (a) a traditional quasi-periodic recurrence model involving time dependent conditional occurrence probabilities, and (b) a new model describing earthquake rates by rate and state seismicity models considering the estimated spatial pattern of stress drop during major earthquakes.

  1. THE EXTENSION OF THE GAP-MODEL FOR SERVICES

    OpenAIRE

    DINA ASWAD

    2012-01-01

    The customer oriented marketing has significant correlation with logistical concept, only its tools and methods are different; therefore, the logistical services should be implemented in to the gap-model. The goal of the model is to identify the gaps between the customer's expectation and the services provided at different stages of services and to disappear the gap and improve the customer services. In my work, the original model [5] has been completed with additional elements including buye...

  2. Sensitivity Analysis of the Gap Heat Transfer Model in BISON.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swiler, Laura Painton; Schmidt, Rodney C.; Williamson, Richard (INL); Perez, Danielle (INL)

    2014-10-01

    This report summarizes the result of a NEAMS project focused on sensitivity analysis of the heat transfer model in the gap between the fuel rod and the cladding used in the BISON fuel performance code of Idaho National Laboratory. Using the gap heat transfer models in BISON, the sensitivity of the modeling parameters and the associated responses is investigated. The study results in a quantitative assessment of the role of various parameters in the analysis of gap heat transfer in nuclear fuel.

  3. Annular Flow Distribution test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the Babcock and Wilcox (B ampersand W) Annular Flow Distribution testing for the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL). The objective of the Annular Flow Distribution Test Program is to characterize the flow distribution between annular coolant channels for the Mark-22 fuel assembly with the bottom fitting insert (BFI) in place. Flow rate measurements for each annular channel were obtained by establishing ''hydraulic similarity'' between an instrumented fuel assembly with the BFI removed and a ''reference'' fuel assembly with the BFI installed. Empirical correlations of annular flow rates were generated for a range of boundary conditions

  4. Electroosmotic flow and Joule heating in preparative continuous annular electrochromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskowski, René; Bart, Hans-Jörg

    2015-09-01

    An openFOAM "computational fluid dynamic" simulation model was developed for the description of local interaction of hydrodynamics and Joule heating in annular electrochromatography. A local decline of electrical conductivity of the background eluent is caused by an electrokinetic migration of ions resulting in higher Joule heat generation. The model equations consider the Navier-Stokes equation for incompressible fluids, the energy equation for stationary temperature fields, and the mass transfer equation for the electrokinetic flow. The simulations were embedded in commercial ANSYS Fluent software and in open-source environment openFOAM. The annular gap (1 mm width) contained an inorganic C8 reverse-phase monolith as stationary phase prepared by an in situ sol-gel process. The process temperature generated by Joule heating was determined by thermal camera system. The local hydrodynamics in the prototype was detected by a gravimetric contact-free measurement method and experimental and simulated values matched quite well. PMID:25997390

  5. Communication: Fragment-based Hamiltonian model of electronic charge-excitation gaps and gap closure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capturing key electronic properties such as charge excitation gaps within models at or above the atomic scale presents an ongoing challenge to understanding molecular, nanoscale, and condensed phase systems. One strategy is to describe the system in terms of properties of interacting material fragments, but it is unclear how to accomplish this for charge-excitation and charge-transfer phenomena. Hamiltonian models such as the Hubbard model provide formal frameworks for analyzing gap properties but are couched purely in terms of states of electrons, rather than the states of the fragments at the scale of interest. The recently introduced Fragment Hamiltonian (FH) model uses fragments in different charge states as its building blocks, enabling a uniform, quantum-mechanical treatment that captures the charge-excitation gap. These gaps are preserved in terms of inter-fragment charge-transfer hopping integrals T and on-fragment parameters U(FH). The FH model generalizes the standard Hubbard model (a single intra-band hopping integral t and on-site repulsion U) from quantum states for electrons to quantum states for fragments. We demonstrate that even for simple two-fragment and multi-fragment systems, gap closure is enabled once T exceeds the threshold set by U(FH), thus providing new insight into the nature of metal-insulator transitions. This result is in contrast to the standard Hubbard model for 1d rings, for which Lieb and Wu proved that gap closure was impossible, regardless of the choices for t and U

  6. Communication: Fragment-based Hamiltonian model of electronic charge-excitation gaps and gap closure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valone, S. M.; Pilania, G.; Liu, X. Y. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Allen, J. R.; Wu, T.-C.; Atlas, S. R.; Dunlap, D. H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 (United States)

    2015-11-14

    Capturing key electronic properties such as charge excitation gaps within models at or above the atomic scale presents an ongoing challenge to understanding molecular, nanoscale, and condensed phase systems. One strategy is to describe the system in terms of properties of interacting material fragments, but it is unclear how to accomplish this for charge-excitation and charge-transfer phenomena. Hamiltonian models such as the Hubbard model provide formal frameworks for analyzing gap properties but are couched purely in terms of states of electrons, rather than the states of the fragments at the scale of interest. The recently introduced Fragment Hamiltonian (FH) model uses fragments in different charge states as its building blocks, enabling a uniform, quantum-mechanical treatment that captures the charge-excitation gap. These gaps are preserved in terms of inter-fragment charge-transfer hopping integrals T and on-fragment parameters U{sup (FH)}. The FH model generalizes the standard Hubbard model (a single intra-band hopping integral t and on-site repulsion U) from quantum states for electrons to quantum states for fragments. We demonstrate that even for simple two-fragment and multi-fragment systems, gap closure is enabled once T exceeds the threshold set by U{sup (FH)}, thus providing new insight into the nature of metal-insulator transitions. This result is in contrast to the standard Hubbard model for 1d rings, for which Lieb and Wu proved that gap closure was impossible, regardless of the choices for t and U.

  7. An Annular Plate Model in Arbitrary-Lagrangian-Eulerian Description for the DLR FlexibleBodies Library

    OpenAIRE

    Heckmann, Andreas; Hartweg, Stefan; Kaiser, Ingo

    2011-01-01

    The bending deformation of rotating annular plates and the associated vibration behaviour is important in engineering applications which range from automotive or railway brake systems to discs that form essential components in turbomachinery. In order to extend the capabilities of the DLR FlexibleBodies library for such use cases, a new Modelica class has been implemented which is based on the analytical description of an annular Kirchhoff plate. In addition the so-called Arbitray Langra...

  8. High pressure annular two-phase flow in a narrow duct. Part 1: Local measurements in the droplet field, and Part 2: Three-field modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trabold, T.A.; Kumar, R. [Lockheed Martin Corp., Schenectady, NY (United States)

    1999-07-01

    In Part 1, detailed measurements were made in a high pressure, adiabatic (boiled at the inlet) annular flow in a narrow, high aspect ratio duct using a gamma densitometer, hot-film anemometer and high-speed video photography. Measurements of void fraction, droplet frequency, velocity, drop size, and interfacial area concentration have been made to support the three field computational capability. An important aspect of this testing is the use of a modeling fluid (R-134a) in a vertical duct which permits visual access in annular flow. This modeling fluid accurately simulates the low liquid-to-vapor density ratio of steam-water flows at high pressures. These measurements have been taken in a narrow duct of hydraulic diameter 4.85 mm, and a cross-section aspect ratio of 22.5. However, the flow displays profiles of various shapes not only in the narrow dimension, but also in the width dimension. In particular, the shape of the droplet profiles depends on the entrained droplet flux from the edges in the vapor core. The average diameter from these profiles compare well with the models developed in the literature. Interfacial area concentration for these low density ratio flows is higher than the highest concentration reported for air-water flows. Video records show that along with the bow-shaped waves, three-dimensional {lambda}-shaped waves appear in annular flows for high flow rates. Part 2 outlines the development of a three-field modeling approach in annular flow and the predictive capability of an analysis code. Models have been developed here or adapted from the literature for the thin film near the wall as well as the droplets in the vapor core, and have been locally applied in a fully developed, two-phase adiabatic boiling annular flow in a duct heated at the inlet at high pressure. Numerical results have been obtained using these models that are required for the closure of the continuity and momentum equations. The two-dimensional predictions are compared with

  9. Subcutaneous granuloma annulare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhar Sandipan

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Two cases of subcutaneos granuloma annulare are reported. Clinical presentation was in the form of hard subcutaneous nodules; histopathology confirmed the clinical diagnosis. The cases were unique because of onset in adult hood, occurrence over unusual sites and absence of classical lesions of granuloma annulare elsewhere.

  10. Subcutaneous granuloma annulare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhar Sandipan

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Two cases of subcutaneous granuloma annulare are reported. Clinical presentation was in the form of hard subcutaneous nodules, histopathology confirmed the clinical diagnosis. The cases were unique because of onset in adult age, occurrence over unusual sites and absence of classical lesions of granuloma annulare elsewhere.

  11. An Improved Linear Model for Rotors Subject to Dissipative Annular Flows

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira, Miguel; J. Antunes; Pina, H.

    2000-01-01

    In a previous paper, Antunes, Axisa and co-workers developed a linearized model for the dynamic of rotors under moderate fluid confinement, based on classical perturbation analysis covering two different cases: (i) dissipative motions of a centered rotor; (ii) motions of an eccentric rotor for a frictionless flow. Following the same procedures and assumptions, we derive here an improved model to cover the more general case of a dissipative linearized motion of an eccentric rotor. Besides the ...

  12. Magnetostatic penumbra models with field-free gaps

    CERN Document Server

    Scharmer, G B

    2006-01-01

    We present numerical 2D magnetostatic models for sunspot penumbrae consisting of radially aligned field-free gaps in a potential magnetic field, as proposed by Spruit and Scharmer (2006). The shape of the gaps and the field configurations around them are computed consistently from the condition of magnetostatic pressure balance between the gap and the magnetic field. The results show that field-free gaps in the {\\it inner} penumbra are cusp-shaped and bounded by a magnetic field inclined by about $70^\\circ$ from the vertical. Here, the magnetic component has a Wilson depression on the order 200--300 km relative to the top of the field-free gap; the gaps should thus appear as noticeably elevated features. This structure explains the large variations in field strength in the inner penumbra inferred from magnetograms and two-component inversions, and the varying appearance of the inner penumbra with viewing angle. In the {\\it outer} penumbra, on the other hand, the gaps are flat-topped with a horizontal magnetic...

  13. The Binding Energy, Spin-Excitation Gap, and Charged Gap in the Boson-Fermion Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Kai-Hua; TIAN Guang-Shan; HAN Ru-Qi

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, by applying a simplified version of Lieb 's spin-refleetion-positivity method, which was recentlydeveloped by one of us [G.S. Tian and J.G. Wang, J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 35 (2002) 941], we investigate some generalproperties of the boson-fermion Hamiltonian, which has been widely used as a phenomenological model to describe thereal-space pairing of electrons. On a mathematically rigorous basis, we prove that for either negative or positive couplingV, which represents the spontaneous decay and recombination process between boson and fermion in the model, thepairing energy of electrons is nonzero. Furthermore, we also show that the spin-excitation gap of the boson-fermionHamiltonian is always larger than its charged gap, as predicted by the pre-paired electron theory.

  14. The Binding Energy, Spin-Excitation Gap, and Charged Gap in the Boson-Fermion Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGKai-Hua; Guang-Shan; HANRu-Qi

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, by applying a simplified version of Lieb's spin-reflection-positivity method, which was recently developed by one of us [G.S. Tian and J.G. Wang, J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 35 (2002) 941], we investigate some general properties of the boeon-fermion Hamiltonlan, which has been widely used as a phenomenological model to describe the real-space pairing of electrons. On a mathematically rigorous basis, we prove that for either negative or positive couping V, which represents the spontaneous decay and recombination process between boson and fermion in the model, the pairing energy of electrons is nonzero. Furthermore, we also show that the spin-excitation gap of the boson-fermion Hamiltonian is always larger than its charged gap, as predicted by the pre-palred electron theory.

  15. Continuum-kinetic-microscopic model of lung clearance due to core-annular fluid entrainment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitran, Sorin, E-mail: mitran@unc.edu

    2013-07-01

    The human lung is protected against aspirated infectious and toxic agents by a thin liquid layer lining the interior of the airways. This airway surface liquid is a bilayer composed of a viscoelastic mucus layer supported by a fluid film known as the periciliary liquid. The viscoelastic behavior of the mucus layer is principally due to long-chain polymers known as mucins. The airway surface liquid is cleared from the lung by ciliary transport, surface tension gradients, and airflow shear forces. This work presents a multiscale model of the effect of airflow shear forces, as exerted by tidal breathing and cough, upon clearance. The composition of the mucus layer is complex and variable in time. To avoid the restrictions imposed by adopting a viscoelastic flow model of limited validity, a multiscale computational model is introduced in which the continuum-level properties of the airway surface liquid are determined by microscopic simulation of long-chain polymers. A bridge between microscopic and continuum levels is constructed through a kinetic-level probability density function describing polymer chain configurations. The overall multiscale framework is especially suited to biological problems due to the flexibility afforded in specifying microscopic constituents, and examining the effects of various constituents upon overall mucus transport at the continuum scale.

  16. Annular pancreas (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annular pancreas is an abnormal ring or collar of pancreatic tissue that encircles the duodenum (the part of the ... intestine that connects to stomach). This portion of pancreas can constrict the duodenum and block or impair ...

  17. CFD Simulation of Annular Centrifugal Extractors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vedantam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Annular centrifugal extractors (ACE, also called annular centrifugal contactors offer several advantages over the other conventional process equipment such as low hold-up, high process throughput, low residence time, low solvent inventory and high turn down ratio. The equipment provides a very high value of mass transfer coefficient and interfacial area in the annular zone because of the high level of power consumption per unit volume and separation inside the rotor due to the high g of centrifugal field. For the development of rational and reliable design procedures, it is important to understand the flow patterns in the mixer and settler zones. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD has played a major role in the constant evolution and improvements of this device. During the past thirty years, a large number of investigators have undertaken CFD simulations. All these publications have been carefully and critically analyzed and a coherent picture of the present status has been presented in this review paper. Initially, review of the single phase studies in the annular region has been presented, followed by the separator region. In continuation, the two-phase CFD simulations involving liquid-liquid and gas-liquid flow in the annular as well as separator regions have been reviewed. Suggestions have been made for the future work for bridging the existing knowledge gaps. In particular, emphasis has been given to the application of CFD simulations for the design of this equipment.

  18. BMP13 Prevents the Effects of Annular Injury in an Ovine Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiqun Wei, Lisa A Williams, Divya Bhargav, Bojiang Shen, Thomas Kishen, Neil Duffy, Ashish D Diwan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic back pain is a global health problem affecting millions of people worldwide and carries significant economic and social morbidities. Intervertebral disc damage and degeneration is a major cause of back pain, characterised by histological and biochemical changes that have been well documented in animal models. Recently there has been intense interest in early intervention in disc degeneration using growth factors or stem cell transplantation, to replenish the diseased tissues. Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs have been approved for clinical use in augmenting spinal fusions, and may represent candidate molecules for intervertebral disc regeneration. BMP13 has an important role in embryonic development and recent genetic evidence shows a role in the development of the human spine. This study explores the effect of BMP13 on a damaged intervertebral disc in an ovine model of discal degeneration. We found that, when injected at the time of injury, BMP13 reversed or arrested histological changes that occurred in the control discs such as loss of extracellular matrix proteins. In addition, BMP13 injected discs retained greater hydration after 4months, and possessed more cells in the NP. Taken together, BMP13 may be a potent clinical therapeutic agent when used early in the degeneration cascade to promote healthy disc tissue.

  19. Model of Layered Weld Formation Under Narrow Gap Pulse Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krampit, A. G.

    2016-04-01

    The model parameters of narrow gap pulse welding can be divided into input, internal and output ones. The breadth of gap, that is, clearance breadth between upright edges is one of key parameters securing high quality of a weld joint. The paper presents theoretical outcomes for the model of layered weld formation under narrow gap pulse welding. Based on these studies is developed model of processes, which occur in the weld pool under pulse grove welding. It comprises the scheme of liquid metal motion in the weld pool, scheme of fusion with the side edge and in the bottom part, and the scheme of welding current impulse effect on the structure of a weld joint.

  20. Electric field modelling for point-plane gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electric field distribution for point-plane gap is modelled both for stressed point and stressed plane electrodes. In simulations, the influence of the discharge chamber walls is taken into account. The size of an avalanche and the corresponding current pulse are calculated. The results are compared with those got other field distribution approximations. (author)

  1. Contribution to the modelling of two-phase flows in duct: influence of carryover and deposition processes in the case of a dispersed annular configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the study of two-phase flows is required to assess or optimize the performance of many industrial systems in chemical, thermal or nuclear engineering, this research thesis in fluid mechanics aims at describing the evolution of a two-phase flow in a dispersed annular configuration when passing a convergent nozzle. The study focused on the elaboration of simple, one-dimensional and permanent flows, and is based on experiments performed in the case of a liquid annular injection. The author discusses the mapping of two-phase flows, proposes an overview of their modelling, and proposes a model with its instantaneous local equations and time- and space-averaged equations. He addresses the issues of closure laws for two-field models (friction laws on the walls and at the interfaces, discussion of published experimental results), and of mass transfer laws for three-field models. He reports the development of a droplet carryover rate law and the analysis of published experiments by using the three-field model

  2. Gap junction modulation by extracellular signaling molecules: the thymus model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alves L.A.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Gap junctions are intercellular channels which connect adjacent cells and allow direct exchange of molecules of low molecular weight between them. Such a communication has been described as fundamental in many systems due to its importance in coordination, proliferation and differentiation. Recently, it has been shown that gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC can be modulated by several extracellular soluble factors such as classical hormones, neurotransmitters, interleukins, growth factors and some paracrine substances. Herein, we discuss some aspects of the general modulation of GJIC by extracellular messenger molecules and more particularly the regulation of such communication in the thymus gland. Additionally, we discuss recent data concerning the study of different neuropeptides and hormones in the modulation of GJIC in thymic epithelial cells. We also suggest that the thymus may be viewed as a model to study the modulation of gap junction communication by different extracellular messengers involved in non-classical circuits, since this organ is under bidirectional neuroimmunoendocrine control.

  3. Filling Gaps in the Acculturation Gap-Distress Model: Heritage Cultural Maintenance and Adjustment in Mexican-American Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telzer, Eva H; Yuen, Cynthia; Gonzales, Nancy; Fuligni, Andrew J

    2016-07-01

    The acculturation gap-distress model purports that immigrant children acculturate faster than do their parents, resulting in an acculturation gap that leads to family and youth maladjustment. However, empirical support for the acculturation gap-distress model has been inconclusive. In the current study, 428 Mexican-American adolescents (50.2 % female) and their primary caregivers independently completed questionnaires assessing their levels of American and Mexican cultural orientation, family functioning, and youth adjustment. Contrary to the acculturation gap-distress model, acculturation gaps were not associated with poorer family or youth functioning. Rather, adolescents with higher levels of Mexican cultural orientations showed positive outcomes, regardless of their parents' orientations to either American or Mexican cultures. Findings suggest that youths' heritage cultural maintenance may be most important for their adjustment.

  4. Filling Gaps in the Acculturation Gap-Distress Model: Heritage Cultural Maintenance and Adjustment in Mexican-American Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telzer, Eva H; Yuen, Cynthia; Gonzales, Nancy; Fuligni, Andrew J

    2016-07-01

    The acculturation gap-distress model purports that immigrant children acculturate faster than do their parents, resulting in an acculturation gap that leads to family and youth maladjustment. However, empirical support for the acculturation gap-distress model has been inconclusive. In the current study, 428 Mexican-American adolescents (50.2 % female) and their primary caregivers independently completed questionnaires assessing their levels of American and Mexican cultural orientation, family functioning, and youth adjustment. Contrary to the acculturation gap-distress model, acculturation gaps were not associated with poorer family or youth functioning. Rather, adolescents with higher levels of Mexican cultural orientations showed positive outcomes, regardless of their parents' orientations to either American or Mexican cultures. Findings suggest that youths' heritage cultural maintenance may be most important for their adjustment. PMID:26759225

  5. Cold-neutron tomography of annular flow and functional spacer performance in a model of a boiling water reactor fuel rod bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Annular flows w/wo functional spacers are investigated by cold neutron imaging. → Liquid film thickness distribution on fuel pins and on spacer vanes is measured. → The influence of the spacers on the liquid film distributions has been quantified. → The cross-sectional averaged liquid hold-up significantly affected by the spacers. → The sapers affect the fraction of the entrained liquid hold up in the gas core. - Abstract: Dryout of the coolant liquid film at the upper part of the fuel pins of a boiling water reactor (BWR) core constitutes the type of heat transfer crisis relevant for the conditions of high void fractions. It is both a safety concern and a limiting factor in the thermal power and thus for the economy of BWRs. We have investigated adiabatic, air-water annular flows in a scaled-up model of two neighboring subchannels as found in BWR fuel assemblies using cold-neutron tomography. The imaging of the double suchannel has been performed at the ICON beamline at the neutron spallation source SINQ at the Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland. Cold-neutron tomography is shown here to be an excellent tool for investigating air-water annular flows and the influence of functional spacers of different geometries on such flows. The high-resolution, high-contrast measurements provide the spatial distributions of the coolant liquid film thickness on the fuel pin surfaces as well as on the surfaces of the spacer vanes. The axial variations of the cross-section averaged liquid hold-up and its fraction in the gas core shows the effect of the spacers on the redistribution of the two phases.

  6. Thermal bidirectional gap probability model for row crop canopies and validation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阎广建; 蒋玲梅; 王锦地; 陈良富; 李小文

    2003-01-01

    Based on the row structure model of Kimes and the mean gap probability model in single direction, we develop a bidirectional gap probability model for row crop canopies. A concept of overlap index is introduced in this model to consider the gaps and their correlation between the sun and view directions. Multiangular thermal emission data sets were measured in Shunyi, Beijing, and these data are used in model validation in this paper. By comparison with the Kimes model that does not consider the gap probability, and the model considering the gap in view direction only, it is found that our bidirectional gap probability model fits the field measurements over winter wheat much better.

  7. Generalized granuloma annulare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khatri M

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available A 35-years-old female patient had generalized pruritic papular lesions, distributed like dermatitis herpetiformis for last 4 years. Histopathologic changes were typical of granuloma annulare with negative results of direct immunofluorescence. The patient did not have association of diabetes mellitus or any other systemic disease. She failed to respond to dapsone therapy and 13-cis-retinoic acid.

  8. Evaluation of Cost Models and Needs & Gaps Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kejser, Ulla Bøgvad

    2014-01-01

    his report ’D3.1—Evaluation of Cost Models and Needs & Gaps Analysis’ provides an analysis of existing research related to the economics of digital curation and cost & benefit modelling. It reports upon the investigation of how well current models and tools meet stakeholders’ needs for calculating...... for amore efficient use of resources for digital curation. To facilitate and clarify the model evaluation the report first outlines a basic terminology and a generaldescription of the characteristics of cost and benefit models.The report then describes how the ten current and emerging cost and benefit...... models included in the evaluation were identified and provides a summary of each of the models. To facilitate comparison of the models, it also provides tables that lists each of the models’ core features, such as which informationassets they handle, which curation activities they address and how...

  9. Design of radial phononic crystal using annular soft material with low-frequency resonant elastic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Nansha; Wu, Jiu Hui; Yu, Lie; Xin, Hang

    2016-10-01

    Using FEM, we theoretically study the vibration properties of radial phononic crystal (RPC) with annular soft material. The band structures, transmission spectra, and displacement fields of eigenmode are given to estimate the starting and cut-off frequency of band gaps. Numerical calculation results show that RPC with annular soft material can yield low-frequency band gaps below 350 Hz. Annular soft material decreases equivalent stiffness of the whole structure effectively, and makes corresponding band gaps move to the lower frequency range. Physical mechanism behind band gaps is the coupling effect between long or traveling wave in plate matrix and the vibrations of corrugations. By changing geometrical dimensions of plate thickness e, the length of silicone rubber h2, and the corrugation width b, we can control the location and width of the first band gap. These research conclusions of RPC structure with annular soft material can potentially be applied to optimize band gaps, generate filters, and design acoustic devices.

  10. Pulsar Polar Cap and Slot Gap Models: Confronting Fermi Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Alice K.

    2012-01-01

    Rotation-powered pulsars are excellent laboratories for studying particle acceleration as well as fundamental physics of strong gravity, strong magnetic fields and relativity. I will review acceleration and gamma-ray emission from the pulsar polar cap and slot gap. Predictions of these models can be tested with the data set on pulsars collected by the Large Area Telescope on the Fermi Gamma-Ray Telescope over the last four years, using both detailed light curve fitting and population synthesis.

  11. Modeling of the Inductance of a Blumlein Circuit Spark Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboites, V.; Rendón, L.; Hernández, A. I.; Valdés, E.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present an analysis of the time-varying inductance in the spark gap of a Blumlein circuit. We assume several mathematical expressions to describe the inductance and compare theoretical and computational calculations with experimental results. The time-varying inductance is approximated by a constant, a straight line and two parables which differ in their concavity. This is the first time to our knowledge, in which the time-varying ignition inductance of a nitrogen laser is modeled.

  12. The performance of an annular vane swirler. [to aid in modeling gas turbine combustor flowfields and swirling confined flow turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilley, D. G.; Sander, G. F.

    1983-01-01

    In connection with the desirability of optimizing the design of a gas turbine combustion chamber, there exists a need for a more complete understanding of the fluid dynamics of the flow in such chambers. In order to satisfy this need, experimental and theoretical research is being conducted with the objective to study two-dimensional axisymmetric geometries under low speed, nonreacting, turbulent, swirling flow conditions. The flow enters the test section and proceeds into a larger chamber. Inlet swirl vanes are adjustable to a variety of vane angles. The present investigation concentrates on the time-mean flow characteristics which are generated by the upstream annular swirler. The investigation makes use of a five-hole pitot probe technique. A theoretical analysis of swirl numbers associated with several idealized exit velocity profiles is included, and values of the ratio of maximum swirl velocity to maximum axial velocity at different swirl strengths are given for each case.

  13. U.S. Geological Survey Gap Analysis Program Species Distribution Models

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — GAP distribution models represent the areas where species are predicted to occur based on habitat associations. GAP distribution models are the spatial arrangement...

  14. Confocal Annular Josephson Tunnel Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaco, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    The physics of Josephson tunnel junctions drastically depends on their geometrical configurations and here we show that also tiny geometrical details play a determinant role. More specifically, we develop the theory of short and long annular Josephson tunnel junctions delimited by two confocal ellipses. The behavior of a circular annular Josephson tunnel junction is then seen to be simply a special case of the above result. For junctions having a normalized perimeter less than one, the threshold curves in the presence of an in-plane magnetic field of arbitrary orientations are derived and computed even in the case with trapped Josephson vortices. For longer junctions, a numerical analysis is carried out after the derivation of the appropriate motion equation for the Josephson phase. We found that the system is modeled by a modified and perturbed sine-Gordon equation with a space-dependent effective Josephson penetration length inversely proportional to the local junction width. Both the fluxon statics and dynamics are deeply affected by the non-uniform annulus width. Static zero-field multiple-fluxon solutions exist even in the presence of a large bias current. The tangential velocity of a traveling fluxon is not determined by the balance between the driving and drag forces due to the dissipative losses. Furthermore, the fluxon motion is characterized by a strong radial inward acceleration which causes electromagnetic radiation concentrated at the ellipse equatorial points.

  15. Confocal Annular Josephson Tunnel Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaco, Roberto

    2016-09-01

    The physics of Josephson tunnel junctions drastically depends on their geometrical configurations and here we show that also tiny geometrical details play a determinant role. More specifically, we develop the theory of short and long annular Josephson tunnel junctions delimited by two confocal ellipses. The behavior of a circular annular Josephson tunnel junction is then seen to be simply a special case of the above result. For junctions having a normalized perimeter less than one, the threshold curves in the presence of an in-plane magnetic field of arbitrary orientations are derived and computed even in the case with trapped Josephson vortices. For longer junctions, a numerical analysis is carried out after the derivation of the appropriate motion equation for the Josephson phase. We found that the system is modeled by a modified and perturbed sine-Gordon equation with a space-dependent effective Josephson penetration length inversely proportional to the local junction width. Both the fluxon statics and dynamics are deeply affected by the non-uniform annulus width. Static zero-field multiple-fluxon solutions exist even in the presence of a large bias current. The tangential velocity of a traveling fluxon is not determined by the balance between the driving and drag forces due to the dissipative losses. Furthermore, the fluxon motion is characterized by a strong radial inward acceleration which causes electromagnetic radiation concentrated at the ellipse equatorial points.

  16. Assembly and Irradiation Modeling of Residual Stresses in Low-Enriched Uranium Foil-Based Annular Targets for Molybdenum-99 Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srisharan G. Govindarajan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers a composite cylindrical structure, with low-enriched uranium (LEU foil enclosed between two aluminum 6061-T6 cylinders. A recess is cut all around the outer circumference of the inner tube to accommodate the LEU foil of open-cross section. To obtain perfect contact at the interfaces of the foil and the tubes, an internal pressure is applied to the inner tube, thereby plastically and elastically deforming it. The residual stresses resulting from the assembly process are used along with a thermal stress model to predict the stress margins in the cladding during irradiation. The whole process was simulated as a steady-state two-dimensional problem using the commercial finite element code Abaqus FEA. The irradiation behavior of the annular target has been presented, and the effect of the assembly residual stresses has been discussed.

  17. Linking Gap Model with MODIS Biophysical Products for Biomass Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D.; Sun, G.; Cai, Y.; Guo, Z.; Fu, A.; Ni, W.; Liu, D.

    With the development of earth observation technology and data processing technology biophysical data from remote sensing means such as MODIS LAI and NPP are accessible now However it is still difficult for direct measurement of biomass from remote sensors One possibility for overcoming this problem is using ecological models to link the vegetation parameters currently available from remote sensing to biomass In this paper a combined work is done for estimating forest biomass A calibrated gap model ZELIG was run to simulate the forest development in a temperate forested area in NE China The output relationship between age and biomass was linked to registered MODIS LAI NPP and land cover type images of the same area From the above work forest age or biomass was estimated from existing remote sensed data Obviously there is a lot of work to be done such as optimal combination of biophysical parameters to improve the linkage between MODIS product and ecological modeling

  18. Fluxon Dynamics in Elliptic Annular Josephson Junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monaco, Roberto; Mygind, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the dynamics of a magnetic flux quantum (current vortex) trapped in a current-biased long planar elliptic annular Josephson tunnel junction. The system is modeled by a perturbed sine-Gordon equation that determines the spatial and temporal behavior of the phase difference across the tu...

  19. Effect of annular secondary conductor in a linear electromagnetic stirrer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Madhavan; V Ramanarayanan

    2008-10-01

    This paper presents the variation of average axial force density in the annular secondary conductor of a linear electromagnetic stirrer. Different geometries of secondaries are considered for numerical and experimental validation namely, 1. hollow annular ring, 2. annular ring with a solid cylinder and 3. solid cylinder. Experimental and numerical simulations are performed for a 2-pole in house built 15 kW linear electromagnetic stirrer (EMS). It is observed for a supply current of 200 A at 30 Hz the force densities in the hollow annular ring is 67% higher than the equivalent solid cylinder. The same values are 33% for annular ring with a solid cylinder. Force density variation with supply frequency and current are also reported. Numerical simulations using finite element model are validated with experimental results.

  20. Data Analysis, Pre-Ignition Assessment, and Post-Ignition Modeling of the Large-Scale Annular Cookoff Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Terrones; F.J. Souto; R.F. Shea; M.W.Burkett; E.S. Idar

    2005-09-30

    In order to understand the implications that cookoff of plastic-bonded explosive-9501 could have on safety assessments, we analyzed the available data from the large-scale annular cookoff (LSAC) assembly series of experiments. In addition, we examined recent data regarding hypotheses about pre-ignition that may be relevant to post-ignition behavior. Based on the post-ignition data from Shot 6, which had the most complete set of data, we developed an approximate equation of state (EOS) for the gaseous products of deflagration. Implementation of this EOS into the multimaterial hydrodynamics computer program PAGOSA yielded good agreement with the inner-liner collapse sequence for Shot 6 and with other data, such as velocity interferometer system for any reflector and resistance wires. A metric to establish the degree of symmetry based on the concept of time of arrival to pin locations was used to compare numerical simulations with experimental data. Several simulations were performed to elucidate the mode of ignition in the LSAC and to determine the possible compression levels that the metal assembly could have been subjected to during post-ignition.

  1. 窄缝环形管内流动与传热实验研究Ⅱ.摩擦阻力特性%An experimental investigation on the flow and heat transfer of the narrow-gap annular tube vapor generators.Ⅱ.Friction Resistance.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李斌; 何安定; 王跃社; 周芳德

    2001-01-01

    The friction resistance performance of the single-phase flow and double-phase flow was studied when R-113 rized vertically in tho narrow-gap annular tube with various sizes, both single-phase flow and double-phase flow were different from the common flow in tubes. The transition Re Number of the flow in the narrow-gap was 500-1000,the friction resistance of double-bhase flow was bigger than that of the flow in common cycle tubes.Some important data were described,and the relation was proposed for calculating the friction resistance of the single-phase flow and the double-phase flow in the narrow-gap tube annular, the biggest relative error between the testing value and the calculating value was not more than 7.2%.%主要研究不同尺寸窄缝环形管内R-113垂直向上单相和两相流动沸腾时的摩擦阻力特性。研究发现,无论是单相还是两相流动都不同于普通管内流动,流体在窄缝环形管内流动的转变雷诺数Re为500~1000,两相流动摩擦阻力比普通圆管内的大。研究获取了重要的实验数据,并提出了计算窄缝环形管内单相和两相流动摩擦阻力的关系式,试验值与计算值的最大相对误差不超过7.2%。

  2. [Disseminated granuloma annulare].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansky, A

    1975-09-01

    A case of generalized granuloma annulare in a 55 year old man is reported. The disease appeared five years before the first admission to the hospital. A large number of bluish-red or skin-colour papules were scattered mainly around the earlobes, buttocks and on the extremities. Some of the lesions were lined up in rings or plaques. Small depigmented and brownish scars were present. Two biopsies revealed characteristic foci of complete collagen degeneration accompanied by a palisading infiltrate in the upper dermis. Treatment with tuberculostatics and antimalarics was without improvement. The lesions cleared after a course of prednison, but reappeared when the drug was discontinued.

  3. Annular recuperator design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yungmo

    2005-10-04

    An annular heat recuperator is formed with alternating hot and cold cells to separate counter-flowing hot and cold fluid streams. Each cold cell has a fluid inlet formed in the inner diameter of the recuperator near one axial end, and a fluid outlet formed in the outer diameter of the recuperator near the other axial end to evenly distribute fluid mass flow throughout the cell. Cold cells may be joined with the outlet of one cell fluidly connected to the inlet of an adjacent downstream cell to form multi-stage cells.

  4. Expanding the Acculturation Gap-Distress Model: An Integrative Review of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telzer, Eva H.

    2010-01-01

    The acculturation gap-distress model purports that immigrant children acculturate to their new culture at a quicker pace than their parents, leading to family conflict and youth maladjustment. This article reviews literature on the acculturation gap-distress model, showing that acculturation gaps function in unique ways depending on many social…

  5. Principle of radial transport in low temperature annular plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yunchao, E-mail: yunchao.zhang@anu.edu.au; Charles, Christine; Boswell, Rod [Space Plasma, Power and Propulsion Laboratory, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Bldg 60, Mills Road, Australian Capital Territory 2601 (Australia)

    2015-07-15

    Radial transport in low temperature annular plasmas is investigated theoretically in this paper. The electrons are assumed to be in quasi-equilibrium due to their high temperature and light inertial mass. The ions are not in equilibrium and their transport is analyzed in three different situations: a low electric field (LEF) model, an intermediate electric field (IEF) model, and a high electric field (HEF) model. The universal IEF model smoothly connects the LEF and HEF models at their respective electric field strength limits and gives more accurate results of the ion mobility coefficient and effective ion temperature over the entire electric field strength range. Annular modelling is applied to an argon plasma and numerical results of the density peak position, the annular boundary loss coefficient and the electron temperature are given as functions of the annular geometry ratio and Paschen number.

  6. Information gap analysis of flood model uncertainties and regional frequency analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hine, Daniel; Hall, Jim W.

    2010-01-01

    Flood risk analysis is subject to often severe uncertainties, which can potentially undermine flood management decisions. This paper explores the use of information gap theory to analyze the sensitivity of flood management decisions to uncertainties in flood inundation models and flood frequency analysis. Information gap is a quantified nonprobabilistic theory of robustness. To analyze uncertainties in flood modeling, an energy-bounded information gap model is established and applied first to a simplified uniform channel and then to a more realistic 2-D flood model. Information gap theory is then applied to the estimation of flood discharges using regional frequency analysis. The use of an information gap model is motivated by the notion that hydrologically similar sites are clustered in the space of their L moments. The information gap model is constructed around a parametric statistical flood frequency analysis, resulting in a hybrid model of uncertainty in which natural variability is handled statistically while epistemic uncertainties are represented in the information gap model. The analysis is demonstrated for sites in the Trent catchment, United Kingdom. The analysis is extended to address ungauged catchments, which, because of the attendant uncertainties in flood frequency analysis, are particularly appropriate for information gap analysis. Finally, the information gap model of flood frequency is combined with the treatment of hydraulic model uncertainties in an example of how both sources of uncertainty can be accounted for using information gap theory in a flood risk management decision.

  7. Understanding the State of Quality of Software on the basis of Time Gap, Quality Gap and Difference with Standard Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekbal Rashid

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to introduce a new mathematical model to understand the state of quality of software by calculating parameters such as the time gap and quality gap with relation to some predefinedstandard software quality or in relation to some chalked out software quality plan. The paper also suggests methods to calculate the difference in quality of the software being developed and the modelsoftware which has been decided upon as the criteria for comparison. These methods can be employed to better understand the state of quality as compared to other standards. In order to obtain the graphical representation of data we have used Microsoft office 2007 graphical chart. Which facilitate easy simulation of time and quality gap.

  8. Simple Model for Gas Holdup and Liquid Velocity of Annular Photocatalytic External-Loop Airlift Reactor Under both Bubble and Developing Slug Flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王一平; 陈为强; 黄群武; 冯加和; 崔勇

    2016-01-01

    Based on the momentum conservation approach, a theoretical model was developed to predict the su-perficial liquid velocity, and a correlation equation was established to calculate the gas holdup of an annular exter-nal-loop airlift reactor(AELAR)in the bubble flow and developing slug flow pattern. Experiments were performed by using tap-water and silicone oil with the viscosity of 2.0 mm2/s(2cs-SiO)and 5.0 mm2/s(5cs-SiO)as liquid phases. The effects of liquid viscosity and flow pattern on the AELAR performance were investigated. The predic-tions of the proposed model were in good agreement with the experimental results of the AELAR. In addition, the comparison of the experimental results shows that the proposed model has good accuracy and could be used to pre-dict the gas holdup and liquid velocity of an AELAR operating in bubble and developing flow pattern.

  9. Model-based Measures of Output Gap: Application to the Thai Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Vimut Vanitcharearnthum

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we compare two model-based measures of the output gap. The first measure, as proposed by Gali (2011), defines output gap as the difference between actual output and the output level that would be if the economy operates under a perfectly competitive market without price or wage stickiness. We used annual data of relevant variables for Thailand and computed the output gap under this approach. The calculated output gap for Thailand shows that the Thai economy performs consistently...

  10. Axisymmetric annular curtain stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A temporal stability analysis was carried out to investigate the stability of an axially moving viscous annular liquid jet subject to axisymmetric disturbances in surrounding co-flowing viscous gas media. We investigated in this study the effects of inertia, surface tension, the gas-to-liquid density ratio, the inner-to-outer radius ratio and the gas-to-liquid viscosity ratio on the stability of the jet. With an increase in inertia, the growth rate of the unstable disturbances is found to increase. The dominant (or most unstable) wavenumber decreases with increasing Reynolds number for larger values of the gas-to-liquid viscosity ratio. However, an opposite tendency for the most unstable wavenumber is predicted for small viscosity ratio in the same inertia range. The surrounding gas density, in the presence of viscosity, always reduces the growth rate, hence stabilizing the flow. There exists a critical value of the density ratio above which the flow becomes stable for very small viscosity ratio, whereas for large viscosity ratio, no stable flow appears in the same range of the density ratio. The curvature has a significant destabilizing effect on the thin annular jet, whereas for a relatively thick jet, the maximum growth rate decreases as the inner radius increases, irrespective of the surrounding gas viscosity. The degree of instability increases with Weber number for a relatively large viscosity ratio. In contrast, for small viscosity ratio, the growth rate exhibits a dramatic dependence on the surface tension. There is a small Weber number range, which depends on the viscosity ratio, where the flow is stable. The viscosity ratio always stabilizes the flow. However, the dominant wavenumber increases with increasing viscosity ratio. The range of unstable wavenumbers is affected only by the curvature effect. (paper)

  11. Analysis of a Segmented Annular Coplanar Capacitive Tilt Sensor with Increased Sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jiahao; Hu, Pengcheng; Tan, Jiubin

    2016-01-01

    An investigation of a segmented annular coplanar capacitor is presented. We focus on its theoretical model, and a mathematical expression of the capacitance value is derived by solving a Laplace equation with Hankel transform. The finite element method is employed to verify the analytical result. Different control parameters are discussed, and each contribution to the capacitance value of the capacitor is obtained. On this basis, we analyze and optimize the structure parameters of a segmented coplanar capacitive tilt sensor, and three models with different positions of the electrode gap are fabricated and tested. The experimental result shows that the model (whose electrode-gap position is 10 mm from the electrode center) realizes a high sensitivity: 0.129 pF/° with a non-linearity of <0.4% FS (full scale of ± 40°). This finding offers plenty of opportunities for various measurement requirements in addition to achieving an optimized structure in practical design. PMID:26805844

  12. Modeling GD-1 Gaps in a Milky-Way Potential

    CERN Document Server

    Carlberg, Raymond G

    2015-01-01

    The GD-1 star stream is currently the best available for identifying density fluctuations, "gaps", along its length as a test of the LCDM prediction of large numbers of dark matter sub-halos orbiting in the halo. Density variations of some form are present, since the variance of the density along the stream is three times that expected from the empirically estimated variation in the filtered mean star counts. The density variations are characterized with filters that approximate the shape of sub-halo induced stream gaps, which locates gaps and measures their amplitude, leading to a measurement of the distribution of gap widths. To gain understanding of the gap width distribution, a suite of n-body simulations for a GD-1 like orbit in a Milky Way-like potential provides a dynamically realistic statistical prediction of the gap distribution. The simulations show that every location in the stream has been disturbed to some degree by a sub-halo. The small gaps emerging from the filtering are largely noise. Larger...

  13. A bi-directional gap model for simulating the directional thermal radiance of row crops

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN; Liangfu; (陈良富); LIU; Qinhuo; (柳钦火); FAN; Wenjie; (范闻捷); LI; Xiaowen; (李小文); XIAO; Qing; (肖青); YAN; Guangjian; (闫广建); TIAN; Guoliang; (田国良)

    2002-01-01

    Row crops are a kind of typical vegetation canopy between discrete canopy and continuous canopy. Kimes et al. studied the directional thermal radiation of row crops using the geometrical optical model, which simplified row structure as "box" and neglected the gap among foliage and did not consider the emissivity effects. In this work we take account of the gaps along illumination and viewing directions and propose a bi-direction gap model on the basis of the idea of gap probability of discrete vegetation canopy introduced by "Li-Strahler" and inter-correlation of continuous vegetation developed by Kuusk. It can be used to explain "hot spot" effects in thermal infrared region. The gap model has been validated by field experiment on winter wheat planted in shape of rows and results show that the gap model is better than Kimes' model in describing the directionality of thermal infrared emission for row crops.

  14. Bridging the gap with the five-factor model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Paul T; McCrae, Robert R

    2010-04-01

    Comments on the original article Personality traits and the classification of mental Disorders: Toward a more complete integration in DSM-5 and an empirical model of psychopathology by Robert F. Krueger and Nicholas R. Eaton (see record 2010-13810-003). Some researchers had hoped the forthcoming Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) would ask psychiatrists (and the clinical psychologists and researchers who are also tied to the DSM) to leap the gap and embrace a trait-based taxonomy of personality pathology (Widiger & Trull, 2007). Krueger and Eaton (pp. 97-118, this issue) take a more pragmatic stance: They hope to coax psychiatrists across by introducing personality dimensions as an adjunct to familiar PD types; they envision that DSM-5 might serve "as a bridge" (p. 110, this issue) to a fully dimensional Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Sixth Edition (DSM-6). We acknowledge the wisdom of this strategy and suggest ways to strengthen it. PMID:22448624

  15. Modeling of Photonic Band Gap Crystals and Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ihab Fathy El-Kady

    2002-08-27

    In this work, the authors have undertaken a theoretical approach to the complex problem of modeling the flow of electromagnetic waves in photonic crystals. The focus is to address the feasibility of using the exciting phenomena of photonic gaps (PBG) in actual applications. The authors start by providing analytical derivations of the computational electromagnetic methods used in their work. They also present a detailed explanation of the physics underlying each approach, as well as a comparative study of the strengths and weaknesses of each method. The Plane Wave expansion, Transfer Matrix, and Finite Difference time Domain Methods are addressed. They also introduce a new theoretical approach, the Modal Expansion Method. They then shift the attention to actual applications. They begin with a discussion of 2D photonic crystal wave guides. The structure addressed consists of a 2D hexagonal structure of air cylinders in a layered dielectric background. Comparison with the performance of a conventional guide is made, as well as suggestions for enhancing it. The studies provide an upper theoretical limit on the performance of such guides, as they assumed no crystal imperfections and non-absorbing media. Next, they study 3D metallic PBG materials at near infrared and optical wavelengths. The main objective is to study the importance of absorption in the metal and the suitability of observing photonic band gaps in such structures. They study simple cubic structures where the metallic scatters are either cubes or interconnected metallic rods. Several metals are studied (aluminum, gold, copper, and silver). The effect of topology is addressed and isolated metallic cubes are found to be less lossy than the connected rod structures. The results reveal that the best performance is obtained by choosing metals with a large negative real part of the dielectric function, together with a relatively small imaginary part. Finally, they point out a new direction in photonic crystal

  16. CHARGE AND SPIN GAPS IN THE DIMERIZED HUBBARD MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ding Guo-hui; Ye Fei; Xu bo-wei

    2000-01-01

    By using the bosonization and renormalization group methods, we have studied the low energy physical properties in the one-dimensional dimerized Hubbardmodel. The formation of charge and spin gaps is investigated both for thehalf-filled electron band and away from the half-filled band. The scaling lawsof the charge and spin gaps with the dimerization parameterand the repulsiveinteraction strength U are obtained.

  17. Annular Hybrid Rocket Motor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Engineers at SpaceDev have conducted a preliminary design and analysis of a proprietary annular design concept for a hybrid motor. A U.S. Patent application has...

  18. Hydrogeologic Model for the Gable Gap Area, Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Thorne, Paul D.; Williams, Bruce A.; Last, George V.; Thomas, Gregory S.; Thompson, Michael D.; Ludwig, Jami L.; Lanigan, David C.

    2010-09-30

    Gable Gap is a structural and topographic depression between Gable Mountain and Gable Butte within the central Hanford Site. It has a long and complex geologic history, which includes tectonic uplift synchronous with erosional downcutting associated with the ancestral Columbia River during both Ringold and Cold Creek periods, and by the later Ice Age (mostly glacial Lake Missoula) floods. The gap was subsequently buried and partially backfilled by mostly coarse-grained, Ice Age flood deposits (Hanford formation). Erosional remnants of both the Ringold Formation and Cold Creek unit locally underlie the high-energy flood deposits. A large window exists in the gap where confined basalt aquifers are in contact with the unconfined suprabasalt aquifer. Several paleochannels, of both Hanford and Ringold Formation age, were eroded into the basalt bedrock across Gable Gap. Groundwater from the Central Plateau presently moves through Gable Gap via one or more of these shallow paleochannels. As groundwater levels continue to decline in the region, groundwater flow may eventually be cut off through Gable Gap.

  19. Manufacture of annular cermet articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, Charles W.; Sikka, Vinod K.

    2004-11-02

    A method to produce annular-shaped, metal-clad cermet components directly produces the form and avoids multiple fabrication steps such as rolling and welding. The method includes the steps of: providing an annular hollow form with inner and outer side walls; filling the form with a particulate mixture of ceramic and metal; closing, evacuating, and hermetically sealing the form; heating the form to an appropriate temperature; and applying force to consolidate the particulate mixture into solid cermet.

  20. Non newtonian annular alloy solidification in mould

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraga, Nelson O.; Garrido, Carlos P. [Universidad de La Serena, Departamento de Ingenieria Mecanica, La Serena (Chile); Castillo, Ernesto F. [Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Departamento de Ingenieria Mecanica, Santiago (Chile)

    2012-08-15

    The annular solidification of an aluminium-silicon alloy in a graphite mould with a geometry consisting of horizontal concentric cylinders is studied numerically. The analysis incorporates the behavior of non-Newtonian, pseudoplastic (n=0.2), Newtonian (n=1), and dilatant (n=1.5) fluids. The fluid mechanics and heat transfer coupled with a transient model of convection diffusion are solved using the finite volume method and the SIMPLE algorithm. Solidification is described in terms of a liquid fraction of a phase change that varies linearly with temperature. The final results make it possible to infer that the fluid dynamics and heat transfer of solidification in an annular geometry are affected by the non-Newtonian nature of the fluid, speeding up the process when the fluid is pseudoplastic. (orig.)

  1. Assessing Emphasis Gaps among MBA Alumni: A Model Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Auken, Stuart; Chrysler, Earl; Wells, Ludmilla Gricenko

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to focus on Master of Business Administration (MBA) alumni and their ability to provide institution-specific insights into MBA program delivery. Given desired MBA positioning dimensions, a case exemplar is used to reveal gaps between "should have" program emphases and "actual" emphases. Departures from…

  2. Adiabatic Steam-Water Annular Flow in an Annular Geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, P. S.; Würtz, J.

    1981-01-01

    Experimental results for fully developed steam-water annular flow in annular geometries are presented. Rod and tube film flow rates and axial pressure gradients were measured for mass fluxes between 500 and 2000 kg/m2s, steam qualities between 20 and 60 per cent and pressures ranging from 3 to 9...... MPa. It was found that the measured tube film flow rate per unit tube perimeter is always many times greater than the corresponding rod film flow rate. Possible explanations for this asymmetry are discussed....

  3. Annular lipoatrophy of the ankles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimson, Otobia G; Esterly, Nancy B

    2006-02-01

    Lipoatrophic panniculitis likely represents a group of disorders characterized by an inflammatory panniculitis followed by lipoatrophy. It occurs locally in a variety of settings and has been reported in the literature under various terms, including annular atrophic connective tissue panniculitis of the ankles, annular and semicircular lipoatrophy, abdominal lipoatrophy, and connective tissue panniculitis. Herein, a case of annular lipoatrophy of the ankles is described in a 6-year-old girl with autoimmune thyroid disease. Histologically, a mixed lobular panniculitis with lipophages was present. This pattern resembles that seen in lipoatrophic panniculitis. After a single, acute episode of an inflammatory process with subsequent lipoatrophy, her skin lesions have stabilized for 2 years requiring no treatment.

  4. Emergent Central Pattern Generator Behavior in Gap-Junction-Coupled Hodgkin-Huxley Style Neuron Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle G. Horn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Most models of central pattern generators (CPGs involve two distinct nuclei mutually inhibiting one another via synapses. Here, we present a single-nucleus model of biologically realistic Hodgkin-Huxley neurons with random gap junction coupling. Despite no explicit division of neurons into two groups, we observe a spontaneous division of neurons into two distinct firing groups. In addition, we also demonstrate this phenomenon in a simplified version of the model, highlighting the importance of afterhyperpolarization currents ( to CPGs utilizing gap junction coupling. The properties of these CPGs also appear sensitive to gap junction conductance, probability of gap junction coupling between cells, topology of gap junction coupling, and, to a lesser extent, input current into our simulated nucleus.

