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Sample records for annua glandular trichome

  1. Global characterization of Artemisia annua glandular trichome transcriptome using 454 pyrosequencing

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Yejun; Zhang, Qing; Qi, Yan; Guo, Dianjing

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Glandular trichomes produce a wide variety of commercially important secondary metabolites in many plant species. The most prominent anti-malarial drug artemisinin, a sesquiterpene lactone, is produced in glandular trichomes of Artemisia annua. However, only limited genomic information is currently available in this non-model plant species. Results We present a global characterization of A. annua glandular trichome transcriptome using 454 pyrosequencing. Sequencing runs us...

  2. Localization of enzymes of artemisinin biosynthesis to the apical cells of glandular secretory trichomes of Artemisia annua L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Mikael E; Olofsson, Linda M; Lindahl, Ann-Louise; Lundgren, Anneli; Brodelius, Maria; Brodelius, Peter E

    2009-06-01

    A method based on the laser microdissection pressure catapulting technique has been developed for isolation of whole intact cells. Using a modified tissue preparation method, one outer pair of apical cells and two pairs of sub-apical, chloroplast-containing cells, were isolated from glandular secretory trichomes of Artemisia annua. A. annua is the source of the widely used antimalarial drug artemisinin. The biosynthesis of artemisinin has been proposed to be located to the glandular trichomes. The first committed steps in the conversion of FPP to artemisinin are conducted by amorpha-4,11-diene synthase, amorpha-4,11-diene hydroxylase, a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (CYP71AV1) and artemisinic aldehyde Delta11(13) reductase. The expression of the three biosynthetic enzymes in the different cell types has been studied. In addition, the expression of farnesyldiphosphate synthase producing the precursor of artemisinin has been investigated. Our experiments showed expression of farnesyldiphosphate synthase in apical and sub-apical cells as well as in mesophyl cells while the three enzymes involved in artemisinin biosynthesis were expressed only in the apical cells. Elongation factor 1alpha was used as control and it was expressed in all cell types. We conclude that artemisinin biosynthesis is taking place in the two outer apical cells while the two pairs of chloroplast-containing cells have other functions in the overall metabolism of glandular trichomes.

  3. Plant Glandular Trichomes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    extraction of artemisinin from this herb poses problems. Maceration (i.e. grinding up) of tissues alters the originality of the compound due to the activation of oxidizing enzymes. Therefore, efforts are under progress to separate artemisinin from the glandular trichomes without maceration of whole tissues. Glandular Trichomes ...

  4. Plant Glandular Trichomes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    chana dal), groundnut, pigeonpea (toor dal) sorghum and pearl millet, and cropping systems in the semi-arid tropics. Research on the role of glandular trichomes of chickpea and pigeonpea in insect resistance is currently in progress at. ICRISAT ...

  5. Plant Glandular Trichomes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 3. Plant Glandular Trichomes Chemical ... Peter1 Thomas G Shanower2. Scientist, Nagarjuna Agricultural Research and Development Institute 28, P & T colony Secunderabad 500 009, India; Senior Scientist at ICRISAT Asia Center, Hyderabad.

  6. Structure and histochemistry of the glandular trichomes on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The structure and histochemistry of the glandular trichomes on the surface of Isodon rubescens leaves were investigated. The main components in the secretion were identified. Morphological and histochemical study revealed one type of non-glandular and two types of glandular trichomes on the leaves of I. rubescens.

  7. Glandular Trichomes and Essential Oil of Thymus quinquecostatus

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    Ping Jia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution and types of glandular trichomes and essential oil chemistry of Thymus quinquecostatus were studied. The glandular trichomes are distributed on the surface of stem, leaf, rachis, calyx and corolla, except petiole, pistil and stamen. Three morphologically distinct types of glandular trichomes are described. Peltate trichomes, consisting of a basal cell, a stalk cell and a 12-celled head, are distributed on the stem, leaf, corolla and outer side of calyx. Capitate trichomes, consisting of a unicellular base, a 1–2-celled stalk and a unicellular head, are distributed more diffusely than peltate ones, existing on stem, leaf, rachis and calyx. Digitiform trichomes are just distributed on the outer side of corolla, consisting of 1 basal cell, 3 stalk cells and 1 head cell. All three types of glandular trichomes can secrete essential oil, and in small capitate trichomes of rachis, all peltate trichomes and digitiform trichomes, essential oil is stored in a large subcuticular space, released by cuticle rupture, whereas, in other capitate trichomes, essential oil crosses the thin cuticle. The essential oil of T. quinquecostatus is yellow, and its content is highest in the growth period. 68 constituents were identified in the essential oils. The main constituent is linalool.

  8. Impact of Exogenous Elicitors on Artemisinin Production and Trichome Density in Artemisia annua L. under Subtropical Conditions

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    Alka Jagdish DANGASH

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Artemisinin is a sesquiterpene lactone found in Artemisia annua having many medicinal properties. Therefore the factors affecting trichome initiation are important. In the present study, several strategies have been adapted to increase artemisinin production by treating them with nutrients, hormones and elicitors. Abscisic acid, Gibberellic acid (GA3, a combination of GA3+IAA (Gibberellic acid+indole acetic acid, Chitosan, Methyl jasmonate, Acetyl salicylic acid, Lead acetate, sodium chloride, and Nanozime were sprayed on plant at regular intervals. The glandular trichomes of leaves from Artemisia annua (Asteraceae were examined by light and scanning electron microscopy and the percentage artemisnin content was analyzed by HPTLC. Maximum artemisinin content % and trichome index (0.128 was found when methy jasmonate was applied and minimum artemisinin content % and trichome index was reported in NaCl & acetyl salicylic acid.

  9. Morphological differentiation of non-glandular and glandular trichomes on Marrubium vulgare L.

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    Marta Dmitruk

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Marrubium vulgare L., commonly known as a white horehound or common horehound, belongs to the plant family Lamiaceae. It is a perennial aromatic herb which grows naturally in Europe, Asia, and America. Since ancient Egypt, this species has been known as a remedy for upper respiratory tract ailments. Nowadays, horehound is used in herbal medicine for treatment of liver diseases, biliary tract disorders, and for increasing the appetite and supporting the function of the stomach. The main biologically active substances in M. vulgare organs are: marrubiin, tannins, essential oils, and ursolic acid. The paper presents micromorphological analyses of non-glandular and glandular trichomes of M. vulgare. The research material was sampled from the plant collection in the Botanical Garden of the Maria Curie-Sklodowska University in Lublin (51°14′ N, 22°34′ E. The above-ground parts of horehound were collected during the flowering period in July 2013. Using light microscopy (LM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, the types and sizes of trichomes from the stem, leaf, calyx, and corolla were investigated. The results of the microscopic observations show that the surfaces of M. vulgare vegetative and reproductive organs are densely clothed with glandular and non-glandular trichomes. The glandular trichomes are of two main types: peltate and capitate. Peltate trichomes consist of a short stalk cell and a large head with secretory cells arranged in a circle. The height of a mature trichome is about 31.33 μm and the diameter of the head is 31.47 μm. The substance produced by secretory cells passes through the apical walls and accumulates within a space between the cuticle and the cell wall layer. Capitate long trichomes with a basal cell, long stalk, neck cell, and a unicellular head are 36.65 μm long and the diameter of the head is about 15.6 μm. There are two types of short capitate trichomes: with a bicellular head and a unicellular stalk and with

  10. Impact of Exogenous Elicitors on Artemisinin Production and Trichome Density in Artemisia annua L. under Subtropical Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alka Jagdish DANGASH

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Artemisinin is a sesquiterpene lactone found in Artemisia annua having many medicinal properties. Therefore the factors affecting trichome initiation are important. In the present study, several strategies have been adapted to increase artemisinin production by treating them with nutrients, hormones and elicitors. Abscisic acid, Gibberellic acid (GA3, a combination of GA3+IAA (Gibberellic acid+indole acetic acid, Chitosan, Methyl jasmonate, Acetyl salicylic acid, Lead acetate, sodium chloride, and Nanozime were sprayed on plant at regular intervals. The glandular trichomes of leaves from Artemisia annua (Asteraceae were examined by light and scanning electron microscopy and the percentage artemisnin content was analyzed by HPTLC. Maximum artemisinin content % and trichome index (0.128 was found when methy jasmonate was applied and minimum artemisinin content % and trichome index was reported in NaCl & acetyl salicylic acid.

  11. Structure and distribution of glandular and non-glandular trichomes on above-ground organs in Inula helenium L. (Asteraceae

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    Aneta Sulborska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Micromorphology and distribution of glandular and non-glandular trichomes on the above-ground organs of Inula helenium L. were investigated using light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Two types of biseriate glandular trichomes, i.e. sessile and stalk hairs, and non-glandular trichomes were recorded. Sessile glandular trichomes were found on all examined I. helenium organs (with their highest density on the abaxial surface of leaves and disk florets, and on stems, whereas stalk glandular trichomes were found on leaves and stems. Sessile trichomes were characterised by a slightly lower height (58–103 μm and width (32–35 μm than the stalk trichomes (62–111 μm x 31–36 μm. Glandular hairs were composed of 5–7 (sessile trichomes or 6–9 (stalk trichomes cell tiers. Apical trichome cell tiers exhibited features of secretory cells. Secretion was accumulated in subcuticular space, which expanded and ruptured at the top, and released its content. Histochemical assays showed the presence of lipids and polyphenols, whereas no starch was detected. Non-glandular trichomes were seen on involucral bracts, leaves and stems (more frequently on involucral bracts. Their structure comprised 2–9 cells; basal cells (1–6 were smaller and linearly arranged, while apical cells had a prozenchymatous shape. The apical cell was the longest and sharply pointed. Applied histochemical tests revealed orange-red (presence of lipids and brow colour (presence of polyphenols in the apical cells of the trichomes. This may suggest that beside their protective role, the trichomes may participate in secretion of secondary metabolites.

  12. Trichome isolation with and without fixation using laser microdissection and pressure catapulting followed by RNA amplification: expression of genes of terpene metabolism in apical and sub-apical trichome cells of Artemisia annua L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olofsson, Linda; Lundgren, Anneli; Brodelius, Peter E

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this project was to evaluate the effect of fixation on plant material prior to Laser Microdissection and Pressure Catapulting (LMPC) and to identify an appropriate method for preserving good RNA quality after cell isolation. Therefore, flower buds from Artemisia annua L. were exposed to either the fixative formaldehyde or a non-fixative buffer prior to cell isolation by LMPC. Proteinase K was used after cell isolation from fixed plant tissue, in an attempt to improve the RNA yield. The ability to detect gene expression using real-time quantitative PCR with or without previous amplification of RNA from cells isolated by LMPC was also evaluated. Conclusively, we describe a new technique, without fixation, enabling complete isolation of intact glandular secretory trichomes and specific single trichome cells of A. annua. This method is based on LMPC and preserves good RNA quality for subsequent RNA expression studies of both whole trichomes, apical and sub-apical cells from trichomes of A. annua. Using this method, expression of genes of terpene metabolism was studied by real-time quantitative PCR. Expression of genes involved in artemisinin biosynthesis was observed in both apical and sub-apical cells. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. AaMYB1 and its orthologue AtMYB61 affect terpene metabolism and trichome development in Artemisia annua and Arabidopsis thaliana.

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    Matías-Hernández, Luis; Jiang, Weimin; Yang, Ke; Tang, Kexuan; Brodelius, Peter E; Pelaz, Soraya

    2017-05-01

    The effective anti-malarial drug artemisinin (AN) isolated from Artemisia annua is relatively expensive due to the low AN content in the plant as AN is only synthesized within the glandular trichomes. Therefore, genetic engineering of A. annua is one of the most promising approaches for improving the yield of AN. In this work, the AaMYB1 transcription factor has been identified and characterized. When AaMYB1 is overexpressed in A. annua, either exclusively in trichomes or in the whole plant, essential AN biosynthetic genes are also overexpressed and consequently the amount of AN is significantly increased. Artemisia AaMYB1 constitutively overexpressing plants displayed a greater number of trichomes. In order to study the role of AaMYB1 on trichome development and other possibly connected biological processes, AaMYB1 was overexpressed in Arabidopsis thaliana. To support our findings in Arabidopsis thaliana, an AaMYB1 orthologue from this model plant, AtMYB61, was identified and atmyb61 mutants characterized. Both AaMYB1 and AtMYB61 affected trichome initiation, root development and stomatal aperture in A. thaliana. Molecular analyses indicated that two crucial trichome activator genes are misexpressed in atmyb61 mutant plants and in plants overexpressing AaMYB1. Furthermore, AaMYB1 and AtMYB61 are also essential for gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis and degradation in both species by positively affecting the expression of the enzymes that convert GA 9 into the bioactive GA 4 as well as the enzymes involved in the degradation of GA 4 . Overall, these results identify AaMYB1/AtMYB61 as a key component of the molecular network that connects important biosynthetic processes, and reveal its potential value for AN production through genetic engineering. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Morphology and histochemistry of glandular trichomes of Orobanche alba Stephan ex Willd

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    Aneta Sulborska

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Orobanche alba Stephan ex Willd is an achlorophyllous root parasite rare in Poland. It prefers dry and sunny slopes, xerothermic grasslands and pastures, mountain pastures, light scrubs, and rock fissures and ledges. The hosts of O. alba include Thymus polytrichus A. ern. ex Borbás, Clinopodium vulgare L. and Origanum vulgare L. The tick and fleshy 10-70 cm high stem in this species bears an inflorescence composed of zygomorphic, white or yellow “spotted” flowers covered by purple glandular trichomes. Glandular trichomes of this type are also borne on other parts of the plant, i.e. on the stem, scaly leaves, sepals, filaments, and the style. The secondary metabolites secreted by the glandular trichomes are related to defense of plants against the attack of herbivores and pathogens or act as attractants to pollinators or for fruit dispersal. The micromorphology and histochemistry of the glandular trichomes in O. alba were examined using scanning electron and light microscopes. In order to determine the type of secondary metabolites produced by the trichomes, the flowing histochemical assays were used: Sudan III and neutral red for detection of lipophilic compounds, IKI for detection of starch, and FeCl3 for detection of phenolic compounds. The peltate glandular trichomes of O. alba were characterised by a varied length (0.15‑0.48 mm and different activity phases. The trichome was composed of one larger basal epidermal cell, 1-3 hyaline stalk cells with a striated cuticle, a neck cell with a smooth cuticle on the surface, and a globose head formed of 8-18 secretory cells arranged in a circle. Many stalk cells of the trichomes, particularly those located on the corolla, contained anthocyanins, which give the trichomes dark carmine colour. In turn, the colour of the heads was dependent on trichome age: the heads were brown in older trichomes and yellow in younger hairs. Secretion was produced by both young and older trichomes. It penetrated

  15. Influence of Environment on Glandular Trichomes and Composition of Essential Oil of Perovskia abrotanoides Karel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oreizi, Elaheh; Rahiminejad, Mohammad Reza; Asghari, Gholamreza

    2014-11-01

    Perovskia abrotanoides Karel. is a medicinal plant used in Iranian folk medicine as a pain killer. Forty-one components have been identified in P. abrotanoides samples collected from Baluchistan Province, and 29 components have been recognized in samples collected from Khorasan Province. The leaves of P. abrotanoides have glandular trichomes (capitates and peltate) on both sides of the lamina. This study aimed to evaluate the variation of oil constituents of the plant and illustrate the glandular trichomes types and then show the influence of environment on oil constituents and glandular trichomes. The essential oil of the plant was obtained using hydrodistillation and the analysis of oils carried out using GC-MS. The anatomical analysis of leaves was done by fixing, coloring, and photoing the sections. Glandular trichomes composed of capitates and peltate trichomes. The essential oil composition differs. Viridiflora and neryl acetate were not identified in yellow glandular trichomes. It seems that there is no relation between anatomical characteristics of the plant leaves and its essential oil composition.

  16. Plant Glandular Trichomes as Targets for Breeding or Engineering of Resistance to Herbivores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glas, Joris J.; Schimmel, Bernardus C. J.; Alba, Juan M.; Escobar-Bravo, Rocío; Schuurink, Robert C.; Kant, Merijn R.

    2012-01-01

    Glandular trichomes are specialized hairs found on the surface of about 30% of all vascular plants and are responsible for a significant portion of a plant’s secondary chemistry. Glandular trichomes are an important source of essential oils, i.e., natural fragrances or products that can be used by the pharmaceutical industry, although many of these substances have evolved to provide the plant with protection against herbivores and pathogens. The storage compartment of glandular trichomes usually is located on the tip of the hair and is part of the glandular cell, or cells, which are metabolically active. Trichomes and their exudates can be harvested relatively easily, and this has permitted a detailed study of their metabolites, as well as the genes and proteins responsible for them. This knowledge now assists classical breeding programs, as well as targeted genetic engineering, aimed to optimize trichome density and physiology to facilitate customization of essential oil production or to tune biocide activity to enhance crop protection. We will provide an overview of the metabolic diversity found within plant glandular trichomes, with the emphasis on those of the Solanaceae, and of the tools available to manipulate their activities for enhancing the plant’s resistance to pests. PMID:23235331

  17. Higher glandular trichome density in tomato leaflets and repellence to spider mites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maluf, Wilson Roberto; Inoue, Irene Fumi; Ferreira, Raphael de Paula Duarte; Gomes, Luiz Antonio Augusto [Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Agricultura]. E-mail: wrmaluf@ufla.br; fuminoue@yahoo.com.br; raphaelufla@yahoo.com.br; laagomes@ufla.br; Castro, Evaristo Mauro de [Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia]. E-mail: emcastro@ufla.br; Cardoso, Maria das Gracas [Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: mcardoso@ufla.br

    2007-09-15

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the feasibility of selection for higher glandular trichome densities, as an indirect criterion of selection for increasing repellence to spider mites Tetranychus urticae, in tomato populations derived from an interspecific cross between Lycopersicon esculentum x L. hirsutum var. glabratum PI 134417. Trichome densities were evaluated in 19 genotypes, including 12 from advanced backcross populations, derived from the original cross L. esculentum x L. hirsutum var. glabratum PI 134417. Counts were made both on the adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces, and trichomes were classified into glandular types IV and VI, other glandular types (types I+VII), and nonglandular types. Mite repellence was measured by distances walked by mites onto the tomato leaf surface after 20, 40 and 60 min. Spider mite repellence biotests indicated that higher densities of glandular trichomes (especially type VI) decreased the distances walked by the mites onto the tomato leaf surface. Selection of plants with higher densities of glandular trichomes can be an efficient criterion to obtain tomato genotypes with higher resistance (repellence) to spider mites. (author)

  18. Expression of β-glucosidase increases trichome density and artemisinin content in transgenic Artemisia annua plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nameirakpam Dolendro; Kumar, Shashi; Daniell, Henry

    2016-03-01

    Artemisinin is highly effective against multidrug-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum, the aetiological agent of the most severe form of malaria. However, a low level of accumulation of artemisinin in Artemisia annua is a major limitation for its production and delivery to malaria endemic areas of the world. While several strategies to enhance artemisinin have been extensively explored, enhancing storage capacity in trichome has not yet been considered. Therefore, trichome density was increased with the expression of β-glucosidase (bgl1) gene in A. annua through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Transgene (bgl1) integration and transcript were confirmed by molecular analysis. Trichome density increased up to 20% in leaves and 66% in flowers of BGL1 transgenic plants than Artemisia control plants. High-performance liquid chromatography, time of flight mass spectrometer data showed that artemisinin content increased up to 1.4% in leaf and 2.56% in flowers (per g DW), similar to the highest yields achieved so far through metabolic engineering. Artemisinin was enhanced up to five-fold in BGL1 transgenic flowers. This study opens the possibility of increasing artemisinin content by manipulating trichomes' density, which is a major reservoir of artemisinin. Combining biosynthetic pathway engineering with enhancing trichome density may further increase artemisinin yield in A. annua. Because oral feeding of Artemisia plant cells reduced parasitemia more efficiently than the purified drug, reduced drug resistance and cost of prohibitively expensive purification process, enhanced expression should play a key role in making this valuable drug affordable to treat malaria in a large global population that disproportionally impacts low-socioeconomic areas and underprivileged children. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Expression of Beta-glucosidase increases trichome density and artemisinin content in transgenic Artemisia annua plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nameirakpam Dolendro; Kumar, Shashi; Daniell, Henry

    2015-01-01

    Artemisinin is highly effective against multidrug-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum, the etiological agent of the most severe form of malaria. However, a low level of accumulation of artemisinin in Artemisia annua is a major limitation for its production and delivery to malaria endemic areas of the world. While several strategies to enhance artemisinin have been extensively explored, enhancing storage capacity in trichome has not yet been considered. Therefore, trichome density was increased with the expression of β glucosidase (bgl1) gene in A. annua through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Transgene (bgl1) integration and transcript was confirmed by molecular analysis. Trichome density increased up to 20% in leaves and 66% in flowers of BGL1 transgenic plants than Artemisia control plants. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, MS-TOF) data showed that artemisinin content increased up to 1.4% in leaf and 2.56% in flowers (g-1DW), similar to the highest yields achieved so far through metabolic engineering. Artemisinin was enhanced up to 5-fold in BGL1 transgenic flowers. The present study opens the possibility of increasing artemisinin content by manipulating trichomes density, which is a major reservoir of artemisinin. Combining biosynthetic pathway engineering with enhancing trichome density may further increase artemisinin yield in A. annua. Because oral feeding of Artemisia plant cells reduced parasitemia more efficiently than the purified drug, reduced drug resistance and cost of prohibitively expensive purification process, enhanced expression should play a key role in making this valuable drug affordable to treat malaria in a large global population that disproportionally impacts low-socioeconomic areas and underprivileged children. PMID:26360801

  20. Cadmium induced changes in subcellular glutathione contents within glandular trichomes of Cucurbita pepo L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Dagmar; Müller, Maria; Zellnig, Günther; Zechmann, Bernd

    2010-07-01

    Plants cope with cadmium (Cd) stress by complexation with phytochelatins (Pc), metallothioneins and glutathione and sequestration within vacuoles. Especially glutathione was found to play a major role in Cd detoxification as Cd shows a high binding affinity towards thiols and as glutathione is a precursor for Pc synthesis. In the present study, we have used an immunohistochemical approach combined with computer-supported transmission electron microscopy in order to measure changes in the subcellular distribution of glutathione during Cd-stress in mesophyll cells and cells of different glandular trichomes (long and short stalked) of Cucurbita pepo L. subsp. pepo var. styriaca GREB: . Even though no ultrastructural alterations were observed in leaf and glandular trichome cells after the treatment of plants with 50 microM cadmium chloride (CdCl(2)) for 48 h, all cells showed a large decrease in glutathione contents. The strongest decrease was found in nuclei and the cytosol (up to 76%) in glandular trichomes which are considered as a major side of Cd accumulation in leaves. The ratio of glutathione between the cytosol and nuclei and the other cell compartments was strongly decreased only in glandular trichomes (more than 50%) indicating that glutathione in these two cell compartments is especially important for the detoxification of Cd in glandular trichomes. Additionally, these data indicate that large amounts of Cd are withdrawn from nuclei during Cd exposure. The present study gives a detailed insight into the compartment-specific importance of glutathione during Cd exposure in mesophyll cells and glandular trichomes of C. pepo L. plants.

  1. Phenylpropanoid biosynthesis in leaves and glandular trichomes of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschamps, Cícero; Simon, James E

    2010-01-01

    Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) essential oil phenylpropenes are synthesized and accumulate in peltate glandular trichomes and their content and composition depend on plant developmental stage. Studies on gene expression and enzymatic activity indicate that the phenylpropene biosynthetic genes are developmentally regulated. In this study, the methylchavicol accumulation in basil leaves and the enzyme activities and gene expression of both chavicol O-methyltransferase (CVOMT) and eugenol O-methyltransferase (EOMT) were investigated in all leaves at four plant developmental stages. Methylchavicol accumulation decreased over time as leaves matured. There was a significant correlation between methylchavicol accumulation and CVOMT (r(2) = 0.88) enzyme activity, suggesting that the levels of biosynthetic enzymes control the essential oil content. CVOMT and EOMT transcript expression levels, which decreased with leaf age, followed the same pattern in both whole leaves and isolated glandular trichomes, providing evidence that CVOMT transcript levels are developmentally regulated in basil glandular trichomes themselves and that differences in CVOMT expression observed in whole leaves are not solely the result of differences in glandular trichome density.

  2. Biochemical and histochemical localization of monoterpene biosynthesis in the glandular trichomes of spearmint (Mentha spicata)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gershenzon, J.; Maffei, M.; Croteau, R. (Washington State Univ., Pullman (USA))

    1989-04-01

    The primary monoterpene accumulated in the glandular trichomes of spearmint (Mentha spicata) is the ketone (-)-carvone which is formed by cyclization of the C{sub 10} isoprenoid intermediate geranyl pyrophosphate to the olefin (-)-limonene, hydroxylation to (-)-trans-carveol and subsequent dehydrogenation. Selective extraction of the contents of the glandular trichomes indicated that essentially all of the cyclase and hydroxylase activities resided in these structures, whereas only about 30% of the carveol dehydrogenase was located here with the remainder located in the rest of the leaf. This distribution of carveol dehydrogenase activity was confirmed by histochemical methods. Electrophoretic analysis of the partially purified carveol dehydrogenase from extracts of both the glands and the leaves following gland removal indicated the presence of a unique carveol dehydrogenase species in the glandular trichomes, suggesting that the other dehydrogenase found throughout the leaf probably utilizes carveol only as an adventitious substrate. These results demonstrate that carvone biosynthesis takes place exclusively in the glandular trichomes in which this natural product accumulates.

  3. Biochemical and Histochemical Localization of Monoterpene Biosynthesis in the Glandular Trichomes of Spearmint (Mentha spicata) 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershenzon, Jonathan; Maffei, Massimo; Croteau, Rodney

    1989-01-01

    The primary monoterpene accumulated in the glandular trichomes of spearmint (Mentha spicata) is the ketone (−)-carvone which is formed by cyclization of the C10 isoprenoid intermediate geranyl pyrophosphate to the olefin (−)-limonene, hydroxylation to (−)-trans-carveol and subsequent dehydrogenation. Selective extraction of the contents of the glandular trichomes indicated that essentially all of the cyclase and hydroxylase activities resided in these structures, whereas only about 30% of the carveol dehydrogenase was located here with the remainder located in the rest of the leaf. This distribution of carveol dehydrogenase activity was confirmed by histochemical methods. Electrophoretic analysis of the partially purified carveol dehydrogenase from extracts of both the glands and the leaves following gland removal indicated the presence of a unique carveol dehydrogenase species in the glandular trichomes, suggesting that the other dehydrogenase found throughout the leaf probably utilizes carveol only as an adventitious substrate. These results demonstrate that carvone biosynthesis takes place exclusively in the glandular trichomes in which this natural product accumulates. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:16666709

  4. Glandular trichomes and essential oil composition of Thymus pannonicus All. (Lamiaceae

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    Irina BOZ

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Glandular trichomes of Lamiaceae are among the most investigated secretory structures. Micromorphological and anatomical analyses of the glandular trichomes of Th. pannonicus L. were carried out using SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy. Our research results show that, the secretory structures are always multicellular, consisting in a basal cell, a unicellular pedicel and a gland which bears 1, 2, 8 or 12 cells. Aerial parts of Th. pannonicus L. were subjected to hydrodistillation to yield volatile oil which were subsequently analysed by GC/MS (gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The main compounds identified in Th. pannonicus L. volatil oil were a-terpinyl acetate (48.83%, germacrene D (12.12%, cariophyllene oxide (6.35% and mircene (4.73%.

  5. Genetic Architecture of Capitate Glandular Trichome Density in Florets of Domesticated Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qing-Ming; Kane, Nolan C; Hulke, Brent S; Reinert, Stephan; Pogoda, Cloe S; Tittes, Silas; Prasifka, Jarrad R

    2017-01-01

    Capitate glandular trichomes (CGT), one type of glandular trichomes, are most common in Asteraceae species. CGT can produce various secondary metabolites such as sesquiterpene lactones (STLs) and provide durable resistance to insect pests. In sunflower, CGT-based host resistance is effective to combat the specialist pest, sunflower moth. However, the genetic basis of CGT density is not well understood in sunflower. In this study, we identified two major QTL controlling CGT density in sunflower florets by using a F 4 mapping population derived from the cross HA 300 × RHA 464 with a genetic linkage map constructed from genotyping-by-sequencing data and composed of 2121 SNP markers. One major QTL is located on chromosome 5, which explained 11.61% of the observed phenotypic variation, and the second QTL is located on chromosome 6, which explained 14.06% of the observed phenotypic variation. The QTL effects and the association between CGT density and QTL support interval were confirmed in a validation population which included 39 sunflower inbred lines with diverse genetic backgrounds. We also identified two strong candidate genes in the QTL support intervals, and the functions of their orthologs in other plant species suggested their potential roles in regulating capitate glandular trichome density in sunflower. Our results provide valuable information to sunflower breeding community for developing host resistance to sunflower insect pests.

  6. Identification, functional characterization and developmental regulation of sesquiterpene synthases from sunflower capitate glandular trichomes

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    Ro Dae-Kyun

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sesquiterpene lactones are characteristic metabolites of Asteraceae (or Compositae which often display potent bioactivities and are sequestered in specialized organs such as laticifers, resin ducts, and trichomes. For characterization of sunflower sesquiterpene synthases we employed a simple method to isolate pure trichomes from anther appendages which facilitated the identification of these genes and investigation of their enzymatic functions and expression patterns during trichome development. Results Glandular trichomes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. were isolated, and their RNA was extracted to investigate the initial steps of sesquiterpene lactone biosynthesis. Reverse transcription-PCR experiments led to the identification of three sesquiterpene synthases. By combination of in vitro and in vivo characterization of sesquiterpene synthase gene products in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, respectively, two enzymes were identified as germacrene A synthases, the key enzymes of sesquiterpene lactone biosynthesis. Due to the very low in vitro activity, the third enzyme was expressed in vivo in yeast as a thioredoxin-fusion protein for functional characterization. In in vivo assays, it was identified as a multiproduct enzyme with the volatile sesquiterpene hydrocarbon δ-cadinene as one of the two main products with α-muuorlene, β-caryophyllene, α-humulene and α-copaene as minor products. The second main compound remained unidentified. For expression studies, glandular trichomes from the anther appendages of sunflower florets were isolated in particular developmental stages from the pre- to the post-secretory phase. All three sesquiterpene synthases were solely upregulated during the biosynthetically active stages of the trichomes. Expression in different aerial plant parts coincided with occurrence and maturity of trichomes. Young roots with root hairs showed expression of the sesquiterpene synthase genes

  7. Trichome-specific expression of the amorpha-4,11-diene 12-hydroxylase (cyp71av1) gene, encoding a key enzyme of artemisinin biosynthesis in Artemisia annua, as reported by a promoter-GUS fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongzhen; Han, Junli; Kanagarajan, Selvaraju; Lundgren, Anneli; Brodelius, Peter E

    2013-01-01

    Artemisinin derivatives are effective anti-malarial drugs. In order to design transgenic plants of Artemisia annua with enhanced biosynthesis of artemisinin, we are studying the promoters of genes encoding enzymes involved in artemisinin biosynthesis. A 1,151 bp promoter region of the cyp71av1 gene, encoding amorpha-4,11-diene 12-hydroxylase, was cloned. Alignment of the cloned promoter and other cyp71av1 promoter sequences indicated that the cyp71av1 promoter may be different in different A. annua varieties. Comparison to the promoter of amorpha-4,11-diene synthase gene showed a number of putative cis-acting regulatory elements in common, suggesting a co-regulation of the two genes. The cyp71av1 promoter sequence was fused to the β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene and two varieties of A. annua and Nicotiana tabacum were transformed. In A. annua, GUS expression was exclusively localized to glandular secretory trichomes (GSTs) of leaf primordia and top expanded leaves. In older leaves, there is a shift of expression to T-shaped trichomes (TSTs). Only TSTs showed GUS staining in lower leaves and there is no GUS staining in old leaves. GUS expression in flower buds was specifically localized to GSTs. The recombinant promoter carries the cis-acting regulatory elements required for GST-specific expression. The cyp71av1 promoter shows activity in young tissues. The recombinant promoter was up to 200 times more active than the wild type promoter. GUS expression in transgenic N. tabacum was localized to glandular heads. Transcript levels were up-regulated by MeJA. Wound responsiveness experiment showed that the cyp71av1 promoter does not appear to play any role in the response of A. annua to mechanical stress.

  8. Identifying three ecological chemotypes of Xanthium strumarium glandular trichomes using a combined NMR and LC-MS method.

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    Fangfang Chen

    Full Text Available Xanthanolides, as the sesquiterpene lactones, are reportedly the major components for the pharmacological properties of X. strumarium L. species. Phytochemical studies indicated that the glandular structures on the surface of plant tissues would form the primary sites for the accumulation of this class of the compounds. As the interface between plants and their natural enemies, glandular trichomes may vary with respect to which of their chemicals are sequestered against different herbivores in different ecologies. However, to date, no data are available on the chemical characterisation of X. strumarium glandular cells. In this study, the trichome secretions of the X. strumarium species originating from nineteen unique areas across eleven provinces in China, were analysed by HPLC, LC-ESI-MS and NMR. For the first time three distinct chemotypes of X. strumarium glandular trichomes were discovered along with the qualitative and quantitative evaluations of their presence of xanthanolides; these were designated glandular cell Types I, II, and III, respectively. The main xanthanolides in Type I cells were 8-epi-xanthatin and xanthumin while no xanthatin was detected. Xanthatin, 8-epi-xanthatin, and xanthumin dominated in Type II cells with comparable levels of each being present. For Type III cells, significantly higher concentrations of 8-epi-xanthatin or xanthinosin (relative to xanthatin were detected with xanthinosin only being observed in this type. Further research will focus on understanding the ecological and molecular mechanism causing these chemotype differences in X. strumarium glandular structures.

  9. Trichome dynamics and artemisinin accumulation during development and senescence of Artemisia annua leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lommen, W.J.M.; Schenk, E.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Verstappen, F.W.A.

