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Sample records for annua glandular trichome

  1. The effect of roots and media constituents on trichomes and artemisinin production in Artemisia annua L

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    Nguyen, Khanhvan T.; Towler, Melissa J.; Weathers, Pamela J.

    2012-01-01

    Artemisia annua produces the antimalarial drug, artemisinin (AN), which is synthesized and stored in glandular trichomes (GLTs). In vitro-grown A. annua shoots produce more AN when they form roots. This may be a function not of the roots, but rather media components such as the phytohormones, α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP), or salts and sucrose used to maintain either rooted or unrooted shoot cultures. We investigated how three main media components altered artem...

  2. Glandular Trichomes and Essential Oil of Thymus quinquecostatus

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    Ping Jia; Hanzhu Liu; Ting Gao; Hua Xin

    2013-01-01

    The distribution and types of glandular trichomes and essential oil chemistry of Thymus quinquecostatus were studied. The glandular trichomes are distributed on the surface of stem, leaf, rachis, calyx and corolla, except petiole, pistil and stamen. Three morphologically distinct types of glandular trichomes are described. Peltate trichomes, consisting of a basal cell, a stalk cell and a 12-celled head, are distributed on the stem, leaf, corolla and outer side of calyx. Capitate trichomes, co...

  3. Morphological differentiation and distribution of non-glandular and glandular trichomes on Dracocephalum moldavicum L. shoots

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    Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The structure, micromorphology and distribution of trichomes on Dracocephalum moldavicum L. shots were investigated using light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. There were distinguished 3 types of non-glandular trichomes, 3 types of glandular trichomes and papillae of the osmophore in the epidermis of the corolla. The highest density of non-glandular and glandular trichomes was found on the abaxial surface of the calyx, on bracts and in the upper part of the stem. Structural variations in the head and stalk of long glandular trichomes were demonstrated. The dimensions of particular types of trichomes are given in the present paper. Differences in the structure of the trichomes of this species are presented, compared to literature data. The micromorphology of particular trichome types is documented in numerous photographs showing the rich ornamentation of the cuticle of non-glandular trichomes.

  4. Glandular Trichomes and Essential Oil of Thymus quinquecostatus

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    Ping Jia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution and types of glandular trichomes and essential oil chemistry of Thymus quinquecostatus were studied. The glandular trichomes are distributed on the surface of stem, leaf, rachis, calyx and corolla, except petiole, pistil and stamen. Three morphologically distinct types of glandular trichomes are described. Peltate trichomes, consisting of a basal cell, a stalk cell and a 12-celled head, are distributed on the stem, leaf, corolla and outer side of calyx. Capitate trichomes, consisting of a unicellular base, a 1–2-celled stalk and a unicellular head, are distributed more diffusely than peltate ones, existing on stem, leaf, rachis and calyx. Digitiform trichomes are just distributed on the outer side of corolla, consisting of 1 basal cell, 3 stalk cells and 1 head cell. All three types of glandular trichomes can secrete essential oil, and in small capitate trichomes of rachis, all peltate trichomes and digitiform trichomes, essential oil is stored in a large subcuticular space, released by cuticle rupture, whereas, in other capitate trichomes, essential oil crosses the thin cuticle. The essential oil of T. quinquecostatus is yellow, and its content is highest in the growth period. 68 constituents were identified in the essential oils. The main constituent is linalool.

  5. Impact of Exogenous Elicitors on Artemisinin Production and Trichome Density in Artemisia annua L. under Subtropical Conditions

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    Alka Jagdish DANGASH

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Artemisinin is a sesquiterpene lactone found in Artemisia annua having many medicinal properties. Therefore the factors affecting trichome initiation are important. In the present study, several strategies have been adapted to increase artemisinin production by treating them with nutrients, hormones and elicitors. Abscisic acid, Gibberellic acid (GA3, a combination of GA3+IAA (Gibberellic acid+indole acetic acid, Chitosan, Methyl jasmonate, Acetyl salicylic acid, Lead acetate, sodium chloride, and Nanozime were sprayed on plant at regular intervals. The glandular trichomes of leaves from Artemisia annua (Asteraceae were examined by light and scanning electron microscopy and the percentage artemisnin content was analyzed by HPTLC. Maximum artemisinin content % and trichome index (0.128 was found when methy jasmonate was applied and minimum artemisinin content % and trichome index was reported in NaCl & acetyl salicylic acid.

  6. The nonvolatile metabolome of sunflower linear glandular trichomes.

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    Spring, Otmar; Pfannstiel, Jens; Klaiber, Iris; Conrad, Jürgen; Beifuß, Uwe; Apel, Lysanne; Aschenbrenner, Anna-Katharina; Zipper, Reinhard

    2015-11-01

    Uniseriate linear glandular trichomes occur on stems, leaves and flowering parts of Helianthus species and related taxa. Their metabolic activity and biological function are still poorly understood. A phytochemical study documented the accumulation of bisabolene type sesquiterpenes and flavonoids as the major constituents of the non-volatile metabolome of linear glandular trichomes in the common sunflower, Helianthus annuus. Besides known sesquiterpenes of the glandulone, helibisabonol and heliannuol type, four previously undescribed sesquiterpenes named glandulone D, E, F and helibisabonol C were identified by spectroscopic analysis. In addition, four known nevadensin type flavonoids varying in O-methoxy substitutions were found. None of them has previously been reported from Helianthus annuus. PMID:26412774

  7. Morphological differentiation of non-glandular and glandular trichomes on Marrubium vulgare L.

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    Marta Dmitruk

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Marrubium vulgare L., commonly known as a white horehound or common horehound, belongs to the plant family Lamiaceae. It is a perennial aromatic herb which grows naturally in Europe, Asia, and America. Since ancient Egypt, this species has been known as a remedy for upper respiratory tract ailments. Nowadays, horehound is used in herbal medicine for treatment of liver diseases, biliary tract disorders, and for increasing the appetite and supporting the function of the stomach. The main biologically active substances in M. vulgare organs are: marrubiin, tannins, essential oils, and ursolic acid. The paper presents micromorphological analyses of non-glandular and glandular trichomes of M. vulgare. The research material was sampled from the plant collection in the Botanical Garden of the Maria Curie-Sklodowska University in Lublin (51°14′ N, 22°34′ E. The above-ground parts of horehound were collected during the flowering period in July 2013. Using light microscopy (LM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, the types and sizes of trichomes from the stem, leaf, calyx, and corolla were investigated. The results of the microscopic observations show that the surfaces of M. vulgare vegetative and reproductive organs are densely clothed with glandular and non-glandular trichomes. The glandular trichomes are of two main types: peltate and capitate. Peltate trichomes consist of a short stalk cell and a large head with secretory cells arranged in a circle. The height of a mature trichome is about 31.33 μm and the diameter of the head is 31.47 μm. The substance produced by secretory cells passes through the apical walls and accumulates within a space between the cuticle and the cell wall layer. Capitate long trichomes with a basal cell, long stalk, neck cell, and a unicellular head are 36.65 μm long and the diameter of the head is about 15.6 μm. There are two types of short capitate trichomes: with a bicellular head and a unicellular stalk and with

  8. Structure and distribution of glandular and non-glandular trichomes on above-ground organs in Inula helenium L. (Asteraceae

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    Aneta Sulborska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Micromorphology and distribution of glandular and non-glandular trichomes on the above-ground organs of Inula helenium L. were investigated using light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Two types of biseriate glandular trichomes, i.e. sessile and stalk hairs, and non-glandular trichomes were recorded. Sessile glandular trichomes were found on all examined I. helenium organs (with their highest density on the abaxial surface of leaves and disk florets, and on stems, whereas stalk glandular trichomes were found on leaves and stems. Sessile trichomes were characterised by a slightly lower height (58–103 μm and width (32–35 μm than the stalk trichomes (62–111 μm x 31–36 μm. Glandular hairs were composed of 5–7 (sessile trichomes or 6–9 (stalk trichomes cell tiers. Apical trichome cell tiers exhibited features of secretory cells. Secretion was accumulated in subcuticular space, which expanded and ruptured at the top, and released its content. Histochemical assays showed the presence of lipids and polyphenols, whereas no starch was detected. Non-glandular trichomes were seen on involucral bracts, leaves and stems (more frequently on involucral bracts. Their structure comprised 2–9 cells; basal cells (1–6 were smaller and linearly arranged, while apical cells had a prozenchymatous shape. The apical cell was the longest and sharply pointed. Applied histochemical tests revealed orange-red (presence of lipids and brow colour (presence of polyphenols in the apical cells of the trichomes. This may suggest that beside their protective role, the trichomes may participate in secretion of secondary metabolites.

  9. Genetic basis for glandular trichome formation in cotton.

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    Ma, Dan; Hu, Yan; Yang, Changqing; Liu, Bingliang; Fang, Lei; Wan, Qun; Liang, Wenhua; Mei, Gaofu; Wang, Lingjian; Wang, Haiping; Ding, Linyun; Dong, Chenguang; Pan, Mengqiao; Chen, Jiedan; Wang, Sen; Chen, Shuqi; Cai, Caiping; Zhu, Xiefei; Guan, Xueying; Zhou, Baoliang; Zhu, Shuijin; Wang, Jiawei; Guo, Wangzhen; Chen, Xiaoya; Zhang, Tianzhen

    2016-01-01

    Trichomes originate from epidermal cells and can be classified as either glandular or non-glandular. Gossypium species are characterized by the presence of small and darkly pigmented lysigenous glands that contain large amounts of gossypol. Here, using a dominant glandless mutant, we characterize GoPGF, which encodes a basic helix-loop-helix domain-containing transcription factor, that we propose is a positive regulator of gland formation. Silencing GoPGF leads to a completely glandless phenotype. A single nucleotide insertion in GoPGF, introducing a premature stop codon is found in the duplicate recessive glandless mutant (gl2gl3). The characterization of GoPGF helps to unravel the regulatory network of glandular structure biogenesis, and has implications for understanding the production of secondary metabolites in glands. It also provides a potential molecular basis to generate glandless seed and glanded cotton to not only supply fibre and oil but also provide a source of protein for human consumption. PMID:26795254

  10. Engineering of Tomato Glandular Trichomes for the Production of Specialized Metabolites.

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    Kortbeek, R W J; Xu, J; Ramirez, A; Spyropoulou, E; Diergaarde, P; Otten-Bruggeman, I; de Both, M; Nagel, R; Schmidt, A; Schuurink, R C; Bleeker, P M

    2016-01-01

    Glandular trichomes are specialized tissues on the epidermis of many plant species. On tomato they synthesize, store, and emit a variety of metabolites such as terpenoids, which play a role in the interaction with insects. Glandular trichomes are excellent tissues for studying the biosynthesis of specialized plant metabolites and are especially suitable targets for metabolic engineering. Here we describe the strategy for engineering tomato glandular trichomes, first with a transient expression system to provide proof of trichome specificity of selected promoters. Using microparticle bombardment, the trichome specificity of a terpene-synthase promoter could be validated in a relatively fast way. Second, we describe a method for stable expression of genes of interest in trichomes. Trichome-specific expression of another terpene-synthase promoter driving the yellow-fluorescence protein-gene is presented. Finally, we describe a case of the overexpression of farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FPS), specifically in tomato glandular trichomes, providing an important precursor in the biosynthetic pathway of sesquiterpenoids. FPS was targeted to the plastid aiming to engineer sesquiterpenoid production, but interestingly leading to a loss of monoterpenoid production in the transgenic tomato trichomes. With this example we show that trichomes are amenable to engineering though, even with knowledge of a biochemical pathway, the result of such engineering can be unexpected. PMID:27480691

  11. Morphology and histochemistry of glandular trichomes of Orobanche alba Stephan ex Willd

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    Aneta Sulborska

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Orobanche alba Stephan ex Willd is an achlorophyllous root parasite rare in Poland. It prefers dry and sunny slopes, xerothermic grasslands and pastures, mountain pastures, light scrubs, and rock fissures and ledges. The hosts of O. alba include Thymus polytrichus A. ern. ex Borbás, Clinopodium vulgare L. and Origanum vulgare L. The tick and fleshy 10-70 cm high stem in this species bears an inflorescence composed of zygomorphic, white or yellow “spotted” flowers covered by purple glandular trichomes. Glandular trichomes of this type are also borne on other parts of the plant, i.e. on the stem, scaly leaves, sepals, filaments, and the style. The secondary metabolites secreted by the glandular trichomes are related to defense of plants against the attack of herbivores and pathogens or act as attractants to pollinators or for fruit dispersal. The micromorphology and histochemistry of the glandular trichomes in O. alba were examined using scanning electron and light microscopes. In order to determine the type of secondary metabolites produced by the trichomes, the flowing histochemical assays were used: Sudan III and neutral red for detection of lipophilic compounds, IKI for detection of starch, and FeCl3 for detection of phenolic compounds. The peltate glandular trichomes of O. alba were characterised by a varied length (0.15‑0.48 mm and different activity phases. The trichome was composed of one larger basal epidermal cell, 1-3 hyaline stalk cells with a striated cuticle, a neck cell with a smooth cuticle on the surface, and a globose head formed of 8-18 secretory cells arranged in a circle. Many stalk cells of the trichomes, particularly those located on the corolla, contained anthocyanins, which give the trichomes dark carmine colour. In turn, the colour of the heads was dependent on trichome age: the heads were brown in older trichomes and yellow in younger hairs. Secretion was produced by both young and older trichomes. It penetrated

  12. Physiological function of non-glandular trichomes in red clover (Trifolium pratense L.

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    Naydenova Galina K.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the trial was to study the physiological function and potential ecological significance of non-glandular trichomes in red clover based on their relation to the leaf transpiration intensity. The transpiration rate, relative water content and water deficit of the leaves were recorded in field-grown, high and slightly pubescent genotypes. According to results, the presence of nonglandular epidermal trichomes on the leaf surface of red clover was a micromorphological trait related to the regulation of leaf transpiration in stressful conditions. Non-glandular trichomes significantly enhanced water retention of the leaf tissue at high leaf water deficit. In the environmental conditions, limiting leaf evaporation, the pubescent genotypes displayed higher levels of transpiration. It can be suggested that the non-glandular trichomes in red clover are morphological structures supporting the function of leaf stoma apparatus. A positive relation between the degree of pubescence and resistance to powdery mildew was established under natural conditions.

  13. Next generation sequencing unravels the biosynthetic ability of Spearmint (Mentha spicata) peltate glandular trichomes through comparative transcriptomics

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Jingjing; Panicker, Deepa; Wang, Qian; Kim, Mi Jung; Liu, Jun; Yin, Jun-Lin; Wong, Limsoon; Jang, In-Cheol; Chua, Nam-Hai; Sarojam, Rajani

    2014-01-01

    Background Plant glandular trichomes are chemical factories with specialized metabolic capabilities to produce diverse compounds. Aromatic mint plants produce valuable essential oil in specialised glandular trichomes known as peltate glandular trichomes (PGT). Here, we performed next generation transcriptome sequencing of different tissues of Mentha spicata (spearmint) to identify differentially expressed transcripts specific to PGT. Our results provide a comprehensive overview of PGT’s dynam...

  14. Expression of β-glucosidase increases trichome density and artemisinin content in transgenic Artemisia annua plants.

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    Singh, Nameirakpam Dolendro; Kumar, Shashi; Daniell, Henry

    2016-03-01

    Artemisinin is highly effective against multidrug-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum, the aetiological agent of the most severe form of malaria. However, a low level of accumulation of artemisinin in Artemisia annua is a major limitation for its production and delivery to malaria endemic areas of the world. While several strategies to enhance artemisinin have been extensively explored, enhancing storage capacity in trichome has not yet been considered. Therefore, trichome density was increased with the expression of β-glucosidase (bgl1) gene in A. annua through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Transgene (bgl1) integration and transcript were confirmed by molecular analysis. Trichome density increased up to 20% in leaves and 66% in flowers of BGL1 transgenic plants than Artemisia control plants. High-performance liquid chromatography, time of flight mass spectrometer data showed that artemisinin content increased up to 1.4% in leaf and 2.56% in flowers (per g DW), similar to the highest yields achieved so far through metabolic engineering. Artemisinin was enhanced up to five-fold in BGL1 transgenic flowers. This study opens the possibility of increasing artemisinin content by manipulating trichomes' density, which is a major reservoir of artemisinin. Combining biosynthetic pathway engineering with enhancing trichome density may further increase artemisinin yield in A. annua. Because oral feeding of Artemisia plant cells reduced parasitemia more efficiently than the purified drug, reduced drug resistance and cost of prohibitively expensive purification process, enhanced expression should play a key role in making this valuable drug affordable to treat malaria in a large global population that disproportionally impacts low-socioeconomic areas and underprivileged children. PMID:26360801

  15. Higher glandular trichome density in tomato leaflets and repellence to spider mites

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    Maluf, Wilson Roberto; Inoue, Irene Fumi; Ferreira, Raphael de Paula Duarte; Gomes, Luiz Antonio Augusto [Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Agricultura]. E-mail: wrmaluf@ufla.br; fuminoue@yahoo.com.br; raphaelufla@yahoo.com.br; laagomes@ufla.br; Castro, Evaristo Mauro de [Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia]. E-mail: emcastro@ufla.br; Cardoso, Maria das Gracas [Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: mcardoso@ufla.br

    2007-09-15

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the feasibility of selection for higher glandular trichome densities, as an indirect criterion of selection for increasing repellence to spider mites Tetranychus urticae, in tomato populations derived from an interspecific cross between Lycopersicon esculentum x L. hirsutum var. glabratum PI 134417. Trichome densities were evaluated in 19 genotypes, including 12 from advanced backcross populations, derived from the original cross L. esculentum x L. hirsutum var. glabratum PI 134417. Counts were made both on the adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces, and trichomes were classified into glandular types IV and VI, other glandular types (types I+VII), and nonglandular types. Mite repellence was measured by distances walked by mites onto the tomato leaf surface after 20, 40 and 60 min. Spider mite repellence biotests indicated that higher densities of glandular trichomes (especially type VI) decreased the distances walked by the mites onto the tomato leaf surface. Selection of plants with higher densities of glandular trichomes can be an efficient criterion to obtain tomato genotypes with higher resistance (repellence) to spider mites. (author)

  16. Higher glandular trichome density in tomato leaflets and repellence to spider mites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the feasibility of selection for higher glandular trichome densities, as an indirect criterion of selection for increasing repellence to spider mites Tetranychus urticae, in tomato populations derived from an interspecific cross between Lycopersicon esculentum x L. hirsutum var. glabratum PI 134417. Trichome densities were evaluated in 19 genotypes, including 12 from advanced backcross populations, derived from the original cross L. esculentum x L. hirsutum var. glabratum PI 134417. Counts were made both on the adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces, and trichomes were classified into glandular types IV and VI, other glandular types (types I+VII), and nonglandular types. Mite repellence was measured by distances walked by mites onto the tomato leaf surface after 20, 40 and 60 min. Spider mite repellence biotests indicated that higher densities of glandular trichomes (especially type VI) decreased the distances walked by the mites onto the tomato leaf surface. Selection of plants with higher densities of glandular trichomes can be an efficient criterion to obtain tomato genotypes with higher resistance (repellence) to spider mites. (author)

  17. Peltate glandular trichomes of Colquhounia seguinii harbor new defensive clerodane diterpenoids.

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    Li, Chun-Huan; Liu, Yan; Hua, Juan; Luo, Shi-Hong; Li, Sheng-Hong

    2014-09-01

    Glandular trichomes produce a wide variety of secondary metabolites that are considered as major defensive chemicals against herbivore attack. The morphology and secondary metabolites of the peltate glandular trichomes of a lianoid Labiatae, Colquhounia seguinii Vaniot, were investigated. Three new clerodane diterpenoids, seguiniilactones A-C (1-3), were identified through precise trichome collection with laser microdissection, metabolic analysis with ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometer, target compound isolation with classical phytochemical techniques, structure elucidation with spectroscopic methods. All compounds showed significant antifeedant activity against a generalist plant-feeding insect Spodoptera exigua. Seguiniilactone A (1) was approximately 17-fold more potent than the commercial neem oil. α-Substituted α,β-unsaturated γ-lactone functionality was found to be crucial for strong antifeedant activity of this class of compounds. Quantitative results indicated that the levels of these compounds in the peltate glandular trichomes and leaves were sufficiently high to deter the feeding by generalist insects. Moderate antifungal activity was observed for seguiniilactone C (3) against six predominant fungal species isolated from the diseased leaves of C. seguinii, while seguiniilactones A and B were generally inactive. These findings suggested that seguiniilactones A-C might be specialized secondary metabolites in peltate glandular trichomes for the plant defense against insect herbivores and pathogens. PMID:25048077

  18. Peltate glandular trichomes of Colquhounia seguinii harbor new defensive clerodane diterpenoids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-Huan Li; Yan Liu; Juan Hua; Shi-Hong Luo; Sheng-Hong Li

    2014-01-01

    Glandular trichomes produce a wide variety of secondary metabolites that are considered as major defen-sive chemicals against herbivore attack. The morphology and secondary metabolites of the peltate glandular trichomes of a lianoid Labiatae, Colquhounia seguinii Vaniot, were investigated. Three new clerodane diterpenoids, seguiniilac-tones A-C (1-3), were identified through precise trichome collection with laser microdissection, metabolic analysis with ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometer, target compound isolation with classical phytochemical techniques, structure elucidation with spec-troscopic methods. All compounds showed significant antifeedant activity against a generalist plant-feeding insect Spodoptera exigua. Seguiniilactone A (1) was approxi-mately 17-fold more potent than the commercial neem oil. a-Substituted a,b-unsaturated g-lactone functionality was found to be crucial for strong antifeedant activity of this class of compounds. Quantitative results indicated that the levels of these compounds in the peltate glandular trichomes and leaves were sufficiently high to deter the feeding by generalist insects. Moderate antifungal activity was ob-served for seguiniilactone C (3) against six predominant fungal species isolated from the diseased leaves of C. seguinii, while seguiniilactones A and B were generally inactive. These findings suggested that seguiniilactones A-C might be specialized secondary metabolites in peltate glandular trichomes for the plant defense against insect herbivores and pathogens.

  19. Biochemical and histochemical localization of monoterpene biosynthesis in the glandular trichomes of spearmint (Mentha spicata)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gershenzon, J.; Maffei, M.; Croteau, R. (Washington State Univ., Pullman (USA))

    1989-04-01

    The primary monoterpene accumulated in the glandular trichomes of spearmint (Mentha spicata) is the ketone (-)-carvone which is formed by cyclization of the C{sub 10} isoprenoid intermediate geranyl pyrophosphate to the olefin (-)-limonene, hydroxylation to (-)-trans-carveol and subsequent dehydrogenation. Selective extraction of the contents of the glandular trichomes indicated that essentially all of the cyclase and hydroxylase activities resided in these structures, whereas only about 30% of the carveol dehydrogenase was located here with the remainder located in the rest of the leaf. This distribution of carveol dehydrogenase activity was confirmed by histochemical methods. Electrophoretic analysis of the partially purified carveol dehydrogenase from extracts of both the glands and the leaves following gland removal indicated the presence of a unique carveol dehydrogenase species in the glandular trichomes, suggesting that the other dehydrogenase found throughout the leaf probably utilizes carveol only as an adventitious substrate. These results demonstrate that carvone biosynthesis takes place exclusively in the glandular trichomes in which this natural product accumulates.

  20. Capitate glandular trichomes in Aldama discolor (Heliantheae - Asteraceae): morphology, metabolite profile and sesquiterpene biosynthesis.

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    Bombo, A B; Appezzato-da-Glória, B; Aschenbrenner, A-K; Spring, O

    2016-05-01

    The capitate glandular trichome is the most common type described in Asteraceae species. It is known for its ability to produce various plant metabolites of ecological and economic importance, among which sesquiterpene lactones are predominant. In this paper, we applied microscopy, phytochemical and molecular genetics techniques to characterise the capitate glandular trichome in Aldama discolor, a native Brazilian species of Asteraceae, with pharmacological potential. It was found that formation of trichomes on leaf primordia of germinating seeds starts between 24 h and 48 h after radicle growth indicates germination. The start of metabolic activity of trichomes was indicated by separation of the cuticle from the cell wall of secretory cells at the trichome tip after 72 h. This coincided with the accumulation of budlein A, the major sesquiterpene lactone of A. discolor capitate glandular trichomes, in extracts of leaf primordia after 96 h. In the same timeframe of 72-96 h post-germination, gene expression studies showed up-regulation of the putative germacrene A synthase (pGAS2) and putative germacrene A oxidase (pGAO) of A. discolor in the transcriptome of these samples, indicating the start of sesquiterpene lactone biosynthesis. Sequencing of the two genes revealed high similarity to HaGAS and HaGAO from sunflower, which shows that key steps of this pathway are highly conserved. The processes of trichome differentiation, metabolic activity and genetic regulation in A. discolor and in sunflower appear to be typical for other species of the subtribe Helianthinae. PMID:26642998

  1. Development and Structure of Internal Glands and External Glandular Trichomes in Pogostemon cablin

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    Guo, Jiansheng; Yuan, Yongming; Liu, Zhixue; Zhu, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Pogostemon cablin possesses two morphologically and ontogenetically different types of glandular trichomes, one type of bristle hair on the surfaces of leaves and stems and one type of internal gland inside the leaves and stems. The internal gland originates from elementary meristem and is associated with the biosynthesis of oils present inside the leaves and stems. However, there is little information on mechanism for the oil biosynthesis and secretion inside the leaves and stems. In this st...

  2. Identification, functional characterization and developmental regulation of sesquiterpene synthases from sunflower capitate glandular trichomes

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    Ro Dae-Kyun

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sesquiterpene lactones are characteristic metabolites of Asteraceae (or Compositae which often display potent bioactivities and are sequestered in specialized organs such as laticifers, resin ducts, and trichomes. For characterization of sunflower sesquiterpene synthases we employed a simple method to isolate pure trichomes from anther appendages which facilitated the identification of these genes and investigation of their enzymatic functions and expression patterns during trichome development. Results Glandular trichomes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. were isolated, and their RNA was extracted to investigate the initial steps of sesquiterpene lactone biosynthesis. Reverse transcription-PCR experiments led to the identification of three sesquiterpene synthases. By combination of in vitro and in vivo characterization of sesquiterpene synthase gene products in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, respectively, two enzymes were identified as germacrene A synthases, the key enzymes of sesquiterpene lactone biosynthesis. Due to the very low in vitro activity, the third enzyme was expressed in vivo in yeast as a thioredoxin-fusion protein for functional characterization. In in vivo assays, it was identified as a multiproduct enzyme with the volatile sesquiterpene hydrocarbon δ-cadinene as one of the two main products with α-muuorlene, β-caryophyllene, α-humulene and α-copaene as minor products. The second main compound remained unidentified. For expression studies, glandular trichomes from the anther appendages of sunflower florets were isolated in particular developmental stages from the pre- to the post-secretory phase. All three sesquiterpene synthases were solely upregulated during the biosynthetically active stages of the trichomes. Expression in different aerial plant parts coincided with occurrence and maturity of trichomes. Young roots with root hairs showed expression of the sesquiterpene synthase genes

  3. Autofluorescence as a Signal to Sort Developing Glandular Trichomes by Flow Cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergau, Nick; Navarette Santos, Alexander; Henning, Anja; Balcke, Gerd U; Tissier, Alain

    2016-01-01

    The industrial relevance of a number of metabolites produced in plant glandular trichomes (GTs) has spurred research on these specialized organs for a number of years. Most of the research, however, has focused on the elucidation of secondary metabolite pathways and comparatively little has been undertaken on the development and differentiation of GTs. One way to gain insight into these developmental processes is to generate stage-specific transcriptome and metabolome data. The difficulty for this resides in the isolation of early stages of development of the GTs. Here we describe a method for the separation and isolation of intact young and mature type VI trichomes from the wild tomato species Solanum habrochaites. The final and key step of the method uses cell sorting based on distinct autofluorescence signals of the young and mature trichomes. We demonstrate that sorting by flow cytometry allows recovering pure fractions of young and mature trichomes. Furthermore, we show that the sorted trichomes can be used for transcript and metabolite analyses. Because many plant tissues or cells have distinct autofluorescence components, the principles of this method can be generally applicable for the isolation of specific cell types without prior labeling. PMID:27446176

  4. Rupture of glandular trichomes in Ocimum gratissimum leaves influences the content of essential oil during the drying method

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Carolina M. de Santana; Gabriel S. Pereira; Camila M. Boaventura; Ana Paula T. Uetenabaro; Larissa C. do B. Costa; Rosilene A. de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Medicinal and aromatic plants are commonly sold dried; however, it is necessary to understand the effects different drying methods have on these materials, to ensure their efficiency and quality. Ocimum gratissimum L., Lamiaceae, is an aromatic plant whose essential oil is stored in glandular trichomes. This study aimed to confirm the effects of different drying temperatures and methods of O. gratissimum leaves on trichome integrity and essential oil content. Leaves dried in a forced ventilat...

  5. The structure and distribution of glandular trichomes on the stems and leaves of drug eyebright (Euphrasia stricta D. Wolff ex J. F. Lehm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Euphrasia stricta is a medicinal plant being one of the ingredients of "Herba Euphrasiae". Many studies have been devoted to the identification of biologically active substances in the herb of eyebright, but much less research has been done on the constitution of glandular structures of this taxon. This paper relates to glandular trichomes located on the stems and leaves of E. stricta. The trichome structure was examined using light and scanning electron microscopy. It was shown that the stems of E. stricta were mainly covered by non-glandular trichomes, whereas glandular trichomes were rarely found on them. However, clusters of short capitate trichomes were found to occur in specific epidermal regions on both surfaces of the leaf blades and bracts. On the adaxial leaf surface, glandular trichomes grew only in the grooves above the vascular bundles, while on the abaxial surface in the depressions located in the expanded part of the teeth. The glandular hairs consisted of 1-2 cells of the stalk and a two-celled head. Trichomes with 3- or 4-celled heads were found sporadically. The glandular trichomes functioned non-synchronously, since they differed in head size and the colour of cell protoplasts. The presence of a light secretion was found on the surface and around the trichomes in both fresh and dry plant material.

  6. Development and structure of internal glands and external glandular trichomes in Pogostemon cablin.

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    Jiansheng Guo

    Full Text Available Pogostemon cablin possesses two morphologically and ontogenetically different types of glandular trichomes, one type of bristle hair on the surfaces of leaves and stems and one type of internal gland inside the leaves and stems. The internal gland originates from elementary meristem and is associated with the biosynthesis of oils present inside the leaves and stems. However, there is little information on mechanism for the oil biosynthesis and secretion inside the leaves and stems. In this study, we identified three kinds of glandular trichome types and two kinds of internal gland in the Pogostemon cablin. The oil secretions from internal glands of stems and leaves contained lipids, flavones and terpenes. Our results indicated that endoplasmic reticulum and plastids and vacuoles are likely involved in the biosynthesis of oils in the internal glands and the synthesized oils are transported from endoplasmic reticulum to the cell wall via connecting endoplasmic reticulum membranes to the plasma membrane. And the comparative analysis of the development, distribution, histochemistry and ultrastructures of the internal and external glands in Pogostemon cablin leads us to propose that the internal gland may be a novel secretory structure which is different from external glands.

  7. Identifying three ecological chemotypes of Xanthium strumarium glandular trichomes using a combined NMR and LC-MS method.

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    Fangfang Chen

    Full Text Available Xanthanolides, as the sesquiterpene lactones, are reportedly the major components for the pharmacological properties of X. strumarium L. species. Phytochemical studies indicated that the glandular structures on the surface of plant tissues would form the primary sites for the accumulation of this class of the compounds. As the interface between plants and their natural enemies, glandular trichomes may vary with respect to which of their chemicals are sequestered against different herbivores in different ecologies. However, to date, no data are available on the chemical characterisation of X. strumarium glandular cells. In this study, the trichome secretions of the X. strumarium species originating from nineteen unique areas across eleven provinces in China, were analysed by HPLC, LC-ESI-MS and NMR. For the first time three distinct chemotypes of X. strumarium glandular trichomes were discovered along with the qualitative and quantitative evaluations of their presence of xanthanolides; these were designated glandular cell Types I, II, and III, respectively. The main xanthanolides in Type I cells were 8-epi-xanthatin and xanthumin while no xanthatin was detected. Xanthatin, 8-epi-xanthatin, and xanthumin dominated in Type II cells with comparable levels of each being present. For Type III cells, significantly higher concentrations of 8-epi-xanthatin or xanthinosin (relative to xanthatin were detected with xanthinosin only being observed in this type. Further research will focus on understanding the ecological and molecular mechanism causing these chemotype differences in X. strumarium glandular structures.

  8. Identifying three ecological chemotypes of Xanthium strumarium glandular trichomes using a combined NMR and LC-MS method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fangfang; Hao, Fuhua; Li, Changfu; Gou, Junbo; Lu, Dayan; Gong, Fujun; Tang, Huiru; Zhang, Yansheng

    2013-01-01

    Xanthanolides, as the sesquiterpene lactones, are reportedly the major components for the pharmacological properties of X. strumarium L. species. Phytochemical studies indicated that the glandular structures on the surface of plant tissues would form the primary sites for the accumulation of this class of the compounds. As the interface between plants and their natural enemies, glandular trichomes may vary with respect to which of their chemicals are sequestered against different herbivores in different ecologies. However, to date, no data are available on the chemical characterisation of X. strumarium glandular cells. In this study, the trichome secretions of the X. strumarium species originating from nineteen unique areas across eleven provinces in China, were analysed by HPLC, LC-ESI-MS and NMR. For the first time three distinct chemotypes of X. strumarium glandular trichomes were discovered along with the qualitative and quantitative evaluations of their presence of xanthanolides; these were designated glandular cell Types I, II, and III, respectively. The main xanthanolides in Type I cells were 8-epi-xanthatin and xanthumin while no xanthatin was detected. Xanthatin, 8-epi-xanthatin, and xanthumin dominated in Type II cells with comparable levels of each being present. For Type III cells, significantly higher concentrations of 8-epi-xanthatin or xanthinosin (relative to xanthatin) were detected with xanthinosin only being observed in this type. Further research will focus on understanding the ecological and molecular mechanism causing these chemotype differences in X. strumarium glandular structures. PMID:24098541

  9. Rupture of glandular trichomes in Ocimum gratissimum leaves influences the content of essential oil during the drying method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina M. de Santana

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal and aromatic plants are commonly sold dried; however, it is necessary to understand the effects different drying methods have on these materials, to ensure their efficiency and quality. Ocimum gratissimum L., Lamiaceae, is an aromatic plant whose essential oil is stored in glandular trichomes. This study aimed to confirm the effects of different drying temperatures and methods of O. gratissimum leaves on trichome integrity and essential oil content. Leaves dried in a forced ventilation oven at 60ºC display damaged trichomes and a reduction in the essential oil content. The different drying methods (oven, dehumidification and air drying were not identified to elicit changes in the essential oil content or damage to trichomes. All of the drying methods showed a reduction in fungal contamination in a logarithmic cycle.

  10. Localization of sesquiterpene lactone biosynthesis in cells of capitate glandular trichomes of Helianthus annuus (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrehn, Evelyn; Aschenbrenner, Anna-Katharina; Heller, Annerose; Spring, Otmar

    2016-03-01

    Capitate glandular trichomes (CGT) of sunflower, Helianthus annuus, synthesize bioactive sesquiterpene lactones (STLs) within a short period of only a few days during trichome development. In the current project, the subcellular localization of H. annuus germacrene A monooxygenase (HaGAO), a key enzyme of the STL biosynthesis in sunflower CGT, was investigated. A polyclonal antibody raised against this enzyme was used for immunolabelling. HaGAO was found in secretory and stalk cells of CGT. This correlated with the appearance of smooth endoplasmic reticulum in both cell types. Stalk cells and secretory cells differed in form, size and types of plastids, but both had structures necessary for secretion. No HaGAO-specific immunoreaction was found in sunflower leaf tissue outside of CGT or in developing CGT before the secretory phase had started. Our results indicated that not only secretory cells but also nearly all cells of the CGT were involved in the biosynthesis of STL and that this process was not linked to the presence or absence of a specific type of plastid. PMID:25956500

  11. Caracterização e ontogenia dos tricomas glandulares de Ocimum selloi Benth. - Lamiaceae Characterization and ontogeny of the glandular trichomes of Ocimum selloi Benth. (Lamiaceae

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    Letícia de Almeida Gonçalves

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Ocimum selloi Benth. (Lamiaceae é uma espécie nativa da América do Sul e na medicina popular tem sido usada devido suas propriedades analgésica, anti-inflamatória e antiespasmódica. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi identificar os tipos de tricomas glandulares que ocorrem nos órgãos vegetativos e reprodutivos de O. selloi e determinar a ontogenia desses tricomas. Ramos laterais em início de formação, folhas totalmente expandidas, flores em diferentes estádios de diferenciação, amostras de caule e do eixo das inflorescências foram analisados em microscopias de luz e eletrônica de varredura. Tricomas glandulares do tipo peltado e capitado subséssil foram observados no caule, nas folhas, no eixo da inflorescência e na superfície adaxial das sépalas. Nas sépalas foi encontrado, além dos tricomas secretores peltados e capitados subsésseis, o tricoma glandular capitado pedunculado. A ontogenia inicia-se com a expansão de uma célula protodérmica que, de acordo com a seqüência de divisões periclinais e anticlinais (ora simétricas, ora assimétricas, dá origem aos tricomas. A diferenciação dos tricomas glandulares peltados e capitados não é sincrônica e ocorre muito cedo no desenvolvimento da folha, do caule e do eixo floral.Ocimum selloi Benth. (Lamiaceae is native to South America and in traditional medicine has been used due to its analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antispasmodic properties. The aim of this study was to identify the types of glandular trichomes that occur on the vegetative and reproductive organs of O. selloi and to determine trichome ontogeny. Lateral branches at the initial formation phase, fully opened leaves, flowers at different differentiation stages, and stem and inflorescence axes were analyzed under light and scanning electron microscopy. Glandular trichomes of the peltate and subsessile capitate types were observed on the stem, leaves, inflorescence axis and the adaxial surface of the

  12. A proposal for chemical characterization and quality evaluation of botanical raw materials using glandular trichome microsampling of yacón (Polymnia sonchifolia, Asteraceae), an Andean medicinal plant

    OpenAIRE

    K. Schorr; F.B. Da Costa

    2003-01-01

    A proposal for chemical characterisation and quality evaluation of botanical raw materials by analysing the glandular trichomes from the leaves of two different populations of yacón (Polymnia sonchifolia Poeppig & Endlicher, Asteraceae) is described. This species is an Andean medicinal plant and the tea prepared with their leaves displays hypoglycemic property. The method was based on the glandular trichome microsampling using LC/DAD. Qualitative chromatographic fingerprints of the glands wer...

  13. Negative ion 'chip-based' nanospray tandem mass spectrometry for the analysis of flavonoids in glandular trichomes of Lychnophora ericoides Mart. (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobbo-Neto, Leonardo; Gates, Paul J; Lopes, Norberto P

    2008-12-01

    This paper reports a method for the analysis of secondary metabolites stored in glandular trichomes, employing negative ion 'chip-based' nanospray tandem mass spectrometry. The analyses of glandular trichomes from Lychnophora ericoides, a plant endemic to the Brazilian 'cerrado' and used in traditional medicine as an anti-inflammatory and analgesic agent, led to the identification of five flavonoids (chrysin, pinocembrin, pinostrobin, pinobanksin and 3-O-acetylpinobanksin) by direct infusion of the extracts of glandular trichomes into the nanospray ionisation source. All the flavonoids have no oxidation at ring B, which resulted in a modification of the fragmentation pathways compared with that of the oxidised 3,4-dihydroflavonoids already described in the literature. The absence of the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant di-C-glucosylflavone vicenin-2, or any other flavonoid glycosides, in the glandular trichomes was also demonstrated. The use of the 'chip-based' nanospray QqTOF apparatus is a new fast and useful tool for the identification of secondary metabolites stored in the glandular trichomes, which can be useful for chemotaxonomic studies based on metabolites from glandular trichomes. PMID:18980260

  14. Papel dos tricomas glandulares da folha do tomateiro na oviposição de Tuta absoluta Role of tomato leaf glandular trichomes on oviposition of Tuta absoluta

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    Elsa Gilardón

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Os tricomas glandulares presentes nas folhas e ramos das plantas do gênero Lycopersicon são responsáveis pela secreção de metabólitos de diferentes naturezas. A presença de alguns desses compostos tem sido associada à resistência do tomate a diferentes insetos. A traça-do-tomateiro, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, é uma das pragas mais nocivas da América do Sul. O adulto oviposita sobre as folhas do tomate e suas larvas abrem galerias no mesófilo das folhas, ramos, flores e frutos. As espécies silvestres do tomate conservam a capacidade de biossintetizar compostos químicos que lhes conferem resistência a esta praga. No presente trabalho, foi avaliada a preferência para oviposição desse inseto sobre folhas com e sem tricomas glandulares de L. esculentum (Mill. cv. Uco Plata, suscetível, e de L. hirsutum f. glabratum (Mull. PI 134417, espécie silvestre afim ao tomate, e resistente à traça. Os resultados sugerem que as fêmeas ovipositam indistintamente sobre as folhas de ambas espécies, independentemente da presença, ou não, dos tricomas glandulares. E a presença destes e de seus exsudatos não têm efeito inibidor na oviposição do inseto.In the genus Lycopersicon, different metabolites are secreted by the glandular trichomes of leaves and stems. These compounds have been associated to different tomato pests resistance. The South American tomato pinworm, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, is one of the most harmful pests in South America. The females oviposit on tomato leaves and the larvae mine the leaf mesophyl, stems, flowers and fruits. Some wild accessions of Lycopersicon keep their capacity to synthesize allelochemicals that protect them from the pest. In this paper a comparison was made between the tomato pinworm oviposition on leaves with and without trichomes of L. esculentum (Mill. cv. Uco Plata, a susceptible cultivar, and L. hirsutum f. glabratum (Mull. PI 134417, a resistant wild accession. Results suggest that the female

  15. Identification and characterization of two bisabolene synthases from linear glandular trichomes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschenbrenner, Anna-Katharina; Kwon, Moonhyuk; Conrad, Jürgen; Ro, Dae-Kyun; Spring, Otmar

    2016-04-01

    Sunflower is known to produce a variety of bisabolene-type sesquiterpenes and accumulates these substances in trichomes of leaves, stems and flowering parts. A bioinformatics approach was used to identify the enzyme responsible for the initial step in the biosynthesis of these compounds from its precursor farnesyl pyrophosphate. Based on sequence similarity with a known bisabolene synthases from Arabidopsis thaliana AtTPS12, candidate genes of Helianthus were searched in EST-database and used to design specific primers. PCR experiments identified two candidates in the RNA pool of linear glandular trichomes of sunflower. Their sequences contained the typical motifs of sesquiterpene synthases and their expression in yeast functionally characterized them as bisabolene synthases. Spectroscopic analysis identified the stereochemistry of the product of both enzymes as (Z)-γ-bisabolene. The origin of the two sunflower bisabolene synthase genes from the transcripts of linear trichomes indicates that they may be involved in the synthesis of sesquiterpenes produced in these trichomes. Comparison of the amino acid sequences of the sunflower bisabolene synthases showed high similarity with sesquiterpene synthases from other Asteracean species and indicated putative evolutionary origin from a β-farnesene synthase. PMID:26880289

  16. Glandular trichome density and essential oil composition in leaves and inflorescences of Lippia origanoides Kunth (Verbenaceae) in the Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozin, Luiz R S; Marques, Marcia O M; Rodrigues, Tatiane M

    2015-01-01

    The essential oils from leaves and inflorescences of Lippia origanoides Kunth present aromatic and medicinal potential and have been used to treat several diseases, including melanoma. In Brazil, L. origanoides is commonly found in campo cerrado and cerrado stricto sensu, physiognomies featured mainly by the differential light conditions to which short and medium-sized plants are subjected. Our aim was to investigate the glandular trichome density and the yield and chemical composition of the essential oils in leaves and inflorescences of L. origanoides from campo cerrado and cerrado stricto sensu. For glandular density analysis, leaves and inflorescences were processed according to conventional techniques for scanning electron microscopy. The essential oils of leaves and inflorescences were obtained by hydrodistillation and identified with gas chromatography. Bracts and sepals showed the highest glandular density, followed by petals and leaves. The glandular density in the abaxial leaf surface was higher in individuals from the campo cerrado. In both populations the essential oil yield was higher in inflorescences than in leaves. The chemical composition of the essential oils varied among individuals from different areas and inside a same population. Our results demonstrated the chemical plasticity of L. origanoides suggesting the importance of monitoring its popular use. PMID:26131639

  17. Higher glandular trichome density in tomato leaflets and repellence to spider mites Alta densidade de tricomas glandulares em tomateiro e aumento da repelência a ácaros rajados

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson Roberto Maluf; Irene Fumi Inoue; Raphael de Paula Duarte Ferreira; Luiz Antonio Augusto Gomes; Evaristo Mauro Castro; Maria das Graças Cardoso

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the feasibility of selection for higher glandular trichome densities, as an indirect criterion of selection for increasing repellence to spider mites Tetranychus urticae, in tomato populations derived from an interspecific cross between Lycopersicon esculentum x L. hirsutum var. glabratum PI 134417. Trichome densities were evaluated in 19 genotypes, including 12 from advanced backcross populations, derived from the original cross L. esculentum x L. h...

  18. Differential microRNA Analysis of Glandular Trichomes and Young Leaves in Xanthium strumarium L. Reveals Their Putative Roles in Regulating Terpenoid Biosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Rongyan Fan; Yuanjun Li; Changfu Li; Yansheng Zhang

    2015-01-01

    The medicinal plant Xanthium strumarium L. (X. strumarium) is covered with glandular trichomes, which are the sites for synthesizing pharmacologically active terpenoids such as xanthatin. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of 21-24 nucleotide (nt) non-coding RNAs, most of which are identified as regulators of plant growth development. Identification of miRNAs involved in the biosynthesis of plant secondary metabolites remains limited. In this study, high-throughput Illumina sequencing, combined w...

  19. Differential microRNA Analysis of Glandular Trichomes and Young Leaves in Xanthium strumarium L. Reveals Their Putative Roles in Regulating Terpenoid Biosynthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongyan Fan

    Full Text Available The medicinal plant Xanthium strumarium L. (X. strumarium is covered with glandular trichomes, which are the sites for synthesizing pharmacologically active terpenoids such as xanthatin. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of 21-24 nucleotide (nt non-coding RNAs, most of which are identified as regulators of plant growth development. Identification of miRNAs involved in the biosynthesis of plant secondary metabolites remains limited. In this study, high-throughput Illumina sequencing, combined with target gene prediction, was performed to discover novel and conserved miRNAs with potential roles in regulating terpenoid biosynthesis in X. strumarium glandular trichomes. Two small RNA libraries from leaves and glandular trichomes of X. strumarium were established. In total, 1,185 conserved miRNAs and 37 novel miRNAs were identified, with 494 conserved miRNAs and 18 novel miRNAs being differentially expressed between the two tissue sources. Based on the X. strumarium transcriptome data that we recently constructed, 3,307 annotated mRNA transcripts were identified as putative targets of the differentially expressed miRNAs. KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis suggested that some of the differentially expressed miRNAs, including miR6435, miR5021 and miR1134, might be involved in terpenoid biosynthesis in the X. strumarium glandular trichomes. This study provides the first comprehensive analysis of miRNAs in X. strumarium, which forms the basis for further understanding of miRNA-based regulation on terpenoid biosynthesis.

  20. Differential microRNA Analysis of Glandular Trichomes and Young Leaves in Xanthium strumarium L. Reveals Their Putative Roles in Regulating Terpenoid Biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Rongyan; Li, Yuanjun; Li, Changfu; Zhang, Yansheng

    2015-01-01

    The medicinal plant Xanthium strumarium L. (X. strumarium) is covered with glandular trichomes, which are the sites for synthesizing pharmacologically active terpenoids such as xanthatin. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of 21-24 nucleotide (nt) non-coding RNAs, most of which are identified as regulators of plant growth development. Identification of miRNAs involved in the biosynthesis of plant secondary metabolites remains limited. In this study, high-throughput Illumina sequencing, combined with target gene prediction, was performed to discover novel and conserved miRNAs with potential roles in regulating terpenoid biosynthesis in X. strumarium glandular trichomes. Two small RNA libraries from leaves and glandular trichomes of X. strumarium were established. In total, 1,185 conserved miRNAs and 37 novel miRNAs were identified, with 494 conserved miRNAs and 18 novel miRNAs being differentially expressed between the two tissue sources. Based on the X. strumarium transcriptome data that we recently constructed, 3,307 annotated mRNA transcripts were identified as putative targets of the differentially expressed miRNAs. KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathway analysis suggested that some of the differentially expressed miRNAs, including miR6435, miR5021 and miR1134, might be involved in terpenoid biosynthesis in the X. strumarium glandular trichomes. This study provides the first comprehensive analysis of miRNAs in X. strumarium, which forms the basis for further understanding of miRNA-based regulation on terpenoid biosynthesis. PMID:26406988

  1. Morphology and Histochemistry of the Glandular Trichomes of Isodon rubescens (Hemsley) H.Hara (Lamiaceae)%冬凌草腺毛的形态学及组织化学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘孟奇; 杨世勇; 李寒冰

    2011-01-01

    The morphology and distribution of leaf trichomes of Isodon rubescens were studied using light microscopy. (l)Three morphologically distinct types of trichomes were observed on I. Rubescens leaf surfaces: non-glandular, peltate and capitate glandular. The glandular and non-glandular trichomes were present on both the adaxial and abaxial surfaces. Peltate and capitate glandular trichomes comprised one basal cell,one or two stalk cells and one head. The head of mature peltate glandular trichomes generally consisted of four secretory cells while that of capitate glandular hairs was composed of two cells. (2)Histochemical results indicate existence of flavnoids in both peltate and capitate glandular trichomes. In addition, terpe-noids,including monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes etc. , exist in peltate glandular trichomes. Peltate glandular trichomes are probably only site of oridonin accumulation,however,this need direct proof to clarify. High density of peltate trichomes might be considered as an important selection character for the screening of I. Rubescens with rich content of oridonin.%利用光学显微镜对药用植物冬凌草地上部分腺毛的形态、分布和组织化学进行了研究.结果表明:(1)冬凌草的叶表皮有3种形态显著不同的毛,即非腺毛、盾状腺毛和头状腺毛;盾状腺毛和头状腺毛均具1个基细胞、1个柄细胞和头部;成熟的盾状腺毛的头部一般由4个分泌细胞组成,而头状腺毛头部由2个分泌细胞组成.(2)组织化学鉴定结果显示:2种腺毛中均含有黄酮类成分,盾状腺毛中还含有单萜、倍半萜等萜类成分;冬凌草甲素可能只存在于盾状腺毛中,但需要更直接的证据证明.研究认为,高密度的盾状腺毛可以作为筛选冬凌草高甲素含量品种的一项重要依据.

  2. Characterization of two genes for the biosynthesis of abietane-type diterpenes in rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) glandular trichomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brückner, Kathleen; Božić, Dragana; Manzano, David;

    2014-01-01

    Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) produces the phenolic diterpenes carnosic acid and carnosol, which, in addition to their general antioxidant activities, have recently been suggested as potential ingredients for the prevention and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Little is known about the...... biosynthesis of these diterpenes. Here we show that the biosynthesis of phenolic diterpenes in rosemary predominantly takes place in the glandular trichomes of young leaves, and used this feature to identify the first committed steps. Thus, a copalyl diphosphate synthase (RoCPS1) and two kaurene synthase...

  3. A Geranylfarnesyl Diphosphate Synthase Provides the Precursor for Sesterterpenoid (C25) Formation in the Glandular Trichomes of the Mint Species Leucosceptrum canum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Luo, Shi-Hong; Schmidt, Axel; Wang, Guo-Dong; Sun, Gui-Ling; Grant, Marcus; Kuang, Ce; Yang, Min-Jie; Jing, Shu-Xi; Li, Chun-Huan; Schneider, Bernd; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Li, Sheng-Hong

    2016-03-01

    Plant sesterterpenoids, an important class of terpenoids, are widely distributed in various plants, including food crops. However, little is known about their biosynthesis. Here, we cloned and functionally characterized a plant geranylfarnesyl diphosphate synthase (Lc-GFDPS), the enzyme producing the C25 prenyl diphosphate precursor to all sesterterpenoids, from the glandular trichomes of the woody plant Leucosceptrum canum. GFDPS catalyzed the formation of GFDP after expression in Escherichia coli. Overexpressing GFDPS in Arabidopsis thaliana also gave an extract catalyzing GFDP formation. GFDPS was strongly expressed in glandular trichomes, and its transcript profile was completely in accordance with the sesterterpenoid accumulation pattern. GFDPS is localized to the plastids, and inhibitor studies indicated its use of isoprenyl diphosphate substrates supplied by the 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate pathway. Application of a jasmonate defense hormone induced GFDPS transcript and sesterterpenoid accumulation, while reducing feeding and growth of the generalist insect Spodoptera exigua, suggesting that these C25 terpenoids play a defensive role. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that GFDPS probably evolved from plant geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase under the influence of positive selection. The isolation of GFDPS provides a model for investigating sesterterpenoid formation in other species and a tool for manipulating the formation of this group in plants and other organisms. PMID:26941091

  4. Micromorphology and histochemistry of leaf trichomes of Salvia aegyptiaca (Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janošević Dušica

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We performed a comprehensive study of trichomes considering the medicinal importance of the essential oils produced in glandular trichomes of Salvia aegyptiaca L. and lack of data about leaf trichome characteristics. Micromorphological and histochemical analyses of the trichomes of S. aegyptiaca were carried out using light and scanning electron microscopy. We report that the leaves contained abundant non-glandular unbranched trichomes and two types of glandular trichomes, peltate and capitate, on both leaf surfaces. The abaxial leaf side was covered with numerous peltate and capitate trichomes, while capitate trichomes were more abundant on the adaxial leaf side, where peltate trichomes were rarely observed. The non-glandular trichomes were unicellular papillae and multicellular, uniseriate, two-to-six-celled, erect or slightly leaning toward the epidermis. Peltate trichomes were composed of a basal cell, a short cylindrical stalk cell and a broad head of eight secretory cells arranged in a single circle. Capitate trichomes consisted of a one-celled glandular head, subtended by a stalk of variable length, and classified into two types: capitate trichomes type I (or short-stalked glandular trichomes and capitate trichomes type II (or long-stalked glandular trichomes. Histochemical tests showed that the secreted material in all types of S. aegyptiaca glandular trichomes was of a complex nature. Positive reactions to lipids for both types of glandular trichomes were obtained, with especially abundant secretion observed in peltate and capitate trichomes type II. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173015 i br. 173029

  5. Papel dos tricomas glandulares da folha do tomateiro na oviposição de Tuta absoluta Role of tomato leaf glandular trichomes on oviposition of Tuta absoluta

    OpenAIRE

    Elsa Gilardón; Mariana Pocovi; Carmen Hernández; Ana Olsen

    2001-01-01

    Os tricomas glandulares presentes nas folhas e ramos das plantas do gênero Lycopersicon são responsáveis pela secreção de metabólitos de diferentes naturezas. A presença de alguns desses compostos tem sido associada à resistência do tomate a diferentes insetos. A traça-do-tomateiro, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick), é uma das pragas mais nocivas da América do Sul. O adulto oviposita sobre as folhas do tomate e suas larvas abrem galerias no mesófilo das folhas, ramos, flores e frutos. As espécies silve...

  6. Caracterização e ontogenia dos tricomas glandulares de Ocimum selloi Benth. - Lamiaceae Characterization and ontogeny of the glandular trichomes of Ocimum selloi Benth. (Lamiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Letícia Almeida Gonçalves; Aristéa Alves Azevedo; Wagner Campos Otoni

    2010-01-01

    Ocimum selloi Benth. (Lamiaceae) é uma espécie nativa da América do Sul e na medicina popular tem sido usada devido suas propriedades analgésica, anti-inflamatória e antiespasmódica. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi identificar os tipos de tricomas glandulares que ocorrem nos órgãos vegetativos e reprodutivos de O. selloi e determinar a ontogenia desses tricomas. Ramos laterais em início de formação, folhas totalmente expandidas, flores em diferentes estádios de diferenciação, amostras de ...

  7. Influence of life history differences of two tachinid parasitoids ofHelicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on their interactions with glandular trichome/methyl ketone-based insect resistance in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrar, R R; Kennedy, G G; Kashyap, R K

    1992-03-01

    The effects of glandular trichome/methyl ketone (2-tridecanone and 2-undecanone) -based insect resistance in the wild tomato,Lycopersicon hirsutum f.glabratum C.H. Mull, accession PI 134417, onArchytas marmoratus (Townsend) andEucelatoria bryani (Sabrosky) (Diptera: Tachinidae), both parasitoids ofHelicoverpa (=Heliothis)zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), were investigated in the laboratory.A. marmoratus deposits larvae (planidia) on the foliage of its host's food plant; planidia attach to passing hosts, penetrate the cuticle, and develop in the host pupae.E. bryani larviposits directly into its host; its larvae develop in the host larva.A. marmoratus planidia are killed by glandular trichomes of PI 134417 and also by trichomes of hybrid lines with no methyl ketones. The methyl ketones are toxic to planidia, but at least part of the effect is due to other factors, possibly physical entanglement. Both species can be affected indirectly by methyl ketones in the diet of the host. 2-Undecanone reduces the percentage ofA. marmoratus larvae that reach pupation. This effect is evidently due to premature death and desiccation of the host pupa caused by 2-undecanone. 2-Tridecanone in host diets had no effect onA. marmoratus. InE. bryani, 2-tridecanone in the diet of the host reduced the number of parasitoids yielded by each parasitized host, although not the overall percentage of hosts parasitized. 2-Undecanone in the diet of the host had no effect onE. bryani. PMID:24254953

  8. Morphology and biochemistry of non-glandular trichomes in Cistus salvifolius L. leaves growing in extreme habitats of the Mediterranean basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattini, M; Matteini, P; Saracini, E; Traversi, M L; Giordano, C; Agati, G

    2007-05-01

    Here the functional roles of stellate and dendritic trichomes in Cistus salvifolius L leaves were studied by analysing i) both leaf surface and trichome morphology using scanning electron and light microscopy; and ii) the composition and localisation of polyphenols by coupling liquid chromatography with fluorescence spectroscopy and fluorescence microimaging. Red-coloured compounds were detected in the stalk cells and the channel in the trichome arm, and appeared to be released at the tip end of the trichome branch. We identified such metabolites as ellagitannins, namely punicalagin and two galloyl derivatives of punicalagin. These ellagitannins accounted for 4.3 % of leaf dry weight and their concentration in the leaf leachate averaged 289.4 mg L (-1). The trichome arms exhibited an appreciable orange-red autofluorescence (centred at 620 nm) when excited with UV light (at 365 nm) or emitted in the yellow waveband (peak centred at 566 nm) when stained with the Naturstoff reagent, and excited at 488 nm. The fluorescence signatures of the trichome arms were consistent with the presence of mono-hydroxy B-ring substituted flavonoids, which were identified as the mono- and di-coumaroyl derivative of a kaempferol 3-O-glycoside. Our data may provide some insights on the functional roles of stellate and dendritic trichomes in the response mechanisms of C. salvifolius to Mediterranean-type climate, based upon (i) the potential effect of released ellagitannins on the soil nitrogen dynamic and (ii) the ability of acylated kaempferol 3-O-glycosides to effectively absorb both the UV-B and UV-A wavelengths. PMID:17143807

  9. Micromorphology and ultrastructure of trichomes of Libyan Salvia fruticosa Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Sheef Beleed Najat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Micromorphological and ultrastructural analyses of the leaf trichomes of Salvia fruticosa Mill. were performed by light and electron microscopy. The leaves bear numerous non-glandular unbranched trichomes, and peltate, capitate and digitiform glandular trichomes. Very elongated flagelliform non-glandular trichomes densely covered the leaf surfaces, with especially abundance on the leaf margins. Peltate trichomes consist of a basal epidermal cell, a very short stalk cell and a large round head of eight secretory cells arranged in a circle. Capitate trichomes can be divided into two main types, short-stalked and long-stalked, and further into five subtypes according to the number of stalk cells, morphology and number of glandular head cells. Digitiform trichomes consist of one basal cell, one or two stalk cells and one apical secretory cell, which are of similar diameter and approximately equal length. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173029 i br. 173015

  10. Papel da 2-tridecanona e dos tricomas glandulares tipo VI na resistência do tomateiro a Tuta absoluta Role of 2-tridecanone and type VI glandular trichome on tomato resistance to Tuta absoluta

    OpenAIRE

    Elsa Gilardón; Mariana Pocovi; Carmen Hernández; Graciela Collavino; Ana Olsen

    2001-01-01

    O metabólito secundário 2-tridecanona, secretado pelos tricomas glandulares tipo VI das folhas de tomateiro silvestre, Lycopersicon hirsutum L., confere-lhe resistência a uma grande variedade de insetos, inclusive a traça-do-tomateiro, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick). O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a concentração de 2- tridecanona, a densidade de tricomas glandulares tipo VI e o grau de infestação da traça-do-tomateiro na cultivar suscetível 'Uco Plata' (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), na linhage...

  11. Morphology, distribution, and histochemistry of trichomes of Thymus lykae Degen & Jav. (Lamiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Marin Marija; Budimir Snežana; Janošević Dušica; Marin P.D.; Duletić-Laušević Sonja; Ljaljević-Grbić Milica

    2008-01-01

    Micromorphology, distribution, and histochemistry of the trichomes of Thymus lykae were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM)and confocal laser scanning electron microscopy (CLSM). The leaves, stem, and calyx bear numerous glandular and non-glandular trichomes. Two types of glandular trichomes are identified - peltate and capitate. Results of histochemical tests showed positive reactions to polysaccharides, proteins, and lipids. Yellow autofluorescence of secreted material was noti...

  12. Arbuscular mycorrhiza increase artemisinin accumulation in Artemisia annua by higher expression of key biosynthesis genes via enhanced jasmonic acid levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Shantanu; Upadhyay, Shivangi; Wajid, Saima; Ram, Mauji; Jain, Dharam Chand; Singh, Ved Pal; Abdin, Malik Zainul; Kapoor, Rupam

    2015-07-01

    It is becoming increasingly evident that the formation of arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) enhances secondary metabolite production in shoots. Despite mounting evidence, relatively little is known about the underlying mechanisms. This study suggests that increase in artemisinin concentration in Artemisia annua colonized by Rhizophagus intraradices is due to altered trichome density as well as transcriptional patterns that are mediated via enhanced jasmonic acid (JA) levels. Mycorrhizal (M) plants had higher JA levels in leaf tissue that may be due to induction of an allene oxidase synthase gene (AOS), encoding one of the key enzymes for JA production. Non-mycorrhizal (NM) plants were exogenously supplied with a range of methyl jasmonic acid concentrations. When leaves of NM and M plants with similar levels of endogenous JA were compared, these matched closely in terms of shoot trichome density, artemisinin concentration, and transcript profile of artemisinin biosynthesis genes. Mycorrhization increased artemisinin levels by increasing glandular trichome density and transcriptional activation of artemisinin biosynthesis genes. Transcriptional analysis of some rate-limiting enzymes of mevalonate and methyl erythritol phosphate (MEP) pathways revealed that AM increases isoprenoids by induction of the MEP pathway. A decline in artemisinin concentration in shoots of NM and M plants treated with ibuprofen (an inhibitor of JA biosynthesis) further confirmed the implication of JA in the mechanism of artemisinin production. PMID:25366131

  13. Methyl jasmonate and miconazole differently affect arteminisin production and gene expression in Artemisia annua suspension cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caretto, S; Quarta, A; Durante, M; Nisi, R; De Paolis, A; Blando, F; Mita, G

    2011-01-01

    Artemisia annua L. is a herb traditionally used for treatment of fevers. The glandular trichomes of this plant accumulate, although at low levels, artemisinin, which is highly effective against malaria. Due to the great importance of this compound, many efforts have been made to improve knowledge on artemisinin production both in plants and in cell cultures. In this study, A. annua suspension cultures were established in order to investigate the effects of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and miconazole on artemisinin biosynthesis. Twenty-two micro molar MeJA induced a three-fold increase of artemisinin production in around 30 min; while 200 μm miconazole induced a 2.5-fold increase of artemisinin production after 24 h, but had severe effects on cell viability. The influence of these treatments on expression of biosynthetic genes was also investigated. MeJA induced up-regulation of CYP71AV1, while miconazole induced up-regulation of CPR and DBR2. PMID:21143725

  14. β-Cyclodextrins enhance artemisinin production in Artemisia annua suspension cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durante, Miriana; Caretto, Sofia; Quarta, Angela; De Paolis, Angelo; Nisi, Rossella; Mita, Giovanni

    2011-06-01

    Artemisinin is a sesquiterpene antimalarial compound produced, though at low levels (0.1-1% dry weight), in Artemisia annua in which it accumulates in the glandular trichomes of the plant. Due to its antimalarial properties and short supply, efforts are being made to improve our understanding of artemisinin biosynthesis and its production. Native β-cyclodextrins, as well as the chemically modified heptakis(2,6-di-O-methyl)-β-cyclodextrin (DIMEB) and 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrins, were added to the culture medium of A. annua suspension cultures, and their effects on artemisinin production were analysed. The effects of a joint cyclodextrin and methyl jasmonate treatment were also investigated. Fifty millimolar DIMEB, as well as a combination of 50 mM DIMEB and 100 μM methyl jasmonate, was highly effective in increasing the artemisinin levels in the culture medium. The observed artemisinin level (27 μmol g(-1) dry weight) was about 300-fold higher than that observed in untreated suspensions. The influence of β-cyclodextrins and methyl jasmonate on the expression of artemisinin biosynthetic genes was also investigated. PMID:21468706

  15. Heteroduplex mapping in the medicinal plant Artemisia annua

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Chinese herb, Artemisia annua (huang hua hao), is currently the sole source of the leading anti-malarial drug, artemisinin (qinghaosu). In the face of increasing resistance to anti-malarial drugs such as chloroquine, 69 countries have adopted the WHO recommendation to use artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) instead. However, there are considerable price barriers to widespread use as artemisinin yields from Artemisia plants are low, making artemisinin expensive to produce. Also, the rapid adoption of ACTs has created shortages, keeping the prices at high and sometimes volatile levels despite increased agricultural production. The aim of our project is to produce new, non-GM, varieties of Artemisia with increased artemisinin yields. These new varieties should help to secure a stable supply of artemisinin and reduce its cost of production, making treatment with ACTs cheaper and more accessible to malaria victims in developing countries. Artemisinin synthesis and storage occurs in specialised groups of cells, known as glandular trichomes, which are found on the leaves, stems and flowers of the plant. Artemisinin yields are typically less than 1% of leaf dry weight, whilst other species produce similar compounds in similar trichomes at 13% dry weight, so there is considerable scope for improvement. A seed treatment with chemical mutagens, widely used in plant breeding has been applied to an existing Artemisia cultivar (Artemis) in order to boost its genetic diversity. Around 10,000 M2 plants from this treatment are currently being screened using heteroduplex mapping technique on a set of target genes with the potential to impact on artemisinin yields. Mutations which might impact on the function of the selected gene targets have been identified. Selected mutants will be fed into a fast track breeding program to bring the mutations to homozygosity in the most appropriate genetic background. This route should result in at least a doubling of artemisinin content

  16. Morphology, distribution, and histochemistry of trichomes of Thymus lykae Degen & Jav. (Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Marija

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Micromorphology, distribution, and histochemistry of the trichomes of Thymus lykae were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEMand confocal laser scanning electron microscopy (CLSM. The leaves, stem, and calyx bear numerous glandular and non-glandular trichomes. Two types of glandular trichomes are identified - peltate and capitate. Results of histochemical tests showed positive reactions to polysaccharides, proteins, and lipids. Yellow autofluorescence of secreted material was noticed in peltate and capitate trichomes. Strong reddish-yellow autofluorescence of the lipophilic and hydrophilic secreted material was observed with CLSM.

  17. Trichomes morphology in petals of some Acanthaceae species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Amirul Aiman Ahmad Juhari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary taxonomic study was carried out on seven Acanthaceae species namely as Andrographis paniculata, Pseuderanthemum graciliflorum, P. carruthersii,  Asystasia gangetica ssp. micrantha, Ruellia repens, Justicia comata and J. betonica. The study was undertaken to    investigate the morphology of trichomes present on the surfaces of flower petal. The variations found in this study are in their types and density. Based on observation, two forms of trichomes are present in all species studies which are glandular and non-glandular trichomes. There are seven types of trichomes found in this study. Trichomes types are shown to have systematic significance that can be used to differentiate and identify certain Acanthaceae species studied. 

  18. Molecular Farming in Artemisia annua, a Promising Approach to Improve Anti-malarial Drug Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulice, Giuseppe; Pelaz, Soraya; Matías-Hernández, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is a parasite infection affecting millions of people worldwide. Even though progress has been made in prevention and treatment of the disease; an estimated 214 million cases of malaria occurred in 2015, resulting in 438,000 estimated deaths; most of them occurring in Africa among children under the age of five. This article aims to review the epidemiology, future risk factors and current treatments of malaria, with particular focus on the promising potential of molecular farming that uses metabolic engineering in plants as an effective anti-malarial solution. Malaria represents an example of how a health problem may, on one hand, influence the proper development of a country, due to its burden of the disease. On the other hand, it constitutes an opportunity for lucrative business of diverse stakeholders. In contrast, plant biofarming is proposed here as a sustainable, promising, alternative for the production, not only of natural herbal repellents for malaria prevention but also for the production of sustainable anti-malarial drugs, like artemisinin (AN), used for primary parasite infection treatments. AN, a sesquiterpene lactone, is a natural anti-malarial compound that can be found in Artemisia annua. However, the low concentration of AN in the plant makes this molecule relatively expensive and difficult to produce in order to meet the current worldwide demand of Artemisinin Combination Therapies (ACTs), especially for economically disadvantaged people in developing countries. The biosynthetic pathway of AN, a process that takes place only in glandular secretory trichomes of A. annua, is relatively well elucidated. Significant efforts have been made using plant genetic engineering to increase production of this compound. These include diverse genetic manipulation approaches, such as studies on diverse transcription factors which have been shown to regulate the AN genetic pathway and other biological processes. Results look promising; however, further

  19. Subcellular compartmentalization in protoplasts from Artemisia annua cell cultures: engineering attempts using a modified SNARE protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Sansebastiano, Gian Pietro; Rizzello, Francesca; Durante, Miriana; Caretto, Sofia; Nisi, Rossella; De Paolis, Angelo; Faraco, Marianna; Montefusco, Anna; Piro, Gabriella; Mita, Giovanni

    2015-05-20

    Plants are ideal bioreactors for the production of macromolecules but transport mechanisms are not fully understood and cannot be easily manipulated. Several attempts to overproduce recombinant proteins or secondary metabolites failed. Because of an independent regulation of the storage compartment, the product may be rapidly degraded or cause self-intoxication. The case of the anti-malarial compound artemisinin produced by Artemisia annua plants is emblematic. The accumulation of artemisinin naturally occurs in the apoplast of glandular trichomes probably involving autophagy and unconventional secretion thus its production by undifferentiated tissues such as cell suspension cultures can be challenging. Here we characterize the subcellular compartmentalization of several known fluorescent markers in protoplasts derived from Artemisia suspension cultures and explore the possibility to modify compartmentalization using a modified SNARE protein as molecular tool to be used in future biotechnological applications. We focused on the observation of the vacuolar organization in vivo and the truncated form of AtSYP51, 51H3, was used to induce a compartment generated by the contribution of membrane from endocytosis and from endoplasmic reticulum to vacuole trafficking. The artificial compartment crossing exocytosis and endocytosis may trap artemisinin stabilizing it until extraction; indeed, it is able to increase total enzymatic activity of a vacuolar marker (RGUSChi), probably increasing its stability. Exploring the 51H3-induced compartment we gained new insights on the function of the SNARE SYP51, recently shown to be an interfering-SNARE, and new hints to engineer eukaryote endomembranes for future biotechnological applications. PMID:25451863

  20. Trichomes of Cannabis sativa as viewed with scanning electron microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledbetter, M.C.; Krikorian, A.D.

    1975-06-01

    Direct examination of fresh, unfixed and uncoated specimens from vegetative and floral parts of Cannabis sativa with the scanning electron microscope enables one to obtain a faithful representation of their surface morphology. The presence of two major types of trichomes has been confirmed: a glandular type comprising or terminating in a globoid structure, and a conically-shaped nonglandular type. Moreover, three or possibly four distinct glandular types can be distinguished: sessile globoid, small-stalked and large-stalked globoid, and a peltate type. The nonglandular trichomes can be distinguished by the nature of their surfaces: those with a warty surface, and those which are relatively smooth. The range of size and distribution, and the special features of all these types of trichomes are also provided.

  1. Analysis of cannabinoids in laser-microdissected trichomes of medicinal Cannabis sativa using LCMS and cryogenic NMR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Happyana, Nizar; Agnolet, Sara; Muntendam, Remco; Van Dam, Annie; Schneider, Bernd; Kayser, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Trichomes, especially the capitate-stalked glandular hairs, are well known as the main sites of cannabinoid and essential oil production of Cannabis sativa. In this study the distribution and density of various types of Cannabis sativa L trichomes, have been investigated by scanning electron microsc

  2. Structural features of flower trichomes in drug eyebright (Euphrasia stricta D. Wolff EX J. F. Lehm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weronika Haratym

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Euphrasia stricta D. Wolff ex J. F. Lehm. (Orobanchaceae is a representative of plants that are widely used in folk medicine, phytomedicine, and homeopathy. The medicinal raw material derived from the drug eyebright is applied primarily in treatment of ophthalmic diseases. The investigations of trichomes in drug eyebright (Euphrasia stricta D. Wolff ex J. F. Lehm were conducted in 2010–2011. Using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, their location and morphological and anatomical features were identified. Three types of non-glandular trichomes were found: short unicellular, long 1–2 celled, and long 2-celled with wall ornamentation. Additionally, 7 types of glandular trichomes were found; these included: unicellular clavate, 2–3-celled clavate, capitate with a unicellular head and a 3-cel- led stalk, capitate with a unicellular head and a 2-celled stalk, capitate with a 2-celled head, conical papillae, and ribbon-like trichomes with wall thickening.