  5. Numerical modeling of annular laminar film condensation in circular and non-circular micro-channels under normal and micro-gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A theoretical and numerical model to predict film condensation heat transfer in mini, micro and ultra micro-channels of different internal shapes is presented in this thesis. The model is based on a finite volume formulation of the Navier-Stokes and energy equations and it includes the contributions of the unsteady terms, surface tension, axial shear stresses, gravitational forces and wall thermal conduction. Notably, interphase mass transfer and near-to-wall effects (disjoining pressure) are also included. This model has been validated versus various benchmark cases and versus published experimental results from three different laboratories, predicting micro-channel heat transfer data with an average error of 20 % or better. The conjugate heat transfer problem arising from the coupling between the thin film fluid dynamics, the heat transfer in the condensing fluid and the heat conduction in the channel wall has been studied and analyzed. The work has focused on the effects of three external wall boundary conditions: a uniform wall temperature, a non uniform wall heat flux and single-phase convective cooling. The thermal axial and peripheral conduction occurring in the wall of the channel can affect the behavior of the condensate film, not only because it redistributes the heat, but also because the annular laminar film condensation process is dependent on the local saturation to wall temperature difference. When moving from mini to micro and ultra-micro channels, the results shows that the axial conduction effects can become very important in the prediction of the wall temperature profile and they can not be ignored. Under these conditions, the overall performances of the heat exchanger become dependent not only on the fluid properties and the operative conditions but also on the geometry and wall material. Results obtained for steady state conditions are presented for circular, elliptical and flattened shape cross sections for R-134a and ammonia, for hydraulic

  6. 基于电场分布特性的环形栅器件SPICE模型研究%SPICE Model of Annular Gate Device Based on Electric Field Distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张波; 肖立伊; 付方发

    2012-01-01

    A novel and universal model to calculate the effective width of edgeless FETs has been proposed in this paper to solve the problem that the calculations of effective width in commercial SPICE model does not fit annular gate devices. This model is based on channel electric field distribution in annular gate and can be used for most shapes of annular gate devices. Corrections of SPICE model parameters have been proposed to make the model more accurate. Verifications have also been done with different gate geometries in different ways such as TCAD (Technology Computer Aided Design) and so on. Simulations results show a good accuracy of the proposed model.%提出了一种新颖的、更加通用的环形栅器件版图等效宽度提取方法,用于解决目前商用SPICE模型中版图宽度提取方法不适用于环形栅器件这一问题.该方法基于环形栅中沟道电场分布特性,可用于提取多种形状环形栅版图宽度.提出了SPICE模型中模型参数的修改方法,使SPICE环形栅器件模型仿真更为精准.通过TCAD(计算机辅助设计)等多种仿真途径对该模型进行验证,结果表明该模型具有较高的精确度.

  7. An Experimental study on the critical heat flux in gap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Soon Heung; Baek, Won Pil; Yang, Soo Hyung; Kim, Soo Hyoung; Chung, Yong Hun [Kora Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-04-01

    Experimental study of Critical Heat Flux in annular gap was conducted and the results can be summarized as follows: (1) Current research results and understandings about CHF in gap which are needed to know for analysis the accident f plate-type research reactor and to understand the interaction of tubes and baffles of steam-generator are hard to apply to large gap geometry. (2) Preliminary analysis results about the cooling mechanism of melted core through gap show that the mechanism is only one parts of the scenarios of various severe accidents. (3) CHF experiments were performed to know the effects of the size of gap and the inclination angle of test section. The results show that CHF's are decrease as gap and angle are decreased. (4) Semi-emperical correlation was developed using homogeneous flow model and experimental data. That correlation can be applicable to 30 mm < w < 60 mm, 30 < 1 < 200 mm and 0.25 < s < 3.5 mm. (5) Analysis of the database of CHF in gap show than Monde's correlation can be applicable only small gap size lower than sub-milimeter. (6) Analysis results of the CHFG of SONATA-IV shows that flooding is the mechanism of CHF in gap and critical width is related with Rayleigh-Taylor instability wave length and not with the circumference of gap. And CHF occurrence by flooding means low heat removal capability of gap. (author). 18 refs., 30 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Capacity Prediction Model Based on Limited Priority Gap-Acceptance Theory at Multilane Roundabouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaowei Qu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Capacity is an important design parameter for roundabouts, and it is the premise of computing their delay and queue. Roundabout capacity has been studied for decades, and empirical regression model and gap-acceptance model are the two main methods to predict it. Based on gap-acceptance theory, by considering the effect of limited priority, especially the relationship between limited priority factor and critical gap, a modified model was built to predict the roundabout capacity. We then compare the results between Raff’s method and maximum likelihood estimation (MLE method, and the MLE method was used to predict the critical gaps. Finally, the predicted capacities from different models were compared, with the observed capacity by field surveys, which verifies the performance of the proposed model.

  9. Phase flow rate measurements of annular flows

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Yarubi, Qahtan

    2010-01-01

    In the international oil and gas industry multiphase annular flow in pipelines and wells is extremely important, but not well understood. This thesis reports the development of an efficient and cheap method for measuring the phase flow rates in two phase annular and annular mist flow, in which the liquid phase is electrically conducting, using ultrasonic and conductance techniques. The method measures changes in the conductance of the liquid film formed during annular flow and uses these to c...

  10. Efficient Computation of Info-Gap Robustness for Finite Element Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stull, Christopher J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hemez, Francois M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Williams, Brian J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-05

    A recent research effort at LANL proposed info-gap decision theory as a framework by which to measure the predictive maturity of numerical models. Info-gap theory explores the trade-offs between accuracy, that is, the extent to which predictions reproduce the physical measurements, and robustness, that is, the extent to which predictions are insensitive to modeling assumptions. Both accuracy and robustness are necessary to demonstrate predictive maturity. However, conducting an info-gap analysis can present a formidable challenge, from the standpoint of the required computational resources. This is because a robustness function requires the resolution of multiple optimization problems. This report offers an alternative, adjoint methodology to assess the info-gap robustness of Ax = b-like numerical models solved for a solution x. Two situations that can arise in structural analysis and design are briefly described and contextualized within the info-gap decision theory framework. The treatments of the info-gap problems, using the adjoint methodology are outlined in detail, and the latter problem is solved for four separate finite element models. As compared to statistical sampling, the proposed methodology offers highly accurate approximations of info-gap robustness functions for the finite element models considered in the report, at a small fraction of the computational cost. It is noted that this report considers only linear systems; a natural follow-on study would extend the methodologies described herein to include nonlinear systems.

  11. 环缝洗涤塔下段循环水系统增加应急泄水管的必要性%Necessity of Adding Emergency Drainage Pipe in Circulating Water System of Lower Part of Annular Gap Scrubbing Tower

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      高炉煤气净化、环缝洗涤塔下段循环水系统生产中常出现循环水泵气蚀、水泵检修及机械、液压、电气、计器系统等异常,造成水封水位升高,威胁生产。为解决这一问题增加了应急泄水管,保证了安全稳定。%Cavitation erosion of circulating water pump often occurs in production of the circulating water system of blast furnace gas purification and of the lower part of annular gap scrubbing tower. The abnormal phenomena take place in water pump maintenance and in the testing systems of machinery, hydraulic pressure, electric and gauge, causing high water level of water seal and a threat to production. In order to solve this problem, it is necessary to add emergency drainage pipes to ensure stable and safety production.

  12. Eosinophilic annular erythema in childhood - Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abarzúa, Alvaro; Giesen, Laura; Silva, Sergio; González, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic annular erythema is a rare, benign, recurrent disease, clinically characterized by persistent, annular, erythematous lesions, revealing histopathologically perivascular infiltrates with abundant eosinophils. This report describes an unusual case of eosinophilic annular erythema in a 3-year-old female, requiring sustained doses of hydroxychloroquine to be adequately controlled. PMID:27579748

  13. Eosinophilic annular erythema in childhood - Case report*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abarzúa, Alvaro; Giesen, Laura; Silva, Sergio; González, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic annular erythema is a rare, benign, recurrent disease, clinically characterized by persistent, annular, erythematous lesions, revealing histopathologically perivascular infiltrates with abundant eosinophils. This report describes an unusual case of eosinophilic annular erythema in a 3-year-old female, requiring sustained doses of hydroxychloroquine to be adequately controlled. PMID:27579748

  14. Benign concentric annular macular dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luísa Salles de Moura Mendonça

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the authors is to show clinical findings of a patient with benign concentric annular macular dystrophy, which is an unusual condition, and part of the "bull’s eye" maculopathy differential diagnosis. An ophthalmologic examination with color perception, fluorescein angiography, and ocular electrophysiology was performed.

  15. The Domestic and Foreign Price Gaps in the P-STAR Model; Evidence from Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Alicia García-Herrero; Manoj Vasant Pradhan

    1999-01-01

    The paper uses the P-STAR model to analyze Spanish prices from 1970 to 1996, adding the foreign price gap to the standard domestic definition of the P-STAR model (the domestic price gap) to assess the role German price movements played in Spanish inflation. The domestic price gap turns out to be the major explanatory variable for inflation, even after the entrance of Spain in the exchange rate mechanism (ERM). This result suggests that the successful disinflation experienced in Spain in the p...

  16. Subcutaneous granuloma annulare: radiologic appearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective. Granuloma annulare is an uncommon benign inflammatory dermatosis characterized by the formation of dermal papules with a tendency to form rings. There are several clinically distinct forms. The subcutaneous form is the most frequently encountered by radiologists, with the lesion presenting as a superficial mass. There are only a few scattered reports of the imaging appearance of this entity in the literature. We report the radiologic appearance of five cases of subcutaneous granuloma annulare. Design and patients. The radiologic images of five patients (three male, two female) with subcutaneous granuloma annulare were retrospectively studied. Mean patient age was 6.4 years (range, 2-13 years). The lesions occurred in the lower leg (two), foot, forearm, and hand. MR images were available for all lesions, gadolinium-enhanced imaging in three cases, radiographs in four, and bone scintigraphy in one. Results. Radiographs showed unmineralized nodular masses localized to the subcutaneous adipose tissue. The size range, in greatest dimension on imaging studies, was 1-4 cm. MR images show a mass with relatively decreased signal intensity on all pulse sequences, with variable but generally relatively well defined margins. There was extensive diffuse enhancement following gadolinium administration. Conclusion. The radiologic appearance of subcutaneous granuloma annulare is characteristic, typically demonstrating a nodular soft-tissue mass involving the subcutaneous adipose tissue. MR images show a mass with relatively decreased signal intensity on all pulse sequences and variable but generally well defined margins. There is extensive diffuse enhancement following gadolinium administration. Radiographs show a soft-tissue mass or soft-tissue swelling without evidence of bone involvement or mineralization. This radiologic appearance in a young individual is highly suggestive of subcutaneous granuloma annulare. (orig.)

  17. Application of Gap Model in the Researches of Hotel Services Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Blešić

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the research results of the hotel services quality by applying Gap model and SERVQUAL questionnaire. The research was conducted in five health spa centers in the West Morava river valley region during August and September 2008. The reach is aimed at testing of Gap model, i.e. identification of exceptions when the hotel services quality in the observed sample is concerned.

  18. 基于类别加权算子的环形灰靶决策%Annular grey target decision model based on category weighted operator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭三党; 刘思峰; 方志耕

    2016-01-01

    An annular grey target decision method is proposed based on the category weighted operator in view of that the existing grey target decision method can’t scientifically solve the decision problem of the evaluation information being weaved inconsistent. In the light of the information difference, the evaluate information of decision makers is divided into different categories by means of the orderly incremental method, and the weighted vector weights can be obtained by using the nonlinear programming model. Then a bull’s-eye multiple target circular gray target is defined and the corresponding circular grey target is given to weight categories. The evaluation results are made more reasonable and practical through the secondary rally of program evaluation information between rings and ring. Finally, a case of emergency is given to verify the proposed method.%针对现有灰靶决策方法只有一个靶,不能科学解决评价信息疏密程度不一致的决策问题,通过有序增量法将决策者评价信息按信息的差异性分成不同的组别,并给出类别加权算子的定义。在此基础上,定义一个靶心多个靶环的环形灰靶,并将类别权重赋予相应的环形灰靶,建立基于类别加权算子的环形灰靶决策方法。该方法更接近现实灰靶,且通过对方案评价信息的环内和环间信息的二次集结,使得评价结果更为实用合理。最后以一个应急案例进行了验证。

  19. An alternative model for the origin of gaps in circumstellar disks

    CERN Document Server

    Vorobyov, Eduard I; Guedel, Manuel; Lin, D N C

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by recent observational and numerical studies suggesting that collapsing protostellar cores may be replenished from the local environment, we explore the evolution of protostellar cores submerged in the external counter-rotating environment. These models predict the formation of counter-rotating disks with a deep gap in the gas surface density separating the inner disk (corotating with the star) and the outer counter-rotating disk. The properties of these gaps are compared to those of planet-bearing gaps that form in disks hosting giant planets. We employ numerical hydrodynamics simulations of collapsing cores that are replenished from the local counter-rotating environment, as well as numerical hydrodynamic simulations of isolated disks hosting giant planets, to derive the properties of the gaps that form in both cases. Our numerical simulations demonstrate that counter-rotating disks can form for a wide range of mass and angular momentum available in the local environment. The gap that separates b...

  20. Phase Space Distribution for Two-Gap Solution in Unitary Matrix Model

    CERN Document Server

    Dutta, Parikshit

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the dynamics of weakly coupled finite temperature $U(N)$ gauge theories on $S^3$ by studying a class of effective unitary matrix model. Solving Dyson-Schwinger equation at large $N$, we find that different phases of gauge theories are characterized by gaps in eigenvalue distribution over a unit circle. In particular, we obtain no-gap, one-gap and two-gap solutions at large $N$ for a class of matrix model we are considering. The same effective matrix model can equivalently be written as a sum over representations (or Young diagrams) of unitary group. We show that at large $N$, Young diagrams corresponding to different phases can be classified in terms of discontinuities in number of boxes in two consecutive rows. More precisely, the representation, where there is no discontinuity, corresponds to no-gap and one-gap solution, where as, a diagram with one discontinuity corresponds to two-gap phase, mentioned above. This observation allows us to write a one to one relation between eigenvalue distributio...

  1. Annular-Efficient Triangulations of 3-manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Jaco, William

    2011-01-01

    A triangulation of a compact 3-manifold is annular-efficient if it is 0-efficient and the only normal, incompressible annuli are thin edge-linking. If a compact 3-manifold has an annular-efficient triangulation, then it is irreducible, boundary-irreducible, and an-annular. Conversely, it is shown that for a compact, irreducible, boundary-irreducible, and an-annular 3-manifold, any triangulation can be modified to an annular-efficient triangulation. It follows that for a manifold satisfying this hypothesis, there are only a finite number of boundary slopes for incompressible and boundary-incompressible surfaces of a bounded Euler characteristic.

  2. Anomalous behavior of the energy gap in the one-dimensional quantum XY model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuyama, Manaka; Yamanaka, Yuuki; Nishimori, Hidetoshi; Rams, Marek M

    2015-11-01

    We reexamine the well-studied one-dimensional spin-1/2 XY model to reveal its nontrivial energy spectrum, in particular the energy gap between the ground state and the first excited state. In the case of the isotropic XY model, the XX model, the gap behaves very irregularly as a function of the system size at a second order transition point. This is in stark contrast to the usual power-law decay of the gap and is reminiscent of the similar behavior at the first order phase transition in the infinite-range quantum XY model. The gap also shows nontrivial oscillatory behavior for the phase transitions in the anisotropic model in the incommensurate phase. We observe a close relation between this anomalous behavior of the gap and the correlation functions. These results, those for the isotropic case in particular, are important from the viewpoint of quantum annealing where the efficiency of computation is strongly affected by the size dependence of the energy gap. PMID:26651656

  3. SAR Observation and Modeling of Gap Winds in the Prince William Sound of Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Volz

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Alaska’s Prince William Sound (PWS is a unique locale tending to have strong gap winds, especially in the winter season. To characterize and understand these strong surface winds, which have great impacts on the local marine and aviation activities, the surface wind retrieval from the Synthetic Aperture Radar data (SAR-wind is combined with a numerical mesoscale model. Helped with the SAR-wind observations, the mesoscale model is used to study cases of strong winds and relatively weak winds to depict the nature of these winds, including the area of extent and possible causes of the wind regimes. The gap winds from the Wells Passage and the Valdez Arm are the most dominant gap winds in PWS. Though the Valdez Arm is north-south trending and Wells Passage is east-west oriented, gap winds often develop simultaneously in these two places when a low pressure system is present in the Northern Gulf of Alaska. These two gap winds often converge at the center of PWS and extend further out of the Sound through the Hinchinbrook Entrance. The pressure gradients imposed over these areas are the main driving forces for these gap winds. Additionally, the drainage from the upper stream glaciers and the blocking effect of the banks of the Valdez Arm probably play an important role in enhancing the gap wind.

  4. Impedance of an annular-cathode indented-anode electron diode terminating a coaxial magnetically insulated transmission line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impedance of a diode having an annular cathode and indented anode that terminates a coaxial MITL (magnetically insulated transmission line) is measured and compared with a semiempirical model developed from calculations made using the magIc code. The measurements were made on the 16-Ω electron accelerator HELIA (high-energy linear induction accelerator) operating at 3 MV. The model agrees with the measurements within the 10% measuring error and shows that the diode operates in either a load- or line-dominated regime depending on AK (anode-cathode) gap spacing. In the load-dominated regime, which corresponds to small AK gaps, the diode impedance is controlled by an effective anode-cathode gap, and the flow is approximately axial. In the line-dominated regime, which corresponds to large AK gaps, the impedance is independent of the AK gap and corresponds to the impedance associated with the minimum current solution of the MITL, with the flow becoming more radial as the AK gap is increased

  5. Relation Between Chiral Susceptibility and Solutions of Gap Equation in Nambu--Jona-Lasinio Model

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Y; Liu, Y; Yuan, W; Chang, Lei; Liu, Yu-xin; Yuan, Wei; Zhao, Yue

    2006-01-01

    We study the solutions of the gap equation, the thermodynamic potential and the chiral susceptibility in and beyond the chiral limit at finite chemical potential in the Nambu--Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model. We give an explicit relation between the chiral susceptibility and the thermodynamic potential in the NJL model. We find that the chiral susceptibility is a quantity being able to represent the furcation of the solutions of the gap equation and the concavo-convexity of the thermodynamic potential in NJL model. It indicates that the chiral susceptibility can identify the stable state and the possibility of the chiral phase transition in NJL model.

  6. Connexin43 Cardiac Gap Junction Remodeling: Lessons from Genetically Engineered Murine Models

    OpenAIRE

    Remo, Benjamin F.; Giovannone, Steven; Fishman, Glenn I.

    2012-01-01

    Sudden cardiac death is responsible for several hundred thousand deaths each year in the United States. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that perturbation of gap junction expression and function in the heart, or what has come to be known as cardiac gap junction remodeling, plays a key mechanistic role in the pathophysiology of clinically significant cardiac arrhythmias. Here we review recent studies from our laboratory using genetically engineered murine models to explore mechanisms implica...

  7. Vibration Analysis of Annular Sector Plates under Different Boundary Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongyan Shi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An analytical framework is developed for the vibration analysis of annular sector plates with general elastic restraints along each edge of plates. Regardless of boundary conditions, the displacement solution is invariably expressed as a new form of trigonometric expansion with accelerated convergence. The expansion coefficients are treated as the generalized coordinates and determined using the Rayleigh-Ritz technique. This work allows a capability of modeling annular sector plates under a variety of boundary conditions and changing the boundary conditions as easily as modifying the material properties or dimensions of the plates. Of equal importance, the proposed approach is universally applicable to annular sector plates of any inclusion angles up to 2π. The reliability and accuracy of the current method are adequately validated through numerical examples.

  8. Modeling and Identification of a Large Gap Magnetic Suspension System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, David E. (Editor); Groom, Nelson J. (Editor); Hsiao, Min-Hung; Huang, Jen-Kuang

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents the results of modeling and system identification efforts on the NASA Large-Angle Magnetic Suspension Test Fixture (LAMSTF). The LAMSTF consists of a cylindrical permanent magnet which is levitated above a planar array of five electromagnets mounted in a circular configuration. The analytical model is first developed and open-loop characteristics are described. The system is shown to be highly unstable and requires feedback control in order to apply system identification. Limitations on modeling accuracy due to the effect of eddy-currents on the system are discussed. An algorithm is derived to identify a state-space model for the system from input/output data acquired during closed-loop operation. The algorithm is tested on both the baseline system and a perturbed system which has an increased presence of eddy currents. It is found that for the baseline system the analytic model adequately captures the dynamics, although the identified model improves the simulation accuracy. For the system perturbed by additional unmodeled eddy-currents the analytic model is no longer adequate and a higher-order model, determined through system identification, is required to accurately predict the system's time response.

  9. Modeling of deep gaps created by giant planets in protoplanetary discs

    CERN Document Server

    Kanagawa, K D; Muto, T; Tanigawa, T

    2016-01-01

    A giant planet embedded in a protoplanetary disc creates a gap. This process is important for both theory and observations. Gap openings are intimately connected with orbital migration and the mass growth of a planet. It has recently been observed that discs around young stars are rich in structure, and the interaction between a planet and a disc is considered to be one possible origin of this structure. We performed two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations, varying the planet mass, disc aspect ratio, and viscosity in a wide range of parameters. This relationship enables us to judge whether an observed gap is likely to have been caused by an embedded planet. It is also possible to predict the planet mass from observations of the gap shape. Based on the results of hydrodynamic simulations, we present an empirical model of wave excitation and damping with deep gaps. Using this model of wave excitation and damping, we constructed a semianalytical model of the gap surface density distribution, and it reproduces t...

  10. Concentric Coplanar Capacitive Sensor System with Quantitative Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowler, Nicola (Inventor); Chen, Tianming (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A concentric coplanar capacitive sensor includes a charged central disc forming a first electrode, an outer annular ring coplanar with and outer to the charged central disc, the outer annular ring forming a second electrode, and a gap between the charged central disc and the outer annular ring. The first electrode and the second electrode may be attached to an insulative film. A method provides for determining transcapacitance between the first electrode and the second electrode and using the transcapacitance in a model that accounts for a dielectric test piece to determine inversely the properties of the dielectric test piece.

  11. Osmotic forces and gap junctions in spreading depression: a computational model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, B. E.

    2001-01-01

    In a computational model of spreading depression (SD), ionic movement through a neuronal syncytium of cells connected by gap junctions is described electrodiffusively. Simulations predict that SD will not occur unless cells are allowed to expand in response to osmotic pressure gradients and K+ is allowed to move through gap junctions. SD waves of [K+]out approximately 25 to approximately 60 mM moving at approximately 2 to approximately 18 mm/min are predicted over the range of parametric values reported in gray matter, with extracellular space decreasing up to approximately 50%. Predicted waveform shape is qualitatively similar to laboratory reports. The delayed-rectifier, NMDA, BK, and Na+ currents are predicted to facilitate SD, while SK and A-type K+ currents and glial activity impede SD. These predictions are consonant with recent findings that gap junction poisons block SD and support the theories that cytosolic diffusion via gap junctions and osmotic forces are important mechanisms underlying SD.

  12. A Semi-parametric Multivariate Gap-filling Model for Eddy Covariance Latent Heat Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M.; Chen, Y.

    2010-12-01

    Quantitative descriptions of latent heat fluxes are important to study the water and energy exchanges between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. The eddy covariance approaches have been recognized as the most reliable technique for measuring surface fluxes over time scales ranging from hours to years. However, unfavorable micrometeorological conditions, instrument failures, and applicable measurement limitations may cause inevitable flux gaps in time series data. Development and application of suitable gap-filling techniques are crucial to estimate long term fluxes. In this study, a semi-parametric multivariate gap-filling model was developed to fill latent heat flux gaps for eddy covariance measurements. Our approach combines the advantages of a multivariate statistical analysis (principal component analysis, PCA) and a nonlinear interpolation technique (K-nearest-neighbors, KNN). The PCA method was first used to resolve the multicollinearity relationships among various hydrometeorological factors, such as radiation, soil moisture deficit, LAI, and wind speed. The KNN method was then applied as a nonlinear interpolation tool to estimate the flux gaps as the weighted sum latent heat fluxes with the K-nearest distances in the PCs’ domain. Two years, 2008 and 2009, of eddy covariance and hydrometeorological data from a subtropical mixed evergreen forest (the Lien-Hua-Chih Site) were collected to calibrate and validate the proposed approach with artificial gaps after standard QC/QA procedures. The optimal K values and weighting factors were determined by the maximum likelihood test. The results of gap-filled latent heat fluxes conclude that developed model successful preserving energy balances of daily, monthly, and yearly time scales. Annual amounts of evapotranspiration from this study forest were 747 mm and 708 mm for 2008 and 2009, respectively. Nocturnal evapotranspiration was estimated with filled gaps and results are comparable with other studies

  13. Annular beam shaping and optical trepanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Danyong

    Percussion drilling and trepanning are two laser drilling methods. Percussion drilling is accomplished by focusing the laser beam to approximately the required diameter of the hole, exposing the material to one or a series of laser pulses at the same spot to melt and vaporize the material. Drilling by trepanning involves cutting a hole by rotating a laser beam with an optical element or an x-y galvo-scanner. Optical trepanning is a new laser drilling method using an annular beam. The annular beams allow numerous irradiance profiles to supply laser energy to the workpiece and thus provide more flexibility in affecting the hole quality than a traditional circular laser beam. Heating depth is important for drilling application. Since there are no good ways to measure the temperature inside substrate during the drilling process, an analytical model for optical trepanning has been developed by considering an axisymmetric, transient heat conduction equation, and the evolutions of the melting temperature isotherm, which is referred to as the melt boundary in this study, are calculated to investigate the influences of the laser pulse shapes and intensity profiles on the hole geometry. This mathematical model provides a means of understanding the thermal effect of laser irradiation with different annular beam shapes. To take account of conduction in the solid, vaporization and convection due to the melt flow caused by an assist gas, an analytical two-dimensional model is developed for optical trepanning. The influences of pulse duration, laser pulse length, pulse repetition rate, intensity profiles and beam radius are investigated to examine their effects on the recast layer thickness, hole depth and taper. The ray tracing technique of geometrical optics is employed to design the necessary optics to transform a Gaussian laser beam into an annular beam of different intensity profiles. Such profiles include half Gaussian with maximum intensities at the inner and outer

  14. Design curves for circular and annular duct silencers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Willie R.; Ramakrishnan, R.

    1989-01-01

    Conventional models of sound propagation between porous walls (Scott, 1946) are adapted in order to calculate design curves for the lined circular and annular-duct silencers used in HVAC systems. The derivation of the governing equations is outlined, and results for two typical cases are presented graphically. Good agreement with published experimental data is demonstrated.

  15. Improvement of image processing algorithms for annular flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annular flow occurs in a wide range of industrial heat-transfer equipment, including the top of a BWR core, in the steam generator of a PWR, and in postulated accident scenarios including critical heat flux (CHF) by dryout. The modeling of annular flow often requires information regarding the average thickness of liquid film at the periphery of the flow channel as a measurement of film roughness (film roughness concept). More recently, two-region modeling efforts require wave intermittency as a measurement of disturbance wave (as opposed to base film thickness) contribution to gas-to-liquid momentum transfer and pressure loss. The present work focuses on the characterization of film behaviors in annular flow using quantitative visualization. The data reduction codes for planar laser-induced flourescence (PLIF) imaging and back-lit quartz tube imaging have been further developed to improve measurement accuracy. Film thickness distribution (base film and wave), disturbance wave length, and wave intermittency estimates have been updated and applied to a recent two-region annular flow model. Outputs of average film thickness, pressure gradient, and average wave velocity have been modeled with mean absolute errors of 8.70%, 17.42%, and 19.14%, respectively. (author)

  16. Air gap membrane distillation: 1. Modelling and mass transport properties for hollow fibre membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guijt, C.M.; Meindersma, G.W.; Reith, T.; Haan, de A.B.

    2005-01-01

    A predictive model for air gap membrane distillation in a counter current flow configuration using fibre membranes is presented. The water vapour transport across the membrane is described by the dusty-gas model that uses constant membrane mass transport parameters to describe simultaneous Knudsen d

  17. CFD Simulation of Annular Centrifugal Extractors

    OpenAIRE

    Vedantam, S.; Wardle, K. E.; Tamhane, T. V.; Ranade, V. V.; Joshi, J. B.

    2012-01-01

    Annular centrifugal extractors (ACE), also called annular centrifugal contactors offer several advantages over the other conventional process equipment such as low hold-up, high process throughput, low residence time, low solvent inventory and high turn down ratio. The equipment provides a very high value of mass transfer coefficient and interfacial area in the annular zone because of the high level of power consumption per unit volume and separation inside the rotor due to the high g of cent...

  18. Psoriatic Arthritis with Annular Pustular Psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagafuchi, Hiroko; Watanabe, Kyoko; Mikage, Hidenori; Ozaki, Shoichi

    2016-01-01

    We herein present the case of a 56-year-old woman who presented with symptoms of psoriatic arthritis (PsA) with erythema that progressed to annular pustular psoriasis. The patient had a 15-year history of polyarthritis. Annular pustular psoriasis is not typically observed in cases of arthritis. This is the first reported case of PsA with annular pustular psoriasis. PMID:26935375

  19. 环形狭缝腔阵列光学特性的研究∗%Finite difference time domain simulation of optical prop erties of annular cavity arrays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周静; 王鸣; 倪海彬; 马鑫

    2015-01-01

    Optical properties of two-dimensional periodic annular cavity arrays in hexagonal packing are investigated by finite difference time domain simulation method in this paper. According to simulated reflectance/transmission spectra, electric field distribution and charge distribution, we confirm that multiple cylindrical surface plasmon resonances, which result in reflectance dips, can be excited in annular cavities by linearly polarized light. Mechanism of the cylindrical surface plasmons is investigated. A coaxial waveguide mode TE11 is excited in the annular cavities and a Fabry-Perot resonance is fulfilled along the depth direction of the annular cavities at the resonance wavelengths. While the number of reflectance dips and wavelengths of these dips in reflectance spectra are dependent on the geometric sizes of the annular cavities, the periodicity and polarization of incident light do not affect their reflectance spectra dramatically. Incident light beams with resonant wavelengths are localized in annular cavities with large electric field increasing and dissipate gradually due to metal loss. Reflectance dips can be tuned from 350 to 2000 nm by adjusting geometric size parameters of the annular cavities, such as outer and inner radii of the annular gaps, gap sizes and metal film thickness values. Reflectance dips shift toward longer wavelength with increasing inner and outer radii of the annular gaps, metal film thickness and with reducing the gap distance. In addition, infiltrate liquids in the annular gaps will result in a shift of the resonance wavelengths, which makes the annular cavities good refractive index sensors. A refractive index sensitivity up to 1850 nm/RIU is demonstrated. The refractive index sensitivities of annular cavities can also be tuned by their geometric sizes. Annular cavities with large electric field enhancement and tunable cylindrical surface plasmons can be used as surface enhanced Raman spectra substrates, refractive index sensors

  20. Systematic comparison of the use of annular and Zernike circle polynomials for annular wavefronts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahajan, V.N.; Aftab, M.

    2010-01-01

    The theory of wavefront analysis of a noncircular wavefront is given and applied for a systematic comparison of the use of annular and Zernike circle polynomials for the analysis of an annular wavefront. It is shown that, unlike the annular coefficients, the circle coefficients generally change as t

  1. ArfGAP1 function in COPI mediated membrane traffic: currently debated models and comparison to other coat-binding ArfGAPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiba, Yoko; Randazzo, Paul A

    2012-09-01

    The ArfGAPs are a family of proteins containing an ArfGAP catalytic domain that induces the hydrolysis of GTP bound to the small guanine nucleotide binding-protein ADP-ribosylation factor (Arf). Functional models for Arfs, which are regulators of membrane traffic, are based on the idea that guanine nucleotide-binding proteins function as switches: Arf with GTP bound is active and binds to effector proteins; the conversion of GTP to GDP inactivates Arf. The cellular activities of ArfGAPs have been examined primarily as regulatory proteins that inactivate Arf; however, Arf function in membrane traffic does not strictly adhere to the concept of a simple switch, adding complexity to models explaining the role of ArfGAPs. Here, we review the literature addressing the function Arf and ArfGAP1 in COPI mediated transport, focusing on two critical and integrated functions of membrane traffic, cargo sorting and vesicle coat polymerization. We briefly discuss other ArfGAPs that may have similar function in Arf-dependent membrane traffic outside the ER-Golgi.

  2. CHARACTERIZING DETONATING LX-17 CHARGES CROSSING A TRANSVERSE AIR GAP WITH EXPERIMENTS AND MODELING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauderbach, L M; Souers, P C; Garcia, F; Vitello, P; Vandersall, K S

    2009-06-26

    Experiments were performed using detonating LX-17 (92.5% TATB, 7.5% Kel-F by weight) charges with various width transverse air gaps with manganin peizoresistive in-situ gauges present. The experiments, performed with 25 mm diameter by 25 mm long LX-17 pellets with the transverse air gap in between, showed that transverse gaps up to about 3 mm could be present without causing the detonation wave to fail to continue as a detonation. The Tarantula/JWL{sup ++} code was utilized to model the results and compare with the in-situ gauge records with some agreement to the experimental data with additional work needed for a better match to the data. This work will present the experimental details as well as comparison to the model results.

  3. Diametric Tolerance Control of Dual Cooled Annular Fuel Pellet without Inner Surface Grinding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A dual cooled fuel consists of internal and external cladding tubes in which annular pellets are stacked and cooling water flows in both internal and external coolant passages. It is recently being reconsidered as a promising option for a power up-rate of a pressurized water reactor fuel assembly because an annular fuel shows a lot of advantages from the point of a fuel safety and its economy due to an increased heat transfer area and a thin pellet thickness. Many technical issues might cause a serious problem to adopt the dual cooled annular fuel to the commercial PWR reactors. One of the most important issues is a heat flux split toward an internal cladding and an external cladding due to the gap conductance asymmetry which results from a preferential expansion of a fuel pellet toward the outside during an irradiation. Gap conductance is directly related to the inner and outer gap thicknesses. Initial gap thicknesses can vary with a pellet's dimensions which are affected by a reactor operation condition. Recently, it is suggested that a fuel rod with a smaller inner gap and a larger outer gap can reduce this gap conductance asymmetry. This approach can be effective only after precise tolerance technology is achieved. Because of an inhomogeneous green density distribution along the compact height, an hour-glassing usually occurred in a sintered cylindrical PWR fuel pellet fabricated by a conventional double-acting press. Thus, a sintered pellet usually undergoes a center-less grinding process in order to secure a pellet's specifications. In the case of an annular pellet fabrication using a conventional double-acting press, the same hour-glass shape would probably occur. The outer diameter tolerance of an annular pellet can be controlled easily similar to that of a conventional cylindrical PWR pellet through a center-less grinding. However, it appears not to be simple in the case of an inner surface grinding. It would be the best way to satisfy the specifications

  4. A title-gap flow model for use in aerodynamic loads assessment of space shuttle thermal protection system: Parallel gap faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwoyer, D. L.; Newman, P. A.; Thames, F. C.; Melson, N. D.

    1981-01-01

    The problem of predicting aerodynamic loads on the insulating tiles of the space shuttle thermal protection system (TPS) is discussed and seen to require a method for predicting pressure and mass flux in the gaps between tiles. A mathematical model of the tile-gap flow is developed, based upon a slow viscous (Stokes) flow analysis, and is verified against experimental data. The tile-gap pressure field is derived from a solution of the two-dimensional Laplace equation; the mass-flux vector is then calculated from the pressure gradient. The means for incorporating this model into a lumped-parameter network analogy for porous-media flow is given. The means for incorporating this model into a lumped-parameter network analogy for porous-media flow is given. The flow model shows tile-gap mass flux to be very sensitive to the gap width indicating a need for coupling the TPS flow and tile displacement calculation. Analytical and experimental work to improve TPS flow predictions and a possible shuttle TPS hardware modification are recommended.

  5. ACRIM-gap and TSI trend issue resolved using a surface magnetic flux TSI proxy model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scafetta, Nicola; Willson, Richard C.

    2009-03-01

    The ACRIM-gap (1989.5-1991.75) continuity dilemma for satellite TSI observations is resolved by bridging the satellite TSI monitoring gap between ACRIM1 and ACRIM2 results with TSI derived from Krivova et al.'s (2007) proxy model based on variations of the surface distribution of solar magnetic flux. `Mixed' versions of ACRIM and PMOD TSI composites are constructed with their composites' original values except for the ACRIM gap, where Krivova modeled TSI is used to connect ACRIM1 and ACRIM2 results. Both `mixed' composites demonstrate a significant TSI increase of 0.033 %/decade between the solar activity minima of 1986 and 1996, comparable to the 0.037 % found in the ACRIM composite. The finding supports the contention of Willson (1997) that the ERBS/ERBE results are flawed by uncorrected degradation during the ACRIM gap and refutes the Nimbus7/ERB ACRIM gap adjustment Fröhlich and Lean (1998) employed in constructing the PMOD.

  6. Mechanistic Modeling Reveals the Critical Knowledge Gaps in Bile Acid–Mediated DILI

    OpenAIRE

    Woodhead, J L; Yang, K.; Brouwer, K L R; Siler, S. Q.; Stahl, S H; Ambroso, J L; Baker, D; Watkins, P B; Howell, B A

    2014-01-01

    Bile salt export pump (BSEP) inhibition has been proposed to be an important mechanism for drug-induced liver injury (DILI). Modeling can prioritize knowledge gaps concerning bile acid (BA) homeostasis and thus help guide experimentation. A submodel of BA homeostasis in rats and humans was constructed within DILIsym, a mechanistic model of DILI. In vivo experiments in rats with glibenclamide were conducted, and data from these experiments were used to validate the model. The behavior of DILIs...

  7. Bridging the Gap between Practitioners and E-learning Standards: A Domain-specific Modeling Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miao, Yongwu; Sodhi, Tim; Brouns, Francis; Sloep, Peter; Koper, Rob

    2008-01-01

    Miao, Y., Sodhi, T., Brouns, F., Sloep, P. B., & Koper, R. (2008). Bridging the Gap between Practitioners and E-learning Standards: A Domain-Specific Modeling Approach. In P. Dillenbourg & M. Specht (Eds.), Times of Convergence. Technologies Across Learning Contexts - Proceedings of the Third Europe

  8. Fit Gap Analysis – The Role of Business Process Reference Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Pajk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Enterprise resource planning (ERP systems support solutions for standard business processes such as financial, sales, procurement and warehouse. In order to improve the understandability and efficiency of their implementation, ERP vendors have introduced reference models that describe the processes and underlying structure of an ERP system. To select and successfully implement an ERP system, the capabilities of that system have to be compared with a company’s business needs. Based on a comparison, all of the fits and gaps must be identified and further analysed. This step usually forms part of ERP implementation methodologies and is called fit gap analysis. The paper theoretically overviews methods for applying reference models and describes fit gap analysis processes in detail. The paper’s first contribution is its presentation of a fit gap analysis using standard business process modelling notation. The second contribution is the demonstration of a process-based comparison approach between a supply chain process and an ERP system process reference model. In addition to its theoretical contributions, the results can also be practically applied to projects involving the selection and implementation of ERP systems.

  9. Bridging the Gap between Practitioners and E-learning Standards: A Domain-specific Modeling Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miao, Yongwu; Sodhi, Tim; Brouns, Francis; Sloep, Peter; Koper, Rob

    2009-01-01

    Miao, Y., Sodhi, T., Brouns, F., Sloep, P. B., & Koper, R. (2008). Bridging the Gap between Practitioners and E-learning Standards: A Domain-Specific Modeling Approach. Presentation at the ECTEL 2008 conference. September, 16-19, 2008, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

  10. Temperature dependence of band gaps in Si and Ge in the quasi-ion model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klenner, M.; Falter, C.; Ludwig, W.

    We have calculated the temperature dependence of the direct and indirect band gaps in silicon and germanium. The electron-phonon potential as well as the phonon frequencies and eigenvectors are calculated consistently within the rigid quasi-ion model. Comparison is made with experiment and with the theoretical results of Allen and Cardona and Lautenschlager et al.

  11. Comparative Research on Prediction Model of China’s Urban-rural Residents’ Income Gap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    By using the data concerning China’s urban-rural residents’ income gap from 1978 to 2010,this paper mainly researches the application of several kinds of models in predicting China’s urban-rural residents’ income gap.By conducting empirical analysis,we establish ARIMA prediction model,grey prediction model and quadratic-polynomial prediction model and conduct accuracy comparison.The results show that quadratic-polynomial prediction model has excellent fitting effect.By using quadratic-polynomial prediction model,this paper conducts prediction on trend of China’s urban-rural residents’ income gap from 2011 to 2013,and the prediction value of income gap of urban-rural residents in China from 2011 to 2013 is 14 173.20,15 212.92 and 16 289.67 yuan respectively.Finally,on the basis of analysis,corresponding countermeasures are put forward,in order to provide scientific basis for energy planning and policy formulation:first,strengthen government’s function of public service,coordinate resources,and strive to provide an equal opportunity of development for social members,so as to promote people’s welfare and promote social equality;second,breach industrial monopoly and bridge income gap between employees in monopoly industry and general industry;last but not the least,support,encourage and call for government to establish social relief fund,adjust residents’ income distribution from the non-governmental perspective,and endeavor to promote the income level of low-income class.

  12. Fabrication of Annular Pellet for HANARO Irradiation Test of Dual Cooled Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the most important components in a Pressurized Water Reactor affecting its safety and economy is a nuclear fuel. The traditional PWR fuel pellet has a shape of cylindrical tablets of about 8 mm in diameter with a chamfer and dishes. A significant reduction in its failure rate has resulted from the improvements in the fuel and cladding quality. Enhanced fuel assembly design allowed appreciable power density increases. However, it is difficult to achieve a significant increase of a power density under the current fuel pin design. An internally and externally cooled annular fuel has been considered seriously as a promising solution for an extended power uprate of a PWR fuel assembly. A dual cooled annular fuel shows a lot of advantages from the point of a fuel safety and its economy due to its unique configurational merit such as an increased heat transfer area and a thin pellet thickness. There must be a lot of considerations in the various fields to introduce an annular internally and externally cooled fuel to commercial PWR reactors. The dimensional changes of the annular fuel pellets during the early irradiation stage are very important, because they have an influence on the size of the gap between the pellet and the inner/outer claddings. In order to gain an insight to how the annular pellets deform, a HANARO irradiation test is planned for annular pellets with 5 different types. The detailed specification of the annular pellet was shown in Table 1. It is noted that Type C has the same pore structure as a commercial PWR pellet. The purpose of this paper is to report on the manufacturing process of an annular fuel pellet for a HANARO irradiation test

  13. Bistability and hysteresis of annular impinging jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisovsky, Tomas

    2016-06-01

    In present study, the bistability and hysteresis of annular impinging jets is investigated. Annular impinging jets are simulated using open source CFD code - OpenFOAM. Both flow field patterns of interest are obtained and hysteresis is found by means of dynamic mesh simulation. Effect of nozzle exit velocity on resulting hysteresis loop is also illustrated.

  14. Soliton bunching in annular Josephson junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vernik, I.V; Lazarides, Nickos; Sørensen, Mads Peter;

    1996-01-01

    By studying soliton (fluxon) motion in long annular Josephson junctions it is possible to avoid the influence of the boundaries and soliton-soliton collisions present in linear junctions. A new experimental design consisting of a niobium coil placed on top of an annular junction has been used...

  15. Optimum annular focusing by a phase plate

    CERN Document Server

    Arrizón, Victor; Aguirre-Olivas, Dilia; Mellado-Villaseñor, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    Conventional light focusing, i. e. concentration of an extended optical field within a small area around a point, is a frequently used process in Optics. An important extension to conventional focusing is the generation of the annular focal field of an optical beam. We discuss a simple optical setup that achieves this kind of focusing employing a phase plate as unique optical component. We first establish the class of beams that being transmitted through the phase plate can be focused into an annular field with topological charge of arbitrary integer order q. Then, for each beam in this class we determine the plate transmittance that generates the focal field with the maximum possible peak intensity. In particular, we discuss and implement experimentally the optimum annular focusing of a Gaussian beam. The attributes of optimum annular focal fields, namely the high peak intensity, intensity gradient and narrow annular section, are advantageous for different applications of such structured fields.

  16. An outer gap model of high-energy emission from rotation-powered pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Chiang, J

    1994-01-01

    We describe a refined calculation of high energy emission from rotation-powered pulsars based on the Outer Gap model of Cheng, Ho \\&~Ruderman (1986a,b). We have improved upon previous efforts to model the spectra from these pulsars (e. g. Cheng, et al. 1986b; Ho 1989) by following the variation in particle production and radiation properties with position in the outer gap. Curvature, synchrotron and inverse-Compton scattering fluxes vary significantly over the gap and their interactions {\\it via} photon-photon pair production build up the radiating charge populations at varying rates. We have also incorporated an approximate treatment of the transport of particle and photon fluxes between gap emission zones. These effects, along with improved computations of the particle and photon distributions, provide very important modifications of the model gamma-ray flux. In particular, we attempt to make specific predictions of pulse profile shapes and spectral variations as a function of pulse phase and suggest fu...

  17. The Three-Dimensional Velocity Distribution of Wide Gap Taylor-Couette Flow Modelled by CFD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Shina Adebayo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical investigation is conducted for the flow between two concentric cylinders with a wide gap, relevant to bearing chamber applications. This wide gap configuration has received comparatively less attention than narrow gap journal bearing type geometries. The flow in the gap between an inner rotating cylinder and an outer stationary cylinder has been modelled as an incompressible flow using an implicit finite volume RANS scheme with the realisable k-ε model. The model flow is above the critical Taylor number at which axisymmetric counterrotating Taylor vortices are formed. The tangential velocity profiles at all axial locations are different from typical journal bearing applications, where the velocity profiles are quasilinear. The predicted results led to two significant findings of impact in rotating machinery operations. Firstly, the axial variation of the tangential velocity gradient induces an axially varying shear stress, resulting in local bands of enhanced work input to the working fluid. This is likely to cause unwanted heat transfer on the surface in high torque turbomachinery applications. Secondly, the radial inflow at the axial end-wall boundaries is likely to promote the transport of debris to the junction between the end-collar and the rotating cylinder, causing the build-up of fouling in the seal.

  18. GLAST Deficiency in Mice Exacerbates Gap Detection Deficits in a Model of Salicylate-Induced Tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hong; Vikhe Patil, Kim; Han, Chul; Fabella, Brian; Canlon, Barbara; Someya, Shinichi; Cederroth, Christopher R

    2016-01-01

    Gap detection or gap pre-pulse inhibition of the acoustic startle (GPIAS) has been successfully used in rat and guinea pig models of tinnitus, yet this system has been proven to have low efficacy in CBA mice, with low basal GPIAS and subtle tinnitus-like effects. Here, we tested five mouse strains (CBA, BalbC, CD-1, C57BL/6 and 129sv) for pre-pulse inhibition (PPI) and gap detection with varying interstimulus intervals (ISI) and found that mice from a CBA genetic background had the poorest capacities of suppressing the startle response in the presence of a pre-pulse or a gap. CD-1 mice displayed variable responses throughout all ISI. Interestingly, C57BL/6, 129sv and BalbC showed efficient suppression with either pre-pulses or gaps with shorter ISI. The glutamate aspartate transporter (GLAST) is expressed in support cells from the cochlea and buffers the excess of glutamate. We hypothesized that loss of GLAST function could sensitize the ear to tinnitus-inducing agents, such as salicylate. Using shorter ISI to obtain a greater dynamic range to assess tinnitus-like effects, we found that disruption of gap detection by salicylate was exacerbated across various intensities of a 32-kHz narrow band noise gap carrier in GLAST knockout (KO) mice when compared to their wild-type (WT) littermates. Auditory brainstem responses (ABR) and distortion-product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) were performed to evaluate the effects on hearing functions. Salicylate caused greater auditory threshold shifts (near 15 dB) in GLAST KO mice than in WT mice across all tested frequencies, despite similarly reduced DPOAE. Despite these changes, inhibition using broad-band gap carriers and 32 kHz pre-pulses were not affected. Our study suggests that GLAST deficiency could become a useful experimental model to decipher the mechanisms underlying drug-induced tinnitus. Future studies addressing the neurological correlates of tinnitus in this model could provide additional insights into the

  19. Sensitivity analysis of a forest gap model concerning current and future climate variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasch, P.; Suckow, F.; Buerger, G.; Lindner, M.

    1998-07-01

    The ability of a forest gap model to simulate the effects of climate variability and extreme events depends on the temporal resolution of the weather data that are used and the internal processing of these data for growth, regeneration and mortality. The climatological driving forces of most current gap models are based on monthly means of weather data and their standard deviations, and long-term monthly means are used for calculating yearly aggregated response functions for ecological processes. In this study, the results of sensitivity analyses using the forest gap model FORSKA{sub -}P and involving climate data of different resolutions, from long-term monthly means to daily time series, including extreme events, are presented for the current climate and for a climate change scenario. The model was applied at two sites with differing soil conditions in the federal state of Brandenburg, Germany. The sensitivity of the model concerning climate variations and different climate input resolutions is analysed and evaluated. The climate variability used for the model investigations affected the behaviour of the model substantially. (orig.)

  20. [Generalized granuloma annulare or diffuse dermal histiocytosis?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretzschmar, L; Biel, K; Luger, T A; Goerdt, S

    1995-08-01

    Generalized granuloma annulare is a rare variant of granuloma annulare affecting the trunk and extremities with a multitude of lesions. In contrast to localized granuloma annulare, generalized granuloma annulare occurs in older patients, shows a stronger association with diabetes, and is characteristically chronic. Like our 55-year-old patient, most patients present with papules and annular plaques; less often, macular or non-annular lesions may be encountered. Histology often fails to show necrobiotic or necrotic connective tissue changes demarcated by a palisading granuloma. Instead, there are diffuse dermal, band-like or nodular aggregations of histiocytes intermingled with some multinucleated giant cells and a predominantly lymphocytic infiltrate in the periphery. Because of its special characteristics, it has been suggested that generalized granuloma annulare might constitute a separate disease entity and that it should be classed among the primary cutaneous histiocytoses as a diffuse dermal histiocytosis. Using immunohistochemistry to determine the macrophage phenotype of the lesional histiocytes, we have shown that generalized granuloma annulare is not a cutaneous histiocytosis. Neither MS-1 high-molecular-weight protein, a new specific marker for cutaneous non-Langerhans cell histiocytoses, nor CD1a, the well-known marker for Langerhans cells and Langerhans cell histiocytoses, is expressed by the lesional histiocytes of our patient. In contrast, the antigen expression pattern was diagnostic for non-infectious granulomas and was highly similar to that in localized granuloma annulare. In contrast to the successful treatment of localized granuloma annulare reported with intralesional interferon beta-1, systemic treatment with interferon alpha-2b (9 x 10(6) units three times a week) was ineffective.

  1. New mitral annular force transducer optimized to distinguish annular segments and multi-plane forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skov, Søren Nielsen; Røpcke, Diana Mathilde; Ilkjær, Christine; Rasmussen, Jonas; Tjørnild, Marcell Juan; Jimenez, Jorge H; Yoganathan, Ajit P; Nygaard, Hans; Nielsen, Sten Lyager; Jensen, Morten Olgaard

    2016-03-21

    Limited knowledge exists about the forces acting on mitral valve annuloplasty repair devices. The aim of this study was to develop a new mitral annular force transducer to measure the forces acting on clinically used mitral valve annuloplasty devices. The design of an X-shaped transducer in the present study was optimized for simultaneous in- and out-of-plane force measurements. Each arm was mounted with strain gauges on four circumferential elements to measure out-of-plane forces, and the central parts of the X-arms were mounted with two strain gauges to measure in-plane forces. A dedicated calibration setup was developed to calibrate isolated forces with tension and compression for in- and out-of-plane measurements. With this setup, it was possible with linear equations to isolate and distinguish measured forces between the two planes and minimize transducer arm crosstalk. An in-vitro test was performed to verify the crosstalk elimination method and the assumptions behind it. The force transducer was implanted and evaluated in an 80kg porcine in-vivo model. Following crosstalk elimination, in-plane systolic force accumulation was found to be in average 4.0±0.1N and the out-of-plane annular segments experienced an average force of 1.4±0.4N. Directions of the systolic out-of-plane forces indicated movements towards a saddle shaped annulus, and the transducer was able to measure independent directional forces in individual annular segments. Further measurements with the new transducer coupled with clinical annuloplasty rings will provide a detailed insight into the biomechanical dynamics of these devices. PMID:26903412

  2. New mitral annular force transducer optimized to distinguish annular segments and multi-plane forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skov, Søren Nielsen; Røpcke, Diana Mathilde; Ilkjær, Christine; Rasmussen, Jonas; Tjørnild, Marcell Juan; Jimenez, Jorge H; Yoganathan, Ajit P; Nygaard, Hans; Nielsen, Sten Lyager; Jensen, Morten Olgaard

    2016-03-21

    Limited knowledge exists about the forces acting on mitral valve annuloplasty repair devices. The aim of this study was to develop a new mitral annular force transducer to measure the forces acting on clinically used mitral valve annuloplasty devices. The design of an X-shaped transducer in the present study was optimized for simultaneous in- and out-of-plane force measurements. Each arm was mounted with strain gauges on four circumferential elements to measure out-of-plane forces, and the central parts of the X-arms were mounted with two strain gauges to measure in-plane forces. A dedicated calibration setup was developed to calibrate isolated forces with tension and compression for in- and out-of-plane measurements. With this setup, it was possible with linear equations to isolate and distinguish measured forces between the two planes and minimize transducer arm crosstalk. An in-vitro test was performed to verify the crosstalk elimination method and the assumptions behind it. The force transducer was implanted and evaluated in an 80kg porcine in-vivo model. Following crosstalk elimination, in-plane systolic force accumulation was found to be in average 4.0±0.1N and the out-of-plane annular segments experienced an average force of 1.4±0.4N. Directions of the systolic out-of-plane forces indicated movements towards a saddle shaped annulus, and the transducer was able to measure independent directional forces in individual annular segments. Further measurements with the new transducer coupled with clinical annuloplasty rings will provide a detailed insight into the biomechanical dynamics of these devices.

