WorldWideScience

Sample records for annual coal preparation

  1. Sixth annual coal preparation, utilization, and environmental control contractors conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    A conference was held on coal preparation, utilization and environmental control. Topics included: combustion of fuel slurries; combustor performance; desulfurization chemically and by biodegradation; coal cleaning; pollution control of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides; particulate control; and flue gas desulfurization. Individual projects are processed separately for the databases. (CBS).

  2. Coal industry annual 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  3. Coal industry annual 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-06

    Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993.

  4. Ninth annual coal preparation, utilization, and environmental control contractors conference: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    Papers are grouped under the following sessions: compliance technology; high-efficiency preparation; characterization; advanced technologies; alternative fuels; coal utilization; industrial/commercial combustor development; combustion; superclean emission systems; carbon dioxide recovery and reuse; air toxics and fine particulates; air toxics sampling and analysis workshop; and combined poster session. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  5. Tenth annual coal preparation, utilization, and environmental control contractors conference: Proceedings. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    Volume I contains papers presented at the following sessions: high efficiency preparation; advanced physical coal cleaning; superclean emission systems; air toxics and mercury measurement and control workshop; and mercury measurement and control workshop. Selected papers have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  6. International perspectives on coal preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The report consists of the vugraphs from the presentations which covered the following topics: Summaries of the US Department of Energy`s coal preparation research programs; Preparation trends in Russia; South African coal preparation developments; Trends in hard coal preparation in Germany; Application of coal preparation technology to oil sands extraction; Developments in coal preparation in China; and Coal preparation in Australia.

  7. Eleventh annual coal preparation, utilization, and environmental control contractors conference: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The 75 papers contained in this volume are divided into the following sections: compliance technology; technology base activities; high efficiency preparation; air toxics (especially mercury); air toxics and CO{sub 2} control; superclean emissions; Combustion 2000; advanced research; commercial and industrial combustion systems; alternative fuels; environmental control; and coal utilization. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  8. Coal industry annual 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  9. Coal Industry Annual 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995.

  10. Coal preparation. Energy program report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anastas, M.Y.

    1975-06-01

    This is one of several special reports prepared in conjunction with a broad state-of-the-art study on underground coal mining. This report is essentially a review of the current technology of coal preparation and future research needs in this field. (GRA)

  11. 2007 coal preparation buyer's guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-04-15

    The guide contains brief descriptions and contact details of 86 US companies supplying coal preparation equipment who exhibited at the 24th annual Coal Prep exhibition and conference, 30 April - 3 May 2007, in Lexington, KY, USA. An index of categories of equipment available from the manufacturers is included.

  12. 2009 coal preparation buyer's guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-04-15

    The guide contains brief descriptions and contact details of 926 US companies supplying coal preparation equipment who exhibited at the 26th annual Coal Prep exhibition and conference, 28-30 April - May 2009, in Lexington, KY, USA. An index of categories of equipment available from the manufacturers is included.

  13. Characterization of coal water slurry prepared for PRB coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei Yi; Akshay Gopan; Richard L. Axelbaum

    2014-01-01

    Powder River Basin (PRB) coal, which accounts for over 40% of the coal consumed for power generation in the United States, was investigated for preparation of coal water slurry ( CWS). The static stability and rheology of the CWS were characterized as a function of loading. The coal loading was varied from 30% to 50% and both ionic ( sodium polystyrene sulphonate (PSS)) and nonionic (Triton X-100) surfactants were employed as additives. The addition of PSS to PRB slurries was found to yield poor static stability. On the other hand, Triton X-100 was found to be an effective surfactant, reducing the sedimentation by more than 50% compared to the one without surfactant in 45% CWS. Adding Triton X-100 reduces the viscosity of the CWS for coal loadings of 30% and 40% . Although the viscosities for coal loading of 42. 5% and 45% are higher when Triton X-100 is added, the static stability is significantly better than for samples without surfactant. The highest coal loading for PRB slurry with acceptable viscosity for pumping is 42. 5% .

  14. Controlling air toxics through advanced coal preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straszheim, W.E.; Buttermore, W.H.; Pollard, J.L. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    This project involves the assessment of advanced coal preparation methods for removing trace elements from coal to reduce the potential for air toxic emissions upon combustion. Scanning electron microscopy-based automated image analysis (SEM-AIA) and advanced washability analyses are being applied with state-of-the-art analytical procedures to predict the removal of elements of concern by advanced column flotation and to confirm the effectiveness of preparation on the quality of quantity of clean coal produced. Specific objectives are to maintain an acceptable recovery of combustible product, while improving the rejection of mineral-associated trace elements. Current work has focused on determining conditions for controlling column flotation system across its operating range and on selection and analysis of samples for determining trace element cleanability.

  15. Expedient utilization of wastes from the 'Tverditza' coal preparation plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalchev, B.; Kamburova, G.; Terziev, S.

    1982-08-01

    The paper treats the problem of waste utilization at the Tverditza coal preparation plant in the Balkan coal basin, where, due to low coal quality (77.22% ash), more than 60% of the total run-of-mine coal is disposed of as waste on nearby spoil banks. The results of chemical analysis of waste material are given, showing that this material may be used for production of ceramic products and bricks. Results of industrial utilization of prepared waste material (crushed to under 3 mm) at the Demir Slavov ceramic factory are described. Annually more than 230,000 tons of waste material containing 77-80% or 60-65% of carbon may be used for production of ceramic products and bricks in ceramic factories of the Balkan coal basin, bringing about an annual savings of 300,000 BLevs. (4 refs.)

  16. Third symposium on coal preparation. NCA/BCR coal conference and Expo IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-01

    The third Symposium on Coal preparation, sponsored by the National Coal Association and Bituminous Coal Research, Inc., was held at the Kentucky Fair and Exposition Center, Louisville, Kentucky, October 18-20, 1977. Fourteen papers from the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA; five additional papers had been entered previously from other sources. Topics covered involved chemical comminution and chemical desulfurization of coal (aimed at reducing sulfur sufficiently with some coals to meet air quality standards without flue gas desulfurization), coal cleaning concepts, removing coal fines and recycling wash water, comparative evaluation of coal preparation methods, coal refuse disposal without polluting the environment, spoil bank reprocessing, noise control in coal preparation plants, etc. (LTN)

  17. Fourth annual conference on materials for coal conversion and utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    The fourth annual conference on materials for coal conversion and utilization was held October 9 to 11, 1979, at the National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, Maryland. It was sponsored by the National Bureau of Standards, the Electric Power Research Institute, the US Department of Energy, and the Gas Research Institute. The papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  18. Annual Change Detection by ASTER TIR Data and an Estimation of the Annual Coal Loss and CO2 Emission from Coal Seams Spontaneous Combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomin Du

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Coal fires, including both underground and coal waste pile fires, result in large losses of coal resources and emit considerable amounts of greenhouse gases. To estimate the annual intensity of greenhouse gas emissions and the loss of coal resources, estimating the annual loss from fire-influenced coal seams is a feasible approach. This study assumes that the primary cause of coal volume loss is subsurface coal seam fires. The main calculation process is divided into three modules: (1 Coal fire quantity calculations, which use change detection to determine the areas of the different coal fire stages (increase/growth, maintenance/stability and decrease/shrinkage. During every change detections, the amount of coal influenced by fires for these three stages was calculated by multiplying the coal mining residual rate, combustion efficiency, average thickness and average coal intensity. (2 The life cycle estimate is based on remote sensing long-term coal fires monitoring. The life cycles for the three coal fire stages and the corresponding life cycle proportions were calculated; (3 The diurnal burnt rates for different coal fire stages were calculated using the CO2 emission rates from spontaneous combustion experiments, the coal fire life cycle, life cycle proportions. Then, using the fire-influenced quantity aggregated across the different stages, the diurnal burn rates for the different stages and the time spans between the multi-temporal image pairs used for change detection, we estimated the annual coal loss to be 44.3 × 103 tons. After correction using a CH4 emission factor, the CO2 equivalent emissions resulting from these fires was on the order of 92.7 × 103 tons. We also discovered that the centers of these coal fires migrated from deeper to shallower parts of the coal seams or traveled in the direction of the coal seam strike. This trend also agrees with the cause of the majority coal fires: spontaneous combustion of coalmine goafs.

  19. Second annual clean coal technology conference: Proceedings. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-09

    The Second Annual Clean Coal Technology Conference was held at Atlanta, Georgia, September 7--9, 1993. The Conference, cosponsored by the US Department of Energy (USDOE) and the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB), seeks to examine the status and role of the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP) and its projects. The Program is reviewed within the larger context of environmental needs, sustained economic growth, world markets, user performance requirements and supplier commercialization activities. This will be accomplished through in-depth review and discussion of factors affecting domestic and international markets for clean coal technology, the environmental considerations in commercial deployment, the current status of projects, and the timing and effectiveness of transfer of data from these projects to potential users, suppliers, financing entities, regulators, the interested environmental community and the public. Individual papers have been entered separately.

  20. Proceedings of the third annual underground coal conversion symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-01

    The Third Annual Underground Coal Conversion Symposium was held at Fallen Leaf Lake, CA, June 6--9, 1977. It was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and hosted by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. Forty-one papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA; ten papers had been entered previously from other sources. The papers cover the in-situ gasification of lignite, subbituminous coal and bituminous coal, in flat lying seams and a steeply dipping beds, at moderate and at greater depths, and describe various technologies of (borehole linking, well spacings, gasifying agents (air, oxygen, steam, hydrogen, including mixtures). Measuring instruments for diagnostic and process control purposes are described. Environmental impacts (ground subsidence and possible groundwater pollution) are the subject of several papers. Finally, mathematical modelling and projected economics of the process are developed. (LTN)

  1. Proceedings of second annual underground coal gasification symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuck, L Z [ed.

    1976-01-01

    The Second Annual Underground Coal Gasification Symposium was sponsored by the Morgantown Energy Research Center of the US Energy Research and Development Administration and held at Morgantown, WV, August 10-12, 1976. Fifty papers of the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. While the majority of the contribution involved ERDA's own work in this area, there were several papers from universities, state organizations, (industrial, engineering or utility companies) and a few from foreign countries. (LTN)

  2. British Coal Corporation Medical Service annual report 1988-89

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    This annual report reviews the work of British Coal's Medical Service over the period 1988-89. Recruitment was at a lower level resulting in a reduction in the number of pre-employment medical examinations. Statistics are given for these, and for consultations during the year. The work of the rescue service is described. Results of surveys on the prevalence of pneumoconiosis in coal miners from 1961 to 1988 are presented in detail. The fall in prevalence continued. Continued attention has been paid to compliance with COSHH regulations, to encouraging the use of physiotherapy and to educating workers in lifting and handling methods. Following an incidence of Legionnaires Disease an investigation was carried out to identify the source of infection in an underground refrigeration plant. Studies on the mortality of coke workers have progressed. Reports are given on first aid and nursing services and on the administration of pethridine to injured miners.

  3. Petrographic and mineral characterization of Balkan coals and their solid waste products from coal preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yossifova, M. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria). Institute of Applied Mineralogy

    1995-12-31

    This paper is part of a complex petrographic, mineralogical and chemical investigation on Balkan bituminous coals and their solid waste products from coal preparation. The petrographic and phase-mineralogical composition in ten composite samples and four water extracts have been studied by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. 4 refs., 4 tabs.

  4. Coal blending scheduling in coal preparation plant based on multi-sensor information fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, L.; Yu, H.; Wang, Y. [CUMT, Xuzhou (China). School of Information and Electrical Engineering

    2004-01-01

    It is important to research on a reasonable blending schedule according to the customer requirement and the practice of products in coal preparation plant. In order to solve this problem, a mathematic model was set up on the basis of analysing coal blending schedule. Multi-sensors information fusion was used to monitor the density and the amount of coal. The genetic algorithm was used to solve the nonlinear function in the maths model. A satisfied result was obtained by simulating test. 8 refs., 2 figs.

  5. Energy-Saving Vibration Impulse Coal Degradation at Finely Dispersed Coal-Water Slurry Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moiseev V.A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical and experimental research results of processes of finely dispersed coal-water slurry preparation for further generation of energetic gas in direct flow and vortex gas generator plants have been presented. It has been stated that frequency parameters of parabolic vibration impulse mill influence degradation degree. Pressure influence on coal parameters in grinding cavity has been proven. Experimental researches have proven efficiency of vibration impulse mill with unbalanced mass vibrator generator development. Conditions of development on intergranular walls of coal cracks have been defined.

  6. A comparative investigation of the properties of coal-water slurries prepared from Australia and Shenhua coals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun Zengjie; Wu Guoguang; Meng Xianliang; Zhang Yuliang; Shi Frank; He Yaqun; Luo Xiaoqiang

    2011-01-01

    Two coal samples of similar rank were chosen from Australia and China to investigate the differences in Coal-Water Slurry (CWS) made from them.The effect of ash content and particle size gradation on these properties was also studied.Different grinding times were used when grinding the two coals and particle size analysis of these ground coals was used to select samples with a "double-peak" particle size distribution.All the "double-peak" samples were used to prepare a CWS.The concentration,viscosity,fluidity,and stability of each CWS were measured.The results show that the properties ofa CWS prepared from a coal sample with a "double-peak" size distribution are better than those CWS prepared from samples with a mono-modal particle distribution.The ash content of Australian coal is 21.72% higher than the ash content of Shenhua coal.The highest coal concentration in slurry from the Australia coal is 11.01%higher than in CWS from the Shenhua coal.The fluidity and stability of the CWS prepared from the Australian coal are both better than the fluidity and stability of slurry prepared from Shenhua coal.High ash content in the Australian coal improves the pulping results of a CWS made from it.

  7. 2006 annual conference of the German Hard Coal Association (GVSt); Jahresveranstaltung 2006 des Gesamtverbands des deutschen Steinkohlenbergbaus GVSt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2006-12-14

    2006 is possibly the crucial year for the future of German coal. Energy and raw material issues are on everyone's lips and have become highly explosive topics. The energy policy aims of Germany are again attracting increasing attention. In addition to cost-effectiveness and compatibility with the environment it is particularly the security of supply, which is the cause of increasing concern to many people. Hence this year's annual conference of the German Hard Coal Association (GVSt) in Essen was held under the motto 'Coal 2006 - security for tomorrow'. The guest speaker before an audience of about 400 was the Prime Minister of North Rhine-Westphalia, Dr. Juergen Ruettgers. At the annual conference the GVSt also submitted its latest annual report, which can be retrieved via the Internet presentation of the association (www.gvst.de). 'Anyone believing that no bottlenecks could occur in coal is making a mistake. As a result of the enormous demand in particular in China we have already experienced shortages and price explosions in the coking coal and coke sector in 2004 and 2005', explained Bernd Toenjes, member of the boards of GVSt and RAG Aktiengesellschaft and chairman of Deutsche Steinkohle AG (DKS). 'There is increasing concern among German coal importers that from about 2008 the demand for power station coal will no longer be able to keep pace with supply. We have seen in the last two years that such a trend will have consequences for coal prices and freight rates'. In addition Toenjes referred to a recently conducted survey by the Forsa Opinion Research Institute, according to which there is still a clear majority throughout Germany in favour of maintenance of coal production. In North Rhine-Westphalia there is even a majority of almost two thirds of the population. Dr. Werner Mueller, the President of GVSt and board member of RAG Aktiengesellschaft pointed out that the future of German coal is determined solely by

  8. Evaluation of the effects of coal grinding in terms of coal water slurry preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robak Jolanta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Coal Water Slurry (CWS is a specific form of solid fuel. It occurs in the form of finely ground coal particles and water. Depending on the use, the content of combustible matter is from 40 to 70% by weight. The attractiveness of the fuel is primarily its properties, i.e. liquid form, high energy efficiency (for water evaporation 4% energy is used – for CSW with 70% concentration of coal, decreased environmental impurities (lower NOx emission and reduced risk of explosion. The advantages of CWS fuels, the possibility of independence from petrochemical fuels, wide availability of coal and emphasis on the use of cleaner technologies are the driving force for development of slurry fuel technologies. The major parameters characterizing the fuel suspension are: solid phase concentration (share of coal in the slurry expressed as either weight or volume fraction of dry coal, time stability (resistance to delamination and separation of the dispersed phase from the continuous phase and viscosity, determining the flow of suspension. The mentioned parameters are dependent on the susceptibility of coal for production of aqueous suspensions (slurrability, conditioned by natural properties of coal, such as: coalification degree, petrographic composition and surface properties. They are also dependent on the slurry fuel preparation process: particle size, solid phase concentration, used additives (stabilizing and dispersion agents and modification of primary coal properties (ash removal, change of surface properties. Preparation of sustainable, high concentrated CWS fuel coal is promoted by the hydrophobic nature of the coal surface, characteristic for coals of higher coalification. A great technological problem is to obtain a highly concentrated coal slurry fuel from less coalified hydrophilic steam coals. The paper presents the results of lab scale research on the CWS prepared from Polish steam coal by wet grinding in mill drum and vibrating. The milling

  9. Coal combustion products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyoncu, R.S.; Olson, D.W.

    2001-01-01

    Coal-burning powerplants, which supply more than half of U.S. electricity, also generate coal combustion products, which can be both a resource and a disposal problem. The U.S. Geological Survey collaborates with the American Coal Ash Association in preparing its annual report on coal combustion products. This Fact Sheet answers questions about present and potential uses of coal combustion products.

  10. COAL MICRONIZATION STUDIES IN VIBRATING MILL IN TERMS OF COAL WATER SLURRY (CWS FUEL PREPARATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Rejdak

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of coal milling tests in aspect of slurry fuel preparation. The tests were carried out with the use of vibrating mill with working chamber of 47.5 dm3. The influence of milling time, amount and composition of grinding aids on degree of fineness and particle size distribution has been investigated. It has been found that the efficiency of the grinding process (in this type of milling device depends primarily on the milling time and the share of grinding aids and - to a lesser extent - on their polydispersity. The study allows to conclude that the grinding time, composition and share of used grinding aids enable to control the final grain size of coal which has an impact on apparent viscosity of coal water slurry.

  11. Coal preparation and coal cleaning in the dry process; Kanshiki sentaku to coal cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Z.; Morikawa, M.; Fujii, Y. [Okayama University, Okayama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-09-01

    Because the wet process has a problem such as waste water treatment, coal cleaning in the dry process was discussed. When a fluidized bed (using glass beads and calcium carbonate) is utilized instead of the heavy liquid, the fluidized bed will have apparent density as the liquid does, whereas the relative relationship therewith determines whether a substance having been put into the fluidized bed will float or sink. This is utilized for coals. In addition, two powder constituents of A and B may be wanted to be separated using the fluidized extraction process (similar to the liquid-liquid extraction process). In such a case, a fluidized bed in which both constituents are mixed is added with a third constituent C (which will not mix with A, but mix well with B), where the constituents are separated into A and (B + C), and the (B + C) constituent is separated further by using a sieve. If coal has the coal content mixed with ash content and pulverized, it turns into particle groups which have distributions in grain size and density. Groups having higher density may contain more ash, and those having lower density less ash. In addition, the ash content depends also on the grain size. The ash content may be classified by using simultaneously wind classification (for density and grain size) and a sieve (for grain size). This inference may be expanded to consideration of constructing a multi-stage fluidized bed classification tower. 12 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. 5. annual clean coal technology conference: powering the next millennium. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The Fifth Annual Clean Coal Technology Conference focuses on presenting strategies and approaches that will enable clean coal technologies to resolve the competing, interrelated demands for power, economic viability, and environmental constraints associated with the use of coal in the post-2000 era. The program addresses the dynamic changes that will result from utility competition and industry restructuring, and to the evolution of markets abroad. Current projections for electricity highlight the preferential role that electric power will have in accomplishing the long-range goals of most nations. Increase demands can be met by utilizing coal in technologies that achieve environmental goals while keeping the cost- per-unit of energy competitive. Results from projects in the DOE Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program confirm that technology is the pathway to achieving these goals. The industry/government partnership, cemented over the past 10 years, is focused on moving the clean coal technologies into the domestic and international marketplaces. The Fifth Annual Clean Coal Technology Conference provides a forum to discuss these benchmark issues and the essential role and need for these technologies in the post-2000 era. This volume contains technical papers on: advanced coal process systems; advanced industrial systems; advanced cleanup systems; and advanced power generation systems. In addition, there are poster session abstracts. Selected papers from this proceedings have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology database.

  13. Coprocessing Yanzhou coal with petroleum resid for preparing paving asphalt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Z.; Li, Y.; Yang, J.; Liu, Z.; Chi, H. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan (China). State Key Laboratory of Coal Conversion

    2003-07-01

    Coprocessing Yanzhou coal with five types of petroleum resid for preparing high grade paving asphalt (HGPA) was investigated. The asphalt obtained was evaluated by 3 indexes: penetration, softening point and ductility. The thin layer chromatography (TLC) and NMR were used to characterise the asphalt. The results show that the properties of resid are crucial for the quality of asphalt. Under the experimental conditions, the resid with the lowest H/C ratio, highest aromatics content and shortest aliphatic side-chain produced asphalt with required quality for high grade paving asphalt used in China. Asphalt yield increased with H{sub 2} pressure and the quality of asphalt decreased with coal to resid ratio. 15 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs.

  14. Preparation and combustion of coal-water fuel from the Sin Pun coal deposit, southern Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    In response to an inquiry by the Department of Mineral Resources in Thailand, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) prepared a program to assess the responsiveness of Sin Pun lignite to the temperature and pressure conditions of hot-water drying. The results indicate that drying made several improvements in the coal, notably increases in heating value and carbon content and reductions in equilibrium moisture and oxygen content. The equilibrium moisture content decreased from 27 wt% for the raw coal to about 15 wt% for the hot-water-dried (HWD) coals. The energy density for a pumpable coal-water fuel (CWF) indicates an increase from 4500 to 6100 Btu/lb by hot-water drying. Approximately 650 lb of HWD Sin Pun CWF were fired in the EERC`s combustion test facility. The fuel burned extremely well, with no feed problems noted during the course of the test. Fouling and slagging deposits each indicated a very low rate of ash deposition, with only a dusty layer formed on the cooled metal surfaces. The combustor was operated at between 20% and 25% excess air, resulting in a flue gas SO{sub 2} concentration averaging approximately 6500 parts per million.

  15. Conceptual flow sheets development for coal conversion plant coal handling-preparation and ash/slag removal operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-07-01

    This report presents 14 conceptual flow sheets and major equipment lists for coal handling and preparation operations that could be required for future, commercial coal conversion plants. These flow sheets are based on converting 50,000 tons per day of clean coal representative of the Pittsburgh and Kentucky No. 9 coal seams. Flow sheets were used by Union Carbide Corporation, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, in a survey of coal handling/preparation equipment requirements for future coal conversion plants. Operations covered in this report include run-of-mine coal breaking, coarse coal cleaning, fine coal cleaning, live storage and blending, fine crushing (crushing to top sizes ranging from 1/4-inch to 20 mesh), drying, and grinding (70 percent minus 200 mesh). Two conceptual flow sheets and major equipment lists are also presented for handling ash or granulated slag and other solid wastes produced by nine leading coal conversion processes. These flow sheets provide for solid wastes transport to an environmentally acceptable disposal site as either dry solids or as a water slurry.

  16. National Coal Board Medical Service annual report 1981-82

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    Sections report on: medical examinations and consultations; protection from health hazards, such as pneumoconiosis and other prescribed diseases; problems such as vitamin D in miners' blood, Legionnaires' disease, rehabilitation and physiotherapy, high pressure injection injuries, pump packing; National Coal Board (Coal Products) Ltd.; injuries and treatment; and nursing service. A list of staff and their publications and a supplement on occupational toxicology are included.

  17. Preparation of activated carbons from Chinese coal and hydrolysis lignin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Y.; Han, B.X. [Tuskegee University, Tuskegee, AL (USA). School of Engineering, Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2001-07-01

    Activated carbons from Chinese coal and Chinese hydrolysis lignin have been prepared by chemical activation with potassium hydroxide. The following aspects of these activated materials have been analyzed: raw material; pre-treatment of raw material; activation agent, activation temperature and time, acid the activation agent/raw material ratio. Activated carbons with BET specific surface areas of the order of 2400-2600 m{sup 2}/g which exhibited substantial microporosity, a total pore volume of over 1.30 cm{sup 3}/g and a Methylene Blue adsorption capacity of over 440 mg/g were obtained.

  18. Preparing for your annual staff appraisal: part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, B

    Annual appraisals are part of performance management and are designed to motivate, develop and support employees in performing their roles to the highest possible standard. They provide an opportunity for constructive discussion of performance, identification of areas for development and agreement of approaches by which employees needs could be met. Part 1 of this article was concerned with preparation of the employee and manager for annual staff appraisal. This article provides advice for managers who perform annual appraisal interviews. Guidance is offered on how to ensure the strategic objectives of the team and healthcare organisation are met, a balanced understanding of nurse performance is achieved, and future objectives are identified and agreed

  19. CoalCorp annual report 1990/1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    A report of performance of the CoalCorp during 1990/91 is given by the Chairman and the Directors and Chief Executive's review discusses the New Zealand market for coal, the export market, the company's involvement with the community, privatization, industrial relations and the environmental issues facing the company. Financial statements for the year ended 31 March 1991 are included. After tax profit of 8.9M dollars was less than in 1989/90. The company was affected by the recession, the deferral of energy use decisions and the government's decision to dedicate Maui gas to electricity generation. The sale of CoalCorp awaits resolution of legal issues arising from a claim by the Tianui Maori Trust Board.

  20. Black coal. Annual report 2002; Steinkohle. Jahresbericht 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-10-01

    An overview is given of the situation of the world energy industry with regard to all energy carriers. Then energy-political conclusions are drawn for German black coal and the resulting prospects are detailed. Finally, some socio-political aspects are considered with regard to German black-coal mining. [German] Es wird eine Uebersicht ueber die Situation der Welt-Energiewirtschaft unter Beruecksichtigung aller Energietraeger gegeben. Anschliessend werden die energiepolitischen Folgerungen fuer die deutsche Steinkohle gezogen, und es werden die resultierenden Perspektiven erlaeutert. Abschliessend werden einige sozialpolitische Aspekte bezueglich des deutschen Steinkohlenbergbaus behandelt.

  1. British Coal Medical Service annual report 1989-90

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    The report contains detailed results of surveys on the prevalence of pneumoconiosis in coal miners of various age groups from 1962 to 1989. Only 0.6% of 14,300 men X-rayed in 1989 showed any sign of the disease and the overall figure for the 112 collieries surveyed after the completed seventh round of surveys was 0.7%. Emphasis has continued on dust control measures on coal faces and in drivages - dust concentration of 3.1 mg/m {sup 3} in 1989-90 was in keeping with the trend since 1970. A 'cohort' of young miners is being monitored to develop an early warning system to identify changes in the incidence of pneumoconiosis. The role of Medical Service in treating injuries, skin diseases, back pain etc. and problems caused by noise and chemicals is explained. Continued attention has been paid to implication of the COSHH regulations and audiometry has been introduced to all British Coal's employees. Services are now provided to workers of Coal Products Ltd. Reports of first aid and nursing services are included. Use of pethidine for relieving pain is now being advocated. 6 figs., 20 tabs.

  2. Development of an Ultra-fine Coal Dewatering Technology and an Integrated Flotation-Dewatering System for Coal Preparation Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Zhang; David Yang; Amar Amarnath; Iftikhar Huq; Scott O' Brien; Jim Williams

    2006-12-22

    The project proposal was approved for only the phase I period. The goal for this Phase I project was to develop an industrial model that can perform continuous and efficient dewatering of fine coal slurries of the previous flotation process to fine coal cake of {approx}15% water content from 50-70%. The feasibility of this model should be demonstrated experimentally using a lab scale setup. The Phase I project was originally for one year, from May 2005 to May 2006. With DOE approval, the project was extended to Dec. 2006 without additional cost from DOE to accomplish the work. Water has been used in mining for a number of purposes such as a carrier, washing liquid, dust-catching media, fire-retardation media, temperature-control media, and solvent. When coal is cleaned in wet-processing circuits, waste streams containing water, fine coal, and noncombustible particles (ash-forming minerals) are produced. In many coal preparation plants, the fine waste stream is fed into a series of selection processes where fine coal particles are recovered from the mixture to form diluted coal fine slurries. A dewatering process is then needed to reduce the water content to about 15%-20% so that the product is marketable. However, in the dewatering process currently used in coal preparation plants, coal fines smaller than 45 micrometers are lost, and in many other plants, coal fines up to 100 micrometers are also wasted. These not-recovered coal fines are mixed with water and mineral particles of the similar particle size range and discharged to impoundment. The wasted water from coal preparation plants containing unrecoverable coal fine and mineral particles are called tailings. With time the amount of wastewater accumulates occupying vast land space while it appears as threat to the environment. This project developed a special extruder and demonstrated its application in solid-liquid separation of coal slurry, tailings containing coal fines mostly less than 50 micron. The

  3. Preparation and evaluation of coal-derived activated carbons for removal of mercury vapor from simulated coal combustion flue fases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsi, H.-C.; Chen, S.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Rood, M.J.; Richardson, C.F.; Carey, T.R.; Chang, R.

    1998-01-01

    Coal-derived activated carbons (CDACs) were tested for their suitability in removing trace amounts of vapor-phase mercury from simulated flue gases generated by coal combustion. CDACs were prepared in bench-scale and pilot-scale fluidized-bed reactors with a three-step process, including coal preoxidation, carbonization, and then steam activation. CDACs from high-organicsulfur Illinois coals had a greater equilibrium Hg0 adsorption capacity than activated carbons prepared from a low-organic-sulfur Illinois coal. When a low-organic-sulfur CDAC was impregnated with elemental sulfur at 600 ??C, its equilibrium Hg0 adsorption capacity was comparable to the adsorption capacity of the activated carbon prepared from the high-organicsulfur coal. X-ray diffraction and sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure examinations showed that the sulfur in the CDACs was mainly in organic forms. These results suggested that a portion of the inherent organic sulfur in the starting coal, which remained in the CDACs, played an important role in adsorption of Hg0. Besides organic sulfur, the BET surface area and micropore area of the CDACs also influenced Hg0 adsorption capacity. The HgCl2 adsorption capacity was not as dependent on the surface area and concentration of sulfur in the CDACs as was adsorption of Hg0. The properties and mercury adsorption capacities of the CDACs were compared with those obtained for commercial Darco FGD carbon.

  4. Black coal. Annual report 1996; Steinkohle. Jahresbericht 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    An overview is given of the situation of the world energy industry with regard to all energy carriers. Then energy-political conclusions are drawn for German black coal and the resulting prospects are detailed. Finally, some socio-political aspects are considered with regard to German black-coal mining: Workforce policy, tariff policy, social security and social safeguards for the adaptation process. (orig.) [Deutsch] Es wird eine Uebersicht ueber die Situation der Welt-Energiewirtschaft unter Beruecksichtigung aller Energietraeger gegeben. Anschliessend werden die energiepolitischen Folgerungen fuer die deutsche Steinkohle gezogen, und es werden die resultierenden Perspektiven erlaeutert. Abschliessend werden einige sozialpolitische Aspekte bezueglich des deutschen Steinkohlenbergbaus behandelt: Belegschaftspolitik, Tarifpolitik, soziale Sicherheit und soziale Absicherung des Anpassungsprozesses. (orig.)

  5. Black coal. Annual report 1999; Steinkohle. Jahresbericht 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    An overview is given of the situation of the world energy industry with regard to all energy carriers. Then energy-political conclusions are drawn for German black coal and the resulting prospects are detailed. Finally, some socio-political aspects are considered with regard to German black-coal mining: Workforce policy, tariff policy, social security and social safeguards for the adaptation process. (orig.) [German] Es wird eine Uebersicht ueber die Situation der Welt-Energiewirtschaft unter Beruecksichtigung aller Energietraeger gegeben. Anschliessend werden die energiepolitischen Folgerungen fuer die deutsche Steinkohle gezogen, und es werden die resultierenden Perspektiven erlaeutert. Abschliessend werden einige sozialpolitische Aspekte bezueglich des deutschen Steinkohlenbergbaus behandelt: Belegschaftspolitik Tarifpolitik, soziale Sicherheit und soziale Absicherung des Anpassungsprozesses. (orig.)

  6. Black coal. Annual report 2001; Steinkohle. Jahresbericht 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-10-01

    An overview is given of the situation of the world energy industry with regard to all energy carriers. Then energy-political conclusions are drawn for German black coal and the resulting prospects are detailed. Finally, some socio-political aspects are considered with regard to German black-coal mining: Workforce policy, tariff policy, social security and social safeguards for the adaptation process. [German] Es wird eine Uebersicht ueber die Situation der Welt-Energiewirtschaft unter Beruecksichtigung aller Energietraeger gegeben. Anschliessend werden die energiepolitischen Folgerungen fuer die deutsche Steinkohle gezogen, und es werden die resultierenden Perspektiven erlaeutert. Abschliessend werden einige sozialpolitische Aspekte bezueglich des deutschen Steinkohlenbergbaus behandelt: Belegschaftspolitik, Tarifpolitik, soziale Sicherheit und soziale Absicherung des Anpassungsprozesses.

  7. Black coal. Annual report 2000; Steinkohle. Jahresbericht 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-10-01

    An overview is given of the situation of the world energy industry with regard to all energy carriers. Then energy-political conclusions are drawn for German black coal and the resulting prospects are detailed. Finally, some socio-political aspects are considered with regard to German black-coal mining: Workforce policy, tariff policy, social security and social safeguards for the adaptation process. (orig.) [German] Es wird eine Uebersicht ueber die Situation der Welt-Energiewirtschaft unter Beruecksichtigung aller Energietraeger gegeben. Anschliessend werden die energiepolitischen Folgerungen fuer die deutsche Steinkohle gezogen, und es werden die resultierenden Perspektiven erlaeutert. Abschliessend werden einige sozialpolitische Aspekte bezueglich des deutschen Steinkohlenbergbaus behandelt: Belegschaftspolitik Tarifpolitik, soziale Sicherheit und soziale Absicherung des Anpassungsprozesses. (orig.)

  8. Black coal. Annual report 1997; Steinkohle. Jahresbericht 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    An overview is given of the situation of the world energy industry with regard to all energy carriers. Then energy-political conclusions are drawn for German black coal and the resulting prospects are detailed. Finally, some socio-political aspects are considered with regard to German black-coal mining: Workforce policy, tariff policy, social security and social safeguards for the adaptation process. (orig.) [Deutsch] Es wird eine Uebersicht ueber die Situation der Welt-Energiewirtschaft unter Beruecksichtigung aller Energietraeger gegeben. Anschliessend werden die energiepolitischen Folgerungen fuer die deutsche Steinkohle gezogen, und es werden die resultierenden Perspektiven erlaeutert. Abschliessend werden einige sozialpolitische Aspekte bezueglich des deutschen Steinkohlenbergbaus behandelt: Belegschaftspolitik Tarifpolitik, soziale Sicherheit und soziale Absicherung des Anpassungsprozesses. (orig.)

  9. Black coal. Annual report 1998; Steinkohle. Jahresbericht 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    An overview is given of the situation of the world energy industry with regard to all energy carriers. Then energy-political conclusions are drawn for German black coal and the resulting prospects are detailed. Finally, some socio-political aspects are considered with regard to German black-coal mining: Workforce policy, tariff policy, social security and social safeguards for the adaptation process. (orig.) [Deutsch] Es wird eine Uebersicht ueber die Situation der Welt-Energiewirtschaft unter Beruecksichtigung aller Energietraeger gegeben. Anschliessend werden die energiepolitischen Folgerungen fuer die deutsche Steinkohle gezogen, und es werden die resultierenden Perspektiven erlaeutert. Abschliessend werden einige sozialpolitische Aspekte bezueglich des deutschen Steinkohlenbergbaus behandelt: Belegschaftspolitik Tarifpolitik, soziale Sicherheit und soziale Absicherung des Anpassungsprozesses. (orig.)

  10. Use of the GranuFlow Process in Coal Preparation Plants to Improve Energy Recovery and Reduce Coal Processing Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn A. Shirey; David J. Akers

    2005-12-31

    With the increasing use of screen-bowl centrifuges in today's fine coal cleaning circuits, a significant amount of low-ash, high-Btu coal can be lost during the dewatering step due to the difficulty in capturing coal of this size consist (< 100 mesh or 0.15mm). The GranuFlow{trademark} technology, developed and patented by an in-house research group at DOE-NETL, involves the addition of an emulsified mixture of high-molecular-weight hydrocarbons to a slurry of finesized coal before cleaning and/or mechanical dewatering. The binder selectively agglomerates the coal, but not the clays or other mineral matter. In practice, the binder is applied so as to contact the finest possible size fraction first (for example, froth flotation product) as agglomeration of this fraction produces the best result for a given concentration of binder. Increasing the size consist of the fine-sized coal stream reduces the loss of coal solids to the waste effluent streams from the screen bowl centrifuge circuit. In addition, the agglomerated coal dewaters better and is less dusty. The binder can also serve as a flotation conditioner and may provide freeze protection. The overall objective of the project is to generate all necessary information and data required to commercialize the GranuFlow{trademark} Technology. The technology was evaluated under full-scale operating conditions at three commercial coal preparation plants to determine operating performance and economics. The handling, storage, and combustion properties of the coal produced by this process were compared to untreated coal during a power plant combustion test.

  11. National Coal Board Medical Service annual report 1980-1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    Sections report on: medical examinations and consultations; protection from health hazards such as pneumoconiosis and other prescribed diseases; problems such as vitamin D in the blood of miners, Legionaires' disease, Perthe's disease, rehabilitation and physiotherapy, chemical hazards, public health and hygiene, noise, and the use of visual display units; diseases from coal products such as in coke and tar manufacture; first aid services, morphia, and nursing service; and back pain in the mining industry. A list of staff and their publications is also included.

  12. A review of state-of-the-art processing operations in coal preparation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Noble Aaron; Luttrell Gerald H.

    2015-01-01

    Coal preparation is an integral part of the coal commodity supply chain. This stage of post-mining, pre-utilization beneficiation uses low-cost separation technologies to remove unwanted mineral matter and moisture which hinder the value of the coal product. Coal preparation plants typically employ several parallel circuits of cleaning and dewatering operations, with each circuit designed to optimally treat a specific size range of coal. Recent innovations in coal preparation have increased the efficiency and capac-ity of individual unit operations while reinforcing the standard parallel cleaning approach. This article, which describes the historical influences and state-of-the-art design for the various coal preparation unit operations, is organized to distinguish between coarse/intermediate coal cleaning and fine/ultrafine coal cleaning. Size reduction, screening, classification, cleaning, dewatering, waste disposal unit operations are particularly highlighted, with a special focus on the U.S. design philosophy. Notable differences between the U.S. and international operations are described as appropriate.

  13. Environmental control implications of generating electric power from coal. 1977 technology status report. Appendix A, Part 1. Coal preparation and cleaning assessment study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-12-01

    This report evaluates the state of the art and effectiveness of physical coal cleaning as a potential strategy for controlling SO/sub x/ emissions in coal fired power generation. Coal properties which are significantly altered by physical coal cleaning were determined. The effects of the changes in properties as they relate to pulverized coal firing, fluidized bed combustion and low Btu gasification for combined cycle powered generation were studied. Available coal washability data were integrated by computer with U.S. coal reserve data. Approximately 18% of the demonstrated coal reserve were matched with washability data. Integrated data appear in the Appendix. Current coal preparation practices were reviewed. Future trends were determined. Five process flow sheets representing increasing levels of cleaning sophistication were prepared. The clean product from each flow sheet will meet U.S. EPA New Source Performance Standards. Capital and operating costs for each case were estimated. Environmental control technology and environmental impact associated with current coal preparation and cleaning operations were assessed. Physical coal cleaning is widely practiced today. Where applicable it represents the least expensive method of coal sulfur reduction. Developmental physical and chemical coal cleaning processes were studied. The chemical methods have the advantage of being able to remove both pyritic sulfur and organic sulfur present in the coal matrix. Further R and D efforts will be required before commercialization of these processes.

  14. Proceedings of the ninth annual underground coal gasification symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wieber, P.R.; Martin, J.W.; Byrer, C.W. (eds.)

    1983-12-01

    The Ninth Underground Coal Gasification Symposium was held August 7 to 10, 1983 at the Indian Lakes Resort and Conference Center in Bloomingdale, Illinois. Over one-hundred attendees from industry, academia, National Laboratories, State Government, and the US Government participated in the exchange of ideas, results and future research plans. Representatives from six countries including France, Belgium, United Kingdom, The Netherlands, West Germany, and Brazil also participated by presenting papers. Fifty papers were presented and discussed in four formal sessions and two informal poster sessions. The presentations described current and future field testing plans, interpretation of field test data, environmental research, laboratory studies, modeling, and economics. All papers were processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  15. Study on Model for Assessmentof Quality Management Performance of Coal Preparation Plant in CIMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In this paper the method to calculate intangible quality cost is put forward for the first time based on theproduction and management characteristics of coal preparation plant. A model for assessment of quality manage-ment performance of coal preparation plant is established on the ground of quality cost. By using of CIMS integra-tion environment the strategy to carry out the model and the application example are also offered. It provides a newand feasible way to assess performance quality management of coal preparation plant.

  16. Co-pyrolysis of hydrothermally upgraded brown coal and wax prepared from waste plastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouichi Miura; Susan A. Roces; Monthicha Pattatapanusak; Hiroyuki Nakagawa; Ryuichi Ashida; Masato Morimoto [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    We have recently presented a hydrothermal extraction method that not only removes water from brown coal but also upgrades the coal and extracts low molecular mass compounds simultaneously. The upgraded coal contained much less oxygen than the raw coal. However, it still needs to be further upgraded to be utilized as a substitute for bituminous coal. In this study co-pyrolysis of the upgraded coals and waxes formed from waste plastics was investigated for this purpose. Waxes were prepared through pyrolysis of polyethylene, polypropylene, and polyethylene terephtalate. Upgraded coals were then impregnated with the waxes in an autoclave at 200{sup o}C under pressure. The mixtures of coal and wax were rapidly heated up to 1040{sup o}C at about 3000{sup o}C/s using a Curie point pyrolyzer in an inert atmosphere. The char yield was greatly enhanced by a factor of 1.1 to 1.3 compared to the char yield obtained when the upgraded coals and waxes were pyrolyzed independently. Even under a slower heating rate (0.17{sup o}C/s) the char yields increased by a factor of 1.2 for the all mixtures of the upgraded coal and waxes. Since no such effect was found when the raw brown coal was impregnated with waxes, it was suggested that the modification of the structure of brown coal by the hydrothermal extraction could enhance interactions between the coal and the wax when co-pyrolyzed. Effect of wax mixing ratio on co-pyrolysis behavior was also examined. The char yield dramatically increased when the ratio exceeded about 0.3 g/g for the pyrolysis of both under slow and rapid heating rates. This trend coincided with that of the swelling ratio of the upgraded coal impregnated with wax, indicating that some physical change by wax-impregnation affected the co-pyrolysis behavior. 5 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Flash pyrolysis of coal-solvent slurry prepared from the oxidized coal and the coal dissolved in solvent; Ichibu yokaishita sanka kaishitsutan slurry no jinsoku netsubunkai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maki, T.; Mae, K.; Okutsu, H.; Miura, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-28

    In order to develop a high-efficiency coal pyrolysis method, flash pyrolysis was experimented on slurry prepared by using liquid-phase oxidation reformed coal and a methanol-based solvent mixture. Australian Morwell coal was used for the experiment. The oxidized coal, into which carboxyl groups have been introduced, has the condensation structure relaxed largely, and becomes highly fluid slurry by means of the solvent. Char production can be suppressed by making the oxidation-pretreated coal into slurry, resulting in drastically improved pyrolytic conversion. The slurry was divided into dissolved solution, dried substance, extracted residue, and residual slurry, which were pyrolized independently. The dissolved solution showed very high conversion. Improvement in the conversion is contributed by separating the dissolved substances (coal macromolecules) at molecular levels, coagulating the molecules, suppressing cross-link formation, and reducing molecular weight of the dissolved substances. Oxidized coal can be dissolved to 80% or higher by using several kinds of mixed solvents. As a result of the dissolution, a possibility was suggested on pyrolysis which is easy in handling and high in conversion. 7 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Japan's Sunshine Project 1988 annual summary of coal liquefaction and gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    Describes work carried out during the year on coal liquefaction and gasification technologies, bituminous and brown coal liquefaction, development of machinery and materials for coal liquefaction plant, coal type selection studies, data collection and processing, utilization and upgrading technology of coal derived products, toxicological and environmental effects of liquefied coal, coal-based hydrogen production technology and technology for entrained flow coal gasification.

  19. International Energy Annual, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-14

    This report is prepared annually and presents the latest information and trends on world energy production and consumption for petroleum, natural gas, coal, and electricity. Trade and reserves are shown for petroleum, natural gas, and coal. Prices are included for selected petroleum products. Production and consumption data are reported in standard units as well as British thermal units (Btu) and joules.

  20. Study on acetylene preparation from coal conversion directly by plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, W.; Lu, Y.; Cao, Q.; Xie, K. [Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan (China)

    2004-10-01

    To develop an innovative method for directly converting coal into an important chemical acetylene, arc plasma technology was applied to the direct conversion of coal. The powdered coal from Datong was injected into a hydrogen-enriched plasma reactor for pyrolysis. The results show that the coal conversion and the acetylene yield and the special energy consumption (SEC) of acetylene are decreased as coal feed rate is increased, but the concentration of acetylene in production gas is increased. The yield of acetylene is not obviously affected by the formation of CO in production gas. Since oxygen can compete with the active atomic carbon, therefore, the high content oxygen in coal is disadvantageous to the formation of acetylene. Under the experimental conditions selected, the coal conversion rate reach 38.42%, the concentration of acetylene in product gas is 9.30% and the selectivity of acetylene in hydrocarbon is above 70% when the coal fed is 5.0 g/s. 10 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Market for new coal powerplant technologies in the US: 1997 annual energy outlook results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutzler, M.J. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Energy Information Administration

    1997-12-31

    Over the next 20 years, the combination of slow growth in the demand for electricity, even slower growth in the need for new capacity, especially baseload capacity, and the competitiveness of new gas-fired technologies limits the market for new coal technologies in the US. In the later years of the 1997 Annual Energy Outlook projections, post-2005, when a significant amount of new capacity is needed to replace retiring plants and meet growing demand, some new coal-fired plants are expected to be built, but new gas-fired plants are expected to remain the most economical choice for most needs. The largest market for clean coal technologies in the United States may be in retrofitting or repowering existing plants to meet stricter environmental standards, especially over the next 10 years. Key uncertainties include the rate of growth in the demand for electricity and the level of competing fuel prices, particularly natural gas. Higher than expected growth in the demand for electricity and/or relatively higher natural gas prices would increase the market for new coal technologies.

  2. Preparation of a Novel Coal Gangue-Polyacrylamide Hybrid Flocculant and Its Flocculation Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiangao Quan; Huiyun Wang

    2014-01-01

    A novel flocculant based on hybrid coal gangue-polyacrylamide (HCGPAM) has been prepared by using modified coal gangue and polyacrylamide. Factors related to the preparation such as reaction time, temperature, concentration of the polymer monomer and ratio of initiators are investigated. The product is characterized by infrared spectra (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), aswell as viscometry. The flocculating tests on oilfield drilling wastewater show that the removal efficiency is 85.5% and the light transmittance is 53.6%. The results indicate that the coal gangue could be used for the preparation of inorganic-organic hybrid flocculant and the removal efficiency is much higher than that of commercial polyacrylamide (PAM) or PAM/ coal gangue blend.

  3. Approximate-analytical study on thermal preparation and combustion of a coal particle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salomatov, V.V. [SB RAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation). Inst. of Thermophysics; Enkhjargal, Kh. [Mongolian Univ. of Science and Technology, Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia)

    2013-07-01

    The main amount of heat and electricity in the world is produced with application of coal. Following development of power engineering plans application of low-grade coals, including those of new deposits (Salomatov VV, Nature conservation technologies at thermal and atomic power plants, Novosibirsk, NSTU, 2006). Massive Shive-Ovoos open-cast is among such low developed deposits of Mongolia. This deposit requires a set of investigations on thermal preparation and combustion of coal, aimed at extensive and efficient energy utilization. Calculation of flame combustion of coals is based on dependences, which determine the whole combustion process of separate coal particles. For particles of natural coals these processes include complex transformations of organic and mineral parts of coal matrix, heating, devolatization, ignition and burning of coke residue. Such detailed elaboration requires complex physical and mathematical simulation. Five successive stages of thermal preparation and combustion of a coal particle with initial humidity and ash content were distinguished by experimental results: 1. Heating. The particle is heated; the temperature increases, and the mass stays constant. 2. Drying. Liquid inside a wet particle evaporates and mass reduces. 3. Devolatization. 4. Ignition of slightly dried carbon layer by fuel gases. Residual moisture is still kept in the particle. 5. Burning. Two successive conditions are considered: 1. simultaneous burning of dried carbon layer and evaporation; 2. burning of absolutely dry coke residue.

  4. Carbons prepared from coals for anodes of lithium-ion cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, T.; Xing, W.; Dahn, J.R. [Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC (Canada). Dept. of Physics

    1996-12-31

    Carbons were prepared by pyrolysing eight different coals from the Argonne Premium coal sample bank at temperatures near 1000{degree}C. Electrochemical cells were made to study lithium insertion in these carbons. The electrochemical behavior and physical properties of these pyrolysed coals was compared to that of pyrolysed sugar, PVC and pitch. Using powder X-ray diffraction and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), it was shown that pyrolysed coals which have the smallest fraction of parallel-stacked graphene layers and hence the largest number of nanoscopic pores per unit mass have the largest capacity for lithium insertion. A reversible capacity of about 450 mAh/g was attained for lithium/carbon cells made from Blind Canyon Seam coal. 17 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Adsorption of SO2 on bituminous coal char and activated carbon fiber prepared from phenol formaldehyde

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBarr, Joseph A.; Lizzio, Anthony A.; Daley, Michael A.

    1996-01-01

    Carbon-based materials are used commercially to remove SO2 from coal combustion flue gases. Historically, these materials have consisted of granular activated carbons prepared from lignite or bituminous coal. Recent studies have reported that activated carbon fibers (ACFs) may have potential in this application due to their relatively high SO2 adsorption capacity. In this paper, a comparison of SO2 adsorption for both coal-based carbons and ACFs is presented, as well as ideas on carbon properties that may influence SO2 adsorption

  6. Coal slurry - a problem of the brown coal industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, H.; Hielscher, R.; Mohry, J.

    1983-01-01

    Technological and economic aspects are examined for processing coal-containing waste water from brown coal preparation plants in the German Democratic Republic. In 1979, 106.8 Mm/sup 3/ of coal slurry were produced by the GDR brown coal industry, with a coal fine content ranging between 7.8 g/l and 20.4 g/l. This amounts to 2.6 Mt/y of coal which is 1% of the annual brown coal production. Technological variants of processing and utilizing coal slurry are discussed. At a number of major coal preparation plants, coal slurry is flushed into sedimentation lakes. After a 2 to 3 year drying period, a 6 to 10 m thick layer of coal is recovered. Technologies of coal slurry processing with the aim of recovering coal fines are enumerated. Equipment for these processes include, filters, centrifuges, dryers, etc. Recovered coal can be used as fuel or processed into fertilizer in combination with fly ash and other waste products. 12 references.

  7. Integrated coal preparation and CWF processing plant: Conceptual design and costing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHale, E.T.; Paul, A.D.; Bartis, J.T. (Science Applications International Corp., McLean, VA (United States)); Korkmaz, M. (Roberts and Schaefer Co., Salt Lake City, UT (United States))

    1992-12-01

    At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, a study was conducted to provide DOE with a reliable, documented estimate of the cost of producing coal-water fuel (CWF). The approach to the project was to specify a plant capacity and location, identify and analyze a suitable coal, and develop a conceptual design for an integrated coal preparation and CWF processing plant. Using this information, a definitive costing study was then conducted, on the basis of which an economic and sensitivity analysis was performed utilizing a financial evaluation model to determine a price for CWF in 1992. The design output of the integrated plant is 200 tons of coal (dry basis) per hour. Operating at a capacity factor of 83 percent, the baseline design yields approximately 1.5 million tons per year of coal on a dry basis. This is approximately equivalent to the fuel required to continuously generate 500 MW of electric power. The CWF produced by the plant is intended as a replacement for heavy oil or gas in electric utility and large industrial boilers. The particle size distribution, particularly the top size, and the ash content of the coal in the CWF are specified at significantly lower levels than is commonly found in typical pulverized coal grinds. The particle top size is 125 microns (vs typically 300m[mu] for pulverized coal) and the coal ash content is 3.8 percent. The lower top size is intended to promote complete carbon burnout at less derating in boilers that are not designed for coal firing. The reduced mineral matter content will produce ash of very fine particle size during combustion, which leads to less impaction and reduced fouling of tubes in convective passages.

  8. Integrated coal preparation and CWF processing plant: Conceptual design and costing. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHale, E.T.; Paul, A.D.; Bartis, J.T. [Science Applications International Corp., McLean, VA (United States); Korkmaz, M. [Roberts and Schaefer Co., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1992-12-01

    At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, a study was conducted to provide DOE with a reliable, documented estimate of the cost of producing coal-water fuel (CWF). The approach to the project was to specify a plant capacity and location, identify and analyze a suitable coal, and develop a conceptual design for an integrated coal preparation and CWF processing plant. Using this information, a definitive costing study was then conducted, on the basis of which an economic and sensitivity analysis was performed utilizing a financial evaluation model to determine a price for CWF in 1992. The design output of the integrated plant is 200 tons of coal (dry basis) per hour. Operating at a capacity factor of 83 percent, the baseline design yields approximately 1.5 million tons per year of coal on a dry basis. This is approximately equivalent to the fuel required to continuously generate 500 MW of electric power. The CWF produced by the plant is intended as a replacement for heavy oil or gas in electric utility and large industrial boilers. The particle size distribution, particularly the top size, and the ash content of the coal in the CWF are specified at significantly lower levels than is commonly found in typical pulverized coal grinds. The particle top size is 125 microns (vs typically 300m{mu} for pulverized coal) and the coal ash content is 3.8 percent. The lower top size is intended to promote complete carbon burnout at less derating in boilers that are not designed for coal firing. The reduced mineral matter content will produce ash of very fine particle size during combustion, which leads to less impaction and reduced fouling of tubes in convective passages.

  9. Elemental Modes of Occurrence in an Illinois #6 Coal and Fractions Prepared by Physical Separation Techniques at a Coal Preparation Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huggins, F.; Seidu, L; Shah, N; Huffman, G; Honaker, R; Kyger, J; Higgins, B; Robertson, J; Pal, S; Seehra, M

    2009-01-01

    In order to gain better insight into elemental partitioning between clean coal and tailings, modes of occurrence have been determined for a number of major and trace elements (S, K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Zn, As, Se, Pb) in an Illinois No.6 coal and fractions prepared by physical separation methods at a commercial coal preparation plant. Elemental modes of occurrence were largely determined directly by XAFS or Moessbauer spectroscopic methods because the concentrations of major minerals and wt.% ash were found to be highly correlated for this coal and derived fractions, rendering correlations between individual elements and minerals ambiguous for inferring elemental modes of occurrence. Of the major elements investigated, iron and potassium are shown to be entirely inorganic in occurrence. Most (90%) of the iron is present as pyrite, with minor fractions in the form of clays and sulfates. All potassium is present in illitic clays. Calcium in the original coal is 80-90% inorganic and is divided between calcite, gypsum, and illite, with the remainder of the calcium present as carboxyl-bound calcium. In the clean coal fraction, organically associated Ca exceeds 50% of the total calcium. This organically-associated form of Ca explains the poorer separation of Ca relative to both K and ash. Among the trace elements, V and Cr are predominantly inorganically associated with illite, but minor amounts (5-15% Cr, 20-30% V) of these elements are also organically associated. Estimates of the V and Cr contents of illite are 420 ppm and 630 ppm, respectively, whereas these elements average 20 and 8 ppm in the macerals. Arsenic in the coal is almost entirely associated with pyrite, with an average As content of about 150 ppm, but some As ({approx} 10%) is present as arsenate due to minor oxidation of the pyrite. The mode of occurrence of Zn, although entirely inorganic, is more complex than normally noted for Illinois basin coals; about 2/3 is present in sphalerite, with lesser

  10. Elemental modes of occurrence in an Illinois 6 coal and fractions prepared by physical separation techniques at a coal preparation plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huggins, F.E.; Shah, N.; Huffman, G.P. [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Seidu, L.B.A.; Honaker, R.Q. [Department of Mining Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Kyger, J.R.; Higgins, B.L.; Robertson, J.D. [Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri at Columbia, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Pal, S.; Seehra, M.S. [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States)

    2009-03-01

    In order to gain better insight into elemental partitioning between clean coal and tailings, modes of occurrence have been determined for a number of major and trace elements (S, K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Zn, As, Se, Pb) in an Illinois 6 coal and fractions prepared by physical separation methods at a commercial coal preparation plant. Elemental modes of occurrence were largely determined directly by XAFS or Moessbauer spectroscopic methods because the concentrations of major minerals and wt.% ash were found to be highly correlated for this coal and derived fractions, rendering correlations between individual elements and minerals ambiguous for inferring elemental modes of occurrence. Of the major elements investigated, iron and potassium are shown to be entirely inorganic in occurrence. Most (90%) of the iron is present as pyrite, with minor fractions in the form of clays and sulfates. All potassium is present in illitic clays. Calcium in the original coal is 80-90% inorganic and is divided between calcite, gypsum, and illite, with the remainder of the calcium present as carboxyl-bound calcium. In the clean coal fraction, organically associated Ca exceeds 50% of the total calcium. This organically-associated form of Ca explains the poorer separation of Ca relative to both K and ash. Among the trace elements, V and Cr are predominantly inorganically associated with illite, but minor amounts (5-15% Cr, 20-30% V) of these elements are also organically associated. Estimates of the V and Cr contents of illite are 420 ppm and 630 ppm, respectively, whereas these elements average 20 and 8 ppm in the macerals. Arsenic in the coal is almost entirely associated with pyrite, with an average As content of about 150 ppm, but some As ({proportional_to} 10%) is present as arsenate due to minor oxidation of the pyrite. The mode of occurrence of Zn, although entirely inorganic, is more complex than normally noted for Illinois basin coals; about 2/3 is present in sphalerite, with lesser

  11. 12 CFR 620.4 - Preparing and providing the annual report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... SHAREHOLDERS Annual Report to Shareholders § 620.4 Preparing and providing the annual report. (a) Each... Administration; (3) Provide prior written notification to its shareholders that the institution will publish its... shareholders an annual report substantively identical to the copy of the report sent to the Farm...