    2006-01-01

    Artemisinin is a sesquiterpene lactone endoperoxide and an important antimalarial drug produced in Artemisia annua. To unravel the diverse processes determining artemisinin yield in A. annua crops, artemisinin accumulation during the development of individual leaves was studied in two field

  10. Glandular trichomes in Connarus suberosus (Connaraceae: distribution, structural organization and probable functions

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    João Donizete Denardi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Connarus suberosus is a typical species of the Brazilian Cerrado biome, and its inflorescences and young vegetative branches are densely covered by dendritic trichomes. The objective of this study was to report the occurrence of a previously undescribed glandular trichome of this species. The localization, origin and structure of these trichomes were investigated under light, transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Collections were made throughout the year, from five adult specimens of Connarus suberosus near Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil, including vegetative and reproductive apices, leaves and fruits in different developmental stages, as well as floral buds and flowers at anthesis. Glandular trichomes (GTs occurred on vegetative and reproductive organs during their juvenile stages. The GTs consisted of a uniseriate, multicellular peduncle, whose cells contain phenolic compounds, as well as a multicellular glandular portion that accumulates lipids. The glandular cell has thin wall, dense cytoplasm (with many mitochondria, plastids and dictyosomes, and a large nucleus with a visible nucleolus. The starch present in the plastids was hydrolyzed during the synthesis phase, reducing the density of the plastid stroma. Some plastids were fused to vacuoles, and some evidence suggested the conversion of plastids into vacuoles. During the final activity stages of the GTs, a darkening of the protoplasm was observed in some of the glandular cells, as a programmed cell death; afterwards, became caducous. The GTs in C. suberosus had a temporal restriction, being limited to the juvenile phase of the organs. Their presence on the exposed surfaces of developing organs and the chemical nature of the reserve products, suggest that these structures are food bodies. Field observations and detailed studies of plant-environment interactions, as well as chemical analysis of the reserve compounds, are still necessary to confirm the role of these GTs as feeding

  11. Herbivory by leaf-cutter ants changes the glandular trichomes density and the volatile components in an aromatic plant model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo Marques, Marcia Ortiz; Maria Rodrigues, Tatiane

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Herbivory can induce several structural and functional alterations in the plant secretory system. Glandular trichomes are the main sites of production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with several chemical properties in Lamiaceae species. Ocimum species usually have three morphotypes of glandular trichomes (morphotype I is peltate and has a wide four-celled head; morphotype II is capitate and has a unicellular head; and morphotype III is capitate with a bicellular head) which produce a great amount of terpenes, although other chemical categories of substances are also produced. Despite the abundance of trichomes producing important anti-herbivory components in their leaves, the association between Ocimum species and leaf-cutter ants has been commonly registered in Brazil. We investigated the effect of leaf-cutter ant attack on the density of the glandular trichomes and on the chemistry of the VOCs released from leaves of O. gratissimum. Plants were subjected to Acromyrmex rugosus attack until 90 % of leaves were removed. After 40 days from the leaf-cutter attack, both treatments were sampled. The glandular trichome density was analysed by scanning electron microscopy. The VOCs were extracted utilizing headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) technique and analysed by gas chromatography. Generally, the density of glandular trichomes increased in the adaxial leaf surface of the attacked plants. However, we bring novelties on this topic since we analysed the density of each morphotype separately. The morphotype I decreased in the abaxial leaf surface, and increased in the adaxial leaf surface; the morphotype II increased in both leaf surfaces; and the morphotype III decreased in the abaxial leaf surface and remained constant in the adaxial leaf surface of attacked plants. In leaves of attacked plants, the (Z)-β-ocimene increased by 50 %, the α-selinene by 13 % and the germacrene D by 126 %, whereas the eugenol decreased by 70 %. Our data point to

  12. Papel dos tricomas glandulares da folha do tomateiro na oviposição de Tuta absoluta Role of tomato leaf glandular trichomes on oviposition of Tuta absoluta

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    Elsa Gilardón

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Os tricomas glandulares presentes nas folhas e ramos das plantas do gênero Lycopersicon são responsáveis pela secreção de metabólitos de diferentes naturezas. A presença de alguns desses compostos tem sido associada à resistência do tomate a diferentes insetos. A traça-do-tomateiro, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, é uma das pragas mais nocivas da América do Sul. O adulto oviposita sobre as folhas do tomate e suas larvas abrem galerias no mesófilo das folhas, ramos, flores e frutos. As espécies silvestres do tomate conservam a capacidade de biossintetizar compostos químicos que lhes conferem resistência a esta praga. No presente trabalho, foi avaliada a preferência para oviposição desse inseto sobre folhas com e sem tricomas glandulares de L. esculentum (Mill. cv. Uco Plata, suscetível, e de L. hirsutum f. glabratum (Mull. PI 134417, espécie silvestre afim ao tomate, e resistente à traça. Os resultados sugerem que as fêmeas ovipositam indistintamente sobre as folhas de ambas espécies, independentemente da presença, ou não, dos tricomas glandulares. E a presença destes e de seus exsudatos não têm efeito inibidor na oviposição do inseto.In the genus Lycopersicon, different metabolites are secreted by the glandular trichomes of leaves and stems. These compounds have been associated to different tomato pests resistance. The South American tomato pinworm, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, is one of the most harmful pests in South America. The females oviposit on tomato leaves and the larvae mine the leaf mesophyl, stems, flowers and fruits. Some wild accessions of Lycopersicon keep their capacity to synthesize allelochemicals that protect them from the pest. In this paper a comparison was made between the tomato pinworm oviposition on leaves with and without trichomes of L. esculentum (Mill. cv. Uco Plata, a susceptible cultivar, and L. hirsutum f. glabratum (Mull. PI 134417, a resistant wild accession. Results suggest that the female

  13. Identification and characterization of two bisabolene synthases from linear glandular trichomes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschenbrenner, Anna-Katharina; Kwon, Moonhyuk; Conrad, Jürgen; Ro, Dae-Kyun; Spring, Otmar

    2016-04-01

    Sunflower is known to produce a variety of bisabolene-type sesquiterpenes and accumulates these substances in trichomes of leaves, stems and flowering parts. A bioinformatics approach was used to identify the enzyme responsible for the initial step in the biosynthesis of these compounds from its precursor farnesyl pyrophosphate. Based on sequence similarity with a known bisabolene synthases from Arabidopsis thaliana AtTPS12, candidate genes of Helianthus were searched in EST-database and used to design specific primers. PCR experiments identified two candidates in the RNA pool of linear glandular trichomes of sunflower. Their sequences contained the typical motifs of sesquiterpene synthases and their expression in yeast functionally characterized them as bisabolene synthases. Spectroscopic analysis identified the stereochemistry of the product of both enzymes as (Z)-γ-bisabolene. The origin of the two sunflower bisabolene synthase genes from the transcripts of linear trichomes indicates that they may be involved in the synthesis of sesquiterpenes produced in these trichomes. Comparison of the amino acid sequences of the sunflower bisabolene synthases showed high similarity with sesquiterpene synthases from other Asteracean species and indicated putative evolutionary origin from a β-farnesene synthase. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Brassica villosa, a system for studying non-glandular trichomes and genes in the Brassicas.

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    Nayidu, Naghabushana K; Tan, Yifang; Taheri, Ali; Li, Xiang; Bjorndahl, Trent C; Nowak, Jacek; Wishart, David S; Hegedus, Dwayne; Gruber, Margaret Y

    2014-07-01

    Brassica villosa is a wild Brassica C genome species with very dense trichome coverage and strong resistance to many insect pests of Brassica oilseeds and vegetables. Transcriptome analysis of hairy B. villosa leaves indicated higher expression of several important trichome initiation genes compared with glabrous B. napus leaves and consistent with the Arabidopsis model of trichome development. However, transcripts of the TRY inhibitory gene in hairy B. villosa were surprisingly high relative to B. napus and relative transcript levels of SAD2, EGL3, and several XIX genes were low, suggesting potential ancillary or less important trichome-related roles for these genes in Brassica species compared with Arabidopsis. Several antioxidant, calcium, non-calcium metal and secondary metabolite genes also showed differential expression between these two species. These coincided with accumulation of two alkaloid-like compounds, high levels of calcium, and other metals in B. villosa trichomes that are correlated with the known tolerance of B. villosa to high salt and the calcium-rich natural habitat of this wild species. This first time report on the isolation of large amounts of pure B. villosa trichomes, on trichome content, and on relative gene expression differences in an exceptionally hairy Brassica species compared with a glabrous species opens doors for the scientific community to understand trichome gene function in the Brassicas and highlights the potential of B. villosa as a trichome research platform.

  15. Next generation sequencing unravels the biosynthetic ability of spearmint (Mentha spicata) peltate glandular trichomes through comparative transcriptomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jingjing; Panicker, Deepa; Wang, Qian; Kim, Mi Jung; Liu, Jun; Yin, Jun-Lin; Wong, Limsoon; Jang, In-Cheol; Chua, Nam-Hai; Sarojam, Rajani

    2014-11-01

    Plant glandular trichomes are chemical factories with specialized metabolic capabilities to produce diverse compounds. Aromatic mint plants produce valuable essential oil in specialised glandular trichomes known as peltate glandular trichomes (PGT). Here, we performed next generation transcriptome sequencing of different tissues of Mentha spicata (spearmint) to identify differentially expressed transcripts specific to PGT. Our results provide a comprehensive overview of PGT's dynamic metabolic activities which will help towards pathway engineering. Spearmint RNAs from 3 different tissues: PGT, leaf and leaf stripped of PGTs (leaf-PGT) were sequenced by Illumina paired end sequencing. The sequences were assembled de novo into 40,587 non-redundant unigenes; spanning a total of 101 Mb. Functions could be assigned to 27,025 (67%) unigenes and among these 3,919 unigenes were differentially expressed in PGT relative to leaf - PGT. Lack of photosynthetic transcripts in PGT transcriptome indicated the high levels of purity of isolated PGT, as mint PGT are non-photosynthetic. A significant number of these unigenes remained unannotated or encoded hypothetical proteins. We found 16 terpene synthases (TPS), 18 cytochrome P450s, 5 lipid transfer proteins and several transcription factors that were preferentially expressed in PGT. Among the 16 TPSs, two were characterized biochemically and found to be sesquiterpene synthases. The extensive transcriptome data set renders a complete description of genes differentially expressed in spearmint PGT. This will facilitate the metabolic engineering of mint terpene pathway to increase yield and also enable the development of strategies for sustainable production of novel or altered valuable compounds in mint.

  16. Glandular trichome density and essential oil composition in leaves and inflorescences of Lippia origanoides Kunth (Verbenaceae in the Brazilian Cerrado

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    Luiz R.S. Tozin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils from leaves and inflorescences of Lippia origanoides Kunth present aromatic and medicinal potential and have been used to treat several diseases, including melanoma. In Brazil, L. origanoides is commonly found in campo cerrado and cerrado stricto sensu, physiognomies featured mainly by the differential light conditions to which short and medium-sized plants are subjected. Our aim was to investigate the glandular trichome density and the yield and chemical composition of the essential oils in leaves and inflorescences of L. origanoides from campo cerrado and cerrado stricto sensu. For glandular density analysis, leaves and inflorescences were processed according to conventional techniques for scanning electron microscopy. The essential oils of leaves and inflorescences were obtained by hydrodistillation and identified with gas chromatography. Bracts and sepals showed the highest glandular density, followed by petals and leaves. The glandular density in the abaxial leaf surface was higher in individuals from the campo cerrado. In both populations the essential oil yield was higher in inflorescences than in leaves. The chemical composition of the essential oils varied among individuals from different areas and inside a same population. Our results demonstrated the chemical plasticity of L. origanoides suggesting the importance of monitoring its popular use.

  17. Glandular trichome density and essential oil composition in leaves and inflorescences of Lippia origanoides Kunth (Verbenaceae) in the Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozin, Luiz R S; Marques, Marcia O M; Rodrigues, Tatiane M

    2015-01-01

    The essential oils from leaves and inflorescences of Lippia origanoides Kunth present aromatic and medicinal potential and have been used to treat several diseases, including melanoma. In Brazil, L. origanoides is commonly found in campo cerrado and cerrado stricto sensu, physiognomies featured mainly by the differential light conditions to which short and medium-sized plants are subjected. Our aim was to investigate the glandular trichome density and the yield and chemical composition of the essential oils in leaves and inflorescences of L. origanoides from campo cerrado and cerrado stricto sensu. For glandular density analysis, leaves and inflorescences were processed according to conventional techniques for scanning electron microscopy. The essential oils of leaves and inflorescences were obtained by hydrodistillation and identified with gas chromatography. Bracts and sepals showed the highest glandular density, followed by petals and leaves. The glandular density in the abaxial leaf surface was higher in individuals from the campo cerrado. In both populations the essential oil yield was higher in inflorescences than in leaves. The chemical composition of the essential oils varied among individuals from different areas and inside a same population. Our results demonstrated the chemical plasticity of L. origanoides suggesting the importance of monitoring its popular use.

  18. Higher glandular trichome density in tomato leaflets and repellence to spider mites Alta densidade de tricomas glandulares em tomateiro e aumento da repelência a ácaros rajados

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    Wilson Roberto Maluf

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the feasibility of selection for higher glandular trichome densities, as an indirect criterion of selection for increasing repellence to spider mites Tetranychus urticae, in tomato populations derived from an interspecific cross between Lycopersicon esculentum x L. hirsutum var. glabratum PI 134417. Trichome densities were evaluated in 19 genotypes, including 12 from advanced backcross populations, derived from the original cross L. esculentum x L. hirsutum var. glabratum PI 134417. Counts were made both on the adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces, and trichomes were classified into glandular types IV and VI, other glandular types (types I+VII, and nonglandular types. Mite repellence was measured by distances walked by mites onto the tomato leaf surface after 20, 40 and 60 min. Spider mite repellence biotests indicated that higher densities of glandular trichomes (especially type VI decreased the distances walked by the mites onto the tomato leaf surface. Selection of plants with higher densities of glandular trichomes can be an efficient criterion to obtain tomato genotypes with higher resistance (repellence to spider mites.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência da seleção para maior densidade de tricomas glandulares na resistência (repelência ao ácaro Tetranychus urticae, em populações de tomate derivadas do cruzamento interespecífico Lycopersicon esculentum x L. hirsutum var. glabratum PI 134417. Foram avaliados 19 genótipos quanto à densidade de tricomas, que incluíram 12 derivados de populações avançadas de retrocruzamentos, obtidos a partir do cruzamento original L. esculentum x L. hirsutum var. glabratum PI 134417. Nas faces abaxial e adaxial dos folíolos, realizaram-se as contagens e os tricomas foram classificados em glandulares tipo IV e VI, outros glandulares (tipo I e VII e não glandulares. A repelência aos ácaros foi medida pela distância média, percorrida pelo

  19. A proposal for chemical characterization and quality evaluation of botanical raw materials using glandular trichome microsampling of yacón (Polymnia sonchifolia, Asteraceae, an Andean medicinal plant

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    K. Schorr

    Full Text Available A proposal for chemical characterisation and quality evaluation of botanical raw materials by analysing the glandular trichomes from the leaves of two different populations of yacón (Polymnia sonchifolia Poeppig & Endlicher, Asteraceae is described. This species is an Andean medicinal plant and the tea prepared with their leaves displays hypoglycemic property. The method was based on the glandular trichome microsampling using LC/DAD. Qualitative chromatographic fingerprints of the glands were obtained by isocratic runs and then compared between the two populations, showing the same qualitative profile. The two main metabolites detected in the glands were later isolated from a leaf rinse extract by preparative separation and identified as the melampolides enhydrin and uvedalin. These compounds, subtypes of sesquiterpene lactones, were used as chemical markers. This technique is applicable to other medicinal plants and can be used for the evaluation of the quality of dried material or leaf rinse extracts.

  20. Characterization of two genes for the biosynthesis of abietane-type diterpenes in rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) glandular trichomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brückner, Kathleen; Božić, Dragana; Manzano, David; Papaefthimiou, Dimitra; Pateraki, Irini; Scheler, Ulschan; Ferrer, Albert; de Vos, Ric C H; Kanellis, Angelos K; Tissier, Alain

    2014-05-01

    Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) produces the phenolic diterpenes carnosic acid and carnosol, which, in addition to their general antioxidant activities, have recently been suggested as potential ingredients for the prevention and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Little is known about the biosynthesis of these diterpenes. Here we show that the biosynthesis of phenolic diterpenes in rosemary predominantly takes place in the glandular trichomes of young leaves, and used this feature to identify the first committed steps. Thus, a copalyl diphosphate synthase (RoCPS1) and two kaurene synthase-like (RoKSL1 and RoKSL2) encoding genes were identified and characterized. Expression in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and Nicotiana benthamiana demonstrate that RoCPS1 converts geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGDP) to copalyl diphosphate (CDP) of normal stereochemistry and that both RoKSL1 and RoKSL2 use normal CDP to produce an abietane diterpene. Comparison to the already characterized diterpene synthase from Salvia miltiorrhiza (SmKSL) demonstrates that the product of RoKSL1 and RoKSL2 is miltiradiene. Expression analysis supports a major contributing role for RoKSL2. Like SmKSL and the sclareol synthase from Salvia sclarea, RoKSL1/2 are diterpene synthases of the TPS-e group which have lost the internal gamma-domain. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis indicates that RoKSL1 and RoKSL2 belong to a distinct group of KSL enzymes involved in specialized metabolism which most likely emerged before the dicot-monocot split. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Papel da 2-tridecanona e dos tricomas glandulares tipo VI na resistência do tomateiro a Tuta absoluta Role of 2-tridecanone and type VI glandular trichome on tomato resistance to Tuta absoluta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Gilardón

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available O metabólito secundário 2-tridecanona, secretado pelos tricomas glandulares tipo VI das folhas de tomateiro silvestre, Lycopersicon hirsutum L., confere-lhe resistência a uma grande variedade de insetos, inclusive a traça-do-tomateiro, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a concentração de 2- tridecanona, a densidade de tricomas glandulares tipo VI e o grau de infestação da traça-do-tomateiro na cultivar suscetível 'Uco Plata' (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., na linhagem resistente PI 134417 (L. hirsutum f. glabratum e em suas progênies F1 e F2. Foram avaliadas ainda as possíveis associações entre a concentração de 2-tridecanona, a densidade de tricomas glandulares tipo VI e o grau de infestação da traça-do-tomateiro. O grau médio de infestação da traça-do-tomateiro em 'Uco Plata' foi significativamente superior ao obtido em PI 134417. Ainda que a concentração de 2-tridecanona tenha sido significativamente superior no parental resistente, a presença deste metabólito somente explicaria parcialmente a resistência (R² = 8,17%. Não se detectaram diferenças significativas na densidade de tricomas tipo VI entre o parental suscetível e o resistente. Este comportamento ocorreu independentemente do conteúdo de 2-tridecanona e do grau de infestação da traça-do-tomateiro.The secondary metabolite 2-tridecanone, secreted by the type VI glandular trichomes present in the leaves of Lycopersicon hirsutum L., make it resistant to a great variety of insects, including the tomato pinworm, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick. The 2-tridecanone concentration, the type VI glandular trichome densities and the pinworm infestation degree were evaluated on the Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. susceptible cultivar 'Uco Plata', on the Lycopersicon hirsutum f. glabratum resistant accession PI 134417 and on their F1 and F2. The mean infestation degree with pinworm larvae was significantly higher in 'Uco Plata' than in PI 134417. The 2

  2. A comprehensive proteome map of glandular trichomes of hop (Humulus lupulus L.) female cones: Identification of biosynthetic pathways of the major terpenoid-related compounds and possible transport proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, Antoine; Boutry, Marc

    2017-04-01

    Female flowers of hop (Humulus lupulus) are an essential source of terpenoid-related compounds, which are mainly used as flavoring in the beer brewing process. The compounds involved are bitter acids, terpenophenolics, as well as mono- and sesquiterpenoids. In this work, we analyzed the proteome of purified glandular trichomes (lupulin glands) from female flowers, which produce and accumulate these compounds. An extensive 2D-LC-MS/MS analysis identified 1015 proteins. Of these, most correspond to housekeeping and primary metabolism-related proteins, albeit predominantly including amino acid and lipid metabolism, which feeds the specialized (secondary) metabolism. Indeed, 75 proteins belong to the specialized metabolism. No less than 40 enzymes are involved in the synthesis of terpenoid-derived compounds and 21 are predicted transporters, some of which might be involved in the transport of specialized metabolites. We discuss the possible routes involved in the intra- and intercellular translocation of terpenoids and their precursors. This comprehensive proteomic map of the glandular trichomes of hop female flowers represents a valuable resource to improve our knowledge on the function of glandular trichomes. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Trichome structure and evolution in Neotropical lianas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Anselmo; Ottra, Juliana Hanna Leite El; Guimarães, Elza; Machado, Silvia Rodrigues; Lohmann, Lúcia G

    2013-11-01

    Trichomes are epidermal outgrowths generally associated with protection against herbivores and/or desiccation that are widely distributed from ferns to angiosperms. Patterns of topological variation and morphological evolution of trichomes are still scarce in the literature, preventing valid comparisons across taxa. This study integrates detailed morphoanatomical data and the evolutionary history of the tribe Bignonieae (Bignoniaceae) in order to gain a better understanding of current diversity and evolution of trichome types. Two sampling schemes were used to characterize trichome types: (1) macromorphological characterization of all 105 species currently included in Bignonieae; and (2) micromorphological characterization of 16 selected species. Individual trichome morphotypes were coded as binary in each vegetative plant part, and trichome density and size were coded as multistate. Ancestral character state reconstructions were conducted using maximum likelihood (ML) assumptions. Two main functional trichome categories were found: non-glandular and glandular. In glandular trichomes, three morphotypes were recognized: peltate (Pg), stipitate (Sg) and patelliform/cupular (P/Cg) trichomes. Non-glandular trichomes were uniseriate, uni- or multicellular and simple or branched. Pg and P/Cg trichomes were multicellular and non-vascularized with three clearly distinct cell layers. Sg trichomes were multicellular, uniseriate and long-stalked. ML ancestral character state reconstructions suggested that the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of Bignonieae probably had non-glandular, Pg and P/Cg trichomes, with each trichome type presenting alternative histories of appearance on the different plant parts. For example, the MRCA of Bignonieae probably had non-glandular trichomes on the stems, prophylls, petiole, petiolule and leaflet veins while P/Cg trichomes were restricted to leaflet blades. Sg trichomes were not present in the MRCA of Bignonieae independently of the

  4. Morphology, Structure, and Ontogeny of Trichomes of the Grape Genus (Vitis, Vitaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhi-Yao; Wen, Jun; Ickert-Bond, Stefanie M; Chen, Long-Qing; Liu, Xiu-Qun

    2016-01-01

    Trichomes are widely distributed on surfaces of different organs in the grape genus Vitis and are of taxonomic utility. To explore the morphology, structure and ontogeny of Vitis trichomes, we investigated the diversity and distribution of trichomes in 34 species of Vitis. Two main types of trichomes in Vitis are documented: non-glandular and glandular. Within non-glandular trichomes, ribbon and simple trichomes are found on different vegetative plant organs. The morphology and ontogeny of these types of trichomes are further examined with light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The ultrastructure of the glandular trichomes is explored with transmission electron microscopy. The ribbon trichomes are twisted, greatly elongated and unicellular, and this trichome type may be a morphological synapomorphy of Vitis and its closest tropical relative Ampelocissus and Pterisanthes in Vitaceae. The simple trichomes are documented in most species sampled in the genus. The glandular trichomes are multicellular, non-vascularized and composed of both epidermis and subjacent layers. We show that prickles occurring along the stems and petioles of Vitis davidii are modified glandular trichomes. We observed that glandular trichomes of V. romanetii secrete mucilage and volatile substances which trap insectes on the glands. Transmission electron microscopy indicates that metabolic products accumulate in vacuoles, the cytoplasm and intercellular spaces. We infer that glandular trichomes and young prickles are involved in the secretion of these metabolic products and the intercellular spaces may be the places of temporary storage of these secretions.

  5. Morphology, structure and ontogeny of trichomes of the grape genus (Vitis, Vitaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Yao eMa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Trichomes are widely distributed on surfaces of different organs in the grape genus Vitis and are of taxonomic utility. To explore the morphology, structure and ontogeny of Vitis trichomes, we investigated the diversity and distribution of trichomes in 34 species of Vitis. Two main types of trichomes in Vitis are documented: non-glandular and glandular. Within non-glandular trichomes, ribbon and simple trichomes are found on different vegetative plant organs. The morphology and ontogeny of these types of trichomes are further examined with light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The ultrastructure of the glandular trichomes is explored with transmission electron microscopy. The ribbon trichomes are twisted, greatly elongated and unicellular, and this trichome type may be a morphological synapomorphy of Vitis and its closest tropical relative Ampelocissus and Pterisanthes in Vitaceae. The simple trichomes are documented in most species sampled in the genus. The glandular trichomes are multicellular, non-vascularized and composed of both epidermis and subjacent layers. We show that prickles occurring along the stems and petioles of Vitis davidii are modified glandular trichomes. In our observation, the glandular trichomes of V. romanetii can secret mucilage and send out volatile substance so that many insects are often glued to glands. Transmission electron microscopy indicates that metabolic products accumulate in vacuoles, the cytoplasm and intercellular spaces. We infer that glandular trichomes and young prickles are involved in the secretion of these metabolic products and the intercellular spaces may be the places of temporary storage of these secretions.

  6. Micromorphology, histochemistry and ultrastructure of the foliar trichomes of Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal (Solanaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munien, Prelina; Naidoo, Yougasphree; Naidoo, Gonasageran

    2015-11-01

    The leaves of Withania somnifera contained four morphologically distinct trichome types: glandular capitate, non-glandular dendritic (branched), non-glandular bicellular and non-glandular multicellular trichomes. Major phytochemical compounds present within glandular and non-glandular trichomes were alkaloids and phenolic compounds. The aim of this study was to characterize the micromorphology of the foliar trichomes of Withania somnifera as well as to elucidate the location and composition of the secretory products. Trichome density and length was also determined in three developmental stages of the leaves. Light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed the presence of four morphologically distinct trichome types: glandular capitate, non-glandular dendritic, non-glandular bicellular and non-glandular multicellular. The dendritic trichomes exhibited cuticular warts which are involved in the "Lotus-Effect". Glandular capitate and non-glandular dendritic trichomes were aggregated on the mid-vein of young and mature leaves, possibly to protect underlying vasculature. Histochemical staining also revealed the presence of two major classes of phytochemical compounds that are of medicinal importance, i.e. alkaloids and phenolic compounds. These compounds are used to treat a wide variety of ailments and also act as chemical deterrents in plants. The results of this study explain possible roles of four morphologically distinct trichome types based on their morphology, foliar distribution and content.

  7. Studies on the expression of linalool synthase using a promoter-β-glucuronidase fusion in transgenic Artemisia annua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongzhen; Kanagarajan, Selvaraju; Han, Junli; Hao, Mengshu; Yang, Yiyi; Lundgren, Anneli; Brodelius, Peter E

    2014-01-15

    Artemisinin, an antimalarial endoperoxide sesquiterpene, is synthesized in glandular trichomes of Artemisia annua L. A number of other enzymes of terpene metabolism utilize intermediates of artemisinin biosynthesis, such as isopentenyl and farnesyl diphosphate, and may thereby influence the yield of artemisinin. In order to study the expression of such enzymes, we have cloned the promoter regions of some enzymes and fused them to β-glucuronidase (GUS). In this study, we have investigated the expression of the monoterpene synthase linalool synthase (LIS) using transgenic A. annua carrying the GUS gene under the control of the LIS promoter. The 652bp promoter region was cloned by the genome walker method. A number of putative cis-acting elements were predicted indicating that the LIS is driven by a complex regulation mechanism. Transgenic plants carrying the promoter-GUS fusion showed specific expression of GUS in T-shaped trichomes (TSTs) but not in glandular secretory trichomes, which is the site for artemisinin biosynthesis. GUS expression was observed at late stage of flower development in styles of florets and in TSTs and guard cells of basal bracts. GUS expression after wounding showed that LIS is involved in plant responsiveness to wounding. Furthermore, the LIS promoter responded to methyl jasmonate (MeJA). These results indicate that the promoter carries a number of cis-acting regulatory elements involved in the tissue-specific expression of LIS and in the response of the plant to wounding and MeJA treatment. Southern blot analysis indicated that the GUS gene was integrated in the A. annua genome as single or multi copies in different transgenic lines. Promoter activity analysis by qPCR showed that both the wild-type and the recombinant promoter are active in the aerial parts of the plant while only the recombinant promoter was active in roots. Due to the expression in TSTs but not in glandular trichomes, it may be concluded that LIS expression will most

  8. Trichomes morphology as a taxonomic marker in the subfamily heliotropioideae (boraginaceae from Pakistan and Kashmir)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parveen, A.

    2009-01-01

    Trichomes morphology of the subfamily heliotropioideae (Boraginaceae representing by 18 spectes has been examined by light and scanning microscope. Within the subfamily Heliotropoideae trichomes are generally eglandular rarely glandular as in Heliotropium ohioglossum Boiss. Within the subfamily Heliotropoideae 1-celled unicellular and two celled uniseriate trichomes are observed. Shape of the trichomes usually comical with pointed tims and distinct trichomes base. However few species have indistinct trichome base. The data is significantly useful at specific and generic level within the subfamily Heliotropioideae. (author)

  9. Role of trichomes in defense against herbivores: comparison of herbivore response to woolly and hairless trichome mutants in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Donglan; Tooker, John; Peiffer, Michelle; Chung, Seung Ho; Felton, Gary W

    2012-10-01

    Trichomes contribute to plant resistance against herbivory by physical and chemical deterrents. To better understand their role in plant defense, we systemically studied trichome morphology, chemical composition and the response of the insect herbivores Helicoverpa zea and Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Colorado potato beetle = CPB) on the tomato hairless (hl), hairy (woolly) mutants and wild-type Rutgers (RU) and Alisa Craig (AC) plants. Hairless mutants showed reduced number of twisted glandular trichomes (types I, IV, VI and VII) on leaf and stem compared to wild-type Rutgers (RU), while woolly mutants showed high density of non-glandular trichomes (types II, III and V) but only on the leaf. In both mutants, trichome numbers were increased by methyl jasmonate (MeJA), but the types of trichomes present were not affected by MeJA treatment. Glandular trichomes contained high levels of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. A similar pattern of transcript accumulation was observed for monoterpene MTS1 (=TPS5) and sesquiterpene synthase SST1 (=TPS9) genes in trichomes. While high density of non-glandular trichome on leaves negatively influenced CPB feeding behavior and growth, it stimulated H. zea growth. High glandular trichome density impaired H. zea growth, but had no effect on CPB. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) showed that glandular trichomes highly express protein inhibitors (PIN2), polyphenol oxidase (PPOF) and hydroperoxide lyase (HPL) when compared to non-glandular trichomes. The SlCycB2 gene, which participates in woolly trichome formation, was highly expressed in the woolly mutant trichomes. PIN2 in trichomes was highly induced by insect feeding in both mutant and wild-type plants. Thus, both the densities of trichomes and the chemical defenses residing in the trichomes are inducible.

  10. Studies on the expression of sesquiterpene synthases using promoter-β-glucuronidase fusions in transgenic Artemisia annua L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongzhen Wang

    Full Text Available In order to better understand the influence of sesquiterpene synthases on artemisinin yield in Artemisia annua, the expression of some sesquiterpene synthases has been studied using transgenic plants expressing promoter-GUS fusions. The cloned promoter sequences were 923, 1182 and 1510 bp for β-caryophyllene (CPS, epi-cedrol (ECS and β-farnesene (FS synthase, respectively. Prediction of cis-acting regulatory elements showed that the promoters are involved in complex regulation of expression. Transgenic A. annua plants carrying promoter-GUS fusions were studied to elucidate the expression pattern of the three sesquiterpene synthases and compared to the previously studied promoter of amorpha-4,11-diene synthase (ADS, a key enzyme of artemisinin biosynthesis. The CPS and ECS promoters were active in T-shaped trichomes of leaves and stems, basal bracts of flower buds and also in some florets cells but not in glandular secretory trichome while FS promoter activity was only observed in leaf cells and trichomes of transgenic shoots. ADS, CPS, ECS and FS transcripts were induced by wounding in a time depended manner. The four sesquiterpene synthases may be involved in responsiveness of A. annua to herbivory. Methyl jasmonate treatment triggered activation of the promoters of all four sesquiterpene synthases in a time depended manner. Southern blot result showed that the GUS gene was inserted into genomic DNA of transgenic lines as a single copy or two copies. The relative amounts of CPS and ECS as well as germacrene A synthase (GAS transcripts are much lower than that of ADS transcript. Consequently, down-regulation of the expression of the CPS, ECS or GAS gene may not improve artemsinin yield. However, blocking the expression of FS may have effects on artemisinin production.

  11. Studies on the expression of sesquiterpene synthases using promoter-β-glucuronidase fusions in transgenic Artemisia annua L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongzhen; Han, Junli; Kanagarajan, Selvaraju; Lundgren, Anneli; Brodelius, Peter E

    2013-01-01

    In order to better understand the influence of sesquiterpene synthases on artemisinin yield in Artemisia annua, the expression of some sesquiterpene synthases has been studied using transgenic plants expressing promoter-GUS fusions. The cloned promoter sequences were 923, 1182 and 1510 bp for β-caryophyllene (CPS), epi-cedrol (ECS) and β-farnesene (FS) synthase, respectively. Prediction of cis-acting regulatory elements showed that the promoters are involved in complex regulation of expression. Transgenic A. annua plants carrying promoter-GUS fusions were studied to elucidate the expression pattern of the three sesquiterpene synthases and compared to the previously studied promoter of amorpha-4,11-diene synthase (ADS), a key enzyme of artemisinin biosynthesis. The CPS and ECS promoters were active in T-shaped trichomes of leaves and stems, basal bracts of flower buds and also in some florets cells but not in glandular secretory trichome while FS promoter activity was only observed in leaf cells and trichomes of transgenic shoots. ADS, CPS, ECS and FS transcripts were induced by wounding in a time depended manner. The four sesquiterpene synthases may be involved in responsiveness of A. annua to herbivory. Methyl jasmonate treatment triggered activation of the promoters of all four sesquiterpene synthases in a time depended manner. Southern blot result showed that the GUS gene was inserted into genomic DNA of transgenic lines as a single copy or two copies. The relative amounts of CPS and ECS as well as germacrene A synthase (GAS) transcripts are much lower than that of ADS transcript. Consequently, down-regulation of the expression of the CPS, ECS or GAS gene may not improve artemsinin yield. However, blocking the expression of FS may have effects on artemisinin production.

  12. Morphology, distribution, and histochemistry of trichomes of Thymus lykae Degen & Jav. (Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Marija

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Micromorphology, distribution, and histochemistry of the trichomes of Thymus lykae were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEMand confocal laser scanning electron microscopy (CLSM. The leaves, stem, and calyx bear numerous glandular and non-glandular trichomes. Two types of glandular trichomes are identified - peltate and capitate. Results of histochemical tests showed positive reactions to polysaccharides, proteins, and lipids. Yellow autofluorescence of secreted material was noticed in peltate and capitate trichomes. Strong reddish-yellow autofluorescence of the lipophilic and hydrophilic secreted material was observed with CLSM.

  13. Trichoderma species form endophytic associations within Theobroma cacao trichomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Bryan A; Strem, Mary D; Wood, Delilah

    2009-12-01

    Trichoderma species are usually considered soil organisms that colonize plant roots, sometimes forming a symbiotic relationship. Recent studies demonstrate that Trichoderma species are also capable of colonizing the above ground tissues of Theobroma cacao (cacao) in what has been characterized as an endophytic relationship. Trichoderma species can be re-isolated from surface sterilized cacao stem tissue, including the bark and xylem, the apical meristem, and to a lesser degree from leaves. SEM analysis of cacao stems colonized by strains of four Trichoderma species (Trichoderma ovalisporum-DIS 70a, Trichoderma hamatum-DIS 219b, Trichoderma koningiopsis-DIS 172ai, or Trichoderma harzianum-DIS 219f) showed a preference for surface colonization of glandular trichomes versus non-glandular trichomes. The Trichoderma strains colonized the glandular trichome tips and formed swellings resembling appresoria. Hyphae were observed emerging from the glandular trichomes on surface sterilized stems from cacao seedlings that had been inoculated with each of the four Trichoderma strains. Fungal hyphae were observed under the microscope emerging from the trichomes as soon as 6h after their isolation from surface sterilized cacao seedling stems. Hyphae were also observed, in some cases, emerging from stalk cells opposite the trichome head. Repeated single trichome/hyphae isolations verified that the emerging hyphae were the Trichoderma strains with which the cacao seedlings had been inoculated. Strains of four Trichoderma species were able to enter glandular trichomes during the colonization of cacao stems where they survived surface sterilization and could be re-isolated. The penetration of cacao trichomes may provide the entry point for Trichoderma species into the cacao stem allowing systemic colonization of this tissue.