  3. Band-gap shrinkage calculations and analytic model for strained bulk InGaAsP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, Michael J.

    2015-02-01

    Band-gap shrinkage is an important effect in semiconductor lasers and optical amplifiers. In the former it leads to an increase in the lasing wavelength and in the latter an increase in the gain peak wavelength as the bias current is increased. The most common model used for carrier-density dependent band-gap shrinkage is a cube root dependency on carrier density, which is strictly only true for high carrier densities and low temperatures. This simple model, involves a material constant which is treated as a fitting parameter. Strained InGaAsP material is commonly used to fabricate polarization insensitive semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs). Most mathematical models for SOAs use the cube root bandgap shrinkage model. However, because SOAs are often operated over a wide range of drive currents and input optical powers leading to large variations in carrier density along the amplifier length, for improved model accuracy it is preferable to use band-gap shrinkage calculated from knowledge of the material bandstructure. In this letter the carrier density dependent band-gap shrinkage for strained InGaAsP is calculated by using detailed non-parabolic conduction and valence band models. The shrinkage dependency on temperature and both tensile and compressive strain is investigated and compared to the cube root model, for which it shows significant deviation. A simple power model, showing an almost square-root dependency, is derived for carrier densities in the range usually encountered in InGaAsP laser diodes and SOAs.

  4. Band-gap shrinkage calculations and analytic model for strained bulk InGaAsP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Band-gap shrinkage is an important effect in semiconductor lasers and optical amplifiers. In the former it leads to an increase in the lasing wavelength and in the latter an increase in the gain peak wavelength as the bias current is increased. The most common model used for carrier-density dependent band-gap shrinkage is a cube root dependency on carrier density, which is strictly only true for high carrier densities and low temperatures. This simple model, involves a material constant which is treated as a fitting parameter. Strained InGaAsP material is commonly used to fabricate polarization insensitive semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs). Most mathematical models for SOAs use the cube root bandgap shrinkage model. However, because SOAs are often operated over a wide range of drive currents and input optical powers leading to large variations in carrier density along the amplifier length, for improved model accuracy it is preferable to use band-gap shrinkage calculated from knowledge of the material bandstructure. In this letter the carrier density dependent band-gap shrinkage for strained InGaAsP is calculated by using detailed non-parabolic conduction and valence band models. The shrinkage dependency on temperature and both tensile and compressive strain is investigated and compared to the cube root model, for which it shows significant deviation. A simple power model, showing an almost square-root dependency, is derived for carrier densities in the range usually encountered in InGaAsP laser diodes and SOAs. (paper)

  5. Bridging the gap between gene expression and metabolic phenotype via kinetic models

    OpenAIRE

    Vital-Lopez, Francisco G; Wallqvist, Anders; Reifman, Jaques

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the close association between gene expression and metabolism, experimental evidence shows that gene expression levels alone cannot predict metabolic phenotypes, indicating a knowledge gap in our understanding of how these processes are connected. Here, we present a method that integrates transcriptome, fluxome, and metabolome data using kinetic models to create a mechanistic link between gene expression and metabolism. Results We developed a modeling framework to construct ...

  6. A Capstone Project Using the Gap Analysis Model: Closing the College Readiness Gap for Latino English Language Learners with a Focus on College Affordability and Student Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurland, Michael A. T.

    2013-01-01

    This capstone dissertation inquiry project focused on the underperformance of English language learners (ELLs) at a high school. The Clark and Estes' (2008) gap analysis model was the analytical framework used to conduct this inquiry. At the request of the school, the inquiry focus was on gaining a better understanding of the underachievement…

  7. Bioavailability and efficacy of a gap junction enhancer (PQ7 in a mouse mammary tumor model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie N Shishido

    Full Text Available The loss of gap junctional intercellular communication is characteristic of neoplastic cells, suggesting that the restoration with a gap junction enhancer may be a new therapeutic treatment option with less detrimental effects than traditional antineoplastic drugs. A gap junction enhancer, 6-methoxy-8-[(2-furanylmethyl amino]-4-methyl-5-(3-trifluoromethylphenyloxy quinoline (PQ7, on the normal tissue was evaluated in healthy C57BL/6J mice in a systemic drug distribution study. Immunoblot analysis of the vital organs indicates a reduction in Cx43 expression in PQ7-treated animals with no observable change in morphology. Next the transgenic strain FVB/N-Tg(MMTV-PyVT 634Mul/J (also known as PyVT was used as a spontaneous mammary tumor mouse model to determine the biological and histological effects of PQ7 on tumorigenesis and metastasis at three stages of development: Pre tumor, Early tumor, and Late tumor formation. PQ7 was assessed to have a low toxicity through intraperitoneal administration, with the majority of the compound being detected in the heart, liver, and lungs six hours post injection. The treatment of tumor bearing animals with PQ7 had a 98% reduction in tumor growth, while also decreasing the total tumor burden compared to control mice during the Pre stage of development. PQ7 treatment increased Cx43 expression in the neoplastic tissue during Pre-tumor formation; however, this effect was not observed in Late stage tumor formation. This study shows that the gap junction enhancer, PQ7, has low toxicity to normal tissue in healthy C57BL/6J mice, while having clinical efficacy in the treatment of spontaneous mammary tumors of PyVT mice. Additionally, gap junctional intercellular communication and neoplastic cellular growth are shown to be inversely related, while treatment with PQ7 inhibits tumor growth through targeting gap junction expression.

  8. The Gap of Current Agent Based Simulation Modeling Practices and Feasibility of a Generic Agent Based Simulation Model

    OpenAIRE

    Yim Ling Loo; Alicia Y.C. Tang; Azhana Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Agent-based modeling had been revolving to be established approach in modeling simulation systems which are used to understand and predict certain real-life scenarios in specific domains. Past researches which are domain-specific caused repetitive building of new models from scratch and restrict replication and reuse because of limitation of models’ description. This paper presents a review of gaps between domain-specific agent-based simulation modeling and the recent practices of agent-based...

  9. Assessing climate change effects on long-term forest development: adjusting growth, phenology, and seed production in a gap model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, van der P.J.; Jorritsma, I.T.M.; Kramer, K.

    2002-01-01

    The sensitivity of forest development to climate change is assessed using a gap model. Process descriptions in the gap model of growth, phenology, and seed production were adjusted for climate change effects using a detailed process-based growth modeland a regression analysis. Simulation runs over 4

  10. A mathematical model of a three-gap thyratron simulating turn-on

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kicker magnets are required for all ring-to-ring transfers in the 5 rings of the proposed KAON factory synchrotron. The kick must rise/fall from 1% to 99% of full strength during the time interval of gaps created in the beam (80 ns to 160 ns) so that the beam can be extracted with minimum losses. Approximately one-third of the injection and extraction kicker magnets will operate continuously at a rate of 50 pulses per second: the others operate at 10 pulses per second. The kicker magnet PFN voltages will be in the range 50kV to 80kV, hence multi-gap thyratrons will be used for the injection and extraction kicker systems. Displacement current arising from turn-on of a multi-gap thyratron flows in the external circuit and can thus increase the effective rise-time of the kick. A mathematical model of a three-gap thyratron, which includes the drift spaces, has been developed for simulating turn-on, and is described in this paper. The thyratron model has been used to investigate ways to suppress the effects of displacement current on the kick, and to reduce thyratron switching loss. A ferrite saturating inductor may be connected adjacent to each thyratron to reduce switching loss, so that thyratron life can be extended and the kick rise-time improved. This inductor can also be used to reduce the effect of anode displacement current during turn-on of a multi-gap thyratron. The research has culminated in a predicted kick rise time (1% to 99%) of less than 50 ns for a TRIUMF 10 cell prototype kicker magnet. The proposed improvements are currently being implemented on our prototype kicker system. (author). 15 refs., 11 figs

  11. Etizolam-induced superficial erythema annulare centrifugum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, K; Yabunami, H; Hisanaga, Y

    2002-01-01

    Erythema annulare centrifugum (EAC) is characterized by slowly enlarging annular erythematous lesions. Although the origin is not clear in most cases, EAC has been associated with infections, medications, and in rare cases, underlying malignancy. We describe a patient who developed annular erythematous lesions after etizolam administration. The eruptions were typical of the superficial form of EAC, both clinically and histopathologically. The lesions disappeared shortly after discontinuation of the medication. Patch testing with etizolam gave positive results. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of etizolam-induced superficial EAC. PMID:11952667

  12. Mid-gap phenomena in chalcogenide glasses and barrier-cluster-heating model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banik, Ivan, E-mail: ivan.banik@stuba.sk; Kubliha, Marián; Lukovičová, Jozefa; Pavlendová, Gabriela [Faculty of Civil Engineering, Slovak University of Technology, 813 68 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2015-12-07

    The physical mechanism of photoluminescence spectrum formation of chalcogenide glasses (CHG) belongs to the important unsolved problems in physics of non-crystalline materials. Photoluminescence is an important means of the electron spectrum investigation. PL spectrum in CHG is produced mostly in the middle of the band gap, and its profile is normal - Gaussian. Several features of PL spectra in CHG is still a great mystery. The aim of the paper is to make reader acquainted with the new insight into the problem. In this article we also deal with the issue of clarifying the nature of mid-gap absorption. From the experiments it is known that after excitation of the glass As{sub 2}S{sub 3} (or As{sub 2}Se{sub 3}) with primary radiation from Urbach-tail region the glass will be able to absorb the photons of low energy (IR) radiation from mid-gap region of spectra. This low photon absorption without action of the primary excitation radiation of the higher photon energy is impossible. Mid-gap absorption yields boost in the photoluminescence. The paper gives the reader the new insights into some, until now, unexplained effects and contexts in chalcogenide glasses from the position of barrier-cluster-heating model.

  13. X-ray diffraction from bone employing annular and semi-annular beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a compelling need for accurate, low cost diagnostics to identify osteo-tissues that are associated with a high risk of fracture within an individual. To satisfy this requirement the quantification of bone characteristics such as ‘bone quality’ need to exceed that provided currently by densitometry. Bone mineral chemistry and microstructure can be determined from coherent x-ray scatter signatures of bone specimens. Therefore, if these signatures can be measured, in vivo, to an appropriate accuracy it should be possible by extending terms within a fracture risk model to improve fracture risk prediction.In this preliminary study we present an examination of a new x-ray diffraction technique that employs hollow annular and semi-annular beams to measure aspects of ‘bone quality’. We present diffractograms obtained with our approach from ex vivo bone specimens at Mo Kα and W Kα energies. Primary data is parameterized to provide estimates of bone characteristics and to indicate the precision with which these can be determined. (paper)

  14. Spontaneous calcium signals induced by gap junctions in a network model of astrocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazantsev, V. B.

    2009-01-01

    The dynamics of a network model of astrocytes coupled by gap junctions is investigated. Calcium dynamics of the single cell is described by the biophysical model comprising the set of three nonlinear differential equations. Intercellular dynamics is provided by the diffusion of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) through gap junctions between neighboring astrocytes. It is found that the diffusion induces the appearance of spontaneous activity patterns in the network. Stability of the network steady state is analyzed. It is proved that the increase of the diffusion coefficient above a certain critical value yields the generation of low-amplitude subthreshold oscillatory signals in a certain frequency range. It is shown that such spontaneous oscillations can facilitate calcium pulse generation and provide a certain time scale in astrocyte signaling.

  15. Modelling of streamer propagation in hydrocarbon liquids in point-plane gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A model of streamer dynamics in hydrocarbon liquids is developed that accounts for liquid vaporization and formation of a gaseous filament behind the streamer head. Results of simulation of streamer propagation in cyclohexane in a short point-plane gap at various hydrostatic pressures and applied voltages are presented. Obtained characteristics of streamer propagation (streamer velocity, stopping length, electric current) and parameters of streamer plasma (number density of electrons, electric field in streamer channel) are compared with available experimental data. (paper)

  16. Generalized Gap Model for Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Clone Fingerprint Mapping and Shotgun Sequencing

    OpenAIRE

    Wendl, Michael C; Robert H Waterston

    2002-01-01

    We develop an extension to the Lander-Waterman theory for characterizing gaps in bacterial artificial chromosome fingerprint mapping and shotgun sequencing projects. It supports a larger set of descriptive statistics and is applicable to a wider range of project parameters. We show that previous assertions regarding inconsistency of the Lander-Waterman theory at higher coverages are incorrect and that another well-known but ostensibly different model is in fact the same. The apparent paradox ...

  17. Production of annular flat-topped vortex beams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiannong Chen; Yongjiang Yu; Feifei Wang

    2011-01-01

    @@ A model of an annular flat-topped vortex beam based on multi-Gaussian superimposition is proposed. We experimentally produce this beam with a computer-generated hologram (CGH) displayed on a spatial light modulator (SLM). The power of the beam is concentrated on a single-ring structure and has an extremely strong radial intensity gradient. This beam facilitates various applications ranging from Sisyphus atom cooling to micro-particle trapping.%A model of an annular fiat-topped vortex beam based on multi-Gaussian superimposition is proposed. We experimentally produce this beam with a computer-generated hologram (CGH) displayed on a spatial light modulator (SLM). The power of the beam is concentrated on a single-ring structure and has an extremely strong radial intensity gradient. This beam facilitates various applications ranging from Sisyphus atom cooling to micro-particle trapping.

  18. Analysis of a Low-Angle Annular Expander Nozzle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyll Schomberg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental and numerical analysis of a low-angle annular expander nozzle is presented to observe the variance in shock structure within the flow field. A RANS-based axisymmetric numerical model was used to evaluate flow characteristics and the model validated using experimental pressure readings and schlieren images. Results were compared with an equivalent converging-diverging nozzle to determine the capability of the wake region in varying the effective area of a low-angle design. Comparison of schlieren images confirmed that shock closure occurred in the expander nozzle, prohibiting the wake region from affecting the area ratio. The findings show that a low angle of deflection is inherently unable to influence the effective area of an annular supersonic nozzle design.

  19. A research on the mechanisms of transition from annular flow in two-phase pipeline flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various kinds mechanisms of transitions from two-phase annular flow in tubes were studied and modelled, and the affection factors on the transitions were also discussed. Some mathematical equations and transition criteria for every mechanisms presented were derived, and an unified general criterion for the annular flow transitions in whole range of pipe inclinations was recommended. The boundaries predicted show good agreement with the air-water two-phase experimental data

  20. Large Eddy Simulation of ignition in an annular multi-injector combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicquelin, Ronan; Philip, Maxime; Boileau, Matthieu; Schmitt, Thomas; Bourgoin, Jean-François; Durox, Daniel; Candel, Sébastien

    2013-11-01

    The present work deals with validating the LES methodology for transient ignition simulations, and in particular elucidating the mechanisms that control the light round sequence in a laboratory annular combustor, representative of many practical industrial systems. The simulation benefits from the unique experimental database built at EM2C on a fully transparent annular chamber equipped with 16 premixed swirled injectors. The F-TACLES combustion model is used for its ability to properly represent the flame propagation.

  1. The numerical solution of flow field of short-annular combustion chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, H.; Ning, H.

    1986-05-01

    The recirculating flow field of a short-annular combustion chamber has been studied. The body-fitting coordinate system and the 'simple' method combined with a constant viscosity model have been employed to solve the Navier-Stokes equations in a regime containing a complicated curved boundary. The result could provide the theoretical reference for the design and improvement of short-annular combustion chambers.

  2. Mathematical modeling of gap junction coupling and electrical activity in human β-cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loppini, Alessandro; Braun, Matthias; Filippi, Simonetta; Gram Pedersen, Morten

    2015-12-01

    Coordinated insulin secretion is controlled by electrical coupling of pancreatic β-cells due to connexin-36 gap junctions. Gap junction coupling not only synchronizes the heterogeneous β-cell population, but can also modify the electrical behavior of the cells. These phenomena have been widely studied with mathematical models based on data from mouse β-cells. However, it is now known that human β-cell electrophysiology shows important differences to its rodent counterpart, and although human pancreatic islets express connexin-36 and show evidence of β-cell coupling, these aspects have been little investigated in human β-cells. Here we investigate theoretically, the gap junction coupling strength required for synchronizing electrical activity in a small cluster of cells simulated with a recent mathematical model of human β-cell electrophysiology. We find a lower limit for the coupling strength of approximately 20 pS (i.e., normalized to cell size, ˜2 pS pF-1) below which spiking electrical activity is asynchronous. To confront this theoretical lower bound with data, we use our model to estimate from an experimental patch clamp recording that the coupling strength is approximately 100-200 pS (10-20 pS pF-1), similar to previous estimates in mouse β-cells. We then investigate the role of gap junction coupling in synchronizing and modifying other forms of electrical activity in human β-cell clusters. We find that electrical coupling can prolong the period of rapid bursting electrical activity, and synchronize metabolically driven slow bursting, in particular when the metabolic oscillators are in phase. Our results show that realistic coupling conductances are sufficient to promote synchrony in small clusters of human β-cells as observed experimentally, and provide motivation for further detailed studies of electrical coupling in human pancreatic islets.

  3. Divergent Field Annular Ion Engine Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed work investigates an approach that would allow an annular ion engine geometry to achieve ion beam currents approaching the Child-Langmuir limit. In...

  4. A clinical study of annular cyclitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilita Michael Moschos

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Marilita Michael Moschos1, Yan Guex-Crosier2, Ioannis Margetis1, Leonidas Zografos21Department of Ophthalmology, University of Athens, Greece; 2Jules Gonin Eye Hospital, University of Lausanne, SwitzerlandPurpose: To investigate six cases of annular cyclitis.Methods: All patients with impairment of visual acuity underwent complete ophthalmologic examination, color fundus photography, laboratory tests and fluorescein angiography. Indocyanine green (ICG angiography and B-scan ultrasonography were also performed in three cases in order to diagnose the disease.Results: All patients presented a unilateral or bilateral granulomatous uveitis, associated with inflammatory annular cyclitis. They had a shallow anterior chamber, a mildly elevated intraocular pressure (under 25 mm Hg and an annular serous retinal detachment. A resolution was observed after specific therapy associated with systemic prednisolone therapy and antiglaucomatous drops.Conclusion: This is the first description of an observational study of six patients with inflammatory annular cyclitis.Keywords: cyclitis, uveitis, malignant glaucoma

  5. Modeling of air-gap membrane distillation process: A theoretical and experimental study

    KAUST Repository

    Alsaadi, Ahmad Salem

    2013-06-03

    A one dimensional (1-D) air gap membrane distillation (AGMD) model for flat sheet type modules has been developed. This model is based on mathematical equations that describe the heat and mass transfer mechanisms of a single-stage AGMD process. It can simulate AGMD modules in both co-current and counter-current flow regimes. The theoretical model was validated using AGMD experimental data obtained under different operating conditions and parameters. The predicted water vapor flux was compared to the flux measured at five different feed water temperatures, two different feed water salinities, three different air gap widths and two MD membranes with different average pore sizes. This comparison showed that the model flux predictions are strongly correlated with the experimental data, with model predictions being within +10% of the experimentally determined values. The model was then used to study and analyze the parameters that have significant effect on scaling-up the AGMD process such as the effect of increasing the membrane length, and feed and coolant flow rates. The model was also used to analyze the maximum thermal efficiency of the AGMD process by tracing changes in water production rate and the heat input to the process along the membrane length. This was used to understand the gain in both process production and thermal efficiency for different membrane surface areas and the resultant increases in process capital and water unit cost. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  6. Adaptive optics scanning ophthalmoscopy with annular pupils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulai, Yusufu N; Dubra, Alfredo

    2012-07-01

    Annular apodization of the illumination and/or imaging pupils of an adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscope (AOSLO) for improving transverse resolution was evaluated using three different normalized inner radii (0.26, 0.39 and 0.52). In vivo imaging of the human photoreceptor mosaic at 0.5 and 10° from fixation indicates that the use of an annular illumination pupil and a circular imaging pupil provides the most benefit of all configurations when using a one Airy disk diameter pinhole, in agreement with the paraxial confocal microscopy theory. Annular illumination pupils with 0.26 and 0.39 normalized inner radii performed best in terms of the narrowing of the autocorrelation central lobe (between 7 and 12%), and the increase in manual and automated photoreceptor counts (8 to 20% more cones and 11 to 29% more rods). It was observed that the use of annular pupils with large inner radii can result in multi-modal cone photoreceptor intensity profiles. The effect of the annular masks on the average photoreceptor intensity is consistent with the Stiles-Crawford effect (SCE). This indicates that combinations of images of the same photoreceptors with different apodization configurations and/or annular masks can be used to distinguish cones from rods, even when the former have complex multi-modal intensity profiles. In addition to narrowing the point spread function transversally, the use of annular apodizing masks also elongates it axially, a fact that can be used for extending the depth of focus of techniques such as adaptive optics optical coherence tomography (AOOCT). Finally, the positive results from this work suggest that annular pupil apodization could be used in refractive or catadioptric adaptive optics ophthalmoscopes to mitigate undesired back-reflections.

  7. A Study on the Factors Influencing the Income Gap between Urban and Rural Areas Based on State-space Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaofang; ZOU; Xueqin; JIANG

    2014-01-01

    The increasingly widening income gap between urban and rural areas is affected by many factors. Using the stepwise regression analysis,we find that urbanization level,socio-economic development,education level,financial development scale and financial development efficiency have the greatest impact on the income gap between urban and rural areas. By cointegration test,it is found that there is a long-term equilibrium relationship between these five variables and the income gap between urban and rural areas. We build the state-space model to research the dynamic impact of these factors on the income gap between urban and rural areas. The results show that by improving the level of urbanization,we can effectively narrow the income gap between urban and rural areas,while socio-economic development,the improvement of education level,expansion of financial development scale and financial development efficiency all significantly expand the income gap between urban and rural areas.

  8. Gap anisotropy of layered cuprates in the framework of a correlated hopping model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donkov, Alexander A.; Mishonov, Todor M.

    1997-04-01

    The superconductivity of the conducting CuO2plane of the layered cuprates is considered in the framework of a two-dimensional (2D) tight-binding model which contains O2pσand Cu3dx2 - y2states. Besides the standard LCAO amplitudes the correlated hopping between O2pσand Cu3dx2 - y2orbitals is also considered. The fact that the conduction band is mainly oxygen like and that the one electron hopping between next nearest neighbours (NNN) oxygen ions is relatively smaller then the nearest neighbours (NN) hopping between NN Cu and O ions is taken into account. The equations for the superconducting gap are derived. It is shown that such a choice of the orbitals leads to as-type superconducting gap, which is in qualitative agreement with data for strongly irradiated samples. It is briefly discussed that the addition to the Emery model of the Cu4sorbital could lead to ad-type gap in agreement with the π-shift of the Josephson effect and location of Δ(p) zeroes by recent ARPES data.

  9. Fluid-Structure Interaction Analysis on Turbulent Annular Seals of Centrifugal Pumps during Transient Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinglei Jiang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The current paper studies the influence of annular seal flow on the transient response of centrifugal pump rotors during the start-up period. A single rotor system and three states of annular seal flow were modeled. These models were solved using numerical integration and finite difference methods. A fluid-structure interaction method was developed. In each time step one of the three annular seal models was chosen to simulate the annular seal flow according to the state of rotor systems. The objective was to obtain a transient response of rotor systems under the influence of fluid-induced forces generated by annular seal flow. This method overcomes some shortcomings of the traditional FSI method by improving the data transfer process between two domains. Calculated results were in good agreement with the experimental results. The annular seal was shown to have a supportive effect on rotor systems. Furthermore, decreasing the seal clearance would enhance this supportive effect. In the transient process, vibration amplitude and critical speed largely changed when the acceleration of the rotor system increased.

  10. How the Human Capital Model Explains Why the Gender Wage Gap Narrowed

    OpenAIRE

    Solomon W. Polachek

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores secular changes in women?s pay relative to men?s pay. It shows how the human capital model predicts a smaller gender wage gap as male-female lifetime work expectations become more similar. The model explains why relative female wages rose almost unabated from 1890 to the early-1990s in the United States (with the exception of about 1940-1980), and why this relative wage growth tapered off since 1993. In addition to the US, the paper presents evidence from nine other countr...

  11. Bridging the Gap between Mesoscopic and Macroscopic Models: The Case of Multicellular Tumor Spheroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delsanto, P. P.; Griffa, M.; Condat, C. A.; Delsanto, S.; Morra, L.

    2005-04-01

    Multicellular tumor spheroids are valuable experimental tools in cancer research. By introducing an intermediate model, we have been able to successfully relate mesoscopic and macroscopic descriptions of spheroid growth. Since these descriptions stem from completely different roots (cell dynamics, and energy conservation and scaling arguments, respectively), their consistency validates both approaches and allows us to establish a direct correspondence between parameters characterizing processes occurring at different scales. Our approach may find applications as an example of bridging the gap between models at different scale levels in other contexts.

  12. Energy and Exergy Analysis of an Annular Thermoelectric Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, S. C.; Manikandan, S.; Hans, Ranjana

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, the concept of an annular thermoelectric heat pump (ATEHP) has been introduced. An exoreversible thermodynamic model of the ATEHP considering the Thomson effect in conjunction with Peltier, Joule and Fourier heat conduction has been investigated using exergy analysis. New expressions for dimensionless heating power, optimum current at the maximum energy, exergy efficiency conditions and dimensionless irreversibilities in the ATEHP are derived. The results show that the heating power, energy and exergy efficiency of the ATEHP are lower than the flat-plate thermoelectric heat pump. The effects of annular shape parameter ( S r = r 2 /r 1), dimensionless temperature ratio ( θ = T h /T c) and the electrical contact resistances on the heating power, energy/exergy efficiency of an ATEHP have been studied. This study will help in the designing of actual ATEHP systems.

  13. A generation/recombination model assisted with two trap centers in wide band-gap semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Ken; Kuwabara, Takuhito; Uda, Tsuyoshi

    2013-03-01

    A generation/recombination (GR) model assisted with two trap centers has been proposed for studying reverse current on pn junctions in wide band-gap semiconductors. A level (Et1) has been assumed to be located near the bottom of the conduction band and the other (Et2) to be near the top of the valence band. The GR model has been developed by assuming (1) a high-electric field; F, (2) a short distance; d, between trap centers, (3) reduction in an energy-difference; Δeff = |Et1 - Et2| - eFd, and (4) hopping or tunneling conductions between trap centers with the same energy-level (Δeff ≈ 0). The GR rate has been modeled by trap levels, capture cross-sections, trap densities, and transition rate between trap centers. The GR rate, about 1010 greater than that estimated from the single-level model, has been predicted on pn junctions in a material with band-gap of 3.1 eV. Device simulations using the proposed GR model have been demonstrated for SiC diodes with and without a guard ring. A reasonable range for reverse current at room temperature has been simulated and stable convergence has been obtained in a numerical scheme for analyzing diodes with an electrically floating region.

  14. The gap probability model for canopy thermal infrared emission with non-scattering approximation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛铮; 柳钦火; 高彦春; 张庆员; 王长耀

    2000-01-01

    To describe canopy emitting thermal radiance precisely and physically is one of the key researches in retrieving land surface temperature (LSI) over vegetation-covered regions by remote sensing technology. This work is aimed at establishing gap probability models to describe the thermal emission characteristics in continuous plant, including the basic model and the sunlit model. They are suitable respectively in the nighttime and in the daytime. The sunlit model is the basic model plus a sunlit correcting item which takes the hot spot effect into account. The researches on the directional distribution of radiance and its relationship to canopy structural parameters, such as the leaf area index (LAI) and leaf angle distribution (LAD), were focused. The characteristics of directional radiance caused by temperature differences among components in canopy, such as those between leaf and soil, and between sunlit leaf or soil and shadowed leaf or soil, were analyzed. A well fitting between experimental data an

  15. Experimental verification of the flow characteristics of an active controlled microfluidic valve with annular boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chun-Peng; Wang, Dai-Hua

    2014-03-01

    The principle and structural configuration of an active controlled microfluidic valve with annular boundary is presented in this paper. The active controlled flowrate model of the active controlled microfluidic valve with annular boundary is established. The prototypes of the active controlled microfluidic valves with annular boundaries with three different combinations of the inner and outer radii are fabricated and tested on the established experimental setup. The experimental results show that: (1) The active controlled microfluidic valve with annular boundary possesses the on/off switching and the continuous control capability of the fluid with simple structure and easy fabrication processing; (2) When the inner and outer diameters of the annular boundary are 1.5 mm and 3.5 mm, respectively, the maximum flowrate of the valve is 0.14 ml/s when the differential pressure of the inlet and outlet of the valve is 1000 Pa and the voltage applied to circular piezoelectric unimorph actuator is 100 V; (3) The established active controlled flowrate model can accurately predict the controlled flowrate of the active controlled microfluidic valves with the maximum relative error of 6.7%. The results presented in this paper lay the foundation for designing and developing the active controlled microfluidic valves with annular boundary driven by circular piezoelectric unimorph actuators.

  16. Numerical modelling of Mars supersonic disk-gap-band parachute inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xinglong; Zhang, Qingbin; Tang, Qiangang

    2016-06-01

    The transient dynamic behaviour of supersonic disk-gap-band parachutes in a Mars entry environment involving fluid structure interactions is studied. Based on the multi-material Arbitrary Lagrange-Euler method, the coupling dynamic model between a viscous compressible fluid and a flexible large deformation structure of the parachute is solved. The inflation performance of a parachute with a fixed forebody under different flow conditions is analysed. The decelerating parameters of the parachute, including drag area, opening loads, and coefficients, are obtained from the supersonic wind tunnel test data from NASA. Meanwhile, the evolution of the three-dimensional shape of the disk-gap-band parachute during supersonic inflation is presented, and the structural dynamic behaviour of the parachute is predicted. Then, the influence of the presence of the capsule on the flow field of the parachute is investigated, and the wake of unsteady fluid and the distribution of shock wave around the supersonic parachute are presented. Finally, the structural dynamic response of the canopy fabric under high-pressure conditions is comparatively analysed. The results show that the disk-gap-band parachute is well inflated without serious collapse. As the Mach numbers increase from 2.0 to 2.5, the drag coefficients gradually decrease, along with a small decrease in inflation time, which corresponds with test results, and proves the validity of the method proposed in this paper.

  17. Trends in Education Excellence Gaps: A 12-Year International Perspective via the Multilevel Model for Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowski, David; Rutkowski, Leslie; Plucker, Jonathan A.

    2012-01-01

    A recent study in the USA documented the existence and growth of "excellence gaps" among students. These gaps are similar to the minimum competency achievement gaps that proliferate in policy discussions in many Western countries, but excellence gaps focus on the highest level of achievement rather than minimum competency. We extend this research…

  18. Annular electron beam production on gamble II using a magnetically insulated splitter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annular electron beams have been tested using a post-hole convolute or magnetically insulated splitter (MIS) to feed current to both sides of a ring cathode. Beams were produced on the BLACKJACK 3 generator using a coaxial feed and from BLACKJACK 5 with a triplate feed. On BLACKJACK 3, annular cathodes with 5 cm and 10 cm mean diameters were tested. The cathodes were fed in four places by a MIS. The cathodes were 1.2 cm wide made from stainless steel or brass. Typical anode/cathode gap spacings were 0.6 cm. Experiments were performed at power levels of about 0.6 TW and energies of 30-40 kJ. Typical voltages were 0:6-1 MV with currents of about 0.8 MA. Diagnostics were diode voltage, diode current, and an X-ray pinhole camera. For the 10 cm cathode, current was measured before and after the MIS. The current on each side of the ring was measured separately. The beam voltage was determined from the diode voltage by an inductive correction. The annular beams had a linear current density of about 30 kA/cm and about 60 kA/cm for the 10 cm and 5 cm, respectively. The beam diameter at the cathode could be varied by changing the inductance on each side of the ring cathode and thereby the current balance. The impedance behavior could be modeled using the critical current formulation with a closure velocity of 3.5-4.5 cm/us. The BLACKJACK 5 geometry was a triplate feed. The ring cathode was fed by generators of 0.5 and 0.75 Ω, respectively. The MIS was used to combine the power before the cathode. The cathode had a mean diameter of 25 cm and width of 1.5-3 cm. Experiments were performed at power levels up to about6 TW and energies greater than or equal to200 kJ. Typical operating parameters were about 2 MV and 3 MA

  19. GAPPARD: a computationally efficient method of approximating gap-scale disturbance in vegetation models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Scherstjanoi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Models of vegetation dynamics that are designed for application at spatial scales larger than individual forest gaps suffer from several limitations. Typically, either a population average approximation is used that results in unrealistic tree allometry and forest stand structure, or models have a high computational demand because they need to simulate both a series of age-based cohorts and a number of replicate patches to account for stochastic gap-scale disturbances. The detail required by the latter method increases the number of calculations by two to three orders of magnitude compared to the less realistic population average approach. In an effort to increase the efficiency of dynamic vegetation models without sacrificing realism, we developed a new method for simulating stand-replacing disturbances that is both accurate and faster than approaches that use replicate patches. The GAPPARD (approximating GAP model results with a Probabilistic Approach to account for stand Replacing Disturbances method works by postprocessing the output of deterministic, undisturbed simulations of a cohort-based vegetation model by deriving the distribution of patch ages at any point in time on the basis of a disturbance probability. With this distribution, the expected value of any output variable can be calculated from the output values of the deterministic undisturbed run at the time corresponding to the patch age. To account for temporal changes in model forcing (e.g., as a result of climate change, GAPPARD performs a series of deterministic simulations and interpolates between the results in the postprocessing step. We integrated the GAPPARD method in the vegetation model LPJ-GUESS, and evaluated it in a series of simulations along an altitudinal transect of an inner-Alpine valley. We obtained results very similar to the output of the original LPJ-GUESS model that uses 100 replicate patches, but simulation time was reduced by approximately the factor 10

  20. Droplet sizes, dynamics and deposition in vertical annular flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of droplets in vertical upwards annular flow is investigated, focusing on the droplet size distributions, dynamics, and deposition phenomena. An experimental program was performed based on a new laser optical technique developed in these laboratories and implemented here for annular flow. This permitted the simultaneous measurement of droplet size, axial and radial velocity. The dependence of droplet size distributions on flow conditions is analyzed. The Upper-Log Normal function proves to be a good model for the size distribution. The mechanism controlling the maximum stable drop size was found to result from the interaction of the pressure fluctuations of the turbulent flow of the gas core with the droplet. The average axial droplet velocity showed a weak dependence on gas rates. This can be explained once the droplet size distribution and droplet size-velocity relationship are analyzed simultaneously. The surprising result from the droplet conditional analysis is that larger droplet travel faster than smaller ones. This dependence cannot be explained if the drag curves used do not take into account the high levels of turbulence present in the gas core in annular flow. If these are considered, then interesting new situations of multiplicity and stability of droplet terminal velocities are encountered. Also, the observed size-velocity relationship can be explained. A droplet deposition is formulated based on the particle inertia control. This permitted the calculation of rates of drop deposition directly from the droplet size and velocities data

  1. Microscopic theoretical model study of band gap opening in AA-stacked bi-layer graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Sivabrata; Parashar, S. K. S.; Rout, G. C.

    2016-05-01

    We address here a tight-binding theoretical model calculation for AA-stacked bi-layer graphene taking into account of a biased potential between two layers to study the density of states and the band dispersion within the total Brillouin zone. We have calculated the electronic Green's function for electron operator corresponding to A and B sub lattices by Zubarev's Green's function technique from which the electronic density of states and the electron band energy dispersion are calculated. The numerically computed density of states and band energy dispersions are investigated by tuning the biased potential to exhibit the band gap by varying the different physical parameters.

  2. Modelling of the negative discharge in long air gaps under impulse voltages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakotonandrasana, J H; Beroual, A [Ecole Centrale de Lyon, Laboratoire AMPERE UMR CNRS 5005, 69134 Ecully Cedex (France); Fofana, I [Universite of Quebec at Chicoutimi, 555, Boulevard de l' Universite, G7H 2B1, Chicoutimi, QC (Canada)

    2008-05-21

    This paper presents a self-consistent model enabling the description of the whole negative discharge sequence, initiated in long air gaps under impulse voltage waves. This sequence includes the different phases of the propagation such as the initiation of the first corona, the pilot leader, the electrode and space leaders, and their junction. The model consists of using a RLC equivalent electrical network, the parameters of which vary with time according to the discharge characteristics and geometry (R, L and C being, respectively, the resistance, the inductance and the capacitance). This model provides the spatial and temporal evolution of the entire discharge, the current and the corresponding electrical charge, the power and energy injected into the gap and the velocity. It also allows us to simulate an image converter working in streak or frame mode and the leader propagation velocities as well as the trajectory of the discharge obtained from a probabilistic distribution. The computed results are compared with experimental data. Good agreement between computed and experimental results was obtained for various test configurations.

  3. Analytical modeling of open-Circuit air-Gap field distributions in multisegment and multilayer interior permanent-magnet machines

    OpenAIRE

    L. Zhu; Jiang, S. Z.; Zhu, Z Q; Chan, C. C.

    2009-01-01

    We present a simple lumped magnetic circuit model for interior permanent-magnet (IPM) machines with multisegment and multilayer permanent magnets. We derived analytically the open-circuit air-gap field distribution, average air-gap flux density, and leakage fluxes. To verify the developed models and analytical method, we adopted finite-element analysis (FEA). We show that for prototype machines, the errors between the FEA and analytically predicted results are $≪$1% for multisegment IPM machi...

  4. A model describing the pressure dependence of the band gap energy for the group III-V semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chuan-Zhen; Wei, Tong; Sun, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Sha-Sha; Lu, Ke-Qing

    2016-08-01

    A model describing the pressure dependence of the band gap energy for the group III-V semiconductors has been developed. It is found that the model describes the pressure dependence of the band gap energy very well. It is also found that, although the pressure dependence of the band gap energy for both the conventional III-V semiconductors and the dilute nitride alloys can be described well by the model in this work, the physical mechanisms for them are different. In addition, the influence of the nonlinear compression of the lattice on the band gap energy is smaller than that of the coupling interaction between the N level and the conduction band minimum of the host material.

  5. Calibration of a fuel-to-cladding gap conductance model for fast reactor fuel pins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, R.B.

    1978-05-01

    The report presents refined methods for calculation of fuel temperatures in PuO/sub 2/-UO/sub 2/ fuel in Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) fuel pins. Of primary concern is the calculation of the temperature changes across the fuel-to-cladding gap of pins with fuel burnups that range from 60 to 10,900 MWd/MTM (0.006 to 1.12 at.%). Described in particular are: (1) a proposed set of heat transfer formulations and corresponding material properties for modeling radial heat transfer through the fuel and cladding; and (2) the calibration of a fuel-to-cladding gap conductance model, as part of a thermal performance computer code (SIEX-M1) which incorporates the proposed heat transfer expressions, using integral thermal performance data from two unique in-reactor experiments. The test data used are from the HEDL P-19 and P-20 experiments which were irradiated in the Experimental Breeder Reactor Number Two (EBR-II), for the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL).

  6. Gap Analysis to Support Modeling the Long-Term Degradation of Used Nuclear Fuel Canisters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Philip J.; Sunderland, Dion J.; Ross, Steven B.; Montgomery, Robert O.; Hanson, Brady D.; Devanathan, Ram

    2015-04-01

    Welded stainless steel canisters are being used worldwide for dry storage of used nuclear fuel (UNF) assemblies, and the number of canisters in use is steadily increasing. In support of work currently being pursued at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to understand the atmospheric corrosion behavior of spent fuel dry storage systems, a gap analysis is underway to assess the state of knowledge for modeling of the long-term degradation of a UNF canister. The fundamental aim of this work is to inform research and development (R&D) efforts to establish a sound technical basis to support the extended dry storage of UNF for 100+ years. The analysis is considering all major components of the atmosphere corrosion degradation processes, ranging from contaminant sources and climatic interactions to regional conditions of particle transport and deposition, to microscale effects leading to stress corrosion cracking. The results of this gap analysis will be used to define the R&D pathway to develop an integrated multi-scale atmospheric corrosion modeling capability for UNF in dry storage canisters that can support the safe and reliable performance of these structures for more than 100 years.

  7. Band gap engineering in finite elongated graphene nanoribbon heterojunctions: Tight-binding model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tayo, Benjamin O. [Physics Department, Pittsburg State University, Pittsburg, KS 66762 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    A simple model based on the divide and conquer rule and tight-binding (TB) approximation is employed for studying the role of finite size effect on the electronic properties of elongated graphene nanoribbon (GNR) heterojunctions. In our model, the GNR heterojunction is divided into three parts: a left (L) part, middle (M) part, and right (R) part. The left part is a GNR of width W{sub L}, the middle part is a GNR of width W{sub M}, and the right part is a GNR of width W{sub R}. We assume that the left and right parts of the GNR heterojunction interact with the middle part only. Under this approximation, the Hamiltonian of the system can be expressed as a block tridiagonal matrix. The matrix elements of the tridiagonal matrix are computed using real space nearest neighbor orthogonal TB approximation. The electronic structure of the GNR heterojunction is analyzed by computing the density of states. We demonstrate that for heterojunctions for which W{sub L} = W{sub R}, the band gap of the system can be tuned continuously by varying the length of the middle part, thus providing a new approach to band gap engineering in GNRs. Our TB results were compared with calculations employing divide and conquer rule in combination with density functional theory (DFT) and were found to agree nicely.

  8. Annular bilayer magnetoelectric composites: theoretical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Mingsen; Dong, Shuxiang

    2010-01-01

    The laminated bilayer magnetoelectric (ME) composites consist of magnetostrictive and piezoelectric layers are known to have giant ME coefficient due to the high coupling efficiency in bending mode. In our previous report, the bar-shaped bilayer composite has been investigated by using a magnetoelectric-coupling equivalent circuit. Here, we propose an annular bilayer ME composite, which consists of magnetostrictive and piezoelectric rings. This composite has a much lower resonance frequency of bending mode compared with its radial mode. In addition, the annular bilayer ME composite is expected to respond to vortex magnetic field as well as unidirectional magnetic field. In this paper, we investigate the annular bilayer ME composite by using impedance-matrix method and predict the ME coefficients as a function of geometric parameters of the composites. PMID:20178914

  9. Numerical simulation of a viscoelastic flow through a concentric annular with BSD scheme, influence of the Deborah number; Simulacao numerica do escoamento laminar de fluido viscoelastico PTT (Phan-Thien-Tanner) em tubo anular concentrico - influencia do numero de Deborah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Ambros, Alder C.; Vitorassi, Pedro H.; Franco, Admilson T.; Morales, Rigoberto E.M. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Matins, Andre Leibsohn [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES). Tecnologia de Engenharia de Perfuracao

    2008-07-01

    The success of oil well drilling process depends on the correct prediction of the velocities and stresses fields inside the gap between the drill string and the rock formation. Using CFD is possible to predict the behavior of the drilling fluid flow along the annular space, from the bottom to the top of the well. Commonly the drilling fluid is modeled as a Herschel-Bulkley fluid. An alternative is to employ a non-linear viscoelastic model, like the one developed by Phan-Thien-Tanner (PTT). In the present work the PTT constitutive equation is used to model the drilling fluid flow along the annular space. Thus, this work investigates the influence of the Deborah number on the laminar flow pattern through the numerical solution of the equations formed by the coupled velocity-pressure-stress fields. The results are analyzed and validated against the analytical solution for the fully developed annular pipe flow. The relation between the Deborah number (De) and the entry length is investigated, along with the influence of high values of Deborah number on the friction factor, stress and velocity fields. (author)

  10. Stitching algorithm for annular subaperture interferometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi Hou; Fan Wu; Li Yang; Shibin Wu; Qiang Chen

    2006-01-01

    @@ Annular subaperture interferometry (ASI) has been developed for low cost and flexible test of rotationally symmetric aspheric surfaces, in which accurately combining the subaperture measurement data corrupted by misalignments and noise into a complete surface figure is the key problem. By introducing the Zernike annular polynomials which are orthogonal over annulus, a method that eliminates the coupling problem in the earlier algorithm based on Zernike circle polynomials is proposed. Vector-matrix notation is used to simplify the description and calculations. The performance of this reduction method is evaluated by numerical simulation. The results prove this method with high precision and good anti-noise capability.

  11. Information Reference Models for European Pork Supply Networks - Identifying Gaps in Information Infrastructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, Richard J.; Hermansen, John Erik; Fritz, Melanie;

    2011-01-01

    Several global developments such as diminishing production resources, limits in the availability of water and the growing demand for bio-energy as well as sector-wide crises (e.g. BSE, swine fever, dioxin) have led to a changing attitude of society towards the conse-quences of the food system‘s...... models for European pork supply networks, which give an aggregated overview about information availability and exchange in the pork sector, identify additional information demands of decision makers at different stages of pork production, and identify gaps in the existing information infrastructure....... The models support different parties involved in pork production, such as enterprises, system developers and consultants, in developing enterprise or network specific solutions....

  12. FRANCO, Finite Element Method (FEM) Fuel Rod Analysis for Solid and Annular Configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of program or function: The FRANCO code is a quasi- static two-dimensional fuel rod analysis code, that calculates the fuel temperature and material deformation as a function of heat generation rate. Both solid and annular fuel configurations are modeled. 2 - Method of solution: FRANCO uses two-dimensional finite element theory and applications for mechanical deformation and heat conduction, and determines the temperature distribution from the fuel center to the coolant adjacent to the clad at a position along the fuel rod axis. FRANCO calculates the average temperature of each radial division, the nodal displacement, and strain and stress within the fuel pellet and clad. The principal stresses, which represent maximum and minimum stresses within an element, result from Mohr's circle relationship between normal stresses. FRANCO is capable of predicting the thermo-mechanical behavior in the radial direction of a single fuel rod for both boiling water reactors (BWR's) and pressurized water reactors (PWR's). The cross sectional plane geometry of fuel rod is modeled using three-node constant strain triangular finite elements, and both thermal and mechanical solutions are computed with the same finite element configurations. The local linear heat generation rate is modeled as a uniform heat source in a fuel pellet, and the coolant temperature and heat transfer coefficient are applied as known boundary conditions at the boundary of the cladding surface. The total load to form the global force vector consists of the thermal load that results from thermal expansion of the material and the mechanical load exerted by pressure. FRANCO assumes the fuel-cladding gap region to be conductive material in order to simplify the analysis, and this gap is simulated by either an open gap or a closed gap model. A time- dependent problem can be simulated by FRANCO using quasi-static analysis when time-dependent parameters are provided. FRANCO can treat a steady-state or

  13. Cell motility in models of wounded human skin is improved by Gap27 despite raised glucose, insulin and IGFBP-5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reducing Cx43 expression stimulates skin wound healing. This is mimicked in models when Cx43 function is blocked by the connexin mimetic peptide Gap27. IGF-I also stimulates wound healing with IGFBP-5 attenuating its actions. Further, the IGF-I to IGFBP-5 ratio is altered in diabetic skin, where wound closure is impaired. We investigated whether Gap27 remains effective in augmenting scrape-wound closure in human skin wound models simulating diabetes-induced changes, using culture conditions with raised glucose, insulin and IGFBP-5. Gap27 increased scrape-wound closure in normal glucose and insulin (NGI) and to a lesser extent in high glucose and insulin (HGI). IGF-I enhanced scrape-wound closure in keratinocytes whereas IGFBP-5 inhibited this response. Gap27 overcame the inhibitory effects of IGFBP-5 on IGF-I activity. Connexin-mediated communication (CMC) was reduced in HGI, despite raised Cx43, and Gap27 significantly decreased CMC in NGI and HGI. IGF-I and IGFBP-5 did not affect CMC. IGF-I increased keratinocyte proliferation in NGI, and Gap27 increased proliferation in NGI to a greater extent than in HGI. We conclude that IGF-I and Gap27 stimulate scrape-wound closure by independent mechanisms with Gap27 inhibiting Cx43 function. Gap27 can enhance wound closure in diabetic conditions, irrespective of the IGF-I:IGFBP-5 balance. - Highlights: ► Human organotypic and keratinocyte ‘diabetic’ skin models were used to demonstrate the ability of Gap27 to improve scrape-wound closure. ► Gap27 enhanced scrape-wound closure by reducing Cx43-mediated communication, whereas IGFBP-5 retarded cell migration. ► IGF-I and IGFBP-5 did not affect connexin-mediated pathways. ► Gap27 can override altered glucose, insulin, IGF-I, and IGFBP-5 in ‘diabetic’ skin models and thus has therapeutic potential

  14. The spectral gap of the 2-D stochastic Ising model with nearly single-spin boundary conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander, Kenneth S.

    2000-01-01

    We establish upper bounds for the spectral gap of the stochastic Ising model at low temperature in an N-by-N box, with boundary conditions which are ``plus'' except for small regions at the corners which are either free or ``minus.'' The spectral gap decreases exponentially in the size of the corner regions, when these regions are of size at least of order \\log N. This means that removing as few as O(\\log N) plus spins from the corners produces a spectral gap far smaller than the order N^{-2}...

  15. Cell motility in models of wounded human skin is improved by Gap27 despite raised glucose, insulin and IGFBP-5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Catherine S.; Berends, Rebecca F. [Department of Life Sciences, School of Health and Life Sciences, Glasgow Caledonian University, 70 Cowcaddens Road, Glasgow G4 0BA (United Kingdom); Flint, David J. [Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Strathclyde, 161 Cathedral Street, Glasgow G4 0RE (United Kingdom); Martin, Patricia E.M., E-mail: Patricia.Martin@gcu.ac.uk [Department of Life Sciences, School of Health and Life Sciences, Glasgow Caledonian University, 70 Cowcaddens Road, Glasgow G4 0BA (United Kingdom)

    2013-02-15

    Reducing Cx43 expression stimulates skin wound healing. This is mimicked in models when Cx43 function is blocked by the connexin mimetic peptide Gap27. IGF-I also stimulates wound healing with IGFBP-5 attenuating its actions. Further, the IGF-I to IGFBP-5 ratio is altered in diabetic skin, where wound closure is impaired. We investigated whether Gap27 remains effective in augmenting scrape-wound closure in human skin wound models simulating diabetes-induced changes, using culture conditions with raised glucose, insulin and IGFBP-5. Gap27 increased scrape-wound closure in normal glucose and insulin (NGI) and to a lesser extent in high glucose and insulin (HGI). IGF-I enhanced scrape-wound closure in keratinocytes whereas IGFBP-5 inhibited this response. Gap27 overcame the inhibitory effects of IGFBP-5 on IGF-I activity. Connexin-mediated communication (CMC) was reduced in HGI, despite raised Cx43, and Gap27 significantly decreased CMC in NGI and HGI. IGF-I and IGFBP-5 did not affect CMC. IGF-I increased keratinocyte proliferation in NGI, and Gap27 increased proliferation in NGI to a greater extent than in HGI. We conclude that IGF-I and Gap27 stimulate scrape-wound closure by independent mechanisms with Gap27 inhibiting Cx43 function. Gap27 can enhance wound closure in diabetic conditions, irrespective of the IGF-I:IGFBP-5 balance. - Highlights: ► Human organotypic and keratinocyte ‘diabetic’ skin models were used to demonstrate the ability of Gap27 to improve scrape-wound closure. ► Gap27 enhanced scrape-wound closure by reducing Cx43-mediated communication, whereas IGFBP-5 retarded cell migration. ► IGF-I and IGFBP-5 did not affect connexin-mediated pathways. ► Gap27 can override altered glucose, insulin, IGF-I, and IGFBP-5 in ‘diabetic’ skin models and thus has therapeutic potential.