  3. Micromorphology of glandular structures in Echium vulgare L. flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The micromorphology of selected elements of Echium vulgare L. flowers was investigated, with special attention to the structure of the nectaries and the stigma of the pistil as well as types of trichomes occurring on the surface of the calyx. The nectary had the shape of an uneven disc located around the lower region of the four-parted ovary of the pistil. The glandular cells formed a tier with a height of 330 μm and a radial width of 144 μm. Nectar was secreted onto the nectary surface through anomocytic stomata located at the level of other epidermal cells. Most of the stomata were open, with a different dimension of the pore. Their largest number was observed at the base of the nectary, and 462 stomata were noted on the whole surface of the nectary. The cuticle on the surface of the guard cells formed fine, circular striae. The subsidiary cells formed striated cuticular ornamentation, with the striae arranged radially in the direction of the stoma, whereas on the surface of other epidermal cells the striae formed an arrangement with different directions. The epidermis on the surface of the stigma formed regularly arranged papillae with a fan-shaped, expanded upper part which had corrugated outer walls, whereas the base of the cell formed a widened small column. The epidermis of the abaxial part of the calyx was covered by numerous non-glandular trichomes of different length which were made up of one or several cells. The glandular trichomes in the epidermis of the calyx grew with smaller density compared to the protective trichomes, and they were composed of a 1-2-celled stalk and a glandular head.

  4. Morphological differentiation of non-glandular and glandular trichomes on Marrubium vulgare L.

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Dmitruk; Weronika Haratym

    2014-01-01

    Marrubium vulgare L., commonly known as a white horehound or common horehound, belongs to the plant family Lamiaceae. It is a perennial aromatic herb which grows naturally in Europe, Asia, and America. Since ancient Egypt, this species has been known as a remedy for upper respiratory tract ailments. Nowadays, horehound is used in herbal medicine for treatment of liver diseases, biliary tract disorders, and for increasing the appetite and supporting the function of the stomach. The main biolog...

  5. Relative expression of genes of terpene metabolism in different tissues of Artemisia annua L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lundgren Anneli

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, Artemisia annua L. (annual or sweet wormwood has received increasing attention due to the fact that the plant produces the sesquiterpenoid endoperoxide artemisinin, which today is widely used for treatment of malaria. The plant produces relatively small amounts of artemisinin and a worldwide shortage of the drug has led to intense research in order to increase the yield of artemisinin. In order to improve our understanding of terpene metabolism in the plant and to evaluate the competition for precursors, which may influence the yield of artemisinin, we have used qPCR to estimate the expression of 14 genes of terpene metabolism in different tissues. Results The four genes of the artemisinin biosynthetic pathway (amorpha-4,11-diene synthase, amorphadiene-12-hydroxylase, artemisinic aldehyde ∆11(13 reductase and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 showed remarkably higher expression (between ~40- to ~500-fold in flower buds and young leaves compared to other tissues (old leaves, stems, roots, hairy root cultures. Further, dihydroartemisinic aldehyde reductase showed a very high expression only in hairy root cultures. Germacrene A and caryophyllene synthase were mostly expressed in young leaves and flower buds while epi-cedrol synthase was highly expressed in old leaves. 3-Hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A reductase exhibited lower expression in old leaves compared to other tissues. Farnesyldiphosphate synthase, squalene synthase, and 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase showed only modest variation in expression in the different tissues, while expression of 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase was 7-8-fold higher in flower buds and young leaves compared to old leaves. Conclusions Four genes of artemisinin biosynthesis were highly expressed in flower buds and young leaves (tissues showing a high density of glandular trichomes. The expression of dihydroartemisinic aldehyde reductase has been suggested to have a

  6. Artemisinin production and precursor ratio in full grown Artemisia annua L. plants subjected to external stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Anders; Verstappen, Francel; Bouwmeester, Harro;

    2013-01-01

    was examined on the concentrations of AN and its immediate precursors in leaves, and these concentrations were related to densities and sizes of the glandular trichomes (GT). Plants were stress treated weekly five times by sandblasting or spraying with salicylic acid, chitosan oligosaccharide, H2O2, and Na...

  7. A cold-tolerant evergreen interspecific hybrid of Ocimum kilimandscharicum and Ocimum basilicum: analyzing trichomes and molecular variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhawan, Sunita Singh; Shukla, Preeti; Gupta, Pankhuri; Lal, R K

    2016-05-01

    Ocimum (Lamiaceae) is an important source of essential oils and aroma chemicals especially eugenol, methyl eugenol, linalool, methyl chavicol etc. An elite evergreen hybrid has been developed from Ocimum kilimandscharicum and Ocimum basilicum, which demonstrated adaptive behavior towards cold stress. A comparative molecular analysis has been done through RAPD, AFLP, and ISSR among O. basilicum and O. kilimandscharicum and their evergreen cold-tolerant hybrid. The RAPD and AFLP analyses demonstrated similar results, i.e., the hybrid of O. basilicum and O. kilimandscharicum shares the same cluster with O. kilimandscharicum, while O. basilicum behaves as an outgroup, whereas in ISSR analysis, the hybrid genotype grouped in the same cluster with O. basilicum. Ocimum genotypes were analyzed and compared for their trichome density. There were distinct differences on morphology, distribution, and structure between the two kinds of trichomes, i.e., glandular and non-glandular. Glandular trichomes contain essential oils, polyphenols, flavonoids, and acid polysaccharides. Hair-like trichomes, i.e., non-glandular trichomes, help in keeping the frost away from the living surface cells. O. basilicum showed less number of non-glandular trichomes on leaves compared to O. kilimandscharicum and the evergreen cold-tolerant hybrid. Trichomes were analyzed in O. kilimandscharicum, O. basilicum, and their hybrid. An increased proline content at the biochemical level represents a higher potential to survive in a stress condition like cold stress. In our analysis, the proline content is quite higher in tolerant variety O. kilimandscharicum, low in susceptible variety O. basilicum, and intermediate in the hybrid. Gene expression analysis was done in O. basilicum, O. kilimandscharicum and their hybrid for TTG1, GTL1, and STICHEL gene locus which regulates trichome development and its formation and transcription factors WRKY and MPS involved in the regulation of plant responses to freezing

  8. Trichome morphology in Teucrium L. (Labiatae. A taxonomic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navarro, Teresa

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The micromorphology of trichomes of 56 Teucrium L. species belonging to the 9 sections of the genus in the Mediterranean área was surveyed by scanning electrón microscopy (SEM of leaves, calyx, corolla and nutlets. 25 trichome types are described, 12 of them are new. Thin walled hairs are the exclusive type found in the corolla and are the most widespread type on the abaxial side of the leaves. Subsessile glandular hairs, 2-4-celled, are found on the nutlet and leaves of the semi-shrubby and paleoendemic species. The presence of short or elongated, generally adpressed simple thick-walled slighüy conical hairs provides an additional character to clarify the boundaries between sect. Chamedrys (Mill. Schreb, and sect. Polium (Mill. Schreb. Branched non-glandular hairs are confined to sect. Polium subsect Polium, except for the rare branched hair conical and thick-walled type found in Teucrium barbarum Jahand. & Maire (sect. Chamaedrys and T. heterophyllum L`Hér. from sect. Teucrium. This last section is well defined by the absence of simple slighüy conical thick-walled hairs and the glandular hairs in the corolla. Sect. Teucriopsis Benth, is of particular interest for the exclusive presence of branched and peltate glandular hairs on the nutlets surface. Sect. Chamedrys is a homogeneous group, distinguished from the other sections by an indumentum formed only by trichomes types evolved from the simple slighüy conical thick-walled hairs. This section overlaps, in the presence of glandular sub-sessile hair on the nutlets surface, with sects. Isotriodon Boiss, and sect. Polium subsect. Rotundifolia Cohén ex Valdés Berm. & Sánchez Crespo. The trichomes type of the calyx teeth, abaxial side of the leaf and latero-posterior corolla lobes can be used as a distinctive taxonomic character at specific and infra-specific level. This study supports Bentham's delimitaüon of sections with the addiüons subequently made by Boissier.La micromorfología de

  9. Relação entre zingibereno, tricomas foliares e repelência de tomateiros a Tetranychus evansi Relationship between zingiberene, foliar trichomes and repellence of tomato plant to Tetranychus evansi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Donizete Gonçalves

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi quantificar os teores de zingibereno em populações segregantes (F2 do segundo retrocruzamento para Lycopersicon esculentum a partir da espécie selvagem L. hirsutum var. hirsutum, e verificar a relação entre estes teores e a densidade de tricomas glandulares e a repelência a Tetranychus evansi. Na quantificação do zingibereno, utilizou-se um método espectrofotométrico; os tricomas foram contados a partir de cortes paradérmicos e a resistência a ácaros foi avaliada por um bioteste de repelência. A seleção indireta quanto ao teor de zingibereno promoveu aumentos correlacionados no número de tricomas glandulares e na repelência ao ácaro, e o zingibereno nos tricomas glandulares participou efetivamente na resistência aos ácaros. A densidade de tricomas glandulares influencia de maneira determinante os teores de zingibereno, sendo que o tricoma tipo VI destacou-se por apresentar alta correlação com este aleloquímico. Os teores de zingibereno e a sua relação com tricomas glandulares e com a resistência a artrópodos-pragas se mantiveram ao longo dos retrocruzamentos, evidenciando a possibilidade de obtenção de plantas resistentes via seleção indireta para alto teor de zingibereno nos folíolos.The objective of this work was to quantify zingiberene contents in a segregating population (F2 of the second backcross generation to Lycopersicon esculentum after the initial cross with the wild species L. hirsutum var. hirsutum, and to analyse the relationship between zingiberene and both glandular trichome density on tomato leaves and levels of repellence to spider mites Tetranychus evansi. A spectrophotometric assay was used to quantify zingiberene in leaf disks. Trichome counting was made in paradermic preparations of leaf and mite repellence was accessed by a quick thumbtack assay. Indirect selection for high zingiberene contents increased both glandular trichome density and the level of mite

  10. A comparative analysis of stomata and leaf trichome characteristics in Quercus robur L. genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Nataša P.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine genotype variability of leaf trichome and stoma characteristics. Leaves were sampled from seventeen pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L genotypes originating from clonal seed orchard Banov Brod (Srem, the Vojvodina Province. The pedunculate oak has hypostomatal leaves. Statistically significant differences were found for the dimensions and density of stomata. Genotype variability of stomatal dimensions was less pronounced in comparison with their density (CV = 8.88%. Stomata number ranged from 530 to 791 per mm2 of leaf area; genotypes 18 and 25 could be distinguished from the others for the highest stomata number per leaf unit area, genotype 35 for the lowest number. In all genotypes, only solitary eglandular trichomes were observed on the adaxial leaf surface while both solitary eglandular and uniseriate glandular hairs were present on the abaxial surface. Single glandular trichomes were observed in all genotypes, while some of them were characterized by the presence of two (genotypes 4, 5, 6, 16, 22, 25, 28, 29, 30, 35, 38, 40, and 85 or three (genotypes 16, 25, 35 hairs joined by their basal cells.

  11. Trichomes and chemical composition of the volatile oil of Trichogonia cinerea (Gardner) R. M. King & H. Rob. (Eupatorieae, Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Yanne S; Trindade, Luma M P; Rezende, Maria Helena; Paula, José R; Gonçalves, Letícia A

    2016-03-01

    Trichogonia cinerea is endemic to Brazil and occurs in areas of cerrado and campo rupestre. In this study, we characterized the glandular and non-glandular trichomes on the aerial parts of this species, determined the principal events in the development of the former, and identified the main constituents of the volatile oil produced in its aerial organs. Fully expanded leaves, internodes, florets, involucral bracts, and stem apices were used for the characterization of trichomes. Leaves, internodes, florets, and involucral bracts were examined by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, whereas stem apices were examined only by light microscopy. Branches in the reproductive phase were used for the extraction and determination of the composition of the volatile oil. The species has three types of glandular trichomes, biseriate vesicular, biseriate pedunculate, and multicellular uniseriate, which secrete volatile oils and phenolic compounds. The major components identified in the volatile oil were 3,5-muuroladiene (39.56%) and butylated hydroxytoluene (13.07%). PMID:26982621

  12. Light affects Varronia curassavica essential oil yield by increasing trichomes frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily V.R. da S. Feijó

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Light can act on essential oil yield directly on synthesis of secondary metabolites, or indirectly on plant growth. Varronia curassavica Jacq., Boraginaceae, is a native medicinal species from Brazil known as “erva-baleeira”, with anti-inflammatory activity related to its essential oil. Despite pharmacological evidences of this species and its economic importance for herbal medicine production, little is known about the effect of light on growth and essential oil production. This study aimed to analyze the influence of different irradiances on growth, frequency of trichomes, essential oil yield and composition of V. curassavica. The irradiance affected plant growth, but no significant alteration on leaf biomass was detected. The increase in essential oil content under higher irradiance reflected on essential oil yield, and is associated with higher frequency of glandular, globular trichomes. The essential oil composition, rich in caryophyllene derivatives was affected by irradiance, but α-humulene, the constituent of pharmaceutical interest, remained unchanged.

  13. EST analysis and annotation of transcripts derived from a trichome-specific cDNA library from Salvia fruticosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzopoulou, Fani M; Makris, Antonios M; Argiriou, Anagnostis; Degenhardt, Jörg; Kanellis, Angelos K

    2010-05-01

    Greek sage (Salvia fruticosa Mill., Syn. Salvia triloba L.) is appreciated for its essential oil which is used as an aromatic spice and active against a wide range of microorganisms and viruses. The essential oil is dominated by terpenoids and flavonoids which are produced and stored in glandular trichomes on the plant surface. The present study aims to give insights into the metabolic activities of S. fruticosa trichomes on a transcriptome level. A total of 2,304 clones were sequenced from a cDNA library from leaves' trichomes of S. fruticosa. Exclusion of sequences shorter than 100 bp resulted in 1,615 high-quality ESTs with a mean length of 592 bp. Cluster analysis indicated the presence of 197 contigs (908 clones) and 707 singletons, generating a total of 904 unique sequences. Of the 904 unique ESTs, 628 (69.5%) had significant hits in the non-redundant protein database and were annotated. A total of 517 (82.3%) sequences were functionally classified using the gene ontologies (GO) and established pathway associations to 220 (24.3%) sequences in Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG). In addition, 52 (5.8%) of the unique ESTs revealed a GO biological term with relation to terpenoid (78 ESTs), phenylpropanoid (43 ESTs), flavonoid (18 ESTs) or alkaloid (10 ESTs) biosynthesis or to P450s (26 ESTs). Expression analysis of a selected set of genes known to be involved in the pathways of secondary metabolite synthesis showed higher expression levels in trichomes, validating the tissue specificity of the analyzed glandular trichome library. PMID:20333525

  14. Proteomics of terpenoid biosynthesis and secretion in trichomes of higher plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, Antoine; Boutry, Marc

    2016-08-01

    Among the specialized (secondary) plant metabolites, terpenoids represent the most diverse family and are often involved in the defense against pathogens and herbivores. Terpenoids can be produced both constitutively and in response to the environment. At the front line of this defense strategy are the glandular trichomes, which are organs dedicated primarily to the production of specialized metabolites. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics is a powerful tool, which is very useful to investigate enzymes involved in metabolic pathways, such as the synthesis and secretion of terpenoids in glandular trichomes. Here we review the strategies used to investigate the specific roles of these particular organs from non-model plant species, mainly belonging to the Lamiaceae, Solanaceae, and Cannabaceae families. We discuss how proteomics helps to accurately pinpoint candidate proteins to be functionally characterized, and how technological progresses create opportunities for studying low-abundance proteins, such as the ones related to the synthesis and transport of specialized metabolites. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Plant Proteomics--a bridge between fundamental processes and crop production, edited by Dr. Hans-Peter Mock. PMID:26873244

  15. Micromorphology of trichomes in the flowers of the horse chestnut Aesculus hippocastanum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosława Chwil

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aesculus hippocastanum L. is an ornamental tree appreciated for its beautiful flowers and leaves. The flowers of this species contain secondary metabolites exhibiting pharmacological activity. They also produce essential oils and coloured “nectar guides”, which enable insects to reach nectar and pollen. The aim of the study was to investigate the types and characteristics of chestnut flower trichomes, which may contain biologically active substances. The analyses were performed using light, fluorescence, and scanning electron microscopy. Three types of trichomes were found on the sepals and the surface of the ovary, whereas the corolla petals exhibited two types of hairs and papillae. The hairs differ in terms of their length and number of cells. The perianth and pistil had no capitate hairs, whereas the ovary exhibited the presence of colleters. Histochemical assays revealed that all the types of trichomes and papillae contained lipids or essential oils; hence, they can be classified as glandular structures. The “nectar guides” were characterised by higher density of secretory hairs than that on the rest of the petal surface, which implies that these petal fragments may emit stronger fragrance.

  16. New Sesquiterpene and Polymethoxy-Flavonoids from Artemisia annua L

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Yang; Wang, Hongbo; Chen, Jing; Hou, Yue

    2014-01-01

    Our previous study revealed that the polymethoxy-flavonoids, as main components of Artemisia annua, could improve the antimalarial activity of Artemisinin. Here, we described the isolation, elucidation, constituent analysis, flavonoids enrichment of the extracts of A. annua. A total of 20 compounds were isolated including a new sesquiterpene (compound 12) and five (1, 5, 6, 7, 15) afforded for the first time from A. annua. The elucidation of eight flavonoids may be a useful phytochemical data...

  17. Leaf trichome density may explain herbivory patterns of Actinote sp. (Lepidoptera: Acraeidae) on Liabum mandonii (Asteraceae) in a montane humid forest (Nor Yungas, Bolivia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Montenegro, Marco A.; Ávila, Pamela; Hurtado, Rosember; Valdivia, Alejandra I.; Gianoli, Ernesto

    2006-09-01

    Increasing evidence shows that most insect herbivores of tropical forests show specific associations with their hosts. Environmental factors as well as foliar characters can modify insect preference. In the present work, we evaluated in a montane humid forest the preference and herbivory rate of Actinote sp. caterpillars (Lepidoptera: Acraeidae) on mature and young leaves of their specific host plant Liabum mandonii (Asteraceae) in two contrasting sites. Additionally, the density of non-glandular trichomes in young and mature leaves of plant at each site was evaluated. Analysis of variance of herbivory showed significant effects of site, leaf age, and the interaction of these factors. Higher herbivory levels were found on leaves from the site with lower levels of radiation and on mature leaves. On the other hand, trichome density was significantly higher in leaves from the site with higher levels of radiation and in young leaves. This suggests trichomes may explain the observed pattern of herbivory.

  18. Combined metabolome and transcriptome profiling provides new insights into diterpene biosynthesis in S. pomifera glandular trichomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trikka, Fotini A; Nikolaidis, Alexandros; Ignea, Codruta; Tsaballa, Aphrodite; Tziveleka, Leto-Aikaterini; Ioannou, Efstathia; Roussis, Vassilios; Stea, Eleni A; Božić, Dragana; Argiriou, Anagnostis; Kanellis, Angelos K; Kampranis, Sotirios C; Makris, Antonios M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Salvia diterpenes have been found to have health promoting properties. Among them, carnosic acid and carnosol, tanshinones and sclareol are well known for their cardiovascular, antitumor, antiinflammatory and antioxidant activities. However, many of these compounds are not available at...

  19. Media glandular dose in mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this work was to determine the media glandular dose of the patients group who most frequently are exposed at mammographic studies in the General Hospital of Zone No. 1 of IMSS in Zacatecas, later to compare this dose with the value that establishes the Mexican Official Standard and to know risk-benefit that a patient is exposed when it is realized studies of this nature. This with the purpose of to know if the patients who are realized this type of studies are exhibited to irradiations of unnecessary way. In order to obtain the media glandular dose, first it was choose the age group of feminine population that is predominant to this suffering. Of the classification of the age group it was determine the frequency of each thickness of mamma, and on the basis of the thickness of the compressed mamma the conditions were registered with it radiates the patient. When having the age and compressed mamma thickness of patient and the voltage, current, anode/filter that uses the mammography equipment for to radiate it was calculated the media glandular dose. The media glandular dose was calculated using two algorithms proposed in literature and thermoluminescent dosemeters. For the case of the thermoluminescent dosemeters were used two phantoms. In this study was detected that the limits, with that they radiate the patients who are exposed at mammographic studies it is by underneath of 3 mGy. Finally, it was detected that the Mexican Official Standard lacks of elements to offer radiological limits for the mammography area, because in this standard they are excluded the radiological limits for anode and filter of Mo/Rh and Rh/Rh. To know the dose applying these anodes and filters is of extreme importance because 85% of the population that is exposed to this studies type was radiated with anode and filter of Mo/Rh and Rh/Rh. (Author)

  20. Hormone-mediated promotion of trichome initiation in plants is conserved but utilizes species- and trichome-specific regulatory mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Maes, Lies; Goossens, Alain

    2010-01-01

    Plant trichome initiation is steered by diverse developmental and environmental cues, through molecular mechanisms that remain elusive in most plant species. Using a robust experimental method to investigate the molecular mechanisms by which phytohormones modulate leaf trichome formation, we verified the effect of jasmonates, cytokinins and gibberellins in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). All three phytohormones promoted Arabidopsis trichome initiation, but caused divergent effects on tric...

  1. Analysis of purified glabra3-shapeshifter trichomes reveals a role for NOECK in regulating early trichome morphogenic events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilding, Edward K; Marks, M David

    2010-10-01

    Transcriptome analysis using the Affymetrix ATH1 platform has been completed on purified trichomes from the gl3-sst mutant. These trichomes display immature features, such as glassy cell walls and blunted branches. The gl3-sst trichome transcriptome was greatly enriched for genes involved in lipid biosynthesis, including those mediating the synthesis of fatty acids and wax. In addition, gl3-sst trichomes displayed reduced expression of the R3 MYBs TRY and CPC, which normally function to limit trichome development. The expression of the MIXTA-like MYB gene NOK was elevated. Members of the MIXTA-like family promote conical cell outgrowth, and in some cases, trichome initiation in diverse plant species. In contrast, NOK limits trichome outgrowth in wild-type Arabidopsis plants. Similar to other MIXTA-like genes, NOK was required for the expansion of gl3-sst trichomes, as the gl3-sst nok double mutant trichomes were greatly reduced in size. Expression of NOK in nok mutants reduced branch formation, whereas in gl3-sst nok, NOK expression promoted trichome cell outgrowth, illustrating duel roles for NOK in both promoting and limiting trichome development. MIXTA-like genes from phylogenetically diverse plant species could substitute for NOK in both nok and gl3-sst nok backgrounds. These findings suggest that certain aspects of NOK and MIXTA-like gene function have been conserved. PMID:21070410

  2. Proteomic snapshot of spearmint (Mentha spicata L.) leaf trichomes: a genuine terpenoid factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, Antoine; Boutry, Marc

    2013-11-01

    Peltate glandular trichomes from Mentha spicata were purified on a Percoll gradient and soluble and membrane proteins were trypsinized and the peptides were separated by nano-LC fractionation and analyzed by MALDI-MS/MS. The vast majority of the 1666 proteins identified were housekeeping proteins or involved in the primary metabolism. However, 57 were predicted to be involved in the secondary metabolism. Of these, 21 were involved in the synthesis of phenylpropanoids and phenolics and 32 in terpenoid synthesis. Of the 14 membrane transporters identified, the 11 ATP-binding cassette transporters provide good material for assessing whether active transport is required for the transfer of monoterpenoid intermediates between cellular compartments and for the secretion of the final products into the subcuticular storage cavity. In conclusion, this proteome analysis of M. spicata peltate trichomes has identified several candidate proteins that might be involved in terpenoid synthesis and transport. The data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000352 (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD000352). PMID:24124164

  3. Compositions of essential oils and trichomes of Teucrium chamaedrys L. subsp. trapezunticum Rech. fil. and subsp. syspirense (C. Koch) Rech. fil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Ayla; Demirci, Betül; Başer, K Hüsnü C

    2009-01-01

    Teucrium chamaedrys L. is a member of the Lamiaceae family and is represented in the Flora of Turkey by six subspecies. The aerial organs of T. chamaedrys L. subsp. trapezunticum Rech. fil. and subsp. syspirense (C. Koch) Rech. fil. bears numerous eglandular and glandular trichomes. Eglandular trichomes are simple, long-multicellular with cuticular micropapillae, and glandular hairs are of peltate and capitate types. The peltate hairs consist of a basal cell, a short unicellular stalk, and multicellular secretory head, and the capitate ones possess 1-2 stalk cells and one glandular head cell. The aerial parts were subjected to microdistillation for the isolation of volatiles. The analysis was simultaneously performed by using gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The major components were characterized as beta-caryophyllene (18%), nonacosane (12%), germacrene D (11%), caryophyllene oxide (7%), and alpha-pinene (7%) for subsp. trapezunticum, and caryophyllene oxide (23%), alpha-pinene (11%), and caryophyllenol II (5%) for subsp. syspirense. PMID:19180459

  4. Lead Accummulation Potential By Leaves With Abundant Trichomes (Muntingia Calabura L.) And Rare Trichomes (Mimusops Elengi L.) In Makassar, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Suhadiyah, Sri

    2013-01-01

    A study of lead accumulation by leaves with abundant trichomes (Muntingia calabura L.) and leaves with rare trichomes (Mimusop elengi L.) in Makassar, Indonesia was conducted in August 2011 by using wet ashing method and Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The objective of this study was to find out the influence of trichome abundance on lead accumulation in shade trees. Results from multiple regression analysis with interval level of 95% indicated a significant correlation between lead (Pb)...

  5. Sexual Dimorphism in the Response of Mercurialis annua to Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezra M. Orlofsky

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The research presented stemmed from the observations that female plants of the annual dioecious Mercurialis annua outlive male plants. This led to the hypothesis that female plants of M. annua would be more tolerant to stress than male plants. This hypothesis was addressed in a comprehensive way, by comparing morphological, biochemical and metabolomics changes in female and male plants during their development and under salinity. There were practically no differences between the genders in vegetative development and physiological parameters. However, under salinity conditions, female plants produced significantly more new reproductive nodes. Gender-linked differences in peroxidase (POD and glutathione transferases (GSTs were involved in anti-oxidation, detoxification and developmental processes in M. annua. 1H NMR metabolite profiling of female and male M. annua plants showed that under salinity the activity of the TCA cycle increased. There was also an increase in betaine in both genders, which may be explainable by its osmo-compatible function under salinity. The concentration of ten metabolites changed in both genders, while ‘Female-only-response’ to salinity was detected for five metabolites. In conclusion, dimorphic responses of M. annua plant genders to stress may be attributed to female plants’ capacity to survive and complete the reproductive life cycle.

  6. Role of trichome of Pteris vittata L. in arsenic hyperaccumulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Wenxue; CHEN; Tongbin; CHEN; Yang; LEI; Mei

    2005-01-01

    Environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) fitted with an energy dispersive X-ray microanalyzer (EDX) was used to investigate the surface micromorphology and arsenic (As) micro-distribution in Chinese brake (Pteris vittata L.). It was found that amounts of trichome, which possessed multicellular structure with the average length of 160 (m and with an average diameter of 28 (m, existed in the frond of P. vittata, and the density of trichome on the pinnate axial surface was higher than that on the petiole. Visible X-ray peak of As was recorded in the epidermal cell and trichome. The relative weight of As in the pinnate trichome, which contained the highest concentration of As among all tissues of the plant, was 2.4 and 3.9 times as much as that in the epidermal and mesophyllous cells, respectively. The As concentrations in the basal and stalk cells of the same trichome were higher than that in its cap cell. This is the first time to report that the trichome of P. vittata plays an important role in arsenic hyperaccumulation. The finding from the present study implies that much attention should be paid to the role of the trichome in understanding the hyperaccumulation and detoxicity of As in the hyperaccumulator and improving the ability of As accumulation.

  7. Transcriptome Analysis of Arabidopsis Wild-Type and g13-sst sim Trichomes Identifies Four Additional Genes Required for Trichome Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.David Marks; Jonathan R Wenger; Edward Gilding; Ross Jilk; Richard A.Dixon

    2009-01-01

    Transcriptome analyses have been performed on mature trichomes isolated from wild-type Arabidopsis leaves and on leaf trichomes isolated from the g13-sst sire double mutant,which exhibit many attributes of immature trichomes.The mature trichome profile contained many highly expressed genes involved in cell wall synthesis,protein turnover,and abiotic stress response.The most highly expressed genes in the g13-sst sim profile encoded ribosomal proteins and other proteins involved in translation.Comparative analyses showed that all but one of the genes encoding transcription factors previously found to be important for trichome formation,and many other trichome-important genes,were preferentially expressed in g13-sstsim trichomes.The analysis of genes preferentially expressed in g13-sstsim led to the identification of four additional genes required for normal trichome development.One of these was the HDG2 gene,which is a member of the HD-ZIP IV transcription factor gene family.Mutations in this gene did not alter trichome expansion,but did alter mature trichome cell walls.Mutations in BLT resulted in a loss of trichome branch formation.The relationship between bit and the phenotypically identical mutant,sti,was explored.Mutations in PEL3,which was previously shown to be required for development of the leaf cuticle,resulted in the occasional tangling of expanding trichomes.Mutations in another gene encoding a protein with an unknown function altered trichome branch formation.

  8. Acylsugar Acylhydrolases: Carboxylesterase-Catalyzed Hydrolysis of Acylsugars in Tomato Trichomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilmiller, Anthony L; Gilgallon, Karin; Ghosh, Banibrata; Jones, A Daniel; Last, Robert L

    2016-03-01

    Glandular trichomes of cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and many other species throughout the Solanaceae produce and secrete mixtures of sugar esters (acylsugars) on the plant aerial surfaces. In wild and cultivated tomato, these metabolites consist of a sugar backbone, typically glucose or sucrose, and two to five acyl chains esterified to various positions on the sugar core. The aliphatic acyl chains vary in length and branching and are transferred to the sugar by a series of reactions catalyzed by acylsugar acyltransferases. A phenotypic screen of a set of S. lycopersicum M82 × Solanum pennellii LA0716 introgression lines identified a dominant genetic locus on chromosome 5 from the wild relative that affected total acylsugar levels. Genetic mapping revealed that the reduction in acylsugar levels was consistent with the presence and increased expression of two S. pennellii genes (Sopen05g030120 and Sopen05g030130) encoding putative carboxylesterase enzymes of the α/β-hydrolase superfamily. These two enzymes, named ACYLSUGAR ACYLHYDROLASE1 (ASH1) and ASH2, were shown to remove acyl chains from specific positions of certain types of acylsugars in vitro. A survey of related genes in M82 and LA0716 identified another trichome-expressed ASH gene on chromosome 9 (M82, Solyc09g075710; LA0716, Sopen09g030520) encoding a protein with similar activity. Characterization of the in vitro activities of the SpASH enzymes showed reduced activities with acylsugars produced by LA0716, presumably contributing to the high-level production of acylsugars in the presence of highly expressed SpASH genes. PMID:26811191

  9. [STUDIES ON THE CONSTITUENTS OF ARTEMISIA ANNUA L].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youyou, Tu; Muyun, Ni; Yurong, Zhong; Lanna, Li; Shulian, Gui; Muqun, Zhang; Xiuzhen, Wang; Xiaotian, Liang

    2015-10-01

    Six crystalline components were isolated from the lipophilic fraction of Artemisia annua L. They have been identified as four sesquiterpenes, one flavonol and one coumarin. Qinghaosu I and III are new sesquiterpenes. Five main constituents, camphene, iso-artemisia ketone, 1-camphor, β-carophyllene, and β-pinene were identified from the volatile oil of this herb. PMID:26837162

  10. Trichomes control flower bud shape by linking together young petals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jiafu; Walford, Sally-Anne; Dennis, Elizabeth S; Llewellyn, Danny

    2016-01-01

    Trichomes are widespread in plants and develop from surface cells on different tissues(1). They have many forms and functions, from defensive spines to physical barriers that trap layers of air to insulate against desiccation, but there is growing evidence that trichomes can also have developmental roles in regulating flower structure(2,3). We report here that the trichomes on petals of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., are essential for correct flower bud shape through a mechanical entanglement of the trichomes on adjacent petals that anchor the edges to counter the opposing force generated by asymmetric expansion of overlapping petals. Silencing a master regulator of petal trichomes, GhMYB-MIXTA-Like10 (GhMYBML10), by RNA interference (RNAi) suppressed petal trichome growth and resulted in flower buds forming into abnormal corkscrew shapes that exposed developing anthers and stigmas to desiccation damage. Artificially gluing petal edges together could partially restore correct bud shape and fertility. Such petal 'Velcro' is present in other Malvaceae and perhaps more broadly in other plant families, although it is not ubiquitous. This mechanism for physical association between separate organs to regulate flower shape and function is different from the usual organ shape control(4) exerted through cell-to-cell communication and differential cell expansion within floral tissues(5,6). PMID:27322517

  11. Antimicrobial Activity of Artemisinin and Precursor Derived from In Vitro Plantlets of Artemisia annua L.

    OpenAIRE

    Appalasamy, Suganthi; Lo, Kiah Yann; Ch'ng, Song Jin; Nornadia, Ku; Othman, Ahmad Sofiman; Chan, Lai-Keng

    2014-01-01

    Artemisia annua L., a medicinal herb, produces secondary metabolites with antimicrobial property. In Malaysia due to the tropical hot climate, A. annua could not be planted for production of artemisinin, the main bioactive compound. In this study, the leaves of three in vitro A. annua L. clones were, extracted and two bioactive compounds, artemisinin and a precursor, were isolated by thin layer chromatography. These compounds were found to be effective in inhibiting the growth of Gram-positiv...

  12. Characterization of two genes for the biosynthesis of abietane-type diterpenes in rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) glandular trichomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brückner, K.; Bozic, D.; Manzano, D.; Papaefthimiou, D.; Pateraki, I.; Scheler, U.; Ferrer, A.; Vos, de R.C.H.; Kanellis, A.K.; Tissier, A.

    2014-01-01

    Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) produces the phenolic diterpenes carnosic acid and carnosol, which, in addition to their general antioxidant activities, have recently been suggested as potential ingredients for the prevention and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Little is known about the b

  13. Probing essential oil biosynthesis and secretion by functional evaluation of expressed sequence tags from mint glandular trichomes

    OpenAIRE

    Lange, B. Markus; Wildung, Mark R.; Stauber, Einar J.; Sanchez, Christopher; Pouchnik, Derek; Croteau, Rodney

    2000-01-01

    Functional genomics approaches, which use combined computational and expression-based analyses of large amounts of sequence information, are emerging as powerful tools to accelerate the comprehensive understanding of cellular metabolism in specialized tissues and whole organisms. As part of an ongoing effort to identify genes of essential oil (monoterpene) biosynthesis, we have obtained sequence information from 1,316 randomly selected cDNA clones, or expressed sequence tags (ESTs), from a pe...

  14. Periareolar Extra-Glandular Breast Augmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Mohmand, Muhammad Humayun; Ahmad, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Breast augmentation is the most frequent procedure performed according to the 2009 Quick Facts report of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons. This study presents the periareolar extra-glandular breast augmentation. METHODS From 2004 to 2010 among 32 female patients, peri-areolar incision was performed for breast augmentation. Dissection was performed in subcutaneous plane towards the inferior pole to reach the inframammary fold and was continued in the upwards direction in the...

  15. Inflammatory and glandular skin disease in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Catherine S; Teeple, Mary; Muglia, Jennie; Robinson-Bostom, Leslie

    2016-01-01

    A switch from cell-mediated to humoral immunity (helper T 1 [Th1] to helper T 2 [Th2] shift) during gestation plays a key role in placental immune tolerance. As a result, skin diseases that are Th2 mediated often worsen, whereas skin diseases that are Th1 mediated often improve during gestation. Also, due to fluctuations in glandular activity, skin diseases involving sebaceous and eccrine glands may flare, whereas those involving apocrine glands may improve during pregnancy. Despite these trends, inflammatory and glandular skin diseases do not always follow the predicted pattern, and courses are often diverse. We review the gestational course of inflammatory skin diseases, such as atopic dermatitis (atopic eruption of pregnancy), psoriasis, impetigo herpetiformis, urticaria, erythema annulare centrifugum, pityriasis rosea, sarcoidosis, Sweet syndrome, and erythema nodosum, as well as glandular skin diseases, including acne vulgaris, acne rosacea, perioral dermatitis, hidradenitis suppurativa, Fox-Fordyce disease, hyperhidrosis, and miliaria. For each of these diseases, we discuss the pathogenesis, clinical presentation, and management with special consideration for maternal and fetal safety. PMID:27265071

  16. PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHARMACOGNOSTICAL STUDIES OF MARTYNIA ANNUA PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katare Vivekanand

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Martynia annua (Martyniaceae is commonly known as “bichu”. In Ayurveda the leaves of the plant is useful in treatment of gargle, treat epilepsy, tuberculous, sore throat and also given local sedative effect. The whole plant is also used by Santal tribals (India for fever, hair loss, scabies, sores and carbuncles on the back In order to ensure the use of genuine and authentic material in the preparation of herbal formulations, pharmacognostical and phytochemical methods of standardization of the plant has been carried out in the present work. Macroscopic, microscopic and physico-chemical characters of the Martynia annuahas plant been carried out. Preliminary phytochemical analysis studies have been performed on the various extracts of Martynia annua plant. All these pharmacognostical and phytochemical studies can be used as a diagnostic tool for the correct identification of the plant and also to test adulteration if any.

  17. Mean glandular dose for different angles of the X-ray tube using different glandularity phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is a three-dimensional radiographic technique that is beginning to be used as part of an imaging diagnostic program in some of Brazilian clinical practices. Studies are needed to evaluate the performance and to determine the radiation dose of patients that are undergoing this new procedure. The aim of this work is to present results of the mean glandular dose (DG) for different angles of the X-ray tube using a computed radiography (CR) mammography unit and different glandularity standard breast phantoms. DG values were derived from measurements of the incident air kerma (Ki) and tabulated conversion coefficients that are dependent on the half-value layer (HVL) of the X-ray spectrum. Irradiations were done in a 3000 Nova model Siemens MAMMOMAT mammography unit with the X-ray tube angle ranging from −30° to 30°. The protocol with 28 kV was used for Mo/Mo combination. The distance between focus and the 90×5–6 M model Radcal ionization chamber was 60.5 cm and the tube loading (PIt) used was 50 mA s. Exposures were done for DG determination using the semi-automatic exposure control mode and the 45 mm Computerized Imaging Reference Systems, Inc phantoms which approximately simulate a standard breast with glandularities of 0, 30, 50, 70 and 100%. DG values ranged from 1.3±0.1 to 7.6±0.7 mGy. The results are in according to the reference level of 3 mGy established by the International Basic Safety Standards (BSS115) to breast with 45 mm of thickness, 50% of glandularity and for the X-ray tube positioned in 0°. The results showed that DG increases with the glandularity and with the rotation of the X-ray tube. This work contributes to begin in Brazil the dosimetry in DBT equipments using different protocols and target/filter combinations. - Highlights: ► Glandularity phantoms and a computed radiography mammography unit were used. ► Results were calculated from the incident air kerma and conversion coefficients. ► They are in

  18. Assessment of Poa annua resistance to clethodim in Costa Rica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Rodríguez-Ruiz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to check for the presence of resistance to clethodim in Poa annua populations observed in onion fields in the highlands of Cartago, Costa Rica. Two experiments were conducted; the first one was carried out, in 2007, in a greenhouse at the Fabio Baudrit Moreno Agricultural Experiment Station (EEAFBM, in Spanish, with seeds of plants from a farm where clethodim exercised good control (S population, and from another farm where clethodim showed a deficient control (R population. Both S and R populations were treated with different doses of clethodim (0.5X, 1.0X, 1.5X and 2.0X, being X the recommended commercial dose. In this experiment, control of the R population was 44% and 17% at doses of 1.5X and 2.0X, respectively, whereas control of the S population was 100% at either of those doses. The second experiment was carried out in 2009, seeds of two other P. annua populations were collected in a similar way: one population from an area where weed control was satisfactory (S, and the other population from an area of the farm where control was deficient (R. Seeds were sown, depending on the type, in plastic pots and sprayed with clethodim at doses of: 0. 1X, 2X, 4X, 8X, and 16X. There were significant differences in the reactions to clethodim of both P. annua populations The S population showed a higher percentage of control and less surviving plants than the R population. Several plants of the R population resisted up to 16X commercial doses of clethodim. Results of both experiments suggest the presence of P. annua populations resistant to clethodim.

  19. ISOLASI DAN IDENTIFIKASI SENYAWA KUMARIN DARI TANAMAN ARTEMISIA ANNUA (L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ani Isnawati

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The invention of new entity from plant was the basic step for chemistry and another sciences development, such as: pharmacy, biology, and medical. Besides that, it is needed to fulfill people needs on food, medicine, cosmetics, etc. Coumarine is fenilpropanoid that has biological activity to stimulate skin pigmentation, influence enzyme activity, anti coagulant, anti microbial and inhibition of carcinogenic effect. One of the plants that contain coumarine is Artemisia annuaL, because ofthat we interested in isolating coumarine and it's derivate in Artemisia annua L with expectation that study resulted in discovering anti cancer agent. The method that we use is extraction and soxhletation using methanol and fractionation using dichloromethane. The separation was done by column Chromatography with silica gel and eluent n-hexane:etil acetate. Purification was done by recrystalization. Isolate is identified using KLT, GC-MS. Spectrophotometer UV, IR and NMR. This study shows that isolate was coumarine named 2H-1-Benzopyran-2-one, 7-hydroxy-6-methoxy or Scopoletin with molecular weight 192   Keywords: Coumarine, Artemisia annuaL, TLC, FTIR, GC-MS, NMR

  20. Clade-specific positive selection on a developmental gene: BRANCHLESS TRICHOME and the evolution of stellate trichomes in Physaria (Brassicaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazie, Abigail R; Baum, David A

    2016-07-01

    Positive selection is known to drive the evolution of genes involved in evolutionary arms races, but what role does it play in the evolution of genes involved in developmental processes? We used the single-celled epidermal trichomes of Brassicaceae as a model to uncover the molecular evolutionary processes that contributed to the transition from dendritic trichomes, as seen in most species of Brassicaceae, to the distinctive stellate trichomes of the genus Physaria. We explored the role of positive selection on the evolution of BRANCHLESS TRICHOME (BLT), a candidate gene for changes in trichome branching pattern. Maximum likelihood models of codon evolution point to a shift in selective pressure affecting the evolution of BLT across the entire Physaria clade, and we found strong evidence that positive selection has acted on a subset of Physaria BLT codons. Almost all of the 10 codon sites with the highest probability of having evolved under positive selection are clustered in a predicted coiled-coil domain, pointing to changes in protein-protein interactions. Thus, our findings suggest that selection acted on BLT to modify its interactions with other proteins. The fact that positive selection occurred throughout the radiation of Physaria could reflect selection to stabilize development in response to an abrupt switch from the dendritic form to the stellate form, divergent selection for diversification of the stellate form, or both. These results point to the need for evolutionary developmental studies of BLT and its interacting proteins in Physaria. PMID:27015897

  1. SIAMESE, a gene controlling the endoreduplication cell cycle in Arabidopsis thaliana trichomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, J D; Oppenheimer, D G; Concienne, J; Larkin, J C

    2000-09-01

    Cell differentiation is generally tightly coordinated with the cell cycle, typically resulting in a nondividing cell with a unique differentiated morphology. The unicellular trichomes of Arabidopsis are a well-established model for the study of plant cell differentiation. Here, we describe a new genetic locus, SIAMESE (SIM), required for coordinating cell division and cell differentiation during the development of Arabidopsis trichomes (epidermal hairs). A recessive mutation in the sim locus on chromosome 5 results in clusters of adjacent trichomes that appeared to be morphologically identical 'twins'. Upon closer inspection, the sim mutant was found to produce multicellular trichomes in contrast to the unicellular trichomes produced by wild-type (WT) plants. Mutant trichomes consisting of up to 15 cells have been observed. Scanning electron microscopy of developing sim trichomes suggests that the cell divisions occur very early in the development of mutant trichomes. WT trichome nuclei continue to replicate their DNA after mitosis and cytokinesis have ceased, and as a consequence have a DNA content much greater than 2C. This phenomenon is known as endoreduplication. Individual nuclei of sim trichomes have a reduced level of endoreduplication relative to WT trichome nuclei. Endoreduplication is also reduced in dark-grown sim hypocotyls relative to WT, but not in light-grown hypocotyls. Double mutants of sim with either of two other mutants affecting endoreduplication, triptychon (try) and glabra3 (gl3) are consistent with a function for SIM in endoreduplication. SIM may function as a repressor of mitosis in the endoreduplication cell cycle. Additionally, the relatively normal morphology of multicellular sim trichomes indicates that trichome morphogenesis can occur relatively normally even when the trichome precursor cell continues to divide. The sim mutant phenotype also has implications for the evolution of multicellular trichomes. PMID:10952891

  2. Glandular odontogenic cyst: A diagnostic dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Amisha A; Sangle, Amit; Bussari, Smita; Koshy, Ajit V

    2016-01-01

    Glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC) is a rare and uncommon jaw bone cyst of odontogenic origin described in 1987 by Gardener et al. as a distinct entity. It is a cyst having an unpredictable, potentially aggressive behavior, and has the propensity to grow in large size with relatively high recurrence rate. It poses a diagnostic challenge as it can be clinically and histopathologically confused with lateral periodontal cyst, botryoid odontogenic cyst, radicular and residual cysts with mucous metaplasia, and low-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma. The present case report describes GOC in both male and female patients with intra-oral swelling following extraction of 36 and 46, respectively. Careful histopathological examination is needed to diagnose GOC, and a careful long-term follow-up is advocated. PMID:27134453

  3. Glandular odontogenic cyst mimicking central mucoepidermoid carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhu Sudeendra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC is a rare developmental cyst of the jaws. The most common site of occurrence is the anterior mandible, and it is most commonly seen in middle-aged people. It is a destructive lesion with a high rate of recurrence. A predilection for men is observed. Clinical and radiographic findings are not specific, and it can mimic as any other destructive lesion of the jaw. The histopathological features of GOC and those of low-grade central mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC are similar. Often, they are misdiagnosed as MEC. We present a case of GOC in the posterior maxilla, which is a rare site. The similarities and differences between GOC and central MEC are also discussed.

  4. Glandular odontogenic cyst: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glandular odontogenic cysts (GOCs) are rare intrabony solitary or multiloculated cysts of odontogenic origin. The importance of GOCs lies in the fact that they exhibit a propensity for recurrence similar to keratocystic odontogenic tumors and that they may be confused microscopically with central mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Thus, the oral and maxillofacial radiologists play an important role in definitive diagnosis of GOC based on distinctive cases; though they are rare. In large part, this is due to the GOC's complex and frequently non-specific histopathology. This report describes a case of GOC occurrence in the posterior mandibular ramus region in a 17-year-old female, which is a rare combination of site, age, and gender for occurrence.

  5. Glandular odontogenic cyst: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tambawaia, Shahnaz S.; Karjodkar, Freny R.; Yadav, Archana; Sansare, Kaustubh; Sontakke, Subodh [Nair Hospital Dental College, Mumbai (India)

    2014-03-15

    Glandular odontogenic cysts (GOCs) are rare intrabony solitary or multiloculated cysts of odontogenic origin. The importance of GOCs lies in the fact that they exhibit a propensity for recurrence similar to keratocystic odontogenic tumors and that they may be confused microscopically with central mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Thus, the oral and maxillofacial radiologists play an important role in definitive diagnosis of GOC based on distinctive cases; though they are rare. In large part, this is due to the GOC's complex and frequently non-specific histopathology. This report describes a case of GOC occurrence in the posterior mandibular ramus region in a 17-year-old female, which is a rare combination of site, age, and gender for occurrence.

  6. ISOLASI DAN IDENTIFIKASI ARTEMISININ DARI HERBA Artemisia annua L .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukmayati Alegantina

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Malaria is still a major problem in Indonesia, because mortality in patients with severe malaria remains high. Many cases are occurs in endemic areas (e.g. Papua,Kalimantan, Bali and Sulawesi. Chloroquin is the most common antimalarial drug which is widely used since 1934. Plasmodium falciparum resistant to chloroquine was reported in some countries (e.g. Thailand, Vietnam, Indonesia, and Bangladesh. To delay the development of resistance, WHO recommended antimalarial combination therapy. Artemisinin and its derivatives (artesunate, artemether, dihydroartemisin produce rapid clearance of parasitemia and rapid resolution of symptoms compare with chloroquine. Artemisinin is obtained from Artemisia annua L. Even though there are some research produced a chemical synthetic of artemisinin, but it is not efficient and notstable. Our purposes are to conduct a preliminary research to obtain a method of isolation and identification of artemisinin which is the first step to develop a raw material of artemisinin as antimalarial drug in Indonesia.The first step of isolation is extraction from herb Artemisia annua L with n-hexane thatproduced n-hexane extract, this process is well-known as soxhletation. The second step isidentification of chemical substances from n-hexane extract. The third step is to obtain isolate from n-hexane extract by fractionation with acetonitril and separation with column chromatography. The last step is chemical and physical identification of isolateby TLC (Thin Layer (Chromatography and FT-IR.The result from n-hexane extract measurement is 4.33 % and from acetonitril fraction is2. 40 %. Chemical identification of n-hexan extract found there are terpenoid, phenol, flavonoid, fatty acid, atsiri oil and saponin. Organoleptic identification of isolate is white crystal, monosubstrate, odorless and bitter. Identification of isolate with TLC and FT-IR confirmed that the isolate is artemisinin.Keywords: artemisinin, Artemisia

  7. Cultivo, cosecha y procesamiento poscosecha de Artemisia annua L. Growing, harvest and postharvest processing of Artemisia annua L.

    OpenAIRE

    Lérida Acosta de la Luz; Ricardo Castro Armas

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: se presentó una revisión bibliográfica sobre Artemisia annua L., hierba utilizada tradicionalmente contra la malaria en numerosas partes del mundo. OBJETIVO: dar a conocer la importancia y características de cultivo, cosecha y procesamiento poscosecha de esta planta. MÉTODOS: se muestran los estudios realizados sobre diferentes aspectos esenciales relacionados con el procedimiento del cultivo (semilla, siembra, nutrición, algunas recomendaciones para el control de las malezas, p...

  8. Flavonoids casticin and chrysosplenol D from Artemisia annua L. inhibit inflammation in vitro and in vivo

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Li, Y.J.; Guo, Y.; Yang, Q.; Weng, X. G.; Yang, L.; Wang, Y.J.; Chen, Y.; Zhang, D.; Li, Q.; Liu, X.C.; Kan, X.X.; Chen, X.; Zhu, X.X.; Kmoníčková, E.; Zídek, Zdeněk

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 286, č. 3 (2015), s. 151-158. ISSN 0041-008X Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : Artemisia annua L. * Flavonoids * Casticin * Chrysosplenol D * Inflammation Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 3.705, year: 2014

  9. Effects of Overexpression of the Endogenous Farnesyl Diphosphate Synthase on the Artemisinin Content in Artemisia annua L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Artemisinin Is a novel effective antimalarial drug extracted from the medicinal plant Artemisia annua L. Owing to the tight market and low yield of artemislnin, there is great interest in enhancing the production of artemisinin.In the present study, farnesyl dlphosphate synthase (FPS) was overexpressed in high-yield A. annua to increase the artemislnin content. The FPS activity in transgenic A. annua was two- to threefold greater than that in non-transgenic A. annua. The highest artemisinin content in transgenic A. annua was approximately 0.9% (dry weight), which was 34.4% higher than that in non-transgenic A. annua. The results demonstrate the regulatory role of FPS in artemisinin biosynthesis.

  10. Microwave-Assisted Extraction Studies of Target Analyte Artemisinin from Dried Leaves of Artemisia annua L.

    OpenAIRE

    Himanshu Misra; Darshana Mehta; B.K. Mehta; Jain, D. C.

    2013-01-01

    Artemisia annua L. (Asteraceae) is an annual herb native of Asia. This plant has been used for many centuries in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of fever and malaria. Conventional methods for the extraction of artemisinin from A. annua including solvent extraction, Soxhlet extraction, and heat reflux extraction are characterized by long extraction times and the consumption of large volume of solvents. A simple, rapid, and precise microwave-assisted extraction process was optimi...

  11. Enhanced artemisinin yield by expression of rol genes in Artemisia annua

    OpenAIRE

    Dilshad, Erum; Cusido, Rosa Maria; Palazon, Javier; Estrada, Karla Ramirez; Bonfill, Mercedes; Mirza, Bushra

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite of many advances in the treatment of malaria, it is still the fifth most prevalent disease worldwide and is one of the major causes of death in the developing countries which accounted for 584,000 deaths in 2013, as estimated by World Health Organization. Artemisinin from Artemisia annua is still one of the most effective treatments for malaria. Increasing the artemisinin content of A. annua plants by genetic engineering would improve the availability of this much-needed dr...

  12. A huge glandular odontogenic cyst occurring at posterior mandible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Gi Chung; Han, Won Jeong; Kim, Eun Kyung [Dankook University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-12-15

    The glandular odontogenic cyst is a rare lesion described in 1987. It generally occurs at anterior region of mandible in adults over the age of 40 and has a slight tendency to recur. Histopathologically, a cystic cavity lined by a nonkeratinized, stratified squamous, or cuboidal epithelium varying in thickness is found including a superficial layer with glandular or pseudoglandular structures. A 21-year-old male visited Dankook University Dental Hospital with a chief complaint of swelling of the left posterior mandible. Radiographically, a huge multilocular radiolucent lesion involving impacted 3rd molar at the posterior mandible was observed. Buccolingual cortical expansion with partial perforation of buccal cortical bone was also shown. Histopathologically, this lesion was lined by stratified squamous epithelium with glandular structures in areas of plaque-like thickening. The final diagnosis was made as a glandular odontogenic cyst.

  13. A huge glandular odontogenic cyst occurring at posterior mandible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The glandular odontogenic cyst is a rare lesion described in 1987. It generally occurs at anterior region of mandible in adults over the age of 40 and has a slight tendency to recur. Histopathologically, a cystic cavity lined by a nonkeratinized, stratified squamous, or cuboidal epithelium varying in thickness is found including a superficial layer with glandular or pseudoglandular structures. A 21-year-old male visited Dankook University Dental Hospital with a chief complaint of swelling of the left posterior mandible. Radiographically, a huge multilocular radiolucent lesion involving impacted 3rd molar at the posterior mandible was observed. Buccolingual cortical expansion with partial perforation of buccal cortical bone was also shown. Histopathologically, this lesion was lined by stratified squamous epithelium with glandular structures in areas of plaque-like thickening. The final diagnosis was made as a glandular odontogenic cyst.

  14. Primary glandular melanoma of male breast with nodal metastasis

    OpenAIRE

    Jayabal Pandiaraja

    2016-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is a malignancy that develops from melanocytes. Breast is an uncommon site for malignant melanoma. Melanoma of the breast occurs in various situations such as primary melanoma of breast skin, metastatic melanoma of breast, in-transit metastasis to the breast, and primary glandular breast melanoma. Most of the melanoma breast either cutaneous melanoma or metastatic melanoma. Primary glandular melanoma of male breast with nodal involvement is rarely reported compared to prima...

  15. Variation in vegetative growth and trichomes in Cannabis sativa L. (Marihuana) in response to enviromental pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, G.K.; Mann, S.K.

    1984-07-01

    Four populations of Cannabis sativa L. (marihuana) growing in their native habitat and exposed to different levels of environmental pollution were studied for several leaf morphology and leaf trichome features. Leaf length, petiole length, length and width of central leaflet, and the number of teeth on leaf margin decreased with increase in pollution. Trichome length and trichome density values were found to be higher in populations exposed to higher levels of environmental pollution.

  16. Average glandular dose conversion coefficients for segmented breast voxel models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For 8 voxel models of a compressed breast (4-7 cm thickness and two orientations for each thickness) and 14 radiation qualities commonly used in mammography (HVL 0.28-0.50 mm Al), tissue dose conversion coefficients were calculated for a focus-to-film distance of 60 cm using Monte Carlo methods. The voxel models were segmented from a high-resolution (slice thickness of 1 mm) computed tomography data set of an ablated breast specimen fixated while being compressed. The contents of glandular tissues amounted to 2.6%, and were asymmetrically distributed with regard to the midplane of the model. The calculated tissue dose conversion coefficients were compared with the recent literature values. These earlier tissue dose conversion coefficients were also calculated using Monte Carlo methods and breast models of various thickness, but these consist of homogeneous mixtures of glandular and adipose tissues embedded in 5 mm pure adipose tissue both at the entrance and exit sides. The results show that the new glandular tissue dose conversion coefficients agree well with the literature values for those cases where the glandular tissue is predominantly concentrated in the upper part of the model. In the opposite case, they were lower by up to 40%. These findings reveal a basic problem in patient dosimetry for mammography: glandular dose is not only governed by the average breast composition, which could be derived from the breast thickness, but also by the local distribution of glandular tissue within the breast, which is not known. (authors)

  17. Maize leaf trichomes represent an entry point of infection for Fusarium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thi Thanh Xuan; Dehne, Heinz-Wilhelm; Steiner, Ulrike

    2016-08-01

    Fifteen day old maize seedlings were inoculated with Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium proliferatum, and Fusarium verticillioides. More than 90 % F. proliferatum and F. verticillioides conidia and 50 % of F. graminearum formed one germ tube whereas the other 50 % of F. graminearum conidia formed two to three germ tubes. The germ tubes of F. graminearum conidia were longer than those of F. proliferatum and F. verticillioides. The three species of Fusarium infected bi-cellular trichomes by adhering and growing along the trichomes or by attaching to the cap cell of the trichomes 48 h after inoculation. Hyphae penetrated into the trichomes at the base, the side or at the top of the cap cells. The hyphae colonized the cap cells and then spread to base cells. Prickle trichomes were infected 72 h after inoculation. The hyphae either wrapped around prickle trichomes or formed a mass of hyphae around the top of prickle trichomes or formed appressorium. Macro trichomes were infected by F. graminearum 7 d after inoculation. Following penetration, the fungus spread to adjacent epidermal cells and to the subcuticle. This investigation provides the first assessment of F. graminearum, F. proliferatum, and F. verticillioides infection via trichomes of maize leaves. PMID:27521623

  18. Antibacterial and antiprotozoal effect of Artemisia annua extracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivarsen, E.; Fretté, X. C.; Engberg, R. M.;

    2012-01-01

    Two of the most common infections in poultry, are blackhead, caused by the parasite Histomonas melagridis (HM), and necrotic enteristis (NE) caused by the bacteria Clostridium perfringens (CP). At present there is no treatment of blackhead disease, and the preventive treatment towards NE may soon...... be banned in the EU. Extracts of aerial parts of Artemisia annua (AA) showed antimicrobial activity in overnight cultures of CP strains isolated from diseased broilers. The hexane extract (HEX) gave the strongest inhibition (MIC=185ppm) while the dichloromethane extract (DCM) gave a weaker inhibition...... (MIC=270ppm). The dietary incorporation of HEX reduced the population of CP and the severity of the associated small intestinal lesions (P>0.05) in broilers when applying a NE disease model. The antibacterial compounds from HEX and DCM, chrysosplenol and ponticaepoxide, were isolated. This is the first...

  19. Artemisia annua increases resistance to heat and oxidative stresses, but has no effect on lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Il OH

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract It is suggested that oxidative stress induced by cellular reactive oxygen species is one of the major causal factors of aging. The effect of dietary supplementation of anti-oxidants on response to environmental stressors and lifespan has been studied in various model organisms. In the present study, we examine the effect of Artemisia annua extract on resistance to oxidative, heat, and ultraviolet stresses in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Artemisia annua significantly increases survival under oxidative and heat stresses, however has no effects in response to ultraviolet stress. Then, we measured the in vivo changes in expression of stress-responsive genes by Artemisia annua using green fluorescence protein. The expression of hsp-16.2, known to be involved in response to heat stress, is significantly increased by Artemisia annua supplementation. An anti-oxidant gene, sod-3, was also up-regulated by Artemisia annua. However, both mean and maximum lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans was not altered by dietary supplementation of Artemisia annua. These findings indicate that Artemisia annua confers health-promoting effects through increasing the resistance to environmental stressors and has no effect on lifespan in C. elegans. Our study suggests that Artemisia annua can be used for the development of novel natural therapeutics for diseases caused by environmental stressors.

  20. The Effect of Different Doses of Composite Artemisia annua Extract on Ruminal Fermentation of Dairy Goats in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li-fang; LU De-xun; DING Guo-he; MA Yan-fen

    2011-01-01

    An in vitro study was conducted to determine the effect of different doses of Composite Artemisia annua extract(CAE) on rumen microbial fermentation.CAE was a crude extract from the stem and leaves of Composite Artemisia annua extracted with ethanol.The doses of CAE supplementation with frozen-dry form were:control(no addition)

  1. Evaluation of exposure in mammography: limitations of average glandular dose and proposal of a new quantity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation risk in mammography is traditionally evaluated using the average glandular dose. This quantity for the average breast has proven to be useful for population statistics and to compare exposure techniques and systems. However it is not indicating the individual radiation risk based on the individual glandular amount and distribution. Simulations of exposures were performed for six appropriate virtual phantoms with varying glandular amount and distribution. The individualised average glandular dose (iAGD), i.e. the individual glandular absorbed energy divided by the mass of the gland, and the glandular imparted energy (GIE), i.e. the glandular absorbed energy, were computed. Both quantities were evaluated for their capability to take into account the glandular amount and distribution. As expected, the results have demonstrated that iAGD reflects only the distribution, while GIE reflects both the glandular amount and distribution. Therefore GIE is a good candidate for individual radiation risk assessment. (authors)

  2. Comparison of Artemisia annua bioactivities between traditional medicine and chemical extracts

    KAUST Repository

    Nageeb, Ahmed

    2014-04-04

    The present work investigates the efficacy of using Artemisia annua in traditional medicine in comparison with chemical extracts of its bioactive molecules. In addition, the effects of location (Egypt and Jericho) on the bioactivities of the plant were investigated. The results showed that water extracts of Artemisia annua from Jericho have stronger antibacterial activities than organic solvent extracts. In contrast, water and organic solvent extracts of the Artemisia annua from Egypt do not have anti-bacterial activity. Furthermore, while the methanol extract of EA displayed high anticancer affects, the water extract of Egypt and the extracts of Jericho did not show significant anticancer activity. Finally, the results showed that the methanol and water extracts of Jericho had the highest antioxidant activity, while the extracts of Egypt had none. The current results validate the scientific bases for the use of Artemisia annua in traditional medicine. In addition, our results suggest that the collection location of the Artemisia annua has an effect on its chemical composition and bioactivities. - See more at: http://www.eurekaselect.com/121416/article#sthash.2c2j9AoL.dpuf

  3. Evaluation of glandular dose in conventional and digital mammography systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey was conducted to estimate the average glandular dose (Dg) for patients undergoing mammography and to report the distribution of incident air kerma (Ki), patient age, compressed breast thickness and glandular tissue content. From 1183 cranio caudal mammograms clinical data were collected and doses were measured. The survey data included mammograms from six mammography equipment: two screen/film units (SFM), two computed radiography units (CR) and two full-field digital (DR). Mean value for patient age and compressed breast thickness were 57 +-12 y and 5.4 +-1.4 cm, respectively. To investigate the importance of technical characteristics of three different mammography systems and breast glandularity, Ki and Dg were measured for individual breast of 392 patients from the original sample with compressed breast thickness in the range of 5.5 cm to 6.5 cm using tissue-equivalent phantoms of different glandularities manufactured in this study to mimic both the attenuation and the density of breast tissues. Mean Ki value was 10.0 +-3.6 mGy for SFM systems, 12.0 +-3.6 mGy for CR systems and 4.9 +-1.3 mGy for DR systems. Mean Dg value was 1.4 +-0.5 mGy for S/F systems, 1.7 +-0.5 mGy for CR systems and 0.9 +-0.2 mGy for D R systems. Statistical analysis for differences in mean values of Ki and Dg between mammography systems showed significant effect of their technical characteristics (p i and Dg, it was observed statistically significant differences between the group of patients with 0 to 50% glandularity and the group of patients with 50 to 100% glandularity. (author)

  4. Average glandular dose in patients submitted to mammographic examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doses in mammography should be maintained as low as possible without reducing the high image quality needed to the early detection of the breast cancer. As the breast is composed of tissues with very soft composition and densities, it increases the difficulty to detect small changes in the normal anatomical structures that may be associated with breast cancer. To achieve the standards of resolution and contrast for mammography, the quality and intensity of the X-ray beam, the breast positioning and compression, the film screen system, and the film processing must be in optimal operational conditions. This study intended to evaluate the mean glandular dose of patients undergoing routine exams in one mammography unit. Patient image analyses were done by a radiologist doctor who took into account 10 evaluation criteria for each CC and MLO incidences. For estimating each patient glandular dose the radiographic technique parameters (kV and mAs) and the thickness of the compressed breast were recorded. European image quality criteria were adopted by the radiologist doctor to accept the image for diagnostic purpose. For breast densities of 50% adipose and 50% glandular tissues the incident air-kerma was measured and the glandular dose calculated considering the x-ray output during the exam. In the study of 50 patients the mean glandular dose varied from 0.90 to 3.27 mGy with a mean value of 1.98 mGy for CC incidences. For MLO incidences the mean glandular doses ranged from 0.97 to 3.98 mGy and a mean value of 2.60 mGy. (author)

  5. [Optimal measure for cultivation of Artemisia annua with high seeds yield].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yekuan; Li, Longyun; Hu, Yingi

    2009-09-01

    The relationship of Artemisia annua seed yield with density, N, P and K fertilizer applied amount was studied, and a mathematical model involving the 4 factors affecting seed yield was established using the orthogonal rotation design of quadratic regression. The seed yield function model was established according to parameters through field tests and data treated by computer techniques. The best agronomic measures complex project was selected and developed by computer imitation. The effects on seed yield of A. annua are density > N > P > K in turn. To obtain the highest yield density should be 13 000-15 000 plants x hm(-2), Ureal 186-242 kg x hm(-2), calcium superphosphate 874-1 023 kg x hm(-2), potassium chloride 135-165 kg x hm(-2) in the experiment. Reasonable planting density and fertilizer application could improve the seed yield of A. annua. PMID:19943472

  6. PENETAPAN KADAR ARTEMISININ DALAM EKSTRAK HEKSAN TANAMAN Artemisia annua L. MENGGUNAKAN METODE DENSITOMETRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ani Isnawati

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Penyakit malaria masih merupakan masalah kesehatan masyarakat di Indonesia karena angka kesakitan penyakit ini masih cukup tinggi. Kinin dan klorokuin masih merupakan obat malaria yang banyak digunakan masyarakat di dunia, namun telah mengalami resisten. Artemisinin dan derivatnya merupakan obat yang digunakan terhadap plasmodium yang resisten terhadap klorokuin. Artemisinin diperoleh dari ekstrak tanaman Artemisia Annua L. Tanaman ini berasal dari daratan China namun dapat dibudidayakan di BPTO Tawangmangu. Penetapan kadar artemisinin menggunakan metode densitometri yang telah divalidasi. Ekstraksi heksan Artemisia annua L dilakukan fraksinasi dengan menggunakan acetonitril. Fraksi acetonitril  di uji dengan menggunakan KLT dengan fasa diam silica gel 60 GF254 dan eluen hexan: etil asetat (4:1 guna mengidentifikasi artemisinin. Pemisahan lebih lanjut dilakukan dengan kromatografi kolom dengan fase diam silika gel dan fase geraknya yaitu n-heksan: etil asetat (4:1. Eluat yang diperoleh diujikan pada plat KLT silica gel 60 GF254 menggunakan eluen yang sama dengan sebelumnya. Eluat yang mempunyai Rf sama digabung menjadi satu fraksi dan ditetapkan kadar artemisinin menggunakan densitometri beserta validasi metodenya. Hasil validasi metode menunjukkan bahwa linearitas dengan koefisien korelasi 0,998, batas deteksi 0,028mg/mL dan batas kuantitasi 0,094mg/mL dan nilai simpangan baku relatif artemisinin memenuhi persyaratan untuk presisi yaitu lebih kecil dari 2%. Hasil perolehan kembali untuk artemisinin adalah 100,08%. Kadar artemisinin dalam ekstrak heksan herba Artemisia annua L dengan metode densitometri sebesar 0,46% dan kadar artemisinin dalam herba Artemisia annua L. 0,02% Kata Kunci: Artemisinin, Artemisia annua L, ekstrak heksan daun Artemisia annua L, Densitometri. Abstract Malaria desease is still problem health people in Indonesia, because morbiditas rate is high. Kinin and Klorokuin are used by most of people in the world, but

  7. Optimization of total RNA isolation method from the aromatic medicinal plant Artemisia annua L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suganthi Appalasamy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the first report on the development of a protocol that allows rapid and simplified extraction of total RNA from Artemisia annua L., an aromatic medicinal plant. This innovative protocol ensures a consistently high quantity and good quality of total RNA without any contamination of polyphenols, polysaccharides and proteins. The total RNA obtained is also free of fungal RNA even when extracted from fungal infested plants. The extraction buffer used in the proposed modified protocol was made up of non-hazardous chemicals. High concentrations of polyphenols of A. annua L. could be successfully eliminated and the prepared total RNA could be used for downstream reactions.

  8. Giant cardiac myxoma with malignant transformed glandular structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckhardt, Boris P.; Stuckmann, Gerd; Zollikofer, Christoph L. [Institute of Radiology, Cantonal Hospital, Brauerstrasse 15, 8401 Winterthur (Switzerland); Dommann-Scherrer, Corina C. [Insitute of Pathology, Cantonal Hospital, Brauerstrasse 15, 8401 Winterthur (Switzerland); Wentz, Klaus U. [Institute of Radiology, Cantonal Hospital, Brauerstrasse 15, 8401 Winterthur (Switzerland); Medical Faculty, University of Witten/Herdecke, Alfred-Herrhausen-Strasse 50, 58448 Witten (Germany)

    2003-09-01

    A case of a right-sided giant cardiac myxoma with malignant transformation of glandular structures causing systemic metastases is described. Plain chest radiography and computed tomography localized the tumor within the heart. Exact depiction of the origin of the tumor using subtracted 2D-projection MR angiography is documented. Radiologic findings and differential diagnosis of this unique tumor are discussed. (orig.)

  9. Efecto microbicida de la radiación solar (SODIS combinado con Artemisia annua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Muñoz-Restrepo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se evaluó el método SODIS y SODIS combinado con Artemisia annua como una alternativa para la desinfección del agua en comunidades sin acceso a agua segura. Se determinó la eficiencia del método en la remoción de Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis y Salmonella typhimurium usando botellas tipo PET con agua destilada estéril y una concentración inicial de 1x106 UFC/ml de cada microorganismo. Para la combinación SODIS-A. annua se adicionó a las botellas una infusión de A. annua al 10% (v/v; las botellas fueron expuestas al sol durante mínimo 6 horas y se determinaron las variables temperatura del agua, radiación solar y turbidez. Se encontró que el tratamiento SODIS fue más eficiente en la remoción de los cuatro microorganismos que el tratamiento SODIS + A. annua. Las remociones más altas se encontraron a partir de las cuatro horas de exposición para las especies bacterianas en estado vegetativo.

  10. Antimicrobial Activity of Artemisinin and Precursor Derived from In Vitro Plantlets of Artemisia annua L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suganthi Appalasamy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia annua L., a medicinal herb, produces secondary metabolites with antimicrobial property. In Malaysia due to the tropical hot climate, A. annua could not be planted for production of artemisinin, the main bioactive compound. In this study, the leaves of three in vitro A. annua L. clones were, extracted and two bioactive compounds, artemisinin and a precursor, were isolated by thin layer chromatography. These compounds were found to be effective in inhibiting the growth of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria but not Candida albicans. Their antimicrobial activity was similar to that of antibactericidal antibiotic streptomycin. They were found to inhibit the growth of the tested microbes at the minimum inhibition concentration of 0.09 mg/mL, and toxicity test using brine shrimp showed that even the low concentration of 0.09 mg/mL was very lethal towards the brine shrimps with 100% mortality rate. This study hence indicated that in vitro cultured plantlets of A. annua can be used as the alternative method for production of artemisinin and its precursor with antimicrobial activities.

  11. ARTEMISININ, RELATED SESQUITERPENES, AND ESSENTIAL OIL IN ARTEMISIA-ANNUA DURING A VEGETATION PERIOD IN VIETNAM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WOERDENBAG, HJ; PRAS, N; CHAN, NG; BANG, BT; BOS, R; VANUDEN, W; Y, PV; BOI, NV; BATTERMAN, S; LUGT, CB

    1994-01-01

    The active principle of Artemisia annua L., artemisinin, is currently being developed to a registered antimalarial drug. For production purposes, plants with a high artemisinin content are required. We followed the development of the artemisinin content and of the biosynthetically related sesquiterp

  12. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of a Broad Substrate Terpenoid Oxidoreductase from Artemisia annua

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ryden, Anna-Margareta; Ruyter-Spira, Carolien; Litjens, Ralph; Takahashi, Shunji; Quax, Wim; Osada, Hiroyuki; Bouwmeester, Harro; Kayser, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    From Artemisia annua L., a new oxidoreductase (Red 1) was cloned, sequenced and functionally characterized. Through bioinformatics, heterologous protein expression and enzyme substrate conversion assays, the elucidation of the enzymatic capacities of Red1 was achieved. Red1 acts on monoterpenoids, a

  13. Molecular cloning and characterization of a broad substrate terpenoid oxidoreductase from Artemisia annua.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ryden, A.M.; Ruyter-Spira, C.P.; Litjens, R.; Takahashi, S.; Quax, W.J.; Osada, H.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Kayser, O.