  14. AaPDR3, a PDR Transporter 3, Is Involved in Sesquiterpene β-Caryophyllene Transport in Artemisia annua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xueqing; Shi, Pu; He, Qian; Shen, Qian; Tang, Yueli; Pan, Qifang; Ma, Yanan; Yan, Tingxiang; Chen, Minghui; Hao, Xiaolong; Liu, Pin; Li, Ling; Wang, Yuliang; Sun, Xiaofen; Tang, Kexuan

    2017-01-01

    Artemisinin, a sesquiterpenoid endoperoxide, isolated from the plant Artemisia annua L., is widely used in the treatment of malaria. Another sesquiterpenoid, β-caryophyllene having antibiotic, antioxidant, anticarcinogenic and local anesthetic activities, is also presented in A. annua. The role played by sesquiterpene transporters in trichomes and accumulation of these metabolites is poorly understood in A. annua and in trichomes of other plant species. We identified AaPDR3, encoding a pleiotropic drug resistance (PDR) transporter located to the plasma membrane from A. annua. Expression of AaPDR3 is tissue-specifically and developmentally regulated in A. annua. GUS activity is primarily restricted to T-shaped trichomes of old leaves and roots of transgenic A. annua plants expressing proAaPDR3: GUS. The level of β-caryophyllene was decreased in transgenic A. annua plants expressing AaPDR3-RNAi while transgenic A. annua plants expressing increased levels of AaPDR3 accumulated higher levels of β-caryophyllene. When AaPDR3 was expressed in transformed yeast, yeasts expressing AaPDR3 accumulated more β-caryophyllene, rather than germacrene D and β-farnesene, compared to the non-expressing control. PMID:28533790

  15. Phytochemical Analysis, Biological Activity, and Secretory Structures of Stachys annua (L.) L. subsp. annua (Lamiaceae) from Central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venditti, Alessandro; Bianco, Armandodoriano; Quassinti, Luana; Bramucci, Massimo; Lupidi, Giulio; Damiano, Silvia; Papa, Fabrizio; Vittori, Sauro; Maleci Bini, Laura; Giuliani, Claudia; Lucarini, Domenico; Maggi, Filippo

    2015-08-01

    Stachys annua subsp. annua, well-known in central Italy as 'stregona annuale', is an annual, small, slightly-scented herb, commonly found in fields and uncultivated areas in almost all regions of Italy. In folk medicine, its aerial parts were used as anti-catarrhal, febrifuge, tonic, and vulnerary. In the present work, the chemical composition of the flowering aerial parts was studied. The hydrodistilled volatile oil, analysed by GC/MS, showed sesquiterpenoids as the major fraction (42.5%); phytol (9.8%), germacrene D (9.2%), and spathulenol (8.5%) were the most abundant constituents. The volatile oil was assayed for antioxidant and cytotoxic activity by DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, and MTT methods. The cytotoxicity results against HCT116, A375, and MDA-MB 231 human tumor cell lines were significant, with IC50 values of 23.5, 37.2, and 41.5 μg/ml, respectively, whereas the antioxidant power was negligible. The EtOH extract was composed mainly of three glycosidic flavonoids, namely 7-{[2-O-(6-O-acetyl-β-D-allopyranosyl)-β-D-glucopyranosyl]oxy}-5,8-dihydroxy-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one (1), 7-{[6-O-acetyl-2-O-(6-O-acetyl-β-D-allopyranosyl)-β-D-glucopyranosyl]oxy}-2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-5,8-dihydroxy-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one (2), and 7-{[6-O-acetyl-2-O-(β-D-allopyranosyl)-β-D-glucopyranosyl]oxy}-2-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-5,8-dihydroxy-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one (3). On the contrary, iridoids, considered chemotaxonomic markers of the genus Stachys, were absent in this species. Finally, the morphological and histochemical survey showed that glandular trichomes were composed of two main types, i.e. peltate type A and capitate types B and C giving positive response for both lipids and polyphenols. Copyright © 2015 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  16. Selection and Clonal Propagation of High Artemisinin Genotypes of Artemisia annua

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    Hazel Y. Wetzstein

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Artemisinin, produced in the glandular trichomes of Artemisia annua L. is a vital antimalarial drug effective against Plasmodium falciparum resistant to quinine-derived medicines. Although work has progressed on the semi-synthetic production of artemisinin, field production of A. annua remains the principal commercial source of the compound. Crop production of artemisia must be increased to meet the growing worldwide demand for artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs to treat malaria. Grower artemisinin yields rely on plants generated from seeds from open-pollinated parents. Although selection has considerably increased plant artemisinin concentration in the past 15 years, seed-generated plants have highly variable artemisinin content that lowers artemisinin yield per hectare. Breeding efforts to produce improved F1 hybrids have been hampered by the inability to produce inbred lines due to self-incompatibility. An approach combining conventional hybridization and selection with clonal propagation of superior genotypes is proposed as a means to enhance crop yield and artemisinin production. Typical seed-propagated artemisia plants produce less than 1% (dry weight artemisinin with yields below 25 kg/ha. Genotypes were identified producing high artemisinin levels of over 2% and possessing improved agronomic characteristics such as high leaf area and shoot biomass production. Field studies of clonally-propagated high-artemisinin plants verified enhanced plant uniformity and an estimated gross primary productivity of up to 70 kg/ha artemisinin, with a crop density of one plant m-2. Tissue culture and cutting protocols for the mass clonal propagation of A. annua were developed for shoot regeneration, rooting, acclimatization, and field cultivation. Proof of concept studies showed that both tissue culture-regenerated plants and rooted cutting performed better than plants derived from seed in terms of uniformity, yield, and consistently high artemisinin

  17. Analysis of cannabinoids in laser-microdissected trichomes of medicinal Cannabis sativa using LCMS and cryogenic NMR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Happyana, Nizar; Agnolet, Sara; Muntendam, Remco; Van Dam, Annie; Schneider, Bernd; Kayser, Oliver

    Trichomes, especially the capitate-stalked glandular hairs, are well known as the main sites of cannabinoid and essential oil production of Cannabis sativa. In this study the distribution and density of various types of Cannabis sativa L trichomes, have been investigated by scanning electron

  18. Structural features of flower trichomes in drug eyebright (Euphrasia stricta D. Wolff EX J. F. Lehm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weronika Haratym

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Euphrasia stricta D. Wolff ex J. F. Lehm. (Orobanchaceae is a representative of plants that are widely used in folk medicine, phytomedicine, and homeopathy. The medicinal raw material derived from the drug eyebright is applied primarily in treatment of ophthalmic diseases. The investigations of trichomes in drug eyebright (Euphrasia stricta D. Wolff ex J. F. Lehm were conducted in 2010–2011. Using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, their location and morphological and anatomical features were identified. Three types of non-glandular trichomes were found: short unicellular, long 1–2 celled, and long 2-celled with wall ornamentation. Additionally, 7 types of glandular trichomes were found; these included: unicellular clavate, 2–3-celled clavate, capitate with a unicellular head and a 3-cel- led stalk, capitate with a unicellular head and a 2-celled stalk, capitate with a 2-celled head, conical papillae, and ribbon-like trichomes with wall thickening.

  19. Molecular Farming in Artemisia annua, a sustainable approach to improve anti-malarial drug production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe ePulice

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is a parasite infection affecting millions of people worldwide. Even though progresses in prevention and treatment have been developed, 198 million cases of malaria occurred in 2013, resulting in 584000 estimated deaths. 90% of all malaria deaths occurred in Africa, mostly among children under the age of five. This article aims to review malaria’s history, epidemiology and current treatments, with a particular focus on the potential of molecular farming that use metabolic engineering in plants as effective anti-malarial solution. Malaria indeed represents an example of how a health problem on one hand, may eventually influence the proper development of a country due to the burden of the disease, and on the other hand, constitutes an opportunity for lucrative business of diverse stakeholders. In contrast, plant biofarming is here proposed as a sustainable alternative for the production not only of natural herbal repellents used for malaria prevention but also for the production of sustainable anti-malarial drugs like artemisinin used for primary parasite infection treatments.Artemisinin, a sesquiterpene lactone, is a natural anti-malarial compound that can be found in Artemisia annua plant. However, the low concentration of artemisinin in plant makes this molecule relatively expensive and difficult to meet the worldwide demand of Artemisinin Combination Therapies, especially for economically disadvantaged people in developing countries. The biosynthetic pathway of artemisinin, a process that only takes place in glandular secretory trichomes of A. annua, is relatively well elucidated, and significant efforts using plant genetic engineering have been made to increase the production of this compound. These include studies on diverse transcription factors, which all have been shown to regulate artemisinin genetic pathway and other biological processes. Therefore, genetic manipulation of these genes may be used as a cost-effective potential

  20. Trichomes related to an unusual method of water retention and protection of the stem apex in an arid zone perennial species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusa, Makeli Garibotti; Cardoso, Elaine Cristina; Machado, Silvia Rodrigues; Appezzato-da-Glória, Beatriz

    2014-12-19

    It is well known that trichomes protect plant organs, and several studies have investigated their role in the adaptation of plants to harsh environments. Recent studies have shown that the production of hydrophilic substances by glandular trichomes and the deposition of this secretion on young organs may facilitate water retention, thus preventing desiccation and favouring organ growth until the plant develops other protective mechanisms. Lychnophora diamantinana is a species endemic to the Brazilian 'campos rupestres' (rocky fields), a region characterized by intense solar radiation and water deficits. This study sought to investigate trichomes and the origin of the substances observed on the stem apices of L. diamantinana. Samples of stem apices, young and expanded leaves were studied using standard techniques, including light microscopy and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Histochemical tests were used to identify the major groups of metabolites present in the trichomes and the hyaline material deposited on the apices. Non-glandular trichomes and glandular trichomes were observed. The material deposited on the stem apices was hyaline, highly hydrophilic and viscous. This hyaline material primarily consists of carbohydrates that result from the partial degradation of the cell wall of uniseriate trichomes. This degradation occurs at the same time that glandular trichomes secrete terpenoids, phenolic compounds and proteins. These results suggest that the non-glandular trichomes on the leaves of L. diamantinana help protect the young organ, particularly against desiccation, by deposition of highly hydrated substances on the apices. Furthermore, the secretion of glandular trichomes probably repels herbivore and pathogen attacks. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

  1. Direct Analyses of Secondary Metabolites by Mass Spectrometry Imaging (MSI) from Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) Trichomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brentan Silva, Denise; Aschenbrenner, Anna-Katharina; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; Spring, Otmar

    2017-05-10

    Helianthus annuus (sunflower) displays non-glandular trichomes (NGT), capitate glandular trichomes (CGT), and linear glandular trichomes (LGT), which reveal different chemical compositions and locations in different plant tissues. With matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) and laser desorption/ionization (LDI) mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) techniques, efficient methods were developed to analyze the tissue distribution of secondary metabolites (flavonoids and sesquiterpenes) and proteins inside of trichomes. Herein, we analyzed sesquiterpene lactones, present in CGT, from leaf transversal sections using the matrix 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB) and α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA) (mixture 1:1) with sodium ions added to increase the ionization in positive ion mode. The results observed for sesquiterpenes and polymethoxylated flavones from LGT were similar. However, upon desiccation, LGT changed their shape in the ionization source, complicating analyses by MSI mainly after matrix application. An alternative method could be applied to LGT regions by employing LDI (without matrix) in negative ion mode. The polymethoxylated flavones were easily ionized by LDI, producing images with higher resolution, but the sesquiterpenes were not observed in spectra. Thus, the application and viability of MALDI imaging for the analyses of protein and secondary metabolites inside trichomes were confirmed, highlighting the importance of optimization parameters.

  2. Absorption of Foliar Applied Zn Fertilizers by Trichomes in Soybean and Tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cui; Wang, Peng; Lombi, Enzo; Cheng, Miaomiao; Tang, Caixian; Howard, Daryl L; Menzies, Neal W; Kopittke, Peter M

    2018-03-03

    The present study investigated the role of trichomes in absorption of foliar-applied Zn fertilizers in soybean and tomato. Using synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence microscopy for in situ analyses of hydrated leaves, we found that upon the foliar-application of ZnSO4, Zn accumulated within 15 min in some non-glandular trichomes of soybean, but not tomato. However, analyses of cross sections of soybean leaves did not show any marked accumulation of Zn in tissues surrounding trichomes. Furthermore, when near-isogenic lines of soybean differing 10-fold in trichome density were used to compare Zn absorption, it was found that foliar Zn absorption was not related to trichome density. Therefore, it is suggested that trichomes are not part of the primary pathway whereby foliar-applied Zn moves across the leaf surface in soybean and tomato. However, this does not preclude trichomes being important in other plant species, as trichomes are known to be highly diverse. We also compared the absorption of Zn when supplied as ZnSO4, with nano- and bulk-ZnO, finding that the absorption of Zn from ZnSO4 was ca. 10-fold higher than from nano- and bulk-ZnO, suggesting that Zn was mainly absorbed as soluble Zn. This study improves our understanding of the absorption of foliar-applied nutrients.

  3. Micromorphology of glandular structures in Echium vulgare L. flowers

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    Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The micromorphology of selected elements of Echium vulgare L. flowers was investigated, with special attention to the structure of the nectaries and the stigma of the pistil as well as types of trichomes occurring on the surface of the calyx. The nectary had the shape of an uneven disc located around the lower region of the four-parted ovary of the pistil. The glandular cells formed a tier with a height of 330 μm and a radial width of 144 μm. Nectar was secreted onto the nectary surface through anomocytic stomata located at the level of other epidermal cells. Most of the stomata were open, with a different dimension of the pore. Their largest number was observed at the base of the nectary, and 462 stomata were noted on the whole surface of the nectary. The cuticle on the surface of the guard cells formed fine, circular striae. The subsidiary cells formed striated cuticular ornamentation, with the striae arranged radially in the direction of the stoma, whereas on the surface of other epidermal cells the striae formed an arrangement with different directions. The epidermis on the surface of the stigma formed regularly arranged papillae with a fan-shaped, expanded upper part which had corrugated outer walls, whereas the base of the cell formed a widened small column. The epidermis of the abaxial part of the calyx was covered by numerous non-glandular trichomes of different length which were made up of one or several cells. The glandular trichomes in the epidermis of the calyx grew with smaller density compared to the protective trichomes, and they were composed of a 1-2-celled stalk and a glandular head.

  4. Morphological differentiation of non-glandular and glandular trichomes on Marrubium vulgare L.

    OpenAIRE

    Dmitruk M.; Haratym W.

    2014-01-01

    Marrubium vulgare L., commonly known as a white horehound or common horehound, belongs to the plant family Lamiaceae. It is a perennial aromatic herb which grows naturally in Europe, Asia, and America. Since ancient Egypt, this species has been known as a remedy for upper respiratory tract ailments. Nowadays, horehound is used in herbal medicine for treatment of liver diseases, biliary tract disorders, and for increasing the appetite and supporting the function of the stomach. The main biolog...

  5. Effects of overexpression of AaWRKY1 on artemisinin biosynthesis in transgenic Artemisia annua plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Junli; Wang, Hongzhen; Lundgren, Anneli; Brodelius, Peter E

    2014-06-01

    The effective anti-malarial medicine artemisinin is costly because of the low content in Artemisia annua. Genetic engineering of A. annua is one of the most promising approaches to improve the yield of artemisinin. In this work, the transcription factor AaWRKY1, which is thought to be involved in the regulation of artemisinin biosynthesis, was cloned from A. annua var. Chongqing and overexpressed using the CaMV35S promoter or the trichome-specific CYP71AV1 promoter in stably transformed A. annua plants. The transcript level of AaWRKY1 was increased more than one hundred times under the CaMV35S promoter and about 40 times under the CYP71AV1 promoter. The overexpressed AaWRKY1 activated the transcription of CYP71AV1 and moreover the trichome-specific overexpression of AaWRKY1 improved the transcription of CYP71AV1 much more effectively than the constitutive overexpression of AaWRKY1, i.e. up to 33 times as compared to the wild-type plant. However the transcription levels of FDS, ADS, and DBR2 did not change significantly in transgenic plants. The significantly up-regulated CYP71AV1 promoted artemisinin biosynthesis, i.e. up to about 1.8 times as compared to the wild-type plant. It is demonstrated that trichome-specific overexpression of AaWRKY1 can significantly activate the transcription of CYP71AV1 and the up-regulated CYP71AV1 promotes artemisinin biosynthesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Are trichomes involved in the biomechanical systems of Cucurbita leaf petioles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajączkowska, Urszula; Kucharski, Stanisław; Guzek, Dominika

    2015-12-01

    Trichomes are involved in petiole movement and likely function as a part of the plant biomechanical system serving as an additional reservoir of hydrostatic pressure. The large, non-glandular trichomes on Cucurbita petioles occur across collenchyma strands. Time-lapse imaging was used to study the leaf reorientation of Cucurbita maxima 'Bambino' plants placed in horizontal position. The experiment comprised four variants of the large non-glandular petiole trichomes: (1) intact, (2) mechanically removed, (3) dehydrated, and (4) intact but with longitudinally injured petioles. Isolated strands of collenchyma with intact epidermis or epidermis mechanically removed from the abaxial and adaxial sides of the petiole were subjected to breaking test. The stiffness of the non-isolated tissue with intact epidermis was measured using the micro-indentation method. Petioles without trichomes did not exhibit tropic response, and the dehydration of trichomes slowed and prevented complete leaf reorientation. Isolated strands of collenchyma showed no correlation between strength values and position on the petiole. However, strands of collenchyma with epidermis exhibited a significantly greater strength regardless of their position on the petiole. The indentation test showed that non-isolated collenchyma is stiffer on the abaxial side of the petiole. Trichomes from the abaxial side of the petiole were larger at their base. The application of the 'tensile triangles method' revealed that these trichomes had a biomechanically optimized shape in comparison to the adaxial side. We conclude that trichomes can be involved in plant biomechanical system and serve as an additional reservoir of hydrostatic pressure that is necessary for maintaining petioles in the prestressed state.

  7. Examining the extraction of artemisinin from artemisia annua using ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briars, Rhianna; Paniwnyk, Larysa

    2012-05-01

    Artemisinin suppresses the life-cycle of the plasmodium parasite which causes malaria. It is found naturally occurring within the trichome glands of the Artemisia annua plant. Traditional methods for extracting artemisinin are time-consuming and have high environmental impact due to the temperatures and organic solvents which must be employed. Ultrasound decreases these through acoustic streaming and micro-jets. But to fully utilise this technology parameters, such as frequency, temperature and the properties of leaf and solvent, must be explored. As with the extraction process there is also no set analysis method for identification of artemisinin. Therefore several methods of analysing these extracts are employed. Initial results indicate that sonication is able to enhance levels of artemisinin extracted when compared to the conventional/traditional extraction process. In addition Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) have been shown to have a high level of reproducible calibration.

  8. Relative expression of genes of terpene metabolism in different tissues of Artemisia annua L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olofsson, Linda; Engström, Alexander; Lundgren, Anneli; Brodelius, Peter E

    2011-03-09

    Recently, Artemisia annua L. (annual or sweet wormwood) has received increasing attention due to the fact that the plant produces the sesquiterpenoid endoperoxide artemisinin, which today is widely used for treatment of malaria. The plant produces relatively small amounts of artemisinin and a worldwide shortage of the drug has led to intense research in order to increase the yield of artemisinin. In order to improve our understanding of terpene metabolism in the plant and to evaluate the competition for precursors, which may influence the yield of artemisinin, we have used qPCR to estimate the expression of 14 genes of terpene metabolism in different tissues. The four genes of the artemisinin biosynthetic pathway (amorpha-4,11-diene synthase, amorphadiene-12-hydroxylase, artemisinic aldehyde ∆11(13) reductase and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1) showed remarkably higher expression (between ~40- to ~500-fold) in flower buds and young leaves compared to other tissues (old leaves, stems, roots, hairy root cultures). Further, dihydroartemisinic aldehyde reductase showed a very high expression only in hairy root cultures. Germacrene A and caryophyllene synthase were mostly expressed in young leaves and flower buds while epi-cedrol synthase was highly expressed in old leaves. 3-Hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A reductase exhibited lower expression in old leaves compared to other tissues. Farnesyldiphosphate synthase, squalene synthase, and 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase showed only modest variation in expression in the different tissues, while expression of 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase was 7-8-fold higher in flower buds and young leaves compared to old leaves. Four genes of artemisinin biosynthesis were highly expressed in flower buds and young leaves (tissues showing a high density of glandular trichomes). The expression of dihydroartemisinic aldehyde reductase has been suggested to have a negative effect on artemisinin production through

  9. Relative expression of genes of terpene metabolism in different tissues of Artemisia annua L

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Recently, Artemisia annua L. (annual or sweet wormwood) has received increasing attention due to the fact that the plant produces the sesquiterpenoid endoperoxide artemisinin, which today is widely used for treatment of malaria. The plant produces relatively small amounts of artemisinin and a worldwide shortage of the drug has led to intense research in order to increase the yield of artemisinin. In order to improve our understanding of terpene metabolism in the plant and to evaluate the competition for precursors, which may influence the yield of artemisinin, we have used qPCR to estimate the expression of 14 genes of terpene metabolism in different tissues. Results The four genes of the artemisinin biosynthetic pathway (amorpha-4,11-diene synthase, amorphadiene-12-hydroxylase, artemisinic aldehyde ∆11(13) reductase and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1) showed remarkably higher expression (between ~40- to ~500-fold) in flower buds and young leaves compared to other tissues (old leaves, stems, roots, hairy root cultures). Further, dihydroartemisinic aldehyde reductase showed a very high expression only in hairy root cultures. Germacrene A and caryophyllene synthase were mostly expressed in young leaves and flower buds while epi-cedrol synthase was highly expressed in old leaves. 3-Hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A reductase exhibited lower expression in old leaves compared to other tissues. Farnesyldiphosphate synthase, squalene synthase, and 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase showed only modest variation in expression in the different tissues, while expression of 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase was 7-8-fold higher in flower buds and young leaves compared to old leaves. Conclusions Four genes of artemisinin biosynthesis were highly expressed in flower buds and young leaves (tissues showing a high density of glandular trichomes). The expression of dihydroartemisinic aldehyde reductase has been suggested to have a negative effect on

  10. Relative expression of genes of terpene metabolism in different tissues of Artemisia annua L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lundgren Anneli

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, Artemisia annua L. (annual or sweet wormwood has received increasing attention due to the fact that the plant produces the sesquiterpenoid endoperoxide artemisinin, which today is widely used for treatment of malaria. The plant produces relatively small amounts of artemisinin and a worldwide shortage of the drug has led to intense research in order to increase the yield of artemisinin. In order to improve our understanding of terpene metabolism in the plant and to evaluate the competition for precursors, which may influence the yield of artemisinin, we have used qPCR to estimate the expression of 14 genes of terpene metabolism in different tissues. Results The four genes of the artemisinin biosynthetic pathway (amorpha-4,11-diene synthase, amorphadiene-12-hydroxylase, artemisinic aldehyde ∆11(13 reductase and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 showed remarkably higher expression (between ~40- to ~500-fold in flower buds and young leaves compared to other tissues (old leaves, stems, roots, hairy root cultures. Further, dihydroartemisinic aldehyde reductase showed a very high expression only in hairy root cultures. Germacrene A and caryophyllene synthase were mostly expressed in young leaves and flower buds while epi-cedrol synthase was highly expressed in old leaves. 3-Hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A reductase exhibited lower expression in old leaves compared to other tissues. Farnesyldiphosphate synthase, squalene synthase, and 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase showed only modest variation in expression in the different tissues, while expression of 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase was 7-8-fold higher in flower buds and young leaves compared to old leaves. Conclusions Four genes of artemisinin biosynthesis were highly expressed in flower buds and young leaves (tissues showing a high density of glandular trichomes. The expression of dihydroartemisinic aldehyde reductase has been suggested to have a

  11. Estimating average glandular dose by measuring glandular rate in mammograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Sachiko; Azuma, Yoshiharu; Sumimoto, Tetsuhiro; Eiho, Shigeru

    2003-01-01

    The glandular rate of the breast was objectively measured in order to calculate individual patient exposure dose (average glandular dose) in mammography. By employing image processing techniques and breast-equivalent phantoms with various glandular rate values, a conversion curve for pixel value to glandular rate can be determined by a neural network. Accordingly, the pixel values in clinical mammograms can be converted to the glandular rate value for each pixel. The individual average glandular dose can therefore be calculated using the individual glandular rates on the basis of the dosimetry method employed for quality control in mammography. In the present study, a data set of 100 craniocaudal mammograms from 50 patients was used to evaluate our method. The average glandular rate and average glandular dose of the data set were 41.2% and 1.79 mGy, respectively. The error in calculating the individual glandular rate can be estimated to be less than ±3%. When the calculation error of the glandular rate is taken into consideration, the error in the individual average glandular dose can be estimated to be 13% or less. We feel that our method for determining the glandular rate from mammograms is useful for minimizing subjectivity in the evaluation of patient breast composition. (author)

  12. Influence of growth regulators on distribution of trichomes and the production of volatiles in micropropagated plants of Plectranthus ornatus

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    Helna C. Passinho-Soares

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The profile of volatile organic compounds, the glandular and non-glandular trichomes of Plectranthus ornatus, obtained by in vitro cultivation, was evaluated in plants grown in Murashide and Skoog medium supplemented with benylaminopurine at 4.5, 9.0, and 18.0 µM + naphthaleneacetic acid at 5.37 µM, kinetin at 4.7, 9.3 and 18.5 µM + naphthaleneacetic acid (5.37 µM or Murashide and Skoog 0 medium (as a control. Scanning Electron Microscopy was performed on samples of the third leaf node of the 90 days old plants obtained from treatment with 4.5 or 9.0 µM benylaminopurine, and 4.7 or 9.3 µM kinetin. Headspace Solid Phase Micro-Extraction of the 30, 60 and 90 days old in vitro plants permitted to determinate by GC/MS the composition comprised of 62 compounds. The data were analyzed using Principal Component Analysis and Hierarchical Clustering Analysis and, the major constituents of these oils after treatment and aging were monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. Morphoanatomical analysis of trichomes, by Scanning Electron Microscopy, enabled the identification of non-glandular trichomes and four types of glandular trichomes, which comprised capitate and peltate glandular trichomes that were distributed on both sides of the leaf. We observed that the regulators influenced qualitative and quantitative profiles of the volatile organic compounds and the number and distribution of hairs on the leaf surface.

  13. A cold-tolerant evergreen interspecific hybrid of Ocimum kilimandscharicum and Ocimum basilicum: analyzing trichomes and molecular variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhawan, Sunita Singh; Shukla, Preeti; Gupta, Pankhuri; Lal, R K

    2016-05-01

    Ocimum (Lamiaceae) is an important source of essential oils and aroma chemicals especially eugenol, methyl eugenol, linalool, methyl chavicol etc. An elite evergreen hybrid has been developed from Ocimum kilimandscharicum and Ocimum basilicum, which demonstrated adaptive behavior towards cold stress. A comparative molecular analysis has been done through RAPD, AFLP, and ISSR among O. basilicum and O. kilimandscharicum and their evergreen cold-tolerant hybrid. The RAPD and AFLP analyses demonstrated similar results, i.e., the hybrid of O. basilicum and O. kilimandscharicum shares the same cluster with O. kilimandscharicum, while O. basilicum behaves as an outgroup, whereas in ISSR analysis, the hybrid genotype grouped in the same cluster with O. basilicum. Ocimum genotypes were analyzed and compared for their trichome density. There were distinct differences on morphology, distribution, and structure between the two kinds of trichomes, i.e., glandular and non-glandular. Glandular trichomes contain essential oils, polyphenols, flavonoids, and acid polysaccharides. Hair-like trichomes, i.e., non-glandular trichomes, help in keeping the frost away from the living surface cells. O. basilicum showed less number of non-glandular trichomes on leaves compared to O. kilimandscharicum and the evergreen cold-tolerant hybrid. Trichomes were analyzed in O. kilimandscharicum, O. basilicum, and their hybrid. An increased proline content at the biochemical level represents a higher potential to survive in a stress condition like cold stress. In our analysis, the proline content is quite higher in tolerant variety O. kilimandscharicum, low in susceptible variety O. basilicum, and intermediate in the hybrid. Gene expression analysis was done in O. basilicum, O. kilimandscharicum and their hybrid for TTG1, GTL1, and STICHEL gene locus which regulates trichome development and its formation and transcription factors WRKY and MPS involved in the regulation of plant responses to freezing

  14. Ecological distribution of leaf stomata and trichomes among tree species in a Malaysian lowland tropical rain forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichie, Tomoaki; Inoue, Yuta; Takahashi, Narumi; Kamiya, Koichi; Kenzo, Tanaka

    2016-07-01

    The vertical structure of a tropical rain forest is complex and multilayered, with strong variation of micro-environment with height up to the canopy. We investigated the relation between morphological traits of leaf surfaces and tree ecological characteristics in a Malaysian tropical rain forest. The shapes and densities of stomata and trichomes on the abaxial leaf surfaces and their relation with leaf characteristics such as leaf area and leaf mass per area (LMA) were studied in 136 tree species in 35 families with different growth forms in the tropical moist forest. Leaf physiological properties were also measured in 50 canopy and emergent species. Most tree species had flat type (40.4 %) or mound type (39.7 %) stomata. In addition, 84 species (61.76 %) in 22 families had trichomes, including those with glandular (17.65 %) and non-glandular trichomes (44.11 %). Most leaf characteristics significantly varied among the growth form types: species in canopy and emergent layers and canopy gap conditions had higher stomatal density, stomatal pore index (SPI), trichome density and LMA than species in understory and subcanopy layers, though the relation of phylogenetically independent contrasts to each characteristic was not statistically significant, except for leaf stomatal density, SPI and LMA. Intrinsic water use efficiency in canopy and emergent tree species with higher trichome densities was greater than in species with lower trichome densities. These results suggest that tree species in tropical rain forests adapt to a spatial difference in their growth forms, which are considerably affected by phylogenetic context, by having different stomatal and trichome shapes and/or densities.

  15. Trichome morphology in Teucrium L. (Labiatae. A taxonomic review

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    Navarro, Teresa

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The micromorphology of trichomes of 56 Teucrium L. species belonging to the 9 sections of the genus in the Mediterranean área was surveyed by scanning electrón microscopy (SEM of leaves, calyx, corolla and nutlets. 25 trichome types are described, 12 of them are new. Thin walled hairs are the exclusive type found in the corolla and are the most widespread type on the abaxial side of the leaves. Subsessile glandular hairs, 2-4-celled, are found on the nutlet and leaves of the semi-shrubby and paleoendemic species. The presence of short or elongated, generally adpressed simple thick-walled slighüy conical hairs provides an additional character to clarify the boundaries between sect. Chamedrys (Mill. Schreb, and sect. Polium (Mill. Schreb. Branched non-glandular hairs are confined to sect. Polium subsect Polium, except for the rare branched hair conical and thick-walled type found in Teucrium barbarum Jahand. & Maire (sect. Chamaedrys and T. heterophyllum L`Hér. from sect. Teucrium. This last section is well defined by the absence of simple slighüy conical thick-walled hairs and the glandular hairs in the corolla. Sect. Teucriopsis Benth, is of particular interest for the exclusive presence of branched and peltate glandular hairs on the nutlets surface. Sect. Chamedrys is a homogeneous group, distinguished from the other sections by an indumentum formed only by trichomes types evolved from the simple slighüy conical thick-walled hairs. This section overlaps, in the presence of glandular sub-sessile hair on the nutlets surface, with sects. Isotriodon Boiss, and sect. Polium subsect. Rotundifolia Cohén ex Valdés Berm. & Sánchez Crespo. The trichomes type of the calyx teeth, abaxial side of the leaf and latero-posterior corolla lobes can be used as a distinctive taxonomic character at specific and infra-specific level. This study supports Bentham's delimitaüon of sections with the addiüons subequently made by Boissier.La micromorfología de

  16. Relação entre zingibereno, tricomas foliares e repelência de tomateiros a Tetranychus evansi Relationship between zingiberene, foliar trichomes and repellence of tomato plant to Tetranychus evansi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Donizete Gonçalves

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi quantificar os teores de zingibereno em populações segregantes (F2 do segundo retrocruzamento para Lycopersicon esculentum a partir da espécie selvagem L. hirsutum var. hirsutum, e verificar a relação entre estes teores e a densidade de tricomas glandulares e a repelência a Tetranychus evansi. Na quantificação do zingibereno, utilizou-se um método espectrofotométrico; os tricomas foram contados a partir de cortes paradérmicos e a resistência a ácaros foi avaliada por um bioteste de repelência. A seleção indireta quanto ao teor de zingibereno promoveu aumentos correlacionados no número de tricomas glandulares e na repelência ao ácaro, e o zingibereno nos tricomas glandulares participou efetivamente na resistência aos ácaros. A densidade de tricomas glandulares influencia de maneira determinante os teores de zingibereno, sendo que o tricoma tipo VI destacou-se por apresentar alta correlação com este aleloquímico. Os teores de zingibereno e a sua relação com tricomas glandulares e com a resistência a artrópodos-pragas se mantiveram ao longo dos retrocruzamentos, evidenciando a possibilidade de obtenção de plantas resistentes via seleção indireta para alto teor de zingibereno nos folíolos.The objective of this work was to quantify zingiberene contents in a segregating population (F2 of the second backcross generation to Lycopersicon esculentum after the initial cross with the wild species L. hirsutum var. hirsutum, and to analyse the relationship between zingiberene and both glandular trichome density on tomato leaves and levels of repellence to spider mites Tetranychus evansi. A spectrophotometric assay was used to quantify zingiberene in leaf disks. Trichome counting was made in paradermic preparations of leaf and mite repellence was accessed by a quick thumbtack assay. Indirect selection for high zingiberene contents increased both glandular trichome density and the level of mite

  17. A comparative analysis of stomata and leaf trichome characteristics in Quercus robur L. genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Nataša P.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine genotype variability of leaf trichome and stoma characteristics. Leaves were sampled from seventeen pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L genotypes originating from clonal seed orchard Banov Brod (Srem, the Vojvodina Province. The pedunculate oak has hypostomatal leaves. Statistically significant differences were found for the dimensions and density of stomata. Genotype variability of stomatal dimensions was less pronounced in comparison with their density (CV = 8.88%. Stomata number ranged from 530 to 791 per mm2 of leaf area; genotypes 18 and 25 could be distinguished from the others for the highest stomata number per leaf unit area, genotype 35 for the lowest number. In all genotypes, only solitary eglandular trichomes were observed on the adaxial leaf surface while both solitary eglandular and uniseriate glandular hairs were present on the abaxial surface. Single glandular trichomes were observed in all genotypes, while some of them were characterized by the presence of two (genotypes 4, 5, 6, 16, 22, 25, 28, 29, 30, 35, 38, 40, and 85 or three (genotypes 16, 25, 35 hairs joined by their basal cells.

  18. Tipos de tricomas em genótipos de Lycopersicon Types of trichomes in Lycopersicon genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana C. Toscano

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Foram identificados os tipos de tricomas em alguns genótipos de Lycopersicon, utilizando microscópio eletrônico de varredura. Foram utilizados os genótipos L. hirsutum (PI 127826 e PI 127827, L. hirsutum var. glabratum (PI 134417, L. pennellii (LA 716 e L. esculentum (híbrido Bruna VFN e Santa Clara. Os tricomas glandulares encontrados foram tipo IV em LA 716, PI 127826, PI 127827 e PI 134417; tipo VIc em PI 127826, PI 127827, PI 134417 e Santa Clara; tipo VII em PI 127826, PI 127827 e PI 134417; tipo I em PI 127826, PI 127827, PI 134417, híbrido Bruna VFN e Santa Clara; tipo VIa em híbrido Bruna VFN. Os tricomas não glandulares observados foram: tipo Va em PI 127826, PI 127827, PI 134417, híbrido Bruna VFN e Santa Clara; VIII em híbrido Bruna VNF e os tipos III e Vb em Santa Clara.The types of trichomes in some Lycopersicon genotypes were identified using the scanning electron microscope. The tomato genotypes observed were L. hirsutum (PI 127826 and PI 127827, L. hirsutum f. glabratum (PI 134417, L. pennellii (LA 716 and L. esculentum (Bruna VFN hybrid and Santa Clara. The following glandular trichomes were found: type IV in LA 716, PI 127826, PI 127827 and PI 134417; type VIc in PI 127826, PI 127827, PI 134417 and Santa Clara; type VII in PI 127826, PI 127827 and PI 134417; type I in PI 127826, PI 127827, PI 134417 , Bruna VFN hybrid and Santa Clara; type VIa in Bruna VFN hybrid. The following nonglandular trichomes were observed: type Va in PI 127826, PI 127827, PI 134417, Bruna VFN Hybrid and Santa Clara; type VIII in Bruna VNF hybrid and types III and Vb in Santa Clara.

  19. Seed trichome variation in Hibiscus section Furcaria in East Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The micromorphology of the seed trichomes in Hibiscus section Furcaria in Tropical East Africa was surveyed. The structure of the trichomes was found to be unique for each species examined, where such trichomes are present. Seed trichomes of specimens of H. altissimus Horny from the Kenya and Tanzania coasts were ...