  16. Sodium fast reactor gaps analysis of computer codes and models for accident analysis and reactor safety.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbajo, Juan (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Jeong, Hae-Yong (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon, Korea); Wigeland, Roald (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID); Corradini, Michael (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Schmidt, Rodney Cannon; Thomas, Justin (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Wei, Tom (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Sofu, Tanju (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Ludewig, Hans (Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY); Tobita, Yoshiharu (Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki-ken, Japan); Ohshima, Hiroyuki (Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki-ken, Japan); Serre, Frederic (Centre d' %C3%94etudes nucl%C3%94eaires de Cadarache %3CU%2B2013%3E CEA, France)

    2011-06-01

    This report summarizes the results of an expert-opinion elicitation activity designed to qualitatively assess the status and capabilities of currently available computer codes and models for accident analysis and reactor safety calculations of advanced sodium fast reactors, and identify important gaps. The twelve-member panel consisted of representatives from five U.S. National Laboratories (SNL, ANL, INL, ORNL, and BNL), the University of Wisconsin, the KAERI, the JAEA, and the CEA. The major portion of this elicitation activity occurred during a two-day meeting held on Aug. 10-11, 2010 at Argonne National Laboratory. There were two primary objectives of this work: (1) Identify computer codes currently available for SFR accident analysis and reactor safety calculations; and (2) Assess the status and capability of current US computer codes to adequately model the required accident scenarios and associated phenomena, and identify important gaps. During the review, panel members identified over 60 computer codes that are currently available in the international community to perform different aspects of SFR safety analysis for various event scenarios and accident categories. A brief description of each of these codes together with references (when available) is provided. An adaptation of the Predictive Capability Maturity Model (PCMM) for computational modeling and simulation is described for use in this work. The panel's assessment of the available US codes is presented in the form of nine tables, organized into groups of three for each of three risk categories considered: anticipated operational occurrences (AOOs), design basis accidents (DBA), and beyond design basis accidents (BDBA). A set of summary conclusions are drawn from the results obtained. At the highest level, the panel judged that current US code capabilities are adequate for licensing given reasonable margins, but expressed concern that US code development activities had stagnated and that the

  17. Optimal Thrust Vectoring for an Annular Aerospike Nozzle Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Recent success of an annular aerospike flight test by NASA Dryden has prompted keen interest in providing thrust vector capability to the annular aerospike nozzle...

  18. The gap probability model for canopy thermal infrared emission with non-scattering approximation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    To describe canopy emitting thermal radiance precisely and physically is one of the key researches in retrieving land surface temperature (LST) over vegetation-covered regions by remote sensing technology.This work is aimed at establishing gap probability models to describe the thermal emission characteristics in continuous plant,including the basic model and the sunlit model.They are suitable respectively in the nighttime and in the daytime.The sunlit model is the basic model plus a sunlit correcting item which takes the hot spot effect into account.The researches on the directional distribution of radiance and its relationship to canopy structural parameters,such as the leaf area index (LAI) and leaf angle distribution (LAD),were focused.The characteristics of directional radiance caused by temperature differences among components in canopy,such as those between leaf and soil,and between sunlit leaf or soil and shadowed leaf or soil,were analyzed.A well fitting between experimental data and the theoretical calculations shows that the models are able to illustrate the canopy thermal emission generally.

  19. Prediction model of band gap for inorganic compounds by combination of density functional theory calculations and machine learning techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joohwi; Seko, Atsuto; Shitara, Kazuki; Nakayama, Keita; Tanaka, Isao

    2016-03-01

    Machine learning techniques are applied to make prediction models of the G0W0 band gaps for 270 inorganic compounds using Kohn-Sham (KS) band gaps, cohesive energy, crystalline volume per atom, and other fundamental information of constituent elements as predictors. Ordinary least squares regression (OLSR), least absolute shrinkage and selection operator, and nonlinear support vector regression (SVR) methods are applied with two levels of predictor sets. When the KS band gap by generalized gradient approximation of Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) or modified Becke-Johnson (mBJ) is used as a single predictor, the OLSR model predicts the G0W0 band gap of randomly selected test data with the root-mean-square error (RMSE) of 0.59 eV. When KS band gap by PBE and mBJ methods are used together with a set of predictors representing constituent elements and compounds, the RMSE decreases significantly. The best model by SVR yields the RMSE of 0.24 eV. Band gaps estimated in this way should be useful as predictors for virtual screening of a large set of materials.

  20. Calibrating and testing a gap model for simulating forest management in the Oregon Coast Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabst, R.J.; Goslin, M.N.; Garman, S.L.; Spies, T.A.

    2008-01-01

    The complex mix of economic and ecological objectives facing today's forest managers necessitates the development of growth models with a capacity for simulating a wide range of forest conditions while producing outputs useful for economic analyses. We calibrated the gap model ZELIG to simulate stand-level forest development in the Oregon Coast Range as part of a landscape-scale assessment of different forest management strategies. Our goal was to incorporate the predictive ability of an empirical model with the flexibility of a forest succession model. We emphasized the development of commercial-aged stands of Douglas-fir, the dominant tree species in the study area and primary source of timber. In addition, we judged that the ecological approach of ZELIG would be robust to the variety of other forest conditions and practices encountered in the Coast Range, including mixed-species stands, small-scale gap formation, innovative silvicultural methods, and reserve areas where forests grow unmanaged for long periods of time. We parameterized the model to distinguish forest development among two ecoregions, three forest types and two site productivity classes using three data sources: chronosequences of forest inventory data, long-term research data, and simulations from an empirical growth-and-yield model. The calibrated model was tested with independent, long-term measurements from 11 Douglas-fir plots (6 unthinned, 5 thinned), 3 spruce-hemlock plots, and 1 red alder plot. ZELIG closely approximated developmental trajectories of basal area and large trees in the Douglas-fir plots. Differences between simulated and observed conifer basal area for these plots ranged from -2.6 to 2.4 m2/ha; differences in the number of trees/ha ???50 cm dbh ranged from -8.8 to 7.3 tph. Achieving these results required the use of a diameter-growth multiplier, suggesting some underlying constraints on tree growth such as the temperature response function. ZELIG also tended to overestimate

  1. Azimuthally forced flames in an annular combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worth, Nicholas; Dawson, James; Mastorakos, Epaminondas

    2015-11-01

    Thermoacoustic instabilities are more likely to occur in lean burn combustion systems, making their adoption both difficult and costly. At present, our knowledge of such phenomena is insufficient to produce an inherently stable combustor by design, and therefore an improved understanding of these instabilities has become the focus of a significant research effort. Recent experimental and numerical studies have demonstrated that the symmetry of annular chambers permit a range of self-excited azimuthal modes to be generated in annular geometry, which can make the study of isolated modes difficult. While acoustic forcing is common in single flame experiments, no equivalent for forced azimuthal modes in an annular chamber have been demonstrated. The present investigation focuses on the novel application of acoustic forcing to a laboratory scale annular combustor, in order to generate azimuthal standing wave modes at a prescribed frequency and amplitude. The results focus on the ability of the method to isolate the mode of oscillation using experimental pressure and high speed OH* measurements. The successful excitation of azimuthal modes demonstrated represents an important step towards improving our fundamental understanding of this phenomena in practically relevant geometry.

  2. Annular beam with segmented phase gradients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubo Cheng

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available An annular beam with a single uniform-intensity ring and multiple segments of phase gradients is proposed in this paper. Different from the conventional superposed vortices, such as the modulated optical vortices and the collinear superposition of multiple orbital angular momentum modes, the designed annular beam has a doughnut intensity distribution whose radius is independent of the phase distribution of the beam in the imaging plane. The phase distribution along the circumference of the doughnut beam can be segmented with different phase gradients. Similar to a vortex beam, the annular beam can also exert torques and rotate a trapped particle owing to the orbital angular momentum of the beam. As the beam possesses different phase gradients, the rotation velocity of the trapped particle can be varied along the circumference. The simulation and experimental results show that an annular beam with three segments of different phase gradients can rotate particles with controlled velocities. The beam has potential applications in optical trapping and optical information processing.

  3. Modeling the Daly Gap: The Influence of Latent Heat Production in Controlling Magma Extraction and Eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, B. K.; Ghiorso, M. S.; Bachmann, O.; Dufek, J.

    2011-12-01

    A century-old issue in volcanology is the origin of the gap in chemical compositions observed in magmatic series on ocean islands and arcs - the "Daly Gap". If the gap forms during differentiation from a mafic parent, models that predict the dynamics of magma extraction as a function of chemical composition must simulate a process that results in volumetrically biased, bimodal compositions of erupted magmas. The probability of magma extraction is controlled by magma dynamical processes, which have a complex response to magmatic heat evolution. Heat loss from the magmatic system is far from a simple, monotonic function of time. It is modified by the crystallization sequence, chamber margin heat flux, and is buffered by latent heat production. We use chemical and thermal calculations of MELTS (Ghiorso & Sack, 1995) as input to the physical model of QUANTUM (Dufek & Bachmann, 2010) to predict crystallinity windows of most probable magma extraction. We modeled two case studies: volcanism on Tenerife, Canary Islands, and the Campanian Ignimbrite (CI) of Campi Flegrei, Italy. Both preserve a basanitic to phonolitic lineage and have comparable total alkali concentrations; however, CI has high and Tenerife has low K2O/Na2O. Modeled thermal histories of differentiation for the two sequences contrast strongly. In Tenerife, the rate of latent heat production is almost always greater than sensible heat production, with spikes in the ratio of latent to sensible heats of up to 40 associated with the appearance of Fe-Ti oxides at near 50% crystallization. This punctuated heat production must cause magma temperature change to stall or slow in time. The extended time spent at ≈50% crystallinity, associated with dynamical processes that enhance melt extraction near 50% crystallinity, suggests the magma composition at this interval should be common. In Tenerife, the modeled composition coincides with that of the first peak in the bimodal frequency-composition distribution. In our

  4. Rotochemical heating of millisecond and classical pulsars with anisotropic and density-dependent superfluid gap models

    CERN Document Server

    González-Jiménez, Nicolás; Reisenegger, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    When a rotating neutron star loses angular momentum, the progressive reduction of the centrifugal force makes it contract. This perturbs each fluid element, raising the local pressure and originating deviations from beta equilibrium, inducing reactions that release heat (rotochemical heating). This effect has previously been studied by Fern\\'andez & Reisenegger (2005) for non-superfluid neutron stars and by Petrovich & Reisenegger (2010) for superfluid millisecond pulsars. Both studies found that pulsars reach a quasi-steady state in which the compression driving the matter out of beta equilibrium is balanced by the reactions trying to restore the equilibrium. We extend previous studies by considering the effect of density-dependence and anisotropy of the superfluid energy gaps, for the case in which the dominant reactions are the modified Urca processes, the protons are non-superconducting, and the neutron superfluidity is parametrized by models proposed in the literature. By comparing our prediction...

  5. Testing gravity beyond the standard model: status of GAP, an electrostatic accelerometer for interplanetary fundamental physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Joel; Christophe, Bruno; Liorzou, Françoise

    Theories beyond the standard model aim to face several challenges: connect gravitation with the other three known forces, and shed light on dark matter and dark energy. Although General Relativity has been incredibly successful at passing laboratory / Solar System scales tests to date, it is a classical theory (hence, incompatible with quantum physics scales) and it fails at explaining large scale astrophysical observations such as galaxy rotation curves and the accelerated expansion of the Universe without introducing dark matter and dark energy. Thus, most theories beyond the standard model explore modifications to General Relativity. Those modifications, whether they consist in adding an extra scalar field or adding a scale-dependence to the gravitation laws, allow us to predict small deviations from General Relativity at laboratory / Solar System scales. For instance, such a deviation could have explained the Pioneer anomaly, where the Pioneer probes were measured to undergo an unexpected acceleration. Although this anomaly has recently been accounted for by an instrumental thermal radiation, precise measurements of the non-gravitational forces applied to the probes would have helped decide whether the observed behavior was due to gravitational or non-gravitational physics. As a result, several missions have been proposed to embark an accelerometer on-board an interplanetary probe. Indeed, an accelerometer will measure the non-gravitational accelerations applied to the probe, thereby separating the potentially measured departures from a pure geodetic trajectory into their gravitational and non-gravitational components, and allowing us to easily constrain General Relativity in deep space. The Gravity Advanced Package (GAP) is an instrument developed for this purpose. It is composed of a 3-axes electrostatic accelerometer called MicroSTAR and a rotating platform called Bias Rejection System. It aims to provide an unbiased measurement of a spacecraft's non

  6. Three-dimensional Numerical Models of the Cocos-northern Nazca Slab Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadamec, M.; Fischer, K. M.

    2012-12-01

    In contrast to anisotropy beneath the middle of oceanic plates, seismic observations in subduction zones often indicate mantle flow patterns that are not easily explained by simple coupling of the subducting and overriding plates to the mantle. For example, in the Costa Rica-Nicaragua subduction zone local S shear wave splitting measurements combined with geochemical data indicate trench parallel flow in the mantle wedge with flow rates of 6.3-19 cm/yr, which is on order of or may be up to twice the subducting plate velocity. We construct geographically referenced high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) geodynamic models of the Cocos-northern Nazca subduction system to investigate what is driving the northwest directed, and apparently rapid, trench-parallel flow in the mantle wedge beneath Costa Rica-Nicaragua. We use the SlabGenerator code to construct a 3D plate configuration that is used as input to the community mantle convection code, CitcomCU. Models are run on over 400 CPUs on XSEDE, with a mesh resolution of up to 3 km at the plate boundary. Seismicity and seismic tomography delineate the shape and depth of the Cocos and northern Nazca slabs. The subducting plate thermal structure is based on a plate cooling model and ages from the seafloor age grid. Overriding plate thickness is constrained by the ages from the sea floor age grid where available and the depth to the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary from the greatest negative gradient in absolute shear wave velocity. The geodynamic models test the relative controls of the change in the dip of the Cocos plate and the slab gap between the Cocos and northern Nazca plates in driving the mantle flow beneath Central America. The models also investigate the effect of a non-Newtonian rheology in dynamically generating a low viscosity mantle wedge and how this controls mantle flow rates. To what extent the Cocos-northern Nazca slab gap channelizes mantle flow between Central and South America has direct application

  7. Modelling of impurity deposition in gaps of castellated structures in TEXTOR with the 3DGap code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In fusion devices, fuel-rich redeposited layers are formed on plasma shadowed areas and especially in narrow gaps between surface tiles. The Monte-Carlo neutral transport code 3DGap has been developed to study impurity deposition in such gaps. Coupling with Particle-in-Cell simulations allows accounting for plasma penetration into the gaps. The code is applied to study carbon deposition in gaps of the ITER-like castellated test limiter (CTL) and between tiles of the toroidal belt limiter ALT-II of TEXTOR. In case of CTL, the deposition on gap sides can be quantitatively reproduced. However, certain discrepancies remain for the gap bottom. Similarly, deposition at side walls and at the bottom was observed in ALT-II gaps. In this experiment, boronization and normal plasma operation phases were alternated. Atomic ratio boron/carbon of about 3 in the deposit at the bottom in gaps was measured, while carbon dominates deposition near the gap entrance. This issue will be addressed together with the poloidal-toroidal asymmetry of carbon deposition in gaps.

  8. Non-null annular subaperture stitching interferometry for aspheric test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Liu, Dong; Shi, Tu; Yang, Yongying; Chong, Shiyao; Miao, Liang; Huang, Wei; Shen, Yibing; Bai, Jian

    2015-10-01

    A non-null annular subaperture stitching interferometry (NASSI), combining the subaperture stitching idea and non-null test method, is proposed for steep aspheric testing. Compared with standard annular subaperture stitching interferometry (ASSI), a partial null lens (PNL) is employed as an alternative to the transmission sphere, to generate different aspherical wavefronts as the references. The coverage subaperture number would thus be reduced greatly for the better performance of aspherical wavefronts in matching the local slope of aspheric surfaces. Instead of various mathematical stitching algorithms, a simultaneous reverse optimizing reconstruction (SROR) method based on system modeling and ray tracing is proposed for full aperture figure error reconstruction. All the subaperture measurements are simulated simultaneously with a multi-configuration model in a ray-tracing program, including the interferometric system modeling and subaperture misalignments modeling. With the multi-configuration model, full aperture figure error would be extracted in form of Zernike polynomials from subapertures wavefront data by the SROR method. This method concurrently accomplishes subaperture retrace error and misalignment correction, requiring neither complex mathematical algorithms nor subaperture overlaps. A numerical simulation exhibits the comparison of the performance of the NASSI and standard ASSI, which demonstrates the high accuracy of the NASSI in testing steep aspheric. Experimental results of NASSI are shown to be in good agreement with that of Zygo® VerifireTM Asphere interferometer.

  9. Three-dimensional Numerical Models of Mantle Flow Through the Cocos-Nazca Slab Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadamec, M.; Fischer, K. M.

    2013-05-01

    Global slab geometry models suggest a 350 km to 1000 km spacing between the southern extent of the Cocos slab and the northern extent of the Nazca slab (Gudmundsson and Sambridge, 1998; Syracuse and Abers, 2006; Hayes et al., 2012). The apparent gap between the east-dipping Cocos and Nazca slabs at depth correlates to several tectonic features on the Pacific side of Central and northern South America that may limit subduction, namely the (a) Panama Fault zone, (b) incoming young lithosphere associated with the Cocos-Nazca spreading center, and (c) the Cocos, Coiba, Malpelo, and Carnegie ridges associated with the Galapogos hotspot and Cocos-Nazca spreading center (Protti et al., 1994; Johnston and Thorkelson, 1997; Gutscher et al., 1999; Abratis and Worner, 2001; Sdrolias and Muller, 2006; Mann et al., 2007; Gazel et al., 2011). In addition, on the Caribbean side of Central and northern South America, seismic data suggest that part of the Caribbean plate is subducting and dipping in a direction opposite to the Cocos and Nazca slabs (van der Hilst and Mann, 1994; Camacho et al., 2010). We construct high-resolution three-dimensional numerical models of the Cocos-Nazca subduction system to test the effects of a slab gap and variable overriding plate thickness on surface plate motion and mantle flow. The 3D tectonic configuration is generated with SlabGenerator (Jadamec and Billen, 2010, 2012) and the mantle convection code CitcomCU is used to solve for the viscous flow (Moresi and Solomatov, 1995; Zhong, 2006). The negative thermal buoyancy of the slabs drive the flow. No driving velocities are applied to the plates or any of the slabs in the model. The detailed geometries of the Cocos and Nazca slabs are constructed from seismicity and seismic tomography (Protti et al., 1994; Colombo et al., 1997; Gudmundsson and Sambridge, 1998; Rogers et al., 2002; Husen et al., 2003; Syracuse and Abers, 2006; Syracuse et al., 2008; Dzierma et al., 2011). Seismic tomography

  10. Hybrid multiphase CFD simulation for liquid-liquid interfacial area prediction in annular centrifugal contactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liquid-liquid contacting equipment used in solvent extraction processes has the dual purpose of mixing and separating two immiscible fluids. Consequently, such devices inherently encompass a wide variety of multiphase flow regimes. A hybrid multiphase computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solver which combines the Eulerian multi-fluid method with VOF (volume of fluid) sharp interface capturing has been developed for application to annular centrifugal contactors. This solver has been extended to enable prediction of mean droplet size and liquid-liquid interfacial area through a single moment population balance method. Simulations of liquid-liquid mixing in a simplified geometry and a model annular centrifugal contactor are reported with droplet breakup/coalescence models being calibrated versus available experimental data. Quantitative comparison is made for two different housing vane geometries and it is found that the predicted droplet size is significantly smaller for vane geometries which result in higher annular liquid holdup

  11. Hybrid multiphase CFD simulation for liquid-liquid interfacial area prediction in annular centrifugal contactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wardle, K.E. [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Liquid-liquid contacting equipment used in solvent extraction processes has the dual purpose of mixing and separating two immiscible fluids. Consequently, such devices inherently encompass a wide variety of multiphase flow regimes. A hybrid multiphase computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solver which combines the Eulerian multi-fluid method with VOF (volume of fluid) sharp interface capturing has been developed for application to annular centrifugal contactors. This solver has been extended to enable prediction of mean droplet size and liquid-liquid interfacial area through a single moment population balance method. Simulations of liquid-liquid mixing in a simplified geometry and a model annular centrifugal contactor are reported with droplet breakup/coalescence models being calibrated versus available experimental data. Quantitative comparison is made for two different housing vane geometries and it is found that the predicted droplet size is significantly smaller for vane geometries which result in higher annular liquid holdup.

  12. Experimental model of a bone gap by radial ostectomy in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Cunha Lacreta Junior

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A lot of experimental models have been used to study the process of a fracture’s consolidation, but the problem is that due to anatomic, biologic and technical differences, these models do not always have appropriate parameters for the exact species, for which the experiment was done. The rabbit is an experimental model that is widely used in studies involving bone physiopatology in the face of fractures and their different types of treatment, corresponding to approximately 35% of all the musculoskeletic system’s scientific studies. Several surgical techniques have been used on rabbit’s bone for experimental studies, and the partial ostectomy of the radius bone is one of them. In this study, 14 rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus familiaris, males, adults, of white New Zeland breed, neutered, with weight between three and four kilograms, were used. Clinically, the animals did not present any alterations that compromised the study. There were evaluated through radiographic exam on days zero, 30 and 60 after the surgery, visualizing the quality of the gap and the relevant alteration of bone proliferation. The histologic exam elucidated the neoformed bone architecture and its components. The efficacy of the techinique was proved and it could be reproduced for many purposes in orthopedic surgery.

  13. Laser-optical and numerical Research of the flow inside the lubricating gap of a journal bearing model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riedel M.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The laser-optical research of the flow inside the lubricating gap of a journal bearing model is one important task in a larger overall project. The long-term objective is the development of an easy-to-work calculation tool which delivers information about the causes and consequences of cavitation processes in hydrodynamically lubricated journal bearings. Hence, it will be possible to find statements for advantageous and disadvantageous geometrical shapes of the bushings. In conclusion such a calculation tool can provide important insights for the construction and design of future journal bearings. Current design programs are based on a two-dimensional approach for the lubricating gap. The first dimension is the breath of the bearing and the second dimension is the circumferential direction of the bearing. The third dimension, the expansion of the gap in radial direction, will be neglected. Instead of an exact resolution of the flow pattern inside the gap, turbulence models are in use. Past studies on numerical and experimental field have shown that inside the lubricating gap clearly organized and predominantly laminar flow structures can be found. Thus, for a detailed analysis of the reasons and effects of cavitation bubbles, a three-dimensional resolution of the lubricating gap is inevitable. In addition to the qualitative evaluation of the flow with visualization experiments it is possible to perform angle-based velocity measurements inside the gap with the help of a triggered Laser-Doppler- Velocimeter (LDV. The results of these measurements are used to validate three-dimensional CFD flow simulations, and to optimize the numerical mesh structure and the boundary conditions. This paper will present the experimental setup of the bearing model, some exemplary results of the visualization experiments and LDV measurements as well as a comparison between experimental and numerical results.

  14. Hydraulic study of drilling fluid flow in circular and annular tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheid, C.M.; Calcada, L.A.; Braga, E.R.; Paraiso, E.C.H. [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (PPGEQ/UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Quimica. Dept. de Engenharia Qumica], E-mail: calcada@ufrrj.br; Martins, A. L. [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (CENPES/PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas

    2011-10-15

    This study investigates the drilling fluid flow behavior of two water-based drilling fluids in circular and annular tubes. The study has four main objectives: 1) to evaluate correlations between the Power Law and the Casson rheological models, 2) to characterize the flow behavior, 3) to evaluate five hydraulic-diameter equations, and 4) to evaluate the correlations of five turbulent flow-friction factors. The experimental fluid flow loop consisted of one positive displacement pump of 25 HP connected to a 500-liter tank agitated by a 3-HP mixer. The fluids passed through six meters long tubes, arranged in three horizontal rows with independent inlets and outlets. The circular tubes had a 1 inch diameter and were configured as two concentric annular tubes. Annular Tube I had an outer diameter of 1 1/4 inch and an inner diameter of 1/2 inch. Annular Tube II had an outer diameter of 2 inches and an inner diameter of 3/4 inch. The results show that, for the fluids in exam, correlations proposed in the literature were inaccurate as far as predicting hydraulic diameter, estimating pressure drop, and defining the flow regime. In general, the performance of those correlations depended on the fluid properties and on the system's geometry. Finally, literature parameters for some of the correlations were estimated for the two drilling fluids studied. These estimations improved the predictive capacity of calculating the friction factor for real drilling fluids applications for both circular and annular tubes. (author)

  15. Conceptual Model-based Systems Biology: mapping knowledge and discovering gaps in the mRNA transcription cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somekh, Judith; Choder, Mordechai; Dori, Dov

    2012-12-20

    We propose a Conceptual Model-based Systems Biology framework for qualitative modeling, executing, and eliciting knowledge gaps in molecular biology systems. The framework is an adaptation of Object-Process Methodology (OPM), a graphical and textual executable modeling language. OPM enables concurrent representation of the system's structure-the objects that comprise the system, and behavior-how processes transform objects over time. Applying a top-down approach of recursively zooming into processes, we model a case in point-the mRNA transcription cycle. Starting with this high level cell function, we model increasingly detailed processes along with participating objects. Our modeling approach is capable of modeling molecular processes such as complex formation, localization and trafficking, molecular binding, enzymatic stimulation, and environmental intervention. At the lowest level, similar to the Gene Ontology, all biological processes boil down to three basic molecular functions: catalysis, binding/dissociation, and transporting. During modeling and execution of the mRNA transcription model, we discovered knowledge gaps, which we present and classify into various types. We also show how model execution enhances a coherent model construction. Identification and pinpointing knowledge gaps is an important feature of the framework, as it suggests where research should focus and whether conjectures about uncertain mechanisms fit into the already verified model.

  16. Conceptual Model-based Systems Biology: mapping knowledge and discovering gaps in the mRNA transcription cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Somekh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We propose a Conceptual Model-based Systems Biology framework for qualitative modeling, executing, and eliciting knowledge gaps in molecular biology systems. The framework is an adaptation of Object-Process Methodology (OPM, a graphical and textual executable modeling language. OPM enables concurrent representation of the system's structure-the objects that comprise the system, and behavior-how processes transform objects over time. Applying a top-down approach of recursively zooming into processes, we model a case in point-the mRNA transcription cycle. Starting with this high level cell function, we model increasingly detailed processes along with participating objects. Our modeling approach is capable of modeling molecular processes such as complex formation, localization and trafficking, molecular binding, enzymatic stimulation, and environmental intervention. At the lowest level, similar to the Gene Ontology, all biological processes boil down to three basic molecular functions: catalysis, binding/dissociation, and transporting. During modeling and execution of the mRNA transcription model, we discovered knowledge gaps, which we present and classify into various types. We also show how model execution enhances a coherent model construction. Identification and pinpointing knowledge gaps is an important feature of the framework, as it suggests where research should focus and whether conjectures about uncertain mechanisms fit into the already verified model.

  17. Electrorheological damper with annular ducts for seismic protection applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makris, Nicos; Burton, Scott A.; Taylor, Douglas P.

    1996-10-01

    This paper presents the design, analysis, testing and modeling of an electrorheological (ER) fluid damper developed for vibration and seismic protection of civil structures. The damper consists of a main cylinder and a piston rod that pushes an ER fluid through a stationary annular duct. The behavior of the damper can be approximated with Hagen - Poiseuille flow theory. The basic equations that describe the fluid flow across an annular duct are derived. Experimental results on the damper response with and without the presence of electric field are presented. As the rate of deformation increases, viscous stresses prevail over field-induced yield stresses and a smaller fraction of the total damper force can be controlled. Simple physically motivated phenomenological models are considered to approximate the damper response with and without the presence of electric field. Subsequently, the performance of a multilayer neural network constructed and trained by an efficient algorithm known as the Dependence Identification Algorithm is examined to predict the response of the electrorheological damper. A combination of a simple phenomenological model and a neural network is then proposed as a practical tool to approximate the nonlinear and velocity-dependent damper response.

  18. Investigation of azimuthal staging concepts in annular gas turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noiray, Nicolas; Bothien, Mirko; Schuermans, Bruno

    2011-10-01

    In this work, the influence of azimuthal staging concepts on the thermoacoustic behavior of annular combustion chambers is assessed theoretically and numerically. Staging is a well-known and effective method to abate thermoacoustic pulsations in combustion chambers. However, in the case of, for example, fuel staging the associated inhomogeneity of equivalence ratio may result in increased levels of NOx emissions. In order to minimize this unwanted effect a staging concept is required in which the transfer functions of the burners are changed while affecting the equivalence ratio as little as possible. In order to achieve this goal, a theoretical framework for predicting the influence of staging concepts on pulsations has been developed. Both linear and nonlinear analytical approaches are presented and it is shown that the dynamics of azimuthal modes can be described by coupled Van der Pol oscillators. A criterion based on the thermoacoustic coupling strength and on the asymmetry degree provides the modal behavior in the annular combustor, i.e. standing or traveling waves. The model predictions have been verified by numerical simulations of a heavy-duty gas turbine using an in-house thermoacoustic network-modeling tool. The interaction between the heat release of the flame and the acoustic field was modeled using measured transfer functions and source terms. These numerical simulations confirmed the original theoretical considerations.

  19. How to bridge the gap between local root water uptake processes and macroscopic hydrological models?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaux, M.; Couvreur, V.; Vereecken, H.; Vanderborght, J.

    2013-12-01

    Modeling root water uptake in hydrological models remains challenging given the scale gap between the local uptake processes and the model resolutions. When Richards equation is used, root water uptake is modeled with a sink-term spatially resolved at the grid element scale (~cm...m), much larger than the root segment scale (~mm). Typically this sink-term contains four functions: (i) a root resistance function, (ii) a soil resistance function, (iii) a stress function and (iv) a compensation function. Thanks to novel detailed 3-D and 1-D models that contain the current knowledge on soil and root water flow, we propose improvements for the four functions used in macroscopic sink terms, which respect biophysical principles. We show that (1) root resistance may be well defined by the root length density but only for relatively wet soil and no limiting xylem conductance; (2) soil resistance cannot be neglected, in particular in the rhizosphere where specific process may occur, which alter the soil hydraulic properties and thereby affect uptake and the stress functions; (3) stress and compensation are two different processes not linked to each other; (4) compensation occurs as soon as there is a heterogeneous distribution of the soil water potential around the root system; (5) stress function should be defined as a maximal actual transpiration in function of an integrated or root-sensed averaged water head rather than in terms of local water heads; and (6) non linearity in the stress function is expected to arise from evolution with pressure heads or time of the hydraulic resistances in the soil-plant system.

  20. Animating Research with Counseling Values: A Training Model to Address the Research-to-Practice Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kristi A.; Dewell, John A.; Holmes, Courtney M.

    2014-01-01

    The persistent research-to-practice gap poses a problem for counselor education. The gap may be caused by conflicts between the humanistic values that guide much of counseling and the values that guide research training. In this article, the authors address historical concerns regarding research training for students and the conducting of research…

  1. Modeling the band gap of CdS quantum well structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, R. A.; Terblans, J. J.

    2016-10-01

    Within the framework of the effective mass approximation, an excited electron is studied in a cadmium sulfide (CdS) quantum well with varying well widths. The envelope function approximation is employed involving a three parameter variational calculation wherein one of these parameters is the distance between the electron and the hole. The relative change in the electron's energy (relative to its energy when it is in the valence band; in the hole) is investigated as a function of the electron-hole distance. Results from numerical calculations are presented and the non-linear behavior of different sized CdS quantum wells are discussed. Comparisons between experimentally measured CdS band gap energies (as a function of well-width) and the simulation data are made. A good agreement between the current model and experimental data exists. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations are done on crystallites of extremely small sizes to compare the current model's bandgap energies to DFT-predicted bandgap values at these extremes.

  2. Bridging the gap between empirical and mechanistic models for nitrate in groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, B. T.; Malone, R. W.; Gronberg, J.; Thorp, K.; Ma, L.

    2011-12-01

    Water-quality models are useful tools for predicting the vulnerability of groundwater to nitrate contamination, and include both empirical and mechanistic approaches. Empirical models commonly are used at regional and national scales. Such models are data-driven and have comparatively few parameters, but their capability to simulate processes is limited. In contrast, mechanistic models are physically based, simulate controlling processes, and can have many parameters. The GroundWAter Vulnerability Assessment model (GWAVA), an example of the first approach, is a national-scale nonlinear regression model (R2=0.80) that predicts areally averaged nitrate concentration in groundwater based on mid-1990s land use. The Root Zone Water Quality Model (RZWQM2) is an example of the second approach and simulates N cycling processes, crop growth, and the fate and transport of agricultural chemicals at the field-scale for daily time steps. Thorough accounting by RZWQM2 of key processes can yield more accurate predictions, but application at large spatial scales is difficult because of the numerous parameters. To bridge the gap between these contrasting scales and approaches, we developed metamodels (MMs) to predict nitrate concentrations and N fluxes in the Corn Belt. Metamodels are simplified representations of mechanistic models which map outputs from the latter onto the inputs. Our MMs consisted of artificial neural networks (ANNs), which are inherently flexible and do not require linearity or normally distributed data. The MMs were based on RZWQM2 models previously calibrated to data from field sites in Nebraska, Iowa, and Maryland. The three sites are in corn-soybean rotation and reflect diverse soil types and climatic conditions as well as different management practices. We calibrated the MMs to RZWQM2 predictions of N in tile drainage and leachate below the root zone of crops. Therefore the MMs represent an integrated approach to vulnerability assessment-nitrate leaching

  3. Experimental research on dryout point of flow boiling in narrow annular channels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    An experimental research on the dryout point of flow boiling in narrow annular channels under low mass flux with 1.55 mm and 1.05 mm annular gap, respectively, is conducted. Distilled water is used as working fluid and the range of pressure is limited within 2.0~4.0 MPa and that of mass flux is 26.0~69.0 kg·m-2·s-1. The relation of critical heat flux (CHF) and critical qualities with mass flux and pressure are revealed. It is found that the critical qualities decrease with the increasing mass flux and increase with the increasing inlet qualities in externally heated annuli.Under the same conditions, critical qualities in the outer tube are always larger than those in the inner tube. The appearance of dryout point in bilaterally heated narrow annuli can be judged according to the ratio of qo/qi.

  4. The effect of inlet swirl on the dynamics of long annular seals in centrifugal pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, M.; Brown, R. D.; France, D.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes additional results from a continuing research program which aims to identify the dynamics of long annular seals in centrifugal pumps. A seal test rig designed at Heriot-Watt University and commissioned at Weir Pumps Research Laboratory in Alloa permits the identification of mass, stiffness, and damping coefficients using a least-squares technique based on the singular value decomposition method. The analysis is carried out in the time domain using a multi-fiequency forcing function. The experimental method relies on the forced excitation of a flexibly supported stator by two hydraulic shakers. Running through the stator embodying two symmetrical balance drum seals is a rigid rotor supported in rolling element bearings. The only physical connection between shaft and stator is the pair of annular gaps filled with pressurized water discharged axially. The experimental coefficients obtained from the tests are compared with theoretical values.

  5. Cellular automaton model with dynamical 2D speed-gap relation reproduces empirical and experimental features of traffic flow

    CERN Document Server

    Tian, Junfang; Ma, Shoufeng; Zhu, Chenqiang; Jiang, Rui; Ding, YaoXian

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes an improved cellular automaton traffic flow model based on the brake light model, which takes into account that the desired time gap of vehicles is remarkably larger than one second. Although the hypothetical steady state of vehicles in the deterministic limit corresponds to a unique relationship between speeds and gaps in the proposed model, the traffic states of vehicles dynamically span a two-dimensional region in the plane of speed versus gap, due to the various randomizations. It is shown that the model is able to well reproduce (i) the free flow, synchronized flow, jam as well as the transitions among the three phases; (ii) the evolution features of disturbances and the spatiotemporal patterns in a car-following platoon; (iii) the empirical time series of traffic speed obtained from NGSIM data. Therefore, we argue that a model can potentially reproduce the empirical and experimental features of traffic flow, provided that the traffic states are able to dynamically span a 2D speed-gap...

  6. Pressure drop in fully developed, turbulent, liquid-vapor annular flows in zero gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, K. R.; Chao, B. T.; Soo, S. L.

    1992-01-01

    The prediction of frictional pressure drop in fully developed, turbulent, annular liquid-vapor flows in zero gravity using simulation experiments conducted on earth is described. The scheme extends the authors' earlier work on dispersed flows. The simulation experiments used two immiscible liquids of identical density, namely, water and n-butyl benzoate. Because of the lack of rigorous analytical models for turbulent, annular flows, the proposed scheme resorts to existing semiempirical correlations. Results based on two different correlations are presented and compared. Others may be used. It was shown that, for both dispersed and annular flow regimes, the predicted frictional pressure gradients in 0-g are lower than those in 1-g under otherwise identical conditions. The physical basis for this finding is given.

  7. Strategy and gaps for modeling, simulation, and control of hybrid systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabiti, Cristian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Garcia, Humberto E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hovsapian, Rob [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kinoshita, Robert [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mesina, George L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Boardman, Richard D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-04-01

    , dynamic energy systems requires multiple simulation tools, potentially developed in several programming languages and resolved on separate time scales. Whereas further investigation and development of hybrid concepts will provide a more complete understanding of the joint computational and physical modeling needs, this report highlights areas in which co-simulation capabilities are warranted. The current development status, quality assurance, availability and maintainability of simulation tools that are currently available for hybrid systems modeling is presented. Existing gaps in the modeling and simulation toolsets and development needs are subsequently discussed. This effort will feed into a broader Roadmap activity for designing, developing, and demonstrating hybrid energy systems.

  8. Hydro-economic Modeling: Reducing the Gap between Large Scale Simulation and Optimization Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forni, L.; Medellin-Azuara, J.; Purkey, D.; Joyce, B. A.; Sieber, J.; Howitt, R.

    2012-12-01

    The integration of hydrological and socio economic components into hydro-economic models has become essential for water resources policy and planning analysis. In this study we integrate the economic value of water in irrigated agricultural production using SWAP (a StateWide Agricultural Production Model for California), and WEAP (Water Evaluation and Planning System) a climate driven hydrological model. The integration of the models is performed using a step function approximation of water demand curves from SWAP, and by relating the demand tranches to the priority scheme in WEAP. In order to do so, a modified version of SWAP was developed called SWEAP that has the Planning Area delimitations of WEAP, a Maximum Entropy Model to estimate evenly sized steps (tranches) of water derived demand functions, and the translation of water tranches into crop land. In addition, a modified version of WEAP was created called ECONWEAP with minor structural changes for the incorporation of land decisions from SWEAP and series of iterations run via an external VBA script. This paper shows the validity of this integration by comparing revenues from WEAP vs. ECONWEAP as well as an assessment of the approximation of tranches. Results show a significant increase in the resulting agricultural revenues for our case study in California's Central Valley using ECONWEAP while maintaining the same hydrology and regional water flows. These results highlight the gains from allocating water based on its economic compared to priority-based water allocation systems. Furthermore, this work shows the potential of integrating optimization and simulation-based hydrologic models like ECONWEAP.ercentage difference in total agricultural revenues (EconWEAP versus WEAP).

  9. Annular pancreas associated with duodenal carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Enrico; Bronnimann; Silke; Potthast; Tatjana; Vlajnic; Daniel; Oertli; Oleg; Heizmann

    2010-01-01

    Annular pancreas (AP) is a rare congenital anomaly. Coexisting malignancy has been reported only in a few cases. We report what is, to the best of our knowledge, the first case in the English literature of duodenal adenocarcinoma in a patient with AP. In a 55-year old woman with duodenal outlet stenosis magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography showed an aberrant pancreatic duct encircling the duodenum. Duodenojejunostomy was performed. Eight weeks later she presented with painless jaundice. Duodenopancre...

  10. Performance of annular high frequency thermoacoustic engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Ivan A.

    This thesis presents studies of the behavior of miniature annular thermoacoustic prime movers and the imaging of the complex sound fields using PIV inside the small acoustic wave guides when driven by a temperature gradient. Thermoacoustic engines operating in the standing wave mode are limited in their acoustic efficiency by a high degree of irreversibility that is inherent in how they work. Better performance can be achieved by using traveling waves in the thermoacoustic devices. This has led to the development of an annular high frequency thermoacoustic prime mover consisting of a regenerator, which is a random stack in-between a hot and cold heat exchanger, inside an annular waveguide. Miniature devices were developed and studied with operating frequencies in the range of 2-4 kHz. This corresponds to an average ring circumference of 11 cm for the 3 kHz device, the resonator bore being 6 mm. A similar device of 11 mm bore, length of 18 cm was also investigated; its resonant frequency was 2 kHz. Sound intensities as high as 166.8 dB were generated with limited heat input. Sound power was extracted from the annular structure by an impedance-matching side arm. The nature of the acoustic wave generated by heat was investigated using a high speed PIV instrument. Although the acoustic device appears symmetric, its performance is characterized by a broken symmetry and by perturbations that exist in its structure. Effects of these are observed in the PIV imaging; images show axial and radial components. Moreover, PIV studies show effects of streaming and instabilities which affect the devices' acoustic efficiency. The acoustic efficiency is high, being of 40% of Carnot. This type of device shows much promise as a high efficiency energy converter; it can be reduced in size for microcircuit applications.

  11. Annular Alopecia Areata: Report of Two Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Bansal, Manish; Manchanda, Kajal; Pandey, SS

    2013-01-01

    Alopecia areata (AA) is an auto-immune disorder characterized by the appearance of non-scarring bald patches affecting the hair bearing areas of the body. Scalp is the most common site of involvement. AA can affect any age group. The usual pattern of the hair loss is oval or round. We hereby, report two cases of annular and circinate pattern of AA due to its unusual morphology.

  12. Vibration analysis of annular-like plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, L.; Li, Y. Y.; Yam, L. H.

    2003-05-01

    The existence of eccentricity of the central hole for an annular plate results in a significant change in the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the structure. In this paper, the vibration analysis of annular-like plates is presented based on numerical and experimental approaches. Using the finite element analysis code Nastran, the effects of the eccentricity, hole size and boundary condition on vibration modes are investigated systematically through both global and local analyses. The results show that analyses for perfect symmetric conditions can still roughly predict the mode shapes of "recessive" modes of the plate with a slightly eccentric hole. They will, however, lead to erroneous results for "dominant" modes. In addition, the residual displacement mode shape is verified as an effective parameter for identifying damage occurring in plate-like structures. Experimental modal analysis on a clamped-free annular-like plate is performed, and the results obtained reveal good agreement with those obtained by numerical analysis. This study provides guidance on modal analysis, vibration measurement and damage detection of plate-like structures.

  13. Modelling and design of complete photonic band gaps in two-dimensional photonic crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yogita Kalra; R K Sinha

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the existence and variation of complete photonic band gap size with the introduction of asymmetry in the constituent dielectric rods with honeycomb lattices in two-dimensional photonic crystals (PhC) using the plane-wave expansion (PWE) method. Two examples, one consisting of elliptical rods and the other comprising of rectangular rods in honeycomb lattices are considered with a view to estimate the design parameters for maximizing the complete photonic band gap. Further, it has been shown that complete photonic band gap size changes with the variation in the orientation angle of the constituent dielectric rods.

  14. First-principles kinetic modeling in heterogeneous catalysis: an industrial perspective on best-practice, gaps and needs

    OpenAIRE

    Sabbe, Maarten; Reyniers, Marie-Françoise; Reuter, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    Electronic structure calculations have emerged as a key contributor in modern heterogeneous catalysis research, though their application in chemical reaction engineering remains largely limited to academia. This perspective aims at encouraging the judicious use of first-principles kinetic models in industrial settings based on a critical discussion of present-day best practices, identifying existing gaps, and defining where further progress is needed.

  15. Spatial-temporal modeling of forest gaps generated by colonization from below- and above-ground beetle species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, J.; Rasmussen, Jakob Gulddahl; Møller, Jesper;

    the Great Lakes Region. Here we examine the impact of two bark beetle groups, namely red turpentine beetles and pine engraver bark beetles, on tree mortality and the subsequent gap formation over time in a plantation in Wisconsin. We construct spatial-temporal statistical models that quantify the relations...

  16. Spatial-temporal modeling of forest gaps generated by colonization from below- and above-ground bark beetle species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jun; Rasmussen, Jakob Gulddahl; Møller, Jesper;

    2008-01-01

    the Great Lakes region. Here we examine the impact of two bark beetle groups, red turpentine beetles and pine engraver bark beetles, on tree mortality and the subsequent gap formation over time in a plantation in Wisconsin. We construct spatial-temporal statistical models that quantify the relations among...

  17. Resprouting and seeding hypotheses: A test of the gap-dependent model using resprouting and obligate seeding subspecies of Arctostaphylos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Jon E.; Parker, V. Thomas; Vasey, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    Ecological factors favoring either postfire resprouting or postfire obligate seeding in plants have received considerable attention recently. Three ecological models have been proposed to explain patterns of these two life history types. In this study, we test these three models using data from California chaparral. We take an innovative approach to testing these models by not testing community or landscape patterns, but instead, investigating vegetation structure characteristic of four pairs of resprouting and (non-resprouting) obligate seeding subspecies of Arctostaphylos (Ericaceae), a dominant and diverse shrub genus in California chaparral. Data were analyzed for percentage bare ground, elevation, annual precipitation, number of fires, and time between fires and were compared independently for each subspecies pair. Results were consistently supportive of the gap-dependent model suggesting that obligate seeders are favored when post-disturbance gaps are large. Results were inconclusive or contrary to expectations for both of the other two models.

  18. A model for the direct-to-indirect band-gap transition in monolayer MoSe2 under strain

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ruma Das; Priya Mahadevan

    2015-06-01

    A monolayer of MoSe2 is found to be a direct band-gap semiconductor. We show, within ab-initio electronic structure calculations, that a modest biaxial tensile strain of 3% can drive it into an indirect band-gap semiconductor with the valence band maximum (VBM) shifting from point to point. An analysis of the charge density reveals that while Mo–Mo interactions contribute to the VBM at 0% strain, Mo–Se interactions contribute to the highest occupied band at point. A scaling of the hopping interaction strengths within an appropriate tight binding model can capture the transition.

  19. Exponential vanishing of the ground-state gap of the quantum random energy model via adiabatic quantum computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adame, J.; Warzel, S., E-mail: warzel@ma.tum.de [Zentrum Mathematik, TU München, Boltzmannstr. 3, 85747 Garching (Germany)

    2015-11-15

    In this note, we use ideas of Farhi et al. [Int. J. Quantum. Inf. 6, 503 (2008) and Quantum Inf. Comput. 11, 840 (2011)] who link a lower bound on the run time of their quantum adiabatic search algorithm to an upper bound on the energy gap above the ground-state of the generators of this algorithm. We apply these ideas to the quantum random energy model (QREM). Our main result is a simple proof of the conjectured exponential vanishing of the energy gap of the QREM.

  20. A contoured gap coaxial plasma gun with injected plasma armature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new coaxial plasma gun is described. The long term objective is to accelerate 100-200 μg of plasma with density above 1017 cm-3 to greater than 200 km/s with a Mach number above 10. Such high velocity dense plasma jets have a number of potential fusion applications, including plasma refueling, magnetized target fusion, injection of angular momentum into centrifugally confined mirrors, high energy density plasmas, and others. The approach uses symmetric injection of high density plasma into a coaxial electromagnetic accelerator having an annular gap geometry tailored to prevent formation of the blow-by instability. The injected plasma is generated by numerous (currently 32) radially oriented capillary discharges arranged uniformly around the circumference of the angled annular injection region of the accelerator. Magnetohydrodynamic modeling identified electrode profiles that can achieve the desired plasma jet parameters. The experimental hardware is described along with initial experimental results in which approximately 200 μg has been accelerated to 100 km/s in a half-scale prototype gun. Initial observations of 64 merging injector jets in a planar cylindrical testing array are presented. Density and velocity are presently limited by available peak current and injection sources. Steps to increase both the drive current and the injected plasma mass are described for next generation experiments.

  1. A contoured gap coaxial plasma gun with injected plasma armature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witherspoon, F Douglas; Case, Andrew; Messer, Sarah J; Bomgardner, Richard; Phillips, Michael W; Brockington, Samuel; Elton, Raymond

    2009-08-01

    A new coaxial plasma gun is described. The long term objective is to accelerate 100-200 microg of plasma with density above 10(17) cm(-3) to greater than 200 km/s with a Mach number above 10. Such high velocity dense plasma jets have a number of potential fusion applications, including plasma refueling, magnetized target fusion, injection of angular momentum into centrifugally confined mirrors, high energy density plasmas, and others. The approach uses symmetric injection of high density plasma into a coaxial electromagnetic accelerator having an annular gap geometry tailored to prevent formation of the blow-by instability. The injected plasma is generated by numerous (currently 32) radially oriented capillary discharges arranged uniformly around the circumference of the angled annular injection region of the accelerator. Magnetohydrodynamic modeling identified electrode profiles that can achieve the desired plasma jet parameters. The experimental hardware is described along with initial experimental results in which approximately 200 microg has been accelerated to 100 km/s in a half-scale prototype gun. Initial observations of 64 merging injector jets in a planar cylindrical testing array are presented. Density and velocity are presently limited by available peak current and injection sources. Steps to increase both the drive current and the injected plasma mass are described for next generation experiments.

  2. A contoured gap coaxial plasma gun with injected plasma armature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witherspoon, F. Douglas; Case, Andrew; Messer, Sarah J.; Bomgardner, Richard; Phillips, Michael W.; Brockington, Samuel; Elton, Raymond

    2009-08-01

    A new coaxial plasma gun is described. The long term objective is to accelerate 100-200 μg of plasma with density above 1017 cm-3 to greater than 200 km/s with a Mach number above 10. Such high velocity dense plasma jets have a number of potential fusion applications, including plasma refueling, magnetized target fusion, injection of angular momentum into centrifugally confined mirrors, high energy density plasmas, and others. The approach uses symmetric injection of high density plasma into a coaxial electromagnetic accelerator having an annular gap geometry tailored to prevent formation of the blow-by instability. The injected plasma is generated by numerous (currently 32) radially oriented capillary discharges arranged uniformly around the circumference of the angled annular injection region of the accelerator. Magnetohydrodynamic modeling identified electrode profiles that can achieve the desired plasma jet parameters. The experimental hardware is described along with initial experimental results in which approximately 200 μg has been accelerated to 100 km/s in a half-scale prototype gun. Initial observations of 64 merging injector jets in a planar cylindrical testing array are presented. Density and velocity are presently limited by available peak current and injection sources. Steps to increase both the drive current and the injected plasma mass are described for next generation experiments.

  3. Bridging the Gap Between Science and Clinical Efficacy: Physiology, Imaging, and Modeling of Aerosols in the Lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darquenne, Chantal; Fleming, John S; Katz, Ira; Martin, Andrew R; Schroeter, Jeffry; Usmani, Omar S; Venegas, Jose; Schmid, Otmar

    2016-04-01

    Development of a new drug for the treatment of lung disease is a complex and time consuming process involving numerous disciplines of basic and applied sciences. During the 2015 Congress of the International Society for Aerosols in Medicine, a group of experts including aerosol scientists, physiologists, modelers, imagers, and clinicians participated in a workshop aiming at bridging the gap between basic research and clinical efficacy of inhaled drugs. This publication summarizes the current consensus on the topic. It begins with a short description of basic concepts of aerosol transport and a discussion on targeting strategies of inhaled aerosols to the lungs. It is followed by a description of both computational and biological lung models, and the use of imaging techniques to determine aerosol deposition distribution (ADD) in the lung. Finally, the importance of ADD to clinical efficacy is discussed. Several gaps were identified between basic science and clinical efficacy. One gap between scientific research aimed at predicting, controlling, and measuring ADD and the clinical use of inhaled aerosols is the considerable challenge of obtaining, in a single study, accurate information describing the optimal lung regions to be targeted, the effectiveness of targeting determined from ADD, and some measure of the drug's effectiveness. Other identified gaps were the language and methodology barriers that exist among disciplines, along with the significant regulatory hurdles that need to be overcome for novel drugs and/or therapies to reach the marketplace and benefit the patient. Despite these gaps, much progress has been made in recent years to improve clinical efficacy of inhaled drugs. Also, the recent efforts by many funding agencies and industry to support multidisciplinary networks including basic science researchers, R&D scientists, and clinicians will go a long way to further reduce the gap between science and clinical efficacy. PMID:26829187

  4. Existence, uniqueness and multiplicity of rotating fluxon waves in annular Josephson junctions

    OpenAIRE

    Katriel, Guy

    2007-01-01

    We prove that the equation modelling an annular Josephson junction has a rotating fluxon wave solution for all values of the parameters. We also obtain results on uniqueness of the rotating fluxon wave in some parameter regimes, and on multiplicity of rotating fluxon waves in other parameter regimes.