    2010-01-01

    From Artemisia annua L., a new oxidoreductase (Red 1) was cloned, sequenced and functionally characterized. Through bioinformatics, heterologous protein expression, and enzyme substrate conversion assays, the elucidation of the enzymatic capacities of Red1 was achieved. Red1 acts on monoterpenoids,

  14. Antimicrobial activity of artemisinin and precursor derived from in vitro plantlets of Artemisia annua L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appalasamy, Suganthi; Lo, Kiah Yann; Ch'ng, Song Jin; Nornadia, Ku; Othman, Ahmad Sofiman; Chan, Lai-Keng

    2014-01-01

    Artemisia annua L., a medicinal herb, produces secondary metabolites with antimicrobial property. In Malaysia due to the tropical hot climate, A. annua could not be planted for production of artemisinin, the main bioactive compound. In this study, the leaves of three in vitro A. annua L. clones were, extracted and two bioactive compounds, artemisinin and a precursor, were isolated by thin layer chromatography. These compounds were found to be effective in inhibiting the growth of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria but not Candida albicans. Their antimicrobial activity was similar to that of antibactericidal antibiotic streptomycin. They were found to inhibit the growth of the tested microbes at the minimum inhibition concentration of 0.09 mg/mL, and toxicity test using brine shrimp showed that even the low concentration of 0.09 mg/mL was very lethal towards the brine shrimps with 100% mortality rate. This study hence indicated that in vitro cultured plantlets of A. annua can be used as the alternative method for production of artemisinin and its precursor with antimicrobial activities. PMID:24575401

  15. Effect of Artemisia annua L. leaves essential oil and ethanol extract on behavioral assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio F. Perazzo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia annua has been used as a traditional plant for the treatment of malaria and fever in China because of the presence of its active compound, artemisinin. The present study evaluated the central activity of the essential oil and the crude ethanol extract of A. annua L. in animals as a part of a psychopharmacological screening of this plant. The extract was prepared in ethanol (AEE and the essential oil (AEO obtained by hydrodistillation, both with fresh leaves. Induced immobility, the forced swimming test (FST and the open-field test (OFT are well-known animal models to study drug-induced depression. The administration of A. annua essential oil or crude ethanol extract increased the immobility time in the FST and decreased other activities (ambulation, exploration, rearing and grooming in the OFT in animals. Both AEO and AEE prolonged pentobarbital-induced sleep as well, but the essential oil had a marked effect. Observing these results, it is possible to suggest that A. annua crude ethanol extract and essential oil could act as depressors on the Central Nervous System (CNS.

  16. Herbivore handling of a plant's trichome: the case of Heliconius charithonia (L.) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) and Passiflora lobata (Killip) Hutch. (Passifloraceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trichomes reduce herbivore attack on plants by physically and/or chemically inhibiting movement or other activities. Despite evidence that herbivores are negatively affected by trichomes there also reports of insect counter-adaptations that circumvent the plant's defense. This paper reports on a study that investigated the likely mechanisms employed by larvae of the nymphalid butterfly, Heliconius charithonia (L.), that allow it to feed on a host that is presumably protected by hooked trichomes (Passiflora lobata (Killip) Hutch). Evidence were gathered using data from direct observations of larval movement and behavior, faeces analysis, scanning electron microscopy of plant surface and experimental analysis of larval movement on plants with and without trichomes (manually removed). The latter involved a comparison with a non specialist congener, Heliconius pachinus Salvin. Observations showed that H. charithonia larvae are capable of freeing themselves from entrapment on trichome tips by physical force. Moreover, wandering larvae lay silk mats on the trichomes and remove their tips by biting. In fact, trichome tips were found in the faeces. Experimental removal of trichomes aided in the movement of the non specialist but had no noticeable effect on the specialist larvae. These results support the suggestion that trichomes are capable of deterring a non specialist herbivore (H. pachinus). The precise mechanisms that allow the success of H. charithonia are not known, but I suggest that a blend of behavioral as well as physical resistance mechanisms is involved. Future studies should ascertain whether larval integument provides physical resistance to trichomes. (author)

  17. The taxonomic significance of trichome type and distribution in Melolobium (Fabaceae

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    A. Moteetee

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available All species of Melolobium Eckl. & Zeyh. were examined for epidermal features and particularly the glands which are a distinctive feature amongst the southern African Genisteae. For comparative purposes, three species of Argxrolobium Eckl.& Zeyh.. all  five species of Dichilus DC. and five species of Polhillia C.H.Stirt. were also examined for trichome type and distribution. Three trichome types are recognized in Melolobium. Trichome type and distribution provide an important insight into taxonomic relations at species level in Melolobium and sometimes even allow a distinction between regional forms. The distribution of glands (sessile and stalked is of considerable diagnostic value in identifying  species  of Melolobium. A key to all the species of the genus based mainly on type and distribution of trichomes. is presented.

  18. A novel texture descriptor for detection of glandular structures in colon histology images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirinukunwattana, Korsuk; Snead, David R.; Rajpoot, Nasir M.

    2015-03-01

    The first step prior to most analyses on most histopathology images is the detection of area of interest. In this work, we present a superpixel-based approach for glandular structure detection in colon histology images. An image is first segmented into superpixels with the constraint on the presence of glandular boundaries. Texture and color information is then extracted from each superpixel to calculate the probability of that superpixel belonging to glandular regions, resulting in a glandular probability map. In addition, we present a novel texture descriptor derived from a region covariance matrix of scattering coefficients. Our approach shows encouraging results for the detection of glandular structures in colon tissue samples.

  19. Optimization of genetic transformation of Artemisia annua L. Using Agrobacterium for Artemisinin production

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    Elfahmi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Artemisinin, a sesquiterpene lactone endoperoxide isolated from the medicinal plant Artemisia annua L., is a choice and effective drug for malaria treatment. Due to the low yield of artemisinin in plants, there is a need to enhance the production of artemisinin from A. annua and biotechnological technique may be one of the methods that can be used for the purpose. Aim: To study the transformation efficiency of Agrobacterium tumefaciens in A. annua that could be applied to enhance the production of artemisinin by means of transgenic plants. Setting and Designs: The factors influencing Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of A. annua were explored to optimize the transformation system, which included A. tumefaciens strain and effect of organosilicone surfactants. Three strains of A. tumefaciens, that is, LBA4404, GV1301, and AGL1 harboring the binary vector pCAMBIA 1303 have been used for transformation. The evaluation was based on transient β-glucuronidase (GUS. Materials and Methods: Plant cell cultures were inniatiated from the seeds of A. annua using the germination Murashige and Skoog medium. A. tumefaciens harboring pCAMBIA were tranformed into the leaves of A.annua cultures from 2-week-old-seedling and 2-month-old-seedling for 15 min by vacuum infiltration. Transformation efficiency was determinated by measuring of blue area (GUS expression on the whole leaves explant using ImageJ 1.43 software. Two organosilicon surfactants, that is, Silwet L-77 and Silwet S-408 were used to improve the transformation efficiency. Results: The transformation frequency with AGL1 strain was higher than GV3101 and LBA4404 which were 70.91, 49.25, and 45.45%, respectively. Effect of organosilicone surfactants, that is, Silwet L-77 and Silwet S-408 were tested on A. tumefaciens AGL1 and GV3101 for their level of transient expression, and on A. rhizogenes R1000 for its hairy root induction frequency. For AGL1, Silwet S-408 produced higher level of

  20. Molecular basis of natural variation and environmental control of trichome patterning

    OpenAIRE

    Hauser, Marie-Theres

    2014-01-01

    Trichomes are differentiated epidermal cells on above ground organs of nearly all land plants. They play important protective roles as structural defenses upon biotic attacks such as herbivory, oviposition and fungal infections, and against abiotic stressors such as drought, heat, freezing, excess of light, and UV radiation. The pattern and density of trichomes is highly variable within natural population suggesting tradeoffs between traits positively affecting fitness such as resistance and ...

  1. Distribution of DMT 1 within the human glandular system

    OpenAIRE

    Koch, R.O.; H. Zoller; Theurl, I.; Obrist, P.; Egg, G.; Strohmayer, W.; Vogel, W.; Weiss, G. (Günter)

    2003-01-01

    Background & Aims: DMT1 is a transmembrane protein which transports the divalent metal ions Fe2+, Zn2+, Cu2+ and Mn2+. Although DMT1 has been functionally linked to duodenal absorption and cellular utilisation of iron hardly anything is known about its distribution and potential role within the human glandular system. Methods: Two polyclonal antibodies were raised to study the expression of DMT1 in tissues obtained from human corpus by the means of immunocy...

  2. Detecting uterine glandular lesions: Role of cervical cytology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Baneet; Gupta, Parikshaa; Gupta, Nalini; Rajwanshi, Arvind; Suri, Vanita

    2016-01-01

    Background: The sensitivity of cervical cytology for detection of glandular lesions is reported to be low. We conducted this study to assess the diagnostic accuracy of cervical Papanicolaou (Pap) smears for uterine glandular lesions and to compare the diagnostic utility of conventional and liquid-based cytology (LBC) smears for glandular lesions. Materials and Methods: Archived histopathology records of all cases reported as endocervical and endometrial adenocarcinoma in the study period were identified and the available corresponding Pap smears (in preceding 1 year) were retrieved. In addition, the Pap smears reported as glandular cell abnormalities (GCA) during the same study period were retrieved. The overall prevalence of GCA, sensitivity, and specificity of Pap smears for the detection of GCA was calculated. The diagnostic accuracy of conventional and LBC smears for the diagnosis of GCA was also compared. Results: The prevalence of GCA in our study was 0.32%. The overall specificity of Pap smears for the diagnosis of GCA was 60.8%, this was not significantly different between conventional and LBC smears (P = 0.4). The overall sensitivity of Pap smears for the detection of GCA was 41.8%; LBC smears had significantly better sensitivity as compared to conventional smears for the detection of endometrial as compared to endocervical adenocarcinoma (P Pap smears is low. The specificity of Pap smears, for diagnosis of GCA, was found to be moderate. However, the overall sensitivity of Pap smears for the detection of GCA was low, though better for LBC as compared to conventional smears. PMID:27014363

  3. Flavonoids from Artemisia annua L. as Antioxidants and Their Potential Synergism with Artemisinin against Malaria and Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge F. S. Ferreira; Luthria, Devanand L.; Tomikazu Sasaki; Arne Heyerick

    2010-01-01

    Artemisia annua is currently the only commercial source of the sesquiterpene lactone artemisinin.Since artemisinin was discovered as the active component of A. annua in early 1970s, hundreds of papers have focused on the anti-parasitic effects of artemisinin and its semi-synthetic analogs dihydroartemisinin, artemether, arteether, and artesunate. Artemisinin per se has not been used in mainstream clinical practice due to its poor bioavailability when compared to its analogs. In the past decad...

  4. IDENTIFIKASI DAN PENETAPAN KADAR SENYAWA KUMARIN DALAM EKSTRAK METANOL Artemisia Annua L. SECARA KROMATOGRAFI LAPIS TIPIS - DENSITOMETRI

    OpenAIRE

    Sukmayati Alegantina; Ani Isnawati

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. Artemisia annua L. contain the active compounds include: terpenoids, flavonoids, kumarin, artemisinin acid, artennuin B, phenols, saponins, and fat. Kumarin and its derivatives have biological activity that can stimulate skin pigment, blood anticoagulation and can inhibit the effects of carcinogens. With this biological activity of kumarin, the research is done to ensure there is kumarin by identification and measure kumarin level which is contained in the Artemisia annua L. herb. T...

  5. Chemical Composition of Artemisia annua L. Leaves and Antioxidant Potential of Extracts as a Function of Extraction Solvents

    OpenAIRE

    Iqbal, Shahid; Younas, Umer; Chan, Kim Wei; Zia-Ul-Haq, Muhammad; Ismail, Maznah

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the chemical and nutritional composition of Artemisia annua leaves in addition to determination of antioxidant potential of their extracts prepared in different solvents. Chemical composition was determined by quantifying fat, protein, carbohydrate, fiber, tocopherol, phytate, and tannin contents. Extraction of A. annua leaves, for antioxidant potential evaluation, was carried out using five solvents of different polarities, i.e., hexane, chloroform, et...

  6. The jasmonate-responsive AaMYC2 transcription factor positively regulates artemisinin biosynthesis in Artemisia annua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Qian; Lu, Xu; Yan, Tingxiang; Fu, Xueqing; Lv, Zongyou; Zhang, Fangyuan; Pan, Qifang; Wang, Guofeng; Sun, Xiaofen; Tang, Kexuan

    2016-06-01

    The plant Artemisia annua is well known due to the production of artemisinin, a sesquiterpene lactone that is widely used in malaria treatment. Phytohormones play important roles in plant secondary metabolism, such as jasmonic acid (JA), which can induce artemisinin biosynthesis in A. annua. Nevertheless, the JA-inducing mechanism remains poorly understood. The expression of gene AaMYC2 was rapidly induced by JA and AaMYC2 binds the G-box-like motifs within the promoters of gene CYP71AV1 and DBR2, which are key structural genes in the artemisinin biosynthetic pathway. Overexpression of AaMYC2 in A. annua significantly activated the transcript levels of CYP71AV1 and DBR2, which resulted in an increased artemisinin content. By contrast, artemisinin content was reduced in the RNAi transgenic A. annua plants in which the expression of AaMYC2 was suppressed. Meanwhile, the RNAi transgenic A. annua plants showed lower sensitivity to methyl jasmonate treatment than the wild-type plants. These results demonstrate that AaMYC2 is a positive regulator of artemisinin biosynthesis and is of great value in genetic engineering of A. annua for increased artemisinin production. PMID:26864531

  7. IDENTIFIKASI DAN PENETAPAN KADAR SENYAWA KUMARIN DALAM EKSTRAK METANOL Artemisia Annua L. SECARA KROMATOGRAFI LAPIS TIPIS - DENSITOMETRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukmayati Alegantina

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Artemisia annua L. contain the active compounds include: terpenoids, flavonoids, kumarin, artemisinin acid, artennuin B, phenols, saponins, and fat. Kumarin and its derivatives have biological activity that can stimulate skin pigment, blood anticoagulation and can inhibit the effects of carcinogens. With this biological activity of kumarin, the research is done to ensure there is kumarin by identification and measure kumarin level which is contained in the Artemisia annua L. herb. The analysis methods include the extraction and fractionation. Identification and determination of level with Thin-Layer Chromatography (TLC using a Densitometer CS-9301 PC. From the result of TLC identification of kumarin standard known that Artemisia annua L extract contain kumarin compound which marked by a blue spot flouresense on standards and methanol extract of artemisia annua L. seeing under UV light at a wavelength of 366 nm with Rf value of standard and sample is 0.31, the measurement of kumarin spot with Densitometer known that kumarin concentration in the extract of Artemisia annua L. is 10.5 ul/ ml with 105% RecoveryKeywords: Artemisia annua L, kumarin, TLC-Densitometry

  8. A COMPARATIVE NUMERIC ANALYSIS OF THE SECRETORY TRICHOMES BELONGING TO THE FOLIAR LIMB IN SOME DROSERA SPECIES

    OpenAIRE

    IRINA STĂNESCU; GABRIELA VASILE

    2008-01-01

    The paper is focused on a comparative numeric analysis of the secretory pedicelate (tentacular) trichomes of the upper epidermis of the leaf in 16 Drosera species and of the sessile secretory trichomes belonging to both upper and lower epidermis in the same species. The bigger is the number of the secretory trichomes, in both epidermises, the more efficient is the plant in capturing and retaining different organisms. This way, the carnivorous plants can completely benefit by the nutritive com...

  9. Calcium promotes cadmium elimination as vaterite grains by tobacco trichomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaure, Marie-Pierre; Sarret, Géraldine; Harada, Emiko; Choi, Yong-Eui; Marcus, Matthew A.; Fakra, Sirine C.; Geoffroy, Nicolas; Pairis, Sébastien; Susini, Jean; Clemens, Stephan; Manceau, Alain

    2010-10-01

    In tobacco plants, elimination of Zn and Cd via the production of Ca-containing grains at the top of leaf hairs, called trichomes, is a potent detoxification mechanism. This study examines how Cd is incorporated in these biominerals, and how calcium growth supplement modifies their nature. Scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (SEM-EDX), microfocused X-ray diffraction (μ-XRD), and microfocused X-ray absorption near edge structure (μ-XANES) spectroscopy were used to image the morphology of the grains, identify the crystallized mineral phases, and speciate Cd, respectively. The mineralogy of the grains and chemical form of Cd varied with the amount of Ca. When tobacco plants were grown in a nutrient solution containing 25 μM Cd and low Ca supplement (Ca/Cd = 11 mol ratio), most of the grains were oblong-shaped and low-Cd-substituted calcite. When exposed to the same amount of Cd and high Ca supplement (Ca/Cd = 131 mol ratio), grains were more abundant and diverse in compositions, and in total more Cd was eliminated. Most grains in the high Ca/Cd experiment were round-shaped and composed predominantly of Cd-substituted vaterite, a usually metastable calcium carbonate polymorph, and subordinate calcite. Calcium oxalate and a Ca amorphous phase were detected occasionally in the two treatments, but were devoid of Cd. The biomineralization of cadmium and implications of results for Cd exposure of smokers and phytoremediation are discussed.

  10. Metabolic engineering of terpene biosynthesis in plants using a trichome-specific transcription factor MsYABBY5 from spearmint (Mentha spicata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Reddy, Vaishnavi Amarr; Panicker, Deepa; Mao, Hui-Zhu; Kumar, Nadimuthu; Rajan, Chakravarthy; Venkatesh, Prasanna Nori; Chua, Nam-Hai; Sarojam, Rajani

    2016-07-01

    In many aromatic plants including spearmint (Mentha spicata), the sites of secondary metabolite production are tiny specialized structures called peltate glandular trichomes (PGT). Having high commercial values, these secondary metabolites are exploited largely as flavours, fragrances and pharmaceuticals. But, knowledge about transcription factors (TFs) that regulate secondary metabolism in PGT remains elusive. Understanding the role of TFs in secondary metabolism pathway will aid in metabolic engineering for increased yield of secondary metabolites and also the development of new production techniques for valuable metabolites. Here, we isolated and functionally characterized a novel MsYABBY5 gene that is preferentially expressed in PGT of spearmint. We generated transgenic plants in which MsYABBY5 was either overexpressed or silenced using RNA interference (RNAi). Analysis of the transgenic lines showed that the reduced expression of MsYABBY5 led to increased levels of terpenes and that overexpression decreased terpene levels. Additionally, ectopic expression of MsYABBY5 in Ocimum basilicum and Nicotiana sylvestris decreased secondary metabolite production in them, suggesting that the encoded transcription factor is probably a repressor of secondary metabolism. PMID:26842602

  11. From shavenbaby to the naked valley: trichome formation as a model for evolutionary developmental biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Saad; Kittelmann, Sebastian; McGregor, Alistair P

    2015-01-01

    Microtrichia or trichomes are non-sensory actin protrusions produced by the epidermal cells of many insects. Studies of trichome formation in Drosophila have over the last 30 years provided key insights towards our understanding of gene regulation, gene regulatory networks (GRNs), development, the genotype to phenotype map, and the evolution of these processes. Here we review classic studies that have used trichome formation as a model to shed light on Drosophila development as well as recent research on the architecture of the GRN underlying trichome formation. This includes the findings that both small peptides and microRNAs play important roles in the regulation and evolution of this network. In addition, we review research on the evolution of trichome patterns that has provided novel insights into the function and architecture of cis-regulatory modules, and into the genetic basis of morphological change. We conclude that further research on these apparently simple and often functionally enigmatic structures will continue to provide new and important knowledge about development and evolution. PMID:25627718

  12. Glandular odontogenic cyst: Report of an unusual bilateral occurrence

    OpenAIRE

    Vikram S Amberkar; Abhishek Jahagirdar; B R Ahmed Mujib

    2011-01-01

    Glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC) is a recently recognized rare developmental odontogenic cyst having an aggressive behavior and accounting for 0.012% to 1.3% of all jaw cysts. GOC usually presents as a painless, slow-growing swelling that tends to affect the anterior part of the jaws. It chiefly occurs in the fourth and fifth decades of life and presents as an expansion of jaws with or without pain or paresthesia. Aggressive nature of the lesion has been reported, as supported by the fact tha...

  13. Botulinum toxin for treatment of glandular hypersecretory disorders.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Laing, T A

    2012-02-03

    SUMMARY: The use of botulinum toxin to treat disorders of the salivary glands is increasing in popularity in recent years. Recent reports of the use of botulinum toxin in glandular hypersecretion suggest overall favourable results with minimal side-effects. However, few randomised clinical trials means that data are limited with respect to candidate suitability, treatment dosages, frequency and duration of treatment. We report a selection of such cases from our own department managed with botulinum toxin and review the current data on use of the toxin to treat salivary gland disorders such as Frey\\'s syndrome, excessive salivation (sialorrhoea), focal and general hyperhidrosis, excessive lacrimation and chronic rhinitis.

  14. Isolation and characterization of culturable endophytic actinobacteria associated with Artemisia annua L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Zhao, Guo-Zhen; Huang, Hai-Yu; Qin, Sheng; Zhu, Wen-Yong; Zhao, Li-Xing; Xu, Li-Hua; Zhang, Si; Li, Wen-Jun; Strobel, Gary

    2012-03-01

    Endophytic actinobacteria isolated from Artemisia annua were characterized and evaluated for their bioactivities. A total of 228 isolates representing at least 19 different genera of actinobacteria were obtained and several of them seemed to be novel taxa. An evaluation of antimicrobial activity showed that more isolates possessed activity towards plant pathogens than activity against other pathogenic bacteria or yeasts. High frequencies of PCR amplification were obtained for type I polyketide synthases (PKS-I, 21.1%), type II polyketide synthases (PKS-II, 45.2%) and nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS, 32.5%). The results of herbicidal activity screening indicated that 19 out of 117 samples of fermentation broths completely inhibited the germination of Echinochloa crusgalli. This study indicated that endophytic actinobacteria associated with A. annua are abundant and have potentially beneficial and diverse bioactivities which should be pursued for their biotechnical promise. PMID:22038129

  15. Isolation and identification of a new flavonoid glycoside from Carrichtera annua L. seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Shahat, Abdelaaty A.; Abdelshafeek, Khaled A.; Husseiny, Husseiny A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Flavonoids are a major group of constituents and are assumed to be among the beneficial components. Recently, they have also received considerable interest as components of foodstuffs and nutraceuticals because of their antioxidant and anticancer properties. Materials and Methods: About 500 g of air-dried powdered seeds of C. annua were defatted seeds and extracted with 70% methanol. The combined methanol extract was partitioned with chloroform and n-butanol. The butanol extract w...

  16. Optimization of total RNA isolation method from the aromatic medicinal plant Artemisia annua L.

    OpenAIRE

    Suganthi Appalasamy; Ning Shu Ping; Arvind Bhatt; Ahmad Sofiman Othman; Nad-Ali Babaeian Jelodar; Chan Lai Keng

    2012-01-01

    This paper is the first report on the development of a protocol that allows rapid and simplified extraction of total RNA from Artemisia annua L., an aromatic medicinal plant. This innovative protocol ensures a consistently high quantity and good quality of total RNA without any contamination of polyphenols, polysaccharides and proteins. The total RNA obtained is also free of fungal RNA even when extracted from fungal infested plants. The extraction buffer used in the proposed modified protoco...

  17. Anti-adipogenic effect of Artemisia annua in diet-induced-obesity mice model

    OpenAIRE

    Baek, Hye Kyung; Shim, Hyeji; Lim, Hyunmook; Shim, Minju; Kim, Chul-Kyu; Park, Sang-Kyu; Lee, Yong Seok; Song, Ki-Duk; Kim, Sung-Jo; Yi, Sun Shin

    2015-01-01

    Obesity has increased continuously in western countries during the last several decades and recently become a problem in developing countries. Currently, anti-obesity drugs originating from natural products are being investigated for their potential to overcome adverse effects associated with chemical drugs. Artemisinic acid, which was isolated from the well-known anti-malaria herb Artemisia annua (AA) L., was recently shown to possess anti-adipogenic effects in vitro. However, the anti-adipo...

  18. Molecular cloning and characterization of a flavanone 3-Hydroxylase gene from Artemisia annua L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Shuo; Tian, Na; Long, Jinhua; Chen, Yuhong; Qin, Yu; Feng, Jinyu; Xiao, Wenjun; Liu, Shuoqian

    2016-08-01

    Flavonoids were found to synergize anti-malaria and anti-cancer compounds in Artemisia annua, a very important economic crop in China. In order to discover the regulation mechanism of flavonoids in Artemisia annua, the full length cDNA of flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H) were isolated from Artemisia annua for the first time by using RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends). The completed open read frame of AaF3H was 1095 bp and it encoded a 364-amino acid protein with a predicted molecular mass of 41.18 kDa and a pI of 5.67. The recombinant protein of AaF3H was expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3) as His-tagged protein, purified by Ni-NTA agrose affinity chromatography, and functionally characterized in vitro. The results showed that the His-tagged protein (AaF3H) catalyzed naringenin to dihydrokaempferol in the present of Fe(2+). The Km for naringenin was 218.03 μM. The optimum pH for AaF3H reaction was determined to be pH 8.5, and the optimum temperature was determined to be 35 °C. The AaF3H transcripts were found to be accumulated in the cultivar with higher level of flavonoids than that with lower level of flavonoids, which implied that AaF3H was a potential target for regulation of flavonoids biosynthesis in Artemisia annua through metabolic engineering. PMID:27070290

  19. New method for generating breast models featuring glandular tissue spatial distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paixão, L.; Oliveira, B. B.; Oliveira, M. A.; Teixeira, M. H. A.; Fonseca, T. C. F.; Nogueira, M. S.

    2016-02-01

    Mammography is the main radiographic technique used for breast imaging. A major concern with mammographic imaging is the risk of radiation-induced breast cancer due to the high sensitivity of breast tissue. The mean glandular dose (DG) is the dosimetric quantity widely accepted to characterize the risk of radiation induced cancer. Previous studies have concluded that DG depends not only on the breast glandular content but also on the spatial distribution of glandular tissue within the breast. In this work, a new method for generating computational breast models featuring skin composition and glandular tissue distribution from patients undergoing digital mammography is proposed. Such models allow a more accurate way of calculating individualized breast glandular doses taking into consideration the glandular tissue fraction. Sixteen breast models of four patients with different glandularity breasts were simulated and the results were compared with those obtained from recommended DG conversion factors. The results show that the internationally recommended conversion factors may be overestimating the mean glandular dose to less dense breasts and underestimating the mean glandular dose for denser breasts. The methodology described in this work constitutes a powerful tool for breast dosimetry, especially for risk studies.

  20. Glandular areas associated with the male genitalia in Triatoma rubrofasciata (Triatominae, Reduviidae, Hemiptera and other Reduviidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Weirauch

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, glandular areas associated with the phallus in Triatoma rubrofasciata are described and illustrated for the first time. The glandular areas lie in the membrane surrounding the articulatory apparatus. In order to unambiguously define the locality of the respective glandular areas, some features of the pygophore-phallus connection are redescribed. A possible functional context of the gland secretions is discussed. A preliminary study of several other Reduviidae implies that the described glandular areas occur in a wider range of taxa in this group.

  1. Sexual dimorphism in intra- and interspecific competitive ability of the dioecious herb Mercurialis annua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Vilas, J; Turner, A; Pannell, J R

    2011-01-01

    Males and females of dioecious plant species often show different responses to competition with individuals of the same or opposite gender, but almost no data are available on the outcome of competition with members of other species. Here, we show that male and female individuals of the wind-pollinated herb Mercurialis annua are sexually dimorphic in both their intraspecific and interspecific competitive abilities. In a controlled experiment, we found that both sexes of M. annua were negatively affected by interspecific competition, but the sensitivity of males and females depended on the identity of their competitor species, with females tending to suppress the aboveground growth of competitor species more than males. Further, we found that intrasexual and intersexual competition affected the aboveground growth of males but not that of females: only males showed a significant reduction in growth when growing with conspecific competitors (male or female). We discuss our results with reference to related studies that suggest that males and females of M. annua have different resource requirements for reproduction, which in turn affect their competitive abilities. PMID:21186695

  2. Protective capacity of Artemisia annua as a potent antioxidant remedy against free radical damage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter Nkachukwu Chukwurah; Ebiamadon Andi Brisibe; Aniefiok Ndubuisi Osuagwu; Tebekeme Okoko

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant capacity of four leaf-derived solvent extracts of Artemisiaannua Methods: A. annua leaves were extracted with four solvents (absolute ethanol, absolute methanol, 70% ethanol and 70% methanol), and extracts obtained studied by five complementaryin vitro antioxidant test systems using ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and rutin as standard references. Results: The extracts remarkably inhibited lipid peroxidation (79.81%-86.70%), and erythrocyte haemolysis (40.02%-49.91%). Their IC50 values for hydroxyl, nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging activities ranged from 2.39-3.81 mg/mL (superior to the standards), 107.24-144.49 µg/mL and 28.53-53.20 µg/mL, respectively. 70% alcohol extracts generally showed better antioxidant activity than absolute alcohol extracts. (A. annua), a medicinal plant widely touted for its vast phyto-therapeutic potential. Conclusions: The results indicate that A. annua leaf extracts have potent antioxidant activities that would have beneficial effect on human health, and aqueous organic solvents are superior to the absolute counterparts in yielding extracts with better antioxidant potential.

  3. In vitro antibacterial activity of Artemisia annua Linn. growing in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Prakash

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The crude extracts obtained from the aerial parts of Artemisia annua Linn. (Asteraceae were investigated for their antibacterial activity by using agar well diffusion assays against five Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus cereus, and Micrococcus luteus and three Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Of the various extracts, the methanol extract showed the strongest activity against most bacteria used in this study. The most sensitive organism to the extracts was M. luteus. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values were determined by the tube dilution method. The results showed that S. aureus required ~0.25 mg/mL of the methanol extract for inhibition. The HPTLC fingerprint of the methanol extract after derivatization with anisaldehyde sulphuric acid reagent showed a maximum number of separated components. TLC bioautography of the methanol extract showed that the area of inhibition around compounds differentiated at R f = 0.32, R f = 0.42, R f = 0.46, R f = 0.77, and R f = 0.87 against S. aureus. This is the first report of the antibacterial activity of A. annua against food-borne bacteria. The results indicated that aerial parts of A. annua might be potential sources of new antibacterial agents.

  4. Artemisinin evaluation in Romanian Artemisia annua wild plants using a new HPLC/MS method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanescu, B; Vlase, L; Corciova, A; Lazar, M I

    2011-04-01

    Artemisinin, a sesquiterpene lactone from Artemisia annua L., has received considerable attention in the last few decades as a potent antimalarial drug. Artemisinin has rather low toxicity; it is effective against drug-resistant Plasmodium species and against cerebral malaria. This study reports the development of a rapid and sensitive assay for the quantification of artemisinin in A. annua by reversed phase HPLC/MS. In the selected optimal experimental conditions, artemisinin exhibited a well-defined chromatographic peak with a retention time of 2 ± 0.2 min. The chromatographic signal shows a linear dependence with artemisinin concentration, enabling the use of this signal for artemisinin quantification according to the following regression equation: y = 2665.40x - 14697.61. The correlation coefficient (R(2)) was 0.9989. For every concentration within the range of the standard curve (0.1-2 µg mL(-1)), accuracy was between 95 and 104%. Artemisinin content in Romanian A. annua wild plants varies between 0.17 and 0.21% (dry weight basis). PMID:21360406

  5. Comparison of five major trichome regulatory genes in Brassica villosa with orthologues within the Brassicaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naghabushana K Nayidu

    Full Text Available Coding sequences for major trichome regulatory genes, including the positive regulators GLABRA 1(GL1, GLABRA 2 (GL2, ENHANCER OF GLABRA 3 (EGL3, and TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA 1 (TTG1 and the negative regulator TRIPTYCHON (TRY, were cloned from wild Brassica villosa, which is characterized by dense trichome coverage over most of the plant. Transcript (FPKM levels from RNA sequencing indicated much higher expression of the GL2 and TTG1 regulatory genes in B. villosa leaves compared with expression levels of GL1 and EGL3 genes in either B. villosa or the reference genome species, glabrous B. oleracea; however, cotyledon TTG1 expression was high in both species. RNA sequencing and Q-PCR also revealed an unusual expression pattern for the negative regulators TRY and CPC, which were much more highly expressed in trichome-rich B. villosa leaves than in glabrous B. oleracea leaves and in glabrous cotyledons from both species. The B. villosa TRY expression pattern also contrasted with TRY expression patterns in two diploid Brassica species, and with the Arabidopsis model for expression of negative regulators of trichome development. Further unique sequence polymorphisms, protein characteristics, and gene evolution studies highlighted specific amino acids in GL1 and GL2 coding sequences that distinguished glabrous species from hairy species and several variants that were specific for each B. villosa gene. Positive selection was observed for GL1 between hairy and non-hairy plants, and as expected the origin of the four expressed positive trichome regulatory genes in B. villosa was predicted to be from B. oleracea. In particular the unpredicted expression patterns for TRY and CPC in B. villosa suggest additional characterization is needed to determine the function of the expanded families of trichome regulatory genes in more complex polyploid species within the Brassicaceae.

  6. Transcriptome profile analysis of cell proliferation molecular processes during multicellular trichome formation induced by tomato Wov gene in tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changxian Yang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Trichomes, developing from the epidermis of nearly all terrestrial plants, provide good protection from environmental stress. Regulation of trichomes in Rosids has been well characterized. However, little is known about the cell proliferation molecular processes during multicellular trichome formation in Asterids. Ectopic expression of Wov in tobacco and potato induces much more trichome formation than wild type. To gain new insights into the underlying mechanisms during the processes of these trichomes formation, RNA-seq was employed for the young primary leaf tissues in Wov transgenic and wild-type tobacco. We identified differentially expressed genes which are related to various biological processes and molecular functions. Here, we provide details of experimental methods, RNA-seq data (available at Gene Expression Omnibus database under GSE72310. Our data provide new insight into the molecular processes controlling multicellular formation in tobacco.

  7. Engineering Isoprenoid Biosynthesis in Artemisia annua L. for the Production of Taxadiene: A Key Intermediate of Taxol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiya Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Taxadiene is the first committed precursor to paclitaxel, marketed as Taxol, arguably the most important anticancer agent against ovarian and breast cancer. In Taxus, taxadiene is directly synthesized from geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP that is the common precursor for diterpenoids and is found in most plants and microbes. In this study, Artemisia annua L., a Chinese medicinal herb that grows fast and is rich in terpenoids, was used as a genetic engineering host to produce taxadiene. The TXS (taxadiene synthase gene, cloned from Taxus and inserted into pCAMBIA1304, was transformed into Artemisia annua L. using the Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated method. Thirty independent transgenic plants were obtained, and GC-MS analysis was used to confirm that taxadiene was produced and accumulated up to 129.7 μg/g dry mass. However, the high expression of TXS did not affect plant growth or photosynthesis in transgenic Artemisia annua L. It is notable that artemisinin is produced and stored in leaves and most taxadiene accumulated in the stem of transgenic Artemisia annua L., suggesting a new way to produce two important compounds in one transgenic plant: leaves for artemisinin and stem for taxadiene. Overall, this study demonstrates that genetic engineering of the taxane biosynthetic pathway in Artemisia annua L. for the production of taxadiene is feasible.

  8. Glandular dose in breast tomosynthesis examinations: Preliminary study with a sample of patients; Dosis glandular en examenes de tomosintesis de mama: estudio preliminar con una muestra de pacientes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo, M.; Chevalier, M.; Calzado, A.; Valverde, J.

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the mean glandular dose administered to a group of patients with a tomography system (Selenia Dimensions) service installed on a large hospital in which routine tests are done and screening. (Author)

  9. Population Responses of Potato Leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) to Insecticide in Glandular-Haired and Non-glandular-Haired Alfalfa Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulc, R Mark; McCormick, John S; Hammond, Ronald B; Miller, David J

    2014-12-01

    Conflicting results have been reported on the ability of glandular-haired alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) cultivars to reduce potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae Harris, population abundance in field environments. We measured potato leafhopper adult and nymph abundance and yield responses in a cultivar selected for high potato leafhopper resistance ('54H91') and in a non-glandular-haired susceptible cultivar ('54V54') with and without insecticide treatment across 3 yr. Treatments included no insecticide and insecticide applied either early or late in each summer growth cycle. Date × cultivar × treatment interactions were found for potato leafhopper population abundance. In the absence of insecticides, total potato leafhopper abundance (adults + nymphs per sweep) was lower in 54H91 than in 54V54 on 85% of sampling dates; cultivar differences were especially evident as potato leafhopper abundance peaked. Insecticide treatment reduced potato leafhopper populations in both cultivars, but populations recovered and often exceeded the normal action threshold in both cultivars within 2-3 wk of insecticide application. Yield gain from early insecticide treatment of 54V54 was >400 kg/ha in 11 of 14 summer harvests, whereas in 54H91 the yield gain was potato leafhopper resistance significantly suppress potato leafhopper adult and nymph abundance, reduce yield losses in the absence of insecticides, and have potential within an integrated pest management strategy to reduce insecticide use in alfalfa production systems. PMID:26470072

  10. Average glandular dose in digital mammography and breast tomosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine the average glandular dose (AGD) in digital full-field mammography (2 D imaging mode) and in breast tomosynthesis (3 D imaging mode). Materials and Methods: Using the method described by Boone, the AGD was calculated from the exposure parameters of 2247 conventional 2 D mammograms and 984 mammograms in 3 D imaging mode of 641 patients examined with the digital mammographic system Hologic Selenia Dimensions. The breast glandular tissue content was estimated by the Hologic R2 Quantra automated volumetric breast density measurement tool for each patient from right craniocaudal (RCC) and left craniocaudal (LCC) images in 2 D imaging mode. Results: The mean compressed breast thickness (CBT) was 52.7 mm for craniocaudal (CC) and 56.0 mm for mediolateral oblique (MLO) views. The mean percentage of breast glandular tissue content was 18.0 % and 17.4 % for RCC and LCC projections, respectively. The mean AGD values in 2 D imaging mode per exposure for the standard breast were 1.57 mGy and 1.66 mGy, while the mean AGD values after correction for real breast composition were 1.82 mGy and 1.94 mGy for CC and MLO views, respectively. The mean AGD values in 3 D imaging mode per exposure for the standard breast were 2.19 mGy and 2.29 mGy, while the mean AGD values after correction for the real breast composition were 2.53 mGy and 2.63 mGy for CC and MLO views, respectively. No significant relationship was found between the AGD and CBT in 2 D imaging mode and a good correlation coefficient of 0.98 in 3 D imaging mode. Conclusion: In this study the mean calculated AGD per exposure in 3 D imaging mode was on average 34 % higher than for 2 D imaging mode for patients examined with the same CBT.

  11. Average glandular dose in digital mammography and breast tomosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olgar, T. [Ankara Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Engineering Physics; Universitaetsklinikum Leipzig AoeR (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Kahn, T.; Gosch, D. [Universitaetsklinikum Leipzig AoeR (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: To determine the average glandular dose (AGD) in digital full-field mammography (2 D imaging mode) and in breast tomosynthesis (3 D imaging mode). Materials and Methods: Using the method described by Boone, the AGD was calculated from the exposure parameters of 2247 conventional 2 D mammograms and 984 mammograms in 3 D imaging mode of 641 patients examined with the digital mammographic system Hologic Selenia Dimensions. The breast glandular tissue content was estimated by the Hologic R2 Quantra automated volumetric breast density measurement tool for each patient from right craniocaudal (RCC) and left craniocaudal (LCC) images in 2 D imaging mode. Results: The mean compressed breast thickness (CBT) was 52.7 mm for craniocaudal (CC) and 56.0 mm for mediolateral oblique (MLO) views. The mean percentage of breast glandular tissue content was 18.0 % and 17.4 % for RCC and LCC projections, respectively. The mean AGD values in 2 D imaging mode per exposure for the standard breast were 1.57 mGy and 1.66 mGy, while the mean AGD values after correction for real breast composition were 1.82 mGy and 1.94 mGy for CC and MLO views, respectively. The mean AGD values in 3 D imaging mode per exposure for the standard breast were 2.19 mGy and 2.29 mGy, while the mean AGD values after correction for the real breast composition were 2.53 mGy and 2.63 mGy for CC and MLO views, respectively. No significant relationship was found between the AGD and CBT in 2 D imaging mode and a good correlation coefficient of 0.98 in 3 D imaging mode. Conclusion: In this study the mean calculated AGD per exposure in 3 D imaging mode was on average 34 % higher than for 2 D imaging mode for patients examined with the same CBT.

  12. GLANDULAR HAIRS, NON-GLANDULAR HAIRS, AND ESSENTIAL OILS IN THE WINTER AND SUMMER LEAVES OF THE SEASONALLY DIMORPHIC THYMUS SIBTHORPII (LAMIACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOSABALIDIS ARTEMIOS Michael

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The structure and function of the glandular and non-glandular hairs, and also the yield and chemical composition of the essential oils in the winter and summer leaves of the seasonally dimorphic plant Thymus sibthorpii were studied. Glandular hairs comprise peltate hairs only (capitate hairs are missing. Peltate hairs are the sites of essential oil biosynthesis. They are more numerous in the winter leaves than in the summer leaves and consist of a 12-celled secretory head, a unicellular stalk, and an also unicellular epidermal foot. The essential oil of the winter leaves is mainly composed of linalool (42.4%, thymol (7.0%, p-cymene (5.8%, β-caryophyllene (5.7%, borneol (5.6%, and terpinen-4-ol (4.8%. The oil of the summer leaves is principally constituted of p-cymene (25.0%, linalool (19.1%, terpinen-4-ol (8.5% and borneol (8.3%. Non-glandular hairs proliferate in the summer leaves. They are conical in shape and consist of one basal epidermal cell and one apical pointed cell. Glandular and non-glandular hairs are implicated in the chemical and mechanical defense of the plant, respectively.

  13. Handbook of glandular tissue doses in mammography. Final report March 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Handbook contains data from which absorbed dose to glandular tissue in the breast (glandular tissue dose) can be estimated for mammographic procedures. The breast (excluding the skin) is a composite of adipose (i.e., fatty) and glandular (i.e., other soft) tissues. The glandular tissue is the tissue considered at risk for breast cancer. The intent of the Handbook is to permit the user to compute glandular tissue dose for various techniques in mammography as a function of breast compression, breast size, breast composition, and the quality of the x-ray beam. The method used to compute most of the basic data was a radiation transport calculation using a specialized version of a computer code developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Warner, 1973). The results of the calculations were then converted into the Handbook entries, using the specific characteristics of current mammographic techniques. Additional data are reproduced from previous work of others

  14. Additional factors for the estimation of mean glandular breast dose using the UK mammography dosimetry protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The UK and European protocols for mammographic dosimetry use conversion factors that relate incident air kerma to the mean glandular dose (MGD) within the breast. The conversion factors currently used were obtained by computer simulation of a model breast with a composition of 50% adipose and 50% glandular tissues by weight (50% glandularity). Relative conversion factors have been calculated which allow the extension of the protocols to breasts of varying glandularity and for a wider range of mammographic x-ray spectra. The data have also been extended to breasts of a compressed thickness of 11 cm. To facilitate the calculation of MGD in patient surveys, typical breast glandularities are tabulated for women in the age ranges 40-49 and 50-64 years, and for breasts in the thickness range 2-11 cm. In addition, tables of equivalent thickness of polymethyl methacrylate have been provided to allow the simulation for dosimetric purposes of typical breasts of various thicknesses. (author)

  15. Estimation of mean glandular dose for mammography of augmented breasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckett, J. R.; Kotre, C. J.

    2000-11-01

    The standard quantity used to relate breast surface exposure to radiation risk is the mean dose received by the radiation sensitive tissue contained within the female breast, the mean glandular dose (MGD). At present, little is known about the MGD received by women with breast implants as there is no technique available to facilitate its calculation. The present work has involved modification of the conventional method for MGD estimation to make it applicable to women with augmented breasts. The technique was used to calculate MGDs for a cohort of 80 women with breast implants, which were compared with similar data calculated for a total of 1258 non-augmented women. Little difference was found in median MGD at low compressed breast thickness. At high breast thickness, however, the MGDs received by women with augmented breasts were found to be considerably lower than those relating to their non-augmented counterparts.

  16. Estimation of mean glandular dose for mammography of augmented breasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The standard quantity used to relate breast surface exposure to radiation risk is the mean dose received by the radiation sensitive tissue contained within the female breast, the mean glandular dose (MGD). At present, little is known about the MGD received by women with breast implants as there is no technique available to facilitate its calculation. The present work has involved modification of the conventional method for MGD estimation to make it applicable to women with augmented breasts. The technique was used to calculate MGDs for a cohort of 80 women with breast implants, which were compared with similar data calculated for a total of 1258 non-augmented women. Little difference was found in median MGD at low compressed breast thickness. At high breast thickness, however, the MGDs received by women with augmented breasts were found to be considerably lower than those relating to their non-augmented counterparts. (author)

  17. The Effect of Different Doses of Composite Artemisia annua Extract on Ruminal Fermentation of Dairy Goats in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li-fang; LU De-xun; DING Guo-he; MA Yan-fen

    2011-01-01

    An in vitro study was conducted to determine the effect of different doses of Composite Artemisia annua extract (CAE) on rumen microbial fermentation.CAE was a crude extract from the stem and leaves of Composite Artemisia annua extracted with ethanol.The doses of CAE supplementation with frozen-dry form were:control (no addition),3,30,300 and 3 000 mg/L mixed culture fluid,respectively.Rumen fluid was taken from 3ruminally fistulated dairy goats fed a 50% forage to 50% mixed concentrate ratio diet.The rumen contents were thoroughly mixed and strained through 4 layers of cheese-cloth.

  18. The costs of anti-herbivore defense traits in agricultural crop plants: a case study involving leafhoppers and trichomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Ian; Dively, Galen P; Denno, Robert F

    2009-06-01

    The expression of plant defenses is thought to entail costs (e.g., the allocation of resources away from growth or reproduction) that constrain the evolution of plant genotypes maximally defended against herbivores. Although central to the ecological theory underlying plant-insect interactions at large, the concept of defense costs is particularly evident in agricultural crops where plants may be under simultaneous selection for enhanced growth and/or reproduction (i.e., yield) and anti-herbivore resistance traits that deter pests. In this study we investigate the role of trichomes as a resistance mechanism against a sap-feeding insect (the leafhopper, Empoasca fabae) on potato. Natural variation in trichome density among 17 potato cultivars was used to test for the role of trichomes as a putative defense against leafhoppers, and evidence of costs in trichome expression. Two different types of costs were explored: (1) allocation costs (i.e., the relationship between trichomes and yield), and (2) costs involving trade-offs with alternative defense strategies (e.g., tolerance). Although leafhopper abundance did not decrease as trichome density increased, leafhopper injury to potato plants (foliar necrosis) was negatively correlated with trichome density. As a result, the per capita effect of leafhopper adults and nymphs on foliar damage was lower on plants with high trichome densities. We found no evidence, however, for costs of expressing this resistance trait; trichomes were not correlated with either potato yield or tolerance to herbivory. Thus, selection for multiple plant defenses to alleviate the impact of pests in agronomic crops may indeed be possible without inherent losses in plant yield. PMID:19544730

  19. In vitro activity of Artemisia annua L (Asteraceae extracts against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus Atividade in vitro de extratos de Artemisia annua L (Asteraceae sobre Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina de Souza Chagas

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The activity of plant extracts on parasites may indicate groups of substances that are potentially useful for controlling Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus. The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro action of Artemisia annua extracts on this tick. The concentrations of the sesquiterpene lactones artemisinin and deoxyartemisinin present in plant extracts were quantified via high-performance liquid chromatography. Four extracts produced from the concentrated crude extract (CCE were evaluated on larvae using the impregnated paper method, with readings after 24 hours of incubation. The engorged females were immersed in the CCE and in its four derived extracts for five minutes, with incubation for subsequent analysis of biological parameters. The extracts were not effective on the larvae at the concentrations tested (3.1 to 50 mg.mL-1. The CCE showed greater efficacy on engorged females (EC50 of 130.6 mg.mL-1 and EC90 of 302.9 mg.mL-1 than did the derived extracts. These results tend to confirm that the action of artemisinin on engorged females of R.(B. microplus is conditional to their blood intake. In this case, in vitro methods would be inadequate for effective evaluation of the action of A. annua on R. (B. microplus.A atividade de extratos vegetais sobre parasitas pode indicar grupos de substâncias de uso potencial no controle de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus. O objetivo do presente estudo foi investigar a ação in vitro de extratos de Artemisia annua sobre esta espécie. A concentração das lactonas sesquiterpênicas artemisinina e deoxiartemisinina presentes nos extratos vegetais, foi quantificada via cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência. Quatro extratos produzidos a partir do extrato bruto concentrado (EBC foram avaliados sobre larvas pela metodologia do papel impregnado, com leitura após 24 horas de incubação. As fêmeas ingurgitadas foram imersas por cinco minutos no EBC e nos seus quatro extratos

  20. Genetic structure along a gaseous organic pollution gradient: a case study with Poa annua L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Xiaoyong; Li Ning; Shen Lang; Li Yuanyuan

    2003-08-01

    Genetic composition of Poa annua populations showed clinal change along an organic pollution gradient. - The population genetic composition of Poa annua L. was studied by starch electrophoresis along a transect running NE from an organic reagents factory at Shanghai, China. Five enzyme systems were stained. We have reached the following preliminary conclusions: (1) Organic pollution has dramatically changed genotypic frequencies at some loci of Poa annua populations. At polluted sites, significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were observed on loci Sod-1 and Me due to the excess of heterozygote. Especially in the two nearest sites to pollution source, all the individuals were heterozygous at locus Sod-1. The data suggests that heterozygotes were more tolerant to organic pollution than homozygotes, indicating the fitness superiority of heterozygotes. (2) A tendency towards clinal changes of allele frequencies was found at some polymorphic loci. Frequencies of the common alleles at loci Sod-1, Me and Fe-1 increased as the distance to the pollution source increased. (3) The effective number of alleles per locus, and the observed and expected heterozygosity were much higher in the pollution series than in the clear control site (Botanic Park population), but genetic multiplicity (number of alleles per locus) was lower than for the control. (4) Most genetic variability was found within populations, and only 2.56% were among populations of the polluted series. However, 9.48% of the total genetic variation occurred among populations when including the Botanic Park population. The genetic identity between populations of the pollution series (0.9869-1.0000, mean 0.9941) was higher than those between the pollution series and the Botanic Park population. UPGMA divided the five populations into two groups. One contained the four polluted populations, and the other only contained the Botanic Park population.

  1. Breast Glandularity in Malaysian Women from a Full-Field Digital Mammography System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is undertaken to estimate breast glandularity in Malaysian women from a Full-Field Digital mammography System. This study involved 223 women (Malay=100;Chinese=101 and Indian=22) underwent voluntary screening mammography at Breast Centre, International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM Breast Centre) for the first quarter of year 2009. Those are women aged between 31 to 69 years old (median age, 49 years). Data on miliampere-seconds, kilo voltage and compressed breast thickness for each cranio caudal view are used to estimate breast glandularity for an individual breast. Breast glandularity is calculated using the fitted equation reported earlier. The difference in breast glandularity among ethnic groups was tested for significance using the nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test. The average breast glandularity estimated in our study, using FFDM system is 52.94±27.63 %. No significant difference was seen in breast glandularity among the ethnic groups (p>0.05, Kruskan Wallis test). Breast glandularity decrease as age increases, up to 60 years old. (author)

  2. FORTRAN Code for Glandular Dose Calculation in Mammography Using Sobol-Wu Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mowlavi A A

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Accurate computation of the radiation dose to the breast is essential to mammography. Various the thicknesses of breast, the composition of the breast tissue and other variables affect the optimal breast dose. Furthermore, the glandular fraction, which refers to the composition of the breasts, as partitioned between radiation-sensitive glandular tissue and the adipose tissue, also has an effect on this calculation. Fatty or fibrous breasts would have a lower value for the glandular fraction than dense breasts. Breast tissue composed of half glandular and half adipose tissue would have a glandular fraction in between that of fatty and dense breasts. Therefore, the use of a computational code for average glandular dose calculation in mammography is a more effective means of estimating the dose of radiation, and is accurate and fast. Methods: In the present work, the Sobol-Wu beam quality parameters are used to write a FORTRAN code for glandular dose calculation in molybdenum anode-molybdenum filter (Mo-Mo, molybdenum anode-rhodium filter (Mo-Rh and rhodium anode-rhodium filter (Rh-Rh target-filter combinations in mammograms. The input parameters of code are: tube voltage in kV, half-value layer (HVL of the incident x-ray spectrum in mm, breast thickness in cm (d, and glandular tissue fraction (g. Results: The average glandular dose (AGD variation against the voltage of the mammogram X-ray tube for d = 4 cm, HVL = 0.34 mm Al and g=0.5 for the three filter-target combinations, as well as its variation against the glandular fraction of breast tissue for kV=25, HVL=0.34, and d=4 cm has been calculated. The results related to the average glandular absorbed dose variation against HVL for kV = 28, d=4 cm and g= 0.6 are also presented. The results of this code are in good agreement with those previously reported in the literature. Conclusion: The code developed in this study calculates the glandular dose quickly, and it is complete and

  3. Breast dose in mammography is about 30% lower when realistic heterogeneous glandular distributions are considered

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Current dosimetry methods in mammography assume that the breast is comprised of a homogeneous mixture of glandular and adipose tissues. Three-dimensional (3D) dedicated breast CT (bCT) data sets were used previously to assess the complex anatomical structure within the breast, characterizing the statistical distribution of glandular tissue in the breast. The purpose of this work was to investigate the effect of bCT-derived heterogeneous glandular distributions on dosimetry in mammography. Methods: bCT-derived breast diameters, volumes, and 3D fibroglandular distributions were used to design realistic compressed breast models comprised of heterogeneous distributions of glandular tissue. The bCT-derived glandular distributions were fit to biGaussian functions and used as probability density maps to assign the density distributions within compressed breast models. The MCNPX 2.6.0 Monte Carlo code was used to estimate monoenergetic normalized mean glandular dose “DgN(E)” values in mammography geometry. The DgN(E) values were then weighted by typical mammography x-ray spectra to determine polyenergetic DgN (pDgN) coefficients for heterogeneous (pDgNhetero) and homogeneous (pDgNhomo) cases. The dependence of estimated pDgN values on phantom size, volumetric glandular fraction (VGF), x-ray technique factors, and location of the heterogeneous glandular distributions was investigated. Results: The pDgNhetero coefficients were on average 35.3% (SD, 4.1) and 24.2% (SD, 3.0) lower than the pDgNhomo coefficients for the Mo–Mo and W–Rh x-ray spectra, respectively, across all phantom sizes and VGFs when the glandular distributions were centered within the breast phantom in the coronal plane. At constant breast size, increasing VGF from 7.3% to 19.1% lead to a reduction in pDgNhetero relative to pDgNhomo of 23.6%–27.4% for a W–Rh spectrum. Displacement of the glandular distribution, at a distance equal to 10% of the compressed breast width in the superior and

  4. Breast dose in mammography is about 30% lower when realistic heterogeneous glandular distributions are considered

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, Andrew M., E-mail: amhern@ucdavis.edu [Biomedical Engineering Graduate Group, University of California Davis, Sacramento, California 95817 (United States); Seibert, J. Anthony; Boone, John M. [Departments of Radiology and Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Engineering Graduate Group, University of California Davis, Sacramento, California 95817 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: Current dosimetry methods in mammography assume that the breast is comprised of a homogeneous mixture of glandular and adipose tissues. Three-dimensional (3D) dedicated breast CT (bCT) data sets were used previously to assess the complex anatomical structure within the breast, characterizing the statistical distribution of glandular tissue in the breast. The purpose of this work was to investigate the effect of bCT-derived heterogeneous glandular distributions on dosimetry in mammography. Methods: bCT-derived breast diameters, volumes, and 3D fibroglandular distributions were used to design realistic compressed breast models comprised of heterogeneous distributions of glandular tissue. The bCT-derived glandular distributions were fit to biGaussian functions and used as probability density maps to assign the density distributions within compressed breast models. The MCNPX 2.6.0 Monte Carlo code was used to estimate monoenergetic normalized mean glandular dose “DgN(E)” values in mammography geometry. The DgN(E) values were then weighted by typical mammography x-ray spectra to determine polyenergetic DgN (pDgN) coefficients for heterogeneous (pDgN{sub hetero}) and homogeneous (pDgN{sub homo}) cases. The dependence of estimated pDgN values on phantom size, volumetric glandular fraction (VGF), x-ray technique factors, and location of the heterogeneous glandular distributions was investigated. Results: The pDgN{sub hetero} coefficients were on average 35.3% (SD, 4.1) and 24.2% (SD, 3.0) lower than the pDgN{sub homo} coefficients for the Mo–Mo and W–Rh x-ray spectra, respectively, across all phantom sizes and VGFs when the glandular distributions were centered within the breast phantom in the coronal plane. At constant breast size, increasing VGF from 7.3% to 19.1% lead to a reduction in pDgN{sub hetero} relative to pDgN{sub homo} of 23.6%–27.4% for a W–Rh spectrum. Displacement of the glandular distribution, at a distance equal to 10% of the

  5. Herbivore handling of a plant's trichome: the case of Heliconius charithonia (L.) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) and Passiflora lobata (Killip) Hutch. (Passifloraceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Marcio Z. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Centro de Biociencias. Dept. de Botanica, Ecologia e Zoologia]. E-mail: mzc@cb.ufrn.br

    2008-05-15

    Trichomes reduce herbivore attack on plants by physically and/or chemically inhibiting movement or other activities. Despite evidence that herbivores are negatively affected by trichomes there also reports of insect counter-adaptations that circumvent the plant's defense. This paper reports on a study that investigated the likely mechanisms employed by larvae of the nymphalid butterfly, Heliconius charithonia (L.), that allow it to feed on a host that is presumably protected by hooked trichomes (Passiflora lobata (Killip) Hutch). Evidence were gathered using data from direct observations of larval movement and behavior, faeces analysis, scanning electron microscopy of plant surface and experimental analysis of larval movement on plants with and without trichomes (manually removed). The latter involved a comparison with a non specialist congener, Heliconius pachinus Salvin. Observations showed that H. charithonia larvae are capable of freeing themselves from entrapment on trichome tips by physical force. Moreover, wandering larvae lay silk mats on the trichomes and remove their tips by biting. In fact, trichome tips were found in the faeces. Experimental removal of trichomes aided in the movement of the non specialist but had no noticeable effect on the specialist larvae. These results support the suggestion that trichomes are capable of deterring a non specialist herbivore (H. pachinus). The precise mechanisms that allow the success of H. charithonia are not known, but I suggest that a blend of behavioral as well as physical resistance mechanisms is involved. Future studies should ascertain whether larval integument provides physical resistance to trichomes. (author)

  6. Effect of plant trichomes on the vertical migration of Haemonchus contortus infective larvae on five tropical forages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Aruaque L F; Costa, Ciniro; Rodella, Roberto A; Silva, Bruna F; Amarante, Alessandro F T

    2009-06-01

    The influence of trichomes on vertical migration and survival of Haemonchus contortus infective larvae (L3) on different forages was investigated. Four different forages showing different distributions of trichomes (Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu, Brachiaria brizantha cv. Xaraes, Andropogon gayanus, and Stylosanthes spp.), and one forage species without trichomes (Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania), were used. Forages cut at the post-grazing height were contaminated with faeces containing L3. Samples of different grass strata (0-10, 10-20, >20 cm) and faeces were collected for L3 quantification once per week over four weeks. In all forages studied, the highest L3 recovery occurred seven days after contamination, with the lowest recovery on A. gayanus. In general, larvae were found on all forages' strata. However, most of the larvae were at the lower stratum. There was no influence of trichomes on migration and survival of H. contortus L3 on the forages. PMID:18975119

  7. Resistance of tomato strains to the moth Tuta absoluta imparted by allelochemicals and trichome density Resistência de linhagens de tomateiro à traça Tuta absoluta, relacionada a aleloquímicos e à densidade de tricomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Mattes de Oliveira

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We examined the resistance of improved tomato strains rich in 2-tridecanone (2-TD, zingiberene (ZGB and acyl sugars (AA to the tomato moth, Tuta absoluta. We also studied whether selection for strains with higher densities of glandular trichomes, and thus presumably strains with higher concentrations of 2-tridecanone, was effective in promoting greater resistance to the moth. The TOM-584 and TOM-679 strains were used as susceptible controls, which have normal concentrations of the three allelochemicals. The improved strain TOM-687, which has a high AA content, has a widely documented resistance and was used as a standard resistant strain. The wild strain PI134417, which is resistant by means of its high 2-TD content, was also used as a standard resistant strain. The experiment was installed in a greenhouse with a completely randomized design. The wild strain PI 134417 was confirmed as being highly resistant. TOM-622 (rich in 2-TD, ZGB-703 (rich in ZGB, and TOM-687 (rich in AA showed significant reductions in the oviposition rate of the tomato moth, damage to the plants, injury to the leaflets, and the percentage of leaflets attacked in comparison with the control strains (TOM-584 and TOM-679. The levels of resistance to the moth for the TOM-622, ZGB-703, and TOM-687 strains were similar. In general, the genotypes with higher densities of glandular trichomes had greater resistance than the susceptible controls, with the strain BPX-367D-238-02 being particularly notable in its resistance.Comparou-se a efetividade de linhagens melhoradas de tomateiro, ricas em 2-tridecanona (2-TD, zingibereno (ZGB e acilaçúcares (AA, em relação aos níveis de resistência à traça-do-tomateiro Tuta absoluta. Verificaram-se, também, se linhagens selecionadas para maiores densidades de tricomas glandulares, presumivelmente com maiores níveis de 2-tridecanona, são efetivas em promover maior resistência à traça. Como testemunhas suscetíveis foram utilizadas

  8. Preparation of Au and Ag nanoparticles using Artemisia annua and their in vitro antibacterial and tyrosinase inhibitory activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basavegowda, Nagaraj; Idhayadhulla, Akber; Lee, Yong Rok, E-mail: yrlee@yu.ac.kr

    2014-10-01

    This work describes a plant-mediated approach to the preparation of metal nanoparticles using leaf extract of Artemisia annua (A. annua), an ethno-medicinal plant widely found in Asia, which was used as reducing and stabilizing agent. A. annua is used in traditional Chinese medicine to alleviate fever. Au and Ag nanoparticles were prepared using a one-step aqueous method at room temperature without any toxic chemicals. The formation of Au and Ag nanoparticles was monitored by UV–vis spectroscopy. Synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). TEM analysis of Au nanoparticles showed that they had triangular and spherical shapes with sizes ranging from 15 to 40 nm. The silver nanoparticles were predominantly spherical and uniformly sized (30–50 nm). The Au and Ag nanoparticles produced showed significant tyrosinase inhibitory and antibacterial effects. These results suggest that the synthesized nanoparticles provide good alternatives in varied medical and industrial applications. - Highlights: • Au and Ag nanoparticles were synthesized using Artemisia annua leaf aqueous extract. • Nanoparticles were characterized by UV–vis spectroscopy, FT-IR, TEM, EDX, XRD, and TGA. • Au and Ag nanoparticles were of size 25 and 30 nm respectively, in spherical forms. • Nanoparticles showed significant tyrosinase inhibitory and antibacterial activities.

  9. Dietary supplementation of Artemisia annua to free range broilers and its effects on gastro-intestinal parasite infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almeida, Gustavo Fonseca; Horsted, Klaus; Thamsborg, Stig Milan;

    2012-01-01

    In a factorial experiment, effects of dried leaves of Artemisia annua as an anti-parasitic supplement in two different broiler genotypes, raised in a free range system, were investigated. Birds were grown indoors until 29 days of age free of parasites. Twelve groups, each of 35 randomly selected...

  10. Survey on efficacy of chloroformic extract of Artemisia annua against Giardia lamblia trophozoite and cyst in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golami, Shirzad; Rahimi-Esboei, Bahman; Mousavi, Parisa; Marhaba, Zahra; Youssefi, Mohammad Reza; Rahimi, Mohammad Taghi

    2016-03-01

    Giardiasis is a parasitic cosmopolitan disease that the rate of infection in developing countries is considerable. This infection directly is associated with poor hygienic conditions, poor water quality control, and overcrowding. Reinfection and drug resistance are two major problems in endemic areas. Recently, researchers are concentrating on herbal drugs as a proper solution. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to survey on efficacy of chloroformic extract of Artemisia annua against Giardia lamblia trophozoite and cyst in vitro. G. lamblia cysts were prepared from faces of giardiasis patients from different hospitals of Mazandaran Medical University. Four concentrations (1, 10, 50 and 100 mg/ml) of chloroformic extract of A. annua were utilized for 1, 5, 30, 60 and 180 min. Viability of G. lamblia cysts was confirmed by 0.1 % Eosin staining. Cyst and trophozoite contact (intermix) of G. lamblia with extract of A. annua with variant concentrations (1, 10, 50 and 100 mg/ml) after 1 and 180 min caused following cyst and trophozoite elimination rates: (67, 69, 71 and 73 %), (65, 67, 67 and 72 %), (94, 96, 97 and 99 %) and (100, 100, 100 and 100 %), respectively. Authors from the current investigation draw a conclusion that chloroformic extract of A. annua has the ability to eliminate G. lamblia cysts and trophozoites in vitro. PMID:27065604

  11. The effects of CO2 and nutrient enrichment on photosynthesis and growth of Poa annua in two consecutive generations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezemer, T.M.; Jones, T.H.

    2012-01-01

    We studied short- and long-term growth responses of Poa annua L. (Gramineae) at ambient and elevated (ambient +200 lmol mol 1) atmospheric CO2. In experiment 1 we compared plant growth during the early, vegetative and final, reproductive growth phases. Plant growth in elevated CO2 was significantly

  12. Preparation of Au and Ag nanoparticles using Artemisia annua and their in vitro antibacterial and tyrosinase inhibitory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work describes a plant-mediated approach to the preparation of metal nanoparticles using leaf extract of Artemisia annua (A. annua), an ethno-medicinal plant widely found in Asia, which was used as reducing and stabilizing agent. A. annua is used in traditional Chinese medicine to alleviate fever. Au and Ag nanoparticles were prepared using a one-step aqueous method at room temperature without any toxic chemicals. The formation of Au and Ag nanoparticles was monitored by UV–vis spectroscopy. Synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). TEM analysis of Au nanoparticles showed that they had triangular and spherical shapes with sizes ranging from 15 to 40 nm. The silver nanoparticles were predominantly spherical and uniformly sized (30–50 nm). The Au and Ag nanoparticles produced showed significant tyrosinase inhibitory and antibacterial effects. These results suggest that the synthesized nanoparticles provide good alternatives in varied medical and industrial applications. - Highlights: • Au and Ag nanoparticles were synthesized using Artemisia annua leaf aqueous extract. • Nanoparticles were characterized by UV–vis spectroscopy, FT-IR, TEM, EDX, XRD, and TGA. • Au and Ag nanoparticles were of size 25 and 30 nm respectively, in spherical forms. • Nanoparticles showed significant tyrosinase inhibitory and antibacterial activities

  13. Effects of traffic pollution on the genetic structure of Poa annua L.populations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ning; CHEN Xiao-yong; SHEN Lang; LI Yuan-yuan; CAI Yue-wei

    2004-01-01

    The genetic composition of Poa annua L. populations with a series of traffic pollution was studied by starch electrophoresis. Five enzyme systems were stained. The results showed that: (1) Traffic pollution can dramatically change genotypic frequencies at some loci of P. annua populations. Significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were observed on loci Fe-1 and Me due to the excess of heterozygote in some populations. (2) The effective number of alleles per locus, and the observed and expected heterozygosity were higher in the pollution series than in the clear control site(Botanic Park population), but the increase was not related with the pollution extent. (3) Most genetic variation was found within populations, and only 6.21% was among populations of the polluted series. Slightly higher differentiation(FST=7.98%) was observed when the control population was included. (4) The calculated gene flow(Nm) is 2.8841 per generation. The mean of genetic identity is 0.9864 and the genetic distance average to 0.0138.

  14. Identification and purification of novel chlorogenic acids in Artemisia annua L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenwen Zhao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Present work has been carried out to study the identification and purification of chlorogenic acids in Artemisia annua L. Thirty-six chlorogenic acids were identified from this plant. Among these fifteen viz. two monocaffeoylquinic acids (Mr354, five dicaffeoylquinic acids (Mr516, one feruloylquinic acid (Mr368, three caffeoylferuloylquinic acids (Mr530, two ferulylquinic acids (Mr544, one dimethoxy-cinnamoylquinic acid (Mr382 and one p-coumaroylquinic acid (Mr338 were reported first time in present study by LC/MSn . Cis-isomers of these chlorogenic acids were also identified. Furthermore, column chromatography was used for the separation and purification of these chlorogenic acid; by the use of petroleum ether and ethyl acetate decolorization methods as mentioned in the literature, thus separation and purification process carried out at the same time. Polyamide and dextran were also used to purify Dicaffeoylquinic acid and purity level reached 85.7% with a yield of 53.4% after the secondary purification by Sephadex LH-20. Result of study revealed that A. annua can not only used for the production of artemisinin, but also yielding different kinds of chlorogenic acids, thus making comprehensive utilization of this plant.

  15. Laboratory evaluation of Artemisia annua L. extract and artemisinin activity against Epilachna paenulata and Spodoptera eridania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggi, María E; Mangeaud, Arnaldo; Carpinella, María C; Ferrayoli, Carlos G; Valladares, Graciela R; Palacios, Sara M

    2005-07-01

    Ethanolic extract of aerial parts of Artemisia annua L. and artemisinin were evaluated as anti-insect products. In a feeding deterrence assay on Epilachna paenulata Germ (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) larvae, complete feeding rejection was observed at an extract concentration of 1.5 mg/cm2 on pumpkin leaf tissue. The same concentration produced a feeding inhibition of 87% in Spodoptera eridania (Cramer) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). In a no-choice assay, both species ate less and gained less weight when fed on leaves treated with the extract. Complete mortality in E. paenulata and 50% mortality in S. eridania were observed with extract at 1.5 mg/cm2. Artemisinin exhibited a moderate antifeedant effect on E. paenulata and S. eridania at 0.03-0.375 mg/cm2. However, a strong effect on survival and body weight was observed when E. paenulata larvae were forced to feed on leaves treated at 0.03 and 0.075 mg/cm2. Artemisia annua ethanolic extract of aerial parts at 1.5 mg/cm2 showed no phytotoxic effect on pumpkin seedlings. PMID:16222790

  16. RNAi down-regulation of cinnamate-4-hydroxylase increases artemisinin biosynthesis in Artemisia annua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ritesh; Vashisth, Divya; Misra, Amita; Akhtar, Md Qussen; Jalil, Syed Uzma; Shanker, Karuna; Gupta, Madan Mohan; Rout, Prashant Kumar; Gupta, Anil Kumar; Shasany, Ajit Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Cinnamate-4-hydroxylase (C4H) converts trans-cinnamic acid (CA) to p-coumaric acid (COA) in the phenylpropanoid/lignin biosynthesis pathway. Earlier we reported increased expression of AaCYP71AV1 (an important gene of artemisinin biosynthesis pathway) caused by CA treatment in Artemisia annua. Hence, AaC4H gene was identified, cloned, characterized and silenced in A. annua with the assumption that the elevated internal CA due to knock down may increase the artemisinin yield. Accumulation of trans-cinnamic acid in the plant due to AaC4H knockdown was accompanied with the reduction of p-coumaric acid, total phenolics, anthocyanin, cinnamate-4-hydroxylase (C4H) and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activities but increase in salicylic acid (SA) and artemisinin. Interestingly, feeding trans-cinnamic acid to the RNAi line increased the level of artemisinin along with benzoic (BA) and SA with no effect on the downstream metabolites p-coumaric acid, coniferylaldehyde and sinapaldehyde, whereas p-coumaric acid feeding increased the content of downstream coniferylaldehyde and sinapaldehyde with no effect on BA, SA, trans-cinnamic acid or artemisinin. SA is reported earlier to be inducing the artemisinin yield. This report demonstrates the link between the phenylpropanoid/lignin pathway with artemisinin pathway through SA, triggered by accumulation of trans-cinnamic acid because of the blockage at C4H. PMID:27220407

  17. Glandular dose in breast tomosynthesis examinations: Preliminary study with a sample of patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to analyze the mean glandular dose administered to a group of patients with a tomography system (Selenia Dimensions) service installed on a large hospital in which routine tests are done and screening. (Author)

  18. Diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma associated with atypical glandular cells on liquid-based cervical cytology.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chummun, K

    2012-12-01

    In 2008, the management of women in Ireland with atypical glandular cells changed to immediate referral to colposcopy. The optimal management of these women is unclear. A balance between the detection of occult disease and overtreatment is required.

  19. Combined Roles of Glandular-haired Alfalfa and Natural Enemies in Alfalfa Pest Managment in Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Dellinger, Theresa Ann

    2003-01-01

    Both alfalfa weevil, Hypera postica (Gyllenhal), (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), and potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae (Harris), (Homoptera: Cicadellidae), remain key pests of alfalfa in Virginia. Commercial varieties of potato leafhopper-resistant (or glandular-haired) alfalfa were released in the mid-1990s, but the impact of alfalfa weevil on these varieties has not been well documented. In 1999, two large-scale field experiments were initiated to compare the performance of a glandular-hair...

  20. Molecular Cloning, Expression, and Characterization of Amorpha-4,11-diene Synthase, a Key Enzyme of Artemisinin Biosynthesis in Artemisia annua L

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mercke, P.; Bengtsson, M.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Posthumus, M.A.; Brodelius, P.E.

    2000-01-01

    In plants, sesquiterpenes of different structural types are biosynthesized from the isoprenoid intermediate farnesyl diphosphate. The initial reaction of the biosynthesis is catalyzed by sesquiterpene cyclases (synthases). In Artemisia annua L. (annual wormwood), a number of such sesquiterpene cycla

  1. Micromorphology of trichomes in the flowers of the horse chestnut Aesculus hippocastanum L.

    OpenAIRE

    Mirosława Chwil; Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska; Aneta Sulborska; Magdalena Michońska

    2014-01-01

    Aesculus hippocastanum L. is an ornamental tree appreciated for its beautiful flowers and leaves. The flowers of this species contain secondary metabolites exhibiting pharmacological activity. They also produce essential oils and coloured “nectar guides”, which enable insects to reach nectar and pollen. The aim of the study was to investigate the types and characteristics of chestnut flower trichomes, which may contain biologically active substances. The analyses were performed using light, f...