  20. EST analysis and annotation of transcripts derived from a trichome-specific cDNA library from Salvia fruticosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzopoulou, Fani M; Makris, Antonios M; Argiriou, Anagnostis; Degenhardt, Jörg; Kanellis, Angelos K

    2010-05-01

    Greek sage (Salvia fruticosa Mill., Syn. Salvia triloba L.) is appreciated for its essential oil which is used as an aromatic spice and active against a wide range of microorganisms and viruses. The essential oil is dominated by terpenoids and flavonoids which are produced and stored in glandular trichomes on the plant surface. The present study aims to give insights into the metabolic activities of S. fruticosa trichomes on a transcriptome level. A total of 2,304 clones were sequenced from a cDNA library from leaves' trichomes of S. fruticosa. Exclusion of sequences shorter than 100 bp resulted in 1,615 high-quality ESTs with a mean length of 592 bp. Cluster analysis indicated the presence of 197 contigs (908 clones) and 707 singletons, generating a total of 904 unique sequences. Of the 904 unique ESTs, 628 (69.5%) had significant hits in the non-redundant protein database and were annotated. A total of 517 (82.3%) sequences were functionally classified using the gene ontologies (GO) and established pathway associations to 220 (24.3%) sequences in Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG). In addition, 52 (5.8%) of the unique ESTs revealed a GO biological term with relation to terpenoid (78 ESTs), phenylpropanoid (43 ESTs), flavonoid (18 ESTs) or alkaloid (10 ESTs) biosynthesis or to P450s (26 ESTs). Expression analysis of a selected set of genes known to be involved in the pathways of secondary metabolite synthesis showed higher expression levels in trichomes, validating the tissue specificity of the analyzed glandular trichome library.

  1. Biosynthesis and localization of parthenolide in glandular trichomes of feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium L. Schulz Bip.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Majdi, M.; Liu, Q.; Karimzadeh, G.; Malboobi, M.A.; Beekwilder, J.; Cankar, K.; Vos, de C.H.; Todorovic, S.; Simonovic, A.; Bouwmeester, H.J.

    2011-01-01

    Feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium) is a perennial medicinal herb and is a rich source of sesquiterpene lactones. Parthenolide is the main sesquiterpene lactone in feverfew and has attracted attention because of its medicinal potential for treatment of migraine and cancer. In the present work the

  2. Litterae annuae Provinciae Bohemiae (1623-1755)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bobková, Kateřina

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 1 (2010), s. 23-49 ISSN 0231-7494 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA800150902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80150510 Keywords : church history * litterae annuae * Jesuits Subject RIV: AB - History

  3. MICRO PROPAGATION OF WORMWOOD ( Artemisia annua L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. A study was carried out to determine the effect of varying concentrations of some plant growth hormones on the in vitro propagation of Artemisia annua from leaf primordial in the Biotechnology. Laboratory of Plant Science Department of Ahmadu. Bello University, Zaria. Leaf primordial from a. Chinyong variety ...

  4. Microbicidal effect of solar radiation (sodis) combined with artemisia annua

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz-Restrepo, Mariana; Orrego-Mejia, Leidy Viviana; Muñoz-Arango, Diana Carolina; Lozano-Andrade, Carlos Neftaly; Guzman-Ortiz, Diana Carolina; Escobar-Restrepo, Maria Cecilia; Arcos-Arango, Yamilet; Aguirre-Ramirez, Nestor Jaime; Lutgen, Pierre; Mejia-Ruiz, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates the SODIS and SODIS method combined with Artemisia annua (SODIS+A. annua) as an alternative for water disinfection in communities without access to potable water. The efficiency of the method in removing E. coli, B. subtilis, E. faecalis and S. typhimurium was determined using PET bottles with sterile distilled water and an initial concentration of 1x106 UFC/ml of each microorganism. For SODIS+A. annua a 10% (v/v) infusion of A. annua was added; the bottles were exposed t...

  5. Artemesia annua extract prevents glyoxal-induced cell injury in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of Artemesia annua extract on glyoxal-induced injury in retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRECs). Methods: HRECs were cultured in a medium containing 500 μM glyoxal or glyoxal plus 50μM Artemesia annua extract, or in the medium alone for 24 h. Apoptosis was analysed by flow ...

  6. Assessment of the effect of Artemisia annua leave extract infusion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In monospecific culture condition, the extract of A. annua seemed to appear as a source of carbon and energy for bacteria growth. In mixed cultures the influence of pH in the presence of the extract of A. annua in the dark seemed to foster trophic relations among bacteria in some cases and stimulate the production of ...

  7. Proteomic snapshot of spearmint (Mentha spicata L.) leaf trichomes: a genuine terpenoid factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, Antoine; Boutry, Marc

    2013-11-01

    Peltate glandular trichomes from Mentha spicata were purified on a Percoll gradient and soluble and membrane proteins were trypsinized and the peptides were separated by nano-LC fractionation and analyzed by MALDI-MS/MS. The vast majority of the 1666 proteins identified were housekeeping proteins or involved in the primary metabolism. However, 57 were predicted to be involved in the secondary metabolism. Of these, 21 were involved in the synthesis of phenylpropanoids and phenolics and 32 in terpenoid synthesis. Of the 14 membrane transporters identified, the 11 ATP-binding cassette transporters provide good material for assessing whether active transport is required for the transfer of monoterpenoid intermediates between cellular compartments and for the secretion of the final products into the subcuticular storage cavity. In conclusion, this proteome analysis of M. spicata peltate trichomes has identified several candidate proteins that might be involved in terpenoid synthesis and transport. The data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000352 (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD000352). © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Taxonomic significance of trichomes micromorphology in cucurbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohammad Ajmal; Al-Hemaid, Fahad M.A.

    2010-01-01

    Studies on trichomes micromorphology using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) were undertaken in 23 species with one variety under 13 genera of the family Cucurbitaceae (viz., Benincasa hispida (Thunb.) Cogn., Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai, Cucumis melo var. agrestis Naudin, Cucumis sativus L., Diplocyclos palmatus (L.) C. Jeffrey, Edgaria dargeelingensis C.B. Clarke, Gynostemma burmanicum King ex Chakr., Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino, Gynostemma pubescens (Gagnep.) C.Y. Wu, Hemsleya dipterygia Kuang & A.M. Lu, Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl., Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb., Luffa cylindrica M. Roem., Luffa echinata Roxb., Melothria heterophylla (Lour.) Cogn., Melothria leucocarpa (Blume) Cogn., Melothria maderspatana (L.) Cogn., Sechium edule (Jacq.) Sw., Thladiantha cordifolia (Blume) Cogn., Trichosanthes cucumerina L., T. cucumerina var. anguina (L.) Haines, Trichosanthes dioica Roxb., Trichosanthes lepiniana (Naudin) Cogn. and T. tricuspidata Lour.). The trichomes in the family Cucurbitaceae vary from unicellular to multicellular, conical to elongated, smooth to ridges, with or without flattened disk at base and cyctolithic appendages, thin to thick walled, curved at apices to blunt. Trichomes micromorphology in the family Cucurbitaceae was found significant taxonomically. PMID:23961108

  9. Taxonomic significance of trichomes micromorphology in cucurbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohammad Ajmal; Al-Hemaid, Fahad M A

    2011-01-01

    Studies on trichomes micromorphology using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) were undertaken in 23 species with one variety under 13 genera of the family Cucurbitaceae (viz., Benincasa hispida (Thunb.) Cogn., Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai, Cucumis melo var. agrestis Naudin, Cucumis sativus L., Diplocyclos palmatus (L.) C. Jeffrey, Edgaria dargeelingensis C.B. Clarke, Gynostemma burmanicum King ex Chakr., Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino, Gynostemma pubescens (Gagnep.) C.Y. Wu, Hemsleya dipterygia Kuang & A.M. Lu, Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl., Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb., Luffa cylindrica M. Roem., Luffa echinata Roxb., Melothria heterophylla (Lour.) Cogn., Melothria leucocarpa (Blume) Cogn., Melothria maderspatana (L.) Cogn., Sechium edule (Jacq.) Sw., Thladiantha cordifolia (Blume) Cogn., Trichosanthes cucumerina L., T. cucumerina var. anguina (L.) Haines, Trichosanthes dioica Roxb., Trichosanthes lepiniana (Naudin) Cogn. and T. tricuspidata Lour.). The trichomes in the family Cucurbitaceae vary from unicellular to multicellular, conical to elongated, smooth to ridges, with or without flattened disk at base and cyctolithic appendages, thin to thick walled, curved at apices to blunt. Trichomes micromorphology in the family Cucurbitaceae was found significant taxonomically.

  10. Hydathode trichomes actively secreting water from leaves play a key role in the physiology and evolution of root-parasitic rhinanthoid Orobanchaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Světlíková, Petra; Hájek, Tomáš; Těšitel, Jakub

    2015-07-01

    Root hemiparasites from the rhinanthoid clade of Orobanchaceae possess metabolically active glandular trichomes that have been suggested to function as hydathode trichomes actively secreting water, a process that may facilitate resource acquisition from the host plant's root xylem. However, no direct evidence relating the trichomes to water secretion exists, and carbon budgets associated with this energy-demanding process have not been determined. Macro- and microscopic observations of the leaves of hemiparasitic Rhinanthus alectorolophus were conducted and night-time gas exchange was measured. Correlations were examined among the intensity of guttation, respiration and transpiration, and analysis of these correlations allowed the carbon budget of the trichome activity to be quantified. We examined the intensity of guttation, respiration and transpiration, correlations among which indicate active water secretion. Guttation was observed on the leaves of 50 % of the young, non-flowering plants that were examined, and microscopic observations revealed water secretion from the glandular trichomes present on the abaxial leaf side. Night-time rates of respiration and transpiration and the presence of guttation drops were positively correlated, which is a clear indicator of hydathode trichome activity. Subsequent physiological measurements on older, flowering plants indicated neither intense guttation nor the presence of correlations, which suggests that the peak activity of hydathodes is in the juvenile stage. This study provides the first unequivocal evidence for the physiological role of the hydathode trichomes in active water secretion in the rhinanthoid Orobanchaceae. Depending on the concentration of organic elements calculated to be in the host xylem sap, the direct effect of water secretion on carbon balance ranges from close to neutral to positive. However, it is likely to be positive in the xylem-only feeding holoparasites of the genus Lathraea, which is closely

  11. Characterization of element and mineral content in Artemisia annua ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterization of element and mineral content in Artemisia annua and Camellia sinensis leaves by handheld X-ray fluorescence. Traore Alassane, Diallo Mouhamadou, Gueye Papa El Hadji Omar, Wague Ahmadou, Lutgen Pierre, Sarr Ousmane, Mboup Souleymane ...

  12. Stimulation of artemisinin biosynthesis in Artemisia annua hairy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-06-07

    . Hairy root (HR3) of A. annua was used in this study, which was routinely ... H2O2 generation. H2O2 production from elicited hairy roots was measured by chemiluminescence method (Hu et al., 2003). The luminescence.

  13. BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE COMPOUNDS OF ARTEMISIA ANNUA. SESQUITERPENE LACTONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Konovalov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia annua is an herblike annual plant which has been used in Chinese folk medicine for more than 2,000 years. In 1970-s sesquiterpene lactones of artemisinin was isolated from the aboveground part of this plant. Today it is the most efficient known natural and synthetic compound for malaria treatment.The purpose of the study was the review of the information from the open sources about the study for sesquiterpene lactones of Artemisia annua referring to its pharmacological activity.Methods. The study was carried out using informational and search engines (PubMed, ScholarGoogle, library databases (eLibrary, Cyberleninca, and the results of our own researches.Results. It was established that apart from the essential oil and phenolic compounds, aboveground part of Artemisia annua, it contains a significant amount of sesquiterpene lactones. Qualitative content and quantitative composition of sesquiterpene lactones varies depending on the ecological and geographic factors, plants growing phase, cultivation technology, drying methods etc. Well-known pharmacological studies of the extracts from Artemisia annua herb with sesquiterpene lactones, as well as individual compounds of this group characterize this type of raw materials as a perspective source for more profound research.Conclusion. Our analysis of the open materials on the sesquiterpene lactones of Artemisia annua, including phytochemical and pharmacological ones, allows characterization of the Artemisia annua herb as a perspective source for new drugs working out.

  14. Immunohistochemical characterization of glandular elements in glandular cardiac myxoma: Study of six cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devajit Nath

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Back ground: Glandular cardiac myxoma has varying clinical presentation with uncertain histogenesis and debatable immunohistochemical profile. Glandular epithelial differentiations are rare phenomenon known to be present as an intrinsic component of the tumor. The origin of the glands has been attributed to epithelial differentiation of a totipotent cardiomyogenic precursor cells or the entrapped foregut rests in the tumor. Materials and Methods: Retrospective study includes six cases of glandular cardiac myxoma collected over a perior of 4 years. Sections were examined to define the histogenesis, histological and immunohistochemical profile of the glandular elements. Results: Incidence of glandular cardiac myxoma was 6.6% with a male to female ratio of 1:2.Mean age was 49.9 years. Left atrium was the commonest site. Five were sporadic and one was familial. Chest pain and dyspnea were the commonest clinical symptoms. Histologically all myxoma showed well formed glandular structures with typical myxomatous area. No atypia, mitosis or necrosis was identified in the glandular elements. Markers in six cases of glandular cardiac myxoma were immunopositive for CK7, CK 19, EMA, CEA, focally for E-cadherin while immunonegative for CK20, Chromogranin, Synaptophysin, calretenin, vimentin, B-catenin, TTF-1 and GCDFP-15 favoring enteric differentiation. Conclusion: Glandular cardiac myxoma is a rare entity which shows characteristics similar to those of classical cardiac myxoma with benign glandular elements showing enteric differentiation. Complete surgical excision is the treatment of choice with good prognosis. It is important to recognize this entity to avoid an erroneous diagnosis of metastatic adenocarcinoma.

  15. Ultrastructure of hydathode trichomes of hemiparasitic Rhinanthus alectorolophus and Odontites vernus: how important is their role in physiology and evolution of parasitism in Orobanchaceae?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Těšitel, J; Tesařová, M

    2013-01-01

    The Rhinanthoid clade of the family Orobanchaceae comprises plants displaying a hemiparasitic or holoparasitic strategy of resource acquisition. Some of its species (mainly Rhinanthus spp.) are often used as models for studies of hemiparasite physiology. Although there is a well-developed concept covering their physiological processes, most recent studies have neglected the existence of hydathode trichomes present on leaves of these hemiparasitic plants. As a first step for the proposed integration of these structures in the theory of physiological processes of the hemiparasites, we described the outer micromorphology and ultrastructure of the hydathode trichomes on leaves of hemiparasitic Rhinanthus alectorolophus and Odontites vernus with scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM, respectively). The TEM inspections of both types of trichome revealed typical ultrastructural features: labyrinthine cell wall, high content of cytoplasm in cells with numerous mitochondria and presence of plasmodesmata. All these features indicate high metabolic activity complying with their function as glandular trichomes actively secreting water. The active secretion of water by the hydathode trichomes (evidence for which is summarised here) also presents a possible mechanism explaining results of previous gas exchange measurements detecting high dark respiration and transpiration rates and a tight inter-correlation between them in hemiparasitic Orobanchaceae. In addition, this process is hypothesised to have allowed multiple evolutionary transitions from facultative to obligate hemiparasitism and unique xylem-feeding holoparasitism of Lathraea with a long-lived underground stage featuring a rhizome covered by scales of leaf origin. © 2012 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  16. BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE COMPOUNDS OF ARTEMISIA ANNUA. ESSENTIAL OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Konovalov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia annua is a herblike annual plant which has been used in Chinese folk medicine for more than 2,000 years. In 1970-s sesquiterpenic lactone of artemisinin was isolated from the above-ground part of this plant. Today it is the most efficient known natural and synthetic compound for malaria treatment. The purpose of the study was to review the data from the open sources about a component composition of Artemisia annua essential oil in the spectrum of its pharmacological activity. Methods. The study was carried out using information and searching sources (PubMed, ScholarGoogle, library data bases (eLibrary, Cyberleninca, as well as the results of our studies. Results. We have established that aboveground part of Artemisia annua have a significant amount  of essential oil apart from the sesquiterpene lactones. Essential oil contains more than 120 components, which belong to different classes of natural compounds. The study for dynamics of the essential oil accumulation in the Artemisia annua herb showed that the amount of oil in the herb rises significantly during budding, reaching maximum value in blossom. Qualitative composition and quantitative content of certain components varies depending on ecological and  geographical factors,  plant growing phase, cultivation technology, drying methods etc. Well-known pharmacological studies of essential oil of the Artemisia annua characterize it as a prospective source for the development of new antimicrobial medicinal drugs. Besides, as the studies shown, it can be related to the 6 class according to K. Sidorov’s classification – “relatively non-hazardous substances”. Conclusion. The analysis of the open sources on the study of essential oil of Artemisia annua made by us, as well as the results of our own studies, including phytochemical studies allow characterizing the essential oil of Artemisia annua as a prospective source for the working out of new antimicrobial drugs.

  17. gynaecomastia: management with liposuction and glandular excision

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    East African Medical Journal Vol 88 No. 6 June 2011. GYNAECOMASTIA: MANAGEMENT WITH LIPOSUCTION AND GLANDULAR EXCISION. S. O. Khainga, MBChB, MMed Surg, FCS (Plast) FCS(COSECSA), Senior Lecturer, Department of Plastic Surgery, College of. Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P. O. Box ...

  18. Artemisinin production and precursor ratio in full grown Artemisia annua L. plants subjected to external stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Anders; Verstappen, Francel; Bouwmeester, Harro

    2013-01-01

    Cl solutions. Contents of AN-related compounds (AN-c) were analysed in leaf samples from an upper and a lower position of the plants, and GT were quantified and measured. In lower leaves, several stress treatments had significant negative effects on concentrations of AN-c, whereas the ratios between compounds...... was examined on the concentrations of AN and its immediate precursors in leaves, and these concentrations were related to densities and sizes of the glandular trichomes (GT). Plants were stress treated weekly five times by sandblasting or spraying with salicylic acid, chitosan oligosaccharide, H2O2, and Na...... showed an increased conversion to AN. In the upper leaves, no changes were observed compared to controls. Linear relations were found between the concentrations of metabolites and the density of GT in both upper and lower leaves, and size of GT in lower leaves. Results suggested that older and younger...

  19. Characterization of two genes for the biosynthesis of abietane-type diterpenes in rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) glandular trichomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brückner, K.; Bozic, D.; Manzano, D.; Papaefthimiou, D.; Pateraki, I.; Scheler, U.; Ferrer, A.; Vos, de R.C.H.; Kanellis, A.K.; Tissier, A.

    2014-01-01

    Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) produces the phenolic diterpenes carnosic acid and carnosol, which, in addition to their general antioxidant activities, have recently been suggested as potential ingredients for the prevention and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Little is known about the

  20. Papanicolaou tests with coexisting squamous and glandular abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khor, Li Yan; Abdul-Karim, Fadi W; Bruening, Amanda E; Weber Noffsinger, Dana K; Booth, Christine N

    2014-08-01

    Papanicolaou (Pap) test interpretations of atypical glandular cells are associated with subsequent detection of squamous and, less often, glandular malignancies. A Pap test with a combined interpretation of squamous and glandular atypia indicates concern for either 2 distinct lesions (both squamous and glandular) or involvement of cervical squamous and glandular epithelium by a single pathologic process. Dual interpretations can potentially guide patient management. This retrospective study describes an institutional experience with Pap test dual reporting of squamous and glandular atypia and patient follow-up in these cases. Following institutional review board approval, a search of the anatomic pathology database for Pap tests with both atypical squamous and atypical glandular interpretations from January 2005 to December 2010 was performed. Other recorded data included: prior history, age, human papillomavirus (HPV) status, and most severe follow-up histologic diagnosis. Of 361,953 Pap tests interpreted in the laboratory during this period, a total of 230 (0.06%) patients with dual interpretation Pap tests and follow-up were identified. Follow-up pathology results on these patients were predominantly squamous lesions (51.7%). Glandular lesions only were detected in 14 cases (6.1%). Nine (3.9%) patients had both squamous and glandular pathology. Over a 6-year period, dual Pap test interpretations with both squamous and glandular atypia were more often associated with squamous than glandular lesions. Dual interpretations did identify coexisting squamous and glandular lesions. However, the number of cases was small. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  1. Dietary inclusion of dried Artemisia annua leaves for management of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coccidiosis constitutes a major problem in poultry rearing. Recourse to the use of prophylactic chemotherapy, for example, is only a short-term solution. Ostensibly, the drugs used are effective but they are also expensive. In the present study, the influence of adding dried Artemisia annua L. leaves as a botanical coccidistat ...

  2. Efficient method for Agrobacterium mediated transformation of Artemisia annua L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Pravej; Mohammad, Anis; Ahmad, M M; Khan, Mather Ali; Nadeem, Mohd; Khan, Riyazuddeen; Akmal, Mohd; Ahlawat, Seema; Abdin, M Z

    2014-01-01

    Artemisinin, a potent antimalarial natural products isolated from aerial parts of Artemisia annua L. Many patents have been reported that the demand for artemisinin is exponentially increasing year after year due to increased incidences of drug resistant malaria throughout the world. Leaf explants were used frequently as target tissue to generate transgenic of Artemisia. annua L. However, obtaining a large number of transgenic lines through out the year is a laborious and delicate process. To circumvent this, we have developed a highly efficient leaf explant based Agrobacterium mediated transformation of A. annua L. plant. The gus gene was used as screenable marker to assess and optimize the performance of T-DNA delivery. The age of explant, kind of bacterial inoculation, suspension duration, infection times and co-culture conditions were optimized. The co-culture was carried out with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 under desiccation condition in the dark at 25-28 0C for 2-4 days. Complete analysis of transgene insertion demonstrated that the optimized method of transformation from leaf explants of A. annua L. was efficient and highly reproducible.

  3. Dried whole plant Artemisia annua as an antimalarial therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa A Elfawal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Drugs are primary weapons for reducing malaria in human populations. However emergence of resistant parasites has repeatedly curtailed the lifespan of each drug that is developed and deployed. Currently the most effective anti-malarial is artemisinin, which is extracted from the leaves of Artemisia annua. Due to poor pharmacokinetic properties and prudent efforts to curtail resistance to monotherapies, artemisinin is prescribed only in combination with other anti-malarials composing an Artemisinin Combination Therapy (ACT. Low yield in the plant, and the added cost of secondary anti-malarials in the ACT, make artemisinin costly for the developing world. As an alternative, we compared the efficacy of oral delivery of the dried leaves of whole plant (WP A. annua to a comparable dose of pure artemisinin in a rodent malaria model (Plasmodium chabaudi. We found that a single dose of WP (containing 24 mg/kg artemisinin reduces parasitemia more effectively than a comparable dose of purified drug. This increased efficacy may result from a documented 40-fold increase in the bioavailability of artemisinin in the blood of mice fed the whole plant, in comparison to those administered synthetic drug. Synergistic benefits may derive from the presence of other anti-malarial compounds in A. annua. If shown to be clinically efficacious, well-tolerated, and compatible with the public health imperative of forestalling evolution of drug resistance, inexpensive, locally grown and processed A. annua might prove to be an effective addition to the global effort to reduce malaria morbidity and mortality.

  4. Characterization of element and mineral content in Artemisia annua ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr DIALLO

    2013-06-26

    Jun 26, 2013 ... Tea infusion is the most frequently worldwide consumed beverage next to water, with about 20 billion cups consumed daily. Artemisia annua leaves contain comparable levels of nutrients and mineral elements (dry matter basis) to many marketed tea (Camellia sinensis) leading us to suspect that this.

  5. Pseudomonas fluorescens strains selectively suppress annual bluegrass (Poa annua L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annual bluegrass (Poa annua L.) is a cool-season annual grass that is a major weed species in turf, turfgrass-seed production, sod production, and golf courses of the western United States. There are few selective herbicides available for the management of annual bluegrass. While the life cycles o...

  6. Dietary inclusion of dried Artemisia annua leaves for management of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-19

    Nov 19, 2008 ... respectively, were also evaluated. In untreated broilers, trophozoites increased an average of four-fold over 84 days. Inhibition of parasite growth in birds fed with rations containing A. annua leaves was observed just like with a commercial anticoccidial therapy. In addition, there was a higher feed intake.

  7. Glucosinolates are produced in trichomes of Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning eFrerigmann

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Glucosinolates are important plant secondary metabolites in plant resistance to herbivors, bacteria and fungi, which have been shown to be accumulating in different organs and tissue types at varying concentrations. There are more than 200 glucosinolate species found in order Brassicales and presence of these compounds is well documented on organ-specific but not on cell-specific level. We used UPLC/ESI-QTOF-MS to measure the presence of glucosinolates and qRT-PCR to analyse the expression of glucosinolate biosynthetic and regulatory genes in isolated A. thaliana trichomes. Trichomes of A. thaliana are shown to synthesize chemoprotective aliphatic and indolic glucosinolates, which are known for their biological activities against fungi, bacterial pathogens or herbivores. UPLC/ESI-QTOF-MS analysis of various indolic glucosinolate mutants reveal increased or decreased levels of indolic glucosinolates in trichomes of gain- and loss-of-function mutants correspondingly. Using pMYB51/HIG1-uidA and pMYB28/PMG1/HAG1-uidA reporter plants we demonstrate that production of these important compounds is activated in trichomes of leaves or inflorescences in response to wounding. Since trichoimes represent the first interface in plant-environment interactions, the possible role of glucosinolate containing trichomes in plant defense or signaling is discussed.

  8. Clade-specific positive selection on a developmental gene: BRANCHLESS TRICHOME and the evolution of stellate trichomes in Physaria (Brassicaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazie, Abigail R; Baum, David A

    2016-07-01

    Positive selection is known to drive the evolution of genes involved in evolutionary arms races, but what role does it play in the evolution of genes involved in developmental processes? We used the single-celled epidermal trichomes of Brassicaceae as a model to uncover the molecular evolutionary processes that contributed to the transition from dendritic trichomes, as seen in most species of Brassicaceae, to the distinctive stellate trichomes of the genus Physaria. We explored the role of positive selection on the evolution of BRANCHLESS TRICHOME (BLT), a candidate gene for changes in trichome branching pattern. Maximum likelihood models of codon evolution point to a shift in selective pressure affecting the evolution of BLT across the entire Physaria clade, and we found strong evidence that positive selection has acted on a subset of Physaria BLT codons. Almost all of the 10 codon sites with the highest probability of having evolved under positive selection are clustered in a predicted coiled-coil domain, pointing to changes in protein-protein interactions. Thus, our findings suggest that selection acted on BLT to modify its interactions with other proteins. The fact that positive selection occurred throughout the radiation of Physaria could reflect selection to stabilize development in response to an abrupt switch from the dendritic form to the stellate form, divergent selection for diversification of the stellate form, or both. These results point to the need for evolutionary developmental studies of BLT and its interacting proteins in Physaria. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Mean glandular dose for different angles of the X-ray tube using different glandularity phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, B.B.; Nogueira, M.S.

    2014-01-01

    Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is a three-dimensional radiographic technique that is beginning to be used as part of an imaging diagnostic program in some of Brazilian clinical practices. Studies are needed to evaluate the performance and to determine the radiation dose of patients that are undergoing this new procedure. The aim of this work is to present results of the mean glandular dose (D G ) for different angles of the X-ray tube using a computed radiography (CR) mammography unit and different glandularity standard breast phantoms. D G values were derived from measurements of the incident air kerma (K i ) and tabulated conversion coefficients that are dependent on the half-value layer (HVL) of the X-ray spectrum. Irradiations were done in a 3000 Nova model Siemens MAMMOMAT mammography unit with the X-ray tube angle ranging from −30° to 30°. The protocol with 28 kV was used for Mo/Mo combination. The distance between focus and the 90×5–6 M model Radcal ionization chamber was 60.5 cm and the tube loading (P It ) used was 50 mA s. Exposures were done for D G determination using the semi-automatic exposure control mode and the 45 mm Computerized Imaging Reference Systems, Inc phantoms which approximately simulate a standard breast with glandularities of 0, 30, 50, 70 and 100%. D G values ranged from 1.3±0.1 to 7.6±0.7 mGy. The results are in according to the reference level of 3 mGy established by the International Basic Safety Standards (BSS115) to breast with 45 mm of thickness, 50% of glandularity and for the X-ray tube positioned in 0°. The results showed that D G increases with the glandularity and with the rotation of the X-ray tube. This work contributes to begin in Brazil the dosimetry in DBT equipments using different protocols and target/filter combinations. - Highlights: ► Glandularity phantoms and a computed radiography mammography unit were used. ► Results were calculated from the incident air kerma and conversion coefficients.

  10. Isolasi Dan Identifikasi Senyawa Kumarin Dari Tanaman Artemisia Annua (L).

    OpenAIRE

    Isnawati, Ani; Mudahar, Harfia; Kamilatunisah, Kamilatunisah

    2008-01-01

    The invention of new entity from plant was the basic step for chemistry and another sciences development, such as: pharmacy, biology, and medical. Besides that, it is needed to fulfill people needs on food, medicine, cosmetics, etc. Coumarine is fenilpropanoid that has biological activity to stimulate skin pigmentation, influence enzyme activity, anti coagulant, anti microbial and inhibition of carcinogenic effect. One of the plants that contain coumarine is Artemisia annuaL, because ofthat w...

  11. Assessment of Poa annua resistance to clethodim in Costa Rica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Rodríguez-Ruiz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to check for the presence of resistance to clethodim in Poa annua populations observed in onion fields in the highlands of Cartago, Costa Rica. Two experiments were conducted; the first one was carried out, in 2007, in a greenhouse at the Fabio Baudrit Moreno Agricultural Experiment Station (EEAFBM, in Spanish, with seeds of plants from a farm where clethodim exercised good control (S population, and from another farm where clethodim showed a deficient control (R population. Both S and R populations were treated with different doses of clethodim (0.5X, 1.0X, 1.5X and 2.0X, being X the recommended commercial dose. In this experiment, control of the R population was 44% and 17% at doses of 1.5X and 2.0X, respectively, whereas control of the S population was 100% at either of those doses. The second experiment was carried out in 2009, seeds of two other P. annua populations were collected in a similar way: one population from an area where weed control was satisfactory (S, and the other population from an area of the farm where control was deficient (R. Seeds were sown, depending on the type, in plastic pots and sprayed with clethodim at doses of: 0. 1X, 2X, 4X, 8X, and 16X. There were significant differences in the reactions to clethodim of both P. annua populations The S population showed a higher percentage of control and less surviving plants than the R population. Several plants of the R population resisted up to 16X commercial doses of clethodim. Results of both experiments suggest the presence of P. annua populations resistant to clethodim.

  12. Assessment of Poa annua resistance to clethodim in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Ruiz, Ana Maria; Herrera-Murillo, Franklin; Chaves-Barrantes, Nestor; Hernandez-Diaz, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The presence of resistance to clethodim in Poa annua populations was observed in onion fields in the highlands of Cartago, Costa Rica. Two experiments were conducted; the first one was carried out, in 2007, in a greenhouse at the Fabio Baudrit Moreno Agricultural Experiment Station (EEAFBM, in Spanish), with seeds of plants from a farm where clethodim has exercised good control (S population), and from another farm where clethodim has showed a deficient control (R population). Both S and R populations were treated with different doses of clethodim (0,5X, 1,0X, 1,5X and 2,0X), being X the recommended commercial dose. In this experiment, control of the R population was 44% and 17% at doses of 1.5X and 2.0X, respectively, whereas control of the S population was 100% at either of those doses. The second experiment was carried out in 2009, seeds of two other P. annua populations were collected in a similar way: one population from an area where weed control has been satisfactory (S), and the other population from an area of the farm where control was deficient (R). Seeds were sown, depending on the type, in plastic pots and sprayed with clethodim at doses of: 0. 1X, 2X, 4X, 8X, and 16X. There were significant differences in the reactions to clethodim of both P. annua populations The S population showed a higher percentage of control and less surviving plants than the R population. Several plants of the R population resisted up to 16X commercial doses of clethodim. Results of both experiments suggest the presence of P. annua populations resistant to clethodim. (author) [es

  13. ISOLASI DAN IDENTIFIKASI SENYAWA KUMARIN DARI TANAMAN ARTEMISIA ANNUA (L.

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    Ani Isnawati

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The invention of new entity from plant was the basic step for chemistry and another sciences development, such as: pharmacy, biology, and medical. Besides that, it is needed to fulfill people needs on food, medicine, cosmetics, etc. Coumarine is fenilpropanoid that has biological activity to stimulate skin pigmentation, influence enzyme activity, anti coagulant, anti microbial and inhibition of carcinogenic effect. One of the plants that contain coumarine is Artemisia annuaL, because ofthat we interested in isolating coumarine and it's derivate in Artemisia annua L with expectation that study resulted in discovering anti cancer agent. The method that we use is extraction and soxhletation using methanol and fractionation using dichloromethane. The separation was done by column Chromatography with silica gel and eluent n-hexane:etil acetate. Purification was done by recrystalization. Isolate is identified using KLT, GC-MS. Spectrophotometer UV, IR and NMR. This study shows that isolate was coumarine named 2H-1-Benzopyran-2-one, 7-hydroxy-6-methoxy or Scopoletin with molecular weight 192   Keywords: Coumarine, Artemisia annuaL, TLC, FTIR, GC-MS, NMR

  14. Early glandular neoplasia of the lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westra William H

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although bronchogenic carcinomas progress through a very well defined sequence of metaplasia, dysplasia and carcinoma in situ, very little is known about the early progression of glandular neoplasms of the lung. In particular, the early precursor lesion from which fully malignant adenocarcinomas arise has effectively eluded recognition, at least until recently. Several lines of evidence now implicate atypical adenomatous hyperplasia (AAH as an initial morphologic stage in multistep lung tumorigenesis. Despite its small size, AAH can be appreciated at the light microscopic level and characterized at the molecular genetic level. Indeed, the genetic characterization of AAH promises to further our understanding of lung cancer development and might facilitate the design of novel strategies for early detection of lung cancer.

  15. Elimination of salmonella from animal glandular products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Fiebre, C W; Burck, K T; Feldman, D

    1969-03-01

    Methods for the elimination of salmonellae from selected powdered pharmaceuticals of animal glandular origin were studied. Terminal heat treatment under carefully controlled conditions was effective for pancreatin-a powder containing proteolytic, amylolytic, and lipolytic enzymes prepared from hog pancreas glands. Use of this method resulted in a significant reduction in the number of salmonella-positive batches and also reduced the testing procedures required to confirm the absence of viable salmonellae among the majority of samples tested. Powders such as stomach substance and thyroid, in which the biological activity is not enzyme in nature, were treated successfully with acidified organic solvents. Other methods were investigated but were not suitable because of a deleterious effect on the biological activity or physical properties of the product or an inability to effect salmonella elimination.

  16. Elimination of Salmonellae from Animal Glandular Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Fiebre, Conrad W.; Burck, Kenneth T.; Feldman, David

    1969-01-01

    Methods for the elimination of salmonellae from selected powdered pharmaceuticals of animal glandular origin were studied. Terminal heat treatment under carefully controlled conditions was effective for pancreatin—a powder containing proteolytic, amylolytic, and lipolytic enzymes prepared from hog pancreas glands. Use of this method resulted in a significant reduction in the number of salmonella-positive batches and also reduced the testing procedures required to confirm the absence of viable salmonellae among the majority of samples tested. Powders such as stomach substance and thyroid, in which the biological activity is not enzyme in nature, were treated successfully with acidified organic solvents. Other methods were investigated but were not suitable because of a deleterious effect on the biological activity or physical properties of the product or an inability to effect salmonella elimination. PMID:5780395

  17. Control of plant trichome development by a cotton fiber MYB gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shui; Wang, Jia-Wei; Yu, Nan; Li, Chun-Hong; Luo, Bin; Gou, Jin-Ying; Wang, Ling-Jian; Chen, Xiao-Ya

    2004-09-01

    Cotton (Gossypium spp) plants produce seed trichomes (cotton fibers) that are an important commodity worldwide; however, genes controlling cotton fiber development have not been characterized. In Arabidopsis thaliana the MYB gene GLABRA1 (GL1) is a central regulator of trichome development. Here, we show that promoter of a cotton fiber gene, RD22-like1 (RDL1), contains a homeodomain binding L1 box and a MYB binding motif that confer trichome-specific expression in Arabidopsis. A cotton MYB protein GaMYB2/Fiber Factor 1 transactivated the RDL1 promoter both in yeast and in planta. Real-time PCR and in situ analysis showed that GaMYB2 is predominantly expressed early in developing cotton fibers. After transferring into Arabidopsis, GL1::GaMYB2 rescued trichome formation of a gl1 mutant, and interestingly, 35S::GaMYB2 induced seed-trichome production. We further demonstrate that the first intron of both GL1 and GaMYB2 plays a role in patterning trichomes: it acts as an enhancer in trichome and a repressor in nontrichome cells, generating a trichome-specific pattern of MYB gene expression. Disruption of a MYB motif conserved in intron 1 of GL1, WEREWOLF, and GaMYB2 genes affected trichome production. These results suggest that cotton and Arabidopsis use similar transcription factors for regulating trichomes and that GaMYB2 may be a key regulator of cotton fiber development.