  12. Preparation and Cation Exchange Properties of Zeolitic Adsorbents Using Fused Coal Fly Ash and Seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Takashi; Wajima, Takaaki; Yoshizuka, Kazuharu

    For the development of functional material using coal fly ash discharged from thermal power plants, we have prepared zeolitic adsorbents derived from alkaline fused coal fly ash in several aqueous saline media to obtain the optimized preparation condition. The NH4+ exchange capacity of the product prepared at 80°C for 12 hours in diluted seawater using the precursor fused at 500°C was 4.6 mmol⁄g which is equivalent that of product prepared in deionized water. Zeolite-X and zeolite-A were produced in all aqueous media, in addition hydroxysodalite was produced over 12 hours. It was suggested that zeolite-A transform into hydroxysodalite in the products. The zeolitic adsorbents having high ion exchange capacity could be prepared in twice diluted seawater at 6-12 hours in 80°C using a precursor fused at 500°C.

  13. Coal Fly Ash Ceramics: Preparation, Characterization, and Use in the Hydrolysis of Sucrose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Pires dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Coal ash is a byproduct of mineral coal combustion in thermal power plants. This residue is responsible for many environmental problems because it pollutes soil, water, and air. Thus, it is important to find ways to reuse it. In this study, coal fly ash, obtained from the Presidente Médici Thermal Power Plant, was utilized in the preparation of ceramic supports for the immobilization of the enzyme invertase and subsequent hydrolysis of sucrose. Coal fly ash supports were prepared at several compaction pressures (63.66–318.30 MPa and sintered at 1200°C for 4 h. Mineralogical composition (by X-ray diffraction and surface area were studied. The ceramic prepared with 318.30 MPa presented the highest surface area (35 m2/g and amount of immobilized enzyme per g of support (76.6 mg/g. In assays involving sucrose inversion, it showed a high degree of hydrolysis (around 81% even after nine reuses and 30 days’ storage. Therefore, coal fly ash ceramics were demonstrated to be a promising biotechnological alternative as an immobilization support for the hydrolysis of sucrose.

  14. Washery tailings from coal preparation used as aluminium feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehn, L.; Schieder, T.; Belsky, M.; Lotze, J.; Winkhaus, G.

    1982-06-01

    Kaolinite clays and washery tailings of coal mines are the major feedstocks of the West German aluminium industry. Statistics are given in order to assess the amount of washery tailings available and their suitability as feedstocks for aluminium production. The chemical and mineralogical composition are similar for washery tailings from different mines; accordingly, also their behaviour regarding decomposition by acids will be almost identical. Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ extraction yields are satisfactory with strongly precalcinated material using concentrated sulphuric acid or azeotropic hydrochloric acid - in the latter case, however, only if fluoride is added to the acid.

  15. Hocodems technology in comparison with conventional separation processes for coal preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilczynski, P. [Heinrich Holter GmbH, Gladbeck (Germany)

    1999-11-01

    The new Hocodems technology, which is an advanced development of the Larcodems process, is presented and compared with conventional separation processes in coal preparation: Ep values and separation densities for a selected particle size range are compared. Comparisons of investment and operating costs are also made. 2 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Preparation and characterization of carbon-enriched coal fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubio, B.; Izquierdo, M.T.; Mayoral, M.C.; Bona, M.T.; Martinez-Tarazona, R.M. [CSIC, Zaragoza (Spain)

    2008-09-15

    Carbon-enriched fractions have been obtained from two coal fly ash (FA) samples. The FA came from two pulverized-coal fired power stations (Lada and Escucha, Spain) and were collected from baghouse filters. Sieving was used to obtain carbon-enriched fractions, which were further subjected to two beneficiation processes: acid demineralization using HCl and HF, and oil agglomeration using soya oil-water. Yield in weight after sieving, unburned carbon content, and several physicochemical characteristics, of the obtained fractions were used to compare the performance of the beneficiation methods. Low carbon concentration was obtained by sieving. particularly in the case of Escucha FA. However, after acid demineralization or oil agglomeration, fractions containing unburned carbon in a range of 63% to 68% were obtained. These fractions showed differences in mineral phase composition and distribution depending on the FA and oil the beneficiation method used. The textural properties of the obtained fractions varied as a function of their carbon content and the beneficiation method used. However, no significant differences in morphology of the carbonaceous particles were found

  17. Application of TBS at Ting Nan Coal Preparation Plant%TBS在亭南选煤厂的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the working principle of TBS and its application in the Pavilion South Coal Company coal preparation plant, analyses of TBS in the optimization of the separation process of coarse coal slime coal preparation plant advantage.%介绍了TBS的工作原理及其在亭南煤业公司洗煤厂的应用效果,分析了TBS在优化选煤厂粗煤泥分选工艺的优势。

  18. Japan`s sunshine project. 17.. 1992 annual summary of coal liquefaction and gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This report describes the achievement of coal liquefaction and gasification technology development in the Sunshine Project for FY 1992. It presents the research and development of coal liquefaction which includes studies on reaction mechanism of coal liquefaction and catalysts for coal liquefaction, the research and development of coal gasification technologies which includes studies on gasification characteristics of various coals and improvement of coal gasification efficiency, the development of bituminous coal liquefaction which includes engineering, construction and operation of a bituminous coal liquefaction pilot plant and research by a process supporting unit (PSU), the development of brown coal liquefaction which includes research on brown coal liquefaction with a pilot plant and development of techniques for upgrading coal oil from brown coal, the development of common base technologies which includes development of slurry letdown valves and study on upgrading technology of coal-derived distillates, the development of coal-based hydrogen production technology with a pilot plant, the development of technology for entrained flow coal gasification, the assessment of coal hydrogasification, and the international co-operation. 4 refs., 125 figs., 39 tabs.

  19. The development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense facilities. Semi-annual report, March 28, 1996--September 27, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Pisupati, S.V.; Scarone, A.W. [and others

    1996-12-13

    The U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), through an Interagency Agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has initiated a three-phase program with the Consortium for Coal-Water Fuel Technology, with the aim of decreasing DOD`s reliance on imported oil by increasing its use of coal. The program is being conducted as a cooperative agreement between the Consortium and DOE. Activities this reporting period are summarized by phase. Phase I was completed on November 1, 1995. Work on Phase II focused on emissions reductions, coal beneficiation/preparation studies, and economic analyses of coal use. Emissions reductions investigations included continuing bench-scale tests to identify an NO{sub x} reduction catalyst which is appropriate for industrial boiler applications. In addition, installation of a ceramic filtering device on the demonstration boiler started. Also, a sodium bicarbonate duct injection system was procured for installation on the demonstration boiler. Work related to coal preparation and utilization, and the economic analysis was primarily focused on preparing the final report. Work in Phase III focused on coal preparation studies and economic analyses of coal use. Coal preparation studies were focused on continuing activities on particle size control, physical separations,surface-based separation processes, and dry processing. The economic study focused on community sensitivity to coal usage, regional/national economic impacts of new coal utilization technologies, and constructing a national energy portfolio.

  20. Low-rank coal research annual report, July 1, 1989--June 30, 1990 including quarterly report, April--June 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-01

    Research programs in the following areas are presented: control technology and coal preparation; advance research and technology development; combustion; liquefaction; and gasification. Sixteen projects are included. Selected items have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  1. Rational preparation of waste coal mixture for production of bricks by the method of compression molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolboushkin, A. Yu; Ivanov, A. I.; Temlyantsev, M. V.; Fomina, O. A.

    2016-10-01

    Rational preparation of the mixture containing technogenic raw material - waste coal for the production of wall ceramics is developed. It was established that the technology of high-quality ceramic bricks requires: grinding of raw materials to class 0.3 + 0 mm, its aggregation in the intensive mixers into granules 1-3 mm, compression molding of adobe to plastic deformation of granules, drying and firing.

  2. Nitrogen fixation (acetylene reduction) by annual winter legumes on a coal surface mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabrielson, F.C.

    1982-01-01

    The winter annuals, crimson clover, rose clover, subterranean clover and hairy vetch, were evaluated for their ability to fix nitrogen on coal surface mine substrates by measuring their ability to reduce acetylene to ethylene. The effects of fertilizer, Abruzzi ryegrass, Kentucky 31 fescue grass and a phytotoxic plant Chenopodium album on nitrogen fixation was also assessed. Crimson clover was recommended as the best legume to use on topsoil and shale in the South. Hairy vetch gave good results on shale and subterranean clover did well on topsoil. The use of these species for revegetation is discussed. Overall, no correlation between substrate pH and ethylene levels was found and effects of substrate depended upon the legume species. Super phosphate fertilizer supported less nitrogen fixation than 13-13-13. Abruzzi ryegrass in some unknown way inhibited plant density and nitrogen fixation by legumes but not by free living substrate micro-organisms. Shale from under dead Chenopodium plants in both field and greenhouse experiments did not inhibit nitrogen fixation. 11 references, 7 tables.

  3. Nitrogen fixation (Acetylene Reduction) by annual winter legumes on a coal surface mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabrielson, F.C.

    1982-01-01

    The winter annuals, crimson clover, rose clover, subterranean clover and hairy vetch, were evaluated for nitrogen fixing capacity on coal surface mine substrates by measuring their ability to reduce acetylene to ethylene. The effects of fertilizer, Abruzzi rye, Kentucky 31 fescue grass and a phytotoxic plant Chenopodium album on nitrogen fixation were also assessed. Crimson clover was recommended as the best legume to use on topsoil and shale in the south. Hairy vetch gave good results on shale and subterranean clover did well on topsoil. The use of these species for revegetation is discussed. Overall, no correlation between substrate pH and ethylene levels was found and effects of substrate depended upon the legume species. Super phosphate fertilizer supported less nitrogen fixation than 13-13-13. Abruzzi rye in some unknown way inhibited plant density and nitrogen fixation by legumes but not by free living substrate micro-organisms. Shale from under dead Chenopodium plants in both field and greehouse experiments did not inhibit nitrogen fixation. 7 tables.

  4. Preparation of organic light-emitting diode using coal tar pitch, a low-cost material, for printable devices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miki Yamaoka

    Full Text Available We have identified coal tar pitch, a very cheap organic material made from coal during the iron-making process, as a source from which could be obtained emissive molecules for organic light-emitting diodes. Coal tar pitch was separated by simple dissolution in organic solvent, and subsequent separation by preparative thin-layer chromatography was used to obtain emissive organic molecules. The retardation factor of preparative thin-layer chromatography played a major role in deciding the emission characteristics of the solution as photoluminescence spectra and emission-excitation matrix spectra could be controlled by modifying the solution preparation method. In addition, the device characteristics could be improved by modifying the solution preparation method. Two rounds of preparative thin-layer chromatography separation could improve the luminance of organic light-emitting diodes with coal tar pitch, indicating that less polar components are favorable for enhancing the luminance and device performance. By appropriate choice of the solvent, the photoluminescence peak wavelength of separated coal tar pitch could be shifted from 429 nm (cyclohexane to 550 nm (chloroform, and consequently, the optical properties of the coal tar pitch solution could be easily tuned. Hence, the use of such multicomponent materials is advantageous for fine-tuning the net properties at a low cost. Furthermore, an indium tin oxide/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene:poly(styrenesulfonate/coal tar pitch/LiF/Al system, in which the emissive layer was formed by spin-coating a tetrahydrofuran solution of coal tar pitch on the substrate, showed a luminance of 176 cd/m(2. In addition, the emission spectrum of coal tar pitch was narrowed after the preparative thin-layer chromatography process by removing the excess emissive molecules.

  5. Preparation of organic light-emitting diode using coal tar pitch, a low-cost material, for printable devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaoka, Miki; Asami, Shun-Suke; Funaki, Nayuta; Kimura, Sho; Yingjie, Liao; Fukuda, Takeshi; Yamashita, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    We have identified coal tar pitch, a very cheap organic material made from coal during the iron-making process, as a source from which could be obtained emissive molecules for organic light-emitting diodes. Coal tar pitch was separated by simple dissolution in organic solvent, and subsequent separation by preparative thin-layer chromatography was used to obtain emissive organic molecules. The retardation factor of preparative thin-layer chromatography played a major role in deciding the emission characteristics of the solution as photoluminescence spectra and emission-excitation matrix spectra could be controlled by modifying the solution preparation method. In addition, the device characteristics could be improved by modifying the solution preparation method. Two rounds of preparative thin-layer chromatography separation could improve the luminance of organic light-emitting diodes with coal tar pitch, indicating that less polar components are favorable for enhancing the luminance and device performance. By appropriate choice of the solvent, the photoluminescence peak wavelength of separated coal tar pitch could be shifted from 429 nm (cyclohexane) to 550 nm (chloroform), and consequently, the optical properties of the coal tar pitch solution could be easily tuned. Hence, the use of such multicomponent materials is advantageous for fine-tuning the net properties at a low cost. Furthermore, an indium tin oxide/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate)/coal tar pitch/LiF/Al system, in which the emissive layer was formed by spin-coating a tetrahydrofuran solution of coal tar pitch on the substrate, showed a luminance of 176 cd/m(2). In addition, the emission spectrum of coal tar pitch was narrowed after the preparative thin-layer chromatography process by removing the excess emissive molecules.

  6. Japan`s New Sunshine Project. 20. 1995 annual summary of coal liquefaction and gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The paper described a summary of the 1995 study on coal liquefaction and gasification under the New Sunshine Project. As for coal liquefaction, a study was made of liquefaction characteristics and catalysts of various coals. Also studied were liquefaction conditions for quality improvement of liquefaction products, an evaluation method of quality of coal liquid, and a utilization method of coal liquid. In order to prevent carbonization and realize effective liquefaction, a study was conducted for elucidation of the reaction mechanism of high pressure hydrogenation. In a 150t/d pilot plant using hydrogen transfer hydrogenation solvents, the NEDOL method was studied using various catalysts and kinds of coals. This is a step prior to data acquisition for engineering, actual construction of equipment and operation. A 1t/d process supporting unit is a unit to support it. The unit conducts studies on slurry letdown valves and synthetic iron sulfide catalysts, screening of Chinese coals, etc. As to coal gasification, the paper added to the basic research the combined cycle power generation using entrained flow coal gasification for improvement of thermal efficiency and environmental acceptability and the HYCOL method for hydrogen production. 68 refs., 40 figs.

  7. Rheology of coal-water slurries prepared by the HP roll mill grinding of coal. Quarterly technical progress report number 11, March 1--May 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuerstenau, D.W.

    1995-06-01

    The objective of this research is the development of improved technology for the preparation of coal-water slurries that have potential for replacing fuel oil in direct combustion. Detailed investigations of the effect of solids content and chemical additives on the rheology of coal-water slurries, prepared with fines produced by the ball milling of Pittsburgh No. 8 coal, were conducted during the first phase of the research program. These experiments were to provide a baseline against which the rheological behavior of slurries prepared with fines produced by high-pressure roll milling or hybrid high-pressure, roll mill/ball mill grinding could be compared. The viscosity of slurries with high solids content is strongly influenced by the packing density of the feed material. The packing density can be significantly altered by mixing distributions of different median sizes, and to an extent by modifying the grinding environment. The research during this quarter was, therefore, directed towards: (1) establishing the relationship between the packing characteristic of fines and the viscosity of slurries prepared with the fines; (2) investigation of the effect of mixing distribution on the rheology; and (3) study of the effect of grinding environment in the ball mill on the rheology of coal-water slurries.

  8. Fiscal 1995 survey report on the feasibility study of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system. Survey on the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system in the coal preparation sector in China; Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa. Chugoku no sentan bumon ni okeru kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    Specifying the coal preparation technology among clean coal technologies (CCT) in China, the paper investigated governmental policies, plans, standards of coal preparation technology, subjects, etc. toward the introduction/spread of coal preparation technology, and studied decision, introduction and spread of the coal preparation system suitable for the coal utilization status in China. The survey was conducted in Shanxi and Henan Provinces which are main provinces of coal production, and field survey was made at some selected coal preparation plants having different operational conditions. In the field survey, problems on the operation were extracted, and points of improvement were studied at the same time. Further, to grasp the positioning of coal preparation in CCT in China, survey was carried out on laws and regulation on coal preparation in terms of energy and environmental policies. Finally, the result of the field survey was analyzed, a coal preparation system of which the introduction/spread in medium- and long-term are enabled was proposed considering the coal utilization status and economic situation in China, and how to introduce/spread it was studied. 35 figs., 42 tabs.

  9. Demonstration program for coal-oil mixture combustion in an electric utility boiler - Category III A. 1978 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-04-01

    The 1978 annual report covers New England Power Service Company's participation in the Department of Energy coal-oil mixture (COM) program. Continued world-wide unrest resulting in an unstable fuel oil supply coupled with rapidly inflating costs have caused continued interest in a demonstrable viable solution. NEPSCO's program, while not attaining all the milestones forecast, has made considerable progress. As of January 31, 1979, ninety-five (95% percent of engineering and design has been completed. Construction of facilities and installation of required equipment was approximately 75% complete and the six-week Feasibility Testing program was expected to commence during April 1979.

  10. Automatic coal sample preparation system%煤炭自动制样系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兴无

    2015-01-01

    To solve the problems occurred during manual coal sample preparation,such as low work efficien-cy,high labor intensity,poor working environment,harmful to human beings and poor representativeness of the sample due to large error,the auto coal sample preparation system was designed.Performance tests like residue sample mass,fuel size,residue sample precision and sample preparation bias verified this system has met the requirements of GB/T 1 9494.3-2004 and GB 474-2008 on precision and bias.Its application not only improves the automation degree of sample preparation,but also reduces human disturbance factors in the sample preparation process.%为了解决电厂燃煤人工制样存在的工作效率低,劳动强度大,工作环境差,有害人体健康,误差大影响样品的代表性等问题,设计了煤炭自动制样系统.通过留样质量、出料粒径、留样精密度及制样偏倚等性能试验,证明该系统精密度和偏倚达到了 GB 474—2008和 GB/T 19494.3—2004规定的要求,其应用提高了样品制备的自动化程度,减少了制样过程人为因素的干扰.

  11. Application of Ladder-Shaped Coal Chute in Process Preparing Water Coal Slurry in Methanol Project with a Capacity of 700 000 t/a%阶梯型落煤管在70万 t/a甲醇项目水煤浆制备工艺的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔德升; 于振飞; 郑成群

    2014-01-01

    Author has introduced the process flow preparing coal slurry; has analyzed the reason for ladder-shaped coal chute frequently worn-out;has presented the appropriate technical reformation scheme.Technical reformation result indicates that wear-out for ladder-shaped coal chute is largely re-duced, the service life exceeds over one year, each kind of expenses can be saved totally by 1 600 000 Yuan RMB annually.%介绍了煤浆制备工艺流程;分析了阶梯型落煤管频繁磨穿的原因;提出了相应的技改方案。技改结果表明,阶梯型落煤管的磨损大为降低,使用寿命已超过1年,每年可节省各类费用共计160万元。

  12. 龙山选煤厂提高块煤产率的方法%Improvement of lump coal yield in Longshan coal preparation plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋景玲

    2014-01-01

    In order to increase the lump coal yield in Longshan coal preparation plant,analyze the raw coal properties.The results show that,the raw coal is medium and high ash,extra low sulfur No.2 anthracite.There is less primary slime and the gangue is harder which is difficult to crush and grind.There is obvious degradation phenomenon.When lump coal ash is above 12%,the raw coal is easy to wash.The analysis of the process flow of coal preparation plant show that,low screening efficiency,frequent collision and high drop distance lead to low lump coal yield.To resolve these problems,replace the drum screen with linear vibrating screen,the raw coal bunker or lump coal point install spiral chute and take other measures to reduce coal breakage.After transformation,the lump coal yield increase by 1. 74%,the medi-um-sized lump coal increase by 0.51%,the small lump coal increase by 1.23%,the plant creates benefits 2.3868×106 yuan per year.%为提高龙山选煤厂块煤产率,分析了原煤性质,说明原煤属中高灰、特低硫的2号无烟煤;原生煤泥较少,矸石较硬,不易破碎解离,有明显泥化现象;块精煤灰分大于12%时,原煤可选性为易选。通过分析选煤厂工艺流程,说明滚筒筛筛分效率低,产品运输转载过程中碰撞溜槽,块煤入仓时摔碎,块煤落煤点较高等是造成选煤厂块煤产率低的主要原因。通过将滚筒筛更换为直线振动筛,在胶带机落煤溜槽内增加防破碎装置或缓冲闸板,在原煤仓内或块煤落煤点安装螺旋溜槽等措施减少块煤破碎。改造后选煤厂块煤产率提高了1.74%,其中精中块提高0.51%,精小块提高1.23%,每年增加经济效益238.68万元。

  13. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system. Annual report, June 1990--June 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeCren, R.T.; Cowell, L.H.; Galica, M.A.; Stephenson, M.D.; Wen, C.S.

    1991-07-01

    Advances in coal-fueled gas turbine technology over the past few years, together with recent DOE-METC sponsored studies, have served to provide new optimism that the problems demonstrated in the past can be economically resolved and that the coal-fueled gas turbine can ultimately be the preferred system in appropriate market application sectors. The objective of the Solar/METC program is to prove the technical, economic, and environmental feasibility of a coal-fired gas turbine for cogeneration applications through tests of a Centaur Type H engine system operated on coal fuel throughout the engine design operating range. The five-year program consists of three phases, namely: (1) system description; (2) component development; (3) prototype system verification. A successful conclusion to the program will initiate a continuation of the commercialization plan through extended field demonstration runs.

  14. 78 FR 47829 - Notice of Open Meetings To Prepare 2013 Annual Report to Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-06

    ... policy and U.S. access to China's markets. China's impact on U.S. security interests, including a... SECURITY REVIEW COMMISSION Notice of Open Meetings To Prepare 2013 Annual Report to Congress Advisory Committee: U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission. ACTION: Notice of open meetings to be held...

  15. Survey and conceptual flow sheets for coal conversion plant handling-preparation and ash/slag removal operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapp, F.C.; Thomas, O.W.; Silverman, M.D.; Dyslin, D.A.; Holmes, J.M.

    1980-03-01

    This study was undertaken at the request of the Fossil Fuel Processing Division of the Department of Energy. The report includes a compilation of conceptual flow sheets, including major equipment lists, and the results of an availability survey of potential suppliers of equipment associated with the coal and ash/slag operations that will be required by future large coal conversion plant complexes. Conversion plant flow sheet operations and related equipment requirements were based on two representative bituminous coals - Pittsburgh and Kentucky No. 9 - and on nine coal conversion processes. It appears that almost all coal handling and preparation and ash/slag removal equipment covered by this survey, with the exception of some coal comminution equipment, either is on hand or can readily be fabricated to meet coal conversion plant capacity requirements of up to 50,000 short tons per day. Equipment capable of handling even larger capacities can be developed. This approach appears to be unjustified, however, because in many cases a reasonable or optimum number of trains of equipment must be considered when designing a conversion plant complex. The actual number of trains of equipment selected will be influenced by the total requied capacity of the complex, the minimum on-line capacity that can be tolerated in case of equipment failure, reliability of specific equipment types, and the number of reactors and related feed injection stations needed for the specific conversion process.

  16. Analysis of Product Structure Optimization in Xiegou Coal Mine Coal Preparation Plant%斜沟煤矿选煤厂产品结构优化探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄健华

    2016-01-01

    In the face of grim situation of coal economy , in order to improve the economic efficiency of enterpri-ses, the existing problems in current production technology and product structure of Xiegou coal mine preparation plant are analyzed .Starting from the quanlity of mixed coal washing , obtains the reasons of restricting coal preparation plant economical benefit that coarse slime without discharge gangue by separation leads to a large number of gas clean coal.And then puts forward the reform scheme of coarse slime TCS separation system technology .Under the premise of ensuring coal production , coarse slime in 1.5 ~0.2 mm level are discharged gangue by separation , mixed coal washing calorific value increases from 20.9 MJ/kg to 22.2 MJ/kg.It takes the initiative to adapt to the changes of coal market development , enhances the market competitiveness of the product .%面对煤炭经济严峻形势,为了提高企业经济效益,斜沟煤矿选煤厂对现行生产工艺及产品结构存在的问题进行了分析,从洗混煤这一主导产品的质量情况入手,得出了粗煤泥未进行分选排矸,导致了气精煤大量回掺,制约了选煤厂经济效益的提升。提出了对粗煤泥TCS分选系统技术改造的方案,在确保精煤产量的前提下,通过对1.5~0.2 mm级粗煤泥进行分选排矸,可将洗混煤发热量从20.9 MJ/kg提高至22.2 MJ/kg,主动适应煤炭市场发展变化的要求,提升产品市场竞争力。

  17. 浅析煤质分析与检查对选煤厂设计的影响%Analysis of Coal Quality Analysis and Inspection on Coal Preparation Plant Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文龙; 蒋富歌

    2016-01-01

    With China's rapid economic development,the demand for coal continues to expand,coal prices continue to rise. Processing and sale of domestic coal market has undergone great changes,the quality of coal coMPanies for coal products of an increasingly demanding and competitive coal production enterprises more competitive.Coal currently provides for the realization of an effective guarantee for sorting coal.On the right and examine the influence of coal quality analysis of coal preparation plant design has been described,to provide reference for the design of coal preparation plant late.%随着我国经济高速发展,市场对煤炭的需求不断扩大,煤炭价格不断上扬。国内煤炭加工和销售市场也发生了较大的变化,用煤企业对煤炭产品的质量要求日趋严格,煤炭生产企业的竞争更加激烈。目前选煤厂为实现对煤炭的分选提供了有效的保证。对煤质分析与检查对选煤厂设计的影响进行了说明,为后期选煤厂的设计提供参考。

  18. Preparation of activated carbon with low ash content and high specific surface area from coal in the presence of KOH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Qiang(解强); CHEN Qing-ru(陈清如); GONG Guo-zhuo(宫国卓); ZHANG Xiang-lan(张香兰); XU De-ping(许德平)

    2003-01-01

    An activated carbon with ash content less than 10% and specific surface area more than 1 600 m2/g was prepared from coal and the effect of K-containing compounds in preparation of coal-based activated carbon was investigated in detail in this paper. KOH was used in co-carbonization with coal, changes in graphitic crystallites in chars derived from carbonization of coal with and without KOH were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique, activation rates of chars with different contents of K-containing compounds were deduced, and resulting activated carbons were characterized by nitrogen adsorption isotherms at 77 K and iodine numbers. The results showed that the addition of KOH to the coal before carbonization can realize the intensive removal of inorganic matters from chars under mild conditions, especially the efficient removal of dispersive quartz, an extremely difficult separated mineral component in other processes else. Apart from this, KOH demonstrates a favorable effect in control over coal carbonization with the goal to form nongraphitizable isotropic carbon precursor, which is a necessary prerequisite for the formation and development of micro pores. However, the K-containing compounds such as K2CO3 and K2O remaining in chars after carbonization catalyze the reaction between carbon and steam in activation, which leads to the formation of macro pores. In the end an innovative method, in which KOH is added to coal before carbonization and K-containing compounds are removed by acid washing after carbonization, was proposed for the synthesis of quality coal-based activated carbon.

  19. Computer simulation of coal preparation plants. Part 2. User's manual. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottfried, B.S.; Tierney, J.W.

    1985-12-01

    This report describes a comprehensive computer program that allows the user to simulate the performance of realistic coal preparation plants. The program is very flexible in the sense that it can accommodate any particular plant configuration that may be of interest. This allows the user to compare the performance of different plant configurations and to determine the impact of various modes of operation with the same configuration. In addition, the program can be used to assess the degree of cleaning obtained with different coal feeds for a given plant configuration and a given mode of operation. Use of the simulator requires that the user specify the appearance of the plant configuration, the plant operating conditions, and a description of the coal feed. The simulator will then determine the flowrates within the plant, and a description of each flowrate (i.e., the weight distribution, percent ash, pyritic sulfur and total sulfur, moisture, and Btu content). The simulation program has been written in modular form using the Fortran language. It can be implemented on a great many different types of computers, ranging from large scientific mainframes to IBM-type personal computers with a fixed disk. Some customization may be required, however, to ensure compatibility with the features of Fortran available on a particular computer. Part I of this report contains a general description of the methods used to carry out the simulation. Each of the major types of units is described separately, in addition to a description of the overall system analysis. Part II is intended as a user's manual. It contains a listing of the mainframe version of the program, instructions for its use (on both a mainframe and a microcomputer), and output for a representative sample problem.

  20. Gasification in pulverized coal flames. First annual progress report, July 1975--June 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenzer, R. C.; George, P. E.; Thomas, J. F.; Laurendeau, N. M.

    1976-07-01

    This project concerns the production of power and synthesis gas from pulverized coal via suspension gasification. Swirling flow in both concentric jet and cyclone gasifiers will separate oxidation and reduction zones. Gasifier performance will be correlated with internally measured temperature and concentration profiles. A literature review of vortex and cyclone reactors is complete. Preliminary reviews of confined jet reactors and pulverized coal reaction models have also been completed. A simple equilibrium model for power gas production is in agreement with literature correlations. Cold gas efficiency is not a suitable performance parameter for combined cycle operation. The coal handling facility, equipped with crusher, pulverizer and sieve shaker, is in working order. Test cell flow and electrical systems have been designed, and most of the equipment has been received. Construction of the cyclone gasifier has begun. A preliminary design for the gas sampling system, which will utilize a UTI Q-30C mass spectrometer, has been developed.

  1. Structure and properties of forming adsorbents prepared from different particle sizes of coal fly ash

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhuannian Liu; Yuan Liu

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, different particle sizes of coal fly ash FA-R (D50=15.75μm), FA-A (D50=3.61μm) and FA-B (D50=1.73μm) were treated with NaOH solution to prepare the forming adsorbents FFA-R, FFA-A and FFA-B. The structure and adsorption properties of the forming adsorbents for methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solu-tion were examined. The results showed that the specific surface areas and adsorption capacities of the forming adsorbent for MB increased with decreasing particle size of raw coal fly ashes. The adsorption kinetic data of MB on FFA-R, FFA-A and FFA-B fitted the second-order kinetic model very wel with the rate constants (k2) of 3.15 × 10−2, 3.84 × 10−2 and 6.27 × 10−2 g·mg−1·min−1, respectively. The adsorption process was not only con-trol ed by intra-particle diffusion. The isotherms of MB on FFA-R, FFA-A and FFA-B can be described by the Lang-muir isotherm and the Freundlich isotherm, and the adsorption processes were spontaneous and exothermic. © 2014 The Chemical Industry and Engineering Society of China, and Chemical Industry Press. Al rights reserved.

  2. Preparation of nitric humic acid by catalytic oxidation from Guizhou coal with catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Zhiyuan; Gong Liang; Ran Pan

    2012-01-01

    Nitric humic acid was prepared by catalytic oxidation between nitric acid and Guizhou coal,with added catalysts.We investigated catalytic oxidation processes and the factors that affect the reactions.The effects of different catalysts,including NiSO4 support on active carbon (AC-NiSO4),NiSO4 support on silicon dioxide (SiO2-NiSO4),composites of SO42-/Fe2O3,Zr-iron and vanadium-iron composite were studied.As well.we investigated nitric humic acid yields and the chemical structure of products by element analysis,FT-IR and E4/E6 (an absorbance ratio at wavelengths of 465 and 665 nm of humic acid alkaline extraction solutions).The results show that the catalytic oxidation reaction with added catalysts can increase humic acid yields by 18.7%,16.36%,12.94%,5.61% and 8.59%,respectively.The highest yield of humic acid,i.e.,36.0%,was obtained with AC-NiSO4 as the catalyst.The amounts of C and H decreased with the amount of nitrogen.The increase in the E4/E6 ratio in catalytic oxidation of (Guizhou) coal shows that small molecular weights and high yields of nitric humic acid can be obtained by catalytic oxidation reactions.

  3. Prevention and Control of Coal Dust and Site Management of Coal Preparation Plant%选煤厂煤尘防治与现场管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑永伟

    2015-01-01

    随着环保意识的逐步提高,煤尘防治已成为选煤厂管理的重要课题之一。论文结合河南神火煤业公司刘河选煤厂生产管理实际情况,重点叙述了该厂通过采取装设喷雾降尘系统、冲洗水系统、优化劳动组织等措施,使岗位煤尘得到了有效治理,促进了现场管理水平的提升。%With the gradually improvement of environmental consciousness, prevention and control of coal dust has became one of the important subjects of the management of coal preparation plant. Combined with the production and management reality of Liuhe Coal Preparation Plant, Shenhuo Group, this papers describes that post dust is effectively controlled by installing spray dust system, flush water system, and optimizing labor organization, which promotes the upgrade of site management level.

  4. Small scale experiment on the plasma assisted thermal chemical preparation and combustion of pulverized coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masaya, Sugimoto; Koichi, Takeda [Akita Prefectural University (Japan); Solonenko, O.P. [Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Sakashita, M.; Nakamura, M. [Japan Technical Information Service, Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    Ignition and stable combustion of pulverized coal with Nitrogen and Air plasmas are investigated experimentally for some different types of coal. The experimental results show that air plasma has strong effect for ignition and stabilization of coal combustion. In addition, suppression of NO{sub x} production could be possible even in air plasma. It is possible to ignite and burn stably for the inferior coal that contains volatile matter in the ratio of only 10% of dry total mass. (authors)

  5. The effects of topical corticosteroids and a coal tar preparation on dithranol-induced irritation in patients with psoriasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swinkels, O.Q.J.; Kucharekova, M.; Prins, M.; Gerritsen, M.J.P.; van der Valk, P.G.M.; van de Kerkhof, P.C.M. [University of Nijmegen, Nijmegen (Netherlands). Medical Center

    2003-02-01

    Dithranol has been a mainstay in the treatment of psoriasis for more than 80 years. Although a safe approach, the irritation of the clinically uninvolved perilesional skin remains a major limitation of this treatment. Corticosteroids and coal tar solution have an anti-inflammatory potential. The aim of the present study was to investigate the clinical and cell-biological effects of two topical corticosteroids and a coal tar preparation on dithranol-irritated skin. The expression of epidermal proliferation, differentiation and inflammation markers and the clinical irritation scores indicate that the application of a high potency corticosteroid is the best approach to minimise dithranol irritation.

  6. Trace element characterization of coal wastes. Fourth annual progress report, October 1, 1978-September 30, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, J.M.; Bertino, J.P.; Jones, M.M.; Wagner, P.; Wanek, P.L.; Wangen, L.E.; Wewerka, E.M.

    1981-04-01

    In the past year assessment studies of low-sulfur coal wastes from the Appalachian Region have been continued. These included mineralogical and trace elemental analyses on these materials and studies of their weathering and leaching behavior. Although the concentrations of the acid-forming minerals (pyrite and marcasite) were very low, leachates were quite acid (pH < 3) with concomitant trace element (Al, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu) concentration elevation. As part of the overall assessment of the degree of environmental concern associated with acidic coal waste drainages, bioassay studies were performed. These revealed that coal wastes and their leachates are toxic to fresh water algae, fathead minnows, and one species of fresh-water flea. Laboratory experiments to identify control options for the coal wastes and their drainages have been focused on predisposal and codisposal treatments of the waste, with technical and economic evaluations being performed on the most promising options. One of the most promising control methods is pretreatment of the waste with a lime/limestone mixture; this produces a waste with no acid-forming tendencies for times up to several months, during which time it may be possible to dispose of the treated waste in a nonreactive environment. The cost of this option is comparable to that of the commonly used lime neutralization of the acid drainage. Other experiments have investigated, in considerable detail, the economic and environmental advantages and disadvantages of codisposing the wastes with 37 naturally occurring soils and industrial wastes. These methods look promising only under certain conditions, but are in general an order of magnitude less effective than existing controls or the lime/limestone disposal method.

  7. New Comments on Clean Coal Cost Analysis of Coal Preparation Industry%煤炭洗选业精煤成本分析新论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱学义

    2012-01-01

    The paper analyze the shortages on the method of the reduced quantity factors,the direct comparison analysis method,the analysis method of the unit cost factor after the separation and the analysis method of the coal preparation cost.Created a new analysis method-a an analysis method of coal recovery rate was innovated and the applicability and rationality of the method was analyzed with the application cases.%分析了折合量因素分析法、直接对比分析法、分离后单位成本因素分析法等洗煤成本分析方法的不足。创造了一种新的分析方法——回收率因素分析法。并应用实例分析了该方法的适用性及合理性。

  8. Solvent refined coal (SRC) process. Annual technical progress report, January 1979-December 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    A set of statistically designed experiments was used to study the effects of several important operating variables on coal liquefaction product yield structures. These studies used a Continuous Stirred-Tank Reactor to provide a hydrodynamically well-defined system from which kinetic data could be extracted. An analysis of the data shows that product yield structures can be adequately represented by a correlative model. It was shown that second-order effects (interaction and squared terms) are necessary to provide a good model fit of the data throughout the range studied. Three reports were issued covering the SRC-II database and yields as functions of operating variables. The results agree well with the generally-held concepts of the SRC reaction process, i.e., liquid phase hydrogenolysis of liquid coal which is time-dependent, thermally activated, catalyzed by recycle ash, and reaction rate-controlled. Four reports were issued summarizing the comprehensive SRC reactor thermal response models and reporting the results of several studies made with the models. Analytical equipment for measuring SRC off-gas composition and simulated distillation of coal liquids and appropriate procedures have been established.

  9. Operation of the Sibir' coal preparation plant. Opyt raboty TsOF Sibir'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerasimenko, M.P.; Kuz' kin, V.M.

    1986-01-01

    Operation of the Sibir' coal preparation plant is discussed which was constructed in 1974 in the Kuzbass and has a coal output 6.8 Mt/y. Plant modernization from 1981 to 1985 is described. The following control systems installed in the plant are evaluated: the OKA-1 control system for jigs, the RUTA for control of heavy media separation, the SARF-3 for control of flotation, the ABC-1 system for control of waste water, the KODOF dispatcher control system. Types of separation and dewatering equipment installed in the plant are reviewed: flotation machines, vacuum filters, instruments for measuring ash content in coal concentrate and wastes. Plant modernization program for 1986-1990 is discussed.

  10. 重介质选煤技术工艺及其管理探究%Heavy medium coal preparation technology and its management research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕勇

    2015-01-01

    The coal preparation technology plays an important role in environmental protection and resource conservation. Heavy medium coal preparation has the advantages of convenient operation, strong adaptability of coal quality, the advantages of higher separation efifciency. Strengthen the application of dense medium coal preparation technology in coal preparation plant, it helps to reduce the operation cost and investment cost, improve the economic benefit and social benefit in coal preparation plant. This paper will analyze the heavy medium coal preparation technology and management.%选煤工艺在保护环境、节约资源方面有着重要作用。重介质选煤具有操作方便、对煤质的适应性较强、分选效率高等优势。加强重介质选煤技术在选煤厂的应用,有助于降低运行成本和投资成本,提高选煤厂经济效益和社会效益。该文将对重介质选煤技术工艺及其管理进行分析。

  11. Survey and evaluation of current and potential coal beneficiation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, S. P.N.; Peterson, G. R.

    1979-03-01

    Coal beneficiation is a generic term used for processes that prepare run-of-mine coal for specific end uses. It is also referred to as coal preparation or coal cleaning and is a means of reducing the sulfur and the ash contents of coal. Information is presented regarding current and potential coal beneficiation processes. Several of the processes reviewed, though not yet commercial, are at various stages of experimental development. Process descriptions are provided for these processes commensurate with the extent of information and time available to perform the evaluation of these processes. Conceptual process designs, preliminary cost estimates, and economic evaluations are provided for the more advanced (from a process development hierarchy viewpoint) processes based on production levels of 1500 and 15,000 tons/day (maf) of cleaned product coal. Economic evaluations of the coal preparation plants are conducted for several project financing schemes and at 12 and 15% annual after-tax rates of return on equity capital. A 9% annual interest rate is used on the debt fraction of the plant capital. Cleaned product coal prices are determined using the discounted cash flow procedure. The study is intended to provide information on publicly known coal beneficiation processes and to indicate the relative costs of various coal beneficiation processes. Because of severe timeconstraints, several potential coal beneficiation processes are not evaluated in great detail. It is recommended that an additional study be conducted to complement this study and to more fully appreciate the potentially significant role of coal beneficiation in the clean burning of coal.

  12. 47{sup th} Annual meeting on nuclear technology (AMNT 2016). About cores, coal and cash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podivinsky, Tomas Jan

    2016-07-15

    Rationality and - especially with regard to reducing emissions - technological neutrality are two commitments for nuclear fission. The Czech Republic, where conditions are not suitable for economical large-scale operation of facilities based on renewables, there is no alternative in environmental or business policy to the reasonable use of nuclear energy. The aim of the updated Czech energy strategy is to increase the proportion of nuclear energy from 35 % to approx. 50 % of power generation and to cover the rest - together with ultra-high efficiency coal fired power plants - with energy from renewable sources and gas fired power plants.

  13. Low-temperature co-pyrolysis of a low-rank coal and biomass to prepare smokeless fuel briquettes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blesa, M.J.; Miranda, J.L.; Moliner, R.; Izquierdo, M.T. [Instituto de Carboquimica CSIC, P.O. Box 589, 50080 Zaragoza (Spain); Palacios, J.M. [Instituto de Catalisis y Petroleoquimica CSIC, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2003-12-01

    Smokeless fuel briquettes have been prepared with low-rank coal and biomass. These raw materials have been mixed in different ratios and have been pyrolysed at 600C with the aim to reduce both the volatile matter and the sulphur content, and to increase the high calorific value (HCV). The co-pyrolysis of coal and biomass has shown a synergetic effect. The biomass favours the release of hydrogen sulphide during the thermal treatment. This fact can be explained in terms of the hydrogen-donor character of the biomass. Moreover, the optimisation of the amount of binder and the influence of different types of biomass in the blend have been studied with respect to the mechanical properties of the briquettes (impact resistance, compression strength and abrasion). Briquettes prepared with sawdust (S) present better mechanical properties than those with olive stones (O) because of its fibrous texture.

  14. IGCC repowering project clean coal II project public design report. Annual report, October 1992--September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-10-01

    Combustion Engineering, Inc. (CE) is participating in a $270 million coal gasification combined cycle repowering project that was designed to provide a nominal 60 MW of electricity to City, Water, Light and Power (CWL&P) in Springfield, Illinois. The Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) system consists of CE`s air-blown entrained flow two-stage gasifier; an advanced hot gas cleanup system; a combustion turbine adapted to use low-BTU gas; and all necessary coal handling equipment, The project is currently completing the second budget period of five. The major activities to date are: (1) Establishment of a design, cost, and schedule for the project; (2) Establishment of financial commitments; (3) Acquire design and modeling data; (4) Establishment of an approved for design (AFD) engineering package; (5) Development of a detailed cost estimate; (6) Resolution of project business issues; (7) CWL&P renewal and replacement activities; and (8) Application for environmental air permits. A Project Management Plan was generated, The conceptual design of the plant was completed and a cost and schedule baseline for the project was established in Budget Period One. This information was used to establish AFD Process Flow Diagrams, Piping and Instrument Diagrams, Equipment Data Sheets, material take offs, site modification plans and other information necessary to develop a plus or minus 20% cost estimate. Environmental permitting activities were accomplished, including the Air Permit Application, completion of the National Environmental Policy Act process, and the draft Environmental Monitoring Plan. At the end of 1992 the DOE requested that Duke Engineering and Services Inc., (DESI) be used to complete the balance of plant cost estimate. DESI was retained to do this work, DESI completed the material take off estimate and included operations, maintenance, and startup in the estimate.

  15. Intelligent Control and Maintenance Management Integrated System Based on Multi-Agents for Coal-Preparation Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Fan-qin; WANG Yao-cai

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the progress of computer integrated processing (CIPS) of coal-preparation and then presents an intelligence controlled production-process, device-maintenance and production-management system of coalpreparation based on multi-agents (ⅡCMMS-CP). The construction of the ⅡCMMS-CP, the distributed network control system based on live intelligence control stations and the strategy of implementing distributed intelligence control system are studied in order to overcome the disadvantages brought about by the wide use of the PLC system by coalpreparation plants. The software frame, based on a Multi-Agent Intelligence Control and Maintenance Management integrated system, is studied and the implemention methods of ⅡCMMS-CP are discussed. The characteristics of distributed architecture, cooperation and parallel computing meet the needs of integrated control of coal-preparation plants with large-scale spatial production distribution, densely-related processes and complex systems. Its application further improves the reliability and precision of process control, accuracy of fault identification and intelligence of production adjustment, establishes a technical basis for system integration and flexible production. The main function of the system has been tested in a coal-preparation plant to good effect in stabilizing product quality, improving efficiency and reducing consumption.

  16. Fundamental research on surface science of coal in support of physical beneficiation of coal; Annual technical program report, September 1, 1988--August 30, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Good, R.J.; Keller, D.V. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The objectives of this work are to obtain the basic surface chemical data, and to develop the relevant surface chemical theory, that will provide a foundation for the oil agglomeration and froth flotation processes of coal beneficiation. Contact angles of liquids in gas, on coal, and components of surface energy of coal due to acidic and basic behavior in hydrogen bonding; Adsorption of alcohols on coal; Early results in the liquid bridge theory of coal aggregate stability and pyrite rejection; and Oil-water-solid (OWC) contact angles have been measured on particles of ground coal, using a microscope in an oxygen-free glove box. See Figure 2. The coal had been wet-ground, and stored in sealed containers, under water, until needed for measurement. It was dried, and a small amount was placed in the depression of a hollowed-out microscope slide. A small amount of decane was added, to wet out the coal, and then a droplet of water. Angles were measured either with rotatable crosshairs connected to an external degree scale, or by photographing (or using and advance optical imaging system) and measuring at leisure. 8 refs., 11 figs.

  17. Blended coals for improved coal water slurries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Tian-ye; WU Guo-guang; LI Qi-hui; SUN Zhi-qiang; ZENG Fang; WANG Guang-you; MENG Xian-liang

    2008-01-01

    Three coal samples of different ranks were used to study the effect of coal blending on the preparation of Coal Water Slurry (CWS). The results show that by taking advantage of two kinds of coal, the coal concentration in slurry made from hard-to-pulp coal can be effectively improved and increased by 3%-5% generally. DLT coal (DaLiuTa coal mine) is very poor in slurryability and the stability and rheology of the resulting slurry are not very good. When the amount of easily slurried coal is more than 30%, all properties of the CWS improve and the CWS meets the requirements for use as fuel. Coalification, porosity, surface oxygenic functional groups, zeta potential and grindability have a great effect on the performance of blended coal CWS. This leads to some differences in performance between the slurry made from a single coal and slurry made from blended coal.

  18. Tenth annual coal preparation, utilization, and environmental control contractors conference: Proceedings. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    Volume II contains papers presented at the following sessions: combustion 2000 session; advanced research and technology development session; commercial/industrial combustion systems session; alternative fuels utilization session; environmental control poster session; and advanced combustion technology poster session. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  19. Reasonable Ball Size of Ball Mill for Preparing Coal Water Fuel and Forecasting Productive Capacity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张荣曾; 刘炯天; 徐志强; 郑明

    2002-01-01

    By using the matrix theory, a 5-parameter grinding mathema tical model is established. Based on the properties of feed coal and requirement s for size distribution of final product, the model gives the required grinding probability for various particles and corresponding ball size distribution. By u sing this model, 3 different sizes of ball mill are designed and put into commer cial use for coal water fuel. The forecasted ball mill capacity, the particle si zes and particle size distribution as well as the coal water fuel quality parame ters are all in line with industrial operation results, which have proved the su itability of the model.

  20. Preparation and evaluation of coal extracts as precursors for carbon and graphite products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zondlo, J.W.; Stiller, A.W.; Stansberry, P.G. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)] [and others

    1996-08-01

    A coal extraction process coupled with coal hydrotreatment has been shown capable of producing suitable precursors for a variety of commercially important carbon and graphite products. The N-methylpyrolidone (NMP) extracts of hydrotreated coals have been analytically and chemically characterized and shown to have properties acceptable for use as binder and impregnation pitch. Mesophase formation studies have demonstrated their capability for producing both needle and anode grade coke as well as precursors for mesophase pitch fibers. A graphite artifact has been produced using a coal extract as a binder and coke derived from the extract as a filler. Further evaluation of the extract materials is being carried out by industrial members of the Carbon Products Consortium.

  1. On design of fire-fighting water-supply system in coal preparation plants%选煤厂消防给水系统设计探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋晓娟; 王俊

    2012-01-01

    根据《煤规》《选规》及《建规》中对选煤厂消防给水系统的有关规定,通过对选煤厂室内和室外消防用水量、选煤厂消防体制及管网布置进行了分析,针对选煤厂消防给水系统设计中存在的问题,提出了个人见解,以期指导实践。%According to the relative regulation on the fire-fighting water-supply system in the coal preparation plants in the Regulation for Coal,the Regulation for Coal Preparation and the Regulation for the Construction,the paper analyzes the volumes of the outdoor and indoor fire-fighting water in the coal preparation plants,the fire-fighting system for the coal selection plants,and the allocation for the pipe network,and points out own opinions for the problems in the design for the fire-fighting water-supply system in the coal preparation plants,so as to direct the practice.

  2. 望峰岗选煤厂堵仓原因及解决方法探索%Reason for coal bunker jam in Wangfenggang Coal Preparation Plant and relevant solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹道; 刘雨苗; 桂洋洋; 陈立龙

    2016-01-01

    为了解决望峰岗选煤厂原煤挂仓问题,分析了挂仓原因。由于原煤煤泥量大,煤仓结构不合理,根据煤质和煤仓结构研制了新型水力清仓系统,介绍了其工作原理、具体实施方法,分析了水力清仓技术在望峰岗选煤厂的使用情况。结果表明:通过设计和使用新型原煤仓水力清仓装置,2号煤仓挂壁的原煤由7000 t 降低至1000 t,大大提高了煤仓的储存能力,为选煤厂、矿井和铁路运输部门的原煤衔接提供更大的缓冲空间,该水力清仓技术可在矿井、火力发电厂、焦化厂、钢铁厂等推广应用。%To solve the problem of raw coal hanging bunker in Wangfenggang Coal Preparation Plant,the reason for raw coal hanging bunker was analysed.Due to the large amount of slime,coal bunker structure is not reasonable,so according to the coal bunker structure and coal quality,a new type of hydraulic cleaning system was developed.Introduced its working principle,implementation method,the actual usage of the hydraulic cleaning technology in Wangfenggang Coal Preparation Plant was also analysed.The results show that,ac-cording to the design and use of hydraulic device of coal bunker clearance,the quantity of raw coal hanging bunker in No.2 coal bunker was reduced from 7 000 tons to 1 000 tons,the coal storage capacity was also improved greatly,which can provide a buffer for more coal mines and railway transportation of coal rank,and hydraulic cleaning technology can be used in mine and the thermal power plant,co-king plant,steel plant.

  3. Application of TBS in Coal Preparation Plant of Guandi Mine%TBS系统在官地矿选煤厂的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武晓娟

    2015-01-01

    针对入洗原料煤煤泥过大、系统无法满负荷生产的现状,官地矿选煤厂通过增加TBS系统,对入洗原料煤工艺系统进行脱泥处理、减轻重介系统压力改造,达到提高系统处理能力、提高精煤回收率和经济效益的目的。%Coal slurry was excessive in feeding coal and the original system could not achieve the full production. By introducing TBS system, the feeding coal technique underwent a de-shime process and the transformation of pressure reduction for the dense medium system, in order to increase the system processing capacity, the recovery rate of clean coal, and the economic benefits for Coal Preparation Plant of Guandi Mine.

  4. Energy and environmental research emphasizing low-rank coal. Semi-annual report, January--June 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    Summaries of progress on the following tasks are presented: Mixed waste treatment; Hot water extraction of nonpolar organic pollutant from soils; Aqueous phase thermal oxidation wastewater treatment; Review of results from comprehensive characterization of air toxic emissions from coal-fired power plants; Air toxic fine particulate control; Effectiveness of sorbents for trace elements; Catalyst for utilization of methane in selective catalytic reduction of NOx; Fuel utilization properties; Hot gas cleaning; PFBC; catalytic tar cracking; sulfur forms in coal; resid and bitumen desulfurization; biodesulfurization; diesel fuel desulfurization; stability issues; Sorbent carbon development; Evaluation of carbon products; Stable and supercritical chars; Briquette binders; Carbon molecular sieves; Coal char fuel evaporation canister sorbent; Development of a coal by-product classification protocol for utilization; Use of coal ash in recycled plastics and composite materials; Corrosion of advanced structural materials; Joining of advanced structural materials; Resource data evaluation; and the Usti and Labem (Czech Republic) coal-upgrading program.

  5. Technological practice of capacity expansion transformation of coal preparation plant in Changxing coal mine%常兴矿选煤厂扩能改造技术实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海霞

    2015-01-01

    由于常兴矿选煤厂的原煤灰分过高从而制约选煤厂的精煤产量,结合现场实际情况具体分析了准备车间、主洗系统及弧形筛存在的问题,提出了工艺环节的局部改造方案以释放动筛跳汰机和 TBS 分选机的分选能力,可减轻重介系统的生产压力及适应矿井煤质变化的需求。%Because that raw coal of coal preparation plant in Changxing coal mine had relatively high ash content, the cleaned coal yield was restricted, combining with the spot actual circumstance, the preparation workshop, main washing system and existing of curved screen were analyzed specifically, partial transformation plan of process was proposed to improve the separating capacity of movable-sieve jigger and TBS separator, meanwhile, the production pressure of heavy medium system could be reduced, the coal quality change of coal mine could be adapted.

  6. Facile and Economical Preparation of SiAlON-Based Composites Using Coal Gangue: From Fundamental to Industrial Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinfu Li

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to synthesize SiAlON-based composites utilizing coal gangue. Different types of SiAlON-based composites were synthesized using coal gangue by carbothermal reduction nitridation method through control of different reaction atmospheres. The experimental results indicate that the oxygen partial pressure was an essential factor in the manufacture of SiAlON-based composites and under proper control of the atmospheres, SiAlON-based composites with different crystal structures could be synthesized. The optimum conditions of synthesis of different SiAlON-based composites were respectively determined. Based on the laboratory results, a prototype plant was proposed and constructed, and β-SiAlON composite was successfully produced using coal gangue. The synthesized β-SiAlON composite was applied in preparation of iron ladle brick instead of SiC, which showed that the compression strength, refractoriness under load and high temperature bending strength were increased from 44.5 ± 6.7 MPa, 1618 ± 21 °C and 5.4 ± 1.2 MPa to 64.1 ± 2.5 MPa, 1700 ± 28 °C and 7.1 ± 1.6 MPa, respectively. Compared with the traditional synthesis method, the present technique is expected to save energy both in raw materials and technical process.