  5. Effect of Annular Slit Geometry on Characteristics of Spiral Jet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shigeru Matsuo; Kwon-Hee Lee; Shinsuke Oda; Toshiaki Setoguchi; Heuy-Dong Kim

    2003-01-01

    A spiral flow using an annular slit connected to a conical cylinder does not need special device to generate a tangential velocity component of the flow and differs from swirling flows. Pressurized fluid is supplied to an annular chamber and injected into the convergent nozzle through the annular slit. The annular jet develops into the spiral flow. In the present study, a spiral jet discharged out of nozzle exit was obtained by using a convergent nozzle and an annular slit set in nozzle inlet, and the effect of annular slit geometry on characteristics of the spiral jet was investigated by using a Laser Doppler Velocimeter (LDV) experimentally. Furthermore, velocity distributions of the spiral jet were compared with those of a normal jet.

  6. Spark gap switch with spiral gas flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucker, John P.

    1989-01-01

    A spark gap switch having a contaminate removal system using an injected gas. An annular plate concentric with an electrode of the switch defines flow paths for the injected gas which form a strong spiral flow of the gas in the housing which is effective to remove contaminates from the switch surfaces. The gas along with the contaminates is exhausted from the housing through one of the ends of the switch.

  7. Bridging the gap between cadaveric and in vivo experiments: A biomechanical model evaluating thumb-tip endpoint forces

    OpenAIRE

    Wohlman, Sarah J.; Wendy M Murray

    2013-01-01

    The thumb is required for a majority of tasks of daily living. Biomechanical modeling is a valuable tool, with the potential to help us bridge the gap between our understanding of the mechanical actions of individual thumb muscles, derived from anatomical cadaveric experiments, and our understanding of how force is produced by the coordination of all of the thumb muscles, derived from studies involving human subjects. However, current biomechanical models do not replicate muscle force product...

  8. Inertial Wave Excitation and Wave Attractors in an Annular Tank: DNS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Marten; Ghasemi, Abouzar; Harlander, Uwe; Will, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Rotation is the most relevant aspect of geophysical fluid dynamics, manifesting itself by the Coriolis force. Small perturbations to the state of rigid body rotation can excite inertial waves (waves restored by Coriolis force) with frequencies in the range 0 fluid so that inertial waves remain the only waves in the mathematical model, which can transport kinetic energy and angular momentum. In geophysics, inertial waves have received a lot attention over the last decades. A spherical shell, for instance, is already non-simple in a sense that its inertial mode's spatial structures are complex, forming so-called wave attractors [1]. But also other containers have been investigated, e.g., cylinders and boxes from the viewpoints of normal mode excitation [2,3], mean flow generation and boundary layer flow [4]. A simple wave attractor was found in a prism, which can be seen as idealized ocean basin [5]. However, local mechanisms of wave excitation are still not very well understood. In order to contribute to the ongoing discussion, we consider an annular geometry. Its rectangular symmetry was broken by replacing the inner cylinder with a frustum of apex half-angle α = 5.7°. The annular gap is filled with a fluid of kinematic viscosity ν. The whole vessel rotates with a mean angular velocity Ω0 around its axis of symmetry. Ekman numbers investigated are 1 ≠« E = ν(Ω0H2)-1 ≥ 10-5. Similarly to [1-5] we perturb the system by longitudinal libration, Ω(t) = Ω0(1 + ɛsinωt), where ω > 0 denotes the frequency and 0 Fluids (2012), vol. 24, 076602. [3] A. Sauret, D. Cébron, M. Le Bars and S. Le Dizès, Phys. Fluids (2012), vol. 24, 026603. [4] F. H. Busse, Physica D, vol. 240 (2011), pp. 208-211. [5] L. R. M. Maas, J. Fluid Mech. (2001), vol. 437, pp. 13-28.

  9. Gap Junctions

    OpenAIRE

    Goodenough, Daniel A.; Paul, David L.

    2009-01-01

    Gap junctions are aggregates of intercellular channels that permit direct cell–cell transfer of ions and small molecules. Initially described as low-resistance ion pathways joining excitable cells (nerve and muscle), gap junctions are found joining virtually all cells in solid tissues. Their long evolutionary history has permitted adaptation of gap-junctional intercellular communication to a variety of functions, with multiple regulatory mechanisms. Gap-junctional channels are composed of hex...

  10. The gap junction modifier, GAP-134 [(2S,4R)-1-(2-aminoacetyl)-4-benzamido-pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid], improves conduction and reduces atrial fibrillation/flutter in the canine sterile pericarditis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossman, Eric I; Liu, Kun; Morgan, Gwen A; Swillo, Robert E; Krueger, Julie A; Gardell, Stephen J; Butera, John; Gruver, Matthew; Kantrowitz, Joel; Feldman, Hal S; Petersen, Jørgen S; Haugan, Ketil; Hennan, James K

    2009-06-01

    Gap junction uncoupling can alter conduction pathways and promote cardiac re-entry mechanisms that potentiate many supraventricular arrhythmias, such as atrial fibrillation (AF) and atrial flutter (AFL). Our objective was to determine whether GAP-134 [(2S,4R)-1-(2-aminoacetyl)-4-benzamido-pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid], a small dipeptide gap junction modifier, can improve conduction and ultimately prevent AF/AFL. In rat atrial strips subjected to metabolic stress, GAP-134 prevented significantly conduction velocity slowing at 10 nM compared with vehicle (p < 0.01). In the canine sterile pericarditis model, conduction time (CT; n = 5), atrial effective refractory period (AERP; n = 3), and AF/AFL duration/inducibility (n = 16) were measured 2 to 3 days postoperatively in conscious dogs. CT was significantly faster after GAP-134 infusion (average plasma concentration, 250 nM) at cycle lengths of 300 ms (66.2 +/- 1.0 versus 62.0 +/- 1.0 ms; p < 0.001) and 200 ms (64.4 +/- 0.9 versus 61.0 +/- 1.3 ms; p < 0.001). No significant changes in AERP were noted after GAP-134 infusion. The mean number of AF/AFL inductions per animal was significantly decreased after GAP-134 infusion (2.7 +/- 0.6 versus 1.6 +/- 0.8; p < 0.01), with total AF/AFL burden being decreased from 12,280 to 6063 s. Western blot experiments showed no change in connexin 43 expression. At concentrations exceeding those described in the AF/AFL experiments, GAP-134 had no effect on heart rate, blood pressure, or any electrocardiogram parameters. In conclusion, GAP-134 shows consistent efficacy on measures of conduction and AF/AFL inducibility in the canine sterile pericarditis model. These findings, along with its oral bioavailability, underscore its potential antiarrhythmic efficacy.

  11. Granuloma annulare localized to the shaft of the penis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trap, R; Wiebe, B

    1993-01-01

    A case of granuloma annulare localized to the shaft of the penis is reported. The differential diagnoses are discussed. Penile granuloma annulare is a rare disorder and it is concluded that biopsies of penile lesions are recommended to verify the correct diagnosis.......A case of granuloma annulare localized to the shaft of the penis is reported. The differential diagnoses are discussed. Penile granuloma annulare is a rare disorder and it is concluded that biopsies of penile lesions are recommended to verify the correct diagnosis....

  12. The energy trilogy: An integrated sustainability model to bridge wastewater treatment plant energy and emissions gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Talibi, A. Adhim

    An estimated 4% of national energy consumption is used for drinking water and wastewater services. Despite the awareness and optimization initiatives for energy conservation, energy consumption is on the rise owing to population and urbanization expansion and to commercial and industrial business advancement. The principal concern is since energy consumption grows, the higher will be the energy production demand, leading to an increase in CO2 footprints and the contribution to global warming potential. This research is in the area of energy-water nexus, focusing on wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) energy trilogy -- the group of three related entities, which includes processes: (1) consuming energy, (2) producing energy, and (3) the resulting -- CO2 equivalents. Detailed and measurable energy information is not readily obtained for wastewater facilities, specifically during facility preliminary design phases. These limitations call for data-intensive research approach on GHG emissions quantification, plant efficiencies and source reduction techniques. To achieve these goals, this research introduced a model integrating all plant processes and their pertinent energy sources. In a comprehensive and "Energy Source-to-Effluent Discharge" pattern, this model is capable of bridging the gaps of WWTP energy, facilitating plant designers' decision-making for meeting energy assessment, sustainability and the environmental regulatory compliance. Protocols for estimating common emissions sources are available such as for fuels, whereas, site-specific emissions for other sources have to be developed and are captured in this research. The dissertation objectives were met through an extensive study of the relevant literature, models and tools, originating comprehensive lists of processes and energy sources for WWTPs, locating estimation formulas for each source, identifying site specific emissions factors, and linking the sources in a mathematical model for site specific CO2 e

  13. Gapped alignment of protein sequence motifs through Monte Carlo optimization of a hidden Markov model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Jun S

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Certain protein families are highly conserved across distantly related organisms and belong to large and functionally diverse superfamilies. The patterns of conservation present in these protein sequences presumably are due to selective constraints maintaining important but unknown structural mechanisms with some constraints specific to each family and others shared by a larger subset or by the entire superfamily. To exploit these patterns as a source of functional information, we recently devised a statistically based approach called contrast hierarchical alignment and interaction network (CHAIN analysis, which infers the strengths of various categories of selective constraints from co-conserved patterns in a multiple alignment. The power of this approach strongly depends on the quality of the multiple alignments, which thus motivated development of theoretical concepts and strategies to improve alignment of conserved motifs within large sets of distantly related sequences. Results Here we describe a hidden Markov model (HMM, an algebraic system, and Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC sampling strategies for alignment of multiple sequence motifs. The MCMC sampling strategies are useful both for alignment optimization and for adjusting position specific background amino acid frequencies for alignment uncertainties. Associated statistical formulations provide an objective measure of alignment quality as well as automatic gap penalty optimization. Improved alignments obtained in this way are compared with PSI-BLAST based alignments within the context of CHAIN analysis of three protein families: Giα subunits, prolyl oligopeptidases, and transitional endoplasmic reticulum (p97 AAA+ ATPases. Conclusion While not entirely replacing PSI-BLAST based alignments, which likewise may be optimized for CHAIN analysis using this approach, these motif-based methods often more accurately align very distantly related sequences and thus can

  14. Modeling of Particle Transport on Channels and Gaps Exposed to Plasma Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto-Pérez, Martin

    2008-04-01

    Many problems in particle transport in fusion devices involve the transport of plasma or eroded particles through channels or gaps, such as in the case of trying to assess damage to delicate optical diagnostics collecting light through a slit or determining the deposition and codeposition on the gaps between tiles of plasma-facing components. A dynamic-composition Monte Carlo code in the spirit of TRIDYN, previously developed to study composition changes on optical mirrors subject to ion bombardment, has been upgraded to include motion of particles through a volume defined by sets of plane surfaces. Particles sputtered or reflected from the walls of the channel/gap can be tracked as well, allowing the calculation of wall impurity transport, either back to the plasma (for the case of a gap) or to components separated from the plasma by a channel/slit (for the case of optical diagnostics). Two examples of the code application to particle transport in fusion devices will be presented in this work: one will evaluate the erosion/impurity deposition rate on a mirror separated from a plasma source by a slit; the other case will look at the enhanced emission of tile material in the region of the gap between two tiles.

  15. Modeling of Particle Transport on Channels and Gaps Exposed to Plasma Fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many problems in particle transport in fusion devices involve the transport of plasma or eroded particles through channels or gaps, such as in the case of trying to assess damage to delicate optical diagnostics collecting light through a slit or determining the deposition and codeposition on the gaps between tiles of plasma-facing components. A dynamic-composition Monte Carlo code in the spirit of TRIDYN, previously developed to study composition changes on optical mirrors subject to ion bombardment, has been upgraded to include motion of particles through a volume defined by sets of plane surfaces. Particles sputtered or reflected from the walls of the channel/gap can be tracked as well, allowing the calculation of wall impurity transport, either back to the plasma (for the case of a gap) or to components separated from the plasma by a channel/slit (for the case of optical diagnostics). Two examples of the code application to particle transport in fusion devices will be presented in this work: one will evaluate the erosion/impurity deposition rate on a mirror separated from a plasma source by a slit; the other case will look at the enhanced emission of tile material in the region of the gap between two tiles

  16. Development of a Debye heat capacity model for vibrational modes with a gap in the density of states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low-energy vibrational modes that have a gap in the density of states (DOS) have often been observed in heat capacity data in the form of ‘boson’ peaks, but the functions used to model these modes are often inadequate or are not physically meaningful. We have adapted the Debye model to represent these gapped modes and have derived the heat capacity equations for these modes in one, two, and three dimensions. Applying these equations to the low-temperature heat capacity data fitting for a large variety of materials substantially improves the fit quality relative to conventional fits. From the fitting parameters, the underlying DOS were estimated, which we show to be comparable to those reported in the literature. This model expands the methods of theoretical low-temperature heat capacity data analysis and improves the procedure of approximating a material’s DOS from its low-temperature heat capacity. (paper)

  17. Bridging the Gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer Overgaard, Majken; Broeng, Jes; Jensen, Monika Luniewska;

    Bridging the Gap (BtG) is a 2-year project funded by The Danish Industry Foundation. The goal of Bridging the Gap has been to create a new innovation model which will increase the rate at which Danish universities can spinout new technology ventures.......Bridging the Gap (BtG) is a 2-year project funded by The Danish Industry Foundation. The goal of Bridging the Gap has been to create a new innovation model which will increase the rate at which Danish universities can spinout new technology ventures....

  18. Bridging the Gap

    OpenAIRE

    Kramer Overgaard, Majken; Broeng, Jes; Jensen, Monika Luniewska; Murdock, Karen; Schmidt, Iben Julie

    2015-01-01

    Bridging the Gap (BtG) is a 2-year project funded by The Danish Industry Foundation. The goal of Bridging the Gap has been to create a new innovation model which will increase the rate at which Danish universities can spinout new technology ventures. Bridging the Gap (BtG) is a 2-year project funded by The Danish Industry Foundation. The goal of Bridging the Gap has been to create a new innovation model which will increase the rate at which Danish universities can spinout new technology ve...

  19. Study of spiral flow generated through an annular slit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Hun; Matsuo, Shigeru; Setoguchi, Toshiaki; Kim, Heuy-Dong

    2005-06-01

    The effect of pressurized air inlets in the reservoir upstream of the annular slit on characteristics of the axial and tangential velocity components is investigated numerically, and the mechanism of occurrence of spiral nozzle flow is clarified. In simulations, Unified Platform for Aerospace Computational Simulation (UPACS) is used. The governing equations under consideration are the unsteady compressible Navier - Stokes. A second-order finite volume scheme with MUSCL (Roe scheme) is used to discretize the spatial derivatives, and a second order-central difference scheme for the viscous terms, and a MFGS (Matrix Free Gauss Seidel) is employed for time integration. Spalart-Allmaras model was used as a turbulence model. The results obtained are compared with velocity distributions in the experiment measured by the two-component fiber optic laser Doppler velocimeter system. The existence of discrete pressurized air inlets that leads to the occurrence of asymmetrical characteristics is a very important factor for the formation of spiral flow.

  20. Study of Spiral Flow Generated through an Annular Slit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tae Hun KIM; Shigeru MATSUO; Toshiaki SETOGUCHI; Heuy-Dong KIM

    2005-01-01

    @@ The effect of pressurized air inlets in the reservoir upstream of the annular slit on characteristics of the axial and tangential velocity components is investigated numerically, and the mechanism of occurrence of spiral nozzle flow is clarified. In simulations, Unified Platform for Aerospace Computational Simulation (UPACS) is used. The governing equations under consideration are the unsteady compressible Navier - Stokes. A second-order finite volume scheme with MUSCL (Roe scheme) is used to discretize the spatial derivatives, and a second order-central difference scheme for the viscous terms, and a MFGS (Matrix Free Gauss Seidel) is employed for time integration. Spalart-Allmaras model was used as a turbulence model. The results obtained are compared with velocity distributions in the experiment measured by the two-component fiber optic laser Doppler velocimeter system. The existence of discrete pressurized air inlets that leads to the occurrence of asymmetrical characteristics is a very important factor for the formation of spiral flow.

  1. Liquid transfer and entrainment correlation for droplet-annular flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A correlation for the amount of entrained liquid in annular flow has been developed from a simple model and experimental data. There are basically two different regions of entrainment, namely, the entrance and quasi-equilibrium regions. The correlation for the equilibrium region is expressed in terms of the dimensionless gas flux, diameter, cand total liquid Reynolds number. The entrance effect is taken into account by an exponential relaxation function. It has been shown that this new model can satisfactorily correlate wide ranges of experimental data for water. Furthermore, the necessary distance for the development of entrainment is identified. These correlations, therefore, can supply accurate information on entrainment which has not been available previously

  2. Performance of annular flow sterilizer irradiated by a germicidal lamp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugawara, T.; Yoneya, M.; Ohashi, H. (Akita Univ. (Japan))

    1981-10-01

    Theoretical and experimental studies were conducted on the UV-inactivation characteristics of Bacillus subtilis spores in an annular-flow sterilizer irradiated by a germicidal lamp located at the center of the inner tube. Experimental results for sterilizer performance in laminar spore-suspension flow were well simulated dynamically and statically by theoretical considerations which incorporated multi-targets with single-hit model for the UV-inactivation kinetic and the diffuse light model for the angle characteristic of lamp, along with due attention to the parabolic velocity distribution and the negligible diffusion of spores. Scale on the outside wall of the inner tube was checked by the use of a cylindrical chemical actinometer. Calculated examples elucidate the reason why careful inspection is needed of UV-inactivation kinetics, angle characteristics of lamp, and fluid mixing to evaluate performance of actual flow UV sterilizers at high extent of inactivation up to the order of 99.999%.

  3. Wave turbulence in annular wave tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onorato, Miguel; Stramignoni, Ettore

    2014-05-01

    We perform experiments in an annular wind wave tank at the Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita' di Torino. The external diameter of the tank is 5 meters while the internal one is 1 meter. The tank is equipped by two air fans which can lead to a wind of maximum 5 m/s. The present set up is capable of studying the generation of waves and the development of wind wave spectra for large duration. We have performed different tests including different wind speeds. For large wind speed we observe the formation of spectra consistent with Kolmogorv-Zakharov predictions.

  4. Finite stretching of an annular plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biricikoglu, V.; Kalnins, A.

    1971-01-01

    The problem of the finite stretching of an annular plate which is bonded to a rigid inclusion at its inner edge is considered. The material is assumed to be isotropic and incompressible with a Mooney-type constitutive law. It is shown that the inclusion of the effect of the transverse normal strain leads to a rapid variation in thickness which is confined to a narrow edge zone. The explicit solutions to the boundary layer equations, which govern the behavior of the plate near the edges, are presented.

  5. Thread-annular flow in vertical pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frei, Ch.; Lüscher, P.; Wintermantel, E.

    2000-05-01

    Thread injection is a promising method for different minimally invasive medical applications. This paper documents an experimental study dealing with an axially moving thread in annular pipe flow. Mass flow and axial force on the thread are measured for a 0.46 mm diameter thread in pipes with diameters between 0.55 and 1.35 mm. The experiments with thread velocities of up to 1.5 ms[minus sign]1 confirm the findings of theoretical studies that for clinical requirements the radius ratio between thread and pipe is crucial for the adjustments of mass ow and force on the thread.

  6. Deep variant of Erythema Annulare Centrifugum

    OpenAIRE

    Ahu Yorulmaz; Ferda Artuz; Devrim Tuba Unal

    2014-01-01

    A 29-year-old woman came to our outpatient clinic with a several-month history of itchy red lesions over her trunk. There was no family history and past history of any other diseases or medication. Dermatological examination revealed annular and oval-shaped plaques up to several cm’s in size, one of which was polycyclic in configuration, on back of the patient (Fig. 1). It was also noticed that lesions had erythematous indurated bordes with paler central areas (Fig. 1).

  7. Deep variant of Erythema Annulare Centrifugum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahu Yorulmaz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A 29-year-old woman came to our outpatient clinic with a several-month history of itchy red lesions over her trunk. There was no family history and past history of any other diseases or medication. Dermatological examination revealed annular and oval-shaped plaques up to several cm’s in size, one of which was polycyclic in configuration, on back of the patient (Fig. 1. It was also noticed that lesions had erythematous indurated bordes with paler central areas (Fig. 1.

  8. Annular lupus vulgaris mimicking tinea cruris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Young Soo; Shin, Won Woong; Kim, Yong Ju; Song, Hae Jun; Oh, Chil Hwan

    2010-05-01

    Cutaneous tuberculosis is an infrequent form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. It is often clinically and histopathologically confused with various cutaneous disorders. A 36-year-old man attended our clinic with slowly progressive, asymptomatic, annular skin lesions on both the thighs and buttocks for 10 years. He consulted with many physicians and was improperly treated with an oral antifungal agent for several months under the diagnosis of tinea cruris, but no resolution of his condition was observed. A diagnosis of lupus vulgaris was made based on the histopathologic examination and the polymerase chain reaction assay. Anti-tuberculosis therapy was administered and the lesions started to regress.

  9. Mass transport in annular spherical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Helmut F.

    The mass transport between two concentric spheres with inlet and outlet at the poles was determined for ideal liquid flow (plug flow) and laminar flow for constant concentration at the spherical walls and constant concentration at the inlet. Velocity distribution and local concentration profiles were determined analytically for various widths of the annular spherical conduit and various diffusive flow parameters. It is found that with the increase of this parameter, the decay becomes quite rapid and that the same effect occurs for increasing diameter ratio of the spheres. This configuration may possibly be used as a basic element of an artificial kidney.

  10. Astrocytic gap junctional networks suppress cellular damage in an in vitro model of ischemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinotsuka, Takanori; Yasui, Masato; Nuriya, Mutsuo, E-mail: mnuriya@z2.keio.jp

    2014-02-07

    Highlights: • Astrocytes exhibit characteristic changes in [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} under OGD. • Astrocytic [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} increase is synchronized with a neuronal anoxic depolarization. • Gap junctional couplings protect neurons as well as astrocytes during OGD. - Abstract: Astrocytes play pivotal roles in both the physiology and the pathophysiology of the brain. They communicate with each other via extracellular messengers as well as through gap junctions, which may exacerbate or protect against pathological processes in the brain. However, their roles during the acute phase of ischemia and the underlying cellular mechanisms remain largely unknown. To address this issue, we imaged changes in the intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}) in astrocytes in mouse cortical slices under oxygen/glucose deprivation (OGD) condition using two-photon microscopy. Under OGD, astrocytes showed [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} oscillations followed by larger and sustained [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} increases. While the pharmacological blockades of astrocytic receptors for glutamate and ATP had no effect, the inhibitions of gap junctional intercellular coupling between astrocytes significantly advanced the onset of the sustained [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} increase after OGD exposure. Interestingly, the simultaneous recording of the neuronal membrane potential revealed that the onset of the sustained [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} increase in astrocytes was synchronized with the appearance of neuronal anoxic depolarization. Furthermore, the blockade of gap junctional coupling resulted in a concurrent faster appearance of neuronal depolarizations, which remain synchronized with the sustained [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} increase in astrocytes. These results indicate that astrocytes delay the appearance of the pathological responses of astrocytes and neurons through their gap junction-mediated intercellular network under OGD. Thus, astrocytic gap junctional networks provide protection against tissue damage

  11. Mass accommodation of water: bridging the gap between molecular dynamics simulations and kinetic condensation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julin, Jan; Shiraiwa, Manabu; Miles, Rachael E H; Reid, Jonathan P; Pöschl, Ulrich; Riipinen, Ilona

    2013-01-17

    The condensational growth of submicrometer aerosol particles to climate relevant sizes is sensitive to their ability to accommodate vapor molecules, which is described by the mass accommodation coefficient. However, the underlying processes are not yet fully understood. We have simulated the mass accommodation and evaporation processes of water using molecular dynamics, and the results are compared to the condensation equations derived from the kinetic gas theory to shed light on the compatibility of the two. Molecular dynamics simulations were performed for a planar TIP4P-Ew water surface at four temperatures in the range 268-300 K as well as two droplets, with radii of 1.92 and 4.14 nm at T = 273.15 K. The evaporation flux from molecular dynamics was found to be in good qualitative agreement with that predicted by the simple kinetic condensation equations. Water droplet growth was also modeled with the kinetic multilayer model KM-GAP of Shiraiwa et al. [Atmos. Chem. Phys. 2012, 12, 2777]. It was found that, due to the fast transport across the interface, the growth of a pure water droplet is controlled by gas phase diffusion. These facts indicate that the simple kinetic treatment is sufficient in describing pure water condensation and evaporation. The droplet size was found to have minimal effect on the value of the mass accommodation coefficient. The mass accommodation coefficient was found to be unity (within 0.004) for all studied surfaces, which is in agreement with previous simulation work. Additionally, the simulated evaporation fluxes imply that the evaporation coefficient is also unity. Comparing the evaporation rates of the mass accommodation and evaporation simulations indicated that the high collision flux, corresponding to high supersaturation, present in typical molecular dynamics mass accommodation simulations can under certain conditions lead to an increase in the evaporation rate. Consequently, in such situations the mass accommodation coefficient

  12. Annular and semicircular lipoatrophies. Report of three cases and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rongioletti, F; Rebora, A

    1989-03-01

    Two cases of semicircular lipoatrophy and one of annular lipoatrophy are presented. The reasons why semicircular lipoatrophy, annular lipoatrophy, and annular atrophy of the ankles seem to be different clinical entities are discussed.

  13. 75 FR 29555 - Medicare Program; Medicare Coverage Gap Discount Program Model Manufacturer Agreement and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services RIN 0938-AQ04 Medicare Program; Medicare... Meeting AGENCY: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), HHS. ACTION: Notice with comment period... manufacturers under the Medicare Coverage Gap Discount Program established by section 3301 of the...

  14. Gamma-ray pulsar physics: gap-model populations and light-curve analyses in the Fermi era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis research focusses on the study of the young and energetic isolated ordinary pulsar population detected by the Fermi gamma-ray space telescope. We compared the model expectations of four emission models and the LAT data. We found that all the models fail to reproduce the LAT detections, in particular the large number of high E objects observed. This inconsistency is not model dependent. A discrepancy between the radio-loud/radio-quiet objects ratio was also found between the observed and predicted samples. The Lγ α E0.5 relation is robustly confirmed by all the assumed models with particular agreement in the slot gap (SG) case. On luminosity bases, the intermediate altitude emission of the two pole caustic SG model is favoured. The beaming factor fΩ shows an E dependency that is slightly visible in the SG case. Estimates of the pulsar orientations have been obtained to explain the simultaneous gamma and radio light-curves. By analysing the solutions we found a relation between the observed energy cutoff and the width of the emission slot gap. This relation has been theoretically predicted. A possible magnetic obliquity α alignment with time is rejected -for all the models- on timescale of the order of 106 years. The light-curve morphology study shows that the outer magnetosphere gap emission (OGs) are favoured to explain the observed radio-gamma lag. The light curve moment studies (symmetry and sharpness) on the contrary favour a two pole caustic SG emission. All the model predictions suggest a different magnetic field layout with an hybrid two pole caustic and intermediate altitude emission to explain both the pulsar luminosity and light curve morphology. The low magnetosphere emission mechanism of the polar cap model, is systematically rejected by all the tests done. (author)

  15. Detonation diffraction from an annular channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, James; Ng, Hoi Dick; Lee, John H. S.

    2010-12-01

    In this study, gaseous detonation diffraction from an annular channel was investigated with a streak camera and the critical pressure for transmission of the detonation wave was obtained. The annular channel was used to approximate an infinite slot resulting in cylindrically expanding detonation waves. Two mixtures, stoichiometric acetylene-oxygen and stoichiometric acetylene-oxygen with 70% Ar dilution, were tested in a 4.3 and 14.3 mm channel width ( W). The undiluted and diluted mixtures were found to have values of the critical channel width over the cell size around 3 and 12 respectively. Comparing these results to values of the critical diameter ( d c ), in which a spherical detonation occurs, a value of critical d c / W c near 2 is observed for the highly diluted mixture. This value corresponds to the geometrical factor of the curvature term between a spherical and cylindrical diverging wave. Hence, the result is in support of Lee's proposed mechanism [Lee in Dynamics of Exothermicity, pp. 321, Gordon and Breach, Amsterdam, 1996] for failure due to diffraction based on curvature in stable mixtures such as those highly argon diluted with very regular detonation cellular patterns.

  16. Missed Monteggia fracture in children: Is annular ligament reconstruction always required?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhaskar Atul

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic (neglected radiocapitellar joint dislocation is one of the feared complications of Monteggia fractures especially when associated with subtle fracture of the ulna bone. Many treatment strategies have been described to manage chronic Monteggia fracture and the need for annular ligament reconstruction is not always clear. The purpose of this study is to highlight the management of missed Monteggia fracture with particular emphasis on utility of annular ligament reconstruction by comparing the two groups of patients. Materials and Methods: In a prospective study 12 patients with mean age of 7.4 years, who presented with neglected Monteggia fractures, were studied. All children underwent open reduction of the radiocapitellar joint. Five children (Group A were treated with angulation-distraction osteotomy of ulna and annular ligament reconstruction and six cases (Group B required only angulation-distraction osteotomy of ulna without ligament reconstruction. In one case an open reduction of the radiocapitellar joint was sufficient to reduce the radial head and this was included in Group B. The gap between injury and presentation was from 3 months to 18 months (mean 9 months. Ten patients were classified as Bado I, and one each as Bado II and III respectively. We used the Kim′s criteria to score our results. Result: The mean follow-up period was 22 months. All ulna osteotomies healed uneventfully. The mean loss of pronation was 15 degree in Group A and 10 degree in Group B. Elbow flexion improved from the preoperative range and no child complained of pain, deformity and restriction of activity. The elbow score was excellent in 10 cases, and good in two cases. Conclusion: Distraction-angulation osteotomy of the ulna suffices in most cases of missed monteggia fracture and the need for annular ligament reconstruction is based on intraoperative findings of radial head instability.

  17. Limited Diffraction Maps for Pulsed Wave Annular Arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Paul D.

    2002-01-01

    A procedure is provided for decomposing the linear field of flat pulsed wave annular arrays into an equivalent set of known limited diffraction Bessel beams. Each Bessel beam propagates with known characteristics, enabling good insight into the propagation of annular fields to be obtained...

  18. Obtention of an empirical equation for annular channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using a trial circuit, the experimental heat transfer coefficient is determined, in forced convection at one phase only within an annular channel in which water flows ascendantly and for this reason an empirical equation is determined. This work tries to contribute to the understanding of the forced convection phenomena in non tubular geometries like the annular channels. (Author)

  19. 75 FR 23582 - Annular Casing Pressure Management for Offshore Wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... Recommended Practice (RP) 90. As explained in API RP 90, Section 3, Annular Casing Pressure Management Program... Institute's Recommended Practice for managing annular casing pressure. New regulations are needed because... Continental Shelf lessees to follow best industry practices for wells with sustained casing pressure....

  20. Investigation of a low NOx full-scale annular combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    An atmospheric test program was conducted to evaluate a low NOx annular combustor concept suitable for a supersonic, high-altitude aircraft application. The lean premixed combustor, known as the vortex air blast (VAB) concept, was tested as a 22.0-cm diameter model in the early development phases to arrive at basic design and performance criteria. Final demonstration testing was carried out on a full scale combustor of 0.66-m diameter. Variable geometry dilution ports were incorporated to allow operation of the combustor across the range of conditions between idle (T(in) = 422 K, T(out) = 917 K) and cruise (T(in) = 833 K, T(out) - 1778 K). Test results show that the design could meet the program NOx goal of 1.0 g NO2/kg fuel at a one-atmospheric simulated cruise condition.

  1. The effects of annular flow on dynamics of AP1000 reactor coolant pump rotor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feature of AP1000 RCP rotor system is that the whole rotor system is immersed in the annular flow. The rotor in annular flow induces fluctuating fluid forces, thereby causes vibration and noise, even rotor instability. The effects of annular flow on AP1000 RCP rotor system are different from that in bearings and seals and should be considered in a new approach. Based on the turbulent bulk flow theory and perturbation analysis, the rotor-flow coupled linear dynamic model is developed to predict the dynamics of AP1000 RCP immersed rotor. During the analysis, the rotor eccentricity, stator and rotor wall friction effects are emphasized. The analytic results show the rotor eccentricity induces divergence instability and significant decrease of instability speed for system with moderate or large eccentricity; however, stator and rotor wall friction effects distinctly suppress divergence instability and increase instability speed for system with small or moderate eccentricity. Finally, we can have the conclusion that the flow-structure interaction induced by annular flow has great effects on the dynamics of AP1000 RCP immersed rotor, which should be considered in rotor dynamic analysis and design of AP1000 RCP. The method and results in the paper have theoretical significance and practical importance. (author)

  2. The influence of Thomson effect in the energy and exergy efficiency of an annular thermoelectric generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Exergy analysis in the annular thermoelectric generator (ATEG) system is proposed. • Analytical expressions for the power output, exergy efficiency of an ATEG is derived. • The effects of Sr, RL, and θ in Pout and exergy efficiency of an ATEG is studied. • The influence of Thomson effect in Pout and exergy efficiency of an ATEG is studied. - Abstract: The exoreversible thermodynamic model of an annular thermoelectric generator (ATEG) considering Thomson effect in conjunction with Peltier, Joule and Fourier heat conduction has been investigated using exergy analysis. New expressions for optimum current at the maximum power output and maximum energy, exergy efficiency conditions, and dimensionless irreversibilities in the ATEG are derived. The modified expression for figure of merit of a thermoelectric generator considering the Thomson effect has also been obtained. The results show that the power output, energy and exergy efficiency of the ATEG is lower than the flat plate thermoelectric generator. The effects of annular shape parameter (Sr = r2/r1), load resistance (RL), dimensionless temperature ratio (θ = Th/Tc) and the thermal and electrical contact resistances in power output, energy/exergy efficiency of the ATEG have been studied. It has also been proved that because of the influence of Thomson effect, the power output and energy/exergy efficiency of the ATEG is reduced. This study will help in the designing of the actual annular thermoelectric generation systems

  3. Identification of the parameters of an elastic material model using the constitutive equation gap method

    KAUST Repository

    Florentin, Éric

    2010-04-23

    Today, the identification ofmaterialmodel parameters is based more and more on full-field measurements. This article explains how an appropriate use of the constitutive equation gap method (CEGM) can help in this context. The CEGM is a well-known concept which, until now, has been used mainly for the verification of finite element simulations. This has led to many developments, especially concerning the techniques for constructing statically admissible stress fields. The originality of the present study resides in the application of these recent developments to the identification problem. The proposed CEGM is described in detail, then evaluated through the identification of heterogeneous isotropic elastic properties. The results obtained are systematically compared with those of the equilibrium gap method, which is a well-known technique for the resolution of such identification problems. We prove that the use of the enhanced CEGM significantly improves the quality of the results. © Springer-Verlag 2010.

  4. 圆环和锥形口模挤出吹塑的数值研究%The Numerical Study on Annular Die and Tapered Die in Extrusion Blow Molding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静; 彭炯; 刘沙粒; 于涛; 张丁

    2012-01-01

    The commercial software Polyflow was used to provide numerical results for three-dimensional isothermal flow field of melt and it' s parison in annular die and tapered die used in pipe extrusion blow molding and parison formation based on Carreau constitutive model. The difference of annular die and tapered die was also analyzed by considering the comprehensive effect of parison swell and sag in extrusion. The results showed that at the same entrance flow rate, with the same diameter and die gap, the pressure gradient of melt in the annular die was larger than that of the tapered die, the thickness of the parison formed by the annular die was smaller than that formed by the tapered die, the diameter of parison formed by the annular die was larger than that formed by the tapered die. The pressure gradient in the annular die and the tapered die increased with increase of the entrance flow rate. At the bottom of the parison formed by the annular die and the tapered die, the thickness and the outer radius increased with increase of the entrance flow rate. The thickness of the parison formed by tapered die was more sensitive to the entrance flow rate than that formed by the annular die.%用Polyflow软件的Carreau本构模型,数值模拟了用于管材挤出吹塑和型坯成型的圆环口模和锥形口模内熔体及其型坯的三维等温流场,考虑了挤出胀大和垂伸效应的综合影响,分析了两种口模的差异.数值计算结果表明,对于同一直径和口模间隙的环形口模和锥形口模,在相同入口流量下,环形口模内熔体的压力梯度大于锥形口模,环形口模成型型坯的厚度小于锥形口模,环形口模成型型坯的直径大于锥形口模;环形和锥形口模内熔体的压力梯度随着入口流量的增加而增加,在环形和锥形口模成型型坯的底端,型坯的厚度和外半径随着入口流量的增加而增加;锥形口模成型型坯厚度较环形口模对流量更敏感.

  5. SERVQUAL and Model of Service Quality Gaps: A Framework for Determining and Prioritizing Critical Factors from Faculty Perspective in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAJDEEP SINGH

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Service firms like other organizations are realizing the significance of customer-centered philosophies and are turning to quality management approaches to help managing their businesses. This paper has started with the concept of service quality and has demonstrated the model of service quality gaps. SERVQUAL methodology was applied for faculty as a customer to identify the gap between customer expectations and perceptions of the actual service received taking higher education as a service industry. Outcomes of the study outlined the major gaps of expectations and perceptions of the faculty of higher education and therefore give a framework for prioritizing critical factors to close the gap.

  6. Bridging the gap between global models and full fluid models: a fast 1D semi-analytical fluid model for electronegative plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurlbatt, A.; O'Connell, D.; Gans, T.

    2016-08-01

    Analytical and numerical models allow investigation of complicated discharge phenomena and the interplay that makes plasmas such a complex environment. Global models are quick to implement and can have almost negligible computation cost, but provide only bulk or spatially averaged values. Full fluid models take longer to develop, and can take days to solve, but provide accurate spatio-temporal profiles of the whole plasma. The work presented here details a different type of model, analytically similar to fluid models, but computationally closer to a global model, and able to give spatially resolved solutions for the challenging environment of electronegative plasmas. Included are non-isothermal electrons, gas heating, and coupled neutral dynamics. Solutions are reached in seconds to minutes, and spatial profiles are given for densities, fluxes, and temperatures. This allows the semi-analytical model to fill the gap that exists between global and full fluid models, extending the tools available to researchers. The semi-analytical model can perform broad parameter sweeps that are not practical with more computationally expensive models, as well as exposing non-trivial trends that global models cannot capture. Examples are given for a low pressure oxygen CCP. Excellent agreement is shown with a full fluid model, and comparisons are drawn with the corresponding global model.

  7. Mathematical Modeling of Plate−gap Biosensors with an Outer Porous Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdas Laurinavicius

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available A plate−gap model of a porous enzyme doped electrode covered by a porousinert membrane has been proposed and analyzed. The two−dimensional−in−spacemathematical model of the plate−gap biosensors is based on the reaction−diffusionequations containing a nonlinear term related to the Michaelis−Menten kinetics. Usingnumerical simulation of the biosensor action, the influence of the geometry of the outermembrane on the biosensor response was investigated at wide range of analyteconcentrations as well as of the reaction rates. The numerical simulation was carried outusing finite−difference technique. The behavior of the plate−gap biosensors was comparedwith that of a flat electrode deposited with a layer of enzyme and covered with the sameouter membrane.

  8. Dual-Band Annular-Ring Microstrip Patch Antenna for Satellite Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tvs Divakar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A dual-band circularly polarized antenna fed by four apertures that covers the bands of GPS, Galileo, is introduced. The ARSAs designed using FR4 substrates in the L and S bands have 3-dB axial-ratio bandwidths (ARBWs of as large as 37% and 52%, respectively, whereas the one using an RT5880 substrate in the L band, 61%. In these 3-dB axial-ratio bands, impedance matching with VSWR<=1.8 is also achieved. Three wideband planar baluns are used to achieve good axial ratio and VSWR. The results of the annular-ring microstrip antenna show good performance of a dual-band operation, which meets the requirement of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS applications.

  9. Knowledge Gaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyles, Marjorie; Pedersen, Torben; Petersen, Bent

    2003-01-01

    , assimilating, and utilizing knowledge - are crucial determinants ofknowledge gap elimination. In contrast, the two factors deemed essential in traditionalinternationalization process theory - elapsed time of operations and experientiallearning - are found to have no or limited effect.Key words......: Internationalization, knowledge gap, absorptive capacity, learning box....

  10. Facility modernization Annular Core Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) has undergone numerous modifications since its conception in response to program needs. The original reactor fuel, which was special U-ZrH TRIGA fuel designed primarily for pulsing, has been replaced with a higher pulsing capacity BeO fuel. Other advanced operating modes which use this increased capability, in addition to the pulse and steady state, have been incorporated to tailor power histories and fluences to the experiments. Various experimental facilities have been developed that range from a radiography facility to a 50 cm diameter External Fuel Ring Cavity (FREC) using 180 of the original ZrH fuel elements. Currently a digital reactor console is being produced with GA, which will give enhanced monitoring capabilities of the reactor parameters while leaving the safety-related shutdown functions with analog technology. (author)

  11. A 3-Dimensional Model of Water-Bearing Sequences in the Dominguez Gap Region, Long Beach, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponti, Daniel J.; Ehman, Kenneth D.; Edwards, Brian D.; Tinsley, John C.; Hildenbrand, Thomas; Hillhouse, John W.; Hanson, Randall T.; McDougall, Kristen; Powell, Charles L.; Wan, Elmira; Land, Michael; Mahan, Shannon; Sarna-Wojcicki, Andrei M.

    2007-01-01

    A 3-dimensional computer model of the Quaternary sequence stratigraphy in the Dominguez gap region of Long Beach, California has been developed to provide a robust chronostratigraphic framework for hydrologic and tectonic studies. The model consists of 13 layers within a 16.5 by 16.1 km (10.25 by 10 mile) square area and extends downward to an altitude of -900 meters (-2952.76 feet). Ten sequences of late Pliocene to Holocene age are identified and correlated within the model. Primary data to build the model comes from five reference core holes, extensive high-resolution seismic data obtained in San Pedro Bay, and logs from several hundred water and oil wells drilled in the region. The model is best constrained in the vicinity of the Dominguez gap seawater intrusion barrier where a dense network of subsurface data exist. The resultant stratigraphic framework and geologic structure differs significantly from what has been proposed in earlier studies. An important new discovery from this approach is the recognition of ongoing tectonic deformation throughout nearly all of Quaternary time that has impacted the geometry and character of the sequences. Anticlinal folding along a NW-SE trend, probably associated with Quaternary reactivation of the Wilmington anticline, has uplifted and thinned deposits along the fold crest, which intersects the Dominguez gap seawater barrier near Pacific Coast Highway. A W-NW trending fault system that approximately parallels the fold crest has also been identified. This fault progressively displaces all but the youngest sequences down to the north and serves as the southern termination of the classic Silverado aquifer. Uplift and erosion of fining-upward paralic sequences along the crest of the young fold has removed or thinned many of the fine-grained beds that serve to protect the underlying Silverado aquifer from seawater contaminated shallow groundwater. As a result of this process, the potential exists for vertical migration of

  12. Annular MHD Physics for Turbojet Energy Bypass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Steven J.

    2011-01-01

    The use of annular Hall type MHD generator/accelerator ducts for turbojet energy bypass is evaluated assuming weakly ionized flows obtained from pulsed nanosecond discharges. The equations for a 1-D, axisymmetric MHD generator/accelerator are derived and numerically integrated to determine the generator/accelerator performance characteristics. The concept offers a shockless means of interacting with high speed inlet flows and potentially offers variable inlet geometry performance without the complexity of moving parts simply by varying the generator loading parameter. The cycle analysis conducted iteratively with a spike inlet and turbojet flying at M = 7 at 30 km altitude is estimated to have a positive thrust per unit mass flow of 185 N-s/kg. The turbojet allowable combustor temperature is set at an aggressive 2200 deg K. The annular MHD Hall generator/accelerator is L = 3 m in length with a B(sub r) = 5 Tesla magnetic field and a conductivity of sigma = 5 mho/m for the generator and sigma= 1.0 mho/m for the accelerator. The calculated isentropic efficiency for the generator is eta(sub sg) = 84 percent at an enthalpy extraction ratio, eta(sub Ng) = 0.63. The calculated isentropic efficiency for the accelerator is eta(sub sa) = 81 percent at an enthalpy addition ratio, eta(sub Na) = 0.62. An assessment of the ionization fraction necessary to achieve a conductivity of sigma = 1.0 mho/m is n(sub e)/n = 1.90 X 10(exp -6), and for sigma = 5.0 mho/m is n(sub e)/n = 9.52 X 10(exp -6).

  13. Recurrent Annular Peripheral Choroidal Detachment after Trabeculectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaohui Liu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We report a challenging case of recurrent flat anterior chamber without hypotony after trabeculectomy in a 54-year-old Black male with a remote history of steroid-treated polymyositis, cataract surgery, and uncontrolled open angle glaucoma. The patient presented with a flat chamber on postoperative day 11, but had a normal fundus exam and intraocular pressure (IOP. Flat chamber persisted despite treatment with cycloplegics, steroids, and a Healon injection into the anterior chamber. A transverse B-scan of the peripheral fundus revealed a shallow annular peripheral choroidal detachment. The suprachoroidal fluid was drained. The patient presented 3 days later with a recurrent flat chamber and an annular peripheral choroidal effusion. The fluid was removed and reinforcement of the scleral flap was performed with the resolution of the flat anterior chamber. A large corneal epithelial defect developed after the second drainage. The oral prednisone was tapered quickly and the topical steroid was decreased. One week later, his vision decreased to count fingers with severe corneal stromal edema and Descemet's membrane folds that improved to 20/50 within 24 h of resumption of the oral steroid and frequent topical steroid. The patient's visual acuity improved to 20/20 following a slow withdrawal of the oral and topical steroid. Eight months after surgery, the IOP was 15 mm Hg without glaucoma medication. The detection of a shallow anterior choroidal detachment by transverse B-scan is critical to making the correct diagnosis. Severe cornea edema can occur if the steroid is withdrawn too quickly. Thus, steroids should be tapered cautiously in steroid-dependent patients.

  14. Extended two-temperature model for ultrafast thermal response of band gap materials upon impulsive optical excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Taeho [Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139-4307 (United States); Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, Suwon 443-803 (Korea, Republic of); Teitelbaum, Samuel W.; Wolfson, Johanna; Nelson, Keith A., E-mail: kanelson@mit.edu [Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139-4307 (United States); Kandyla, Maria [Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139-4307 (United States); Theoretical and Physical Chemistry Institute, National Hellenic Research Foundation, Athens 116-35 (Greece)

    2015-11-21

    Thermal modeling and numerical simulations have been performed to describe the ultrafast thermal response of band gap materials upon optical excitation. A model was established by extending the conventional two-temperature model that is adequate for metals, but not for semiconductors. It considers the time- and space-dependent density of electrons photoexcited to the conduction band and accordingly allows a more accurate description of the transient thermal equilibration between the hot electrons and lattice. Ultrafast thermal behaviors of bismuth, as a model system, were demonstrated using the extended two-temperature model with a view to elucidating the thermal effects of excitation laser pulse fluence, electron diffusivity, electron-hole recombination kinetics, and electron-phonon interactions, focusing on high-density excitation.

  15. Extended two-temperature model for ultrafast thermal response of band gap materials upon impulsive optical excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Taeho; Teitelbaum, Samuel W; Wolfson, Johanna; Kandyla, Maria; Nelson, Keith A

    2015-11-21

    Thermal modeling and numerical simulations have been performed to describe the ultrafast thermal response of band gap materials upon optical excitation. A model was established by extending the conventional two-temperature model that is adequate for metals, but not for semiconductors. It considers the time- and space-dependent density of electrons photoexcited to the conduction band and accordingly allows a more accurate description of the transient thermal equilibration between the hot electrons and lattice. Ultrafast thermal behaviors of bismuth, as a model system, were demonstrated using the extended two-temperature model with a view to elucidating the thermal effects of excitation laser pulse fluence, electron diffusivity, electron-hole recombination kinetics, and electron-phonon interactions, focusing on high-density excitation. PMID:26590551

  16. Auto-thermal combustion of lean gaseous fuels utilizing a recuperative annular double-layer catalytic converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budzianowski, W.M. [Wroclaw Univ. of Technology, Wroclaw (Poland). Div. of Chemical and Biochemical Processes, Faculty of Chemistry; Miller, R. [Wroclaw Univ. of Technology, Wroclaw (Poland). Inst. of Power Engineering and Fluid Mechanics, Faculty of Mechanical and Power Engineering

    2008-08-15

    This study investigated the auto-thermal combustion of lean gaseous fuels in a recuperative annular double-layer catalytic converter. An analysis of the stationary and transient performance of annular converters was presented. The feasibility of lean gaseous mixture combustion in auto-thermally operated recuperative annular double-layer catalytic converters was investigated. The aim of the study was to build a process model using mass, energy, and momentum differential balances. The model was used to study the static behaviour of a recuperative annular double layer converter; an annular converter operating in transient conditions; and energy accumulation and recuperation interactions. The effects of fuel temperature, external cooling, and fuel concentration were examined. Results of the study showed that a substantial reduction of the inter- and intra-phase resistances to mass and heat transfer was obtained. It was demonstrated that the use of a low value for the substrate's thermal conductivity accelerated ignition and retarded extinction. The recuperative converter was able to transfer short-time inlet disturbances of various parameters due to the energy accumulation and temporal reversed recuperation which counteracted destructive overheating of the catalysts. The stability analyses showed stable and unstable branches of solutions for the different parameters of the recuperative converter. 21 refs., 1 tab., 23 figs.

  17. Characteristics of Electromagnetic Pulse Coupling into Annular Apertures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Peng Sun

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic pulse (EMP coupling into the annular apertures can disturb or damage much electronic equipment. To enhance electronic system’s  capability of anti-electromagnetic interference, the finite difference time domain method (FDTD was employed to study the characteristics of electromagnetic pulse coupling into the cavity enclosures with annular apertures. The coupling characteristics of annular apertures with different shapes (rectangle, square and circle were discussed. It shows that, in the case of the same aperture area, the coupling energy of electromagnetic pulse into the circular annular aperture is smaller than that into the rectangular and the square ones. To the rectangular annular aperture, while the polarization direction of the incident electromagnetic pulse is perpendicular to the long side of the rectangular annular aperture, the coupling energy is larger when the aspect ratio of the rectangular annular aperture is larger. The coupling effect of incident pulse with short pulse width is obviously better than the one with longer pulse width. The resonance phenomenon of the coupled waveform occurs in the cavity.

  18. LDA measurement of the passage flow field in an annular airfoil cascade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauter, R. C.; Fleeter, S.

    1987-01-01

    Models to predict the complex three-dimensional flow through turbomachine blade rows are being developed. To verify these models and direct necessary refinements, it is necessary that predictions be correlated with data obtained in experiments which model the fundamental three-dimensional blade row flow phenomena. This paper describes a series of experiments performed in a large scale, subsonic, annular cascade facility specifically designed to provide such data. In particular, the effect of incidence angle on the three-dimensional passage flow field through an annular cascade of cambered airfoils is investigated and quantified, accomplished by obtaining detailed and expensive LDA data. These data demonstrate and quantify the development of the passage vortices through the airfoil passage and their strong interaction with the endwall boundary layers.