  18. Control of Plant Trichome Development by a Cotton Fiber MYB GeneW⃞

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shui; Wang, Jia-Wei; Yu, Nan; Li, Chun-Hong; Luo, Bin; Gou, Jin-Ying; Wang, Ling-Jian; Chen, Xiao-Ya

    2004-01-01

    Cotton (Gossypium spp) plants produce seed trichomes (cotton fibers) that are an important commodity worldwide; however, genes controlling cotton fiber development have not been characterized. In Arabidopsis thaliana the MYB gene GLABRA1 (GL1) is a central regulator of trichome development. Here, we show that promoter of a cotton fiber gene, RD22-like1 (RDL1), contains a homeodomain binding L1 box and a MYB binding motif that confer trichome-specific expression in Arabidopsis. A cotton MYB protein GaMYB2/Fiber Factor 1 transactivated the RDL1 promoter both in yeast and in planta. Real-time PCR and in situ analysis showed that GaMYB2 is predominantly expressed early in developing cotton fibers. After transferring into Arabidopsis, GL1∷GaMYB2 rescued trichome formation of a gl1 mutant, and interestingly, 35S∷GaMYB2 induced seed-trichome production. We further demonstrate that the first intron of both GL1 and GaMYB2 plays a role in patterning trichomes: it acts as an enhancer in trichome and a repressor in nontrichome cells, generating a trichome-specific pattern of MYB gene expression. Disruption of a MYB motif conserved in intron 1 of GL1, WEREWOLF, and GaMYB2 genes affected trichome production. These results suggest that cotton and Arabidopsis use similar transcription factors for regulating trichomes and that GaMYB2 may be a key regulator of cotton fiber development. PMID:15316114

  19. ISOLASI DAN IDENTIFIKASI ARTEMISININ DARI HERBA Artemisia annua L .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukmayati Alegantina

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Malaria is still a major problem in Indonesia, because mortality in patients with severe malaria remains high. Many cases are occurs in endemic areas (e.g. Papua,Kalimantan, Bali and Sulawesi. Chloroquin is the most common antimalarial drug which is widely used since 1934. Plasmodium falciparum resistant to chloroquine was reported in some countries (e.g. Thailand, Vietnam, Indonesia, and Bangladesh. To delay the development of resistance, WHO recommended antimalarial combination therapy. Artemisinin and its derivatives (artesunate, artemether, dihydroartemisin produce rapid clearance of parasitemia and rapid resolution of symptoms compare with chloroquine. Artemisinin is obtained from Artemisia annua L. Even though there are some research produced a chemical synthetic of artemisinin, but it is not efficient and notstable. Our purposes are to conduct a preliminary research to obtain a method of isolation and identification of artemisinin which is the first step to develop a raw material of artemisinin as antimalarial drug in Indonesia.The first step of isolation is extraction from herb Artemisia annua L with n-hexane thatproduced n-hexane extract, this process is well-known as soxhletation. The second step isidentification of chemical substances from n-hexane extract. The third step is to obtain isolate from n-hexane extract by fractionation with acetonitril and separation with column chromatography. The last step is chemical and physical identification of isolateby TLC (Thin Layer (Chromatography and FT-IR.The result from n-hexane extract measurement is 4.33 % and from acetonitril fraction is2. 40 %. Chemical identification of n-hexan extract found there are terpenoid, phenol, flavonoid, fatty acid, atsiri oil and saponin. Organoleptic identification of isolate is white crystal, monosubstrate, odorless and bitter. Identification of isolate with TLC and FT-IR confirmed that the isolate is artemisinin.Keywords: artemisinin, Artemisia

  20. Variation in vegetative growth and trichomes in Cannabis sativa L. (Marihuana) in response to enviromental pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, G.K.; Mann, S.K.

    1984-07-01

    Four populations of Cannabis sativa L. (marihuana) growing in their native habitat and exposed to different levels of environmental pollution were studied for several leaf morphology and leaf trichome features. Leaf length, petiole length, length and width of central leaflet, and the number of teeth on leaf margin decreased with increase in pollution. Trichome length and trichome density values were found to be higher in populations exposed to higher levels of environmental pollution.

  1. Dosimetric implications of age related glandular changes in screening mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckett, J.R.; Kotre, C.J.

    2000-01-01

    The UK National Health Service Breast Screening Programme is currently organized to routinely screen women between the ages of 50 and 64, with screening for older women available on request. The lower end of this age range closely matches the median age for the menopause (51 years), during which significant changes in the composition of the breast are known to occur. In order to quantify the dosimetric effect of these changes, radiographic factors and compressed breast thickness data for a cohort of 1258 women aged between 35 and 79 undergoing breast screening mammography have been used to derive estimates of breast glandularity and mean glandular dose (MGD), and examine their variation with age. The variation of mean radiographic exposure factors with age is also investigated. The presence of a significant number of age trial women within the cohort allowed an extended age range to be studied. Estimates of MGD including corrections for breast glandularity based on compressed breast thickness only, compressed breast thickness and age and for each individual woman are compared with the MGD based on the conventional assumption of a 50:50 adipose/glandular composition. It has been found that the use of the conventional 50:50 assumption leads to overestimates of MGD of up to 13% over the age range considered. By using compressed breast thickness to estimate breast glandularity, this error range can be reduced to 8%, whilst age and compressed breast thickness based glandularity estimates result in an error range of 1%. (author)

  2. An overview of the gene regulatory network controlling trichome development in the model plant, Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitakanta ePattanaik

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Trichomes are specialized epidermal cells located on aerial parts of plants and are associated with a wide array of biological processes. Trichomes protect plants from adverse conditions including UV light and herbivore attack and are also an important source of a number of phytochemicals. The simple unicellular trichomes of Arabidopsis serve as an excellent model to study molecular mechanism of cell differentiation and pattern formation in plants. The emerging picture suggests that the developmental process is controlled by a transcriptional network involving three major groups of transcription factors: the R2R3 MYB, basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH and WD40 repeat (WDR protein. These regulatory proteins form a trimeric activator complex that positively regulates trichome development. The single repeat R3 MYBs act as negative regulators of trichome development. They compete with the R2R3 MYBs to bind the bHLH factor and form a repressor complex. In addition to activator-repressor mechanism, a depletion mechanism may operate in parallel during trichome development. In this mechanism, the bHLH factor traps the WDR protein which results in depletion of WDR protein in neighboring cells. Consequently, the cells with high levels of bHLH and WDR proteins are developed into trichomes. A group of C2H2 zinc finger TFs has also been implicated in trichome development. Phytohormones, including gibberellins and jasmonic acid, play significant roles in this developmental process. Recently, microRNAs have been shown to be involved in trichome development. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that the activities of the key regulatory proteins involved in trichome development are controlled by the 26S/ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS, highlighting the complexity of the regulatory network controlling this developmental process. To complement several excellent recent relevant reviews, this review focuses on the transcriptional network and hormonal interplay

  3. Flavonoids casticin and chrysosplenol D from Artemisia annua L. inhibit inflammation in vitro and in vivo

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Li, Y.J.; Guo, Y.; Yang, Q.; Weng, X. G.; Yang, L.; Wang, Y.J.; Chen, Y.; Zhang, D.; Li, Q.; Liu, X.C.; Kan, X.X.; Chen, X.; Zhu, X.X.; Kmoníčková, E.; Zídek, Zdeněk

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 286, č. 3 (2015), s. 151-158 ISSN 0041-008X Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : Artemisia annua L. * Flavonoids * Casticin * Chrysosplenol D * Inflammation Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 3.847, year: 2015

  4. An Improved Agrobacterium tumefaciens Mediated Transformation of Artemisia annua L. by Using Stem Internodes as Explants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tian, N.A.; Liu, S.; Huang, J.; Krol, van der A.R.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Liu, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Transformation of Artemisia annua, which produces the sesquiterpenoid endoperoxide artemisinin widely used for the treatment of malaria, has been hampered by the low efficiency of adventitious shoot and root formation on a selective medium containing additional compounds for Agrobacterium

  5. Fast neutron induced structural rearrangements at a soybean NAP1 locus result in gnarled trichomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    A soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) gnarled trichome mutant, exhibiting stunted trichomes compared to wild-type, was identified in a fast neutron mutant population. Genetic mapping using whole genome sequence-based bulked segregant analysis identified a 26.6 megabase interval on chromosome 20 that ...

  6. Relationship of leaf and bract trichomes to trash content of ginned lint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinning efficiency and yarn quality are improved for bales with reduced trash content. Some cotton varieties have been characterized as having smoother leaves (low trichome density) and fewer bract trichomes, and it has been shown that cottons harvested from these varieties is picked with lower tr...

  7. An Endophytic Pseudonocardia Species Induces the Production of Artemisinin in Artemisia annua

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jie; Zhao, Guo-Zhen; Varma, Ajit; Qin, Sheng; Xiong, Zhi; Huang, Hai-Yu; Zhu, Wen-Yong; Zhao, Li-Xing; Xu, Li-Hua; Zhang, Si; Li, Wen-Jun

    2012-01-01

    Endophytic actinobacteria colonize internal tissues of their host plants and are considered as a rich and reliable source of diverse species and functional microorganisms. In this study, endophytic actinobacterial strain YIM 63111 was isolated from surface-sterilized tissue of the medicinal plant Artemisia annua. We identified strain YIM 63111 as a member of the genus Pseudonocardia. A. annua seedlings grown under both sterile and greenhouse conditions were inoculated with strain YIM 63111. T...

  8. An endophytic Pseudonocardia species induces the production of artemisinin in Artemisia annua.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Li

    Full Text Available Endophytic actinobacteria colonize internal tissues of their host plants and are considered as a rich and reliable source of diverse species and functional microorganisms. In this study, endophytic actinobacterial strain YIM 63111 was isolated from surface-sterilized tissue of the medicinal plant Artemisia annua. We identified strain YIM 63111 as a member of the genus Pseudonocardia. A. annua seedlings grown under both sterile and greenhouse conditions were inoculated with strain YIM 63111. The growth of A. annua seedlings was strongly reduced when YIM 63111 was inoculated at higher concentrations under sterile conditions. However, no growth inhibition was observed when A. annua was grown under greenhouse conditions. Using an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP expressing YIM 63111 strain, we also observed the endophytic colonization of A. annua seedling using confocal laser-scanning microscopy. The transcription levels of the key genes involved in artemisinin biosynthesis were investigated using real time RT-PCR, revealing that cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (CYP71AV1 and cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (CPR expression were up-regulated in A. annua upon inoculation with strain YIM 63111 under certain conditions. The up-regulation of these genes was associated with the increased accumulation of artemisinin. These results suggest that endophytic actinobacteria effectively stimulate certain plant defense responses. Our data also demonstrate the use of Pseudonocardia sp. strain YIM 63111 as a promising means to enhance artemisinin production in plants.

  9. An Endophytic Pseudonocardia Species Induces the Production of Artemisinin in Artemisia annua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Zhao, Guo-Zhen; Varma, Ajit; Qin, Sheng; Xiong, Zhi; Huang, Hai-Yu; Zhu, Wen-Yong; Zhao, Li-Xing; Xu, Li-Hua; Zhang, Si; Li, Wen-Jun

    2012-01-01

    Endophytic actinobacteria colonize internal tissues of their host plants and are considered as a rich and reliable source of diverse species and functional microorganisms. In this study, endophytic actinobacterial strain YIM 63111 was isolated from surface-sterilized tissue of the medicinal plant Artemisia annua. We identified strain YIM 63111 as a member of the genus Pseudonocardia. A. annua seedlings grown under both sterile and greenhouse conditions were inoculated with strain YIM 63111. The growth of A. annua seedlings was strongly reduced when YIM 63111 was inoculated at higher concentrations under sterile conditions. However, no growth inhibition was observed when A. annua was grown under greenhouse conditions. Using an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) expressing YIM 63111 strain, we also observed the endophytic colonization of A. annua seedling using confocal laser-scanning microscopy. The transcription levels of the key genes involved in artemisinin biosynthesis were investigated using real time RT-PCR, revealing that cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (CYP71AV1) and cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (CPR) expression were up-regulated in A. annua upon inoculation with strain YIM 63111 under certain conditions. The up-regulation of these genes was associated with the increased accumulation of artemisinin. These results suggest that endophytic actinobacteria effectively stimulate certain plant defense responses. Our data also demonstrate the use of Pseudonocardia sp. strain YIM 63111 as a promising means to enhance artemisinin production in plants. PMID:23251523

  10. An endophytic Pseudonocardia species induces the production of artemisinin in Artemisia annua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Zhao, Guo-Zhen; Varma, Ajit; Qin, Sheng; Xiong, Zhi; Huang, Hai-Yu; Zhu, Wen-Yong; Zhao, Li-Xing; Xu, Li-Hua; Zhang, Si; Li, Wen-Jun

    2012-01-01

    Endophytic actinobacteria colonize internal tissues of their host plants and are considered as a rich and reliable source of diverse species and functional microorganisms. In this study, endophytic actinobacterial strain YIM 63111 was isolated from surface-sterilized tissue of the medicinal plant Artemisia annua. We identified strain YIM 63111 as a member of the genus Pseudonocardia. A. annua seedlings grown under both sterile and greenhouse conditions were inoculated with strain YIM 63111. The growth of A. annua seedlings was strongly reduced when YIM 63111 was inoculated at higher concentrations under sterile conditions. However, no growth inhibition was observed when A. annua was grown under greenhouse conditions. Using an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) expressing YIM 63111 strain, we also observed the endophytic colonization of A. annua seedling using confocal laser-scanning microscopy. The transcription levels of the key genes involved in artemisinin biosynthesis were investigated using real time RT-PCR, revealing that cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (CYP71AV1) and cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (CPR) expression were up-regulated in A. annua upon inoculation with strain YIM 63111 under certain conditions. The up-regulation of these genes was associated with the increased accumulation of artemisinin. These results suggest that endophytic actinobacteria effectively stimulate certain plant defense responses. Our data also demonstrate the use of Pseudonocardia sp. strain YIM 63111 as a promising means to enhance artemisinin production in plants.

  11. Genetic evidence suggests that GIS functions downstream of TCL1 to regulate trichome formation in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Na; Yang, Li; Luo, Sha; Wang, Xutong; Wang, Wei; Cheng, Yuxin; Tian, Hainan; Zheng, Kaijie; Cai, Ling; Wang, Shucai

    2018-04-13

    Trichome formation in Arabidopsis is regulated by a MBW complex formed by MYB, bHLH and WD40 transcriptional factors, which can activate GLABRA2 (GL2) and the R3 MYB transcription factor genes. GL2 promotes trichome formation, whereas R3 MYBs are able to block the formation of the MBW complex. It has been reported that the C2H2 transcription factor GIS (GLABROUS INFLORESCENCE STEMS) functions upstream of the MBW activator complex to regulate trichome formation, and that the expression of TCL1 is not regulated by the MBW complex. However, gis and the R3 MYB gene mutant tcl1 (trichomeless 1) have opposite inflorescence trichome phenotypes, but their relationship in regulating trichome formation remained unknown. By generating and characterization of the gis tcl1 double mutant, we found that trichome formation in the gis tcl1double and the tcl1 single mutants were largely indistinguishable, but the trichome formation in the 35S:TCL1/gis transgenic plant was similar to that in the gis mutant. By using quantitative RT-PCR analysis, we showed that expression level of GIS was increased in the triple mutant tcl1 try cpc, but the expression level of TCL1 was not affected in the gis mutant. On the other hand, trichome morphology in both gis tcl1 and 35S:TCL1/gis plants was similar to that in the gis mutant. In summary, our results indicate that GIS may work downstream of TCL1 to regulate trichome formation, and GIS has a dominant role in controlling trichome morphology.

  12. Tomato linalool synthase is induced in trichomes by jasmonic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schie, Chris C. N.; Haring, Michel A.

    2007-01-01

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) plants emit a blend of volatile organic compounds, which mainly consists of terpenes. Upon herbivory or wounding, the emission of several terpenes increases. We have identified and characterized the first two tomato monoterpene synthases, LeMTS1 and LeMTS2. Although these proteins were highly homologous, recombinant LeMTS1 protein produced (R)-linalool from geranyl diphosphate (GPP) and (E)-nerolidol from farnesyl diphosphate (FPP), while recombinant LeMTS2 produced β-phellandrene, β-myrcene, and sabinene from GPP. In addition, these genes were expressed in different tissues: LeMTS1 was expressed in flowers, young leaves, stems, and petioles, while LeMTS2 was strongest expressed in stems and roots. LeMTS1 expression in leaves was induced by spider mite-infestation, wounding and jasmonic acid (JA)-treatment, while LeMTS2 did not respond to these stimuli. The expression of LeMTS1 in stems and petioles was predominantly detected in trichomes and could be induced by JA. Because JA treatment strongly induced emission of linalool and overexpression of LeMTS1 in tomato resulted in increased production of linalool, we propose that LeMTS1 is a genuine linalool synthase. Our results underline the importance of trichomes in JA-induced terpene emission in tomato. PMID:17440821

  13. Average glandular dose in patients submitted to mammography exams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Danielle S.; Barragan, Carolina V.M.; Costa, Katiane C.; Donato, Sabrina; Castro, William J.; Nogueira, Maria S., E-mail: dsg@cdtn.br, E-mail: kcc@cdtn.br, E-mail: sds@cdtn.br, E-mail: wjc@cdtn.br, E-mail: mnogue@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Rezende, Adriana M.L. [Clinica Radiologica Davi Rezende, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Pinheiro, Luciana J.S. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Post-graduation in Sciences and Technology of Radiations, Minerals and Materials; Oliveira, Marcio A. de [Superintendencia Estadual de Vigilancia Sanitaria, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Doses in mammography should be maintained as low as possible, however without reducing the standards of image quality necessary for an early detection of breast cancer. As the breast is composed of tissues with very soft composition and densities, detection of small changes in the normal anatomical structures that may be associated with breast cancer becomes more difficult. In order to achieve the standards of resolution and contrast for mammography, quality and intensity of the X- ray beam, breast positioning and compression, film-screen system, and the film processing must be in optimal operational conditions. This study aims at evaluating the average glandular dose in patients undergoing routine tests in a mammography unit in the city of Belo Horizonte. Patient image analysis was done by a radiologist who took into account 10 evaluation criteria for each CC and MLO incidences. The estimation of each patient's glandular dose and the radiographic technique parameters (kV and mA.s) as well as the thickness of the compressed breast were recorded. European image quality criteria were adopted by the radiologist in order to make the image acceptable for diagnostic purposes. For breast densities of 50%/50%, 70%/30%, 30%/70%, adipose and glandular tissues and the incident air-kerma were measured and the glandular dose calculated taking into account the X-ray output during the test. In the study carried out with 63 patients, the mean glandular dose varied from 30% incidence of CC to MLO. (author)

  14. Evaluation of glandular dose in conventional and digital mammography systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutinho, Celia Maria Campos

    2009-01-01

    A survey was conducted to estimate the average glandular dose (D g ) for patients undergoing mammography and to report the distribution of incident air kerma (K i ), patient age, compressed breast thickness and glandular tissue content. From 1183 cranio caudal mammograms clinical data were collected and doses were measured. The survey data included mammograms from six mammography equipment: two screen/film units (SFM), two computed radiography units (CR) and two full-field digital (DR). Mean value for patient age and compressed breast thickness were 57 +-12 y and 5.4 +-1.4 cm, respectively. To investigate the importance of technical characteristics of three different mammography systems and breast glandularity, K i and D g were measured for individual breast of 392 patients from the original sample with compressed breast thickness in the range of 5.5 cm to 6.5 cm using tissue-equivalent phantoms of different glandularities manufactured in this study to mimic both the attenuation and the density of breast tissues. Mean K i value was 10.0 +-3.6 mGy for SFM systems, 12.0 +-3.6 mGy for CR systems and 4.9 +-1.3 mGy for DR systems. Mean D g value was 1.4 +-0.5 mGy for S/F systems, 1.7 +-0.5 mGy for CR systems and 0.9 +-0.2 mGy for D R systems. Statistical analysis for differences in mean values of K i and D g between mammography systems showed significant effect of their technical characteristics (p i and D g , it was observed statistically significant differences between the group of patients with 0 to 50% glandularity and the group of patients with 50 to 100% glandularity. (author)

  15. [Glandular posterior flap of the breast for oncoplastic surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho Quoc, C; Faure, C; Carrabin, N; Istasse, F; Rivoire, M; Delay, E

    2015-06-01

    Breast conservative surgeries, associated with radiotherapy within the framework of conservatives treatments for breast malignant tumors, can occur deformation of the breast in 10 to 15% of cases. The deformity can be more or less important according to the size of the initial lesion and the glandular reshaping reconstruction. Our experience in oncologic and reconstructive surgery of the breast reflects us about difficult cases of breast conservative surgeries in a glandular reshaping to obtain the best aesthetic result. In this approach, the posterior glandular flap of the breast was used in specific indications. The study aims to estimate the efficiency and the tolerance of the posterior glandular flap in difficult cases of breast oncoplastic surgeries. We realized a consecutive serie of 24 breast oncoplastic surgeries. We noticed 15 breast conservative surgeries of superior quadrants. The posterior glandular flap was realized in 15 cases. We used the posterior part of the breast, vascularized by musculo-cutaneous intercostal arteries to give the volume lacking in the breast. We estimated efficiency and tolerance of the posterior glandular flap than one-year operating comment, as well as the oncologic follow-up long-term. In this serie of 15 cases, we did not note acute complications like infection, hematoma or cutaneous necrosis. We listed 13 cases of malignant tumors with indication of radiotherapy, and 2 cases of benign tumors. In one year, we found two patients presenting a cyst of cytosteatonecrosis (1cm and 3cm) in the site of surgery, compared to posterior flap. The glandular total average excision was 333g (30-1200). An oncologic surgical resumption was necessary in 2 cases (a case of preventive mastectomy for BRCA1, and a case of insufficient margins). We realized 12 cases of controlateral surgery at the same time for symmetry. The aesthetic result was judged at one year post-operatory: good or very good in 74% of the cases, correct in 20% of the cases

  16. GLABROUS INFLORESCENCE STEMS3 (GIS3) regulates trichome initiation and development in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lili; Zhang, Aidong; Zhou, Zhongjing; Zhao, Yongqin; Yan, An; Bao, Shengjie; Yu, Hao; Gan, Yinbo

    2015-04-01

    Arabidopsis trichome formation is an excellent model for studying various aspects of plant cell development and cell differentiation. Our previous works have demonstrated that several C2H2 zinc finger proteins, including GIS, GIS2, ZFP5, ZFP6 and ZFP8, control trichome cell development through GA and cytokinin signalling in Arabidopsis. We identified a novel C2H2 zinc finger protein, GLABROUS INFLORESCENCE STEMS 3 (GIS3), which is a key factor in regulating trichome development in Arabidopsis. In comparison with wild-type plants, loss-of-function of GIS3 mutants exhibited a significantly decreased number of trichomes in cauline leaves, lateral branches, sepals of flowers, and main stems. Overexpression of GIS3 resulted in increased trichome densities in sepal, cauline leaves, lateral branches, main inflorescence stems and in the appearance of ectopic trichomes on carpels. The molecular and genetic analyses show that GIS3 acts upstream of GIS, GIS2, ZFP8 and the key trichome initiation factors, GL1 and GL3. Steroid-inducible gene expression analyses and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) experiments suggest that GIS and GIS2 are the direct target genes of GIS3. © 2014 The Authors New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  17. GLABROUS INFLORESCENCE STEMS (GIS) is required for trichome branching through gibberellic acid signaling in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Lijun; Zhou, Zhongjing; Su, Sha; Yan, An; Gan, Yinbo

    2012-02-01

    Cell differentiation generally corresponds to the cell cycle, typically forming a non-dividing cell with a unique differentiated morphology, and Arabidopsis trichome is an excellent model system to study all aspects of cell differentiation. Although gibberellic acid is reported to be involved in trichome branching in Arabidopsis, the mechanism for such signaling is unclear. Here, we demonstrated that GLABROUS INFLORESCENCE STEMS (GIS) is required for the control of trichome branching through gibberellic acid signaling. The phenotypes of a loss-of-function gis mutant and an overexpressor showed that GIS acted as a repressor to control trichome branching. Our results also show that GIS is not required for cell endoreduplication, and our molecular and genetic study results have shown that GIS functions downstream of the key regulator of trichome branching, STICHEL (STI), to control trichome branching through the endoreduplication-independent pathway. Furthermore, our results also suggest that GIS controls trichome branching in Arabidopsis through two different pathways and acts either upstream or downstream of the negative regulator of gibbellic acid signaling SPINDLY (SPY).

  18. The effects of dried leaves of Manihot esculenta and Artemisia annua on coccidiosis in organically reared pullets in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of Manihot esculenta and Artemisia annua as natural coccidiostats were investigated as compared to a vaccinated group. The inclusion of Artemisia annua showed poorer performance compared to the vaccinated group whereas dried leaves of M. esculenta presented similar results of a commercia...

  19. Giant cardiac myxoma with malignant transformed glandular structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckhardt, Boris P.; Stuckmann, Gerd; Zollikofer, Christoph L. [Institute of Radiology, Cantonal Hospital, Brauerstrasse 15, 8401 Winterthur (Switzerland); Dommann-Scherrer, Corina C. [Insitute of Pathology, Cantonal Hospital, Brauerstrasse 15, 8401 Winterthur (Switzerland); Wentz, Klaus U. [Institute of Radiology, Cantonal Hospital, Brauerstrasse 15, 8401 Winterthur (Switzerland); Medical Faculty, University of Witten/Herdecke, Alfred-Herrhausen-Strasse 50, 58448 Witten (Germany)

    2003-09-01

    A case of a right-sided giant cardiac myxoma with malignant transformation of glandular structures causing systemic metastases is described. Plain chest radiography and computed tomography localized the tumor within the heart. Exact depiction of the origin of the tumor using subtracted 2D-projection MR angiography is documented. Radiologic findings and differential diagnosis of this unique tumor are discussed. (orig.)

  20. Morphology of Myoepithelium and Basal Surface of the Glandular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Broad Objective: To study the morphology of the myoepithelial cells and the basal surfaces of the glandular cells in the small and large lobes of the Harderian gland. Study Setting and Methodology: The study used the scanning electron and lesser confocal microscopes to observe the Harderian gland of the golden hamster.

  1. Comparison of Artemisia annua bioactivities between traditional medicine and chemical extracts

    KAUST Repository

    Nageeb, Ahmed

    2014-04-04

    The present work investigates the efficacy of using Artemisia annua in traditional medicine in comparison with chemical extracts of its bioactive molecules. In addition, the effects of location (Egypt and Jericho) on the bioactivities of the plant were investigated. The results showed that water extracts of Artemisia annua from Jericho have stronger antibacterial activities than organic solvent extracts. In contrast, water and organic solvent extracts of the Artemisia annua from Egypt do not have anti-bacterial activity. Furthermore, while the methanol extract of EA displayed high anticancer affects, the water extract of Egypt and the extracts of Jericho did not show significant anticancer activity. Finally, the results showed that the methanol and water extracts of Jericho had the highest antioxidant activity, while the extracts of Egypt had none. The current results validate the scientific bases for the use of Artemisia annua in traditional medicine. In addition, our results suggest that the collection location of the Artemisia annua has an effect on its chemical composition and bioactivities. - See more at: http://www.eurekaselect.com/121416/article#sthash.2c2j9AoL.dpuf

  2. Biosynthesis of a new tobacco alkaloid, hydroxy-N-acylnornicotine in the trichomes of Nicotiana stocktonii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zador, E.; Jones, D.

    1986-01-01

    A new tobacco alkaloid from section Repandae is highly toxic to an insect (Manduca sexta) unsusceptible to previously described nicotine alkaloids (1). They have localized the alkaloid, HO-N-acylnornicotine (HO-NAN) nearly entirely to the exudate secreted by the epidermal trichomes of N. stocktonii. Only the nicotine and nornicotine were found in abundance inside the trichomes, while primarily nicotine was present inside the aerial vegetative parts and root. These results suggest that the HO-NAN is synthesized by the trichomes. When unlabelled nicotine was fed to isolated leaves there was an increase in internal nicotine, nornicotine and secretion of HO-NAN. Feeding leaves with 2'-C 14 nicotine resulted in labelling of both nornicotine and HO-NAN. These data strongly suggest synthesis of HO-NAN from nicotine via nornicotine in the trichomes, followed by rapid secretion. The possible evolutionary significance of this pathway of synthesis and secretion is discussed

  3. Boomeranging in structural defense: phytophagous insect uses cycad trichomes to defend against entomophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marler, Thomas E

    2012-11-01

    Plant defensive behaviors that resist arthropod herbivory include trichome-mediated defenses, and variation in plant trichome morphology and abundance provides examples of the mechanistic complexities of insect-plant interactions. Trichomes were removed from Cycas revoluta cataphylls on the island of Guam to reveal Aulacaspis yasumatsui scale infestation, and predation of the newly exposed insects by pre-existing Rhyzobius lophanthae beetles commenced within one day. The quotient of predated/total scale insects was 0.5 by day 4 and stabilized at that found on adjacent glabrous leaves in about one week. The trichome phenotype covering the C. revoluta cataphyll complex offers the invasive A. yasumatsui armored scale effectual enemy-free space in this system. This pest and predator share no known evolutionary history with C. revoluta, therefore, the adaptive significance of this plant behavior in natural habitat is not yet known.

  4. Herbivore handling of a Plants trichome: the case of Heliconius charithonia (L.) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) and Passiflora lobata (Killip) Hutch. (Passifloraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Márcio Z

    2008-01-01

    Trichomes reduce herbivore attack on plants by physically and/or chemically inhibiting movement or other activities. Despite evidence that herbivores are negatively affected by trichomes there also reports of insect counter-adaptations that circumvent the plants defense. This paper reports on a study that investigated the likely mechanisms employed by larvae of the nymphalid butterfly, Heliconius charithonia (L.), that allow it to feed on a host that is presumably protected by hooked trichomes (Passiflora lobata (Killip) Hutch). Evidence were gathered using data from direct observations of larval movement and behavior, faeces analysis, scanning electron microscopy of plant surface and experimental analysis of larval movement on plants with and without trichomes (manually removed). The latter involved a comparison with a non specialist congener, Heliconius pachinus Salvin. Observations showed that H. charithonia larvae are capable of freeing themselves from entrapment on trichome tips by physical force. Moreover, wandering larvae lay silk mats on the trichomes and remove their tips by biting. In fact, trichome tips were found in the faeces. Experimental removal of trichomes aided in the movement of the non specialist but had no noticeable effect on the specialist larvae. These results support the suggestion that trichomes are capable of deterring a non specialist herbivore (H. pachinus). The precise mechanisms that allow the success of H. charithonia are not known, but I suggest that a blend of behavioral as well as physical resistance mechanisms is involved. Future studies should ascertain whether larval integument provides physical resistance to trichomes.

  5. Herbivore handling of a plant's trichome: the case of Heliconius charithonia (L.) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) and Passiflora lobata (Killip) Hutch. (Passifloraceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, Marcio Z.

    2008-01-01

    Trichomes reduce herbivore attack on plants by physically and/or chemically inhibiting movement or other activities. Despite evidence that herbivores are negatively affected by trichomes there also reports of insect counter-adaptations that circumvent the plant's defense. This paper reports on a study that investigated the likely mechanisms employed by larvae of the nymphalid butterfly, Heliconius charithonia (L.), that allow it to feed on a host that is presumably protected by hooked trichomes (Passiflora lobata (Killip) Hutch). Evidence were gathered using data from direct observations of larval movement and behavior, faeces analysis, scanning electron microscopy of plant surface and experimental analysis of larval movement on plants with and without trichomes (manually removed). The latter involved a comparison with a non specialist congener, Heliconius pachinus Salvin. Observations showed that H. charithonia larvae are capable of freeing themselves from entrapment on trichome tips by physical force. Moreover, wandering larvae lay silk mats on the trichomes and remove their tips by biting. In fact, trichome tips were found in the faeces. Experimental removal of trichomes aided in the movement of the non specialist but had no noticeable effect on the specialist larvae. These results support the suggestion that trichomes are capable of deterring a non specialist herbivore (H. pachinus). The precise mechanisms that allow the success of H. charithonia are not known, but I suggest that a blend of behavioral as well as physical resistance mechanisms is involved. Future studies should ascertain whether larval integument provides physical resistance to trichomes. (author)

  6. Maxilary glandular odontogenic cyst: case report = Cisto odontogênico glandular em maxila: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cardoso, Juliana Andrade

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: O presente trabalho objetiva relatar um caso clínico de cisto odontogênico glandular (COG em maxila, cisto de desenvolvimento raro que pode apresentar comportamento agressivo e recidivante, dando ênfase no tratamento e proservação desta doença. Relato de Caso: Paciente faioderma, gênero feminino, 36 anos, foi encaminhada pelo Ortodontista por apresentar aumento de volume em maxila com abaulamento e crepitação. Foram realizadas radiografias e punção aspirativa. Uma vez observado o conteúdo da lesão, foi realizada a biópsia incisional e iniciada a descompressão com colocação de dreno rígido. Tendo a confirmação do diagnóstico para COG, a paciente foi submetida à cirurgia para remoção do cisto maxilar, através da enucleação cirúrgica, curetagem e osteotomia periférica. Conclusões: O COG é uma patologia incomum, recentemente reconhecida, cujo comportamento biológico pouco ainda se sabe. Sugere-se, portanto, a realização de investigações futuras sobre critérios para classificação de variáveis comumente utilizadas em estudos epidemiológicos, na tentativa de padronizar e possibilitar comparação entre estudos, todavia, para auxiliar em um diagnóstico bem sucedido

  7. Characterization of two genes for the biosynthesis of abietane-type diterpenes in rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) glandular trichomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brückner, Kathleen; Božić, Dragana; Manzano, David

    2014-01-01

    normal CDP to produce an abietane diterpene. Comparison to the already characterized diterpene synthase from Salvia miltiorrhiza (SmKSL) demonstrates that the product of RoKSL1 and RoKSL2 is miltiradiene. Expression analysis supports a major contributing role for RoKSL2. Like SmKSL and the sclareol...... synthase from Salvia sclarea, RoKSL1/2 are diterpene synthases of the TPS-e group which have lost the internal gamma-domain. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis indicates that RoKSL1 and RoKSL2 belong to a distinct group of KSL enzymes involved in specialized metabolism which most likely emerged before...

  8. Size and Density of Artemisia annua Stomata Soaked in Water Extract of Gloriosa superba Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Indah Rahmawati

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia annua is a herbaceous plant that produces artemisinin as a malaria drug, haemorrhoids therapy, aromatherapy, antiviral, anticancer and antibacterial. Gloriosa superba is a plant that contains high colchicine compounds, especially on the seeds. Gloriosa superba extracts of tubers, stems, seeds, and leaves were used as biomutagen for many plants. Colchicine contains of these plants as antimitotic have been studied and proven by the mitotic index plants. Water extracts of Gloriosa superba seeds was used as a mutagen for Artemisia annua. The aim of this study was to determine the size and density of Artemisia annua stomata soaked in water extract of Gloriosa superba seeds as a mutagen. Extraction of Gloriosa superba seeds obtained naturally on Krakal Beach, Gunung Kidul by using a maceration method with water solvent (1:1. Artemisia annua sprouts were obtained from B2P2TOOT Tawangmangu. Variables treatment on sprouts using water extract concentration of Gloriosa superba seeds and soaking time of Artemisia annua sprouts. Measurements of stomatal length, width and density were conducted in epidermis of Artemisia annua leaf. Observation and measurements of the stomata were conducted by using a light microscope. The results showed that the length and width of stomata were 0.025 mm and 0.017 mm respectively. The stomatal density of the control leaf (174.69 amount/mm2 was lower than the other treated plants. Stomatal size and density has increased with the increasing concentration extracts on treated plants. Water extracts of Gloriosa superba seeds proved the effects on stomatal size and density of treated plants.  