  7. Modelling of the pulverised coal preparation for combustion in a plasma chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Z. Jankoski; F.C. Lockwood; V. Messerle; E. Karpenko; A. Ustimenko [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom). Department of Mechanical Engineering

    2003-07-01

    The objective of this study is to simulate the behaviour of pulverized coal in the plasma chamber through numerical experiments carried out with the aid of developed thermodynamic, kinetic and multi dimensional computational fluid dynamics based mathematical models. The data needed for the validation of the numerical procedure were obtained from a cylindrical direct flow burner equipped with a plasmatron (plasma generator) with 100 kW of electric power and mounted on a full-scale boiler (Gusinoozersk TPP, Eastern Siberia). The experiments were carried out using 'Tugnuisk' bituminous coal. Two mathematical models were employed: the one ('1D Plasma-Coal') being one dimensional, but with an emphasis on complex chemistry, the other (3D FAFNIR) being fully three-dimensional with emphasis on the geometry and overall combustion processes. 1D Plasma-Coal numerical experiments gave the predicted temperatures and velocities of gas and solids along the chamber length; while the concentrations of the gas components (CO, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, C{sub 6}H{sub 6}, N{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O) were reported for the chamber exit. The degree of coal gasification showed that 54% of coal carbon was gasified within the plasma chamber. 3D numerical results for plasma jet spreading length were in good agreement with the measured data, while the temperature profiles within the plasma chamber were over predicted. The predictions of main species concentrations reveal that oxygen was completely consumed with the exit product stream consisting of combustible gases, un-burnt volatiles and char particles.

  8. Preparation and Morphological Study of Coal-tar-based Carbon Foam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xin-ying; ZHU Jiang-jiang; ZHANG Chang-xing; WANG Yi-min; WANG Yan-ping; YU Ming-fang

    2006-01-01

    A novel process for fabricating coal-tar pitch derived carbon foam was introduced. The coal-tar based mesophase pitch was characterized by Infrared Spectrum and Wide Angle X-ray Diffraction. Scanning Electron Microscope was used for the morphological study of carbon foam. The results showed that the pitch foam with pores of 300 - 500 μm and low density of 0.2 - 0.5 g/cm-3 could be successfully fabricated and further carbonized and graphtized to obtain a novel carbon foam.

  9. Pyrite surface characterization and control for advanced fine coal desulfurization technologies. First annual report, September 1, 1990--August 30, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiang-Huai

    1991-12-31

    The objective of this project is to conduct extensive studies on the surface reactivity of pyrite by using electrochemical, surface analysis, potentiometric and calorimetric titration, and surface hydrophobicity characterization techniques and to correlate the alteration of the coal-pyrite surface with the efficiency of pyrite rejection in coal flotation. The products as well as their structure, the mechanisms and the kinetics of the oxidation of coal-pyrite surfaces and their interaction with various chemical reagents will be systematically studied and compared with that of mineral-pyrite and synthetic pyrite to determine the correlation between the surface reactivity of pyrite and the bulk chemical properties of pyrite and impurities. The surface chemical studies and the studies of floatability of coal-pyrite and the effect of various parameters such as grinding media and environment, aging under different atmospheres, etc. on thereof, are directed at identifying the causes and possible solutions of the pyrite rejection problems in coal cleaning.

  10. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal, Annual Progress Report, October 1, 2005 through September 30, 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Bruce G

    2006-09-29

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University has been successfully managing the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which is a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technology on premium carbon produces from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC is an initiative being led by Penn State, its co-charter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provides the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity has continued under the present cooperative agreement, No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003. The objective of the second agreement is to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC has enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, that includes Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC is its industry-led council that selects proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas have strong industrial support. Base funding for the selected projects is provided by NETL with matching funds from industry. At the annual funding meeting held in October 2003, ten projects were selected for funding. Subcontracts were let from Penn State to the subcontractors on March 1, 2004. Nine of the ten 2004 projects were completed during the previous annual reporting period and their final reports were submitted with the previous annual report (i.e., 10/01/04-09/30/05). The final report for the remaining project, which was submitted during this reporting

  11. Viscoelasticity of various gel films prepared from solvent-soluble constituents in coal; Sekitanchu no yobai kayoseibun kara sakuseishita shushu no gel maku no nendansei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takanohashi, T.; Isoda, S.; Doi, S.; Iino, M. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Institute for Chemical Reaction Science

    1996-10-28

    Viscoelasticity of gel films prepared from solvent-soluble constituents without ash of coal using the mixed solvent of carbon disulfide and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (CS2-NMP) was measured to study the network structure of the constituents. In experiment, Upper Freeport coal and Zao Zhuang coal were used as specimens. Viscoelasticity of various gels with different weight fractions of solvent was measured by creep measurement under a fixed load and stress-strain analysis under variable loads. In the 2nd and 3rd creep measurements, although no large changes in elastic strain and viscoelastic strain were found, viscous strain gradually decreased with an increase in viscosity. In the case of small weight fraction of solvent, small viscous strain and viscoelastic strain were found, while slightly large elastic strain was found. It was thus suggested that this elastic strain is derived from not only physical cross-linked networks by coal-solvent interaction but also those by coal-coal interaction in polymer chains of coal itself. 9 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  12. 高效沉浮器在阳煤集团二矿选煤厂的应用%Application of High Efficiency Ups and Downs Device in the Second Mine Coal Preparation Plant of Yangquan Coal Industry Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑强

    2015-01-01

    To the question of insufficient slime water processing ability in production of the second mine coal preparation plant of Yangquan Coal Industry Group, introduces the high-efficiency ups and downs device technology to improve the effect of thickening and clarification on slime water and the separation accuracy of raw coal, the stabili-ty of clean coal quality.Adjusts the medicament supply and opportunity timely and legitimately according to the change of water quality combining with using the adding medicine system of zwitterion.Ensures the stability of water quality, saves the drug costs, perfects the technology of closed water circuit in coal preparation plant.It creates the good conditions for efficient and reliable operation of coal preparation plant.%针对阳煤集团二矿选煤厂生产中煤泥水处理能力不足的问题,通过引进高效沉浮器技术,提高了煤泥水浓缩澄清的效果,原煤分选精度及精煤质量的稳定性显著提高。并结合应用阴阳离子组合加药系统,根据水质变化及时合理调整药剂投放量及投放时机,确保了水质的稳定,节约了药剂成本,完善了选煤厂洗水闭路循环工艺,为选煤厂高效可靠运行创造了良好条件。

  13. Installation of a stoker-coal preparation plant in Krakow, Poland. Quarterly technical progress report No. 3, November--December 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozelle, P.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the progress made during this reporting period of a two year project to demonstrate that the air pollution from a traveling grate stoker being used to heat water at a central heating plant in Krakow, Poland can be reduced significantly by (1) substituting the unwashed, unsized coal currently being used with a mechanically cleaned, double-sized stoker fuel and by (2) optimizing the operating parameters of the stoker. It is anticipated that these improvements will prove to be cost effective and hence be adopted by the other central heating plants in Krakow and indeed, throughout Eastern European cities where coal continues to be the primary source of fuel. EFH Coal Company has formed a partnership with two Polish institutions -- MPEC, a central heating company in Krakow, and Naftokrak-Naftobudowa, preparation plant designers and fabricators, for the execution of this effort. The washability data from a 20mm x 0.5mm size fraction of raw coal from the Nikwa Modrejow Mine were evaluated. The data show that the ash content of this coal can be reduced from 34.0 percent to 9.0 percent by washing in a heavy-media cyclone at 1.725 sp.gr.; the actual yield of clean coal would be 63.1 percent. This product would meet compliance limitations of 500 a of SO{sub 2}/GJ. An evaluation of the predicted results that can be expected when washing five different candidate Polish coals shows that compliance products containing less than 640 a SO{sub 2}/GJ and 10 percent ash at attractive yields can be produced by washing the raw coals in a heavy-media cyclone. Discussions with financial institutions regarding the cost of producing a quality stoker coal in Poland and for identifying sources of private capital to help cost share the project continued. The search for markets for utilizing surplus production from the new plant continued.

  14. Experience of Electrical Design of Super Bunker of Coal Preparation Plant%选煤厂特大型煤仓电气设计经验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨丰伟

    2011-01-01

    In view of problem of hidden danger of coal bunker, taking super products bunker of one coal preparation plant as example, the paper introduced design methods in term of electrical safety prevention, electrical energy-saving and modular design of the bunker. The actual application showed that the design methods ensure safe and continuous production of coal preparation plant.%针对煤仓安全隐患问题,以某选煤厂特大型产品仓为例,介绍了其在电气安全防范、电气节能和模块化设计等方面的设计方法.实际应用表明,该设计方法确保了选煤厂的安全持续生产.

  15. Characterization and Recovery of Rare Earths from Coal and By-Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granite, Evan J. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Roth, Elliot [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Alvin, Mary Anne [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States)

    2016-03-25

    Coal is a precious resource, both in the United States and around the world. The United States has a 250-year supply of coal, and generates between 30 - 40% of its electricity through coal combustion. Approximately 1 Gt of coal has been mined annually in the US, although the 2015 total will likely be closer to 900 Mt (http://www.eia.gov/coal/production/quarterly/). Most of the coal is burned for power generation, but substantial quantities are also employed in the manufacture of steel, chemicals, and activated carbons. Coal has a positive impact upon many industries, including mining, power, rail transportation, manufacturing, chemical, steel, activated carbon, and fuels. Everything that is in the earth’s crust is also present within coal to some extent, and the challenge is always to utilize abundant domestic coal in clean and environmentally friendly manners. In the case of the rare earths, these valuable and extraordinarily useful elements are present within the abundant coal and coal by-products produced domestically and world-wide. These materials include the coals, as well as the combustion by-products such as ashes, coal preparation wastes, gasification slags, and mining by-products. All of these materials can be viewed as potential sources of rare earth elements. Most of the common inorganic lanthanide compounds, such as the phosphates found in coal, have very high melting, boiling, and thermal decomposition temperatures, allowing them to concentrate in combustion and gasification by-products. Furthermore, rare earths have been found in interesting concentrations in the strata above and below certain coal seams. Much of the recent research on coal utilization in the United States has focused upon the capture of pollutants such as acid gases, particulates, and mercury, and the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide. The possible recovery of rare earth and other critical elements from abundant coal and by-products is an exciting new research area, representing a

  16. Co-Al Mixed Oxides Prepared via LDH Route Using Microwaves or Ultrasound: Application for Catalytic Toluene Total Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Genty

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Co6Al2HT hydrotalcite-like compounds were synthesized by three different methods: co-precipitation, microwaves-assisted and ultrasound-assisted methods. The mixed oxides obtained after calcination were studied by several techniques: XRD, TEM, H2-TPR and XPS. They were also tested as catalysts in the reaction of total oxidation of toluene. The physico-chemical studies revealed a modification of the structural characteristics (surface area, morphology as well as of the reducibility of the formed mixed oxides. The solid prepared by microwaves-assisted synthesis was the most active. Furthermore, a relationship between the ratio of Co2+ on the surface, the reducibility of the Co-Al mixed oxide and the T50 in toluene oxidation was demonstrated. This suggests a Mars Van Krevelen mechanism for toluene total oxidation on these catalysts.

  17. Construction of annual cycle of preparation of sportsmen, specialized in cheerleading. [Postroenie godovogo cikla podgotovki sportsmenov, specializiruiushchikhsia v cherlidinge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loutsenko L.S.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The plan-chart of distributing of educational material is rotined in the annual loop of preparation of sportsmen. In an experiment took part 42 sportsmen in age 18-19 years. It is marked that duration of setup time is occupied by to 6 months of preparation. The following correlation of elements is recommended in the structure of competition period: 10% is a body-conditioning, 20% is the special physical preparation, 70% is technical preparation. It is marked that it is necessary to concentrate basic attention on working off competition composition, elements and synchronousness at implementation of compositions. It becomes firmly established that the transitional period of sportsmen is directed on renewal of physical and psychological potential. In this period it is recommended to bring in adjustments in competition compositions or make new.

  18. Use of trainings in mountain terms in the olympic annual loop of preparation in at run on midranges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samolenko T.V.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The variant of the use of training of sportsmen is presented in mountain terms. The basic going is exposed near planning of training in the annual loop of preparation of sportsmen. The features of correlation of facilities of preparation are considered at combination of training in middleland and highland. 4 collections are recommended in mountains in the year of leadthrough of Games of Olympiad in the following orientation: pulling (middleland in, intensive and power (highland, antihunt on a background sufficient intensity (highland, volume and intensive (middleland. Correlation of loadings of different orientation is rotined taking into account the individual features of to training of sportsmen.

  19. Adsorption of Crystal Violet on Activated Carbon Prepared from Coal Flotation Concentrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydogmus, Ramazan; Depci, Tolga; Sarikaya, Musa; Riza Kul, Ali; Onal, Yunus

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study is firstly to investigate the floatability properties of Zilan- Van coal after microwave irradiation and secondly to produce activated carbon from flotation concentrate in order to remove Crystal Violet (CV) from waste water. The flotation experiments showed that microwave heating at 0.9 kW power level for 60 sec exposure time enhanced the hydrophobicity and increased the flotation yield. The activated carbon with remarkable surface area (696 m2/g) was produced from the flotation concentrate and used to adsorb CV from aqueous solution in a batch reactor at different temperature. The adsorption properties of CV onto the activated carbon are discussed in terms of the adsorption isotherms (Langmuir and Freundlich) and found that the experimental results best fitted by the Langmuir model.

  20. Feed dilution-based design of a thickener for refuse slurry of a coal preparation plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Banisi; M. Yahyaei [Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman (Iran). Mining Engineering Group

    2008-10-15

    Thickening is the most widely applied dewatering technique in mineral processing. Thickeners are used to increase the concentration of suspensions by sedimentation, accompanied by the release of a clear liquid. As the particles get finer the thickening process encounters difficulty due to a significant change in the particles settling behavior. The batch settling tests of coal refuse of a coal washing plant that contained 91% particles smaller than 38 {mu}m and 0.6% coarser than 75 {mu}m showed that the optimum feed percent solids that provided highest flux (solids handling capacity) was 4%. The flux of the pulp with the plant solids concentration (i.e., 10% by weight) was 60% lower than that of the pulp with 4% solids. A thickener with a diameter of 22 m based on the dilution of feed from solids concentration of 10% to 4% was designed. Monitoring of the thickener performance for a period of one month in the plant indicated that an average feed rate of 25t/h (dry solids) with solids concentration of 10% could be thickened to an underflow concentration of 26.5% with a clear water overflow. It was found that the key component of the successful operation of the thickener is the dilution of the feed, without dilution the overflow loses its clarity and the system ceases to operate under predetermined conditions. Based on the results of established CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) studies, a feeding system that efficiently dissipated the energy of the incoming flow and a staged flocculant addition regime were utilized in the design and operation of the thickener. 23 refs.

  1. 76 FR 336 - Intent To Prepare a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS) for PacRim Coal's Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ... (SEIS) for PacRim Coal's Proposed Chuitna Coal Project AGENCY: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, DoD. ACTION... an SEIS to identify and analyze the potential impacts associated with the proposed Chuitna Coal... Clean Water Act. The SEIS will be used as a basis for the Corps' permit decision and to...

  2. Preparation and characterization of high-strength calcium silicate boards from coal-fired industrial solid wastes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Cao; Yong-dan Cao; Jin-shan Zhang; Chun-bao Sun; Xian-long Li

    2015-01-01

    To realize the comprehensive utilization of coal-fired industrial solid wastes, a novel high-strength board was prepared from cal-cium silicate slag, fly ash, and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum. The changes in mineral phases, chemical structure, and morphology during hydration were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and scanning electron mi-croscopy (SEM). A traditional board made from quartz and lime was prepared as a reference. The novel board not only consumes a lot of solid wastes, but also meets the strength requirement of the class-five calcium silicate board according to the Chinese Standard JC/T 564.2—2008. Microanalysis showed that hydrated calcium silicate gel (C−S−H(I)), ettringite, tobermorite, and xonotlite were successivelygenerated in the novel board by synergistic hydration of the mixed solid wastes. The board strength was improved by the formation of tobermorite and xonotlite but decreased by unhydrated quartz. It was demonstrated that quartz was not completely hydrated in the traditional board. As a re-sult, the flexural strength of the traditional board was much lower than that of the novel board.

  3. Role of Ni(NO3)2 in the preparation of a magnetic coal-based activated carbon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jun; Xie Qiang; Liu Juan; Yang Mingshun; Yao Xing

    2011-01-01

    The role of Ni(NO3)2 in the preparation of a magnetic activated carbon is reported in this paper.Magnetic coal-based activated carbons (MCAC) were prepared from Taixi anthracite with low ash content in the presence of Ni(NO3)2.The MCAC materials were characterized by a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM),X-ray diffraction (XRD),a scanning electric microscope (SEM),and by N2 adsorption.The cylindrical precursors and derived char were also subjected to thermogravimetric analysis to compare their behavior of weight losses during carbonization.The results show that MCAC has a larger surface area (1074 m2/g) and a higher pore volume (0.5792 cm3/g) with enhanced mesopore ratio (by about 10%).It also has a high saturation magnetization (1.6749 emu/g) and low coercivity (43.26 Oe),which allows the material to be magnetically separated.The MCAC is easily magnetized because the nickel salt is converted into Ni during carbonization and activation.Metallic Ni has a strong magnetism on account of electrostatic interaction.Added Ni(NO3)2 catalyzes the carbonization and activation process by accelerating burn off of the carbon,which contributes to the development of mesopores and macropores in the activated carbon.

  4. Annotated bibliography on selected areas of coal mining research and development. Report prepared for the Committee on Science and Technology, US House of Representatives, Ninety-Sixth Congress, First Session by the Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    The Congressional Research Service has completed an annotated bibliography on coal mining research and development. Although the completion of the study was delayed in order to permit CRS analysts to search the libraries of Bituminous Coal, Research Inc., and the Bureau of Mines in the Pittsburgh area, current re-emphasis on the use of coal as an energy source indicates a sustained relevance. The bibliography presents key references to coal-mining R and D under six subject headings keyed to issues of central concern in coal production: (1) mine health and safety, (2) methane recovery, (3) 1-hour rescuer, (4) use of diesels underground, (5) coal preparation, and (6) manpower development in coal mining.

  5. Preparation of Functionally Graded Materials (FGMs) Using Coal Fly Ash and NiCr-Based Alloy Powder by Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Gen-yo; Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Hasezaki, Kazuhiro; Ito, Yuji; Kakuda, Hideaki

    2008-02-01

    Functionally Graded Materials (FGMs) were prepared by spark plasma sintering (SPS) using coal fly ash and NiCr alloy powder. The coal fly ash was produced by the Misumi Coal Thermal Power Station (Chugoku Electric Power Co., Inc.), with 80 wt% nickel and 20 wt% chromium (Fukuda Metal Foil & Powder Co., Ltd.) used as source materials. The sintering temperature in the graphite die was 1000 °C. X-ray diffraction patterns of the sintered coal fly ash materials indicated that mullite (3Al2O3ṡ2SiO2) and silica (SiO2) phases were predominant. Direct joining of coal fly ash and NiCr causes fracture at the interface. This is due to the mismatch in the thermal expansion coefficients (CTE). A crack in the FGM was observed between the two layers with a CTE difference of over 4.86×10-6 K-1, while a crack in the FGM was difficult to detect when the CTE difference was less than 2.77×10-6 K-1.

  6. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal, Annual Progress Report, October 1, 2004 through September 30, 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Bruce G

    2006-03-01

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University (PSU) has been successfully operating the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which is a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technology on premium carbon produces from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC is an initiative being led by PSU, its co-charter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provides the base funding for the program, with PSU responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity has continued under the present cooperative agreement, No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003. The objective of the second agreement is to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC has enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, that includes PSU and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC is its industry-led council that selects proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas have strong industrial support. A second contract was executed with DOE NETL starting in October 2003 to continue the activities of CPCPC. An annual funding meeting was held in October 2003 and the council selected ten projects for funding. Base funding for the projects is provided by NETL with matching funds from industry. Subcontracts were let from Penn State to the subcontractors on March 1, 2004. Nine of the ten projects have been completed and the final reports for these 2004 projects are attached. An annual funding meeting was held in November 2004 and the council

  7. Preparation and characterization of a composite membrane based on the asphaltene component of coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Liying; Qin Zhihong; Li Xinyan; Chen Juan; Liu Peng; Wang Xiaoyan

    2011-01-01

    Asphaltene-ceramic composite membranes were fabricated from ceramic supports and an asphaltene component,which was obtained from the separation of coal to give a kind of new carbonaceous precursor material.Using SEM and thermogravimetric analysis to measure the microstructure and properties of the asphaltene component allowed the porosity,permeability,and retention ratios to be determined.The results show that the asphaltene component can be regarded as a good carbon membrane precursor material because of its high carbon content and strong bonding capacity.When ceramic supports are impregnated with asphaltene colloid the asphaltene easily combines with the support surface and forms a good carbonaceous film after carbonization.Little of the asphaltene component permeates into the internal pores of the ceramic support.Although the number of coats applied to the substrate had little affect on the porosity of the asphaltene-ceramic composite membranes the permeability varied depending upon the number of times the substrate was treated.The way bubbles escape from the film.and the phenomenon of coalescence,as affected by different film thicknesses also seem closely related to the number of coats.A composite membrane carbonized at a final temperature of 600 ℃ is relatively dense and the permeability of Fe(OH)3 colloid through it is very low.A membrane fired at 800 ℃ is porous and its permeability and retention of Fe(OH)3 colloid are 88 L/(m2 h MPa) and 85.3%,respectively when the trans-membrane pressure is 0.22 MPa.

  8. Management and control after the special preparation of skiers-racing drivers on the stages of annual macrocycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidorova T.V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In theory and the estimation of the special preparation of skiers-racing drivers is experimentally grounded on the stages of annual cycle of training. The norms of the special preparedness of sportsmen are certain depending on style of movement. The levels of the special preparedness of sportsmen are certain in the whole-year training. It is well-proven that an orientation on evaluation scales allows objectively to characterize the state of separate components of motive function of every sportsman. Also to range and group sportsmen on typological the features of preparedness. Technology of correction of orientation of the trainings loadings is recommended.

  9. Effect of Pre-oxidation on the Properties of Crushed Bituminous Coal and Activated Carbon Prepared Therefrom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The influence of a pre-oxidation process on the chemical properties of crushed bituminous coal and on adsorption properties of the subsequently formed char and activated carbon is discussed in this paper.Datong bituminous coal samples sized 6 mm were oxidized at different temperatures and for different times and then carbonized and activated by steam to obtain activated carbons.A Uniform Design method was used to arrange the experiments, IR and adsorption experiments were used to characterize these oxidized coals, chars and activated carbon samples.The results show that the carboxyl group disappeared and α-CH2 groups joined to alkenes decreased dramatically but the carbonyl group clearly increased in the coal sample oxidized at 543 K; The chemical composition of coal samples oxidized at lower temperature is different from that of coal oxidized at 543 K.Oxidizing coal samples at higher temperatures for a short time or at lower temperatures for a longer time resulted in activated carbon samples that tended toward the same adsorption properties: Iodine number 1100 mg/g and Methylene blue value 252 mg/g.The yield of activated carbon obtained from the pre-oxidized coal is 10% higher than the yield from parent coal but the activated carbons have the same adsorption properties.

  10. 煤矸石制备4A分子筛的研究%Preparation of molecular sieve using coal gangue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨建利; 杜美利; 于春侠; 石超

    2013-01-01

    煤矸石是采煤过程中产出的固体废弃物,随着煤炭生产的不断扩大与日俱增.大量煤矸石堆积侵占农田、耕地,造成严重的环境污染,如何高效利用成为急需解决的问题.煤矸石的化学组成以SiO2和Al2O3为主,这些组分正是合成分子筛的主要原料.以煤矸石制备分子筛不但解决了分子筛合成的高成本问题,而且又能提高煤矸石制品的附加值,同时对煤矸石资源化,精细化高效利用提供新的有效途径,达到变废为宝的效果,实现了环保低碳的要求.我国不同矿区煤矸石化学组成成分差异很大,本研究在分析陕西澄合矿区煤矸石化学组分的基础上,改变不同的工艺条件通过添加导向剂和柠檬酸助剂水热法制备4A分子筛,经XRD和SEM表征,成功合成了粒径约为1 ~2 μm性能优良的4A分子筛.%Coal gangue is a kind of solidwastes during procedure of coal extration. With the constant expansion of the coal production, output of coal gangue is growing. Most of the coal gangue accumulate in farmland land and cause severe environmental pollution. How to use coal gangue has become a hotspot. Chemical constitution of coal gangue is mainly in SiO2 and A12O3, these constituents just are main raw material to prepare molecular sieve. Using coal gangue to prepare molecular sieve not only solving high-cost problem, improving added value, reaching the goal in using gangue to recycly and fine efficient u-sing, so as to provide new effective way to achieve the effect of reuse, and realize environmental protection in low carbon requirements. The composition of coal gangue is different greatly in our country. The study mainly focused on chemical analysis of chenghe mining area coal, using different reagents and reaction conditions to prepare high-quality molecular sieve, by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning e-lectron microscope ( SEM) characterization, molecular sieve is prepared by using citric acid and guide agent

  11. 选煤厂管理信息系统的建设%Construction of Management Information System of Coal Preparation Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高宇

    2011-01-01

    The paper introduced construction of management information system of coal preparation plant in terms of network construction, software selection, equipment selection and functions of application program. The system provides a good network environment for operation and management,document process, data transmission and information exchange of coal preparation plant, makes management of coal preparation plant unified, standardized and modernized, and greatly improves management efficiency.%从网络建设、软件选型、设备选型、应用程序的功能要求4个方面详细介绍了选煤厂管理信息系统的建设.系统建成后为选煤厂经营管理、文件处理、数据传递以及信息交流提供了良好的网络环境,使选煤厂管理工作统一化、规范化、现代化,极大地提高了管理的效率.

  12. Mercury and trace element distribution in density separates of a South African Highveld (#4) coal: Implications for mercury reduction and preparation of export coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolker, Allan; Senior, Connie L.; van Alphen, Chris; Koenig, Alan E.; Geboy, Nicholas J.

    2017-01-01

    Eight density separates of Permian Highveld (#4) coal were investigated for partitioning of Hg and trace elements. The separates include float fractions obtained in heavy media having densities of 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.7, 1.8, 1.9, and 2.0 g/cm3, and the sink fraction for 2.0 g/cm3. Bulk analysis of the separates shows strong (R2 ≥ 0.80) positive correlations between pyritic sulfur and mercury, and between ash yield and both pyritic sulfur and mercury. Laser ablation (LA) ICP-MS analysis of individual pyrite grains in the separates confirms association of Hg and As with pyrite as indicated by bulk analysis. Other elements detected in pyrite by LA-ICP-MS include Mn, Co, Ni, Tl, and Pb. Results for the separates allow prediction of Hg, trace elements, and ash yields expected in specific South African coal products. These range from 0.06 ppm Hg and an ash yield of 11.5% ash for the export fraction to 0.47 ppm Hg and an ash yield of 60.9% for the discard (stone) fraction (dry basis). Results show pronounced differences expected between coal used for domestic power generation and coal which is exported.

  13. Environmental control implications of generating electric power from coal. 1977 technology status report. Appendix A (Part 2). Coal preparation and cleaning assessment study appendix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-12-01

    This report presents the results of integrating coal washability and coal reserves data obtained from the U.S. Bureau of Mines. Two computer programs were developed to match the appropriate entries in each data set and then merge the data into the form presented in this report. Approximately 18% of the total demonstrated coal reserves were matched with washability data. However, about 35% of the reserves that account for 80% of current production were successfully matched. Each computer printout specifies the location and size of the reserve, and then describes the coal with data on selected physical and chemical characteristics. Washability data are presented for three crush sizes (1.5 in., /sup 3///sub 8/ in., and 14 mesh) and several specific gravities. In each case, the percent recovery, Btu/lb, percent ash, percent sulfur, lb SO/sub 2//10/sup 6/ Btu, and reserves available at 1.2 lb SO/sub 2//10/sup 6/ Btu are given. The sources of the original data and the methods used in the integration are discussed briefly.

  14. Operation of the solvent-refined-coal pilot plant, Wilsonville, Alabama. Annual technical report, January-December 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, H.E.

    1981-08-01

    The plant was in operation for the equivalent of 247 days, an on-stream factor of 67.7%. Kentucky 9 coals from the Lafayette, Dotiki and Fies mines were processed. During 1980, the operating conditions and equipment were adjusted to evaluate potential process improvements. These experiments produced significant results in the following areas: Operating V103 High Pressure Separator in the hot mode; varying T102 Vacuum Column operating temperature; adding light SRC (LSRC), a product of the third stage of the Critical Solvent Deashing (CSD) unit, to the process solvent; investigating the effects of the chlorine content of the feed coal on corrosion in the process vessels; evaluating the effects of adding sodium carbonate on corrosion rates; operating under conditions of low severity; i.e., low reactor temperature and long residence time; and testing an alternate CSD deashing solvent. A series of simulation runs investigating the design operating conditions for a planned 6000 ton per day SRC-I demonstation plant were also completed. Numerous improvements were made in the CSD processing area, and the components for a hydrotreating unit were installed.

  15. CE IGCC repowering project: Clean Coal II Project. Annual report, 1 January, 1992--31 December, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    CE is participating in a $270 million coal gasification combined cycle repowering project that will provide a nominal 60 MW of electricity to City, Water, light and Power (CWL and P) in Springfield, Illinois. The IGCC system will consist of CE`s air-blown entrained flow two-stage gasifier; an advanced hot gas cleanup system; a combustion turbine adapted to use low-Btu gas: and all necessary coal handling equipment. The project is currently in the second budget period of five. The major activities during this budgeted period are: Establishment of an approved for design (AFD) engineering package; development of a detailed cost estimate; resolution of project business issues; CWL and P renewal and replacement activities; and application for environmental air permits. The Project Management Plan was updated. The conceptual design of the plant was completed and a cost and schedule baseline for the project was established previously in Budget Period One. This information was used to establish AFD Process Flow Diagrams, Piping and Instrument Diagrams, Equipment Data Sheets, material take offs, site modification plans and other information necessary to develop a plus or minus 20% cost estimate. Environmental permitting activities are continuing. At the end of 1992 the major activities remaining for Budget Period two is to finish the cost estimate and complete the Continuation Request Documents.

  16. Anodic performance in lithium-ion batteries of graphite-like materials prepared from anthracites and unburned carbon concentrates from coal combustion fly ashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Cameán

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical performance as anodes for lithium-ion batteries of graphite-like materials that were prepared from anthracites and unburned carbon concentrates from coal combustion fly ashes by high temperature treatment was investigated by galvanostatic cycling of lithium test cells. Some of the materials prepared have provided reversible capacities up to ~ 310 mA h g-1 after 50 discharge/ charge cycles. These values are similar to those of oil-derived graphite (petroleum coke being the main precursor which is currently used as anodic material in commercial lithium-ion batteries.

  17. Colour and toxic characteristics of metakaolinite-hematite pigment for integrally coloured concrete, prepared from iron oxide recovered from a water treatment plant of an abandoned coal mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadasivam, Sivachidambaram; Thomas, Hywel Rhys

    2016-07-01

    A metakaolinite-hematite (KH) red pigment was prepared using an ocherous iron oxide sludge recovered from a water treatment plant of an abandoned coal mine. The KH pigment was prepared by heating the kaolinite and the iron oxide sludge at kaolinite's dehydroxylation temperature. Both the raw sludge and the KH specimen were characterised for their colour properties and toxic characteristics. The KH specimen could serve as a pigment for integrally coloured concrete and offers a potential use for the large volumes of the iron oxide sludge collected from mine water treatment plants.

  18. Sustainable development with clean coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    This paper discusses the opportunities available with clean coal technologies. Applications include new power plants, retrofitting and repowering of existing power plants, steelmaking, cement making, paper manufacturing, cogeneration facilities, and district heating plants. An appendix describes the clean coal technologies. These include coal preparation (physical cleaning, low-rank upgrading, bituminous coal preparation); combustion technologies (fluidized-bed combustion and NOx control); post-combustion cleaning (particulate control, sulfur dioxide control, nitrogen oxide control); and conversion with the integrated gasification combined cycle.

  19. Japan`s New Sunshine Project. 1996 Annual Summary of Coal Liquefaction and Gasification; 1996 nendo new sunshine keikaku seika hokokusho gaiyoshu. Sekitan no ekika gasuka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    In reference to the results of the research and development under the fiscal 1996 New Sunshine Project, a report was summed up on coal liquefaction and coal gasification. As to the R and D of coal liquefaction technology, researches were conducted on liquefaction characteristics and engineering properties by coal kind, catalysts for coal liquefaction, liquefaction reaction of coal and reformation utilization of the liquefied products, liquefaction reaction mechanism and coking mechanism, solubility of coal in solvent and catalytic reaction mechanism, solvent reaction mechanism by hydrogen donor solvent, etc. Concerning the R and D of coal gasification technology, made were the basic study of eco-technology adaptable gasification technology and the study of coal gasification enhancing technology. Further, as to the development of bituminous coal liquefaction technology, carried out were the study in pilot plants and the support study of pilot plants. Additionally, R and D were done of the basic technology of coal liquefaction such as upgrading technology and environmentally acceptable coal liquefaction technology, and of coal hydrogasification technology. 3 refs., 81 figs., 25 tabs.

  20. 煤制芳香化合物的探讨%Investigation on Preparation of Aromatic Compounds from Coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王德海; 常丽萍

    2011-01-01

    This paper commented on the latest development of the coal pyrolysis, catalytic conversion and the technology of abstracting high value-added aromatic compounds from coal. Based on relevant researches home and abroad, the paper laid emphasis on discussing the technology of coal pyrolysis and coal hydro liquefaction for abstracting aromatic chemicals including such technologies as coal rapid pyrolysis and directional catalytic conversion technology of the coal pyrolysate. A new approach of producing high value-added aromatic product from coal was put forward.%综述了国内外两种煤制芳香化学品技术的研究现状,一种为煤热解制芳香化学品,包括煤快速热解和煤热解物定向催化转化技术;另一种为煤加氢液化制芳香化学品技术.今后在加强煤制芳香化学品研究的同时,还应加强对煤液化产品分离技术的研究.

  1. Research and development to prepare and characterize robust coal/biomass mixtures for direct co-feeding into gasification systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felix, Larry [Inst. Of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Farthing, William [Inst. Of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Hoekman, S. Kent [Inst. Of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2014-12-31

    This project was initiated on October 1, 2010 and utilizes equipment and research supported by the Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, under Award Number DE- FE0005349. It is also based upon previous work supported by the Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, under Award Numbers DOE-DE-FG36-01GOl1082, DE-FG36-02G012011 or DE-EE0000272. The overall goal of the work performed was to demonstrate and assess the economic viability of fast hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) for transforming lignocellulosic biomass into a densified, friable fuel to gasify like coal that can be easily blended with ground coal and coal fines and then be formed into robust, weather-resistant pellets and briquettes. The specific objectives of the project include: • Demonstration of the continuous production of a uniform densified and formed feedstock from loblolly pine (a lignocellulosic, short rotation woody crop) in a hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) process development unit (PDU). • Demonstration that finely divided bituminous coal and HTC loblolly pine can be blended to form 90/10 and 70/30 weight-percent mixtures of coal and HTC biomass for further processing by pelletization and briquetting equipment to form robust weather resistant pellets and/or briquettes suitable for transportation and long term storage. • Characterization of the coal-biomass pellets and briquettes to quantify their physical properties (e.g. flow properties, homogeneity, moisture content, particle size and shape), bulk physical properties (e.g. compressibility, heat transfer and friability) and assess their suitability for use as fuels for commercially-available coal gasifiers. • Perform economic analyses using Aspen-based process simulations to determine the costs for deploying and operating HTC processing facilities for the production of robust coal/biomass fuels suitable for fueling commercially-available coal-fired gasifiers. This Final Project Scientific

  2. 煤焦油的分离和优质煤沥青的制备%Separation and High-quality Coal-tar Pitch Preparation from Coal Tar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周建石; 魏贤勇; 李鹏; 丛兴顺; 窦有权; 宗志敏

    2011-01-01

    Coal tar is extracted sequentially in self-designed batch extractor at 25 ℃. The lightweight components are separated through a few columns chromatography. Meanwhile GC and GC/MS are used to analyze and classify the main compounds. Furthermore naphthalene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene and acearylenes are separated out from the lightweight components. Heavyweight components are prepared high-quality coal-tar pitches by R-134 evaporator device after reextracting small molecular compounds and the structural properties of coal-tar pitches are analyzed by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.%常温下(25℃)使用自行设计的萃取装置对煤焦油进行分步萃取,所得轻质组分经过柱层析多级分离,使用气相色谱(GC)和气质联用(GC/MS)归类分析煤焦油中的主要化合物,分离出萘、菲、蒽、荧蒽、芘和醋芳烯等化合物纯品.所得重质组分经反萃取去除小分子后,通过R- 134蒸发器装置制备优质煤沥青,并使用红外光谱仪(FT-IR)分析其结构特性.

  3. Proceedings of the 33. annual British Columbia mine reclamation symposium : selenium, reclamation of coal mines and general aspects of mine reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, W.; Gardner, W.; McLaren, G.; Bittman, K.; Fraser, C.; Wambolt, T.; Stewart, C.; Pomeroy, K.; Howe, D.; Howell, C. (eds.)

    2009-07-01

    This annual conference fostered the exchange of information on mine reclamation and related issues affecting coal mining in British Columbia and oil sand mining in Alberta. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation (TRCR) was launched in the early 1970 to address the need for greater communication between industry and government regarding environmental protection and mine reclamation in order to minimize the environmental damages and impacts to wildlife posed by resource development. The Acid Mine Drainage Task Force was recently amalgamated with the TRCR to ensure that acid rock drainage issues are fully addressed. The conference was attended by members of the mining industry, consultants, students, all levels of government, non government organizations, and other interested parties from within British Columbia and around the world. The environmental impacts of mine development and land rehabilitation were discussed along with new remedial methods for soil conservation, water protection and carbon sequestration. The conference featured 22 presentations, of which 12 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

  4. Western Kentucky University's Teacher Preparation Evaluation Model Phase I, Cycle I. Annual Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Ronald D.

    A teacher preparation evaluation model was developed at Western Kentucky University. A total of 18 secondary and 20 elementary student teachers participated in the study. Instrumentation and records used for data collection consisted of five general types: a questionnaire, a personality scale, rating scales, direct classroom observational systems,…

  5. FY 1998 annual report on the survey on overseas geological structures. Program for exchanging engineers (coal mining area) with China; Gijutsusha koryu jigyo (tanko gijutsu bun'ya) Chugoku 1998 nendo kaigai chishitsu kozo chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Japanese coal mining engineers were dispatched to China, to transfer techniques for mining in mine cavities and general production management techniques covering, e.g., safety, transportation and ventilation, and techniques for discovering and solving problem, in order to help improve productivity in China's coal mining. In this year, the lectures were given to managers of including manager of Meitan Industrial Co.in Zhenzhou in Henan province in China. A total of 7 lecturers, 6 from Taiheiyo Coal Mining and one from Coal Energy Center, were dispatched from Japan. The themes included outline of Taiheiyo Coal Mining; excavation techniques; transportation techniques/ventilation management/production management; equipment management/technological development/improvement of working conditions/cost management; quality management/emergency management/management of enterprises/education of employees; outline of management techniques; entering of Chaohua meitan Mine; group discussion/problems listing-up/5-stage problem solution procedure (introduction of examples); questionnaire analysis/group discussion; preparation of self check lists/roles of managers. It is considered that Japan's advanced techniques are very useful for the Chinese coal industry. (NEDO)

  6. Clean coal initiatives in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, B.H.; Irwin, M.W.; Sparrow, F.T.; Mastalerz, Maria; Yu, Z.; Kramer, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose - Indiana is listed among the top ten coal states in the USA and annually mines about 35 million short tons (million tons) of coal from the vast reserves of the US Midwest Illinois Coal Basin. The implementation and commercialization of clean coal technologies is important to the economy of the state and has a significant role in the state's energy plan for increasing the use of the state's natural resources. Coal is a substantial Indiana energy resource and also has stable and relatively low costs, compared with the increasing costs of other major fuels. This indigenous energy source enables the promotion of energy independence. The purpose of this paper is to outline the significance of clean coal projects for achieving this objective. Design/methodology/approach - The paper outlines the clean coal initiatives being taken in Indiana and the research carried out at the Indiana Center for Coal Technology Research. Findings - Clean coal power generation and coal for transportation fuels (coal-to-liquids - CTL) are two major topics being investigated in Indiana. Coking coal, data compilation of the bituminous coal qualities within the Indiana coal beds, reducing dependence on coal imports, and provision of an emissions free environment are important topics to state legislators. Originality/value - Lessons learnt from these projects will be of value to other states and countries.

  7. Adding value to coal. Conference documentation and delegate information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    Papers discussed the economic and environmental benefits of coal preparation and the latest development of coal preparation technology. This included the recovery and processing of coal fines, and coal blending. All papers have been abstracted separately on the IEA Coal Research CD-ROM.

  8. The CIS coal summit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The presentations (overhead/viewgraphs) include: the impacts of EU environmental legislation on Russian coal market (A. Sankovski); how Caterpillar and Cat dealers create value in the global mining industry (D. Mohr); new coal preparation technology and application in the Russian coal market (D. Morris); UK demand outlook and import growth (G. Parker); new technologies in blasting operations and services (J. Petzold and others); a global bank's view of the coal sector (M. Seleznev); ELGA coal deposit, Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), Russia (M. Tsikanov); Russia's economic outlook (P. Forrest); Renaissance Capital (investment bank) (R. Edwards); Russian coal for Korean gencos (S. Kim); and coking coal in Ukraine (V. Khilko).

  9. Preparing Coal-water Slurry by Using Concentrated Waste Water%高浓度废水配制水煤浆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱志英; 李明; 孙慈忠

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes five kinds of waste water in my company replacing industrial water,and they are used to prepare coal water slurry for TEXACO gasifier,in order to reduce the drain of waste water and the environmental burden.%叙述了利用我公司内的五股废水取代工业用水配制水煤浆,供德士古燃烧,从而减少污水的排放,减轻对环保的负担。

  10. Mesoporous activated carbons with metal-oxide particles prepared from Morwell coal; Morwell tan wo genryo to shita kinzoku sankabutsu tanji kasseitan no saiko kozo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshizawa, N.; Yamada, Y.; Shiraishi, M. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan); Kojima, S.; Tamai, H.; Yasuda, H. [Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-28

    The metal dependence of mesoporous activated carbons with various metal acetylacetonate (acac) particles prepared from Morwell coal was studied. In experiment, the mixture of Morwell coal and acac metal complexes were dissipated into tetrahydrofuran, and after agitation in Ar atmosphere, the solvent was removed by vacuum distillation. Coal specimens with Fe(acac)3, Ni(acac)2 and Co(acac)2 as acac complexes were activated by exchanging flow gas with water vapor after heat treatment in N2 gas flow at 900{degree}C. The pore sizes of the specimens were obtained from N2 adsorption isotherms by BET method and BJH method. Conditions of pores and metals in the specimens were examined by XRD measurement and TEM observation. The relation between the above conditions and pore characteristics obtained from adsorption experiment was also examined. As a result, the difference in mesopore ratio between the specimens and blank specimens was larger in the order of Fe, Co and Ni, and the effect of added metal complexes was also larger in this order. 3 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Research and development to prepare and characterize robust coal/biomass mixtures for direct co-feeding into gasification systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felix, Larry [Inst. Of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Farthing, William [Inst. Of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Hoekman, S. Kent [Inst. Of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2014-12-31

    This project was initiated on October 1, 2010 and utilizes equipment and research supported by the Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, under Award Number DE- FE0005349. It is also based upon previous work supported by the Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, under Award Numbers DOE-DE-FG36-01GOl1082, DE-FG36-02G012011 or DE-EE0000272. The overall goal of the work performed was to demonstrate and assess the economic viability of fast hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) for transforming lignocellulosic biomass into a densified, friable fuel to gasify like coal that can be easily blended with ground coal and coal fines and then be formed into robust, weather-resistant pellets and briquettes.

  12. Preparation and performance study of starch coal-water mixtures dispersant%淀粉水煤浆分散剂的制备及性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵方; 张光华; 朱军峰; 石丽丽; 徐海龙

    2012-01-01

    在氧化还原体系中,以淀粉为主链,与苯乙烯磺酸钠和丙烯酸进行自由基聚合,合成新型聚羧酸盐水煤浆分散剂.通过红外光谱、动态接触角、Zeta电位对其结构和性能进行表征和分析,考察分散剂的用量和水煤浆浓度对水煤浆分散效果的影响,并对其稳定性、流变性、分散机理进行研究.淀粉水煤浆分散剂应用于神华煤制浆,提高了其制浆性能.分散剂用量为0.4%,水煤浆浓度为66%时,水煤浆的分散性能最佳,表观黏度为848 mPa·s.%The starch coal-water slurry dispersant was prepared by the radical polymerization using styrene sulfonate and acrylic acid as graft monomers in oxidation-reduction initiator system. The copolymer was characterized and analyzed by infrared spectrum( FT-IR) , static contact angle and Zeta potential. The effect of amount of CWM and the dosage of dispersant on apparent viscosity was investigated. Besides, rheological behavior, static stability of coal water slurry and mechanism were investigated. The dispersant was applied in Shenhua coal slurry. It is founded that the performances of coal water slurry are improved. The experiment demonstrates that CWM show the best behavior and the apparent viscosity would be 848 mPa· s when amount of CWM is 66% and the dosage of dispersant is 0. 4%.

  13. NUCLA Circulating Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Demonstration Project. Annual report, 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    This Annual Report on Colorado-Ute Electric Association`s NUCLA Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) Demonstration Program covers the period from February 1987 through December 1988. The outline for presentation in this report includes a summary of unit operations along with individual sections covering progress in study plan areas that commenced during this reporting period. These include cold-mode shakedown and calibration, plant commercial performance statistics, unit start-up (cold), coal and limestone preparation and handling, ash handling system performance and operating experience, tubular air heater, baghouse operation and performance, materials monitoring, and reliability monitoring. During this reporting period, the coal-mode shakedown and calibration plan was completed. (VC)

  14. 煤焦油制中温沥青的族组分及结构表征%Compositions and structure characterization of coal tar pitches prepared from different coal tar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔保银; 张伟; 崔海涛; 李振荣; 赵亮富

    2016-01-01

    The characters of molecular structures of coal-tar pitches from different coal tar, medium coal tar pitch (MCP, prepared from medium temperature coal tar) and high coal tar pitch (HCP, prepared from high temperature coal tar), are analyzed using solvent extraction, elemental analysis, Fourier infrared spectrum (IR), nuclear magnetic resonance hydrogen spectrum (1H—NMR) and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The results indicate that the average molecular formulas of MCP and HCP are C36.01H34.56N0.35S0.13O2.28 and C46.90H24.12N0.41S0.23O0.54, and their soft points are 77.6 ℃ and 86.2 ℃, respectively. In MCP, its group composition consists of 17.34%heptane soluble, 66.94%heptane insoluble but toluene soluble and 0.95% quinoline insoluble fractions. Composition analy-sis of HCP indicates that the contents of heptane soluble, and heptane insoluble but toluene soluble fractions are 16.86% and 39.97%, respectively, and quinoline insoluble matter is 11.89%. In comparison with HCP, MCP possesses lower aromatization, more alkyl and naphthenic groups. Their average structures are deduced by improved Brown-Lander model. According to above results, corresponding suggestions on the use of MCP are proposed.%采用溶剂抽提法、元素分析法、傅里叶红外光谱(FTIR)、核磁共振氢谱(1H-NMR)、凝胶渗透色谱法(GPC)对中温煤焦油制备的煤沥青(MCP)和高温煤焦油制备的煤沥青(HCP)组成结构进行研究。研究结果表明:MCP 和HCP 的平均分子式分别为C36.01H34.56N0.35S0.13O2.28,C46.90H24.12N0.41S0.23O0.54;软化点分别为77.6℃,86.2℃。MCP的族组成:庚烷可溶物17.34%,庚烷不溶甲苯可溶物66.94%,喹啉不溶物含量为0.95%。 HCP的族组成:庚烷可溶物16.86%,庚烷不溶甲苯可溶物39.97%,喹啉不溶物含量为11.89%。与HCP相比,MCP中脂肪侧链、环烷结构较多,芳构化程度较低。采用改进的Brown-Lander模型计算分子平均结构参数,推测出两种

  15. 四台选煤厂降低末精煤水分的措施%Measures of reducing moisture of fine clean coal in Sitai coal preparation plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安尧

    2014-01-01

    针对四台选煤厂末精煤水分偏高问题,分析了末精煤产品组成和水分,发现粗煤泥和细煤泥水分较高是造成末精煤水分偏高的主要原因。通过将传统弧形筛改造为智能振动筛网式弧形筛,定期翻转弧形筛筛网,在筛面增设挡皮;将FC1200离心机筛篮孔径由0.375 mm增至0.500 mm,调整煤泥旋流器组运行参数;加大压滤机维护力度,根据压滤机入料浓度及时调整压滤机工艺参数;引进HVPF-120 m2立式压滤机;“以灰换水”增加筛分煤系统等措施,使末精煤水分由15.72%降至14.00%以内,减少产品运输系统中胶带机打滑现象,减轻员工劳动强度,外运精煤冻车皮现象得以杜绝,确保了选煤厂正常外运,仅运费一项就节约成本540万元。%To reduce the moisture of fine clean coal of Sitai coal preparation plant,analyse the product composition and moisture,find that high moisture of coarse slime and filter cake are the main reasons.To resolve this problem,take the following measures.First,replace the traditional sieve bend with the intelligent vibratory one,flip the screen surface regularly,add belt to screen surface in order to slow the speed of slurry.Second,increase the sieve seam of FC1200 centrifuge from 0.375 mm to 0.500 mm and adjust the operation parameters of hydrocyclone group. Third, improve maintenance of filter and adjust process parameters promptly according to the feed concentration. Fourth,introduce a vertical filter HVPF-120 m2,and increase ash to lower moisture by adding coal screening system.By these measures, the moisture of fine clean coal decrease from 15.72% to under 14. 00%,which reduce the belt slipping in product transportation system and decrease the labor intensity.Beyond that,the clean coal no longer freeze the railway cars.The measures ensure the normal outward transport of Sitai coal preparation plant and saves transport costs 5.4 ×106 yuan.

  16. Study of application of ERTS-A imagery to fracture-related mine safety hazards in the coal mining industry. [Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wier, C. E.; Wobber, F. J. (Principal Investigator); Russell, O. R.; Amato, R. V.; Leshendok, T.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The Mined Land Inventory map of Pike, Gibson, and Warrick Counties, Indiana, prepared from ERTS-1 imagery, was included in the 1973 Annual Report of the President's Council on Environmental Quality as an example of ERTS applications to mined lands. Increasing numbers of inquiries have been received from coal producing states and coal companies interested in the Indiana Program.

  17. Methane emissions abatement by multi-ion-exchanged zeolite A prepared from both commercial-grade zeolite and coal fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, K S; Chao, C Y H

    2008-10-01

    The performance of multimetal-(Cu, Cr, Zn, Ni, and Co)-ion-exchanged zeolite A prepared from both a commercial-grade sample and one produced from coal fly ash in methane emissions abatement was evaluated in this study. The ion-exchange process was used to load the metal ions in zeolite A samples. The methane conversion efficiency by the samples was studied under various parameters including the amount of metal loading (7.3-19.4 wt%), reaction temperature (25-500 degrees C), space velocity (8400-41 900 h(-1)), and methane concentration (0.5-3.2 vol %). At 500 degrees C, the original commercial-grade zeolite A catalyzed 3% of the methane only, whereas the addition of different percentages of metals in the sample enhanced the methane conversion efficiency by 40-85%. Greater methane conversion was observed by increasing the percentage of metals added to the zeolite even though the BET surface area of the zeolite consequently decreased. Higher percentage methane conversion over the multi-ion-exchanged samples was observed at lower space velocities indicating the importance of the mass diffusion of reactants and products in the zeolite. Compared to the multi-ion-exchanged zeolite A prepared from the commercial-grade zeolite, the one produced from coal fly ash demonstrated similar performances in methane emissions abatement, showing the potential use of this low cost recycled material in gaseous pollutant treatment.

  18. 煤沥青型焦制备与固结机理%Preparation and mechanism of formed coke with coal tar pitch as binder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨永斌; 钟强; 姜涛; 李骞; 徐斌

    2016-01-01

    以煤沥青为黏结剂,对焦粉型焦制备新工艺及其固结机理进行研究。研究结果表明:助剂BJ可激发煤沥青中芳香烃等化合物的活性,使煤沥青常温下具有黏结性,实现型焦的冷压成型,其湿块2 m落下强度大于50次;超细磨填充料可填充煤沥青收缩产生的孔隙,充实煤沥青炭化骨架,强化型焦的炭化固结;煤沥青最大的热分解挥发速率和热缩聚速率分别出现在336℃和629℃,湿块经370℃挥发15 min及600℃炭化30 min后制备的型焦抗压强度达20 MPa;煤沥青在挥发和炭化中解脱除H和N等并吸收O缩聚形成C—C键的炭化骨架,其C与H的物质的量比由1.69提高至2.80,C与O的物质的量比由91.77降低至67.23;型焦炭化块主要由C及少量O构成,煤沥青形成的C—C键炭化骨架将焦炭颗粒牢固地黏结成块,使得型焦内部结构紧密、均质性好。%Preparation and mechanism of formed coke with coal tar pitch as binder were studied. The results show that assistant reagent BJ can excite the activity of aromatic compounds of coal tar pitch and make coal tar pitch have the cold state cohesiveness, which realizes briquetting of coke breeze at room temperature without heating process. The drop resistance of the wet briquette is 50 times per 2 m. Filling material of ultrafine particle can fill the pore produced by shrinkage of coal tar pitch, enrich the skeleton of coal tar pitch, intensify carbonization consolidation of formed coke, and improve the strength of formed coke. The best thermal decomposition rate and thermal decomposition rate of coal tar pitch appear at 336℃and 629℃, respectively. The compressive strength of formed coke volatilized at 370℃for 15 min and carbonized at 550℃for 30 min is 20 MPa. Through volatilization and carbonization, the molar rate of C and H in coal tar pitch increases from 1.69 to 2.80 and molar rate of C and O decreases from 91.77 to 67.23. The formed

  19. Annual Energy Review, 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-06-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of annual historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are statistics on total energy production, consumption, trade, and energy prices; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, and international energy; financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversions.

  20. Preparation of mesophase from coal tar pitch%煤焦油沥青制备中间相

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arshad Hussain Wazir; Lutfullah Kaka Khail; Ghosia Lutfullah; Imtiaz Ahmad

    2003-01-01

    煤焦油沥青在微型高压釜中、氮气氛下,通过改变反应温度和停留时间,制取了中间相沥青(MP).采用FTIR、偏光显微镜、XRD和SEM对MP进行了表征,表明煤焦油沥青经脱氢缩合反应转变成MP.其最佳反应条件为400℃、7h.%Mesophase pitch (MP) was produced by heating coal tar pitch in a microautoclave furnace at various temperatures and residence times under nitrogen atmosphere. FTIR, Polarized Light Microscopy, XRD and SEM were employed to characterize MP, indicating that the coal tar pitch was transformed into MP through dehydrogenative condensation reactions. The optimum yield was found at 400℃ and 7h

  1. Clean coal - a national urgency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, S.M.; Sahai, R. [Indian Bureau of Mines, Nagpur (India). Technical Consultancy Division

    2000-07-01

    India is the third largest producer and consumer of coal in the world. Coal generally has a high ash content, thereby requiring that it be cleaned for proper use. Technological advances now make it possible to reduce pollution considerably, even as energy use increases. However, to reduce environmental impacts, technologies for cleaning coal before combustion need to be developed. The paper focuses on the need for clean coal production and the benefits associated with it. Although the country is rich in coal reserves, the generally inferior quality of coal will lead to its depletion if it is not used cleanly. Increasing the proportion of prepared coal from the current level of less than 5% (i.e. 10-11 million tonnes per annum) of all coal consumed will lead to a massive saving. This can be achieved if new washeries are set up, preferably near the coalfields. 2 figs.

  2. Low-rank coal research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, G. F.; Laudal, D. L.

    1989-01-01

    This work is a compilation of reports on ongoing research at the University of North Dakota. Topics include: Control Technology and Coal Preparation Research (SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} control, waste management), Advanced Research and Technology Development (turbine combustion phenomena, combustion inorganic transformation, coal/char reactivity, liquefaction reactivity of low-rank coals, gasification ash and slag characterization, fine particulate emissions), Combustion Research (fluidized bed combustion, beneficiation of low-rank coals, combustion characterization of low-rank coal fuels, diesel utilization of low-rank coals), Liquefaction Research (low-rank coal direct liquefaction), and Gasification Research (hydrogen production from low-rank coals, advanced wastewater treatment, mild gasification, color and residual COD removal from Synfuel wastewaters, Great Plains Gasification Plant, gasifier optimization).