  2. Is nectar reabsorption restricted by the stalk cells of floral and extrafloral nectary trichomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso-Gustavson, P; Davis, A R

    2015-01-01

    Reabsorption is a phase of nectar dynamics that occurs concurrently with secretion; it has been described in floral nectaries that exude nectar through stomata or unicellular trichomes, but has not yet been recorded in extrafloral glands. Apparently, nectar reabsorption does not occur in multicellular secretory trichomes (MST) due to the presence of lipophilic impregnations - which resemble Casparian strips - in the anticlinal walls of the stalk cells. It has been assumed that these impregnations restrict solute movement within MST to occur unidirectionally and exclusively by the symplast, thereby preventing nectar reflux toward the underlying nectary tissues. We hypothesised that reabsorption is absent in nectaries possessing MST. The fluorochrome lucifer yellow (LYCH) was applied to standing nectar of two floral and extrafloral glands of distantly related species, and then emission spectra from nectary sections were systematically analysed using confocal microscopy. Passive uptake of LYCH via the stalk cells to the nectary tissues occurred in all MST examined. Moreover, we present evidence of nectar reabsorption in extrafloral nectaries, demonstrating that LYCH passed the stalk cells of MST, although it did not reach the deepest nectary tissues. Identical (control) experiments performed with neutral red (NR) demonstrated no uptake of this stain by actively secreting MST, whereas diffusion of NR did occur in plasmolysed MST of floral nectaries at the post-secretory phase, indicating that nectar reabsorption by MST is governed by stalk cell physiology. Interestingly, non-secretory trichomes failed to reabsorb nectar. The role of various nectary components is discussed in relation to the control of nectar reabsorption by secretory trichomes. PMID:24987788

  3. Trichomes of tobacco excrete zinc as zinc-substituted calciumcarbonate and other zinc-containing compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarret, G.; Harada, E.; Choi, Y-E.; Isaure, M.-P.; Geoffroy, N.; Fakra, S.; Marcus, M.A.; Birschwilks, M.; Clemens, S.; Manceau, A.

    2006-01-01

    Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv Xanthi) plants were exposed to toxic levels of zinc (Zn). Zn exposure resulted in toxicity signs in plants, and these damages were partly reduced by a calcium (Ca) supplement. Confocal imaging of intracellular Zn using Zinquin showed that Zn was preferentially accumulated in trichomes. Exposure to Zn and Zn + Ca increased the trichome density and induced the production of Ca/Zn mineral grains on the head cells of trichomes. These grains were aggregates of submicrometer-sized crystals and poorly crystalline material and contained Ca as major element, along with subordinate amounts of Zn, manganese, potassium, chlorine, phosphorus, silicon, and magnesium. Micro x-ray diffraction revealed that the large majority of the grains were composed essentially of metal-substituted calcite (CaCO3). CaCO3 polymorphs (aragonite and vaterite) and CaC2O4 (Ca oxalate) mono- and dihydrate also were identified, either as an admixture to calcite or in separate grains. Some grains did not diffract, although they contained Ca, suggesting the presence of amorphous form of Ca. The presence of Zn-substituted calcite was confirmed by Zn K-edge micro-extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy. Zn bound to organic compounds and Zn-containing silica and phosphate were also identified by this technique. The proportion of Zn-substituted calcite relative to the other species increased with Ca exposure. The production of Zn-containing biogenic calcite and other Zn compounds through the trichomes is a novel mechanism involved in Zn detoxification. This study illustrates the potential of laterally resolved x-ray synchrotron radiation techniques to study biomineralization and metal homeostasis processes in plants.

  4. Influence of phenolglucosides and trichome density on the distribution of insects herbivores on willows

    OpenAIRE

    Soetens, Ph.; Rowell-Rahier, Martine; Pasteels, Jacques M.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of both trichome density and phenolglucoside content of leaves of 76 willow hybrids (Salix alba x fragilis) were measured to estimate their influence on the distribution of Phratora vitellinae (L.), Plagiodera versicolora Baly (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and Pontania proxima (Lepeletier 1823) (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae) in a nursery at Gramont, Belgium. The willows showed differences in their phenolglucoside content and pilosity of leaves and are classified on these basis into ...

  5. Chemical Composition of Artemisia annua L. Leaves and Antioxidant Potential of Extracts as a Function of Extraction Solvents

    OpenAIRE

    Maznah Ismail; Shahid Iqbal; Umer Younas; Kim Wei Chan; Muhammad Zia-Ul-Haq

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the chemical and nutritional composition of Artemisia annua leaves in addition to determination of antioxidant potential of their extracts prepared in different solvents. Chemical composition was determined by quantifying fat, protein, carbohydrate, fiber, tocopherol, phytate, and tannin contents. Extraction of A. annua leaves, for antioxidant potential evaluation, was carried out using five solvents of differen...

  6. Mineral nutrient uptake from prey and glandular phosphatase activity as dual test of carnivory in semidesert plants with glandular leaves suspected of carnivory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Plachno, B.J.; Adamec, Lubomír; Huet, H.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 104, č. 4 (2009), s. 649-654. ISSN 0305-7364 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : mineral nutrient uptake * phosphatases * glandular leaves Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.501, year: 2009

  7. Flavonoids casticin and chrysosplenol D from Artemisia annua L. inhibit inflammation in vitro and in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yu-Jie; Guo, Yan; Yang, Qing; Weng, Xiao-Gang; Yang, Lan; Wang, Ya-Jie; Chen, Ying; Zhang, Dong; Li, Qi; Liu, Xu-Cen; Kan, Xiao-Xi; Chen, Xi [Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing 100700 (China); Zhu, Xiao-Xin, E-mail: zhuxx59@163.com [Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing 100700 (China); Kmoníèková, Eva [Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine in Pilsen, Charles University, Pilsen (Czech Republic); Zídek, Zdenìk [Institute of Experimental Medicine, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Vídeòská 1083, 142 20 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2015-08-01

    Background: The aim of our experiments was to investigate the anti-inflammatory properties of casticin and chrysosplenol D, two flavonoids present in Artemisia annua L. Methods: Topical inflammation was induced in ICR mice using croton oil. Mice were then treated with casticin or chrysosplenol D. Cutaneous histological changes and edema were assessed. ICR mice were intragastrically administrated with casticin or chrysosplenol D followed by intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Mouse Raw264.7 macrophage cells were incubated with casticin or chrysosplenol D. Intracellular phosphorylation was detected, and migration was assessed by trans-well assay. HT-29/NFκB-luc cells were incubated with casticin or chrysosplenol D in the presence or absence of LPS, and NF-κB activation was quantified. Results: In mice, administration of casticin (0.5, 1 and 1.5 μmol/cm{sup 2}) and chrysosplenol D (1 and 1.5 μmol/cm{sup 2}) inhibited croton oil-induced ear edema (casticin: 29.39–64.95%; chrysosplenol D: 37.76–65.89%, all P < 0.05) in a manner similar to indomethacin (0.5, 1 and 1.5 μmol/cm{sup 2}; 55.63–84.58%). Casticin (0.07, 0.13 and 0.27 mmol/kg) and chrysosplenol D (0.07, 0.14 and 0.28 mmol/kg) protected against LPS-induced systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) in mice (all P < 0.05), in a manner similar to dexamethasone (0.03 mmol/kg). Casticin and chrysosplenol D suppressed LPS-induced release of IL-1 beta, IL-6 and MCP-1, inhibited cell migration, and reduced LPS-induced IκB and c-JUN phosphorylation in Raw264.7 cells. JNK inhibitor SP600125 blocked the inhibitory effect of chrysosplenol D on cytokine release. Conclusions: The flavonoids casticin and chrysosplenol D from A. annua L. inhibited inflammation in vitro and in vivo. - Highlights: • We report a new activity of the flavonoids present in Artemisia annua L. • These flavonoids inhibit croton oil-induced ear edema in mice. • These flavonoids protect against LPS-induced SIRS in

  8. Flavonoids casticin and chrysosplenol D from Artemisia annua L. inhibit inflammation in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: The aim of our experiments was to investigate the anti-inflammatory properties of casticin and chrysosplenol D, two flavonoids present in Artemisia annua L. Methods: Topical inflammation was induced in ICR mice using croton oil. Mice were then treated with casticin or chrysosplenol D. Cutaneous histological changes and edema were assessed. ICR mice were intragastrically administrated with casticin or chrysosplenol D followed by intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Mouse Raw264.7 macrophage cells were incubated with casticin or chrysosplenol D. Intracellular phosphorylation was detected, and migration was assessed by trans-well assay. HT-29/NFκB-luc cells were incubated with casticin or chrysosplenol D in the presence or absence of LPS, and NF-κB activation was quantified. Results: In mice, administration of casticin (0.5, 1 and 1.5 μmol/cm2) and chrysosplenol D (1 and 1.5 μmol/cm2) inhibited croton oil-induced ear edema (casticin: 29.39–64.95%; chrysosplenol D: 37.76–65.89%, all P < 0.05) in a manner similar to indomethacin (0.5, 1 and 1.5 μmol/cm2; 55.63–84.58%). Casticin (0.07, 0.13 and 0.27 mmol/kg) and chrysosplenol D (0.07, 0.14 and 0.28 mmol/kg) protected against LPS-induced systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) in mice (all P < 0.05), in a manner similar to dexamethasone (0.03 mmol/kg). Casticin and chrysosplenol D suppressed LPS-induced release of IL-1 beta, IL-6 and MCP-1, inhibited cell migration, and reduced LPS-induced IκB and c-JUN phosphorylation in Raw264.7 cells. JNK inhibitor SP600125 blocked the inhibitory effect of chrysosplenol D on cytokine release. Conclusions: The flavonoids casticin and chrysosplenol D from A. annua L. inhibited inflammation in vitro and in vivo. - Highlights: • We report a new activity of the flavonoids present in Artemisia annua L. • These flavonoids inhibit croton oil-induced ear edema in mice. • These flavonoids protect against LPS-induced SIRS in mice. • These

  9. Transcriptome analysis approaches for the isolation of trichome-specific genes from the medicinal plant Cistus creticus subsp. creticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falara, Vasiliki; Fotopoulos, Vasileios; Margaritis, Thanasis; Anastasaki, Thalia; Pateraki, Irene; Bosabalidis, Artemios M; Kafetzopoulos, Dimitris; Demetzos, Costas; Pichersky, Eran; Kanellis, Angelos K

    2008-12-01

    Cistus creticus subsp. creticus is a plant of intrinsic scientific interest due to the distinctive pharmaceutical properties of its resin. Labdane-type diterpenes, the main constituents of the resin, exhibit considerable antibacterial and cytotoxic activities. In this study chemical analysis of isolated trichomes from different developmental stages revealed that young leaves of 1-2 cm length displayed the highest content of labdane-type diterpenes (80 mg/g fresh weight) whereas trichomes from older leaves (2-3 or 3-4 cm) exhibited gradual decreased concentrations. A cDNA library was constructed enriched in transcripts from trichomes isolated from young leaves, which are characterized by high levels of labdane-type diterpenes. Functional annotation of 2,022 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from the trichome cDNA library based on homology to A. thaliana genes suggested that 8% of the putative identified sequences were secondary metabolism-related and involved primarily in flavonoid and terpenoid biosynthesis. A significant proportion of the ESTs (38%) displayed no significant similarity to any other DNA deposited in databases, indicating a yet unknown function. Custom DNA microarrays constructed with 1,248 individual clones from the cDNA library facilitated transcriptome comparisons between trichomes and trichome-free tissues. In addition, gene expression studies in various Cistus tissues and organs for one of the genes highlighted as the most differentially expressed by the microarray experiments revealed a putative sesquiterpene synthase with a trichome-specific expression pattern. Full length cDNA isolation and heterologous expression in E. coli followed by biochemical analysis, led to the characterization of the produced protein as germacrene B synthase. PMID:18819010

  10. A calibration approach to glandular tissue composition estimation in digital mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The healthy breast is almost entirely composed of a mixture of fatty, epithelial, and stromal tissues which can be grouped into two distinctly attenuating tissue types: fatty and glandular. Further, the amount of glandular tissue is linked to breast cancer risk, so an objective quantitative analysis of glandular tissue can aid in risk estimation. Highnam and Brady have measured glandular tissue composition objectively. However, they argue that their work should only be used for 'relative' tissue measurements unless a careful calibration has been performed. In this work, we perform such a 'careful calibration' on a digital mammography system and use it to estimate breast tissue composition of patient breasts. We imaged 0%, 50%, and 100% glandular-equivalent phantoms of varying thicknesses for a number of clinically relevant x-ray techniques on a digital mammography system. From these images, we extracted mean signal and noise levels and computed calibration curves that can be used for quantitative tissue composition estimation. In this way, we calculate the percent glandular composition of a patient breast on a pixelwise basis. This tissue composition estimation method was applied to 23 digital mammograms. We estimated the quantitative impact of different error sources on the estimates of tissue composition. These error sources include compressed breast height estimation error, residual scattered radiation, quantum noise, and beam hardening. Errors in the compressed breast height estimate contribute the most error in tissue composition--on the order of ±7% for a 4 cm compressed breast height. The spatially varying scattered radiation will contribute quantitatively less error overall, but may be significant in regions near the skinline. It is calculated that for a 4 cm compressed breast height, a residual scatter signal error is mitigated by approximately sixfold in the composition estimate. The error in composition due to the quantum noise, which is the limiting

  11. Investigation of mean glandular dose versus compressed breast thickness relationship for mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationship between the mean glandular dose (MGD) and the compressed breast thickness (CBT) is commonly used for the presentation of mammographic dose survey results and could also be useful for the assessment of individual breast doses retrospectively in case of lack of necessary dosimetric instrumentation. The high data scattering from the best fit reduces the reliability of this technique. The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy of this relationship using the data collected from a patient survey and phantom experiment. Patients were divided into three different groups according to their breast glandularities, which were predicted from the inspection of previous mammograms. X-ray beam qualities that will be used in patient examinations were determined according to breast thickness and predicted glandularities. The MGD versus CBT relationship for all the examined patients resulted in a poor correlation (R2 = 0.28). This relationship was separately obtained for each glandularity group and also for sub-groups of specific beam qualities. The best correlation (R2 = 0.73) was obtained for the fatty breast group and Mo/Mo combination. A low correlation (R2 = 0.34) was observed in the mid-glandularity group due to inclusion of a wide range of glandularities in this group. In the case of the dense breast group, although the glandularity range was narrow, there were e still high data scattering (R2 = 0.25). This was probably due to the use of Mo/Rh and Mo/Mo combinations. This is validated by obtaining the MGD-CBT relationship specific to Mo/Mo combination (R2 = 0.61). (authors)

  12. Vapour and Liquid-Phase Artemisia annua Essential Oil Activities against Several Clinical Strains of Candida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santomauro, Francesca; Donato, Rosa; Sacco, Cristiana; Pini, Gabriella; Flamini, Guido; Bilia, Anna Rita

    2016-07-01

    Candida spp. are often the cause of infection in immune-compromised individuals. They are characterized by a strong resistance to antimicrobial drugs and disinfectants. The activity of Artemisia annua essential oil against Candida spp. was determined by vapour contact and microdilution assay. The oil was characterized by the presence of oxygenated monoterpenes (more than 75 % of the constituents), mainly represented by the irregular monoterpene artemisia ketone (ca. 22 %), and the widespread monoterpenes 1,8 cineole (ca. 19 %) and camphor (ca. 17 %). Other representative constituents were artemisia alcohol (5.9 %), α-pinene (5.7 %), and pinocarvone (3.0 %). Thujone, a typical toxic constituent of the Artemisia species, was not detected. The results are reported as minimum inhibitory concentration, minimum fungicidal concentration, and diameter of inhibition zone obtained by the vapour diffusion assay. We tested 10 clinical Candida strains, coming from both clinical samples and international collections. The results show that the antifungal activity of A. annua is influenced by the type of method adopted. The inhibitory action of the essential oil was, in fact, higher in the vapour than in the liquid phase. Our results show an average minimum inhibitory concentration in the liquid phase of 11.88 µL/mL, while in the vapour phase, the growth of all Candida strains tested at a concentration of 2.13 µL/cm(3) was inhibited. A strain of Candida glabrata was found to be less susceptible to the liquid medium than the vapour assay (50 µL/mL vs. 0.64 µL/cm(3), respectively). Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis were the most susceptible to the vapour test, while Candida parapsilosis was the most resistant. PMID:27286334

  13. DMSO triggers the generation of ROS leading to an increase in artemisinin and dihydroartemisinic acid in Artemisia annua shoot cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Mannan, Abdul; Liu, Chunzhao; Arsenault, Patrick R.; Towler, Melissa J.; Vail, Dan R.; Lorence, Argelia; Weathers, Pamela J.

    2009-01-01

    The antimalarial sesquiterpene, artemisinin, is in short supply; demand is not being met, and the role of artemisinin in the plant is not well established. Prior work showed that addition of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) to seedlings increased artemisinin in their shoots and this study further investigated that serendipitous observation. When in vitro-cultured Artemisia annua rooted shoots were fed different amounts of DMSO (0–2.0% v/v), artemisinin levels doubled and showed biphasic optima at 0....

  14. Changes in key constituents of clonally propagated Artemisia annua L. during preparation of compressed leaf tablets for possible therapeutic use

    OpenAIRE

    Weathers, Pamela J.; Towler, Melissa J.

    2014-01-01

    Artemisia annua L., long used as a tea infusion in traditional Chinese medicine, produces artemisinin. Although artemisinin is currently used as artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) against malaria, oral consumption of dried leaves from the plant showed efficacy and will be less costly than ACT. Many compounds in the plant have some antimalarial activity. Unknown, however, is how these plant components change as leaves are processed into tablets for oral consumption. Here we compared e...

  15. Studium biologických vlastností bažanky roční (Mercurialis annua L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Kofránková, Věra

    2013-01-01

    The study of biological features of weeds is necessary for applying the most suitable and the most effective methods of weed control. This thesis is about biological features of annual mercury (Mercurialis annua). Annual mercury is a late spring annual weed. This damaging factor for cultural crops poses a threat to root crops with low plant density and to vegetable crops. Weed control of Mercurialis annnua is based on the prevention of going to seed, because seeds can remain vi...

  16. Generative reproduction of Antarctic grasses, the native species Deschampsia antarctica Desv. and the alien species Poa annua L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giełwanowska Irena

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The embryology of two species, Deschampsia antarctica, a native species, and Poa annua, an alien species in the Antarctic we studied. Flowering buds of plants growing in their natural habitats on King George Island and generative tissues of both plant species grown in a greenhouse were analyzed. Adaptations to autogamy and anemogamy were observed in the flower anatomy of both species. The microsporangia of the evaluated grasses produce a small number of three−celled pollen grains. Numerous pollen grains do not leave the microsporangium and germinate in the thecae. Deschampsia antarctica and P. annua plants harvested in Antarctica developed a particularly small number of microspores in pollen chambers. In D. antarctica, male gametophytes were produced at a faster rate: generative cells in pollen did not become detached from the wall of the pollen grain, they were not embedded in the cytoplasm of vegetative cells, and they divided into two sperm cells situated close to the wall. The monosporous Polygonum type of embryo sac development was observed in the studied species. The egg apparatus had typical polarization, and the filiform apparatus did not develop in synergids. Large antipodals with polyploidal nuclei were formed in the embryo sacs of D. antarctica and P. annua. Poa annua was characterized by numerous antipodal cells which formed antipodal tissue in the chalazal region of the embryo sac. Three distinct antipodals with atypical, lateral position in the vicinity of the egg apparatus were observed in D. antarctica. The diaspores of the investigated grass species were characterized by small size, low weight and species-specific primary and secondary sculpture of the testa and caryopsis coat.

  17. Generative reproduction of Antarctic grasses, the native species Deschampsia antarctica Desv. and the alien species Poa annua L.

    OpenAIRE

    Giełwanowska Irena; Kellmann−Sopyła Wioleta

    2015-01-01

    The embryology of two species, Deschampsia antarctica, a native species, and Poa annua, an alien species in the Antarctic we studied. Flowering buds of plants growing in their natural habitats on King George Island and generative tissues of both plant species grown in a greenhouse were analyzed. Adaptations to autogamy and anemogamy were observed in the flower anatomy of both species. The microsporangia of the evaluated grasses produce a small number of three−celled pollen grains. Numerous po...

  18. Examination of equine glandular stomach lesions for bacteria, including Helicobacter spp by fluorescence in situ hybridisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    husted, Louise; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Olsen, Susanne N.;

    2010-01-01

    Background: The equine glandular stomach is commonly affected by erosion and ulceration. The aim of this study was to assess whether bacteria, including Helicobacter, could be involved in the aetiology of gastric glandular lesions seen in horses. Results: Stomach lesions, as well as normal...... by cloning and sequencing. Mucosal lesions were found in 36/63 stomachs and included hyperplastic rugae, polypoid structures and focal erosions. None of the samples were tested positive for urease activity or for FISH using the Helicobacter genus specific probe. In samples of lesions, as well as...... Enterococcus faecium. The Enterococcus were found colonising the mucosal surface, while E. fergusonii organisms were also demonstrated intraepithelial. Conclusion: Gastric Helicobacter spp. could not be verified as being involved in lesions of the glandular stomach of the horse. Since E. fergusonii has been...

  19. The use of combining ability analysis to identify elite parents for Artemisia annua F1 hybrid production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Townsend

    Full Text Available Artemisia annua is an important medicinal crop used for the production of the anti-malarial compound artemisinin. In order to assist in the production of affordable high quality artemisinin we have carried out an A. annua breeding programme aimed at improving artemisinin concentration and biomass. Here we report on a combining ability analysis of a diallel cross to identify robust parental lines for hybrid breeding. The parental lines were selected based on a range of phenotypic traits to encourage heterosis. The general combining ability (GCA values for the diallel parental lines correlated to the positive alleles of quantitative trait loci (QTL in the same parents indicating the presence of beneficial alleles that contribute to parental performance. Hybrids generated from crossing specific parental lines with good GCA were identified as having an increase in both artemisinin concentration and biomass when grown either in glasshouse or experimental field trials and compared to controls. This study demonstrates that combining ability as determined by a diallel cross can be used to identify elite parents for the production of improved A. annua hybrids. Furthermore, the selection of material for breeding using this approach was found to be consistent with our QTL-based molecular breeding approach.

  20. Population dynamics of the species Plantago major L. and Poa annua L. in a replacement series experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijović A.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Population dynamics of the species Plantago major L. and Poa annua L., typical representatives of ruderal vegetation, was analyzed in a replacement series experiment. The analyzed species were sown in an area with meadow vegetation, where the vegetation present had been previously removed by a total herbicide and additionally by hoeing. The objective of the experiment was to monitor growth dynamics and the effect of intra- and inter-specific interaction of the species Plantago major and Poa annua in conditions of different sowing densities and proportions. The effects of intra- and inter-specific interference and the density-dependent responses were assessed on the basis of several parameters (natality, mortality, age structure, and measures of ontogenetic changes. Based on the study results, it can be concluded that the responses of the species in the experiment were different, which is explained by different adaptive mechanisms, i.e., strategies, in the specific environmental conditions. An effect of the density dependent response was present in both species in the replacement series experiment. The response was amplified by water deficit caused by intensive evapora­tion of the bare soil. No effect of inter-specific interference was observed at the given densities of the study species on the sample plots. An effect of intra-specific interference of the species Plantago major and Poa annua was observed in the guise of a density-negative response of the rate of ontogenetic changes and fecundity.

  1. Formicdubius Philips & Scholtz from South Africa, a junior synonym of Haroldius Boucomont, and a survey of the trichomes in the African species (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Onthophagini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Krell

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Formicdubius Philips & Scholtz, 2000, a genus of South African scarab dung beetle, is synonymised with Haroldius Boucomont, 1914. All four African species of Haroldius, formerly in the genus Afroharoldius Janssens, possess trichomes. Trichome location and degree of development in the African species are discussed. The first record of Haroldius modestus Janssens from Malawi is given.

  2. Control of trichome formation in Arabidopsis by poplar single-repeat R3 MYB transcription factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limei eZhou

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In Arabidopsis, trichome formation is regulated by the interplay of R3 MYBs and several others transcription factors including the WD40-repeat protein TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1 (TTG1, the R2R3 MYB transcription factor GLABRA1 (GL1, the bHLH transcription factor GLABRA3 (GL3 or ENHANCER OF GLABRA3 (EGL3, and the homeodomain protein GLABRA2 (GL2. R3 MYBs including TRICHOMELESS1 (TCL1, TRYPTICHON (TRY, CAPRICE (CPC, ENHANCER OF TRY AND CPC1 (ETC1, ETC2 and ETC3 negatively regulate trichome formation by competing with GL1 for binding GL3 or EGL3, thus blocking the formation of TTG1-GL3/EGL3-GL1, an activator complex required for the activation of the trichome positive regulator gene GL2. However, it is largely unknown if R3 MYBs in other plant species especially woody plants have similar functions. By BLASTing the Populus trichocarpa protein database using the entire amino acid sequence of TCL1, an Arabidopsis R3 MYB transcription factor, we identified a total of eight R3 MYB transcription factor genes in poplar, namely Populus trichocarpa TRICHOMELESS1through 8 (PtrTCL1-PtrTCL8. The amino acid signature required for interacting with bHLH transcription factors and the amino acids required for cell-to-cell movement of R3 MYBs are not fully conserved in all PtrTCLs. When tested in Arabidopsis protoplasts, however, all PtrTCL interacted with GL3. Expressing each of the eight PtrTCLs genes in Arabidopsis resulted in either glabrous phenotypes or plants with reduced trichome numbers, and expression levels of GL2 in all transgenic plants tested were greatly reduced. Expression of PtrTCL1 under the control of TCL1 native promoter almost completely complemented the mutant phenotype of tcl. In contrast, expression of PtrTCL1 under the control of TRY native promoter in the try mutant, or under the control of CPC native promoter in the cpc mutant resulted in glabrous phenotypes, suggesting that PtrTCL1 functions similarly to TCL1, but not TRY and CPC.

  3. Control of trichome formation in Arabidopsis by poplar single-repeat R3 MYB transcription factors

    OpenAIRE

    Limei eZhou; Kaijie eZheng; Xiaoyu eWang; Hainan eTian; Xianling eWang; Shucai eWang

    2014-01-01

    In Arabidopsis, trichome formation is regulated by the interplay of R3 MYBs and several others transcription factors including the WD40-repeat protein TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1 (TTG1), the R2R3 MYB transcription factor GLABRA1 (GL1), the bHLH transcription factor GLABRA3 (GL3) or ENHANCER OF GLABRA3 (EGL3), and the homeodomain protein GLABRA2 (GL2). R3 MYBs including TRICHOMELESS1 (TCL1), TRYPTICHON (TRY), CAPRICE (CPC), ENHANCER OF TRY AND CPC1 (ETC1), ETC2 and ETC3 negatively regulate trich...

  4. A Methodology for Obtaining the Mean Glandular Dose in Mammography Exams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study proposes to validate measurements of mean glandular dose quantity (DG) for a given thickness and glandularity of compressed breast based in a PMMA phantom. 10 exposures were made in an ionization chamber in conventional mammographic equipment for a research. It obtained an average value for the incident air kerma, Ka,I = 9.59 mGy leading to a DG = 1.82 mGy. Experimental results too were obtained for the acquisition of this quantity in other mammography clinics and these results were also reported and discussed. After the comparison of the results the methodology was validated

  5. Evaluation of subject contrast and normalized average glandular dose by semi-analytical models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, two semi-analytical models are described to evaluate the subject contrast of nodules and the normalized average glandular dose in mammography. Both models were used to study the influence of some parameters, such as breast characteristics (thickness and composition) and incident spectra (kVp and target-filter combination) on the subject contrast of a nodule and on the normalized average glandular dose. From the subject contrast results, detection limits of nodules were also determined. Our results are in good agreement with those reported by other authors, who had used Monte Carlo simulation, showing the robustness of our semi-analytical method.

  6. Glandular and non-glandular hairs in the seasonally dimorphic Origanum dictamnus L. (Lamiaceae as a means of adaptation to cold stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artemios M. Bosabalidis

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Origanum dictamnus is a seasonally dimorphic plant having different appearance in winter and summer. Shoots of winter plants are leaf-naked except for their apical region which bears a cluster of small leaves covered with a thick indumentum of non-glandular hairs. This indumentum highly contributes to the avoidance of cold penetration into the leaf mesophyll, allowing thus plants to endure winter low temperatures. Shoots of summer plants are vigorous with large green leaves. Non-glandular hairs are dendroid with a 5-celled vertical stub and several lateral branches. Glandular hairs are of two types, large peltate hairs and small capitate hairs. Peltate hairs are numerous and consist of a 12-celled head, a unicellular stalk, and a basal epidermal cell.. They constitute the sites of essential oil secretion. Capitate hairs occur in a small number and are composed of a unicellular head, a unicellular stalk and a basal epidermal cell. They are not secreting essential oil, but a hydrophilic material. The oil secreted by the peltate hairs has antioxidant properties, opposes the oxidative stress resulted from low temperatures, and contributes to the adaptation of the plant to winter cold stress.

  7. In vitro susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum Welch field isolates to infusions prepared from Artemisia annua L. cultivated in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luiz Francisco Rocha e; Magalhães, Pedro Melillo de; Costa, Mônica Regina Farias; Alecrim, Maria das Graças Costa; Chaves, Francisco Célio Maia; Hidalgo, Ari de Freitas; Pohlit, Adrian Martin; Vieira, Pedro Paulo Ribeiro

    2012-11-01

    Artemisinin is the active antimalarial compound obtained from the leaves of Artemisia annua L. Artemisinin, and its semi-synthetic derivatives, are the main drugs used to treat multi-drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum (one of the human malaria parasite species). The in vitro susceptibility of P. falciparum K1 and 3d7 strains and field isolates from the state of Amazonas, Brazil, to A. annua infusions (5 g dry leaves in 1 L of boiling water) and the drug standards chloroquine, quinine and artemisinin were evaluated. The A. annua used was cultivated in three Amazon ecosystems (várzea, terra preta de índio and terra firme) and in the city of Paulínia, state of São Paulo, Brazil. Artemisinin levels in the A. annua leaves used were 0.90-1.13% (m/m). The concentration of artemisinin in the infusions was 40-46 mg/L. Field P. falciparum isolates were resistant to chloroquine and sensitive to quinine and artemisinin. The average 50% inhibition concentration values for A. annua infusions against field isolates were 0.11-0.14 μL/mL (these infusions exhibited artemisinin concentrations of 4.7-5.6 ng/mL) and were active in vitro against P. falciparum due to their artemisinin concentration. No synergistic effect was observed for artemisinin in the infusions. PMID:23147140

  8. In vitro susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum Welch field isolates to infusions prepared from Artemisia annua L. cultivated in the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Francisco Rocha e Silva

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Artemisinin is the active antimalarial compound obtained from the leaves of Artemisia annua L. Artemisinin, and its semi-synthetic derivatives, are the main drugs used to treat multi-drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum (one of the human malaria parasite species. The in vitro susceptibility of P. falciparum K1 and 3d7 strains and field isolates from the state of Amazonas, Brazil, to A. annua infusions (5 g dry leaves in 1 L of boiling water and the drug standards chloroquine, quinine and artemisinin were evaluated. The A. annua used was cultivated in three Amazon ecosystems (várzea, terra preta de índio and terra firme and in the city of Paulínia, state of São Paulo, Brazil. Artemisinin levels in the A. annua leaves used were 0.90-1.13% (m/m. The concentration of artemisinin in the infusions was 40-46 mg/L. Field P. falciparum isolates were resistant to chloroquine and sensitive to quinine and artemisinin. The average 50% inhibition concentration values for A. annua infusions against field isolates were 0.11-0.14 μL/mL (these infusions exhibited artemisinin concentrations of 4.7-5.6 ng/mL and were active in vitro against P. falciparum due to their artemisinin concentration. No synergistic effect was observed for artemisinin in the infusions.

  9. Filamentous Trichomic Prokaryotes in Carbonaceous Meteorites: Indigenous Microfossils, Minerals, or Modern Bio-Contaminants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Richard B.; Rozanov, Alexei Yu.

    2011-01-01

    Large complex filaments have been detected in freshly fractured interior surfaces of a variety of carbonaceous meteorites. Many exhibit the detailed morphological and morphometric characteristics of known filamentous trichomic prokaryotic microorganisms. In this paper we review prior studies of filamentous microstructures encountered in the meteorites along with the elemental compositions and characteristics of the, fibrous evaporite minerals and filamentous cyanobacteria and homologous trichomic sulfur bacteria. The meteorite images and elemental compositions will compared with data obtained with the same instruments for abiotic microstructures and living and fossil microorganisms in order to evaluate the relative merits of the alternate hypotheses that have been advanced to explain the nature and characteristics of the meteorite filaments. The possibiility that the filaments found in the meteorites may be comprise modern bio-contaminants will be evaluated in light of their observed elemental compositions and data by other researchers on the detection of indigenous complex organic biosignatures, and extraterrestrial amino acids and nucleobases found in the Murchison CM2 and the Orgueil CI1 carbonaceous meteorites.

  10. Role of allelochemicals and trichome density in the resistance of tomato to whitefly Papel de aleloquímicos e densidade de tricomas na resistência de tomateiro à mosca-branca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irã Pinheiro Neiva

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, the tomato is cultivated in almost all geographic regions even though its yield is significantly reduced by pests and diseases. Among these pests and diseases, whitefly is a major problem that causes direct and indirect damage due to its role in transmission of geminiviruses. The aim of the present study was to compare the degree of resistance to the silverleaf whitefly of tomato plant lines rich in acyl sugars (AS, zingiberene (ZGB, and 2-tridecanone (2-TD and to establish whether selection for strains with higher densities of glandular trichomes promotes sufficient resistance to this insect pest. The investigated lines were developed by performing back-crossings in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum from the interspecific crossing of S. lycopersicum x S. habrochaites var. glabratum 'PI 134417'. Lines rich in AS, ZGB, and 2-TD were tested for their levels of resistance to B. tabaci biotype B. Two tomato plant lines (TOM-584 and TOM-679 with normal AS levels and one wild specimen (PI 134417 with high 2-TD content were used as controls. TOM-687, ZGB-703, and TOM-622 were less preferred by B. tabaci for oviposition, and nymphs exhibited a poorer survival rate on those plant lines than on the susceptible controls, TOM-584 and TOM-679. Allelochemical-rich lines exhibited pest resistance, whereas the controls did not, and the allelochemical-rich lines did not differ significantly from each other in the level of resistance. The results show that the development of tomato plant lines rich in 2-TD, ZGB and AS is an effective option for indirect selection for resistance to B. tabaci biotype B. All lines selected based on high trichome density except for BPX-365F-751-05-01-03 exhibited fewer nymphs than the susceptible controls, indicating that selection for more glandular trichomes was generally effective in promoting increased resistance to the silverleaf white flay.No Brasil, o tomate é cultivado em praticamente todas as regiões, embora seu

  11. Expression of nucleophosmin in glandular epithelium of non-pregnant human endometrium during the menstrual cycle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KUANG Ye; XU Peng; WEN Hai-xia; KONG Xian-chao; GUAN Li-li; LI Pei-ling

    2011-01-01

    Background Nucleophosmin plays a critical role in embryonic development. This study aimed to examine the expression pattern of nucleophosmin in glandular epithelium of human endometrium during the menstrual cycle.Methods Endometrial tissues used for this study were obtained from 46 non-pregnant patients who underwent hysterectomy which had been performed to treat benign diseases. Nucleophosmin expression was assessed by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry.Results At the early-, mid- and late-proliferative phase, nucleophosmin mRNA was highly expressed in glandular epithelium of human endometrium. At the secretory phase, the expression of nucleophosmin mRNA was reduced in glandular epithelium in early-secretory phase, and the expression in mid- and late-secretory phases was not detected.Similarly, nucleophosmin protein was strongly expressed in endometrial glands throughout the proliferative phase, but was gradually reduced during secretory phase.Conclusion Nucleophosmin mRNA and protein are expressed in glandular epithelium of human endometrium throughout the menstrual cycle.

  12. Method for the evaluation of a average glandular dose in mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper concerns a method for accurate evaluation of average glandular dose (AGD) in mammography. At different energies, the interactions of photons with tissue are not uniform. Thus, optimal accuracy in the estimation of AGD is achievable when the evaluation is carried out using the normalized glandular dose values, g(x,E), that are determined for each (monoenergetic) x-ray photon energy, E, compressed breast thickness (CBT), x, breast glandular composition, and data on photon energy distribution of the exact x-ray beam used in breast imaging. A generalized model for the values of g(x,E) that is for any arbitrary CBT ranging from 2 to 9 cm (with values that are not whole numbers inclusive, say, 4.2 cm) was developed. Along with other dosimetry formulations, this was integrated into a computer software program, GDOSE.FOR, that was developed for the evaluation of AGD received from any x-ray tube/equipment (irrespective of target-filter combination) of up to 50 kVp. Results are presented which show that the implementation of GDOSE.FOR yields values of normalized glandular dose that are in good agreement with values obtained from methodologies reported earlier in the literature. With the availability of a portable device for real-time acquisition of spectra, the model and computer software reported in this work provide for the routine evaluation of AGD received by a specific woman of known age and CBT

  13. Determination of average glandular dose with modern mammography units for two large groups of patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Until recently, for mammography Mo anode - Mo filter x-ray tube assemblies were almost exclusively used. Modern mammography units provide the possibility to employ a variety of anode - filter combinations with the aim of adapting the x-ray spectrum to compressed breast thickness and composition. The present contribution provides information on the radiation exposure of two large groups of patients (one of 1678 and one of 945 women) who were mammographed with modern x-ray equipment, and on the dosimetry necessary for the evaluation. For dosimetric purposes spectral information is essential. X-ray spectra have been determined for various anode-filter combinations from measurements with a Ge detector. Based on these spectra, conversion factors from air kerma free in air to average glandular dose (g actors) have been calculated for different anode-filter combinations, compressed breast thickness ranging from 2 to 9 cm and breast compositions varying from 0 to 100% glandular tissue. Determinations of various quantities, including entrance surface air kerma (ESAK), tube output, tube loading (TL), fraction of glandular tissue (FGL) and compressed breast thickness, were made during actual mammography. Average glandular dose (AGD) as determined using g factors corrected for tissue composition as well as g values for standard breast composition, i.e. 50% adipose tissue and 50% glandular tissue by mass. It is shown that, on average, the influence of the actual breast composition causes variations of the order of about 15%. For group 1 and group 2, the mean values of average glandular dose (using g actors corrected for tissue composition) were 1.59 and 2.07 mGy respectively. The number of exposures per woman was on average 3.4 and 3.6 respectively. The mean value of compressed breast thickness was 55.9 and 50.8 m respectively. The mean age of group 1 was 53.6 years (for group 2 the age as not recorded). The fraction by mass of glandular tissue FGL decreases with increasing

  14. Use of Artemisia annua as a natural coccidiostat in free-range broilers and its effects on infection dynamics and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almeida, Gustavo Fonseca; Horsted, Klaus; Thamsborg, Stig Milan;

    2012-01-01

    This work investigated the preventive effect of Artemisia annua L. dried leaves supplied as a botanical coccidiostat to two broiler genotypes reared in a Danish free-range system in a factorial experiment (two genotypes and ± supplement of dried A. annua leaves). The genotypes White Bresse L40......, a pure slow-growing line, and Kosmos 8 Ross, a hybrid genotype with medium growing characteristics, were used. Broilers were raised indoor until 29-daysold and kept free of parasites. Twelve groups of 30 randomly selected broilers were placed in the range forming three replicates for each treatment...... for the White Bresse genotype. In conclusion, supply of A. annua dried leaves as a botanical coccidiostat significantly reduced oocyst output in free ranged broilers and thus may form part of a strategy to prevent commercial losses....

  15. RNA-seq discovery, functional characterization, and comparison of sesquiterpene synthases from Solanum lycopersicum and Solanum habrochaites trichomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.M. Bleeker; E.A. Spyropoulou; P.J. Diergaarde; P. Volpin; M.T.J. de Both; P. Zerbe; J. Bohlmann; V. Falara; Y. Matsuba; E. Pichersky; M.A. Haring; R.C. Schuurink

    2011-01-01

    Solanum lycopersicum and Solanum habrochaites (f. typicum) accession PI127826 emit a variety of sesquiterpenes. To identify terpene synthases involved in the production of these volatile sesquiterpenes, we used massive parallel pyrosequencing (RNA-seq) to obtain the transcriptome of the stem trichom

  16. Terrific Trichomes (and Other Specialised Cells) in African Violets: How to Get a Lot from One Plant in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, Vicki M.

    2013-01-01

    African violet (genus "Saintpaulia") was identified as a particularly suitable genus for the study of specialised plant cells in the classroom using microscopes. The techniques described here involve simple preparation without staining. The cells and structures that can be investigated include: trichomes (hairs); stomata; guard cells and…

  17. Isolation and identification of a new flavonoid glycoside from Carrichtera annua L. seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelaaty A Shahat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Flavonoids are a major group of constituents and are assumed to be among the beneficial components. Recently, they have also received considerable interest as components of foodstuffs and nutraceuticals because of their antioxidant and anticancer properties. Materials and Methods: About 500 g of air-dried powdered seeds of C. annua were defatted seeds and extracted with 70% methanol. The combined methanol extract was partitioned with chloroform and n-butanol. The butanol extract was concentrated and subjected to column chromatography on polyamide. Results: The fraction eluted with aqueous methanol (40% and 50% was found to contain three main flavonoids (1, 2, and 3. Repeated column chromatography on polyamide and Sephadex LH-20 gave compound 1. Compounds 2 and 3 were further purified using preparative paper chromatography with 20% HOAc and Sephadex LH-20 column. Conclusions: Reinvestigation of the flavonoidal constituents of the butanol fraction of the aqueous methanolic extract of Carrichteraannua seeds led to isolation and identification of a new flavonoidal glycosidenamed as quercetin 3-O-[(6-sinapoyl-b-glucopyranosyl-(1;2-b-arabinopyranosyl]-7-O-b-glucopyranoside 1, in addition to, quarecetin-3-O-glucoside 2, isorhamnetin-3-O-b-runtinoside3, and isorhamnetin4.Structures of the isolated compounds were established by UV, MS, and 1 H and 13 C NMR.

  18. Isolation and identification of a new flavonoid glycoside from Carrichtera annua L. seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahat, Abdelaaty A.; Abdelshafeek, Khaled A.; Husseiny, Husseiny A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Flavonoids are a major group of constituents and are assumed to be among the beneficial components. Recently, they have also received considerable interest as components of foodstuffs and nutraceuticals because of their antioxidant and anticancer properties. Materials and Methods: About 500 g of air-dried powdered seeds of C. annua were defatted seeds and extracted with 70% methanol. The combined methanol extract was partitioned with chloroform and n-butanol. The butanol extract was concentrated and subjected to column chromatography on polyamide. Results: The fraction eluted with aqueous methanol (40% and 50%) was found to contain three main flavonoids (1, 2, and 3). Repeated column chromatography on polyamide and Sephadex LH-20 gave compound 1. Compounds 2 and 3 were further purified using preparative paper chromatography with 20% HOAc and Sephadex LH-20 column. Conclusions: Reinvestigation of the flavonoidal constituents of the butanol fraction of the aqueous methanolic extract of Carrichteraannua seeds led to isolation and identification of a new flavonoidal glycosidenamed as quercetin 3-O-[(6-sinapoyl-β-glucopyranosyl)-(1→2)-β-arabinopyranosyl]-7-O-β-glucopyranoside 1, in addition to, quarecetin-3-O-glucoside 2, isorhamnetin-3-O-β-runtinoside3, and isorhamnetin4.Structures of the isolated compounds were established by UV, MS, and 1H and 13C NMR. PMID:22022161

  19. Enhancing the growth, photosynthetic capacity and artemisinin content in Artemisia annua L. by irradiated sodium alginate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aftab, Tariq, E-mail: tarik.alig@gmail.co [Plant Physiology Section, Department of Botany, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002 (India); Khan, M. Masroor A.; Idrees, M.; Naeem, M.; Moinuddin,; Hashmi, Nadeem [Plant Physiology Section, Department of Botany, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002 (India); Varshney, Lalit [ISOMED, Radiation Technology Development Section, Radio-Chemistry and Isotope Group, BARC, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2011-07-15

    Degrading the natural bioactive agents by ionizing radiation and then using them as growth promoting substances is a novel emerging technology to exploit the genetic potential of crops in terms of growth, yield and quality. Polysaccharides, such as sodium alginate, have proven to be wonderful growth promoting substances in their depolymerized form for various plants. The effect of depolymerized form of sodium alginate, produced by irradiating the latter by {sup 60}Co gamma rays, was studied on Artemisia annua L. with regard to growth attributes, physiological and biochemical parameters and artemisinin content. The study revealed that the irradiated sodium alginate (ISA), applied as leaf-sprays at a concentration of 20-120 mg L{sup -1}, improved the growth attributes, photosynthetic capability, enzyme activities and artemisinin content of the plant significantly. Application of ISA at 80 mg L{sup -1} increased the values of the attributes studied to the maximum extent. The enhancement of leaf-artemisinin content was ascribed to the ISA-enhanced H{sub 2}O{sub 2} content in the leaves. -- Highlights: {yields} Application of ionizing radiation to degrade natural bioactive agents is a novel emerging technology. {yields} Sodium alginate has been used as the growth promoting substance in its depolymerized form for various plants. {yields} The study revealed that irradiated sodium algiante at 20-120 ppm concentration improved the plant growth. {yields} The enhancement of artemisinin content was ascribed to the ISA-enhanced H{sub 2}O{sub 2} content in leaves.

  20. Is rapid evolution of reproductive traits in Adonis annua consistent with pollinator decline?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomann, M.; Imbert, E.; Cheptou, P.-O.

    2015-11-01

    Growing human footprint on the environment rapidly modifies the living conditions of natural populations. This could lead to phenotypic changes through both plasticity and evolution. Therefore, distinguishing the role of evolution in the phenotypic response to global change is a major challenge. In this study, we benefited from past and recent seeds from a population of the annual self-compatible weed Adonis annua. Seeds were sampled from the same locality at an 18 years interval and close to a region where reduction of bee pollinators' density has been reported. We used a common garden experiment to investigate evolutionary changes, between the old (1992) and the recent (2010) sample, for some reproductive traits expected to be under selection in the context of climate warming and pollinator decline. Plants of the recent sample flowered earlier, had larger flowers, but also evolved a shorter floral longevity. The capacity of plants to reproduce autonomously (autonomous selfing) was similar in the two samples. These results are consistent with adaptation of flowering phenology to climate warming and in part consistent with the evolution of increased pollinator attraction under pollinator decline. Together with other recent studies, this study provides evidence that short-term evolution is a frequent phenomenon accompanying global change.

  1. Caracterização morfológica dos tricomas foliares e caulinares de duas espécies de Lamiaceae conhecidas popularmente como “falsoboldo” = Morphological characterization of the trichomes on the leaves and stem of two Lamiaceae species known popularly as “false-boldus”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariza Barion Romagnolo

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available As descrições morfoanatômicas das espécies vegetais, com finalidademedicamentosa, são necessárias para embasar as análises de controle de qualidade nos laboratórios de farmacognosia, tendo este estudo o objetivo de analisar duas espécies de Lamiaceae conhecidas como “falso-boldo”: Plectranthus barbatus e P. grandis, que caracterizame quantificam os tricomas presentes em suas folhas e caule. Para as análises morfoanatômicas foram preparadas seções transversais do limbo, pecíolo e entrenós do caule, utilizando-se de técnicas usuais de morfologia e anatomia vegetal para a preparação de laminário semipermanente, tendo como corantes o azul de astra e a safranina. As análises revelaram que as folhas de ambas as espécies são morfologicamente semelhantes, mas diferindo quanto às dimensões do limbo. Os tipos de tricomas glandulares encontrados foram: peltado, captado-longo e captado-curto; e tectores: simples unisseriados com duas ou mais células na base. Com algumas exceções, todos os cinco tipos de tricomas foram observados no limbo, pecíolo e entrenós do caule, tendo P. grandis números médios significativamente superiores aos encontradas nos órgãos de P. barbatus, com exceção do tricoma tector simples, mais abundante no caule da segunda espécie.The morphoanatomical description of vegetable species, for medical purpose, is necessary to foreground the analyses of quality control in the pharmacognostic laboratories. The objective of this study was to analyze two Lamiaceae species known as “false-boldus” (Plectranthus barbatus and P. grandis, characterizing and quantifying the trichomes present in their leaves and stems. For the morphoanatomical analyses transverse sections of the leaves,petiole, and stem were prepared, using common techniques of plant morphology and anatomy for the preparation of semi-permanent slides, stained with astra blue and safranin. Analyses revealed that the leaves of both species are

  2. In vitro susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum Welch field isolates to infusions prepared from Artemisia annua L. cultivated in the Brazilian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Francisco Rocha e Silva; Pedro Melillo de Magalhães; Mônica Regina Farias Costa; Maria das Graças Costa Alecrim; Francisco Célio Maia Chaves; Ari de Freitas Hidalgo; Adrian Martin Pohlit; Pedro Paulo Ribeiro Vieira

    2012-01-01

    Artemisinin is the active antimalarial compound obtained from the leaves of Artemisia annua L. Artemisinin, and its semi-synthetic derivatives, are the main drugs used to treat multi-drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum (one of the human malaria parasite species). The in vitro susceptibility of P. falciparum K1 and 3d7 strains and field isolates from the state of Amazonas, Brazil, to A. annua infusions (5 g dry leaves in 1 L of boiling water) and the drug standards chloroquine, quinine and ar...

  3. Estimation of the average glandular dose on a team of tomosynthesis; Estimacion de la dosis glandular media en un equipo de tomosintesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunez Martinez, L. M. R.; Sanchez Jimenez, J.; Pizarro trigo, F.

    2013-07-01

    Seeking to improve the information that gives us an image of mammography the manufacturers have implemented tomosynthesis. With this method of acquisition and reconstruction of image we went from having a 2D to a 3D image image, in such a way that it reduces or eliminates the effect of overlap of tissues. The estimate of the dose, which is always a fundamental parameter in the control of quality of radiology equipment, is more in the case of mammography by the radiosensitivity of this body and the frequency of their use. The objective of this work is the determination of the mean in a team glandular dose of with tomosynthesis mammography. (Author)

  4. Flavonoids from Artemisia annua L. as Antioxidants and Their Potential Synergism with Artemisinin against Malaria and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge F.S. Ferreira

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia annua is currently the only commercial source of the sesquiterpene lactone artemisinin.Since artemisinin was discovered as the active component of A. annua in early 1970s, hundreds of papers have focused on the anti-parasitic effects of artemisinin and its semi-synthetic analogs dihydroartemisinin, artemether, arteether, and artesunate. Artemisinin per se has not been used in mainstream clinical practice due to its poor bioavailability when compared to its analogs. In the past decade, the work with artemisinin-based compounds has expanded to their anti-cancer properties. Although artemisinin is a major bioactive component present in the traditional Chinese herbal preparations (tea, leaf flavonoids, also present in the tea, have shown a variety of biological activities and may synergize the effects of artemisinin against malaria and cancer. However, only a few studies have focused on the potential synergistic effects between flavonoids and artemisinin. The resurgent idea that multi-component drug therapy might be better than monotherapy is illustrated by the recent resolution of the World Health Organization to support artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACT, instead of the previously used monotherapy with artemisinins. In this critical review we will discuss the possibility that artemisinin and its semi-synthetic analogs might become more effective to treat parasitic diseases (such as malaria and cancer if simultaneously delivered with flavonoids. The flavonoids present in A. annua leaves have been linked to suppression of CYP450 enzymes responsible for altering the absorption and metabolism of artemisinin in the body, but also have been linked to a beneficial immunomodulatory activity in subjects afflicted with parasitic and chronic diseases.

  5. Changes in key constituents of clonally propagated Artemisia annua L. during preparation of compressed leaf tablets for possible therapeutic use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weathers, Pamela J; Towler, Melissa J

    2014-12-01

    Artemisia annua L., long used as a tea infusion in traditional Chinese medicine, produces artemisinin. Although artemisinin is currently used as artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) against malaria, oral consumption of dried leaves from the plant showed efficacy and will be less costly than ACT. Many compounds in the plant have some antimalarial activity. Unknown, however, is how these plant components change as leaves are processed into tablets for oral consumption. Here we compared extracts from fresh and dried leaf biomass with compressed leaf tablets of A. annua. Using GC-MS, nineteen endogenous compounds, including artemisinin and several of its pathway metabolites, nine flavonoids, three monoterpenes, a coumarin, and two phenolic acids, were identified and quantified from solvent extracts to determine how levels of these compounds changed during processing. Results showed that compared to dried leaves, artemisinin, arteannuin B, artemisinic acid, chlorogenic acid, scopoletin, chrysoplenetin, and quercetin increased or remained stable with powdering and compression into tablets. Dihydroartemisinic acid, monoterpenes, and chrysoplenol-D decreased with tablet formation. Five target compounds were not detectable in any of the extracts of this cultivar. In contrast to the individually measured aglycone flavonoids, using the AlCl3 method, total flavonoids increased nearly fivefold during the tablet formation. To our knowledge this is the first study documenting changes that occurred in processing dried leaves of A. annua into tablets. These results will improve our understanding of the potential use of not only this medicinal herb, but also others to afford better quality control of intact plant material for therapeutic use. PMID:25228784

  6. Polyphenols from Artemisia annua L Inhibit Adhesion and EMT of Highly Metastatic Breast Cancer Cells MDA-MB-231.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Young Shin; Lee, Won Sup; Panchanathan, Radha; Joo, Young Nak; Choi, Yung Hyun; Kim, Gon Sup; Jung, Jin-Myung; Ryu, Chung Ho; Shin, Sung Chul; Kim, Hye Jung

    2016-07-01

    Recent evidence suggests that polyphenolic compounds from plants have anti-invasion and anti-metastasis capabilities. The Korean annual weed, Artemisia annua L., has been used as a folk medicine for treatment of various diseases. Here, we isolated and characterized polyphenols from Korean A. annua L (pKAL). We investigated anti-metastatic effects of pKAL on the highly metastatic MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells especially focusing on cancer cell adhesion to the endothelial cell and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Firstly, pKAL inhibited cell viability of MDA-MB-231 cells in a dose-dependent manner, but not that of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (ECs). Polyphenols from Korean A. annua L inhibited the adhesion of MDA-MB-231 cells to ECs through reducing vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression of MDA-MB-231 and ECs, but not intracellular adhesion molecule-1 at the concentrations where pKAL did not influence the cell viability of either MDA-MB-231 cells nor EC. Further, pKAL inhibited tumor necrosis factor-activated MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell invasion through inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 and EMT. Moreover, pKAL inhibited phosphorylation of Akt, but not that of protein kinase C. These results suggest that pKAL may serve as a therapeutic agent against cancer metastasis at least in part by inhibiting the cancer cell adhesion to ECs through suppression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and invasion through suppression of EMT. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27151203

  7. Monte Carlo simulation for the estimation of the glandular breast dose for a digital breast tomosynthesis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is a screening and diagnostic modality that acquires images of the breast at multiple angles during a short scan. The Selenia Dimensions (Hologic, Bedford, Mass) DBT system can perform both full-field digital mammography and DBT. The system acquires 15 projections over a 15 deg. angular range (from -7.5 deg. to +7.5 deg.). An important factor in determining the optimal imaging technique for breast tomosynthesis is the radiation dose. In breast imaging, the radiation dose of concern is that deposited in the glandular tissue of the breast because this is the tissue that has a risk of developing cancer. The concept of the normalised mean glandular dose (DgN) has been introduced as the metric for the dose in breast imaging. The DgN is difficult to measure. The Monte Carlo techniques offer an alternative method for a realistic estimation of the radiation dose. The purpose of this work was to use the Monte Carlo code MCNPX technique to generate monoenergetic glandular dose data for estimating the breast tissue dose in tomosynthesis for arbitrary spectra as well as to observe the deposited radiation dose by projection on the glandular portion of the breast in a Selenia Dimensions DBT system. A Monte Carlo simulation of the system was developed to compute the DgN in a craniocaudal view. Monoenergetic X-ray beams from 10 to 49 keV in 1-keV increments were used. The simulation utilised the assumption of a homogeneous breast composition and three compositions (0 % glandular, 50 % glandular and 100 % glandular). The glandular and adipose tissue compositions were specified according ICRU Report 44. A skin layer of 4 mm was assumed to encapsulate the breast on all surfaces. The breast size was varied using the chest wall-to-nipple distance (CND) and compressed breast thickness (t). In this work, the authors assumed a CND of 5 cm and the thicknesses ranged from 2 to 8 cm, in steps of 2 cm. The fractional energy absorption increases (up to 44

  8. Effects of exogenous methyl jasmonate and 2-isopentenyladenine on artemisinin production and gene expression in Artemisia annua

    OpenAIRE

    MEHRJERDI, Mahboobeh ZARE; BIHAMTA, Mohammad-Reza; OMIDI, Mansoor

    2013-01-01

    Artemisinin, produced in very low amounts in Artemisia annua L. plants, is one of the most effective drugs in treating malaria. In this study, the effect of exogenous applications of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and 2-isopentenyladenine (2-iP) in artemisinin production and the main genes of its biosynthesis pathway within a 1-week time period were investigated. Both MeJA and 2-iP increased artemisinin content, but no correlation was found between gene expression and its content. In plants treated ...

  9. Relationship between morphological traits and secondary metabolites in Artemisia annua L. by using correlation and path analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpi Paul, A A Naqvi, Madan M Gupta, Suman P S Khanuja

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Correlation and path analysis were performed for fifteen morphological and chemical (monoterpenes and sequeterpenes traits in Artemisia annua. Significant positive relationship and direct effect was observed of artemisinin yield with plant height, branching pattern (number of primary, secondary and tertiary branches, petiole length, ketone and 1, 8 cineol while negative association was observed with artemisinic acid, α-pinene and camphor. Oil content was negatively associated with leaf characters namely lamina length, lamina width and petiole length. Oil has negative effect on artemisinin content. The information can be used as a useful reference for elucidating relationship of Artemisinin (sesquiterpene, essential oil (monoterpene with m

  10. Evaluation of average glandular dose in digital and conventional systems of the mammography; Avaliacao da dose glandular media em sistemas digitais e convencionais de mamografia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xavier, Aline C.S.; Barros, Vinicius S.M.; Khoury, Hellen J., E-mail: alinecx90@gmail.com, E-mail: vsmdbarros@gmail.com, E-mail: hjkhoury@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear; Mello, Francisca A. de, E-mail: francissamello@yahoo.com.br [Hospital das Clinicas do Recife (HCR/UFPE), PE (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Mammography is currently the most effective method of diagnosis and detection of breast pathologies. The main interest in this kid of exam comes from the high incidence rate of breast cancer and necessity of high quality images for accurate diagnosis. Digital mammography systems have several advantages compared to conventional systems, however the use of digital imaging systems is not always integrated to an image acquisition protocol. Therefore, it is questionable if digital systems truly reduce the dose received by the patient, because many times is introduced in the clinics without optimization of the image acquisition protocols. The aim of this study is to estimate the value of incident air Kerma and average glandular dose (AGD) in patients undergoing conventional and digital mammography systems in Recife. This study was conducted with 650 patients in three hospitals. The value of incident air Kerma was estimated from the measurement of the yield of equipment and irradiation parameters used for each patient. From these results and using the methodology proposed by Dance et al. the value of the average glandular dose was calculated. The results obtained show that the lowest value of AGD was found with conventional screen-film system, indicating that the parameters for image acquisition with digital systems are not optimized. It was also observed that the institutions with digital systems use lower breast compression values than the conventional. (author)

  11. Comparison of mean glandular dose values provided by a digital breast tomosynthesis system in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies are needed to determine the radiation dose of patients that are undergoing Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) procedures. Mean glandular dose (DG) values were derived from the incident air kerma (Ki) measurements and tabulated conversion coefficients. Ki values were obtained through an ionization chamber positioned in a Hologic Selenia Dimensions system using appropriate exposure parameters. This work contributes to determine the reliable radiation dose received by the patients and compare DG values provided by this DBT system images. - Highlights: • Studies are needed to determine the dose of tomosynthesis (DBT) procedures. • Mean glandular dose (DG) results derived from the incident air kerma (Ki). • Ki values were obtained through an ionization chamber. • A DBT system was used with appropriate exposure parameters. • This work contributes to compare DG values provided by this DBT system images

  12. Histological Correlation of Glandular Abnormalities in Cervical Liquid-Based Cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosuke Kawakami

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional Papanicolaou smear method is still commonly used for cervical cancer screening in Japan, despite the liquid-based cytology (LBC that has become a global tendency in the world recently. One of the obstacles in the way of popularization of this method seems to be the confusion as to diagnosis upon cervical glandular lesions. We performed comparison study between LBC and conventional Papanicolaou smear about cytological diagnosis using split-sample method in 4522 patients. In 13 cases analyses, which were reported with either AGC or adenocarcinoma by either method, LBC tends to be milder than that by conventional smear, however, the credibility of LBC is considered to be near to that of conventional smear with regard to screening for glandular abnormalities. These results indicate that cervical cancer screening should shift to LBC under the enough experience and appropriate dealing with the cytological diagnosis.

  13. The Study of Mean Glandular Dose in Mammography in Yazd and the Factors Affecting It

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Bouzarjomehri

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds/Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the mean glandular dose (MGD resulting from mammography examinations in Yazd, southeastern Iran and to identify the factors affecting it. Patients and Methods: This survey was conducted during May to December 2005 to estimate the MGD for women undergoing mammography and to report the distribution of dose, com-pressed breast thickness, glandular tissue content, and mammography technique used. The clinical data were collected from 946 mammograms taken from 246 women who were referred to four mammography centers. The mammography instruments in these centers were four modern units with a molybdenum anode and either molybdenum or rhodium filter. The exposure conditions of each mammogram were recorded. The breast glandular content of each mammogram was estimated by a radiologist. The MGD was calculated based on measuring the normalized entrance skin dose (ESD in air, Half Value Layer (HVL, kVp, mAs, breast thickness and glandular content. HVL, kVp and ESD were measured by a solid-state detector. The analytical method of Sobol et al. was used for calculation of MGD. Results: The mean±SD MGD per film was 1.2±0.6 mGy for craniocaudal and 1.63±0.9 mGy for mediolateral oblique views. The mean±SD MGD per woman was 5.57±3.1 mGy. A positive correlation was found between the beam HVL with MGD (r=0.38 and the breast thickness with MGD (r=0.5. Conclusion: The mean±SD MGD per film of 1.42±0.8 mGy in present study was lower than most of similar reports. However, the mean MGD per woman was higher than that in other studies.

  14. Thymomas with prominent glandular differentiation: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 12 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissferdt, Annikka; Moran, Cesar A

    2013-08-01

    Twelve cases of thymomas with prominent glandular differentiation are presented. The patients were 7 men and 5 women aged between 45 and 68 years (average, 56.5 years). Clinically, the patients presented with nonspecific symptoms of chest pain, cough, and fatigue. None of the patients had a history of myasthenia gravis or other autoimmune syndrome. Thymectomy was performed in all patients. The tumor size ranged from 4 to 7 cm in greatest diameter. Macroscopically, the tumors were described as firm and light tan without areas of necrosis, hemorrhage, or cystic change. Histologically, 7 tumors were classified as spindle cell (World Health Organization type A), 2 as mixed spindle cell and conventional (A+B1), 2 as conventional (B1), and 1 as atypical thymoma (B3). In 4 cases, the tumors showed invasion into periadipose thymic tissue. All cases showed the typical growth patterns of their particular subtypes. In addition, a distinct glandular component was present in all cases showing mucinous differentiation in 4 of them. Immunohistochemical studies showed tumor cells positive for CAM5.2, cytokeratin 5/6, and Pax8 and negative for carcinoembryonic antigen, thyroid transcription factor 1, and epithelial membrane antigen. Calretinin showed focal weak staining in the nonmucinous glandular components in 3 cases. Follow-up information obtained in 8 patients showed that all were alive and well in a period ranging from 2 to 5 years. The possibility of a glandular component in thymomas should be kept in mind in the assessment of mediastinoscopic biopsies to avoid misdiagnosis for other neoplasms that may require different treatment modalities. PMID:23528863

  15. Analysis of patient exposure dose for mammography. Estimation of average glandular dose in 1998 questionnaire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, patient exposure dose for mammography are varied because of a great demand for mammography, which non-palpable lesion can be detected, diffusion of special X-ray equipment, progress of CR and enlightenment or study on mammography in Japanese society of radiological technology. Therefore, the newest patient exposure dose obtained from '98 questionnaire carried out to the whole country in Japan was investigated. Furthermore, the average glandular dose based on '98 was compared with that of '93. The average glandular dose can be calculated from the product of the breast entrance skin exposure and DgN (the average glandular dose per unit entrance skin exposure). The breast entrance skin dose was estimated from the dose of 782 institutions in '98, which was calculated from data measured at 51 institutions in Tokai and Hokuriku area. DgN was used published table of 50% adipose-50% glandular breast composition and 4.2 cm breast thickness corresponding to measured half-value layer (HVL) on each tube voltages. Then, patient exposure dose for mammography was estimated from exposure condition (tube voltage, mAs value) obtained '98 questionnaire. The dose in '98 estimated 1.422 mGy was reduced that compared with in '93 estimated 1.610 mGy. The dose of '98 without grid was reduced about 30% of '93. The dose of 98 with grid was not any reduced than the dose of '93. However, the number of institution of '98 with grid was about 2.8 times than '93. The patient exposure dose for mammography was reduced approximately 10% during 5 years. There are probability that mammography with grid for guidance level will be 1.5 mGy. (author)

  16. Histological Correlation of Glandular Abnormalities in Cervical Liquid-Based Cytology

    OpenAIRE

    Yosuke Kawakami; Tamaki Toda; Toshinao Nishimura; Junichi Sakane; Kazuya Kuraoka; Kazuhiro Takehara; Tomoya Mizunoe; Kiyomi Taniyama

    2011-01-01

    Conventional Papanicolaou smear method is still commonly used for cervical cancer screening in Japan, despite the liquid-based cytology (LBC) that has become a global tendency in the world recently. One of the obstacles in the way of popularization of this method seems to be the confusion as to diagnosis upon cervical glandular lesions. We performed comparison study between LBC and conventional Papanicolaou smear about cytological diagnosis using split-sample method in 4522 patients. In 13 ca...

  17. Long acting β2-agonist and corticosteroid restore airway glandular cell function altered by bacterial supernatant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawrocki-Raby Béatrice

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Staphylococcus aureus releases virulence factors (VF that may impair the innate protective functions of airway cells. The aim of this study was to determine whether a long-acting β2 adrenergic receptor agonist (salmeterol hydroxynaphthoate, Sal combined with a corticosteroid (fluticasone propionate, FP was able to regulate ion content and cytokine expression by airway glandular cells after exposure to S. aureus supernatant. Methods A human airway glandular cell line was incubated with S. aureus supernatant for 1 h and then treated with the combination Sal/FP for 4 h. The expression of actin and CFTR proteins was analyzed by immunofluorescence. Videomicroscopy was used to evaluate chloride secretion and X-ray microanalysis to measure the intracellular ion and water content. The pro-inflammatory cytokine expression was assessed by RT-PCR and ELISA. Results When the cells were incubated with S. aureus supernatant and then with Sal/FP, the cellular localisation of CFTR was apical compared to the cytoplasmic localisation in cells incubated with S. aureus supernatant alone. The incubation of airway epithelial cells with S. aureus supernatant reduced by 66% the chloride efflux that was fully restored by Sal/FP treatment. We also observed that Sal/FP treatment induced the restoration of ion (Cl and S and water content within the intracellular secretory granules of airway glandular cells and reduced the bacterial supernatant-dependent increase of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL8 and TNFα. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that treatment with the combination of a corticosteroid and a long-acting β2 adrenergic receptor agonist after bacterial infection restores the airway glandular cell function. Abnormal mucus induced by defective ion transport during pulmonary infection could benefit from treatment with a combination of β2 adrenergic receptor agonist and glucocorticoid.

  18. Mayolenes: labile defensive lipids from the glandular hairs of a caterpillar (Pieris rapae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedley, Scott R; Schroeder, Frank C; Weibel, Douglas B; Meinwald, Jerrold; Lafleur, Katie A; Renwick, J Alan; Rutowski, Ronald; Eisner, Thomas

    2002-05-14

    Larvae of the European cabbage butterfly, Pieris rapae (Pieridae), are beset with glandular hairs, bearing droplets of a clear oily secretion at their tip. The fluid consists primarily of a series of chemically labile, unsaturated lipids, the mayolenes, which are derived from 11-hydroxylinolenic acid. In bioassays with the ant Crematogaster lineolata, the secretion was shown to be potently deterrent, indicating that the fluid plays a defensive role in nature. PMID:11997469

  19. A computational approach to resolve cell level contributions to early glandular epithelial cancer progression

    OpenAIRE

    Park Sunwoo; Mostov Keith; Debnath Jayanta; Kim Sean HJ; Hunt C Anthony

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Three-dimensional (3D) embedded cell cultures provide an appropriate physiological environment to reconstruct features of early glandular epithelial cancer. Although these are orders of magnitude simpler than tissues, they too are complex systems that have proven challenging to understand. We used agent-based, discrete event simulation modeling methods to build working hypotheses of mechanisms of epithelial 3D culture phenotype and early cancer progression. Starting with a...

  20. Glandular odontogenic cyst associated with ameloblastoma occupying maxillary sinus: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riaz Abdulla

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC is a rare entity with around 111 cases available in the literature. The occurrence of GOC with ameloblastoma as a collision tumor is rarest, and such a case poses problems in the form of diagnostic dilemma and management. The present case report describes and discusses a rare case of GOC with ameloblastomatous component occurring in right maxilla of a 54-year-old male patient with a chief complaint of painful swelling.

  1. Epithelial cell proliferation and glandular atrophy in lymphocytic gastritis: Effect of H pylori treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Mäkinen, Johanna M; Niemelä, Seppo; Kerola, Tuomo; Lehtola, Juhani; Karttunen, Tuomo J

    2003-01-01

    AIM: Lymphocytic gastritis is commonly associated with Helicobacter pylori infection. The presence of glandular atrophy and foveolar hyperplasia in lymphocytic gastritis suggests abnormalities in cell proliferation and differentiation, forming a potential link with the suspected association with gastric cancer. Our aim was to compare epithelial proliferation and morphology in H pylori associated lymphocytic gastritis and H pylori gastritis without features of lymphocytic gastritis, and to eva...

  2. Effect of the glandular composition on digital breast tomosynthesis image quality and dose optimisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the image quality assessment for digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT), a breast phantom with an average percentage of 50 % glandular tissue is seldom used, which may not be representative of the breast tissue composition of the women undergoing such examination. This work aims at studying the effect of the glandular composition of the breast on the image quality taking into consideration different sizes of lesions. Monte Carlo simulations were performed using the state-of-the-art computer program PENELOPE to validate the image acquisition system of the DBT equipment as well as to calculate the mean glandular dose for each projection image and for different breast compositions. The integrated PENELOPE imaging tool (PenEasy) was used to calculate, in mammography, for each clinical detection task the X-ray energy that maximises the figure of merit. All the 2D cranial-caudal projections for DBT were simulated and then underwent the reconstruction process applying the Simultaneous Algebraic Reconstruction Technique. Finally, through signal-to-noise ratio analysis, the image quality in DBT was assessed. (authors)

  3. Effect of the glandular composition on digital breast tomosynthesis image quality and dose optimisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, T; Ribeiro, A; Di Maria, S; Belchior, A; Cardoso, J; Matela, N; Oliveira, N; Janeiro, L; Almeida, P; Vaz, P

    2015-07-01

    In the image quality assessment for digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT), a breast phantom with an average percentage of 50 % glandular tissue is seldom used, which may not be representative of the breast tissue composition of the women undergoing such examination. This work aims at studying the effect of the glandular composition of the breast on the image quality taking into consideration different sizes of lesions. Monte Carlo simulations were performed using the state-of-the-art computer program PENELOPE to validate the image acquisition system of the DBT equipment as well as to calculate the mean glandular dose for each projection image and for different breast compositions. The integrated PENELOPE imaging tool (PenEasy) was used to calculate, in mammography, for each clinical detection task the X-ray energy that maximises the figure of merit. All the 2D cranial-caudal projections for DBT were simulated and then underwent the reconstruction process applying the Simultaneous Algebraic Reconstruction Technique. Finally, through signal-to-noise ratio analysis, the image quality in DBT was assessed. PMID:25836692

  4. Average glandular dose with amorphous silicon full-field digital mammography - clinical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Determination of average glandular dose with a full-field digital mammography system using a flat-panel X-ray detector based on amorphous silicon technology for a large group of patients. Material and Methods: The patient group includes women who were examined in a 4-month period with the digital mammographic system Senographe 2000D. The number of women was 591 and the number of exposures was 1116; only cranio-caudal projections were considered. Various quantities, including entrance surface air kerma, tube loading, and compressed breast thickness, were determined during actual mammography. Average glandular dose was determined using conversion factors g for standard breast composition. Results: The mean average glandular dose was 1.51 mGy (0.66-4.05 mGy) for a single view. The mean compressed breast thickness was 55.7 mm. The mean age of patients was 55 years (34-81 years). Conclusion: The results demonstrate that full-field digital mammography with a flat-panel detector based on amorphous silicon needs about 25% less dose in comparison with conventional screen-film mammography. (orig.)