  19. FEAST 3.1: finite-element modeling of sheath deformation such as longitudinal ridging and collapse into axial gap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X.; Xu, Z.; Kim, Y-S.; Lai, L.; Cheng, G.; Xu, S. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    During normal operation, the collapsible CANDU® fuel sheath deforms, especially, it may deform into longitudinal ridges or collapse instantaneously into the axial gaps between the end pellet and endcap or between two neighbouring pellets. These phenomena occur under certain conditions, such as the coolant pressure exceeding critical pressures for longitudinal ridging or axial collapse. Both longitudinal ridging and axial collapse phenomena result from plastic instability in the sheath under coolant pressure. Longitudinal ridging features one or multiple lobes or 'ridges' (outward from the sheath surface) formed along the sheath in the longitudinal direction. Axial collapse features a 'valley' around the sheath circumference. Both phenomena can lead to sheath overstrain, which in turn potentially leads to sheath failure. The LONGER code, which contains empirical correlations, has been used to predict the critical pressures for these two sheath deformation phenomena. To study fuel behaviour outside of the application ranges of the LONGER empirical correlations, a mechanistic model is needed. FEAST (Finite Element Analysis for Stresses) is an AECL computer code used to assess the structural integrity of the CANDU fuel element. The FEAST code has recently been developed (to Version 3.1) to model processes occurring during longitudinal ridge formation and instantaneous collapse into the axial gap. The new models include those for geometric non-linearity (large deformation, large material rotation), non-linear stress-strain curve for plastic deformation, Zr-4 sheath creep law, and variable Young’s Modulus etc. This paper describes the mechanistic model (FEAST 3.1) development for analyses of longitudinal ridging and instantaneous collapse into axial gap, and the comparison with the results from empirical correlations in LONGER. (author)

  20. Impacts of continual and periodic disturbances on a Central Amazonian forest: lessons from a gap model for future model improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, J. A.; Chambers, J. Q.; Collins, W.

    2013-12-01

    Uncertainties surrounding vegetation and carbon responses to increased disturbance rates associated with climate change remains a major global change issue for Amazon forests. To help quantify the impacts of increased disturbances on climate and the earth system, the fidelity of tree mortality and disturbance algorithms in global land surface models (here the Community Land Model, CLM) warrant critical evaluation. In order to address this issue, we parameterized and calibrated ZELIG-TROP, a dynamic vegetation gap model, to simulate a complex Central Amazon forest toward improving disturbance-recovery processes in CLM. To evaluate the long-term consequences of increased disturbance rates in ZELIG-TROP and CLM for a Central Amazon rainforest, we 1) doubled background tree mortality rates (i.e., high disturbance treatment), and 2) applied a periodic disturbance treatment of removing 20% of stems every 50 years (i.e., periodic treatment) and compared model results. For the high disturbance treatment, ZELIG-TROP predicted that AGB and ANPP decreased by an average of 110 Mg ha-1 and 0.48 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 respectively (41.9% and 7.7%). The net carbon loss due to the periodic treatment, with four large-scale disturbances, was not as extreme as the loss from the high disturbance treatment, due to recovery dynamics. AGB only decreased by 15.9% (vs. 41.9%), however ANPP decreased by 19% (vs. 7.7%). For the high disturbance treatment in ZELIG-TROP, there were a higher proportion of smaller stems and a decrease in larger stems. This resulted in a decrease in coarse litter (trunks and large branches >10 cm in diameter) production rates (Mg C ha-1 yr-1) by 11.5%. For the periodic disturbance the average coarse litter production rates increased by 11.2% due to the four large-scale disturbance events. A comparison of the biomass response of ZELIG-TROP and CLM from simulated disturbance and recovery events displayed the same pattern between the two models, and for both disturbance

  1. Application of Stochastic Automata Networks for Creation of Continuous Time Markov Chain Models of Voltage Gating of Gap Junction Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mindaugas Snipas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary goal of this work was to study advantages of numerical methods used for the creation of continuous time Markov chain models (CTMC of voltage gating of gap junction (GJ channels composed of connexin protein. This task was accomplished by describing gating of GJs using the formalism of the stochastic automata networks (SANs, which allowed for very efficient building and storing of infinitesimal generator of the CTMC that allowed to produce matrices of the models containing a distinct block structure. All of that allowed us to develop efficient numerical methods for a steady-state solution of CTMC models. This allowed us to accelerate CPU time, which is necessary to solve CTMC models, ∼20 times.

  2. Detonation Initiation by Annular Jets and Shock Waves

    OpenAIRE

    Shepherd, Joseph E.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this research is to experimentally determine the feasibility of initiating detonation in fuel-air mixtures using only the energy in hot, compressed air. The existing 6-inch shock tube at Caltech was used to create hot, high-pressure air behind a reflected shock wave. The hot air created an imploding annular shock wave when it jetted through an annular orifice into a 76-mm-diameter, 1-m-long tube attached to the end of the shock tube. A special test section with an annular ...

  3. Radiation and reflection acoustical fields of an annular phased array

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAI Puxiang; ZHANG Bixing; WANG Chenghao

    2007-01-01

    The characteristics of the radiation and reflection acoustical fields of an annular phased array are investigated. The effects of the element number, element radius, interelement spacing, centre frequency, focus position, and other parameters on the radiation acoustical field of the annular phased array is theoretically studied. In experiment, an annular transducer with 8 equal-area elements is designed and fabricated, and a series of experimental measurements are conducted. The radiation acoustical field and its reflection on a liquid-solid interface are theoretically and experimentally studied. The experimental result is in good agreement with the theoretical one.

  4. A gap-filling model for eddy covariance latent heat flux: Estimating evapotranspiration of a subtropical seasonal evergreen broad-leaved forest as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Ying; Chu, Chia-Ren; Li, Ming-Hsu

    2012-10-01

    SummaryIn this paper we present a semi-parametric multivariate gap-filling model for tower-based measurement of latent heat flux (LE). Two statistical techniques, the principal component analysis (PCA) and a nonlinear interpolation approach were integrated into this LE gap-filling model. The PCA was first used to resolve the multicollinearity relationships among various environmental variables, including radiation, soil moisture deficit, leaf area index, wind speed, etc. Two nonlinear interpolation methods, multiple regressions (MRS) and the K-nearest neighbors (KNNs) were examined with random selected flux gaps for both clear sky and nighttime/cloudy data to incorporate into this LE gap-filling model. Experimental results indicated that the KNN interpolation approach is able to provide consistent LE estimations while MRS presents over estimations during nighttime/cloudy. Rather than using empirical regression parameters, the KNN approach resolves the nonlinear relationship between the gap-filled LE flux and principal components with adaptive K values under different atmospheric states. The developed LE gap-filling model (PCA with KNN) works with a RMSE of 2.4 W m-2 (˜0.09 mm day-1) at a weekly time scale by adding 40% artificial flux gaps into original dataset. Annual evapotranspiration at this study site were estimated at 736 mm (1803 MJ) and 728 mm (1785 MJ) for year 2008 and 2009, respectively.

  5. Critical behavior of the Higgs- and Goldstone-mass gaps for the two-dimensional S=1 XY model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiro Nishiyama

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Spectral properties for the two-dimensional quantum S=1 XY model were investigated with the exact diagonalization method. In the symmetry-broken phase, there appear the massive Higgs and massless Goldstone excitations, which correspond to the longitudinal and transverse modes of the spontaneous magnetic moment, respectively. The former excitation branch is embedded in the continuum of the latter, and little attention has been paid to the details, particularly, in proximity to the critical point. The finite-size-scaling behavior is improved by extending the interaction parameters. An analysis of the critical amplitude ratio for these mass gaps is made.

  6. A Numerical and an Experimental Study for Optimization of a Small Annular Combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iki, Norihiko; Gruber, Andrea; Yoshida, Hiro

    The small annular combustor of a micro gas turbine fueled with methane is investigated experimentally and numerically in order to improve the overall efficiency of the small engine. The CFD analysis of the tiny combustor relies on a low Reynolds number turbulence model coupled to the Eddy Dissipation Concept (EDC) and provides important insight about the turbulent flow pattern, flame shape, position and optimal flame anchoring. For the experimental observation, a model combustor, representing 120 degrees of the original annular combustor, is fabricated, which enables us to visualize internal flow. The burning area in the combustion chamber moves to downstream with increase of air flow rate. At full-load, some fuel remains at the combustion chamber exit. Moreover, temperatures are measured and compared with the numerical simulations. The results shown here will form the basis for future optimization of the micro gas turbine with minimal or no increase in combustor pressure loss.

  7. Mythic gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Hansen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Different kinds of omissions sometimes occur, or are perceived to occur, in traditional narratives and in tradition-inspired literature. A familiar instance is when a narrator realizes that he or she does not fully remember the story that he or she has begun to tell, and so leaves out part of it, which for listeners may possibly result in an unintelligible narrative. But many instances of narrative gap are not so obvious. From straightforward, objective gaps one can distinguish less-obvious subjective gaps: in many cases narrators do not leave out anything crucial or truly relevant from their exposition, and yet readers perceive gaps and take steps to fill them. The present paper considers four examples of subjective gaps drawn from ancient Greek literature (the Pandora myth, ancient Roman literature (the Pygmalion legend, ancient Hebrew literature (the Joseph legend, and early Christian literature (the Jesus legend. I consider the quite varied ways in which interpreters expand the inherited texts of these stories, such as by devising names, manufacturing motives, creating backstories, and in general filling in biographical ellipses. Finally, I suggest an explanation for the phenomenon of subjective gaps, arguing that, despite their variety, they have a single cause.

  8. Annular flow analysis model for boiling heat transfer in vertical narrow rectangular gap%竖直矩形狭缝通道内环状流沸腾换热分析模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒲鹏飞; 潘良明; 李午申; 黄永军

    2005-01-01

    对竖直矩形狭缝通道内有液滴卷吸环状流阶段流动沸腾进行分析.以液膜紊流的动量方程和能量方程为基础,加上相应的边界条件和使控制方程组封闭的经验关系式,建立了环状流的数学模型并进行数值计算,得到了矩形狭缝通道内的液膜厚度分布、沸腾传热系数等结果;将模型预测的换热系数同实验关系式作比较,最大相对误差为17.8%.

  9. Influence of the Southern Annular Mode on the sea ice-ocean system

    OpenAIRE

    W. Lefebvre; Goosse, H.; Timmermann, R.; Fichefet, T.

    2004-01-01

    [1] The global sea ice - ocean model ORCA2-LIM, driven by the NCEP/NCAR ( National Centers for Environmental Prediction-National Center for Atmospheric Research) reanalysis daily 2-m air temperatures and 10-m winds and by monthly climatologies for precipitation, cloud cover, and relative humidity, is used to investigate the impact of the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) on the Antarctic sea ice-ocean system. Our results suggest that the response of the circumpolar Southern Ocean consists of an ann...

  10. Direct and ozone-mediated forcing of the Southern Annular Mode by greenhouse gases

    OpenAIRE

    Morgenstern, Olaf; ZENG Guang; Dean, Sam M.; Joshi, Manoj; Abraham, N. Luke; Osprey, Annette

    2014-01-01

    We assess the roles of long-lived greenhouse gases and ozone depletion in driving meridional surface pressure gradients in the southern extratropics; these gradients are a defining feature of the Southern Annular Mode. Stratospheric ozone depletion is thought to have caused a strengthening of this mode during summer, with increasing long-lived greenhouse gases playing a secondary role. Using a coupled atmosphere-ocean chemistry-climate model, we show that there is cancelation between the dire...

  11. Vertical annular gas–liquid two-phase flow in large diameter pipes

    OpenAIRE

    Aliyu, A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Gas–liquid annular two phase flow in pipes is important in the oil and gas, nuclear and the process industries. It has been identified as one of the most frequently encountered flow regimes and many models (empirical and theoretical) for the film flow and droplet behaviour for example have been developed since the 1950s. However, the behaviour in large pipes (those with diameter greater than 100 mm) has not been fully explored. As a result, the two- phase flow characteristic...

  12. The thermophysical properties of gases determined using an annular acoustic resonator

    OpenAIRE

    Buxton, A. J.

    1997-01-01

    A novel annular acoustic resonator was constructed for measurements of the speed of sound in gases at pressures below 1 MPa. The resonator was designed to allow measurements of the speed and absorption of sound at low pressure in gases with large bulk viscosities. Measurements in propene, for which the speed of sound is known, served to characterise the geometry of the resonator and provide a test of the acoustic model for the system. A detailed description of the resonator whi...

  13. GAP Analysis Program (GAP) Raster

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Kansas GAP Land Cover database depicts 43 land cover classes for the state of Kansas. The database was generated using a two-stage hybrid classification of...

  14. Annular bright and dark field imaging of soft materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Here polyethylene, as an example of an important soft material, was studied by STEM annular bright and dark field. The contrast as function of the probe size/shape and the detector collection angle are discussed. The results are compared to conventional bright field transmission electron microscopy, electron energy filtered imaging and energy dispersive spectroscopy mapping. Annular bright and dark field gave a higher contrast than conventional transmission and analytical mapping techniques

  15. Radiographic, densitometric, and biomechanical effects of recombinant canine somatotropin in an unstable ostectomy gap model of bone healing in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the effect of recombinant canine somatotropin (STH) on radiographic, densitometric, and biomechanical aspects of bone healing using an unstable ostectomy gap model. Study Design: After an ostectomy of the midshaft radius, bone healing was evaluated over an 8-week period in control dogs (n = 4) and dogs receiving recombinant canine STH (n = 4). Animals Or Sample Population: Eight sexually intact female Beagle dogs, 4 to 5 years old. Methods: Bone healing was evaluated by qualitative and quantitative evaluation of serial radiographs every 2 weeks. Terminal dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and three-point bending biomechanical testing were also performed. Results: Dogs receiving STH had more advanced radiographic healing of ostectomy sites. Bone area, bone mineral content, and bone density were two to five times greater at the ostectomy sites of treated dogs. Ultimate load at failure and stiffness were three and five times greater in dogs receiving STH. Conclusions: Using the ostectomy gap model, recombinant canine STH enhanced the radiographic, densitometric, and biomechanical aspects of bone healing in dogs. Clinical Relevance: Dogs at risk for delayed healing of fractures may benefit from treatment with recombinant canine STH

  16. Tests of models of color reconnection and a search for glueballs using gluon jets with a rapidity gap

    CERN Document Server

    Abbiendi, G; Åkesson, P F; Alexander, G; Allison, J; Amaral, P; Anagnostou, G; Anderson, K J; Arcelli, S; Asai, S; Axen, D A; Azuelos, Georges; Bailey, I; Barberio, E; Barlow, R J; Batley, J Richard; Bechtle, P; Behnke, T; Bell, K W; Bell, P J; Bella, G; Bellerive, A; Benelli, G; Bethke, Siegfried; Biebel, O; Bock, P; Boeriu, O; Boutemeur, M; Braibant, S; Brigliadori, L; Brown, R M; Burckhart, H J; Büsser, K; Campana, S; Carnegie, R K; Caron, B; Carter, A A; Carter, J R; Chang, C Y; Charlton, D G; Csilling, Akos; Cuffiani, M; Dado, S; de Roeck, A; De Wolf, E A; Desch, Klaus; Dienes, B; Donkers, M; Dubbert, J; Duchovni, E; Duckeck, G; Duerdoth, I P; Etzion, E; Fabbri, Franco Luigi; Feld, L; Ferrari, P; Fiedler, F; Fleck, I; Ford, M; Frey, A; Fürtjes, A; Gagnon, P; Gary, J W; Gaycken, G; Geich-Gimbel, C; Giacomelli, G; Giacomelli, P; Giunta, M; Goldberg, J; Gross, E; Grunhaus, Jacob; Gruwé, M; Günther, P O; Hajdu, C; Hamann, M; Hanson, G G; Harder, K; Harel, A; Harin-Dirac, M; Hauschild, M; Hawkes, C M; Hawkings, R; Hemingway, Richard J; Hensel, C; Herten, G; Heuer, R D; Hill, J C; Hoffman, K; Horváth, D; Igo-Kemenes, P; Ishii, K; Jeremie, H; Jovanovic, P; Junk, T R; Kanaya, N; Kanzaki, J; Karapetian, G V; Karlen, Dean A; Kawagoe, K; Kawamoto, T; Keeler, Richard K; Kellogg, R G; Kennedy, B W; Kim, D H; Klein, K; Klier, A; Kluth, S; Kobayashi, T; Kobel, M; Komamiya, S; Kormos, L L; Kramer, T; Krieger, P; Von Krogh, J; Krüger, K; Kupper, M; Kühl, T; Lafferty, G D; Landsman, Hagar Yaël; Lanske, D; Layter, J G; Leins, A; Lellouch, D; Letts, J; Levinson, L; Lillich, J; Lloyd, S L; Loebinger, F K; Lü, J; Ludwig, J; MacPherson, A; Mader, W; Marcellini, S; Martin, A J; Masetti, G; Mashimo, T; McDonald, W J; McKenna, J A; McMahon, T J; McPherson, R A; Meijers, F; Menges, W; Merritt, F S; Mes, H; Michelini, Aldo; Mihara, S; Mikenberg, G; Miller, D J; Moed, S; Mohr, W; Mori, T; Mutter, A; Mättig, P; Nagai, K; Nakamura, I; Nanjo, H; Neal, H A; Nisius, R; O'Neale, S W; Oh, A; Okpara, A N; Oreglia, M J; Orito, S; Pahl, C; Pater, J R; Patrick, G N; Pilcher, J E; Pinfold, J L; Plane, D E; Poli, B; Polok, J; Pooth, O; Przybycien, M B; Pásztor, G; Quadt, A; Rabbertz, K; Rembser, C; Renkel, P; Roney, J M; Rosati, S; Rozen, Y; Runge, K; Sachs, K; Saeki, T; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E; Schaile, A D; Schaile, O; Scharff-Hansen, P; Schieck, J; Schröder, M; Schumacher, M; Schwick, C; Schörner-Sadenius, T; Scott, W G; Sen-Gupta, A; Seuster, R; Shears, T G; Shen, B C; Sherwood, P; Siroli, G P; Skuja, A; Smith, A M; Sobie, R J; Spanó, F; Stahl, A; Stephens, K; Strom, D; Ströhmer, R; Söldner-Rembold, S; Tarem, S; Tasevsky, M; Taylor, R J; Teuscher, R; Thomson, M A; Torrence, E; Toya, D; Tran, P; Trigger, I; Trócsányi, Z L; Tsur, E; Turner-Watson, M F; Ueda, I; Ujvári, B; Vannerem, P; Vertesi, R; Verzocchi, M; Vollmer, C F; Voss, H; Vossebeld, Joost Herman; Waller, D; Ward, C P; Ward, D R; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Wells, P S; Wengler, T; Wermes, N; Wetterling, D; Wilson, G W; Wilson, J A; Wolf, G; Wyatt, T R; Yamashita, S; Zer-Zion, D; Zivkovic, L

    2004-01-01

    Gluon jets with a mean energy of 22 GeV and purity of 95% are selected from hadronic Z0 decay events produced in e+e- annihilations. A subsample of these jets is identified which exhibits a large gap in the rapidity distribution of particles within the jet. After imposing the requirement of a rapidity gap, the gluon jet purity is 86%. These jets are observed to demonstrate a high degree of sensitivity to the presence of color reconnection, i.e. higher order QCD processes affecting the underlying color structure. We use our data to test three QCD models which include a simulation of color reconnection: one in the Ariadne Monte Carlo, one in the Herwig Monte Carlo, and the other by Rathsman in the Pythia Monte Carlo. We find the Rathsman and Ariadne color reconnection models can describe our gluon jet measurements only if very large values are used for the cutoff parameters which serve to terminate the parton showers, and that the description of inclusive Z0 data is significantly degraded in this case. We concl...

  17. Non-Newtonian fluid flow in annular pipes and entropy generation: Temperature-dependent viscosity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Yürüsoy; B S Yilbaş; M Pakdemirli

    2006-12-01

    Non-Newtonian fluid flow in annular pipes is considered and the entropy generation due to fluid friction and heat transfer in them is formulated. A third-grade fluid is employed to account for the non-Newtonian effect, while the Reynolds model is accommodated for temperature-dependent viscosity. Closed-form solutions for velocity, temperature, and entropy fields are presented. It is found that entropy generation number increases with reducing non-Newtonian parameter, while it is the reverse for the viscosity parameter, which is more pronounced in the region close to the annular pipe inner wall.

  18. Quantifying the eddy-jet feedback strength of the annular mode in an idealized GCM and reanalysis data

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Ding; Hassanzadeh, Pedram; Kuang, Zhiming

    2016-01-01

    A linear response function (LRF) that relates the temporal tendency of zonal mean temperature and zonal wind to their anomalies and external forcing is used to accurately quantify the strength of the eddy-jet feedback associated with the annular mode in an idealized GCM. Following a simple feedback model, the results confirm the presence of a positive eddy-jet feedback in the annular mode dynamics, with a feedback strength of 0.137 day$^{-1}$ in the idealized GCM. Statistical methods proposed...

  19. Annular burnout data from rod bundle experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnout data for annular flow in a rod bundle are presented for both transient and steady-state conditions. Tests were performed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the Thermal Hydraulic Test Facility (THTF), a pressurized-water loop containing an electrically heated 64-rod bundle. The bundle configuration is typical of later generation pressurized-water reactors with 17 x 17 fuel arrays. Both axial and radial power profiles are flat. All experiments were carried out in upflow with subcooled inlet conditions, insuring accurate flow measurement. Conditions within the bundle were typical of those which could be encountered during a nuclear reactor loss-of-coolant accident. Level average fluid conditions within the test section were calculated using steady-state mass and energy conservation considerations for the steady-state tests and a transient, homogeneous, equilibrium computer code for the transient tests. Unlike tube dryout, burnout within a rod bundle does not necessarily occur at one distinct axial level. The location of individual rod dryout was determined by scanning rods axially and locating the position where rod superheat increased from approx. =0 to 30 K or greater. Thermocouple instrumentation within the bundle allows the location of dryout to be determined to within approximately +.5 cm for many of the tests

  20. An analytical model for predicting dryout point in bilaterally heated vertical narrow annuli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AYE Myint; TIAN Wen-Xi; JIA Dou-Nan; LI Zhi-Hui; LI Hao

    2005-01-01

    Based on the droplet-diffusion model by Kirillov and Smogalev (1969, 1972), a new analytical model of dryout point prediction in the steam-water flow for bilaterally and uniformly heated narrow annular gap was developed. Comparisons of the present model predictions with experimental results indicated that a good agreement in ac curacy for the experimental parametric range (pressure from 0.8 to 3.5 MPa, mass flux of 60.39 to 135.6 kg·m-2·s-1 and heat flux of 5 to 50 kW·m-2). Prediction of dryout point was experimentally investigated with deionized water upflowing through narrow annular channel with 1.0 mm and 1.5 mm gap heated by AC power supply.

  1. Mind the Gaps: Wikipedia as an education model and public duty for scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boustead, Greg; Wiki Education Foundation

    2016-06-01

    Search for almost any scientific term on the Internet, and chances are that a Wikipedia page will be the first result. Wikipedia’s content reaches more than 450 million readers around the world, at a rate of about 8,000 readers a second. That makes Wikipedia one of the most powerful platforms for the dissemination of science information in the world. Although Wikipedia’s coverage of science topics is robust, clear gaps remain — especially with subject matter that requires technical or specialized expertise. Some information is woefully out of date; and, while a minority, some scientific entries on Wikipedia are simply inaccurate. Furthermore, the underrepresentation of women, and diversity in general, remains a real issue. The Wikipedia Year of Science 2016 is an unprecedented targeted initiative designed to improve Wikipedia’s potential for communicating science to the public. The multi-faceted effort is a program conceived by the Wiki Education Foundation, with support from the Simons Foundation and Google. This talk will provide a brief overview of the Wikipedia Year of Science initiative, and ways AAS members can get involved — during the meeting, in the classroom, and beyond.

  2. Numerical Simulation of Convective Heat Transfer in Annular Gap between Rotating Inner Cylinder and Concentric Fixed Outer Cylinder%同心圆柱体间旋转气隙内对流换热的数值模拟研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙玉昕; 赵旭峰; 吴波

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the convective heat transfer characteristic of air gap between rotating inner cylinder and concentric fixed outer cylinder has been simulated using commercial Computation Fluid Dynamic (CFD) software. Distributions of velocity field, temperature field and heat flux have been analyzed at different Taylor number. Comparing with the Nusselt number calculated by empirical formula, the average relative error of the averaged Nusselt number calculated by CFD simulation is at a reasonable scope, which validates the effectiveness of numerical simulation. Results show that, due to the existence of Taylor vortexes, distributions of velocity field, temperature field and heat flux fluctuate periodically along axial direction, and the frequency of the fluctuation correspond with the number of vortexes in the fluid field. Fluctuation of velocity and temperature has same change trend, while the trend of heat flux is opposite. Averaged Nusselt number enlarges with the increase of Taylor number, and the larger Nusselt number is, the better convective heat transfer performance is. Additionally, the convective heat transfer characteristic of air gap with slots has also been simulated, and reasons why Taylor-Couette Flow can enhance heat and mass transfer have been analyzed.%本文利用商用CFD软件对发电机气隙简化模型——同心旋转圆柱体间环形气隙内流体对流换热情况进行数值模拟,得到了不同泰勒数Ta下流场的速度分布、温度分布和热流密度分布。将模拟得出的平均努赛尔数Nu与经验公式的计算值进行了对比,误差在合理的范围之内,证明了数值模拟的有效性。计算结果表明,受流场中泰勒涡的影响,速度、温度、以及热流密度沿轴向的分布呈现周期性波动,波动频率与泰勒涡的数量相同,其中,速度与温度分布波动的变化趋势相同,热流密度波动的变化趋势与前两者相反;泰勒数Ta越大,流

  3. Seasonal cycle of volume transport through Kerama Gap revealed by a 20-year global HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model reanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhitao; Metzger, E. Joseph; Thoppil, Prasad; Hurlburt, Harley E.; Zamudio, Luis; Smedstad, Ole Martin; Na, Hanna; Nakamura, Hirohiko; Park, Jae-Hun

    2015-12-01

    The temporal variability of volume transport from the North Pacific Ocean to the East China Sea (ECS) through Kerama Gap (between Okinawa Island and Miyakojima Island - a part of Ryukyu Islands Arc) is investigated using a 20-year global HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) reanalysis with the Navy Coupled Ocean Data Assimilation from 1993 to 2012. The HYCOM mean transport is 2.1 Sv (positive into the ECS, 1 Sv = 106 m3/s) from June 2009 to June 2011, in good agreement with the observed 2.0 Sv transport during the same period. This is similar to the 20-year mean Kerama Gap transport of 1.95 ± 4.0 Sv. The 20-year monthly mean volume transport (transport seasonal cycle) is maximum in October (3.0 Sv) and minimum in November (0.5 Sv). The annual variation component (345-400 days), mesoscale eddy component (70-345 days), and Kuroshio meander component (< 70 days) are separated to determine their contributions to the transport seasonal cycle. The annual variation component has a close relation with the local wind field and increases (decreases) transport into the ECS through Kerama Gap in summer (winter). Most of the variations in the transport seasonal cycle come from the mesoscale eddy component. The impinging mesoscale eddies increase the transport into the ECS during January, February, May, and October, and decrease it in March, April, November, and December, but have little effect in summer (June-September). The Kuroshio meander components cause smaller transport variations in summer than in winter.

  4. Bridging the gap between cadaveric and in vivo experiments: a biomechanical model evaluating thumb-tip endpoint forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlman, Sarah J; Murray, Wendy M

    2013-03-15

    The thumb is required for a majority of tasks of daily living. Biomechanical modeling is a valuable tool, with the potential to help us bridge the gap between our understanding of the mechanical actions of individual thumb muscles, derived from anatomical cadaveric experiments, and our understanding of how force is produced by the coordination of all of the thumb muscles, derived from studies involving human subjects. However, current biomechanical models do not replicate muscle force production at the thumb-tip. We hypothesized that accurate representations of the axes of rotation of the thumb joints were necessary to simulate the magnitude of endpoint forces produced by human subjects. We augmented a musculoskeletal model with axes of rotation derived from experimental measurements (Holzbaur et al., 2005) by defining muscle-tendon paths and maximum isometric force-generating capacity for the five intrinsic muscles. We then evaluated if this augmented model replicated a broad range of experimental data from the literature and identified which parameters most influenced model performance. The simulated endpoint forces generated by the combined action of all thumb muscles in our model yielded comparable forces in magnitude to those produced by nonimpaired subjects. A series of 8 sets of Monte Carlo simulations demonstrated that the difference in the axes of rotation of the thumb joints between studies best explains the improved performance of our model relative to previous work. In addition, we demonstrate that the endpoint forces produced by individual muscles cannot be replicated with existing experimental data describing muscle moment arms. PMID:23332233

  5. Bridging the gap between cadaveric and in vivo experiments: a biomechanical model evaluating thumb-tip endpoint forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlman, Sarah J; Murray, Wendy M

    2013-03-15

    The thumb is required for a majority of tasks of daily living. Biomechanical modeling is a valuable tool, with the potential to help us bridge the gap between our understanding of the mechanical actions of individual thumb muscles, derived from anatomical cadaveric experiments, and our understanding of how force is produced by the coordination of all of the thumb muscles, derived from studies involving human subjects. However, current biomechanical models do not replicate muscle force production at the thumb-tip. We hypothesized that accurate representations of the axes of rotation of the thumb joints were necessary to simulate the magnitude of endpoint forces produced by human subjects. We augmented a musculoskeletal model with axes of rotation derived from experimental measurements (Holzbaur et al., 2005) by defining muscle-tendon paths and maximum isometric force-generating capacity for the five intrinsic muscles. We then evaluated if this augmented model replicated a broad range of experimental data from the literature and identified which parameters most influenced model performance. The simulated endpoint forces generated by the combined action of all thumb muscles in our model yielded comparable forces in magnitude to those produced by nonimpaired subjects. A series of 8 sets of Monte Carlo simulations demonstrated that the difference in the axes of rotation of the thumb joints between studies best explains the improved performance of our model relative to previous work. In addition, we demonstrate that the endpoint forces produced by individual muscles cannot be replicated with existing experimental data describing muscle moment arms.

  6. Stability analysis of a liquid fuel annular combustion chamber. M.S. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdonald, G. H.

    1979-01-01

    The problems of combustion instability in an annular combustion chamber are investigated. A modified Galerkin method was used to produce a set of modal amplitude equations from the general nonlinear partial differential acoustic wave equation. From these modal amplitude equations, the two variable perturbation method was used to develop a set of approximate equations of a given order of magnitude. These equations were modeled to show the effects of velocity sensitive combustion instabilities by evaluating the effects of certain parameters in the given set of equations. By evaluating these effects, parameters which cause instabilities to occur in the combustion chamber can be ascertained. It is assumed that in the annular combustion chamber, the liquid propellants are injected uniformly across the injector face, the combustion processes are distributed throughout the combustion chamber, and that no time delay occurs in the combustion processes.

  7. Annular Seals of High Energy Centrifugal Pumps: Presentation of Full Scale Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florjancic, S.; Stuerchler, R.; Mccloskey, T.

    1991-01-01

    Prediction of rotordynamic behavior for high energy concentration centrifugal pumps is a challenging task which still imposes considerable difficulties. While the mechanical modeling of the rotor is solved most satisfactorily by finite element techniques, accurate boundary conditions for arbitrary operating conditions are known for journal bearings only. Little information is available on the reactive forces of annular seals, such as neck ring and interstage seals and balance pistons, and on the impeller interaction forces. The present focus is to establish reliable boundary conditions at annular seals. For this purpose, a full scale test machine was set up and smooth and serrated seal configurations measured. Dimensionless coefficients are presented and compared with a state of the art theory.

  8. Results of convective heating tests of a longitudinal gap on the Rockwell flat plate model (15-0, insert 7) in the NASA/Ames Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, M.; Lockman, W. K.

    1975-01-01

    Results are presented which were obtained from tests in a hypersonic wind tunnel to determine aerodynamic heating rates in a gap running parallel or slightly askew to the flow direction. The model used was a flat plate instrumented in thin-skin sections with chromelconstantan thermocouples. Heating rate profiles lengthwise along and down into the gap were obtained, and additional data were obtained from a total temperature probe and rake fabricated during the test to investigate an apparent aerodynamic cooling trend in the gap. Model variables were width, depth, length, and orientation of the gap relative to the flow direction. The tests were conducted at Mach 5.1 and Reynolds numbers per foot of 500,000, 1,000,000, and 2,000,000.

  9. Bridging the gap between theoretical ecology and real ecosystems: modeling invertebrate community composition in streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuwirth, Nele; Reichert, Peter

    2013-02-01

    For the first time, we combine concepts of theoretical food web modeling, the metabolic theory of ecology, and ecological stoichiometry with the use of functional trait databases to predict the coexistence of invertebrate taxa in streams. We developed a mechanistic model that describes growth, death, and respiration of different taxa dependent on various environmental influence factors to estimate survival or extinction. Parameter and input uncertainty is propagated to model results. Such a model is needed to test our current quantitative understanding of ecosystem structure and function and to predict effects of anthropogenic impacts and restoration efforts. The model was tested using macroinvertebrate monitoring data from a catchment of the Swiss Plateau. Even without fitting model parameters, the model is able to represent key patterns of the coexistence structure of invertebrates at sites varying in external conditions (litter input, shading, water quality). This confirms the suitability of the model concept. More comprehensive testing and resulting model adaptations will further increase the predictive accuracy of the model.

  10. Experimental model of a bone gap by radial ostectomy in rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Carlos Cunha Lacreta Junior; Everton Regonato; Lucas Bahdour Cossi; Ciro Alexandre Teixeira Cruvinel; Júlio Carlos Canola

    2010-01-01

    A lot of experimental models have been used to study the process of a fracture’s consolidation, but the problem is that due to anatomic, biologic and technical differences, these models do not always have appropriate parameters for the exact species, for which the experiment was done. The rabbit is an experimental model that is widely used in studies involving bone physiopatology in the face of fractures and their different types of treatment, corresponding to approximately 35% of all the mus...

  11. Measurement of large aspheric surfaces by annular subaperture stitching interferometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaokun Wang; Lihui Wang; Longhai Yin; Binzhi Zhang; Di Fan; Xuejun Zhang

    2007-01-01

    A new method for testing aspheric surfaces by annular subaperture stitching interferometry is introduced.It can test large-aperture and large-relative-aperture aspheric surfaces at high resolution, low cost, and high efficiency without auxiliary null optics. The basic principle of the method is described, the synthetical optimization stitching model and effective algorithm are established based on simultaneous least-square fitting. A hyperboloid with an aperture of 350 mm is tested by this method. The obtained peak-to-valley (PV) and root-mean-square (RMS) values of the surface error after stitching are 0.433λ and 0.052λ (λis 632.8 nm), respectively. The reconstructed surface map is coincide with the entire surface map from null test, and the difference of PV and RMS errors between them are 0.031λ and 0.005λ, respectively.This stitching model provides another quantitive method for testing large aspheric surfaces besides null compensation.

  12. SERVQUAL and Model of Service Quality Gaps: A Framework for Determining and Prioritizing Critical Factors from Faculty Perspective in Higher Education

    OpenAIRE

    RAJDEEP SINGH; Dinesh Khanduja

    2010-01-01

    Service firms like other organizations are realizing the significance of customer-centered philosophies and are turning to quality management approaches to help managing their businesses. This paper has started with the concept of service quality and has demonstrated the model of service quality gaps. SERVQUAL methodology was applied for faculty as a customer to identify the gap between customer expectations and perceptions of the actual service received taking higher education as a service i...

  13. Developing a stochastic conflict resolution model for urban runoff quality management: Application of info-gap and bargaining theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghodsi, Seyed Hamed; Kerachian, Reza; Estalaki, Siamak Malakpour; Nikoo, Mohammad Reza; Zahmatkesh, Zahra

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, two deterministic and stochastic multilateral, multi-issue, non-cooperative bargaining methodologies are proposed for urban runoff quality management. In the proposed methodologies, a calibrated Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) is used to simulate stormwater runoff quantity and quality for different urban stormwater runoff management scenarios, which have been defined considering several Low Impact Development (LID) techniques. In the deterministic methodology, the best management scenario, representing location and area of LID controls, is identified using the bargaining model. In the stochastic methodology, uncertainties of some key parameters of SWMM are analyzed using the info-gap theory. For each water quality management scenario, robustness and opportuneness criteria are determined based on utility functions of different stakeholders. Then, to find the best solution, the bargaining model is performed considering a combination of robustness and opportuneness criteria for each scenario based on utility function of each stakeholder. The results of applying the proposed methodology in the Velenjak urban watershed located in the northeastern part of Tehran, the capital city of Iran, illustrate its practical utility for conflict resolution in urban water quantity and quality management. It is shown that the solution obtained using the deterministic model cannot outperform the result of the stochastic model considering the robustness and opportuneness criteria. Therefore, it can be concluded that the stochastic model, which incorporates the main uncertainties, could provide more reliable results.

  14. Self-organized Hydrodynamics in an Annular Domain: Modal Analysis and Nonlinear Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Degond, Pierre; Yu, Hui

    2014-01-01

    The Self-Organized Hydrodynamics model of collective behavior is studied on an annular domain. A modal analysis of the linearized model around a perfectly polarized steady-state is conducted. It shows that the model has only pure imaginary modes in countable number and is hence stable. Numerical computations of the low-order modes are provided. The fully non-linear model is numerically solved and nonlinear mode-coupling is then analyzed. Finally, the efficiency of the modal decomposition to a...

  15. Sea Carousel—A benthic, annular flume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, Carl L.; Grant, J.; Daborn, G. R.; Black, K.

    1992-06-01

    A benthic annular flume (Sea Carousel) has been developed and tested to measure in situ the erodibility of cohesive sediments. The flume is equipped with three optical backscatter sensors, a lid rotation switch, and an electromagnetic (EM) flow meter capable of detecting azimuthal and vertical components of flow. Data are logged at rates up to 10·66 Hz. Erodibility is inferred from the rate of change in suspended sediment concentration detected in the annulus. The energy-density/wave number spectrum of azimuthal flow showed peaks in the energy spectrum at paddle rotation wave numbers (k) of 14 and 7 m -1 (macroturbulent time scales) but were not significant. Friction velocity ( U*), measured (1) at 1 Hz using a flush-mounted hot-film sensor, and (2) derived from measured velocity profiles in the inner part of the logarithmic layer gave comparable results for Ū* 0·32 m s -1. Radial velocity gradients were proportional to ( Ū y - 0·32 m s -1). Maximum radial differences in U* were 10% for Ū y = 0·5 ms -1. Suspended sediment mass concentration ( S) in the annulus resulted in a significant decrease (10·5%) in Ū* derived by method (1) over the range 0calibration with changes in S. Subaerial deployments of Sea Carousel caused severe substrate disturbance, water losses, and aeration of the annulus. Submarine deployments produced stable results, though dispersion of turbid flume water took place. Results clearly demonstrated the existence of 'Type I' and 'Type II' erosion documented from laboratory studies.

  16. Neural Network Modeling and System Simulating for the Dynamic Process of Varied Gap Pulsed GTAW with Wire Filler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guangjun ZHANG; Shanben CHEN; Lin WU

    2005-01-01

    As the base of the research work on the weld shape control during pulsed gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) with wire filler, this paper addressed the modeling of the dynamic welding process. Topside length Lt, maximum width Wt and half-length ratio Rh1 were selected to depict topside weld pool shape, and were measured on-line by vision sensing. A dynamic neural network model was constructed to predict the usually unmeasured backside width and topside height of the weld through topside shape parameters and welding parameters. The inputs of the model were the welding parameters (peak current, pulse duty ratio, welding speed, filler rate), the joint gap, the topside pool shape parameters (Lt, Wt, and Rhl), and their history values at two former pulse, a total of 24 numbers. The validating experiment results proved that the artificial neural network (ANN) model had high precision and could be used in process control. At last, with the developed dynamic model, steady and dynamic behavior was analyzed by simulation experiments, which discovered the variation rules of weld pool shape parameters under different welding parameters, and further knew well the characteristic of the welding process.

  17. AFSC/RACE/GAP/Laman: Model Results of Aleutian Island POP distributions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data supporting the "Model Results of Aleutian Island POP distributions" manuscript are distribution and abundance of Pacific ocean perch from RACEBase,...

  18. The Relationship between Profitability, Innovation and Technology Gap: A Basic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krčál Ondřej

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a model of innovation that explains some of the stylized facts presented in recent empirical literature. In the model, firms choose R&D expenditures that maximize their expected profits under the assumption that R&D expenditures of firms might be constrained by the size of their profits. Optimal decisions of firms generate relationships between profitability and innovation of individual firms that may create the observed patterns at the industry level. In particular, the model is able to explain an inverted-U relationship between profitability and innovation in the industry together with decreasing or flat and concave relationships between profitability and the dispersion of productivity in the industry. Additionally, the paper investigates the parameter space for which the model generates the observed relationships.

  19. Physical modelling of water, fauna and flora: knowledge gaps, avenues for futureresearch and infrastructural needs

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, R E; Johnson, M F; Frostick, L.E.; Parsons, D. R.; T. J. Bouma; Dijkstra, J.T.; Eiff, O.; Gobert, S.; Henry, P.; Kemp, P; McLelland, S.J.; Moulin, F.Y.; Myrhaug, D.; Neyts, A.; Paul, M

    2014-01-01

    Physical modelling is a key tool for generating understanding of the complex interactions between aquatic organisms and hydraulics, which is important for management of aquatic environments under environmental change and our ability to exploit ecosystem services. Many aspects of this field remain poorly understood and the use of physical models within eco-hydraulics requires advancement in methodological application and substantive understanding. This paper presents a review of the emergent t...

  20. The Relationship between Profitability, Innovation and Technology Gap: A Basic Model

    OpenAIRE

    Krčál Ondřej

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces a model of innovation that explains some of the stylized facts presented in recent empirical literature. In the model, firms choose R&D expenditures that maximize their expected profits under the assumption that R&D expenditures of firms might be constrained by the size of their profits. Optimal decisions of firms generate relationships between profitability and innovation of individual firms that may create the observed patterns at the industry level. In particular, the...

  1. Performance model of metallic concentric tube recuperator with counter flow arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Harshdeep; Kumar, Anoop; Goel, Varun

    2010-03-01

    A performance model for counter flow arrangement in concentric tube recuperator that can be used to utilize the waste heat in the temperature range of 900-1,400°C is presented. The arrangement consists of metallic tubular inner and outer concentric shell with a small annular gap between two concentric shells. Flue gases pass through the inner shell while air passes through the annular gap in the reverse direction (counter flow arrangement). The height of the recuperator is divided into elements and an energy balance is performed on each elemental height. Results give necessary information about surface, gas and air temperature distribution, and the influence of operating conditions on recuperator performance. The recuperative effectiveness is found to be increased with increasing inlet gas temperature and decreased with increasing fuel flow rate. The present model accounts for all heat transfer processes pertinent to a counterflow radiation recuperator and provide a valuable tool for performance considerations.

  2. Phased annular array transducers for omnidirectional guided wave mode control in isotropic plate like structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultrasonic guided waves are fast emerging as a reliable tool for continuous structural health monitoring. Their multi-modal nature along with their long range propagation characteristics offer several possibilities for interrogating structures. Transducers commonly used to generate guided waves in structures excite multiple modes at any frequency; their complex scattering and reflection from defects and boundaries often complicates the extraction of useful information. Often it is desirable to control the guided wave modes propagating in a structure to take advantage of their unique properties for different applications. Earlier attempts at guided wave mode control involved developing fixed wavelength linear and annular array transducers. Their only disadvantage is that the transducer is limited to a particular wavelength and a change in wavelength necessitates a change in the transducer. In this paper, we propose the development of an annular array transducer that can generate mode controlled omnidirectional guided waves by independently controlling the amplitude and phase of the array elements. A simplified actuator model that approximates the transducer loading on the structure to a constant pressure load under the array elements is assumed and an optimization problem is set up to compute the excitation voltage and phase of the elements. A five element annular array transducer is designed utilizing 1–3 type piezocomposite materials. The theoretical computations are experimentally verified on an aluminum plate like structure by exciting A0 and S0 guided wave modes. (paper)

  3. Effects study on the thermal stresses in a LEU metal foil annular target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of fission gas pressure, uranium swelling and thermal contact conductance on the thermal–mechanical behavior of an annular target containing a low-enriched uranium foil (LEU) encapsulated in a nickel foil have been presented in this paper. The draw-plug assembly method is simulated to obtain the residual stresses, which are applied to the irradiation model as initial inputs, and the integrated assembly-irradiation process is simulated as an axisymmetric problem using the commercial finite element code Abaqus FEA. Parametric studies were performed on the LEU heat generation rate and the results indicate satisfactory irradiation performance of the annular target. The temperature and stress margins have been provided along with a discussion of the results. - Highlights: • Analyzed the thermal stresses in a low-enriched uranium foil based annular target. • Included fission gas, uranium swelling, and thermal contact conductance effects. • Worst case scenarios for temperature and stresses were found to be different. • Sensitivity studies on the foil heat generation rates were performed. • Temperature and stress were found to be within acceptable limits

  4. Annular multiphase flow behavior during deep water drilling and the effect of hydrate phase transition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zhiyuan; Sun Baojiang

    2009-01-01

    It is very important to understand the annular multiphase flow behavior and the effect of hydrate phase transition during deep water drilling. The basic hydrodynamic models, including mass, momentum, and energy conservation equations, were established for annular flow with gas hydrate phase transition during gas kick. The behavior of annular multiphase flow with hydrate phase transition was investigated by analyzing the hydrate-forming region, the gas fraction in the fluid flowing in the annulus, pit gain, bottom hole pressure, and shut-in casing pressure. The simulation shows that it is possible to move the hydrate-forming region away from sea floor by increasing the circulation rate. The decrease in gas volume fraction in the annulus due to hydrate formation reduces pit gain, which can delay the detection of well kick and increase the risk of hydrate plugging in lines. Caution is needed when a well is monitored for gas kick at a relatively low gas production rate, because the possibility of hydrate presence is much greater than that at a relatively high production rate. The shut-in casing pressure cannot reflect the gas kick due to hydrate formation, which increases with time.

  5. Progress in analytical methods to predict and control azimuthal combustion instability modes in annular chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauerheim, M.; Nicoud, F.; Poinsot, T.

    2016-02-01

    Longitudinal low-frequency thermoacoustic unstable modes in combustion chambers have been intensively studied experimentally, numerically, and theoretically, leading to significant progress in both understanding and controlling these acoustic modes. However, modern annular gas turbines may also exhibit azimuthal modes, which are much less studied and feature specific mode structures and dynamic behaviors, leading to more complex situations. Moreover, dealing with 10-20 burners mounted in the same chamber limits the use of high fidelity simulations or annular experiments to investigate these modes because of their complexity and costs. Consequently, for such circumferential acoustic modes, theoretical tools have been developed to uncover underlying phenomena controlling their stability, nature, and dynamics. This review presents recent progress in this field. First, Galerkin and network models are described with their pros and cons in both the temporal and frequency framework. Then, key features of such acoustic modes are unveiled, focusing on their specificities such as symmetry breaking, non-linear modal coupling, forcing by turbulence. Finally, recent works on uncertainty quantifications, guided by theoretical studies and applied to annular combustors, are presented. The objective is to provide a global view of theoretical research on azimuthal modes to highlight their complexities and potential.

  6. Dynamic Response of Rub Caused by a Shedding Annular Component Happening in a Steam Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rub caused by a shedding annular component is a severe fault happening in a steam turbine, which could result in a long-term wearing effect on the shaft. The shafting abrasion defects shortened the service life and damaged the unit. To identify the fault in time, the dynamic response of rub caused by a shedding annular component was studied as follows: (I a rotor-bearing model was established based on the structural features of certain steam turbines; node-to-node contact constraint and penalty method were utilized to analyze the impact and friction; (II dynamic response of the rotor-bearing system and the shedding component was simulated with the development of rub after the component was dropping; (III fault features were extracted from the vibration near the bearing position by time-domain and frequency-domain analysis. The results indicate that the shedding annular component would not only rotate pivoting its axis but also revolve around the shaft after a period of time. Under the excitation of the contact force, the peak-peak vibration fluctuates greatly. The frequency spectrum contains two main components, that is, the working rotating frequency and revolving frequency. The same phenomenon was observed from the historical data in the field.

  7. Criticality Benchmark Analysis of the HTTR Annular Startup Core Configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the high priority benchmarking activities for corroborating the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project and Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Program is evaluation of Japan's existing High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR). The HTTR is a 30 MWt engineering test reactor utilizing graphite moderation, helium coolant, and prismatic TRISO fuel. A large amount of critical reactor physics data is available for validation efforts of High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (HTGRs). Previous international reactor physics benchmarking activities provided a collation of mixed results that inaccurately predicted actual experimental performance.1 Reevaluations were performed by the Japanese to reduce the discrepancy between actual and computationally-determined critical configurations.2-3 Current efforts at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) involve development of reactor physics benchmark models in conjunction with the International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP) for use with verification and validation methods in the VHTR Program. Annular cores demonstrate inherent safety characteristics that are of interest in developing future HTGRs.

  8. Criticality Benchmark Analysis of the HTTR Annular Startup Core Configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John D. Bess

    2009-11-01

    One of the high priority benchmarking activities for corroborating the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project and Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Program is evaluation of Japan's existing High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR). The HTTR is a 30 MWt engineering test reactor utilizing graphite moderation, helium coolant, and prismatic TRISO fuel. A large amount of critical reactor physics data is available for validation efforts of High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (HTGRs). Previous international reactor physics benchmarking activities provided a collation of mixed results that inaccurately predicted actual experimental performance.1 Reevaluations were performed by the Japanese to reduce the discrepancy between actual and computationally-determined critical configurations.2-3 Current efforts at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) involve development of reactor physics benchmark models in conjunction with the International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP) for use with verification and validation methods in the VHTR Program. Annular cores demonstrate inherent safety characteristics that are of interest in developing future HTGRs.

  9. Characterization of Novel Calorimeters in the Annular Core Research Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehr, Brian D.; Parma, Edward J.; Peters, Curtis D.; Naranjo, Gerald E.; Luker, S. Michael

    2016-02-01

    A series of pulsed irradiation experiments have been performed in the central cavity of Sandia National Laboratories' Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) to characterize the responses of a set of elemental calorimeter materials including Si, Zr, Sn, Ta, W, and Bi. Of particular interest was the perturbing effect of the calorimeter itself on the ambient radiation field - a potential concern in dosimetry applications. By placing the calorimeter package into a neutron-thermalizing lead/polyethylene (LP) bucket and irradiating both with and without a cadmium wrapper, it was demonstrated that prompt capture gammas generated inside the calorimeters can be a significant contributor to the measured dose in the active disc region. An MCNP model of the experimental setup was shown to replicate measured dose responses to within 10%. The internal (n,γ) contribution was found to constitute as much as 50% of the response inside the LP bucket and up to 20% inside the nominal (unmodified) cavity environment, with Ta and W exhibiting the largest enhancement due to their sizable (n,γ) cross sections. Capture reactions in non-disc components of the calorimeter were estimated to be responsible for up to a few percent of the measured response. This work was supported by the United States Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy.

  10. Bacterial molecular networks: bridging the gap between functional genomics and dynamical modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Helden, Jacques; Toussaint, Ariane; Thieffry, Denis

    2012-01-01

    This introductory review synthesizes the contents of the volume Bacterial Molecular Networks of the series Methods in Molecular Biology. This volume gathers 9 reviews and 16 method chapters describing computational protocols for the analysis of metabolic pathways, protein interaction networks, and regulatory networks. Each protocol is documented by concrete case studies dedicated to model bacteria or interacting populations. Altogether, the chapters provide a representative overview of state-of-the-art methods for data integration and retrieval, network visualization, graph analysis, and dynamical modelling.

  11. Far-field Diffraction Properties of Annular Walsh Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pubali Mukherjee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Annular Walsh filters are derived from the rotationally symmetric annular Walsh functions which form a complete set of orthogonal functions that take on values either +1 or −1 over the domain specified by the inner and outer radii of the annulus. The value of any annular Walsh function is taken as zero from the centre of the circular aperture to the inner radius of the annulus. The three values 0, +1, and −1 in an annular Walsh function can be realized in a corresponding annular Walsh filter by using transmission values of zero amplitude (i.e., an obscuration, unity amplitude and zero phase, and unity amplitude and phase, respectively. Not only the order of the Walsh filter but also the size of the inner radius of the annulus provides an additional degree of freedom in tailoring of point spread function by using these filters for pupil plane filtering in imaging systems. In this report, we present the far-field amplitude characteristics of some of these filters to underscore their potential for effective use in several demanding applications like high-resolution microscopy, optical data storage, microlithography, optical encryption, and optical micromanipulation.