  3. Electric power annual 1996. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    The Electric Power Annual presents a summary of electric power industry statistics at national, regional, and State levels. The objective of the publication is to provide industry decisionmakers, government policy-makers, analysts, and the general public with data that may be used in understanding US electricity markets. The Electric Power Annual is prepared by the Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. Volume 1--with a focus on US electric utilities--contains final 1996 data on net generation and fossil fuel consumption, stocks, receipts, and cost; preliminary 1996 data on generating unit capability, and retail sales of electricity, associated revenue, and the average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Additionally, information on net generation from renewable energy sources and on the associated generating capability is included in Volume 1 of the EPA. Data published in the Electric Power Annual Volume 1 are compiled from three statistical forms filed monthly and two forms filed annually by electric utilities. These forms are described in detail in the Technical Notes. 5 figs., 30 tabs.

  4. Electric power annual 1995. Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    The Electric Power Annual presents a summary of electric power industry statistics at national, regional, and State levels. The objective of the publication is to provide industry decisionmakers, government policymakers, analysts, and the general public with data that may be used in understanding U.S. electricity markets. The Electric Power Annual is prepared by the Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); U.S. Department of Energy. In the private sector, the majority of the users of the Electric Power Annual are researchers and analysts and, ultimately, individuals with policy- and decisionmaking responsibilities in electric utility companies. Financial and investment institutions, economic development organizations interested in new power plant construction, special interest groups, lobbyists, electric power associations, and the news media will find data in the Electric Power Annual useful. In the public sector, users include analysts, researchers, statisticians, and other professionals with regulatory, policy, and program responsibilities for Federal, State, and local governments. The Congress and other legislative bodies may also be interested in general trends related to electricity at State and national levels. Much of the data in these reports can be used in analytic studies to evaluate new legislation. Public service commissions and other special government groups share an interest in State-level statistics. These groups can also compare the statistics for their States with those of other jurisdictions.

  5. Desulfurization and oxidation behavior of ultra-fine CaO particles prepared from brown coal; Kattan wo mochiite choseishita CaO chobiryushi no datsuryu tokusei to sanka tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benjamin, G.; Roman, M.; Yamazaki, Y.; Abe, H.; Harano, Y.; Takarada, Y. [Gunma University, Gunma (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-28

    The effect of reaction temperature and oxygen concentration on the desulfurization and oxidation behavior of ion-exchanged brown coal by Ca as new desulfurizing agent was studied. In experiment, Yallourn coal was used for ion- exchange, and limestone produced in Tochigi prefecture was also used for comparative study. Ca-exchanged brown coal was prepared by agitating coal in Ca(OH)2 slurry for 24 hours. The desulfurization behavior of a desulfurizing agent was obtained by measuring H2S and sulfur compounds in outlet gas of a reactor, and the oxidation behavior by measuring SO2 emission in outlet gas after oxidation reaction. As the experimental result, CaO produced from Ca-exchanged brown coal offered the extremely high activity to desulfurization reaction in a temperature range of 850-950{degree}C as compared with limestone. Although the oxidation behavior was dependent on oxidation temperature and oxygen concentration, CaS obtained from Ca-exchanged brown coal was more rapidly converted to CaSO4 than limestone. 3 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. 古叙矿区选煤厂细粒级分级入洗工艺的探讨和分析%Discussion and analysis on fine particle grading in washing process in Guxu coal preparation plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨泽伟; 王川

    2013-01-01

    针对选煤厂高度泥化煤质煤泥水处理的问题进行探讨,对古叙矿区原煤伴生矿及其夹矸高度泥化的特征进行了分析试验,同时对现有细粒级分级设备的优缺点进行了对比,并结合企业煤炭产品结构及对选煤厂生产成本进行了分析,从而选择在技术经济和经营结构上都较为合理的选煤工艺及设备选型。%In view of the problems of coal slurry water treatment of high argillization coal, the characters of raw ore in Guxu minging area and gangue with highly argillization have been tested and analyzed.Meanwhile,the advantages and disadvantages of existing fine particle gradG ing equipment have been compared,and after combined with the analyzation of coal product structure and production costs in coal preparation plant,the reasonable coal preparation process and equipment have been selection based on technical economic and business structures.

  7. Electric power annual 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-06

    The Electric Power Annual presents a summary of electric utility statistics at national, regional and State levels. The objective of the publication is to provide industry decisionmakers, government policymakers, analysts and the general public with historical data that may be used in understanding US electricity markets. The Electric Power Annual is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. ``The US Electric Power Industry at a Glance`` section presents a profile of the electric power industry ownership and performance, and a review of key statistics for the year. Subsequent sections present data on generating capability, including proposed capability additions; net generation; fossil-fuel statistics; retail sales; revenue; financial statistics; environmental statistics; electric power transactions; demand-side management; and nonutility power producers. In addition, the appendices provide supplemental data on major disturbances and unusual occurrences in US electricity power systems. Each section contains related text and tables and refers the reader to the appropriate publication that contains more detailed data on the subject matter. Monetary values in this publication are expressed in nominal terms.

  8. Proximate analysis of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donahue, C.J.; Rais, E.A. [University of Michigan, Dearborn, MI (USA)

    2009-02-15

    This lab experiment illustrates the use of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to perform proximate analysis on a series of coal samples of different rank. Peat and coke are also examined. A total of four exercises are described. These are dry exercises as students interpret previously recorded scans. The weight percent moisture, volatile matter, fixed carbon, and ash content are determined for each sample and comparisons are made. Proximate analysis is performed on a coal sample from a local electric utility. From the weight percent sulfur found in the coal (determined by a separate procedure the Eschka method) and the ash content, students calculate the quantity of sulfur dioxide emissions and ash produced annually by a large coal-fired electric power plant.

  9. Underground Coal Thermal Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Deo, M. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Eddings, E. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Sarofim, A. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Gueishen, K. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Hradisky, M. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Kelly, K. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Mandalaparty, P. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Zhang, H. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2012-01-11

    The long-term objective of this work is to develop a transformational energy production technology by insitu thermal treatment of a coal seam for the production of substitute natural gas (SNG) while leaving much of the coal's carbon in the ground. This process converts coal to a high-efficiency, low-GHG emitting gas fuel. It holds the potential of providing environmentally acceptable access to previously unusable coal resources. This topical report discusses the development of experimental capabilities, the collection of available data, and the development of simulation tools to obtain process thermo-chemical and geo-thermal parameters in preparation for the eventual demonstration in a coal seam. It also includes experimental and modeling studies of CO2 sequestration.

  10. Enzymatic desulfurization of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, Y.N.; Crooker, S.C.; Kitchell, J.P.; Nochur, S.V.

    1991-05-16

    The overall objective of this program was to investigate the feasibility of an enzymatic desulfurization process specifically intended for organic sulfur removal from coal. Toward that end, a series of specific objectives were defined: (1) establish the feasibility of (bio)oxidative pretreatment followed by biochemical sulfate cleavage for representative sulfur-containing model compounds and coals using commercially-available enzymes; (2) investigate the potential for the isolation and selective use of enzyme preparations from coal-utilizing microbial systems for desulfurization of sulfur-containing model compounds and coals; and (3) develop a conceptual design and economic analysis of a process for enzymatic removal of organic sulfur from coal. Within the scope of this program, it was proposed to carry out a portion of each of these efforts concurrently. (VC)

  11. Model documentation coal market module of the National Energy Modeling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    This report documents the approaches used in developing the Annual Energy Outlook 1995 (AEO95). This report catalogues and describes the assumptions, methodology, estimation techniques, and source code of the coal market module`s three submodules. These are the Coal Production Submodule (CPS), the Coal Export Submodule (CES), the Coal Expert Submodule (CES), and the Coal Distribution Submodule (CDS).

  12. A coal mine and coal preparation plant coal dust workplace present situation investigation and analysis%某矿井及选煤厂煤尘作业场所现状调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王星文; 张延巍; 孙苑菡; 谢锋; 王玉玲

    2011-01-01

    目的 通过对某矿井及选煤厂工作场所煤尘的检测,了解职业危害现状,并对其职业危害控制效果进行评价.方法 根据生产工艺流程及GBZ159-2004等标准确定煤尘采样点和采样方法.结果 井下采掘工序受检的21个工种的煤尘时间加权平均浓度(TWA)合格率为28.6%,其中有5个工种的粉尘危害等级为Ⅱ级,6个工种的粉尘危害等级为0级,其余工种的粉尘危害等级均为Ⅰ级.选煤厂检测6个工种的煤尘TWA合格率为83.3%,只有1个工种的粉尘危害等级为Ⅰ级,其余全部为0级.18个作业点定点采样,煤尘浓度合格率为72.2%.结论 喷雾及风流净化水幕对煤尘起到了一定的控制作用,但因井下作业工艺条件和工作环境的限制,大部分工作场所煤尘浓度不符合职业接触限值要求,建议加强除尘或防尘设备的日常管理和维护,强化通风,加强操作人员的个人防护.%Objective through a detection of dust in the coal mines workplace, to understand the status of occupational hazards, and the evaluation of occupational hazards, provide subject to control occupational hazards. Method according to production process and "hazardous substances in workplace air monitoring, sampling norms" and other standards to determine the sampling points and sampling of coal dust.Result underground mining operations in 21 subjects with time-weighted average concentration of dust types pass rate of 28.6%, of which five types of dust hazard grade Ⅱ, six types of dust hazard rating of 0, and the remaining types of grade Ⅰ dust hazard levels. Coal dust test six types of time-weighted average concentration of 83.3% pass rate, only one types of dust hazard grade Ⅰ, all the rest is 0. Calculated by the detection of dust overrun 18 times operating sites, the pass rate of 72.2% results. Conclusion purified water spray and air flow curtain of dust control has played a certain role, but the work of underground working conditions

  13. Economic and Technical Comparison of Three Typical Coal Gasification Technologies for Hydrogen Preparation%3种典型煤气化技术制备氢气经济技术比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘华; 王乔炜

    2016-01-01

    According to coal quality analyzing data, this paper selects three suitable coal gasification technologies to conduct a comprehensive analysis and comparison of the technical characteristics, processing parameters, consumption indexes and techno-economics of three coal gasification technologies for hydrogen preparation, the results of which show that the crushed coal’s pressurized gasification technology for hydrogen preparation is the most competitive technology among the three coal gasification technologies for hydrogen preparation.%根据煤质分析数据,选择适宜的3种典型气化技术,对3种气化方式制氢的技术特点、工艺参数和消耗指标以及技术经济性进行全面的分析比较,结果显示碎煤加压气化制备氢气是3种煤制氢技术中最具有竞争力的技术。

  14. Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Dardir

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Some hexanamide-mono and di-linoleniate esters were prepared by the reaction of linolenic acid and hexanamide (derived from the reaction of hexanoic acid and diethanolamine. The chemical structure for the newly prepared hexanamide-mono and di-linoleniate esters were elucidated using elemental analysis, (FTIR, H 1NMR and chemical ionization mass spectra (CI/Ms spectroscopic techniques. The results of the spectroscopic analysis indicated that they were prepared through the right method and they have high purity. The new prepared esters have high biodegradability and lower toxicity (environmentally friendly so they were evaluated as a synthetic-based mud (ester-based mud for oil-well drilling fluids. The evaluation included study of the rheological properties, filtration and thermal properties of the ester based-muds formulated with the newly prepared esters compared to the reference commercial synthetic-based mud.

  15. The Improvement of USL Linear Vibrating Screen in Malan Coal Preparation Plant%USL直线振动筛在马兰矿选煤厂的改造

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂洪溢

    2014-01-01

    In order to adapt the changes of coal quality and the demand of market to product quality and recover-y,analyzes the existing problems of USL linear vibrating screen in Malan coal preparation plant.Puts forward a series of transformation measures such as increasing the amplitude of sieve running,adding water retaining weir and reinfor-cing plate,splitting the casing of cardan shaft,changing the way of equipment oiling.After transform,the equipment has good mechanical properties,can meet the production requirements in the long-term using process,it is worthy to popularization and application.%为适应矿井原煤煤质变化及市场对产品质量、回收率的要求,分析了马兰矿选煤厂USL直线振动筛存在的问题,提出了工艺性能方面增大筛子运行的振幅及增设挡水堰以延长筛分时间;结构方面分拆万向轴外罩以适应安全检修,改变设备注油方式以降低维护成本,补加加强板以防止裂纹延伸,改造后经过长期使用,得出该设备机械性能较好,性价比高,满足了生产要求,值得推广应用。

  16. 斜沟煤矿选煤厂集控操作系统的应用研究%Application of control operating system in Xiegou coal mine preparation plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱广雷

    2014-01-01

    为提高选煤厂生产的自动化程度,加强对选煤过程的控制,促进选煤厂安全高效生产,保证产品指标的合格稳定。根据斜沟煤矿选煤厂原煤处理量大、介质系统多、设备台数多,不同原煤性质差异大的特点,引进了选煤厂集控操作系统。从集控系统的配置与设置、集控功能的实现和集控在生产过程中的调节3方面进行了论述。2014年上半年销售精煤合格率100%,混煤合格率100%,介耗1.41 kg / t、电耗6.51 kWh / t。指标证明了该操作法完全适应本厂工艺、煤质特点。%The Xiegou coal mine preparation plant had the characteristics of large raw coal handing capacity,lots of equipments and major fluctuations of raw coal properties.In order to improve the automation degree of coal preparation plant,strengthen the control over the prepa-ration,promote the safety and efficient,ensure qualified and stable product index,the preparation plant adopted a control operating system. The paper introduced its configuration,functionality realization and adjustment in the production process.The qualification rate of clean coal and mixed coal were 100%,the medium consumption were 1.41 kg,the energy consumption were 6.51 kWh for per ton raw coal in the first half of 2014.The indicators showed that the operation method fully met the requirements of process and it also accommodated to the change of raw coal properties.

  17. Application of vacuum reduction and chlorinated distillation to enrich and prepare pure germanium from coal fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lingen; Xu, Zhenming

    2017-01-05

    Germanium, as strategic reserve metal, plays critical role in high-tech industry. However, a contradiction of increasing consumption and scarcity of germanium resource is becoming more and more prominent. This paper proposed an integrated process to recycle germanium from coal fly ash. This technological process mainly consisted of two procedures: vacuum reduction with the purposes of enriching germanium and chlorinated distillation with the purposes of purifying germanium. Several highlights are summarized as follows: (i) Separation principle and reaction mechanism were discussed to understand this integrated process. (ii) Optimum designs and product analysis were developed to guide industrial recycling. The appropriate parameters for vacuum reduction process on the basis of response surface methodology (RSM) were 920.53°C and 259.63Pa, with 16.64wt.% reductant, and for the chlorinated distillation process, adding 8mol/l HCl and L/S 7, 8wt.% MnO2. The global recovery rate of germanium was 83.48±0.36% for the integrated process. (iii) This process overcomes the shortages of traditional process and shows its efficiency and environmental performance. It is significant in accordance with the "Reduce, Reuse and Recycle Principle" for solid waste and further provides a new opportunity for germanium recovery from waste by environment-friendly way.

  18. The production of high load coal-water mixtures on the base of Kansk-Achinsk Coal Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demidov, Y.; Bruer, G.; Kolesnikova, S. [Research and Design Institute for Problems of Development of Kansk-Achinsk Coal Basin (KATEKNilugol), Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-01

    The results of the {open_quotes}KATEKNIIugol{close_quotes} work on the problems of high load coal-water mixtures are given in this article. General principles of the mixture production, short characteristics of Kansk-Achinsk coals, the experimental results of the coal mixture production on a test-industrial scale, the suspension preparation on the base of coal mixtures, technical-economical indexes of tested coal pipeline variants based on Kansk-Achinsk coals are described.

  19. Electric power annual 1997. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The Electric Power Annual presents a summary of electric power industry statistics at national, regional, and State levels. The objective of the publication is to provide industry decisionmakers, government policy-makers, analysts, and the general public with data that may be used in understanding US electricity markets. The Electric Power Annual is prepared by the Electric Power Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. Volume 1 -- with a focus on US electric utilities -- contains final 1997 data on net generation and fossil fuel consumption, stocks, receipts, and cost; preliminary 1997 data on generating unit capability, and retail sales of electricity, associated revenue, and the average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold (based on a monthly sample: Form EIA-826, ``Monthly Electric Utility Sales and Revenue Report with State Distributions``). Additionally, information on net generation from renewable energy sources and on the associated generating capability is included in Volume 1 of the EPA.

  20. 陆海选煤厂压滤系统的改造%Filter system transformation of Luhai coal preparation plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雅萍

    2016-01-01

    陆海选煤厂自投产以来,其压滤系统就存在现场卫生量大、噪音高、设备运行缺乏连动性及能源浪费等问题,我们针对现场实际情况确定了系统改造方案,其中快开压滤机反吹风系统改造从根本上降低了现场卫生污染和噪音污染问题;压滤机与运输刮板机的联锁改造杜绝了由于过多堆积物料而引起的设备堵压故障;碎饼装置改造降低了职工的劳动强度、解决了大块滤饼进入下料溜槽发生蓬仓事故的机率,消除人工疏通煤仓时存在的安全隐患;精煤刮板水煤分离的改造降低了精煤产品的水分含量,减轻了岗位司机的劳动强度;滤液水回收利用的改造充分利用了压滤机的滤液水,节约了水能源。这一系统的改造提高了人、机安全,使现场工作达到标准化要求。%Since the production of LuHai coal preparation plant ,Its pressure filtration system exsits site health capacity ,high noise ,the lack of mobility equipment operation ,waste of energy and other issues .We focus on the actual situation to determine the system transformation plan ,which fast opening filter anti‐hair system transformation reduces site health pollution and noise pollution problem fundamentally .Interlocking Reconstruction Filter and transport scraper machine eliminates equipment failure due to excessive blocking pressure caused by the accumulation of material .Broken bread device reduces the labor intensity of workers , solves the big cake into the feeding chute which occurr warehouse accident probability ,eliminates the security risks of artificial dredge coal .Coal coal‐water separation scraper transformation reduces the moisture content of the coal transformation products ,reducing the labor intensity of the driver job .The filtrate water recycling transformation make full use of the filtrate water filter press ,saves water energy .Transformation of the system improves the human

  1. National Coal Quality Inventory (NACQI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Finkelman

    2005-09-30

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted the National Coal Quality Inventory (NaCQI) between 1999 and 2005 to address a need for quality information on coals that will be mined during the next 20-30 years. Collaboration between the USGS, State geological surveys, universities, coal burning utilities, and the coal mining industry plus funding support from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) permitted collection and submittal of coal samples for analysis. The chemical data (proximate and ultimate analyses; major, minor and trace element concentrations) for 729 samples of raw or prepared coal, coal associated shale, and coal combustion products (fly ash, hopper ash, bottom ash and gypsum) from nine coal producing States are included. In addition, the project identified a new coal reference analytical standard, to be designated CWE-1 (West Elk Mine, Gunnison County, Colorado) that is a high-volatile-B or high-volatile-A bituminous coal with low contents of ash yield and sulfur, and very low, but detectable contents of chlorine, mercury and other trace elements.

  2. STUDY ON PREPARATION OF COAL WATER SLURRY WITH INDUSTRIAL WASTE WATER FROM COKING PLANT%焦化厂工业废水制备水煤浆的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闵凡飞; 张明旭; 李寒旭

    2001-01-01

    This paper has studied on preparation of coal water slurry with three kinds of industrial waste water from coking plant and compared those with tap water.The results showed that the industrial waste water from coking plant can prepare coal water slurry with good features,especially the stability better than tap water.%研究了用焦化厂三种工业废水制备水煤浆并与自来水制备的水煤浆的性能进行了比较,结果表明,用三种工业废水可以制备出性能较好的水煤浆,而且,某些废水制出的水煤浆在性能上,特别是稳定性上好于用自来水制出的水煤浆。

  3. EKOF浮选药剂在官地矿选煤厂的应用%Application of EKOF Flotation Reagents in Coal Preparation Plant of Guandi Mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨林顺

    2011-01-01

    EKOF coal preparation plant, collector, octyl alcohol consumption decreased flotation reagent is a production from Germany corporation KHD. In Guandi Mine a contrast test was conducted. Compared with domestic reagents like kerosene as as foaming agent, we found that flotation clean yield increased by 2%-8%, reagent by 0.3 kg/t -0.7kg/t with imported kerosene and EKOF flotation reagent.%EKOF浮选药剂是德国KHD公司的产品,官地矿选煤厂采用煤油与EKOF浮选进口药剂与采用煤油为捕收剂、仲辛醇为起泡剂的浮选国产药剂作试验时,浮选进口药剂比国产药剂使浮精产率提高了2%~8%,药剂耗量降低了0.3kg/t~0.7kg/t。

  4. 利用粉煤灰制备4A分子筛的研究%Preparation of Zeolite 4 A from Coal Fly Ash

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭俊文; 梁海欧; 王俊忠; 孙炜岩

    2015-01-01

    Zeolite 4A was prepared using coal fly ash (CFA) as raw material by fusion-hydrothermal process without other additional materials. The effects of synthesis conditions, such as operating temperature and hydrothermal reaction time, were investigated. The obtained product was characterized by X-ray diffraction ( XRD ) , scanning electron microscopy( SEM). The results showed that the temperature of crystallization 110 ℃ and time of crystallization 11 h were optimum conditions to synthesis zeolite 4 A.%以粉煤灰为原料,在不外加硅源和铝源的条件下,利用碱熔融-水热法成功的制备得到4A分子筛,并且系统的研究了不同晶化时间与晶化温度对分子筛形成的影响.通过XRD和SEM对获得的产品进行测试,得到该实验条件下合成4A分子筛的最适宜条件为晶化温度110 ℃晶化时间11 h.

  5. 选煤厂常用溜槽设计综述%An overview on common chute design in coal preparation plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈然

    2016-01-01

    The paper points out the critical role of the chute in preparation plant coal design, explains the main factors calling for attention to in the chute design, including arrangement, cross section, angle, sealing, cushion, noise reduction, wear resistance and maintenance. Combining with the analysis on chute for conveyer, screen, crusher etc., points out that, the chute structure should meet the property demands of the feeding or material-receiving equipment. The paper also introduces three crushing-proof chutes, emphatically the dial wheel chute.%围绕溜槽在选煤厂设计中的关键作用,阐述了溜槽设计中需要注意的主要因素包括:布置、断面、倾角、密封、缓冲、降噪、耐磨、检修等,通过对输送设备、筛机、破碎机等入料溜槽的介绍,指出溜槽结构应满足给料或受料设备的性能要求,列举了三种防块煤破碎溜槽,重点介绍了拨轮防破碎溜槽。

  6. 蚁群算法在选煤厂产品结构优化中的应用%Application of Ant Colony Algorithm in Product Structure Optimization of Coal Preparation Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙伟; 王宜雷; 王慧; 曾盈

    2012-01-01

    Mathematical model of product structure optimization was established according to characteristics of process of coal preparation plant, and steps of optimizing the product structure by ant colony algorithm were given. Nantun Coal Preparation Plant was used for example to simulate, and the best yields of products under various constraints were obtained. The simulation results showed the feasibility of ant colony algorithm for product structure optimization of coal preparation plant.%根据选煤厂生产流程特点建立了产品结构优化数学模型,给出了应用蚁群算法优化产品结构的步骤;并以南屯选煤厂为例进行仿真,得到了满足各种约束条件下的各产品的最佳产量.仿真结果说明了蚁群算法在选煤厂产品结构优化中应用的可行性.

  7. Current view of coal transport system for road heading machine at Miike colliery (42nd annual meeting of the Society of Coal Mining Engineers); Rodo header kusshin`yo unpan setsubi no aratana tenkai (42 kai zenkoku tanko gijutsukai)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, M.; Saruwatari, M. [Mitsui Coal Mining Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1993-09-25

    The Miike colliery has achieved mine mechanization with use of road headers. With an aim of further improving the efficiency, a system has been developed that extends a belt conveyer transporting coal from a working face up to tip of the working face to load the coal onto the conveyer directly from a road header. This paper reports the summary and operation result thereof. Conventionally, a combination has been used that combines a small chain conveyer suitable for the road header used in an area close to the working face with a belt conveyer used in a rear area to complement weak points of the chain conveyer (poor gushing water resistance and high failure rate). The present system uses a belt conveyer up to the working face in place of the chain conveyer with a number of weak points. The system has been realized as a result of repeated discussions on making belt conveyer members so small that operation of the road header is not disturbed; dividing pin joints into blocks to maximize the handleability for installation and withdrawal; and making the road header capable of towing the conveyer. Time for belt conveyer extension and machine failure time have been reduced, resulting in improvement of the operation efficiency. 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Ukrainian experience of oil agglomeration of coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biletskyi, V.S. [Donetsk State Technical University, Donetsk (Ukraine). Dept. of Coal Preparation

    1997-12-31

    During the years 1980-1996 a series of investigations related to the applied and theoretical aspects of the coal oil agglomeration processing were carried out in the Ukraine at the Donetsk State Technical University and Coal Chemistry National Academy of Sciences (NAN) of Ukraine, institutes UralVTI, VNIIPIHidrotruboprovod, LenNIlkhimmash, Kharkiv polytechnical Institute, Institute of Biocolloide Chemistry NAN of Ukraine and also at coal preparation plants and thermoelectric power stations in the Donbas. Theoretical bases of the process of selective oil agglomeration are developed on the basis of modern physical chemistry, physical-chemical hydrodynamics, adhesion theory, and solid fuel chemistry. The necessary sufficient conditions for aggregate forming coal and oil components in water have been formulated. The central problem of `coal-reagent` interaction during coal aggregation has been solved, and a mathematical description of processes for forming coal-oil aggregates including kinetics has been made. Analysis of factors which influence the process and its mathematical models have been realized. Rational conditions of pelletising of energetic and coking coal, coal raw material and products of coal preparation plants, electric power stations, and hydrotransport systems have been determined. Results of the complex study of technological properties of coal aggregates as objects of dewatering, hydrotransportation, consumption, coking, pyrolysis and carriers at gold adhesive preparation are presented. The theoretical principles and experimental data served as a basis for creating about 40 new methods and devices for the process of coal selective oil agglomeration. 14 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Study on the Preparation of New -type Cementitious Materials by Using the Activated Coal Gangue%利用活化煤矸石制备新型胶凝材料研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海霞; 倪文; 黄屹

    2011-01-01

    Coal gangue -containing cementitious materials were prepared by using desulfurized gypsum and CaO as reactive activator and using thermal activation at the low temperature of 700℃ activating the coal gangue, which was mixed with slag and cement clinker. Meanwhile, the effect of the activator and the way of mix grinding on hydrothermai alteration for the coal gangue in Fangshan Beijing was studied. The micro - features of coal gangue before and after activating was characterized by XRD and full chemical analysis. At the same time,the cementifious activity of coal gangue -containing cementitious materials was characterized by Mortar strength analysis and SEM. The results show that by the way of hydrothermal alternation, the kaolinite in the coal gangue can be completely dehydrated and decomposed into SiO2 and Al2 O3. Also, the coal gangue - containing cementitious materials prepared have high early strength and the hardened paste hydrated for 28d has dense structure.%采用脱硫石膏和CaO作为活性激发剂,利用700℃低温热活化法活化煤矸石,与矿渣、水泥熟料混合制备出煤矸石质胶凝材料,并研究了激发剂和混磨方式对北京房山煤矸石进行热蚀变活化的影响.运用X射线衍射(XRD)分析和化学全分析表征煤矸石活化前后的微观特性;运用胶砂试块强度分析和扫描电镜(SEM)分析表征煤矸石质胶凝材料的胶凝活性.结果表明:采用湿法热蚀变活化法,煤矸石中的高岭石在700℃可以完全脱水、分解成活性SiO2和Al2O3.采用该原料制备出的煤矸石质胶凝材料具有较高的早期强度,水化28d的硬化浆体结构密实.

  10. Diffusion Coatings for Corrosion-Resistant Components in Coal Gasification Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopala N. Krishnan; Ripudaman Malhotra; Esperanza Alvarez; Kai-Hung Lau; Jordi Perez Mariano; Angel Sanjurjo

    2006-09-30

    Heat-exchangers, particle filters, turbines, and other components in integrated coal gasification combined cycle system must withstand the highly sulfiding conditions of the high temperature coal gas over an extended period of time. The performance of components degrades significantly with time unless expensive high alloy materials are used. Deposition of a suitable coating on a low-cost alloy may improve its resistance to such sulfidation attack, and decrease capital and operating costs. The alloys used in the gasifier service include austenitic and ferritic stainless steels, nickel-chromium-iron alloys, and expensive nickel-cobalt alloys. The primary activity this period was preparation and presentation of the findings on this project at the Twenty-Third annual Pittsburgh Coal Conference. Dr. Malhotra attended this conference and presented a paper. A copy of his presentation constitutes this quarterly report.

  11. Coal in Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConville, L.; Broadbent, J.; Rousaki, K.

    1999-01-01

    Bulgaria`s national energy strategy includes plans to restructure the energy sector by introducing competition and privatisation, to promote energy efficiency and environmental protection and to prepare the country for integration into the EU energy market. Energy prices are still under government control and coal mining is heavily subsidised. Bulgaria is a major producer of coal, all of which is consumed locally. Most of the domestic production is low quality lignite used for electricity generation. Demand for hard coal is met by imports, mainly from the former USSR and the USA. Bulgaria generates almost half of its electricity needs from coal. Total reserves of lignite are estimated at 2.5 Gt. Coal production declined between 1987 and 1991 reflecting the economic disturbance following the break up of the USSR. In 1996, production was 32 Mt. The mining industry is being restructured as Bulgaria is slowly moving from a centrally-controlled economy to a market-based economy. Environmental damage as a result of coal production has been serious in Bulgaria, due to the use of low grade high sulphur content lignite. 84 refs., 10 figs., 9 tabs.

  12. Coal geology of the Paleocene-Eocene Calvert Bluff Formation (Wilcox Group) and the Eocene Manning Formation (Jackson Group) in east-central Texas; field trip guidebook for the Society for Organic Petrology, Twelfth Annual Meeting, The Woodlands, Texas, August 30, 1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, Peter D.; Crowley, Sharon S.

    1995-01-01

    The Jackson and Wilcox Groups of eastern Texas (fig. 1) are the major lignite producing intervals in the Gulf Region. Within these groups, the major lignite-producing formations are the Paleocene-Eocene Calvert Bluff Formation (Wilcox) and the Eocene Manning Formation (Jackson). According to the Keystone Coal Industry Manual (Maclean Hunter Publishing Company, 1994), the Gulf Coast basin produces about 57 million short tons of lignite annually. The state of Texas ranks number 6 in coal production in the United States. Most of the lignite is used for electric power generation in mine-mouth power plant facilities. In recent years, particular interest has been given to lignite quality and the distribution and concentration of about a dozen trace elements that have been identified as potential hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. As pointed out by Oman and Finkelman (1994), Gulf Coast lignite deposits have elevated concentrations of many of the HAPs elements (Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Hg, Mn, Se, U) on a as-received gm/mmBtu basis when compared to other United States coal deposits used for fuel in thermo-electric power plants. Although regulations have not yet been established for acceptable emissions of the HAPs elements during coal burning, considerable research effort has been given to the characterization of these elements in coal feed stocks. The general purpose of the present field trip and of the accompanying collection of papers is to investigate how various aspects of east Texas lignite geology might collectively influence the quality of the lignite fuel. We hope that this collection of papers will help future researchers understand the complex, multifaceted interrelations of coal geology, petrology, palynology and coal quality, and that this introduction to the geology of the lignite deposits of east Texas might serve as a stimulus for new ideas to be applied to other coal basins in the U.S. and abroad.

  13. Pelletization of fine coals. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sastry, K.V.S.

    1995-12-31

    Coal is one of the most abundant energy resources in the US with nearly 800 million tons of it being mined annually. Process and environmental demands for low-ash, low-sulfur coals and economic constraints for high productivity are leading the coal industry to use such modern mining methods as longwall mining and such newer coal processing techniques as froth flotation, oil agglomeration, chemical cleaning and synthetic fuel production. All these processes are faced with one common problem area--fine coals. Dealing effectively with these fine coals during handling, storage, transportation, and/or processing continues to be a challenge facing the industry. Agglomeration by the unit operation of pelletization consists of tumbling moist fines in drums or discs. Past experimental work and limited commercial practice have shown that pelletization can alleviate the problems associated with fine coals. However, it was recognized that there exists a serious need for delineating the fundamental principles of fine coal pelletization. Accordingly, a research program has been carried involving four specific topics: (i) experimental investigation of coal pelletization kinetics, (ii) understanding the surface principles of coal pelletization, (iii) modeling of coal pelletization processes, and (iv) simulation of fine coal pelletization circuits. This report summarizes the major findings and provides relevant details of the research effort.

  14. Model documentation Coal Market Module of the National Energy Modeling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-30

    This report documents objectives and conceptual and methodological approach used in the development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Coal Market Module (CMM) used to develop the Annual Energy Outlook 1996 (AEO96). This report catalogues and describes the assumptions, methodology, estimation techniques, and source code of CMM`s three submodules: Coal Production Submodule, Coal Export Submodule, and Coal Distribution Submodule.

  15. Regional refining models for alternative fuels using shale and coal synthetic crudes: identification and evaluation of optimized alternative fuels. Annual report, March 20, 1979-March 19, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sefer, N.R.; Russell, J.A.

    1980-11-01

    The initial phase has been completed in the project to evaluate alternative fuels for highway transportation from synthetic crudes. Three refinery models were developed for Rocky Mountain, Mid-Continent and Great Lakes regions to make future product volumes and qualities forecast for 1995. Projected quantities of shale oil and coal oil syncrudes were introduced into the raw materials slate. Product slate was then varied from conventional products to evaluate maximum diesel fuel and broadcut fuel in all regions. Gasoline supplement options were evaluated in one region for 10% each of methanol, ethanol, MTBE or synthetic naphtha in the blends along with syncrude components. Compositions and qualities of the fuels were determined for the variation in constraints and conditions established for the study. Effects on raw materials, energy consumption and investment costs were reported. Results provide the basis to formulate fuels for laboratory and engine evaluation in future phases of the project.

  16. Coal: Energy for the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    This report was prepared in response to a request by the US Department of energy (DOE). The principal objectives of the study were to assess the current DOE coal program vis-a-vis the provisions of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT), and to recommend the emphasis and priorities that DOE should consider in updating its strategic plan for coal. A strategic plan for research, development, demonstration, and commercialization (RDD and C) activities for coal should be based on assumptions regarding the future supply and price of competing energy sources, the demand for products manufactured from these sources, technological opportunities, and the need to control the environmental impact of waste streams. These factors change with time. Accordingly, the committee generated strategic planning scenarios for three time periods: near-term, 1995--2005; mid-term, 2006--2020; and, long-term, 2021--2040. The report is divided into the following chapters: executive summary; introduction and scope of the study; overview of US DOE programs and planning; trends and issues for future coal use; the strategic planning framework; coal preparation, coal liquid mixtures, and coal bed methane recovery; clean fuels and specialty products from coal; electric power generation; technology demonstration and commercialization; advanced research programs; conclusions and recommendations; appendices; and glossary. 174 refs.

  17. International energy annual 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The International Energy Annual presents information and trends on world energy production and consumption for petroleum, natural gas, coal, and electricity. Production and consumption data are reported in standard units as well as British thermal units (Btu). Trade and reserves are shown for petroleum, natural gas, and coal. Data are provided on crude oil refining capacity and electricity installed capacity by type. Prices are included for selected crude oils and for refined petroleum products in selected countries. Population and Gross Domestic Product data are also provided.

  18. Chemical analyses of coal, coal-associated rocks and coal combustion products collected for the National Coal Quality Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, Joseph R.; Bullock, John H.; Finkelman, Robert B.

    2006-01-01

    In 1999, the USGS initiated the National Coal Quality Inventory (NaCQI) project to address a need for quality information on coals that will be mined during the next 20-30 years. At the time this project was initiated, the publicly available USGS coal quality data was based on samples primarily collected and analyzed between 1973 and 1985. The primary objective of NaCQI was to create a database containing comprehensive, accurate and accessible chemical information on the quality of mined and prepared United States coals and their combustion byproducts. This objective was to be accomplished through maintaining the existing publicly available coal quality database, expanding the database through the acquisition of new samples from priority areas, and analysis of the samples using updated coal analytical chemistry procedures. Priorities for sampling include those areas where future sources of compliance coal are federally owned. This project was a cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), State geological surveys, universities, coal burning utilities, and the coal mining industry. Funding support came from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).

  19. Quarterly coal report, April--June 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-02

    The Quarterly Coal Report provides comprehensive information about US coal production, exports, imports, receipts, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. This issue presents detailed quarterly data for April 1990 through June 1990, aggregated quarterly historical data for 1982 through the second quarter of 1990, and aggregated annual historical data for 1960 through 1989 and projected data for selected years from 1995 through 2010. To provide a complete picture of coal supply and demand in the United States, historical information and forecasts have been integrated in this report. 7 figs., 37 tabs.

  20. Coal facies studies in Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christanis, Kimon [Department of Geology, University of Patras, GR-265.00 Rio-Patras (Greece)

    2004-04-23

    In Greece, coal-forming conditions prevailed mainly during Neogene and Quaternary times in several intermontane and paralic basins and resulted in the formation of significant peat and lignite deposits. The economically recoverable lignite reserves are 3.9 Gt and the annual production, mainly for power generation, exceeds 65 Mt.

  1. Process for selective grinding of coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatachari, Mukund K.; Benz, August D.; Huettenhain, Horst

    1991-01-01

    A process for preparing coal for use as a fuel. Forming a coal-water slurry having solid coal particles with a particle size not exceeding about 80 microns, transferring the coal-water slurry to a solid bowl centrifuge, and operating same to classify the ground coal-water slurry to provide a centrate containing solid particles with a particle size distribution of from about 5 microns to about 20 microns and a centrifuge cake of solids having a particle size distribution of from about 10 microns to about 80 microns. The classifer cake is reground and mixed with fresh feed to the solid bowl centrifuge for additional classification.

  2. Environmental control implications of generating electric power from coal. Appendix B. Assessment of status of technology for solvent refining of coal. 1977 technology status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-12-01

    This report reviews the technology and environmental impacts of the solvent refined coal process to produce clean solid fuel (SRC-I). Information on SRC-I pilot plant operation, process design, and economics is presented. A bibliography of current available literature in this technology area, divided into fourteen categories with abstracts of the references, is appended. The history, current operations, and future plans for the SRC pilot plants at Fort Lewis and Wilsonville are reviewed. Process data generated at these pilot plants for various coals are used as a basis for a conceptual commercial plant design with a capacity to process 20,000 tons per day (TPD) of prepared coal. Block flow diagrams, material balances, an energy balance, and a list of raw materials for the plant are also provided. Capital cost estimates for a 20,000 TPD coal feed plant derived from four prior economic studies range from $706 million to $1093 million in 1976 dollars. The annual net operating cost is estimated at $238.6 million (1976 dollars) and the average product cost at $2.71/MM Btu based on utility financing (equity 25:debt 75) with $25/ton as the delivered price of the dry coal. The report also discusses special technical considerations associated with some of the process operations and major equipment items and enumerates technical risks associated with the commercialization of the SRC-I process.

  3. COAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20141574 Chen Hao(Exploration and Development Research Institute,Daqing Oilfield Company,Daqing 163712,China)High-Resolution Sequences and Coal Accumulating Laws in Nantun Formation of Huhe Lake Sag(Petroleum Geology&Oilfield Development in Daqing,ISSN1000-3754,CN23-1286/TQ,32(4),2013,p.15-19,5 illus.,15 refs.)Key words:coal accumulation regularity,coal

  4. COAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20091159 Gao Yan(No.3 Prospecting Team of Anhui Bureau of Coal Geology,Suzhou 234000,China) Effect of Depositional Environment of Coal-Bearing Stratum on Major Coal Seams in Suntan Coalmine,Anhui Province(Geology of Anhui,ISSN 1005- 6157,CN34-1111/P,18(2),2008,p.114 -117,5 illus.,1 ref.,with English abstract)

  5. Annual input fluxes and source identification of trace elements in atmospheric deposition in Shanxi Basin: the largest coal base in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Cong; Yang, Zhongfang; Jiang, Wei; Yu, Tao; Hou, Qingye; Li, Desheng; Wang, Jianwu

    2014-11-01

    Industrialization and urbanization have led to a great deterioration of air quality and provoked some serious environmental concerns. One hundred and five samples of atmospheric deposition were analyzed for their concentrations of 13 trace elements (As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Al, Co, Cr, Hg, Mn, Mo, Pb, Se, and Zn) in Shanxi Basin, which includes six isolate basins. The input fluxes of the trace elements in atmospheric deposition were observed and evaluated. Geostatistical analysis (EF, PCA, and CA ) were conducted to determine the spatial distribution, possible sources, and enrichment degrees of trace elements in atmospheric deposition. Fe/Al and K/Al also contribute to identify the sources of atmospheric deposition. The distribution of trace elements in atmospheric deposition was proved to be geographically restricted. The results show that As, Cd, Pb, Zn, and Se mainly come from coal combustion. Fe, Cu, Mn, Hg, and Co originate mainly from interactions between local polluted soils and blowing dust from other places, while the main source of Al, Cr, and Mo are the soil parent materials without pollution. This work provides baseline information to develop policies to control and reduce trace elements, especially toxic elements, from atmospheric deposition. Some exploratory analytical methods applied in this work are also worth considering in similar researches.

  6. FUNDAMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF FUEL TRANSFORMATIONS IN PULVERIZED COAL COMBUSTION AND GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Hurt; Joseph Calo; Thomas Fletcher; Alan Sayre

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this project is to carry out the necessary experiments and analyses to extend leading submodels of coal transformations to the new conditions anticipated in next-generation energy technologies. During the first two projects years, significant progress was made on most of the tasks, as described in detail in the two previous annual reports. In the current third annual report, we report in detail on the BYU task on the properties and intrinsic reactivities of chars prepared at high-pressure. A flat-flame burner was used in a high pressure laminar flow facility to conduct high temperature, high heating rate coal pyrolysis experiments. Heating rates were approximately 10{sup 5} K/s, which is higher than in conventional drop tube experiments. Char samples from a Pitt No.8 coal and lignite were collected at 1300 C at 1, 6, 10, and 15 atm. Swelling ratios of the lignite were less than 1.0, and only about 1.3 for the Pitt No.8 coal. All coals showed slight increases in swelling behavior as pressure increased. The swelling behavior observed for the Pitt No.8 coal at each pressure was lower than reported in high pressure drop tube experiments, indicating the effect of heating rate on particle swelling. This heating rate effect was similar to that observed previously at atmospheric pressure. SEM photos revealed that bituminous coal has large physical structure transformations, with popped bubbles due to the high heating rate. TGA char oxidation reactivities were measured at the same total pressure as the char preparation pressure. The general trend was that the TGA reactivity on a gram per gram available basis decreased for both Pitt No.8 and Knife River lignite coal chars with increasing char formation pressure. The Pitt No.8 char intrinsic activation energy and oxygen reaction order remained relatively constant with increasing pressure. This new data provides some of the only information available on the morphology, structure, and reactivity of chars prepared in

  7. Application and development of PDMS three-dimensional software in coal preparation plant%PDMS三维软件在选煤厂设计中的二次开发及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐磊

    2011-01-01

    Introduce PDMS software which is one kind of three-dimensional software, also analyze the advantage of this software compared with two-dimensional ones.The further development and application of this software in coal preparation plant have innovated the mode of designing.%介绍了三维设计软件PDMS,分析了PDMS相对于二维设计软件的优点.通过该软件在选煤厂设计中的二次开发及应用,打破了传统二维设计模式,对设计模式进行了创新.

  8. 复合纳米材料的制备及对路用煤沥青的改性研究%Preparation of nano complicated material and its application for road-paving coal tar pitch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭建国; 任真; 李玉霞; 郭建平

    2012-01-01

    通过水热共沉淀法制备了改性纳米复合材料,利用比表面积、TEM和接触角对其进行了表征.将改性纳米复合材料应用于路用煤沥青的改性中,结果显示该纳米改性煤沥青的性能指标完全达到了90#路用石油沥青指标,可以应用于实际道路的铺设.%Modified nano complicated material is prepared by co-precipitation method and characterized by SBET, TEM and contact angle. The obtained nano complicated material is used for the application for road-paving coal tar pitch. The results show that the property of modified coal tar pitch is better than that of the road-paving 90 pitch. It means that the coal tar pitch modified by nano complicated material can used in paving road.

  9. Land reclamation beautifies coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coblentz, B. [MSU Ag Communications (United States)

    2009-07-15

    The article explains how the Mississippi Agricultural and Forestry Experiments station, MAFES, has helped prepare land exploited by strip mining at North American Coal Corporation's Red Hills Mine. The 5,800 acre lignite mine is over 200 ft deep and uncovers six layers of coal. About 100 acres of land a year is mined and reclaimed, mostly as pine plantations. 5 photos.

  10. International energy annual 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The International Energy Annual presents an overview of key international energy trends for production, consumption, imports, and exports of primary energy commodities in over 220 countries, dependencies, and areas of special sovereignty. Also included are population and gross domestic product data, as well as prices for crude oil and petroleum products in selected countries. Renewable energy reported in the International Energy Annual includes hydroelectric power, geothermal, solar, and wind electric power, biofuels energy for the US, and biofuels electric power for Brazil. New in the 1996 edition are estimates of carbon dioxide emissions from the consumption of petroleum and coal, and the consumption and flaring of natural gas. 72 tabs.

  11. COAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20131668 Chang Huizhen(Key Laboratory of Coalbed Methane Resources and Reservoir Formation Process,CUMT,Ministry of Edu-cation,School of Resource and Earth Science,China University of Mining and Technology,Xuzhou 221008,China);Qin Yong Differences in of Pore Structure of Coals and Their Impact on the Permeability of Coals from the

  12. Interactions between coking coals and plastics during co-pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard Sakurovs [CSIRO, North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Division of Energy Technology

    2003-10-01

    Blends of three Australian coking coals and polypropylene, polystyrene, polyacrylonitrile and polyphenylene sulfide were prepared and the extent to which the blends fused on heating was monitored using proton magnetic resonance thermal analysis in order to identify interactions between them that could affect their fluidity. Different plastics had different effects. Polystyrene strongly reduced the fluidity of all of the coals, confirming previous findings. Polypropylene did not affect the fluidity of the two coking coals of lower rank. Polyphenylene sulfide reduced the fluidity of the coals at temperatures near the solidification temperature of the coals, and polyacrylonitrile appeared to increase the fluidity of the coals at temperatures near the softening temperature of the coals. The very different effects different plastics have on coal fluidity show that the interaction between plastics and coals must be carefully examined before plastics are added to coking coal blends. 28 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Coal fires in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehouse, Alfred E.; Mulyana, Asep A.S. [Office of Surface Mining/Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources Coal Fire Project, Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, Agency for Training and Education, Jl. Gatot Subroto, Kav. 49, Jakarta 12950 (Indonesia)

    2004-07-12

    Indonesia's fire and haze problem is increasingly being ascribed to large-scale forest conversion and land clearing activities making way for pulpwood, rubber and oil palm plantations. Fire is the cheapest tool available to small holders and plantation owners to reduce vegetation cover and prepare and fertilize extremely poor soils. Fires that escaped from agricultural burns have ravaged East Kalimantan forests on the island of Borneo during extreme drought periods in 1982-1983, 1987, 1991, 1994 and 1997-1998. Estimates based on satellite data and ground observations are that more than five million hectares were burned in East Kalimantan during the 1997/1998 dry season. Not only were the economic losses and ecological damage from these surface fires enormous, they ignited coal seams exposed at the ground surface along their outcrops.Coal fires now threaten Indonesia's shrinking ecological resources in Kutai National Park and Sungai Wain Nature Reserve. Sungai Wain has one of the last areas of unburned primary rainforest in the Balikpapan-Samarinda area with an extremely rich biodiversity. Although fires in 1997/1998 damaged nearly 50% of this Reserve and ignited 76 coal fires, it remains the most valuable water catchment area in the region and it has been used as a reintroduction site for the endangered orangutan. The Office of Surface Mining provided Indonesia with the capability to take quick action on coal fires that presented threats to public health and safety, infrastructure or the environment. The US Department of State's Southeast Asia Environmental Protection Initiative through the US Agency for International Development funded the project. Technical assistance and training transferred skills in coal fire management through the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resource's Training Agency to the regional offices; giving the regions the long-term capability to manage coal fires. Funding was also included to extinguish coal fires as

  14. 选煤厂振动设备MEMS无线传感器振动节点设计%Design of Coal Preparation Plant Vibration Equipment MEMS Wireless Sensor Vibration Node

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付涛; 黄根岭

    2013-01-01

    MEMS wireless sensor node is mainly used in coal preparation plant equipment to carry out the vibration condition of the comprehensive monitoring, in order to carry on comprehensive analysis, understand the running state of the equipment. This paper first briefly introduces the coal preparation plant vibration equipment MEMS wireless sensor vibration node design scheme, and then respectively from the hardware design and software design two aspects of the design scheme is discussed on the.%MEMS无线传感器节点主要用于对选煤厂设备的振动情况开展全面监测,以便进行综合分析,了解设备运行状态。本文首先简单介绍了选煤厂振动设备MEMS无线传感器振动节点设计方案,之后分别从硬件及软件两方面对设计方案进行了深入阐述。

  15. Separation of mercury in industrial processes of Polish hard steam coals cleaning

    OpenAIRE

    Wierzchowski Krzysztof; Pyka Ireneusz

    2016-01-01

    Coal use is regarded as one of main sources of anthropogenic propagation of mercury in the environment. The coal cleaning is listed among methods of the mercury emission reduction. The article concerns the statistical assessment of mercury separation between coal cleaning products. Two industrial processes employed in the Polish coal preparation plants are analysed: coal cleaning in heavy media vessels and coal cleaning in jigs. It was found that the arithmetic mean mercury content in coarse ...

  16. COAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20111053 Chen Jian(School of Earth and Environment,Anhui University of Science and Technology,Huainan 232001,China);Liu Wenzhong Organic Affinity of Trace Elements in Coal from No.10 Coal-Bed at Western Huagou,Guoyang(Coal Geology & Exploration,ISSN1001-1986,CN61-1155/P,38(4),2010,p.16-20,24,3 illus.,3 tables,19 refs.)Key words:coal,minor elements,Anhui Province In order to study the organic affinity of trace elements in coal from No.10 coal-bed at western Huagou,Guoyang,10 borehole samples were collected at exploration area of Huaibei mining area.The contents of 12 kinds of trace elements were determined by the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry(ICP-MS),the total organic carbon(TOC)of coal was determined by LECO carbon and sulfur analyzer,and the organic affinity of trace elements were deduced from the correlations between contents and TOCs.The results showed that the contents of V,Cr,Co,Ni,Mo,Cd,Sb,Pb and Zn were lower than

  17. Study on the preparation of impregnating pitch from modified coal tar pitch%改质煤沥青制备浸渍剂沥青的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高丽娟; 徐妍; 吴红运; 赵雪飞

    2014-01-01

    The purified pitch with low QI was prepared from modified coal tar pitch through solvent hot filtering process, then im-pregnant pitch were obtained by the method of blowing in N2 to remove off light component. The effects of reaction temperature, re-action time and N2 flow rate on the QI content, softening point and coking value of the impregnant pitch were studied. The experi-mental results showed that, when the reaction condition was 250℃for 40 min with N2 flow of 40 L/h, the obtained products showed the softening point of 88 ℃, QI content of <0.5%, TI content of 22.25%, coking value of 55.77%. Compared with raw materials of pitch, the contents of carbonyl, amine compounds and aromatic structure of impregnant pitch decreased and saturated hydrocarbon structures increased by infrared spectrum analysis. Thermo-gravimetric analysis showed that small molecular components of impreg-nant pitch were more than the raw materials of pith. Viscosity measurement revealed that the viscosity-temperature curve was nega-tive exponent relationship between 130~200℃.%以改质煤沥青为原料经溶剂热过滤法制备低QI净化沥青,再将净化沥青通N2脱掉轻组分制备浸渍剂沥青。以QI含量、软化点和结焦值为指标考察了温度、时间、N2流量等因素的影响。结果表明,在250℃,40 min,N2流量为40 L/h条件下,所得浸渍剂沥青的指标参数为软化点88℃左右,QI含量<0.5%,TI含量为22.25%,结焦值为55.77%。红外光谱分析表明,和原料沥青相比,浸渍剂沥青的羰基类和胺类化合物减少,芳烃结构减少,饱和烃类结构增加;热重分析表明,浸渍剂沥青的小分子含量较原料沥青相对较多;黏度的测定表明,在130~200℃黏温曲线呈现负指数关系。

  18. Preparation of MnO2/coal-based graphene composites for supercapacitors%MnO2/煤基石墨烯纳米复合材料的制备及其电化学性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张亚婷; 李景凯; 刘国阳; 蔡江涛; 周安宁; 邱介山

    2016-01-01

    以纯化的太西无烟煤粉为原料,采用催化石墨化及改良Hummers氧化技术制备煤基氧化石墨烯前驱体,将该前驱体与MnO2进行原位复合并利用等离子体技术还原制备MnO2/煤基石墨烯纳米复合材料。采用红外光谱、X射线衍射、扫描电镜和透射电镜等技术对煤基石墨烯及其复合材料进行表征,采用循环伏安法及恒流充放电法测试MnO2/煤基石墨烯纳米复合材料的电化学性能。结果表明,与煤基石墨烯相比,MnO2/煤基石墨烯纳米复合材料的比电容有显著提升,在1 A/g电流密度下可达281.8 F/g,是煤基石墨烯比电容的3.48倍。%The low-cost production of high performance functional materials based on graphene remains a challenging task. One of the options for tackling this problem is to develop new processes based on cheap starting materials such as coal. Coal-based gra-phene precursors were prepared from purified Taixi anthracite by catalytic graphitization combined with an improved Hummers meth-od. These were mixed with MnO2 and reduced by a low temperature plasma to make MnO2/coal-based graphene nanocomposites. The composites were studied by FT-IR, XRD, TEM and SEM. Their electrochemical performance was evaluated using cyclic volta-mmetry and galvanostatic charge/discharge. Results show that MnO2 has been even lydeposited on the graphene surface and the spe-cific capacitance of the composite as an electrode in a supercapacitor is much higher than that of coal-based graphene without MnO2 . The highest capacitance is 281. 1 F/g, which is 261. 2% of the value for coal-based graphene.

  19. Coal industry of Russia in early 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malyshev, Y.N.; Trubetskoy, K.N. [Russian Union of Coal Producers, Moscow (Russia)

    2001-06-01

    The Russian coal industry enters 21st century as a completely revived and re-engineered profitable sector of the national economy, which is able to meet the national demand for coal and also to gradually expand the Russian annual exports of high quality coals to 40 MT. For the immediate future the improvement of coal sector efficiency on the basis of radical restructuring, introducing of the latest advanced technologies and product quality upgrading as well as the quantitative expansion of coal production, can be considered as the key direction for development. 4 refs., 4 annexs.

  20. ASSESSMENT OF PHYSICAL COAL CLEANING PRACTICES FOR SULFUR REMOVAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a study of the current level of coal cleaning activity in the U.S. n 1983, the U.S. DOE's Energy Information Administration (EIA) expanded coal data collection activities to include information on the extent and type of coal preparation conducted in ea...

  1. Characterization and supply of coal based fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-06-01

    Studies and data applicable for fuel markets and coal resource assessments were reviewed and evaluated to provide both guidelines and specifications for premium quality coal-based fuels. The fuels supplied under this contract were provided for testing of advanced combustors being developed under Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) sponsorship for use in the residential, commercial and light industrial (RCLI) market sectors. The requirements of the combustor development contractors were surveyed and periodically updated to satisfy the evolving needs based on design and test experience. Available coals were screened and candidate coals were selected for further detailed characterization and preparation for delivery. A team of participants was assembled to provide fuels in both coal-water fuel (CWF) and dry ultrafine coal (DUC) forms. Information about major US coal fields was correlated with market needs analysis. Coal fields with major reserves of low sulfur coal that could be potentially amenable to premium coal-based fuels specifications were identified. The fuels requirements were focused in terms of market, equipment and resource constraints. With this basis, the coals selected for developmental testing satisfy the most stringent fuel requirements and utilize available current deep-cleaning capabilities.