  5. Determination of a method for calculating mean glandular dose in conventional mammography exams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the application of a numerical model to estimate the mean glandular dose for mammography.A General Electric mammography system, tube voltage of 20-35 kV with increments of 1 kV, tube current of 10-250 mAs, anode/filter combinations molybdenum/molybdenum was used. Over a period of two months, data from 162 scans with craniocaudal and mediolateral oblique projections in both breasts were recorded. The thickness of the compressed breast ranged from 2.5 to 6.5 cm. The mean glandular dose for each craniocaudal projection ranged from 0.4 to 0.7 mGy for a thickness of 2.5 cm and 1.9 to 2.8 mGy for a thickness of 6.5 cm. All average values of mean glandular dose estimated by cranio-caudal projection were found to be below the international reference dose value of 3 mGy recommended by the American College of Radiology

  6. Leishmanicidal activities of Artemisia annua leaf essential oil against Visceral Leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islamuddin, Mohammad; Chouhan, Garima; Tyagi, Maujiram; Abdin, Malik Z; Sahal, Dinkar; Afrin, Farhat

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), the second-most dreaded parasitic disease after malaria, is currently endemic in 88 countries. Dramatic increases in the rates of infection, drug resistance, and non-availability of safe vaccines have highlighted the need for identification of novel and inexpensive anti-leishmanial agents from natural sources. In this study, we showed the leishmanicidal effect of essential oil from Artemisia annua leaves (AALEO) against Leishmania donovani in vitro and in vivo. AALEO was extracted by hydrodistillation and characterized by GC-MS, the most abundant compounds were found to be camphor (52.06 %) followed by β-caryophyllene (10.95 %). AALEO exhibited significant leishmanicidal activity against L. donovani, with 50 % inhibitory concentration of 14.63 ± 1.49 μg ml(-1) and 7.3 ± 1.85 μg ml(-1), respectively, against the promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes. The effect was mediated through programmed cell death as confirmed by externalization of phosphatidylserine, DNA nicking by TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling assay, dyskinetoplastidy, cell cycle arrest at sub-G0-G1 phase, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and reactive oxygen species generation in promastigotes and nitric oxide generation in ex vivo model. AALEO presented no cytotoxic effects against mammalian macrophages even at 200 μg ml(-1). Intra-peritoneal administration of AALEO (200 mg/ kg.b.w.) to infected BALB/c mice reduced the parasite burden by almost 90% in the liver and spleen with significant reduction in weight. There was no hepato- or nephro-toxicity as demonstrated by normal levels of serum enzymes. The promising antileishmanial activity shown by camphor-rich AALEO may provide a new lead in the treatment of VL. PMID:25505453

  7. Leishmanicidal activities of Artemisia annua leaf essential oil against Visceral Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad eIslamuddin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis (VL, the second-most dreaded parasitic disease after malaria, is currently endemic in 88 countries. Dramatic increases in the rates of infection, drug resistance and non-availability of safe vaccines have highlighted the need for identification of novel and inexpensive anti-leishmanial agents from natural sources. In this study, we showed the leishmanicidal effect of essential oil from Artemisia annua leaves (AALEO against Leishmania donovani in vitro and in vivo. AALEO was extracted by hydrodistillation and characterized by GC-MS, the most abundant compounds were found to be camphor (52.06 % followed by β-caryophyllene (10.95 %. AALEO exhibited significant leishmanicidal activity against L. donovani, with 50 % inhibitory concentration of 14.63 ± 1.49 µg ml-1 and 7.3 ± 1.85 µg ml─1, respectively, against the promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes. The effect was mediated through programmed cell death as confirmed by externalization of phosphatidylserine, DNA nicking by TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labelling (TUNEL assay, dyskinetoplastidy, cell cycle arrest at sub-G0–G1 phase, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and reactive oxygen species (ROS generation in promastigotes and nitric oxide (NO generation in ex vivo model. AALEO presented no cytotoxic effects against mammalian macrophages even at 200 µg ml─1. Intra-peritoneal administration of AALEO (200 mg/ kg.b.w. to infected BALB/c mice reduced the parasite burden by almost 90 % in the liver and spleen with significant reduction in weight. There was no hepato- or nephro-toxicity as demonstrated by normal levels of serum enzymes. The promising antileishmanial activity shown by camphor-rich AALEO may provide a new lead in the treatment of VL.

  8. The effects of combining Artemisia annua and Curcuma longa ethanolic extracts in broilers challenged with infective oocysts of Eimeria acervulina and E. maxima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to an increasing demand for natural products to control coccidiosis in broilers we investigated the effects of supplementing a combination of ethanolic extracts of Artemisia annua and Curcuma longa in drinking water. Three different dosages of this herbal mixture were compared with a negative co...

  9. The effects of combining Artemisia annua and Curcuma longa ethanolic extracts in broilers challenged with infective oocysts of Eimeria acervulina and E. maxima

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almeida, Gustavo Fonseca; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Madeira, Alda M.B.N;

    2014-01-01

    Due to an increasing demand for natural products to control coccidiosis in broilers, we investigated the effects of supplementing a combination of ethanolic extracts of Artemisia annua and Curcuma longa in drinking water. Three different dosages of this herbal mixture were compared with a negative...

  10. Antihistomonal effects of artemisinin and Artemisia annua extracts in vitro could not be confirmed by in vivo experiments in turkeys and chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøfner, I.C.N.; Liebhart, D.; Hess, M.;

    2012-01-01

    Five different Artemisia annua-derived materials (i.e. dry leaves, pure artemisinin, and hexane, dichloromethane or methanol extracts of leaves) were screened for their in vitro activities against six clonal cultures of Histomonas meleagridis. Except for the methanol extract, all tested materials...

  11. Analysis of QTLs for the Trichome Density on the Upper and Downer Surface of Leaf Blade in Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Weijun; YU Deyue; FU Sanxiong

    2009-01-01

    Trichomes (plant hairs) are present on nearly all land plants and are known to play important roles in plant protection,specifically against insect herbivory,drought,and UV radiation.The identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with trichome density should help to interpret the molecular genetic mechanism of soybean trichome density.184 recombinant inbred lines (RILs),derived from a cross between soybean cultivars Kefeng 1 and Nannong 1138-2 were used as segregating population for evaluation of TDU (trichome density on the upper surface of leaf blade) and TDD (trichome density on the downer surface of leaf blade).A total of 15 QTL were detected on molecular linkage groups (MLG) A2,Dla,Dlb,E and H by composite interval mapping (CIM) and among all the QTL,qtuA2-1,qtuD 1a-1,qaK)lb-2,qtuH-2 qtuE-1,qtdD1b-2,and qtdH-2 were affirmed by multiple interval mapping (MIM).The contribution of phenotypic variance of qtuH-2 was 31.81 and 29.4% by CIM and MIM,respectively,suggesting it might be major gene Ps loci.Only 10 pairs of main QTL interactions for TDU were detected,explained a range of 0.2-5.1% of phenotypic variations for each pair for a total of 22.8%.The QTL on MLG D 1 b affecting trichome density were mapped near to Rsc-7 conditioning resistance to SMV (soybean mosaic virus).This study showed that the genetic mechanism of trichome density was the mixed major gene and polygene inheritance,and also suggested that the causal nature between trichome density and other agronomic traits.

  12. Wound healing effect of flavonoid rich fraction and luteolin isolated from Martynia annua Linn. on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Santram Lodhi; Abhay K Singhai

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate wound healing potential of flavonoid fractions of Martynia annua (M. annua) Linn. leaves in diabetic rats on the basis of folkloric information and preliminary study. Methods: The flavonoid compound luteolin and apigenin were isolated from dried leaves of plant by column chromatography. The two concentrations (0.2% and 0.5% w/w) of luteolin and flavonoid fraction were selected for topically applied as ointment on diabetic wound. The Povidone Iodine Ointment USP was used as a reference. On 18th days, protein content, hydroxyproline and antioxidants (SOD, CAT and GSH) level in granuloma tissues were determined.Results:The results showed that, percent wound contraction were observed significantly (P<0.01) greater in MAF fraction and 0.5% w/w of luteolin treatment groups. Presence of matured collagen fibres and fibroblasts with better angiogenesis were observed in histopathological studies.Conclusions:In conclusion, our findings suggest that flavonoid fraction (MAF) and luteolin (0.5%w/w) may have potential benefit in enhancing wound healing in diabetic condition, possibly due to free-radical scavenging activity of plant.

  13. Enhanced Production of Bioactive Isoprenoid Compounds from Cell Suspension Cultures of Artemisia annua L. Using β-Cyclodextrins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Rizzello

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Plant cell cultures as valuable tools for the production of specific metabolites can be greatly improved by the application of elicitors including cyclodextrins (CDs for enhancing the yields of the desired plant compounds. Here the effects of 2,6-dimethyl-β-cyclodextrins (DIMEB on the production of carotenoids and quinones from Artemisia annua L. cell suspension cultures were investigated. The addition of 50 mM DIMEB induced an early increase of intracellular carotenoid and quinone contents, which could be observed to a higher extent for lutein (10-fold, Q9 (3-fold and Q10 (2.5-fold. Real Time PCR analysis revealed that the expression of 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR gene in DIMEB treated cell cultures after three days was 2.5-fold higher than in untreated samples, thus suggesting that the DIMEB induced increase of carotenoids and quinones could be due to the induction of the plastidial isoprenoid biosynthetic route. In addition, the DIMEB treatment induced an enhanced release of carotenoids and quinones into the culture medium of A. annua cell suspension cultures possibly due to the ability of CDs to form inclusion complexes with hydrophobic molecules.

  14. Enhanced production of bioactive isoprenoid compounds from cell suspension cultures of Artemisia annua L. using β-cyclodextrins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzello, Francesca; De Paolis, Angelo; Durante, Miriana; Blando, Federica; Mita, Giovanni; Caretto, Sofia

    2014-01-01

    Plant cell cultures as valuable tools for the production of specific metabolites can be greatly improved by the application of elicitors including cyclodextrins (CDs) for enhancing the yields of the desired plant compounds. Here the effects of 2,6-dimethyl-β-cyclodextrins (DIMEB) on the production of carotenoids and quinones from Artemisia annua L. cell suspension cultures were investigated. The addition of 50 mM DIMEB induced an early increase of intracellular carotenoid and quinone contents, which could be observed to a higher extent for lutein (10-fold), Q9 (3-fold) and Q10 (2.5-fold). Real Time PCR analysis revealed that the expression of 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR) gene in DIMEB treated cell cultures after three days was 2.5-fold higher than in untreated samples, thus suggesting that the DIMEB induced increase of carotenoids and quinones could be due to the induction of the plastidial isoprenoid biosynthetic route. In addition, the DIMEB treatment induced an enhanced release of carotenoids and quinones into the culture medium of A. annua cell suspension cultures possibly due to the ability of CDs to form inclusion complexes with hydrophobic molecules. PMID:25338048

  15. Enhanced Production of Bioactive Isoprenoid Compounds from Cell Suspension Cultures of Artemisia annua L. Using β-Cyclodextrins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzello, Francesca; De Paolis, Angelo; Durante, Miriana; Blando, Federica; Mita, Giovanni; Caretto, Sofia

    2014-01-01

    Plant cell cultures as valuable tools for the production of specific metabolites can be greatly improved by the application of elicitors including cyclodextrins (CDs) for enhancing the yields of the desired plant compounds. Here the effects of 2,6-dimethyl-β-cyclodextrins (DIMEB) on the production of carotenoids and quinones from Artemisia annua L. cell suspension cultures were investigated. The addition of 50 mM DIMEB induced an early increase of intracellular carotenoid and quinone contents, which could be observed to a higher extent for lutein (10-fold), Q9 (3-fold) and Q10 (2.5-fold). Real Time PCR analysis revealed that the expression of 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR) gene in DIMEB treated cell cultures after three days was 2.5-fold higher than in untreated samples, thus suggesting that the DIMEB induced increase of carotenoids and quinones could be due to the induction of the plastidial isoprenoid biosynthetic route. In addition, the DIMEB treatment induced an enhanced release of carotenoids and quinones into the culture medium of A. annua cell suspension cultures possibly due to the ability of CDs to form inclusion complexes with hydrophobic molecules. PMID:25338048

  16. Development of a Specific Monoclonal Antibody for the Quantification of Artemisinin in Artemisia annua and Rat Serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Suqin; Cui, Yongliang; Wang, Kunbi; Zhang, Wei; Tan, Guiyu; Wang, Baomin; Cui, Liwang

    2016-03-01

    Artemisinin, extracted from Artemisia annua, and its derivatives are important frontline antimalarials. To produce specific antibodies for the detection and quantification of artemisinin, artemisinin was transformed to 9-hydroxyartemisinin by microbial fermentation, which was used to prepare a 9-succinate artemisinin hapten for conjugation with ovalbumin. A monoclonal antibody (mAb), designated as 3H7A10, was selected from hybridoma cell lines which showed high specificity to artemisinin. No competitive inhibition was observed with artesunate, dihydroartemisinin, and artemether for up to 20,000 ng mL(-1). An indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (icELISA) was developed, which showed a concentration causing 50% of inhibition (IC50) for artemisinin as 2.6 ng mL(-1) and a working range of 0.6-11.5 ng mL(-1). The icELISA was applied for the quantification of artemisinin in crude extracts of wild A. annua and the study of pharmacokinetics of artemisinin in rat serum after intraperitoneal injection. The results were highly correlated with those determined by HPLC-UV analysis (R(2) = 0.9919). In comparison with reported antiartemisinin mAbs which have broad cross-reactivity with other artemisinin derivatives, the high specificity of 3H7A10 for artemisinin will enable development of methods for quantification of artemisinin in Artemisia plants and antimalarial drugs such as Arco and for pharmacokinetic studies. PMID:26822789

  17. Effect of cadmium on photosynthetic pigments, lipid peroxidation,antioxidants, and artemisinin in hydroponically grown Artemisia annua

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuan Li; Manxi Zhao; Lanping Guo; Luqi Huang

    2012-01-01

    The effects of different cadmium(Cd)concentrations(0,20,60,and 100 μmol/L)on hydroponically grown Artemisia annua L.were investigated.Cd treatments applied for 0,4,12,24,72,144,216,and 336 hr were assessed by measuring the changes in photosynthetic pigments,electrolyte leakage,malondialdehyde(MDA)and antioxidants(ascorbic acid and glutathione),while the artemisinin content was tested after 0,12,144,216,and 336 hr.A significant decrease was observed in photosynthetic pigment levels over time with increasing Cd concentration.Chlorophyll b levels were more affected by Cd than were chlorophyll a or carotenoid levels.The cell membrane was sensitive to Cd stress,as MDA content in all treatment groups showed insignificant differences from the control group,except at 12 hr treatment time.Ascorbic acid(AsA)content changed slightly over time,while glutathione(GSH)content took less time to reach a maximum as Cd concentration increased.Cd was found to promote synthesis and accumulation of artemisinin,especially at concentrations of 20 and 100 μmol/L.In conclusion,Cd stress can damage to photosynthetic pigments,and vigorously growing A.annua showed a strong tolerance for Cd stress.Appropriate amounts of added Cd aided synthesis and accumulation of artemisinin.

  18. Calculation of absorbed glandular dose using a Fortran program based on Monte Carlo X-ray spectra in mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Average glandular dose calculation in mammography with Mo-Rh target-filter and dose calculation for different situations is accurate and fast. Material and Methods: In this research, first of all, x-ray spectra of a Mo target bombarded by a 28 keV electron beam with and without a Rh filter were calculated using the MCNP code. Then, we used the Sobol-Wu parameters to write a FORTRAN code to calculate average glandular dose. Results: Average glandular dose variation was calculated against the voltage of the mammographic x-ray tube for d = 5 cm, HVL= 0.35 mm Al, and different value of g. Also, the results related to average glandular absorbed dose variation per unit roentgen radiation against the glandular fraction of breast tissue for kV = 28 and HVL = 0.400 mmAl and different values of d are presented. Finally, average glandular dose against d for g = 60% and three values of kV (23, 27,35 kV) with corresponding HVLs have been calculated. Discussion and Conclusion: The absorbed dose computational program is accurate, complete, fast and user friendly. This program can be used for optimization of exposure dose in mammography. Also, the results of this research are in good agreement with the computational results of others.

  19. RNA-seq discovery, functional characterization, and comparison of sesquiterpene synthases from Solanum lycopersicum and Solanum habrochaites trichomes

    OpenAIRE

    Bleeker, Petra M.; Spyropoulou, Eleni A; Diergaarde, Paul J.; Volpin, Hanne; De Both, Michiel T. J.; Zerbe, Philipp; Bohlmann, Joerg; Falara, Vasiliki; Matsuba, Yuki; Pichersky, Eran; Haring, Michel A.; Schuurink, Robert C.

    2011-01-01

    Solanum lycopersicum and Solanum habrochaites (f. typicum) accession PI127826 emit a variety of sesquiterpenes. To identify terpene synthases involved in the production of these volatile sesquiterpenes, we used massive parallel pyrosequencing (RNA-seq) to obtain the transcriptome of the stem trichomes from these plants. This approach resulted initially in the discovery of six sesquiterpene synthase cDNAs from S. lycopersicum and five from S. habrochaites. Searches of other databases and the S...

  20. Poder pastoral, acomodo y territorialidad en las Cartas Annuas jesuitas de Quito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Espinosa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza las Cartas Annuas jesuitas entre 1586 y 1660 que hacen refe-rencia a la Audiencia de Quito. Esta fuente poco consultada se utiliza para son-dear las estrategias jesuitas de evangelización y el régimen de administración de sacramentos de la orden en Quito. El artículo propone que las estrategias de evangelización jesuita dieron un giro al pasar de un encuentro con la religión nativa que incluyó un interés en mitos prehispánicos y extirpación de idolatría a un enfoque tabula rasa que se centraba en la administración de sacramentos. El artículo atribuye este giro a la transferencia del Colegio jesuita de Quito de la provincia jesuita de Perú a la provincia del Nuevo Reino (Nueva Granada. El artículo contextualiza el encuentro jesuita con la cultura nativa y la operación del régimen sacramental con referencia al concepto de las dos evangelizaciones de Juan Carlos Estenssoro, la noción de poder pastoral de Michel Foucault y la idea de la confesionalización perteneciente a la historiografía de la modernidad temprana europea. The article looks at the Jesuit Annual Letters concerning the Audiencia of Quito between 1586 and 1660. This virtually unexplored source is employed to analyze the conversion strategies and sacramental regime of the Jesuits in Quito. The article contends that the Jesuit conversion strategies shifted from an early enga-gement with native religion that included an interest in native myths, and ex-tirpation of idolatry to a tabula rasa approach centered on the administration of sacraments. The article attributes this shift to the transfer of the Colegio de Quito from the Jesuit province of Peru to that of the New Kingdom (New Granada. The article contextualizes the Jesuit engagement with native culture in Quito and the operation of the administration of sacraments with reference to Juan Carlos Estenssoro’s notion of the two conversions as well as with reference to Michel Foucault

  1. Cistite glandular evoluindo com uropatia obstrutiva Cystitis glandularis evolving with obstructive uropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Elias Lopes

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Cistite glandular é um processo proliferativo benigno e infrequente da mucosa vesical, caracterizado por proliferação do epitélio e, em alguns casos, formação de glândulas intestinais. Alterações metaplásicas na cistite glandular são bem documentadas na literatura, embora sua etiologia não seja totalmente esclarecida. RELATO DO CASO: Relatamos um caso de cistite glandular em um paciente de 55 anos, apresentando sintomas miccionais irritativos e obstrutivos persistentes sem resposta à terapia com alfabloqueadores. Ultrassonografia evidenciou lesão vegetante no trígono vesical e o paciente foi submetido à ressecção endoscópica por duas vezes e evoluiu com ureterohidronefrose bilateral. Dado o extenso acometimento vesical e a persistência dos sintomas, o paciente foi submetido a cistoprostatectomia e neobexiga ileal com boa evolução pós-operatória. DISCUSSÃO: Há duas formas de cistite glandular: típica e intestinal. A forma típica é a mais comum e a intestinal é marcada pela produção de mucina, mais frequentemente associada ao adenocarcinoma de bexiga. A maioria dos casos de cistite glandular é assintomática, sendo que os pacientes sintomáticos normalmente apresentam hematúria, sintomas urinários irritativos e típicos de cistite crônica. Há controvérsias sobre o tratamento precoce agressivo, sendo que vários estudos propõem a ressecção transuretral e o acompanhamento com biópsias.INTRODUCTION: Cystitis glandularis is a rare, benign, proliferative process of the mucosa of the urinary bladder characterized by epithelial proliferation and occasional formation of intestinal glands. Although its etiology is unknown, cystitis glandularis has been associated with chronic stimulation of the mucosa of the urinary bladder due to urinary tract infection, obstruction, and indwelling catheters, which may lead to overproductive changes in mucosal cells and glandular metaplasia of transitional epithelial

  2. Preliminary results of the average glandular dose to the breast with TLDS measure is computed as the conversion factors; Resultados preliminares da dose glandular media na mama medida com TLDS e calculada atraves de fatores de conversao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sardo, Luiz T.L.; Almeida, Claudio D.; Coutinho, Celia M.C., E-mail: ltsardo@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: claudio@ird.gov.br, E-mail: celia@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    At mammography exams there is a risk of a breast cancer induced from the absorbed dose by the glandular tissue. According to the National Institute of Cancer, INCA, breast cancer is the second type most frequent in the world and the most common among women, therefore the necessity of monitoring the mean glandular dose, D{sub G}. Measuring methods of D{sub G} were established by some authors. Among the established methods the method of Dance is one of the most known. In this study was utilized a measurement method realized with TL dosimeters inserted in a breast tissue equivalent phantom, BTE, with 46% of glandularity and exposed using Mo/Mo and Mo/Rh target/filter combination and 28kV. To ensure this measurement method the results were compared with a calculation method, used by Dance, of D{sub G} from the measurement of incident air kerma, K{sub i}, and conversion factors to consider mainly the beam quality, the compressed thickness and the glandularity of the breast. The results of the comparison of the D{sub G} measurement with the obtained dose by the method of Dance demonstrated that for the thickness of 4.0 and 6.0 cm the doses were consistent. For the thickness of 5.0 cm the difference was higher, indicating that the glandularity may influence, suggesting further investigation. (author)

  3. Effect of anode/filter combination on average glandular dose in mammography

    OpenAIRE

    Michal Biegala; Teresa Jakubowska; Karolina Markowska

    2015-01-01

    A comparative analysis of the mean glandular doses was conducted in 100 female patients who underwent screening mammography in 2011 and 2013. Siemens Mammomat Novation with the application of the W/Rh anode/filter combination was used in 2011, whereas in 2013 anode/filter combination was Mo/Mo or Mo/Rh. The functioning of mammography was checked and the effectiveness of the automatic exposure control (AEC) system was verified by measuring compensation of changes in the phantom thickness and m...

  4. Epithelial cell proliferation and glandular atrophy in lymphocytic gastritis: Effect of H pylori treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Johanna M. Makinen; Seppo Niemela; Tuomo Kerola; Juhani Lehtola; Tuomo J. Karttunen

    2003-01-01

    AIM: Lymphocytic gastritis is commonly ass ociated with Helicobacter pylori infection. The presence of glandular atrophy and foveolar hyperplasia in lymphocytic gastritis suggests abnormalities in cell proliferation and differentiation,forming a potential link with the suspected association with gastric cancer. Our aim was to compare epithelial cell proliferation and morphology in H pylori associated lymphocytic gastritis and H pylori gastritis without features of lymphocytic gastritis,and to evaluate the effect of H pylori treatment.METHODS: We studied 14 lymphocytic gastritis patients with H pylori infection. For controls, we selected 14 matched dyspeptic patients participating in another treatment trial whose H pylori infection had successfully been eradicated.Both groups were treated with a triple therapy and followed up with biopsies for 6-18 months (patients) or 3 months (controls). Blinded evaluation for histopathological features was carried out. To determine the cell proliferation index,the sections were labeled with Ki-67 antibody.RESULTS: Before treatment, lymphocytic gastritis was characterized by foveolar hyperplasia (P=0.001) and glandular atrophy in the body (P=0.008), and increased proliferation in both the body (P=0.001) and antrum (P=0.002). Proliferation correlated with foveolar hyperplasia and inflammation activity. After eradication therapy, the number of intraepithelial lymphocytes decreased in the body (P=0.004)and antrum (P=0.065), remaining higher than in controls (P<0.001). Simultaneously, the proliferation index decreased in the body from 0.38 to 0.15 (P=0.043), and in the antrum from 0.34 to 0.20 (P=0.069), the antral index still being higher in lymphocytic gastritis than in controls (P=0.010).Foveolar hyperplasia and glandular atrophy in the body improved (P=0.021), reaching the non-LG level.CONCLUSION: In lymphocytic gastritis, excessive epithelial cell proliferation is predominantly present in the body, where it associates with

  5. Estimation of the average glandular dose on a team of tomosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeking to improve the information that gives us an image of mammography the manufacturers have implemented tomosynthesis. With this method of acquisition and reconstruction of image we went from having a 2D to a 3D image image, in such a way that it reduces or eliminates the effect of overlap of tissues. The estimate of the dose, which is always a fundamental parameter in the control of quality of radiology equipment, is more in the case of mammography by the radiosensitivity of this body and the frequency of their use. The objective of this work is the determination of the mean in a team glandular dose of with tomosynthesis mammography. (Author)

  6. Caracterização morfológica dos tricomas foliares e caulinares de duas espécies de Lamiaceae conhecidas popularmente como “falso-boldo” - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i2.445 Morphological characterization of the trichomes on the leaves and stem of two Lamiaceae species known popularly as “false-boldus” - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i2.445

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Santos Capel

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available As descrições morfoanatômicas das espécies vegetais, com finalidade medicamentosa, são necessárias para embasar as análises de controle de qualidade nos laboratórios de farmacognosia, tendo este estudo o objetivo de analisar duas espécies de Lamiaceae conhecidas como “falso-boldo”: Plectranthus barbatus e P. grandis, que caracterizam e quantificam os tricomas presentes em suas folhas e caule. Para as análises morfoanatômicas foram preparadas seções transversais do limbo, pecíolo e entrenós do caule, utilizando-se de técnicas usuais de morfologia e anatomia vegetal para a preparação de laminário semipermanente, tendo como corantes o azul de astra e a safranina. As análises revelaram que as folhas de ambas as espécies são morfologicamente semelhantes, mas diferindo quanto às dimensões do limbo. Os tipos de tricomas glandulares encontrados foram: peltado, captado-longo e captado-curto; e tectores: simples unisseriados com duas ou mais células na base. Com algumas exceções, todos os cinco tipos de tricomas foram observados no limbo, pecíolo e entrenós do caule, tendo P. grandis números médios significativamente superiores aos encontradas nos órgãos de P. barbatus, com exceção do tricoma tector simples, mais abundante no caule da segunda espécie.The morphoanatomical description of vegetable species, for medical purpose, is necessary to foreground the analyses of quality control in the pharmacognostic laboratories. The objective of this study was to analyze two Lamiaceae species known as “false-boldus” (Plectranthus barbatus and P. grandis, characterizing and quantifying the trichomes present in their leaves and stems. For the morphoanatomical analyses transverse sections of the leaves, petiole, and stem were prepared, using common techniques of plant morphology and anatomy for the preparation of semi-permanent slides, stained with astra blue and safranin. Analyses revealed that the leaves of both species

  7. Administration of trimethoprim-sulphadimidine does not improve healing of glandular gastric ulceration in horses receiving omeprazole: a randomised, blinded, clinical study

    OpenAIRE

    Sykes, Ben W; Sykes, Katja M; Hallowell, Gayle D

    2014-01-01

    Background Interest in Equine Gastric Ulcer Syndrome (EGUS) has recently increased in part due to a growing awareness of the differences between squamous and glandular disease. The pathophysiology and epidemiology of squamous and glandular disease are different and recently it has been shown that the response of glandular gastric ulceration to monotherapy with omeprazole is poor. Given these differences it has been recommended that specific treatment guidelines be formulated for equine glandu...

  8. Measurement of breast entrance exposure and mean glandular dose during screen-film mammography examination at our centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation based imaging modalities have been of great benefit to mankind due to their ability to help in diagnosis. Mammography is recognized as the most optimized imaging modality for early detection of breast cancer. However there has been a growing concern among the general public, as well as the scientific and medical communities regarding the ill effect of radiation exposure from diagnostic X-ray examination. Therefore increased attention has recently been directed towards radiation dose to the patient. Several years ago the radiation dose received during mammography was measured as the entrance dose to the skin of the breast. Now, it is presumed that it is the breast glandular tissue that is at risk for developing cancer in future therefore measurement of mean glandular dose (MGD) is the quantity recommended by ICRP and European Protocol for performance assessment of the system. With optimization technique and continued quality assurance programme the breast dose can be kept at lower levels without sacrificing diagnostic value. Our objective intends to evaluate the Breast Entrance Exposure (BEE) and Mean Glandular Dose (MGD) received by the patients during mammography examination. According to the Mammography Quality Standard Act (MQSA, 2002), USA, the average glandular dose to an average (4.2 cm compressed) breast must not exceed 3 mGy per view for film-screen image receptors. The European protocol specifies the average glandular dose for a 4.5 cm thick breast typically less than 2.0 mGy

  9. Preliminary results of the average glandular dose to the breast with TLDS measure is computed as the conversion factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At mammography exams there is a risk of a breast cancer induced from the absorbed dose by the glandular tissue. According to the National Institute of Cancer, INCA, breast cancer is the second type most frequent in the world and the most common among women, therefore the necessity of monitoring the mean glandular dose, DG. Measuring methods of DG were established by some authors. Among the established methods the method of Dance is one of the most known. In this study was utilized a measurement method realized with TL dosimeters inserted in a breast tissue equivalent phantom, BTE, with 46% of glandularity and exposed using Mo/Mo and Mo/Rh target/filter combination and 28kV. To ensure this measurement method the results were compared with a calculation method, used by Dance, of DG from the measurement of incident air kerma, Ki, and conversion factors to consider mainly the beam quality, the compressed thickness and the glandularity of the breast. The results of the comparison of the DG measurement with the obtained dose by the method of Dance demonstrated that for the thickness of 4.0 and 6.0 cm the doses were consistent. For the thickness of 5.0 cm the difference was higher, indicating that the glandularity may influence, suggesting further investigation. (author)

  10. Cloning and enzymology analysis of farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase gene from a superior strain of Artemisia annua L

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A cDNA(af1) encoding farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase AaFPS1 (FPS, EC2.5.1.1/EC2.5.1.10) from a high yield Artemisia annua strain 025 has been cloned from its cDNA library. Sequence analysis showed that the cDNA encoded a protein of 343 amino acid (aa) residues with molecular weight of 39 kD. Deduced aa sequence of the cDNA was similar to FPS from other plants, yeast and mammals, containing 5 conserved domains found in both prenyl transferase and polyprenyl synthase. The expression of the cDNA in Escherichia coli showed measurable specific activity of FPS in vitro. The enzyme was purified by ion exchange chromatography and its kinetics was measured. These results would further promote the molecular regulation of artemisinin biosynthesis.

  11. Evaluation of average glandular dose in digital and conventional systems of the mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mammography is currently the most effective method of diagnosis and detection of breast pathologies. The main interest in this kid of exam comes from the high incidence rate of breast cancer and necessity of high quality images for accurate diagnosis. Digital mammography systems have several advantages compared to conventional systems, however the use of digital imaging systems is not always integrated to an image acquisition protocol. Therefore, it is questionable if digital systems truly reduce the dose received by the patient, because many times is introduced in the clinics without optimization of the image acquisition protocols. The aim of this study is to estimate the value of incident air Kerma and average glandular dose (AGD) in patients undergoing conventional and digital mammography systems in Recife. This study was conducted with 650 patients in three hospitals. The value of incident air Kerma was estimated from the measurement of the yield of equipment and irradiation parameters used for each patient. From these results and using the methodology proposed by Dance et al. the value of the average glandular dose was calculated. The results obtained show that the lowest value of AGD was found with conventional screen-film system, indicating that the parameters for image acquisition with digital systems are not optimized. It was also observed that the institutions with digital systems use lower breast compression values than the conventional. (author)

  12. Immunohistochemical evidence: testicular and scented glandular androgen synthesis in muskrats (Ondatra zibethicus during the breeding season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Li

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to elucidate the relationship between androgens and the function of the muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus scented glands during the breeding season, we investigated immunolocalization of steroidogenic enzymes P450scc, 3βHSD and P450c17 in the muskrat testes and scented glands. Nine adult muskrats were obtained in March (n=3, May (n=3 and July (n=3 2010. Steroidogenic enzymes were immunolocalized using polyclonal antisera raised against bovine adrenal P450scc, human placental 3βHSD and porcine testicular P450c17. Histologically, all types of spermatogenic cells including mature–phase spermatozoa in seminiferous tubules were observed in all testes. Glandular cells, interstitial cells, epithelial cells and excretory tubules were identified in scented glands during the breeding season. P450scc, 3βHSD and P450c17 were only identified in Leydig cells during the breeding season; P450scc and P450c17 were observed in glandular cells of scented glands, however, 3βHSD was not found in scented glands during the breeding season. These novel findings provide the first evidence showing that scented glands of the muskrats are capable of locally synthesizing androgens and androgens acting via an endocrine, autocrine or paracrine manner may play an important role in scented gland function during the breeding season.

  13. Average glandular dose in routine mammography screening using a Sectra Microdose Mammography unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Sectra MicroDose Mammography system is based on direct photon counting (with a solid-state detector), and a substantially lower dose to the breast than when using conventional system can be expected. In this work absorbed dose measurements have been performed for the first unit used in routine mammography screening (at the Hospitals of Helsingborg (Sweden)). Two European protocols on dosimetry in mammography have been followed. Measurement of half value layer (HVL) cannot be performed as prescribed, but this study has demonstrated than non-invasive measurements of HVL can be performed accurately with a sensitive and well collimated solid-state detector with simultaneous correction for the energy dependence. The average glandular dose for a 50 mm standard breast with 50% glandularity, simulated by 45 mm polymethylmethacrylate, was found to be 0.21 and 0.28 mGy in March and December 2004, respectively. These values are much lower than for any other mammography system on the market today. It has to be stressed that the measurement were made using the current clinical settings and that no systematic optimisation of the relationship between absorbed dose and diagnostic image quality has been performed within the present study. In order to further increase the accuracy of absorbed dose measurements for this unit, the existing dose protocols should be revised to account also for the tungsten/aluminium anode/filter combination, the multi-slit pre-collimator device and the occurrence of a dose profile in the scanning direction. (authors)

  14. A mammographic phantom to measure mean glandular dose by thermoluminescent dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have designed a phantom to evaluate mean glandular dose (MGD) as part of the regulatory dosimetry control for mammographic equipment. The phantom is constituted by TLD-100 thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLDs) inserted within semicircular plates of acrylic. Different groups of TLDs are used to determine entrance surface air kerma and half-value layer (HVL). Calibration of both tasks has been performed using a Senographe 2000D system and an ionization chamber. The phantom has been tested in five clinical systems. The HVL and MGD obtained by this method agree, on average, within 3%, with those from standard procedures based on the use of ionization chambers. The phantom MGD measurements have a combined uncertainty better than 10% (k = 1). - Highlights: • We have designed a phantom to evaluate mean glandular dose (MGD). • We used TLD-100 dosemeters inserted within semicircular plates of acrylic. • The system has been tested in five clinical systems. • MGD obtained by this method agrees within 3% with ionization chambers. • MGD measurements have a combined uncertainty better than 10% (k = 1)

  15. Acceptance of the EU regulations on mean doses of glandular on women's during mammographic examination in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diagnostic reference levels (further DRU) are on indications for medical irradiation regulation. DRU = 3 mGy per pictures and standard breast thickness 45 mm was used for cc projection during mammographic examination in the Czech Republic. However the examinations in EU country indicated that the mean glandular dose for standard breast thickness 45 mm was reduced to a Dg =2 mGy per picture. At the same time there was a change of standard breast thickness from 45 mm to 53 mm, new standard for glandular dose was set up to Dg = 2.5 mGy. The aim is to estimate, whether glandular dose measured during examinations in cz fulfil recommended levels for particular PMMA equivalent thickness as stated above. (authors)

  16. Assessment of glandular dose and image quality in mammography using computerised radiography employing a polymethylmetacrilate breast simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Brazil there are around 600 mammography equipment with CR system. Taking into account the quality of image is essential to evaluate the mean glandular dose so you can optimize the radiation protection of patients evaluated with this type of system. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the mean glandular dose and quality of image for the CR system of laboratory of radioprotection applied to mammography of the Centre of Development of Nuclear Technology (CDTN). For this, we evaluated the linearity of the detector’s response, contrast to noise ratio and signal to noise ratio, which, according to European protocol, showed results within acceptable limits. Next, evaluated the quality of image with the CDMAM Phantom and mean glandular dose to the detector Fluke Biomedical TNT 12000WD, where they presented, respectively, within the results expected by the manufacturer and the limits of acceptable and desirable by the European protocol. then, the CR system of CDTN is optimized.

  17. Estimation of average glandular dose depending on the thickness of the breast; Estimativa da dose glandular media em funcao da espessura da mama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Real, Jessica V.; Luz, Renata M. da, E-mail: jessica.real@pucrs.br, E-mail: renata.luz@pucrs.br [Hospital Sao Lucas (HSL/PUCRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Fröhlich, Bruna D.; Pertile, Alessandra S.; Silva, Ana Maria Marques da, E-mail: bruna.frohlich@acad.pucrs.br, E-mail: lessandra.pertile@acad.pucrs.br, E-mail: ana.marques@pucrs.br [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women worldwide. Mammography is, to date, the most efficient method for detecting an abnormality in the patient's breast. It is a technique of imaging diagnostic that requires special care because radiographs without adequate quality may lead to a false diagnosis and lead to the need for a repeat examination, increasing the dose of radiation in the patient. This study aimed to evaluate the average glandular dose (AGD), depending on the breast thickness in patients undergoing routine tests, with a digital computer radiography processing system. Analyzed 30 exhibitions in patients aged (65 ± 12) years, in the right and left caudal skull projections, for breasts with thicknesses between 45 mm and 50 mm. The calculated value of the AGD for this track thickness was (1.600 ± 0.009) mGy. The performance of mammography quality control tests was satisfactory and the AGD values obtained for the chosen thickness range is acceptable, since the threshold achievable is 1.6 mGy and the acceptable is 2 mGy. In Brazil, it is only required the input dose calculation in skin for 45 mm breasts. However, the calculation of AGD is required for different thicknesses of the breast, to identify the best mammographic pattern aiming at better image quality at the lowest dose provided the patient.

  18. TU-F-18C-05: Evaluation of a Method to Calculate Patient-Oriented MGD Coefficients Using Estimates of Glandular Tissue Distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porras-Chaverri, M [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI (United States); University of Costa Rica, San Jose (Costa Rica); Galavis, P [NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Bakic, P [University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Vetter, J [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Evaluate mammographic mean glandular dose (MGD) coefficients for particular known tissue distributions using a novel formalism that incorporates the effect of the heterogeneous glandular tissue distribution, by comparing them with MGD coefficients derived from the corresponding anthropomorphic computer breast phantom. Methods: MGD coefficients were obtained using MCNP5 simulations with the currently used homogeneous assumption and the heterogeneously-layered breast (HLB) geometry and compared against those from the computer phantom (ground truth). The tissue distribution for the HLB geometry was estimated using glandularity map image pairs corrected for the presence of non-glandular fibrous tissue. Heterogeneity of tissue distribution was quantified using the glandular tissue distribution index, Idist. The phantom had 5 cm compressed breast thickness (MLO and CC views) and 29% whole breast glandular percentage. Results: Differences as high as 116% were found between the MGD coefficients with the homogeneous breast core assumption and those from the corresponding ground truth. Higher differences were found for cases with more heterogeneous distribution of glandular tissue. The Idist for all cases was in the [−0.8{sup −}+0.3] range. The use of the methods presented in this work results in better agreement with ground truth with an improvement as high as 105 pp. The decrease in difference across all phantom cases was in the [9{sup −}105] pp range, dependent on the distribution of glandular tissue and was larger for the cases with the highest Idist values. Conclusion: Our results suggest that the use of corrected glandularity image pairs, as well as the HLB geometry, improves the estimates of MGD conversion coefficients by accounting for the distribution of glandular tissue within the breast. The accuracy of this approach with respect to ground truth is highly dependent on the particular glandular tissue distribution studied. Predrag Bakic discloses

  19. TU-F-18C-05: Evaluation of a Method to Calculate Patient-Oriented MGD Coefficients Using Estimates of Glandular Tissue Distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Evaluate mammographic mean glandular dose (MGD) coefficients for particular known tissue distributions using a novel formalism that incorporates the effect of the heterogeneous glandular tissue distribution, by comparing them with MGD coefficients derived from the corresponding anthropomorphic computer breast phantom. Methods: MGD coefficients were obtained using MCNP5 simulations with the currently used homogeneous assumption and the heterogeneously-layered breast (HLB) geometry and compared against those from the computer phantom (ground truth). The tissue distribution for the HLB geometry was estimated using glandularity map image pairs corrected for the presence of non-glandular fibrous tissue. Heterogeneity of tissue distribution was quantified using the glandular tissue distribution index, Idist. The phantom had 5 cm compressed breast thickness (MLO and CC views) and 29% whole breast glandular percentage. Results: Differences as high as 116% were found between the MGD coefficients with the homogeneous breast core assumption and those from the corresponding ground truth. Higher differences were found for cases with more heterogeneous distribution of glandular tissue. The Idist for all cases was in the [−0.8−+0.3] range. The use of the methods presented in this work results in better agreement with ground truth with an improvement as high as 105 pp. The decrease in difference across all phantom cases was in the [9−105] pp range, dependent on the distribution of glandular tissue and was larger for the cases with the highest Idist values. Conclusion: Our results suggest that the use of corrected glandularity image pairs, as well as the HLB geometry, improves the estimates of MGD conversion coefficients by accounting for the distribution of glandular tissue within the breast. The accuracy of this approach with respect to ground truth is highly dependent on the particular glandular tissue distribution studied. Predrag Bakic discloses current funding

  20. Use of Artemisia annua as a natural coccidiostat in free-range broilers and its effects on infection dynamics and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Gustavo F; Horsted, Klaus; Thamsborg, Stig M; Kyvsgaard, Niels C; Ferreira, Jorge F S; Hermansen, John E

    2012-05-25

    This work investigated the preventive effect of Artemisia annua L. dried leaves supplied as a botanical coccidiostat to two broiler genotypes reared in a Danish free-range system in a factorial experiment (two genotypes and ± supplement of dried A. annua leaves). The genotypes White Bresse L40, a pure slow-growing line, and Kosmos 8 Ross, a hybrid genotype with medium growing characteristics, were used. Broilers were raised indoor until 29-days-old and kept free of parasites. Twelve groups of 30 randomly selected broilers were placed in the range forming three replicates for each treatment combination. The paddocks were cultivated with a mix of grass and clover. A separate group of broilers was naturally infected with Eimeria spp. oocysts and five animals nominated as "seeders" were introduced to the above mentioned 12 groups, 10 days after its formation, with each group consisting of 35 animals per plot. This infection strategy was meant to imitate the transmission pathway observed at farm level. Ten individual birds from each of the 12 groups, in total 120 animals of mixed sex, were monitored twice weekly for 30 days for oocysts excretion. PCR of pooled faecal samples, oocyst morphology and localization upon necropsy were used to identify the Eimeria species involved in the infection. In general, broilers from both genotypes in the range coped well with a coccidia infection caused by Eimeria acervulina and Eimeria maxima as no clinical symptoms, or deaths, were reported during the experiment. In general, broilers supplemented with A. annua dried leaves showed a significantly (pKosmos females responded positively to the Artemisia treatment while Kosmos males responded negatively, and only minor differences were found between sexes for the White Bresse genotype. In conclusion, supply of A. annua dried leaves as a botanical coccidiostat significantly reduced oocyst output in free ranged broilers and thus may form part of a strategy to prevent commercial losses

  1. Evaluation of the In Vitro Efficacy of Artemisia annua, Rumex abyssinicus, and Catha edulis Forsk Extracts in Cancer and Trypanosoma brucei Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Netsanet Worku; Andualem Mossie; August Stich; Arwid Daugschies; Susanne Trettner; Hemdan, Nasr Y. A.; Gerd Birkenmeier

    2013-01-01

    The current drugs against sleeping sickness are derived from cancer chemotherapeutic approaches. Herein, we aimed at evaluating the in vitro effect of alcoholic extracts of Artemisia annua (AMR), Rumex abyssinicus (RMA), and Catha edulis Forsk (CEF) on proliferation/viability of 1321N1 astrocytoma, MCF-7 breast cancer, THP-1 leukemia, and LNCaP, Du-145, and PC-3 prostate cancer cells and on Trypanosoma brucei cells. Proliferation of tumor cells was evaluated by WST-1 assay and viability/behav...

  2. Penetration of UV-A, UV-B and blue light through the leaf trichome layers of two xeromorphic plants, olive and oak, measured by optical fibre microprobes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quartz fibre-optic microprobes were used to monitor the light microenvironment beneath trichome layers of the xeromorphic leaves of two Mediterranean evergreen sclerophylls, Olea europaea and Quercus ilex. Young developing leaves of both plants were densely pubescent on both surfaces of the lamina, whereas the mature leaves were pubescent only on the abaxial side. Trichome layers of young as well as of mature leaves of both plants attenuated almost all incident ultraviolet (UV)-B (310 nm) and UV-A (360 nm) radiation and a considerable portion of blue light (430 nm). Abaxial trichome layers of young leaves were more effective in screening out the incident radiation compared to the adaxial ones of the same leaves and also compared to the abaxial layer of the mature leaves. The abaxial epidermis of dehaired mature leaves of O. europaea was ineffective in absorbing most of the incident UV-B and UV-A radiation. UV and visible spectra beneath trichome layers of O. europaea in mature leaves confirmed that the light microenvironment on the epidermis was deprived in the UV-B, UV-A and partly in the blue spectral regions. It is proposed that the occurrence of a dense trichome layer, especially in young leaves, may play a protective role against not only UV-B radiation damage, but also against high visible irradiance. This function is performed irrespective of the differing anatomy of individual hairs of both plants. The protection provided by the trichomes could afford advantages under stress conditions, especially during leaf development. (author)

  3. Viability of dried vegetative trichomes, formation of akinetes and heterocysts and akinete germination in some blue-green algae under water stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, S C; Singh, V

    1999-01-01

    Almost all dried vegetative trichomes ofAnabaena iyengarii, Westiellopsis prolifica andNostochopsis lobatus died within 1 h, while those ofOscillatoria acuminata retained viability to some extent for 1 d under similar storage conditions. The viability of dried vegetative trichomes ofO. acuminata decreased about equally on storage at 20 degrees C in the light or in the dark, but dropped rapidly at 12 and 0 degrees C in the dark. Vegetative trichomes ofA. iyengarii, N. lobatus andW. prolifica were more sensitive to frost than those ofO. acuminata, and this correlated with their low resistance to desiccation because both types of exposure involved osmotic stress. Both dried and wet akinetes ofA. iyengarii, W. prolifica andN. lobatus were about equally viable when stored at 20 degrees C in the light or the dark or at 12 and 0 degrees C in the dark, but their germination ability decreased on storage at 0 degrees C. The water stress imposed on growing vegetative trichomes either in high-agar media or in NaCl-supplemented liquid media reduced the survival ofO. acuminata trichomes, decreased or totally suppressed akinete and heterocyst formation and akinete germination inA. iyengarii, W. prolifica andN. lobatus. The sensitivity decreased in the sequenceA. iyengarii green algae was more sensitive to physiological water stress than their formation. In all of them, akinetes formed under water stress were equally viable as those formed under normal conditions. Trichomes ofO. acuminata became broader when grown in 0.5-0.8 mol/L NaCl-supplemented media, probably due to polyol accumulation, and they also developed a thin sheath-like structure. PMID:18461490

  4. Functional characterization of TRICHOMELESS2, a new single-repeat R3 MYB transcription factor in the regulation of trichome patterning in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gan Lijun

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single-repeat R3 MYB transcription factors (single-repeat MYBs play important roles in controlling trichome patterning in Arabidopsis. It was proposed that single-repeat MYBs negatively regulate trichome formation by competing with GLABRA1 (GL1 for binding GLABRA3/ENHANCER OF GLABRA3 (GL3/EGL3, thus inhibiting the formation of activator complex TTG1(TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1-GL3/EGL3-GL1 that is required for the activation of GLABRA2 (GL2, whose product is a positive regulator of trichome formation. Previously we identified a novel single-repeat MYB transcription factor, TRICHOMELESS1 (TCL1, which negatively regulates trichome formation on the inflorescence stems and pedicels by directly suppressing the expression of GL1. Results We analyzed here the role of TRICHOMELESS2 (TCL2, a previously-uncharacterized single-repeat MYB transcription factor in trichome patterning in Arabidopsis. We showed that TCL2 is closely related to TCL1, and like TCL1 and other single-repeat MYBs, TCL2 interacts with GL3. Overexpression of TCL2 conferred glabrous phenotype while knockdown of TCL2 via RNAi induced ectopic trichome formation on the inflorescence stems and pedicels, a phenotype that was previously observed in tcl1 mutants. These results suggested that TCL2 may have overlapping function with TCL1 in controlling trichome formation on inflorescences. On the other hand, although the transcription of TCL2, like TCL1, is not controlled by the activator complex formed by GL1 and GL3, and TCL2 and TCL1 proteins are more than 80% identical at the amino acid level, the expression of TCL2 under the control of TCL1 promoter only partially recovered the mutant phenotype of tcl1, implying that TCL2 and TCL1 are not fully functional equivalent. Conclusions TCL2 function redundantly with TCL1 in controlling trichome formation on inflorescences, but they are not fully functional equivalent. Transcription of TCL2 is not controlled by activator complex

  5. Factors affecting induction of shoot cluster of Artemisia annua%青蒿丛生芽诱导影响因素的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿飒; 姬生栋; 袁金云; 卢龙斗; 叶和春; 李国凤

    2004-01-01

    目的对影响青蒿丛生芽诱导因素进行基础性研究.方法把常规的植物组织培养技术应用于调控青蒿中次生代谢产物青蒿素的生物合成代谢.结果青蒿的基因型,激素和基本培养基对丛生芽的发生有显著影响,而光强在1000~6000lx和温度在20℃~30℃对丛生芽的发生影响不大;在5种基因型的青蒿中,025丛生芽的诱导率最高;诱导丛生芽的激素组合是6-BA 2.0mg/L和NAA 0.15mg/L;另外,离子在青蒿丛生芽的诱导和青蒿素的生物合成过程中起着非常重要的作用.结论组织培养条件下,青蒿丛生芽的诱导及青蒿素的生物合成可以通过理化因子有效地进行调控.%Object To study the factors affecting the induction of shoot cluster of Artemisia annua.Methods Conventional plant tissue culture technology was applied to regulate the biosynthetic metabolism of secondary metabolism product,artemisinin of A.annua.Results Effects of genotype,hormones,basal medium on the induction of A.annua shoot cluster were notable,while that of light intensity ranging between 1000-6000 lx and temperature ranging between 20 ℃-30 ℃ were not.Among the five A.annua strains used,the induction ratio of strain 025 was the best.The optimal concentration for induction of shoot cluster was 6-BA 2.0 mg/L and NAA 0.15 mg/L.Ions were also found to be very important in the shoot cluster induction and the biosynthesis of artemisnin.Conclusion Effective regulation of induction of A.annua shoot cluster and artemisinin biosynthesis can be carried out via the regulation of physical and chemical factors.

  6. Human papillomavirus prevalence and type-distribution in cervical glandular neoplasias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holl, Katsiaryna; Nowakowski, Andrzej M; Powell, Ned;

    2015-01-01

    Cervical glandular neoplasias (CGN) present a challenge for cervical cancer prevention due to their complex histopathology and difficulties in detecting preinvasive stages with current screening practices. Reports of human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence and type-distribution in CGN vary, providing......: 0%). The most common HPV types were restricted to HPV16/18/45, accounting for 98.3% of all HPV-positive ADC. There were variations in HPV prevalence and ADC type-distribution by country. Age at diagnosis differed by ADC subtype, with usual-type diagnosed in younger women (median: 43 years) compared...... uncertain evidence to support prophylactic vaccination and HPV screening. This study [108288/108290] assessed HPV prevalence and type-distribution in women diagnosed with cervical adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS, N = 49), adenosquamous carcinoma (ASC, N = 104), and various adenocarcinoma subtypes (ADC, N = 461...

  7. A Quality Assurance programme in mammography and an evaluation of the mean glandular dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of X-ray in medicine for diagnosis represents the largest man-made sources of public exposure to ionizing radiation. Therefore a reduction of medical exposure is desired without reduction of the diagnostic capability. Dose and image quality are essential component of a Quality Assurance (QA) programme in mammography where the characteristic of diagnostic signs, represented by microcalcifications and low contrast structures, and the radiosensitivity of the glandular tissue of the breast stress the need of QA programme. The paper describes QA procedures in mammography and reports the results obtained in more than 120 periodic tests, performed on 63 mammographic units of 41 centers. Moreover individual evaluation of entrance exposure are presented for 340 patients. The experimental data permits to evaluate the mean grandular absorbed dose in the single exams using different procedures based on Monte Carlo simulations. (author)

  8. Evaluation of mean glandular dose in a full-field digital mammography unit in Tabriz (IR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was aimed at evaluating the mean glandular dose (MGD) and affecting factors during mammography examinations by a full-field digital mammography unit. An extensive quality control program was performed to assure that the unit is properly working. Required information including compressed breast thickness (CBT), breast parenchymal pattern and technical factors used for imaging were recorded. An entrance skin exposure measurement was also performed using slabs of polymethylmethacrylate with 2-8 cm thickness. On the basis of recorded information and measured data, the MGD was estimated for 1145 mammography examinations obtained from 298 patients. Mean CBTs of 4.9 and 5.8 cm and MGDs of 2 and 2.4 mGy were observed for cranio-caudal and medio-lateral oblique views, respectively. Significant correlation was seen between MGD and CBT, breast parenchymal pattern and applied kVp and mAs. (authors)

  9. Effect of filter on average glandular dose and image quality in digital mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songsaeng, C.; Krisanachinda, A.; Theerakul, K.

    2016-03-01

    To determine the average glandular dose and entrance surface air kerma in both phantoms and patients to assess image quality for different target-filters (W/Rh and W/Ag) in digital mammography system. The compressed breast thickness, compression force, average glandular dose, entrance surface air kerma, peak kilovoltage and tube current time were recorded and compared between W/Rh and W/Ag target filter. The CNR and the figure of merit were used to determine the effect of target filter on image quality. The mean AGD of the W/Rh target filter was 1.75 mGy, the mean ESAK was 6.67 mGy, the mean CBT was 54.1 mm, the mean CF was 14 1bs. The mean AGD of W/Ag target filter was 2.7 mGy, the mean ESAK was 12.6 mGy, the mean CBT was 75.5 mm, the mean CF was 15 1bs. In phantom study, the AGD was 1.2 mGy at 4 cm, 3.3 mGy at 6 cm and 3.83 mGy at 7 cm thickness. The FOM was 24.6, CNR was 9.02 at thickness 6 cm. The FOM was 18.4, CNR was 8.6 at thickness 7 cm. The AGD from Digital Mammogram system with W/Rh of thinner CBT was lower than the AGD from W/Ag target filter.

  10. Glandular Proteome Identifies Antiprotease Cystatin C as a Critical Modulator of Airway Hydration and Clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, T Idil Apak; Joo, Nam Soo; Keiser, Nicholas W; Yan, Ziying; Tyler, Scott R; Xie, Weiliang; Zhang, Yulong; Hsiao, Jordy J; Cho, Hyung-Ju; Wright, Michael E; Wine, Jeffrey J; Engelhardt, John F

    2016-04-01

    Defects in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel lead to viscous secretions from submucosal glands that cannot be properly hydrated and cleared by beating cilia in cystic fibrosis (CF) airways. The mechanisms by which CFTR, and the predominant epithelial sodium channel (ENaC), control the hydration and clearance of glandular secretions remain unclear. We used a proteomics approach to characterize the proteins contained in CF and non-CF submucosal gland fluid droplets and found that differentially regulated proteases (cathepsin S and H) and their antiprotease (cystatin C) influenced the equilibration of fluid on the airway surface and tracheal mucociliary clearance (MCC). Contrary to prevailing models of airway hydration and clearance, cystatin C, or raising the airway surface liquid (ASL) pH, inhibited cathepsin-dependent ENaC-mediated fluid absorption and raised the height of ASL, and yet decreased MCC velocity. Importantly, coupling of both CFTR and ENaC activities were required for effective MCC and for effective ASL height equilibration after volume challenge. Cystatin C-inhibitable cathepsins controlled initial phases of ENaC-mediated fluid absorption, whereas CFTR activity was required to prevent ASL dehydration. Interestingly, CF airway epithelia absorbed fluid more slowly owing to reduced cysteine protease activity in the ASL but became abnormally dehydrated with time. Our findings demonstrate that, after volume challenge, pH-dependent protease-mediated coupling of CFTR and ENaC activities are required for rapid fluid equilibration at the airway surface and for effective MCC. These findings provide new insights into how glandular fluid secretions may be equilibrated at the airway surface and how this process may be impaired in CF. PMID:26334941

  11. PTEN Phosphatase-Independent Maintenance of Glandular Morphology in a Predictive Colorectal Cancer Model System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishaan C. Jagan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Organotypic models may provide mechanistic insight into colorectal cancer (CRC morphology. Three-dimensional (3D colorectal gland formation is regulated by phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN coupling of cell division cycle 42 (cdc42 to atypical protein kinase C (aPKC. This study investigated PTEN phosphatase-dependent and phosphatase-independent morphogenic functions in 3D models and assessed translational relevance in human studies. Isogenic PTEN-expressing or PTEN-deficient 3D colorectal cultures were used. In translational studies, apical aPKC activity readout was assessed against apical membrane (AM orientation and gland morphology in 3D models and human CRC. We found that catalytically active or inactive PTEN constructs containing an intact C2 domain enhanced cdc42 activity, whereas mutants of the C2 domain calcium binding region 3 membrane-binding loop (M-CBR3 were ineffective. The isolated PTEN C2 domain (C2 accumulated in membrane fractions, but C2 M-CBR3 remained in cytosol. Transfection of C2 but not C2 M-CBR3 rescued defective AM orientation and 3D morphogenesis of PTEN-deficient Caco-2 cultures. The signal intensity of apical phospho-aPKC correlated with that of Na+/H+ exchanger regulatory factor-1 (NHERF-1 in the 3D model. Apical NHERF-1 intensity thus provided readout of apical aPKC activity and associated with glandular morphology in the model system and human colon. Low apical NHERF-1 intensity in CRC associated with disruption of glandular architecture, high cancer grade, and metastatic dissemination. We conclude that the membrane-binding function of the catalytically inert PTEN C2 domain influences cdc42/aPKC-dependent AM dynamics and gland formation in a highly relevant 3D CRC morphogenesis model system.

  12. Atypical glandular cells in conventional cervical smears: Incidence and follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knolle Ulrich

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Atypical glandular cells on cervical smears are often associated with clinically significant uterine lesions. The frequency and accuracy of AGC-NOS (i.e. atypical glandular cells, not otherwise specified diagnoses, regardless of the gland cell type or the degree of suspicion, and their outcome were investigated. Methods From January 1, 1990 to December 31, 1999 a total of 261 patients had an AGC-NOS diagnosis made by conventional cervical Papanicolaou smear interpretation representing 0.05% of all Pap-smears analyzed at the national level. 191 (73.2% patients had a subsequent histological examination, 8 samples were not representative by origin and were excluded. Results Out of 183 AGC-NOS diagnosed, 56.3% (103/183 were associated with tissue-proven precancerous and/or cancerous lesions, 44% being of endocervical and 56% of endometrial origin. 75% of all AGC-patients were asymptomatic. 66.7% (6/9 of the patients with subsequent invasive endocervical adenocarcinoma (AC and 56% (28/50 of those patients with invasive endometrial AC were without clinical symptoms. 3 patients out of 9 with an invasive endocervical AC were 35 years of age or less. 10.1% and 12.3% of all 'new' tissue-proven invasive endocervical or endometrial AC respectively recorded by the national Morphologic Tumour Registry (MTR were first identified by a cytological AGC-NOS diagnosis. Conclusion Our findings emphasize the importance of the cytological AGC-category even in the absence of a precise origin or cell type specification. 56% of the AGC-diagnoses being associated with significant cancerous or precancerous conditions, a complete and careful evaluation is required.

  13. Clinical implications and histological correlation of atypical glandular cells found in cervicovaginal smears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beliza Loos

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Atypical glandular cells (AGC are carriers of insufficient nuclear abnormalities for the diagnosis of adenocarcinoma, but exceed the criteria for classification as reactive glandular cells. This is an uncommon diagnosis, which may be associated with neoplastic lesions. Objective: To evaluate the clinical significance of primary cytological diagnosis of AGC through correlation with results of subsequent cyto-histologic examination. Materials and methods: 10 years retrospective study based on cervical cytologic results indicating AGC, classified as "possibly non-neoplastic" or "cannot exclude high-grade intraepithelial lesion". It was performed cyto-histopathological correlation in cases that were submitted to subsequent histopathological examination up to two years after cervical cytology analysis. Results: AGC were reported in 380 (0.06% exams, providing 160 cases with subsequent biopsy. 85 (53.1% of these, presented benign changes and 75 (46.9% neoplastic lesions. From 114 "possibly non-neoplastic" cytological results, 71 (62.3% had benign histological changes, and 43 (37.7% neoplastic lesions, corresponding to a negative predictive value (NPV of 62.3%. In contrast, among the 46 AGC "cannot exclude high-grade intraepithelial lesion" results, 14 (30.4% presented benign changes and 32 (69.6% neoplastic lesions (positive predictive value [PPV] = 69.6%. Discussion: The high rate of cancer associated with the diagnosis of AGC reassures the importance of recognizing these atypical cells in pap smears. The classification of "possibly non-neoplastic" and "cannot exclude high-grade intraepithelial lesion" may suggest the origin of cytological changes. Conclusion: Our results reinforce the importance of adequate follow-up of patients with AGC diagnosis on cervical cytology.

  14. Estimation of glandular content rate and statistical analysis of the influence of age group and compressed breast thickness on the estimated value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because the glandular content rate is an important factor in evaluating breast cancer detection and average glandular dose, it is important in mammography research to estimate and analyze this rate. The purpose of this study was to obtain a formula for statistical estimation of the glandular content rate, to clarify statistically the influence of age group and compressed breast thickness (CBT) on estimating the glandular content rate, and to show statistically the general relation between glandular content rate and the factors of age and CBT. The subjects were 740 Japanese women aged 20-91 years (mean±SD: 48.3±12.8 years) who had undergone mammography. In our study, the glandular content rate was statistically estimated from age group, mAs-value, and CBT when subjects underwent mammography, from a phantom simulation, and from MR images of the breast. In addition, multivariate analysis was carried to examine statistically the influence of age group and CBT on glandular content rate. The mean glandular content rate as estimated by age group was as follows: 35.6% for those in their 20s, 33.4% in the 30s, 27.5% in the 40s, 23.8% in the 50s, and 21.8% in those 60 and over. The rate for the subjects as a whole was 27.1%. This study indicated that overestimation occurred if the estimated value of the glandular content rate was not corrected in the 3D-measurement by MRI. In addition, this study showed that the statistical influence on glandular content rate was significantly larger for CBT than age. (author)

  15. Estimates of Average Glandular Dose with Auto-modes of X-ray Exposures in Digital Breast Tomosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izdihar Kamal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this research was to examine the average glandular dose (AGD of radiation among different breast compositions of glandular and adipose tissue with auto-modes of exposure factor selection in digital breast tomosynthesis. Methods: This experimental study was carried out in the National Cancer Society, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, between February 2012 and February 2013 using a tomosynthesis digital mammography X-ray machine. The entrance surface air kerma and the half-value layer were determined using a 100H thermoluminescent dosimeter on 50% glandular and 50% adipose tissue (50/50 and 20% glandular and 80% adipose tissue (20/80 commercially available breast phantoms (Computerized Imaging Reference Systems, Inc., Norfolk, Virginia, USA with auto-time, auto-filter and auto-kilovolt modes. Results: The lowest AGD for the 20/80 phantom with auto-time was 2.28 milliGray (mGy for two dimension (2D and 2.48 mGy for three dimensional (3D images. The lowest AGD for the 50/50 phantom with auto-time was 0.97 mGy for 2D and 1.0 mGy for 3D. Conclusion: The AGD values for both phantoms were lower against a high kilovolt peak and the use of auto-filter mode was more practical for quick acquisition while limiting the probability of operator error.

  16. Optimizing the anode-filter combination in the sense of image quality and average glandular dose in digital mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varjonen, Mari; Strömmer, Pekka

    2008-03-01

    This paper presents the optimized image quality and average glandular dose in digital mammography, and provides recommendations concerning anode-filter combinations in digital mammography, which is based on amorphous selenium (a-Se) detector technology. The full field digital mammography (FFDM) system based on a-Se technology, which is also a platform of tomosynthesis prototype, was used in this study. X-ray tube anode-filter combinations, which we studied, were tungsten (W) - rhodium (Rh) and tungsten (W) - silver (Ag). Anatomically adaptable fully automatic exposure control (AAEC) was used. The average glandular doses (AGD) were calculated using a specific program developed by Planmed, which automates the method described by Dance et al. Image quality was evaluated in two different ways: a subjective image quality evaluation, and contrast and noise analysis. By using W-Rh and W-Ag anode-filter combinations can be achieved a significantly lower average glandular dose compared with molybdenum (Mo) - molybdenum (Mo) or Mo-Rh. The average glandular dose reduction was achieved from 25 % to 60 %. In the future, the evaluation will concentrate to study more filter combinations and the effect of higher kV (>35 kV) values, which seems be useful while optimizing the dose in digital mammography.

  17. The Cytotoxic, Antibacterial and Free Radical Scavenging Activities of Crude Extracts of Matricaria chamomilla, Salvadora persica and Artemisia annua

    KAUST Repository

    Seddek, Ahmed

    2011-12-01

    The discovery of drugs from natural sources has been a rapidly growing science in this era. Plants used for medicinal purposes have been usually studied as rich sources of bioactive chemical compounds that can be used as medications. Several plant-derived drugs have been approved so far. Cancer and infectious diseases have been common targets for the science of drug discovery, due to the high mortality rates caused by these diseases all over the world. Several plant-derived compounds are being marketed now as anti-cancer agents. However, finding novel antimicrobial and anti-cancer compounds has become an important goal to overcome the problems of existing anti-cancer and antimicrobial agents, such as resistance and non-selectivity. In this thesis project, an attempt to find out useful biological activities of the crude extracts of some plants used traditionally for medicinal purposes in Saudi Arabia has been made. Matricaria chamomilla, Salvadora persica and Artemisia annua have been selected for study, based on the literature review performed. These plants were screened for three biological activities; anti-cancer, anti-bacterial and free radical scavenging activities. The experimental part of the study consisted of some common in-vitro techniques, such as cytotoxicity and cell viability assays, disk diffusion assay and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl assay. In addition, the crude extract of Matricaria chamomilla has undergone chemical fractionation and four solvent fractions were obtained using column chromatography. The crude extract of Matricaria chamomilla showed a promising anti-bacterial activity against Escherichia coli and a very promising free radical scavenging activity that was comparable to ascorbic acid, an important anti-oxidant. The four solvent fractions obtained from that extract showed that these activities were produced by more than one compound belonging to different solvent fractions. In addition, the crude extract of Artemisia annua showed

  18. In-Vitro Assessment of the Acaricidal Properties of Artemisia Annua and Zataria Multiflora Essential Oils to Control Cattle Ticks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KH Pirali-Kheirabadi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the ‘acaricidal effect' of Zataria multiflora and Ar­temisia annua essential oils on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus annulatus.Methods: This study was carried out in 2009 in the Laboratory of Parasitology of the Faculty of Veteri­nary Medicine of Shahrekord University, west central Iran. Six dilutions (5, 10, 20, 40, 60 and 80 µL/cm3 of both essential oils were used against engorged female R. (Boophilus annula­tus ticks using an in vitro immersion method. The mortality rates for each treatment were re­corded 6, 15 and 24 hours post inoculation (hpi. Mortality rate was analyzed using Repeated Meas­ures Analysis of Variance, and compari­son of means was carried out using General Linear Models Procedure.Results: The mortality rate caused by different dilutions of Z. multiflora essential oil ranged from 26.6% (using 10 µL/cm3 to 100% (using 40 µL/cm3 and for A. annua essential oil it was 33.2 to 100% (using 20 and 80 µL/cm3, respectively by the end of the experiment (36 hpi. No mortality was recorded for the non-treated control group or for dilutions less than 5 and 10 µL/cm3 using Zataria and Artemisia essential oils, respectively. For Z. multiflora mortality peaked at 15 hpi for all concentrations other than 20 µL/cm3 and took 24 h to achieve its maximum effect while for A. an­nua the two highest concentrations needed 24 hpi to reach their full effect. In addition, essen­tial oils applied at more than 20 and 60 µL/cm3 caused 100% egg-laying failure in engorged fe­male ticks by Zataria and Artemisia, respectively while no failure was observed for the non-treated control group. The mortality rate in both botanical acaricides was dose-dependent.Conclusion: Both these medicinal plants have high potential acaricidal effects on the engorged stage of R. (Boophilus annulatus in vitro.

  19. Ectopic expression of R3 MYB transcription factor gene OsTCL1 in Arabidopsis, but not rice, affects trichome and root hair formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Kaijie; Tian, Hainan; Hu, Qingnan; Guo, Hongyan; Yang, Li; Cai, Ling; Wang, Xutong; Liu, Bao; Wang, Shucai

    2016-01-01

    In Arabidopsis, a MYB-bHLH-WD40 (MBW) transcriptional activator complex activates the homeodomain protein gene GLABRA2 (GL2), leading to the promotion of trichome formation and inhibition of root hair formation. The same MBW complex also activates single-repeat R3 MYB genes. R3 MYBs in turn, play a negative feedback role by competing with R2R3 MYB proteins for binding bHLH proteins, thus blocking the formation of the MBW complex. By BLASTing the rice (Oryza sativa) protein database using the entire amino acid sequence of Arabidopsis R3 MYB transcription factor TRICHOMELESS1 (TCL1), we found that there are two genes in rice genome encoding R3 MYB transcription factors, namely Oryza sativa TRICHOMELESS1 (OsTCL1) and OsTCL2. Expressing OsTCL1 in Arabidopsis inhibited trichome formation and promoted root hair formation, and OsTCL1 interacted with GL3 when tested in Arabidopsis protoplasts. Consistent with these observations, expression levels of GL2, R2R3 MYB transcription factor gene GLABRA1 (GL1) and several R3 MYB genes were greatly reduced, indicating that OsTCL1 is functional R3 MYB. However, trichome and root hair formation in transgenic rice plants overexpressing OsTCL1 remained largely unchanged, and elevated expression of OsGL2 was observed in the transgenic rice plants, indicating that rice may use different mechanisms to regulate trichome formation. PMID:26758286

  20. Cervical squamous and glandular intraepithelial neoplasia: identification and current management approaches Neoplasia intraepitelial cervical escamosa y glandular: identificación y estrategias de manejo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Cecil Wright

    2003-01-01

    realiza mediante la biopsia de cono, y el espécimen debe tener márgenes negativos para enfermedad. La histerectomía es un tratamiento probable, a menos que la fertilidad esté siendo buscada. La escisión, particularmente por electrocirugía (loop, puede interferir con la interpretación histológica en algunos casos o de ambos, particularmente en enfermedades escamosas y adenocarcinoma in situ. En este artículo se describe ampliamente el manejo de la neoplasia intraepitelial escamosa y glandular.

  1. Research Progress on the Essential Oil of Artemisia Annua L.%青蒿挥发油研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李燕; 胡浩斌; 郑旭东; 王春林

    2011-01-01

    From the aspects of extraction method, harvesting time, storage time, producing area, collection position and planting season, the influence factors of essential oil yield of Artenisia annua L. were analyzed, and essential oil components were collected from different places.The results showed that there was great difference in the chemical composition of essential oils, and the major chemical composition of essential oil are sesquiterpene and monoterpene, such as camphor, 1,8-cineole, artemisia ketone, caryophyllene oside, caryophyllene, seltnene, camphene, pinene and germacrene D.%从提取方法、采收期、贮存期、产地、采集部位和种植季节6个方面分析青蒿挥发油收率的影响因素.并收集整理了不同产些的挥发油组分,总结出青蒿挥发油化学成分差异较大,以倍半萜和单萜为主,主要成分是樟脑(Camphor)、1,8-按叶素(1,8-cineole)、蒿酮(Artemisia ketone)、石竹烯氧化物(Caryophyllene oside)、石竹烯(Caryophyllene)、芹予烯(Seltnene)、莰烯(Camphene)、蒎烯(Pinene)和大根香叶烯D(Germacrene D)等化合物.

  2. Glandular dose and image quality control in mammography facilities with computerized radiography systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women, and early detection is critical to its diagnosis and treatment. To date, the most effective method for early detection of breast cancer has been x-ray mammography for which the screen/film (SF) technique has been the gold standard. However, even though SF combinations have been improved and optimized over the years for breast imaging, there are some critical limitations, including a narrow exposure range, image artifacts, film processing problems, and inflexibility in image processing and film management. In recent years, digital mammography has been introduced in cancer screening programmes with the screen/film techniques gradually being phased out. Computed radiography (CR), also commonly known as photostimulable phosphor (PSP) imaging or storage phosphor, employs reusable imaging plates and associated hardware and software to acquire and to display digital projection radiographs. In this work, a protocol model was tested for performing image quality control and average glandular dose (AGD) evaluation in 19 institutions with computed radiography systems for mammography. The protocol was validated through tests at the Laboratorio de Radioprotecao Aplicada a Mamografia (LARAM) from the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN). The image quality visual evaluation of CDMAM phantom showed that 53% of the facilities were able to produce images of excellent quality. Furthermore, the automated evaluation of image quality, using the analyze software cdcom.exe, showed that 57% of the images were considered to be of good quality. The detector linearity test showed that the CR response is very linear, where 95% of facilities evaluated were considered to be compliant. For the image noise was found that only 20% of facilities are in agreement with the parameters established for this test. The average glandular doses, which patients may be getting to perform an examination, were below the action levels

  3. Real-time estimation system for mean glandular dose in mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to construct a system that calculates mean glandular dose (MGD) in mammography in real-time on the radiology information system (RIS) network. Measurement of the half-value layer (HVL) and exposure dose were measured according to the Japanese mammographic quality control manual. A parallel plate chamber (10X5-6M; soft X-rays only) was used for measurement. Exposure dose was measured from 26 to 32 kV. Effective energy (Eeff [keV]) could be determined from tube voltage (V [kV]) using the measure of the HVL according to the following equations: for the Mo/Mo combination, Eeff=0.1325V+11.80; for the Mo/Rh combination, Eeff=0.1435V+12.20; for the Rh/Rh combination, Eeff=0.1724V+11.29. Exposure output (XmAs [mR/mAs]), which can be determined from dosimetry per 1 mAs, becomes the following equation if effective energy is expressed as a variable: for the Mo/Mo combination, XmAs=2.1329 Eeff2-57.784 Eeff+392.71; for the Mo/Rh combination, XmAs=1.1919 Eeff2-31.924 Eeff+212.23; and for the Rh/Rh combination, XmAs=2.6929 Eeff2-82.831 Eeff+643.54. The MGD conversion factor (DgN [mGy/mR]) can be determined from effective energy using the American College of Radiology (ACR) protocol according to the following equation: for the Mo/Mo combination, DgN=(0.3962 Eeff-4.3178)·10-3; for the Mo/Rh combination, DgN=(0.3495 Eeff-3.5479)·10-3; and for the Rh/Rh combination, DgN=(0.4498 Eeff-5.0448)·10-3. However, in these cases, compression breast thickness (CBT) was 4.2 cm, and the ratio of adipose and glandular tissue was 50/50. MGD can be determined using mAs obtained from mammography, exposure output (XmAs), MGD conversion factor (DgN), and source-skin distance compensation factor (SSDcf) according to the following equation: MGD [mGy]=mAs·XmAs [mR/mAs]·DgN [mGy/mR]· SSDcf where SSDcf={64/(64-CBT [cm]){2. (author)

  4. DETERMINACIÓN DE UN MÉTODO DE CALCULO DE DOSIS GLANDULAR PROMEDIO EN EXAMENES DE MAMOGRAFIA CONVENCIONAL DETERMINATION OF A METHOD FOR CALCULATING MEAN GLANDULAR DOSE IN CONVENTIONAL MAMMOGRAPHY EXAMS

    OpenAIRE

    Oswaldo Ramos N; Manuel Villarreal U

    2009-01-01

    Presentamos la aplicación de un modelo numérico para estimarla dosis glandular promedio en mamografía. Hemos utilizado un mamógrafo General Electric, tensión del tubo: 20-35 kV con incrementos de 1 kV; carga del tubo: 10-250 mAs; combinación ánodo-filtro de Molibdeno-Molibdeno. Durante dos meses datos de 162 exploraciones con proyecciones cráneo-caudal y medio lateral oblicua en ambas mamas. El espesor de mama comprimida se encuentra en el rango de 2,5 a 6,5 cm. Los rangos de dosis glandular ...