  9. Effects of flavonoids from Martynia annua and Tephrosia purpurea on cutaneous wound healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santram Lodhi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Martynia annua L. (M. annua, (Martyniaccae has been traditionally used in the treatment of epilepsy, sore throat and inflammatory disorders. The leaf paste is used topically on Tuberculosis of the lymphatic glands and wounds of domestic animals. Tephrosia purpurea (T. purpurea, (Fabaceae has been used traditionally as a remedy for asthma, gonorrhea, rheumatism and ulcers. This study aimed to evaluate the potential wound healing effects of different fractions ofethanol extract of M. annua leaves and aerial parts of T. purpurea. Materials and Methods: Methanol fraction of M. annua (MAF-C and ethyl acetate fraction of T. purpurea (TPF-A were evaluated for healing potential in dead-space and burn wound models. An ointment (5% w/w of MAF-C and TPF-A, pongamol (0.2 and 0.5% w/w and luteolin (0.2 and 0.5% w/w was applied topically twice a day. The effects were compared with Povidone Iodine ointment with respect to protein, collagen content, enzymatic assay and histopathological finding of granuloma tissues. Results: Ethanol extracts of M. annua and T. purpureawere exhibited total flavonoid contents of 126.2 ± 4.69 and 171.6 ± 6.38 mg (quercetin equivalent, respectively. HPLC fingerprinting confirmed the presence of luteolin in M. annua and quercetin in T. purpurea. TPF-A and MAF-C ointments (5% w/w significantly increases the hydroxyproline and protein contents. Luteolin and pongamol ointments were also found to be effective in both wound models. Conclusion: Our findings suggested that 5% w/w ointment of TPF-A and MAF-C fractions were more effective than isolated flavonoids in wound healing which may be due to synergistic interactions between the flavonoids and other constituents.

  10. Efecto microbicida de la radiación solar (SODIS) combinado con Artemisia annua

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana Muñoz-Restrepo; Leidy Viviana Orrego; Diana Carolina Muñoz-Arango; Carlos Neftaly Lozano- Andrade; Diana Carolina Guzman O.; Maria Cecilia Escobar-Restrepo; Yamilet Arcos-Arango; Néstor Jaime Aguirre R.; Pierre Lutgen; Roberto Mejia-Ruiz

    2014-01-01

    En este estudio se evaluó el método SODIS y SODIS combinado con Artemisia annua como una alternativa para la desinfección del agua en comunidades sin acceso a agua segura. Se determinó la eficiencia del método en la remoción de Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis y Salmonella typhimurium usando botellas tipo PET con agua destilada estéril y una concentración inicial de 1x106 UFC/ml de cada microorganismo. Para la combinación SODIS-A. annua se adicionó a las botellas una...

  11. [Effects of zinc manganese and boron on artemisinin and yields of Artemisia annua].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yekuan; Li, Longyun; Peng, Ma; Wu, Xiaoli; Li, Fangyi; Wang, Zhixue

    2010-02-01

    To explore the effects of micro-elements fertilizers on the quality and yields of Artemisia annua. Field experiments were conducted according to the method of random blocks design. After the harvest the yield was calculated and the content of artemisinin was determined. By applying 0.1%-0.5% Mn and 0.1%-0.5% Zn the dried leaf output and artemisinin content were increased. The suitable ranges of Mn and Zn can increased the yield and artemisinin content of A. annua.

  12. Glandular Odontogenic Cyst: The Value of Intraepithelial Hemosiderin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbdullGaffar, Badr; Koilelat, Mohamed

    2017-05-01

    Glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC) is a relatively rare but well-described clinicopathologic entity. Its rarity and unpredictable clinical behavior are challenging to managing clinicians. Its variable and overlapping histomorphologic features are also diagnostically challenging for pathologists. Other odontogenic cysts and oral cystic neoplasms can simulate GOC. There are specific histologic criteria that help distinguish GOC from other mimickers. To our knowledge, the phenomenon of hemosiderin pigments deposition within the lining glandular epithelium of GOC has not been covered in detail or specifically reported so far in the literature. We report a case of nontraumatized anterior mandibular GOC in a middle-aged male, which histologically showed hemosiderin pigments within the lining epithelium without stromal siderophages. This finding might reflect a nonspecific spontaneous intraluminal hemorrhage. However, intraepithelial hemosiderin in GOC may be an additional helpful diagnostic clue of GOC in challenging cases since this phenomenon has not been reported in other mimicker cystic lesions.

  13. Mean glandular dose in a breast screening programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvan, H. A.; Perez-Badillo, M. P.; Villasenor, Y. [Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Av. San Fernando No. 22, Col Seccion XVI, Mexico, D. F., C. P. 14080 (Mexico)

    2012-10-23

    Breast density has an important role in early detection of breast cancer, because has been reported the strong association between breast density and invasive breast cancer risk. Mammography is the gold standard to early detection of breast cancer, despite of this require ionizing radiation that may increase radio-induced cancer risk. This maybe limited with a quality control programme of mammographic units, with the main goal of achieving high quality images with low radiation dose. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) published in 2011 the {sup Q}uality assurance programme for digital mammography{sup ,} where glandular tissue quantity is an important parameter to compute mean glandular dose (MGD), which is necessary to reduce its associated risk. In this work we show the first results in our country applying this protocol and studying breast density in a small group. MGD complies with national and IAEA dose limits.

  14. Development of an excel spreadsheet formean glandular dose in mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagoshi, Kazuyo; Fujisaki, Tatsuya

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an Excel spreadsheet to calculate mean glandular dose (D g ) in mammography using clinical exposure data. D g can be calculated as the product of incident air kerma (K a ) and D gN (i.e., D g =K a x D gN ). According to the method of Klein et al (Phys Med Biol 1997; 42: 651-671), K a was measured at the entrance surface with an ionization dosimeter. Normalized glandular dose (D gN ) coefficients, taking into account breast glandularity, were computed using Boone's method (Med Phys 2002; 29: 869-875). D gN coefficients can be calculated for any arbitrary X-ray spectrum. These calculation procedures were input into a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet. The resulting Excel spreadsheet is easy to use and is always applicable in the field of mammography. The exposure conditions concerning D g in clinical practice were also investigated in 22 women. Four exposure conditions (target/filter combination and tube voltage) were automatically selected in this study. This investigation found that average D g for each exposure was 1.9 mGy. Because it is recommended that quality control of radiation dose management in mammography is done using an American College of Radiology (ACR) phantom, information about patient dose is not obtained in many facilities. The present Excel spreadsheet was accordingly considered useful for optimization of exposure conditions and explanation of mammography to patients. (author)

  15. High-performance liquid chromatographic separation of surface flavonoid aglycones in Artemisia annua L. and Artemisia vulgaris L.

    OpenAIRE

    STEPHANKA IVANCHEVA; RENETA GEVRENOVA; MILENA NIKOLOVA

    2004-01-01

    External flavonoid aglycones from Artemisia annua L. and Artemisia vulgaris L. were analyzed by the HPLC method. The mobile phase was composed of t-butanol-methanol-20 mmol l-1 phosphate buffer, pH 3.22. The linear gradient elution method within 22 min was applied. The main aglycones in A. annua and A. vulgaris are methyl ethers of quercetagetin and quercetin. Quercetagetin 3,6,7-trimethyl ether in A. annua and quercetin 3,7,3-trimethyl ether in A. vulgaris are the most abundant compounds.

  16. High-performance liquid chromatographic separation of surface flavonoid aglycones in Artemisia annua L. and Artemisia vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STEPHANKA IVANCHEVA

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available External flavonoid aglycones from Artemisia annua L. and Artemisia vulgaris L. were analyzed by the HPLC method. The mobile phase was composed of t-butanol-methanol-20 mmol l-1 phosphate buffer, pH 3.22. The linear gradient elution method within 22 min was applied. The main aglycones in A. annua and A. vulgaris are methyl ethers of quercetagetin and quercetin. Quercetagetin 3,6,7-trimethyl ether in A. annua and quercetin 3,7,3’-trimethyl ether in A. vulgaris are the most abundant compounds.

  17. Regeneration, vernalization and flowering in Lunaria annua L. in vivo and in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierik, R.L.M.

    1967-01-01

    Lunaria annua L. is a species with a juvenile phase and requiring cold for flowering. An annual flowering mutant was obtained with ethyl methane sulphonate. Experiments with shoot and leaf cuttings showed that juvenility was not a character of the whole plant. The juvenile phase was

  18. Efecto microbicida de la radiación solar (SODIS combinado con Artemisia annua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Muñoz-Restrepo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se evaluó el método SODIS y SODIS combinado con Artemisia annua como una alternativa para la desinfección del agua en comunidades sin acceso a agua segura. Se determinó la eficiencia del método en la remoción de Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis y Salmonella typhimurium usando botellas tipo PET con agua destilada estéril y una concentración inicial de 1x106 UFC/ml de cada microorganismo. Para la combinación SODIS-A. annua se adicionó a las botellas una infusión de A. annua al 10% (v/v; las botellas fueron expuestas al sol durante mínimo 6 horas y se determinaron las variables temperatura del agua, radiación solar y turbidez. Se encontró que el tratamiento SODIS fue más eficiente en la remoción de los cuatro microorganismos que el tratamiento SODIS + A. annua. Las remociones más altas se encontraron a partir de las cuatro horas de exposición para las especies bacterianas en estado vegetativo.

  19. Cytotoxicity of ethanolic extracts of Artemisia annua to Molt-4 human leukemia cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer is the second cause of death in the United States, and current treatment is expensive and kills also healthy cells. Affordable alternatives that kill only cancer cells are needed. Artemisinin, extracted from the Artemisia annua, has potent anticancer activity and low toxicity to normal cell...

  20. Effect of Artemisia annua L. leaves essential oil and ethanol extract on behavioral assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio F. Perazzo

    Full Text Available Artemisia annua has been used as a traditional plant for the treatment of malaria and fever in China because of the presence of its active compound, artemisinin. The present study evaluated the central activity of the essential oil and the crude ethanol extract of A. annua L. in animals as a part of a psychopharmacological screening of this plant. The extract was prepared in ethanol (AEE and the essential oil (AEO obtained by hydrodistillation, both with fresh leaves. Induced immobility, the forced swimming test (FST and the open-field test (OFT are well-known animal models to study drug-induced depression. The administration of A. annua essential oil or crude ethanol extract increased the immobility time in the FST and decreased other activities (ambulation, exploration, rearing and grooming in the OFT in animals. Both AEO and AEE prolonged pentobarbital-induced sleep as well, but the essential oil had a marked effect. Observing these results, it is possible to suggest that A. annua crude ethanol extract and essential oil could act as depressors on the Central Nervous System (CNS.

  1. Effect aquadest-extracted Gloriosa superba seed as mutagen on morphology of Artemisia annua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmawati, S. I.; Susilowati, A.; Yunus, A.; Widyastuti, Y.

    2018-03-01

    Gloriosa superba is a plant that contains colchicine in all parts of organs, especially in the seeds. Its extract is as a mutagen to produce plants with polyploid cells. Artemisia annua is a plant that produces active ingredients artemisinin as malarial drugs, hemorrhoids therapy, aromatherapy, antiviral, anticancer, and anti-bacterial. The aims of this research was to determine the effect aquadest-extracted Gloriosa superba seed as a mutagen to Artemisia annua morphology. Extraction of Gloriosa superba seeds obtained from Sukoharjo using maceration method with aquadest solvent (1: 1). The extracts were diluted (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100%) for Artemisia annua sprinkling with different times (0, 30, 60 and 90 minutes). Observations of morphology Artemisia annua included height, stem circumference, number of branches, number of leaves, leaf width and leaf length. The treatments did not affect plant morphology observation included height, stem circumference, number of branches, number of leaves, leaf width, and leaf length. The EB treatment (100%, 30 minutes) was higher (120 cm) than other. In all treatments stem circumference about 2.5 cm, number of branches ranged between 40-50, leaves width ranged 9-16c m, and leaf length ranged 8-15 cm.

  2. Antibacterial and antiprotozoal effect of Artemisia annua extracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivarsen, Elise; Fretté, Xavier; Engberg, Ricarda Greuel

    2012-01-01

    be banned in the EU. Extracts of aerial parts of Artemisia annua (AA) showed antimicrobial activity in overnight cultures of CP strains isolated from diseased broilers. The hexane extract (HEX) gave the strongest inhibition (MIC=185ppm) while the dichloromethane extract (DCM) gave a weaker inhibition (MIC...

  3. ARTEMISININ, RELATED SESQUITERPENES, AND ESSENTIAL OIL IN ARTEMISIA-ANNUA DURING A VEGETATION PERIOD IN VIETNAM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WOERDENBAG, HJ; PRAS, N; CHAN, NG; BANG, BT; BOS, R; VANUDEN, W; Y, PV; BOI, NV; BATTERMAN, S; LUGT, CB

    The active principle of Artemisia annua L., artemisinin, is currently being developed to a registered antimalarial drug. For production purposes, plants with a high artemisinin content are required. We followed the development of the artemisinin content and of the biosynthetically related

  4. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of a Broad Substrate Terpenoid Oxidoreductase from Artemisia annua

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ryden, Anna-Margareta; Ruyter-Spira, Carolien; Litjens, Ralph; Takahashi, Shunji; Quax, Wim; Osada, Hiroyuki; Bouwmeester, Harro; Kayser, Oliver

    From Artemisia annua L., a new oxidoreductase (Red 1) was cloned, sequenced and functionally characterized. Through bioinformatics, heterologous protein expression and enzyme substrate conversion assays, the elucidation of the enzymatic capacities of Red1 was achieved. Red1 acts on monoterpenoids,

  5. Metabolic engineering of terpene biosynthesis in plants using a trichome-specific transcription factor MsYABBY5 from spearmint (Mentha spicata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Reddy, Vaishnavi Amarr; Panicker, Deepa; Mao, Hui-Zhu; Kumar, Nadimuthu; Rajan, Chakravarthy; Venkatesh, Prasanna Nori; Chua, Nam-Hai; Sarojam, Rajani

    2016-07-01

    In many aromatic plants including spearmint (Mentha spicata), the sites of secondary metabolite production are tiny specialized structures called peltate glandular trichomes (PGT). Having high commercial values, these secondary metabolites are exploited largely as flavours, fragrances and pharmaceuticals. But, knowledge about transcription factors (TFs) that regulate secondary metabolism in PGT remains elusive. Understanding the role of TFs in secondary metabolism pathway will aid in metabolic engineering for increased yield of secondary metabolites and also the development of new production techniques for valuable metabolites. Here, we isolated and functionally characterized a novel MsYABBY5 gene that is preferentially expressed in PGT of spearmint. We generated transgenic plants in which MsYABBY5 was either overexpressed or silenced using RNA interference (RNAi). Analysis of the transgenic lines showed that the reduced expression of MsYABBY5 led to increased levels of terpenes and that overexpression decreased terpene levels. Additionally, ectopic expression of MsYABBY5 in Ocimum basilicum and Nicotiana sylvestris decreased secondary metabolite production in them, suggesting that the encoded transcription factor is probably a repressor of secondary metabolism. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. From shavenbaby to the naked valley: trichome formation as a model for evolutionary developmental biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Saad; Kittelmann, Sebastian; McGregor, Alistair P

    2015-01-01

    Microtrichia or trichomes are non-sensory actin protrusions produced by the epidermal cells of many insects. Studies of trichome formation in Drosophila have over the last 30 years provided key insights towards our understanding of gene regulation, gene regulatory networks (GRNs), development, the genotype to phenotype map, and the evolution of these processes. Here we review classic studies that have used trichome formation as a model to shed light on Drosophila development as well as recent research on the architecture of the GRN underlying trichome formation. This includes the findings that both small peptides and microRNAs play important roles in the regulation and evolution of this network. In addition, we review research on the evolution of trichome patterns that has provided novel insights into the function and architecture of cis-regulatory modules, and into the genetic basis of morphological change. We conclude that further research on these apparently simple and often functionally enigmatic structures will continue to provide new and important knowledge about development and evolution. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. AaERF1 positively regulates the resistance to Botrytis cinerea in Artemisia annua.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Lu

    Full Text Available Plants are sessile organisms, and they can not move away under abiotic or biotic stresses. Thus plants have evolved a set of genes that response to adverse environment to modulate gene expression. In this study, we characterized and functionally studied an ERF transcription factor from Artemisia annua, AaERF1, which plays an important role in biotic stress responses. The AaERF1 promoter had been cloned and GUS staining results of AaERF1 promoter-GUS transgenic A. annua showed that AaERF1 is expressed ubiquitiously in all organs. Several putative cis-acting elements such as W-box, TGA-box and Py-rich element, which are involved in defense responsiveness, are present in the promoter. The expression of AaERF1 can be induced vigorously by methyl jasmonate as well as by ethephon and wounding, implying that AaERF1 may activate some of the defense genes via the jasmonic acid and ethylene signaling pathways of A. annua. The results of electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA and yeast one-hybrid experiments showed that AaERF1 was able to bind to the GCC box cis-acting element in vitro and in yeast. Ectopic expression of AaERF1 could enhance the expression levels of the defense marker genes PLANT DEFENSIN1.2 (PDF1.2 and BASIC CHITINASE (ChiB, and increase the resistance to Botrytis cinerea in the 35S::AaERF1 transgenic Arabidopsis. The down-regulated expression level of AaERF1 evidently reduced the resistance to B. cinerea in A. annua. The overall results showed that AaERF1 positively regulated the resistance to B. cinerea in A. annua.

  8. A new quantitative classification of ecological types in the bromeliad genus Tillandsia (Bromeliaceae) based on trichomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefano, Mosti; Papini, Alessio; Brighigna, Luigi

    2008-03-01

    Using collection specimens, we measured the density and wing area of trichomes in 37 species of the bromeliad genus Tillandsia, specifically the abaxial proximal, abaxial distal, adaxial proximal and adaxial distal parts of the leaf. The product of the trichome "wing" area by the number of trichomes (means) produced a pure number (T) that was correlated to ecological features. The correlation was positive with respect to arid environments (xeric Tillands) and negative with respect to humid environments (mesic Tillands). Bulbous, and particularly myrmecophytic species and species with tanks, represented particular categories. Other intermediate types were identified based on the T number, totalling five ecological types. In comparison with other systems of ecological typification for Tillands and other Bromeliaceae, the present system offers measurable data whose analysis is reproducible.

  9. Botulinum toxin for treatment of glandular hypersecretory disorders.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Laing, T A

    2012-02-03

    SUMMARY: The use of botulinum toxin to treat disorders of the salivary glands is increasing in popularity in recent years. Recent reports of the use of botulinum toxin in glandular hypersecretion suggest overall favourable results with minimal side-effects. However, few randomised clinical trials means that data are limited with respect to candidate suitability, treatment dosages, frequency and duration of treatment. We report a selection of such cases from our own department managed with botulinum toxin and review the current data on use of the toxin to treat salivary gland disorders such as Frey\\'s syndrome, excessive salivation (sialorrhoea), focal and general hyperhidrosis, excessive lacrimation and chronic rhinitis.

  10. Analyzing trichomes and spatio-temporal expression of a cysteine protease gene Mucunain in Mucuna pruriens L. (DC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Susheel Kumar; Dhawan, Sunita Singh

    2018-03-01

    Mucuna pruriens is a well-known legume for the itching attributes of the trichome and a valuable medicinal herb that is used for the treatment of Parkinson's disease, sexual debilities, etc. Its cultivation was deprived due to its itching behavior. The wild genotype of M. pruriens have the largest trichome length (2015 ± 29 μm) compared to other genotype and mutants. The white-seeded variety of M. pruriens was found to be the most suitable for large-scale cultivation due to the small trichome size and less trichome density on the pod. The external surface trichomes have protuberance with unknown function. The unicellular trichomes of Mucuna show the flowing fluid or cytoplasm inside the trichome. The unigenes regulating the differentiation and development of the trichome such as GLABRA-1, GLABRA-2, and cpr-5 have been identified in M. pruriens transcriptome of the leaf. The Mucunain shows a higher transcript abundance in the flower and pod cover compared to the seeds. The Mucunain was found in every stage of plant growth, but it was highly expressed during maturity (about 170 days) with a high fragment per kilobase per million value.

  11. Comparison of Five Major Trichome Regulatory Genes in Brassica villosa with Orthologues within the Brassicaceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayidu, Naghabushana K.; Kagale, Sateesh; Taheri, Ali; Withana-Gamage, Thushan S.; Parkin, Isobel A. P.; Sharpe, Andrew G.; Gruber, Margaret Y.

    2014-01-01

    Coding sequences for major trichome regulatory genes, including the positive regulators GLABRA 1(GL1), GLABRA 2 (GL2), ENHANCER OF GLABRA 3 (EGL3), and TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA 1 (TTG1) and the negative regulator TRIPTYCHON (TRY), were cloned from wild Brassica villosa, which is characterized by dense trichome coverage over most of the plant. Transcript (FPKM) levels from RNA sequencing indicated much higher expression of the GL2 and TTG1 regulatory genes in B. villosa leaves compared with expression levels of GL1 and EGL3 genes in either B. villosa or the reference genome species, glabrous B. oleracea; however, cotyledon TTG1 expression was high in both species. RNA sequencing and Q-PCR also revealed an unusual expression pattern for the negative regulators TRY and CPC, which were much more highly expressed in trichome-rich B. villosa leaves than in glabrous B. oleracea leaves and in glabrous cotyledons from both species. The B. villosa TRY expression pattern also contrasted with TRY expression patterns in two diploid Brassica species, and with the Arabidopsis model for expression of negative regulators of trichome development. Further unique sequence polymorphisms, protein characteristics, and gene evolution studies highlighted specific amino acids in GL1 and GL2 coding sequences that distinguished glabrous species from hairy species and several variants that were specific for each B. villosa gene. Positive selection was observed for GL1 between hairy and non-hairy plants, and as expected the origin of the four expressed positive trichome regulatory genes in B. villosa was predicted to be from B. oleracea. In particular the unpredicted expression patterns for TRY and CPC in B. villosa suggest additional characterization is needed to determine the function of the expanded families of trichome regulatory genes in more complex polyploid species within the Brassicaceae. PMID:24755905

  12. IDENTIFIKASI DAN PENETAPAN KADAR SENYAWA KUMARIN DALAM EKSTRAK METANOL Artemisia Annua L. SECARA KROMATOGRAFI LAPIS TIPIS - DENSITOMETRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukmayati Alegantina

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Artemisia annua L. contain the active compounds include: terpenoids, flavonoids, kumarin, artemisinin acid, artennuin B, phenols, saponins, and fat. Kumarin and its derivatives have biological activity that can stimulate skin pigment, blood anticoagulation and can inhibit the effects of carcinogens. With this biological activity of kumarin, the research is done to ensure there is kumarin by identification and measure kumarin level which is contained in the Artemisia annua L. herb. The analysis methods include the extraction and fractionation. Identification and determination of level with Thin-Layer Chromatography (TLC using a Densitometer CS-9301 PC. From the result of TLC identification of kumarin standard known that Artemisia annua L extract contain kumarin compound which marked by a blue spot flouresense on standards and methanol extract of artemisia annua L. seeing under UV light at a wavelength of 366 nm with Rf value of standard and sample is 0.31, the measurement of kumarin spot with Densitometer known that kumarin concentration in the extract of Artemisia annua L. is 10.5 ul/ ml with 105% RecoveryKeywords: Artemisia annua L, kumarin, TLC-Densitometry

  13. Influence of Artemisia annua L. on toll-like receptor expression in brain of mice infected with Acanthamoeba sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtkowiak-Giera, Agnieszka; Derda, Monika; Kosik-Bogacka, Danuta; Kolasa-Wołosiuk, Agnieszka; Solarczyk, Piotr; Cholewiński, Marcin; Wandurska-Nowak, Elżbieta; Jagodziński, Paweł P; Hadaś, Edward

    2018-02-01

    The treatment of acanthamoebiasis is a still a problem. Our previous studies showed that the application of extracts from Artemisia annua L. significantly prolonged the survival of mice infected by Acanthamoeba. This plant has medicinal properties in the treatment of human parasitic diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of A. annua on expression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 2 and 4 in brain of mice with Acanthamoeba infection. Mice were infected with Acanthamoeba sp. strain Ac309 (KY203908) by intranasal inoculation without and after application of A. annua extract. The administration of extract from A. annua significantly reduced the level of expression of TLR2 and modified the level of expression of TLR4. A. annua extract is a natural substance that is well tolerated in animals and may be considered as a combination therapy in treatment of acanthamoebiasis. Our study suggested that A. annua extract may be used as an alternative therapeutic tool. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Method for determination of the mean fraction of glandular tissue in individual female breasts using mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, J T M; Veldkamp, W J H; Thijssen, M A O; Woudenberg, S van; Zoetelief, J

    2005-01-01

    The nationwide breast cancer screening programme using mammography has been in full operation in the Netherlands since 1997. Quality control of the screening programme has been assigned to the National Expert and Training Centre for Breast Cancer Screening. Limits are set to the mean glandular dose and the centre monitors these for all facilities engaged in the screening programme. This procedure is restricted to the determination of the entrance dose on a 5 cm thick polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) phantom. The mean glandular dose for a compressed breast is estimated from these data. Individual breasts may deviate largely from this 5 cm PMMA breast model. Not only may the compressed breast size vary from 2 to 10 cm, but breast composition varies also. The mean glandular dose is dependent on the fraction of glandular tissue (glandularity) of the breast. To estimate the risk related to individual mammograms requires the development of a method for determination of the glandularity of individual breasts. A method has been developed to derive the glandularity using the attenuation of mammography x-rays in the breast. The method was applied to a series of mammograms at a screening unit. The results, i.e., a glandularity of 93% within the range of 0 to 1, were comparable with data in the literature. The glandularity as a function of compressed breast thickness is similar to results from other investigators using differing methods

  15. Population Responses of Potato Leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) to Insecticide in Glandular-Haired and Non-glandular-Haired Alfalfa Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulc, R Mark; McCormick, John S; Hammond, Ronald B; Miller, David J

    2014-12-01

    Conflicting results have been reported on the ability of glandular-haired alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) cultivars to reduce potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae Harris, population abundance in field environments. We measured potato leafhopper adult and nymph abundance and yield responses in a cultivar selected for high potato leafhopper resistance ('54H91') and in a non-glandular-haired susceptible cultivar ('54V54') with and without insecticide treatment across 3 yr. Treatments included no insecticide and insecticide applied either early or late in each summer growth cycle. Date × cultivar × treatment interactions were found for potato leafhopper population abundance. In the absence of insecticides, total potato leafhopper abundance (adults + nymphs per sweep) was lower in 54H91 than in 54V54 on 85% of sampling dates; cultivar differences were especially evident as potato leafhopper abundance peaked. Insecticide treatment reduced potato leafhopper populations in both cultivars, but populations recovered and often exceeded the normal action threshold in both cultivars within 2-3 wk of insecticide application. Yield gain from early insecticide treatment of 54V54 was >400 kg/ha in 11 of 14 summer harvests, whereas in 54H91 the yield gain was alfalfa cultivars with high levels of potato leafhopper resistance significantly suppress potato leafhopper adult and nymph abundance, reduce yield losses in the absence of insecticides, and have potential within an integrated pest management strategy to reduce insecticide use in alfalfa production systems. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

  16. Glandular dose in breast tomosynthesis examinations: Preliminary study with a sample of patients; Dosis glandular en examenes de tomosintesis de mama: estudio preliminar con una muestra de pacientes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo, M.; Chevalier, M.; Calzado, A.; Valverde, J.

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the mean glandular dose administered to a group of patients with a tomography system (Selenia Dimensions) service installed on a large hospital in which routine tests are done and screening. (Author)

  17. Isolation and characterization of culturable endophytic actinobacteria associated with Artemisia annua L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Zhao, Guo-Zhen; Huang, Hai-Yu; Qin, Sheng; Zhu, Wen-Yong; Zhao, Li-Xing; Xu, Li-Hua; Zhang, Si; Li, Wen-Jun; Strobel, Gary

    2012-03-01

    Endophytic actinobacteria isolated from Artemisia annua were characterized and evaluated for their bioactivities. A total of 228 isolates representing at least 19 different genera of actinobacteria were obtained and several of them seemed to be novel taxa. An evaluation of antimicrobial activity showed that more isolates possessed activity towards plant pathogens than activity against other pathogenic bacteria or yeasts. High frequencies of PCR amplification were obtained for type I polyketide synthases (PKS-I, 21.1%), type II polyketide synthases (PKS-II, 45.2%) and nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS, 32.5%). The results of herbicidal activity screening indicated that 19 out of 117 samples of fermentation broths completely inhibited the germination of Echinochloa crusgalli. This study indicated that endophytic actinobacteria associated with A. annua are abundant and have potentially beneficial and diverse bioactivities which should be pursued for their biotechnical promise.

  18. Lima bean – lady beetle interactions: hooked trichomes affect survival of Stethorus punctillum larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    We tested the hypothesis that Lima bean Phaseolus lunatus L. (Henderson cultivar) trichome density affects the survival of the acariphagous lady beetle Stethorus punctillum Weise. When isolated throughout larval development, 10% or less of S. punctillum larvae reared on two-spotted spider mite Tetr...

  19. A study of the trichomes of several frequently confused species of Cissus L. (Vitaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jackes, Betsy R.

    1987-01-01

    Scanning electron microscope studies of the indumentum of Cissus adnata Roxb., C. assamica (Laws.) Craib and C. aristata Blume, show that the structure of the trichomes varies between taxa but is consistent within each taxon. These three species are distinct and easily recognised by the nature and

  20. Average glandular dose in digital mammography and breast tomosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olgar, T. [Ankara Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Engineering Physics; Universitaetsklinikum Leipzig AoeR (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Kahn, T.; Gosch, D. [Universitaetsklinikum Leipzig AoeR (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: To determine the average glandular dose (AGD) in digital full-field mammography (2 D imaging mode) and in breast tomosynthesis (3 D imaging mode). Materials and Methods: Using the method described by Boone, the AGD was calculated from the exposure parameters of 2247 conventional 2 D mammograms and 984 mammograms in 3 D imaging mode of 641 patients examined with the digital mammographic system Hologic Selenia Dimensions. The breast glandular tissue content was estimated by the Hologic R2 Quantra automated volumetric breast density measurement tool for each patient from right craniocaudal (RCC) and left craniocaudal (LCC) images in 2 D imaging mode. Results: The mean compressed breast thickness (CBT) was 52.7 mm for craniocaudal (CC) and 56.0 mm for mediolateral oblique (MLO) views. The mean percentage of breast glandular tissue content was 18.0 % and 17.4 % for RCC and LCC projections, respectively. The mean AGD values in 2 D imaging mode per exposure for the standard breast were 1.57 mGy and 1.66 mGy, while the mean AGD values after correction for real breast composition were 1.82 mGy and 1.94 mGy for CC and MLO views, respectively. The mean AGD values in 3 D imaging mode per exposure for the standard breast were 2.19 mGy and 2.29 mGy, while the mean AGD values after correction for the real breast composition were 2.53 mGy and 2.63 mGy for CC and MLO views, respectively. No significant relationship was found between the AGD and CBT in 2 D imaging mode and a good correlation coefficient of 0.98 in 3 D imaging mode. Conclusion: In this study the mean calculated AGD per exposure in 3 D imaging mode was on average 34 % higher than for 2 D imaging mode for patients examined with the same CBT.

  1. Average glandular dose in digital mammography and breast tomosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olgar, T.; Universitaetsklinikum Leipzig AoeR; Kahn, T.; Gosch, D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the average glandular dose (AGD) in digital full-field mammography (2 D imaging mode) and in breast tomosynthesis (3 D imaging mode). Materials and Methods: Using the method described by Boone, the AGD was calculated from the exposure parameters of 2247 conventional 2 D mammograms and 984 mammograms in 3 D imaging mode of 641 patients examined with the digital mammographic system Hologic Selenia Dimensions. The breast glandular tissue content was estimated by the Hologic R2 Quantra automated volumetric breast density measurement tool for each patient from right craniocaudal (RCC) and left craniocaudal (LCC) images in 2 D imaging mode. Results: The mean compressed breast thickness (CBT) was 52.7 mm for craniocaudal (CC) and 56.0 mm for mediolateral oblique (MLO) views. The mean percentage of breast glandular tissue content was 18.0 % and 17.4 % for RCC and LCC projections, respectively. The mean AGD values in 2 D imaging mode per exposure for the standard breast were 1.57 mGy and 1.66 mGy, while the mean AGD values after correction for real breast composition were 1.82 mGy and 1.94 mGy for CC and MLO views, respectively. The mean AGD values in 3 D imaging mode per exposure for the standard breast were 2.19 mGy and 2.29 mGy, while the mean AGD values after correction for the real breast composition were 2.53 mGy and 2.63 mGy for CC and MLO views, respectively. No significant relationship was found between the AGD and CBT in 2 D imaging mode and a good correlation coefficient of 0.98 in 3 D imaging mode. Conclusion: In this study the mean calculated AGD per exposure in 3 D imaging mode was on average 34 % higher than for 2 D imaging mode for patients examined with the same CBT.

  2. The Impact of Carbon Source, Explants and Growth Regulators on Callogenesis and Organogenesis of Artemisia annua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bita GHASSEMI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Artemisinin, a sesquiterpene lactone isolated from Artemisia annua L. plant is known for its antimalarial activity. The low content of artemisinin has stimulated researchers to enhance its production through biotechnological approaches such as tissue culture. The present study was initiated to study the effect of some important factors alone and in combination, on the callogenesis and organogenesis of Artemisia annua. The type of carbon source had a significant effect on NAA efficiency to callogenesis of A. annua, whereas the best callogenesis of A. absinthium was observed at 2 mg/L BAP + 30 g/L sucrose and in the absence of NAA, with root explants. Presence of BAP also had an important effect on callogenesis, especially in high concentrations. A suitable suspension culture was obtained in the MS basal medium containing 0.5 mg/L NAA and BAP, with 30 g/L glucose. Artemisinin was naturally production was at least 0.03 mg/g (w.dt at the first day and peaked on the 16th day with 0.31 mg/g (w.dt in the cell culture of A. annua. The maximum number of shoots (2.167 ± 1.484 was induced at 0.5 mg/L BAP + 0.1 mg/L NAA + glucose (30 g/L with leaf explants. However, treatments containing glucose did not show a good shoot induction. Longer shoots were induced in the medium containing either 0.5 mg/l NAA + 0.5 mg/l BAP + sucrose with leaf explants (1.493 cm ± 0.342 or 0.5 mg/l NAA + sucrose with stem explants (0.697 cm ± 0.930. Medium containing 0.5 or 2 mg/l NAA and sucrose (without BAP induced more roots though.

  3. Relative expression of genes of terpene metabolism in different tissues of Artemisia annua L

    OpenAIRE

    Olofsson, Linda; Engström, Alexander; Lundgren, Anneli; Brodelius, Peter E

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Recently, Artemisia annua L. (annual or sweet wormwood) has received increasing attention due to the fact that the plant produces the sesquiterpenoid endoperoxide artemisinin, which today is widely used for treatment of malaria. The plant produces relatively small amounts of artemisinin and a worldwide shortage of the drug has led to intense research in order to increase the yield of artemisinin. In order to improve our understanding of terpene metabolism in the plant and ...

  4. Essai de germination et de croissance de Artemisia annua L. au Niger

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pour la biomasse c'est la variété F2 qui a enregistrée les meilleurs rendements même si au niveau de la hauteur, elle enregistre les valeurs les plus basses comparativement à la variété M. Cette étude a montrée que Artemisia annua peut s'adapter au Niger et son introduction offre à la population un moyen supplémentaire ...