  2. Preparation of spinel CoAl2O4 nanopowders and their applications to DSSC%CoAl2O4粉体制备及在染料敏化太阳电池中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡志强; 秦颖; 姜妍彦; 郝洪顺; 高宏

    2013-01-01

    Narrow band gap semiconductor materials were composited to a photoanode to improve its light response characteristics and the photoelectric conversion properties of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs).The citric acid gel method was used to prepare the CoAl2O4 nanopowders and the X-ray diffraction spectra were utilized to analyze the effect of roasting temperature on crystal structures and particle sizes.Then,the surface morphology of CoAl2O4 was observed by transmission electron microcopy,the absorbances of CoAl2O4 nanopowders and CoAl2O4/TiO2 porous composite films were tested by UV-visible absorption spectroscopy and the band gaps of CoAl2O4 nanopowders were calculated.By using CoAl2O4/TiO2 composite films as the photoanode,the DSSC was prepared.The optical performance of the DSSC was tested by a solar simulator and a SourceMeter and the influence of doping CoAl2O4 on the photoelectric properties of a DSSC was investigated.The results show that the optimum roasting temperature of CoAl2O4 powders is 700 ℃ ; and its band gap energy is 1.69 eV,which means that it is a narrow band gap semiconductor material.Moreover,the performance of DSSC is the best and the conversion efficiency improves by 62% when the amount of CoAl2O4 powder is 1% (weight percentage).The stability of the CoAl2O4/TiO2 composite thin film cells is better than that of the pure TiO2 thin film cell.These results demondtrate that compositing CoAl2O4 to TiO2 can improve the conversion efficiencies of DSSCs.%采用向太阳电池光阳极中复合窄禁带半导体材料的方法来提高光阳极的光响应范围,以改善染料敏化太阳能电池的性能.用柠檬酸凝胶法制备CoAl2O4纳米粉体,并通过X-射线衍射光谱分析煅烧温度对CoAl2O4纳米粉体晶型及晶粒的影响规律;采用透射电镜观察CoAl2O4纳米粉体的表面形貌;通过紫外-可见吸收光谱分析CoAl2O4纳米粉体和CoAl2O4/TiO2复合多孔纳米薄膜的吸光度,并计算了CoAl2O4

  3. Coal mining: coal in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Arguelles Martinez, A.; Lugue Cabal, V.

    1984-01-01

    The Survey of Spanish Coal Resources published by the Centre for Energy Studies in 1979 is without doubt the most serious and full study on this subject. The coal boom of the last few years and the important role it will play in the future, as well as the wealth of new information which has come to light in the research carried out in Spanish coalfields by both the public and private sector, prompted the General Mine Management of the Ministry of Industry and Energy to commission IGME to review and update the previous Survey of Spanish Coal Resources of November 1981.

  4. Appalachian clean coal technology consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutz, K.; Yoon, Roe-Hoan [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The Appalachian Clean Coal Technology Consortium (ACCTC) has been established to help U.S. coal producers, particularly those in the Appalachian region, increase the production of lower-sulfur coal. The cooperative research conducted as part of the consortium activities will help utilities meet the emissions standards established by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, enhance the competitiveness of U.S. coals in the world market, create jobs in economically-depressed coal producing regions, and reduce U.S. dependence on foreign energy supplies. The research activities will be conducted in cooperation with coal companies, equipment manufacturers, and A&E firms working in the Appalachian coal fields. This approach is consistent with President Clinton`s initiative in establishing Regional Technology Alliances to meet regional needs through technology development in cooperation with industry. The consortium activities are complementary to the High-Efficiency Preparation program of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, but are broader in scope as they are inclusive of technology developments for both near-term and long-term applications, technology transfer, and training a highly-skilled work force.

  5. Gaseous phase coal surface modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okoh, J.M.; Pinion, J.; Thiensatit, S.

    1992-05-07

    In this report, we present an improved, feasible and potentially cost effective method of cleaning and beneficiating ultrafine coal. Increased mechanization of mining methods and the need towards depyritization, and demineralization have led to an increase in the quantity of coal fines generated in recent times. For example, the amount of {minus}100 mesh coal occurring in coal preparation plant feeds now typically varies from 5 to 25% of the total feed. Environmental constraints coupled with the greatly increased cost of coal have made it increasingly important to recover more of these fines. Our method chemically modifies the surface of such coals by a series of gaseous phase treatments employing Friedel-Crafts reactions. By using olefins (ethene, propene and butene) and hydrogen chloride catalyst at elevated temperature, the surface hydrophobicity of coal is enhanced. This increased hydrophobicity is manifest in surface phenomena which reflect conditions at the solid/liquid interphase (zeta potential) and those which reflect conditions at the solid/liquid/gas interphases (contact angle, wettability and floatability).

  6. Analysis on the TBS coarse slime separation effect of Xinyang coal preparation plant%新阳选煤厂TBS粗煤泥分选效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鹏; 张文志; 赵建刚; 朱立强

    2012-01-01

      新阳选煤厂整体工程分两期完成,分别采用不同的分选工艺。文中详述了TBS粗煤泥分选机的工作原理和实际生产的分选效果。通过分析发现,粗煤泥利用TBS分选后精矿灰分波动相对较小,能满足生产需要,但对入料的适应性差,入料变化时,精煤损失到尾矿中,造成尾煤灰分波动较大。%  the Xinyang coal separation plant overall project completed in two phases, using different separation process. This paper intro-duces the working principle and the actual production of the separation effect of coarse slime separation equipment —TBS. Through the analysis we found that, The ash of Concentrate has smaller fluctions by using TBS. It can meet the need of production.But the adaptability of TBS is not good.,When the feeding is changing large amounts of coal loss to the tailings and the ash of coal tailing havs large fluctuation

  7. 新阳选煤厂粗煤泥分选设备评述%Commentary of coarse slime separation equipment of Xinyang coal preparation plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鹏; 张文志; 赵建刚; 朱立强

    2012-01-01

      新阳选煤厂整体工程分两期完成,分别采用不同的分选工艺。文中详述了TBS和RC两种粗煤泥分选设备的工作原理和实际生产的分选效果。两者对比发现,入料发生波动时造成尾煤产品质量不合格,大量精煤损失到尾矿中。相对RC分选机,TBS的适应性稍好。%  the Xinyang coal separation plant overall project completed in two phases, using different separation process. This paper intro-duces the working principle and the actual production of the separation effect of two kinds of coarse slime separation equipment —TBS and RC. The contrast between the two found, feeding fluctuations caused by tail coal product quality, large amounts of coal loss to the tailings. Relative to the RC sorting machine, TBS adaptability slightly better.

  8. Railcar unloading at Chinese coal export terminals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-02-01

    Strachan Henshaw of Bristol, UK is currently installing its third railcar discharge facility in China, serving coal export terminals. The latest installation, located at Qianwan Harbour, Qindao in Shandong province is designed to unload coal brought from Shanxi province at a planned annual rate of 17.2 million tons. The article describes the design and operation of the railcar discharge facility. 1 fig., 3 photos.

  9. 煤焦油喹啉不溶物压滤脱除和超净沥青制备%Pressure Filtration Removal of QI and Preparation of Ultra-clean Pitch from Coal Tar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳杰; 王永刚; 任浩华; 马伟光; 陈航; 郭相坤; 许德平

    2011-01-01

    以高温煤焦油为原料,在自制小型压滤装置上脱除喹啉不溶物(QI),并对滤后煤焦油进行超临界流体萃取分馏制备超净沥青.结果表明,当滤布孔径1250目、温度125℃、压力0.5MPa时,煤焦油中的QI质量分数可降低到0.037%.对压滤后的焦油进行超临界萃取,所制沥青的QI和甲苯不溶物质量分数分别达到0.10%和20.31%,可满足制备高性能炭素材料前驱体的要求.%Quinoline insolubles (QI) of high temperature coal tar sampled from a coking plant of Shanxi province was removed by a self-made pressure filtration device. Ultra-clean pitch was prepared from the filtered coal tar by utilizing supercritical fluid extraction and fractionation (SFEF). Results indicated that the QI content of the filtered coal tar decreased to 0.037% at the conditions of 1 250 mesh filter cloth, 125℃ and 0.5MPa. And the QI and toluene insoluble (TI) level of ultra-clean pitch from SFEF reached 0.1% and 20.31%, which indicated that the pitch could be used as a premium precursor for high-performance carbon material, especially the needle-coke.

  10. FY 1998 annual report on the survey on overseas geological structures. Project for exchanging engineers (coal mining technology area) (Vietnam); 1998 nendo kaigai chishitsu kozo nado chosaa. Gijutsusha koryu jigyo (tanko gijutsu bun'ya) (Vietnam)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The project for exchanging engineers has been implemented, in order to improve production and managemental techniques of coal mining engineers in the Asia-Pacific region, promote smooth and efficient projects for surveying overseas geological structures, and facilitate stable supply of overseas coal to Japan. The FY 1998 project was concentrated on Vietnam, to which Japanese coal mining engineers were sent, and from which production management engineers were invited to Japan as trainees. The Japanese engineers sent to Vietnam educated the underground coal mining techniques. The Vietnamese management engineers invited were trained for, e.g., production management techniques (e.g., those for workplaces and organizations) in the Japanese mines, administrative management techniques, and techniques to improve safety and productivity in the mines. Coal Energy Center and Taiheiyo Mining's Kushiro Mine provided training facilities. (NEDO)

  11. High temperature calcining process of coal series kaolin preparing single crystal mullite%煤系高岭土高温煅烧单晶相莫来石产品的工艺条件

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔等

    2011-01-01

    研究了煤系高岭土高温煅烧生成单晶相莫来石产品的工艺条件-煅烧温度、保温时间和物料粒度.结果表明:煤系高岭土经1 530℃保温8 h或者1 550℃保温0.5~3 h煅烧后均可以获得单晶相莫来石产品,且粒度对单晶相产品的获得没有大的影响;在1 550℃煅烧时,随保温时间的延长,莫来石晶粒长大,玻璃相从连续的网络结构变成不连续的网络结构.%High temperature calcining process of coal series kaolin preparing single crystal mullite was researched,such as calcining temperature, soaking time, and particle size of starting material. The results show that single crystal mullite can be obtained after calcining coal series kaolin at 1 530 ℃ for 8 h or 1 550 ℃ for 0.53 h,and the particle size of kaolin has no obviously influence on the product;when calcining at 1 550 ℃,as soaking time prolongs, the crystal grain grows, glass phase turns from continuous network to discrete network.

  12. 潘一选煤厂在煤泥泥化条件下的浮选操作实践%Practice on Flotation Operation under the Condition of Slime Argillization in Panyi Coal Preparation Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王传志

    2014-01-01

    In order to solve the problem of the quality of flotation product due to selected raw coal slime argilliza-tion in Panyi Coal Preparation Plant ,combined with the characteristics of flotation technique process ,the condi-tion of best flotation operation has been determined by orthogonal test ,which exerted sufficiently the reducing dust of desliming pit and second flotation ,effectively reduced the influence of slime argillization on flotation and ensured the quality of flotation product .%为解决潘一选煤厂因入选原煤煤泥泥化严重而影响浮选产品质量的问题,结合浮选工艺流程特点,通过正交试验确定了浮选最佳操作条件,充分发挥脱泥池、二次浮选的降灰作用,有效地降低了煤泥泥化对浮选的影响,保证了浮选产品质量。

  13. Environmentally Benign Coal Mining: Target One Billion Tonne Coal Production by CIL by 2019-20

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurdeep Singh1,2 and

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Coal is the most abundant fuel resource in India. Coal is the major source of energy and is the principal contributor for the industrial growth of the developing nation like India. Coal is a bridge component in a current, balanced energy group. It is connection for the future as a vital low cost energy solution for achieving sustainability challenges for competing with the developed countries. The largest consumer of coal in India is power sector, and the industrial sector is coming next to power sector. The major consumption of coal in India is in steel plant, cement plant and brick-manufacturing units.52%of primary energy is coal dependent1.About 66% of India's power generation is based upon coal production1. While coal is considered the most significant element for the growth of country, it faces major and massive social and environmental issues. Environmental worries are the most important parameter for the coal industry’s future. In comparison to the other fossil fuels, coal is more pollution causing and less energy efficient. Coal has an important role in fulfillment of current needs. 212.10 Million Tonnes of coal was imported in the financial year 2014-152.The coal demand will be increasing due to increase in electricity demand of the country. Coal India being the largest producer of coal in India has to plan accordingly to fulfill the coal demand of country. A road map for enhancement of coal production up to 1 Billion of coal by 2019-2020 has been prepared by Coal India3. Due to coal mining the key environmental impacts are on air, water, land, forest, biodiversity, and climate etc. The biggest challenge is to put on the innovative technologies in the most efficient and environmentally friendly manner and to solve social issues by taking care of the implementation of rehabilitation and resettlement (R&R.Thrust is now to promote inclusive growth of mining areas by adequate corporate social responsibilities (CSR activities4,5. Thus the

  14. 煤焦油沥青树脂黏结剂的制备研究%Preparation of coal tar pitch resin binder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何莹; 高源; 刘书林; 赵雪飞

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the coal tar pitch resin was synthesized by using coal tar as raw materials, paraformaldehyde as the cross- linker, under the role of acidic catalyst of p- toluenesulfonic acid. By the orthogonal experiment, the effects of the amounts of cross- linking agent and catalyst, reaction temperature and time on the properties of the sythesized samples were investigated. The results show that the reaction temperature and time could be decreased by increasing the contents of crosslinking agent and catalyst. All the indexes, including softening point, coking value and bond strength of coal tar pitch resin,could be obviously improved by increasing the reaction temperature and time.%采用交联合成法,以煤焦油为原料,多聚甲醛为交联剂,在酸性催化剂对甲苯磺酸的作用下制备煤焦油沥青树脂.采用正交试验法研究了交联剂量、催化剂量、反应温度和反应时间对合成煤焦油沥青树脂的影响.结果表明,增加交联剂量和催化剂量可以起到降低反应温度和缩短反应时间的效果;煤焦油沥青树脂的软化点、结焦值和黏结强度等指标均随反应温度升高和反应时间延长而明显增加.

  15. Model documentation coal market module of the National Energy Modeling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    This report documents the objectives and the conceptual and methodological approach used in the development of the Coal Production Submodule (CPS). It provides a description of the CPS for model analysts and the public. The Coal Market Module provides annual forecasts of prices, production, and consumption of coal.

  16. Clean Coal Technology Programs: Completed Projects (Volume 2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy

    2003-12-01

    Annual report on the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP), Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPII), and Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI). The report addresses the roles of the programs, implementation, funding and costs, project descriptions, legislative history, program history, environmental aspects, and project contacts. The project descriptions describe the technology and provides a brief summary of the demonstration results.

  17. Clean Coal Technology Programs: Program Update 2003 (Volume 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy

    2003-12-01

    Annual report on the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP), Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPII), and Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI). The report addresses the roles of the programs, implementation, funding and costs, project descriptions, legislative history, program history, environmental aspects, and project contacts. The project descriptions describe the technology and provides a brief summary of the demonstration results.

  18. Reforming Practice of Monitoring and Control System of Heavy-media Density in Chengzhuang Coal Preparation Plant%成庄矿选煤厂重介质密度监控系统的改造实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张士聪; 王波; 王然风

    2011-01-01

    In view of the problem that existing monitoring and control system of heavy-media coal separation cannot reflect real-time information to field operating personnel real-timely in Chengzhuang Coal Preparation Plant, the paper proposed a reforming scheme with S7-300 PLC, SIMATIC WinCC and VB6.0 for current minotoring and control system.It introduced communication process of WinCC with VB6.0 and S7-300 PLC.The reformed system achieves a dynamic display of data and monitoring of main parameters through putting a piece of LED display screen in heavy-media coal separation workship, which makes operators on duty finish density control according to real-time data on LED display screen, and all coal separation workshops share information by OPC interface of WinCC, so as to realize centralized control and manage.Besides, cost of the system reform is low by using simple external program to collect and display data.%针对成庄矿选煤厂现有重介选煤监控系统存在不能将实时信息及时向现场操作人员反映的问题,提出一种采用S7-300 PLC、SIMATIC WinCC及VB6.0软硬件平台对现有监控系统进行改造的方案,介绍了WinCC与VB6.0及S7-300 PLC的通信过程.改造后的系统将LED显示屏放置在重介选煤车间,实现了数据的动态显示和主要参数的监控,值班人员可以在显示屏实时数据的指导下完成密度调控;通过WinCC提供的OPC接口,各选煤车间可以实现信息共享,从而方便了全厂的集中控制、管理;系统通过调用简单的外部程序就可采集和显示数据,改造成本低廉.

  19. Effect of HNO{sub 3} treatment on the SO{sub 2} adsorption capacity of activated carbon prepared from Chinese low-rank coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hang Wenhui; Wang ling; Li Shurong [China Coal Research Institute, Beijing (China)

    1999-11-01

    SO{sub 2} removal from flue gas by activated carbon and HNO{sub 3} treated activated carbon from Chinese low-rank coal was studied. SO{sub 2} adsorption on activated carbon is mainly chemisorption. There was shown to be a correlation between adsorption capacity and the number of active sites on the carbon surface. HNO{sub 3} treatment transforms C-H bonds in activated carbon into active sites, for removal of SO{sub 2}. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. 酚醛树脂改性煤焦油沥青中制得的中间相球体的结构特征%Structural Characteristics of Mesophase Spheres Prepared from Coal Tar Pitch Modified by Phenolic Resin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李同起; 刘秀军; 王成扬; 王慧

    2006-01-01

    Mesocarbon microbeads (MCMB) were prepared from coal tar pitch modified by phenolic resin and from the same pitch modified by phenolic resin and hexamethylenetetramine at 440℃ for 1h. By investigating the morphology of mesophase spheres and the structure of the MCMB carbonized at 1000℃ for 1h using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and XRD, it was found that phenolic resin accelerated the formation and coalescence of mesophase spheres. Some of the obtained MCMB were bi- or tri-spheres with the distorted microtextural carbon layers. Hexamethylenetetramine in the pitch modified by phenolic resin accelerated the condensation of phenolic resin and consequently expedited the combination of mesophase spheres, which was proved by the formation of some tetra-spheres. Owing to the cross-linkage of the additives, MCMB with complex structure were obtained.

  1. 16 CFR 1018.42 - Annual report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Annual report. 1018.42 Section 1018.42... Reports and Audits § 1018.42 Annual report. (a) The Advisory Committee Management Officer shall prepare an annual report on the Commission's advisory committees for inclusion in the President's annual report...

  2. COAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20091749 Cai Hou’an(College of Energy Geology,China University of Geosciences,Beijing 100083,China);Xu Debin SHRIMP U-Pb Isotope Age of Volcanic Rocks Distributed in the Badaohao Area,Liaoning Province and Its Significance(Coal Geology & Exploration,ISSN1001-1986,CN61-1155/P,36(4),2008,p.17-20,2 illus.,1 table,16 refs.)Key words:coal measures,volcanic rocks,U-Pb dating,LiaoningA set of andesite volcanic rocks distributes in the Badaohao area in Heishan County,Liaoning Province.It’s geological age and stratigraphy sequence relationship between the Lower Cretaceous Badaohao Formation and the volcanic rocks can not make sure till now and is influencing the further prospect for coals.Zircon

  3. Technical Status of Foam Insulation Material of External Wall and its Preparation with Sandstone Coal Gangue%外墙泡沫保温材料的技术现状及用砂岩质煤矸石试制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢军; 李小庆; 孙晓刚; 邱景平

    2015-01-01

    砂岩质煤矸石和抛光砖泥都是工业固体废弃物,在国家提倡外墙保温材料革新升级和煤矸石资源化利用的背景下,开发煤矸石基外墙泡沫保温材料,既可以实现建筑节能和外墙的安全防火,又可以改善矿区生态环境,减少对宝贵土地资源的占用。在介绍了我国外墙保温材料产业现状和国内关于煤矸石基外墙泡沫保温材料研究现状的基础上,重点分析了试验原料的增塑性和发泡性,并进行了煤矸石基外墙泡沫保温材料的试制。结果表明,以辽宁朝阳矸石山砂岩质煤矸石和辽宁法库某陶瓷厂的抛光砖泥为主要原料,碳化硅和氧化镁为复合造孔剂,硼砂为助熔剂,经陈化—成型—烧结工序,试制出了具有一定外观和性能的煤矸石基外墙泡沫保温材料,说明本试验技术路线是可行的。但要制备满足建筑业要求的、低成本的外墙泡沫保温材料,还需后续进行系统的原料配比和烧结制度优化试验。%Under the background of external wall thermal insulation materials innovation upgrading and coal gangue re-source utilization,as industrial solid wastes,sandstone coal gangue and polishing tile waste are used to develop the external wall insulation foam material,which can achieve construction energy-efficient and fire safety,improve the ecological environment of mining area,and reduce the waste of valuable land resources. Based on the introduction of China's status of external wall insu-lation materials industry and research on coal gangue external wall foam insulation material,the plasticity and foaming of the tested material were analyzed,and the coal gangue exterior wall foam insulation material was prepared. The results show that, coal gangue exterior wall foam insulation material with a certain appearance and property can be produced through the aging, molding,and sintering process, with sandstone coal gangue in Chaoyang City and

  4. Preparation and Performance Study of Cemented Filling Material Based on Fly Ash and Coal Gangue%粉煤灰-煤矸石基胶结充填材料制备与性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙庆巍; 朱涵; 崔正龙

    2012-01-01

    为了解决我国煤矿采空区地表沉陷以及“三下”压煤资源浪费的问题,提出以粉煤灰-水泥熟料-脱硫石膏复合胶凝材料为胶结材,原状粉煤灰为细骨料,破碎后的煤矸石为粗骨料制备新型煤矿开采胶结充填材料.依据正交试验结果和各因素影响规律趋势图,确定充填材料的优化配合比.研究结果表明,适当增大水泥熟料掺量可缩短材料初凝时间,减小水胶比能使材料强度显著提高,而材料坍落度可通过选取适宜的浆体中的固体质量分数和灰矸比来有效调节,当胶凝材料中水泥含量为15%,脱硫石膏含量为8%,水胶比为2,灰矸比为2∶3,浆体中的固体质量分数为70%时,充填材料性能可达到最佳.通过试验优选材料各项参数,工业废弃物可以用来制备高质量的胶结充填材料.%To solve problems of surface subsidence caused by mining of coal mine and waste of resources caused by unexploited coal under the surface construction, water body and railway, it was held by the authors that a new type of cemented filling material should be used, which was prepared from composite cementitious material composed of fly ash, cement and flue gas desulphurization gypsum as cementing material, raw fly ash as fine aggregates and coal gangue as coarse aggregates. In the light of the results of orthogonal experiment and tendency chart of influencing factor, optimized composition of the filling material was obtained. Results show that a increase in content of cement clinker can shorten setting time, decreasing water to binder ratio can enhance strength remarkably, that slump can be adjusted effectively through choosing suitable concentration and fly ash to coal gangue ratio, and that when content of cement clinker is 15% , content of flue gas desulphurization gypsum is 8% , water to binder ratio is 2, fly ash to coal gangue ratio is 2: 3 and the mass fraction of solids in paste is 70% , filling material has

  5. Assessment of mercury health risks to adults from coal combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipfert, F.W.; Moskowitz, P.D.; Fthenakis, V.M.; DePhillips, M.P.; Viren, J.; Saroff, L.

    1994-05-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is preparing, for the U.S. Congress, a report evaluating the need to regulate mercury (Hg) emissions from electric utilities. This study, to be completed in 1995, will have important health and economic implications. In support of these efforts, the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, sponsored a risk assessment project at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to evaluate methylmercury (MeHg) hazards independently. In the BNL study, health risks to adults resulting from Hg emissions from a hypothetical 1000 MW{sub e} coal-fired power plant were estimated using probabilistic risk assessment techniques. The approach draws on the extant knowledge in each of the important steps in the calculation chain from emissions to health effects. Estimated results at key points in the chain were compared with actual measurements to help validate the modeled estimates. Two cases were considered: the baseline case (no local impacts), and the impact case (maximum local power-plant impact). The BNL study showed that the effects of emissions of a single power plant may double the background exposures to MeHg resulting from consuming fish obtained from a localized area near the power plant. Many implicit and explicit sources of uncertainty exist in this analysis. Those that appear to be most in need of improvement include data on doses and responses for potentially sensitive subpopulations (e.g., fetal exposures). Rather than considering hypothetical situations, it would also be preferable to assess the risks associated with actual coal-fired power plants and the nearby sensitive water bodies and susceptible subpopulations. Finally, annual total Hg emissions from coal burning and from other anthropogenic sources are still uncertain; this makes it difficult to estimate the effects of U.S. coal burning on global Hg concentration levels, especially over the long term.

  6. Rapid pyrolysis of Serbian soft brown coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goran G. Jankes; Olga Cvetkovic; Nebojsa M. Milovanovic; Marko Ercegovaci Ercegovac; Miroljub Adzic; Mirjana Stamenic [University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia). Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    Soft brown coals of the open coal fields of Kolubara and Kostolac are the main domestic energy sources of Serbia. This paper presents the results of investigations on rapid devolatilization of these two coals which have covered kinetics of devolatilization (based on total volatile yield), forms of sulphur and petrographic analysis of coal and char. Experiments of devolatilization were performed in inert gas (N{sub 2}) at atmospheric pressure and in batch-type hot-wire screen reactor. The mass-loss values of both coals at selected final reaction temperatures (300-900{sup o}C) and retention times (3-28 s) were obtained. Anthony and Howard's kinetic model was applied over two temperature ranges (300-500 and 700-900{sup o}C). The types of sulphur as monosulphide, sulphate, pyritic, and organic sulphur were determined for chars and original coals. Strong transformation of pyrite was evident even at low temperatures (300{sup o}C). Devolatilization of all types of sulphur has started over 600 and at 900{sup o}C the content of sulphur in char remained only 66% of total sulphur in original coal. Microscopic investigations were carried out on samples prepared for reflected light measurements. The petrographic analysis included: the ratio of unchanged and changed coal, maceral types, the share of cenospheres, isotropic mixed carbonized grains, mixed grains, small fragments, clay, and pyrite. The change of the structure of devolatilized coal was also observed. 20 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. Coal-sand attrition system and its importance in fine coal cleaning. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehta, R.K.; Zhu, Qinsheng

    1993-08-01

    It is known that ultra-fine coals are prerequisite for the deep cleaning of most US coal seams if environmental pollution arising from the use of such coals is to be minimized. Therefore, the production of finely liberated coal particles in conjunction with reduced heavy metal contaminants at low costs is desirable, if not mandatory. The liberation of intimately disseminated impurities from the coal matrix therefore, demands that the material be ground to a high degree of fineness. Similarily, some technologies for coal utilization require superfine particles (i.e., sizes less than ten microns). This implies additional costs for coal preparation plants due to the high energy and media costs associated with fine grinding operations. Besides, there are problems such as severe product contaminations due to media wear and impairment of the quality of coal. Hence, proper choice of grinding media type is important from the viewpoints of cost reduction and product quality. The use of natural quartz sand as grinding media in the comminution of industrial minerals in stirred ball mills has been indicated. The advantages of natural sand compared to steel media include low specific energy inputs, elimination of heavy metal contaminants and low media costs. In this work, the effect of rotor speed, solids concentration and feed-size are studied on four coals in conjunction with silica sand and steel shot. The results obtained are used to evaluate the suitability of silica sands as an alternative grinding media. for coal. Coal-sand and coal-steel systems are compared in terms of specific energy consumption, product fineness, media/wear contaminationanalysis and calorific values, liberation spectrum and particle shape characteristics. In general cleaner flotation concentrate was obtained from coals when they were ground with sand media. The zeta potential of coals was found to be different and lower when they ground with sand.

  8. Mercury in coal and the impact of coal quality on mercury emissions from combustion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolker, A.; Senior, C.L.; Quick, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    The proportion of Hg in coal feedstock that is emitted by stack gases of utility power stations is a complex function of coal chemistry and properties, combustion conditions, and the positioning and type of air pollution control devices employed. Mercury in bituminous coal is found primarily within Fe-sulfides, whereas lower rank coal tends to have a greater proportion of organic-bound Hg. Preparation of bituminous coal to reduce S generally reduces input Hg relative to in-ground concentrations, but the amount of this reduction varies according to the fraction of Hg in sulfides and the efficiency of sulfide removal. The mode of occurrence of Hg in coal does not directly affect the speciation of Hg in the combustion flue gas. However, other constituents in the coal, notably Cl and S, and the combustion characteristics of the coal, influence the species of Hg that are formed in the flue gas and enter air pollution control devices. The formation of gaseous oxidized Hg or particulate-bound Hg occurs post-combustion; these forms of Hg can be in part captured in the air pollution control devices that exist on coal-fired boilers, without modification. For a given coal type, the capture efficiency of Hg by pollution control systems varies according to type of device and the conditions of its deployment. For bituminous coal, on average, more than 60% of Hg in flue gas is captured by fabric filter (FF) and flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. Key variables affecting performance for Hg control include Cl and S content of the coal, the positioning (hot side vs. cold side) of the system, and the amount of unburned C in coal ash. Knowledge of coal quality parameters and their effect on the performance of air pollution control devices allows optimization of Hg capture co-benefit. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. 煤加氢热解沥青制备通用级沥青碳纤维的研究%STUDY ON PREPARATION OF GENERAL PITCH CARBON FIBER WITH PITCH FROM COAL PYROLYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王朝进; 董凤波; 唐超; 杨春艳

    2011-01-01

    A spinnable pitch for general carbon fiber was prepared with coal hydrogenation pyrolysis asphalt after air oxidation and N2 blowing with a high yeild of more than 70 %. The spinnable pitch was then used to prepare general pitch carbon fiber after spinning, preoxidation, and carbonization. The result showed that general pitch carbon fiber possessed good capabilities with a diameter of 12.2 μm, a tensile strength of 623 MPa, a stretch modulus of 30.5GPa, and a tensile stretch 2.05 %.%以煤加氢热解沥青为原料,采用空气氧化和氮气吹扫处理,制备了可纺沥青,收率超过70%.可纺沥青经过纺丝、预氧化和炭化,制得通用级沥青碳纤维.实验结果表明,沥青碳纤维直径12.2μm、抗拉强度623MPa、模量30.5GPa、伸长率2.05%.

  10. Coal in Asia-Pacific. Vo1 7, No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    In China, there are bottle-necks of the coal transportation capacity in the major inter-regional routes. The Chinese Government`s eighth and ninth five-year plans intend to increase the capacity. In the 9% growth case, the planned railway transport capacity will be critical. Measures are considered, as to promotion of coal dressing, transport as electric power, construction of nuclear power plants and hydraulic power plants, and construction of coal water slurry pipe lines. Japan`s coal policy includes the structural adjustment of coal mining industry, and a new policy for coal in the total energy policy. To secure the stable overseas coal supply, NEDO has a leading part in overseas coal resources development. Coal demand and supply, mining technology, mine safety, coal preparation and processing technology, and comprehensive coal utilization technology including clean coal technology in Japan are described. At present, Thailand is progressing with the seventh plan, and the development of domestic energy emphasize lignite, natural gas, and oil. Thai import demand for high-quality coal is to be increasing. Japan`s cooperation is considered to be effective for the environmental problems. 12 figs., 40 tabs.

  11. A study on briquetting technology for Vietnamese coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Pil Chong; Yang, Jung Il; Hwang, Seon Kook; Cho, Ken Joon; Choi, Yeon Ho; Shin, Hee Young; Kim, Sang Bae; Bae, Kwang Hyun [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    Vietnam reserves abundant, high quality anthracite resources. Nevertheless, Vietnam is facing with serious problem of deforestation, because most of the people use wood and agricultural waste for the family cooking purpose. In order to improve the problem, Vietnam government has established the National Project (KD-03) for enlargement of utilization of Vietnamese coal and also assigned the Institute of Research on Mining Technology(IRMT) to develop the briquetting technology for the use of Vietnamese coal. In accordance, IRMT prepared a Memorandum of Understanding on development of briquetting technology for Vietnamese coal with KIGAM, which preserve sufficient technical know-how on coal briquetting technology. The objective of this project is to develop briquetting technology of Vietnamese coal for cooking purpose and transfer the developed technology to related industrial sector. Eventually it expects to enlarge utilization of Vietnamese coal, reduce deforestation and increase labour employment. This project studied following items on development of coal briquetting technology for Vietnamese cooking purpose: (1) study on properties of Vietnamese coal, (2) study on briquetting technology of Vietnamese coal, (3) study on combustion of Vietnamese coal briquette, (4) preliminary investigation of coal briquette market for industrial use. Besides cooking purpose of Vietnamese coal briquette, Vietnamese coal is also identified to be utilized for small scale industrial use by preliminary investigation. (author). 9 refs., 30 tabs.

  12. Materials for coal conversion and utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The Fifth Annual Conference on Materials for Coal Conversion and Utilization was held October 7-9, 1980, at the National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, Maryland. Sixty-six papers have been entered individually into ERA and EDB; two had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

  13. Radon concentration measurements in bituminous coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisne, Abdullah; Okten, Gündüz; Celebi, Nilgün

    2005-01-01

    Radon measurements were carried out in Kozlu, Karadon and Uzülmez underground coal mines of Zonguldak bituminous coal basin in Turkey. Passive-time integrating method, which is the most widely used technique for the measurement of radon concentration in air, was applied by using nuclear etched track detectors (CR-39) in the study area. The radon concentration measurements were performed on a total of 42 points in those three mines. The annual exposure, the annual effective dose and lifetime fatality risk, which are the important parameters for the health of workers, were estimated based on chronic occupational exposure to the radon gas, which is calculated using UNCEAR-2000 and ICRP-65 models. The radon concentrations at several coal production faces are higher than the action level of 1000 Bq m(-3). It is suggested that the ventilation rates should be rearranged to reduce the radon concentration.

  14. Annual Energy Review 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiferlein, Katherine E. [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2008-06-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of annual historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are data on total energy production, consumption, and trade; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, international energy, as well as financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversion tables. Publication of this report is required under Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), Section 205(c), and is in keeping with responsibilities given to the EIA under Section 205(a)(2), which states: “The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information....”

  15. Coal Bed Methane Primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dan Arthur; Bruce Langhus; Jon Seekins

    2005-05-25

    During the second half of the 1990's Coal Bed Methane (CBM) production increased dramatically nationwide to represent a significant new source of income and natural gas for many independent and established producers. Matching these soaring production rates during this period was a heightened public awareness of environmental concerns. These concerns left unexplained and under-addressed have created a significant growth in public involvement generating literally thousands of unfocused project comments for various regional NEPA efforts resulting in the delayed development of public and fee lands. The accelerating interest in CBM development coupled to the growth in public involvement has prompted the conceptualization of this project for the development of a CBM Primer. The Primer is designed to serve as a summary document, which introduces and encapsulates information pertinent to the development of Coal Bed Methane (CBM), including focused discussions of coal deposits, methane as a natural formed gas, split mineral estates, development techniques, operational issues, producing methods, applicable regulatory frameworks, land and resource management, mitigation measures, preparation of project plans, data availability, Indian Trust issues and relevant environmental technologies. An important aspect of gaining access to federal, state, tribal, or fee lands involves education of a broad array of stakeholders, including land and mineral owners, regulators, conservationists, tribal governments, special interest groups, and numerous others that could be impacted by the development of coal bed methane. Perhaps the most crucial aspect of successfully developing CBM resources is stakeholder education. Currently, an inconsistent picture of CBM exists. There is a significant lack of understanding on the parts of nearly all stakeholders, including industry, government, special interest groups, and land owners. It is envisioned the Primer would being used by a variety of

  16. COAL DRY BENEFICIATION TECHNOLOGY IN CHINA: THE STATE-OF-THE-ART

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qingru Chen; Lubin Wei

    2003-01-01

    In China, coal is the major source of energy and its leading role in energy consumption would not change in the next 50 years. Coal preparation is the essential component of Clean Coal Technology. In China more than two-thirds of available coal reserves are in arid areas, which results in the unfeasibility with conventional wet processing for coal preparation. The uniqueness of dry coal beneficiation technology with air-dense medium fluidized bed is discussed in this paper and a detailed survey of the current status of theoretical study, commercial application and development of the new technology is given in this paper.

  17. Effect of coal slurry on the corrosion of coal-mine equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Qi; Xie Jingxuan; Zhao Wei; Bai Shasha; Zhong Shiteng; Chu Zhenfeng

    2011-01-01

    The corrosion of coal mine equipment immersed in coal slurry is addressed.The corrosion of low carbon steel samples immersed in coal slurries of different concentrations (80,130,and 180g/L) prepared from coals of different rank (long-flame coal,meager lean coal,and anthracite) and different granularity (0.25-0.5 mm,0.074-0.25 mm,and less than 0.074 mm particle size) was studied by the electrochemical method of polarization curve measurement,controlled potential sweeping,and continuous scanning.The results show that the corrosion rate in an anthracite slurry,where the coal has high coalification,is far greater than corrosion in a long-flame or a meager lean coal slurry.Furthermore the corrosion current,polarization current,and corrosion rate of low carbon steel become larger,and the polarizability becomes smaller,as the coal particle size decreases.The same trend is seen as the concentration of the coal slurry increases.

  18. Coal - proximate analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-06-14

    This Standard establishes a practice for the proximate analysis of coal, that is, the coal is analysed for the content of moisture, ash and volatile matter; fixed carbon is calculated. The standard provides a basis for the comparison of coals.

  19. Health effects of coal technologies: research needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-09-01

    In this 1977 Environmental Message, President Carter directed the establishment of a joint program to identify the health and environmental problems associated with advanced energy technologies and to review the adequacy of present research programs. In response to the President's directive, representatives of three agencies formed the Federal Interagency Committee on the Health and Environmental Effects of Energy Technologies. This report was prepared by the Health Effects Working Group on Coal Technologies for the Committee. In this report, the major health-related problems associated with conventional coal mining, storage, transportation, and combustion, and with chemical coal cleaning, in situ gasification, fluidized bed combustion, magnetohydrodynamic combustion, cocombustion of coal-oil mixtures, and cocombustion of coal with municipal solid waste are identified. The report also contains recommended research required to address the identified problems.

  20. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF ADVANCED PHYSICAL FINE COAL CLEANING FOR PREMIUM FUEL APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1997-06-01

    Bechtel, together with Amax Research and Development Center (Amax R&D), has prepared this study which provides conceptual cost estimates for the production of premium quality coal-water slurry fuel (CWF) in a commercial plant. Two scenarios are presented, one using column flotation technology and the other the selective agglomeration to clean the coal to the required quality specifications. This study forms part of US Department of Energy program "Engineering Development of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning for Premium Fuel Applications," (Contract No. DE-AC22- 92PC92208), under Task 11, Project Final Report. The primary objective of the Department of Energy program is to develop the design base for prototype commercial advanced fine coal cleaning facilities capable of producing ultra-clean coals suitable for conversion to stable and highly loaded CWF. The fuels should contain less than 2 lb ash/MBtu (860 grams ash/GJ) of HHV and preferably less than 1 lb ash/MBtu (430 grams ash/GJ). The advanced fine coal cleaning technologies to be employed are advanced column froth flotation and selective agglomeration. It is further stipulated that operating conditions during the advanced cleaning process should recover not less than 80 percent of the carbon content (heating value) in the run-of-mine source coal. These goals for ultra-clean coal quality are to be met under the constraint that annualized coal production costs does not exceed $2.5 /MBtu ($ 2.37/GJ), including the mine mouth cost of the raw coal. A further objective of the program is to determine the distribution of a selected suite of eleven toxic trace elements between product CWF and the refuse stream of the cleaning processes. Laboratory, bench-scale and Process Development Unit (PDU) tests to evaluate advanced column flotation and selective agglomeration were completed earlier under this program with selected coal samples. A PDU with a capacity of 2 st/h was designed by Bechtel and installed at Amax R

  1. 新型煤粉抑尘剂的研究及应用%Preparation and Application of the New Type Dust Suppressant Used in Coal Transportation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王媛; 景惧斌; 周海涛

    2012-01-01

    为了更好的解决煤炭运输过程中的扬尘问题,采用高分子聚合物、水溶纤维素聚合物为原料,利用正交实验法研制了一种满足生态要求的集粘结、吸湿和保水为一体的复合型化学抑尘剂。通过测试该抑尘剂的抗风性能,结果表明:新型抑尘剂在常温下溶解性好,抑尘效果好,固化层具有一定的强度,具有实际应用价值。%In order to solve the dust prombles in coal transportation, a new type of composite chemical dust suppressant was developded, which used of water - soluble polymers, water - soluble cellulose polymers as the raw material and orthogonal analysis method. It met the ecological requirements, had good bonding performance, moisture absorption and water mainte- nance. The wind- resistant experiment results showed that the dust suppressant can dissolute at room temperature, and had good dust suppression, and the solidified layer had a certain strength. So the dust suppressant had practical application value.

  2. 煤加氢热解物制备中间相炭微球研究%Preparation of mesocarbon microbeads from coal hydrogenation pyrolyzate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    惠友权; 王剑; 向柠; 梁静; 路勇

    2011-01-01

    Thermal conversion of mesophase of refined pitch from coal hydrogenation pyrolyzate was investigated. It demonstrated that the refined pitch quickly converted to fluid domain mesophase at a thermal temperature of 440 ℃ and keeping time of 6h under pressure of 1 Mpa, which proved it liable to coalescence. In particular,by adding 1% carbon black to the refined pitch, mesocarbon microbeads (MCMBs) with smooth surface, good sophericity and narrow particle-size distribution were obtained at a thermal temperature of 420 ℃ and keeping time of 6 h under atmospheric pressure. So the refined pitch is to be one of superior precursors for high-performance carbon materials.%对煤加氢热解物所得精制沥青的中间相转化行为进行了研究,发现其在440℃、1 MPa下保温6h即可形成广域流线型中间相组织,说明融并性能良好;在常压、420℃、6h的热处理条件下,添加1%炭黑,制备出了表面光滑、球形度好、粒径集中的中间相炭微球.该精制沥青可以作为高性能炭材料的优良前躯体.

  3. Preparation and co-combustion of whole plants in a coal dust furnace; Aufbereitung und Mitverbrennung von Ganzpflanzen mit Steinkohle in einer Staubfeuerung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegle, V.; Spliethoff, H.; Hein, K.R.G. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Verfahrenstechnik und Dampfkesselwesen (IVD)

    1996-12-31

    Co-combustion is a favourable and simple way of utilizing biomass. Owing to the high energy density of grains, whole plants must be ground very thoroughly for use in a coal dust furnace. This can be done with low energy consumption in a hammer mill. In addition, multifuel swirl burners permit selective supply of fuel and low-NO{sub x} combustion. The fuel with the highest nitrogen content should be blown into the inner recirculation zone. (orig) [Deutsch] Die Mitverbrennung von Biomasse ist eine guenstige und schnell zu realisierende Moeglichkeit, Biomasse in grossem Umfang zu nutzen. Um Ganzpflanzen in einer Staubfeuerung mitverbrennen zu koennen, muessen diese aufgrund der hohen Energiedichte der Koerner sehr fein aufgemahlen werden. Dies ist mit einer Hammermuehle mit geringem Energieeinsatz moeglich. Durch eine geeignete Sichtung muss diese jedoch noch weiter optimiert werden. Mit Multi-Fuel-Drallbrennern ist eine stickoxidarme Verbrennung moeglich. Der Brennstoff, der den groesseren Stickstoffeintrag in die Flamme bewirkt, soltle in die innere Rezirkulationszone eingeblasen werden. (orig)

  4. Influences of Different Preparation Conditions on Catalytic Activity of Ag2O-Co3O4/γ-Al2O3 for Hydrogenation of Coal Pyrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of catalysts of Ag2O-Co3O4/γ-Al2O3 was prepared by equivalent volume impregnation method. The effects of the metal loading, calcination time, and calcination temperatures of Ag and Co, respectively, on the catalytic activity were investigated. The optimum preparing condition of Ag2O-Co3O4/γ-Al2O3 was decided, and then the influence of different preparation conditions on catalytic activity of Ag2O-Co3O4/γ-Al2O3 was analyzed. The results showed the following: (1 at the same preparation condition, when silver loading was 8%, the Ag2O-Co3O4/γ-Al2O3 showed higher catalyst activity, (2 the catalyst activity had obviously improved when the cobalt loading was 8%, while it was weaker at loadings 5% and 10%, (3 the catalyst activity was influenced by different calcination temperatures of silver, but the influences were not marked, (4 the catalyst activity can be influenced by calcination time of silver, (5 different calcination times of cobalt can also influence the catalyst activity of Ag2O-Co3O4/γ-Al2O3, and (6 the best preparation conditions of the Ag2O-Co3O4/γ-Al2O3 were silver loading of 8%, calcination temperature of silver of 450°C, and calcinations time of silver of 4 h, while at the same time the cobalt loading was 8%, the calcination temperature of cobalt was 450°C, and calcination time of cobalt was 4 h.

  5. Study on the new process for preparing the additives with black liquor and the slurry ability for coal water slurry%造纸黑液制水煤浆添加剂新技术和制浆性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李寒旭; 徐江华; 纪明俊; 张宏伟; 白成志

    2001-01-01

    By using the lignin,organic acid and polyose in pulping waste liquid(bl ack liquor),a new process for additive preparation and the cheaper and good qual ities additives for coal water slurry,of which the properties are similar with t he products prepared in 500ml reactor,are developed in 20L reactor by a series o f process sulphonated,condensed and modified and combined.The additives from pul ping waste liquid and other two additives were investigated in the preparation o f coal water slurry.The features of coal water slurry prepared by them are simil ar with or better than the additives which is used in industrial plant.%充分利用造纸黑液中的木质素、有机酸和聚糖类化合物,在20L反应釜中,进行磺化 、缩合、改性复配制取水煤浆添加剂小试放大试验的研究。对义马煤可以制出浓度在63%~6 4% ,流动性好,性能稳定的水煤浆,性能达到或超过目前国内工业TEAXCO气化装置所用的添加 剂。

  6. Recovery bituminous coal fines: a discussion on the production of coal-water slurry fuels and its relationship to fine coal cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, J.L.; Scaroni, A.W.; Battista, J.J. [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States)

    1998-12-31

    The recovery of bituminous coal fines from slurry impoundments and fine coal cleaning circuits has received considerable attention over the last decade from both coal suppliers and coal-fired utilities. Several coal-fired utilities are presently determining whether a low-solids, low viscosity coal-water slurry fuel (CWSF) produced from fine coal can be co-fired with their normal coal feedstock in order to lower their fuel cost and reduce their NO{sub x} emissions. One of the most visible CWSF demonstration programs in the United States is being conducted by GPU Generating, Inc. (GPU Genco). GPU Genco has conducted intermittent demonstration co-fire testing at their 218 MWe-Seward Station since 1993. These tests successfully demonstrate that a low-solids CWSF can be co-fired with pulverized coal in wall-and tangentially-fired boilers. The majority of the CWSF tested at Seward has been prepared from impounded coal fines cleaned via froth flotation and, on a more limited basis, a CWSF prepared from coal fines concentrated from a screen-bowl centrifuge effluent. The production of alow-solids CWSF from wet, fine coal provides an alternative to dewatering. This paper summarizes several fine coal recovery and utilization programs conducted by Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) and GPU Genco during the last five years. These programs range from performing bench-to-pilot-scale cleanability and pilot-scale combustion testing to full-scale utility demonstration tests. All of these successful programs have a common thread of integrating and addressing the issues of fine coal characterization, cleaning handling, and the combustion performance of the CWSF. 8 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  7. LLNL NESHAPs 2004 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrach, R; Gallegos, G; Peterson, R; Wilson, K; Harrach, R J; Gallegos, G M; Peterson, S R; Wilson, K R

    2005-06-27

    This annual report is prepared pursuant to the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs; Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61, Subpart H). Subpart H governs radionuclide emissions to air from Department of Energy (DOE) facilities.

  8. China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aden, Nathaniel; Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina

    2009-07-01

    future coal consumption is likely to come from the burgeoning coal-liquefaction and chemicals industries. If coal to chemicals capacity reaches 70 million tonnes and coal-to-liquids capacity reaches 60 million tonnes, coal feedstock requirements would add an additional 450 million tonnes by 2025. Even with more efficient growth among these drivers, China's annual coal demand is expected to reach 3.9 to 4.3 billion tonnes by 2025. Central government support for nuclear and renewable energy has not reversed China's growing dependence on coal for primary energy. Substitution is a matter of scale: offsetting one year of recent coal demand growth of 200 million tonnes would require 107 billion cubic meters of natural gas (compared to 2007 growth of 13 BCM), 48 GW of nuclear (compared to 2007 growth of 2 GW), or 86 GW of hydropower capacity (compared to 2007 growth of 16 GW). Ongoing dependence on coal reduces China's ability to mitigate carbon dioxide emissions growth. If coal demand remains on a high growth path, carbon dioxide emissions from coal combustion alone would exceed total US energy-related carbon emissions by 2010. Within China's coal-dominated energy system, domestic transportation has emerged as the largest bottleneck for coal industry growth and is likely to remain a constraint to further expansion. China has a low proportion of high-quality reserves, but is producing its best coal first. Declining quality will further strain production and transport capacity. Furthermore, transporting coal to users has overloaded the train system and dramatically increased truck use, raising transportation oil demand. Growing international imports have helped to offset domestic transport bottlenecks. In the long term, import demand is likely to exceed 200 million tonnes by 2025, significantly impacting regional markets.

  9. Lithium insertion into boron containing carbons prepared by co-pyrolysis of coal-tar pitch and borane-pyridine complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machnikowski, J.; Frackowiak, E.; Kierzek, K.; Waszak, D.; Benoit, R.; Beguin, F. [Wroclaw University of Technology, Wroclaw (Poland)

    2004-03-01

    Carbon materials of boron content ranging from 0.6 to 4 wt.% were synthesized by co-pyrolysis of QI-free coal-tar pitch with the borane-pyridine complex. The growing amount of boron introduced into the carbonaceous material is associated with an increase in nitrogen content and a progressive degradation of structural and textural ordering. The structural variations of the boron-doped materials on heat treatment up to 2500{sup o}C were monitored using X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The intrinsic boron acts effectively as a catalyst of graphitization above 2100{sup o}C. The carbonaceous material with boron content of about 1.5 wt% shows the highest degree of structural ordering after thermal treatment. A high amount of oxygen was found in the graphitized boronated carbons, proving that the incorporated boron induces a strong chemisorption activity of the material when exposed to air. For a series of cokes calcined at 1000 {sup o}C, the most striking effect of increasing the boron content is an increase of irreversible capacity X-irr from 0.2 to 0.7. The reversible capacity (X-rev) amounts to about 1, with a slight tendency to decrease with the boron content. Upon increasing the temperature up to 2500{sup o}C, X-irr decreases to about 0.1 in the graphitic carbons, while X-rev reaches a minimum of 0.4-0.5 at 1700{sup o}C and next increases to a value close to 1 at 2500{sup o}C. In the boron doped graphite, X-irr has a slight tendency to increase with the boron content, due to the simultaneous presence of nitrogen in these materials and their strong affinity for oxygen from the atmosphere.

  10. Preparation of High Purity V2O5 from a Typical Low-Grade Refractory Stone Coal Using a Pyro-Hydrometallurgical Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Yang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The recovery of vanadium from a typical low-grade refractory stone coal was investigated using a pyro-hydrometallurgical process specifically including blank roasting, acid leaching, solvent extraction, and chemical precipitation. The appropriate role of parameters in each process was analyzed in detail. Roasting temperature and roasting time during the roasting process showed a significant effect on leaching efficiency of vanadium. Using H2SO4 as a leaching agent, vanadium leaching efficiency can achieve above 90% under the optimum leaching conditions of CaF2 dosage of 5%, sulfuric acid concentration of 4 mol/L, liquid to solid ratio of 2:1 mL/g, leaching time of 2 h, and leaching temperature of 95 °C. 99.10% of vanadium can be extracted from the leaching solution in three stages under the conditions of initial pH of 1.6, trioctylamine (TOA extractant concentration of 20% (vol, phase ratio (A/O of 2, and reaction time of 2 min. 1.0 mol/L NaOH was used to strip vanadium from the extracted solvent phase. After purification and precipitation, vanadium can be crystallized as ammonium metavanadate. The V2O5 product with a purity of 99.75% is obtained after ammonium metavanadate thermal decomposition at 550 °C for 2 h. The total vanadium recovery in the whole process is above 88%. This process has advantages of short operation time, high vanadium extraction efficiency, and high purity of the product.

  11. Dewatering of fine coal using hyperbaric centrifugation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramazan Asmatulu; Gerald H. Luttrell; Roe-Hoan Yoon [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA (US). Center for Advanced Separation Technologies

    2005-09-01

    Many coal preparation plants are forced to discard their fine coal because of the inability of existing technologies to reduce the moisture content of this product to an acceptable level. In an effort to overcome this problem, a new mechanical dewatering method has been developed that combines centrifugation with pressure filtration. The process, which may be referred to as hyperbaric centrifugation, is capable of producing a drier product than can be achieved using either filtration or centrifugation alone. The test data obtained from batch experiments show that the new method can reduce cake moisture to 10% or below for many fine coal product streams.

  12. Coal prep in Brazil: the Polish approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zilli, C.B.

    1988-02-01

    With one exception, all coal mined in Brazil is washed at the pit head because of its high dirt content. Since the early 1970s five complete coal preparation plants have been designed and constructed by a consortium, using Polish technology. Among the changes effected by the Polish engineers was the introduction of Polish designed equipment. These have led to several small modifications on the usual flowsheet design, which have increased recoveries. 4 figs.

  13. Biogenic Methane from Coal: The Oxidation Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, L. K.; Glossner, A. W.; Landkamer, L.; Figueroa, L. A.; Mandernack, K. W.; Munakata Marr, J.

    2011-12-01

    Vast reserves of coal represent an untapped resource that can be used to produce methane gas, a cleaner energy alternative compared to standard fossil fuels. Microorganisms have demonstrated the ability to utilize coal as a carbon source, producing biogenic methane. With increasing demand for cleaner energy resources, understanding and enhancing biogenic methane production has become an area of active research. The conversion of coal to methane by microorganisms has been demonstrated experimentally by a number of research groups, but the state of the coal used as a substrate has not always been reported and may impact biogenic methane production. Microcosm experiments were designed in order to assess how the oxidation state of coal might influence methane production (e.g. as in a dewatered coal-bed natural gas system). Oxidized and un-oxidized coal samples from the Powder River Basin were incubated in microcosms inoculated with an enrichment culture that was derived from coal. Microcosms were characterized by headspace gas analysis, organic acid production, functional gene abundance (qPCR), and pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Although the microbial consortium demonstrated the ability to utilize both oxidized and un-oxidized coal as a sole carbon source to generate methane, it was produced in higher quantities from the un-oxidized coal. This microbial community was dominated by Methanobacteriaceae (45%), epsilon-Proteobacteria (32%) and delta-Proteobacteria (13%). The results of this study provide a basis to develop strategies to enhance biogenic methane production from coal, as well as demonstrate the need for careful substrate preparation for inter-study comparisons.

  14. Estimates and Predictions of Coal Workers' Pneumoconiosis Cases among Redeployed Coal Workers of the Fuxin Mining Industry Group in China: A Historical Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bing; Liu, Hongbo; Zhai, Guojiang; Wang, Qun; Liang, Jie; Zhang, Mengcang; Cui, Kai; Shen, Fuhai; Yi, Hongbo; Li, Yuting; Zhai, Yuhan; Sheng, Yang; Chen, Jie

    2016-01-01

    This research was aimed at estimating possible Coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) cases as of 2012, and predicting future CWP cases among redeployed coal workers from the Fuxin Mining Industry Group. This study provided the scientific basis for regulations on CWP screening and diagnosis and labor insurance policies for redeployed coal workers of resource-exhausted mines. The study cohort included 19,116 coal workers. The cumulative incidence of CWP was calculated by the life-table method. Possible CWP cases by occupational category were estimated through the average annual incidence rate of CWP and males' life expectancy. It was estimated that 141 redeployed coal workers might have suffered from CWP as of 2012, and 221 redeployed coal workers could suffer from CWP in the future. It is crucial to establish a set of feasible and affordable regulations on CWP screening and diagnosis as well as labor insurance policies for redeployed coal workers of resource-exhausted coal mines in China.

  15. Estimates and Predictions of Coal Workers’ Pneumoconiosis Cases among Redeployed Coal Workers of the Fuxin Mining Industry Group in China: A Historical Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bing; Liu, Hongbo; Zhai, Guojiang; Wang, Qun; Liang, Jie; Zhang, Mengcang; Cui, Kai; Shen, Fuhai; Yi, Hongbo; Li, Yuting; Zhai, Yuhan; Sheng, Yang; Chen, Jie

    2016-01-01

    This research was aimed at estimating possible Coal workers’ pneumoconiosis (CWP) cases as of 2012, and predicting future CWP cases among redeployed coal workers from the Fuxin Mining Industry Group. This study provided the scientific basis for regulations on CWP screening and diagnosis and labor insurance policies for redeployed coal workers of resource-exhausted mines. The study cohort included 19,116 coal workers. The cumulative incidence of CWP was calculated by the life-table method. Possible CWP cases by occupational category were estimated through the average annual incidence rate of CWP and males’ life expectancy. It was estimated that 141 redeployed coal workers might have suffered from CWP as of 2012, and 221 redeployed coal workers could suffer from CWP in the future. It is crucial to establish a set of feasible and affordable regulations on CWP screening and diagnosis as well as labor insurance policies for redeployed coal workers of resource-exhausted coal mines in China. PMID:26845337

  16. A comparative overview of coal-water slurry fuels produced from waste coal fines for utility-scale co-firing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, J.L.; Miller, B.G.; Scaroni, A.W. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)] [and others

    1997-07-01

    The recovery and utilization of coal fines, both impounded and in cleaning plant effluent streams, have received close attention from both coal producers and coal-fixed utilities during the last few years. Many coal producers view impounded fines as an environmental liability and the discarded fines in plant effluent streams as contributing to a loss in Btu recovery. In addition, the rejected coal fines increase the quantity and cost of refuse disposal. The handleability of fine coal has always been a problem. Dewatering cleaned fine coal is costly. Excessive fugitive dust emissions are commonly associated with handling dry fine coal. Wet fine coal sticks to conveyor belts, blocks fuel chutes, and may limit pulverizer capacity. The preparation of coal water slurry fuel (CWSF) from wet coal fines alleviates the necessity of drying while at the same time eliminates the flow problems that wet fine coal poses to the end user. Furthermore, the utilization of CWSF as an opportunity fuel converts coal fines into a revenue source rather than a liability. Several utilities are evaluating the co-firing of low solids, low viscosity CWSF with their normal coal feedstock in an effort to lower fuel cost and/or as a NO{sub x} reduction technique. The utilization of this opportunity fuel is being driven by a changing electric industry in which utilities continually strive to reduce plant emissions while simultaneously reducing their operating costs to become more competitive as the generation side of the industry prepares for deregulation.