  5. The Jasmonate-Responsive AP2/ERF Transcription Factors AaERF1 and AaERF2 Positively Regulate Artemisinin Biosynthesis in Artemisia annua L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zong-Xia YU; Jian-Xu Li; Chang-Qing Yang; Wen-Li Hu; Ling-Jian Wang; Xiao-Ya Chen

    2012-01-01

    Plants of Artemisia annua produce artemisinin,a sesquiterpene lactone widely used in malaria treatment.Amorpha-4,11-diene synthase (ADS),a sesquiterpene synthase,and CYP71AV1,a P450 monooxygenase,are two key enzymes of the artemisinin biosynthesis pathway.Accumulation of artemisinin can be induced by the phytohormone jasmonate (JA).Here,we report the characterization of two JA-responsive AP2 family transcription factors-AaERF1 and AaERF2-from A.annua L.Both genes were highly expressed in inflorescences and strongly induced by JA.Yeast one-hybrid and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) showed that they were able to bind to the CRTDREHVCBF2 (CBF2) and RAV1AAT (RAA) motifs present in both ADS and CYP71AV1 promoters.Transient expression of either AaERF1 or AaERF2 in tobacco induced the promoter activities of ADS or CYP71AV1,and the transgenic A.annua plants overexpressing either transcription factor showed elevated transcript levels of both ADS and CYP71AV1,resulting in increased accumulation of artemisinin and artemisinic acid.By contrast,the contents of these two metabolites were reduced in the RNAi transgenic lines in which expression of AaERF1 or AaERF2 was suppressed.These results demonstrate that AaERF1 and AaERF2 are two positive regulators of artemisinin biosynthesis and are of great value in genetic engineering of artemisinin production.

  6. Cistitis quística glandular presentada como cistopatía quística

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Orlich-Castelán

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de una mujer de 73 años, con historia de hematuria macroscópica de aparición reciente, con presencia de quistes en toda la extensión de la mucosa vesical, y con diagnóstico por biopsias de vejiga, de una cistitis glandular. Se habla de cistopatía quística cuando los quistes se encuentran difusamente en la vejiga, y frecuentemente coexiste con lipomatosis pélvica en pacientes obesas, como la que reportada aquí. Es considerada una lesión premaligna y por eso es importante un seguimiento cuidadoso con cistoscopias periódicas. La cistitis quística se presenta más frecuentemente en hombres y en personas de mayor edad. Macroscópicamente, se manifiesta con nódulos submucosos únicos o múltiples, y los hallazgos histológicos son la presencia de nidos uroteliales redondeados, con dilatación quística dentro de la lámina propia, y paralelos a la superficie urotelial.

  7. Single-cell analysis of glandular T cell receptors in Sjögren’s syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joachims, Michelle L.; Leehan, Kerry M.; Lawrence, Christina; Pelikan, Richard C.; Moore, Jacen S.; Pan, Zijian; Rasmussen, Astrid; Radfar, Lida; Lewis, David M.; Grundahl, Kiely M.; Kelly, Jennifer A.; Wiley, Graham B.; Shugay, Mikhail; Chudakov, Dmitriy M.; Lessard, Christopher J.; Stone, Donald U.; Scofield, R. Hal; Montgomery, Courtney G.; Sivils, Kathy L.; Thompson, Linda F.; Farris, A. Darise

    2016-01-01

    CD4+ T cells predominate in salivary gland (SG) inflammatory lesions in Sjögren’s syndrome (SS). However, their antigen specificity, degree of clonal expansion, and relationship to clinical disease features remain unknown. We used multiplex reverse-transcriptase PCR to amplify paired T cell receptor α (TCRα) and β transcripts of single CD4+CD45RA− T cells from SG and peripheral blood (PB) of 10 individuals with primary SS, 9 of whom shared the HLA DR3/DQ2 risk haplotype. TCRα and β sequences were obtained from a median of 91 SG and 107 PB cells per subject. The degree of clonal expansion and frequency of cells expressing two productively rearranged α genes were increased in SG versus PB. Expanded clones from SG exhibited complementary-determining region 3 (CDR3) sequence similarity both within and among subjects, suggesting antigenic selection and shared antigen recognition. CDR3 similarities were shared among expanded clones from individuals discordant for canonical Ro and La autoantibodies, suggesting recognition of alternative SG antigen(s). The extent of SG clonal expansion correlated with reduced saliva production and increased SG fibrosis, linking expanded SG T cells with glandular dysfunction. Knowledge of paired TCRα and β sequences enables further work toward identification of target antigens and development of novel therapies. PMID:27358913

  8. Glandular odontogenic cyst mimicking ameloblastoma in a 78 year old female: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Do; Lee, Wan; Kwon, Kyung Hwan; Choi, Moon Ki; Choi, Eun Joo [College of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Jung Hoon [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, College of Dentistry, Daejeon Dental Hospital, Wonkwang University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    Glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC) is a rare, potentially aggressive jaw lesion. The common radiographic features include a well-defined radiolucency with distinct borders, presenting a uni- or multilocular appearance. A cystic lesion in the posterior mandible of a 78-year-old female was incidentally found. Radiographs showed a unilocular lesion with a scalloped margin, external root resorption of the adjacent tooth, and cortical perforation. This lesion had changed from a small ovoid shape to a more expanded lesion in a period of four years. The small lesion showed unilocularity with a smooth margin and a well-defined border, but the expanded lesion produced cortical perforation and a lobulated margin. The provisional diagnosis was an ameloblastoma, whereas the histopathological examination revealed a GOC. This was a quite rare case, given that this radiographic change was observed in the posterior mandible of an elderly female. This case showed that a GOC can grow even in people in their seventies, changing from the unilocular form to an expanded, lobulated lesion. Here, we report a case of GOC with characteristic radiographic features.

  9. Mean glandular dose in six digital mammography services in Santiago, Chile: preliminary reference levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper was to estimate mean glandular dose levels (DG) in six digital mammography systems in Santiago, Chile, and to propose preliminary reference levels to execute mammography in Chile. The study was carried out assessing two direct digital systems and four computer-based radiography (CR) systems. Estimates of DG were calculated for different thicknesses of polymethyl methacrylate according to the quality control protocol in digital mammography of the Spanish Society of Medical Physics and NHSBSP Equipment Report 0604 Version 3. DG values ranged between 0.64 and 7.26 mGy for a range of 20- to 70-mm thickness, respectively. Thirty-six per cent of DG was higher than the acceptable dose level and 100 % of DG was higher than the desirable level. It is therefore necessary to optimise doses. The initial proposal to establish dose reference levels for DG would range between 0.90 and 6.40 mGy for a thickness range of 20 to 70 mm. (authors)

  10. Crypto-glandular fistulous paraproctites--is the surgical prophylaxis of reccurences imperative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radionov, M; Ziya, D D; Sechanov, I

    2013-01-01

    It is done an analysis of 191 patients operated on for crypto-glandular chronic fistulous paraproctitis. The age of the patients vary 21 to 76 years and the male:female proportion is 2,25 to 1. In 164 patients it was first operation for fistula-in-ano and in 27 cases it was a consecutive one for reccurence. There was intervened a concomitant other disease of the anal channel which pathogenetically predispose the development of fistula in 54 (28%) cases. The patients were discharged 1-3 days after surgery. Ambulant control and ligature procedures up to the 30th day were done. A follow up was done of 118 patients (68%) for period of 3 to 12 months. In all the followed up patients was registered full continence and good tonus of the anal sphincters. Recurrences were registered in 8 cases with fibrin glue occlusion of the fistula. There are no registered cases of recurrences by the followed up patients after fistulotomy and excision-ligature methods. The authors review in the discussion the pathogenetical predisposition for paraproctitis in consequence of other diseases of the anal channel and the necessity of surgical prophylaxis of recurrences. PMID:23847806

  11. Preliminary Studies into the Determination of Mean Glandular Dose During Diagnostic Mammography Procedure in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Nsiah-Akoto

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this project was to determine the mean glandular dose (MGD from Craniocaudal (CC and Mediolateral Oblique (MLO views to the breast during diagnostic mammography and the total dose per woman. The study was conducted at the Mammography Unit of Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital and Peace and Love Hospital, Oduom. Data such as age, weight, height, bust size, compressed breast thickness, time of exposure, milli-ampere second (mAs, kilovoltage peak (KVp and half value layer (HVL were recorded from 440 films from 110 women. The MGD per film was 1.17± 0.02 mGy and 1.25±0.03 mGy for the craniocaudal (CC and mediolateral oblique (MLO views, respectively. The mean MGD per woman was 1.80±0.03mGy. The only factors that were found to affect MGD were mAs and the compressed breast thickness. No significant relationships were seen between MGD per woman with respect to ethnicity and educational background. The dose values obtained fall within the internationally acceptable dose range of 1-3 mGy. This suggests mammography x-ray generators at the two hospitals are capable of achieving acceptable dose levels for patient safety and this prompted us to rule out the fact that all other factors considered, they are not at risk of induced cancer from mammography.

  12. Characterization of contrast - to noise ration and mean glandular dose for digital mammography system in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to investigate if the current exposure parameters in clinical use at sole CR mammography facility in Tanzania are optimal. For this purpose, the European protocol for quality control in mammography screening was applied to characterize the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and mean glandular dose (D) values of model iCR3600 with iCRco image plates (RADIEQ: South Korea). The characterization was performed at 30 kVp under manual mode exposure conditions for standard PMMA phantom thicknesses ranging from 20 to70 mm. The figure of merit (FOM) expressed in terms of CNR2/MGD was derived to assess the level of optimization. The results show that FOM was highest 30 cm PMMA thickness and roughly decreased with increasing 11 PMMA thickness as expected. The D values were 0.7, 0.81, 0.69, 0.7, 0.74, 0.64 and 0.56 mGy for 20, 30, 40, 45, 50, 60 and 70 mm PMMA respectively. The dose values were much lower than the European limiting values. Although there is no evidence for deteriorated image quality as a result of low dose levels, non use of automatic exposure control device suggest the need for improvement. As a starting point, the defective automatic exposure system should be repaired and put in practice followed by comprehensive optimization studies. Therefore further studies may be necessary for conclusive optimization status (author)

  13. Fibroblast growth factor 10-fibroblast growth factor receptor 2b mediated signaling is not required for adult glandular stomach homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison L Speer

    Full Text Available The signaling pathways that are essential for gastric organogenesis have been studied in some detail; however, those that regulate the maintenance of the gastric epithelium during adult homeostasis remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of Fibroblast growth factor 10 (FGF10 and its main receptor, Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2b (FGFR2b, in adult glandular stomach homeostasis. We first showed that mouse adult glandular stomach expressed Fgf10, its receptors, Fgfr1b and Fgfr2b, and most of the other FGFR2b ligands (Fgf1, Fgf7, Fgf22 except for Fgf3 and Fgf20. Fgf10 expression was mesenchymal whereas FGFR1 and FGFR2 expression were mostly epithelial. Studying double transgenic mice that allow inducible overexpression of Fgf10 in adult mice, we showed that Fgf10 overexpression in normal adult glandular stomach increased epithelial proliferation, drove mucous neck cell differentiation, and reduced parietal and chief cell differentiation. Although a similar phenotype can be associated with the development of metaplasia, we found that Fgf10 overexpression for a short duration does not cause metaplasia. Finally, investigating double transgenic mice that allow the expression of a soluble form of Fgfr2b, FGF10's main receptor, which acts as a dominant negative, we found no significant changes in gastric epithelial proliferation or differentiation in the mutants. Our work provides evidence, for the first time, that the FGF10-FGFR2b signaling pathway is not required for epithelial proliferation and differentiation during adult glandular stomach homeostasis.

  14. Loss of vitamin D receptor signaling from the mammary epithelium or adipose tissue alters pubertal glandular development

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Abby L.; Zinser, Glendon M.; Waltz, Susan E.

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D3 receptor (VDR) signaling within the mammary gland regulates various postnatal stages of glandular development, including puberty, pregnancy, involution, and tumorigenesis. Previous studies have shown that vitamin D3 treatment induces cell-autonomous growth inhibition and differentiation of mammary epithelial cells in culture. Furthermore, mammary adipose tissue serves as a depot for vitamin D3 storage, and both epithelial cells and adipocytes are capable of bioactivating vitamin D3...

  15. The alveolar epithelial differentiation of glandular inner lining cells in a mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the lung: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Hong-Tao

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mucoepidermoid carcinoma is a common malignant epithelial tumor of salivary glands, but relatively rare in lung. The histological features of mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the lung are similar to its counterpart arising from the salivary glands. Here, we reported a special tumor that occurred in the medial segment of the right lower lobe in a 22-year-old man. This tumor exhibited typical features of mucoepidermoid carcinoma with 3 cell types: squamoid cells, mucin-secreting cells and cells of intermediate type. These 3 types of cells organized into cysts, nests, glands and solid patterns. Specially, the inner lining cells of some glandular structures were uniform cuboidal and hobnail-like, similar to the alveolar epithelial cells. Immunohistochemistry staining revealed that the inner lining cells of glandular structures were positive for thyroid transcription factor-1 and surfactant protein-B, used as markers of alveolar epithelial cells, and were negative for p63. These findings for the first time demonstrated a rare alveolar epithelial differentiation of glandular inner lining cells in a mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the lung. Virtual Slides The virtual slide(s for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/7095988968057804

  16. Estimation of mean glandular dose for breast tomosynthesis: factors for use with the UK, European and IAEA breast dosimetry protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A formalism is proposed for the estimation of mean glandular dose for breast tomosynthesis, which is a simple extension of the UK, European and IAEA protocols for dosimetry in conventional projection mammography. The formalism introduces t-factors for the calculation of breast dose from a single projection and T-factors for a complete exposure series. Monte Carlo calculations of t-factors have been made for an imaging geometry with full-field irradiation of the breast for a wide range of x-ray spectra, breast sizes and glandularities. The t-factors show little dependence on breast glandularity and tables are provided as a function of projection angle and breast thickness, which may be used for all x-ray spectra simulated. The T-factors for this geometry depend upon the choice of projection angles and weights per projection, but various example calculations gave values in the range 0.93-1.00. T-factors are also provided for the Sectra tomosynthesis system, which employs a scanned narrow-beam imaging geometry. In this quite different configuration, the factor (denoted TS) shows an important dependence on breast thickness, varying between 0.98 and 0.76 for 20 and 110 mm thick breasts, respectively. Additional data are given to extend the current tabulations of g-, c- and s-factors used for dosimetry of conventional 2D mammography.

  17. Breast cancer and ductal carcinoma in situ among women with prior squamous or glandular precancer in the cervix: a register-based study

    OpenAIRE

    B. T. Hansen; Nygård, M.; Falk, R S; Hofvind, S

    2012-01-01

    Background: Human papillomavirus and hormonal contraceptives may be risk factors for cervical precancer and malignant breast tumours. Methods: Standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) of malignant breast tumours during 1970–2008 were estimated separately for women with prior squamous and glandular cervical precancer. Results: Women with squamous precancer and women with glandular precancer in the cervix had a significantly higher risk of malignant breast tumours than the general female population...

  18. Efeito anticoccidiano de extrato hidroalcoólico de Artemisia annua em camas de aves contaminadas com Eimeria sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lew Kan Sprenger

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a eficácia do extrato hidroalcoólico de Artemisia annua frente a oocistos de Eimeria sp. em camas contaminadas. O extrato foi produzido com 7 dias de percolação a 4°C, sendo posteriormente realizada a marcha fitoquímica; dosagem de fenóis totais, quantificação de artemisinina, ensaio antioxidante e teste de toxicidade. Para testar a atividade anticoccidiana, camas de aves compostas de cepilho de árvores foram contaminadas com 5000 oocistos. Foram formados quatro tratamentos, em triplicata, nos quais foram usadas diferentes concentrações, sendo G1: 12mg/mL, G2: 8mg/mL, G3: 4mg/mL e C-: água. Após a contaminação, foram aspergidos, 800 mL dos extratos nas diferentes concentrações sobre as camas e coletadas, em triplicatas, 10 cm2 de cada local, aleatoriamente, nos tempos: 0, 3, 6, 24, 48, e 72 horas após a aplicação. Nas análises fitoquímicas, foram evidenciados diversos compostos com propriedades antiparasitárias, como flavonoides e taninos. O fitoterápico continha 59,409±1,47μg/dL de artemisinina. O produto na concentração de 12mg.mL-1 apresentou eficácia entre 45,5 e 42,1%. Os resultados dos testes bioquímicos, juntamente com os encontrados no teste anticoccidiano, evidenciaram que o extrato produzido possui alto potencial para combater Eimeria sp.

  19. Oncoplastic Resection of Retroareolar Breast Cancer: Central Quadrantectomy and Reconstruction by Local Skin-Glandular Flap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Patients with central breast neoplasms account for 5 to 20% of breast cancer cases and, for a long time, they have been denied Breast Conservation Surgery (BCS) and conventionally treated with mastectomy. The high incidence of Nipple-Areola-Complex (NAC) involvement usually associated with these tumors necessitates nipple and areolar resection together with an adequate safety margin around the tumor, which yields an unacceptable cosmetic result. With the help of Oncoplastic Surgical Techniques, BCS can be offered to these patients. In this study central quadrantectomy and breast reconstruction by an infero-Iaterally based pedicled flap were evaluated. Patients and Methods: This study comprised 23 women with central breast tumors treated at the National Cancer Institute (NC]), Cairo University and at the Aswan Cancer Center, Egyptian Ministry of Health. Their ages ranged from 31 to 62 years (mean: 48.4±10.2 years). Twenty-two had a palpable mass, while only I had Paget's disease of the nipple without mass. The size of their tumors ranged from 4 to 33mm (mean: 16.9±8.6mm). Only 9 women showed clinical suspicion of NAC involvement in the form of nipple retraction. Seventeen cases had their tumors strictly in the retro-areolar region, while 5 had tumors extending for a maximum of I.5Cm beyond the areolar edge. All patients underwent central quadrantec-tomy with NAC resection removing a cylinder of breast tissue reaching down to the pectoral muscle together with axillary dissection. Advancement of an infero-Iaterally based skin-glandular flap was then carried out. All patients received adjuvant radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy or hormonal therapy. Results: Fourteen patients showed pathological evidence of nipple infiltration (60.8%). The free safety margin (SM) ranged from 9 to 13mm (mean: 10. 0.9mm). This could be accomplished from the first attempt in 18 patients; however, in 5 patients a second wider excision was needed to obtain an adequate

  20. SU-E-I-04: A Mammography Phantom to Measure Mean Glandular Dose and Image Quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Pineda, E; Ruiz-Trejo, C; E, Brandan M [Instituto de Fisica UNAM, Mexico City, DF (Mexico)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate mean glandular dose (MGD) and image quality in a selection of mammography systems using a novel phantom based on thermoluminescent dosemeters and the ACR wax insert. Methods: The phantom consists of two acrylic, 19 cm diameter, 4.5 cm thick, semicircular modules, used in sequence. The image quality module contains the ACR insert and is used to obtain a quality control image under automatic exposure conditions. The dosimetric module carries 15 TLD-100 chips, some under Al foils, to determine air kerma and half-value-layer. TL readings take place at our laboratory under controlled conditions. Calibration was performed using an ionization chamber and a Senographe 2000D unit for a variety of beam qualities, from 24 to 40 kV, Mo and Rh anodes and filters. Phantom MGD values agree, on the average, within 3% with ionization chamber data, and their precision is better than 10% (k=1). Results: MGD and image quality have been evaluated in a selection of mammography units currently used in Mexican health services. The sample includes analogic (screen/film), flexible digital (CR), and full-field digital image receptors. The highest MDG are associated to the CR technology. The most common image quality failure is due to artifacts (dust, intensifying screen scratches, and processor marks for film/screen, laser reader defects for CR). Conclusion: The developed phantom permits the MGD measurement without the need of a calibrated ionization chamber at the mammography site and can be used by a technician without the presence of a medical physicist. The results indicate the urgent need to establish quality control programs for mammography.

  1. Average glandular dose in digital mammography and digital breast tomosynthesis: comparison of phantom and patient data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwman, R. W.; van Engen, R. E.; Young, K. C.; den Heeten, G. J.; Broeders, M. J. M.; Schopphoven, S.; Jeukens, C. R. L. P. N.; Veldkamp, W. J. H.; Dance, D. R.

    2015-10-01

    For the evaluation of the average glandular dose (AGD) in digital mammography (DM) and digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) phantoms simulating standard model breasts are used. These phantoms consist of slabs of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) or a combination of PMMA and polyethylene (PE). In the last decades the automatic exposure control (AEC) increased in complexity and became more sensitive to (local) differences in breast composition. The question is how well the AGD estimated using these simple dosimetry phantoms agrees with the average patient AGD. In this study the AGDs for both dosimetry phantoms and for patients have been evaluated for 5 different x-ray systems in DM and DBT modes. It was found that the ratios between patient and phantom AGD did not differ considerably using both dosimetry phantoms. These ratios averaged over all breast thicknesses were 1.14 and 1.15 for the PMMA and PMMA-PE dosimetry phantoms respectively in DM mode and 1.00 and 1.02 in the DBT mode. These ratios were deemed to be sufficiently close to unity to be suitable for dosimetry evaluation in quality control procedures. However care should be taken when comparing systems for DM and DBT since depending on the AEC operation, ratios for particular breast thicknesses may differ substantially (0.83-1.96). Although the predictions of both phantoms are similar we advise the use of PMMA  +  PE slabs for both DM and DBT to harmonize dosimetry protocols and avoid any potential issues with the use of spacers with the PMMA phantoms.

  2. SU-E-I-04: A Mammography Phantom to Measure Mean Glandular Dose and Image Quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate mean glandular dose (MGD) and image quality in a selection of mammography systems using a novel phantom based on thermoluminescent dosemeters and the ACR wax insert. Methods: The phantom consists of two acrylic, 19 cm diameter, 4.5 cm thick, semicircular modules, used in sequence. The image quality module contains the ACR insert and is used to obtain a quality control image under automatic exposure conditions. The dosimetric module carries 15 TLD-100 chips, some under Al foils, to determine air kerma and half-value-layer. TL readings take place at our laboratory under controlled conditions. Calibration was performed using an ionization chamber and a Senographe 2000D unit for a variety of beam qualities, from 24 to 40 kV, Mo and Rh anodes and filters. Phantom MGD values agree, on the average, within 3% with ionization chamber data, and their precision is better than 10% (k=1). Results: MGD and image quality have been evaluated in a selection of mammography units currently used in Mexican health services. The sample includes analogic (screen/film), flexible digital (CR), and full-field digital image receptors. The highest MDG are associated to the CR technology. The most common image quality failure is due to artifacts (dust, intensifying screen scratches, and processor marks for film/screen, laser reader defects for CR). Conclusion: The developed phantom permits the MGD measurement without the need of a calibrated ionization chamber at the mammography site and can be used by a technician without the presence of a medical physicist. The results indicate the urgent need to establish quality control programs for mammography

  3. Results of a 2011 national questionnaire for investigation of mean glandular dose from mammography in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) for mammography have yet to be created in Japan. A national questionnaire investigation into radiographic conditions in Japan was carried out for the purpose of creating DRLs. Items investigated included the following: tube voltage; tube current; current–time product; source–image distance; craniocaudal view; automatic exposure control (AEC) settings; name of mammography unit; image receptor system (computed radiography (CR), flat panel detector (FPD), or film/screen (F/S)); and supported or unsupported monitor diagnosis (including monitor resolution). Estimation of the mean glandular dose (MGD) for mammography was performed and compared with previous investigations. The MGD was 1.58(0.48) mGy, which did not significantly differ from a 2007 investigation. In relation to image receptors, although no difference in average MGD values was observed between CR and FPD systems, F/S systems had a significantly decreased value compared to both CR and FPDs. Concerning digital systems (FPDs), the MGD value of the direct conversion system was significantly higher than the indirect conversion system. No significant difference in MGD value was evident concerning type of monitor diagnosis for either the CR or the FPD digital systems; however, hard copies were used more often in CR. No significant difference in the MGD value was found in relation to monitor resolution. This report suggests ways to lower the doses patients undergoing mammography receive in Japan, and serves as reference data for 4.2 cm compressed breast tissue of 50% composition DRLs. Furthermore, our findings suggest that further optimisation of FPD settings can promote a reduction in the MGD value. (paper)

  4. Average glandular dose in digital mammography and digital breast tomosynthesis: comparison of phantom and patient data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the evaluation of the average glandular dose (AGD) in digital mammography (DM) and digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) phantoms simulating standard model breasts are used. These phantoms consist of slabs of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) or a combination of PMMA and polyethylene (PE). In the last decades the automatic exposure control (AEC) increased in complexity and became more sensitive to (local) differences in breast composition. The question is how well the AGD estimated using these simple dosimetry phantoms agrees with the average patient AGD. In this study the AGDs for both dosimetry phantoms and for patients have been evaluated for 5 different x-ray systems in DM and DBT modes. It was found that the ratios between patient and phantom AGD did not differ considerably using both dosimetry phantoms. These ratios averaged over all breast thicknesses were 1.14 and 1.15 for the PMMA and PMMA-PE dosimetry phantoms respectively in DM mode and 1.00 and 1.02 in the DBT mode. These ratios were deemed to be sufficiently close to unity to be suitable for dosimetry evaluation in quality control procedures. However care should be taken when comparing systems for DM and DBT since depending on the AEC operation, ratios for particular breast thicknesses may differ substantially (0.83–1.96). Although the predictions of both phantoms are similar we advise the use of PMMA  +  PE slabs for both DM and DBT to harmonize dosimetry protocols and avoid any potential issues with the use of spacers with the PMMA phantoms. (paper)

  5. Mean glandular doses for women undergoing mammographic breast screening in Oyo state, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, thermoluminescent dosimeters have been used to measure entrance surface doses (ESDs) of patients undergoing mammographic screening at the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Oyo state. The mean glandular doses (MGDs) were also calculated using the measured ESDs. The results showed that the ESDs ranged from 0.26 mGy to 21.26 mGy for the mediolateral oblique (MLO) views and 0.08 mGy to 5.36 mGy for the craniocaudal (CC) views. The calculated MGD ranged from 0.07 mGy to 3.57 mGy for the MLO views and 0.02 mGy to 0.98 mGy for the CC views. The possible reasons for the large variations in the individual ESD values and MGD values for both views are discussed using patients' data, equipment specific data and the technical parameters used for the examinations. Comparison showed that the mean ESD values and MGD values reported in this work are below published values. The mean of the calculated MGD values is also found to be lower than the recommended guidance level of 3.0 mGy when using grid. 92.5% of the patients had MGD values that are less than 2.5 mGy, hence a national reference MGD value of 2.5 mGy is proposed for Nigeria. Implementation of a dose reduction program in mammographic screening is also suggested because of the observed large variations in patients MGD values.

  6. A computational approach to resolve cell level contributions to early glandular epithelial cancer progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Sunwoo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Three-dimensional (3D embedded cell cultures provide an appropriate physiological environment to reconstruct features of early glandular epithelial cancer. Although these are orders of magnitude simpler than tissues, they too are complex systems that have proven challenging to understand. We used agent-based, discrete event simulation modeling methods to build working hypotheses of mechanisms of epithelial 3D culture phenotype and early cancer progression. Starting with an earlier software analogue, we validated an improved in silico epithelial analogue (ISEA for cardinal features of a normally developed MDCK cyst. A set of axiomatic operating principles defined simulated cell actions. We explored selective disruption of individual simulated cell actions. New framework features enabled recording detailed measures of ISEA cell activities and morphology. Results Enabled by a small set of cell operating principles, ISEA cells multiplied and self-organized into cyst-like structures that mimicked those of MDCK cells in a 3D embedded cell culture. Selective disruption of "anoikis" or directional cell division caused the ISEA to develop phenotypic features resembling those of in vitro tumor reconstruction models and cancerous tissues in vivo. Disrupting either process, or both, altered cell activity patterns that resulted in morphologically similar outcomes. Increased disruption led to a prolonged presence of intraluminal cells. Conclusions ISEA mechanisms, behaviors, and morphological properties may have biological counterparts. To the extent that in silico-to-in vitro mappings are valid, the results suggest plausible, additional mechanisms of in vitro cancer reconstruction or reversion, and raise potentially significant implications for early cancer diagnosis based on histology. Further ISEA development and use are expected to provide a viable platform to complement in vitro methods for unraveling the mechanistic basis of

  7. Chemical Composition of Artemisia annua L. Leaves and Antioxidant Potential of Extracts as a Function of Extraction Solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maznah Ismail

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the chemical and nutritional composition of Artemisia annua leaves in addition to determination of antioxidant potential of their extracts prepared in different solvents. Chemical composition was determined by quantifying fat, protein, carbohydrate, fiber, tocopherol, phytate, and tannin contents. Extraction of A. annua leaves, for antioxidant potential evaluation, was carried out using five solvents of different polarities, i.e., hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and water. Antioxidant potential was evaluated by estimating total phenolic (TPC, flavonoid (TFC contents, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC, DPPH radical scavenging activity and lipid peroxidation. Efficiency of different solvents was compared for the yield of antioxidant extracts from leaf samples and a clear variation was observed. The highest TPC, TFC, TEAC, DPPH radical scavenging and lowest lipid peroxidation were observed in MeOH extracts, whereas aqueous extract exhibited high ferric reducing antioxidant power; suggesting MeOH to be the most favorable extractant.

  8. Strong larvicidal potential of Artemisia annua leaf extract against malaria (Anopheles stephensi Liston) and dengue (Aedes aegypti L.) vectors and bioassay-driven isolation of the marker compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Gaurav; Kapoor, Himanshi; Chopra, Madhu; Kumar, Kaushal; Agrawal, Veena

    2014-01-01

    Malaria and dengue are the two most important vector-borne human diseases caused by mosquito vectors Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti, respectively. Of the various strategies adopted for eliminating these diseases, controlling of vectors through herbs has been reckoned as one of the important measures for preventing their resurgence. Artemisia annua leaf chloroform extract when tried against larvae of A. stephensi and A. aegypti has shown a strong larvicidal activity against both of these vectors, their respective LC50 and LC90 values being 0.84 and 4.91 ppm for A. stephensi and 0.67 and 5.84 ppm for A. aegypti. The crude extract when separated through column chromatography using petroleum ether-ethyl acetate gradient (0-100%) yielded 76 fractions which were pooled into three different active fractions A, B and C on the basis of same or nearly similar R f values. The aforesaid pooled fractions when assayed against the larvae of A. stephensi too reported a strong larvicidal activity. The respective marker compound purified from the individual fractions A, B and C, were Artemisinin, Arteannuin B and Artemisinic acid, as confirmed and characterized through FT-IR and NMR. This is our first report of strong mortality of A. annua leaf chloroform extract against vectors of two deadly diseases. This technology can be scaled up for commercial exploitation. PMID:24158647

  9. Cloning, E. coli Expression and Molecular Analysis of Amorpha-4,11-Diene Synthase from a High-Yield Strain of Artemisia annua L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen-Qiu Li; Yan Liu; Ben-Ye Liu; Hong Wang; He-Chun Ye; Guo-Feng Li

    2006-01-01

    Increasing demand of artemisinin in the treatment of malaria has placed substantial stress on the total artemisinin supplies world-wide, so more attention has been paid to increasing the content of artemisinin in the Artemisia annua L. plant. In this study, amorpha-4, 11-diene synthase (ADS) cDNA (ads1) and genomics gene (gads1) were cloned from a high-yield A. annua strain 001. The activity of ADS1 was confirmed by heterogeneous overexpression of ads1 and in vitro enzymatic incubation. Reverse transcript-polymerase chain reaction results demonstrated that ads1 expressed in leaves, flowers and young stems, but not in roots. This organ-specific expression pattern of ads1 is consistent with that of artemisinin accumulation in the plant. The gads1 has a complex organization including seven exons and six introns, and belongs to class Ⅲ terpene synthase. DNA gel blotting revealed that the ADS gene has at least four copies in the genome of strain 001. The higher copy numbers might be one of the reasons for its high artemisinin content.

  10. Validation of mean glandular dose values provided by a digital breast tomosynthesis system in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beraldo O, B.; Paixao, L.; Donato da S, S. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear / CNEN, Post-graduation in Sciences and Technology of Radiations Minerals and Materials, Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Araujo T, M. H. [Dr Maria Helena Araujo Teixeira Clinic, Guajajaras 40, 30180-100 Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Nogueira, M. S., E-mail: bbo@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear / CNEN, Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is an emerging imaging modality that provides quasi-three-dimensional structural information of the breast and has strong promise to improve the differentiation of normal tissue and suspicious masses reducing the tissue overlaps. DBT images are reconstructed from a sequence of low-dose X-ray projections of the breast acquired at a small number of angles over a limited angular range. The Ho logic Selen ia Dimensions system is equipped with an amorphous Selenium (a-Se) detector layer of 250 μm thickness and a 70 μm pixel pitch. Studies are needed to determine the radiation dose of patients that are undergoing this emerging procedure to compare with the results obtained in DBT images. The mean glandular dose (D{sub G}) is the dosimetric quantity used in quality control of the mammographic systems. The aim of this work is to validate D{sub G} values for different breast thicknesses provided by a Ho logic Selen ia Dimensions system using a DBT mode in comparison with the same results obtained by a calibrated 90 X 5-6M-model Radcal ionization chamber. D{sub G} values were derived from the incident air kerma (K{sub i}) measurements and tabulated conversion coefficients that are dependent on the half value layer (HVL) of the X-ray spectrum. Voltage and tube loading values were recorded in irradiations using W/Al anode/filter combination, automatic exposure control mode and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) slabs which simulate different breast thicknesses. For K{sub i} measurements, the ionization chamber was positioned at 655 mm from the focus and the same radiographic technique values were selected with the manual mode. D{sub G} values for a complete procedure ranged from 0.9 ± 0.1 to 3.7 ± 0.4 mGy. The results for different breast thicknesses are in accordance with values obtained by DBT images and with acceptable levels established by the Commission of the European Communities (Cec) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA

  11. Papel da 2-tridecanona e dos tricomas glandulares tipo VI na resistência do tomateiro a Tuta absoluta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilardón Elsa

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available O metabólito secundário 2-tridecanona, secretado pelos tricomas glandulares tipo VI das folhas de tomateiro silvestre, Lycopersicon hirsutum L., confere-lhe resistência a uma grande variedade de insetos, inclusive a traça-do-tomateiro, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a concentração de 2- tridecanona, a densidade de tricomas glandulares tipo VI e o grau de infestação da traça-do-tomateiro na cultivar suscetível 'Uco Plata' (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., na linhagem resistente PI 134417 (L. hirsutum f. glabratum e em suas progênies F1 e F2. Foram avaliadas ainda as possíveis associações entre a concentração de 2-tridecanona, a densidade de tricomas glandulares tipo VI e o grau de infestação da traça-do-tomateiro. O grau médio de infestação da traça-do-tomateiro em 'Uco Plata' foi significativamente superior ao obtido em PI 134417. Ainda que a concentração de 2-tridecanona tenha sido significativamente superior no parental resistente, a presença deste metabólito somente explicaria parcialmente a resistência (R² = 8,17%. Não se detectaram diferenças significativas na densidade de tricomas tipo VI entre o parental suscetível e o resistente. Este comportamento ocorreu independentemente do conteúdo de 2-tridecanona e do grau de infestação da traça-do-tomateiro.

  12. Randomized study of gefitinib versus pemetrexed as maintenance treatment in patients with advanced glandular non-small cell lung cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Yan-Hua; Mei, Jing-Song; Zhou, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Gefitinib was compared with pemetrexed as maintenance therapy in Patients with Advanced Glandular Non-small Cell Lung Cancer, mainly regarding clinical effect and side effect. A randomized trial of pemetrexed as study group (500 mg/m2, dl) versus gefitinib as the control group [250 mg on night 1, 250 mg on morning 2 (every day)] was conducted in 188 patients, 94 cases in each group with a therapy cycle of 21 days. In addition, the study group was also treated with folic acid, vitB12 and dexam...

  13. The Characterization of SaPIN2b, a Plant Trichome-Localized Proteinase Inhibitor from Solanum americanum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng-Fu Xu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Proteinase inhibitors play an important role in plant resistance of insects and pathogens. In this study, we characterized the serine proteinase inhibitor SaPIN2b, which is constitutively expressed in Solanum americanum trichomes and contains two conserved motifs of the proteinase inhibitor II (PIN2 family. The recombinant SaPIN2b (rSaPIN2b, which was expressed in Escherichia coli, was demonstrated to be a potent proteinase inhibitor against a panel of serine proteinases, including subtilisin A, chymotrypsin and trypsin. Moreover, rSaPIN2b also effectively inhibited the proteinase activities of midgut trypsin-like proteinases that were extracted from the devastating pest Helicoverpa armigera. Furthermore, the overexpression of SaPIN2b in transgenic tobacco plants resulted in enhanced resistance against H. armigera. Taken together, our results demonstrated that SaPIN2b is a potent serine proteinase inhibitor that may act as a protective protein in plant defense against insect attacks.

  14. Chemical forms of calcium in CA,Zn- and Ca,Cd-containing grains excreted by tobacco trichomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarret, G.; Isaure, M.-P. [Environmental Geochemistry Group, LGIT, Univ. of Grenoble and CNRS, Grenoble cedex 9 (France)], E-mail: geraldine.sarret@ujf-grenoble.fr; Marcus, M.A. [Advanced Light Source (ALS), Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, Berkeley, California (United States); Harada, E. [Environmental Geochemistry Group, LGIT, Univ. of Grenoble and CNRS, Grenoble cedex 9 (France); Div. of Forest Resources, College of Forest Sciences, Kangwon National Univ., Chunchon, Kangwon-do (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Y.-E. [Div. of Forest Resources, College of Forest Sciences, Kangwon National Univ., Kangwon-do (Korea, Republic of); Pairis, S. [Inst. Neel CNRS-UJF, Dept. Matiere Condensee, Materiaux et Fonctions, Pole Instrumentation (Microscopie Electronique), Grenoble cedex 9 (France); Fakra, S. [Advanced Light Source (ALS), Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, Berkeley, California (United States); Manceau, A. [Environmental Geochemistry Group, LGIT, Univ. of Grenoble and CNRS, Grenoble cedex 9 (France)

    2007-10-15

    Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Xanthi) plants exposed to toxic levels of zinc and cadmium excrete metals through their leaf trichomes (epidermal hairs) as Zn,Ca- and Cd,Ca-containing grains. Little is known about the nature and formation mechanism of these precipitates. The chemical, crystalline, and noncrystalline compositions of individual grains produced by tobacco were studied by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDX), micro-X-ray diffraction ({mu}XRD), and calcium K-edge micro X-ray absorption near edge structure ({mu}XANES) spectroscopy. Zinc is predominantly incorporated in calcite and cadmium in calcite and vaterite. Aragonite, which occurs occasionally, does not seem to contain trace metals. In addition to being precipitated in its three possible polymorphic forms, calcite, aragonite, and vaterite, calcium is also speciated as amorphous CaCO{sub 3} and possibly organic Ca in some grains. Most often, a particular grain consists of two or more crystalline and noncrystalline phases. The observed variability of intra- and inter-grain elemental and phase composition suggests that this biomineralization process is not constrained by biological factors but instead results from thermodynamically and kinetically controlled reactions. This study illustrates the potential of laterally resolved X-ray synchrotron radiation techniques ({mu}XRD and {mu}XANES) to study biomineralization and metal immobilization processes in plants. (author)

  15. Effect of heat shock on the chilling sensitivity of trichomes and petioles of African violet (Saintpaulia ionantha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltveit, Mikal E.; Hepler, Peter K.

    2004-05-01

    Chilling at 6 degrees C caused an immediate cessation of protoplasmic streaming in trichomes from African violets (Saintpaulia ionantha), and a slower aggregation of chloroplasts in the cells. Streaming slowly recovered upon warming to 20 degrees C, reaching fairly stable rates after 4, 15, 25 and 35 min for tissue chilled for 2 min and for 2, 14 and 24 h, respectively. The rate of ion leakage from excised petioles into an isotonic 0.2 M mannitol solution increased after 12 h of chilling and reached a maximum after 3 days of chilling. A heat shock at 45 degrees C for 6 min reduced chilling-induced rates of ion leakage from excised 1-cm petiole segments by over 50%, namely to levels near that from non-chilled control tissue. Heat-shock treatments themselves had no effect on the rate of ion leakage from non-chilled petiole segments. Protoplasmic streaming was stopped by 1 min of heat shock at 45 degrees C, but slowly recovered to normal levels after about 30 min Chloroplasts aggregation was prevented by a 1 or 2 min 45 degrees C heat-shock treatment administered 1.5 h before chilling, but heat-shock treatments up to 6 min only slightly delayed the reduction in protoplasmic streaming caused by chilling. Tradescantia virginiana did not exhibit symptoms associated with chilling injury in sensitive species (i.e. cessation of protoplasmic streaming in stamen hairs and increased ion leakage from leaf tissue). PMID:15086815

  16. Trichomes as dangerous lollipops: do lizards also use caterpillar body and frass odor to optimize their foraging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stork, William F J; Weinhold, Alexander; Baldwin, Ian T

    2011-12-01

    When attacked by herbivores, plants produce toxic secondary metabolites that function as direct defenses, as well as indirect defenses that attract and reward predators of the offending herbivores. These indirect defenses include both nutritive rewards such as extra floral nectar, as well as informational rewards, such as the production and release of volatile compounds that betray the location of feeding herbivores to predators. Herbivory of Nicotiana attenuata by the tobacco hornworm (Manduca larvae) alters the volatile profiles of both the plant and larval headspace. Herbivory-elicited specific changes in the volatile profiles are detected by arthropod predators of Manduca larvae. The known predators that perceive volatile cues induced by Manduca herbivory of N. attenuata are insects that target Manduca at early developmental stages, when the larvae are still small; large, late-instar larvae may have outgrown these predation risks. However, here we offer evidence that branched chain aliphatic acids derived from the digestion of plant O-acyl sugars from trichomes may betray Manduca larvae to lizard predators during late developmental stages as well. PMID:22095147

  17. Chemical forms of calcium in CA,Zn- and Ca,Cd-containing grains excreted by tobacco trichomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Xanthi) plants exposed to toxic levels of zinc and cadmium excrete metals through their leaf trichomes (epidermal hairs) as Zn,Ca- and Cd,Ca-containing grains. Little is known about the nature and formation mechanism of these precipitates. The chemical, crystalline, and noncrystalline compositions of individual grains produced by tobacco were studied by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDX), micro-X-ray diffraction (μXRD), and calcium K-edge micro X-ray absorption near edge structure (μXANES) spectroscopy. Zinc is predominantly incorporated in calcite and cadmium in calcite and vaterite. Aragonite, which occurs occasionally, does not seem to contain trace metals. In addition to being precipitated in its three possible polymorphic forms, calcite, aragonite, and vaterite, calcium is also speciated as amorphous CaCO3 and possibly organic Ca in some grains. Most often, a particular grain consists of two or more crystalline and noncrystalline phases. The observed variability of intra- and inter-grain elemental and phase composition suggests that this biomineralization process is not constrained by biological factors but instead results from thermodynamically and kinetically controlled reactions. This study illustrates the potential of laterally resolved X-ray synchrotron radiation techniques (μXRD and μXANES) to study biomineralization and metal immobilization processes in plants. (author)

  18. Otimização do processo de extração e isolamento do antimalárico artemisinina a partir de Artemisia annua L. Optimization of the extraction and isolation of the antimalarial drug artemisinin from Artemisia annua L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney Alexandre Ferreira Rodrigues

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is still one of the major diseases in the world, causing physical and economic problems in tropical regions. Artemisinin (Qinghaosu, a natural compound identified in Artemisia annua L. , is an effective drug mainly against cerebral malaria. The action of this drug is immediate and parasitaemia in the treatment of drug-resistant malaria is rapidily reduced, justifying the industrial production of artemisinin. This article focuses on the industrial production of this potent antimalarial drug, including strategies for enhancing yield using inexpensive and easy steps.

  19. Comparative evaluation of average glandular dose and image of digital mammography and film mammography in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women, and early detection is critical to its diagnosis and treatment. Mammography is the best method for breast-cancer screening and is capable of reducing mortality rates To date, the most effective method for early detection of breast cancer has been x-ray mammography for which the screen/film (SF) technique has been the gold standard. Digital mammography has been proposed as a substitute for film mammography given the benefits inherent to digital technology. The purpose of our study was to compare the technical performance of digital mammographic and screen-film mammography. A PMMA phantom with objects to simulate breast structures. For the screen/film (SF) technique the results showed that 54% mammography units did not achieve the minimum acceptable performance as far the image quality. Besides, 67% services showed inadequate performance in their processing systems, which had significant influence on the image quality. At the mean glandular dose only 44% of digital systems evaluated were compliant in all thicknesses of PMMA. The average glandular dose AGD was 90 % higher than in screen/film systems. (authors)

  20. Sôbre o órgão abdominal glandular de Arilus carinatus (Forster, 1771: (Heteroptera, Reduviidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Barth

    1961-04-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se um órgão glandular, encontrado na fêmea de Arilus carinatus, de um tipo ainda desocnhecido em insetos. Localiza-se, em forma de um saco membranoso, nos dois lados da linha ventral, entre os 8º e 9º segmentos abdominais. O órgão é expulso por um aumento da pressão interna da cavidade abdominal e volta ao estado de repouso, no interior do corpo, por meio de contração muscular. A vesícula retal volumosa forma, em direção distal, um amplo divertículo, do qual partem dois "tubos retais" que penetram nas vesículas membranosas, tendo na superfície destas uma abertura em forma de fenda. A hipoderme do divertículo, bem como a de uma região da vesícula retal e da parte basal dos tubos retais é glandular. A secreção possui um cheiro intenso e ardido que lembra o gás de acetileno. Trata-se, provàvelmente, de uma glândula repugnatória. Não se sabe nada sôbra a ocorrência do aparelho no macho e em outras espécies de Reduviídeos.

  1. Evidence for estrogen-dependent uterine serpin (SERPINA14) expression during estrus in the bovine endometrial glandular epithelium and lumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbrich, Susanne E; Frohlich, Thomas; Schulke, Katy; Englberger, Eva; Waldschmitt, Nadine; Arnold, Georg J; Reichenbach, Horst-Dieter; Reichenbach, Myriam; Wolf, Eckhard; Meyer, Heinrich H D; Bauersachs, Stefan

    2009-10-01

    Uterine secretions have a dominant impact on the environment in which embryo development takes place. The uterine serpins (SERPINA14, previously known as UTMP) are found most abundantly during pregnancy in the uterus of ruminants. Although progesterone is currently assumed to be the major regulator of SERPINA14 expression, our recent study of transcriptome changes in bovine endometrium during the estrous cycle unexpectedly detected a marked upregulation of SERPINA14 mRNA levels at estrus. The present study describes the full-length mRNA sequence, genomic organization, and putative promoter elements of the SERPINA14 gene. The SERPINA14 mRNA abundance was quantified by real-time RT-PCR in intercaruncular endometrium at several time points during the estrous cycle and early pregnancy. Highest levels were found at estrus, followed by a dramatic decrease and a moderate expression during the luteal phase. Transcript levels were higher in pregnant endometrium compared with controls at Day 18. At estrus, immunoreactive protein was localized in deep glandular epithelium, and Western blotting concomitantly showed the 52-kDa form in uterine flushings. SERPINA14 mRNA was significantly upregulated in glandular endometrial cells in vitro after stimulation with estradiol-17beta and progesterone, but not after interferon-tau treatment. Our results clearly demonstrate that SERPINA14 appears distinctly in bovine endometrium during the estrus phase. A supporting role toward providing a well-prepared endometrial environment for passing gametes, especially sperm, is assumed. PMID:19494250

  2. Effects of Artemisia annua Extracts on Ruminal Fermentation Parameters in vivo,Concentration of Conjugated Linoleic Acid in the Rumen and Milk in Dairy Goats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li-fang; MA Yan-fen; GAO Min; LU De-xun

    2011-01-01

    IntroductionIt has been well established that plant oil or fish oil could enhance cis-9 trans-11CLA content in the ruminant food products.However, it is generally accepted that adding unsaturated fatty acid to ruminant diets may exert negative effects on fiber degradation and rumen microbe populations.For this reason,there is growing interest in evaluating the potential measures of increasing cis-9 trans-11CLA content in the ruminant food products.Recently some researches showed that some plants or plant extracts could increase cis-9 trans-11CLA content in milk.The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of Artemisia annua Extracts (AAE) on ruminal fermentation parameters in vivo,the proportions of cis-9 trans11CLA and trans-11 C18∶1 in the ruminal fluid and in dairy goats milk.

  3. Bio-raffinage de plantes aromatiques et médicinales appliqué à l'Hibiscus sabdariffa L. et à l'Artemisia annua

    OpenAIRE

    Endrias, Abraham

    2006-01-01

    L'objectif de l'étude était d'évaluer les potentialités aromatiques et médicinales de deux plantes (Hibiscus sabdariffa et Artemisia annua). Les performances et rendement de plusieurs méthodes d'extraction et de solvants sur des calices et des graines d'hibiscus, issus de trois pays (Vietnam, Sénégal et Mexique) ont été comparés. Les profils en composés volatifs diffèrent selon les extraits. La teneur en acide gras, stérols et tocophérols des huiles des graines d'hibiscus est comparable à cel...

  4. Effects of artemisinin and Artemisia annua extracts on xenic bacteria isolated from clonal cultures of Histomonas meleagridis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøfner, Ida; Hess, Claudia; Liebhart, Dieter;

    O78). Streptococcus spp. (5/19) or Proteus spp. (5/19) were isolated from four protozoal cultures. Staphylococcus sp. was isolated once. No antibacterial effect was noticed with compound concentrations identical to the antihistomonal screening. Combining the results of the antiprotozoal screening......Infection with the protozoa Histomonas meleagridis in poultry has re-emerged since the ban of effective drugs. Consequently efforts are set to find alternatives to chemotherapeutics to combat histomonosis. At present histomonads need accompanying bacteria when cultured in vitro, probably serving...... nutrient supply due to their appearance in parasitic food vacuoles. However, the relationship of the parasite and the bacteria is not fully clear. Six previously established clonal cultures of H. meleagridis were used to evaluate the effect of five Artemisia annua derived materials (i.e. dry leaves...

  5. No difference in activity of Sod-1 genotypes of Poa annua to short-term treatment of ambient gaseous organic pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Yue-wei; CHEN Xiao-yong

    2005-01-01

    Our previous studies indicated that genotypes at locus Sod-1 of Poa annua changed clinally along a gradient of gaseous organic pollution. In the present study, we aimed to know whether there were differential responses of activities of different superoxide dismutase (SOD) genotypes to short-term treatment of ambient gaseous organic pollution. Significant bias from Hardy-Weinberg equibrium was observed on locus Sod-1, and no genotype Sod-1-BB was found. Significantly increased activities were observed in most treatments for genotype Sod- 1-AA and in one treatment for genotype Sob-1-AB. However, no significant difference in SOD activities was found between the two genotypes. It was interpreted that fitness difference between the two genotypes was small and treatment duration was too short or extent of ambient organic pollution was too low to lead to differential responses. Other environmental factor effects on activities of superoxide dismutases can also explain the results.

  6. Salivary gland acinar cells regenerate functional glandular structures in modified hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Swati

    Xerostomia, a condition resulting from irradiation of the head and neck, affects over 40,000 cancer patients each year in the United States. Direct radiation damage of the acinar cells that secrete fluid and protein results in salivary gland hypofunction. Present medical management for xerostomia for patients treated for upper respiratory cancer is largely ineffective. Patients who have survived their terminal diagnosis are often left with a diminished quality of life and are unable to enjoy the simple pleasures of eating and drinking. This project aims to ultimately reduce human suffering by developing a functional implantable artificial salivary gland. The goal was to create an extracellular matrix (ECM) modified hyaluronic acid (HA) based hydrogel culture system that allows for the growth and differentiation of salivary acinar cells into functional acini-like structures capable of secreting large amounts of protein and fluid unidirectionally and to ultimately engineer a functional artificial salivary gland that can be implanted into an animal model. A tissue collection protocol was established and salivary gland tissue was obtained from patients undergoing head and neck surgery. The tissue specimen was assessed by histology and immunohistochemistry to establish the phenotype of normal salivary gland cells including the native basement membranes. Hematoxylin and eosin staining confirmed normal glandular tissue structures including intercalated ducts, striated ducts and acini. alpha-Amylase and periodic acid schiff stain, used for structures with a high proportion of carbohydrate macromolecules, preferentially stained acinar cells in the tissue. Intercalated and striated duct structures were identified using cytokeratins 19 and 7 staining. Myoepithelial cells positive for cytokeratin 14 were found wrapped around the serous and mucous acini. Tight junction components including ZO-1 and E-cadherin were present between both ductal and acinar cells. Ductal and acinar

  7. Colonization of tomato plants by Salmonella enterica is cultivar dependent, and type 1 trichomes are preferred colonization sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Jeri D; Kramer, Lara C; Hao, Ling-yun

    2011-01-01

    Nontyphoid salmonellosis caused by Salmonella enterica is the most common bacterial food-borne illness in humans, and fresh produce, including tomatoes, is a common vehicle. Accumulating data indicate that human enteric pathogenic bacteria, including S. enterica, interact actively with plants. Tomato plants were inoculated with S. enterica to evaluate plausible contamination routes and to determine if the tomato cultivar affects S. enterica colonization. S. enterica population levels on tomato leaves were cultivar dependent. S. enterica levels on Solanum pimpinellifolium (West Virginia 700 [WVa700]) were lower than on S. lycopersicum cultivars. S. enterica preferentially colonized type 1 trichomes and rarely interacted with stomata, unlike what has been reported for cut lettuce leaves. Early S. enterica leaf colonization led to contamination of all fruit, with levels as high as 10(5) CFU per fruit. Reduced bacterial speck lesion formation correlated with reduced S. enterica populations in the phyllosphere. Tomato pedicels and calyxes also harbored large S. enterica populations following inoculation via contaminated water postharvest. WVa700 green fruit harbored significantly smaller S. enterica populations than did red fruit or S. lycopersicum fruit. We found that plants irrigated with contaminated water had larger S. enterica populations than plants grown from seeds planted in infested soil. However, both routes of contamination resulted in detectable S. enterica populations in the phyllosphere. Phyllosphere S. enterica populations pose a risk of fruit contamination and subsequent human disease. Restricting S. enterica phyllosphere populations may result in reduced fruit contamination. We have identified WVa700 as a tomato cultivar that can restrict S. enterica survival in the phyllosphere. PMID:21075871

  8. 与黄瓜有毛基因紧密连锁的 SSR 标记%SSR Marker Linked to Cucumber Trichomes Characteristic Related Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王惠哲; 李淑菊; 杨瑞环; 管炜

    2013-01-01

    以有毛亲本F80为母本,无毛突变体F80WM为父本杂交,配制F1、F2、BC1群体,通过对6世代群体有无刚毛特征的观察和统计分析,研究有刚毛性状的遗传规律,并利用BSA法、SSR技术筛选与刚毛性状基因紧密连锁的分子标记。结果表明,黄瓜无毛性状是由1对核基因控制的稳定遗传的隐性性状,有刚毛相对于无毛为完全显性。通过BSA法和SSR分子标记,应用1193对引物组合对无毛、有毛亲本进行筛选,筛选到了1个与黄瓜有毛性状相关的显性标记SSR01647。测序结果表明,片段长度为164 bp,在有毛个体中扩增出了164 bp的特异片段,具有13个TC重复序列,无毛个体中未扩增出条带。经组外其他F2单株验证发现鉴定结果符合率高达100%。该性状可以作为苗期遗传标记性状,在杂交育种和品种纯度鉴定上有极大的利用价值。%The glabrous mutant F80WM was found in the inbred line F80 and can be inherited stably .F2 and BC1 population derived from F1 of F80(trichomes female)and F80WM(glabrous male)was used as materials to study the inheritance and molecular marker associated to the trichomes and glabrous trait .The results indicated that the glabrous trait was controlled by a pair of recessive gene ,and the character of trichomes was dominant to that of glabrous .The polymorphism between trichomes and glabrous parents of cucumber were studied using BSA method and SSR technology.1 193 SSR markers were screened,and a dominant marker SSR01647 was obtained.Sequen-cing of the fragment indicated that the lengths were 164 bp.The trichomes F2 plants possessed the 164 bp frag-ments,and the glabrous F2plants were no fragments.The marker was closely linked to the cucumber trichomes trait-related gene ,and the marker was confirmed to be 100%accurate by F 2 individuals .The trait was a useful marker for hybridization and purity identification of F 1 hybrids .

  9. Characteristics of the secretory structures in the flowers of Rosa rugosa Thunb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Sulborska

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the presence of secondary metabolites exhibiting pharmacological activity, the flowers of Rosa rugosa Thunb. have found application in traditional and folk medicine. The essential oil obtained from them is also considered to be a phytoncide. The morphological and anatomical characters of glandular trichomes located on the sepals of R. rugosa were studied by light and scanning electron microscopy. Using histochemical tests, the type of secretion produced in the trichomes was determined and its contents were compared with the secretion produced by the papillae on the petals. It was found that multicellular glandular trichomes, having the features of colleters, and non-glandular trichomes were located on the abaxial epidermis, while only non-glandular trichomes were situated on the adaxial epidermis. The stalk cells of the glandular trichomes are arranged in multiple rows, whereas the epidermal cells of the head are arranged radially. The capitate trichomes were classified into two types: short and long trichomes. The largest density of glandular trichomes was recorded in the basal abaxial epidermis and in the middle part of the sepals. During the initial stages of bud development, the glandular hairs were green colored, whereas in the next development stages they changed the color to red. The histochemical tests used allowed us to find that the trichomes on the sepals and the papille on the petals produced lipid substances, polyphenols, tannins, and flavonoids. Sesquiterpenes were found only in the secretion of the glandular hairs on the sepals.

  10. Comportamento da dose glandular versus contraste do objeto em mamografia: determinação de formalismo semi-empírico para diferentes combinações alvo-filtro Behavior of subject contrast versus glandular dose in mammography: determination of a semi-empirical formalism for different target-filter combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Hoff

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar o efeito da mudança no contraste do objeto, tempo de exposição e dose de radiação quando diferentes espessuras de filtração de molibdênio (Mo e ródio (Rh são empregadas em mamógrafos. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Realizaram-se medidas da exposição na entrada da pele com uma câmara de ionização para diferentes espessuras para os filtros de Mo e Rh. Para determinar a dose glandular média foi utilizado simulador de BR12 (50% tecido adiposo e 50% tecido glandular de diferentes espessuras (4 cm e 8 cm. Energias na faixa de 24 kVp a 34 kVp foram empregadas e filmes Kodak MinR 2000 foram utilizados. RESULTADOS: Os resultados evidenciaram dados de contraste do objeto, dose glandular e tempo de exposição para diferentes espessuras de filtros adicionais e diferentes tensões. Esses dados indicaram aumento nos valores de contraste do objeto e tempo de exposição, com o aumento da espessura dos filtros. A dose glandular apresentou comportamento com diferentes tendências para cada caso analisado. Equações foram definidas para possibilitar a estimativa do contraste do objeto, dose glandular e tempo de exposição para os casos estudados. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados possibilitaram a estimativa de equações que auxiliam na verificação do comportamento do contraste do objeto e da dose glandular para simuladores com espessura de 4 cm e 8 cm e para os filtros de Rh e Mo. Dessa forma, torna-se possível estimar a figura de mérito (razão entre o contraste do objeto e a dose glandular, podendo auxiliar na análise da relação risco-benefício dos casos estudados.OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to verify the effect of changes in subject contrast, exposure time and radiation dose when different thicknesses of molybdenum (Mo and rhodium (Rh filters are used in mammography equipments. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Entrance skin exposure measurements were performed with an ionization chamber for different thicknesses of Mo and Rh filters

  11. Células glandulares atípicas e câncer de colo uterino: revisão sistemática Atypical glandular cells and cervical cancer: systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana Pedrosa de Holanda Marques; Lívia Bandeira Costa; Ana Paula de Souza e Pinto; Anacássia Fonseca de Lima; Maria Eugênia Leite Duarte; Ana Paula Fernandes Barbosa; Paloma Lys de Medeiros

    2011-01-01

    Atipias de células glandulares em esfregaços cervicovaginais é um achado citológico na rotina de rastreamento do câncer cervical, que aumentou nas últimas décadas. Sua constatação é importante clinicamente, pois é alta a percentagem de casos associados com doença cervical e endometrial de alto grau e câncer. Este trabalho avaliou, por meio de uma revisão sistemática, estudos que investigaram o perfil das lesões de colo uterino em avaliações histológicas de seguimento de pacientes já diagnosti...

  12. False positive reaction due to endogenous biotin activity in glandular epithelium of decidua Reação falso positiva em epitélio glandular da decídua devido a atividade endógena de biotina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Cruz Spano

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Biotin-labeled probe was used in an in situ hybridisation assay to localize virus infection in formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded tissues taken from eleven abortion cases. Probes for human cytomegalovirus (HCMV, human Parvovirus B19 (B19 and human adenovirus type 2 (HAd2, were labeled with biotin-11-dUTP by nick-translation reaction. Streptavidin-alkaline-phosphatase (SAP was used to detect biotin, followed by 4-nitroblue tetrazolium/5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl phosphate (NBT/BCIP solution. Positive reaction was observed in nucleus of glandular ephitelium cells of decidua either in positive or in negative control at first and second gestational trimester. The reaction was not inhibited with blocking solution for alkaline phosphatase endogenous activity and it persisted even with probes omission. The use of adequate negative control permitted to reveal the presence of nuclear biotin in glandular epithelium of decidua, responsible for false positivity in detection systems involving streptavidin biotin system (StrepABC. The stained cells resembled to cytophatic effect due to herpesvirus, which could induce further misinterpretation. The results obtained in this study strongly recommend that DNA detection by in situ hybridisation reaction in gestational endometrium should be done without using StrepABC system.Sondas marcadas com biotina foram utilizadas neste trabalho para detecção de infecção viral por hibridização in situ em tecidos fixados com formalina e embebidos em parafina de 11 casos obtidos de abortamento. Sondas para citomegalovírus humano (HCMV, parvovírus B19 humano (B19 e adenovírus humano tipo 2 (HAd2, foram marcadas com biotina-11-dUTP através da reação de nick-translation. Estreptavidina conjugada com fosfatase alcalina (SAP seguida por solução de 4-nitro-azul de tetrazolio/5-bromo-4-cloro-3-indolil fosfato (NBT/BCIP foram utilizadas para detecção da biotina após a reação de hibridização. Reação positiva foi

  13. The effect of Artemisia annua on broiler performance, on intestinal microbiota and on the course of a Clostridium perfringens infection applying a necrotic enteritis disease model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Ricarda M; Grevsen, Kai; Ivarsen, Elise;

    2012-01-01

    and 20 g/kg) and n-hexane extract from fresh A. annua leaves (0, 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg) on broiler performance was investigated. Dried plant material decreased feed intake and body weight in a dose-dependent manner, and 10 and 20 g/kg diet tended to improve the feed conversion ratio. The n-hexane...... extract also reduced feed intake, but broiler weight tended to decrease only at the highest dietary concentration. The feed conversion ratio tended to improve when birds received 250 and 500 mg/kg n-hexane extract. In a third experiment, a necrotic enteritis disease model was applied to investigate the...... effect of the dietary addition of dried A. annua leaves (10 g/kg on top) or n-hexane extract of A. annua (250 mg/kg) on the severity of the disease in broilers. The addition of n-hexane extract reduced the intestinal C. perfringens numbers and the severity of the disease-related small intestinal lesions...

  14. An audit of cervicovaginal cytology in a teaching hospital: Are atypical glandular cells under-recognised on cytological screening?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crasta Julian

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical cytology screening for carcinoma of the cervix in India is mainly opportunistic in nature and is practiced mainly in urban centres. The effectiveness of cervical cytology screening depends on various factors. The quality of cervicovaginal cytology service is assessed by various quality indices and by cyto-histology correlation, which is the most important quality assurance measure. Aims: To describe the cervical cytology diagnoses, estimate the quality indices, and evaluate the discrepant cases on cytohistological correlation. Settings and Design: Retrospective observational study from a tertiary care centre in South India. Materials and Methods: Using a database search, all the cervicovaginal cytology reported during the period of 2002-2006 was retrieved and various diagnoses were described. The data was analysed to assess the quality indices. The cytohistologically discrepant cases were reviewed. Results: A total of 10,787 cases were retrieved, of which 98.14% were labeled negative and 1.36% were unsatisfactory for evaluation. A few (0.81% of the cases were labeled as squamous intraepithelial lesions and 0.38% as atypical squamous cells. The ASCUS: SIL ratio was 0.5. Cytohistological correlation revealed a total of ten cases with significant discrepancy. The majority of these were carcinomas that were misdiagnosed as atypical glandular cells. These cytology smears and the subsequent biopsies were reviewed to elucidate the reasons for the discrepancies. Conclusions: The cervical cytology service at our centre is well within the accepted standards. An increased awareness of cytological features, especially of glandular lesions, a good clinician-laboratory communication and a regular cytohistological review would further improve the diagnostic standards.

  15. Digital breast tomosynthesis and digital mammography: A comparison of figures of merit for various average glandular doses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ye-seul; Park, Hye-Suk; Park, SuJin; Kim, Hee-Joung; Choi, Jae-Gu; Choi, Young-Wook; Park, Jun-Ho; Lee, Jae-Jun

    2013-05-01

    Previous studies on the application of tomosynthesis to breast imaging have demonstrated the potential of digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT). DBT can improve the specificity of digital mammography (DM) through improved marginal visibility of lesions and early breast cancer detection for women with dense breasts. To investigate possible improvements in the accuracy of lesion detection with DBT systems as compared to DM, we conducted a quantitative evaluation by using simulated lesions embedded in a breast phantom. A prototype DBT and dedicated DM system were used in this study. For the DBT system, the average glandular dose (AGD) was calculated using a formalism that was a simple extension of mammography dosimetry. The DBT and the DM images were acquired with average glandular doses (AGDs) ranging from 1 to 4 mGy. To analyze the results objectively, we calculated metrics for in-plane lesion visibility in the form of the contrast-to-noise ratio for the in-focus plane from the DBT reconstruction image and from the craniocaudal (CC) image from the DM system. The imaging performance of DBT was quantitatively compared with that of DM in terms of the figure of merit. Although the DM showed better results in terms of the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of the mass due to the reduced overlapping of tissue and lesion, an increase in breast thickness of over 3 cm increased the CNR of the mass with the DBT system. For microcalcification detection, the DBT system showed significantly higher CNR than the DM system and gave better predictions of the microcalcification size. We compared the performances of the DM and the DBT systems for various AGDs and breast thicknesses. In conclusion, the results indicate that the DBT systems can play an important role in the detection of masses or microcalcifications without severe compression.

  16. Investigation of the Essential Oil from Leaves of Artemisia annua L.in Guizhou%贵州青蒿精油成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨占南; 余正文; 罗世琼; 彭全材

    2008-01-01

    Objective To analyze chemical constituents of the essential oil from three Artemisia annua L.grown in Jinsha county,Guizhou province,China.Methods GC-MS analytical method was adopted.Results 29 compounds were identified,in which Monoterpenes [monoterpene (52.45%~75.32%) and Sesquiterpene (24.68%~47.55%)] were predominant,Camphor,Lborneol,Copaene,Caryophyllene,beta.-Bisabelene,Germacrene D,Germacrene B,(-)-Neoclovene-(Ⅱ),Isoaromadendrene epoxide and Lanceol,cis.Conclusion The chemical composition of the essential oil from three Artemisia annua L.is consistent,although the content of each compound is different,these informations can help to study the relationship of biosynthesis path of terpenes and Artemisinin in the future.%利用GC-MS分析方法,对生长在贵州金沙县3个产地的青蒿叶中青蒿精油化学成分进行分析,共鉴定了29个化合物,其中,萜类化合物[单萜(52.45%~75.32%)和倍半萜(24.68%~47.55%)]是青蒿精油的主要成分,它们分别是樟脑,L-龙脑,古杷烯,β-石竹烯,红没药烯,大根香叶烯D,大根香叶烯B,(-)-新丁子香烯-(Ⅱ),异香树烯过氧化物和顺式-澳白檩醇等.3个青蒿精油样品的化学成分相一致,但是各个化学成分的含量有不同,这些信息有助于进一步研究青蒿中青蒿素与其他萜类物质之间生物合成途径的相关性.

  17. Evaluation of the influence of parameters that determine the mean glandular dose in mammography using different detectors; Evaluacion de la influencia de los parametros que determinan la dosis glandular media en Mamografia utilizando diferentes detectores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, K.; Nogueira, M. S., E-mail: katicostabh@gmail.com [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear, Pos-graduacao em Ciencias e Tecnologia das Radiacoes, Minerais e Materiais / CNEN, Av. Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: Mammography is a test used for early detection of breast cancer. The mean glandular dose (MGD) is dosimetric greatness accepted as indicative of carcinogenic risk induced by ionizing radiation in the breasts of women undergoing mammography exams. MGD value is estimated from the incident air kerma (k i), associated with conversion factors which depend on the half-value layer (HVL), the breast composition and thickness compressed breast. This study aims to evaluate the influence of the parameters used to determine the MGD using different measurement detectors. Measurements were performed on a Siemens Mammomat Model 300 Nova mammography equipment; this has the combinations Anode/Filter of Mo/Mo, Mo/Rh and W/Rh. Detectors used were the ionization chamber Model 10X6-6M manufactured by Radcal Co., two solid-state detectors, one Model AGMS-M manufactured by Radcal Co. and other Model Xi Mammo manufactured by UNFORS. The detectors measures were compared and the MGD value was estimated; differences between measurements and the reference values were higher in HVL and k i parameters. The results are displayed according to other published works. (Author)

  18. Evaluation of the In Vitro Efficacy of Artemisia annua, Rumex abyssinicus, and Catha edulis Forsk Extracts in Cancer and Trypanosoma brucei Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worku, Netsanet; Mossie, Andualem; Stich, August; Daugschies, Arwid; Trettner, Susanne; Hemdan, Nasr Y A; Birkenmeier, Gerd

    2013-01-01

    The current drugs against sleeping sickness are derived from cancer chemotherapeutic approaches. Herein, we aimed at evaluating the in vitro effect of alcoholic extracts of Artemisia annua (AMR), Rumex abyssinicus (RMA), and Catha edulis Forsk (CEF) on proliferation/viability of 1321N1 astrocytoma, MCF-7 breast cancer, THP-1 leukemia, and LNCaP, Du-145, and PC-3 prostate cancer cells and on Trypanosoma brucei cells. Proliferation of tumor cells was evaluated by WST-1 assay and viability/behaviour of T. brucei by cell counting and light microscopy. CEF was the most efficient growth inhibitor in comparison to AMR and RMA. Nevertheless, in LNCaP and THP-1 cells, all extracts significantly inhibited tumor growth at 3 μg/mL. All extracts inhibited proliferation of T. brucei cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Microscopic analysis revealed that 95% of the T. brucei cells died when exposed to 33 μg/mL CEF for 3 hrs. Similar results were obtained using 33 μg/mL AMR for 6 hrs. In case of RMA, however, higher concentrations were necessary to obtain similar effects on T. brucei. This demonstrates the antitumor efficacy of these extracts as well as their ability to dampen viability and proliferation of T. brucei, suggesting a common mechanism of action on highly proliferative cells, most probably by targeting cell metabolism. PMID:25937964

  19. Morphological variation of non-glandular hairs in cultivated Epimedium sagittatum (Berberidaceae populations and implications for taxonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanqin Xu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the morphological variations of non-glandular hairs across 16 cultivated Epimedium sagittatum (Berberidaceae populations using digital photomicrography. The main features examined included the total numbers of cells, the full-length and ratio of the first cell, the angle and connection pattern between the first and adjacent cells, the presence of elongated cell(s, and the shape, diameter and cell wall thickness of the first cell. Of these, the shape of the first cell was the most important variable and was associated with such characters as the full length, the presence of elongated cell(s, the ratio of the first cell, and the diameter and cell wall thickness of the first cell. Morphological diversity among populations was significant with two main groups identified, namely as sword-shaped group and a fusiform group. However, variations of the main characters was continuous among individuals and populations, suggesting that E. sagittatum was possibly a polytypic species. Adaptive divergence of key traits between populations caused by natural selection was also possible. The genetic basis of variation was evidenced by morphological differences maintained among populations cultivated in a common garden. Phenotypic divergence between ecologically separated populations could be the result of local adaptation.