  12. Rotordynamic Analysis of Textured Annular Seals With Multiphase (Bubbly Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérard PINEAU

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available For some applications it must be considered that the flow in the annular seal contains a mixture of liquid and gas. The multiphase character of the flow is described by the volume fraction of gas (usually air contained in the liquid under the form of bubbles.The fluid is then a homogenous mixture of air and liquid all thru the annular seal. Its local gas volume fraction depends on the pressure field and is calculated by using a simplified form of the Rayleigh-Plesset equation.The influence of such of a multiphase (bubbly flow on the dynamic characteristics of a straight annular seal is minimal because the volume of the fluid is reduced.The situation is quite different for textured annular (damper seals provided with equally spaced deep cavities intended to increase the damping capabilities and to reduce the leakage flow rate.As a by-product, the volume of the fluid in the seal increases drastically and the compressibility effects stemming from the bubbly nature of the flow are largely increased even for a low gas volume fraction. The present work depicts the influence of the gas volume fraction on the dynamic characteristics of a textured annular seal. It is shown that variations of the gas volume fraction between 1% and 0.1% can lead to frequency dependent stiffness, damping and added mass coefficients.

  13. Physical modelling of water, fauna and flora: knowledge gaps, avenues for futureresearch and infrastructural needs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, R.E.; Johnson, M.F.; Frostick, L.E.; Parsons, D.R.; Bouma, T.J.; Dijkstra, J.T.; Eiff, O.; Gobert, S.; Henry, P.; Kemp, P.; McLelland, S.J.; Moulin, F.Y.; Myrhaug, D.; Neyts, A.; Paul, M.; Penning, W.E.; Puijalon, S.; Rice, S.P.; Stanica, A.; Tagliapietra, D.; Tal, M.; Torum, A.; Vousdoukas, M.I.

    2014-01-01

    Physical modelling is a key tool for generating understanding of the complex interactions between aquatic organisms and hydraulics, which is important for management of aquatic environments under environmental change and our ability to exploit ecosystem services. Many aspects of this field remain po

  14. Bragg waveguide grating as a 1d photonic band gap structure: COST 268 modelling task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ctyroky, J.; Helfert, S.; Pregla, R.; Bienstman, P.; Baets, R.; Ridder, de R.; Stoffer, R.; Klaasse, G.; Petracek, J.; Lalanne, P.; Hugonin, J.P.; Rue, de la R.M.

    2002-01-01

    Modal reflection, transmission and loss of deeply etched Bragg waveguide gratings were modelled by six European laboratories using independently developed two-dimensional (2D) numerical codes based on four different methods, with very good mutual agreement. It was found that (rather weak) material d

  15. Gap Caused by Strong Pairing in the Ladder Model of DNA Molecules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Dong-Sheng; ZHU Chen-Ping; ZHANG Long-Qiang; HE Da-Ren; WANG Bing-Hong

    2008-01-01

    By directly diagonalizing the Hamiltonian of the ladder model of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecules,the density of statcs is obtained.It is found that DNA behaves as a conductor when the interchain hopping is smaller than twice the intrachain one,otherwise,DNA behaves as a semiconductor.

  16. Delineating the model-stakeholder gap: framing perceptions to analyse the information requirement in river management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Judith A.E.B.; Hoekstra, Arjen Y.; Kok, de Jean-Luc; Schielen, Ralph M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Computer models can support policy development in environmental management, but often suffer from a lack of practical application. This is part due to a ‘gap’ between the ways in which various participants in the policy process deal with information. The framework described in this paper provides a

  17. Mind the gap: modelling event-based and millennial-scale landscape dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baartman, J.E.M.

    2012-01-01

    This research looks at landscape dynamics – erosion and deposition – from two different perspectives: long-term landscape evolution over millennial timescales on the one hand and short-term event-based erosion and deposition at the other hand. For the first, landscape evolution models (L

  18. Identifying data gaps and prioritizing restoration strategies for Fremont cottonwood using linked geomorphic and population models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, E. B.; Stella, J. C.; Fremier, A. K.

    2009-12-01

    Fremont cottonwood (Populus fremontii) is an important component of semi-arid riparian ecosystems throughout western North America, but its populations are in decline due to flow regulation. Achieving a balance between human resource needs and riparian ecosystem function requires a mechanistic understanding of the multiple geomorphic and biological factors affecting tree recruitment and survival, including the timing and magnitude of river flows, and the concomitant influence on suitable habitat creation and mortality from scour and sedimentation burial. Despite a great deal of empirical research on some components of the system, such as factors affecting cottonwood recruitment, other key components are less studied. Yet understanding the relative influence of the full suite of physical and life-history drivers is critical to modeling whole-population dynamics under changing environmental conditions. We addressed these issues for the Fremont cottonwood population along the Sacramento River, CA using a sensitivity analysis approach to quantify uncertainty in parameters on the outcomes of a patch-based, dynamic population model. Using a broad range of plausible values for 15 model parameters that represent key physical, biological and climatic components of the ecosystem, we ran 1,000 population simulations that consisted of a subset of 14.3 million possible combinations of parameter estimates to predict the frequency of patch colonization and total forest habitat predicted to occur under current hydrologic conditions after 175 years. Results indicate that Fremont cottonwood populations are highly sensitive to the interactions among flow regime, sedimentation rate and the depth of the capillary fringe (Fig. 1). Estimates of long-term floodplain sedimentation rate would substantially improve model accuracy. Spatial variation in sediment texture was also important to the extent that it determines the depth of the capillary fringe, which regulates the availability of

  19. Quantitative Modeling of Acid Wormholing in Carbonates- What Are the Gaps to Bridge

    KAUST Repository

    Qiu, Xiangdong

    2013-01-01

    Carbonate matrix acidization extends a well\\'s effective drainage radius by dissolving rock and forming conductive channels (wormholes) from the wellbore. Wormholing is a dynamic process that involves balance between the acid injection rate and reaction rate. Generally, injection rate is well defined where injection profiles can be controlled, whereas the reaction rate can be difficult to obtain due to its complex dependency on interstitial velocity, fluid composition, rock surface properties etc. Conventional wormhole propagation models largely ignore the impact of reaction products. When implemented in a job design, the significant errors can result in treatment fluid schedule, rate, and volume. A more accurate method to simulate carbonate matrix acid treatments would accomodate the effect of reaction products on reaction kinetics. It is the purpose of this work to properly account for these effects. This is an important step in achieving quantitative predictability of wormhole penetration during an acidzing treatment. This paper describes the laboratory procedures taken to obtain the reaction-product impacted kinetics at downhole conditions using a rotating disk apparatus, and how this new set of kinetics data was implemented in a 3D wormholing model to predict wormhole morphology and penetration velocity. The model explains some of the differences in wormhole morphology observed in limestone core flow experiments where injection pressure impacts the mass transfer of hydrogen ions to the rock surface. The model uses a CT scan rendered porosity field to capture the finer details of the rock fabric and then simulates the fluid flow through the rock coupled with reactions. Such a validated model can serve as a base to scale up to near wellbore reservoir and 3D radial flow geometry allowing a more quantitative acid treatment design.

  20. Bridging The Gap For Destination Extreme Sports - A Model of Sports Tourism Customer Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Klaus, Philipp "Phil"; Maklan, Stan

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study proposes a conceptual model of sports tourism customer experience in the context of a mountain-biking extreme sport camp. Customer experience is conceptualised as a three-dimensional framework consisting of five dimensions: hedonic pleasure, personal progression, social interaction, efficiency and surreal feeling. Using the means-end approach in 89 semi-structured interviews with clients of a mountain-biking camp, conducted over three years, the authors identified hedo...

  1. Alzheimer’s disease biomarkers in animal models: closing the translational gap

    OpenAIRE

    Sabbagh, Jonathan J.; Kinney, Jefferson W.; Cummings, Jeffrey L.

    2013-01-01

    The rising prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is rapidly becoming one of the largest health and economic challenges in the world. There is a growing need for the development and implementation of reliable biomarkers for AD that can be used to assist in diagnosis, inform disease progression, and monitor therapeutic efficacy. Preclinical models permit the evaluation of candidate biomarkers and assessment of pipeline agents before clinical trials are initiated and provide a translational opp...

  2. Bridging the Gap of Standardized Animals Models for Blast Neurotrauma: Methodology for Appropriate Experimental Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VandeVord, Pamela J; Leonardi, Alessandra Dal Cengio; Ritzel, David

    2016-01-01

    Recent military combat has heightened awareness to the complexity of blast-related traumatic brain injuries (bTBI). Experiments using animal, cadaver, or biofidelic physical models remain the primary measures to investigate injury biomechanics as well as validate computational simulations, medical diagnostics and therapies, or protection technologies. However, blast injury research has seen a range of irregular and inconsistent experimental methods for simulating blast insults generating results which may be misleading, cannot be cross-correlated between laboratories, or referenced to any standard for exposure. Both the US Army Medical Research and Materiel Command and the National Institutes of Health have noted that there is a lack of standardized preclinical models of TBI. It is recommended that the blast injury research community converge on a consistent set of experimental procedures and reporting of blast test conditions. This chapter describes the blast conditions which can be recreated within a laboratory setting and methodology for testing in vivo models within the appropriate environment. PMID:27604715

  3. Correlation-driven d -wave superconductivity in Anderson lattice model: Two gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysokiński, Marcin M.; Kaczmarczyk, Jan; Spałek, Józef

    2016-07-01

    Superconductivity in heavy-fermion systems has an unconventional nature and is considered to originate from the universal features of the electronic structure. Here, the Anderson lattice model is studied by means of the full variational Gutzwiller wave function incorporating nonlocal effects of the on-site interaction. We show that the d -wave superconducting ground state can be driven solely by interelectronic correlations. The proposed microscopic mechanism leads to a multigap superconductivity with the dominant contribution due to f electrons and in the dx2-y2-wave channel. Our results rationalize several important observations for CeCoIn5.

  4. Fluidic Analysis in an Annular Centrifugal Contactor for Fuel Reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An annular centrifugal contactor (ACC) is a promising device for fuel reprocessing process, because it offers several advantages—a smaller size, a smaller holdup volume, and a higher separation performance—over conventional contactors such as a mixer-settler and a pulse column. Fluid dynamics and dispersion in an ACC, which has a combined mixer/centrifuge structure, are closely related to its separation performance and capacity, and this information is useful in improving equipment design. In this paper, experimental and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) studies were conducted to analyze fluidic and dispersion behavior in ACCs. Multiphase mixing (water/TBP-dodecane/air) in the annular zone was observed by Particle Imaging Velocimetry, and the change in the fluidic and dispersion behavior was ascertained under several operational conditions. The results of the CFD studies, which considered multiphase turbulent flow in the annular and rotor interior zones, were in a good agreement with the experimental data. (author)

  5. Annular lupus vulgaris: an unusual case undiagnosed for five years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gönül, Müzeyyen; Kiliç, Arzu; Külcü Cakmak, Seray; Gül, Ulker; Koçak, Oğuzhan; Demiriz, Murat

    2007-01-01

    Tuberculosis is still a serious problem in both developing and developed countries. It is often confused with various cutaneous disorders both clinically and histopathologically.A 46-year-old woman attended our clinic with progressive, asymptomatic, annular skin lesions on her right upper extremity for 5 years. She had received many different therapies for these lesions at other institutions previously but these medications were not effective and the lesions deteriorated. On dermatological examination, well-demarcated, irregular bordered, violaceous colored, elevated and crusted annular lesions on her right hand dorsum and forearm were observed. She was diagnosed as having lupus vulgaris clinically and histopathologically. Antituberculosis therapy was administered and regression of the lesions started in the second week of medication.We report a case of long-standing, undiagnosed and uncommon, annular form of lupus vulgaris. We want to stress that clinical and histopathological findings are still important for the diagnosis of cutaneous tuberculosis.

  6. A Molecular-Modeling Toolbox Aimed at Bridging the Gap between Medicinal Chemistry and Computational Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameh Eid

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current era of high-throughput drug discovery and development, molecular modeling has become an indispensable tool for identifying, optimizing and prioritizing small-molecule drug candidates. The required background in computational chemistry and the knowledge of how to handle the complex underlying protocols, however, might keep medicinal chemists from routinely using in silico technologies. Our objective is to encourage those researchers to exploit existing modeling technologies more frequently through easy-to-use graphical user interfaces. In this account, we present two innovative tools (which we are prepared to share with academic institutions facilitating computational tasks commonly utilized in drug discovery and development: (1 the VirtualDesignLab estimates the binding affinity of small molecules by simulating and quantifying their binding to the three-dimensional structure of a target protein; and (2 the MD Client launches molecular dynamics simulations aimed at exploring the time-dependent stability of ligand–protein complexes and provides residue-based interaction energies. This allows medicinal chemists to identify sites of potential improvement in their candidate molecule. As a case study, we present the application of our tools towards the design of novel antagonists for the FimH adhesin.

  7. Study of the heat-transfer crisis on heat-release surfaces of annular channels with swirl and transit flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boltenko, E. A.

    2016-10-01

    The results of the experimental study of the heat-transfer crisis on heat-release surfaces of annular channels with swirl and transit flow are presented. The experiments were carried out using electric heated annular channels with one and (or) two heat-release surfaces. For the organization of transit flow on a convex heat-release surface, four longitudinal ribs were installed uniformly at its perimeter. Swirl flow was realized using a capillary wound tightly (without gaps) on the ribs. The ratio between swirl and transit flows in the annular gap was varied by applying longitudinal ribs of different height. The experiments were carried out using a closed-type circulatory system. The experimental data were obtained in a wide range of regime parameters. Both water heated to the temperature less than the saturation temperature and water-steam mixture were fed at the inlet of the channels. For the measurement of the temperature of the heat-release surfaces, chromel-copel thermocouples were used. It was shown that the presence of swirl flow on a convex heatrelease surface led to a significant decrease in critical heat flows (CHF) compared to a smooth surface. To increase CHF, it was proposed to use the interaction of swirl flows of the heat carrier. The second swirl flow was transit flow, i.e., swirl flow with the step equal to infinity. It was shown that CHF values for a channel with swirl and transit flow in all the studied range of regime parameters was higher than CHF values for both a smooth annular channel and a channel with swirl. The empirical ratios describing the dependence of CHF on convex and concave heat-release surfaces of annular channels with swirl and transit flow on the geometrical characteristics of channels and the regime parameters were obtained. The experiments were carried out at the pressure p = 3.0-16.0 MPa and the mass velocity ρw = 250-3000 kg/(m2s).

  8. MicroRNA-132 Interact with p250GAP/Cdc42 Pathway in the Hippocampal Neuronal Culture Model of Acquired Epilepsy and Associated with Epileptogenesis Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hao; Zhou, Xin; Liu, Xi; Xu, Tao; Ma, Limin

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that epilepsy is the result of synaptic reorganization and pathological excitatory loop formation in the central nervous system; however, the mechanisms that regulate this process are not well understood. We proposed that microRNA-132 (miR-132) and p250GAP might play important roles in this process by activating the downstream Rho GTPase family. We tested this hypothesis using a magnesium-free medium-induced epileptic model of cultured hippocampal neurons. We investigated whether miR-132 regulates GTPase activity through p250GAP and found that Cdc42 was significantly activated in our experimental model. Silencing miR-132 inhibited the electrical excitability level of cultured epileptic neurons, whereas silencing p250GAP had an opposite effect. In addition, we verified the effect of miR-132 in vivo and found that silencing miR-132 inhibited the aberrant formation of dendritic spines and chronic spontaneous seizure in a lithium-pilocarpine-induced epileptic mouse model. Finally, we confirmed that silencing miR-132 has a neuroprotective effect on cultured epileptic neurons; however, this effect did not occur through the p250GAP pathway. Generally, silencing miR-132 may suppress spontaneous seizure activity through the miR-132/p250GAP/Cdc42 pathway by regulating the morphology and electrophysiology of dendritic spines; therefore, miR-132 may serve as a potential target for the development of antiepileptic drugs.

  9. MicroRNA-132 Interact with p250GAP/Cdc42 Pathway in the Hippocampal Neuronal Culture Model of Acquired Epilepsy and Associated with Epileptogenesis Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jinxian; Huang, Hao; Zhou, Xin; Liu, Xi; Ou, Shu; Xu, Tao; Li, Ruohan; Ma, Limin; Chen, Yangmei

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that epilepsy is the result of synaptic reorganization and pathological excitatory loop formation in the central nervous system; however, the mechanisms that regulate this process are not well understood. We proposed that microRNA-132 (miR-132) and p250GAP might play important roles in this process by activating the downstream Rho GTPase family. We tested this hypothesis using a magnesium-free medium-induced epileptic model of cultured hippocampal neurons. We investigated whether miR-132 regulates GTPase activity through p250GAP and found that Cdc42 was significantly activated in our experimental model. Silencing miR-132 inhibited the electrical excitability level of cultured epileptic neurons, whereas silencing p250GAP had an opposite effect. In addition, we verified the effect of miR-132 in vivo and found that silencing miR-132 inhibited the aberrant formation of dendritic spines and chronic spontaneous seizure in a lithium-pilocarpine-induced epileptic mouse model. Finally, we confirmed that silencing miR-132 has a neuroprotective effect on cultured epileptic neurons; however, this effect did not occur through the p250GAP pathway. Generally, silencing miR-132 may suppress spontaneous seizure activity through the miR-132/p250GAP/Cdc42 pathway by regulating the morphology and electrophysiology of dendritic spines; therefore, miR-132 may serve as a potential target for the development of antiepileptic drugs. PMID:27579184

  10. Filling environmental data gaps with QSPR for ionic liquids: Modeling n-octanol/water coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybinska, Anna; Sosnowska, Anita; Grzonkowska, Monika; Barycki, Maciej; Puzyn, Tomasz

    2016-02-13

    Ionic liquids (ILs) form a wide group of compounds characterized by specific properties that allow using ILs in different fields of science and industry. Regarding that the growing production and use of ionic liquids increase probability of their emission to the environment, it is important to estimate the ability of these compounds to spread in the environment. One of the most important parameters that allow evaluating environmental mobility of compound is n-octanol/water partition coefficient (KOW). Experimental measuring of the KOW values for a large number of compounds could be time consuming and costly. Instead, computational predictions are nowadays being used more often. The paper presents new Quantitative Structure-Property Relationship (QSPR) model that allows predicting the logarithmic values of KOW for 335 ILs, for which the experimentally measured values had been unavailable. We also estimated bioaccumulation potential and point out which group of ILs could have negative impact on environment.

  11. Mitral-aortic annular enlargement: modification of Manouguian's technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa Mario Gesteira

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We hereby present a technical modification for mitral-aortic annular enlargement. The mitral valve is replaced through the retro-septal approach, avoiding patches for left atrial roof closure. We report a mitral-aortic valve replacement in a patient whose original annuli would preclude adequate prostheses. The simultaneous annular enlargement may be necessary for avoiding patient-prosthesis mismatch and for reconstructing destroyed mitral and aortic annuli. The technique may minimize the risk of bleeding and of paravalvular leakage, using an approach well known to cardiac surgeons.

  12. Portal annular pancreas: the pancreatic duct ring sign on MRCP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lath, Chinar O; Agrawal, Dilpesh S; Timins, Michael E; Wein, Melissa M

    2015-12-01

    Portal annular pancreas is a rare pancreatic variant in which the uncinate process of the pancreas extends and fuses to the dorsal surface of the body of the pancreas by surrounding the portal vein. It is asymptomatic, but it can be mistaken for a pancreatic head mass on imaging and could also have serious consequences during pancreatic surgery, if unrecognized. We report this case of a 53-year-old female patient who was diagnosed to have portal annular pancreas on the basis of an unusual course (ring appearance) of the main pancreatic duct on magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography, not described earlier in the radiology literature. PMID:26649117

  13. Portal annular pancreas: the pancreatic duct ring sign on MRCP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinar O. Lath, MD

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Portal annular pancreas is a rare pancreatic variant in which the uncinate process of the pancreas extends and fuses to the dorsal surface of the body of the pancreas by surrounding the portal vein. It is asymptomatic, but it can be mistaken for a pancreatic head mass on imaging and could also have serious consequences during pancreatic surgery, if unrecognized. We report this case of a 53-year-old female patient who was diagnosed to have portal annular pancreas on the basis of an unusual course (ring appearance of the main pancreatic duct on magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography, not described earlier in the radiology literature.

  14. Flow Visualisation of Annular Liquid Sheet Instability & Atomisation

    CERN Document Server

    Duke, Daniel; Soria, Julio

    2012-01-01

    Fluid dynamics videos of unstable thin annular liquid sheets are presented in this short paper. These videos are to be presented in the Gallery of Fluid Motion for the American Physical Society 65th Annual Meeting of the Division of Fluid Dynamics in San Diego, CA, 18-20 November 2012. An annular sheet of thickness h=1mm and mean radius R=18.9mm is subjected to aerodynamic axial shear from co-flowing air at various shear rates on both the inner and outer surface at a liquid sheet Reynolds Number of Re=500.

  15. Patch Type Granuloma Annulare Imitating Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seval Doğruk Kaçar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Granuloma annulare (GA is a benign inflammatory skin disease with distinct clinical and histopathological findings. Patch type GA is described with erythematous patches beyond the classical clinical appearance and an interstitial pattern is observed without histopathologically granulomas with disseminated histiocytes among collagen bundles and vessels. Here we report 46 year old woman diagnosed as patch type GA after a punch biopsy performed from the annular bordered patches in belly area, which is a classical area for mycosis fungoides (MF evolution, and lesions increasingly spreading out within a 2 year period.

  16. Bridging the Gap Between Research and Operations in the National Weather Service: The Huntsville Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darden, C.; Carroll, B.; Lapenta, W.; Jedlovec, G.; Goodman, S.; Bradshaw, T.; Gordon, J.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The National Weather Service Office (WFO) in Huntsville, Alabama (HUN) is slated to begin full-time operations in early 2003. With the opening of the Huntsville WFO, a unique opportunity has arisen for close and productive collaboration with scientists at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and the University of Alabama Huntsville (UAH). As a part of the collaboration effort, NASA has developed the Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center. The mission of the SPoRT center is to incorporate NASA earth science technology and research into the NWS operational environment. Emphasis will be on improving mesoscale and short-term forecasting in the first 24 hours of the forecast period. As part of the collaboration effort, the NWS and NASA will develop an implementation and evaluation plan to streamline the integration of the latest technologies and techniques into the operational forecasting environment. The desire of WFO HUN, NASA, and UAH is to provide a model for future collaborative activities between research and operational communities across the country.

  17. Parental Characteristics and the Achievement Gap in Mathematics: Hierarchical Linear Modeling Analysis of Longitudinal Study of American Youth (LSAY)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoraka, Mohammad; Arnold, Robert; Kim, Eun Sook; Salinitri, Geri; Kromrey, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    One of the most salient problems in education is the achievement gap. The researchers investigated the effects of parental education and parental occupations in science, technology, engineering, mathematics, or medical professions (STEMM) on the achievement gap in mathematics. Because students were nested within schools, two-level Hierarchical…

  18. An annular gas seal analysis using empirical entrance and exit region friction factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elrod, D. A.; Childs, D. W.; Nelson, C. C.

    1990-01-01

    Wall shear stress results from stationary-rotor flow tests of five annular gas seals are used to develop entrance and exit region friction factor models. The friction factor models are used in a bulk-flow seal analysis which predicts leakage and rotor-dynamic coefficients. The predictions of the analysis are compared to experimental results and to the predictions of Nelson's analysis (1985). The comparisons are for smooth-rotor seals with smooth and honeycomb-stators. The present analysis predicts the destabilizing cross-coupled stiffness of a seal better than Nelson's analysis. Both analyses predict direct damping well and direct stiffness poorly.

  19. Explanatory models of diabetes in the U.S. and Mexico: the patient-provider gap and cultural competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Susan C; Baer, Roberta D; Garcia de Alba Garcia, Javier; Salcedo Rocha, Ana L

    2012-09-01

    Successful management of type 2 diabetes requires support and collaboration between diabetic patients, their health care providers, family and community. Using data collected in 1994-2001, we describe illness beliefs of physicians, patients, and representative samples of community members in the US and Mexico. We test whether differences in conceptualizations of diabetes are greater across national and linguistic boundaries or between physicians and lay groups. Interviews were conducted in southern Texas on the Mexican border and in Guadalajara, Mexico. Culturally appropriate interview materials were developed with a mixed-methods approach. Qualitative interviews elicited beliefs about causes, risks, symptoms, and treatments for diabetes and salient themes were incorporated into structured interviews. A cultural consensus analysis was used to verify salient themes within each of the six samples. The consistency in responses in each of the six samples indicated a shared core of beliefs that transcended individual variations. The greatest differences occurred between physician and lay samples; patient and community models were more similar to one another than to the physician models. Differences between physicians and patients may affect optimal management of diabetes, but these differences do not appear to be simply a function of differences in national culture and language, as the largest differences occurred in Mexico. This suggests that rather than cultural competence per se, formal educational levels and class differences may also play an important role in patient understanding and the gap in patient-provider understanding.

  20. Models, solution, methods and their applicability of dynamic location problems (DLPs) (a gap analysis for further research)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyedhosseini, Seyed Mohammad; Makui, Ahmad; Shahanaghi, Kamran; Torkestani, Sara Sadat

    2016-05-01

    Determining the best location to be profitable for the facility's lifetime is the important decision of public and private firms, so this is why discussion about dynamic location problems (DLPs) is a critical significance. This paper presented a comprehensive review from 1968 up to most recent on published researches about DLPs and classified them into two parts. First, mathematical models developed based on different characteristics: type of parameters (deterministic, probabilistic or stochastic), number and type of objective function, numbers of commodity and modes, relocation time, number of relocation and relocating facilities, time horizon, budget and capacity constraints and their applicability. In second part, It have been also presented solution algorithms, main specification, applications and some real-world case studies of DLPs. At the ends, we concluded that in the current literature of DLPs, distribution systems and production-distribution systems with simple assumption of the tackle to the complexity of these models studied more than any other fields, as well as the concept of variety of services (hierarchical network), reliability, sustainability, relief management, waiting time for services (queuing theory) and risk of facility disruption need for further investigation. All of the available categories based on different criteria, solution methods and applicability of them, gaps and analysis which have been done in this paper suggest the ways for future research.

  1. Dengue Disease Risk Mental Models in the City of Dhaka, Bangladesh: Juxtapositions and Gaps Between the Public and Experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar-Chowdhury, Parnali; Haque, C Emdad; Driedger, S Michelle

    2016-05-01

    Worldwide, more than 50 million cases of dengue fever are reported every year in at least 124 countries, and it is estimated that approximately 2.5 billion people are at risk for dengue infection. In Bangladesh, the recurrence of dengue has become a growing public health threat. Notably, knowledge and perceptions of dengue disease risk, particularly among the public, are not well understood. Recognizing the importance of assessing risk perception, we adopted a comparative approach to examine a generic methodology to assess diverse sets of beliefs related to dengue disease risk. Our study mapped existing knowledge structures regarding the risk associated with dengue virus, its vector (Aedes mosquitoes), water container use, and human activities in the city of Dhaka, Bangladesh. "Public mental models" were developed from interviews and focus group discussions with diverse community groups; "expert mental models" were formulated based on open-ended discussions with experts in the pertinent fields. A comparative assessment of the public's and experts' knowledge and perception of dengue disease risk has revealed significant gaps in the perception of: (a) disease risk indicators and measurements; (b) disease severity; (c) control of disease spread; and (d) the institutions responsible for intervention. This assessment further identifies misconceptions in public perception regarding: (a) causes of dengue disease; (b) dengue disease symptoms; (c) dengue disease severity; (d) dengue vector ecology; and (e) dengue disease transmission. Based on these results, recommendations are put forward for improving communication of dengue risk and practicing local community engagement and knowledge enhancement in Bangladesh. PMID:26387980

  2. High speed OH-PLIF measurement of self-excited circumferential instabilities in an annular combustion chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worth, Nicholas; Dawson, James

    2012-11-01

    Self-excited thermo-acoustic instabilities are a significant issue in the development of lean burn gas turbine combustors. Such instabilities arise through coupling of the unsteady heat release and acoustic waves, which can propagate both longitudinally and circumferentially in annular combustor geometries. Although a large number of studies have investigated longitudinal fluctuations in single axisymmetric flames, it is currently uncertain whether these results can be used to emulate circumferential oscillations in annular geometry. Therefore, the aim of the current project is to investigate the flame dynamics in an annular model gas turbine combustor during self-excited circumferential oscillations. Pressure measurements are used to characterise the circumferential oscillations, with high-speed OH chemiluminescence and OH-PLIF used to capture the flame dynamics. The flame structure and dynamics are significantly affected by both the proximity of neighbouring flames and the excitation mode; with different responses observed for small and large separation distances, and standing and spinning modes. These observations indicate that results from single flame investigations may only be representative of self-excited flames in annular geometry under in a limited set of conditions.

  3. Bridging the gap between uncertainty analysis for complex watershed models and decision-making for watershed-scale water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Y.; Han, F.; Wu, B.

    2013-12-01

    Process-based, spatially distributed and dynamic models provide desirable resolutions to watershed-scale water management. However, their reliability in solving real management problems has been seriously questioned, since the model simulation usually involves significant uncertainty with complicated origins. Uncertainty analysis (UA) for complex hydrological models has been a hot topic in the past decade, and a variety of UA approaches have been developed, but mostly in a theoretical setting. Whether and how a UA could benefit real management decisions remains to be critical questions. We have conducted a series of studies to investigate the applicability of classic approaches, such as GLUE and Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods, in real management settings, unravel the difficulties encountered by such methods, and tailor the methods to better serve the management. Frameworks and new algorithms, such as Probabilistic Collocation Method (PCM)-based approaches, were also proposed for specific management issues. This presentation summarize our past and ongoing studies on the role of UA in real water management. Challenges and potential strategies to bridge the gap between UA for complex models and decision-making for management will be discussed. Future directions for the research in this field will also be suggested. Two common water management settings were examined. One is the Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) management for surface water quality protection. The other is integrated water resources management for watershed sustainability. For the first setting, nutrients and pesticides TMDLs in the Newport Bay Watershed (Orange Country, California, USA) were discussed. It is a highly urbanized region with a semi-arid Mediterranean climate, typical of the western U.S. For the second setting, the water resources management in the Zhangye Basin (the midstream part of Heihe Baisn, China), where the famous 'Silk Road' came through, was investigated. The Zhangye

  4. Bridging the gap : with a new CHOPS simulation model leading the way, the Alberta Research Council is helping close the gap between the lab and the field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collison, M.

    2007-04-15

    Heavy oil is more difficult and costly to produce and refine than conventional light oil. Almost 50 per cent of the oil currently produced in Canada is classified as heavy oil. This article provided details of a heavy oil technology pilot project conducted by the Alberta Research Council (ARC) and Husky Energy. The ARC has now formed a steering committee of industry members to analyze new technologies and find ways to implement them. As part of their technology program, ARC hired, trained and placed an engineer with Husky Energy to execute a field application at Lloydminster of a heavy oil reservoir simulation software program. The biggest barrier to production in the Lloydminster play is the sand mixed throughout the viscous oil. In order to address the problem, Husky has spent 20 years developing a process known as cold heavy oil production with sand (CHOPS). The process employs a cavity pump which can tolerate extremely large amounts of sand in viscous oil. The pump has a corkscrew metal rotor placed inside a rubber covering, which rotates and pumps up the heavy oil, sand, natural gas, and water. The sand and oil are pumped into huge settling tanks which are heated by the natural gas that is stripped out of the oil. The sand sinks out the warm floating oil and settles in the tanks. Although it is very difficult to model a situation where sand flows from the reservoir along with the oil, ARC has developed a model of the process using data collected by Husky throughout its use of the CHOPS technique. A number of wells have been successfully modelled using the simulation tool. It was concluded that use of the CHOPS model has allowed researchers to test different operating strategies and extrapolate them to the field to predict possible oil production for various heavy oil recovery processes. 1 fig.

  5. Analysis of geodetic interseismic coupling models to estimate tsunami inundation and runup: a study case of Maule seismic gap, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Carrasco, J. F.; Gonzalez, G.; Aránguiz, R.; Catalan, P. A.; Cienfuegos, R.; Urrutia, A.; Shrivastava, M. N.; Yagi, Y.; Moreno, M.

    2015-12-01

    Tsunami inundation maps are a powerful tool to design evacuation plans of coastal communities, additionally can be used as a guide to territorial planning and assessment of structural damages in port facilities and critical infrastructure (Borrero et al., 2003; Barberopoulou et al., 2011; Power et al., 2012; Mueller et al., 2015). The accuracy of inundation estimation is highly correlated with tsunami initial conditions, e.g. seafloor vertical deformation, displaced water volume and potential energy (Bolshakova et al., 2011). Usually, the initial conditions are estimated using homogeneous rupture models based in historical worst-case scenario. However tsunamigenic events occurred in central Chilean continental margin showed a heterogeneous slip distribution of source with patches of high slip, correlated with fully-coupled interseismic zones (Moreno et al., 2012). The main objective of this work is to evaluate the predictive capacity of interseismic coupling models based on geodetic data comparing them with homogeneous fault slip model constructed using scaling laws (Blaser et al., 2010) to estimate inundation and runup in coastal areas. To test our hypothesis we select a seismic gap of Maule, where occurred the last large tsunamigenic earthquake in the chilean subduction zone, using the interseismic coupling models (ISC) proposed by Moreno et al., 2011 and Métois et al., 2013. We generate a slip deficit distribution to build a tsunami source supported by geological information such as slab depth (Hayes et al., 2012), strike, rake and dip (Dziewonski et al., 1981; Ekström et al., 2012) to model tsunami generation, propagation and shoreline impact using Neowave 2D (Yamazaki et al., 2009). We compare the tsunami scenario of Mw 8.8, Maule based in coseismic slip distribution proposed by Moreno et al., 2012 with homogeneous and heterogeneous models to identify the accuracy of our results with sea level time series and regional runup data (Figure 1). The estimation of

  6. Flow of viscoplastic fluids in eccentric annular geometries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szabo, Peter; Hassager, Ole

    1992-01-01

    A classification of flowfields for the flow of a Bingham fluid in general eccentric annular geometries is presented. Simple arguments show that a singularity can exist in the stress gradient on boundaries between zones with yielded and un-yielded fluid respectively. A Finite Element code is used ...

  7. Fast-imaging and spectroscopic analysis of atmospheric argon streamers for large gap arc breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachuilo, Michael; Stefani, Francis; Bengtson, Roger; Raja, Laxminarayan

    2014-10-01

    A non-equilibrium plasma source has been developed to assist in the low-voltage arc breakdown of large electrode gaps. The source consists of a dielectric embedded wire helically wound around a confining cylindrical quartz chamber. Annular electrodes cap the ends of the quartz chamber. An argon feed gas is used to provide a uniform environment and exhausts to ambient atmospheric conditions. A negative polarity 50 kV trigger pulse is applied to the embedded trigger wire to initiate the arc breakdown. Application of the trigger pulse produces a localized coronal discharges along the inner surface of the quartz tube. The corona provides seed electrons through which streamers propagate from one of the main discharge electrode along the quartz surface until it reaches the opposite electrode to bridge the gap. Once the gap is bridged a spark over occurs and robust arc discharge is formed in the chamber volume. Fast imaging of the streamer propagation establishes its velocity in the range of ~ 100 km/s. Spectroscopy of the streamer discharge in atmospheric argon has been conducted and electron temperature and number density estimated from a collision radiative model. Argon spectrum is dominated by neutral argon lines in the 650--950 nm range, and singly ionized argon lines are observed in the ultra-violet to near UV (300--400 nm). Research was performed in connection with AFOSR Contract FA9550-11-1-0062.

  8. Fourier-Bessel Field Calculation and Tuning of a CW Annular Array

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Paul D.; Cheng, Jiqi; Lu, Jian-yu

    2002-01-01

    A 1-D Fourier-Bessel series method for computing and tuning the linear lossless field of flat continuous wave (CW) annular arrays is given and discussed with both numerical simulation and experimental verification. The technique provides a new method for modelling and manipulating the propagated...... field by linking the quantized surface pressure profile to a set of limited diffraction Bessel beams propagating into the medium. In the limit, these become a known set of nondiffracting Bessel beams satisfying the lossless linear wave equation, which allow us to derive a linear matrix formulation for...

  9. Fully developed laminar mixed convection through a vertical annular duct filled with porous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kou, H.S.; Huang, D.K. [Tatung Inst. of Tech., Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1997-01-01

    The fully developed laminar mixed convection through a vertical annular duct embedded in a porous medium has been solved by using the non-Darcian flow model, where thermal boundary conditions on inner and outer walls are prescribed as isothermal-isothermal, isothermal-isoflux, and isoflux-isothermal, separately. The analytical solution has been derived to obtain velocity and temperature profiles, mass flow rate, wall friction factor and heat carried out by fluid. Finally, the parametric zones for flow characteristics of velocity distribution with the upward or downward flow are demonstrated.

  10. Mongolia; Measuring the Output Gap

    OpenAIRE

    Julia Bersch; Tara M. Sinclair

    2011-01-01

    This paper compares the output gap estimates for Mongolia based on a number of different methods. Special attention is paid to the substantial role of mining in the Mongolian economy. We find that a Blanchard and Quah-type joint model of output and inflation provides a more robust estimate of the output gap for Mongolia than the traditional statistical decompositions.

  11. Skill gaps: existence and efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Pueyo; Marcos Sanso

    2002-01-01

    Given the interdependences between human capital accumulation and technological change, skill gaps may arise in equilibrium. However, they are not necessarily inefficient, and in this paper we present a model in which the simple absence of such a skill gap can be inefficient.

  12. Free and friction-induced in-plane vibration of annular disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzou, Kevin Ihwa

    1998-12-01

    Vibration and noise from disk brakes negatively affect passenger comfort and perceptions of quality in both the automotive and aircraft industries. With regulatory pressure for stopping distance and the emphasis on smaller and lighter components, new brakes not only have to meet design and performance requirements, but must minimize vibration as well. Although materials and geometries vary from application to application, disk brakes generally consist of rotating annular disk(s) subjected to in-plane friction which dissipates the kinetic energy of the vehicle. During this process, friction-induced vibration of the disk(s) occurs, resulting in brake noise. Although sound radiation results from a disk's out-of-plane vibration, substantial in-plane motions must also be present due to the in-plane friction. This in-plane vibration can play a key role in the dynamics of the friction interface and hence, in brake noise and vibration. In this thesis, experimental and analytical methods are used to study the in-plane vibration of annular disks with a view toward understanding disk brake vibration. The issues that are addressed and the major findings include: (1) Characterization of in-plane modes in annular disks. For automotive rotors and thick annular disks, in-plane modes of vibration have frequencies that are both comparable to low-order bending modes and within the measured range for brake squeal. Despite the large in-plane friction force provided by disk brakes, no existing model includes in-plane disk motion with in-plane friction. A three-dimensional vibration model is used to determine frequencies and mode shapes for an annular disk subject to two boundary conditions: all surfaces traction-free, and all free except for a constrained inner edge. (2) Identification of frequency clusters. Using experimental and analytical methods, the frequencies for families of in-plane modes are found to converge to a common value with increasing disk thickness to the limit of the

  13. Closing the gap between behavior and models in route choice: The role of spatiotemporal constraints and latent traits in choice set formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2012-01-01

    A considerable gap exists between the behavioral paradigm of choice set formation in route choice and its representation in route choice modeling. While travelers form their viable choice set by retaining routes that satisfy spatiotemporal constraints, existing route generation techniques do not ...... spatiotemporal constraints and latent traits in route choice models, and (iii) the linkage between spatiotemporal constraints and time saving, spatial and mnemonic abilities....

  14. A new hybrid model for filling gaps and forecast in sea level: application to the eastern English Channel and the North Atlantic Sea (western France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turki, Imen; Laignel, Benoit; Kakeh, Nabil; Chevalier, Laetitia; Costa, Stephane

    2015-04-01

    This research is carried out in the framework of the program Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) which is a partnership between NASA and CNES. Here, a new hybrid model is implemented for filling gaps and forecasting the hourly sea level variability by combining classical harmonic analyses to high statistical methods to reproduce the deterministic and stochastic processes, respectively. After simulating the mean trend sea level and astronomical tides, the nontidal residual surges are investigated using an autoregressive moving average (ARMA) methods by two ways: (1) applying a purely statistical approach and (2) introducing the SLP in ARMA as a main physical process driving the residual sea level. The new hybrid model is applied to the western Atlantic sea and the eastern English Channel. Using ARMA model and considering the SLP, results show that the hourly sea level observations of gauges with are well reproduced with a root mean square error (RMSE) ranging between 4.5 and 7 cm for 1 to 30 days of gaps and an explained variance more than 80 %. For larger gaps of months, the RMSE reaches 9 cm. The negative and the positive extreme values of sea levels are also well reproduced with a mean explained variance between 70 and 85 %. The statistical behavior of 1-year modeled residual components shows good agreements with observations. The frequency analysis using the discrete wavelet transform illustrate strong correlations between observed and modeled energy spectrum and the bands of variability. Accordingly, the proposed model presents a coherent, simple, and easy tool to estimate the total sea level at timescales from days to months. The ARMA model seems to be more promising for filling gaps and estimating the sea level at larger scales of years by introducing more physical processes driving its stochastic variability.

  15. Transverse bed slope effects in an annular flume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baar, Anne; Kleinhans, Maarten; de Smit, Jaco; Uijttewaal, Wim

    2016-04-01

    Large scale morphology, in particular bar dimensions and bifurcation dynamics, are greatly affected by the deflection of sediment transport on transverse bed slopes due to gravity and by helical flows. However, existing transverse bed slope predictors are based on a small set of experiments with a minor range of flow conditions and sediment sizes, and do not account for the presence of bedforms. In morphological modelling the deflection angle is therefore often calibrated on measured morphology. Our objective is to experimentally quantify the transverse slope effect for a large range of near-bed flow conditions and sediment sizes (0.17 - 4 mm) to test existing predictors, in order to improve morphological modelling of rivers and estuaries. We have conducted about 400 experiments in an annular flume, which functions as an infinitely long bended flume and therefore avoids boundary effects. Flow is generated by rotating the lid of the flume, while the intensity of the helical flow can be decreased by counterrotating the bottom of the flume. The equilibrium transverse slope that develops during the experiments is a balance between the transverse bed slope effect and the bed shear stress caused by the helical flow. We obtained sediment mobilities from no motion to sheet flow, ranging across bedload and suspended load. Resulting equilibrium transverse slopes show a clear trend with varying sediment mobilities and helical flow intensities that deviate from typical power relations with Shields number. As an end member we found transversely horizontal beds by counterrotation that partially cancelled the helical flow near the bed, which allows us to quantify helical flow. The large range in sediment mobilities caused different bed states from ripples and dunes to sheet flow that affect near-bed flow, which cause novel nonlinear relations between transverse slope and Shields number. In conclusion, our results show for a wide range of conditions and sediments that transverse

  16. 基于居民收入差距分析的人均收入模型%The Model of Per Capital Income Based on Income Gap Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪姚; 罗时超; 严倩

    2014-01-01

    In this paper , aiming at statistical analysis of the problem of income gap , an absolute income gap model, a relative income gap model and a per capital income model were established through regression anal -ysis, normality test, boxcox transform methods, the use of Matlab, SPSS, and Excellsoftware.The income gap and its variation rule of the residents in our country were comprehensively analyzed .Some conclusions were drawn that income gap in China is large and there is a rising trend .A new formula on per capita income , which made the proportion of the population whose income up to per capital income above 60%, was also proposed .%针对居民收入差距的统计分析问题,通过回归分析、正态性检验、boxcox变换等方法,运用Matlab、SPSS、Excel软件,建立了绝对收入差距模型、相对收入差距模型及人均收入模型,综合分析了我国居民收入差距状况及变化规律,得出我国居民收入差距较大并且有上升趋势的结论。并提出新的人均收入计算公式,使得达到人均收入的实际人群所占比例在60%以上。

  17. Exact solutions for the flow of non-Newtonian fluid with fractional derivative in an annular pipe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TONG; Dengke; WANG; Ruihe; YANG; Heshan

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with some unsteady unidirectional transient flows of Oldroyd-B fluid in an annular pipe. The fractional calculus approach in the constitutive relationship model Oldroyd-B fluid is introduced and a generalized Jeffreys model with the fractional calculus has been built. Exact solutions of some unsteady flows of Oldroyd-B fluid in an annular pipe are obtained by using Hankel transform and Laplace transform for fractional calculus. The following four problems have been studied: (1) Poiseuille flow due to a constant pressure gradient; (2) axial Couette flow in an annulus; (3) axial Couette flow in an annulus due to a longitudinal constant shear; (4) Poiseuille flow due to a constant pressure gradient and a longitudinal constant shear. The well-known solutions for Navier-Stokes fluid, as well as those corresponding to a Maxwell fluid and a second grade one, appear as limited cases of our solutions.

  18. Kinetic multi-layer model of gas-particle interactions in aerosols and clouds (KM-GAP: linking condensation, evaporation and chemical reactions of organics, oxidants and water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shiraiwa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel kinetic multi-layer model for gas-particle interactions in aerosols and clouds (KM-GAP that treats explicitly all steps of mass transport and chemical reaction of semi-volatile species partitioning between gas phase, particle surface and particle bulk. KM-GAP is based on the PRA model framework (Pöschl-Rudich-Ammann, 2007, and it includes gas phase diffusion, reversible adsorption, surface reactions, bulk diffusion and reaction, as well as condensation, evaporation and heat transfer. The size change of atmospheric particles and the temporal evolution and spatial profile of the concentration of individual chemical species can be modeled along with gas uptake and accommodation coefficients. Depending on the complexity of the investigated system, unlimited numbers of semi-volatile species, chemical reactions, and physical processes can be treated, and the model shall help to bridge gaps in the understanding and quantification of multiphase chemistry and microphysics in atmospheric aerosols and clouds.

    In this study we demonstrate how KM-GAP can be used to analyze, interpret and design experimental investigations of changes in particle size and chemical composition in response to condensation, evaporation, and chemical reaction. For the condensational growth of water droplets, our kinetic model results provide a direct link between laboratory observations and molecular dynamic simulations, confirming that the accommodation coefficient of water at ~270 K is close to unity. Literature data on the evaporation of dioctyl phthalate as a function of particle size and time can be reproduced, and the model results suggest that changes in the experimental conditions like aerosol particle concentration and chamber geometry may influence the evaporation kinetics and can be optimized for efficient probing of specific physical effects and parameters. With regard to oxidative aging of organic aerosol particles, we illustrate how the

  19. MUSIG model analysis of flow boiling of liquid nitrogen in vertical annular pipe Part 2:The prediction of local mean radial distribution of Sauter diameter and interfacial area concentration%竖直环形通道内液氮流动沸腾的MUSIG模型分析第二部分: 径向气泡直径和界面面积浓度的预测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵雪锋; 李祥东; 汪荣顺

    2009-01-01

    由于考虑了气泡的破裂和聚合,同两流体模型相比,MUSIG模型(多尺寸组模型)能更准确地描述流场内气泡直径.采用MUSIG模型详细分析了不同壁面热流量,液体入口速度,过冷度以及不同管道高度时通道内气泡相界面面积、当地气泡直径、空泡系数等参数沿径向的分布.分析结果表明,MUSIG模型可用来预测泡弹状流型转变区的流动参数,也即该模型拓展了两流体模型的使用范围.%Considering the mechanisms of bubble coalescence and breakage, MUSIG (Multiple-Size-Group) model can supply a more accurate description of the diameter of bubble in the boiling flow of liquid nitrogen comparing with two fluid model. The MUSIG model is applied here to analyze flow boiling of liquid nitrogen in a vertical annular channel, local radial distribution of the mean interfacial area concentration, Sauter diameter and void fraction with different liquid inlet velocity, heat flux , liquid inlet subcooling and height of tube in vertical annular pipe. The numerical results illustrates that the MUSIG model can be used to predict flow parameters in the two phase flow structures from bubbly to slug or churn turbulent boiling flows., which also mean the use of two fluid flow is extended by the MUSIG model.

  20. Wind generated rogue waves in an annular wave flume

    CERN Document Server

    Toffoli, A; Salman, H; Monbaliu, J; Frascoli, F; Dafilis, M; Stramignoni, E; Forza, R; Manfrin, M; Onorato, M

    2016-01-01

    We investigate experimentally the statistical properties of a wind-generated wave field and the spontaneous formation of rogue waves in an annular flume. Unlike many experiments on rogue waves, where waves are mechanically generated, here the wave field is forced naturally by wind as it is in the ocean. What is unique about the present experiment is that the annular geometry of the tank makes waves propagating circularly in an {\\it unlimited-fetch} condition. Within this peculiar framework, we discuss the temporal evolution of the statistical properties of the surface elevation. We show that rogue waves and heavy-tail statistics may develop naturally during the growth of the waves just before the wave height reaches a stationary condition. Our results shed new light on the formation of rogue waves in a natural environment.

  1. Unusual Presentation of Acute Annular Urticaria: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Gilles Guerrier; Jean-Marc Daronat; Roger Deltour

    2011-01-01

    Acute urticarial lesions may display central clearing with ecchymotic or haemorrhagic hue, often misdiagnosed as erythema multiforme, serum-sickness-like reactions, or urticarial vasculitis. We report a case of acute annular urticaria with unusual presentation occurring in a 20-month-old child to emphasize the distinctive morphologic manifestations in a single disease. Clinicians who care for children should be able to differentiate acute urticaria from its clinical mimics. A directed history...

  2. Ignition sequence of an annular multi-injector combustor

    OpenAIRE

    Philip, Maxime; Boileau, Matthieu; Vicquelin, Ronan; Schmitt, Thomas; Durox, Daniel; Bourgoin, Jean-François; Candel, Sébastien

    2013-01-01

    Ignition is a critical process in combustion systems. In aeronautical combustors, altitude relight capacities are required in case of accidental extinction of the chamber. A simultaneous study of light-round ignition in an annular multi-injector combustor has been performed on the experimental and numerical sides. This effort allows a unique comparison to assess the reliability of Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) in such a configuration. Results are presented in fluid dynamics videos.

  3. Large Eddy Simulation of thermoacoustic instabilities in annular combustion chambers

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Increasingly stringent regulations and the need to tackle rising fuel prices have placed great emphasis on the design of aeronautical gas turbines. This drive towards innovation has resulted sometimes in new concepts being prone to combustion instabilities. Combustion instabilities arise from the coupling of acoustics and combustion. In the particular field of annular combustion chambers, these instabilities often take the form of azimuthal modes. To predict these modes, one must consider the...

  4. Hydraulic forces caused by annular pressure seals in centrifugal pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iino, T.; Kaneko, H.

    1980-01-01

    The hydraulic forces caused by annular pressure seals were investigated. The measured inlet and exit loss coefficients of the flow through the seals were much smaller than the conventional values. The results indicate that the damping coefficient and the inertia coefficient of the fluid film in the seal are not affected much by the rotational speed or the eccentricity of the rotor, though the stiffness coefficient seemed to be influenced by the eccentricity.