  17. 2016 Annual Technology Baseline (ATB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Wesley; Kurup, Parthiv; Hand, Maureen; Feldman, David; Sigrin, Benjamin; Lantz, Eric; Stehly, Tyler; Augustine, Chad; Turchi, Craig; O' Connor, Patrick; Waldoch, Connor

    2016-09-01

    Consistent cost and performance data for various electricity generation technologies can be difficult to find and may change frequently for certain technologies. With the Annual Technology Baseline (ATB), National Renewable Energy Laboratory provides an organized and centralized dataset that was reviewed by internal and external experts. It uses the best information from the Department of Energy laboratory's renewable energy analysts and Energy Information Administration information for conventional technologies. The ATB will be updated annually in order to provide an up-to-date repository of current and future cost and performance data. Going forward, we plan to revise and refine the values using best available information. The ATB includes both a presentation with notes (PDF) and an associated Excel Workbook. The ATB includes the following electricity generation technologies: land-based wind; offshore wind; utility-scale solar PV; concentrating solar power; geothermal power; hydropower plants (upgrades to existing facilities, powering non-powered dams, and new stream-reach development); conventional coal; coal with carbon capture and sequestration; integrated gasification combined cycle coal; natural gas combustion turbines; natural gas combined cycle; conventional biopower. Nuclear laboratory's renewable energy analysts and Energy Information Administration information for conventional technologies. The ATB will be updated annually in order to provide an up-to-date repository of current and future cost and performance data. Going forward, we plan to revise and refine the values using best available information.

  18. Coal resources of Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Frank Darwyn

    1953-01-01

    The Indiana coal field forms the eastern edge of the eastern interior coal basin, which is near some of the most densely populated and highly productive manufacturing areas of the United States. (See fig. 1. ) For this reason Indiana coal reserves are an important State and National asset. In dollar value the coal mining industry is the largest of Indiana's natural-resource-producing industries. The total value of coil production for the year 1950 was more than 100 million dollars, or more than that of all other natural-resource industries in the State combined. As estimated herein, the original coal reserves of Indiana total 37,293 million tons, of which 27,320 million tons is contained in beds more than 42 inches thick; 7,632 million tons in beds 28 to 49. inches thick; and 2,341 million tons in beds 14 to 28 inches thick. The remaining reserves as of January 1951, total 35,806 million tons, of which 18,779 million tons is believed to be recoverable. The distribution of the reserves in these several categories is summarized by counties in table 1. Of the total original reserves of 37,293 million tons, 6,355 million tons can be classified as measured; 8,657 million tons as indicated; and 22,281 million tons as inferred. Strippable reserves constitute 3,524 million tons, or 9.5 percent of the total original reserves. The distribution of the strippable and nonstrippable original reserves is summarized in tables 2 and 3 by counties and by several categories, according to the thickness of the beds and the relative abundance and reliability of the information available for preparing the estimates. The distribution of the estimated 18,779 million tons of recoverable strippable and nonstrippable reserves in Indiana is further summarized by counties in table 4, and the information is presented graphically in figures 2 and 3. The tables i to 4 and figures 2 and 3 include beds in the 14- to 28-inch category, because thin beds have been mined in many places. However, many

  19. Comparative Studies on the Combustion Kinetics of Chars Prepared from Brown and Bituminous Coals under Air (O_2/N_2) and Oxy-fuel (O_2/CO_2) Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyun-Seok; Wada, Nozomi; Nozawa, Sohey; Matsushita, Yohsuke; Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi; Oomori, Motohira; Harada, Tatsuro; Miyawaki, Jin; Yoon, Seong-Ho; Mochida, Isao

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the application of a solid-gas reaction model which can describe the combustion and gasification mechanism for air (O_2/N_2) and oxy-fuel (O_2/CO_2) conditions. Loy Yang brown coal was used as a sample after pyrolysis, together with Newlands coal as bituminous coal for comparison of coal ranks. By carrying out the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) run under non-isothermal conditions, chemical reaction rates of partial oxidation reaction and gasification reaction were esti...

  20. Applied coal petrology: the role of petrology in coal utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isabel Suarez-Ruiz; John Crelling [Instituto Nacional del Carbon (INCAR-CSIC), Oviedo (Spain)

    2008-08-15

    This book is an integrated approach towards the applications of coal (organic) petrology and discusses the role of this science in the field of coal and coal-related topics. Contents are: Introduction 2. Basic factors controlling coal quality and technological behaviour of coal 3. Mining and benefication 4. Coal combustion 5. Coal gasification 6. Coal liquefaction 7. Coal carbonisation 8. Coal-derived carbons 9. Coal as a Petroleum source rock and reservoir rock 10. Environmental and health aspects 11. Other applications of coal petrology.

  1. 利用电厂粉煤灰制备蒸养标准砖%Preparation of Standard Brick with Coal Ash of Power Plant by Steam Curing Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    荣令坤; 张金山; 赵俊梅

    2011-01-01

    利用包头地区电厂粉煤灰、少量水泥、河砂,在碱性复合激发剂存在的情况下通过湿热养护工艺制成承重标准砖.试验采用单因索试验设计,得到粉煤灰掺量58.3%的粉煤灰砖,湿热养护28 d抗压强度18.7 MPa,抗折强度3.4 MPa.对影响砖体强度的几个主要因素进行了分析.%The load-bearing standard brick was prepared by coal ash from a power plant of Baotou by wet thermo-curing method under alkaline compound activator, with addition of small quantity of cement and river sand. Through the singlefactor experiments,the bricks with fly ash contents of up to 58.3% were obtained and its compressive strength of the brick reached 18.7 MPa,and bending strength 3.4 MPa at thermo-curing of 28 d. Then,some factors influencing the hardness of the brick were analyzed.

  2. New Chute Noise and Vibration Control Design of the Coal Preparation Plant%选煤厂新型溜槽噪声与振动控制设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴斌; 安学利

    2013-01-01

    对选煤厂新型溜槽进行噪声与振动控制设计,使溜槽的结构具有良好的吸振性能,降低溜槽的辐射噪声,使其满足工作场所卫生要求;并且使溜槽能承受较大的冲击力而不发生破裂现象,具有良好的耐磨性能和抗冲击性能,提高目前常规结构溜槽的使用寿命。%In this paper, new chute noise and vibration control design of the coal preparation plant is specified. and then the chute structure has a good absorbing vibration performance, reduce the radiated noise of chute, to make it meet the requirements of the workplace health;And the chute can bear larger impact force without fracture phenomenon, has good wear resistance and shock resistance, prolonging the service life of the conventional structure chute.

  3. Pulverized coal and substitute fuels for the cement manufacturing industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobrowsky, F.

    1981-01-01

    This paper comprises an article of general technical interest on coal and its use in the cement industry, plus the scope for using substitute fuels. Discusses coal properties and preparation (crushing). Describes the heating systems of the cement ovens: burners, combustion and parameters governing flame-length. Looks at operation problems connected with heating of the coal: caking, fusing, clinker quality and behaviour of the refractory bricks. Also discusses substitute fuels: type of fuel, scope for utilisation and requisite precautions. 32 refs.

  4. 29 CFR 1401.37 - Annual report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Annual report. 1401.37 Section 1401.37 Labor Regulations... Disclosure of Information § 1401.37 Annual report. The Office of the Director shall annually, within 60 days following the close of each calendar year, prepare a report covering each of the categories or records to...

  5. 34 CFR 601.20 - Annual report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Annual report. 601.20 Section 601.20 Education... Covered Institutions and Institution-Affiliated Organizations § 601.20 Annual report. Each covered... preferred lender arrangement, must— (a) Prepare and submit to the Secretary an annual report, by a...

  6. Risø annual report 2001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2002-01-01

    In this annual report, we present a small selection of Risø’s achievements in 2001. A more detailed review of Risø’s projects can be found in the Risø Annual Accounts for 2001 as well as in the annual progress reports prepared by the individual researchdepartments....

  7. 7 CFR 915.32 - Annual report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Annual report. 915.32 Section 915.32 Agriculture... Regulating Handling Administrative Body § 915.32 Annual report. The committee shall, as soon as practicable after the close of each fiscal year, prepare and mail an annual report to the Secretary, and to...

  8. 15 CFR 9.11 - Annual report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Annual report. 9.11 Section 9.11... FOR HOUSEHOLD APPLIANCES AND EQUIPMENT TO EFFECT ENERGY CONSERVATION § 9.11 Annual report. The Secretary will prepare an annual report of activities under the program, including an evaluation of...

  9. 7 CFR 922.34 - Annual report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Annual report. 922.34 Section 922.34 Agriculture... IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Administrative Body § 922.34 Annual report. The committee shall, prior to the last day of each fiscal period, prepare and mail an annual report to the...

  10. 36 CFR 901.5 - Annual report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Annual report. 901.5 Section... CORPORATION § 901.5 Annual report. The Executive Director shall prepare annually a comprehensive and detailed report of the Corporation's operations, activities, and accomplishments for the review of the Board...

  11. 32 CFR 48.601 - Annual report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Annual report. 48.601 Section 48.601 National... SERVICEMAN'S FAMILY PROTECTION PLAN Miscellaneous § 48.601 Annual report. Information and data for the preparation of the annual report of the Board of Actuaries will be compiled by the Office of the Secretary...

  12. 32 CFR 295.8 - Annual report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Annual report. 295.8 Section 295.8 National... INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM OFFICE OF THE INSPECTOR GENERAL, FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM § 295.8 Annual report. The FOIA Annual Report, assigned Report Control System DD-PA (A) 1365, will be prepared by...

  13. 10 CFR 765.23 - Annual report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Annual report. 765.23 Section 765.23 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Procedures for Submitting and Processing Reimbursement Claims § 765.23 Annual report. The Department shall prepare annually a report summarizing pertinent information concerning claims submitted in the...

  14. 42 CFR 456.712 - Annual report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Annual report. 456.712 Section 456.712 Public... Management System for Outpatient Drug Claims § 456.712 Annual report. (a) DUR Board report. The State must require the DUR Board to prepare and submit an annual DUR report to the Medicaid agency that...

  15. 7 CFR 916.34 - Annual report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Annual report. 916.34 Section 916.34 Agriculture... Regulating Handling Administrative Body § 916.34 Annual report. The committee shall, as soon as is practicable after the close of each marketing season, prepare and mail an annual report to the Secretary...

  16. 15 CFR 16.14 - Annual report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Annual report. 16.14 Section 16.14 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROCEDURES FOR A VOLUNTARY CONSUMER PRODUCT INFORMATION LABELING PROGRAM § 16.14 Annual report. The Secretary will prepare an annual report of...

  17. 7 CFR 920.34 - Annual report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Annual report. 920.34 Section 920.34 Agriculture... Administrative Body § 920.34 Annual report. The committee shall, as soon as is practicable after the close of each marketing season, prepare and mail an annual report to the Secretary and make a copy available...

  18. 7 CFR 923.34 - Annual report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Annual report. 923.34 Section 923.34 Agriculture... COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Administrative Body § 923.34 Annual report. The committee shall, prior to the last day of each fiscal period, prepare and mail an annual report to the...

  19. 7 CFR 924.34 - Annual report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Annual report. 924.34 Section 924.34 Agriculture....34 Annual report. The committee shall, prior to the last day of each fiscal period, prepare and mail an annual report to the Secretary and make a copy available to each handler and grower who requests...

  20. 7 CFR 925.32 - Annual report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Annual report. 925.32 Section 925.32 Agriculture... SOUTHEASTERN CALIFORNIA Administrative Body § 925.32 Annual report. The committee should, as soon as practicable, after the close of each fiscal period, prepare and mail an annual report to the Secretary...

  1. 7 CFR 947.35 - Annual report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Annual report. 947.35 Section 947.35 Agriculture... Administrative Committee § 947.35 Annual report. The committee shall prepare and submit to the Secretary, within 2 months following the last day of each fiscal period, an annual report covering such fiscal...

  2. Two-in-one fuel combining sugar cane with low rank coal and its CO₂ reduction effects in pulverized-coal power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Wook; Bae, Jong-Soo; Lee, Young-Joo; Park, Se-Joon; Hong, Jai-Chang; Lee, Byoung-Hwa; Jeon, Chung-Hwan; Choi, Young-Chan

    2013-02-05

    Coal-fired power plants are facing to two major independent problems, namely, the burden to reduce CO(2) emission to comply with renewable portfolio standard (RPS) and cap-and-trade system, and the need to use low-rank coal due to the instability of high-rank coal supply. To address such unresolved issues, integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) with carbon capture and storage (CCS) has been suggested, and low rank coal has been upgraded by high-pressure and high-temperature processes. However, IGCC incurs huge construction costs, and the coal upgrading processes require fossil-fuel-derived additives and harsh operation condition. Here, we first show a hybrid coal that can solve these two problems simultaneously while using existing power plants. Hybrid coal is defined as a two-in-one fuel combining low rank coal with a sugar cane-derived bioliquid, such as molasses and sugar cane juice, by bioliquid diffusion into coal intrapores and precarbonization of the bioliquid. Unlike the simple blend of biomass and coal showing dual combustion behavior, hybrid coal provided a single coal combustion pattern. If hybrid coal (biomass/coal ratio = 28 wt %) is used as a fuel for 500 MW power generation, the net CO(2) emission is 21.2-33.1% and 12.5-25.7% lower than those for low rank coal and designed coal, and the required coal supply can be reduced by 33% compared with low rank coal. Considering high oil prices and time required before a stable renewable energy supply can be established, hybrid coal could be recognized as an innovative low-carbon-emission energy technology that can bridge the gulf between fossil fuels and renewable energy, because various water-soluble biomass could be used as an additive for hybrid coal through proper modification of preparation conditions.

  3. Coal markets in transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romer, R.

    1990-01-01

    Describes Colorado's coal industry, and the implementation of a nine point mining plan announced in 1988. This plan includes an environmental regulatory review, coal royalty reform, production and marketing incentives, clean coal and clean air issues, and promotion of the coal industry. Other issues to be addressed are abandoned mine reclamation, abandoned mine safety and land reclamation after surface mining. International markets for Colorado coal are also discussed.

  4. Assessing coal burnout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowe, A. [Pacific Power, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    1999-11-01

    Recent research has allowed a quantitative description of the basic process of burnout for pulverized coals to be made. The Cooperative Research Centre for Black Coal Utilization has built on this work to develop a coal combustion model which will allow plant engineers and coal company representatives to assess their coals for combustion performance. The paper describes the model and its validation and outlines how it is run. 2 figs.

  5. Coal data: A reference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-02-01

    This report, Coal Data: A Reference, summarizes basic information on the mining and use of coal, an important source of energy in the US. This report is written for a general audience. The goal is to cover basic material and strike a reasonable compromise between overly generalized statements and detailed analyses. The section ``Supplemental Figures and Tables`` contains statistics, graphs, maps, and other illustrations that show trends, patterns, geographic locations, and similar coal-related information. The section ``Coal Terminology and Related Information`` provides additional information about terms mentioned in the text and introduces some new terms. The last edition of Coal Data: A Reference was published in 1991. The present edition contains updated data as well as expanded reviews and additional information. Added to the text are discussions of coal quality, coal prices, unions, and strikes. The appendix has been expanded to provide statistics on a variety of additional topics, such as: trends in coal production and royalties from Federal and Indian coal leases, hours worked and earnings for coal mine employment, railroad coal shipments and revenues, waterborne coal traffic, coal export loading terminals, utility coal combustion byproducts, and trace elements in coal. The information in this report has been gleaned mainly from the sources in the bibliography. The reader interested in going beyond the scope of this report should consult these sources. The statistics are largely from reports published by the Energy Information Administration.

  6. Utilization of coal mine ventilation exhaust as combustion air in gas-fired turbines for electric and/or mechanical power generation. Semi-annual topical report, June 1995--August 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    Methane emitted during underground coal mining operations is a hazard that is dealt with by diluting the methane with fresh air and exhausting the contaminated air to the atmosphere. Unfortunately this waste stream may contain more than 60% of the methane resource from the coal, and in the atmosphere the methane acts as a greenhouse gas with an effect about 24.5 times greater than CO{sub 2}. Though the waste stream is too dilute for normal recovery processes, it can be used as combustion air for a turbine-generator, thereby reducing the turbine fuel requirements while reducing emissions. Preliminary analysis indicates that such a system, built using standard equipment, is economically and environmentally attractive, and has potential for worldwide application.

  7. Task 1.13 -- Data collection and database development for clean coal technology by-product characteristics and management practices. Semi-annual report, July 1--December 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pflughoeft-Hassett, D.F.

    1997-08-01

    Information from DOE projects and commercial endeavors in fluidized-bed combustion and coal gasification is the focus of this task by the Energy and Environmental Research Center. The primary goal of this task is to provide an easily accessible compilation of characterization information on CCT (Clean Coal Technology) by-products to government agencies and industry to facilitate sound regulatory and management decisions. Supporting objectives are (1) to fully utilize information from previous DOE projects, (2) to coordinate with industry and other research groups, (3) to focus on by-products from pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) and gasification, and (4) to provide information relevant to the EPA evaluation criteria for the Phase 2 decision.

  8. Seventh symposium on coal mine drainage research. NCA/BCR coal conference and Expo IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-01

    The Seventh Symposium on Coal Mine Drainage Research, sponsored by the National Coal Association and Bituminous Coal Research, Inc., was held at the Kentucky Fair and Exposition Center, Louisville, Kentucky, October 18-20, 1977. Seventeen papers from the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. Topics covered include chemical reactions of pyrite oxidation and acid formation in spoil banks, abandoned mines, etc., formation of small acid lakes from the drainage and their neutralization by natural and other neutralization measures, trace elements in acid mine drainage, ground water contamination, limnology, effects of surface mined ground reclamation and neutralization, water purification and treatment, mining and coal preparation plant waste disposal, ash and fly ash disposal (to minimize leaching from the wastes), runoff from large coal storage stockpiles during storms (prevention of environmental effects by collection and neutralization by passing through an ash pond). (LTN)

  9. International energy annual 1990. [Contains Glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1992-01-23

    The International Energy Annual presents current data and trends for production, consumption, imports, and exports of primary energy commodities in more than 190 countries, dependencies, and area of special sovereignty. Also included are prices on crude oil, petroleum products, natural gas, electricity, and coal in selected countries. (VC)

  10. Self-Scrubbing Coal -- an integrated approach to clean air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, K.E. [Custom Coals Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Carefree Coal is coal cleaned in a proprietary dense-media cyclone circuit, using ultrafine magnetite slurries, to remove noncombustible material, including up to 90% of the pyritic sulfur. Deep cleaning alone, however, cannot produce a compliance fuel from coals with high organic sulfur contents. In these cases, Self-Scrubbing Coal will be produced. Self-Scrubbing Coal is produced in the same manner as Carefree Coal except that the finest fraction of product from the cleaning circuit is mixed with limestone-based additives and briquetted. The reduced ash content of the deeply-cleaned coal will permit the addition of relatively large amounts of sorbent without exceeding boiler ash specifications or overloading electrostatic precipitators. This additive reacts with sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) during combustion of the coal to remove most of the remaining sulfur. Overall, sulfur reductions in the range of 80--90% are achieved. After nearly 5 years of research and development of a proprietary coal cleaning technology coupled with pilot-scale validation studies of this technology and pilot-scale combustion testing of Self-Scrubbing Coal, Custom Coals Corporation organized a team of experts to prepare a proposal in response to DOE`s Round IV Program Opportunity Notice for its Clean Coal Technology Program under Public Law 101-121 and Public Law 101-512. The main objective of the demonstration project is the production of a coal fuel that will result in up to 90% reduction in sulfur emissions from coal-fired boilers at a cost competitive advantage over other technologies designed to accomplish the same sulfur emissions and over naturally occurring low sulfur coals.

  11. Self-scrubbing coal{sup TM}: An integrated approach to clean air. A proposed Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    This environmental assessment (EA) was prepared by the U.S.Department of Energy (DOE), with compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, Council on Environmental Quality (CE) regulations for implementating NEPA (40 CFR 1500-1508) and DOE regulations for compliance with NEPA (10 CFR 1021), to evaluate the potential environmental impacts associated with a proposed demonstration project to be cost-shared by DOE and Custom Coals International (CCI) under the Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Demonstration Program of DOE`s Office of Fossil Energy. CCI is a Pennsylvania general partnership located in Pittsburgh, PA engaged in the commercialization of advanced coal cleaning technologies. The proposed federal action is for DOE to provide, through a cooperative agreement with CCI, cost-shared funding support for the land acquisition, design, construction and demonstration of an advanced coal cleaning technology project, {open_quotes}Self-Scrubbing Coal: An Integrated Approach to Clean Air.{close_quotes} The proposed demonstration project would take place on the site of the presently inactive Laurel Coal Preparation Plant in Shade Township, Somerset County, PA. A newly constructed, advanced design, coal preparation plant would replace the existing facility. The cleaned coal produced from this new facility would be fired in full-scale test burns at coal-fired electric utilities in Indiana, Ohio and PA as part of this project.

  12. Biogeochemistry of microbial coal-bed methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strc, D.; Mastalerz, Maria; Dawson, K.; MacAlady, J.; Callaghan, A.V.; Wawrik, B.; Turich, C.; Ashby, M.

    2011-01-01

    Microbial methane accumulations have been discovered in multiple coal-bearing basins over the past two decades. Such discoveries were originally based on unique biogenic signatures in the stable isotopic composition of methane and carbon dioxide. Basins with microbial methane contain either low-maturity coals with predominantly microbial methane gas or uplifted coals containing older, thermogenic gas mixed with more recently produced microbial methane. Recent advances in genomics have allowed further evaluation of the source of microbial methane, through the use of high-throughput phylogenetic sequencing and fluorescent in situ hybridization, to describe the diversity and abundance of bacteria and methanogenic archaea in these subsurface formations. However, the anaerobic metabolism of the bacteria breaking coal down to methanogenic substrates, the likely rate-limiting step in biogenic gas production, is not fully understood. Coal molecules are more recalcitrant to biodegradation with increasing thermal maturity, and progress has been made in identifying some of the enzymes involved in the anaerobic degradation of these recalcitrant organic molecules using metagenomic studies and culture enrichments. In recent years, researchers have attempted lab and subsurface stimulation of the naturally slow process of methanogenic degradation of coal. Copyright ?? 2011 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

  13. Outlook and Challenges for Chinese Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aden, Nathaniel T.; Fridley, David G.; Zheng, Nina

    2008-06-20

    China has been, is, and will continue to be a coal-powered economy. The rapid growth of coal demand since 2001 has created deepening strains and bottlenecks that raise questions about supply security. Although China's coal is 'plentiful,' published academic and policy analyses indicate that peak production will likely occur between 2016 and 2029. Given the current economic growth trajectory, domestic production constraints will lead to a coal gap that is not likely to be filled with imports. Urbanization, heavy industry growth, and increasing per-capita consumption are the primary drivers of rising coal usage. In 2006, the power sector, iron and steel, and cement accounted for 71% of coal consumption. Power generation is becoming more efficient, but even extensive roll-out of the highest efficiency units could save only 14% of projected 2025 coal demand. If China follows Japan, steel production would peak by 2015; cement is likely to follow a similar trajectory. A fourth wedge of future coal consumption is likely to come from the burgeoning coal-liquefaction and chemicals industries. New demand from coal-to-liquids and coal-to-chemicals may add 450 million tonnes of coal demand by 2025. Efficient growth among these drivers indicates that China's annual coal demand will reach 4.2 to 4.7 billion tonnes by 2025. Central government support for nuclear and renewable energy has not been able to reduce China's growing dependence on coal for primary energy. Few substitution options exist: offsetting one year of recent coal demand growth would require over 107 billion cubic meters of natural gas, 48 GW of nuclear, or 86 GW of hydropower capacity. While these alternatives will continue to grow, the scale of development using existing technologies will be insufficient to substitute significant coal demand before 2025. The central role of heavy industry in GDP growth and the difficulty of substituting other fuels suggest that coal consumption is

  14. Outlook and Challenges for Chinese Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aden, Nathaniel T.; Fridley, David G.; Zheng, Nina

    2008-06-20

    China has been, is, and will continue to be a coal-powered economy. The rapid growth of coal demand since 2001 has created deepening strains and bottlenecks that raise questions about supply security. Although China's coal is 'plentiful,' published academic and policy analyses indicate that peak production will likely occur between 2016 and 2029. Given the current economic growth trajectory, domestic production constraints will lead to a coal gap that is not likely to be filled with imports. Urbanization, heavy industry growth, and increasing per-capita consumption are the primary drivers of rising coal usage. In 2006, the power sector, iron and steel, and cement accounted for 71% of coal consumption. Power generation is becoming more efficient, but even extensive roll-out of the highest efficiency units could save only 14% of projected 2025 coal demand. If China follows Japan, steel production would peak by 2015; cement is likely to follow a similar trajectory. A fourth wedge of future coal consumption is likely to come from the burgeoning coal-liquefaction and chemicals industries. New demand from coal-to-liquids and coal-to-chemicals may add 450 million tonnes of coal demand by 2025. Efficient growth among these drivers indicates that China's annual coal demand will reach 4.2 to 4.7 billion tonnes by 2025. Central government support for nuclear and renewable energy has not been able to reduce China's growing dependence on coal for primary energy. Few substitution options exist: offsetting one year of recent coal demand growth would require over 107 billion cubic meters of natural gas, 48 GW of nuclear, or 86 GW of hydropower capacity. While these alternatives will continue to grow, the scale of development using existing technologies will be insufficient to substitute significant coal demand before 2025. The central role of heavy industry in GDP growth and the difficulty of substituting other fuels suggest that coal consumption is

  15. Advanced reclamation of coal refuse ponds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honaker, R.Q.; Chugh, Y.P.; Patwardhan, A. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Mining and Mineral Resources Engineering

    1998-12-31

    A vast number of coal refuse ponds represent a significant economical resource base that may also be considered to be environmentally harmful. The fine coal fraction in a preparation plant consists of the purest particles in the entire preparation plant and, thus, if recovered, could enhance the quality of the plant product. However, until recently, the ability to effectively recover fine coal has been limited due to the lack of efficient fine particle separation technologies. As a result, a large portion of the fine coal produced in the US during this century has been disposed into refuse pond along with the acid producing components of the associated gangue material. Research conducted by Southern Illinois University scientists has found that advanced fine coal cleaning technologies can be used to recover high quality coal from refuse ponds while also utilizing a novel technique for neutralizing the acid generation potential of the pyrite-rich reject stream. Various circuitry arrangements will be discussed and metallurgical results presented in this publication.

  16. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.; Phillips, D.I.; Yoon, R.H.

    1997-04-25

    The goal of this project is engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. Its scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by design and construction of a 2 t/h process development unit (PDU). Large lots of clean coal are to be produced in the PDU from three project coals. Investigation of the near-term applicability of the two advanced fine coal cleaning processes in an existing coal preparation plant is another goal of the project and is the subject of this report.

  17. Coal char fragmentation during pulverized coal combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, L.L.

    1995-07-01

    A series of investigations of coal and char fragmentation during pulverized coal combustion is reported for a suite of coals ranging in rank from lignite to low-volatile (lv) bituminous coal under combustion conditions similar to those found in commercial-scale boilers. Experimental measurements are described that utilize identical particle sizing characteristics to determine initial and final size distributions. Mechanistic interpretation of the data suggest that coal fragmentation is an insignificant event and that char fragmentation is controlled by char structure. Chars forming cenospheres fragment more extensively than solid chars. Among the chars that fragment, large particles produce more fine material than small particles. In all cases, coal and char fragmentation are seen to be sufficiently minor as to be relatively insignificant factors influencing fly ash size distribution, particle loading, and char burnout.

  18. TOXIC SUBSTANCES FROM COAL COMBUSTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A KOLKER; AF SAROFIM; CL SENIOR; FE HUGGINS; GP HUFFMAN; I OLMEZ; J LIGHTY; JOL WENDT; JOSEPH J HELBLE; MR AMES; N YAP; R FINKELMAN; T PANAGIOTOU; W SEAMES

    1998-12-08

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 identify a number of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) as candidates for regulation. Should regulations be imposed on HAP emissions from coal-fired power plants, a sound understanding of the fundamental principles controlling the formation and partitioning of toxic species during coal combustion will be needed. With support from the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC), the Electric Power Research Institute, the Lignite Research Council, and VTT (Finland), Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) has teamed with researchers from USGS, MIT, the University of Arizona (UA), the University of Kentucky (UK), the University of Connecticut (UC), the University of Utah (UU) and the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) to develop a broadly applicable emissions model useful to regulators and utility planners. The new Toxics Partitioning Engineering Model (ToPEM) will be applicable to all combustion conditions including new fuels and coal blends, low-NO combustion systems, and new power generation x plants. Development of ToPEM will be based on PSI's existing Engineering Model for Ash Formation (EMAF). This report covers the reporting period from 1 July 1998 through 30 September 1998. During this period distribution of all three Phase II coals was completed. Standard analyses for the whole coal samples were also completed. Mössbauer analysis of all project coals and fractions received to date has been completed in order to obtain details of the iron mineralogy. The analyses of arsenic XAFS data for two of the project coals and for some high arsenic coals have been completed. Duplicate splits of the Ohio 5,6,7 and North Dakota lignite samples were taken through all four steps of the selective leaching procedure. Leaching analysis of the Wyodak coal has recently commenced. Preparation of polished coal/epoxy pellets for probe/SEM studies is underway. Some exploratory mercury LIII XAFS work was

  19. Upgraded Coal Interest Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evan Hughes

    2009-01-08

    The Upgraded Coal Interest Group (UCIG) is an EPRI 'users group' that focuses on clean, low-cost options for coal-based power generation. The UCIG covers topics that involve (1) pre-combustion processes, (2) co-firing systems and fuels, and (3) reburn using coal-derived or biomass-derived fuels. The UCIG mission is to preserve and expand the economic use of coal for energy. By reducing the fuel costs and environmental impacts of coal-fired power generation, existing units become more cost effective and thus new units utilizing advanced combustion technologies are more likely to be coal-fired.

  20. Energy Saving and Pollution Reducing Effects of Coal Combustion Catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Zenghua; YU Zhiwu; ZHU Wentao; ZHOU Rui

    2001-01-01

    Coal catalytic agents (CCS type) have been prepared to improve coal combustion and reduce air pollution.The energy and pollution reductions resulting from the catalysts have been examined with thermal analysis and chromatography.The CCS agents lower the ignition temperature by 30-80℃ and improve the coal combustion efficiency by 10%-25%.The agents also reduce the release of carbon monoxide,sulfur dioxide,and coal particles to environment.The working mechanisms of the catalysts are discussed in terms of their participation in various physico-chemical processes during combustion.

  1. Polish legal regulations considering recovery of secondary materials from coal mining dumping grounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gawor Łukasz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article there is presented temporary situation of coal mining dumping grounds in Poland – their inventarization, localization and environmental impacts. The coal mining dumping grounds in Poland are situated in three coal basins: Upper Silesian Coal Basin, Lower Silesian Coal Basin and Lublin Coal Basin. In all mentioned areas occur ca. 270 coal mining waste dumps, covering surface of over 4400 ha. The main environmental impacts connected with dumping grounds are fire hazards, water pollution and a danger of slope sliding. The question of recovery of coal from disposed wastes with regard to legal regulations is discussed. There are presented technical methods of coal recovery considering environmental protection issues. There is a necessity and technical possibility of recovery of coal from the coal-mining waste dumps. The coal recovery reduces hazards of self-ignition and fires of the dump. It is also economically justified. The analysis of required regulations in legal system in Poland for safe exploitation of secondary materials from coal mining dumps is done. Socio-economic aspects of recovery of coal are discussed. The valid legal regulations in Poland regulate the issues connected with coal mining dumping grounds in a very general way. It is necessary to prepare supplements to the legal provisions or new regulations concerning post-mining dumping grounds.

  2. Low-rank coal research. Quarterly report, January--March 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-08-01

    This document contains several quarterly progress reports for low-rank coal research that was performed from January-March 1990. Reports in Control Technology and Coal Preparation Research are in Flue Gas Cleanup, Waste Management, and Regional Energy Policy Program for the Northern Great Plains. Reports in Advanced Research and Technology Development are presented in Turbine Combustion Phenomena, Combustion Inorganic Transformation (two sections), Liquefaction Reactivity of Low-Rank Coals, Gasification Ash and Slag Characterization, and Coal Science. Reports in Combustion Research cover Fluidized-Bed Combustion, Beneficiation of Low-Rank Coals, Combustion Characterization of Low-Rank Coal Fuels, Diesel Utilization of Low-Rank Coals, and Produce and Characterize HWD (hot-water drying) Fuels for Heat Engine Applications. Liquefaction Research is reported in Low-Rank Coal Direct Liquefaction. Gasification Research progress is discussed for Production of Hydrogen and By-Products from Coal and for Chemistry of Sulfur Removal in Mild Gas.

  3. Fluorine emission from com-bustion of steam coal of North China Plate and Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    To study the amount of fluorine emission from the combustion of the steam coal (mainly Permo-Carbonif- erous coal) from the North China Plate and Northwest China, the fluorine contents of the coal, the fly ash and the cinder in high-temperature power stations as well as mid-low temperature power stations have been analyzed. This note provides a rough estimate of the total annual amount of fluorine emission as well as emission ratio from steam coal combustion in China. Our results show that by combustion of 1 t of Permo-Carboniferous coal (containing roughly 100 g fluorine), high-temperature power stations emit roughly 90 g fluorine into the atmosphere. The fluorine emission ratio of coal combustion in high-temperature power stations is about 96% and that in mid-low temperature power stations is about 78%. A total of 800 million tons of coal is burnt in China every year, and the coal comes mainly from Permo- Carboniferous deposite in the North China Plate and Northwest China coal mines. Taking the average fluorine content of the coal used at a low value of 100 mg/kg, the total annual fluorine emission from steam coal combustion into the atmosphere is estimated to be 66398 t.

  4. Coal Combustion Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardesty, D.R. (ed.); Fletcher, T.H.; Hurt, R.H.; Baxter, L.L. (Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States))

    1991-08-01

    The objective of this activity is to support the Office of Fossil Energy in executing research on coal combustion science. This activity consists of basic research on coal combustion that supports both the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center Direct Utilization Advanced Research and Technology Development Program, and the International Energy Agency Coal Combustion Science Project. Specific tasks for this activity include: (1) coal devolatilization - the objective of this risk is to characterize the physical and chemical processes that constitute the early devolatilization phase of coal combustion as a function of coal type, heating rate, particle size and temperature, and gas phase temperature and oxidizer concentration; (2) coal char combustion -the objective of this task is to characterize the physical and chemical processes involved during coal char combustion as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, and gas phase temperature and oxygen concentration; (3) fate of mineral matter during coal combustion - the objective of this task is to establish a quantitative understanding of the mechanisms and rates of transformation, fragmentation, and deposition of mineral matter in coal combustion environments as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, the initial forms and distribution of mineral species in the unreacted coal, and the local gas temperature and composition.

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF AN ON-LINE COAL WASHABILITY ANALYZER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.D. Miller; C.L. Lin; G.H. Luttrell; G.T. Adel; Barbara Marin

    2001-06-26

    Washability analysis is the basis for nearly all coal preparation plant separations. Unfortunately, there are no on- line techniques for determining this most fundamental of all coal cleaning information. In light of recent successes at the University of Utah, it now appears possible to determine coal washability on-line through the use of x-ray computed tomography (CT) analysis. The successful development of such a device is critical to the establishment of process control and automated coal blending systems. In this regard, Virginia Tech, Terra Tek Inc., and U.S. coal producers have joined with the University of Utah and to undertake the development of an X-ray CT-based on- line coal washability analyzer with financial assistance from DOE. Each project participant brought special expertise to the project in order to create a new dimension in coal cleaning technology. The project involves development of appropriate software and extensive testing/evaluation of well-characterized coal samples from operating coal preparation plants. Data collected to date suggest that this new technology is capable of serving as a universal analyzer that can not only provide washability analysis, but also particle size distribution analysis, ash analysis, and perhaps pyritic sulfur analysis.

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF AN ON-LINE COAL WASHABILITY ANALYZER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.D. Miller

    1999-09-30

    Washability analysis is the basis for nearly all coal preparation plant separations. Unfortunately, there are no on-line techniques for determining this most fundamental of all coal cleaning information. In light of recent successes at the University of Utah, it now appears possible to determine coal washability on-line through the use of x-ray computed tomography (CT) analysis. The successful development of such a device is critical to the establishment of process control and automated coal blending systems. In this regard, Virginia Tech, Terra Tek Inc., and several eastern coal companies have joined with the University of Utah and agreed to undertake the development of a x-ray CT-based on-line coal washability analyzer with financial assistance from DOE. The three-year project will cost $594,571, of which 33% ($194,575) will be cost-shared by the participants. The project involves development of appropriate software and extensive testing/evaluation of well-characterized coal samples from operating coal preparation plants. Each project participant brings special expertise to the project which is expected to create a new dimension in coal cleaning technology. Finally, it should be noted that the analyzer may prove to be a universal analyzer capable of providing not only washability analysis, but also particle size distribution analysis, ash analysis and perhaps pyritic sulfur analysis.

  7. Biological upgrading of coal liquids. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    A large number of bacterial enrichments have been developed for their ability to utilize nitrogen and sulfur in coal liquids and the model compound naphtha. These bacteria include the original aerobic bacteria isolated from natural sources which utilize heteroatom compounds in the presence of rich media, aerobic nitrogen-utilizing bacteria and denitrifying bacteria. The most promising isolates include Mix M, a mixture of aerobic bacteria; ER15, a pyridine-utilizing isolate; ERI6, an aniline-utilizing isolate and a sewage sludge isolate. Culture optimization experiments have led to these bacteria being able to remove up to 40 percent of the sulfur and nitrogen in naphtha and coal liquids in batch culture. Continuous culture experiments showed that the coal liquid is too toxic to the bacteria to be fed without dilution or extraction. Thus either semi-batch operation must be employed with continuous gas sparging into a batch of liquid, or acid extracted coal liquid must be employed in continuous reactor studies with continuous liquid flow. Isolate EN-1, a chemical waste isolate, removed 27 percent of the sulfur and 19 percent of the nitrogen in fed batch experiments. Isolate ERI5 removed 28 percent of the nitrogen in coal liquid in 10 days in fed batch culture. The sewage sludge isolate removed 22.5 percent of the sulfur and 6.5 percent of the nitrogen from extracted coal liquid in continuous culture, and Mix M removed 17.5 percent of the nitrogen from medium containing extracted coal liquid. An economic evaluation has been prepared for the removal of nitrogen heteroatom compounds from Wilsonville coal liquid using acid extraction followed by fermentation. Similar technology can be developed for sulfur removal. The evaluation indicates that the nitrogen heteroatom compounds can be removed for $0.09/lb of coal liquid treated.

  8. Development of Treatment Device for Emulsion Preparation Water in Fully Mechanized Coal Face and Its Application%综采工作面乳化液用水处理装置的研制与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛维东; 周如禄

    2013-01-01

    To solve the problems of corrosion,scaling and clogging caused by the unqualified emulsion preparation water,in the use process of hydraulic supports and electro-hydraulic valves in fully mechanized coal faces,the treatment device for emulsion preparation water was developed by using the methods combined the medium filtration,the hardness removal by softening with the reverse osmosis desalination. The device mainly consists of the pressure regulation,filtration,hardness removal and reverse osmosis units and can effectively remove the suspended solids,colloidal substances,hardness,total dissolved solids and so on. The practice showed that the device has the features of reliable and stabile operation and easy management,can greatly reduce the malfunction rate of hydraulic supports and electro-hydraulic valves and improve the production efficiency of fully mechanized faces.%  为解决煤矿综采工作面液压支架、电液阀等设备在使用过程中,由于配制乳化液用水水质达不到规范要求而引起腐蚀、结垢或堵塞等问题,采用介质过滤、软化除硬和反渗透脱盐相结合的方法,开发出综采工作面乳化液用水处理装置。该装置主要由压力调节单元、过滤单元、除硬单元和反渗透单元等组成,能够有效去除水中的悬浮物、胶体、硬度、溶解性总固体等物质。实践表明,该装置运行稳定可靠,操作管理方便,大大降低液压支架、电液控制系统的故障率,提高了综采工作面生产效率。

  9. Discussion on Coal-base Carbonaceous Material and Activated Carbon Preparation and Properties%煤基碳质反应剂与活性炭的制备和性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晋萍

    2013-01-01

    利用先锋褐煤为原料制备碳质反应剂,采用湿法工艺脱硫除铁,解决了木炭来源对生态所造成的破坏。控制一定的酸度、浓度和液固比,利用水蒸汽活化法制备标准的活性炭。在使用了特制的添加剂后,随着活化温度的升高,各种添加剂成分具有一定的协同作用,使活化时间延长,符合产品质量的要求,提高活化温度使所需活性炭的强度。通过脱硫除杂后工业实验表明,利用活性炭的吸附性或者催化性,能够将其运用于广泛的工业领域,是今后发展特异用途很重要一点。充分利用和开发活性炭的用途,具有重要的社会、经济以及环保效益。%The use of Xianfeng brown coal as raw material to prepare carbonaceous material by wet process of FGD, iron, solves the charcoal sources caused damage to the ecology. Control of acidity, concentration and ratio of liquid to solid, using steam method for preparation of activated carbon standard. In the use of special additives, along with the activation temperature, various additive components has a synergistic effect, so the activation time, meet the requirement of product quality, improve the activation temperature so that the required activated carbon intensity. Through the desulfurization after impurity removal from industrial experiments, the use of activated carbon adsorption or catalysis, can be applied to a wide range of industries, is the future development of specific use is very important. Make full use of and develop the use of activated carbon, has important social, economic and environmental benefits.

  10. Radiant-and-plasma technology for coal processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Messerle

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Radiant-and-plasma technology for coal processing is presented in the article. Thermodynamic computation and experiments on plasma processing of bituminous coal preliminary electron-beam activated were fulfilled in comparison with plasma processing of the coal. Positive influence of the preliminary electron-beam activation of coal on synthesis gas yield was found. Experiments were carried out in the plasma gasifier of 100 kW power. As a result of the measurements of material and heat balance of the process gave the following integral indicators: weight-average temperature of 2200-2300 K, and carbon gasification degree of 82,4-83,2%. Synthesis gas yield at thermochemical preparation of raw coal dust for burning was 24,5% and in the case of electron-beam activation of coal synthesis gas yield reached 36,4%, which is 48% higher.

  11. The collective dose equivalent in evaluated region of bone-coal power stations and bone-coal shafts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Liang; JIANG Shan; KONG Ling-Li; LI Ying; YE Ji-Da; SHI Jin-Hua; WU Zong-Mei

    2005-01-01

    During 1991-1993, the radioactivity levels of the bone-coal mines were investigated in Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi, Zhejiang and Anhui Provinces, respectively, where the reserve of bone-coal is about 90% of our country's total reserve. The annual additional collective dose equivalent within 80km evaluated region of bone-coal power stations in Nijiangkou and Anren is 1.7 and 1.9 man .mSv,respectively,and that of Zhuantanyan bone-coal shaft is 1.4 man.mSv.The collective dose equivalent caused by bone-coal cinder brick produced for 25 years in the provinces is 1.6×105 man.Sv.

  12. Coal worker's pneumoconiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000130.htm Coal worker's pneumoconiosis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Coal worker's pneumoconiosis is a lung disease that results ...

  13. Fluidized coal combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, P. I.; Young, D. L.

    1979-01-01

    Fluidized-bed coal combustion process, in which pulverized coal and limestone are burned in presence of forced air, may lead to efficient, reliable boilers with low sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide emissions.

  14. Coal fires in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHE Yao(车遥); HUANG Wen-hui(黄文辉); ZHANG Ai-yun(张爱云)

    2004-01-01

    Coal fires have a very long history in China; the oldest coal fires have being burning for many million years. Up to now more than 56 coal fires spots were distinguished. They mainly locate in West-North of China, North of China and East-North of China. About millions of tons of coal have been burned in fires every year. Xinjiang Autonomy is the most serious region in coal fires as it has 38 coal fires spots and about 6.85 million tons of coal was burned every year. Coal fires in China ignited by wildfires, spontaneous combustion and human being during mining activities. These fires have released about 0.9 million tons of gasses (including CO, CO2, SO2, NO2 CH4, CO2, H2S etc.) into the atmosphere every year, most of which are brought to the east by wind and resulting more heavier air pollution in northern China.

  15. Continuous coal processing method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryason, P. R.

    1980-06-01

    A coal pump is provided in which solid coal is heated in the barrel of an extruder under pressure to a temperature at which the coal assumes plastic properties. The coal is continuously extruded, without static zones, using, for example, screw extrusion preferably without venting through a reduced diameter die to form a dispersed spray. As a result, the dispersed coal may be continuously injected into vessels or combustors at any pressure up to the maximum pressure developed in the extrusion device. The coal may be premixed with other materials such as desulfurization aids or reducible metal ores so that reactions occur, during or after conversion to its plastic state. Alternatively, the coal may be processed and caused to react after extrusion, through the die, with, for example, liquid oxidizers, whereby a coal reactor is provided.

  16. Nitrogen in Chinese coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, D.; Lei, J.; Zheng, B.; Tang, X.; Wang, M.; Hu, Jiawen; Li, S.; Wang, B.; Finkelman, R.B.

    2011-01-01

    Three hundred and six coal samples were taken from main coal mines of twenty-six provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities in China, according to the resource distribution and coal-forming periods as well as the coal ranks and coal yields. Nitrogen was determined by using the Kjeldahl method at U. S. Geological Survey (USGS), which exhibit a normal frequency distribution. The nitrogen contents of over 90% Chinese coal vary from 0.52% to 1.41% and the average nitrogen content is recommended to be 0.98%. Nitrogen in coal exists primarily in organic form. There is a slight positive relationship between nitrogen content and coal ranking. ?? 2011 Science Press, Institute of Geochemistry, CAS and Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

  17. Chemicals from coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harold A. Wittcoff; Bryan G. Reuben; Jeffrey S. Plotkin

    2004-12-01

    This chapter contains sections titled: Chemicals from Coke Oven Distillate; The Fischer-Tropsch Reaction; Coal Hydrogenation; Substitute Natural Gas (SNG); Synthesis Gas Technology; Calcium Carbide; Coal and the Environment; and Notes and References

  18. Materials for coal conversion and utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1981-01-01

    The Sixth annual conference on materials for coal conversion and utilization was held October 13-15, 1981 at the National Bureau of Standards Gaithersburg, Maryland. It was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the Electric Power Research Institute, the Gas Research Institute and the National Bureau of Standards. Fifty-eight papers from the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA; four papers had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

  19. Plasma-supported coal combustion in boiler furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Askarova, A.S.; Karpenko, E.I.; Lavrishcheva, Y.I.; Messerle, V.E.; Ustimenko, A.B. [Kazakh National University, Alma Ata (Kazakhstan). Dept. of Physics

    2007-12-15

    Plasma activation promotes more effective and environmentally friendly low-rank coal combustion. This paper presents Plasma Fuel Systems that increase the burning efficiency of coal. The systems were tested for fuel oil-free start-up of coal-fired boilers and stabilization of a pulverized-coal flame in power-generating boilers equipped with different types of burners, and burning all types of power-generating coal. Also, numerical modeling results of a plasma thermochemical preparation of pulverized coal for ignition and combustion in the furnace of a utility boiler are discussed in this paper. Two kinetic mathematical models were used in the investigation of the processes of air/fuel mixture plasma activation: ignition and combustion. A I-D kinetic code PLASMA-COAL calculates the concentrations of species, temperatures, and velocities of the treated coal/air mixture in a burner incorporating a plasma source. The I-D simulation results are initial data for the 3-D-modeling of power boiler furnaces by the code FLOREAN. A comprehensive image of plasma-activated coal combustion processes in a furnace of a pulverized-coal-fired boiler was obtained. The advantages of the plasma technology are clearly demonstrated.

  20. Model documentation, Coal Market Module of the National Energy Modeling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the objectives and the conceptual and methodological approach used in the development of the National Energy Modeling System`s (NEMS) Coal Market Module (CMM) used to develop the Annual Energy Outlook 1998 (AEO98). This report catalogues and describes the assumptions, methodology, estimation techniques, and source code of CMM`s two submodules. These are the Coal Production Submodule (CPS) and the Coal Distribution Submodule (CDS). CMM provides annual forecasts of prices, production, and consumption of coal for NEMS. In general, the CDS integrates the supply inputs from the CPS to satisfy demands for coal from exogenous demand models. The international area of the CDS forecasts annual world coal trade flows from major supply to major demand regions and provides annual forecasts of US coal exports for input to NEMS. Specifically, the CDS receives minemouth prices produced by the CPS, demand and other exogenous inputs from other NEMS components, and provides delivered coal prices and quantities to the NEMS economic sectors and regions.

  1. Considerations on coal gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzen, J. E.

    1978-01-01

    Commercial processes for the gasification of coal with oxygen are discussed. The Koppers-Totzek process for the gasification of coal dust entrained in a stream of gasifying agents is described in particular detail. The outlook for future applications of coal gasification is presented.

  2. Coal production 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-29

    Coal Production 1989 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, reserves, and stocks to a wide audience including Congress, federal and state agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. 7 figs., 43 tabs.

  3. Charbonnages de France. 1998 annual report; Charbonnages de France. Rapport Annuel 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    This annual report of the Charbonnages de France (CdF) group presents the financial results of the group for 1998: coal market, CdF's financial results (turnover, exploitation result, financial result, debt); power production (Snet, Cerchar, Surschiste, Sidec, and CdF Ingenierie activities); coal industry activities (coal mines, coke factories, coal products, environment); progressive ceasing of coal extraction (safety, manpower, reduction of working time, training, management of abandoned sites, rehabilitation, cleansing); management of industrialization and patrimony. (J.S.)

  4. 关于年度财务决算管理要求及报表编制问题理解%Understanding of Management Requirements on Annual Financial Accounts and Statement Preparation Problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张君燕

    2014-01-01

    作为集团公司每年要求各部及子公司对本年度各项任务指标完成情况进行分析说明,出具决算报表。通过对财务预算到财务决算的编制及执行,就年度财务决算管理的标准、要求,财务报表编制的涵盖内容及相关主要指标的理解与大家进行分享。%As a group company, it asks departments and subsidiaries to analyze the completion situation of the tasks in the year and issue final statements. Through the preparation and execution of financial budget and the financial accounts, the author shows her understanding on the standard and requirements of annual financial accounts management, the covering content and key indicators of the financial statement preparation to share with others.

  5. Research development of zeolites preparation from coal fly ash by microwave-hydrothermal synthesis%粉煤灰微波-水热合成法制备分子筛的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈彦广; 徐婷婷; 韩洪晶; 王新惠; 王琦旗; 韩洪伟; 宋军; 宋华

    2015-01-01

    煤炭燃烧与转化过程产生大量的固体废弃物粉煤灰,其大量排放与堆积造成的环境污染已引起人们的广泛重视,以粉煤灰为原料制备分子筛是粉煤灰资源化利用的重要途径。传统水热合成加热方式所需合成时间较长,能量消耗量大;微波加热可极大地缩短反应时间,并对产物晶粒大小、纯度和分子筛产品性能有明显改善。本文介绍了微波-水热合成法将粉煤灰转化为不同类型分子筛的反应机理及其所制备的分子筛产品的应用,分析了粉煤灰制备分子筛过程中阴离子和阳离子、前驱液的碱度、晶种、加热方式等关键因素的影响,讨论了粉煤灰经过分级处理和除杂后,用微波-水热相结合替代传统加热对分子筛产品纯度、晶粒尺寸、孔径分布的调控和优化规律,为粉煤灰合成不同种类分子筛提供了重要的理论指导与发展方向。同时提出了将煤粉炉粉煤灰经除杂和分级处理获取其中的硅铝组分、通过调控硅铝比以微波-水热合成制备方沸石的新工艺,为粉煤灰资源化利用开辟了新途径。%Coal fly ash(CFA),a solid waste formed in the process of coal combustion and conversion has caused serious environmental pollution by large-scale emission and accumulation,and has attracted extensive attention. Preparation of zeolite from CFA is an important way for resource utilization of CFA. It takes longer crystallization time and more energy in the hydrothermal synthesis process by traditional heating method than by the microwave heating method. Moreover,it is easier to obtain zeolite with fine grain size and high performance by the microwave-hydrothermal synthesis method. The mechanism and application of different types of zeolite from CFA by the microwave hydrothermal synthesis method were introduced. The effects of cations and anions,alkalinity of liquid precursor, seeding and heating manner were analyzed

  6. COAL COMBUSTION EFFICIENCY IN CFB BOILER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hairui Yang; Guangxi Yue

    2005-01-01

    The carbon content in the fly ash from most Chinese circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers is much higher than expected, thus directly influencing the combustion efficiency. In the present paper, carbon burnout was investigated both in field tests and laboratory experiments. The effect of coal property, operation condition, gas-solid mixing, char deactivation,residence time and cyclone performance are analyzed seriatim based on large amount of experimental results.A coal index is proposed to describe the coal rank, defined by the ratio of the volatile content to the coal heat value, is a useful parameter to analyze the char burnout. The carbon content in the fly ash depends on the coal rank strongly. CFB boilers burning anthracite, which has low coal index, usually have high carbon content in the fly ash. On the contrary, the CFB boilers burning brown coal, which has high coal index, normally have low carbon content.Poor gas-solid mixing in the furnace is another important reason of the higher carbon content in the fly ash. Increasing the velocity and rigidity of the secondary air could extend the penetration depth and induce more oxygen into the furnace center. Better gas solid mixing will decrease the lean oxygen core area and increase char combustion efficiency.The fine char particles could be divided into two groups according to their reactivity. One group is "fresh" char particles with high reactivity and certain amount of volatile content. The other group of char particles has experienced sufficient combustion time both in the furnace and in the cyclone, with nearly no volatile. These "old" chars in the fly ash will be deactivated during combustion of large coal particles and have very low carbon reactivity. The generated fine inert char particles by attrition of large coal particles could not easily burn out even with the fly ash recirculation. The fraction of large coal particles in coal feed should be reduced during fuel preparation process.The cyclone

  7. East coast coal still making history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, C.

    2006-09-15

    The Nova Scotia Department of Natural Resources offered several small surface strip mine leases for bids, but discontinued the practice because of complaints from the public. Pioneer Coal Ltd. is planning a surface coal mine and reclamation project at Prince mine, Point Aconi, Cape Breton. Although the environment assessment application for the mine received provincial approval in 2005, the $1.6 million development still faces public opposition. In New Brunswick, NB Coal Limited is operating the Salmon Harbour Mine at Minto. The annual production of about 150,000 tons is consumed by the Grand Lake thermal generating station. The mine was to be shut down in 2004, but the economic costs are favourable; so despite a strip ratio of 56 to 1, it is planned to continue mining the seam until 2010. The Xstrata Donkin Mine Development Alliance and three partners are conducting a feasibility study of development of the Donkin coal resource block in Cape Breton. The block contains an estimated 200 million tonnes of metallurgical and thermal coal. 1 photo.

  8. Plasma coal reprocessing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messerle, V. E.; Ustimenko, A. B.

    2013-12-01

    Results of many years of investigations of plasma-chemical technologies for pyrolysis, hydrogenation, thermochemical preparation for combustion, gasification, and complex reprocessing of solid fuels and hydrocarbon gas cracking are represented. Application of these technologies for obtaining the desired products (hydrogen, industrial carbon, synthesis gas, valuable components of the mineral mass of coal) corresponds to modern ecological and economical requirements to the power engineering, metallurgy, and chemical industry. Plasma fuel utilization technologies are characterized by the short-term residence of reagents within a reactor and the high degree of the conversion of source substances into the desired products without catalyst application. The thermochemical preparation of the fuel to combustion is realized in a plasma-fuel system presenting a reaction chamber with a plasmatron; and the remaining plasma fuel utilization technologies, in a combined plasma-chemical reactor with a nominal power of 100 kW, whose zone of the heat release from an electric arc is joined with the chemical reaction zone.