  20. Evaluation of the influence of parameters that determine the mean glandular dose in mammography using different detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Mammography is a test used for early detection of breast cancer. The mean glandular dose (MGD) is dosimetric greatness accepted as indicative of carcinogenic risk induced by ionizing radiation in the breasts of women undergoing mammography exams. MGD value is estimated from the incident air kerma (k i), associated with conversion factors which depend on the half-value layer (HVL), the breast composition and thickness compressed breast. This study aims to evaluate the influence of the parameters used to determine the MGD using different measurement detectors. Measurements were performed on a Siemens Mammomat Model 300 Nova mammography equipment; this has the combinations Anode/Filter of Mo/Mo, Mo/Rh and W/Rh. Detectors used were the ionization chamber Model 10X6-6M manufactured by Radcal Co., two solid-state detectors, one Model AGMS-M manufactured by Radcal Co. and other Model Xi Mammo manufactured by UNFORS. The detectors measures were compared and the MGD value was estimated; differences between measurements and the reference values were higher in HVL and k i parameters. The results are displayed according to other published works. (Author)

  1. Triage of Atypical Glandular Cell by SOX1 and POU4F3 Methylation: A Taiwanese Gynecologic Oncology Group (TGOG) Study

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Cheng-Chang; Ou, Yu-Che; Wang, Kung-Liahng; Chang, Ting-Chang; Cheng, Ya-Min; Chen, Chi-Hau; Chu, Tang-Yuan; Hsu, Shih-Tien; Liou, Wen-Shiung; Chang, Yin-Yi; Wu, Hua-Hsi; Chen, Tze-Ho; Lai, Hung-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Invasive procedures including loop electrosurgical excision, cervical conization, and endometrial sampling are often recommended when atypical glandular cells (AGC) are detected on Pap smear with unsatisfactory colposcopy. These invasive procedures may result in patient anxiety, increased medical expense, and increasing the risk of preterm delivery in subsequent pregnancies. This study was performed to assess methylation biomarkers in the triage of AGC on Pap smear for invasive p...

  2. Two IIIf Clade-bHLHs from Freesia hybrida Play Divergent Roles in Flavonoid Biosynthesis and Trichome Formation when Ectopically Expressed in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yueqing; Shan, Xiaotong; Gao, Ruifang; Yang, Song; Wang, Shucai; Gao, Xiang; Wang, Li

    2016-01-01

    The MBW complex, comprised by R2R3-MYB, basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) and WD40, is a single regulatory protein complex that drives the evolution of multiple traits such as flavonoid biosynthesis and epidermal cell differentiation in plants. In this study, two IIIf Clade-bHLH regulator genes, FhGL3L and FhTT8L, were isolated and functionally characterized from Freesia hybrida. Different spatio-temporal transcription patterns were observed showing diverse correlation with anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin accumulation. When overexpressed in Arabidopsis, FhGL3L could enhance the anthocyanin accumulation through up-regulating endogenous regulators and late structural genes. Unexpectedly, trichome formation was inhibited associating with the down-regulation of AtGL2. Comparably, only the accumulation of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins was strengthened in FhTT8L transgenic lines. Furthermore, transient expression assays demonstrated that FhGL3L interacted with AtPAP1, AtTT2 and AtGL1, while FhTT8L only showed interaction with AtPAP1 and AtTT2. In addition, similar activation of the AtDFR promoter was found between AtPAP1-FhGL3L/FhTT8L and AtPAP1- AtGL3/AtTT8 combinations. When FhGL3L was fused with a strong activation domain VP16, it could activate the AtGL2 promoter when co-transfected with AtGL1. Therefore, it can be concluded that the functionality of bHLH factors may have diverged, and a sophisticated interaction and hierarchical network might exist in the regulation of flavonoid biosynthesis and trichome formation. PMID:27465838

  3. Two IIIf Clade-bHLHs from Freesia hybrida Play Divergent Roles in Flavonoid Biosynthesis and Trichome Formation when Ectopically Expressed in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yueqing; Shan, Xiaotong; Gao, Ruifang; Yang, Song; Wang, Shucai; Gao, Xiang; Wang, Li

    2016-01-01

    The MBW complex, comprised by R2R3-MYB, basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) and WD40, is a single regulatory protein complex that drives the evolution of multiple traits such as flavonoid biosynthesis and epidermal cell differentiation in plants. In this study, two IIIf Clade-bHLH regulator genes, FhGL3L and FhTT8L, were isolated and functionally characterized from Freesia hybrida. Different spatio-temporal transcription patterns were observed showing diverse correlation with anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin accumulation. When overexpressed in Arabidopsis, FhGL3L could enhance the anthocyanin accumulation through up-regulating endogenous regulators and late structural genes. Unexpectedly, trichome formation was inhibited associating with the down-regulation of AtGL2. Comparably, only the accumulation of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins was strengthened in FhTT8L transgenic lines. Furthermore, transient expression assays demonstrated that FhGL3L interacted with AtPAP1, AtTT2 and AtGL1, while FhTT8L only showed interaction with AtPAP1 and AtTT2. In addition, similar activation of the AtDFR promoter was found between AtPAP1-FhGL3L/FhTT8L and AtPAP1- AtGL3/AtTT8 combinations. When FhGL3L was fused with a strong activation domain VP16, it could activate the AtGL2 promoter when co-transfected with AtGL1. Therefore, it can be concluded that the functionality of bHLH factors may have diverged, and a sophisticated interaction and hierarchical network might exist in the regulation of flavonoid biosynthesis and trichome formation. PMID:27465838

  4. Use of a new breast phantom for dosimetric determination of incident air kerma and mean glandular dose in digital mammography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mammography aims to achieve a high image quality associated with a dose in the patient as low as feasible. Values of average glandular dose, DG, can be obtained by means of two dosimetric methods: one based on the measurement of incident air kerma, Ki, associated with tables of conversion factors that depend on the half value layer, the thickness and the glandular composition of the breast. And the one that makes the measure directly to thermoluminescent dosimeters, TLDs, placed in a new dosimetric phantom. Thus, this study aims to determine the incident air kerma (Ki) and average glandular dose (DG) applied on patients in a digital mammography system (DR) using the phantom dosimetric developed. Another objective is to compare the results with the values of DG determined from Ki and also with the values of Ki and DG indicated in the examination of each patient by the digital mammography unit. The result of the average values measured in 77 patients with compressed breast thickness within the range of 5.5 cm and 6.5 cm, shows that the Ki values ranged around 7.9% between the methods of action. The result of the values of DG ranged around 14.7% between the two methods of action. It is observed that the estimate of DG by the software is higher than the values measured with the dosimetric phantom. (author)

  5. 一个新高产青蒿倍半萜合酶基因的克隆、表达和分析%Cloning, E. coli Expression and Molecular Analysis of a Novel Sesquiterpene Synthase Gene from Artemisia annua

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘彦; 叶和春; 李国凤

    2002-01-01

    A 1 886 bp full-length sesquiterpene synthase (AaSES) cDNA was cloned from a high-yield Artemisia annua L. strain 001 by a rapid amplification of cDNA end (RACE) strategy. AaSES is 59% identical to Artemisia cyclase cDNA clone cASC125, 50% identical to epi-cedrol synthase from A. annua, 48% identical to amorpha-4, 11-diene synthase from A. annua, 39% identical to the 5-epi-aristolechene synthase from tabacco, 38% identical to vetispiradiene synthase from H. muticus, 41% identical to the δ-cadinene synthase from cotton. The coding region of the cDNA was inserted into a procaryotic expression vector pET-30a and overexpressed in E. coli BL21(DE3). The cyclase proteins extracted from bacterial culture were found largely in an insoluble protein fraction. AaSES expresses in leaves, stems and flowers, not in roots as indicated by Northern blotting analysis.%用RACE方法从青蒿(Artemisia annua L.)高产株系001中克隆了一个新的1 886 bp的全长倍半萜合酶cDNA.克隆的倍半萜合酶氨基酸序列与烟草马兜铃烯合酶、莨菪岩兰螺旋二烯合酶、棉花杜松烯合酶的一致性分别为39%、38%和41%;与青蒿柏木脑合酶、紫穗槐二烯合酶和一个推测的倍半萜合酶克隆cASC125的一致性为50%、48%和59%.cDNA编码区序列被克隆进原核表达载体pET-30a,并在大肠杆菌(Escherichia coli)BL21(DE3)中诱导表达,但过量表达的蛋白主要是以不溶性蛋白形式存在.Northern blotting分析表明此基因在茎、叶和花中表达,在根中没有表达.

  6. Mammography radiation dose: Initial results from Serbia based on mean glandular dose assessment for phantoms and patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary objective of this study is to investigate the actual mammography dose levels in Serbia and establish a baseline dose database for the future screening programme. The mean glandular dose (MGD) was assessed for standard size breast substituted by 45 mm polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) phantom and imaged under typical clinical conditions at 30 screen film mammography facilities. Average MGD was (1.9 ± 1.0) mGy, with a range of 0.12-5.2 mGy. These results were used for the calculation of the initial diagnostic reference levels in mammography in Serbia, which was set to 2.1 mGy for a standard breast. At some facilities, high doses were observed and the assessed MGD was supplemented by a patient dose survey. MGD was measured for 53 women having a diagnostic mammography in cranio-caudal (CC) and medio-lateral oblique (MLO) projections at the largest mammography facilities in Serbia. The parameters recorded were: age, compressed breast thickness, tube potential (in kV), tube loading (in mAs) and the MLO projection angle. The average MGD per image was 2.8 mGy for the CC projection and 4.3 mGy for the MLO projection. Dose to breast was compared with dose for PMMA phantoms of various sizes, assessed at the same facilities. The results have indicated that phantom dose values can assist in setting optimisation activities in mammography. Both phantom and patient dose values indicated unnecessary high doses in facilities with an extremely high mammography workload. For these facilities, urgent dose-reduction measures and follow-up actions were recommended. (authors)

  7. Human papillomavirus prevalence and type-distribution in cervical glandular neoplasias: Results from a European multinational epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holl, Katsiaryna; Nowakowski, Andrzej M; Powell, Ned; McCluggage, W Glenn; Pirog, Edyta C; Collas De Souza, Sabrina; Tjalma, Wiebren A; Rosenlund, Mats; Fiander, Alison; Castro Sánchez, Maria; Damaskou, Vasileia; Joura, Elmar A; Kirschner, Benny; Koiss, Robert; O'Leary, John; Quint, Wim; Reich, Olaf; Torné, Aureli; Wells, Michael; Rob, Lukas; Kolomiets, Larisa; Molijn, Anco; Savicheva, Alevtina; Shipitsyna, Elena; Rosillon, Dominique; Jenkins, David

    2015-12-15

    Cervical glandular neoplasias (CGN) present a challenge for cervical cancer prevention due to their complex histopathology and difficulties in detecting preinvasive stages with current screening practices. Reports of human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence and type-distribution in CGN vary, providing uncertain evidence to support prophylactic vaccination and HPV screening. This study [108288/108290] assessed HPV prevalence and type-distribution in women diagnosed with cervical adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS, N = 49), adenosquamous carcinoma (ASC, N = 104), and various adenocarcinoma subtypes (ADC, N = 461) from 17 European countries, using centralised pathology review and sensitive HPV testing. The highest HPV-positivity rates were observed in AIS (93.9%), ASC (85.6%), and usual-type ADC (90.4%), with much lower rates in rarer ADC subtypes (clear-cell: 27.6%; serous: 30.4%; endometrioid: 12.9%; gastric-type: 0%). The most common HPV types were restricted to HPV16/18/45, accounting for 98.3% of all HPV-positive ADC. There were variations in HPV prevalence and ADC type-distribution by country. Age at diagnosis differed by ADC subtype, with usual-type diagnosed in younger women (median: 43 years) compared to rarer subtypes (medians between 57 and 66 years). Moreover, HPV-positive ADC cases were younger than HPV-negative ADC. The six years difference in median age for women with AIS compared to those with usual-type ADC suggests that cytological screening for AIS may be suboptimal. Since the great majority of CGN are HPV16/18/45-positive, the incorporation of prophylactic vaccination and HPV testing in cervical cancer screening are important prevention strategies. Our results suggest that special attention should be given to certain rarer ADC subtypes as most appear to be unrelated to HPV. PMID:26096203

  8. Classification of spatial textures in benign and cancerous glandular tissues by stereology and stochastic geometry using artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattfeldt, T; Gottfried, H; Schmidt, V; Kestler, H A

    2000-05-01

    Stereology and stochastic geometry can be used as auxiliary tools for diagnostic purposes in tumour pathology. Whether first-order parameters or stochastic-geometric functions are more important for the classification of the texture of biological tissues is not known. In the present study, volume and surface area per unit reference volume, the pair correlation function and the centred quadratic contact density function of epithelium were estimated in three case series of benign and malignant lesions of glandular tissues. The information provided by the latter functions was summarized by the total absolute areas between the estimated curves and their horizontal reference lines. These areas are considered as indicators of deviation of the tissue texture from a completely uncorrelated volume process and from the Boolean model with convex grains, respectively. We used both areas and the first-order parameters for the classification of cases using artificial neural networks (ANNs). Learning vector quantization and multilayer feedforward networks with backpropagation were applied as neural paradigms. Applications included distinction between mastopathy and mammary cancer (40 cases), between benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostatic cancer (70 cases) and between chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer (60 cases). The same data sets were also classified with linear discriminant analysis. The stereological estimates in combination with ANNs or discriminant analysis provided high accuracy in the classification of individual cases. The question of which category of estimator is the most informative cannot be answered globally, but must be explored empirically for each specific data set. Using learning vector quantization, better results could often be obtained than by multilayer feedforward networks with backpropagation. PMID:10810010

  9. On-line quantitative monitoring of liquid-liquid extraction of Lonicera japonica and Artemisia annua using near-infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sha Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Liquid liquid extraction of Lonicera japonica and Artemisia annua (JQ plays a significant role in manufacturing Reduning injection. Many process parameters may influence liquid liquid extraction and cause fluctuations in product quality. Objective: To develop a near infrared (NIR spectroscopy method for on line monitoring of liquid liquid extraction of JQ. Materials and Methods: Eleven batches of JQ extraction solution were obtained, ten for building quantitative models and one for assessing the predictive accuracy of established models. Neochlorogenic acid (NCA, chlorogenic acid (CA, cryptochlorogenic acid (CCA, isochlorogenic acid B (ICAB, isochlorogenic acid A (ICAA, isochlorogenic acid C (ICAC and soluble solid content (SSC were selected as quality control indicators, and measured by reference methods. NIR spectra were collected in transmittance mode. After selecting the spectral sub ranges, optimizing the spectral pretreatment and neglecting outliers, partial least squares regression models were built to predict the content of indicators. The model performance was evaluated by the coefficients of determination (R2, the root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP and the relative standard error of prediction (RSEP. Results: For NCA, CA, CCA, ICAB, ICAA, ICAC and SSC, R2 was 0.9674, 0.9704, 0.9641, 0.9514, 0.9436, 0.9640, 0.9809, RMSEP was 0.0280, 0.2913, 0.0710, 0.0590, 0.0815, 0.1506, 1.167, and RSEP was 2.32%, 4.14%, 3.86%, 5.65%, 7.29%, 6.95% and 4.18%, respectively. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that NIR spectroscopy could provide good predictive ability in monitoring of the content of quality control indicators in liquid liquid extraction of JQ.

  10. Antibacterial and Antifungal Activity of the Essential Oil Extracted by Hydro-Distillation from Artemisia annua Grown in West-Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chougouo Kengne Rosine Désirée

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to assess the in vitro antimicrobial potential of the Essential Oil (EO extracted by hydro-distillation from the variety of A. annua grown in West Cameroon. This evaluation was conducted by testing the microbial growth inhibition through agar diffusion, minimal inhibitory and minimal lethal concentrations. Tested microorganisms included bacteria isolates belonging to the following categories: Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella Enteritidis, Shigella flexneri, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Vibrio cholerae. This activity was also tested on a dimorphic fungal species, Candida albicans. Data analysis revealed that the EO possessed an intrinsic antimicrobial activity that was potentiated by the solvent (DMSO. Inhibition zone diameters varied from 6 (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Shigella flexneri to 45 mm (Vibrio cholerae. It was also observed that Vibrio cholerae was susceptible to the lowest concentration of the essential oil used (0.3 mg/mL, while Pseudomonas aeruginosa was shown to tolerate the highest (80 mg/mL. Also, the minimal inhibitory and lethal concentrations were equal (MLC/MIC = 1, implying the absolute lethal property of the oil. This lethal potential on fungi, Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria makes of this plant an appropriate candidate for new conventional antimicrobial drug production and infectious disease prevention. Well exploited, it might be used to control the current epidemics of Vibrio cholerae-associated cholera in Cameroon. Additional studies should also be conducted to lay down reliable basis for comprehensive test interpretations that take into account correlations between these in vitro test results and the ones that would be obtained with conventional antimicrobials.

  11. Helicobacter pylori infection, glandular atrophy and intestinal metaplasia in superficial gastritis, gastric erosion, erosive gastritis, gastric ulcer and early gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuan Zhang; Nobutaka Yamada; Yun-Lin Wu; Min Wen; Takeshi Matsuhisa; Norio Matsukura

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the histological features of gastric mucosa, including Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with early gastric cancer and endoscopically found superficial gastritis, gastric erosion, erosive gastritis,gastric ulcer.METHODS: The biopsy specimens were taken from the antrum, corpus and upper angulus of all the patients.Giemsa staining, improved toluidine-blue staining, and H pylori-specific antibody immune staining were performed as appropriate for the histological diagnosis of H pylori infection. Hematoxylin-eosin staining was used for the histological diagnosis of gastric mucosa inflammation, gastric glandular atrophy and intestinal metaplasia and scored into four grades according to the Updated Sydney System.RESULTS: The overall prevalence of H pylori infection in superficial gastritis was 28.7%, in erosive gastritis 57.7%,in gastric erosion 63.3%, in gastric ulcer 80.8%, in early gastric cancer 52.4%. There was significant difference (P<0.05), except for the difference between early gastric cancer and erosive gastritis. H pylori infection rate in antrum, corpus, angulus of patients with superficial gastritis was 25.9%, 26.2%, 25.2%, respectively; in patients with erosive gastritis 46.9%, 53.5%, 49.0%,respectively; in patients with gastric erosion 52.4%, 61.5%,52.4%, respectively; in patients with gastric ulcer 52.4%,61.5%, 52.4%, respectively; in patients with early gastric cancer 35.0%, 50.7%, 34.6%, respectively. No significant difference was found among the different site biopsies in superficial gastritis, but in the other diseases the detected rates were higher in corpus biopsy (P<0.05). The grades of mononuclear cell infiltration and polymorphonuclear cell infiltration, in early gastric cancer patients, were significantly higher than that in superficial gastritis patients, lower than that in gastric erosion and gastric ulcer patients (P<0.01);however, there was no significant difference compared with erosive gastritis. The grades

  12. Biotechnology approaches for production of antiulcerogenic dihydro-epideoxyarteannuin B isolated from Artemisia annua L. Ferramentas biotecnológicas para a produção de dihidro-epideoxiarteanuina B, um antiulcerogênico isolado de Artemisia annua L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela A. Marques

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Methodologies were developed for the establishment and cultivation of Artemisia annua L (CPQBA 2/39 x PL5 hybrid roots submitted to light conditions and genetic transformation performed with Agrobacterium rhizogenes (15834 and 8196 strains. The transgenic and non-transgenic (normal roots were cultured in Murashige and Skoog (1962 medium, kept under different photoperiodic conditions and analyzed for evaluation of the antiulcerogenic dihydro-epideoxyarteannuin B (compound A contents. The Dot Blot technique was used to confirm the transgenic nature of the roots. The plants¢s crude extracts were analyzed by Gas Chromatography coupled to Mass Spectrum (CG/MS. The chromatograms of the extracts taken from normal roots revealed the presence of dihydro-epideoxyarteannuin B and other compound (compound B. Photoperiods during cultivation influenced the production of these two compounds: under continuous darkness dihydro-epideoxyarteannuin B was intensely produced and the compound B present in small amounts, while on 16 h photoperiod, the inverse occurred. The quantification of dihydro-epideoxyarteannuin B by Gas Chromatography coupled to Flame Detector Ionization (CG/FID revealed an approximately fivefold increase in the production of this compound by normal roots kept under continuous darkness compared to roots kept under 16 h light period. The terpene dihydro-epideoxiarteannuin B was not present in transgenic hairy roots.Foram desenvolvidas metodologias para o estabelecimento e cultivo de raízes de Artemisia annua L. (híbrido CPQBA 2/39 x PL5. Estas raízes foram submetidas a diferentes condições de luz e a transformação genética com Agrobacterium rhizogenes (cepas 8196 e 15834. As raízes transgênicas e não-transgênicas (normais foram cultivadas em meios de Murashige e Skoog (1962, mantidas sobre diferentes condições de fotoperíodo e analisadas para avaliação do conteúdo do composto antiulcerogênico dehidro-epideoxiarteanuína B

  13. Estudos histológicos das células glandulares dos insetos peçonhentos: IV parte: as cerdas dos espinhos da largata de Sibine nesea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Barth

    1956-06-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se o órgão urticante das "verugas" do corpo da largata de Sibine nesea. O órgão é formado por uma evaginação da parede do corpo, em forma de um pêlo forte. Na extremidade do mesmo encontra-se a cerda peçonhenta, pròpriamente dita, muito curta, chamada de cerda inoculadora. A célula glandular, que produz a peçonha, simultâneamente representando a célula tricogênea, ocupa, durante a nova formação do aparelho, nos estádios da muda da cutícula, quase todo o interior da evaginação bem como de uma cavidade esférica situada dentro da cutícula. Ao terminar a muda, todo o citoplasma da célula glandular à transformado em secreções. O núcleo, extremamente polinérgide, degenera nesta ocasião formando um conglomerado amorfo no pólo basal da célula. No momento da picada, a cerda inoculadora rompe-se, na altura da sua inserção, e a pressão exercida sôbre a mesma força a penetração da base da evaginação no interior da cavidade esférica de modo que o volume do órgão diminui e o líquido peçonhento é expelido através o ponto da ruptura da cerda e entra no tecido do inimigo. O núcleo mostra um polimorfismo extremo. A cerda inoculadora é provida de um nervo de modo que a sua célula-mãe exerce três funções: de célula tricogênea, de célula glandular e de célula formadora do sensilo, que recebe estímulos tatis.

  14. 不同生态区烟草的叶面腺毛基因表达%Comparative gene expression analysis for leaf trichomes of tobacco grown in two different regions in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔红; 冀浩; 杨惠绢; 肖炳光; 曾建敏; 邓云龙

    2011-01-01

    Leaf trichomes are a very important morphological feature of tobacco plants and the metabolisms in these cells are associated with leaf quality and plant defense against pathogens and insects. However, effects of growth ecology regions on the gene expression in tobacco leaf trichomes have not been investigated in China. In this report, we characterize gene expression profiles in leaf trichomes of the most commonly commercial tobacco cultivar K326 ( Nicotiana tabacum L cv.K326) grown in two main growth areas in China: Pingdingshan county in Henan Province, which is famous for producing strong aroma style leaf tobacco, and Yuxi County in Yunnan Province, which is famous for producing mild aroma style leaf tobacco. Tobacco plants were cultivated according to the farming practice implemented routinely in the two different localities in 2009. To characterize gene expression of leaf trichomes of tobacco growing in different ecological regions,cDNA microarray analysis was performed between trichomes of the same variety. Trichomes were collected from leaves through frozen brush way at the same position (9 -llth) , at the same development stage (60 d) . Total RNA samples were isolated from trichomes and treated with DNAase to remove potential contamination of genomic DNA. The first strand cDNA was synthesized with a reverse-transcription. A 2831-EST database was established by trichome cDNA library sequencing in previous research. The 2831 trichome cDNAs were amplified by PCR technology and spotted on glass microscope slides to obtain cDNA chips for hybridization and microarray analysis. Ttrichome RNA samples from two different areas were prepared for labeling of the cDNA ( Cy3 versus Cy5 ) . In the first experiment, samples from Henan was labeled with Cy3 and samples from Yunnan was labeled with Cy5 , and in the second experiment, labeling was reversed. Hybridization and microarray analysis were completed by following the protocol provided by Shanghai Boxing Gene Chips

  15. Plasminogen-independent initiation of the pro-urokinase activation cascade in vivo. Activation of pro-urokinase by glandular kallikrein (mGK-6) in plasminogen-deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    List, K; Jensen, O N; Bugge, T H;

    2000-01-01

    alpha(1)-antitrypsin. We suggest that mouse glandular kallikrein mGK-6 is an activator of pro-uPA in the mouse urinary tract in vivo. Since this kallikrein is expressed in a number of tissues and also occurs in plasma, it can also be considered a candidate for a physiological pro-uPA activator in other...

  16. Binding sites for iodinated endothelin-1, endothelin-2 and endothelin-3 demonstrated on human uterine glandular epithelial cells by quantitative high-resolution autoradiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, A P; Cameron, I T; Smith, S K; Brown, M J

    1991-04-01

    Quantitative in-vitro receptor autoradiography has been used to localize and compare the anatomical distribution of binding sites for iodinated endothelins (ET-1, ET-2 and ET-3) in human uterus. Binding sites for the three iodinated isoforms had a similar gross anatomical distribution. The density of binding sites was significantly higher in the endometrium compared with the myometrium and greatest at the endometrial-myometrial junction. In cross-competition experiments, unlabelled ET-1, ET-2, ET-3, sarafotoxin S6b and mouse vasoactive intestinal contractor (1 mumol/l) competed for the binding sites of all the iodinated peptides suggesting that ETs may bind to the same receptor. However, preproendothelin(110-130) (endothelin-like peptide) or preproendothelin(124-130) and other non-endothelin vasoactive peptides tested as a concentration of 1 mumol/l did not compete. Micro-autoradiography revealed that high densities of iodinated ET-1, ET-2 and ET-3 binding sites were localized to glandular epithelial cells and blood vessels with lower levels in the myometrium and vascular smooth muscle, suggesting that these potent vasoactive and proliferative agents could play a role in the control of menstruation. PMID:2030325

  17. 子宫内膜浆乳癌及其癌前病变%Uterine papillary serous carcinoma & A putative precursor lesion of it-Endometrial glandular dysplasia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范文生; 于鹤; 宋磊; 陈乐真

    2009-01-01

    目的 研究子宫内膜浆乳癌(uterine papillary serpis carcinoma,UPSC)及其癌前病变-子宫内膜腺体异型增生(endometrial glandular dysplasia,EmGD)的临床病理特征及其诊治、预后.方法 对该院1993~2007年住院治疗的UPSC与EmGD病人11例进行回顾性分析.结果 主要临床表现为绝经后阴道流血,早期病人即可发生宫外病变,各期病人预后均差.结论 输卵管绝育术不能阻止宫外病变的发生,对早期病人应做分期手术并辅助放化疗,而晚期病人的治疗应强调个体化综合治疗.

  18. Helicobacter pylori CagA Suppresses Apoptosis through Activation of AKT in a Nontransformed Epithelial Cell Model of Glandular Acini Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo-Flores, Gabriela; Torres, Javier; Sandoval-Montes, Claudia; Arévalo-Romero, Haruki; Meza, Isaura; Camorlinga-Ponce, Margarita; Torres-Morales, Julián; Chávez-Rueda, Adriana Karina; Legorreta-Haquet, María Victoria; Fuentes-Pananá, Ezequiel M.

    2015-01-01

    H. pylori infection is the most important environmental risk to develop gastric cancer, mainly through its virulence factor CagA. In vitro models of CagA function have demonstrated a phosphoprotein activity targeting multiple cellular signaling pathways, while cagA transgenic mice develop carcinomas of the gastrointestinal tract, supporting oncogenic functions. However, it is still not completely clear how CagA alters cellular processes associated with carcinogenic events. In this study, we evaluated the capacity of H. pylori CagA positive and negative strains to alter nontransformed MCF-10A glandular acini formation. We found that CagA positive strains inhibited lumen formation arguing for an evasion of apoptosis activity of central acini cells. In agreement, CagA positive strains induced a cell survival activity that correlated with phosphorylation of AKT and of proapoptotic proteins BIM and BAD. Anoikis is a specific type of apoptosis characterized by AKT and BIM activation and it is the mechanism responsible for lumen formation of MCF-10A acini in vitro and mammary glands in vivo. Anoikis resistance is also a common mechanism of invading tumor cells. Our data support that CagA positive strains signaling function targets the AKT and BIM signaling pathway and this could contribute to its oncogenic activity through anoikis evasion. PMID:26557697

  19. Application of European protocol in the evaluation of contrast-to-noise ratio and mean glandular dose for two digital mammography systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The performance of two digital mammography systems, Agfa CR75 and CRMM3 computed radiography (CR) and IMS Giotto MD direct digital radiography (DR), was assessed by applying a method recommended in the European protocol for quality control in mammography screening. The contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and mean glandular dose (MGD) values were measured and contrast detail (CD) analysis was performed. The CNRs for system CR were 21.9, 12.9, 9.5, 8.8, 7.4, 5.5 and 4.4 for 2, 3, 4, 4.5, 5, 6 and 7-cm polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) thickness, respectively. The respective CNRs for system DR were 10.4, 8.8, 6.3, 7.3, 7.2, 6.4 and 6.54. For the same phantom thickness sequence, the MGDs were 0.7, 1.1, 1.3, 1.6, 1.9, 2.5 and 3.4 mGy for system CR, whereas they were 0.7, 1.2, 1.1, 1.3, 1.8, 3.5 and 3.9 mGy for system DR. The CNR and MGD results satisfactorily correlate with CD analysis results. The MGD values compare well with the values recommended in the European protocol. Despite being simple, CNR and MGD can provide an effective system for performance assessment and constancy checks for related optimisations. (authors)

  20. Estimation of mean-glandular dose from monitoring breast entrance skin air kerma using a high sensitivity metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) dosimeter system in mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimation of mean-glandular dose (MGD) has been investigated in recent years due to the potential risks of radiation-induced carcinogenesis associated with the mammographic examination for diagnostic radiology. In this study, a new technique for immediate readout of breast entrance skin air kerma (BESAK) using high sensitivity MOSFET dosimeter after mammographic projection was introduced and a formula for the prediction of tube output with exposure records was developed. A series of appropriate conversion factors was applied to the MGD determination from the BESAK. The study results showed that signal response of the high sensitivity MOSFET exhibited excellent linearity within mammographic dose ranges, and that the energy dependence was less than 3% for each anode/filter combination at the tube potentials 25-30 kV. Good agreement was observed between the BESAK and the tube exposure output measurement for breasts thicker than 30 mm. In addition, the air kerma estimated from our prediction formula provided sufficient accuracy for thinner breasts. The average MGD from 120 Asian females was 1.5 mGy, comparable to other studies. Our results suggest that the high sensitivity MOSFET dosimeter system is a good candidate for immediately readout of BESAK after mammographic procedures

  1. A Survey On Mean Glandular Dose From Full-Field Digital Mammography Systems, Operate Using Mo/ Mo And W/Rh Target/ Filter Combinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We had conducted a survey on Mean Glandular Dose (MGD) from Full-Field Digital Mammography systems (FFDM) operate using Molybdenum/ Molybdenum (Mo/ Mo) and Tungsten/ Rhodium (W/ Rh) target/ filter combinations. A survey was carried out at two randomly selected mammography centres in Malaysia, namely National Cancer Society and International Islamic University of Malaysia. The first centre operates using a W/ Rh, while the second centre operates using an Mo/ Mo target/ filter combinations. On the basis of recorded information, data on mammographic views, MGD, age and Compressed Breast Thickness (CBT) were recorded for 100 patients, for each mammographic centre respectively. The MGD data were analyzed for variation with age group, with 5 years increment. The MGD data were also analyzed for variation with CBT, with 5 mm increment. We found that for both CC and MLO views, FFDM systems operated using Mo/ Mo and W/ Rh target/ filter combinations present the same trend on MGD. The average MGD decreases as age increases. While average MGD increases with the increasing of CBT. However, FFDM system operates using Mo/ Mo gives higher MGD as compared with FFDM system operates using W/ Rh. (author)

  2. A comparison of mean glandular dose diagnostic reference levels within the all-digital irish national breast screening programme and the Irish symptomatic breast services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data on image quality, compression and radiation dose were collected from symptomatic breast units within the Republic of Ireland. Quantitative and qualitative data were analysed using SPSS. Recommendations of mean glandular dose (MGD) diagnostic reference levels were made at various levels for film-screen and full field digital mammography units to match levels published worldwide. MGDs received by symptomatic breast patients within Ireland are higher than those received in the all-digital Irish Breast Screening service; 55-65 mm breast: 1.75 mGy (screening) vs. 2.4 mGy (symptomatic) at the 95. percentile; various reasons are proposed for the differences. MGDs achieved in the screening service may be lower because of the exacting requirements for radiographer training, characteristics of the patients and equipment quality assurance levels. More precise imaging guidelines, standards and training of symptomatic radiographers performing mammography are suggested to remediate MGDs delivered to the breasts of Irish women attending the symptomatic breast services. (authors)

  3. Apoptotic wing degeneration and formation of an altruism-regulating glandular appendage (gemma) in the ponerine ant Diacamma sp. from Japan (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Ponerinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotoh, A; Sameshima, S; Tsuji, K; Matsumoto, T; Miura, T

    2005-02-01

    We here show an example of morphological novelties, which have evolved from insect wings into the specific structures controlling social behaviour in an ant species. Most ant colonies consist of winged queen(s) and wingless workers. In the queenless ponerine ant Diacamma sp. from Japan, however, all female workers have a pair of small thoracic appendages, called "gemmae", which are homologous to the forewings and acts as an organ regulating altruism expression. Most workers, whose gemmae are clipped off by other colony members, become nonreproductive helpers, while only a single individual with complete gemmae becomes functionally reproductive. We examined histologically the development of gemmae, and compared it with that of functional wings in males. Female larvae had well-developed wing discs for both fore- and hindwings. At pupation, however, the wing discs started to evaginate and later degenerate. The hindwing discs completely degenerated, while the degeneration of forewing discs was incomplete, leading to the formation of gemmae. The degeneration process involved apoptotic cell death as confirmed by TUNEL assay. In addition, glandular cells differentiated from the epithelial cells of the forewing buds after completion of pupation. The mechanism of developmental transition from wing to gemma can be regarded as an evolutionary gain of new function, which can be seen in insect appendages and vertebrate limbs. PMID:15647944

  4. GA3 and Other Signal Regulators (MeJA and IAA) Improve Xanthumin Biosynthesis in Different Manners in Xanthium strumarium L.

    OpenAIRE

    Changfu Li; Fangfang Chen; Yansheng Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Xanthanolides from Xanthium strumarium L. exhibit various pharmacological activities and these compounds are mainly produced in the glandular trichomes of aerial plant parts. The regulation of xanthanolide biosynthesis has never been reported in the literature. In this study, the effects of phytohormonal stimulation on xanthumin (a xanthanolide compound) biosynthesis, glandular trichomes and germacrene A synthase (GAS) gene expression in X. strumarium L. young leaves were investigated. The e...

  5. Establishment of a long-term three-dimensional primary culture of mouse glandular stomach epithelial cells within the stem cell niche

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We established a 3D culture system to allow long-term culture of stomach cells. ► In this culture system, gastric epithelial cells grew for about 3 months. ► The cultured cells differentiated into multi-units of the stomach. ► This culture method should be useful for elucidating the cause of gastric diseases. -- Abstract: Compared to the small intestine and colon, little is known about stem cells in the stomach because of a lack of specific stem cell markers and an in vitro system that allows long-term culture. Here we describe a long-term three-dimensional (3D) primary gastric culture system within the stem cell niche. Glandular stomach cells from neonatal mice cultured in collagen gel yielded expanding sphere-like structures for 3 months. The wall of the gastrospheres consisted of a highly polarized epithelial monolayer with an outer lining of myofibroblasts. The epithelial cells showed a tall columnar cell shape, basal round nuclei, and mucus-filled cytoplasm as well as expression of MUC5AC, indicating differentiation into gastric surface mucous cells. These cells demonstrated the features of fully differentiated gastric surface mucous cells such as microvilli, junctional complexes, and glycogen and secretory granules. Fewer than 1% of cultured epithelial cells differentiated into enteroendocrine cells. Active proliferation of the epithelial cells and many apoptotic cells in the inner lumen revealed the rapid cell turnover in gastrospheres in vitro. This method enables us to investigate the role of signaling between cell–cell and epithelial–mesenchymal interactions in an environment that is extremely similar to the in vivo environment

  6. Magnetic Resonance Imaging- Versus Computed Tomography-Based Target Volume Delineation of the Glandular Breast Tissue (Clinical Target Volume Breast) in Breast-Conserving Therapy: An Exploratory Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To examine MRI and CT for glandular breast tissue (GBT) volume delineation and to assess interobserver variability. Methods and Materials: Fifteen breast cancer patients underwent a planning CT and MRI, consecutively, in the treatment position. Four observers (two radiation oncologists and two radiologists) delineated the GBT according to the CT and separately to the MR images. Volumes, centers of mass, maximum extensions with standard deviations (SD), and interobserver variability were quantified. Observers viewed delineation differences between MRI and CT and delineation differences among observers. Results: In cranio-lateral and cranio-medial directions, GBT volumes were delineated larger using MRI when compared with those delineated with CT. Center of mass on MRI shifted a mean (SD) 17% (4%) into the cranial direction and a mean 3% (4%) into the dorsal direction when compared with that on the planning CT. Only small variations between observers were noted. The GBT volumes were approximately 4% larger on MRI (mean [SD] ratio MRI to CT GBT volumes, 1.04 [0.06]). Findings were concordant with viewed MRI and CT images and contours. Conformity indices were only slightly different; mean conformity index was 77% (3%) for MRI and 79% (4%) for CT. Delineation differences arising from personal preferences remained recognizable irrespective of the imaging modality used. Conclusions: Contoured GBT extends substantially further into the cranio-lateral and cranio-medial directions on MRI when compared with CT. Interobserver variability is comparable for both imaging modalities. Observers should be aware of existing personal delineation preferences. Institutions are recommended to review and discuss target volume delineations and to design supplementary guidelines if necessary.

  7. Establishment of a long-term three-dimensional primary culture of mouse glandular stomach epithelial cells within the stem cell niche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katano, Takahito [Department of Gastroenterology and Metabolism, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Ootani, Akifumi [Department of Gastroenterology and GI Endoscopy Center, Shin-Kokura Hospital, Federation of National Public Service Personnel Mutual Aid Associations, 1-3-1 Kanada, Kokurakita-ku, Kitakyushu 803-0816 (Japan); Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Saga University, 5-1-1 Nabeshima, Saga 849-8501 (Japan); Mizoshita, Tsutomu, E-mail: tmizoshi@med.nagoya-cu.ac.jp [Department of Gastroenterology and Metabolism, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Tanida, Satoshi; Tsukamoto, Hironobu; Ozeki, Keiji; Ebi, Masahide; Mori, Yoshinori; Kataoka, Hiromi; Kamiya, Takeshi [Department of Gastroenterology and Metabolism, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Toda, Shuji [Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Saga University, 5-1-1 Nabeshima, Saga 849-8501 (Japan); Joh, Takashi [Department of Gastroenterology and Metabolism, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan)

    2013-03-22

    Highlights: ► We established a 3D culture system to allow long-term culture of stomach cells. ► In this culture system, gastric epithelial cells grew for about 3 months. ► The cultured cells differentiated into multi-units of the stomach. ► This culture method should be useful for elucidating the cause of gastric diseases. -- Abstract: Compared to the small intestine and colon, little is known about stem cells in the stomach because of a lack of specific stem cell markers and an in vitro system that allows long-term culture. Here we describe a long-term three-dimensional (3D) primary gastric culture system within the stem cell niche. Glandular stomach cells from neonatal mice cultured in collagen gel yielded expanding sphere-like structures for 3 months. The wall of the gastrospheres consisted of a highly polarized epithelial monolayer with an outer lining of myofibroblasts. The epithelial cells showed a tall columnar cell shape, basal round nuclei, and mucus-filled cytoplasm as well as expression of MUC5AC, indicating differentiation into gastric surface mucous cells. These cells demonstrated the features of fully differentiated gastric surface mucous cells such as microvilli, junctional complexes, and glycogen and secretory granules. Fewer than 1% of cultured epithelial cells differentiated into enteroendocrine cells. Active proliferation of the epithelial cells and many apoptotic cells in the inner lumen revealed the rapid cell turnover in gastrospheres in vitro. This method enables us to investigate the role of signaling between cell–cell and epithelial–mesenchymal interactions in an environment that is extremely similar to the in vivo environment.

  8. La resonancia magnética en la patología glandular salival del paciente anciano Magnetic resonance in salivary glands pathology of aged patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Paz Expósito

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Valorar la utilidad de la Imagen por Resonancia Magnética (RM en el diagnóstico de la patología de las glándulas salivales en el paciente anciano. Pacientes y Método. Se presentan 18 pacientes mayores de 65 años con diversas patologías de las glándulas salivales, estudiados por RM, imán superconductivo de 1,5 Tesla, realizándose secuencias Spin Echo ponderada T1 en los planos de incidencia axial y coronal y secuencia Spin Echo T2 en plano axial, con un espesor de corte de 3 mm. Resultados. La RM muestra, fundamentalmente, imágenes homogéneas de una intensidad de señal baja o intermedia en las secuencias Spin Echo T1 y de intensidad alta en la secuencia Spin Echo T2 en la patología tumoral benigna, e imágenes heterogéneas de una intensidad de señal baja o intermedia en ambas secuencias Spin Echo T1 y T2 en la patología tumoral maligna. La RM permite identificar la lesión glandular salival, sus relaciones intraglandulares (nervio facial, paquete vascular y extraglandulares (base de cráneo y cuello. Conclusiones. La RM constituye el método diagnóstico por la imagen de primera elección en el estudio de los procesos patológicos tumorales que afectan a las glándulas saliva les en el paciente ancianoObjective. Assessment to Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI as diagnosis method in salivary glands pathology of aged patients. Patients and Methods. We present eighteen 65 year and over patients with salivary glands diseases, studied by RMI, with the 1.5 T system, performed imaging spin echo T1-weighted sequences on coronal and tranverse plans, and spin echo T2-weighted sequences on tranverse plans. The scan thickness was 3 mm. Results. MRI showed, mainly, homogeneous imaging of low-to-intermediate signal intensity on spin echo TI and high signal intensity on T2 in tumoral benign pathology and heterogeneous imaging of low-to-intermediate signal intensity on spin echo TI and T2 in tumoral malign pathology. MRI confirmed the

  9. 人子宫内膜腺上皮和基质细胞的分离与培养%Isolation and cultivation of human endometrial glandular epithelial cells and stromal cells in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩冬; 王自能

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore a convenient method of separating and culturing human endometrial glandular epithelial cells and stromal cells in vitro. Methods Human endometrial glandular epithelial cells and stromal cells from 5 cases were separated by filtrated method and gradient centrifugation. The separate cells were identified by immunocytochemical staining and laser scanning confocal microscopy. Results The expression score of CK-19 in endometrial glandular epithelial cells was 4.16 ± 0.22 , and that of Vimentin in stromal cells was 4.24 ±0.22 in cells separated by gradient centrifugation , both were significantly different from those separated by filtrated method (P < 0.05). Conclusion A simple and convenient method to separate and culture human endometrial glandular epithelial cells and stromal cells can be obtained by the modified gradient centrifugation.%目的:探索一种简便人子宫内膜腺上皮细胞和基质细胞的分离培养方法.方法:通过筛网法和差速离心法,分离培养5例子宫内膜腺上皮和基质细胞,利用免疫细胞化学染色及其激光共聚焦显微镜鉴定分离的细胞并进行图像分析.结果:用差速离心法分离子宫内膜腺上皮细胞中CK-19阳性表达积分为4.16±0.22,子宫内膜基质细胞中Vimentin阳性表达积分为4.24±0.22,与筛网法相比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:通过改良差速离心法使腺上皮和基质细胞分离步骤简化,是一种较理想子宫内膜细胞分离培养方法.

  10. Caracterização morfológica e classificação da superfície foliar de pimentas quanto à presença de tricomas e domácias Morphological characterization and surface classification of chili pepper leaves considering trichomes and domatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Helena C Matos

    2011-06-01

    interactions among plants, herbivores and natural enemies. Variations on such characteristics are determinant on the occurrence, abundance and diversity of organisms that exploit that habitat. The leaf surface of four Capsicum pepper species was characterized, focusing on the presence of trichomes and domatia. The objective is to identify possible mite resistance mechanisms on these plants. The classification key of pepper leaves was based on presence/absence, density and distribution of trichomes. The counting of trichomes was done in an area of 5 cm², from the medium third of each leaf. We assessed the trichomes from the limb, ribs and domatia. The pepper species significantly differed on the density of domatia and trichomes present on the ribs and limbs of their leaves. A significant difference was observed on the total density of trichomes/cm² and on the number of trichomes/domatia. From the five Capsicum species evaluated, only C. baccatum var. pendulum (hot pepper, variety girl finger pepper does not have domatia neither trichomes in any part of its leaves. The highest domatia density was found on C. baccatum var. praetermissum, which has the highest trichome density in all leaf parts and the only one with significant density of limb trichomes. The variation of the presence, distribution and density of trichomes and domatia may be determinant on the occurrence of herbivorous and predatory mites on plants. Such structures can act as a resistance mechanism against herbivore mites or may favor the presence of predatory and fungivorous mites due to provision of shelter sites. We propose here a surface classification scale of chili pepper leaves varying from 1 to 5 taking into account the number and density of observed trichomes and domatia.

  11. EFEITO DE TRICOMAS, ALELOQUÍMICOS E NUTRIENTES NA RESISTÊNCIA DE LYCOPERSICON HIRSUTUM À TRAÇA-DO-TOMATEIRO EFFECT OF TRICHOMES, ALELLOCHEMICALS AND MINERALS ON THE RESISTANCE OF LYCOPERSICON HIRSUTUM TO TOMATO LEAF MINER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GERMANO LEÃO DEMOLIN LEITE

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available Estudos foram conduzidos com o objetivo de verificar o efeito de tricomas, aleloquímicos e nutrientes nas folhas de partes do dossel das plantas na resistência de Lycopersicon hirsutum à traça- do-tomateiro, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae. Foram quantificados os teores de 2-tridecanona (2-TD, 2-undecanona (2-UD, N, P, K, Ca e Mg, densidade e tipos de tricomas e tamanho das folhas nos terços apical, mediano e basal do dossel de plantas de L. hirsutum e de L. esculentum e estudaram- se os efeitos destes fatores sobre características biológicas de T. absoluta. Observou-se elevação no teor de 2-TD da base para o ápice do dossel. Não se detectou diferença significativa quanto ao número de ovos de T. absoluta ao longo do dossel de L. hirsutum, constatando-se em L. esculentum maior oviposição nos terços apical e mediano do que no basal. As folhas do terço apical de L. hirsutum apresentaram maior efeito deletério sobre as larvas de traça.The objective of this work was to study the effect of trichomes, alellochemicals and minerals in the leaves of different canopy heights on the resistance of Lycopersicon hirsutum to tomato leaf miner, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae. Effects of 2-tridecanone (2-TD, 2-undecanone (2-UD, N, P, K, Ca and Mg levels, density and types of trichomes and leaf area on apical, medium and basal parts of plant dossel of L. hirsutum and L. esculentum on the oviposition and mines number of T. absoluta was studied. Production of 2-TD increased from the bottom to the top of the canopy. The apical part of plants of L. hirsutum showed more antibiotic effect on the caterpillar. T. absoluta oviposited more on leaves of the apical and medium portion of the plants than in the basal parts of L. esculentum.

  12. Genetic Analysis of Trichome Density on the Main Stem and Leaves in a Recombinant Inbred Lines Population Derived from Wild Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)%野生辣椒重组自交系群体主茎和叶片表面茸毛密度的遗传分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓芬; 陈晓慧; 陈斌; 韩华丽; 耿三省

    2013-01-01

    Plant trichomes are attracting more and more attention for their effect on stress resistance. A F9 recombinant inbred lines population derived from the cross of wild hot pepper(Capsicum annuum L.) PM702 bearing trichomes with glabrous sweet pepper(C. annuum L.) FS871, was used for genetic analysis of trichome density on the main stem and leaves, using the mixed major gene plus polygene inheritance model. The results showed that trichome density on the main stem of pepper was controlled by two major genes and some minor polygenes(E-2-3 model). For the two genes, the additive effect was primary. The heritability of major genes for the trichome density on the main stem was 53.00%, while the heritability of polygenes was 25.30%, and the recombination rate was 0.6226. The trichome density on the leaves was controlled by two complementary major genes with additive effect and interaction plus some polygenes(E-1-7 model). The heritability of major genes of trichome density on the leaves was 50.65%, while the heritability of polygenes was 8.86%. This study provides an academic foundation for breeding highly resistant pepper varieties.%植株茎叶茸毛在抗逆性所起的作用正在引起人们越来越多的关注.本研究以多毛辣椒(Capsicum annuum L.)PM702和无毛甜椒(C.annuum L.)FS871为双亲构建的F9代重组自交系(RILs)为实验材料,利用主基因+多基因混合遗传模型,联合双亲对主茎和叶片表面茸毛密度进行了遗传分析.结果显示,辣椒主茎表面茸毛密度分布符合E-2-3模型,即受2对连锁的主基因控制,并有多基因的修饰.2对主基因以加性效应为主.主基因遗传率为53.00%,多基因遗传率为25.30%.两基因座间的重组率r=0.6226.叶片正面茸毛密度分布符合E-1-7遗传模型,即受2对具有互补作用的主基因控制,并有多基因同时起作用.主基因以加性效应为主,并有互作.主基因遗传率50.65%,多基因遗传率8.86%.结果为抗逆甜辣椒

  13. ANATOMI DAUN PIPERACEAE DARI KAWASAN GUNUNG SLAMET, JAWA TENGAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Fatmawati Tihurua

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Leaf anatomy of Piperaceae from Gunung Slamet, Central Java has made with standard  paraffin and paradermal method. The results showed that Piperaceae has dorsiventral leaf, hypostomatatic or amphistomatatic, tetracytic and cyclocytic stomata type. Hypoderm tissue exist in upper and/or lower part of leaf, mesophyll was arranged by 1-2 layers of palisade and 2-7 layers of sponge tissue. There were 3 types of trichome i.e. glandular trichome which had globose cell with short stalk, bicellular glandular trichome and multicellular & uniseriate non-glandular trichome. The shape of the crystal of Piperaceae from gunung Slamet are sand, needle, drusse or prismatic which distributed in hypodermis, mesophyll and midrib. Piperaceae petiole was arranged by open or sometimes closed circle vascular bundles. These open vascular bundles were crescent shape or resemble to U and V shapes. 

  14. 内生青霉菌对黄花蒿组培苗生长和青蒿素合成的影响%Effect of Endophytic Penicillium sp.Y2 on Growth and Artemisinin Biosynthesis of Plantlets in Tissue Cultures of Artemisia annua L

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁亚菲; 董婷; 王剑文

    2011-01-01

    17 isolates of endophytic fungi were isolated from the stems of Artemisia annua L. Penicillium sp. Y2 could effectively promote the growth and artemisinin accumulation in the plantlets in tissue cultures of A. annua. After 5 days of broth culture,the fungal mycelium and culture medium were prepared for elicitors,including elicitor A(autoclaved conditioned homogenates of mycelia filtrates and medium) ,elicitor B(autoclaved conditioned medium) and elicitor C(filtrated conditioned medium). The results showed that all of the three fungal elicitors could promote the growth,induce activities of the antioxidant enzyme such as superoxide dismutase( SOD) , catalase( CAT) and peroxidase( POD) , and the accumulation of artemisinin. Elicitor C had the best effect on artemisinin induction among them. The dry weight and the content of soluble sugar of the tissue cultures of A. annua were increased by 44. 44 % and 38. 24% ,respectively. The content of artemisinin reached to 4. 701 mg·g-1 DW,a 58. 86 % increase over the control.%从黄花蒿茎中分离得到了17株内生真菌,其中内生青霉菌(Penicillium sp.Y2)能有效促进黄花蒿组培苗生长及青蒿素合成.内生青霉菌悬浮培养5d后,分别将培养液与菌丝匀浆后经过高压灭菌处理,或将培养液经过高压灭菌、过滤除菌处理获得3种内生菌诱导子(A、B和C).结果表明,3种内生菌诱导子对植株生长、抗氧化酶活性及青蒿素合成都有促进作用,诱导子C青蒿素合成诱导效果最好,可促进黄花蒿组培苗的干重增长44.44%、可溶性糖含量提高38.24%,诱导超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)和过氧化物酶(POD)活性,从而提高青蒿素合成达58.86%,黄花蒿组培苗青蒿素含量达4.701 mg·g-1(干重).

  15. Studies in the southern African species of Justicia and Siphonoglossa (Acanthaceae: indumentum

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    K. Immelman

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available The trichome types present on all species of Justicia and  Siphonoglossa in the southern African region (as defined by the Flora of southern Africa were examined with the dissecting and with the Scanning Electron Microscope. Both glandular and eglandular trichomes were observed, the former comprising both sessile, peltate glands and stalked glands of various lengths. Eglandular trichomes are either straight or sharply bent (anvil-shaped, and comprise two to many cells. They are either smooth or have raised ornamentation on the cell walls. The presence and morphology of the trichomes on various organs is recorded and measured, and the range of trichomes seen was illustrated. The possible significance of trichome type and ornamentation in the taxonomy and ecology of the genera is discussed.

  16. Relação entre tricomas foliares de genótipos de feijoeiro comum, Phaseolus vulgaris L. e resistência a Diabrotica speciosa Germar, 1824 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae Relationship between foliar trichomes of common bean genotypes, Phaseolus vulgaris L., and resistance to Diabrotica speciosa Germar, 1824(Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Fachini de Oliveira Paron

    2005-08-01

    genotypes to D. speciosa. The experiments were conducted in a completely randomised design, with six treatments and eight replicates. The treatments were six common bean genotypes, Emgopa Ouro and IAPAR 57, from Mesoamerican domestication center (MA, Jalo Precoce, Goiano Precoce, PR 10595142 and PR 10595146 from Andean domestication center (AN. Each replicate consisted of one pot with 1.2 kg soil and a plant placed in a individual cage. The genotypes were submitted to feeding test 25 days after planting, when ten adults of D. speciosa, starved for 24 hours, were released for 72 hours in each cage. Damage was estimated by area of foliage consumed on each genotype. Trichomes on both the abaxial (AB and adaxial (AD leaf surfaces were counted using a stereomicroscope (40 X, on 1 cm² area, with the hooked and straight trichomes being counted on five leaflets/genotype. The MA genotype IAPAR 57 was the most preferred on feeding test, while the AN genotypes were less eaten by Dispeciosa. The genotypes showed variability aceading to density of trichomes on both surfaces. Andean genotypes showed no difference in unciform trichome densities on AD surface. The total number of straight and hooked trichomes on AB leaf surface suggests inverse relation between this characteristic and the area consumed by Diabrotica speciosa.

  17. Comparative evaluation of average glandular dose and breast cancer detection between single-view digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) plus single-view digital mammography (DM) and two-view DM: correlation with breast thickness and density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Sung Ui; Chang, Jung Min; Bae, Min Sun; Lee, Su Hyun; Cho, Nariya; Seo, Mirinae; Kim, Won Hwa; Moon, Woo Kyung [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    To compare the average glandular dose (AGD) and diagnostic performance of mediolateral oblique (MLO) digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) plus cranio-caudal (CC) digital mammography (DM) with two-view DM, and to evaluate the correlation of AGD with breast thickness and density. MLO and CC DM and DBT images of both breasts were obtained in 149 subjects. AGDs of DBT and DM per exposure were recorded, and their correlation with breast thickness and density were evaluated. Paired data of MLO DBT plus CC DM and two-view DM were reviewed for presence of malignancy in a jack-knife alternative free-response ROC (JAFROC) method. The AGDs of both DBT and DM, and differences in AGD between DBT and DM (ΔAGD), were correlated with breast thickness and density. The average JAFROC figure of merit (FOM) was significantly higher on the combined technique than two-view DM (P = 0.005). In dense breasts, the FOM and sensitivity of the combined technique was higher than that of two-view DM (P = 0.003) with small ΔAGD. MLO DBT plus CC DM provided higher diagnostic performance than two-view DM in dense breasts with a small increase in AGD. (orig.)

  18. Estudo comparativo de dosimetria computacional entre modelos homogêneos e um modelo voxel em mamografia: uma discussão de aplicações em testes de constância e cálculo de dose glandular em pacientes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vagner Ferreira Cassola

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar dados de dosimetria e fluência de fótons entre diferentes modelos de mama, discutindo as aplicações em testes de constância e estudos dosimétricos aplicados à mamografia. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foram simulados diferentes modelos homogêneos e um modelo antropomórfico de mama tipo voxel, sendo contabilizadas: a dose total absorvida no modelo, a dose absorvida pelo tecido glandular/material equivalente, e a dose absorvida e a fluência de fótons em diferentes profundidades dos modelos. Uma câmara de ionização simulada coletou o kerma de entrada na pele. As combinações alvo-filtro estudadas foram Mo-30Mo e Mo-25Rh, para diferentes potenciais aceleradores de 26 kVp até 34 kVp. RESULTADOS: A dose glandular normalizada, comparada ao modelo voxel, resultou em diferenças entre -15% até -21% para RMI, -10% para PhantomMama e 10% para os modelos Barts e Keithley. A variação dos valores da camada semirredutora entre modelos foi geralmente inferior a 10% para todos os volumes sensíveis. CONCLUSÃO: Para avaliar a dose glandular normalizada e a dose glandular, em mamas médias, recomenda-se o modelo de Dance. Os modelos homogêneos devem ser utilizados para realizar testes de constância em dosimetria, mas eles não são indicados para estimar a dosimetria em pacientes reais

  19. Response of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) Leaf Surface Defenses to Exogenous Methyl Jasmonate

    OpenAIRE

    Rowe, Heather C.; Ro, Dae-Kyun; Rieseberg, Loren H.

    2012-01-01

    Helianthus annuus, the common sunflower, produces a complex array of secondary compounds that are secreted into glandular trichomes, specialized structures found on leaf surfaces and anther appendages of flowers. The primary components of these trichome secretions are sesquiterpene lactones (STL), a diverse class of compounds produced abundantly by the plant family Compositae and believed to contribute to plant defense against herbivory. We treated wild and cultivated H. annuus accessions wit...

  20. Acylsucrose-Producing Tomato Plants Forces Bemisia tabaci to Shift Its Preferred Settling and Feeding Site

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-López, M. J.; Garzo, E.; Bonani, J. P.; Fernández-Muñoz, R.; Moriones, E.; Fereres, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Background The whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) causes dramatic damage to plants by transmitting yield-limiting virus diseases. Previous studies proved that the tomato breeding line ABL 14-8 was resistant to B. tabaci, the vector of tomato yellow leaf curl disease (TYLCD). This resistance is based on the presence of type IV glandular trichomes and acylsucrose production. These trichomes deter settling and probing of B. tabaci in ABL 14-8, which reduces primary and secondary spread of TYLCD. Me...

  1. Efeito de aleloquímicos em tricomas foliares de tomateiro na repelência a ácaro (Tetranychus urticae Koch.) em genótipos com teores contrastantes de 2-tridecanona Effect of allelochemicals in tomato leaf trichomes on mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch.) repellency in genotypes with different levels of 2-tridecanone

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Alberto Aragão; Bárbara França Dantas; Flávio Rodrigo Gandolfi Benites

    2002-01-01

    Com o objetivo de avaliar a ação de repelência a ácaro Tetranychus urticae Koch. em folíolos de tomateiro com altos teores do aleloquímico 2-tridecanona (2-TD) associado a tricomas glandulares, utilizaram-se linhagens avançadas 'TOM 600' e 'TOM 601' (altos teores de 2-TD) 'TOM 584' (padrão com baixo teor de 2-TD) e seus parentais 'PI 134417' Lycopersicon hirsutum Dunal var. glabratum Mill. (alto teor de 2-TD) e 'TOM 556' Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. (baixo teor de 2-TD). O experimento foi re...

  2. Diversidade genética e fitoquímica em mentas: caracterização, valorização e conservação

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Leandra Sofia de Matos

    2012-01-01

    Doutoramento em Engenharia Agronómica - Instituto Superior de Agronomia Mentha cervina (L.) Opiz and Mentha pulegium L. are medicinal and aromatic plants traditionally used in Portugal for aromatic and seasoning purposes and in folk medicine, for treatment of gastric and respiratory problems. Light and scanning electron microscopy of both species indumentum revealed non-glandular and glandular trichomes, corresponding to the common arrangement in Lamiaceae. Gas Chromatograph...

  3. Assessment of the mean glandular dose using LiF:Mg,Ti, LiF:Mg,Cu,P, Li2B4O7:Mn and Li2B4O7:Cu TL detectors in mammography radiation fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fartaria, M. J.; Reis, C.; Pereira, J.; Pereira, M. F.; Cardoso, J. V.; Santos, L. M.; Oliveira, C.; Holovey, V.; Pascoal, A.; Alves, J. G.

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this paper is the characterization of four thermoluminescence detectors (TLD), namely, LiF:Mg,Ti, LiF:Mg,Cu,P, Li2B4O7:Mn and Li2B4O7:Cu for the measurement of the entrance surface air kerma (ESAK) and estimation of the mean glandular dose (MGD) in digital mammography examinations at hospitals and clinics. Low-energy x-ray beams in the typical energy ranges of mammography, produced with a tungsten target and additional 60 µm molybdenum filtration were implemented and characterized at the Laboratory of Metrology of Ionizing Radiation at Instituto Superior Técnico. These beams were used for the characterization of the TLDs in terms of sensitivity, linearity, reproducibility, energy dependence and fading at 40 °C. The energy dependence test was further extended using clinical beams produced by mammography units at hospitals and clinics. The method proposed by the International Atomic Energy Agency was used for the measurement of ESAK and assessment of MGD. The combined standard uncertainty for the measurement of ESAK (and MGD) was determined in accordance to the Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement. The x-ray beams generated in the 23–40 kVp range presented HVL values from 0.36 to 0.46 mm Al. The beam produced at 28 kVp (HVL 0.39 mm Al) was considered as reference. The radiation field defined a circle with 84 mm diameter with a maximum variation of the beam intensity of less than 1% at the top flat (plateau) within 4 cm of the central axis. The estimated total uncertainty for the measurement of air kerma was 0.42%. All the TL detectors tested showed good performance except the commercial Li2B4O7:Mn (or TLD-800) which was excluded due to its poor sensitivity in our experimental set up. Both lithium fluorides showed better linearity and reproducibility as well as lower energy dependence and fading when compared to lithium borates. The stable behaviour of LiF:Mg,Ti and LiF:Mg,Cu,P detectors is reflected in the low combined

  4. Assessment of the mean glandular dose using LiF:Mg,Ti, LiF:Mg,Cu,P, Li2B4O7:Mn and Li2B4O7:Cu TL detectors in mammography radiation fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fartaria, M J; Reis, C; Pereira, J; Pereira, M F; Cardoso, J V; Santos, L M; Oliveira, C; Holovey, V; Pascoal, A; Alves, J G

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this paper is the characterization of four thermoluminescence detectors (TLD), namely, LiF:Mg,Ti, LiF:Mg,Cu,P, Li2B4O7:Mn and Li2B4O7:Cu for the measurement of the entrance surface air kerma (ESAK) and estimation of the mean glandular dose (MGD) in digital mammography examinations at hospitals and clinics. Low-energy x-ray beams in the typical energy ranges of mammography, produced with a tungsten target and additional 60 µm molybdenum filtration were implemented and characterized at the Laboratory of Metrology of Ionizing Radiation at Instituto Superior Técnico. These beams were used for the characterization of the TLDs in terms of sensitivity, linearity, reproducibility, energy dependence and fading at 40 °C. The energy dependence test was further extended using clinical beams produced by mammography units at hospitals and clinics. The method proposed by the International Atomic Energy Agency was used for the measurement of ESAK and assessment of MGD. The combined standard uncertainty for the measurement of ESAK (and MGD) was determined in accordance to the Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement. The x-ray beams generated in the 23-40 kVp range presented HVL values from 0.36 to 0.46 mm Al. The beam produced at 28 kVp (HVL 0.39 mm Al) was considered as reference. The radiation field defined a circle with 84 mm diameter with a maximum variation of the beam intensity of less than 1% at the top flat (plateau) within 4 cm of the central axis. The estimated total uncertainty for the measurement of air kerma was 0.42%. All the TL detectors tested showed good performance except the commercial Li2B4O7:Mn (or TLD-800) which was excluded due to its poor sensitivity in our experimental set up. Both lithium fluorides showed better linearity and reproducibility as well as lower energy dependence and fading when compared to lithium borates. The stable behaviour of LiF:Mg,Ti and LiF:Mg,Cu,P detectors is reflected in the low combined standard

  5. Females of Tapinotaspoides, a genus in the oil-collecting bee tribe Tapinotaspidini, collect secretions from non-floral trichomes (Hymenoptera, Apidae Fêmeas de Tapinotaspoides, um gênero de abelhas coletoras de óleo da tribo Tapinotaspidini, coletam secreções de tricomas extra-florais (Hymenoptera, Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel A. R. Melo

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Harvesting of secretions from non-floral trichomes by females of Tapinotaspoides serraticornis is reported for the first time. The females exhibit a type of mopping behavior using the fringes of long, wavy setae along the posterior margins of their metasomal sterna. Our observations indicated a wide range of host plants used as sources for these secretions, including Waltheria (Sterculiaceae, Tibouchina (Melastomataceae, Sida (Malvaceae, Jacquemontia (Convolvulaceae, and unidentified species of Commelinaceae and Cyperaceae.A coleta de secreções de tricomas não-florais por fêmeas de Tapinotaspoides serraticornis é descrita pela primeira vez. Fêmeas desta espécie realizam um tipo de mopping, com as franjas de cerdas longas e curvas, localizadas nas margens posteriores dos esternos metassomais. Nossas observações indicam a utilização de um amplo espectro de plantas hospedeiras, incluindo espécies de Waltheria (Sterculiaceae, Tibouchina (Melastomataceae, Sida (Malvaceae, Jacquemontia (Convolvulaceae, Commelinaceae e Cyperaceae.

  6. Oviposition behavior of the silver leaf whitefly Bemisia tabaci biotype B on tomato; Comportamento de oviposicao da mosca-branca Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) biotipo B em tomateiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vendramim, Jose D. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ). Dept. de Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola]. E-mail: jdvendra@esalq.usp.br; Souza, Antonio P. de [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Dept. de Morfofisiologia. Lab. de Anatomia Humana]. E-mail: apsouza@nin.ufms.br; Ongarelli, Maria das G. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ). Lab. de Fisiologia e Bioquimica Pos-Colheita]. E-mail: mgong@esalq.usp.br

    2009-01-15

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of the leaf surface, the insect geotropic behavior and the type of foliar trichome on Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) biotype B oviposition on tomato leaves. Bemisia tabaci females were confined in acrylic boxes in which tomato leaflets were fixed at the bottom and top part of the boxes to allow insects to access the leaf surface to be tested (adaxial and/or abaxial) in both no-choice and free choice tests. Oviposition was always higher when the leaf was offered at the top of the box and preferably at the abaxial leaf surface. The effects of leaf trichomes (glandular and non glandular) on B. tabaci oviposition was evaluated by offering the abaxial surface of tomato leaflets to females after a 70% ethanol wash to remove glandular exsudates against a control treatment (without a ethanol wash). Oviposition was concentrated mostly near to non glandular trichomes, showing whitefly females can discriminate among the trichomes. (author)

  7. Dicty_cDB: AFO433 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 71.1 ML1365 peppermint glandular trichome Mentha x piperita cDNA, mRNA sequence. 64 2e-06 1 BM315730 |BM3157...IN DISULFIDE ISOMERASE P5 PRECURSOR ;, mRNA sequence. 68 2e-07 1 AW255071 |AW2550

  8. Dicty_cDB: AFO363 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available L Q11067 PROBABLE PROTEIN DISULFIDE ISOMERASE P5 PRECURSOR ;, mRNA sequence. 68 2e-07 1 AW255071 |AW255071.1 ML1365 peppermint glandu...lar trichome Mentha x piperita cDNA, mRNA sequence. 64 3e-06 1 BM315730 |BM315730.1

  9. Dicty_cDB: AFN839 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 071.1 ML1365 peppermint glandular trichome Mentha x piperita cDNA, mRNA sequence. 64 2e-06 1 BM315730 |BM315...EIN DISULFIDE ISOMERASE P5 PRECURSOR ;, mRNA sequence. 68 2e-07 1 AW255071 |AW255

  10. Dicty_cDB: AFN689 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 71.1 ML1365 peppermint glandular trichome Mentha x piperita cDNA, mRNA sequence. 64 3e-06 1 BM315730 |BM3157...CAEEL Q11067 PROBABLE PROTEIN DISULFIDE ISOMERASE P5 PRECURSOR ;, mRNA sequence. 68 2e-07 1 AW255071 |AW2550

  11. Oviposition behavior of the silver leaf whitefly Bemisia tabaci biotype B on tomato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of the leaf surface, the insect geotropic behavior and the type of foliar trichome on Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) biotype B oviposition on tomato leaves. Bemisia tabaci females were confined in acrylic boxes in which tomato leaflets were fixed at the bottom and top part of the boxes to allow insects to access the leaf surface to be tested (adaxial and/or abaxial) in both no-choice and free choice tests. Oviposition was always higher when the leaf was offered at the top of the box and preferably at the abaxial leaf surface. The effects of leaf trichomes (glandular and non glandular) on B. tabaci oviposition was evaluated by offering the abaxial surface of tomato leaflets to females after a 70% ethanol wash to remove glandular exsudates against a control treatment (without a ethanol wash). Oviposition was concentrated mostly near to non glandular trichomes, showing whitefly females can discriminate among the trichomes. (author)

  12. Pharmacognostical and Phytochemical Investigation on Leaves of Ficus microcarpa Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravichandra V D

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Ficus microcarpa Linn. (Syn: Ficus nitidas; Family: Moraceae grows in Tropical and Subtropical regions of India, used for variety of purpose in traditional medicine. The usefulness of this plant is described in many folk books including Ayurveda and different biologically active phytoconstituents were isolated from plant. But no reports are available on morph anatomy, and phytochemical studies, hence present attempt was undertaken to investigate the microscopically and preliminary phytochemical and Physico-chemical studies on the leaves of Ficus microcarpa. The study reveals the leaves are variable, coriaceous, oblong, elliptic to broadly elliptic or obovate. The transverse section of the leaves shows presence of epidermis, sponge parenchyma, bicollateral vascular bundles, nonglandular, glandular trichome and spiral vessels. The powder microscopy revealed the presence of anomocytic stomata, glandular trichome, covering trichome and prismatic calcium oxalate crystals. Physicochemical parameters like ash value, extractive value and phytochemical screening with different reagents showed the presence of fluorescence compounds, steroids, triterpenoids, phenols, tannins and flavonoids.

  13. Metals Accumulation and Leaf Surface Anatomy of Murdannia spectabilis Growing in Zn/Cd Contaminated Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladawan Rattanapolsan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Murdannia spectabilis (Kurz Faden was identified as a Zn/Cd hyperaccumulative plant. Leaf surface anatomy of the plant growing in non-contaminated soil (control and Zn/Cd contaminated soil,was studied and compared by a light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy combined with Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy(SEM/EDS. The similarities were reticulate cuticle on epidermises, uniform polygonal cell, stomatal arrangement in six surrounding subsidiary cells, and submarginal sclerenchyma. The dissimilarities were uniserate trichomes spreading on both adaxial and abaxial epidermis of the plants growing in non-contaminated soil, whereas the uniserate trichomes were only on the submarginal-adaxial epidermis of the control plants. The trichomes on leaves of the plants growing in non-contaminated soil were found to have both uniseriate non-glandular and uniseriate glandular trichomes;whereas, leaves of the plants growing in the contaminated soil were merely non-glandular trichomes. The different shape and location of trichomes, the number of stomata and trichome indicated the effect of Zn and Cd on M. spectabilis. The higher percentages of Zn and Cd in the vascular bundle than in the cross section and epidermis areas showed both solutes could move along each route, with diffusion through the symplast and apoplast. The increase of Ca in M. spectabilis growing in Zn/Cd contaminated soil corresponded to the Zn and Cd distributed in the leaves. Zn K-edge and S K-edge XANES spectra proposed that Zn2+ ions were accumulated and/or adsorbed on the epidermis of the tuber, and then absorbed into the root and transport to the xylem. The double peaks of Zn-cysteine in the leaf samples proposed the metal sequestration was by sulphur proteins.