  5. Larvicidal, oviposition, and ovicidal effects of Artemisia annua (Asterales: Asteraceae) against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles sinensis, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Shao-Xiong; Tay, Jia-Wei; Chan, Lai-Keng; Jaal, Zairi

    2013-09-01

    This study focuses on the larvicidal, oviposition, and ovicidal effects of a crude extract of Artemisia annua against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles sinensis, and Culex quinquefasciatus. Dried cells of Artemisia annua from cell suspension cultures were extracted using hexane. The extract showed moderate larvicidal effects against mosquitoes. At 24-h post treatment, the LC50 values for Anopheles sinensis, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus were recorded as 244.55, 276.14, and 374.99 ppm, respectively. The percentage mortality of larvae was directly proportional to the tested concentration. Anopheles sinensis was found to be the most susceptible species, whereas Culex quinquefasciatus was the most tolerant to the Artemisia annua extract. The results indicated that the Artemisia annua extract showed concentration-dependent oviposition deterrent activity and had a strong deterrent effect. At 500 ppm, the percentage effective repellency was more than 85% compared with the control group for all the species, with oviposition activity index values of -0.94, -0.95, and -0.78 for Aedes aegypti, Anopheles sinensis, and Culex quinquefasciatus, respectively. In the ovicidal assay, the percentage hatchability of eggs after treatment with 500 ppm of Artemisia annua extract was significantly lower than the control, with values of 48.84 ± 4.08, 38.42 ± 3.67, and 79.35 ± 2.09% for Aedes aegypti, Anopheles sinensis, and Culex quinquefasciatus, respectively. Artemisia annua was found to be more effective against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles sinensis compared with Culex quinquefasciatus. This study indicated that crude extract of A. annua could be a potential alternative for use in vector management programs.

  6. Urbanization and the incidence of abnormalities of squamous and glandular epithelium of the cervix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, ME; Claasen, HHV; van Westering, RP; Kok, LP

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND. The large data bases of the Dutch cervical screening program can be exploited to establish the relation between urbanization and the incidence of abnormalities of the squamous and glandular epithelium, including mild or greater changes of the squamous and glandular epithelium of the

  7. Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils and Plant Extracts of Artemisia (Artemisia annua L. In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Massiha

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many of the plants used to treat certain diseases, because they have showed antimicrobial activity. In this case, many studies have conducted on antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of Artemisia annua. Materials and Methods: The purpose of this study is to determine the antibacterial effects of aqueous, chloroform, methanol and ethanol extracts of A. annua against eight bacterial species. Antimicrobial activity, minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal activity of the essential oil and extract was performed by agar disc diffusion and microdilution broth methods.Results: The obtained results showed antibacterial activity of the organic and chloroformic extracts of Artemisia annua against the tested microorganisms. Presence of tannins, saponins, alkaloids, amino acids, phenolic compounds, quinines and terpenoids were identified in the composition of the obtained extract using mass gas-chromatograph. The best result for the minimum inhibitory Concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration was reported for the 32 mg/ml of chloroformic extract.Conclusion: The results indicate the fact that the extracts and essential oils of the plants can be useful as medicinal or preservatives composition.

  8. Microwave-Assisted Extraction Studies of Target Analyte Artemisinin from Dried Leaves of Artemisia annua L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Misra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia annua L. (Asteraceae is an annual herb native of Asia. This plant has been used for many centuries in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of fever and malaria. Conventional methods for the extraction of artemisinin from A. annua including solvent extraction, Soxhlet extraction, and heat reflux extraction are characterized by long extraction times and the consumption of large volume of solvents. A simple, rapid, and precise microwave-assisted extraction process was optimized for fast sample preparation for the faster quantitative determination of artemisinin, potential new generation antimalarial drug, from dried leaves of Artemisia annua L. A simple experiment was designed for the optimization of the appropriate solvent under same extraction conditions. The selected appropriate solvent was then standardized for various different extraction variables. The major parameters studied showed effects on extraction efficiency including processing time, strength of microwave, moisture content, volume and nature of the solvent. The most favorable conditions were obtained by using plant material of 25 mesh (particle size extracted with acetone for 120 seconds at 160 W (i.e., 20% of total power. Quantitative analysis was performed using thin-layer chromatography coupled with a densitometer (TLC densitometry. The results showed that MAE can be used as an efficient and rapid method for the extraction of the active components from plants.

  9. Natural allelic variation defines a role for ATMYC1: trichome cell fate determination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Vaughan Symonds

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The molecular nature of biological variation is not well understood. Indeed, many questions persist regarding the types of molecular changes and the classes of genes that underlie morphological variation within and among species. Here we have taken a candidate gene approach based on previous mapping results to identify the gene and ultimately a polymorphism that underlies a trichome density QTL in Arabidopsis thaliana. Our results show that natural allelic variation in the transcription factor ATMYC1 alters trichome density in A. thaliana; this is the first reported function for ATMYC1. Using site-directed mutagenesis and yeast two-hybrid experiments, we demonstrate that a single amino acid replacement in ATMYC1, discovered in four ecotypes, eliminates known protein-protein interactions in the trichome initiation pathway. Additionally, in a broad screen for molecular variation at ATMYC1, including 72 A. thaliana ecotypes, a high-frequency block of variation was detected that results in >10% amino acid replacement within one of the eight exons of the gene. This sequence variation harbors a strong signal of divergent selection but has no measurable effect on trichome density. Homologs of ATMYC1 are pleiotropic, however, so this block of variation may be the result of natural selection having acted on another trait, while maintaining the trichome density role of the gene. These results show that ATMYC1 is an important source of variation for epidermal traits in A. thaliana and indicate that the transcription factors that make up the TTG1 genetic pathway generally may be important sources of epidermal variation in plants.

  10. Enhancement of lymphocyte proliferation by mouse glandular kallikrein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Z Q; Murakami, K; Ikigai, H; Shimamura, T

    1992-03-01

    Mouse glandular kallikrein (mGK) strongly enhanced the spontaneous and mitogen-induced proliferation of lymphocytes. Both blast formation and 3H-TdR incorporation were dose-dependently enhanced at the same time many cells were killed. The enhancing activity was independent of EGF, because EGF-binding proteins (mGK-9 in mGK-6,9 mixture and mGK-13), renal kallikrein (mGK-6) and human kallikrein all displayed the same enhancement. A serine proteinase inhibitor, diisopropyl fluorophosphate, could block the enhancement by mGK. The new function suggests that mGK is important in the immune system as a regulatory molecule.

  11. Thyroid and mammary radiobiology: radiogenic damage to glandular tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clifton, K.H.

    1986-01-01

    In this selective survey, emphasis is placed on effects on clonogenic cell populations and their regulation by irradiation. The subject is dealt with under the following headings: glandular structure and functional control, assays of function (radioimmunoassay and enzyme-linked immunoassay methodology), radiogenic thyroid injury; time course and dose, in vivo hormonal assays of target cell populations, the study of clonogen numbers and response to damage, using the thyroid clonogen FD50 transplantation assay and the inhibition of goitrogen-induced thyroid growth assay, the study of radiogenic cancer initiation using the AD50 and FD50 transplantation and assay systems, the relationship between clonogen survival and tissue injury, and the implications for the study of other glands. (UK)

  12. Engineering Isoprenoid Biosynthesis in Artemisia annua L. for the Production of Taxadiene: A Key Intermediate of Taxol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiya Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Taxadiene is the first committed precursor to paclitaxel, marketed as Taxol, arguably the most important anticancer agent against ovarian and breast cancer. In Taxus, taxadiene is directly synthesized from geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP that is the common precursor for diterpenoids and is found in most plants and microbes. In this study, Artemisia annua L., a Chinese medicinal herb that grows fast and is rich in terpenoids, was used as a genetic engineering host to produce taxadiene. The TXS (taxadiene synthase gene, cloned from Taxus and inserted into pCAMBIA1304, was transformed into Artemisia annua L. using the Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated method. Thirty independent transgenic plants were obtained, and GC-MS analysis was used to confirm that taxadiene was produced and accumulated up to 129.7 μg/g dry mass. However, the high expression of TXS did not affect plant growth or photosynthesis in transgenic Artemisia annua L. It is notable that artemisinin is produced and stored in leaves and most taxadiene accumulated in the stem of transgenic Artemisia annua L., suggesting a new way to produce two important compounds in one transgenic plant: leaves for artemisinin and stem for taxadiene. Overall, this study demonstrates that genetic engineering of the taxane biosynthetic pathway in Artemisia annua L. for the production of taxadiene is feasible.

  13. Effect of plant trichomes on the vertical migration of Haemonchus contortus infective larvae on five tropical forages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Aruaque L F; Costa, Ciniro; Rodella, Roberto A; Silva, Bruna F; Amarante, Alessandro F T

    2009-06-01

    The influence of trichomes on vertical migration and survival of Haemonchus contortus infective larvae (L3) on different forages was investigated. Four different forages showing different distributions of trichomes (Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu, Brachiaria brizantha cv. Xaraes, Andropogon gayanus, and Stylosanthes spp.), and one forage species without trichomes (Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania), were used. Forages cut at the post-grazing height were contaminated with faeces containing L3. Samples of different grass strata (0-10, 10-20, >20 cm) and faeces were collected for L3 quantification once per week over four weeks. In all forages studied, the highest L3 recovery occurred seven days after contamination, with the lowest recovery on A. gayanus. In general, larvae were found on all forages' strata. However, most of the larvae were at the lower stratum. There was no influence of trichomes on migration and survival of H. contortus L3 on the forages.

  14. Breast Glandularity in Malaysian Women from a Full-Field Digital Mammography System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noriah Jamal; Humairah Samad Cheung; Siti Selina Abdul Hamid; Juliana Mahamad Napiah

    2014-01-01

    This study is undertaken to estimate breast glandularity in Malaysian women from a Full-Field Digital mammography System. This study involved 223 women (Malay=100;Chinese=101 and Indian=22) underwent voluntary screening mammography at Breast Centre, International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM Breast Centre) for the first quarter of year 2009. Those are women aged between 31 to 69 years old (median age, 49 years). Data on miliampere-seconds, kilo voltage and compressed breast thickness for each cranio caudal view are used to estimate breast glandularity for an individual breast. Breast glandularity is calculated using the fitted equation reported earlier. The difference in breast glandularity among ethnic groups was tested for significance using the nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test. The average breast glandularity estimated in our study, using FFDM system is 52.94±27.63 %. No significant difference was seen in breast glandularity among the ethnic groups (p>0.05, Kruskan Wallis test). Breast glandularity decrease as age increases, up to 60 years old. (author)

  15. Herbivore handling of a plant's trichome: the case of Heliconius charithonia (L.) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) and Passiflora lobata (Killip) Hutch. (Passifloraceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Marcio Z. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Centro de Biociencias. Dept. de Botanica, Ecologia e Zoologia]. E-mail: mzc@cb.ufrn.br

    2008-05-15

    Trichomes reduce herbivore attack on plants by physically and/or chemically inhibiting movement or other activities. Despite evidence that herbivores are negatively affected by trichomes there also reports of insect counter-adaptations that circumvent the plant's defense. This paper reports on a study that investigated the likely mechanisms employed by larvae of the nymphalid butterfly, Heliconius charithonia (L.), that allow it to feed on a host that is presumably protected by hooked trichomes (Passiflora lobata (Killip) Hutch). Evidence were gathered using data from direct observations of larval movement and behavior, faeces analysis, scanning electron microscopy of plant surface and experimental analysis of larval movement on plants with and without trichomes (manually removed). The latter involved a comparison with a non specialist congener, Heliconius pachinus Salvin. Observations showed that H. charithonia larvae are capable of freeing themselves from entrapment on trichome tips by physical force. Moreover, wandering larvae lay silk mats on the trichomes and remove their tips by biting. In fact, trichome tips were found in the faeces. Experimental removal of trichomes aided in the movement of the non specialist but had no noticeable effect on the specialist larvae. These results support the suggestion that trichomes are capable of deterring a non specialist herbivore (H. pachinus). The precise mechanisms that allow the success of H. charithonia are not known, but I suggest that a blend of behavioral as well as physical resistance mechanisms is involved. Future studies should ascertain whether larval integument provides physical resistance to trichomes. (author)

  16. Telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter mutations in glandular lesions of the urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vail, Eric; Zheng, Xiaoyong; Zhou, Ming; Yang, Ximing; Fallon, John T; Epstein, Jonathan I; Zhong, Minghao

    2015-10-01

    Glandular lesions of the urinary bladder include a broad spectrum of entities ranging from completely benign to primary and secondary malignancies. The accurate diagnosis of these lesions is both important and challenging. Recently, studies suggest that telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter mutations could be a biomarker for urothelial carcinoma (UC). We hypothesized that these mutations can distinguish UC with glandular differentiation from nephrogenic adenoma, primary adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder (PAUB), or secondary malignancies. Twenty-five cases of benign glandular lesions (including nephrogenic adenoma); 29 cases of UC with glandular differentiation; 10 cases of PAUB; and 10 cases each of metastatic colon cancer, prostatic carcinoma, and carcinoma from Mullerian origin were collected. Slides were reviewed and selected to make sure the lesion was at least 10% to 20% of all tissue. Macrodissection was performed in some of cases, and genomic DNA was extracted from the tissue. Telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter mutations were determined by standard polymerase chain reaction sequencing. Twenty-one cases (72%) of UC with glandular differentiation were positive for TERT promoter mutations. However, none of the remaining cases (total 65 cases of benign lesions, PAUB, and metastatic carcinomas) was positive for TERT promoter mutation. Telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter mutations were highly associated with UC including UC with glandular differentiation but not other glandular lesions of bladder. Therefore, in conjunction with morphologic features, Immunohistochemistry stain profile, and clinical information, TERT promoter mutations could distinguish UC with glandular differentiation from other bladder glandular lesions. In addition, lack of TERT promoter mutations in primary adenocarcinoma of bladder suggests that this entity may have different origin or carcinogenesis from those of UC. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. TCS1, a Microtubule-Binding Protein, Interacts with KCBP/ZWICHEL to Regulate Trichome Cell Shape in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangliang Chen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available How cell shape is controlled is a fundamental question in developmental biology, but the genetic and molecular mechanisms that determine cell shape are largely unknown. Arabidopsis trichomes have been used as a good model system to investigate cell shape at the single-cell level. Here we describe the trichome cell shape 1 (tcs1 mutants with the reduced trichome branch number in Arabidopsis. TCS1 encodes a coiled-coil domain-containing protein. Pharmacological analyses and observations of microtubule dynamics show that TCS1 influences the stability of microtubules. Biochemical analyses and live-cell imaging indicate that TCS1 binds to microtubules and promotes the assembly of microtubules. Further results reveal that TCS1 physically associates with KCBP/ZWICHEL, a microtubule motor involved in the regulation of trichome branch number. Genetic analyses indicate that kcbp/zwi is epistatic to tcs1 with respect to trichome branch number. Thus, our findings define a novel genetic and molecular mechanism by which TCS1 interacts with KCBP to regulate trichome cell shape by influencing the stability of microtubules.

  18. Resistance of tomato strains to the moth Tuta absoluta imparted by allelochemicals and trichome density Resistência de linhagens de tomateiro à traça Tuta absoluta, relacionada a aleloquímicos e à densidade de tricomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Mattes de Oliveira

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We examined the resistance of improved tomato strains rich in 2-tridecanone (2-TD, zingiberene (ZGB and acyl sugars (AA to the tomato moth, Tuta absoluta. We also studied whether selection for strains with higher densities of glandular trichomes, and thus presumably strains with higher concentrations of 2-tridecanone, was effective in promoting greater resistance to the moth. The TOM-584 and TOM-679 strains were used as susceptible controls, which have normal concentrations of the three allelochemicals. The improved strain TOM-687, which has a high AA content, has a widely documented resistance and was used as a standard resistant strain. The wild strain PI134417, which is resistant by means of its high 2-TD content, was also used as a standard resistant strain. The experiment was installed in a greenhouse with a completely randomized design. The wild strain PI 134417 was confirmed as being highly resistant. TOM-622 (rich in 2-TD, ZGB-703 (rich in ZGB, and TOM-687 (rich in AA showed significant reductions in the oviposition rate of the tomato moth, damage to the plants, injury to the leaflets, and the percentage of leaflets attacked in comparison with the control strains (TOM-584 and TOM-679. The levels of resistance to the moth for the TOM-622, ZGB-703, and TOM-687 strains were similar. In general, the genotypes with higher densities of glandular trichomes had greater resistance than the susceptible controls, with the strain BPX-367D-238-02 being particularly notable in its resistance.Comparou-se a efetividade de linhagens melhoradas de tomateiro, ricas em 2-tridecanona (2-TD, zingibereno (ZGB e acilaçúcares (AA, em relação aos níveis de resistência à traça-do-tomateiro Tuta absoluta. Verificaram-se, também, se linhagens selecionadas para maiores densidades de tricomas glandulares, presumivelmente com maiores níveis de 2-tridecanona, são efetivas em promover maior resistência à traça. Como testemunhas suscetíveis foram utilizadas

  19. Breast dose in mammography is about 30% lower when realistic heterogeneous glandular distributions are considered

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, Andrew M., E-mail: amhern@ucdavis.edu [Biomedical Engineering Graduate Group, University of California Davis, Sacramento, California 95817 (United States); Seibert, J. Anthony; Boone, John M. [Departments of Radiology and Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Engineering Graduate Group, University of California Davis, Sacramento, California 95817 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: Current dosimetry methods in mammography assume that the breast is comprised of a homogeneous mixture of glandular and adipose tissues. Three-dimensional (3D) dedicated breast CT (bCT) data sets were used previously to assess the complex anatomical structure within the breast, characterizing the statistical distribution of glandular tissue in the breast. The purpose of this work was to investigate the effect of bCT-derived heterogeneous glandular distributions on dosimetry in mammography. Methods: bCT-derived breast diameters, volumes, and 3D fibroglandular distributions were used to design realistic compressed breast models comprised of heterogeneous distributions of glandular tissue. The bCT-derived glandular distributions were fit to biGaussian functions and used as probability density maps to assign the density distributions within compressed breast models. The MCNPX 2.6.0 Monte Carlo code was used to estimate monoenergetic normalized mean glandular dose “DgN(E)” values in mammography geometry. The DgN(E) values were then weighted by typical mammography x-ray spectra to determine polyenergetic DgN (pDgN) coefficients for heterogeneous (pDgN{sub hetero}) and homogeneous (pDgN{sub homo}) cases. The dependence of estimated pDgN values on phantom size, volumetric glandular fraction (VGF), x-ray technique factors, and location of the heterogeneous glandular distributions was investigated. Results: The pDgN{sub hetero} coefficients were on average 35.3% (SD, 4.1) and 24.2% (SD, 3.0) lower than the pDgN{sub homo} coefficients for the Mo–Mo and W–Rh x-ray spectra, respectively, across all phantom sizes and VGFs when the glandular distributions were centered within the breast phantom in the coronal plane. At constant breast size, increasing VGF from 7.3% to 19.1% lead to a reduction in pDgN{sub hetero} relative to pDgN{sub homo} of 23.6%–27.4% for a W–Rh spectrum. Displacement of the glandular distribution, at a distance equal to 10% of the

  20. Floral homeotic proteins modulate the genetic program for leaf development to suppress trichome formation in flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ó'Maoiléidigh, Diarmuid S; Stewart, Darragh; Zheng, Beibei; Coupland, George; Wellmer, Frank

    2018-02-13

    As originally proposed by Goethe in 1790, floral organs are derived from leaf-like structures. The conversion of leaves into different types of floral organ is mediated by floral homeotic proteins, which, as described by the ABCE model of flower development, act in a combinatorial manner. However, how these transcription factors bring about this transformation process is not well understood. We have previously shown that floral homeotic proteins are involved in suppressing the formation of branched trichomes, a hallmark of leaf development, on reproductive floral organs of Arabidopsis Here, we present evidence that the activities of the C function gene AGAMOUS ( AG ) and the related SHATTERPROOF1 / 2 genes are superimposed onto the regulatory network that controls the distribution of trichome formation in an age-dependent manner. We show that AG regulates cytokinin responses and genetically interacts with the organ polarity gene KANADI1 to suppress trichome initiation on gynoecia. Thus, our results show that parts of the genetic program for leaf development remain active during flower formation but have been partially rewired through the activities of the floral homeotic proteins. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  1. Genetic structure along a gaseous organic pollution gradient: a case study with Poa annua L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiaoyong; Li Ning; Shen Lang; Li Yuanyuan

    2003-01-01

    Genetic composition of Poa annua populations showed clinal change along an organic pollution gradient. - The population genetic composition of Poa annua L. was studied by starch electrophoresis along a transect running NE from an organic reagents factory at Shanghai, China. Five enzyme systems were stained. We have reached the following preliminary conclusions: (1) Organic pollution has dramatically changed genotypic frequencies at some loci of Poa annua populations. At polluted sites, significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were observed on loci Sod-1 and Me due to the excess of heterozygote. Especially in the two nearest sites to pollution source, all the individuals were heterozygous at locus Sod-1. The data suggests that heterozygotes were more tolerant to organic pollution than homozygotes, indicating the fitness superiority of heterozygotes. (2) A tendency towards clinal changes of allele frequencies was found at some polymorphic loci. Frequencies of the common alleles at loci Sod-1, Me and Fe-1 increased as the distance to the pollution source increased. (3) The effective number of alleles per locus, and the observed and expected heterozygosity were much higher in the pollution series than in the clear control site (Botanic Park population), but genetic multiplicity (number of alleles per locus) was lower than for the control. (4) Most genetic variability was found within populations, and only 2.56% were among populations of the polluted series. However, 9.48% of the total genetic variation occurred among populations when including the Botanic Park population. The genetic identity between populations of the pollution series (0.9869-1.0000, mean 0.9941) was higher than those between the pollution series and the Botanic Park population. UPGMA divided the five populations into two groups. One contained the four polluted populations, and the other only contained the Botanic Park population

  2. Type 2C Phosphatase 1 of Artemisia annua L. Is a Negative Regulator of ABA Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangyuan Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA plays an important role in plant development and environmental stress response. Additionally, ABA also regulates secondary metabolism such as artemisinin in the medicinal plant Artemisia annua L. Although an earlier study showed that ABA receptor, AaPYL9, plays a positive role in ABA-induced artemisinin content improvement, many components in the ABA signaling pathway remain to be elucidated in Artemisia annua L. To get insight of the function of AaPYL9, we isolated and characterized an AaPYL9-interacting partner, AaPP2C1. The coding sequence of AaPP2C1 encodes a deduced protein of 464 amino acids, with all the features of plant type clade A PP2C. Transcriptional analysis showed that the expression level of AaPP2C1 is increased after ABA, salt, and drought treatments. Yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays (BiFC showed that AaPYL9 interacted with AaPP2C1. The P89S, H116A substitution in AaPYL9 as well as G199D substitution or deletion of the third phosphorylation site-like motif in AaPP2C1 abolished this interaction. Furthermore, constitutive expression of AaPP2C1 conferred ABA insensitivity compared with the wild type. In summary, our data reveals that AaPP2C1 is an AaPYL9-interacting partner and involved in the negative modulation of the ABA signaling pathway in A. annua L.

  3. Transcriptome responses involved in artemisinin production in Artemisia annua L. under UV-B radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wei Song; Zheng, Li Ping; Tian, Hao; Li, Wan Yi; Wang, Jian Wen

    2014-11-01

    Artemisinin, an endoperoxide sesquiterpene lactone, is an effective antimalarial drug isolated from Artemisia annua L. In this study, a low dose (1.44 kJm(-2)d(-1)) of UV-B radiation (280-320 nm) for short-term (1h per day for 10 days) was applied to A. annua seedlings to stimulate artemisinin production. UV-B treatment not only induced the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), enhanced peroxidase activity and endogenous content of abscisic acid (ABA), but stimulated the biosynthesis of artemisinin in the seedlings. Here, transcriptomic changes during UV-B radiation in A. annua were detected using an Agilent GeneChip with 43,692 probe sets. In total, 358 transcripts were identified as differentially expressed under UV-B stress, of which 172 transcripts increased and 186 transcripts decreased in abundance. In terms of biological processes, gene ontology (GO) terms including primary carbohydrate and nitrogen compound metabolic processes were enriched in UV-B-repressed genes. The up-regulated genes were enriched in response to stress, ROS generation, hormone (ethylene, ABA) stimulus and cell cycle control. The expression of key enzymes such as amorpha-4,11-diene synthase (ADS) and cytochrome P450 dependent monooxygenase/hydroxylase (CYP71AV1), and related WRKY transcription factors was up-regulated significantly for artemisinin biosynthesis. This profile of global gene expression patterns during UV-B stress will be valuable for further identification of the enzymes involved in artemisinin biosynthesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Cytotoxicity of ethanolic extracts of Artemisia annua to Molt-4 human leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Narendra P; Ferreira, Jorge F; Park, Ji Sun; Lai, Henry C

    2011-11-01

    Although dihydroartemisinin (DHA) and other artemisinin derivatives have selective toxicity towards cancer cells, Artemisia annua (A. annua) extracts containing artemisinin have not been evaluated for their anticancer potential. Our main goal was to assess the anticancer effect of ethanolic leaf extracts of A. annua from Brazilian and Chinese origins (with DHA as a comparison) on normal and cancer cells. Leukocytes and leukemia (Molt-4) cells were counted at 0, 24, 48, and 72 hr after treatment with extracts having artemisinin concentrations of 0, 3.48, 6.96, and 13.92 µg/mL. Also, we assessed the antioxidant capacity of these extracts using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) test. Both extracts had high antioxidant capacity and toxicity towards Molt-4 cells. DHA was significantly more potent (p < 0.05) in killing Molt-4 cells than Brazilian extract at 48 and 72 hr and Chinese extract at 72 hr. In Molt-4 cells, LD₅₀ values for Brazilian and Chinese extracts were comparable at all time points and not significantly different from DHA at 24 hr. In leukocytes, DHA, Chinese extract, and Brazilian extract had LD₅₀ values of 760.42, 13.79, and 28.23 µg/mL of artemisinin, respectively, indicating a better safety index for the Brazilian extract compared to that of the Chinese extract at 24 hr. However, at 48 and 72 hr, the toxicity in leukocytes for any of the treatment groups was not significantly different. These experiments suggest that these extracts may have potential application in cancer treatment. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Human papillomavirus prevalence and type-distribution in cervical glandular neoplasias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holl, Katsiaryna; Nowakowski, Andrzej M; Powell, Ned

    2015-01-01

    Cervical glandular neoplasias (CGN) present a challenge for cervical cancer prevention due to their complex histopathology and difficulties in detecting preinvasive stages with current screening practices. Reports of human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence and type-distribution in CGN vary, providi...

  6. Diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma associated with atypical glandular cells on liquid-based cervical cytology.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chummun, K

    2012-12-01

    In 2008, the management of women in Ireland with atypical glandular cells changed to immediate referral to colposcopy. The optimal management of these women is unclear. A balance between the detection of occult disease and overtreatment is required.

  7. ANALYSIS OF ARTEMISININ AND RELATED SESQUITERPENOIDS FROM ARTEMISIA-ANNUA L BY COMBINED GAS-CHROMATOGRAPHY MASS-SPECTROMETRY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WOERDENBAG, HJ; PRAS, N; BOS, R; VISSER, JF; HENDRIKS, H; MALINGRE, TM

    1991-01-01

    The sesquiterpenoid artemisinin (3) and its biosynthetic precursors arteannuic acid (1), arteannuin B (2) and artemisitene (4) can be separated and identified by combined gas chromatography/mass spectrometry both as a mixture of reference standards as well as in extracts of Artemisia annua L. From

  8. Preparation of Au and Ag nanoparticles using Artemisia annua and their in vitro antibacterial and tyrosinase inhibitory activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basavegowda, Nagaraj; Idhayadhulla, Akber; Lee, Yong Rok, E-mail: yrlee@yu.ac.kr

    2014-10-01

    This work describes a plant-mediated approach to the preparation of metal nanoparticles using leaf extract of Artemisia annua (A. annua), an ethno-medicinal plant widely found in Asia, which was used as reducing and stabilizing agent. A. annua is used in traditional Chinese medicine to alleviate fever. Au and Ag nanoparticles were prepared using a one-step aqueous method at room temperature without any toxic chemicals. The formation of Au and Ag nanoparticles was monitored by UV–vis spectroscopy. Synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). TEM analysis of Au nanoparticles showed that they had triangular and spherical shapes with sizes ranging from 15 to 40 nm. The silver nanoparticles were predominantly spherical and uniformly sized (30–50 nm). The Au and Ag nanoparticles produced showed significant tyrosinase inhibitory and antibacterial effects. These results suggest that the synthesized nanoparticles provide good alternatives in varied medical and industrial applications. - Highlights: • Au and Ag nanoparticles were synthesized using Artemisia annua leaf aqueous extract. • Nanoparticles were characterized by UV–vis spectroscopy, FT-IR, TEM, EDX, XRD, and TGA. • Au and Ag nanoparticles were of size 25 and 30 nm respectively, in spherical forms. • Nanoparticles showed significant tyrosinase inhibitory and antibacterial activities.

  9. Seasonal variations of artemisinin and its biosynthetic precursors in tetraploid Artemisia annua plants compared with the diploid wild-type

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wallaart, T.E.; Pras, N.; Quax, Wim

    1999-01-01

    Using colchicine we induced tetraploidy in Artemisia annua L. plants. During a vegetation period we monitored the time course of the levels of artemisinin, its direct precursors, the biosynthetically related sesquiterpenes and the essential oil content in the diploid (wild-type) and tetraploid A.

  10. Glandularity estimation in Japanese women by using a breast model made from mammographic findings of European women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawaguchi, Ai; Matsunaga, Yuta; Chida, Koichi; Asada, Yasuki; Suzuki, Shoichi

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate breast glandularity in Japanese women using patient exposure conditions and tissue-equivalent materials by a conventional method. Typical glandularities in Japanese women were compared with those in European women to verify the validity of the average glandular dose estimation manual based on the EUREF protocol. Glandularity was estimated from the data of 600 patients and the model breast of the tissue-equivalent materials which had various amounts of glandular contents and thicknesses. The model breasts were measured to examine the relationships between the thickness of the glandular contents and tube loading by using an automatic exposure control system. Then, equations were established to determine glandularity from patient data. The mean glandularity in the highest compressed breast thickness (CBT) group of 36–45 mm was 72%. The mean CBT of the 184 (31%) patients with glandularities exceeding 100% was 31 mm. Glandularities in patients with CBT of 30–70 mm in the present study were higher compared to those in European women by approximately 10–20%. The results suggest that the model breast of European women might not be a suitable reference standard for more than 30% of Japanese women, who have breasts with lower CBT. (author)

  11. Mineral nutrient uptake from prey and glandular phosphatase activity as dual test of carnivory in semidesert plants with glandular leaves suspected of carnivory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Plachno, B.J.; Adamec, Lubomír; Huet, H.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 104, č. 4 (2009), s. 649-654 ISSN 0305-7364 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : mineral nutrient uptake * phosphatases * glandular leaves Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.501, year: 2009

  12. Exogenous nitric oxide donor protects Artemisia annua from oxidative stress generated by boron and aluminium toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aftab, Tariq; Khan, M Masroor A; Naeem, M; Idrees, Mohd; Moinuddin; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Ram, M

    2012-06-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important signal molecule modulating the response of plants to environmental stress. Here we report the effects of boron (B) and aluminium (Al) contamination in soil, carried out with or without application of exogenous SNP (NO donor), on various plant processes in Artemisia annua, including changes in artemisinin content. The addition of B or Al to soil medium significantly reduced the yield and growth of plants and lowered the values of net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, internal CO(2) concentration and total chlorophyll content. The follow-up treatment of NO donor favoured growth and improved the photosynthetic efficiency in stressed as well as non-stressed plants. Artemisinin content was enhanced by 24.6% and 43.8% at 1mmole of soil-applied B or Al. When SNP was applied at 2mmole concentration together with either 1mmole of B and/or Al, it further stimulated artemisinin biosynthesis compared to the control. Application of B+Al+SNP proved to be the best treatment combination for the artemisinin content in Artemisia annua leaves. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Chloroform Extract of Artemisia annua L. Relaxes Mouse Airway Smooth Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia annua L. belongs to the Asteraceae family, which is indigenous to China. It has valuable pharmacological properties, such as antimalarial, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer properties. However, whether it possesses antiasthma properties is unknown. In the current study, chloroform extract of Artemisia annua L. (CEAA was prepared, and we found that CEAA completely eliminated acetylcholine (ACh or high K+-elicited (80 mM contractions of mouse tracheal rings (TRs. Patch-clamp technique and ion channel blockers were employed to explore the underlying mechanisms of the relaxant effect of CEAA. In whole-cell current recording, CEAA almost fully abolished voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel (VDCC currents and markedly enhanced large conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (BK channel currents on airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs. In single channel current recording, CEAA increased the opening probability but had no effect on the single channel conductance of BK channels. However, under paxilline-preincubated (a selective BK channel blocker conditions, CEAA only slightly increased BK channel currents. These results indicate that CEAA may contain active components with potent antiasthma activity. The abolished VDCCs by CEAA may mainly contribute to the underlying mechanism through which it acts as an effective antiasthmatic compound, but the enhanced BK currents might play a less important role in the antiasthmatic effects.

  14. A calibration approach to glandular tissue composition estimation in digital mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufhold, J.; Thomas, J.A.; Eberhard, J.W.; Galbo, C.E.; Trotter, D.E. Gonzalez

    2002-01-01

    The healthy breast is almost entirely composed of a mixture of fatty, epithelial, and stromal tissues which can be grouped into two distinctly attenuating tissue types: fatty and glandular. Further, the amount of glandular tissue is linked to breast cancer risk, so an objective quantitative analysis of glandular tissue can aid in risk estimation. Highnam and Brady have measured glandular tissue composition objectively. However, they argue that their work should only be used for 'relative' tissue measurements unless a careful calibration has been performed. In this work, we perform such a 'careful calibration' on a digital mammography system and use it to estimate breast tissue composition of patient breasts. We imaged 0%, 50%, and 100% glandular-equivalent phantoms of varying thicknesses for a number of clinically relevant x-ray techniques on a digital mammography system. From these images, we extracted mean signal and noise levels and computed calibration curves that can be used for quantitative tissue composition estimation. In this way, we calculate the percent glandular composition of a patient breast on a pixelwise basis. This tissue composition estimation method was applied to 23 digital mammograms. We estimated the quantitative impact of different error sources on the estimates of tissue composition. These error sources include compressed breast height estimation error, residual scattered radiation, quantum noise, and beam hardening. Errors in the compressed breast height estimate contribute the most error in tissue composition--on the order of ±7% for a 4 cm compressed breast height. The spatially varying scattered radiation will contribute quantitatively less error overall, but may be significant in regions near the skinline. It is calculated that for a 4 cm compressed breast height, a residual scatter signal error is mitigated by approximately sixfold in the composition estimate. The error in composition due to the quantum noise, which is the limiting

  15. Computation of the glandular radiation dose in digital tomosynthesis of the breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sechopoulos, Ioannis; Suryanarayanan, Sankararaman; Vedantham, Srinivasan; D'Orsi, Carl; Karellas, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Tomosynthesis of the breast is currently a topic of intense interest as a logical next step in the evolution of digital mammography. This study reports on the computation of glandular radiation dose in digital tomosynthesis of the breast. Previously, glandular dose estimations in tomosynthesis have been performed using data from studies of radiation dose in conventional planar mammography. This study evaluates, using Monte Carlo methods, the normalized glandular dose (D g N) to the breast during a tomosynthesis study, and characterizes its dependence on breast size, tissue composition, and x-ray spectrum. The conditions during digital tomosynthesis imaging of the breast were simulated using a computer program based on the Geant4 toolkit. With the use of simulated breasts of varying size, thickness and tissue composition, the D g N to the breast tissue was computed for varying x-ray spectra and tomosynthesis projection angle. Tomosynthesis projections centered about both the cranio-caudal (CC) and medio-lateral oblique (MLO) views were simulated. For each projection angle, the ratio of the glandular dose for that projection to the glandular dose for the zero degree projection was computed. This ratio was denoted the relative glandular dose (RGD) coefficient, and its variation under different imaging parameters was analyzed. Within mammographic energies, the RGD was found to have a weak dependence on glandular fraction and x-ray spectrum for both views. A substantial dependence on breast size and thickness was found for the MLO view, and to a lesser extent for the CC view. Although RGD values deviate substantially from unity as a function of projection angle, the RGD averaged over all projections in a complete tomosynthesis study varies from 0.91 to 1.01. The RGD results were fit to mathematical functions and the resulting equations are provided

  16. Investigation of mean glandular dose versus compressed breast thickness relationship for mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bor, D.; Tukel, S.; Olgar, T.; Toklu, T.; Aydin, E.; Akyol, O.