  9. Analysis of co-integration and causality between coal consumption and economic growth in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, X.; Zhao, X.; Gu, R. [North China Electric Power University, Beijing (China)

    2008-06-15

    Using annual data from 1980 to 2005, the correlation between coal consumption and economic growth in China was investigated within a multivariate framework which includes coal consumption (GDP), structural changes and efficiency improvements. The results show that there is a long- term equilibrium between coal consumption and the other three variables. The error correction model is applied to forecast coal consumption and gives good results. The Granger causality test results suggest that there is a unidirectional Granger causality running from GDP and efficiency improvements to coal consumption respectively. From the orthogonalised impulse function, GDP, and structure changes have a positive effect on coal consumption but efficiency has a negative effect on coal consumption. 13 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Numerical simulation of the coal combustion process initiated by a plasma source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askarova, A. S.; Messerle, V. E.; Ustimenko, A. B.; Bolegenova, S. A.; Maksimov, V. Yu.

    2014-12-01

    Numerical experiments on the torch combustion of the coal dust prepared by a plasma-thermochemical treatment for combustion have been done using the method of three-dimensional simulation. It is shown that the plasma preparation of coal for combustion enables one to optimize the process, improve the conditions for inflammation and combustion and minimize the emissions of harmful substances.

  11. Radionuclides in US coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisselle, C. A.; Brown, R. D.

    1984-03-01

    The current state of knowledge with respect to radionuclide concentrations in US coals is discussed. Emphasis is placed on the levels of uranium in coal (and lignite) which are considered to represent a concern resulting from coal combustion; areas of the US where such levels have been found; and possible origins of high radionuclide levels in coal. The report reviews relevant studies and presents new data derived from a computerized search of radionuclide content in about 4000 coal samples collected throughout the coterminous US. 103 references, 5 figures, 5 tables.

  12. The economics of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    Global aspects of the production, consumption and trade in coal are described. World reserves and resources, production (both by region and country), international trade (exporters and importers), coal consumption (by region and sector), and the demand for primary energy (1960-1979). Each of the producing and consuming countries are discussed individually. The electricity sector and its future demand for coal, and the future demand for coking coal are covered. Prices for metallurgical and steam coal are also given. Statistics are presented in tables.

  13. Annual Energy Review 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fichman, Barbara T. [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2010-08-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is the U.S. Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of annual historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are statistics on total energy production, consumption, trade, and energy prices; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, and international energy; financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversions. Publication of this report is required under Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), Section 205(c), and is in keeping with responsibilities given to the EIA under Section 205(a)(2), which states: “The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information....” The AER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding the content of the AER and other EIA publications.

  14. Annual Energy Review 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fichman, Barbara T. [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2012-09-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is the U.S. Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of annual historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are statistics on total energy production, consumption, trade, and energy prices; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, and renewable energy; financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversions. Publication of this report is required under Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), Section 205(c), and is in keeping with responsibilities given to the EIA under Section 205(a)(2), which states: “The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information....” The AER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding the content of the AER and other EIA publications.

  15. Annual Energy Review 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiferlein, Katherine E. [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2006-07-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of annual historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are data on total energy production, consumption, and trade; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, international energy, as well as financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversion tables. Publication of this report is required under Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), Section 205(c), and is in keeping with responsibilities given to the EIA under Section 205(a)(2), which states: “The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information....” The AER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding data series in the AER and in other EIA publications.

  16. Annual Energy Review 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiferlein, Katherine E. [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2007-06-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of annual historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are data on total energy production, consumption, and trade; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, international energy, as well as financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversion tables. Publication of this report is required under Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), Section 205(c), and is in keeping with responsibilities given to the EIA under Section 205(a)(2), which states: “The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information....” The AER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding data series in the AER and in other EIA publications.

  17. Annual Energy Review 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiferlein, Katherine E. [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2005-08-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of annual historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are data on total energy production, consumption, and trade; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, international energy, as well as financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversion tables. Publication of this report is required under Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), Section 205(c), and is in keeping with responsibilities given to the EIA under Section 205(a)(2), which states: “The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information....” The AER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding data series in the AER and in other EIA publications.

  18. Studies of coal structure using carbene chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    The object of this grant was to react coal, derivatized forms of coal, and solvent swelled coal with carbenes (divalent carbon species) under mild conditions. These carbenes were to be prepared by treating the coal with several diazo compounds and then thermally decomposing them at relatively low temperatures (80--130{degree}C). The carbenes were to be chosen to show varying selectively toward aromatic rings containing heteroatom functionalities and toward polynuclear aromatic systems. In some instances, where selectivities toward aromatic and heteroaromatic ring systems were not known, model studies were to be carried out. Because of the generally mild conditions employed and the good selectivity anticipated, and actually observed with one particular system, it was expected that this methodology would provide structural information about the coal, along with data on the extent of occurrence and type of aromatic systems. After carbene reactions, treatment of the coal samples was to include extractions and thermolysis. Physical studies included thermogravimetric analysis, diffuse reflectance FT-IR spectroscopy, NMR ({sup 1}H and {sup 13}C) spectroscopy, gas chromatography, GC/MS and GC/FT-IR. 7 figs., 10 tabs.

  19. Interregional coal flow and its environmental loads transfer in Shanxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Zengrang; CHENG Shengkui; ZHEN Lin

    2011-01-01

    For the low price of coal and ineffective environmental management in mining area,China is in the dilemma of the increasing coal demand and the serious environmental issues in mining area.The more coal that is exported from a region,the more heavily it suffers from the environmental impacts of coal export.In this paper,the temporal and spatial process of exporting coal from Shanxi to other provinces of China is traced between 1975 and 2005.The coal net export of Shanxi increased to 370.69 million tonnes in 2005,representing an average annual growth rate of 7.5% from 1975 to 2005.With the increase of the amount of coal export from Shanxi,the Environmental Loads Transfer (ELT) that import provinces input to mining areas of Shanxi are rising.Effective means of internalizing the environmental externality of ELT lie in:1) setting up a coal sustainable development fund to restore environment of coal mining area; 2) enforcing environment tax,financial transfer payment and transferring advantage technology of pollution reduction to coal export area; and 3) reducing coal regional flow by reducing coal demand from power generation and heating and other industries.

  20. Annual site environmental report for calendar year 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western) has established a formal environmental protection, auditing, monitoring, and planning program that has been in effect since 1978. The significant environmental projects and issues Western was involved with in 1995 are discussed in this annual site environmental report. It is written to show the nature and effectiveness of the environmental protection program. Western operates and maintains nearly 17,000 miles of transmission lines, 257 substations, and various appurtenant power facilities in fifteen central and western states. Western is also responsible for planning, construction, and operation and maintenance of additional federal transmission facilities that may be authorized in the future. There is a combined total of 55 hydroelectric power generating plants in the service area. Additionally, Western markets the US entitlement from the Navajo coal-fired plant near Page, Arizona. The Department of Energy requires the preparation of an annual site environmental report. Because Western has over 400 facilities located in these states, this report addresses the environmental activities in all the facilities as one site.

  1. Annual site environmental report for calendar year 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western) has established a formal environmental protection, auditing, monitoring, and planning program that has been in effect since 1978. The significant environmental projects and issues Western was involved with in 1994 are discussed in this annual site environmental report. It is written to show the nature and effectiveness of the environmental protection program. The Department of Energy Order 5400.1, Chapter 2.4, requires the preparation of an annual site environmental report. Because Western has facilities located in 15 states, this report addresses the environmental activities in all the facilities as one ``site``. In 1994, Western provided power to more than 600 wholesale power customers consisting of cooperatives, municipalities, public utility districts, investor-owned utilities, federal and state agencies, irrigation districts, and project use customers. The wholesale power customers, in turn, provide service to millions of retail consumers in the States of California, Nevada, Montana, Arizona, Utah, New Mexico, Texas, North Dakota, South Dakota, Iowa, Colorado, Wyoming, Minnesota, Nebraska, and Kansas. Western is responsible for the operation and maintenance of nearly 17,000 miles of transmission lines, 271 substations, 55 hydroelectric power stations, and a coal-fired power plant.

  2. Coal; Le charbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teissie, J.; Bourgogne, D. de; Bautin, F. [TotalFinaElf, La Defense, 92 - Courbevoie (France)

    2001-12-15

    Coal world production represents 3.5 billions of tons, plus 900 millions of tons of lignite. 50% of coal is used for power generation, 16% by steel making industry, 5% by cement plants, and 29% for space heating and by other industries like carbo-chemistry. Coal reserves are enormous, about 1000 billions of tons (i.e. 250 years of consumption with the present day rate) but their exploitation will be in competition with less costly and less polluting energy sources. This documents treats of all aspects of coal: origin, composition, calorific value, classification, resources, reserves, production, international trade, sectoral consumption, cost, retail price, safety aspects of coal mining, environmental impacts (solid and gaseous effluents), different technologies of coal-fired power plants and their relative efficiency, alternative solutions for the recovery of coal energy (fuel cells, liquefaction). (J.S.)

  3. 旋流微泡浮选柱在涡北选煤厂的应用%Application of cyclon micro bubble flotation column in Wobei coal preparation plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯立品; 周孟颖; 徐晓琦

    2011-01-01

    According to analysis of the size composition of coal slime, find that coal gangue pelitization, high content of high-ash fine mud are bad for Rotating. Single facter flotation tests of flotation machine, two factors and three levels orthogonal tests, substep releasing tests with the optimal mixture of flotation reagents have been taken. The results show that,while the mass concentration of coal slime pulp is 45 g/L and mixture flotation reagents is 1. 10 kg/t,clean coal ash could reaches 10. 97% productivity of clean coal is 72. 62% ,improved flotation index is up to 53. 43% and the flotation machine works best. The flotation column could separate all kinds of fine coal,fine coal ash could be adjusted in wide range in order to meet the requirements. The comprehensive contrast tests of flotation machine and flotation column are taken at last, disposing the same clean coal ash, the results show that flotation column could highly improve clean coal recovery and flotation index compared with the flotation machine.%分析了涡北选煤厂煤泥粒度组成,发现煤样矸石存在泥化现象,高灰细泥含量较高,对浮选不利.进行了浮选机的单因素浮选试验、两因素三水平正交试验以及最优药剂条件下的分步释放试验,同时进行了浮选柱的煤泥浮选试验.结果表明,当煤泥矿浆质量浓度为45 g/L,复合药剂为1.10 kg/t时,精煤灰分为10.97%,精煤产率为72.62%,浮选完善指标最高为53.43%,浮选机煤泥浮选效果最好;浮选柱可以分选出各种质量的精煤,精煤灰分可调性大,可以适应市场变化.最后进行了浮选机和浮选柱的综合对比试验,在精煤灰分相近的情况下,浮选柱不同程度地提高了精煤回收率和浮选完善指标,具有明显优势.

  4. Potential environmental regulations for coal liquefaction facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dauzvardis, P.; Gasper, J.; Surles, T.

    1979-12-01

    Although this report deals with potential regulatory constraints only on development of coal liquids, it should be noted that every basic industry in the national economy is constrained by a myriad of state, local, and federal laws, and many of these existing laws may eventually affect coal liquids development. The American Petroleum Institute has prepared a list of the 12 most generally applicable environmental laws; these are summarized. For the present study, the most comprehensive constraining regulations likely to apply to coal liquefaction were chosen from this list. The choices depended in part upon which laws could be complied with by appropriate facility design. Therefore, for this study, the regulations examined were those covering solid and hazardous wastes and emissions of air and water pollutants. It should be noted that there are at present no emission regulations pertaining specifically to coal liquefaction. A survey of such analogous industries was conducted to identify regulations on air and water pollutants and solid waste disposal that might pertain to coal synfuel plants. The Federal New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for air and water pollutants were specified where applicable. Wherever federal standards for a particular emission source or pollutant did not exist but appeared necessary, appropriate standards were specified on the basis of state regulations.Estimates of emission and effluent standards that may be applicable to coal liquefaction facilities are presented. Emission standards are defined for coal driers, boilers, process, and combustion equipment and for Claus sulfur plants. Effluent standards are provided for process, boiler, and miscellaneous waste streams. Sources of solid wastes from coal liquefaction and proposed disposal regulations for hazardous wastes are also described.

  5. Annotated bibliography of coal in the Caribbean region. [Lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orndorff, R.C.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of preparing this annotated bibliography was to compile information on coal localities for the Caribbean region used for preparation of a coal map of the region. Also, it serves as a brief reference list of publications for future coal studies in the Caribbean region. It is in no way an exhaustive study or complete listing of coal literature for the Caribbean. All the material was gathered from published literature with the exception of information from Cuba which was supplied from a study by Gordon Wood of the US Geological Survey, Branch of Coal Resources. Following the classification system of the US Geological Survey (Wood and others, 1983), the term coal resources has been used in this report for reference to general estimates of coal quantities even though authors of the material being annotated may have used the term coal reserves in a similar denotation. The literature ranges from 1857 to 1981. The countries listed include Colombia, Mexico, Venezuela, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, and the countries of Central America.

  6. AN INVESTIGATION OF THE HYDROPHOBIC AGGLOMERATION CHARACTERISTICS OF EASY DEGRADATION COAL FINES IN WATER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王力; 陈鹏

    1997-01-01

    The separation of ultrafine coal from three Chinese coal samples of easy degradation coal fines in water has been investigated by the application of a hydrophobic agglomeration process. In addition to yielding clean coal with high recovery, this process requires significantly less oil concentration for agglomeration (less than 0.4% in oil-water weight ratio) and produces stabler agglomerates than general oil agglomeration process, the cost of the oil would no longer be an important consideration for its commercial application. Neutral diesel oil was used to make oleophilic coal particles agglomerated with good rejection of clay minerals under little oil consumption and certain agitation speed at 2000 r/min. An important advantage of this process compared with other cleaning fine coal methods is that it can extremely reduce or eliminate the effects of coal degradation and some clay minerals on coal preparation.

  7. GIS Representation of Coal-Bearing Areas in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Matthew D.; Tewalt, Susan J.

    2008-01-01

    The African continent contains approximately 5 percent of the world's proven recoverable reserves of coal (World Energy Council, 2007). Energy consumption in Africa is projected to grow at an annual rate of 2.3 percent from 2004 through 2030, while average consumption in first-world nations is expected to rise at 1.4 percent annually (Energy Information Administration, 2007). Coal reserves will undoubtedly continue to be part of Africa's energy portfolio as it grows in the future. A review of academic and industrial literature indicates that 27 nations in Africa contain coal-bearing rock. South Africa accounts for 96 percent of Africa's total proven recoverable coal reserves, ranking it sixth in the world. This report is a digital compilation of information on Africa's coal-bearing geology found in the literature and is intended to be used in small scale spatial investigations in a Geographic Information System (GIS) and as a visual aid for the discussion of Africa's coal resources. Many maps of African coal resources often include points for mine locations or regional scale polygons with generalized borders depicting basin edges. Point locations are detailed but provide no information regarding extent, and generalized polygons do not have sufficient detail. In this dataset, the polygons are representative of the actual coal-bearing lithology both in location and regional extent. Existing U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) digital geology datasets provide the majority of the base geologic polygons. Polygons for the coal-bearing localities were clipped from the base geology that represented the age and extent of the coal deposit as indicated in the literature. Where the 1:5,000,000-scale geology base layer's ages conflicted with those in the publications, polygons were generated directly from the regional African coal maps (1:500,000 scale, approximately) in the published material. In these cases, coal-bearing polygons were clipped to the literature's indicated coal

  8. Correlation between coal characteristics and methane adsorption on China's coals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Hong-guan; YUAN Jian; SONG Ji-yong; LENG Shu-wei

    2007-01-01

    It is highly important to investigate relationship between coal characteristics and methane adsorption on coal in the fields of coalbed methane recovery. Based on data examination of coal quality indexes collected from the literatures, regression equations for Langmuir adsorption constants, VL or VL/PL, and coal quality indexes for selected coal samples were developed with multiple linear regression of SPSS software according to the degree of coal metamorphosis. The regression equations built were tested with data collected from some literatures, and the influences of coal quality indexes on CH4 adsorption on coals were studied with investigation of regression equations, and the reasons of low accuracy to Langmuir constants calculated with regression equation for a few coal samples were investigated. The results show that the regression equations can be employed to predict Langmuir constants for methane adsorption isotherms on coals obtained using volumetric gas adsorption experiments, which are conducted at 30 ℃ on a wet or dried coal samples with less than 30% ash content in coal. The influence of same coal quality index with various coal rank or influence of various coal quality indexes for same coal rank on CH4 adsorption is not consistent. The regression equations have different accuracy to different coal rank, in which the VL equations supply better prediction accuracy for anthracite and higher prediction error for lower metamorphosis coal, and the PL prediction error with VL and VL/PL equations is lower to bituminous coal and higher to anthracite.

  9. Greening coal : clean coal and carbon capture and storage projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundararajan, B.

    2008-09-15

    Clean coal technology and carbon capture and storage (CCS) programs used in Canada were discussed. EPCOR's Genesee 3 project uses supercritical combustion methods and has committed $90 towards the implementation of clean air technologies. The company is also constructing new waste water systems and is expanding its environmental remediation programs. The company has recently constructed a 450 MW supercritical coal-fired unit in Edmonton. The plant uses supercritical boiler technology and high efficiency steam turbines that result in significant reductions in carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions. The Alberta Saline Aquifer Project (ASAP) is an industry-supported carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration project developed to identify locations for the long-term sequestration of CO{sub 2} in saline aquifers. ASAP is expected to play a major role in advancing the knowledge of CCS technology in Canada. The Integrated CO{sub 2} Network (ICO{sub 2}N) is supported by a consortium of Canadian companies dedicated to meeting Canada's climate change commitments through the widespread implementation of CCS and the creation of infrastructure needed to implement CCS technologies. The Wabamun Lake area was selected by the Alberta Geological Survey as a potential site for CCS due to its proximity to several industrial sources of CO{sub 2}. A new CCS demonstration conducted at SaskPower's Boundary Dam Power Station in Estevan, Saskatchewan. The project aims to capture 500,000 tonnes of CO{sub 2} annually by integrating carbon capture technology with a coal-fired generation unit. 3 figs.

  10. Catalytic coal liquefaction. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, S W

    1981-01-01

    Monolith catalysts of MoO/sub 3/-CoO-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ were prepared and tested for coal liquefaction in a stirred autoclave. In general, the monolith catalysts were not as good as particulate catalysts prepared on Corning alumina supports. Measurement of O/sub 2/ chemisorption and BET surface area has been made on a series of Co/Mo/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalysts obtained from PETC. The catalysts were derived from Cyanamid 1442A and had been tested for coal liquefaction in batch autoclaves and continuous flow units. MoO/sub 3/-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalysts over the loading range 3.9 to 14.9 wt % MoO/sub 3/ have been studied with respect to BET surface (before and after reduction), O/sub 2/ chemisorption at -78/sup 0/C, redox behavior at 500/sup 0/C, and activity for cyclohexane dehydrogenation at 500/sup 0/C. In connection with the fate of tin catalysts during coal liquefaction, calculations have been made of the relative thermodynamic stability of SnCl/sub 2/, Sn, SnO/sub 2/, and SnS in the presence of H/sub 2/, HCl, H/sub 2/S and H/sub 2/O. Ferrous sulfate dispersed in methylnaphthalene has been shown to be reduced to ferrous sulfide under typical coal hydroliquefaction conditions (1 hour, 450/sup 0/C, 1000 psi initial p/sub H/sub 2//). This suggests that ferrous sulfide may be the common catalytic ingredient when either (a) ferrous sulfate impregnated on powdered coal, or (b) finely divided iron pyrite is used as the catalyst. Old research on impregnated ferrous sulfate, impregnated ferrous halides, and pyrite is consistent with this assumption. Eight Co/Mo/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalysts from commercial suppliers, along with SnCl/sub 2/, have been studied for the hydrotreating of 1-methylnaphthalene (1-MN) in a stirred autoclave at 450 and 500/sup 0/C.

  11. The development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense facilities. Technical progress report, September 1995 - March 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Pisupati, S.V.; Scaroni, A.W. [and others

    1996-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), through an Interagency Agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has initiated a three-phase program with the Consortium for Coal-Water Slurry Fuel Technology, with the aim of decreasing DOD`s reliance on imported oil by increasing its use of coal. The program is being conducted as a cooperative agreement between the Consortium and DOE. Activities this reporting period are summarized by phase. During this reporting period, the Phase I final report was completed. Work in Phase II focused on emissions reductions, coal beneficiation/preparation studies, and economic analyses of coal use. Emissions reductions investigations included completing a study to identify appropriate SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control technologies for coal-fired industrial boilers. In addition, work continued on the design of a ceramic filtering device for installation on the demonstration boiler. The ceramic filtering device will be used to demonstrate a smaller and more efficient filtering device for retrofit applications. Work related to coal preparation and utilization, and the economic analysis was primarily focused on preparing the final report. Work in Phase III focused on coal preparation studies and economic analyses of coal use. Coal preparation studies were focused on continuing activities on particle size control, physical separations, surface-based separation processes, and dry processing. The economic study focused on community sensitivity to coal usage, regional economic impacts of new coal utilization technologies, and constructing a national energy portfolio.

  12. Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program: Program Update 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy

    1999-03-01

    Annual report on the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCT Program). The report address the role of the CCT Program, implementation, funding and costs, accomplishments, project descriptions, legislative history, program history, environmental aspects, and project contacts. The project descriptions describe the technology and provides a brief summary of the demonstration results.

  13. Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program: Program Update 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy

    2001-04-01

    Annual report on the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCT Program). The report address the role of the CCT Program, implementation, funding and costs, accomplishments, project descriptions, legislative history, program history, environmental aspects, and project contacts. The project descriptions describe the technology and provides a brief summary of the demonstration results.

  14. Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program: Program Update 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy

    2002-07-30

    Annual report on the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCT Program). The report address the role of the CCT Program, implementation, funding and costs, accomplishments, project descriptions, legislative history, program history, environmental aspects, and project contacts. The project descriptions describe the technology and provides a brief summary of the demonstration results. Also includes Power Plant Improvement Initiative Projects.

  15. Coal tar in dermatology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roelofzen, J.H.J.; Aben, K.K.H.; Van Der Valk, P.G.M.; Van Houtum, J.L.M.; Van De Kerkhof, P.C.M.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M. [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands). Dept. of Dermatology

    2007-07-01

    Coal tar is one of the oldest treatments for psoriasis and eczema. It has anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antipruritic and antimitotic effects. The short-term side effects are folliculitis, irritation and contact allergy. Coal tar contains carcinogens. The carcinogenicity of coal tar has been shown in animal studies and studies in occupational settings. There is no clear evidence of an increased risk of skin tumors or internal tumors. Until now, most studies have been fairly small and they did not investigate the risk of coal tar alone, but the risk of coal tar combined with other therapies. New, well-designed, epidemiological studies are necessary to assess the risk of skin tumors and other malignancies after dermatological use of coal tar.

  16. Coal: ditching the dirt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, E.

    2006-01-01

    At the time when the British government is considering building new nuclear power plants, this article gives an overview of how the coal industry has been developing technologies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase combustion efficiency which make coal a more attractive power source that should not be overlooked. Technologies mentioned include integrated gasification combined cycle, fluidized bed combustion, low NOx burners, and combustion control. Research is under way on capturing greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuels. Use of fly ash in cement manufacture help reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. Clean coal technologies in the UK are supported by the IEA Clean Coal Centre, the World Coal Institute and the Coal Research Forum. 3 photos. 3 figs.

  17. Beneficiated coals' char morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Vargas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the char morphology of beneficiated and original coal (without beneficiation from four Colombian coalmines: Cerrejón (La Guajira, La Jagua (Cesar, Guachinte (Valle del Cauca and Nechí (Antioquia. Column flotation was used to obtain beneficiated coal, whereas a drop tube reactor at 1,000°C, 104 °C/s heating rate and 100 ms residence time was used to obtain char. The chars were analysed by image analysis which determined their shape, size, porosity and wall thickness. It was found that char morphology depended on coal rank and maceral composition. Morphological characteristics like high porosity, thinner walls and network-like morphology which are beneficial in improving combustion were present in vitrinite- and liptinite-rich lowest-ranking coals. Beneficiated coals showed that their chars had better performance regarding their morphological characteristics than their original coal chars.

  18. Coal, culture and community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-11-01

    16 papers are presented with the following titles: the miners; municipalisation and the millenium - Bolton-upon-Dearne Urban District Council 1899-1914; the traditional working class community revisited; the cultural capital of coal mining communities; activities, strike-breakers and coal communities; the limits of protest - media coverage of the Orgreave picket during the miners` strike; in defence of home and hearth? Families, friendships and feminism in mining communities; young people`s attitudes to the police in mining communities; the determinants of productivity growth in the British coal mining industry, 1976-1989; strategic responses to flexibility - a case study in coal; no coal turned in Yorkshire?; the North-South divide in the Central Coalfields; the psychological effects of redundancy and worklessness - a case study from the coalfields; the Dearne Valley initiative; the future under labour: and coal, culture and the community.

  19. Flocculation, hydrophobic agglomeration and filtration of ultrafine coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhimin

    In coal preparation plant circuits, fine coal particles are aggregated either by oil agglomeration or by flocculation. In a new hydrophobic agglomeration process, recently developed hydrophobic latices are utilized. While the selectivity of such aggregation processes determines the beneficiation results, the degree of aggregation has a strong effect on fine coal filtration. The aim of this research was to study the fundamentals and analyze the common grounds for these processes, including the potential effect of the coal surface properties. The selective flocculation tests, in which three types of coal, which differed widely in surface wettability, and three additives (hydrophobic latices, a semi-hydrophobic flocculant and a typical hydrophilic polyelectrolyte) were utilized, showed that coal wettability plays a very important role in selective flocculation. The abstraction of a hydrophobic latex on coal and silica revealed that the latex had a much higher affinity towards hydrophobic coal than to hydrophilic mineral matter. As a result, the UBC-1 hydrophobic latex flocculated only hydrophobic coal particles while the polyelectrolyte (PAM) flocculated all the tested coal samples and minerals, showing no selectivity in the fine coal beneficiation. The oil agglomeration was tested using kerosene emulsified with various surfactants (e.g. cationic, anionic and non-ionic). Surfactants enhance not only oil emulsification, hence reducing oil consumption (down to 0.25--0.5%), but also entirely change the electrokinetic properties of the droplets and affect the interaction energy between oil droplets and coal particles. Consequently, the results found in the course of the experimental work strongly indicate that even oxidized coals can be agglomerated if cationic surfactants are used to emulsify the oil. Oil agglomeration of the Ford-4 ultrafine coal showed that even at extremely low oil consumption (0.25 to 0.5%), a clean coal product with an ash content around 5% at over

  20. Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffman, G.P. (ed.)

    1991-01-01

    This Quarterly Report on coal liquefaction research includes discussion in the areas of (1) Iron Based Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction; (2) Exploratory Research on Coal Conversion; (3) Novel Coal Liquefaction Concepts; (4) Novel Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction. (VC)

  1. Verein der Kohlenimporteure. Annual report 2015. Facts and trends 2014/2015; Verein der Kohlenimporteure. Jahresbericht 2015. Fakten und Trends 2014/2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-07-15

    This annual report of the Association of Coal Importers (Verein der Kohlenimporteure) contains statistical data of the year 2014/2015. The main aspects discussed are the coal market and trade which depends on political decisions and concepts, but also on the availability of other primary energy sources. The annual report is structured as follows: 1. Prospects for the World Coal Market (e.g. World energy consumption, Outlook 2014-2040, Hard Coal Output, Coal/Coke Prices); 2. General Global Economic Conditions; 3. European Union; 4. Germany (e.g. Primary Energy Consumption; Power Generation; Hard Coal market; Development of Energy Prices, CO{sub 2} prices and CO{sub 2} emissions; Acceptance of coal in terms of the energy turnaround); and 5. Country coal reports (mainly outside of Europe).

  2. CLEANER ENERGY FROM COAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina-MilenaTĂTAR

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available With the ever-increasing demand for coal, particularly in the developing world, the use of low emission coal technologies becomes increasingly important if international targets on climate change are to be achieved. The two principal avenues for reducing carbon emissions from coal-fired power generation are through use of high efficiency, low emission power plantsand carbon capture, use and storage.

  3. Preparation of combustible material from high sulphur coal by means of pyrolysis: magnetic separation; Obtencion de combustibles limpios a partir de carbones con altos contenidos en azure mediante procesos de pirolisis: separacion magnetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    Basic studies on coal desulphurization by pyrolysis have been carried out with a series of low rank coals with high total sulphur contents and differences in the distribution of sulphur forms. The evolved sulphur compounds were studied by sulphide selective electrode H{sub 2}S and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The mechanisms affecting the sulphur removal during pyrolysis have been studied by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and photoelectronic spectroscopy (XPS). A sample coal of 11 Tm, representative of the Teruel basins was processed at pilot scale in a rotary kiln (coal HR). A series of pyrolysis runs simulating the experimental conditions of the rotary kiln were also carried out in laboratory scale. The magnetic behaviour of the chars from the rotary kiln and from the lab-scale pyrolysis was tested. The efficiency of the desulphurization, including pyrolysis and magnetic separation, was calculated. Chars from rotary kiln were tested by thermogravimetric analysis, air reactivity and carbon efficiency combustion in fluidized bed.

  4. Preparation, transport and disposal of ash from coal-fired power plant Kosovo B in the form of dense hydromixture; Priprema, transport i deponovanje pepela termoelektrane Kosovo B u vidu guste hidromesavine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drazovic, D.; Markovic, Z.; Stjepanovic, P.; Todorovtc, D. [Rudarski Institute, Beograd (Yugoslavia)

    1999-07-01

    The transportation of ash and slag from coal-fired power plants is mainly hydraulic. Until the eighties the most frequently applied technology was the transportation of ash and slag in the form of diluted hydromixture (concentration of solids below 10%). This method of ash and slag transportation became a rule in Yugoslavia's coal-fired power plants. It was not until 1988 that the transportation of dense hydromixture was introduced in the coal-fired power plant Gacko. This technology was not applied on account of its transportation advantages, but due to specific ash features that determine the conditions of disposal. Namely, the density of hydromixture is important for the solidification of disposed material. Considering the chemical and mineralogical properties of ash the same system was applied in the coal-fired power plant Kosovo B. In this paper two technological lines were installed and put to use in actual industrial conditions, and the results obtained indicate that all the designed parameters have been confirmed in practice and that the application of this technology has proven to be profitable in many ways. 7 refs., 8 figs., 13 tabs.

  5. Supply constraints : Australia and Canada coal industry face logistics and capacity challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borsato, J.

    2010-09-15

    Australia and Canada are benefiting from a global increase in coal consumption, but face challenges regarding coal and coal export capacity. Coal is Australia's biggest export commodity, accounting for over 50 percent of world coking coal exports, with almost 75 percent of those exports destined for Asian markets, primarily Japan. However, the number of ships delayed at Australian ports hit a record of 223 bulk carriers in early 2010. Compared to Canada, Australia faces greater logistical issues getting coal into port and onto ships at its 9 loading terminals. Two of Canada's 3 major shipping terminals, Westshore and Neptune, have some additional capacity. Its third terminal, Ridley Island, has considerable potential to carry more coal. With 98 percent of all coal moved by rail in Australia, rail issues also hinder growth. A national approach to planning freight transport on both roads and rail is being developed. While infrastructure issues remain the single greatest barrier to export growth for Australia's coal sector, Canada's most immediate issues pertain to mine permitting and mine-site expansion. In 2009, Canada exported 28 million tonnes of coal, 90 percent of it metallurgical. With approximately 70 million tonnes of annual production, mostly in British Columbia and Alberta, coal remains the number one commodity in Canada carried by rails and shipped from ports. 1 fig.

  6. Compatibility of novel blends from polyolefin and coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Fu-sheng(杨伏生); ZHOU An-ning(周安宁)

    2004-01-01

    Melt blends of low-density polyethylene(LDPE), ethylene vinyl acetate(EVA) and coal with various compositions were prepared through reactive extrusion. The rheological behaviour was studied with respect to the effect of blend ratio, shear rate using a rheometer to gain an understanding of processing parameters controlling industrial application. Compatibility was also evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry(DSC) and scanning electron microscopy(SEM). The results revealed that LDPE/EVA/coal is a partly compatible system showing pseudo-plastic behaviour, increase in viscosity with increased coal content appeares evident only at low shear rate region, viscosity tends to keep consistent approximately but irrelates to coal content at higher shear rate. Blends viscosity and compatibility are attibuted to changes in LDPE crystalline structure and entanglement, together with interaction between macromolecular aliphatic chains in coal and amorphous phase in LDPE and EVA at the boundaries of phases, which comes forth during the rearrangement process of the crystalline structure.

  7. Petrographers fingerprint coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, D.E. [Pearson and Associates Ltd. (USA)

    2001-05-01

    A new system of coal fingerprinting called Digipet generates reflectance profiles by using an automated digital imaging system in which tens of millions of individual reflectance measurements are obtained. Images are conditioned to generate a detailed smooth histogram which convey information on the coal sample's provenance and history. Expert interpretation can reveal further information. The article gives details of the instrument and shows sample reflectance profiles. It discusses some applications in sampling coal charged to coke ovens of the Indiana Harbor Coke Co, and at a Midwest generating plant where it detected the presence of rogue high volatile coal. 3 figs.

  8. Pyrolysis of Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rađenović, A.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a review of relevant literature on coal pyrolysis.Pyrolysis, as a process technology, has received considerable attention from many researchers because it is an important intermediate stage in coal conversion.Reactions parameters as the temperature, pressure, coal particle size, heating rate, soak time, type of reactor, etc. determine the total carbon conversion and the transport of volatiles and therebythe product distribution. Part of the possible environmental pollutants could be removed by optimising the pyrolysis conditions. Therefore, this process will be subsequently interesting for coal utilization in the future

  9. Clean coal technologies market potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drazga, B. (ed.)

    2007-01-30

    Looking at the growing popularity of these technologies and of this industry, the report presents an in-depth analysis of all the various technologies involved in cleaning coal and protecting the environment. It analyzes upcoming and present day technologies such as gasification, combustion, and others. It looks at the various technological aspects, economic aspects, and the various programs involved in promoting these emerging green technologies. Contents: Industry background; What is coal?; Historical background of coal; Composition of coal; Types of coal; Environmental effects of coal; Managing wastes from coal; Introduction to clean coal; What is clean coal?; Byproducts of clean coal; Uses of clean coal; Support and opposition; Price of clean coal; Examining clean coal technologies; Coal washing; Advanced pollution control systems; Advanced power generating systems; Pulverized coal combustion (PCC); Carbon capture and storage; Capture and separation of carbon dioxide; Storage and sequestration of carbon dioxide; Economics and research and development; Industry initiatives; Clean Coal Power Initiative; Clean Coal Technology Program; Coal21; Outlook; Case Studies.

  10. Regional Effort to Deploy Clean Coal Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald Hill; Kenneth Nemeth; Gary Garrett; Kimberly Sams

    2009-01-31

    The Southern States Energy Board's (SSEB) 'Regional Effort to Deploy Clean Coal Technologies' program began on June 1, 2003, and was completed on January 31, 2009. The project proved beneficial in providing state decision-makers with information that assisted them in removing barriers or implementing incentives to deploy clean coal technologies. This was accomplished through two specific tasks: (1) domestic energy security and diversity; and (2) the energy-water interface. Milestones accomplished during the project period are: (1) Presentations to Annual Meetings of SSEB Members, Associate Member Meetings, and the Gasification Technologies Council. (2) Energy: Water reports - (A) Regional Efforts to Deploy Clean Coal Technologies: Impacts and Implications for Water Supply and Quality. June 2004. (B) Energy-Water Interface Challenges: Coal Bed Methane and Mine Pool Water Characterization in the Southern States Region. 2004. (C) Freshwater Availability and Constraints on Thermoelectric Power Generation in the Southeast U.S. June 2008. (3) Blackwater Interactive Tabletop Exercise - Decatur, Georgia April 2007. (4) Blackwater Report: Blackwater: Energy and Water Interdependency Issues: Best Practices and Lessons Learned. August 2007. (5) Blackwater Report: BLACKWATER: Energy Water Interdependency Issues REPORT SUMMARY. April 2008.

  11. COAL ASH RESOURCES RESEARCH CONSORTIUM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    -Calcium Coal Combustion By-Products, 5) Development of an Environmentally Appropriate Leaching Procedure for Coal Combustion By-Products, 6) Set Time of Fly Ash Concrete, 7) Coal Ash Properties Database (CAPD), 8) Development of a Method for Determination of Radon Hazard in CCBs, 9) Development of Standards and Specifications, 10) Assessment of Fly Ash Variability, and 11) Development of a CCB Utilization Workshop. The primary goal of CARRC is to work with industry to solve CCB-related problems and promote the environmentally safe, technically sound, and economical utilization and disposal of these highly complex materials. CARRC 1993�1998 accomplishments included: C Updating the CAPD to a user-friendly database management system, and distributing it to CARRC members. C ASTM standard preparation for a guide to using CCBs as waste stabilization agents. C Preliminary identification of specific mineral transformations resulting from fly ash hydration. C Limited determination of the effects of fly ash on the set time of concrete. C Statistical evaluation of a select set of fly ashes from several regional coal-fired power plants. C Development and presentation of a workshop on CCB utilization focused on government agency representatives and interested parties with limited CCB utilization experience. C Participation in a variety of local, national, and international technical meetings, symposia, and conferences by presenting and publishing CCB-related papers.

  12. Standard method for proximate analysis of coal and coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-01-01

    ASTM methods are cited that cover the determination of moisture, volatile matter, and ash and the calculation of fixed carbon in coals and cokes sampled and prepared by prescribed methods. The methods cited may be used to establish rank of coals, to show the ratio of combustible to incombustible constituents, to provide the basis for buying and selling, and to evaluate for beneficiation or for other purposes. (BLM)

  13. Hydrodesulfurization and hydrodenitrogenation catalysts obtained from coal mineral matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kindtoken H. D.; Hamrin, Jr., Charles E.

    1982-01-01

    A hydrotreating catalyst is prepared from coal mineral matter obtained by low temperature ashing coals of relatively low bassanite content by the steps of: (a) depositing on the low temperature ash 0.25-3 grams of an iron or nickel salt in water per gram of ash and drying a resulting slurry; (b) crushing and sizing a resulting solid; and (c) heating the thus-sized solid powder in hydrogen.

  14. State coal profiles, January 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-02

    The purpose of State Coal Profiles is to provide basic information about the deposits, production, and use of coal in each of the 27 States with coal production in 1992. Although considerable information on coal has been published on a national level, there is a lack of a uniform overview for the individual States. This report is intended to help fill that gap and also to serve as a framework for more detailed studies. While focusing on coal output, State Coal Profiles shows that the coal-producing States are major users of coal, together accounting for about three-fourths of total US coal consumption in 1992. Each coal-producing State is profiled with a description of its coal deposits and a discussion of the development of its coal industry. Estimates of coal reserves in 1992 are categorized by mining method and sulfur content. Trends, patterns, and other information concerning production, number of mines, miners, productivity, mine price of coal, disposition, and consumption of coal are detailed in statistical tables for selected years from 1980 through 1992. In addition, coal`s contribution to the State`s estimated total energy consumption is given for 1991, the latest year for which data are available. A US summary of all data is provided for comparing individual States with the Nation as a whole. Sources of information are given at the end of the tables.

  15. Injury experience in coal mining, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-31

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of coal mining in the United States for 1991. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and anthracite or bituminous coal. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison between coal mining and the metal and nonmetal mineral mining industries, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report. Data used in compiling this report were reported by operators of coal mines and preparation plants on a mandatory basis as required under the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977, Public Law 91-173,as amended by Public Law 95-164. Since January 1, 1978, operators of mines or preparation plants or both which are subject to the Act have been required under 30 CFR, Part 50, to submit reports of injuries, occupational illnesses, and related data.

  16. Separation of mercury in industrial processes of Polish hard steam coals cleaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wierzchowski Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Coal use is regarded as one of main sources of anthropogenic propagation of mercury in the environment. The coal cleaning is listed among methods of the mercury emission reduction. The article concerns the statistical assessment of mercury separation between coal cleaning products. Two industrial processes employed in the Polish coal preparation plants are analysed: coal cleaning in heavy media vessels and coal cleaning in jigs. It was found that the arithmetic mean mercury content in coarse and medium coal size fractions for clean coal from heavy media vessels, amounts 68.9 μg/kg, and most of the results lay below the mean value, while for rejects it amounts 95.5 μg/kg. It means that it is for around 25 μg/kg greater than in the clean coal. The arithmetic mean mercury content in raw coal smalls amounts around 118 mg/kg. The cleaning of smalls in jigs results in clean coal and steam coal blends characterized by mean mercury content 96.8 μg/kg and rejects with mean mercury content 184.5 μg/kg.

  17. Current status of U.S. coal utilization and non-fuel uses of fossil fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, C.S.; Schobert, H.; Scaroni, A.W. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    An understanding of the current situation is important for projecting the future direction of coal utilization. The world`s annual consumption of coal in 1995 was 5104.01 million short tons (MST, 1 short ton = 0.907 metric ton). Coal plays a very important role in the US energy supply; US coal production in 1995 totaled 1033 MST, including 611.1 MST of bituminous coal, 328.4 MST of subbituminous coal, 86.1 MST of lignite, and 4.1 MST of anthracite. US coal consumption totaled 940.6 MST, with 88.1% in electric utilities, 3.5% in coke plants, 7.8% for other industrial uses, and only 0.6% in the residential and commercial sectors. The amount of fossil resources used for non-fuel purposes accounted for 8.4% of the total annual consumption in 1995. Non-fuel uses of fossil fuels particularly coal may become more important in the future. The demonstrated coal reserves in the world are large enough for consumption for over 220 years at the 1995 level, while proven oil reserves are only about 40 times the world`s 1995 consumption level. Coal has several positive attributes when considered as a feedstock for aromatic chemicals, specialty chemicals, and carbon-based materials. Existing nonfuel uses of coals include (1) high temperature carbonization of bituminous and subbituminous coals to make metallurgical coke; (2) gasification of coal to make synthesis gases and other chemicals; (3) use of coal in manufacturing other materials such as activated carbons, carbon molecular sieves (CMS) and production of phosphorus (phosphoric acid); (4) the use of coal tars from carbonization and gasification for making aromatic and phenolic chemicals; (5) the use of coal tar pitch for making carbon fibers and activated carbon fibers; and (6) other non-fuel products derived from coal including combustion by-products. Coal may become more important both as an energy source and as the source of chemical feedstocks in the 21st century.

  18. Final Safety Assessment of Coal Tar as Used in Cosmetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Coal Tar is a semisolid by-product obtained in the destructive distillation of bituminous coal, which functions in cosmetic products as a cosmetic biocide and denaturant-antidandruff agent is also listed as a function, but this is considered an over-the-counter (OTC) drug use. In 2002, Coal Tar was reported to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to be used in four formulations, all of which appear to be OTC drug products. Coal Tar is monographed by the FDA as Category I (safe and effective) OTC drug ingredient for use in the treatment of dandruff, seborrhoea, and psoriasis. Coal Tar is absorbed through the skin of animals and humans and is systemically distributed. Although the Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel believes that Coal Tar use as an antidandruff ingredient in OTC drug preparations is adequately addressed by the FDA regulations, the Panel also believes that the appropriate concentration of use of Coal Tar in cosmetic formulations should be that level that does not have a biological effect in the user. Additional data needed to make a safety assessment include product types in which Coal Tar is used (other than as an OTC drug ingredient), use concentrations, and the maximum concentration that does not induce a biological effect in users.

  19. Development of coal resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    It is an important issue to expand stable coal supply areas for Japan, especially to assure stable supply of overseas coals. The investigations on geological structures in foreign countries perform surveys on geological structures in overseas coal producing countries and basic feasibility studies. The investigations select areas with greater business risks in coal producing countries and among private business entities. The geological structure investigations were carried out on China, Indonesia and Malaysia and the basic feasibility studies on Indonesia during fiscal 1994. The basic coal resource development investigations refer to the results of previous physical explorations and drilling tests to develop practical exploration technologies for coal resources in foreign countries. The development feasibility studies on overseas coals conduct technological consultation, surface surveys, physical explorations, and trial drilling operations, and provide fund assistance to activities related thereto. Fiscal 1994 has provided fund assistance to two projects in Indonesia and America. Fund loans are provided on investigations for development and import of overseas coals and other related activities. Liability guarantee for development fund is also described.

  20. Coal Industry Burns Hot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JadaFu

    2003-01-01

    After a rapid boom last year, China's coal industry has continued to grow in 2003. The country has produced 177.27 million tons of coal in the first two months of the year, a year-on-year rise of 17.7 percent.

  1. Improving coal handling effectiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, S.

    2003-10-01

    Appropriate coal handling systems are essential for successful coal utilisation. The paper looks at some of the options available, including crushers and hammer mills, wear-resistant liners for chutes and wagons, and dewatering systems. These are individual components within larger systems such as stockyard stacking and reclaiming installations. 5 photos.

  2. COAL USE REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The world's coal reserves have been estimated to be about one exagram accessible with current extraction technology. The energy content has been valued at 290 zettajourles. Using a value of 15 terawatt as the current global energy consumption, the coal supply could global needs f...

  3. The issues of the self-fill aquifer in the north Bohemian brown coal basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halir, J.; Zizka, L. [Brown Coal Research Inst., Most (Czech Republic)

    2010-07-01

    The brown coal basin in the Czech Republic is located in the northwestern region of the country. Mining activities in the region have led to the flooding of various underground areas. This paper described the dewatering activities conducted as a safety procedure in a mine located in the brown coal basin. Pumping stations were established in various parts of the basin to collect inflows. Average annual pumping for the stations is approximately 990,000 m{sup 3} of mine water. The deepest pumping station in the basin is 90 meters under sea level. The activities are being conducted to ensure that a self-fill system is established to create a large self-filling water horizon after mining activities have stopped. Depressions in the mine will be successively flooded to create reservoirs of self-filling water. A computerized model of the water fluctuation rates in the mine is being prepare to accurately characterize the filling process. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  4. Apparatus and method for feeding coal into a coal gasifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissett, Larry A.; Friggens, Gary R.; McGee, James P.

    1979-01-01

    This invention is directed to a system for feeding coal into a gasifier operating at high pressures. A coal-water slurry is pumped to the desired pressure and then the coal is "dried" prior to feeding the coal into the gasifier by contacting the slurry with superheated steam in an entrained bed dryer for vaporizing the water in the slurry.

  5. Feasibility survey of the environmentally-friendly coal utilization system. Feasibility survey of the environmentally-friendly coal utilization system in the Philippines; Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa. Philippines ni okeru kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    With relation to the coal of the Philippines, where the expansion of the use of coal as a substitute for petroleum/plant fuel is aimed at, the paper grasped the situation of coal production/development, the trend of coal import and domestic distribution, the coal utilization trend, and environmental problems, and analyzed the situation of coal utilization/spread by industry including the commercial/residential use. The purpose of the survey is to draw up a master plan for the introduction of the environmentally-friendly coal utilization system. As to the use of environmentally-friendly coal technology which should be adopted to the coal mining industry and commercial/residential sector, cited are the introduction of coal preparation technology and power transmission technology, and the development/spread of briquette as a firewood substituting fuel. In the electric power sector, the problem is the treatment of ash after combustion and the effective use. Relating to the treatment of flue gas, there is no installation at all of desulfurization facilities and denitrification facilities. In the cement industry sector, they wish to return fuel from heavy oil to coal. For it, it is necessary to study dust preventive measures. In the other sectors, coal hasn`t been used very much. An increase in coal demand is not expected also in the future, and big problems concerning coal haven`t occurred. 42 figs., 64 tabs.

  6. Industrial coal utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    The effects of the National Energy Act on the use of coal in US industrial and utility power plants are considered. Innovative methods of using coal in an environmentally acceptable way are discussed: furnace types, fluidized-bed combustion, coal-oil-mixtures, coal firing in kilns and combustion of synthetic gas and liquid fuels. Fuel use in various industries is discussed with trends brought about by uncertain availability and price of natural gas and fuel oils: steel, chemical, cement, pulp and paper, glass and bricks. The symposium on Industrial Coal Utilization was sponsored by the US DOE, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, April 3 to 4, 1979. Twenty-one papers have been entered individually into the EDB. (LTN)

  7. Pyrolysis of Indonesian coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rachimoellah; Endah [Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopemba, Surabaya (Indonesia). Department of Chemical Engineering; Karaman, N.; Kusuma, S.A. [UPN Surabaya, (Indonesia). Department of Chemical Engineering

    1997-04-01

    It has been estimated that there is 36 billion tons of coal resource potential in Indonesia. Over 21.4 billion tons is classified as low rank (lignitic) coal. The coal deposits are located mainly in Sumatra and Kalimantan. As an energy source, low rank coals are not widely used, because of their high moisture content, low calorific value and variable ash content. One of the key questions for utilizing low rank coal is whether lignite can be upgraded into another form which is more economically viable. In this study tests were carried out in a pilot plant fixed bed pyrolysis reactor unit provided with hopper, electric heater, coolers and product receivers. The yield of char, tar and gases was found to depend on temperature which also affected the composition of gas produced. Results also indicated the temperature and particle size giving maximum tar yield, gas concentration, and the atmosphere of inert nitrogen. 1 tab., 2 figs., 10 refs.

  8. Technology for advanced liquefaction processes: Coal/waste coprocessing studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cugini, A.V.; Rothenberger, K.S.; Ciocco, M.V. [Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The efforts in this project are directed toward three areas: (1) novel catalyst (supported and unsupported) research and development, (2) study and optimization of major operating parameters (specifically pressure), and (3) coal/waste coprocessing. The novel catalyst research and development activity has involved testing supported catalysts, dispersed catalysts, and use of catalyst testing units to investigate the effects of operating parameters (the second area) with both supported and unsupported catalysts. Several supported catalysts were tested in a simulated first stage coal liquefaction application at 404{degrees}C during this performance period. A Ni-Mo hydrous titanate catalyst on an Amocat support prepared by Sandia National laboratories was tested. Other baseline experiments using AO-60 and Amocat, both Ni-Mo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} supported catalysts, were also made. These experiments were short duration (approximately 12 days) and monitored the initial activity of the catalysts. The results of these tests indicate that the Sandia catalyst performed as well as the commercially prepared catalysts. Future tests are planned with other Sandia preparations. The dispersed catalysts tested include sulfated iron oxide, Bayferrox iron oxide (iron oxide from Miles, Inc.), and Bailey iron oxide (micronized iron oxide from Bailey, Inc.). The effects of space velocity, temperature, and solvent-to-coal ratio on coal liquefaction activity with the dispersed catalysts were investigated. A comparison of the coal liquefaction activity of these catalysts relative to iron catalysts tested earlier, including FeOOH-impregnated coal, was made. These studies are discussed.

  9. Uranium industry annual 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-05

    The Uranium Industry Annual 1994 (UIA 1994) provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry`s activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing during that survey year. The UIA 1994 is prepared for use by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the uranium and nuclear electric utility industries, and the public. It contains data for the 10-year period 1985 through 1994 as collected on the Form EIA-858, ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey.`` Data collected on the ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey`` (UIAS) provide a comprehensive statistical characterization of the industry`s activities for the survey year and also include some information about industry`s plans and commitments for the near-term future. Where aggregate data are presented in the UIA 1994, care has been taken to protect the confidentiality of company-specific information while still conveying accurate and complete statistical data. A feature article, ``Comparison of Uranium Mill Tailings Reclamation in the United States and Canada,`` is included in the UIA 1994. Data on uranium raw materials activities including exploration activities and expenditures, EIA-estimated resources and reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities, including purchases of uranium and enrichment services, and uranium inventories, enrichment feed deliveries (actual and projected), and unfilled market requirements are shown in Chapter 2.

  10. Bench-scale testing of a micronized magnetite, fine-coal cleaning process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suardini, P.J. [Custom Coals, International, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Custom Coals, International has installed and is presently testing a 500 lb/hr. micronized-magnetite, fine-coal cleaning circuit at PETC`s Process Research Facility (PRF). The cost-shared project was awarded as part of the Coal Preparation Program`s, High Efficiency Preparation Subprogram. The project includes design, construction, testing, and decommissioning of a fully-integrated, bench-scale circuit, complete with feed coal classification to remove the minus 30 micron slimes, dense medium cycloning of the 300 by 30 micron feed coal using a nominal minus 10 micron size magnetite medium, and medium recovery using drain and rinse screens and various stages and types of magnetic separators. This paper describes the project circuit and goals, including a description of the current project status and the sources of coal and magnetite which are being tested.

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliot B. Kennel; Chong Chen; Dady Dadyburjor; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-07-13

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. The Hydrotreatment Facility is being prepared for trials with coal liquids. Raw coal tar distillate trials have been carried out by heating coal tar in the holding tank in the Hydrotreatment Facility. The liquids are centrifuged to warm the system up in preparation for the coal liquids. The coal tar distillate is then recycled to keep the centrifuge hot. In this way, the product has been distilled such that a softening point of approximately 110 C is reached. Then an ash test is conducted.

  12. Development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense Facilities. Semiannual technical progress report, March 28, 1997--September 27, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Miller, S.F.; Morrison, J.L. [and others

    1998-01-06

    The U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), through an Interagency Agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has initiated a three-phase program with the Consortium for Coal-Water Slurry Fuel Technology, with the aim of developing technologies which can potentially decrease DOD`s reliance on imported oil by increasing its use of coal. The program is being conducted as a cooperative agreement between the Consortium and DOE. Phase I was completed on November 1, 1995. Work in Phase II focused on emissions reductions, coal beneficiation/preparation studies, and economic analyses of coal use. Emissions reductions investigations included performing pilot-scale air toxics (i.e., trace elements and volatile organic compounds) testing and evaluating a ceramic filtering device on the demonstration boiler. Also, a sodium bicarbonate duct injection system was installed on the demonstration boiler. An economic analysis was conducted which investigated the benefits of decreased dependence on imported oil by using new coal combustion technologies. Work related to coal preparation and utilization was primarily focused on preparing the final report. Work in Phase III focused on coal preparation studies, pilot-scale NO{sub x} reduction studies, economic analyses of coal use, and evaluation of deeply-cleaned coal as boiler fuel. Coal preparation studies were focused on continuing activities on particle size control, physical separations, and surface-based separation processes. The evaluation of deeply-cleaned coal as boiler fuel included receiving three cleaned coals from Cyprus-Amax.

  13. Effects of Main Parameters on Rheological Properties of Oil-Coal Slurry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yong-gang; HAO Li-fang; XIONG Chu-an; SUN Xiu-ying

    2006-01-01

    Oil-coal slurry prepared in coal direct liquefaction is a dispersed solid-liquid suspension system. In this paper, some factors such as solvent properties, solid concentrations and temperatures, which affect viscosity change of oil-coal slurry, were studied. The viscosity of coal slurry was measured using rotary viscometer, and the rheological properties have been investigated. The viscosity and rheological curves were plotted and regressed, respectively. The results show that the coal slurry behaves a pseudoplastic and thixotropic property. The rheological type of coal slurry was ascertained and its rheological equations were educed. The oil-coal slurry changes to non-Newtonian fluid from Newtonian fluid with the increasing of solid concentration.

  14. State and development prospects for water-coal fuel work in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nekhoroshiy, I.K.; Dobrokhotov, V.; Zaidenvarg, V.; Trubetskoy, K. (Ministry of Science and Technical Policy (Russian Federation))

    1994-01-01

    Strengthening the role of coal in Russia is based on its reserves, which account for 45% of the world resources. Expansion of the use of coal will be determined by a solution to the ecological problems caused by coal mining, processing and combustion. Pipeline transportation of coal in the form of water-coal suspensions is of the greatest importance for the national economy. The main advantages of this kind of transport are: high output at continuous feed, lack of coal losses and dusting, small working area, minimum negative effect on the environment, lack of noise, low labour input, high efficiency of loading, unloading and warehousing operations both of the supplier and the customer. Since 1983, work has been underway aimed at the creation of experimental and industrial systems for preparation of highly concentrated water-coal suspensions and their pipeline transportation over large distances. 7 refs.

  15. Economic Limit of Coal Mining Closedown in Restructuring Coal Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    One of the key points in restructuring the coal industry is to close some deficient coal mines which haveneither economic result nor social benefit. Based on the relationship among production, cost, and profit, differenteconomic limits for closing coal mines in different cases were put forward. The relationship between the profit andclosedown cost of deficient coal mines was analyzed and an overall economic limit for closing a deficient coal minewas also proposed.

  16. Transportation of coal by pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Round, G.F.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses Canada's coal resources, technology of long distance coal slurry pipelines, existing and planned coal slurry pipelines, their economics, liquid carbon dioxide, methanol and crude oil instead of water as carrier fluid, and coal slurry research in Canada.