  14. 转染 p53基因对肺腺癌细胞株裸鼠 移植瘤生长的影响%Study on the Role of p53 Gene Transfer on Human Glandular Lung Cancer Cell Growth in Nude Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李萍; 王北宁; 丁振若

    2001-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to explore the significance and the role of wild-type p53 (wt-p53) gene and mutant p53 gene(mt-p53) transfer on human glandular lung cancer cell growth in nude mice. Methods: wt-p53 gene and mt-p53 gene were transfected and lipofectin-mediated into the human glandular lung cancer cell line GLC-82. And the growth of gene-transfected cell lines were observed in vitro and in vivo. Results: The colony number in the colong-forming experiment and the volume and weight in nude mice were greater in the mf-p53 tranfecting cells group than in the control group. The tumor resulting from the cells transfected with the wt-p53 gene grew more slowly and was smaller than that from control GLC-82 cells. In contrast, the tumor from the cells transfected with the mt-p53 gene grew faster than that produced by cells transfeted with the wt-p53 gene and that produced by control GLC-82 cells. Conclusion: The wild-type p53 gene could inhibit the glandular lung cancer cell growth in nude mice and the mutant p53 gene could enhance the glandular lung cancer cell growth in nude mice.%目的:探讨转染野生型 p53( wt-p53)和突变型 p53( mt-p53)基因对人肺腺癌细胞株 GLC-82裸鼠移植瘤生长的影响。方法:采用脂质体介导法,分别将 wt-p53和 mt-p53基因导入人肺腺癌细胞株 GLC-82,在裸鼠体内、体外实验中检测转导细胞的生长状况和裸鼠致瘤性。结果:转染 mt-p53 基因的细胞株 G418筛选的细胞集落数、 3H-TDR掺入实验、软琼脂平皿细胞集落数,以及裸鼠瘤组织重量和体积均高于对照组( P<0.01),而转染 wt p53基因的细胞株均显著低于对照组( P< 0.01),表明导入 wt p53基因的细胞株瘤细胞生长速度明显低于对照组细胞株和导入 mt p53基因的细胞株,即导入 mt p53基因的细胞株瘤细胞生长速度最快,而导入 wt p53基因的细胞株瘤细胞

  15. 中国伞形科当归属及相关类群毛状体和果实结构的系统学价值%Trichomes and fruit structures of Angelica and related genera of the family Apiaceae and their taxonomic significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宇婷; 刘玫; 程薪宇

    2015-01-01

    深入研究了当归属及其相关7属,古当归属,高山芹属,柳叶芹属,独活属,欧当归属,山芹属及前胡属毛状体和果实结构。结果显示毛状体及果实结构(如:毛状体细胞,翅,油管,维管束,中果皮,内果皮,结合面及结晶)可以用于区分当归属及其相关类群。滇南当归及隆萼当归应从当归属移入独活属,其余当归属物种分为结合面宽及结合面窄两组,前者与前胡属较为相似,但与独活属差别较大,后者与古当归属,高山芹属,柳叶芹属,欧当归属有相似之处。支持分子系统学揭示的当归属不是个自然类群,当归属与前胡属共同位于当归分支,而独活属位于独活分支。山芹属果实结构与其他属不同,翅的中果皮无细胞,且伴生油管位于维管束内侧,为分子系统学显示此属与高山芹属,柳叶芹属,及欧当归属亲缘关系较远提供了形态学依据。%Trichomes and fruit structures of Angelica and seven related genera (Archangelica,Coelopleurum, Czernaevia,Heracleum,Levisticum,Ostericum,and Peucedanum)were studied.Differences in the trichome and fruit structures (e.g.wing,vitta,vascular bundle,mesocarp,endocarp,commissural side,and crystals) were found to provide useful characters to distinguish between Angelica and related taxa.Angelica austro-yun-nanensis and A.oncosepala should be moved to the genus Heracleum,and other taxa of the Angelica group could be divided two groups,one with a wide and the other narrow commisure.In the former the fruit struc-tures of the taxa are similar to those of Peucedanum,and differ from those of Heracleum and in the latter they are similar to those of Archangelica,Coelopleurum,Czernaevia,Levisticum,and Ostericum.This study sup-ports the findings from molecular research that as currently defined the Angelicaceae is not a natural group. Angelica and Peucedanum should be placed in an Angelica clade and

  16. Histochemical Investigation and Kinds of Alkaloids in Leaves of Different Developmental Stages in Thymus quinquecostatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiting Jing

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thymus quinquecostatus, with more medical value, is a kind of wild plants. In order to exploit and utilize this plant, we studied the species and locations of alkaloids in its leaves. In this paper, histochemical study of leaves at different developing stages was taken to localize the alkaloids. Meanwhile, the kinds and content of alkaloids in leaves were identified using GC-MS technique. It was found that there were two kinds of glandular trichomes, namely, peltate trichomes and capitate trichomes, on the surface of leaves, and their secretory cells could secrete alkaloids. Results showed that trichomes could secrete alkaloids as soon as the first pair of leaves formed, and there were altogether 18 kinds of alkaloids identified by GC-MS. Nearly all of these alkaloids of leaves at different developing stages were distinct from each other, except one, 3-methoxy-a-methyl-benzeneethanamine, persists at different developing stages with high concentration.

  17. Trichomes in the tribe Lactuceae (Asteraceae) - taxonomic implications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krak, Karol; Mráz, P.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 5 (2008), s. 616-630. ISSN 0006-3088 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Compositae * micromorphological characters * systematics Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.406, year: 2008

  18. Morphological and micromorphological characteristics of Desmodium fruits (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Daiane M; Reis, Ademir; Bortoluzzi, Roseli L da Costa; Santos, Marisa

    2014-12-01

    The genus Desmodium is represented in Santa Catarina State, Brazil, by 13 species, all with lomen- taceous fruits. Shape, size and isthmus margin of loments vary, while the surface is glabrous, or covered by trichomes of different types. Morphological diversity of trichomes becomes particularly relevant to taxonomic description. The trichome types present on the surface of Desmodium fruits provide data for the identification and classification of species in the State. To assess this, three fruits of each species were collected and deposited at two herbaria, HBR and FLOR, in Santa Catarina, Brazil. Some rehydrated samples were examined using light microscopy (LM); and some sections were exposed to the following histochemical reagents: Sudan III for oils and Thionine for mucilage. The structural aspects of trichomes can be classified into uni- or multicellular and may still be simple, i.e., nonglandular or glandular. Using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), five types of trichomes were identified and analyzed among the Desmodium species studied: uncinate, uniseriate, globose multicellular, globose unicellular and subulate. Characteristics, such as loment margin and article form, glabrescent or pillous indument, trichome type, with or without papillous epidermal cells and epicuticular striations, showed relevant diagnostic value. An identification key was developed for Desmodium species from Santa Catarina State, Brazil, based on macro and micromorphological characters of the fruit. PMID:25720190

  19. UV‐B is Required for Normal Development of Oil Glands in Ocimum basilicum L. (Sweet Basil)

    OpenAIRE

    IOANNIDIS, DAPHNE; Bonner, Lynda; Johnson, Christopher B.

    2002-01-01

    Plants of Ocimum basilicum L. grown under glass were exposed to short treatments with supplementary UV‐B. The effect of UV‐B on volatile essential oil content was analysed and compared with morphological effects on the peltate and capitate glandular trichomes. In the absence of UV‐B, both peltate and capitate glands were incompletely developed in both mature and developing leaves, the oil sacs being wrinkled and only partially filled. UV‐B was found to have two main effects on the glandular t...

  20. Anatomy of Sarcocaulon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. L. Verhoeven

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available The anatomy of the leaf blade, petiole, stem and root of the genus Sarcocaulon (DC. Sweet is discussed. On the basis of the leaf anatomy, the four sections recognized by Moffett (1979 can be identified: section Denticulati (dorsiventral leaves, section Multifidi (isobilateral leaves and adaxial and abaxial palisade continuous at midvein, section Crenati (isobilateral leaves, short curved trichomes and glandular hairs, section Sarcocaulon (isobilateral leaves and glandular hairs only. The anatomy of the stem is typically that of a herbaceous dicotyledon with a thick periderm. The root structure shows that the function of the root is not food storage.

  1. Artemisia dominant species succession relating to the soil moisture decrease in abandoned land of the Loess Plateau (China): comparative study of drought-adaptive characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Yu, Jing; Xia, Pengguo; He, Shaoxuan; Zhou, Ziyun; Han, Ruilian; Liang, Zongsuo

    2016-01-01

    Artemisia scoparia, Artemisia sacrorum and Artemisia giraldii were three dominant Artemisia species which successive grew in the secondary succession on abandoned land of the Loess Plateau. The succession accompanied the soil moisture steady decrease with field age after their abandonment. To elucidate the relationship between the Artemisia species succession and their drought-adaptation, three dominant species and a contrastive species Artemisia annua (mesophyte), were selected to compare their drought-resistant characteristics, including morphological and anatomical traits of leaf and root. Then physiological responses were investigated in mature plants after drought treatment. The results indicated that three dominant species leaf presented drought-adaptive structures, such as bushy trichomes, transitional or isolateral leaf cells, thick cuticles and epidermal cells. However, A. annua had no leaf traits involved in drought-adaptation. In addition, A. sacrorum and A. giraldii contained large root systems, while A. scoparia and A. annua utilized succulent roots. The physiological responses to drought suggested that A. giraldii had strong regulation in water using strategy, growth, as well as superoxide dismutase and catalase activity. A. sacrorum and A. giraldii could maintain high ascorbate peroxidase activity and malondialdehyde content, while A. scoparia and A. giraldii presented higher peroxidase activity, ascorbate and soluble sugar content. A. annua exhibited high proline and carotenoid contents under drought. The drought-resistant of the four Artemisia species presented the order of A. giraldii > A. sacrorum > A. scoparia > A. annua, which was consistent with their succession on abandoned land. PMID:27398271

  2. Pharmacognostic Standardization Parameters of Roylea elegans Wall (Aerial Parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeru

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the pharmacognostical study of Roylea elegans (aerial parts. The qualitative and quantitative microscopy, physicochemical evaluation, phytochemical screening and fluorescence analysis of the plant were done by the standard procedure recommended in the WHO guidelines. Macroscopic study shows that leaves were dark green with lemon like odor and bitter taste, 2-8 cm length and 1-8 cm wide, shape: ovate, hairy upper and lower surface, apex: acute and having reticulate veination, Stems: were light green Microscopic evaluation of the leaves powder shows the presence of trichomes (unicellular covering and glandular, upper epidermis, vessels, xylem fibres, wavy trichomes. The transverse section of the leaf shows the presence of epidermis layer followed by cuticle layer, lignified vascular bundles, trichomes, collenchyma, and palisade cells. Various pharmacognostical parameters help to evaluate the identification and standardization of Roylea elegans (aerial part.

  3. Resistencia a Tuta absoluta en una entrada de la especie silvestre de tomate Solanum pimpinellifolium

    OpenAIRE

    Escobar, R.; Rodríguez López, M. J.; Alba Cano, Juan Manuel; Fernández-Muñoz, Rafael; Fonseca, M.E.N.

    2010-01-01

    [EN]: We previously found resistance to pests (twospotted spider mite and whitefly) based on type IV glandular trichomes and acylsucrose production in an accession of the wild tomato species S. pimpinellifolium from the germplasm collection at the Experimental Station La Mayora – CSIC. Resistance to the South American tomato pinworm of that accession and plant materials derived from it was investigated in greenhouse conditions at CNPH (Brasilia, Brazil) and, when Tuta absoluta ...

  4. Comparing Host Plant Resistance, Engineered Resistance, and Insecticide Treatment for Control of Colorado Potato Beetle and Potato Leafhopper in Potatoes

    OpenAIRE

    Coombs, Joseph J.; Felcher, Kimberly J.; Douches, David S; Ghidiu, Gerald M.

    2011-01-01

    The Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) Order Coleoptera and the potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae (Harris) Order Homoptera, are the major insect pests of potato in eastern North America. In two years of field trials, we compared the effectiveness of three pest management options for the control of Colorado potato beetle and potato leafhopper: natural host plant resistance (glandular trichomes), engineered resistance (Bacillus thuringiensis [Bt] Berliner cry3A gene) and a ...

  5. Towards Elucidating Carnosic Acid Biosynthesis in Lamiaceae: Funtional Characterization of the Three First Steps of the Pathway in Slavia Fruicosa and Rosmarinus officinalis

    OpenAIRE

    Bozic, D.; Papaefthimiou, D.; Brückner, K.; De Vos; Tsoleridis, C.A.; Katsarou, D.; Papanikolaou, A; Pateraki, I.; Chatzopoulou, F.M.; Dimitriadou, E.; Kostas, S.; Manzano, D.; Scheler, U.; Ferrer, A.(Instituto de Física Corpuscular (IFIC), Departamento de Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear, Departamento de Ingeniería Electrónica, Instituto de Microelectrónica de Barcelona (IMB-CNM), University of Valencia, CSIC, Valencia, Spain); Tissier, A.

    2015-01-01

    Carnosic acid (CA) is a phenolic diterpene with anti-tumour, anti-diabetic, antibacterial and neuroprotective properties that is produced by a number of species from several genera of the Lamiaceae family, including Salvia fruticosa (Cretan sage) and Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary). To elucidate CA biosynthesis, glandular trichome transcriptome data of S. fruticosa were mined for terpene synthase genes. Two putative diterpene synthase genes, namely SfCPSand SfKSL, showing similarities to co...

  6. Towards elucidating carnosic acid biosynthesis in Lamiaceae:functional characterization of the three first steps of the pathway in Salvia fruticosa and Rosmarinus officinalis

    OpenAIRE

    Dragana Božić; Dimitra Papaefthimiou; Kathleen Brückner; De Vos, Ric C. H.; Tsoleridis, Constantinos A.; Dimitra Katsarou; Antigoni Papanikolaou; Irini Pateraki; Chatzopoulou, Fani M.; Eleni Dimitriadou; Stefanos Kostas; David Manzano; Ulschan Scheler; Albert Ferrer; Alain Tissier

    2015-01-01

    Carnosic acid (CA) is a phenolic diterpene with anti-tumour, anti-diabetic, antibacterial and neuroprotective properties that is produced by a number of species from several genera of theLamiaceae family, including Salvia fruticosa (Cretan sage) and Rosmarinus officinalis(Rosemary). To elucidate CA biosynthesis, glandular trichome transcriptome data of S. fruticosawere mined for terpene synthase genes. Two putative diterpene synthase genes, namelySfCPS and&n...

  7. Genus Cistus: a model for exploring labdane-type diterpenes' biosynthesis and a natural source of high value products with biological, aromatic, and pharmacological properties

    OpenAIRE

    AngelosK.Kanellis; StefanosKostas; VasilikiFalara

    2014-01-01

    The family Cistaceae (Angiosperm, Malvales) consists of 8 genera and 180 species, with 5 genera native to the Mediterranean area (Cistus, Fumara, Halimium, Helianthemum, and Tuberaria). Traditionally, a number of Cistus species have been used in Mediterranean folk medicine as herbal tea infusions for healing digestive problems and colds, as extracts for the treatment of diseases, and as fragrances. The resin, ladano, secreted by the glandular trichomes of certain Cistus species contains a num...

  8. Anatomia foliar de Polygonaceae (Angiospermae da planície de inundação do alto rio Paraná Leaf anatomy of Polygonaceae (Angiospermae from the upper Paraná river floodplain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismar Sebastião Moscheta

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available A anatomia foliar de Polygonum acuminatum, P. ferrugineum, P. hydropiperoides, P. meisnerianum, P. punctatum, P. stelligerum, Ruprechtia laxiflora e Triplaris americana foi realizada com o objetivo de fornecer subsídios para a identificação destas espécies encontradas na planície de inundação do alto rio Paraná. Foram comparados a estrutura do limbo, em seção transversal, nervação, estômatos e pêlos da epiderme. Os gêneros Polygonum, Ruprechtia e Triplaris podem facilmente ser distinguidos através das características anatômicas: tipos de estômatos, pêlos glandulares, pêlos tectores das faces e dos bordos, nervura fimbrial e idioblastos epidérmicos. As espécies de Polygonum podem ser distinguidas através dos pêlos tectores, cavidade epidérmica e, mais dificilmente, pelas aréolas e terminações das nervurasLeaf anatomy of the following Polygonaceae Polygonum acuminatum, P. ferrugineum, P. hydropiperoides, P. meisnerianum, P. punctatum, P. stelligerum, Ruprechtia laxiflora and Triplaris Americana was carried out as an aid towards the identification of these species found in the upper Paraná river floodplain. The leaf blade structure in transversal section, veins, stoma and epidermal trichome were compared. The genera Polygonum, Ruprechtia and Triplaris are easily distinguishable through their anatomical features: stomatal types, glandular trichomes, surface and edge non-glandular trichome, fimbria vein and epidermal idioblasts. Polygonum species are distinguishable through non-glandular trichomes, epidermal cavity and, with some difficulty, through areolas and veinlets

  9. Comparing Host Plant Resistance, Engineered Resistance, and Insecticide Treatment for Control of Colorado Potato Beetle and Potato Leafhopper in Potatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald M. Ghidiu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say Order Coleoptera and the potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae (Harris Order Homoptera, are the major insect pests of potato in eastern North America. In two years of field trials, we compared the effectiveness of three pest management options for the control of Colorado potato beetle and potato leafhopper: natural host plant resistance (glandular trichomes, engineered resistance (Bacillus thuringiensis [Bt] Berliner cry3A gene and a susceptible potato cultivar (Superior with an at-planting application of the insecticide thiamethoxam. Similar and acceptable control of the Colorado potato beetle larvae was obtained with the Bt-cry3A lines and the thiamethoxam treated “Superior” variety. The glandular trichome cultivar had significantly less Colorado potato beetle damage than did the untreated “Superior” in 2004, although damage was significantly greater than in the Bt-cry3A lines and the insecticide-treated potatoes for both years, and was the only treatment that consistently had very little potato leafhopper damage. These data demonstrate that although each type of host plant resistance mechanism (Bt-cry3A or glandular trichomes was as effective as the chemical control against one of the insects, neither provides adequate resistance to both Colorado potato beetle and potato leaf hopper.

  10. GA3 and other signal regulators (MeJA and IAA) improve xanthumin biosynthesis in different manners in Xanthium strumarium L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changfu; Chen, Fangfang; Zhang, Yansheng

    2014-01-01

    Xanthanolides from Xanthium strumarium L. exhibit various pharmacological activities and these compounds are mainly produced in the glandular trichomes of aerial plant parts. The regulation of xanthanolide biosynthesis has never been reported in the literature. In this study, the effects of phytohormonal stimulation on xanthumin (a xanthanolide compound) biosynthesis, glandular trichomes and germacrene A synthase (GAS) gene expression in X. strumarium L. young leaves were investigated. The exogenous applications of methyl jasmonate (MeJA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and gibberrellin A3 (GA3) at appropriate concentrations were all found to improve xanthumin biosynthesis, but in different ways. It was suggested that a higher gland density stimulated by MeJA (400 µM) or IAA (200 µM) treatment caused at least in part an improvement in xanthumin production, whereas GA3 (10 µM) led to an improvement by up-regulating xanthumin biosynthetic genes within gland cells, not by forming more glandular trichomes. Compared to the plants before the flowering stage, plants that had initiated flowering showed enhanced xanthumin biosynthesis, but no higher gland density, an effect was similar to that caused by exogenous GA3 treatment. PMID:25157461

  11. GA3 and Other Signal Regulators (MeJA and IAA Improve Xanthumin Biosynthesis in Different Manners in Xanthium strumarium L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changfu Li

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Xanthanolides from Xanthium strumarium L. exhibit various pharmacological activities and these compounds are mainly produced in the glandular trichomes of aerial plant parts. The regulation of xanthanolide biosynthesis has never been reported in the literature. In this study, the effects of phytohormonal stimulation on xanthumin (a xanthanolide compound biosynthesis, glandular trichomes and germacrene A synthase (GAS gene expression in X. strumarium L. young leaves were investigated. The exogenous applications of methyl jasmonate (MeJA, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, and gibberrellin A3 (GA3 at appropriate concentrations were all found to improve xanthumin biosynthesis, but in different ways. It was suggested that a higher gland density stimulated by MeJA (400 µM or IAA (200 µM treatment caused at least in part an improvement in xanthumin production, whereas GA3 (10 µM led to an improvement by up-regulating xanthumin biosynthetic genes within gland cells, not by forming more glandular trichomes. Compared to the plants before the flowering stage, plants that had initiated flowering showed enhanced xanthumin biosynthesis, but no higher gland density, an effect was similar to that caused by exogenous GA3 treatment.

  12. Synchronous squamous and glandular neoplasia of the anal canal.

    OpenAIRE

    Yeong, M. L.; Wood, K. P.; Scott, B; Yun, K.

    1992-01-01

    A 48 year old man presented with invasive adenocarcinoma in the wall of a non-healing anal fistula. The subsequent abdomino-perineal resection specimen showed residual invasive carcinoma coexisting with in situ carcinoma of anal glands as well as in situ squamous carcinoma of the anal canal. The epithelium of the anal canal had koilocytotic features. DNA hybridisation studies by the dot blot technique showed weak positivity for human papillomavirus (HPV) subtypes 16, 18. This case illustrates...

  13. Identifying sources and estimating glandular output of salivary TIMP-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holten-Andersen, Lars; Jensen, Siri Beier; Jensen, Allan Bardow; Harslund, Jakob Le Fèvre; Thaysen-Andersen, M.; Lademann, Ulrik Axel; Usher, Pernille Autzen; Offenberg, Hanne Kjær; Højrup, Peter; Reibel, Jesper; Nielsen, H.J.; Brunner, Nils; Nauntofte, Birgitte; Holten-Andersen, L; Beier Jensen, S; Bardow, A; Harslund, J; Thaysen-Andersen, M; Lademann, U; Autzen Usher, P; Offenberg, H; Højrup, P; Reibel, J; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Brunner, N; Nauntofte, B

    2008-01-01

    Objective. Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP-1) has been identified as a potential biomarker in diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. Since TIMP-1 resides in most tissues and bodily fluids, we evaluated the potential of using saliva to obtain reproducible TIM...

  14. Comparative leaf morphology and anatomy of three Asteraceae species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Milan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to describe and compare the morphology and anatomy of mature leaves of Mikania glomerata Spreng., Porophyllum ruderale Cass. and Vernonia condensata Baker (Asteraceae species that have different habits emphasizing their secretory structures. Longitudinal and transversal sections of mature leaf blades of the three species were analyzed at the apex, base, and medium third part of the midvein of the leaf blade and of the margin. M. glomerata had uniseriate glandular trichomes and secretory ducts; P. ruderale had hydathodes and secretory cavities; and V. condensata had idioblasts and uni-and biseriate glandular trichomes.Este trabalho teve por objetivo descrever e comparar a morfo-anatomia das folhas adultas de Mikania glomerata Spreng., Porophyllum ruderale Cass. e Vernonia condensata Baker (Asteraceae, que possuem diferentes hábitos, enfatizando suas estruturas secretoras. Secções longitudinais e transversais dos limbos foliares foram analisadas nas regiões do ápice, da base e do terço médio na altura da nervura central, do limbo foliar e da margem. M. glomerata apresentou tricomas glandulares unisseriados e ductos secretores; P. ruderale tinha hidatódios e cavidades secretoras; e V. condensata apresentou idioblastos e tricomas glandulares uni- ou bisseriados.

  15. The structure of floral elements of Anchusa officinalis L. creating attractants for insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosława Chwil

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study involved the measurement of size and the micromorphology of the floral elements of Anchusa officinalis L. which are attractants for insects. The structure of the epidermis on the surface of the calyx, petals, throat scales, pistil and nectary were analysed using light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. For light microscopy observations, semi-permanent slides were prepared, which were treated with Lugol's iodine solution, Sudan III and fluoroglucine. The dark violet lobes of the corolla of Anchusa officinalis, with a velvety surface, and the throat scales, contrasting with them, belong to the most important optical attractants which lure insects from large distances. The dark pink colouring of the sepals additionally increases the attractiveness of the flowers. The epidermis covering the calyx formed different-sized non-glandular trichomes as well as glandular trichomes. The glandular trichomes were composed of a uni - or bicellular leg and a unicellular head. The colour of the corolla petals was determined by anthocyanins accumulated in the epidermal cells and in the more deeply situated parenchyma. The velvety surface was formed by the conical papillae, densely growing from the adaxial epidermis. The pink-violet throat scales with white hairs, covering the inlet to the tube of the corolla, were found at the inlet to the corolla throat. The longest trichomes on the surface of the scales were located in their lower and middle parts, whereas the shortest ones at their tips. The epidermis of the central part of the throat scales formed small papillae. The trichomes had thin cell walls, large vacuoles, numerous plastids and lipid droplets. The two-parted stigma of the pistil was covered by characteristic expanded outgrowths with wavy edges which performed the functions of structures facilitating the capture of pollen grains. As a result of the present study it was found that the structures affecting the attractiveness of the

  16. Caracterización del indumento de nueve especies de Loasaceae de Venezuela Indument characterization of nine Loasaceae species from Venezuela

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    Eliana Noguera-Savelli

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se caracterizó el indumento observado en diferentes órganos de 9 especies de Loasaceae presentes en Venezuela, precisando su ubicación en la planta a fin de establecer una posible importancia taxonómica. Este estudio se efectuó tanto al microscopio óptico como al microscopio electrónico de barrido. El indumento está constituido por 2 clases de apéndices epidérmicos: tricomas y emergencias. Los tricomas se clasificaron en tricomas eglandulares uni-y multicelulares y tricomas glandulares multicelulares. Los tricomas cónicos y gloquidiados uncinados son comunes en todas las especies estudiadas. Nasa resultó el género con la mayor diversidad de tricomas. Se registra por primera vez la presencia de tricomas dendríticos, exclusivamente en Nasa venezuelensis. Las hojas y ovarios son los órganos que mayor variedad de apéndices mostraron. Gronovia scandens fue la única especie con emergencias, restringidas a los tallos. La morfología del indumento es un carácter de valor diagnóstico a nivel de subfamilia, lo cual se evidencia en la clave.In this work the epidermal indumentum observed in different organs of 9 species of Loasaceae from Venezuela were characterized, emphasizing their type and location on the plant to establish their possible taxonomic significance. The indumentum was studied using optical and scanning electron microscopy. Two classes of indumentum were observed: trichomes and emergences. The trichomes were classified as uni- and multicellular, non-glandular trichomes, and multicellular glandular trichomes. The conical and uncinate glochidiate trichomes were common in all the species studied. Nasa was the genus with the greatest trichomes diversity. The occurrence of dendritic trichomes is reported for the first time, exclusively in Nasa venezuelensis. Leaves and ovaries are the organs with the greatest variety of appendices. Gronovia scandens is the only species with emergences, which are restricted to

  17. Caracterização morfoanatômica das folhas de Eremanthus erythropappus (DC. MacLeisch, Asteraceae Leaf morpho-anatomical characterization of Eremanthus erythropappus (DC. MacLeisch, Asteraceae

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    Rafael C. Dutra

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Eremanthus erythropappus (DC. MacLeisch (Asteraceae, popularmente conhecida como "candeia-da-serra", é uma espécie utilizada na medicina tradicional como cicatrizante e antimicrobiano. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi comparar o número de tricomas glandulares nas folhas jovens e adultas de E. erythropappus, assim como realizar a caracterização morfoanatômica destas folhas. Secções transversais e paradérmicas das folhas foram submetidas às microtécnicas fotônicas e à microscopia eletrônica de varredura. A quantificação dos tricomas glandulares foi realizada em folhas jovens e adultas com auxílio de câmara clara. As folhas são alternas ou fasciculadas e a lâmina foliar possui epiderme uniestratificada, revestida por cutícula delgada e lisa e mesofilo dorsiventral. Em ambas as faces da epiderme, ocorrem estômatos predominantemente anomocíticos e tricomas glandulares inseridos em depressões. Na face abaxial observam-se numerosos tricomas tectores. O parênquima paliçádico é uniestratificado e o parênquima voltado para a face abaxial é formado por três a cinco camadas de células com disposição compacta. As folhas jovens e adultas apresentam respectivamente 21,78±5,83 e 17,80±6,69 tricomas glandulares na face adaxial. A análise morfoanatômica das folhas de E. erythropappus mostra-se um método rápido e prático para a identificação e controle de qualidade de espécies vegetais utilizadas na terapêutica.Eremanthus erythropappus (DC. MacLeisch (Asteraceae, commonly known as 'candeia-da-serra', is a plant used in folk medicine as wound healing and antimicrobial. The aim of this study was to compare the number of glandular trichomes between the young and the mature leaves, as well as to perform the morpho-anatomical characterization of E. erythropappus leaves. Transverse and paradermal sections of the leaves were prepared according to light and scanning microtechniques for the morpho-anatomical characterization

  18. Avaliação da medida do comprimento do colo e da ausência do eco glandular endocervical para predição do parto pré-termo Evaluation of risk for preterm delivery by measurement of uterine cervix and cervical gland area

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    Claudio Rodrigues Pires

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: verificar a prevalência do sinal eco glandular endocervical (EGE e o comprimento cervical menor ou igual a 20 mm em gestantes entre a 21ª e a 24ª semana e comparar estes sinais ecográficos como fatores indicadores de parto pré-termo espontâneo. MÉTODOS: estudo prospectivo transversal no qual foram incluídas 361 gestantes da população geral, para realização de exame ultra-sonografico em idade gestacional entre a 21ª a 24ª semana. Os critérios de exclusão do estudo foram malformações müllerianas, gestações múltiplas, malformações fetais, óbito fetal, alterações da quantidade de líquido amniótico, placenta com inserção segmentar, antecedentes de cirurgia no colo uterino (conização, amputação, cerclagem e procedimentos cirúrgicos durante a gestação. Após a realização do exame ultra-sonográfico obstétrico morfológico efetuado por via abdominal, seguiu-se o exame ecográfico por via vaginal para observação de uma faixa hipoecóica ou hiperecóica adjacente ao canal endocervical correpondente às glândulas do epitélio endocervical (EGE e mensuração do comprimento cervical. As variáveis qualitativas são representadas por freqüência absoluta e relativa, ao passo que as variáveis quantitativas, por média, desvio-padrão, mediana e valores mínimo e máximo. A associação entre as variáveis qualitativas foi avaliada pelo teste c² ou teste exato de Fisher. Para cada variável estudada, foi calculado o risco relativo seguido do intervalo com 95% de confiança. A técnica de análise de regressão logística univariada foi utilizada para verificar, entre as variáveis estudadas, quais foram indicativas de parto pré-termo espontâneo. O nível de significância adotado foi de 95% (alfa = 5% e descritivos (p iguais ou inferiores a 0,05 foram considerados significantes. RESULTADOS: a incidência do parto pré-termo espontâneo foi de 5,0%. O comprimento do colo uterino revelou-se igual ou

  19. The structure of some floral elements and the nectar production rate of Polemonium caeruleum L.

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    Mirosława Chwil

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study, carried out in the period 2008 - 2009, covered some morphological and anatomical features of the flowers of Polemonium caeruleum L. and their nectar production rate in the climatic conditions of the Lublin region. Observations were made with stereoscopic, light and scanning electron microscopy. Nectar production in the flowers was determined using the pipette method. The flowers of Polemonium caeruleum develop a calyx covered by an epidermis with numerous non-glandular and glandular trichomes. The secretory trichomes are composed of a several-celled stalk and a four-celled head. At the boundary of the corolla tube and the lobes, there is white colouration with violet nectar guides. The epidermis in this region produces several-celled living trichomes that close the entry into the corolla tube, thereby protecting the nectar accumulated in it. These hairs are at the same time glistening colour attractants for insects. The tripartite stigma of the pistil is covered, from the adaxial side, by unicellular papillae with striated cuticular ornamentation, growing at high density. Around the ovary there is located a nectariferous disc, in the form of a free projection, which secrets nectar with sugar concentration of 29 - 52% and sugar weight ranging 1.1 - 1.8 mg/flower.

  20. A Novel Pathway for Sesquiterpene Biosynthesis from Z,Z-Farnesyl Pyrophosphate in the Wild Tomato Solanum habrochaites[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallaud, Christophe; Rontein, Denis; Onillon, Sandrine; Jabès, Françoise; Duffé, Philippe; Giacalone, Cécile; Thoraval, Samuel; Escoffier, Camille; Herbette, Gaëtan; Leonhardt, Nathalie; Causse, Mathilde; Tissier, Alain

    2009-01-01

    In the wild tomato Solanum habrochaites, the Sst2 locus on chromosome 8 is responsible for the biosynthesis of several class II sesquiterpene olefins by glandular trichomes. Analysis of a trichome-specific EST collection from S. habrochaites revealed two candidate genes for the synthesis of Sst2-associated sesquiterpenes. zFPS encodes a protein with homology to Z-isoprenyl pyrophosphate synthases and SBS (for Santalene and Bergamotene Synthase) encodes a terpene synthase with homology to kaurene synthases. Both genes were found to cosegregate with the Sst2 locus. Recombinant zFPS protein catalyzed the synthesis of Z,Z-FPP from isopentenylpyrophosphate (IPP) and dimethylallylpyrophosphate (DMAPP), while coincubation of zFPS and SBS with the same substrates yielded a mixture of olefins identical to the Sst2-associated sesquiterpenes, including (+)-α-santalene, (+)-endo-β-bergamotene, and (−)-endo-α-bergamotene. In addition, headspace analysis of tobacco (Nicotiana sylvestris) plants expressing zFPS and SBS in glandular trichomes afforded the same mix of sesquiterpenes. Each of these proteins contains a putative plastid targeting sequence that mediates transport of a fused green fluorescent protein to the chloroplasts, suggesting that the biosynthesis of these sesquiterpenes uses IPP and DMAPP from the plastidic DXP pathway. These results provide novel insights into sesquiterpene biosynthesis and have general implications concerning sesquiterpene engineering in plants. PMID:19155349

  1. Micromorphological traits and essential oil contents of Micromeria kerneri Murb. and M. juliana (L.) Benth. (Lamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Dario; Dunkić, Valerija; Ruščić, Mirko; Matevski, Vlado; Ballian, Dalibor; Bogunić, Faruk; Eleftheriadou, Eleni; Stešević, Danijela; Kosalec, Ivan; Bezić, Nada; Stabentheiner, Edith

    2014-02-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oil (analysed by GC and GC-MS), the types and distribution of trichomes and pollen morphology (analysed by scanning electron microscopy) were investigated in two closely related species, Micromeria kerneri Murb. and Micromeria juliana (L.) Benth. (Lamiaceae) from Southeast Europe as a contribution to their taxonomy. The essential oil of M. kerneri was characterized by a high concentration of oxygenated sesquiterpenes, with caryophyllene-oxide as the major compound. Caryophyllene-oxide was also the major component of the essential oil of M. juliana from all localities, except from Mt Krivošije (Montenegro), where piperitone oxide was the major constituent. Non-glandular trichomes, peltate trichomes, and two types of capitate trichomes (type 1 composed of one basal epidermal cell, and one head cell with subcuticular space; type 2 composed of one basal epidermal cell, two stalk cells, and one head cell with subcuticular space) were observed on leaves, the calyx and on the stem. Pollen of both species had six apertures (hexacolpate) set in the equatorial pollen belt (zonocolpate) and showed medium reticulate ornamentation. Multivariate analysis (PCA and UPGMA) of essential oil components clearly separated the investigated M. kerneri and M. juliana populations, and confirmed the opinion that they are different taxa. On the other hand, micromorphological traits between these species were the same. Nevertheless, definitive conclusions about the taxonomic relationships among these species will require genetic analysis. PMID:24388062

  2. Morpho anatomical studies of leaves of Abutilon indicum (linn.) sweet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramadoss Karthikeyan; PannemVenkatesh; Nesepogu Chandrasekhar

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the pharmacognostic parameters of the leaves of Abutilon indicum (Linn.) Sweet which will assist in standardization, quality assurance, purity and sample identification of the species. Methods: The pharmacognostic studies were carried out in terms of organoleptic, microscopic, powder microscopic, leaf constants and fluorescence analysis. Results:Macroscopic study showed that the leaf shape -cordate, Size -2-4 cm long, Colour - Green, Odour -Characteristic, Taste -Characteristic, Surface - Smooth, Apex -Acute to acuminate, Lamina-Simple, Cordate, Reticulate, Dentate, Margin-Crenate-Dentate. The microscopic features of leaves were observed as covering trichomes, glandular trichome, vascular bundles, crystals, stomata ,mucilage secretory cells adaxial epidermis, palisade mesophyll, spongy mesophyll and lateral vein. Further the study was evaluated leaf constants, powder microscopy and fluorescence study of leaf powder. Conclusion: Various pharmacognostic characters observed in this study help in the identification and standardization of Abutilon indicum (Linn.) Sweet.

  3. Accumulation of furanic labdane diterpenes in Marrubium vulgare and Leonurus cardiaca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knöss, W; Zapp, J

    1998-05-01

    Accumulation of furanic labdane diterpenes has been investigated in different parts of field-grown plants of MARRUBIUM VULGARE (Lamiaceae) and LEONURUS CARDIACA (Lamiaceae). Furanic labdane diterpenes were produced and accumulated only in the aerial parts. Greatest amounts were measured in leaves and flowers. Up to 4 mg furanic labdane diterpenes per g fresh weight were found. Accumulation of furanic labdane diterpenes in plantlets seemingly depends on a developmental programme. No furanic labdane diterpenes were detected in plantlets during the first four to five weeks following germination. At this time the leaves became more differentiated and the number of trichomes on leaves was obviously increasing. Young leaves and buds contained most furanic labdane diterpenes. It was proven that at least a part of the non-volatile furanic labdane diterpenes is stored in peltate glandular trichomes. NMR signals of marrubiin were investigated with correlated spectra. Some (1)H- and (13)C-NMR assignments reported in literature were revised. PMID:17253250

  4. Novelties in secretory structures and anatomy of Rhynchosia (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vargas, Wanderleia; Sartori, Ângela L B; Dias, Edna S

    2015-03-01

    A comparative anatomical study was carried out on the secretory structures of leaflets from taxa belonging to the genus Rhynchosia - taxa difficult to delimit because of uncertain interspecific relations - in order to evaluate the potential diagnostic value of these anatomical traits for taxonomic assignment. A further objective was to establish consensual denomination for these secretory structures. The new anatomical features found in these taxa were sufficiently consistent to separate the species evaluated. The presence and localization of glandular-punctate structures bulbous-based trichomes, the number of layers in the palisade parenchyma and the arrangement of vascular units distinguish the taxa investigated and these characteristics can be extended to other species of Papilionoideae. The trichomes analyzed were described and classified into five types. Depicted in diagrams, photomicrographs, and by scanning electron microscopy, and listed for the first time at the genus and species levels. The information obtained served to effectively distinguish the taxa investigated among species of Papilonoideae. PMID:25761217

  5. Cell-specific expression of tryptophan decarboxylase and 10-hydroxygeraniol oxidoreductase, key genes involved in camptothecin biosynthesis in Camptotheca acuminata Decne (Nyssaceae

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    Santamaria Anna

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Camptotheca acuminata is a major natural source of the terpenoid indole alkaloid camptothecin (CPT. At present, little is known about the cellular distribution of the biosynthesis of CPT, which would be useful knowledge for developing new strategies and technologies for improving alkaloid production. Results The pattern of CPT accumulation was compared with the expression pattern of some genes involved in CPT biosynthesis in C. acuminata [i.e., Ca-TDC1 and Ca-TDC2 (encoding for tryptophan decarboxylase and Ca-HGO (encoding for 10-hydroxygeraniol oxidoreductase]. Both CPT accumulation and gene expression were investigated in plants at different degrees of development and in plantlets subjected to drought-stress. In all organs, CPT accumulation was detected in epidermal idioblasts, in some glandular trichomes, and in groups of idioblast cells localized in parenchyma tissues. Drought-stress caused an increase in CPT accumulation and in the number of glandular trichomes containing CPT, whereas no increase in epidermal or parenchymatous idioblasts was observed. In the leaf, Ca-TDC1 expression was detected in some epidermal cells and in groups of mesophyll cells but not in glandular trichomes; in the stem, it was observed in parenchyma cells of the vascular tissue; in the root, no expression was detected. Ca-TDC2 expression was observed exclusively in leaves of plantlets subjected to drought-stress, in the same sites described for Ca-TDC1. In the leaf, Ca-HGO was detected in all chlorenchyma cells; in the stem, it was observed in the same sites described for Ca-TDC1; in the root, no expression was detected. Conclusions The finding that the sites of CPT accumulation are not consistently the same as those in which the studied genes are expressed demonstrates an organ-to-organ and cell-to-cell translocation of CPT or its precursors.

  6. Influência do fotoperíodo na ontogenia dos tricomas de Lavandula pedunculata (alfazema): caracterização histoquimica

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Mariana Pereira Maia da

    2012-01-01

    Relatório Final de Estágio de Iniciação à Investigação Científica / ISA - Centro de Botânica Aplicada à Agricultura In this study we performed a histochemical characterization of glandular trichomes in plantules of Lavandula pedunculata (Miller) Cavanille exposed to three different photoperiodic regimes: 16h light/8h dark (to control), 12h light/12h dark and still 8h light/16h dark. We aim at understanding whether changes in photoperiodic regime can modify the composition of the secretions...

  7. Artemisinin content of sc-C0₂ derived extracts from Artemisia annua / Surisha Padayatchi.

    OpenAIRE

    Padayatchi, Surisha

    2004-01-01

    One of the principal research themes of the supercritical fluid research group within the Centre of Separation Science and Technology (SST) at the North-West University (Potchefstroom Campus) is botanical extraction. The group produces botanical extracts from locally cultivated plants which contain substances (essential oils, natural waxes) relevant to the food, flavour, pharmaceutical, medical and cosmetic industries while utilising the advantages of sc-C& extraction over traditi...

  8. Does any Artemisia species other than A. annua have potential to produce artemisinin?

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    N. Yazdani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Martynia annua L.: A Review on Its Ethnobotany, Phytochemical and Pharmacological Profile

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjeev K Mittal; Bhawna Chopra; Ashwani K Dhingra

    2013-01-01

    The present work was undertaken to establish the pharmacognostic and phytochemical standards of Leaf and Stem bark of Annona reticulata L. . It is a highly apparent plant in ayurvedic system of medicine for the treatment of various ailments. The plant is traditionally used for the treatment of epilepsy, dysentery, cardiac problems, worm infestation, constipation, haemorrhage, antibacterial infection, dysuria, fever, and ulcer . No reports are available on the pharmacognostic nature and phytoc...

  9. Martynia annua L.: A Review on Its Ethnobotany, Phytochemical and Pharmacological Profile

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    Sanjeev K Mittal

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work was undertaken to establish the pharmacognostic and phytochemical standards of Leaf and Stem bark of Annona reticulata L. . It is a highly apparent plant in ayurvedic system of medicine for the treatment of various ailments. The plant is traditionally used for the treatment of epilepsy, dysentery, cardiac problems, worm infestation, constipation, haemorrhage, antibacterial infection, dysuria, fever, and ulcer . No reports are available on the pharmacognostic nature and phytochemical studies of the leaf and stem bark , hence, the present study was carried out to investigate the same. All the parameters were studied according to the WHO & Pharmacopoeial guidelines . This parameters will help for correct identification of this plant for the future references.

  10. Preliminary Phytochemical Screening and Physico-Chemical Parameters of Artemisia absinthium and Artemisia annua.

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    Praveen Kumar Ashok

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The family Asteraceae or compositae known as the ester, daisy or sunflower family is the largest family of flowering plants. Artemisia is a large diverse genus of plants with between 100 to 150 species belonging to the family asteraceae (compositae. It comprises hardy herbs and shrubs known for their volatile oils. They grow in temperate climate of the northern hemisphere and southern hemisphere usually in dry or, semidry habitats. The collected herbs were authenticated, dried and extracted to calculate the percentage of yield. Phytochemical studies of the Hexane and alcoholic extracts showed the presence of various phytoconstituents i.e. carbohydrate, saponins, phytosterol, proteins and amino acid, tannin, phenolic compounds and flavonoids. It was observed that all the extracts show more important chemical constituents for various pharmacological activities. The determination of these characters will aid future investigators in their Pharmacological analysis of this species.

  11. Morphology and anatomy of Justicia acuminatissima leaves

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    Maria Christina S. Verdam

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Justicia acuminatissima (Miq. Bremek., Acanthaceae, is a subshrub found in northern Brazil, where it is widely used by the population of this region as an anti-inflammatory medicine. Despite this popular use, there is no pharmacognostical data to support the correct identification of this species. We therefore performed a morpho-anatomical, histochemical and phytochemical analysis of the leaves of this species, using well-known methods. The leaves are simple, exstipulate, green on the surfaces, and pubescent, with a lanceolate shape, crenate margin, pinnate venation and decussate phyllotaxy. The parenchyma is palisade and spongy, and its vascular system is bilateral. Glandular and non-glandular trichome and cystoliths were also detected. There are diacytic stomata on both the adaxial and abaxial surfaces of epidermis. Histochemical tests revealed the presence of phenolic compounds, amide and protein. Phytochemical tests showed the presence of coumarins, tannins, catechins, saponins and steroids.

  12. Morpho-histological studies in the aromatic species of Chenopodium from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonzani, N E; Barboza, G E; Bugatti, M A; Ariza Espinar, L

    2003-04-01

    A morpho-histological study of the vegetative organs (stem and leaf) of the aromatic species of Chenopodium L. from Argentina [C. ambrosioides L., C. burkartii (Aellen) Vorosch., C. carinatum R. Br., C. chilense Schrad., C. graveolens Willd. var. bangii (Murr) Aellen, C. haumanii Ulbr., C. multifidum L., C. oblanceolatum (Speg.) Giusti, C. pumilio R. Br., C. retusum (Moq.) Moq., and C. venturii (Aellen) Cabrera] was carried out. Classifications for the glandular and non-glandular trichomes are established and their presence among species is presented. A variant in both the dorsiventral and isobilateral mesophyll is reported; some data are valuable for systematic purposes and for the identification of dried and smashed material used as vegetal drug. PMID:12727484

  13. Estudos de microscopia óptica e de microscopia eletrônica de varredura em folhas de Mentha spicata e de Mentha spicata x suaveolens (Lamiaceae Optical microscopy studies and scanning electron microscopy in leaf the Mentha spicata and Mentha spicata x suaveolens (Lamiaceae

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    Maria Bernadete Gonçalves Martins

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem como objetivo realizar um estudo de anatomia foliar por meio de microscopia óptica e de microscopia eletrônica de varredura em Mentha spicata L. e Mentha spicata X suaveolens, caracterizando histologicamente a lâmina foliar. Secções transversais e paradérmicas da região mediana do limbo foliar mostraram a presença de epiderme unisseriada, coberta por uma fina camada de cutícula, apresentando tricomas glandulares do tipo capitado e peltado e não glandulares unisseriados multicelulares, não ramificados. O mesofilo de ambas as espécies é dorsiventral, com parênquima paliçádico uniestratificado, com células alongadas e rico em inclusões citoplasmáticas. O parênquima lacunoso é formado por três a quatro camadas de células irregulares. Os tricomas capitados presentes são classificados como do tipo I, e apresentam-se com uma célula basal, uma célula peduncular e uma grande célula apical, cujo formato varia de circular a piriforme. Os tricomas peltados consistem de uma célula basal, uma célula peduncular curta, larga e unicelular, com paredes externas cutinizadas e uma cabeça grande multicelular com 12 células secretoras, distribuídas radialmente em dois círculos concêntricos, o central com 4 células e o externo com 8 células, as quais acumulam o produto da secreção em uma cavidade entre a cutícula e as células secretoras; o pé do tricoma glandular está inserido em 11 células epidérmicas. Há predominância de tricomas capitados em relação aos tricomas peltados em ambas as espécies de Mentha.The objective of the present work is to make a study of leaf anatomy through optic microscopy and eletronic microscopy of scanning in Mentha spicata L. and Mentha spicata X suaveolens, characterizing the leaf blade histology. Cross and paradermic sections of the leaf, showed the presence of uniseriate epidermal cells covered by a fine cuticle layer, presenting gland trichomes of multicellular

  14. Ecological adaptations of Hypocyrta glabra Hook. flowers

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    Mychajło Czernećkyj

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The research on the blooming ecology and the flower morphology of Hypocyrta glabra Hook. (Gesneriaceae cultivated in laboratories and outdoors have been carried out. The life span of flowers and morphological changes in successive phases of the blooming period have been observed. The H. glabra flowers are protandrous and the stamens translocate during the flowering process. The macro- and microstructure of calyx, corolla, androecium, gynoecium and nectaries have been analyzed. The size, shape and viability of pollen grains have been designated and their number per stamen head has been calculated. The location of nectaries in H. glabra flowers has suggested that they stem from the 5th stamen during phylogenesis. It has been proved that the nectaries are provided by numerous vascular bundles and that the nectar is secreted by stomata. The stomatal field comprises 2/5 of nectary height and is situated on the abaxial side of the apix part. The average number of stomata is 63.2 per 1 mm2. The average amount of nectar produced by 10 flowers in their fourth day of life reached 223.7 mg. The sugar concentration was 32.7%. Numerous glandular and non-glandular trichomes have been noticed on the surface of calyx, corolla and gynoecium, which indicate the xeromorphic adaptation of the flower. It has been observed that the numbers of glandular and non-glandular trichomes per unit of the external surface of corolla are similar. Outdoors the secretion produced by calyx and corolla glands was willingly collected by wasps. It seems that such features of H. glabra flowers as position, shape and colour of corolla, the abundance of the nectar and pollen produced are connected with their adaptation to pollination by humming-birds in the species natural environment.

  15. Cervical squamous and glandular intraepithelial neoplasia: identification and current management approaches Neoplasia intraepitelial cervical escamosa y glandular: identificación y estrategias de manejo

    OpenAIRE

    V Cecil Wright

    2003-01-01

    Certain types of human papillomaviruses (HPV) are associated with squamous intraepithelial lesions and cancer and these are termed high-risk. HPV type 16 is detected in approximately half of the high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and cancer. Because of the high rate of spontaneous regression of low-grade squamous lesions, follow-up by cytology, colposcopy and possible biopsy appears preferable. Due to the higher rate of progression to malignancy of the high-grade lesions conservative...

  16. No-choice ovipositional nonpreference of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius B biotype on tomato genotypes Não-preferência para oviposição de Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biótipo B em genótipos de tomateiro em teste sem chance de escolha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Auxiliadora de Godoy Oriani

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is one of the main tomato producers worldwide. Nevertheless, 40 to 70% of the production is lost due to Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius B biotype attacks. Resistant plant germplasm can be an important method for controlling this pest in an integrated pest management program. This research aimed to evaluate the no-choice ovipositional preference of B. tabaci B biotype on 18 tomato genotypes with different densities and types of trichomes testing two screening techniques and to determine the influence of trichomes on whitefly ovipositional preference. Two methods of confinement experiments were used. Leaflets detached from the upper third part of the tomato plants (first experiment and 30-day-old plants (second experiment were infested with whiteflies during 24 h. For the first experiment, simple linear correlation tests between the number of insects and eggs, and number of trichomes in the tomato genotypes were carried out. The first technique was better than the second one, as it was easier to carry out and the evaluation demanded less time and as well as was effective to discriminate the resistance level of the evaluated genotypes. Glandular trichomes had a negative correlation with attracted adults and number of eggs deposited, and a positive correlation with number of trapped insects. Negative correlations were observed between number of nonglandular trichomes and trapped insects, and also between total number of trichomes and attracted and trapped insects. Positive correlations were observed between number of total trichomes and eggs cm-2 and nonglandular trichomes and number of eggs. Both confinement methods efficiently discriminated whitefly oviposition among genotypes, especially the resistant ones. High levels of antixenosis for oviposition related to type IV glandular trichomes were exhibited by genotypes LA716, PI134417 and PI134418. The high level of ovipositional preference by B. tabaci for genotypes LA1963 and NAV1062 was related

  17. Ontogeny of trichomes in taxa of genus Plantago L. subgenus Plantago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Andrzejewska-Golec

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of three types of headed hairs has been studied: 1 hairs with a unicellular stalk and a head divided vertically into two cells, 2 bottle-like hairs, 3 morel-like and two types of headless hairs: a with a characteristic 2-3-celled base, b without the characteristic base in six representatives belonging to 4 sections of the genus Plantago L. The bottle-like and the morel-like hairs may have originated from the hairs with a unicellular stalk and a head divided vertically into two cells. The Plantago sections characterized by the presence of the bottle-like and morel-like hairs are probably evolutionally younger than the sections characterized by the presence of hairs with a unicellular stalk and a head divided vertically into two cells.

  18. The Function of the Early Trichomes Gene in Arabidopsis and Maize.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Poethig

    2011-12-05

    Lateral organ polarity in Arabidopsis is regulated by antagonistic interactions between genes that promote either adaxial or abaxial identity, but the molecular basis of this interaction is largely unknown. We show that the adaxial regulator ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2 (AS2) is a direct target of the abaxial regulator KANADI1 (KAN1), and that KAN1 represses the transcription of AS2 in abaxial cells. Mutation of a single nucleotide in a KAN1 binding site in the AS2 promoter causes AS2 to be ectopically expressed in abaxial cells, resulting in a dominant, adaxialized phenotype. We also show that the abaxial expression of KAN1 is mediated directly or indirectly by AS2. These results demonstrate that KAN1 acts as a transcriptional repressor and that mutually repressive interactions between KAN1 and AS2 contribute to the establishment of adaxial-abaxial polarity in plants. A screen for mutations that affect the expression of a GFP reporter for KANADI2 produced mutations in two genes, CENTER CITY (CCT) and GRAND CENTRAL (GCT). Mutations in GCT and CCT delay the specification of central and peripheral identity and the globular-to-heart transition, but have little or no effect on the initial growth rate of the embryo. Mutant embryos eventually recover and undergo relatively normal patterning, albeit at an inappropriate size. GCT and CCT were identified as the Arabidopsis orthologs of MED12 and MED13--evolutionarily conserved proteins that act in association with the Mediator complex to negatively regulate transcription. The predicted function of these proteins combined with the effect of gct and cct on embryo development suggests that MED12 and MED13 regulate pattern formation during Arabidopsis embryogenesis by transiently repressing a transcriptional program that interferes with this process. Their mutant phenotype reveals the existence of a previously unknown temporal regulatory mechanism in plant embryogenesis.

  19. Filaments in Carbonaceous Meteorites: Mineral Crystals, Modern Bio-Contaminants or Indigenous Microfossils of Trichomic Prokaryotes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Richard B.; Borisyak, A. A.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental (ESEM) and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) investigations have resulted in the detection of a large number of complex filaments in a variety of carbonaceous meteorites. Many of the filaments were observed to be clearly embedded the rock matrix of freshly fractured interior surfaces of the meteorites. The high resolution images obtained combined with tilt and rotation of the stage provide 3-dimensional morphological and morphometric data for the filaments. Calibrated Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) and 2-D elemental X-ray maps have provided information on the chemical compositions of the filaments and the minerals of the associated meteorite rock matrix. These observations are used to evaluate diverse hypotheses regarding the possible abiotic or biogenic nature of the filaments found embedded in these meteorites.

  1. Light affects Varronia curassavica essential oil yield by increasing trichomes frequency

    OpenAIRE

    Emily V. R. da S. Feijó; Rosilene A Oliveira; Larissa C. do B. Costa

    2014-01-01

    Light can act on essential oil yield directly on synthesis of secondary metabolites, or indirectly on plant growth. Varronia curassavica Jacq., Boraginaceae, is a native medicinal species from Brazil known as “erva-baleeira”, with anti-inflammatory activity related to its essential oil. Despite pharmacological evidences of this species and its economic importance for herbal medicine production, little is known about the effect of light on growth and essential oil production. This study aimed ...

  2. Leaf anatomy of Odontonema strictum (Nees O. Kuntze (Acanthaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Regina T. Boeger

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the leaf anatomy of Odontonema strictum (Nees O. Kuntze (Acanthaceae, with emphasis on cystoliths, which are very abundant in this species. Leaves fully expanded from five mature individuals were collected in the teaching garden of the “Setor de Ciências Biológicas” (UFPR and fixed in FAA 70. The cystoliths were located in the epidermal cells of the adaxial face (litocysths and also among the collenchyma cells of the midrib and petiole. The cystoliths were cylindrical, long, with several small projections. They sometimes occurred in pairs and varied greatly in size, with an average length of 163.4±68.8 µm and a density of 23±9.97 cystoliths.mm-2 (n=10. The foliar lamina presented a uniseriate epidermis, dorsiventral mesophyll, and palisade parenchyma, which was continuous along the lamina. In the midrib, arc-shaped vascular veins were surrounded by fundamental parenchyma. Glandular trichomes occurred on both faces of the leaf, while non-glandular trichomes and diacytic stomata were present only on the abaxial face. The great number and size of the cystoliths observed could be related to defenses against herbivory and to mechanisms of removal of excess calcium absorbed from the soil.

  3. Anatomical characters of the medicinal leaf and stem of Gymnanthemum amygdalinum (Delile Sch.Bip. ex Walp. (Asteraceae

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    Márcia do Rocio Duarte

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Gymnanthemum amygdalinum (Delile Sch.Bip. ex Walp. (Asteraceae, better known by its former name Vernonia amygdalina Delile, is a small shrub used in folk medicine as an antipyretic, laxative, antimalarial and anthelmintic. Studies have demonstrated that different vegetal extracts possess antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiparasitic activities. Among the bioactive metabolites, there are sesquiterpene lactones, saponins, polyphenols and flavonoids. This study investigated the leaf and stem microscopic characters of G. amygdalinum, aiming to expand the knowledge on this medicinal species and indicate anatomical structures. Plant material was fixed and sectioned by freehand and using a microtome. The sections were either stained or underwent standard histochemical tests. Scanning electron microscopy was performed to investigate epidermal relief. The leaf is amphistomatic with anomocytic stomata. There are striate cuticle, glandular and non-glandular trichomes and dorsiventral mesophyll. In transverse section, the midrib and the petiole have a plano-convex shape. Both show several collateral vascular bundles and few crystals of calcium oxalate. In the stem, the epidermis persists and the phellogen has a peripheral origin. It presents typical endodermis and sclerenchymatic caps adjoining the phloem. The aspects that contribute to characterizing the species are stomata on both leaf surfaces, midrib and petiole features, the endodermis and sclerenchymatic caps in the stem, as well as the different types of trichome on both aerial organs.

  4. In vitro reconstruction and analysis of evolutionary variation of the tomato acylsucrose metabolic network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Pengxiang; Miller, Abigail M; Schilmiller, Anthony L; Liu, Xiaoxiao; Ofner, Itai; Jones, A Daniel; Zamir, Dani; Last, Robert L

    2016-01-12

    Plant glandular secreting trichomes are epidermal protuberances that produce structurally diverse specialized metabolites, including medically important compounds. Trichomes of many plants in the nightshade family (Solanaceae) produce O-acylsugars, and in cultivated and wild tomatoes these are mixtures of aliphatic esters of sucrose and glucose of varying structures and quantities documented to contribute to insect defense. We characterized the first two enzymes of acylsucrose biosynthesis in the cultivated tomato Solanum lycopersicum. These are type I/IV trichome-expressed BAHD acyltransferases encoded by Solyc12g006330--or S. lycopersicum acylsucrose acyltransferase 1 (Sl-ASAT1)--and Solyc04g012020 (Sl-ASAT2). These enzymes were used--in concert with two previously identified BAHD acyltransferases--to reconstruct the entire cultivated tomato acylsucrose biosynthetic pathway in vitro using sucrose and acyl-CoA substrates. Comparative genomics and biochemical analysis of ASAT enzymes were combined with in vitro mutagenesis to identify amino acids that influence CoA ester substrate specificity and contribute to differences in types of acylsucroses that accumulate in cultivated and wild tomato species. This work demonstrates the feasibility of the metabolic engineering of these insecticidal metabolites in plants and microbes. PMID:26715757

  5. Anatomical structure and surface micromorphology of tomatillo leaf and flower (Physalis ixocarpa Brot., Solanaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Dyki

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Tomatillo (Physalis ixocarpa Brot. is a newly introduced cultivated plant in Poland. Its anatomy was investigated in light and scanning electron microscopes. Tomatillo adult leaf had one layer of palisade parenchyma. The 1-2 cell layers of spongy parenchyma situated just below the palisade parenchyma showed large, tightly packed cells with great druses. The remaining spongy parenchyma was built of cells showing several extensions. Peculiarity of the sepals were the stomata situated on columns or hills formed of many cells. The petals had a very loose mesophyl. Their adaxial epidermis was composed of papillate cells. Such structure of the petal epidermis probably contributes to light dispersion and prevents glittering. There were several types of trichomes on the leaves, sepals and petals, some of them glandular and some simple. The large, very ramified, dendritic trichomes situated on the petals at the entry to the ovary might eventually protect it against excessive drying. The pollen grain was spherical, three-colpate. The style had a hollow channel inside. The stigma was of a wet, pa-pillate type. Sometimes thorny trichomes were found among papillae.

  6. The biology of flowering and structure of selected elements of Cornus alba L. flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Konarska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The biology of flowering and the micromorphology of Cornus alba flowers were studied using light and scanning electron microscopy. The flowering of white dogwood in 2008 lasted 35 days, and the lifespan of a single flower was 3 days. The number of flowers per inflorescence was variable (on the average, it was 89. The largest group of insects visiting the flowers of C. alba comprised Hymenoptera (mainly bees and andrenids, then ants, dipterans and beetles. They foraged the dogwood flowers most intensively between 11.00 and 15.00. The inconspicuous four-petalled flowers of C. alba were characterised by the occurrence of T-shaped, two-armed non-glandular trichomes covering the receptacle as well as observed on the petals of the corolla, the style of the pistil and the anthers in a smaller number. The trichomes were covered by a thick cuticle with characteristic outgrowths. They contained a living protoplast, and plastids were observed in the cytoplasm of the trichome cells. In addition, anomocytic stomata were found in the epidermis of the receptacle and in the epidermis of the corolla petals. The stigma of the pistil and the adaxial epidermis of the petals were composed of very numerous conical papillae.

  7. Acute sialadenitis in children and adolescents: CT findings and clinical manifestations according to glandular involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was designed to compare the CT findings and clinical manifestations in children and adolescents with acute sialadenitis according to the involved salivary glands. The study included fifty children and adolescents (34 boys, 16 girls) with acute sialadenitis that was diagnosed during the past five years. All of the subjects were divided into three groups: group I (parotid gland involvement, n = 16), group II (submandibular gland involvement, n = 20) and group III (involvement of both glands, n 14). We analyzed the presence of an abscess, sialolith, bilaterality, cellulitis and lymphadenopathy on CT scans. The analyzed clinical data were age, sex, lymphadenopathy, pain, swelling, presence of a mass, tonsillitis, treatment period and surgical treatment if it was performed. The presence of an abscess, sialolith, cellulitis, swelling, age, presence of a palpable mass and treatment period were statistically significant factors for the patients in the three groups. An abscess was combined only in group I patients. There was a high rate of sialolith in group II patients and cellulitis in group III patients as seen on CT scans. Swelling in group II patients and group III patients and the presence of a palpable mass in group I patients were identified as clinical manifestations. Age was younger in group I patients (mean age, 5.3 years) than in group II patients (mean age, 12.9 years) and group III patients (mean age, 15.2 years). The treatment period was longer for group I patients. For acute sialadenitis in children and adolescents, age, presence of an abscess, sialolith, cellulitis, swelling, presence of a palpable mass and treatment period were different according to the involved salivary glands

  8. The Glandular Stem/Progenitor Cell Niche in Airway Development and Repair

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xiaoming; Engelhardt, John F.

    2008-01-01

    Airway submucosal glands (SMGs) are major secretory structures that lie beneath the epithelium of the cartilaginous airway. These glands are believed to play important roles in normal lung function and airway innate immunity by secreting antibacterial factors, mucus, and fluid into the airway lumen. Recent studies have suggested that SMGs may additionally serve as a protective niche for adult epithelial stem/progenitor cells of the proximal airways. As in the case of other adult stem cell nic...

  9. Honey bee males and queens use glandular secretions to enhance sperm viability before and after storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Den Boer, Susanne Petronella A; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan; Baer, Boris

    2009-01-01

    we show that in the honeybee (Apis mellifera) secretions of the male accessory glands, the major contributors towards seminal fluid, enhance sperm survival. We further demonstrate that the protein fraction of the male accessory gland secretion is indeed important for achieving the maximal effect on...... sperm survival. After sperm storage, the queens also provide sperm with secretions from spermathecal glands and we show that these secretions have a comparable positive effect on sperm viability. SDS gels show that the proteomic profiles of accessory gland secretion and spermathecal fluid secretion...

  10. 21 CFR 201.300 - Notice to manufacturers, packers, and distributors of glandular preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... structure or any function of the body. (b) Manufacturers have heretofore taken advantage of § 201.100... function of the human body that they are intended to affect. Since any such representations offering...

  11. Leaf micromorphology of Aesculus hippocastanum L. and damage caused by leaf-mining larvae of Cameraria ohridella Deschka and Dimić

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study is a continuation of our research on the structure of healthy leaves of Aesculus hippocastanum and leaves damaged by larvae of Cameraria ohridella. In this study, the epidermal micromorphology of both leaf surfaces in A. hippocastanum was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Light microscopy was used to examine on which side of the leaf blades eggs of Cameraria ohridella were laid. The characteristic features of the adaxial and abaxial epidermis were shown. In the hypostomatic leaves of the studied species, the stomata occurred at a density of 173 × mm-2  and they represented the cyclocytic type. A striated layer of the cuticle was observed only in the adaxial epidermis in which glandular hairs were also present along the midribs. Non-glandular trichomes grew only on the surface of the midribs or in their axils in the abaxial epidermis. We found eggs of C. ohridella only on the adaxial surface of the epidermis. Using SEM, we also observed in the mines leaf tissues damaged by C. ohridella. We found palisade parenchyma to be absent, whereas in the spongy parenchyma there could be seen large intercellular spaces and at places a dense mass of organic matter, formed from damaged cells and larval excrement. The vascular bundles and calcium oxalate crystals remained in the feeding places. We found numerous bacteria, fungal spores and hyphae as well as cleistothecia of Erysiphales in the mines on the surface of the damaged mesophyll. The glandular trichomes occurring only locally on the leaves, the relatively thin cell walls of the epidermis and a not well-developed cuticle layer on their surface do not protect sufficiently these leaves against the invasion of C. ohridella. On the other hand, damaged tissue areas are a convenient place for the growth of bacteria and fungi.

  12. Anatomía foliar y caulinar en especies de Stemodia (Scrophulariaceae Foliar and caulinar anatomy in species of Stemodia (Scrophulariaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria De Las Mercedes Sosa

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Se describe la estructura anatómica foliar y caulinar en el género Stemodia. Son consideradas siete especies: S. ericifolia (Kuntze K. Schum., S. hyptoides Cham. & Schltdl., S. lanceolata Benth., S. lobelioides Lehm., S. palustris A. St.-Hil., S. stricta Cham. & Schltdl. y S. verticillata (Mill. Hassl. Se hallaron diferencias en la epidermis foliar, donde hay variación en el tipo de estomas y de tricomas, y en la forma de las papilas epidérmicas; también en la estructura del mesofilo. Se describen e ilustran cuatro tipos de tricomas considerando si son o no glandulares y el número de células que lo conforman. El estudio de la anatomía caulinar mostró diferencias en cuanto a la presencia de aerénquima cortical y de laguna medular, y el porcentaje de espacios en el aerénquima cortical.Comparative anatomical studies of the leaves and stems on the genus Stemodia are presented. Seven species are considered: S. ericifolia (Kuntze K. Schum., S. hyptoides Cham. & Schltdl., S. lanceolata Benth., S. lobelioides Lehm., S. palustris A. St.-Hil., S. stricta Cham. & Schltdl. and S. verticillata (Mill. Hassl. There are variation in the stomatal and trichome types, form of the papillae and mesophyll structure. Four trichome types are described and illustrated considering if they are glandular or non-glandular and the number of cells. The stems present a quite homogeneous anatomical structure. Some differences in the amount and distribution of the aerenchyma and the size of the intercellular spaces are observed.

  13. Leaf surface factors of transgenic Bt cotton associated with the feeding behaviors of cotton aphids: A case study on non-target effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Kun; DENG Su; WANG RongJiang; YAN FengMing; XU ChongRen

    2008-01-01

    The present paper reports case study results of the risk assessment of transgenic Bt cotton on a non-target pest, cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii. Several types of techniques, i.e., electrical penetration graph (EPG), light and electron microscopy, bioessays and chemical analysis, were applied to investigate physical and chemical leaf factors of 2 transgenic Bt cotton lines(GK12 and GK19) and their parental non-Bt cotton line (Simian3) associated with searching and feeding behaviors of cotton aphids on leaves or leaf extracts of cotton plants. EPG results showed that there were some differences among behaviors of cotton aphids on 2 Bt cotton and 1 non-Bt cotton lines. Cotton aphids performed similarly to leaf surface extracts from 3 cotton lines; and leaf surface chemicals, mainly volatiles and waxes,were almost identical in the components and concentrations among the cotton lines. However, three cotton lines were quite different from each other in the densities of certain kinds of covering trichomes.Therefore, the relationships between the physical characteristics and the searching behaviors of cotton aphids on the three cotton lines were constructed as the regression equations. Glandular trichomes and covering trichomes with 5 branches Influenced the cotton aphids' searching behaviors effectively;and other trichomes with other branches affected aphids in varying ways. These results demonstrated that leaf surface physical factors of transgenic Bt cotton lines different from their parental non-Bt line could affect the penetration behaviors of non-target cotton aphids. Cotton aphids penetrate and feed more easily on two Bt cotton lines than on the non-Bt cotton line.

  14. Leaf surface factors of transgenic Bt cotton associated with the feeding behaviors of cotton aphids:A case study on non-target effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The present paper reports case study results of the risk assessment of transgenic Bt cotton on a non-target pest, cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii. Several types of techniques, i.e., electrical penetration graph (EPG), light and electron microscopy, bioassays and chemical analysis, were applied to investigate physical and chemical leaf factors of 2 transgenic Bt cotton lines (GK12 and GK19) and their pa-rental non-Bt cotton line (Simian3) associated with searching and feeding behaviors of cotton aphids on leaves or leaf extracts of cotton plants. EPG results showed that there were some differences among behaviors of cotton aphids on 2 Bt cotton and 1 non-Bt cotton lines. Cotton aphids performed similarly to leaf surface extracts from 3 cotton lines; and leaf surface chemicals, mainly volatiles and waxes, were almost identical in the components and concentrations among the cotton lines. However, three cotton lines were quite different from each other in the densities of certain kinds of covering trichomes. Therefore, the relationships between the physical characteristics and the searching behaviors of cotton aphids on the three cotton lines were constructed as the regression equations. Glandular trichomes and covering trichomes with 5 branches influenced the cotton aphids’ searching behaviors effectively; and other trichomes with other branches affected aphids in varying ways. These results demonstrated that leaf surface physical factors of transgenic Bt cotton lines different from their parental non-Bt line could affect the penetration behaviors of non-target cotton aphids. Cotton aphids penetrate and feed more easily on two Bt cotton lines than on the non-Bt cotton line.

  15. Comparative structure of the osmophores in the flowers of Stanhopea graveolens Lindley and Cycnoches chlorochilon Klotzsch (Orchidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosława Chwil

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Tradescantia comprises about 70 species. In Poland Tradescantia x andersoniana is basically grown as an ornamental plant that is recommended for borders and to be planted around garden ponds. The present study investigated flowering as well as the micromorphological and anatomical features of some floral elements of Tradescantia x andersoniana W. Ludw. Rohweder 'Karin'. The macro- and micromorphology of the flowers was examined using stereoscopic, light, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Spiderwort produces flowers with a diameter of 4.6-5 cm, which open early in the morning and close at noon. Non-glandular and glandular hairs grow on the abaxial surface of the calyx and on the apical part of the ovary. The glandular hairs develop a several-celled stalk and a unicellular spherical or elongated head. The staminal filaments produce chain-shaped trichomes. Striate cuticular ornamentation is found on their surface and on the epidermis covering the perianth. The striae on the cells of the stamen hairs run to the two poles of the cell. The pistil develops a wet stigma with unfused unicellular papillae. The cuticle on their surface is smooth, whereas on the style near the stigma it forms dense folds.

  16. Resistência de genótipos de feijoeiro a Bemisia tabaci biótipo B Resistance of bean genotypes to Bemisia tabaci biotype B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Castro Torres

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O estudo de genótipos de feijoeiro resistentes à mosca-branca Bemisia tabaci (Genn. biótipo B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae é de grande importância devido aos danos ocasionados por essa praga à cultura. Neste trabalho, foram estudados a atratividade para adultos, a preferência para oviposição em testes com e sem chance de escolha, o ciclo ovo-adulto e o tipo e número de tricomas presentes nos folíolos. Os experimentos foram realizados em casa de vegetação avaliando-se, inicialmente, cem genótipos de feijoeiro. A resistência do tipo não-preferência para alimentação e/ou antibiose foi observada nos genótipos ARC-3, IAC-Alvorada e Canário 101, sendo a emergência de adultos fortemente influenciada pelos genótipos. Também se observou correlação negativa moderada entre o número de ovos e o número de tricomas glandulares, e correlação positiva muito forte entre o número de ovos e o número de tricomas tectores unciformes.The study of bean genotypes resistant to the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Genn. B biotype (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae has been of great importance due to the damage caused by this pest. In this research, bean genotypes were evaluated regarding attractiveness to whitefly adults, the preference for oviposition in free-choice and non choice tests, egg-to-adult development time and characterized for the presence, type and number of trichomes. The experiments were carried out under greenhouse conditions initially evaluating 100 bean genotypes. The non-preference type of resistance for feeding and/or antibiosis was observed in the genotypes ARC-3, IAC-Alvorada and Canário 101, and the emergence of adults was strongly influenced by the genotypes. It was also observed a moderate negative correlation between the number of eggs and the number of glandular trichomes, as well as a very strong positive correlation between the number of eggs and the number of unciform non-glandular trichomes.

  17. Avermectin B1, Isazofos, and Fenamiphos for Control of Hoplolaimus galeatus and Tylenchorhynchus dubius Infesting Poa annua

    OpenAIRE

    Blackburn, K.; Alm, S. R.; Yeh, T. S.

    1996-01-01

    Avermectin B₁, isazofos, and fenamiphos were evaluated in greenhouse experiments for efficacy against two common turfgrass parasites, Hoplolaimus galeatus and Tylenchorhynchus dubius. Treatments in all experiments were arranged in a completely randomized design and replicated four times. In the first experiment, avermectin B₁ at rates of 0.2 and 0.4 kg a.i./ha and isazofos at rates of 2.3 and 23 kg a.i./ha significantly reduced populations of both species of parasitic nematodes compared to co...

  18. Effects of sesquiterpene, flavonoid and coumarin types of compounds from Artemisia annua L. on production of mediators of angiogenesis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zhu, X. X.; Yang, L.; Li, Y. J.; Zhang, D.; Chen, Y.; Kostecká, Petra; Kmoníčková, Eva; Zídek, Zdeněk

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 2 (2013), s. 410-420. ISSN 1734-1140 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ME10116 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : sesquiterpenes * flavonoids * immunosuppression Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry Impact factor: 2.165, year: 2013

  19. In vitro trematocidal effects of crude alcoholic extracts of Artemisia annua, A. absinthium, Asimina triloba, and Fumaria officinalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trematode infections negatively affect human and livestock health, and threaten global food safety. The only approved human anthelmintics for trematodiasis are triclabendazole and praziquantel with no alternative drugs in sight. We tested six crude plant extracts against adult Schistosoma mansoni,...

  20. The alternative oxidase in roots of Poa annua after transfer from high-light to low-light conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Millenaar, F.F.; Roelofs, Roeland; Gonzàlez-Meler, Miquel A.; Siedow, James N.; Wagner, Anneke M.; Lambers, Hans

    2001-01-01

    The activity of the alternative pathway can be affected by a number of factors, including the amount and reduction state of the alternative oxidase protein, and the reduction state of the ubiquinone pool. To investigate the importance of these factors in vivo, we manipulated the rate of root respira