  5. Internal (Annular) and Compressible External (Flat Plate) Turbulent Flow Heat Transfer Correlations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dechant, Lawrence [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Smith, Justin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Here we provide a discussion regarding the applicability of a family of traditional heat transfer correlation based models for several (unit level) heat transfer problems associated with flight heat transfer estimates and internal flow heat transfer associated with an experimental simulation design (Dobranich 2014). Variability between semi-empirical free-flight models suggests relative differences for heat transfer coefficients on the order of 10%, while the internal annular flow behavior is larger with differences on the order of 20%. We emphasize that these expressions are strictly valid only for the geometries they have been derived for e.g. the fully developed annular flow or simple external flow problems. Though, the application of flat plate skin friction estimate to cylindrical bodies is a traditional procedure to estimate skin friction and heat transfer, an over-prediction bias is often observed using these approximations for missile type bodies. As a correction for this over-estimate trend, we discuss a simple scaling reduction factor for flat plate turbulent skin friction and heat transfer solutions (correlations) applied to blunt bodies of revolution at zero angle of attack. The method estimates the ratio between axisymmetric and 2-d stagnation point heat transfer skin friction and Stanton number solution expressions for sub-turbulent Reynolds numbers %3C1x10 4 . This factor is assumed to also directly influence the flat plate results applied to the cylindrical portion of the flow and the flat plate correlations are modified by

  6. Effect of Spray Cone Angle on Flame Stability in an Annular Gas Turbine Combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, R. K.; Kumar, S. Kishore; Chandel, Sunil

    2016-04-01

    Effect of fuel spray cone angle in an aerogas turbine combustor has been studied using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and full-scale combustor testing. For CFD analysis, a 22.5° sector of an annular combustor is modeled and the governing equations are solved using the eddy dissipation combustion model in ANSYS CFX computational package. The analysis has been carried out at 125 kPa and 303 K inlet conditions for spray cone angles from 60° to 140°. The lean blowout limits are established by studying the behavior of combustion zone during transient engine operation from an initial steady-state condition. The computational study has been followed by testing the practical full-scale annular combustor in an aerothermal test facility. The experimental result is in a good agreement with the computational predictions. The lean blowout fuel-air ratio increases as the spray cone angle is decreased at constant operating pressure and temperature. At higher spray cone angle, the flame and high-temperature zone moves upstream close to atomizer face and a uniform flame is sustained over a wide region causing better flame stability.

  7. Evaluation of the rheological behavior of drilling fluids in annular flow conditions; Avaliacao do comportamento reologico de fluidos de perfuracao no escoamento anular

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Maria das Gracas Pena; Martins, Andre Leibsohn; Oliveira, Antonio Augusto Junqueira de [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Div. de Explotacao

    1988-12-31

    The rheological behavior of drilling fluids during annular flow in a physical simulator well (Surface Hydraulic System - SHS)was investigated. Measurement of volumetric flow and pressure drop the 10-meter simulator well was used to assess applicability of the Bingham, power Law, Casson, and Herschell-Bulkley models to the annular flow of water and oil-based fluids under different temperatures. Additionally, under different pre-set deformation ranges, SHS-observed behavior was compared with behavior observed using the traditional Fann VG 35 A viscometer. (author) 8 refs., 21 figs., 15 tabs.

  8. Guided Wave Annular Array Sensor Design for Improved Tomographic Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koduru, Jaya Prakash; Rose, Joseph L.

    2009-03-01

    Guided wave tomography for structural health monitoring is fast emerging as a reliable tool for the detection and monitoring of hotspots in a structure, for any defects arising from corrosion, crack growth etc. To date guided wave tomography has been successfully tested on aircraft wings, pipes, pipe elbows, and weld joints. Structures practically deployed are subjected to harsh environments like exposure to rain, changes in temperature and humidity. A reliable tomography system should take into account these environmental factors to avoid false alarms. The lack of mode control with piezoceramic disk sensors makes it very sensitive to traces of water leading to false alarms. In this study we explore the design of annular array sensors to provide mode control for improved structural tomography, in particular, addressing the false alarm potential of water loading. Clearly defined actuation lines in the phase velocity dispersion curve space are calculated. A dominant in-plane displacement point is found to provide a solution to the water loading problem. The improvement in the tomographic images with the annular array sensors in the presence of water traces is clearly illustrated with a series of experiments. An annular array design philosophy for other problems in NDE/SHM is also discussed.

  9. Treatment of generalized granuloma annulare - a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukács, J; Schliemann, S; Elsner, P

    2015-08-01

    Granuloma annulare (GA) is a benign inflammatory skin disease. Localized GA is likely to resolve spontaneously, while generalized GA (GGA) is rare and may persist for decades. GGA usually is resistant to a variety of therapeutic modalities and takes a chronic course. The objective of this study was to summarize all reported treatments of generalized granuloma annulare. This is a systematic review based on MEDLINE, Embase and Cochrane Central Register search of articles in English and German and a manual search, between 1980 and 2013, to summarize the treatment of generalized granuloma annulare. Most medical literature on treatment of GGA is limited to individual case reports and small series of patients treated without a control group. Randomized controlled clinical studies are missing. Multiple treatment modalities for GGA were reported including topical and systemic steroids, PUVA, isotretinoin, dapsone, pentoxifylline, hydroxychloroquine, cyclosporine, IFN-γ, potassium iodide, nicotinamide, niacinamide, salicylic acid, dipyridamole, PDT, fumaric acid ester, etanercept, infliximab, adalimumab. While there are numerous case reports of successful treatments in the literature including surgical, medical and phototherapy options, well-designed, randomized, controlled clinical trials are required for an evidence-based treatment of GGA. PMID:25651003

  10. Experimental study on particles mixing in an annular spouted bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Huang; Guoxin, Hu [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); Fengchao, Wang [Science and Technology Development Office, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China)

    2008-02-15

    A novel annular spouted bed was developed and studied experimentally. The experiments were performed to examine the effects of feeding mode, air velocity and static bed height as well as particle size on particle mixing for different conditions in this device. The results show that feeding by a rotating cone greatly improves particle mixing by homogeneously projecting the particles into the annular bed. For feeding by a rotating cone, the time required to get uniform mixing laterally is shorten almost 10 times less than that for feeding at a fixed point. With increasing air velocity, the axial mixing speed increases more significantly than the lateral mixing speed. The static bed height has important effects on the uniformity of the final admixtures. With increasing static bed height, the degree of mixing of the final mixture (FDM) axially first decreases, then increases, but laterally, the FDM is monotone decreasing. The particles of small size are helpful to raise the mixing speed. In addition, the dead zone in the annular spouted bed was analyzed. (author)

  11. Experimental study on particles mixing in an annular spouted bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Hao [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); Hu Guoxin [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China)], E-mail: hugx@sjtu.edu.cn; Wang Fengchao [Science and Technology Development Office, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China)

    2008-02-15

    A novel annular spouted bed was developed and studied experimentally. The experiments were performed to examine the effects of feeding mode, air velocity and static bed height as well as particle size on particle mixing for different conditions in this device. The results show that feeding by a rotating cone greatly improves particle mixing by homogeneously projecting the particles into the annular bed. For feeding by a rotating cone, the time required to get uniform mixing laterally is shorten almost 10 times less than that for feeding at a fixed point. With increasing air velocity, the axial mixing speed increases more significantly than the lateral mixing speed. The static bed height has important effects on the uniformity of the final admixtures. With increasing static bed height, the degree of mixing of the final mixture (FDM) axially first decreases, then increases, but laterally, the FDM is monotone decreasing. The particles of small size are helpful to raise the mixing speed. In addition, the dead zone in the annular spouted bed was analyzed.

  12. Determination of the Optical GAP in Thin Films of Amorphous Dilithium Phthalocyanine Using the Tauc and Cody Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry N. Reider-Burstin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Semiconducting thin films were grown on quartz substrates and crystalline silicon wafers, using dilithium phthalocyanine and the organic ligands 2,6-dihydroxyanthraquinone and 2,6-diaminoanthraquinone as the starting compounds. The films, thus obtained, were characterized by Fourier Transform infrared (FTIR, fast atomic bombardment (FAB+ mass and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis spectroscopies. The surface morphology of these films was analyzed by means of atomic force microscopy (AFM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. It was found that the temperature-dependent electric current in all cases showed a semiconductor behavior with conductivities on the order of 10−6·S cm−1, whereas the highest value corresponded to the thin film based upon the bidentate amine. The Tauc and Cody optical band gap values of thin films were calculated from the absorption coefficients and were found to be around 1.5 eV, with another strong band between 2.3 and 2.43 eV, arising from non-direct transitions. The curvature in the Tauc plot influencing the determination of the optical gap, the Tauc optical gap corresponding to the thicker film is smaller. The dependence of the Cody optical gap on the film thickness was negligible.

  13. The gap between macro and micro economic statistics: Estimation of the misreporting model using micro-data sets derived from the Consumer Expenditure Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Garner, Thesia I; Atsushi Maki

    2004-01-01

    In many countries we observe a gap between macroeconomic and microeconomic statistics. In order to explain the underreporting observed in microeconomic statistics, the present paper tests the misreporting hypothesis through the double hurdle model. The misreporting hypothesis is based on some key assumptions: It is assumed that there are two categories of 'zero expenditure households' in the Survey - one category involves households that did not purchase consumer durables during the survey pe...

  14. Characterization of the critical transition from annular to wavy-stratified flow for oil-water mixtures in horizontal pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colombo, Luigi P.M.; Guilizzoni, Manfredo; Sotgia, Giorgio M. [Politecnico di Milano, Department of Energy, Milan (Italy)

    2012-11-15

    The transition from annular to wavy-stratified oil-water adiabatic flow within horizontal pipes is experimentally analyzed, and a semiempirical model is proposed. The transition is referred to as critical because it occurs suddenly, giving rise to a sharp and strong increase in the pressure drop due to the contact of the high-viscosity oil with the pipe wall. This could lead to a dangerous accident in pipelines. Experimental runs were performed on eight test sections of both Plexiglas {sup registered} and Pyrex {sup registered} pipes with internal diameters ranging from 21.5 to 50 mm, using tap water and oil with viscosity about 880 times higher than that of water. On the basis of pressure drop measurement and flow pattern visualization, the transition boundary between annular and wavy-stratified flow was analytically determined and compared with flow pattern maps. (orig.)

  15. ANN Synthesis Model of Single-Feed Corner-Truncated Circularly Polarized Microstrip Antenna with an Air Gap for Wideband Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongbao Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A computer-aided design model based on the artificial neural network (ANN is proposed to directly obtain patch physical dimensions of the single-feed corner-truncated circularly polarized microstrip antenna (CPMA with an air gap for wideband applications. To take account of the effect of the air gap, an equivalent relative permittivity is introduced and adopted to calculate the resonant frequency and Q-factor of square microstrip antennas for obtaining the training data sets. ANN architectures using multilayered perceptrons (MLPs and radial basis function networks (RBFNs are compared. Also, six learning algorithms are used to train the MLPs for comparison. It is found that MLPs trained with the Levenberg-Marquardt (LM algorithm are better than RBFNs for the synthesis of the CPMA. An accurate model is achieved by using an MLP with three hidden layers. The model is validated by the electromagnetic simulation and measurements. It is enormously useful to antenna engineers for facilitating the design of the single-feed CPMA with an air gap.

  16. Effect of moderator density distribution of annular flow on fuel assembly neutronic characteristics in boiling water reactor cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of the moderator density distribution of annular flow on the fuel assembly neutronic characteristics in a boiling water nuclear reactor was investigated using the SRAC95 code system. For the investigation, a model of annular flow for fuel assembly calculation was utilized. The results of the assembly calculation with the model (Method 1) and those of the fuel assembly calculation with the uniform void fraction distribution (Method 2) were compared. It was found that Method 2 underestimates the infinite multiplication factor in the fuel assembly including the gadolinia rod (type 1 assembly). This phenomenon is explained by the fact that the capture rate in the thermal energy region in gadolinia fuel is estimated to be smaller when the liquid film of annular flow at the fuel rod surface is considered. A burnup calculation was performed under the condition of a void fraction of 65% and a volumetric fraction of the liquid film in liquid phase of 1. It is found that Method 2 underestimates the infinite multiplication factor in comparison to Method 1 in the early stage of burnup, and that Method 2 becomes to overestimate the factor after a certain degree of burnup. This is because Method 2 overestimates the depletion rate of the gadolinia. (author)

  17. Can Eddy Forcing be Responsible for the Spatial Structure of the Northern Hemisphere Annular Mode?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Nan; LI Yan; SHEN Xinyong

    2010-01-01

    In order to study the origin of the spatial structure of the Northern Hemisphere Annular Mode (NAM),a linear stochastic model is constructed empirically from the output of a GCM run.Optimal stochastic forcing in terms of the maximum variance contribution,which may be potentially related to the maintenance of the NAM,is investigated.Theoretical analysis on the dominant non-modal response to the stochastic forcing shows that this dominance is jointly decided by the properties of forcing and the non-modal growth (decay).The results of computation demonstrate that the eddy forcing corresponding to the instantaneous rapid growth of the NAM,which is indicated by the instantaneous stochastic optimum,has a roughly similar but significantly different annular structure like that of the NAM.On the other hand,the eddy forcing corresponding to the stationary variance of the NAM,which is indicated by the asymptotic stochastic optimum,has a totally different structure from that of the NAM.These results,together with our general discussion on the relationship between the spatial structure of forcing and response,suggest that one should be careful when explaining the spatial structure of the NAM by that of the eddy forcing.

  18. Annular dilatation and loss of sino-tubular junction in aneurysmatic aorta: Implications on leaflet quality at the time of surgery. A finite element study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weltert, L.; De Tullio, M.D.; Afferante, L.; Salica, A.; Scaffa, R.; Maselli, D.; Verzicco, R.; De Paulis, R.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES In the belief that stress is the main determinant of leaflet quality deterioration, we sought to evaluate the effect of annular and/or sino-tubular junction dilatation on leaflet stress. A finite element computer-assisted stress analysis was used to model four different anatomic condition

  19. Gap-filling of dry weather flow rate and water quality measurements in urban catchments by a time series modelling approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandoval, Santiago; Vezzaro, Luca; Bertrand-Krajewski, Jean-Luc

    2016-01-01

    Flow rate and water quality dry weather time series in combined sewer systems might contain an important amount of missing data due to several reasons, such as failures related to the operation of the sensor or additional contributions during rainfall events. Therefore, the approach hereby proposed...... seeks to evaluate the potential of the Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA), a time-series modelling/gap-filling method, to complete dry weather time series. The SSA method is tested by reconstructing 1000 artificial discontinuous time series, randomly generated from real flow rate and total suspended...... solids (TSS) online measurements (year 2007, 2 minutes time-step, combined system, Ecully, Lyon, France). Results show up the potential of the method to fill gaps longer than 0.5 days, especially between 0.5 days and 1 day (mean NSE > 0.6) in the flow rate time series. TSS results still perform very...

  20. Pancreaticoduodenectomy for pancreas carcinoma occurring in the annular pancreas: report of a case

    OpenAIRE

    Kawaida, Hiromichi; KONO, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Mitsuaki; Maki, Akira; Amemiya, Hidetake; Matsuda, Masanori; Fujii, Hideki; Fukasawa, Mitsuharu; Takahashi, Ei; Sano, Katsuhiro; Inoue, Tomohiro

    2015-01-01

    The annular pancreas is a rare congenital anomaly in which a ring of the pancreas parenchyma surrounds the second part of the duodenum. Malignant tumors are extremely rare in patients with an annular pancreas. A 64-year-old man presented with appetite loss and vomiting. Abdominal contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) indicated pancreas parenchyma surrounding the second part of the duodenum, and a hypovascular area occupying lesion in the annular pancreas. Subtotal stomach-preserving panc...

  1. Repeated mitral valve replacement in a patient with extensive annular calcification

    OpenAIRE

    Kitamura Tadashi; Fukuda Sachito; Sawada Takahiro; Miura Sumio; Kigawa Ikutaro; Miyairi Takeshi

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Mitral valve replacement in the presence of severe annular calcification is a technical challenge. Case report A 47-year-old lady who had undergone mitral and aortic valve replacement for rheumatic disease 27 years before presented with dyspnea. At reoperation, extensive mitral annular calcification was hindering the disc motion of the Starr-Edwards mitral prosthesis. The old prosthesis was removed and a St Jude Medical mechanical valve was implanted after thorough annular...

  2. Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (IPSC) : gap analysis for high fidelity and performance assessment code development.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Joon H.; Siegel, Malcolm Dean; Arguello, Jose Guadalupe, Jr.; Webb, Stephen Walter; Dewers, Thomas A.; Mariner, Paul E.; Edwards, Harold Carter; Fuller, Timothy J.; Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Jove-Colon, Carlos F.; Wang, Yifeng

    2011-03-01

    This report describes a gap analysis performed in the process of developing the Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (IPSC) in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Campaign. The goal of the Waste IPSC is to develop an integrated suite of computational modeling and simulation capabilities to quantitatively assess the long-term performance of waste forms in the engineered and geologic environments of a radioactive waste storage or disposal system. The Waste IPSC will provide this simulation capability (1) for a range of disposal concepts, waste form types, engineered repository designs, and geologic settings, (2) for a range of time scales and distances, (3) with appropriate consideration of the inherent uncertainties, and (4) in accordance with rigorous verification, validation, and software quality requirements. The gap analyses documented in this report were are performed during an initial gap analysis to identify candidate codes and tools to support the development and integration of the Waste IPSC, and during follow-on activities that delved into more detailed assessments of the various codes that were acquired, studied, and tested. The current Waste IPSC strategy is to acquire and integrate the necessary Waste IPSC capabilities wherever feasible, and develop only those capabilities that cannot be acquired or suitably integrated, verified, or validated. The gap analysis indicates that significant capabilities may already exist in the existing THC codes although there is no single code able to fully account for all physical and chemical processes involved in a waste disposal system. Large gaps exist in modeling chemical processes and their couplings with other processes. The coupling of chemical processes with flow transport and mechanical deformation remains challenging. The data for extreme environments (e.g., for elevated temperature and high ionic strength media) that are

  3. Pancreaticoduodenectomy for pancreas carcinoma occurring in the annular pancreas: report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaida, Hiromichi; Kono, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Mitsuaki; Maki, Akira; Amemiya, Hidetake; Matsuda, Masanori; Fujii, Hideki; Fukasawa, Mitsuharu; Takahashi, Ei; Sano, Katsuhiro; Inoue, Tomohiro

    2015-08-01

    The annular pancreas is a rare congenital anomaly in which a ring of the pancreas parenchyma surrounds the second part of the duodenum. Malignant tumors are extremely rare in patients with an annular pancreas. A 64-year-old man presented with appetite loss and vomiting. Abdominal contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) indicated pancreas parenchyma surrounding the second part of the duodenum, and a hypovascular area occupying lesion in the annular pancreas. Subtotal stomach-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy was performed. Histopathology showed pancreatic carcinoma occurring in the complete annular pancreas.

  4. Electron beam diagnostic system using computed tomography and an annular sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmer, John W.; Teruya, Alan T.

    2014-07-29

    A system for analyzing an electron beam including a circular electron beam diagnostic sensor adapted to receive the electron beam, the circular electron beam diagnostic sensor having a central axis; an annular sensor structure operatively connected to the circular electron beam diagnostic sensor, wherein the sensor structure receives the electron beam; a system for sweeping the electron beam radially outward from the central axis of the circular electron beam diagnostic sensor to the annular sensor structure wherein the electron beam is intercepted by the annular sensor structure; and a device for measuring the electron beam that is intercepted by the annular sensor structure.

  5. Electron beam diagnostic system using computed tomography and an annular sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmer, John W.; Teruya, Alan T.

    2015-08-11

    A system for analyzing an electron beam including a circular electron beam diagnostic sensor adapted to receive the electron beam, the circular electron beam diagnostic sensor having a central axis; an annular sensor structure operatively connected to the circular electron beam diagnostic sensor, wherein the sensor structure receives the electron beam; a system for sweeping the electron beam radially outward from the central axis of the circular electron beam diagnostic sensor to the annular sensor structure wherein the electron beam is intercepted by the annular sensor structure; and a device for measuring the electron beam that is intercepted by the annular sensor structure.

  6. Quantifying the eddy-jet feedback strength of the annular mode in an idealized GCM and reanalysis data

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Ding; Kuang, Zhiming

    2016-01-01

    A linear response function (LRF) that relates the temporal tendency of zonal mean temperature and zonal wind to their anomalies and external forcing is used to accurately quantify the strength of the eddy-jet feedback associated with the annular mode in an idealized GCM. Following a simple feedback model, the results confirm the presence of a positive eddy-jet feedback in the annular mode dynamics, with a feedback strength of 0.137 day$^{-1}$ in the idealized GCM. Statistical methods proposed by earlier studies to quantify the feedback strength are evaluated against results from the LRF. It is argued that the mean-state-independent eddy forcing reduces the accuracy of these statistical methods because of the quasi-oscillatory nature of the eddy forcing. A new method is proposed to approximate the feedback strength as the regression coefficient of low-pass filtered eddy forcing onto low-pass filtered annular mode index, which converges to the value produced by the LRF when timescales longer than 200 days are u...

  7. Carbon fluxes in tropical forest ecosystems: the value of Eddy-covariance data for individual-based dynamic forest gap models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roedig, Edna; Cuntz, Matthias; Huth, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    The effects of climatic inter-annual fluctuations and human activities on the global carbon cycle are uncertain and currently a major issue in global vegetation models. Individual-based forest gap models, on the other hand, model vegetation structure and dynamics on a small spatial (1000 years). They are well-established tools to reproduce successions of highly-diverse forest ecosystems and investigate disturbances as logging or fire events. However, the parameterizations of the relationships between short-term climate variability and forest model processes are often uncertain in these models (e.g. daily variable temperature and gross primary production (GPP)) and cannot be constrained from forest inventories. We addressed this uncertainty and linked high-resolution Eddy-covariance (EC) data with an individual-based forest gap model. The forest model FORMIND was applied to three diverse tropical forest sites in the Amazonian rainforest. Species diversity was categorized into three plant functional types. The parametrizations for the steady-state of biomass and forest structure were calibrated and validated with different forest inventories. The parameterizations of relationships between short-term climate variability and forest model processes were evaluated with EC-data on a daily time step. The validations of the steady-state showed that the forest model could reproduce biomass and forest structures from forest inventories. The daily estimations of carbon fluxes showed that the forest model reproduces GPP as observed by the EC-method. Daily fluctuations of GPP were clearly reflected as a response to daily climate variability. Ecosystem respiration remains a challenge on a daily time step due to a simplified soil respiration approach. In the long-term, however, the dynamic forest model is expected to estimate carbon budgets for highly-diverse tropical forests where EC-measurements are rare.

  8. Axial Creeping Flow in the Gap between a Rigid Cylinder and a Concentric Elastic Tube

    CERN Document Server

    Elbaz, Shai B

    2015-01-01

    We examine transient axial creeping flow in the annular gap between a rigid cylinder and a concentric elastic tube. The gap is initially filled with a thin fluid layer. The study focuses on viscous-elastic time-scales for which the rate of solid deformation is of the same order-of-magnitude as the velocity of the fluid. We employ an elastic shell model and the lubrication approximation to obtain a forced nonlinear diffusion equation governing the viscous-elastic interaction. In the case of an advancing liquid front into a configuration with a negligible film layer (compared with the radial deformation of the elastic tube), the governing equation degenerates into a forced porous medium equation, for which several closed-form solutions are presented. In the case where the initial film layer is non-negligible, self-similarity is used to devise propagation laws for a pressure driven liquid front. When advancing external forces are applied on the tube, the formation of dipole structures is shown to dominate the in...

  9. Direct and ozone-mediated forcing of the Southern Annular Mode by greenhouse gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, Olaf; Zeng, Guang; Dean, Sam M.; Joshi, Manoj; Abraham, N. Luke; Osprey, Annette

    2014-12-01

    We assess the roles of long-lived greenhouse gases and ozone depletion in driving meridional surface pressure gradients in the southern extratropics; these gradients are a defining feature of the Southern Annular Mode. Stratospheric ozone depletion is thought to have caused a strengthening of this mode during summer, with increasing long-lived greenhouse gases playing a secondary role. Using a coupled atmosphere-ocean chemistry-climate model, we show that there is cancelation between the direct, radiative effect of increasing greenhouse gases by the also substantial indirect—chemical and dynamical—feedbacks that greenhouse gases have via their impact on ozone. This sensitivity of the mode to greenhouse gas-induced ozone changes suggests that a consistent implementation of ozone changes due to long-lived greenhouse gases in climate models benefits the simulation of this important aspect of Southern Hemisphere climate.

  10. Kinetic multi-layer model of gas-particle interactions in aerosols and clouds (KM-GAP: linking condensation, evaporation and chemical reactions of organics, oxidants and water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shiraiwa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel kinetic multi-layer model for gas-particle interactions in aerosols and clouds (KM-GAP that treats explicitly all steps of mass transport and chemical reaction of semi-volatile species partitioning between gas phase, particle surface and particle bulk. KM-GAP is based on the PRA model framework (Pöschl-Rudich-Ammann, 2007, and it includes gas phase diffusion, reversible adsorption, surface reactions, bulk diffusion and reaction, as well as condensation, evaporation and heat transfer. The size change of atmospheric particles and the temporal evolution and spatial profile of the concentration of individual chemical species can be modeled along with gas uptake and accommodation coefficients. Depending on the complexity of the investigated system and the computational constraints, unlimited numbers of semi-volatile species, chemical reactions, and physical processes can be treated, and the model shall help to bridge gaps in the understanding and quantification of multiphase chemistry and microphysics in atmospheric aerosols and clouds.

    In this study we demonstrate how KM-GAP can be used to analyze, interpret and design experimental investigations of changes in particle size and chemical composition in response to condensation, evaporation, and chemical reaction. For the condensational growth of water droplets, our kinetic model results provide a direct link between laboratory observations and molecular dynamic simulations, confirming that the accommodation coefficient of water at ~270 K is close to unity (Winkler et al., 2006. Literature data on the evaporation of dioctyl phthalate as a function of particle size and time can be reproduced, and the model results suggest that changes in the experimental conditions like aerosol particle concentration and chamber geometry may influence the evaporation kinetics and can be optimized for efficient probing of specific physical effects and parameters. With regard to oxidative

  11. Annular burnout data from rod-bundle experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnout data for annular flow in a rod bundle are presented for both transient and steady-state conditions. Tests were performed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the Thermal Hydraulic Test Facility (THTF), a pressurized-water loop containing an electrically heated 64-rod bundle. The bundle configuration is typical of later generation pressurized-water reactors with 17 x 17 fuel arrays. Both axial and radial power profiles are flat. All experiments were carried out in upflow with subcooled inlet conditions, insuring accurate flow measurement. Conditions within the bundle were typical of those which could be encountered during a nuclear reactor loss-of-coolant accident

  12. Analysis of Cold Flowfield of Multi—Annular Opposed Jets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.F.Zhao; G.C.Benelli

    1992-01-01

    The technique of the use of multi-annular opposed jets as different from using swirl and bluff body creates an excellent recirculation zone with desired size in a large space.The size of ecirculation,the magnitude of reverse velocity and turbulence intensity are much greater than those formed by bluff body.Factors affecting the flowfield include the velocity ration of the opposed jets to the primary air J.the diameter and construction of the opposed jet ring,secondary air velocity and configuration,and confined or unconfined flow condition and so on.This method is a promising way for flame stabilization in combustion technology.

  13. Unusual Presentation of Acute Annular Urticaria: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Guerrier

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute urticarial lesions may display central clearing with ecchymotic or haemorrhagic hue, often misdiagnosed as erythema multiforme, serum-sickness-like reactions, or urticarial vasculitis. We report a case of acute annular urticaria with unusual presentation occurring in a 20-month-old child to emphasize the distinctive morphologic manifestations in a single disease. Clinicians who care for children should be able to differentiate acute urticaria from its clinical mimics. A directed history and physical examination can reliably orientate necessary diagnostic testing and allow for appropriate treatment.

  14. Coexistence of disseminated granuloma annulare and asymptomatic multiple myeloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şebnem Aktan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Granuloma annulare (GA is a benign inflammatory dermatosis of unknown cause, characterized by necrobiotic dermal papules. Several morphologic forms of GA including localized, disseminated, linear, nodular, perforating, subcutaneous, pustular and arcuate dermal erythema have been reported in the literature. Disseminated GA, a rarely seen form, has been reported in association with some hematopoietic and solid malignancies; however, it has been suggested that the exact causative relationship between malignancy and GA is unclear. We present here a 66-year-old female patient with disseminated GA associated with asymptomatic multipl myeloma.

  15. Exhaust emissions of a double annular combustor: Parametric study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, D. F.

    1974-01-01

    A full scale double-annular ram-induction combustor designed for Mach 3.0 cruise operation was tested. Emissions of oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, and smoke were measured over a range of combustor operating variables including reference velocity, inlet air temperature and pressure, and exit average temperature. ASTM Jet-A fuel was used for these tests. An equation is provided relating oxides of nitrogen emissions as a function of the combustor, operating variables. A small effect of radial fuel staging on reducing exhaust emissions (which were originally quite low) is demonstrated.

  16. Analytic vortex dynamics in an annular Bose-Einstein condensate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toikka, L. A.; Suominen, K.-A.

    2016-05-01

    We consider analytically the dynamics of an arbitrary number and configuration of vortices in an annular Bose-Einstein condensate obtaining expressions for the free energy and vortex precession rates to logarithmic accuracy. We also obtain lower bounds for the lifetime of a single vortex in the annulus. Our results enable a closed-form analytic treatment of vortex-vortex interactions in the annulus that is exact in the incompressible limit. The incompressible hydrodynamics that is developed here paves the way for more general analytical treatments of vortex dynamics in non-simply-connected geometries.

  17. Effects of low-lying excitations on ground-state energy and energy gap of the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model in a transverse field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Yang Wei

    2016-04-01

    We present an extensive numerical study of the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model in a transverse field. Recent numerical studies of quantum spin glasses have focused on exact diagonalization of the full Hamiltonian for small systems (≈20 spins). However, such exact numerical treatments are difficult to apply on larger systems. We propose making an approximation by using only a subspace of the full Hilbert space spanned by low-lying excitations consisting of one-spin-flipped and two-spin-flipped states. The approximation procedure is carried out within the theoretical framework of the Hartree-Fock approximation and configuration interaction. Although not exact, our approach allows us to study larger system sizes comparable to that achievable by state-of-the-art quantum Monte Carlo simulations. We calculate two quantities of interest due to recent advances in quantum annealing, the ground-state energy and the energy gap between the ground and first excited states. For the energy gap, we derive a formula that enables it to be calculated using just the ground-state wave function, thereby circumventing the need to diagonalize the Hamiltonian. We calculate the scalings of the energy gap and the leading correction to the extensive part of the ground-state energy with system size, which are difficult to obtain with current methods.

  18. 利用扩展的GAP模型评价企业的服务能力%Evaluating Service Capacity Using Extended GAP Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新安; 田澎

    2003-01-01

    服务质量对于服务企业的生存和发展至关重要.顾客往往根据感知服务实绩和期望服务实绩之间的差距来判断服务质量的高低.在Parasuraman、Zeithaml和Berry提出的服务质量差距模型(GAP Model)中,这一差距被认为由发生在服务过程中的其它4个差距所导致.然而,由于GAP模型的描述过于简化,无法直接评价发生在企业内部的这4个差距,并由此评价企业满足顾客期望的能力.本文将这4个GAP细分为17个扩展GAP,并为扩展GAP设立了具体的观测指标.基于此,建立了评价企业服务能力的指标体系,并在实际案例中得到了应用.

  19. Investigation of an energy-gap model for photoacoustic O2A-band spectra: H2O calibration near 7180 cm−1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We investigate an energy transfer model for photoacoustic measurements of the O2A-band. ► We measure the response of a photoacoustic spectrometer for known quantities of H2O and O2. ► We fit multiple theoretical spectral line profiles to the data. ► We bind the relative uncertainty of the energy transfer model to less than 1%. ► We demonstrate that speed-dependence is an important line shape effect for these experiments. - Abstract: A photoacoustic spectrometer is used to evaluate the accuracy of an energy-gap model for collisional energy transfer. For photoacoustic measurements involving the b1Σg+←X3Σg- transition of molecular oxygen the conversion of photon energy to thermal energy is inefficient and proceeds through the a1Δg state. This results in attenuation of the photoacoustic signal. The magnitude of the attenuation can be predicted with an energy-gap model whose accuracy has been previously confirmed to within 3 ± 5%. However, this prior result does not rule out incomplete rotational relaxation of O2 in the a1Δg state. In this study, high-resolution spectra of H2O in air are used to calibrate the photoacoustic spectrometer. This work binds the relative uncertainty in the energy-gap relaxation factor for O2A-band photoacoustic signals to be approximately 1%. During one acoustic cycle, this result implies negligible collisional relaxation to the X3Σg- state of O2 and nearly complete collisional relaxation to the a1Δg state.

  20. Reflection and transmission of elastic waves in non-local band-gap metamaterials: A comprehensive study via the relaxed micromorphic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeo, Angela; Neff, Patrizio; Ghiba, Ionel-Dumitrel; Rosi, Giuseppe

    2016-10-01

    In this paper we derive, by means of a suitable least action principle, the duality jump conditions to be imposed at surfaces of discontinuity of the material properties in non-dissipative, linear-elastic, isotropic, Mindlin's and relaxed micromorphic media, respectively. The introduced theoretical framework allows the transparent set-up of different types of micro-macro connections which are intrinsically compatible with the governing bulk equations. To illustrate the interest of the many introduced jump conditions, we focus on the case of an interface between a classical Cauchy continuum on one side and a relaxed micromorphic one on the other side. As expected, we find a complete reflection in the frequency intervals for which band-gaps are known to occur in the relaxed micromorphic continuum and precise microstructure-related reflective patterns are identified. We repeat a similar study for analogous connections between a classical Cauchy continuum and a Mindlin's micromorphic one and we show that the reflective properties of the considered interfaces are drastically modified due to the fact that band-gaps are not allowed in standard Mindlin's micromorphic media. The present work opens the way towards the possibility of conceiving complex metastructures in which band-gap metamaterials and classical materials are coupled together to produce structures with completely new and unorthodox properties with respect to wave propagation, transmission and reflection. Last, but not least, indirect measurements of the material coefficients of the relaxed micromorphic model based upon real experiments of reflection and transmission in band-gap metamaterials are uncovered by the present work which makes them finally realizable in the short term.

  1. Between the Gap

    OpenAIRE

    McDevitt, Mary Jean

    2009-01-01

    The reveal is an important architectural element. In many buildings, reveals define transitions between dissimilar materials, textures, finishes or planes. A reveal can also be thought of as a gap. Webster's dictionary defines a gap as "an opening made by breaking or parting." Often the word "gap" is associated with a deficiency or failure, but a gap similar to a reveal, can be intentional and essential to the success of a building. The visually impaired experience a "gap" with the sight...

  2. Experimental Constraints on {\\gamma}-ray Pulsar Gap Models and the Pulsar GeV to Pulsar Wind Nebula TeV Connection

    CERN Document Server

    Abeysekara, A U

    2015-01-01

    The pulsar emission mechanism in the gamma-ray energy band is poorly understood. Currently, there are several models under discussion in the pulsar community. These models can be constrained by studying the collective properties of a sample of pulsars, which became possible with the large sample of gamma-ray pulsars discovered by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (Fermi-LAT). In this paper we develop a new experimental multi-wavelength technique to determine the beaming factor $\\left( f_\\Omega \\right)$ dependance on spin-down luminosity of a set of GeV pulsars. This technique requires three input parameters: pulsar spin-down luminosity, pulsar phase-averaged GeV flux and TeV or X-ray flux from the associated Pulsar Wind Nebula (PWN). The analysis presented in this paper uses the PWN TeV flux measurements to study the correlation between $f_\\Omega$ and $\\dot{E}$. The measured correlation has some features that favor the Outer Gap model over the Polar Cap, Slot Gap and One Pole Caustic models for pulsar emission i...

  3. Is There a Gap in the Gap? Regional Differences in the Gender Pay Gap

    OpenAIRE

    Hirsch, Boris; König, Marion; Möller, Joachim

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate regional differences in the gender pay gap both theoretically and empirically. Within a spatial oligopsony model, we show that more densely populated labour markets are more competitive and constrain employers' ability to discriminate against women. Utilising a large administrative data set for western Germany and a flexible semi-parametric propensity score matching approach, we find that the unexplained gender pay gap for young workers is substantially lower in ...

  4. Non-linear dynamics of annular creeping flow enclosed by an elastic membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbaz, Shai; Gat, Amir

    2015-11-01

    This study deals with the fluid-structure-interaction problem of longitudinal annular flow about a varying cross-section centre-body enclosed by an elastic membrane. The gap between the centre-body and membrane wall may be initially filled with a thin fluid layer or devoid of it. We employ elastic shell theory and the lubrication approximation and obtain a forced nonlinear diffusion equation governing the problem. In the case of an advancing liquid front in an initially unpenetrated interface (viscous peeling) the governing equation degenerates into a forced porous medium equation, for which several closed-form solutions can be obtained. Based on self-similarity we define propagation laws for the fluid-elastic interaction which in turn provide the basis for numerical investigation of compound solutions such as pulse trains and other waveforms. The presented interaction between viscosity and elasticity may be applied to fields such as soft-robotics and micro-scale or larger swimmers by allowing for the time-dependent control of a compliant boundary.

  5. Mono/dual-polarization refractive-index biosensors with enhanced sensitivity based on annular photonic crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Liyong; Zhang, We; Li, Xiangyin

    2014-01-01

    To promote the development of two-dimensional (2D) photonic crystals (PCs) based refractive-index (RI) biosensors, there is an urgent requirement of an effective approach to improve the RI sensitivity of 2D PCs (usually less than 500 nm/RIU). In this work, the photonic band gap (PBG) feature and the corresponding RI sensitivity of the air-ring type 2D annular PCs (APCs) have been studied in detail. Such type of 2D PCs can easily and apparently improve the RI sensitivity in comparison with conventional air-hole type 2D PCs that have been widely studied in previous works. This is because the APCs can naturally exhibit suppressed up edge of PBG that can strongly affect the final RI sensitivity. In general, an enhanced sensing performance of as high as up to 2-3 times RI sensitivity can be obtained from pure 2D APCs. Such high RI sensitivity is also available in three typical waveguides developed from pure 2D APCs. Furthermore, a new conception of dual-polarization RI biosensors has been proposed by defining the ...

  6. Design of Annular Linear Induction Pump for High Temperature Liquid Lead Transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EM(Electro Magnetic) Pump is divided into two parts, which consisted of the primary one with electromagnetic core and exciting coils, and secondary one with liquid lead flow. The main geometrical variables of the pump included core length, inner diameter and flow gap while the electromagnetic ones covered pole pitch, turns of coil, number of pole pairs, input current and input frequency. The characteristics of design variables are analyzed by electrical equivalent circuit method taking into account hydraulic head loss in the narrow annular channel of the ALIP. The design program, which was composed by using MATLAB language, was developed to draw pump design variables according to input requirements of the flow rate, developing pressure and operation temperature from the analyses. The analysis on the design of ALIP for high temperature liquid lead transportation was carried for the produce of ALIP designing program based on MATLAB. By the using of ALIP designing program, we don't have to bother about geometrical relationship between each component during detail designing process because code calculate automatically. And prediction of outputs about designing pump can be done easily before manufacturing. By running the code, we also observe and analysis change of outputs caused by changing of pump factors. It will be helpful for the research about optimization of pump outputs

  7. Computational cluster validation for microarray data analysis: experimental assessment of Clest, Consensus Clustering, Figure of Merit, Gap Statistics and Model Explorer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utro Filippo

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inferring cluster structure in microarray datasets is a fundamental task for the so-called -omic sciences. It is also a fundamental question in Statistics, Data Analysis and Classification, in particular with regard to the prediction of the number of clusters in a dataset, usually established via internal validation measures. Despite the wealth of internal measures available in the literature, new ones have been recently proposed, some of them specifically for microarray data. Results We consider five such measures: Clest, Consensus (Consensus Clustering, FOM (Figure of Merit, Gap (Gap Statistics and ME (Model Explorer, in addition to the classic WCSS (Within Cluster Sum-of-Squares and KL (Krzanowski and Lai index. We perform extensive experiments on six benchmark microarray datasets, using both Hierarchical and K-means clustering algorithms, and we provide an analysis assessing both the intrinsic ability of a measure to predict the correct number of clusters in a dataset and its merit relative to the other measures. We pay particular attention both to precision and speed. Moreover, we also provide various fast approximation algorithms for the computation of Gap, FOM and WCSS. The main result is a hierarchy of those measures in terms of precision and speed, highlighting some of their merits and limitations not reported before in the literature. Conclusion Based on our analysis, we draw several conclusions for the use of those internal measures on microarray data. We report the main ones. Consensus is by far the best performer in terms of predictive power and remarkably algorithm-independent. Unfortunately, on large datasets, it may be of no use because of its non-trivial computer time demand (weeks on a state of the art PC. FOM is the second best performer although, quite surprisingly, it may not be competitive in this scenario: it has essentially the same predictive power of WCSS but it is from 6 to 100 times slower in time

  8. The effects of post-exposure smallpox vaccination on clinical disease presentation: addressing the data gaps between historical epidemiology and modern surrogate model data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keckler, M Shannon; Reynolds, Mary G; Damon, Inger K; Karem, Kevin L

    2013-10-25

    Decades after public health interventions - including pre- and post-exposure vaccination - were used to eradicate smallpox, zoonotic orthopoxvirus outbreaks and the potential threat of a release of variola virus remain public health concerns. Routine prophylactic smallpox vaccination of the public ceased worldwide in 1980, and the adverse event rate associated with the currently licensed live vaccinia virus vaccine makes reinstatement of policies recommending routine pre-exposure vaccination unlikely in the absence of an orthopoxvirus outbreak. Consequently, licensing of safer vaccines and therapeutics that can be used post-orthopoxvirus exposure is necessary to protect the global population from these threats. Variola virus is a solely human pathogen that does not naturally infect any other known animal species. Therefore, the use of surrogate viruses in animal models of orthopoxvirus infection is important for the development of novel vaccines and therapeutics. Major complications involved with the use of surrogate models include both the absence of a model that accurately mimics all aspects of human smallpox disease and a lack of reproducibility across model species. These complications limit our ability to model post-exposure vaccination with newer vaccines for application to human orthopoxvirus outbreaks. This review seeks to (1) summarize conclusions about the efficacy of post-exposure smallpox vaccination from historic epidemiological reports and modern animal studies; (2) identify data gaps in these studies; and (3) summarize the clinical features of orthopoxvirus-associated infections in various animal models to identify those models that are most useful for post-exposure vaccination studies. The ultimate purpose of this review is to provide observations and comments regarding available model systems and data gaps for use in improving post-exposure medical countermeasures against orthopoxviruses.

  9. Numerical Modelling of Regenerative Liquid Propellant Guns with Annular Piston

    OpenAIRE

    K. J. Daniel; D. K. Kharat; K.R. Rao; Shah, S.T.; S. C. Mitra

    1997-01-01

    The development of regenerative liquid propellant guns (RLPGs) needs due consideration of numerous interdependent parameters that affect its performance. To help in this task, computer simulation was undertaken to predict internal ballistics of a conceptual liquid propellant gun. The expected pressure and other important parameters are documented which serve as an aid to the hardware, design of the regenerative liquid propellant guns.

  10. A compact annular ring microstrip antenna for WSN applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Daihua; Song, Linli; Zhou, Hanchang; Zhang, Zhijie

    2012-01-01

    A compact annular ring microstrip antenna was proposed for a wireless sensor network (WSN) application in the 2.4 GHz band. In this paper the major considerations of the conformal antenna design were the compact size and the impact on antenna's performance of a steel installation base. By using a chip resistor of large resistance (120 Ω) the antenna size was reduced to 38% of that a conventional annular ring patch antenna. With the addition of the steel installation base the resonant frequency of the antenna increases about 4.2% and the bandwidth reduces from 17.5% to 11.7% by adjusting the load resistance simultaneously. Several key parameters were discussed and optimized, and the antenna was fabricated and its performance measured. The antenna is well matched at 2.4 GHz with 34.2 dB return loss and -2.5 dBi peak gain. Meanwhile, it exhibits excellent radiation patterns with very low cross-polarization levels.

  11. A Compact Annular Ring Microstrip Antenna for WSN Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daihua Wang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A compact annular ring microstrip antenna was proposed for a wireless sensor network (WSN application in the 2.4 GHz band. In this paper the major considerations of the conformal antenna design were the compact size and the impact on antenna’s performance of a steel installation base. By using a chip resistor of large resistance (120 Ω the antenna size was reduced to 38% of that a conventional annular ring patch antenna. With the addition of the steel installation base the resonant frequency of the antenna increases about 4.2% and the bandwidth reduces from 17.5% to 11.7% by adjusting the load resistance simultaneously. Several key parameters were discussed and optimized, and the antenna was fabricated and its performance measured. The antenna is well matched at 2.4 GHz with 34.2 dB return loss and –2.5 dBi peak gain. Meanwhile, it exhibits excellent radiation patterns with very low cross-polarization levels.

  12. Annular bullous lesions with atypical erythema multiforme in leprosy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Aishani; Mahajan, Rashmi; Ninama, Kishan; Bilimoria, Freny

    2014-09-01

    Erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL) is an immune complex-mediated reaction that may complicate the course of multibacillary leprosy. Bullous lesions in Type II reaction, though reported, are exceedingly rare. We report the case of a 32 year old female patient who presented initially at our OPD with erythema nodosum. Cutaneous examination revealed impaired sensation over dorsum of right foot and thickened right lateral popliteal nerve. Slit skin smear (SSS) from ear lobes revealed AFB with a bacteriological index of 2+. She was started on MDT, tablet ofloxacin 200 mg twice a day, and 30 mg oral prednisolone. Two months later, she presented with generalised pruritus, large target lesions over the back, and hemorrhagic bullae over lower extremities and annular pattern of bullae, over both arms. A SSS was repeated which was positive for AFB. Histopathology from bullous lesions was consistent with ENL. Direct Immunofluorescence (DIF) study was negative. Our patient improved rapidly after she was started on thalidomide 100 mg twice daily, with withdrawal of ofloxacin. Erythema Multiforme (EMF) and annular bullous lesions have been reported in patients on treatment with ofloxacin. This case is being presented due to the unusual and varied manifestation of Type II lepra reaction in a 34 year old female patient.

  13. Portal annular pancreas: a systematic review of a clinical challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnoss, Jonathan M; Harnoss, Julian C; Diener, Markus K; Contin, Pietro; Ulrich, Alexis B; Büchler, Markus W; Schmitz-Winnenthal, Friedrich H

    2014-10-01

    Portal annular pancreas (PAP) is an asymptomatic congenital pancreas anomaly, in which portal and/or mesenteric veins are encased by pancreas tissue. The aim of the study was to determine the role of PAP in pancreatic surgery as well as its management and potential complication, specifically, postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF).On the basis of a case report, the MEDLINE and ISI Web of Science databases were systematically reviewed up to September 2012. All articles describing a case of PAP were considered.In summary, 21 studies with 59 cases were included. The overall prevalence of PAP was 2.4% and the patients' mean (SD) age was 55.9 (16.2) years. The POPF rate in patients with PAP (12 pancreaticoduodenectomies and 3 distal pancreatectomies) was 46.7% (in accordance with the definition of the International Study Group of Pancreatic Surgery).Portal annular pancreas is a quite unattended pancreatic variant with high prevalence and therefore still remains a clinical challenge to avoid postoperative complications. To decrease the risk for POPF, attentive preoperative diagnostics should also focus on PAP. In pancreaticoduodenectomy, a shift of the resection plane to the pancreas tail should be considered; in extensive pancreatectomy, coverage of the pancreatic remnant by the falciform ligament could be a treatment option.

  14. The Growth of Instabilities in Annular Liquid Sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duke, Daniel J.; Honnery, Damon R; Soria, Julio

    2015-11-01

    An annular liquid sheet surrounded by parallel co-flowing gas is an effective atomiser. However, the initial instabilities which determine the primary break-up of the liquid sheet are not well understood. Lack of agreement on the influence of the boundary conditions and the non-dimension scaling of the initial instability persists between theoretical stability analyses and experiments. To address this matter, we have undertaken an experimental parametric study of an aerodynamically-driven, non-swirling annular water sheet. The effects of sheet thickness, inner and outer gas-liquid momentum ratio were investigated over an order of magnitude variation in Reynolds and Weber number. From high-speed image correlation measurements in the near-nozzle region, we propose new empirical correlations for the frequency of the instability as a function of the total gas-liquid momentum ratio, with good non-dimensional collapse. From analysis of the instability velocity probability densities, we find two persistent and distinct superimposed instabilities with different growth rates. The first is a short-lived, rapidly saturating sawtooth-like instability. The second is a slower-growing stochastic instability which persists through the break-up of the sheet. The presence of multiple instabilities whose growth rates do not strongly correlate with the shear velocities may explain some of the discrepancies between experiments and stability analyses.

  15. Idea Gaps, Object Gaps, and Trust Gaps in Economic Development

    OpenAIRE

    Barrett, Christopher B.

    1995-01-01

    Growth theory emphasizes capital accumulation and technological change or, as Romer [1993] describes them, idea gaps and object gaps. This paper makes the case for a third and final crucial element: trust. Trust has both direct effects on the process of economic development, especially in facilitating increased exchange, and indirect effects through its influence on incentives to investment in human and physical capital (objects) and to the acquisition and processing of knowledge (ideas). Int...

  16. Core-annular flow through a horizontal pipe: Hydrodynamic counterbalancing of buoyancy force on core

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ooms, G.; Vuik, C.; Poesio, P.

    2007-01-01

    A theoretical investigation has been made of core-annular flow: the flow of a high-viscosity liquid core surrounded by a low-viscosity liquid annular layer through a horizontal pipe. Special attention is paid to the question of how the buoyancy force on the core, caused by a density difference betwe

  17. DC intrinsic Josephson effect in 1{mu}m-lateral-size annular Bi-2212 stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S.J.; Yamashita, T. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Research Inst. of Electrical Comunication; Latyshev, Y.I.; Pavlenko, V.N. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan); Inst of Radio-Engineerig and Electronics Russian Academic of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1999-11-10

    Small annular junctions were the subjects of particular interest last decade because of possibility of flux trapping (see, e.g. [1]). Related magnetic field can contain radial component affecting Josephson critical current. Here we report on the first studies of intrinsic dc Josephson effect [2] in small annular type Bi-2212 mesas and its sensitivity to the trapped flux. (translated by NEDO)

  18. Erythema annulare centrifugum as presenting sign of activation of breast cancer*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topal, Ilteris Oguz; Topal, Yunus; Sargan, Aytul; Duman, Hatice; Gungor, Sule; Goncu, Ozgur Emek Kocaturk; Ozekinci, Selver

    2015-01-01

    Erythema annulare centrifugum is a figurate erythema of unknown etiology. It has been associated with many different entities, including infections, food allergy, drug reactions and malignant neoplasms. Herein, we report a case of erythema annulare centrifugum as presenting sign of activation of breastcancer. PMID:26734884

  19. Erythema annulare centrifugum as presenting sign of activation of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topal, Ilteris Oguz; Topal, Yunus; Sargan, Aytul; Duman, Hatice; Gungor, Sule; Goncu, Ozgur Emek Kocaturk; Ozekinci, Selver

    2015-01-01

    Erythema annulare centrifugum is a figurate erythema of unknown etiology. It has been associated with many different entities, including infections, food allergy, drug reactions and malignant neoplasms. Herein, we report a case of erythema annulare centrifugum as presenting sign of activation of breastcancer.

  20. The method of characteristics and computational fluid dynamics applied to the prediction of underexpanded jet flows in annular geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangwon

    2005-11-01

    High pressure (3.4 MPa) injection from a shroud valve can improve natural gas engine efficiency by enhancing fuel-air mixing. Since the fuel jet issuing from the shroud valve has a nearly annular jet flow configuration, it is necessary to analyze the annular jet flow to understand the fuel jet behavior in the mixing process and to improve the shroud design for better mixing. The method of characteristics (MOC) was used as the primary modeling algorithm in this work and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) was used primarily to validate the MOC results. A consistent process for dealing with the coalescence of compression characteristic lines into a shock wave during the MOC computation was developed. By the application of shock polar in the pressure-flow angle plane to the incident shock wave for an axisymmetric underexpanded jet and the comparison with the triple point location found in experimental results, it was found that, in the static pressure ratios of 2--50, a triple point of the jet was located at the point where the flow angle after the incident shock became -5° relative to the axis and this point was situated between the von Neumann and detachment criteria on the incident shock. MOC computations of the jet flow with annular geometry were performed for pressure ratios of 10 and 20 with rannulus = 10--50 units, Deltar = 2 units. In this pressure ratio range, the MOC results did not predict a Mach disc in the core flow of the annular jet, but did indicate the formation of a Mach disc where the jet meets the axis of symmetry. The MOC results display the annular jet configurations clearly. Three types of nozzles for application to gas injectors (convergent-divergent nozzle, conical nozzle, and aerospike nozzle) were designed using the MOC and evaluated in on- and off-design conditions using CFD. The average axial momentum per unit mass was improved by 17 to 24% and the average kinetic energy per unit fuel mass was improved by 30 to 80% compared with a standard