  17. Coal Activities for Secondary Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Coal Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This collection of lesson plans designed for teachers of 4th- through 12th-grade students utilizes an assortment of teaching strategies for topics related to coal and the coal industry. Activities cover the following topics: coal formation; coal identification; "the geologist's dilemma" (a supply and demand activity); geologic time and the…

  18. The economical production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas. Quarterly technical progress report No. 5, October 1, 1992--December 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    Two base case flow sheets have now been prepared. In the first, which was originally presented in TPR4, a Texaco gasifier is used. Natural gas is also burned in sufficient quantity to increase the hydrogen to carbon monoxide ratio of the synthesis gas to the required value of 1. 1 for alcohol synthesis. Acid gas clean up and sulfur removal are accomplished using the Rectisol process followed by the Claus and Beavon processes. About 10% of the synthesis gas is sent to a power generation unit in order to produce electric power, with the remaining 90% used for alcohol synthesis. For this process, the estimated installed cost is $474.2 mm. The estimated annual operating costs are $64.5 MM. At a price of alcohol fuels in the vicinity of $1. 00/gal, the pay back period for construction of this plant is about four years. The details of this case, called Base Case 1, are presented in Appendix 1. The second base case, called Base Case 2, also has a detailed description and explanation in Appendix 1. In Base Case 2, a Lurgi Gasifier is used. The motivation for using a Lurgi Gasifier is that it runs at a lower temperature and pressure and, therefore, produces by-products such as coal liquids which can be sold. Based upon the economics of joint production, discussed in Technical Progress Report 4, this is a necessity. Since synthesis gas from natural gas is always less expensive to produce than from coal, then alcohol fuels will always be less expensive to produce from natural gas than from coal. Therefore, the only way to make coal- derived alcohol fuels economically competitive is to decrease the cost of production of coal-derived synthesis gas. one method for accomplishing this is to sell the by-products from the gasification step. The details of this strategy are discussed in Appendix 3.

  19. An evaluation of deeply-cleaned coals as industrial boiler fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Wincek, R.T.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1999-07-01

    AMAX Research and Development Center (AMAX) recently conducted a program for the US Department of Energy (DOE) in which processes for preparing ultra-clean coal were developed (Jha et al., 1997). The coal cleaning methods targeted were advanced column flotation and selective agglomeration. The goal was to develop a coal-based fuel, preferably a coal-water slurry fuel (CWSF), that would be a viable alternative to fuel oil or natural gas in industrial and utility boilers, and would also be appropriate for advanced combustion systems that are under development. Additional objectives were to develop near-term applications of the advanced coal cleaning technologies in new or existing coal preparation plants in order to efficiently process minus 28 mesh fines and convert them into marketable products, and to determine the extent of removal of toxic trace elements from coal by the advanced cleaning technologies. AMAX cleaned three coals in an integrated advanced column flotation and selective agglomeration process development unit. The coals were from the Taggart (Virginia), Indiana VII (Indiana) and Hiawatha (Utah) seams. As a complement to the AMAX program, Penn State is evaluating the deeply-cleaned coals as industrial boiler fuels. Specifically, the handling characteristics, combustion performance, and trace element emissions of the coals are being determined. The coals are being tested in demonstration (20 million Btu/h) and research (2 million Btu/h) boilers as part of a Penn State/DOE project characterizing trace element emissions from coal-fired industrial boilers. This paper will discuss the atomization characteristics and combustion performance (in the demonstration boiler) in a 1 ton/h filter cake re-entrainment circuit. In addition, the combustion performance of the ultra-clean CWSFs is compared to that of other CWSFs prepared in Penn State's 1 ton/h single and double-stage grinding circuit.

  20. ESTIMATION OF NEAR SUBSURFACE COAL FIRE GAS EMISSIONS BASED ON GEOPHYSICAL INVESTIGATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen-Brauchler, D.; Meyer, U.; Schlömer, S.; Kus, J.; Gundelach, V.; Wuttke, M.; Fischer, C.; Rueter, H.

    2009-12-01

    Spontaneous and industrially caused subsurface coal fires are worldwide disasters that destroy coal resources, cause air pollution and emit a large amount of green house gases. Especially in developing countries, such as China, India and Malaysia, this problem has intensified over the last 15 years. In China alone, 10 to 20 million tons of coal are believed to be lost in uncontrolled coal fires. The cooperation of developing countries and industrialized countries is needed to enforce internationally concerted approaches and political attention towards the problem. The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) under the framework of the Kyoto Protocol may provide an international stage for financial investment needed to fight the disastrous situation. A Sino-German research project for coal fire exploration, monitoring and extinction applied several geophysical approaches in order to estimate the annual baseline especially of CO2 emissions from near subsurface coal fires. As a result of this project, we present verifiable methodologies that may be used in the CDM framework to estimate the amount of CO2 emissions from near subsurface coal fires. We developed three possibilities to approach the estimation based on (1) thermal energy release, (2) geological and geometrical determinations as well as (3) direct gas measurement. The studies involve the investigation of the physical property changes of the coal seam and bedrock during different burning stages of a underground coal fire. Various geophysical monitoring methods were applied from near surface to determine the coal volume, fire propagation, temperature anomalies, etc.

  1. Uranium industry annual 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    The Uranium Industry Annual 1995 (UIA 1995) provides current statistical data on the U.S. uranium industry`s activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing. The UIA 1995 is prepared for use by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the uranium and nuclear electric utility industries, and the public. It contains data for the period 1986 through 2005 as collected on the Form EIA-858, ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey``. Data collected on the ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey`` provide a comprehensive statistical characterization of the industry`s plans and commitments for the near-term future. Where aggregate data are presented in the UIA 1995, care has been taken to protect the confidentiality of company-specific information while still conveying accurate and complete statistical data. Data on uranium raw materials activities for 1986 through 1995 including exploration activities and expenditures, EIA-estimated reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities for 1994 through 2005, including purchases of uranium and enrichment services, enrichment feed deliveries, uranium fuel assemblies, filled and unfilled market requirements, uranium imports and exports, and uranium inventories are shown in Chapter 2. The methodology used in the 1995 survey, including data edit and analysis, is described in Appendix A. The methodologies for estimation of resources and reserves are described in Appendix B. A list of respondents to the ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey`` is provided in Appendix C. For the reader`s convenience, metric versions of selected tables from Chapters 1 and 2 are presented in Appendix D along with the standard conversion factors used. A glossary of technical terms is at the end of the report. 14 figs., 56 tabs.

  2. Coal Mines Security System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankita Guhe

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Geological circumstances of mine seem to be extremely complicated and there are many hidden troubles. Coal is wrongly lifted by the musclemen from coal stocks, coal washeries, coal transfer and loading points and also in the transport routes by malfunctioning the weighing of trucks. CIL —Coal India Ltd is under the control of mafia and a large number of irregularities can be contributed to coal mafia. An Intelligent Coal Mine Security System using data acquisition method utilizes sensor, automatic detection, communication and microcontroller technologies, to realize the operational parameters of the mining area. The data acquisition terminal take the PIC 16F877A chip integrated circuit as a core for sensing the data, which carries on the communication through the RS232 interface with the main control machine, which has realized the intelligent monitoring. Data management system uses EEPROM chip as a Black box to store data permanently and also use CCTV camera for recording internal situation. The system implements the real-time monitoring and displaying for data undermine, query, deletion and maintenance of history data, graphic statistic, report printing, expert diagnosis and decision-making support. The Research, development and Promote Application will provide the safeguard regarding the mine pit control in accuracy, real-time capacity and has high reliability.

  3. A Systematic Analysis of Coal Accumulation Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Aiguo

    2008-01-01

    Formation of coal seam and coal-rich zone is an integrated result of a series of factors in coal accumulation process. The coal accumulation system is an architectural aggregation of coal accumulation factors. It can be classified into 4 levels: the global coal accumulation super-system, the coal accumulation domain mega.system, the coal accumulation basin system, and the coal seam or coal seam set sub-system. The coal accumulation process is an open, dynamic, and grey system, and is meanwhile a system with such natures as aggregation, relevance, entirety, purpose-orientated, hierarchy, and environment adaptability. In this paper, we take coal accumulation process as a system to study origin of coal seam and coal-rich zone; and we will discuss a methodology of the systematic analysis of coal accumulation process. As an example, the Ordos coal basin was investigated to elucidate the application of the method of the coal accumulation system analysis.

  4. Clean coal technology: The new coal era

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    The Clean Coal Technology Program is a government and industry cofunded effort to demonstrate a new generation of innovative coal processes in a series of full-scale showcase`` facilities built across the country. Begun in 1986 and expanded in 1987, the program is expected to finance more than $6.8 billion of projects. Nearly two-thirds of the funding will come from the private sector, well above the 50 percent industry co-funding expected when the program began. The original recommendation for a multi-billion dollar clean coal demonstration program came from the US and Canadian Special Envoys on Acid Rain. In January 1986, Special Envoys Lewis and Davis presented their recommendations. Included was the call for a 5-year, $5-billion program in the US to demonstrate, at commercial scale, innovative clean coal technologies that were beginning to emerge from research programs both in the US and elsewhere in the world. As the Envoys said: if the menu of control options was expanded, and if the new options were significantly cheaper, yet highly efficient, it would be easier to formulate an acid rain control plan that would have broader public appeal.

  5. Coal-fired generation

    CERN Document Server

    Breeze, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Coal-Fired Generation is a concise, up-to-date and readable guide providing an introduction to this traditional power generation technology. It includes detailed descriptions of coal fired generation systems, demystifies the coal fired technology functions in practice as well as exploring the economic and environmental risk factors. Engineers, managers, policymakers and those involved in planning and delivering energy resources will find this reference a valuable guide, to help establish a reliable power supply address social and economic objectives. Focuses on the evolution of the traditio

  6. A Study on Spreading Direction of Coal-fire Based with TIR Remote Sensing in Wuda Coalfield from 2000 to 2006, Northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, H.-Y.; Jiang, X.-G.; Song, X.-F.; Ni, Z.-Y.; Gao, C.-X.; Zhang, Y.-Z.; Liu, L.

    2014-03-01

    Coal fires are a common and serious problem in most coal producing countries. Coal fires could not only lead to a huge loss of non-renewable energy resources, but it also can cause many environmental problems such as GHG emission, land subsidence and increment of surface temperature. So it is very important to monitor the dynamic changes of coal fires. As far as large scale coal field, remote sensing provided researchers with a new and useful technique for coal fire detection. This paper developed a research over coal fire spreading direction using a multi-temporal TIR remote sensing approach. The results successfully showed that the direction of coal fire spreading and predicted the coal fire direction of development on a regional scale or on a whole coal field scale, and a quantitative analysis of coal fires was made in the research. The results showed that the coal fires had an average annual increase of 0.5 million square meters from 1999 to 2006, and the TIR remote sensing proved to be an available tool for coal fire mapping and prediction of coal fire development.

  7. Low-rank coal research under the UND/DOE cooperative agreement. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1983-June 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiltsee, Jr., G. A.

    1983-01-01

    Progress reports are presented for the following tasks: (1) gasification wastewater treatment and reuse; (2) fine coal cleaning; (3) coal-water slurry preparation; (4) low-rank coal liquefaction; (5) combined flue gas cleanup/simultaneous SO/sub x/-NO/sub x/ control; (6) particulate control and hydrocarbons and trace element emissions from low-rank coals; (7) waste characterization; (8) combustion research and ash fowling; (9) fluidized-bed combustion of low-rank coals; (10) ash and slag characterization; (11) organic structure of coal; (12) distribution of inorganics in low-rank coals; (13) physical properties and moisture of low-rank coals; (14) supercritical solvent extraction; and (15) pyrolysis and devolatilization.

  8. The effect of temperature and oxygen content on coal burnout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Milenkova; A.G. Borrego; D. Alvarez; J. Xiberta; R. Menendez [Instituto Nacional del Carbon, CSIC, Oviedo (Spain)

    2003-07-01

    In this study chars from six coals differing in rank and maceral composition have been prepared at 1100 and 1300{sup o}C in a drop tube reactor using four oxygen concentrations (0, 2.5, 10 and 21% oxygen). Char burnout, reactivity, morphology and optical texture have been considered in an attempt to understand the effect of temperature and oxygen concentration in relation to coal characteristics. Temperature has shown to have a different effect on conversion depending on coal rank. The high volatile coals showed similar conversions at 1100 and 1300{sup o}C at the various atmospheres tested, whereas higher rank coals showed higher conversions at 1300 than at 1100{sup o}C. The presence of oxygen in the reacting gas appears to have two opposite effects on coal combustion. On the one hand it prevents swelling and devolatilisation and on the other it enhances combustion. The burnout will depend on which process dominates. In addition, this effect appears to be temperature dependant and the inhibiting effect of oxygen on coal devolatilisation has shown to be higher at higher temperature, since at low temperature it only affects the lowest ranked coals. The presence of oxygen also affects the structure of carbonaceous material since the lower the oxygen concentration the higher the anisotropy development. The difference in temperature separating the two series of experiments (1000 and 1300{sup o}C) did not have a positive effect on the conversion of coals yielding highly porous chars whereas for coals yielding more dense structures higher conversions were achieved at higher temperatures. 7 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Peru: coal over the past three years: future trends. El desarrollo de la situacion del carbon en el Peru durante los ultimos tres anos y su evolucion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunin Borkoroski, E.; Goluchoweska, K.

    1989-01-01

    In 1985, annual coal production in Peru reached 150 to 200 mt and has since remained at roughly the same level. The coal comes from between 50 and 100 small and sometimes rather antiquated mining units which are run by small firms or individuals. Only a handful of coal mining operations are run by large companies and these too are small units. 85% of production is anthracite and the remainder bituminous coal. Only in rare cases is lignite or graphite mined and this only in very small quantities. Anthracite is mined in the Libertad, Ancash and Cajamarca departments, bituminous coal in Pasco and Junin and both types of coal in Lima and Arequipa. Current production patterns do not reflect the distribution and abundance of the coal. Coal has been found nearly everywhere in Peru and appears to have great potential whereas measured reserves are minimal and scattered across the country.

  10. Estimate of sulfur, arsenic, mercury, fluorine emissions due to spontaneous combustion of coal gangue: An important part of Chinese emission inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaobin; Luo, Kunli; Wang, Xing; Sun, Yuzhuang

    2016-02-01

    A rough estimate of the annual amount of sulfur, arsenic, mercury and fluoride emission from spontaneous combustion of coal gangue in China was determined. The weighted mean concentrations of S, As, Hg, and F in coal gangue are 1.01%, 7.98, 0.18, and 365.54 mg/kg, respectively. Amounts of S, As, Hg, and F emissions from coal gangue spontaneous combustion show approximately 1.13 Mt, and 246, 45, and 63,298 tons in 2013, respectively. The atmospheric release amount of sulfur from coal gangue is more than one tenth of this from coal combustion, and the amounts of As, Hg, and F are close to or even exceed those from coal combustion. China's coal gangue production growth from 1992 to 2013 show an obvious growth since 2002. It may indicate that Chinese coal gangue has become a potential source of air pollution, which should be included in emission inventories.

  11. Low-rank coal research semiannual report, January 1992--June 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    This semiannual report is a compilation of seventeen reports on ongoing coal research at the University of North Dakota. The following research areas are covered: control technology and coal preparation; advanced research and technology development; combustion; liquefaction and gasification. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  12. Coal-water fuel - a new type of clean energy carrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobrokhotov, V.I.; Zaidenvarg, V.E.; Trubetskoy, K.N.; Nekhoroshy, I.Kh.; Korochkin, G.N. [Ministry of Science and Technologies (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    An increased number of pipelines for coal transport are being used in the Russian Federation for environmental and cost reasons. Research has been performed both on the characteristics of the pipeline itself, and on the coal-water slurry it carriers. Improved preparation of the slurry leads to a better quality fuel for sale, and lower transport costs. 7 refs., 3 figs.

  13. 6th Conference on Coal Utilization Technology; Dai 6 kai sekitan riyo gijutsu kaigi koenshu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    The paper compiled the papers presented in the 6th Conference on Coal Utilization Technology held in September 1996. With relation to the fluidized bed boiler, reported were Field operation test of Wakamatsu PFBC combined cycle power plant and Development of pressurized internally circulating fluidized bed combustion technology. Regarding the coal reformation, Development of advanced coal cleaning process, Coal preparation and coal cleaning in the dry process, etc. Concerning the combustion technology, Study of the O2/CO2 combustion technology, Development of pressurized coal partial combustor, etc. About the CWM, Development of low rank coals upgrading and their CWM producing technology, Technique of CWM distribution system, etc. Relating to the coal ash, Engineering characteristics of the improved soil by deep mixing method using coal ash, Employment of fluidized bed ash as a basecourse material, On-site verification trials using fly ash for reclamation behind bulkheads, Water permeabilities of pulverized fuel ash, Separation of unburned carbon from coal fly ash through froth flotation, Practical use technology of coal ash (POZ-O-TEC), etc

  14. Characterization and supply of coal based fuels. Volume 1, Final report and appendix A (Topical report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-06-01

    Studies and data applicable for fuel markets and coal resource assessments were reviewed and evaluated to provide both guidelines and specifications for premium quality coal-based fuels. The fuels supplied under this contract were provided for testing of advanced combustors being developed under Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) sponsorship for use in the residential, commercial and light industrial (RCLI) market sectors. The requirements of the combustor development contractors were surveyed and periodically updated to satisfy the evolving needs based on design and test experience. Available coals were screened and candidate coals were selected for further detailed characterization and preparation for delivery. A team of participants was assembled to provide fuels in both coal-water fuel (CWF) and dry ultrafine coal (DUC) forms. Information about major US coal fields was correlated with market needs analysis. Coal fields with major reserves of low sulfur coal that could be potentially amenable to premium coal-based fuels specifications were identified. The fuels requirements were focused in terms of market, equipment and resource constraints. With this basis, the coals selected for developmental testing satisfy the most stringent fuel requirements and utilize available current deep-cleaning capabilities.

  15. Nature of hydrogen bonding in coal-derived asphaltenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, S.R.; Li, N.C.

    1978-02-01

    Reports are presented on near-infrared and proton magneti resonance studies of hydrogen bonding between the hydroxyl group of o-phenylphenol (OPP) and two coal derived asphaltenes, and their acid and base components. The asphaltenes were prepared from bituminous coal under the same conditions except that one was prepared using a CoMo catalyst. The results of the studies show that the use of the CoMo catalyst leads to a base asphaltene component of lower molecular weight and higher hydrogen-bond acceptor strength.

  16. The German coal market in 2008; Der deutsche Steinkohlenmarkt im Jahr 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luebke, Roland; Loo, Kai van de; Lange, Achim [Gesamtverband Steinkohle (GVSt), Essen (Germany)

    2009-04-28

    The German coal market was characterised by highly conflicting trends in 2008. Coal prices on the international markets continued to rise like oil prices until summer and reached an 'all-time high'. The import prices increased accordingly. For the new annual contracts for coking coal imports the German steel industry had to make record payments of up to 300 US-Dollars/t. In autumn, however, the coal markets worldwide were drawn into the whirlpool of the global financial and economic crisis, which not only led to a drastic fall in prices, but also to a clear decline in sales. Coal consumption in Germany fell by 7.3% from 67.4 Mill.t coal units in the previous year to 62.5 Mill.t coal units in 2008. The electricity generation from coal even fell by 9.5 %. Despite the decline in coal consumption the proportion of imported coal in the German coal market increased (to 72 %) because indigenous production was reduced as planned from 22.2 Mill.t coal units to 17.7 Mill.t coal unites, i.e. by a further good 20 %. In the middle of 2008 the Walsum mine was closed as planned and on 1 January 2009 also the Lippe mine. In spring 2008 there was also an unplanned partial closure of the Saar mine. It was preceded by an unexpected earth tremor caused by the mining industry, which was followed by temporary stoppage of production throughout the Saar district and subsequent relocation of the workings to other areas, whereby the production quantities have been reduced and operation is to continue only until 2012. (orig.)

  17. Tianjin smokeless coal project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reuvid, J.M. [Information Services Trans Europe B.V. (Netherlands)

    1997-08-01

    A feasibility study was started to evaluate the technical barriers and the commercial possibilities of forming a joint venture between the Tianjin Coal and Building Materials Company (TCBM) and Coalite hereby coal from the Shanxi coalfields would be converted by the Coalite process to a smokeless fuel, which would reduce Taijin`s heavy level of air pollution. The project was, however, aborted in October 1996 because Tianjin had been allocated a connection to domestic natural gas fields. The project did identify the suitability of coals from the Shanxi coalfields for the Coalite process and the likely market acceptability of the product. It demonstrated the necessity of establishing good contacts in the relevant industries and Ministries in China - and highlighted the benefits of an effective collaboration between three types of organisation - an investment and consultancy company with expertise in China, a UK clean coal technology company, and a local consultant. 4 apps.

  18. Coal terminal directory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-06-15

    The directory gives a comprehensive listing of the world's coal terminals, in a total of 50 countries including information on throughput, facilities, storage capacity, and vessel size limitation.

  19. Coal Mine Permit Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — ESRI ArcView shapefile depicting New Mexico coal mines permitted under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA), by either the NM Mining these...

  20. Prospects for coal and clean coal technology in the Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-03-15

    This report examines the current energy outlook for the Philippines in regard not only to coal but also other energy resources. The history of the power sector, current state of play and future plans to meet the increasing energy demand from a growing population are discussed. There is also analysis of the trends for coal demand and production, imports and exports of coal and the types of coal-fired power stations that have been built. This includes examination of the legislation involving coal and the promotion of clean coal technologies.

  1. Coal facies studies in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalkreuth, Wolfgang D. [Laboratorio de Carvao e de Petrologia Organica, Instituto de Geociencias, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Av. Bento Goncalves, 9500, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2004-04-23

    The present study is a compilation of published data on coal facies studies in Canada based on coal petrological and other methods. The geological age of the coals range from the Devonian coal deposits in Arctic Canada to coals of Tertiary age in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin, intermontane British Columbia and Arctic Canada. In terms of rank, the coal deposits studied range from lignite to low volatile bituminous. Coal petrological methods include maceral and microlithotype analyses, frequently integrated with data from palynological and geochemical analyses. Most recently, a number of studies have applied sequence stratigraphic concepts to the coal-bearing strata including the interpretation of coal petrological data in the context of this concept.

  2. Optimization of the process of plasma ignition of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peregudov, V.S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2009-04-15

    Results are given of experimental and theoretical investigations of plasma ignition of coal as a result of its thermochemical preparation in application to the processes of firing up a boiler and stabilizing the flame combustion. The experimental test bed with a commercial-scale burner is used for determining the conditions of plasma ignition of low-reactivity high-ash anthracite depending on the concentration of coal in the air mixture and velocity of the latter. The calculations produce an equation (important from the standpoint of practical applications) for determining the energy expenditure for plasma ignition of coal depending on the basic process parameters. The tests reveal the difficulties arising in firing up a boiler with direct delivery of pulverized coal from the mill to furnace. A scheme is suggested, which enables one to reduce the energy expenditure for ignition of coal and improve the reliability of the process of firing up such a boiler. Results are given of calculation of plasma thermochemical preparation of coal under conditions of lower concentration of oxygen in the air mixture.

  3. COAL QUALITY CONTROL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟祥瑞

    1998-01-01

    Coal storing and loading have much more influence on coal quality. In the paper, a goalprogramming model has been constructed to determine the ideal quantity extracting from stockpileand silos and a quality control model is inferred under the guidance of maximum theory ofdispersed number and practice methods are given to meet production demand, with which a coalmine has achieved a better tech-economic result.

  4. Improved techniques for hyperbaric filtration of fine coal slurry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, J.; Wang, X.H.; Parekh, B.K. [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research

    2010-07-01

    Dewatering of fine clean coal slurry is one of the most important unit operations of a coal-cleaning circuit. However, an efficient and economic dewatering method is still eluding the coal industry. In this study hyperbaric (high pressure) filtration studies were conducted on a froth flotation product obtained from a coal preparation plant processing Pittsburgh No. 8 seam coal. The fine coal slurry (42 weight percent minus 25 {mu}m) could be dewatered to a low moisture (24%) using 482kPa (70psi) pressure. This article describes two novel approaches for improving dewatering of the fine coal slurry using hyperbaric filtration, such as using a modified filter support and split-size dewatering. The modified filter support system and the split-sizing at 25 {mu}m (500mesh) provided 21.5% and 15.9% moisture filter cake, which was about 10% and 34% improvement in moisture reduction in the filter cake moisture, respectively. Combining both the approaches with the addition of a nonionic flocculant provided a filter cake with 10.5% moisture, which was about a 56% improvement in moisture reduction.

  5. Gaseous phase coal surface modification. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okoh, J.M.; Pinion, J.; Thiensatit, S.

    1992-05-07

    In this report, we present an improved, feasible and potentially cost effective method of cleaning and beneficiating ultrafine coal. Increased mechanization of mining methods and the need towards depyritization, and demineralization have led to an increase in the quantity of coal fines generated in recent times. For example, the amount of {minus}100 mesh coal occurring in coal preparation plant feeds now typically varies from 5 to 25% of the total feed. Environmental constraints coupled with the greatly increased cost of coal have made it increasingly important to recover more of these fines. Our method chemically modifies the surface of such coals by a series of gaseous phase treatments employing Friedel-Crafts reactions. By using olefins (ethene, propene and butene) and hydrogen chloride catalyst at elevated temperature, the surface hydrophobicity of coal is enhanced. This increased hydrophobicity is manifest in surface phenomena which reflect conditions at the solid/liquid interphase (zeta potential) and those which reflect conditions at the solid/liquid/gas interphases (contact angle, wettability and floatability).

  6. Indicators of coal metamorphism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proskuryakov, A.E.

    1982-06-01

    Important in determining metamorphism of coal is the reliability of indicators of coalification. Both the reflection of vitrinite and emission of volatile matter have been used for this purpose. To determine which indicator more accurately characterizes metamorphism of coal, their conformity to the following demands was established: 1. uniformity in direction of change of parameters with degree of metamorphism; 2. independence of the indicator of the genetic characteristics of coal (petrographic composition, reduction and oxidation of coal); 3. sensitivity of indicator. Both indicators conform to the first requirement. Emission of volatile substance decreases and reflective capacity of vitrinite increases uniformly with degree of metamorphism. However, the reflectivity of vitrinite is not influenced by petrographic composition of coals and is less dependent on the oxidation and reduction of coal than emission of volatile matter. It is also a more sensitive indicator distinguishing more degrees of metamorphism than emission of volatile matter. Reflectivity of vitrinite is a more reliable indicator of metamorphism than emission of volatile matter. However, in many laboratories this indicator is not measured with sufficient accuracy. To correct this, measuring equipment must be standardized.

  7. Clean coal technology: Export finance programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-30

    Participation by US firms in the development of Clean Coal. Technology (CCT) projects in foreign countries will help the United States achieve multiple national objectives simultaneously--addressing critical goals related to energy, environmental technology, industrial competitiveness and international trade. US participation in these projects will result in an improved global environment, an improvement in the balance of payments and an increase in US jobs. Meanwhile, host countries will benefit from the development of economically- and environmentally-sound power facilities. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (Public Law 101-549, Section 409) as supplemented by a requirement in the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (Public Law 102-486, Section 1331(f)) requires that the Secretary of Energy, acting through the Trade Promotion Coordinating Committee Subgroup on Clean Coal Technologies, submit a report to Congress with information on the status of recommendations made in the US Department of Energy, Clean Coal Technology Export Programs, Report to the United States Congress, February 1992. Specific emphasis is placed on the adequacy of financial assistance for export of CCTS. This report fulfills the requirements of the Act. In addition, although this report focuses on CCT power projects, the issues it raises about the financing of these projects are also relevant to other CCT projects such as industrial applications or coal preparation, as well as to a much broader range of energy and environmental technology projects worldwide.

  8. Fine coal measurement needs for improved control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firth, B.; O' Brien, M. [CSIRO, Brisbane, Qld. (Australia). Division of Energy Technology

    2010-07-01

    The monitoring and management of fine coal circuits in coal preparation plants is limited in current practice. As part of the Australian Coal Association Research Program (ACARP) Intelligent Plant Project (C11069), the relationships between the main operational and control factors for the unit operations and the circuit and the performance indicators have been identified. The unit operations examined included desliming (hydrocyclones and sieve bends), small coal cleaning (spirals and hydraulic separators), flotation, and dewatering (vacuum filters, centrifuges, and thickeners). These relationships were then used to assist in the identification of the important parameters to be measured and the preferred level of accuracy required to be useful. An important issue was the interconnection between the various unit operations and the potential impact of an upstream problem on the subsequent performance of downstream units. Analysis with the relationships showed that the flow rate of respective feed slurries and the solids content were found to be significant variables. This article will discuss this analysis and provide some case studies.

  9. Variability of production in the Tito brown coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vukovic, S. (Institut za Rudarska Istrazivanja, Tuzla (Yugoslavia))

    1987-05-01

    Examines daily production fluctuations in the Banovici coal basin from 1978-1985, where 2,800-4,100 workers produced 2-2.3x10{sup 6} t/a from underground and surface mines. The underground mine used mechanized longwall mining, surface mines employed shovel excavators, draglines, dumpers and belt conveyors. Statistical data showed large variations (+/- 2.5%, from 4,630 to 7,792 t/day) in daily coal production; evaluation showed close correlations for surface and underground mines. Highest production was achieved on Saturdays and Sundays, lowest on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays. It is suggested that these variations may be due to maintenance work in the coal preparation plant, which was usually carried out on Mondays and Fridays. A stereogram of coal and overburden output for both types of mine and detailed statistical computations are included. 7 refs.

  10. Co-pyrolysis characteristics of coal and natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, L.R.; Zhang, J.M.; Lian, H.; Luo, M. [Shanghai University of Science & Technology, Shanghai (China)

    2007-05-15

    A co-pyrolysis experiment of coal and natural gas was investigated on a fixed-bed reactor. SEM was used to study the structure changes of the exterior surface of char prepared in this co-pyrolysis experiment, while GC was also utilized to analyze the associated gas. The result showed that, with increasing temperature, the coal char tended to agglomerate. GC and SEM results show that the CH{sub 4} decomposition on the exterior surface of char was turned to filamentous char and extended around like coral. It was also proved that the co-pyrolysis of coal and natural gas promoted syngas production. A synergistic effect of coal and natural gas does exist during this process.

  11. Coal log pipeline research at the University of Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, H.

    1992-03-01

    Project tasks: Perform the necessary testing and development to demonstrate that the amount of binder in coal logs can be reduced to 8% or lower to produce logs with adequate strength to eliminate breakage during pipeline transportation, under conditions experienced in long distance pipeline systems. Prior to conducting any testing and demonstration, grantee shall perform an information search and make full determination of all previous attempts to extrude or briquette coal, upon which the testing and demonstration shall be based. Perform the necessary development to demonstrate a small model of the most promising injection system for coal-logs, and test the logs produced from Task 1. Conduct economic analysis of coal-log pipeline, based upon the work to date. Refine and complete the economic model. Prepare a final report for DOE.

  12. Journal of Coal Science & Engineering(China)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Guide for Authors Journal of Coal Science & Engineering(English Edition), a comprehensive academic periodical of the China Coal Society, covers the fields of coal science and technology including coal geology, exploration,mine survey, mine project assessment, mine construction, coal mining, coal mine electrical machinery,mine safety, coal processing and utilization, coal mine environmental protection, etc. It reflects the latest research results and findings.

  13. Trace elements in coal ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deonarine, Amrika; Kolker, Allan; Doughten, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    Coal ash is a residual waste product primarily produced by coal combustion for electric power generation. Coal ash includes fly ash, bottom ash, and flue-gas desulfurization products (at powerplants equipped with flue-gas desulfurization systems). Fly ash, the most common form of coal ash, is used in a range of products, especially construction materials. A new Environmental Protection Agency ruling upholds designation of coal ash as a non-hazardous waste under Subtitle D of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, allowing for the continued beneficial use of coal ash and also designating procedures and requirements for its storage.

  14. Coal facies studies in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez-Ruiz, Isabel [INCAR (CSIC), Ap. Co., 73, 33080, Oviedo (Spain); Jimenez, Amalia [Geology, University of Oviedo, 33005, Oviedo (Spain)

    2004-04-23

    This work is a synthesis of the distribution of the main coal basins and sub-basins in Spain as well as the research carried out on their coal facies. The coal fields are distributed through the Paleozoic (mainly Pennsylvanian), Mesozoic (Cretaceous) and Cenozoic times. Peats also exist in the southeast Spain (Granada area), although these types of deposits are not included in this review. Spanish coal basins are both of a paralic and intramontane type and the coal rank is highly variable, from lignite in the case of the younger coal seams to anthracite for those of Carboniferous age.

  15. Energy Conversion and Storage Program: 1992 Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cairns, E.J.

    1993-06-01

    This report is the 1992 annual progress report for the Energy Conversion and Storage Program, a part of the Energy and Environment Division of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Work described falls into three broad areas: electrochemistry; chemical applications; and materials applications. The Energy Conversion and Storage Program applies principles of chemistry and materials science to solve problems in several areas: (1) production of new synthetic fuels, (2) development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells, (3) development of advanced thermochemical processes for energy conversion, (4) characterization of complex chemical processes and chemical species, and (5) study and application of novel materials for energy conversion and transmission. Projects focus on transport-process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials, and advanced methods of analysis. Electrochemistry research aims to develop advanced power systems for electric vehicle and stationary energy storage applications. Chemical applications research includes topics such as separations, catalysis, fuels, and chemical analyses. Included in this program area are projects to develop improved, energy-efficient methods for processing product and waste streams from synfuel plants, coal gasifiers, and biomass conversion processes. Materials applications research includes evaluation of the properties of advanced materials, as well as development of novel preparation techniques. For example, techniques such as sputtering, laser ablation, and poised laser deposition are being used to produce high-temperature superconducting films.

  16. Coal 99; Kol 99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparre, C.

    2000-07-01

    The following report deals with the use of coal and coke during 1998. Some information about techniques, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from Statistics Sweden have also been used. The use of steam coal for heating purposes during 1998 was 680 000 tons and somewhat lower than in 1997. The extremely high figures of 1996 were due to twice the production of electricity because of lack of waterpower. The co-generation plants were the main users of coal. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. Probably the use of steam coal will go down in the immediate years both in the heat generating and the co-generating plants. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hot water plants and 11 co-generation plants. During 1998 these figures are 1 and 8. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in the industry has been constant at the level 700 000 tons. This level is supposed to be constant or to vary with business cycles. Steel-works, however, increase their use of steam coal in order to replace the more expensive coke. The import of metallurgical coal in 1998 was 1.6 mill tons like the year before. 1.1 mill tons of coke were produced. The coke consumption in the industry was 1.4 mill tons from which 0.3 mill tons were imported. Several other plants have plans to replace the coal with forest fuels, waste fuels and NG. Even the biggest plant, Vaesteraas, has ordered a block for bio fuels. Helsingborg has started to use wood pellets. The pellets replace most of the coal for the heat production in the co-generation plant. Norrkoeping Kraft AB has put a fluid bed boiler for various fuels into operation, leading to more than half the coal consumption compared with previous years. They have also rebuilt one of their travelling grates for bio fuels. Stockholm Energi, Haesselbyverket, has invested

  17. Simulation of low-temperature plasma interaction with pulverized coal for incineration improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Askarova; E. Karpenko; V. Messerle; A. Ustimenko [Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty (Kazakhstan). Department of Physics

    2003-07-01

    Plasma activation promotes more effective and environmental friendly low-grade coals incineration. The work presents numerical modeling results of plasma ignition, gasification and thermochemical preparation of a pulverized coal for incineration at power boilers. Thermodynamic code TERRA allows calculating products compound of plasma activated pulverized coal depended on temperature, pressure and plasma source power. Considering plasma source kinetic code PLASMA-COAL gives initial data for 3D-modeling of power boilers furnaces by FLOREAN code. 5 refs., 13 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Catalytic properties of raw and modified semicokes from Kansk-Achinsk coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stavitskaya, S.S.; Tarkovskaya, I.A.; Nikolaeva, V.A.; Goba, V.E.

    1984-03-01

    Power of semicokes prepared from coals to accelerate several protolytic and oxidation-reduction reactions is studied. By special treatment of Kansk-Achinsk coals it is possible to regulate the surface properties and produce an inexpensive coal catalyst for dechlorination of brine, liquid phase esterification, breakdown of heavy water, etc. The catalytic properties of the modified semicokes are close to those of widely used activated and oxidized coals. Testing was performed on raw semicoke, semicoke processed at different temperatures, air oxidized semicoke, nitrogen oxidized and semicoke subjected to various conditions of oxidation-reduction reactions and their several forms of cation exchange. 10 references.

  19. Energy utilization and environmental control technologies in the coal-electric cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, G.C.

    1977-10-01

    This report presents an overview and assessment of the currently commercial and possible future technologies in the United States that are a part of the coal-electric cycle. From coal production to residual emissions control at the power plant stack, this report includes a brief history, current status and future assessment of each technology. It also includes a discussion, helpful for policy making decisions, of the process operation, environmental emission characteristics, market constraints and detailed cost estimates for each of these technologies, with primary emphasis on coal preparation, coal-electric generation and emissions control systems.

  20. Coal blending in Illinois. [Compliance with SO/sub 2/ emission regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkey, M.L.; Macal, C.M.

    1976-03-01

    Most of the metropolitan areas in the United States are now governed by state-enacted air pollution control regulations that have either prohibited coal burning or have limited it to low sulfur coal. This research studies the economic and operational feasibility of mixing high sulfur Illinois coal with low sulfur Western coal to achieve a blend that can be utilized in maintaining compliance with the sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) emission regulations. Acceptance of the blending option could result in lower coal expenditures, depending on transportation and mine-mouth costs, plus the operational costs involved in the blending procedure. Various blending facility locations were considered. The economic feasibility of supplying blended coal to the demand regions was assessed. Under conservative assumptions about Western coal price behavior and present SO/sub 2/ emission regulations, potential total annual cost savings to Illinois due to blending are estimated at 4.1 percent or $11.5 million. Under less conservative assumptions, coal blending offers even higher potential savings. Examination of the operational feasibility of coal blending, with its promising economic advantages, led to a recommendation for an operational demonstration project. (auth)

  1. (Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center): Quarterly technical progress report for the period ending June 30, 1987. [Advanced Coal Research and Technology Development Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1988-02-01

    Research programs on coal and coal liquefaction are presented. Topics discussed are: coal science, combustion, kinetics, surface science; advanced technology projects in liquefaction; two stage liquefaction and direct liquefaction; catalysts of liquefaction; Fischer-Tropsch synthesis and thermodynamics; alternative fuels utilization; coal preparation; biodegradation; advanced combustion technology; flue gas cleanup; environmental coordination, and technology transfer. Individual projects are processed separately for the data base. (CBS)

  2. Raton Coal Basin boundary, 1999 Coal Resource Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This ArcView shape file contains a polygon representing the extent of the Raton Coal Basin boundary. This theme was created specifically for the National Coal...

  3. Method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavorsky, Paul M.

    1991-01-01

    A method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile comprises soaking the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution and distributing an oxygen-containing gas throughout the coal refuse pile for a time period sufficient to effect oxidation of coal contained in the coal refuse pile. The method further comprises leaching the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution to solubilize and extract the oxidized coal as alkali salts of humic acids and collecting the resulting solution containing the alkali salts of humic acids. Calcium hydroxide may be added to the solution of alkali salts of humic acid to form precipitated humates useable as a low-ash, low-sulfur solid fuel.

  4. Coal recovery from a coal waste dump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozanski Zenon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibilities and efficiency of coal recovery from the waste material located at the Central Coal Waste Dump in Poland were presented in this paper. The waste material includes significant amount of fly ash. Research conducted into determination of energetic properties of such wastes showed that the average ash content was 75.75% and the average gross calorific value was 7.81 MJ/kg. Coal was gravitationally separated from the waste material in a pulsatory jig and in a spiral washer including size fractions: 30-5 and 8-0 mm (this was crushed to a size <3.2 mm, respectively. The application of the pulsatory jig (pulse classifier allowed to obtain a high-quality energetic concentrate with the ash content lower than 12% and the gross calorific value higher than 26 MJ/kg (with average yield 7.8%. The spiral separator gave much worse results. The average gross calorific value for the concentrate was 11.6 MJ/kg, with the high ash content 56.5% and yield approximately 26%.

  5. Estimates and Predictions of Coal Workers' Pneumoconiosis Cases among Redeployed Coal Workers of the Fuxin Mining Industry Group in China: A Historical Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Han

    Full Text Available This research was aimed at estimating possible Coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP cases as of 2012, and predicting future CWP cases among redeployed coal workers from the Fuxin Mining Industry Group. This study provided the scientific basis for regulations on CWP screening and diagnosis and labor insurance policies for redeployed coal workers of resource-exhausted mines. The study cohort included 19,116 coal workers. The cumulative incidence of CWP was calculated by the life-table method. Possible CWP cases by occupational category were estimated through the average annual incidence rate of CWP and males' life expectancy. It was estimated that 141 redeployed coal workers might have suffered from CWP as of 2012, and 221 redeployed coal workers could suffer from CWP in the future. It is crucial to establish a set of feasible and affordable regulations on CWP screening and diagnosis as well as labor insurance policies for redeployed coal workers of resource-exhausted coal mines in China.

  6. Coal 99; Kol 99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparre, C.

    2000-07-01

    The following report deals with the use of coal and coke during 1998. Some information about techniques, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from Statistics Sweden have also been used. The use of steam coal for heating purposes during 1998 was 680 000 tons and somewhat lower than in 1997. The extremely high figures of 1996 were due to twice the production of electricity because of lack of waterpower. The co-generation plants were the main users of coal. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. Probably the use of steam coal will go down in the immediate years both in the heat generating and the co-generating plants. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hot water plants and 11 co-generation plants. During 1998 these figures are 1 and 8. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in the industry has been constant at the level 700 000 tons. This level is supposed to be constant or to vary with business cycles. Steel-works, however, increase their use of steam coal in order to replace the more expensive coke. The import of metallurgical coal in 1998 was 1.6 mill tons like the year before. 1.1 mill tons of coke were produced. The coke consumption in the industry was 1.4 mill tons from which 0.3 mill tons were imported. Several other plants have plans to replace the coal with forest fuels, waste fuels and NG. Even the biggest plant, Vaesteraas, has ordered a block for bio fuels. Helsingborg has started to use wood pellets. The pellets replace most of the coal for the heat production in the co-generation plant. Norrkoeping Kraft AB has put a fluid bed boiler for various fuels into operation, leading to more than half the coal consumption compared with previous years. They have also rebuilt one of their travelling grates for bio fuels. Stockholm Energi, Haesselbyverket, has invested

  7. Uranium industry annual 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    The Uranium Industry Annual 1996 (UIA 1996) provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry`s activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing. The UIA 1996 is prepared for use by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the uranium and nuclear electric utility industries, and the public. Data on uranium raw materials activities for 1987 through 1996 including exploration activities and expenditures, EIA-estimated reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities for 1994 through 2006, including purchases of uranium and enrichment services, enrichment feed deliveries, uranium fuel assemblies, filled and unfilled market requirements, uranium imports and exports, and uranium inventories are shown in Chapter 2. A feature article, The Role of Thorium in Nuclear Energy, is included. 24 figs., 56 tabs.

  8. The German coal market in 2011; Der deutsche Steinkohlenmarkt im Jahr 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loo, Kai van de; Luebke, Roland; Boergel, Thomas [Gesamtverband Steinkohle e.V. (GVSt), Herne (Germany); Verschuur, Michael [Statistik der Kohlenwirtschaft e.V., Herne (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Compared to the previous year the German coal market recorded a slight fall in total consumption by 0.7% to 57.5 mill. coal units. Whereas coking coal and coke consumption of the steel industry clearly increased (+4.3%) due to the boom, sale of power station coals declined considerably in 2011 (-2.5%). However, electricity generation in Germany fell by almost the same amount (-2.2%). Primary energy consumption even declined by a good 5% to its lowest level since 1990 - probably because of the mild weather - and this despite economic growth of 3% in 2011. It must be stated that there was no increase in generation of electricity from bituminous coal following shutdown of eight of the 17 German nuclear power stations in the wake of the events at Fukushima although this was not the case with renewable energy and lignite. The political decisions in 2011 to expedite the energy turning point in Germany also do not suggest a continuous upward trend in the future. Bituminous coal occupied third place in the national energy mix in 2011 both in primary energy consumption and generation of electricity. Within the German coal market imported coal again compensated for the reduced contribution of indigenous coal. The indigenous coal mining industry has continued its politically prescribed decline according to plan. With the Council decision concerning coal subsidies in the EU, which came into force on 1 January 2011, and the deletion of the review clause in the Coal Financing Act approved by the German legislators cessation of the coal production in Germany at the end of 2018 has now become final and irreversible. At the same time the closure plan for the German coal mining industry extending to 2018 was approved by the EU Commission in December 2011. Meanwhile the RAG group is preparing its future after the end of the active mining industry inter alia by the use of available mining infrastructure for forms of renewable energy. (orig.)

  9. The Importance and Usefulness of Corporate Annual Reports in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd. Ghazali, Nazli Anum

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the perceived importance and usefulness of corporate annual reports in Malaysia and to determine if there is a difference between the perceptions of preparers and users of corporate annual reports. Data for this study were collected using a questionnaire survey conducted in late 2006 and early 2007. Preparers are represented by chief financial officers while users by investment analysts. The mean scores for preparers and users are compared using the ind...

  10. Coal 95; Kol - 95

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparre, C.

    1995-12-31

    The report deals with the use of coal and coke in Sweden during 1994. Some information about technology, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from Statistics Sweden have also been used.The use of steam coal for heating purposes has been unchanged during 1994 at a level of 1 Mtons. The production in the cogeneration plants has been constant, but has increased for electricity production. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. The use of steam coal will probably go down in the next years both for heat and cogeneration plants. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hot water and 11 cogeneration plants. 1994 these figures are 3 and 12. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in industry has been constant at the level 0.7 Mtons. The import of metallurgical coal in 1993 was 1.6 Mtons, like 1992. Import of 0.3 Mtons of coke gives the total consumption of coke in industry as 1.5 Mtons. the average price of steam coal imported to Sweden was 317 SEK/ton, 3% higher than 1993. All Swedish plants meet their emission limit of dust, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} as given by county administrations or concession boards. The cogeneration plants all have some SO{sub 2} removal system. The biggest cogeneration plant (Vaesteraas) has recently invested in a SCR NO{sub x} cleaning system. Most other plants use low NO{sub x} burners or SNR injection systems based on ammonia or urea. 2 figs, 13 tabs.

  11. A life cycle inventory of coal used for electricity production in Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babbitt, C.W.; Lindner, A.S. [University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Environmental Engineering Science

    2005-07-01

    Coal-fired power plants are anticipated to be increasingly used as a source of energy in the United States, particularly in states such as Florida that are experiencing rapid population growth and energy demands. This study inventories material and energy inputs and emissions in not only the Materials Processing stage (coal combustion) but also in the Raw Material Extraction (including coal mining and preparation) and Material Disposal (involving coal combustion products) stages, using data collected from four coal-burning utilities in Florida and SimaPro software (version 5. 1, PRe Consultants, The Netherlands). Total emissions to air from all three stages are significantly higher than to water or land, with 78% of the air emissions attributed to carbon dioxide from coal combustion. Coal mining and preparation contributes the largest quantities of non-methane volatile organic compounds and methane (over 98%) as well as the most total dissolved solids to water (over 76%). Disposal of coal combustion products, typically by either landfilling or surface impoundment, results in the largest emissions of particulate matter (PM 10) to air (41 %), a significant emission of total dissolved solids to water (over 22%) and a variety of metals to land. These results verify the major contributions of coal combustion to air emissions and show that the emissions from the Raw Material Extraction and Material Disposal stages may result in a significant enough negative environmental impact to warrant pursuit of pollution control and prevention opportunities in these stages as well.

  12. Annual energy review 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiferlein, Katherin E. [Energy Information Adminstration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2004-09-30

    The Annual Energy Review 2003 is a statistical history of energy activities in the United States in modern times. Data are presented for all major forms of energy by production (extraction of energy from the earth, water, and other parts of the environment), consumption by end-user sector, trade with other nations, storage changes, and pricing. Much of the data provided covers the fossil fuels—coal, petroleum, and natural gas. Fossil fuels are nature’s batteries; they have stored the sun’s energy over millennia past. It is primarily that captured energy that we are drawing on today to fuel the activities of the modern economy. Data in this report measure the extraordinary expansion of our use of fossil fuels from 29 quadrillion British thermal units (Btu) in 1949 to 84 quadrillion Btu in 2003. In recent years, fossil fuels accounted for 86 percent of all energy consumed in the United States. This report also records the development of an entirely new energy industry—the nuclear electric power industry. The industry got its start in this country in 1957 when the Shippingport, Pennsylvania, nuclear electric power plant came on line. Since that time, the industry has grown to account for 20 percent of our electrical output and 8 percent of all energy used in the country. Renewable energy is a third major category of energy reported in this volume. Unlike fossil fuels, which are finite in supply, renewable energy is essentially inexhaustible because it can be replenished. Types of energy covered in the renewable category include conventional hydroelectric power, which is power derived from falling water; wood; waste; alcohol fuels; geothermal; solar; and wind. Together, these forms of energy accounted for about 6 percent of all U.S. energy consumption in recent years.

  13. 3rd international conference on coal gasification and liquefaction, University of Pittsburgh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1976-01-01

    The third annual international conference on ''Coal Gasification and Liquefaction: What Needs to be Done Now'' was held at the University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA on August 3-5, 1976. The majority of the papers dealt with coal gasification and liquefaction (often on the basis of process pilot plant experience) and on flue gas desulfurization by a variety of processes; fewer papers involved fluidized bed combustion, combined cycle power plants, coal desulfurization, government policy on environmental effects and on synthetic fuels, etc. Twenty-eight papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  14. Organic coal-water fuel: Problems and advances (Review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glushkov, D. O.; Strizhak, P. A.; Chernetskii, M. Yu.

    2016-10-01

    The study results of ignition of organic coal-water fuel (OCWF) compositions were considered. The main problems associated with investigation of these processes were identified. Historical perspectives of the development of coal-water composite fuel technologies in Russia and worldwide are presented. The advantages of the OCWF use as a power-plant fuel in comparison with the common coal-water fuels (CWF) were emphasized. The factors (component ratio, grinding degree of solid (coal) component, limiting temperature of oxidizer, properties of liquid and solid components, procedure and time of suspension preparation, etc.) affecting inertia and stability of the ignition processes of suspensions based on the products of coaland oil processing (coals of various types and metamorphism degree, filter cakes, waste motor, transformer, and turbine oils, water-oil emulsions, fuel-oil, etc.) were analyzed. The promising directions for the development of modern notions on the OCWF ignition processes were determined. The main reasons limiting active application of the OCWF in power generation were identified. Characteristics of ignition and combustion of coal-water and organic coal-water slurry fuels were compared. The effect of water in the composite coal fuels on the energy characteristics of their ignition and combustion, as well as ecological features of these processes, were elucidated. The current problems associated with pulverization of composite coal fuels in power plants, as well as the effect of characteristics of the pulverization process on the combustion parameters of fuel, were considered. The problems hindering the development of models of ignition and combustion of OCWF were analyzed. It was established that the main one was the lack of reliable experimental data on the processes of heating, evaporation, ignition, and combustion of OCWF droplets. It was concluded that the use of high-speed video recording systems and low-inertia sensors of temperature and gas

  15. Estimation of Moisture Content in Coal in Coal Mills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Mataji, Babak

    2006-01-01

    the moisture content of the coal is proposed based on a simple dynamic energy model of a coal mill, which pulverizes and dries the coal before it is burned in the boiler. An optimal unknown input observer is designed to estimate the moisture content based on an energy balance model. The designed moisture...

  16. Estimation of Moisture Content in Coal in Coal Mills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Mataji, B.

    the moisture content of the coal is proposed based on a simple dynamic energy model of a coal mill, which pulverizes and dries the coal before it is burned in the boiler. An optimal unknown input observer is designed to estimate the moisture content based on an energy balance model. The designed moisture...

  17. Utilization of selected industrial waste through co-pyrolysis with coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavla Licakova; Jaroslav Buchtele [VSB - Technical University of Ostrava, Ostrava-Poruba (Czech Republic). Centre of Environmental Technologies

    2007-07-01

    Difficultly recyclable selected organic waste is possible to process by its co-pyrolysis with coal into the products with high use value. The research subject was to analyse and compare carbonizates yields forming by co-pyrolysis of waste rubber and brown coal mixtures and waste cotton and black coal mixtures. Mixtures were prepared with variable proportion of materials. According to the obtained results both procedures show as technically viable. Addition of rubber to brown coal came to increase specific surface area of activated carbon. The results obtained show that it is possible to prepare by co-pyrolysis of mixtures brown coal with waste rubber granular material with appropriate properties for preparation of sorbent by its sequential activation. The pyrolysis products yields of black coal with the products yields of co-pyrolysis of coal with 30 and 60 % wt. addition of the waste cotton were evaluated and compared. Addition of cotton to black coal came to increase gas volume and tar. 3 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  18. Analysis of natural radionuclides in coal, slag and ash in coal-fired power plants in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković M.M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The radioactivity monitoring in the “Nikola Tesla”, “Kolubara”, “Morava” and “Kostolac” coal-fired power plants was performed by the Radiation and Environmental Protection Laboratory, Vinča Institute of nuclear sciences in the period 2003-2010. Monitoring included the analysis of soil, water, flying ash, slag, coal and plants. This paper presents the results of the radioactivity analysis of coal, ash and slag samples. Naturally occurring radionuclides 226Ra, 232Th, 40K, 235U, 238U, and 210Pb as well as the man-made radionuclide 137Cs were determined by gamma spectrometry using HPGe detector. The concentrations of pairs of radionuclides were statistically tested to determine the correlation between them. Based on the obtained results, health effect due to the activity of these radionuclides was estimated via radium equivalent (Raeq, external hazard index (Hex, external gamma absorbed dose rate ( and annual effective dose.

  19. Estimate of arsenic emission amount from the coal power stations in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Kunli; ZHANG Xinmin; CHEN Changhe; LU Yilun

    2004-01-01

    To study the amount of arsenic emission from the coal power stations (mainly Permo-Carboniferous coal) in China in different combustion conditions, the arsenic content of the coal, the fly ash and the cinder in high- temperature power stations as well as mid-low temperature power stations have been analyzed. This note provides a rough estimate of the total amount of arsenic emission as well as emission ratio from steam coal combustion in China. The results show that by combustion of 1 t of Permo-Carbonif- erous coal (containing roughly 5 mg/kg arsenic), high-tem- perature power stations emit roughly 0.40 g arsenic into the atmosphere and the arsenic emission rate is about 7.70%; mid-low power stations emit roughly 0.15 g arsenic into the atmosphere and the arsenic emission rate is about 2.97%. A total of 600 million tons coal is burnt annually in China power stations, and the coal comes mainly from Permo- Carboniferous depositing in the North China Plate and northwest China coal mines. Taking the average arsenic content of the coal used at the value of 5 mg/kg, the total annual arsenic emission from steam coal combustion into the atmosphere is about 195.0 t. Most of the arsenic in coal can be released in the process of coal combustion, and the most of the released arsenic can be seized by the fly ash and then both of them are seized by the dust catcher of power station, so the arsenic emission ratio to the atmosphere is declined; in addition, research on the arsenic emission amount and emission rules from the coal power stations in China should go on the coal power stations with the dry-process dust catchers by the experiments results. In the wet process of dust catcher, 20% of the arsenic in the fly ash is dissolved in the water of sedimentation tank in high-temperature power station; in the mid-low temperature power station there are 70% of the arsenic in the fly ash dissolved in the water of sedimentation tank, this is an important source of arsenic pollution in

  20. Modelling of coal combustion enhanced through plasma-fuel systems in full-scale boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.S. Askarova; Z. Jankoski; E.I. Karpenko; E.I. Lavrischeva; F.C. Lockwood; V.E. Messerle; A.B. Ustimenko [al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty (Kazakhstan). Department of Physics

    2005-07-01

    Plasma activation promotes more effective and environmental friendly low-rank coal combustion. This work presents numerical modelling results of plasma thermochemical preparation of pulverized coal for ignition and combustion in the furnace of a utility boiler. Two kinetic mathematical models were used in the investigation of the processes of air-fuel mixture plasma activation, ignition and combustion. A 1D kinetic code, PLASMA-COAL, calculates the concentrations of species, temperatures and velocities of treated coal-air mixtures in a burner incorporating a plasma source. It gives initial data for 3D-modeling of power boilers furnaces by the code FLOREAN. A comprehensive image of plasma activated coal combustion processes in a furnace of pulverised coal fired boiler was obtained. The advantages of the plasma technology are clearly demonstrated. 15 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.