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between the mean glandular dose (MGD) and the compressed breast thickness (CBT) is commonly used for the presentation of mammographic dose survey results and could also be useful for the assessment of individual breast doses retrospectively in case of lack of necessary dosimetric instrumentation. The high data scattering from the best fit reduces the reliability of this technique. The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy of this relationship using the data collected from a patient survey and phantom experiment. Patients were divided into three different groups according to their breast glandularities, which were predicted from the inspection of previous mammograms. X-ray beam qualities that will be used in patient examinations were determined according to breast thickness and predicted glandularities. The MGD versus CBT relationship for all the examined patients resulted in a poor correlation (R 2 = 0.28). This relationship was separately obtained for each glandularity group and also for sub-groups of specific beam qualities. The best correlation (R 2 = 0.73) was obtained for the fatty breast group and Mo/Mo combination. A low correlation (R 2 = 0.34) was observed in the mid-glandularity group due to inclusion of a wide range of glandularities in this group. In the case of the dense breast group, although the glandularity range was narrow, there were e still high data scattering (R 2 = 0.25). This was probably due to the use of Mo/Rh and Mo/Mo combinations. This is validated by obtaining the MGD-CBT relationship specific to Mo/Mo combination (R 2 = 0.61). (authors)

  17. Molecular Cloning, Expression, and Characterization of Amorpha-4,11-diene Synthase, a Key Enzyme of Artemisinin Biosynthesis in Artemisia annua L

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mercke, P.; Bengtsson, M.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Posthumus, M.A.; Brodelius, P.E.

    2000-01-01

    In plants, sesquiterpenes of different structural types are biosynthesized from the isoprenoid intermediate farnesyl diphosphate. The initial reaction of the biosynthesis is catalyzed by sesquiterpene cyclases (synthases). In Artemisia annua L. (annual wormwood), a number of such sesquiterpene

  18. Genome-wide identification of GLABRA3 downstream genes for anthocyanin biosynthesis and trichome formation in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chenhao; Li, Dong; Jin, Changyu; Duan, Shaowei; Qi, Shuanghui; Liu, Kaige; Wang, Hanchen; Ma, Haoli; Hai, Jiangbo; Chen, Mingxun

    2017-04-01

    GLABRA3 (GL3), a bHLH transcription factor, has previously proved to be involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis and trichome formation in Arabidopsis, however, its downstream targeted genes are still largely unknown. Here, we found that GL3 was widely present in Arabidopsis vegetative and reproductive organs. New downstream targeted genes of GL3 for anthocyanin biosynthesis and trichome formation were identified in young shoots and expanding true leaves by RNA sequencing. GL3-mediated gene expression was tissue specific in the two biological processes. This study provides new clues to further understand the GL3-mediated regulatory network of anthocyanin biosynthesis and trichome formation in Arabidopsis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Flavonoids casticin and chrysosplenol D from Artemisia annua L. inhibit inflammation in vitro and in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yu-Jie; Guo, Yan; Yang, Qing; Weng, Xiao-Gang; Yang, Lan; Wang, Ya-Jie; Chen, Ying; Zhang, Dong; Li, Qi; Liu, Xu-Cen; Kan, Xiao-Xi; Chen, Xi [Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing 100700 (China); Zhu, Xiao-Xin, E-mail: zhuxx59@163.com [Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing 100700 (China); Kmoníèková, Eva [Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine in Pilsen, Charles University, Pilsen (Czech Republic); Zídek, Zdenìk [Institute of Experimental Medicine, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Vídeòská 1083, 142 20 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2015-08-01

    Background: The aim of our experiments was to investigate the anti-inflammatory properties of casticin and chrysosplenol D, two flavonoids present in Artemisia annua L. Methods: Topical inflammation was induced in ICR mice using croton oil. Mice were then treated with casticin or chrysosplenol D. Cutaneous histological changes and edema were assessed. ICR mice were intragastrically administrated with casticin or chrysosplenol D followed by intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Mouse Raw264.7 macrophage cells were incubated with casticin or chrysosplenol D. Intracellular phosphorylation was detected, and migration was assessed by trans-well assay. HT-29/NFκB-luc cells were incubated with casticin or chrysosplenol D in the presence or absence of LPS, and NF-κB activation was quantified. Results: In mice, administration of casticin (0.5, 1 and 1.5 μmol/cm{sup 2}) and chrysosplenol D (1 and 1.5 μmol/cm{sup 2}) inhibited croton oil-induced ear edema (casticin: 29.39–64.95%; chrysosplenol D: 37.76–65.89%, all P < 0.05) in a manner similar to indomethacin (0.5, 1 and 1.5 μmol/cm{sup 2}; 55.63–84.58%). Casticin (0.07, 0.13 and 0.27 mmol/kg) and chrysosplenol D (0.07, 0.14 and 0.28 mmol/kg) protected against LPS-induced systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) in mice (all P < 0.05), in a manner similar to dexamethasone (0.03 mmol/kg). Casticin and chrysosplenol D suppressed LPS-induced release of IL-1 beta, IL-6 and MCP-1, inhibited cell migration, and reduced LPS-induced IκB and c-JUN phosphorylation in Raw264.7 cells. JNK inhibitor SP600125 blocked the inhibitory effect of chrysosplenol D on cytokine release. Conclusions: The flavonoids casticin and chrysosplenol D from A. annua L. inhibited inflammation in vitro and in vivo. - Highlights: • We report a new activity of the flavonoids present in Artemisia annua L. • These flavonoids inhibit croton oil-induced ear edema in mice. • These flavonoids protect against LPS-induced SIRS in

  20. Examination of equine glandular stomach lesions for bacteria, including Helicobacter spp by fluorescence in situ hybridisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    husted, Louise; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Olsen, Susanne N.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The equine glandular stomach is commonly affected by erosion and ulceration. The aim of this study was to assess whether bacteria, including Helicobacter, could be involved in the aetiology of gastric glandular lesions seen in horses. Results: Stomach lesions, as well as normal...... by cloning and sequencing. Mucosal lesions were found in 36/63 stomachs and included hyperplastic rugae, polypoid structures and focal erosions. None of the samples were tested positive for urease activity or for FISH using the Helicobacter genus specific probe. In samples of lesions, as well as normal...... faecium. The Enterococcus were found colonising the mucosal surface, while E. fergusonii organisms were also demonstrated intraepithelial. Conclusion: Gastric Helicobacter spp. could not be verified as being involved in lesions of the glandular stomach of the horse. Since E. fergusonii has been described...

  1. Evaluation of antimicrobial activities of extracts of endophytic fungi from Artemisia annua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huawei Zhang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The endophytic extracts of 11 fungi associated with asympomatic Artemisia annua Linn., were evaluated for antimicrobial activity against three human pathogenic microbes, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Trichophyton rubrum, and two plant pathogens, Rhizoctonia cerealis and Magnaporthe grisea. The results showed that these endophytic extracts had different inhibitory effects on microbial pathogens at 100 mg/mL. Among these fungal endophytes, three strains Aspergillus spp. SPS-02, SPS-04 and SPS-01 respectively showed the strongest antimicrobial activities against E. coli, S. aureu, T. rubrum. An endophytic Mucor sp. SPS-11 had the most pronounced effect on R. cerealis. Two strains Aspergillus sp. SPS-02 and Cephalosporium sp. SPS-08 exhibited the strongest antimicrobial activities against M. grisea. These anti-pathogenic endophytes could be applied as new sources of antibiotics in agriculture and pharmaceutical industry.

  2. PHENOLIC CONTENT OF ARTEMISIA ANNUA L. FROM NATURAL HABITATS IN REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia Paula STEFANACHE

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to assess the phenolic compounds content and profile of A. annua samples harvested from natural habitats in R. Moldova. The samples, consisting in leaves, were harvested in August 2014 (before flowering from different growing sites in north, centre and south regions. Phenolic extracts were obtained by methanol extraction of the residual plant material resulted from artemisinin separation. The phenolic compounds were identified and quantified by TLC and HPLC-DAD analyses, respectively. In all samples, four phenolic acids (caffeic, p-coumaric and chlorogenic acids, cynarin and two flavonoids (isoquercitrin and luteolin-7-glucoside were identified and quantified, cynarin being the major compound. The variations in phenolic composition between samples harvested from the same growing site and also for the samples from different growing areas (south, centre, north, were mostly quantitative. Similar phenolic profiles were obtained for all samples, regardless of the growing site. Phenolic acids were the dominant components in the phenolic extracts.

  3. Evaluation of average glandular dose in mammography services in 10 cities of Colombia; Avaliacao de dose glandular media em servicos de mamografia de 10 cidades de Colombia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alejo-Martinez, H.; Salazar-Hurtado, E.; Puerto-Jimenez, D. [Grupo de Prevencion Temprana Del Cancer, Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Bogota D.C. (Colombia)

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to conduct an assessment of dose in 60 mammography services that have screening programs for breast cancer in 10 cities of Colombia. The third quartile of the average glandular dose was 2,29 mGy, range between 1,0 and 5,6 mGy, for the phantom equivalent to a standard breast. This study included mammography units with conventional and digital technology. (author)

  4. Lymphoid tissue and lymphoid-glandular complexes of the colon: relation to diverticulosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kealy, W F

    1976-01-01

    The lymphoid tissue of the normal colon is compared with that of colons with diverticular disease. Colons with diverticular disease show a significant increase in the number of lymphoid nodules in areas not containing diverticula. Lymphoid-glandular complexes of the colon were studied in relation to diverticular disease. It is suggested that the lymphoid nodules and the lymphoid-glandular complexes of the colon constitute weak points in the bowel wall and may play a part in the pathogenesis of diverticula. Images PMID:818130

  5. Evaluation of subject contrast and normalized average glandular dose by semi-analytical models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomal, A.; Poletti, M.E.; Caldas, L.V.E.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, two semi-analytical models are described to evaluate the subject contrast of nodules and the normalized average glandular dose in mammography. Both models were used to study the influence of some parameters, such as breast characteristics (thickness and composition) and incident spectra (kVp and target-filter combination) on the subject contrast of a nodule and on the normalized average glandular dose. From the subject contrast results, detection limits of nodules were also determined. Our results are in good agreement with those reported by other authors, who had used Monte Carlo simulation, showing the robustness of our semi-analytical method.

  6. Liquid and Vapor-Phase Activity of Artemisia annua Essential Oil against Pathogenic Malassezia spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santomauro, Francesca; Donato, Rosa; Pini, Gabriella; Sacco, Cristiana; Ascrizzi, Roberta; Bilia, Anna Rita

    2018-02-01

    Artemisia annua essential oil has given us many encouraging results for its numerous antimicrobial properties. In this study, the essential oil, both in liquid and in vapor phases, was tested against various Malassezia species closely related to many skin disorders in humans and animals. Malassezia treatment and eradication are mainly based on old azole drugs, which are characterized by poor compliance, unpredictable clinical efficacy, emerging resistance, and several side effects. Monoterpenes (ca. 88%) represent the most abundant group of compounds in the essential oil, mainly the oxygenated derivatives (ca. 74%) with camphor (25.2%), 1,8-cineole (20%), and artemisia ketone (12.5%). In vapor phase, monoterpenes represent more than 98% of the constituents, α -pinene being the main constituent (22.8%), followed by 1,8-cineole (22.1%) and camphene (12.9%). Essential oil of A. annua , both in vapor phase and liquid, showed strong antimicrobial activity towards almost the tested twenty strains of Malassezia analyzed. The minimum fungicidal concentrations from most of the strains tested were from 0.78 µL/mL to 1.56 µL/mL, and only three strains of Malassezia sympodialis required a higher concentration of 3.125 µL/mL. Overall, the minimal inhibitor concentrations obtained by vapor diffusion assay were lower than those obtained by the liquid method. The average values of minimal inhibitor concentrations obtained by the two methods at 72 h are 1.3 - 8.0 times higher in liquid compared to those in the vapor phase. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Drying affects artemisinin, dihydroartemisinic acid, artemisinic acid, and the antioxidant capacity of Artemisia annua L. leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Jorge F S; Luthria, Devanand L

    2010-02-10

    There is limited information on how postharvest drying of Artemisia annua affects artemisinin (ART) biosynthesis and A. annua antioxidant capacity. Antioxidants may boost the bioactivity of ART and the crop commercial value. We evaluated the effect of freeze, oven, shade, and sun drying, time of drying, and light intensity on the leaf concentration of ART, dihydroartemisinic acid (DHAA), artemisinic acid (AA), and on the leaf antioxidant capacity. Freeze-dried samples had the lowest ART concentrations as compared to the other drying methods. However, the ferric reducing antioxidant power assay showed that freeze- and oven-dried samples had similarly high antioxidant activities, which declined significantly after plants were shade- and sun-dried. Shade drying for 1, 2, and 3 weeks, under ambient or low light, did not change the ART content but significantly decreased the leaf antioxidant activity, mainly if sun-dried. A significant decrease (82% average) in DHAA was observed for all drying procedures as compared to freeze drying, with a simultaneous, significant increase in ART (33% average). The average bioconversion of DHAA to ART was 43% for oven- and shade-dried plants and 94% for sun-dried plants, reiterating the hypothesis that DHAA, not AA, is the main biosynthetic precursor of ART and suggesting that sun drying improves the bioconversion from DHAA to ART. Data also indicate that oven drying for 24 h at 45 degrees C can provide good levels of both ART and antioxidants in leaves. These findings are valuable for the commercial production of ART and of bioactive antioxidants that might synergize with the antimalarial and anticancer effects of ART when combined in traditional preparations to improve human and animal health.

  8. Effect of sugars on artemisinin production in Artemisia annua L.: transcription and metabolite measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenault, Patrick R; Vail, Daniel R; Wobbe, Kristin K; Weathers, Pamela J

    2010-03-30

    The biosynthesis of the valuable sesquiterpene anti-malarial, artemisinin, is known to respond to exogenous sugar concentrations. Here young Artemisia annua L. seedlings (strain YU) were used to measure the transcripts of six key genes in artemisinin biosynthesis in response to growth on sucrose, glucose, or fructose. The measured genes are: from the cytosolic arm of terpene biosynthesis, 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR), farnesyl disphosphate (FPS); from the plastid arm of terpene biosynthesis, 1-deoxyxylulose-5-phosphate synthase (DXS), 1-deoxyxylulouse 5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR); from the dedicated artemisinin pathway amorpha-4,11-diene synthase (ADS), and the P450, CYP71AV1 (CYP). Changes in intracellular concentrations of artemisinin (AN) and its precursors, dihydroartemisinic acid (DHAA), artemisinic acid (AA), and arteannuin B (AB) were also measured in response to these three sugars. FPS, DXS, DXR, ADS and CYP transcript levels increased after growth in glucose, but not fructose. However, the kinetics of these transcripts over 14 days was very different. AN levels were significantly increased in glucose-fed seedlings, while levels in fructose-fed seedlings were inhibited; in both conditions this response was only observed for 2 days after which AN was undetectable until day 14. In contrast to AN, on day 1 AB levels doubled in seedlings grown in fructose compared to those grown in glucose. Results showed that transcript level was often negatively correlated with the observed metabolite concentrations. When seedlings were gown in increasing levels of AN, some evidence of a feedback mechanism emerged, but mainly in the inhibition of AA production. Together these results show the complex interplay of exogenous sugars on the biosynthesis of artemisinin in young A. annua seedlings.

  9. Cardiac myxoma with glandular elements: a clinicopathological and immunohistochemical study of five new cases with an emphasis on differential diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Minghui; Ding, Li; Liu, Yanhui; Xue, Ling

    2014-01-01

    This paper reported five new cases of cardiac myxoma with glandular components, known as glandular cardiac myxoma. The goals of this study were to analyze the clinicopathological features of this disease and to explore new features for differential diagnosis. The patient series included three women and two men. All tumors were located in the left atrium without invasion of the adjacent myocardium. Patients presented with cardiac-related or embolization symptoms. Histologically, neoplasms consisted of well-formed glandular structures and typical myxoma areas. No nuclear atypia, mitosis, or necrosis was identified in the glandular structures. Glandular lining cells were strongly positive for pan-cytokeratin, epithelial membrane antigen, CAM5.2 and cytokeratin 7, but were negative for some organ-specific markers, such as thyroid transcription factor-1, calretinin, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, gross cystic disease fluid protein, prostate-specific antigen, prostate-specific acid phosphatase, cytokeratin 20 and caudal type homeobox 2. In conclusion, glandular cardiac myxoma is a rare disease which shows characteristics similar to those of classical cardiac myxoma. Because of its rarity, glandular cardiac myxoma must be distinguished from adenocarcinoma metastatic to the heart. The combination of histopathological features and immunohistochemical profiles should improve the diagnostic accuracy of glandular cardiac myxoma. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Terrific Trichomes (and Other Specialised Cells) in African Violets: How to Get a Lot from One Plant in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, Vicki M.

    2013-01-01

    African violet (genus "Saintpaulia") was identified as a particularly suitable genus for the study of specialised plant cells in the classroom using microscopes. The techniques described here involve simple preparation without staining. The cells and structures that can be investigated include: trichomes (hairs); stomata; guard cells and…

  11. The Impact of Carbon Source, Explants and Growth Regulators on Callogenesis and Organogenesis of Artemisia annua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bita GHASSEMI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Artemisinin, a sesquiterpene lactone isolated from Artemisia annua L. plant is known for its antimalarial activity. The low content of artemisinin has stimulated researchers to enhance its production through biotechnological approaches such as tissue culture. The present study was initiated to study the effect of some important factors alone and in combination, on the callogenesis and organogenesis of Artemisia annua. The type of carbon source had a significant effect on NAA efficiency to callogenesis of A. annua, whereas the best callogenesis of A. absinthium was observed at 2 mg/L BAP + 30 g/L sucrose and in the absence of NAA, with root explants. Presence of BAP also had an important effect on callogenesis, especially in high concentrations. A suitable suspension culture was obtained in the MS basal medium containing 0.5 mg/L NAA and BAP, with 30 g/L glucose. Artemisinin was naturally production was at least 0.03 mg/g (w.dt at the first day and peaked on the 16th day with 0.31 mg/g (w.dt in the cell culture of A. annua. The maximum number of shoots (2.167 ± 1.484 was induced at 0.5 mg/L BAP + 0.1 mg/L NAA + glucose (30 g/L with leaf explants. However, treatments containing glucose did not show a good shoot induction. Longer shoots were induced in the medium containing either 0.5 mg/l NAA + 0.5 mg/l BAP + sucrose with leaf explants (1.493 cm ± 0.342 or 0.5 mg/l NAA + sucrose with stem explants (0.697 cm ± 0.930. Medium containing 0.5 or 2 mg/l NAA and sucrose (without BAP induced more roots though.

  12. Studies on the Expression of Sesquiterpene Synthases Using Promoter-?-Glucuronidase Fusions in Transgenic Artemisia annua L

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hongzhen; Han, Junli; Kanagarajan, Selvaraju; Lundgren, Anneli; Brodelius, Peter E.

    2013-01-01

    In order to better understand the influence of sesquiterpene synthases on artemisinin yield in Artemisia annua, the expression of some sesquiterpene synthases has been studied using transgenic plants expressing promoter-GUS fusions. The cloned promoter sequences were 923, 1182 and 1510 bp for β-caryophyllene (CPS), epi-cedrol (ECS) and β-farnesene (FS) synthase, respectively. Prediction of cis-acting regulatory elements showed that the promoters are involved in complex regulation of expressio...

  13. A new quantitative classification of ecological types in the bromeliad genus Tillandsia (Bromeliaceae based on trichomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosti Stefano

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Using collection specimens, we measured the density and wing area of trichomes in 37 species of the bromeliad genus Tillandsia, specifically the abaxial proximal, abaxial distal, adaxial proximal and adaxial distal parts of the leaf. The product of the trichome "wing" area by the number of trichomes (means produced a pure number (T that was correlated to ecological features. The correlation was positive with respect to arid environments (xeric Tillands and negative with respect to humid environments (mesic Tillands. Bulbous, and particularly myrmecophytic species and species with tanks, represented particular categories. Other intermediate types were identified based on the T number, totalling five ecological types. In comparison with other systems of ecological typification for Tillands and other Bromeliaceae, the present system offers measurable data whose analysis is reproducible. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (1: 191-203. Epub 2008 March 31.Medimos el número por milímetro cuadrado y el área del "ala" (parte móvil de los tricomas en las partes adaxial próxima y distal, y adaxial próxima y distal, de la hoja de 37 especies de bromelias del género Tillandsia. El producto del área del ala para el número de los tricomas (promedio produjo un número puro (T. Hallamos que T se correlaciona con las características ecológicas de las tilandsias investigadas. La correlación es positiva con respecto a ambientes áridos (especies xéricas y negativa con respecto a los ambientes húmedos (especies mésicas. Las especies con bulbo, y particularmente las asociadas con hormigas y especies con de tanque representan categorías particulares. Identificamos otros tipos intermedios, agradando así cinco tipos ecológicos. En comparación con otros sistemas de tipificación ecológica, este sistema ofrece la ventaja de ser reproducible y cuantitativo.

  14. Population dynamics of the species Plantago major L. and Poa annua L. in a replacement series experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijović A.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Population dynamics of the species Plantago major L. and Poa annua L., typical representatives of ruderal vegetation, was analyzed in a replacement series experiment. The analyzed species were sown in an area with meadow vegetation, where the vegetation present had been previously removed by a total herbicide and additionally by hoeing. The objective of the experiment was to monitor growth dynamics and the effect of intra- and inter-specific interaction of the species Plantago major and Poa annua in conditions of different sowing densities and proportions. The effects of intra- and inter-specific interference and the density-dependent responses were assessed on the basis of several parameters (natality, mortality, age structure, and measures of ontogenetic changes. Based on the study results, it can be concluded that the responses of the species in the experiment were different, which is explained by different adaptive mechanisms, i.e., strategies, in the specific environmental conditions. An effect of the density dependent response was present in both species in the replacement series experiment. The response was amplified by water deficit caused by intensive evapora­tion of the bare soil. No effect of inter-specific interference was observed at the given densities of the study species on the sample plots. An effect of intra-specific interference of the species Plantago major and Poa annua was observed in the guise of a density-negative response of the rate of ontogenetic changes and fecundity.

  15. The use of combining ability analysis to identify elite parents for Artemisia annua F1 hybrid production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Townsend

    Full Text Available Artemisia annua is an important medicinal crop used for the production of the anti-malarial compound artemisinin. In order to assist in the production of affordable high quality artemisinin we have carried out an A. annua breeding programme aimed at improving artemisinin concentration and biomass. Here we report on a combining ability analysis of a diallel cross to identify robust parental lines for hybrid breeding. The parental lines were selected based on a range of phenotypic traits to encourage heterosis. The general combining ability (GCA values for the diallel parental lines correlated to the positive alleles of quantitative trait loci (QTL in the same parents indicating the presence of beneficial alleles that contribute to parental performance. Hybrids generated from crossing specific parental lines with good GCA were identified as having an increase in both artemisinin concentration and biomass when grown either in glasshouse or experimental field trials and compared to controls. This study demonstrates that combining ability as determined by a diallel cross can be used to identify elite parents for the production of improved A. annua hybrids. Furthermore, the selection of material for breeding using this approach was found to be consistent with our QTL-based molecular breeding approach.

  16. Severe glandular tularemia in a patient treated with anti-tumour necrosis factor for psoriatic arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruxandra Calin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A case of severe glandular tularemia in a patient receiving anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF therapy is reported here. The patient required prolonged treatment with doxycycline–ciprofloxacin due to early relapse after ciprofloxacin was stopped. Tularemia may have a more severe course in patients receiving anti-TNF. This may thus be an indication for more aggressive treatment.

  17. Severe cervical glandular cell lesions and severe cervical combined lesions - Predictive value of the Papanicolaou smear

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, AJMV; Smedts, FMM; Vooijs, GP

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND. The purpose of the current study was to determine the accuracy of routinely screened cervical smears to predict a glandular cell lesion in histologically confirmed cases of cervical adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS), invasive adenocarcinoma (ADCA), adenosquamous carcinoma (ADSQCA), and severe

  18. Severe cervical glandular cell lesions and severe cervical combined lesions: predictive value of the papanicolaou smear.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aspert-van Erp, A.J.M. van; Smedts, F.; Vooijs, G.P.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of the current study was to determine the accuracy of routinely screened cervical smears to predict a glandular cell lesion in histologically confirmed cases of cervical adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS), invasive adenocarcinoma (ADCA), adenosquamous carcinoma (ADSQCA), and severe

  19. Breast-Volume Displacement Using an Extended Glandular Flap for Small Dense Breasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko Ogawa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We defined the glandular flap including fat in the subclavicular area as an extended glandular flap, which has been used for breast-conserving reconstruction in the upper portion of the breast. Indication. The excision volume was 20% to 40% of the breast volume, and the breast density was dense. Surgical Technique. The upper edge of the breast at the subclavicular area was drawn in the standing position before surgery. After partial mastectomy, an extended glandular flap was made by freeing the breast from both the skin and the pectoralis fascia up to the preoperative marking in the subclavicular area. It is important to keep the perforators of the internal mammary artery and/or the branches of the lateral thoracic artery intact while making the flap. Results. Seventeen patients underwent remodeling using an extended glandular flap. The cosmetic results at 1 year after the operation: excellent in 11, good in 1, fair in 3, and poor in 2. All cases of unacceptable outcome except one were cases with complications, and more than 30% resection of moderate or large size breasts did not obtain an excellent result for long-term followup. Conclusion. This technique is useful for performing the breast-conserving reconstruction of small dense breasts.

  20. Gastric mucosal smooth muscles may explain oscillations in glandular pressure: role of vasoactive intestinal peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synnerstad, I; Ekblad, E; Sundler, F; Holm, L

    1998-02-01

    Oscillating (3-7 cycles/min) high pressures in gastric glands during acid secretion suggest the existence of rhythmically contracting mucosal muscles. The aim of this study was to study vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the gastrointestinal tract, in relation to mucosal muscles, glandular pressure, and blood flow. Rat, dog, and human mucosae were examined immunocytochemically for smooth muscle actin and VIP. Glandular pressure was measured using microelectrodes, red blood cell velocity (V[RBC]) was measured using a cross-correlation technique, and blood flow was measured using laser Doppler flowmetry in exposed gastric mucosa of thiobutabarbital sodium-anesthetized rats. Actin immunostaining showed muscle strands arising from muscularis mucosae, extending toward the gastric pits. VIP-immunoreactive nerve fibers were found in close relation to these muscles. VIP, administered intra-arterially close to the stomach (2 microg/kg bolus, followed by 10 microg x kg[-1] x h[-1]), significantly decreased glandular pressure from 18.2 +/- 1.6 to 8.9 +/- 1.6 mm Hg and almost eliminated the pressure oscillations. VIP infusion also abolished the oscillations in V(RBC) and significantly increased blood flow by approximately 35%. Contracting mucosal muscles may be responsible for oscillations in glandular pressure and possibly also in V(RBC). VIP probably relaxes these muscles.

  1. Method for the evaluation of a average glandular dose in mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okunade, Akintunde Akangbe

    2006-01-01

    This paper concerns a method for accurate evaluation of average glandular dose (AGD) in mammography. At different energies, the interactions of photons with tissue are not uniform. Thus, optimal accuracy in the estimation of AGD is achievable when the evaluation is carried out using the normalized glandular dose values, g(x,E), that are determined for each (monoenergetic) x-ray photon energy, E, compressed breast thickness (CBT), x, breast glandular composition, and data on photon energy distribution of the exact x-ray beam used in breast imaging. A generalized model for the values of g(x,E) that is for any arbitrary CBT ranging from 2 to 9 cm (with values that are not whole numbers inclusive, say, 4.2 cm) was developed. Along with other dosimetry formulations, this was integrated into a computer software program, GDOSE.FOR, that was developed for the evaluation of AGD received from any x-ray tube/equipment (irrespective of target-filter combination) of up to 50 kVp. Results are presented which show that the implementation of GDOSE.FOR yields values of normalized glandular dose that are in good agreement with values obtained from methodologies reported earlier in the literature. With the availability of a portable device for real-time acquisition of spectra, the model and computer software reported in this work provide for the routine evaluation of AGD received by a specific woman of known age and CBT

  2. In vitro susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum Welch field isolates to infusions prepared from Artemisia annua L. cultivated in the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Francisco Rocha e Silva

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Artemisinin is the active antimalarial compound obtained from the leaves of Artemisia annua L. Artemisinin, and its semi-synthetic derivatives, are the main drugs used to treat multi-drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum (one of the human malaria parasite species. The in vitro susceptibility of P. falciparum K1 and 3d7 strains and field isolates from the state of Amazonas, Brazil, to A. annua infusions (5 g dry leaves in 1 L of boiling water and the drug standards chloroquine, quinine and artemisinin were evaluated. The A. annua used was cultivated in three Amazon ecosystems (várzea, terra preta de índio and terra firme and in the city of Paulínia, state of São Paulo, Brazil. Artemisinin levels in the A. annua leaves used were 0.90-1.13% (m/m. The concentration of artemisinin in the infusions was 40-46 mg/L. Field P. falciparum isolates were resistant to chloroquine and sensitive to quinine and artemisinin. The average 50% inhibition concentration values for A. annua infusions against field isolates were 0.11-0.14 μL/mL (these infusions exhibited artemisinin concentrations of 4.7-5.6 ng/mL and were active in vitro against P. falciparum due to their artemisinin concentration. No synergistic effect was observed for artemisinin in the infusions.

  3. Evaluation of average glandular dose in digital and conventional systems of the mammography; Avaliacao da dose glandular media em sistemas digitais e convencionais de mamografia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xavier, Aline C.S.; Barros, Vinicius S.M.; Khoury, Hellen J., E-mail: alinecx90@gmail.com, E-mail: vsmdbarros@gmail.com, E-mail: hjkhoury@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear; Mello, Francisca A. de, E-mail: francissamello@yahoo.com.br [Hospital das Clinicas do Recife (HCR/UFPE), PE (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Mammography is currently the most effective method of diagnosis and detection of breast pathologies. The main interest in this kid of exam comes from the high incidence rate of breast cancer and necessity of high quality images for accurate diagnosis. Digital mammography systems have several advantages compared to conventional systems, however the use of digital imaging systems is not always integrated to an image acquisition protocol. Therefore, it is questionable if digital systems truly reduce the dose received by the patient, because many times is introduced in the clinics without optimization of the image acquisition protocols. The aim of this study is to estimate the value of incident air Kerma and average glandular dose (AGD) in patients undergoing conventional and digital mammography systems in Recife. This study was conducted with 650 patients in three hospitals. The value of incident air Kerma was estimated from the measurement of the yield of equipment and irradiation parameters used for each patient. From these results and using the methodology proposed by Dance et al. the value of the average glandular dose was calculated. The results obtained show that the lowest value of AGD was found with conventional screen-film system, indicating that the parameters for image acquisition with digital systems are not optimized. It was also observed that the institutions with digital systems use lower breast compression values than the conventional. (author)

  4. Expression, purification and characterization of recombinant (E)-beta-farnesene synthase from Artemisia annua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picaud, Sarah; Brodelius, Maria; Brodelius, Peter E

    2005-05-01

    A cDNA clone (GenBank Accession No. AY835398) encoding a sesquiterpene synthase, (E)-beta-farnesene synthase, has been isolated from Artemisia annua L. It contains a 1746-bp open reading frame coding for 574 amino acids (66.9 kDa) with a calculated pI=5.03. The deduced amino acid sequence is 30-50% identical with sequences of other sesquiterpene synthases from angiosperms. The recombinant enzyme, produced in Escherichia coli, catalyzed the formation of a single product, beta-farnesene, from farnesyl diphosphate. The pH optimum for the recombinant enzyme is around 6.5 and the K(m)- and k(cat)-values for farnesyl diphosphate, is 2.1 microM and 9.5 x 10(-3) s(-1), respectively resulting in the efficiency 4.5 x 10(-3) M(-1)s(-1). The enzyme exhibits substantial activity in the presence of Mg(2+), Mn(2+) or Co(2+) but essentially no activity when Zn(2+), Ni(2+) or Cu(2+) is used as cofactor. The concentration required for maximum activity are estimated to 5 mM, 0.5 mM and <10 microM for Mg(2+), Co(2+) or Mn(2+), respectively. Geranyl diphosphate is not a substrate for the recombinant enzyme.

  5. Evaluation and Selection of Mutative Artemisia (Artemisia annua L. According to the Altitude Variants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ENDANG GATI LESTARI

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Induction of genetic variant of Artemisia annua L. was conducted through the application of gamma ray irradiation in 2007-2008. The aim was to obtain a plant with high artemisine content ≥ 0.5% and late flowering period of about ≥ 7 month after planting. Tweleve selected genotypes were subsequently examined to gain genetic stability on altitude of 1500, 950, and 540 m asl. The results showed that the plants had shorter flowering age in Cicurug (540 m asl than that of in Pacet (950 m asl and Gunung Putri (1540 m asl. Genotype 8 had the latest age of flowering in the three locations than the other genotypes, however, the growth and biomass were the lowest. Vegetative growth of Artemisia in Pacet and Gunung Putri was better than those in Cicurug. Genotype of 15 in Cicurug and 5A genotype in Gunung Putri and Pacet had higher wet and dry weight than that of two other associates. Based on plant biomass, 5 genotypes from Gunung Putri and Pacet i.e. 1D, 3, 5A, 14, and 15 genotypes were selected, as well as 5 genotypes i.e. 1D, 3, 4, 5A, and 15 genotypes from Cicurug. Analisys on artemisin content successfully obtained 5 selected somaclone lines i.e. 1B, 2, 4, 14, and 3 somaclones.

  6. The application of biotic elicitor on Artemisia annua L. to increase artemisinin content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwati, I.; Manohara, D.; Rohimatun; Nurhayati, H.

    2018-01-01

    Artemisinin-based Combination Therapy (ACT) has been recommended by WHO as an alternative to treat malaria overcoming drug resistance. The secondary metabolic products in plants, including artemisinin, can be increased by utilizing biotic elicitor from fungi. The research was conducted in Gunung Putri Research Installation, Cipanas, West Java from 2010 to 2011. Phytophthora sp. from eggplant and Colletotrichum sp. from Artemisia annua were applied as biotic elicitor. The types of biotic elicitor applied to the plants were 1) the medium of potato dextrose broth were inoculated with fungi and harvested after 10 days (filtrate), 2) powdery mycelium of both fungi. There were 16 treatments: control negative, control positive (uninoculated medium) 1%, 2%, 3% (v/v)], Phytophthora sp. filtrate [1, 2% and 3% (v/v)], Colletotrichum sp. filtrate [1, 2% and 3% (v/v)], Phytophthora sp. mycelium [1%, 2% and 3% (w/v)], Colletotrichum sp mycelium [1%, 2% and 3% (w/v)]. The elicitor application increased plant production by 26.21% and artemisinin yield by 72% compared to control. Furthermore, the artemisinin production of the plants treated with medium inoculated with 2% filtrate of Phytophthora sp (FP2) (25.19 kg/ha) and 1% powdery mycelium of Colletotrichum sp (MC1) (26.42 kg/ha) were higher than control (K) (11.17 kg/ha).

  7. Comparison of mean glandular dose values provided by a digital breast tomosynthesis system in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beraldo Oliveira, Bruno; Paixão, Lucas; Donato da Silva, Sabrina; Teixeira, Maria Helena Araújo; Nogueira, Maria do Socorro

    2015-01-01

    Studies are needed to determine the radiation dose of patients that are undergoing Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) procedures. Mean glandular dose (D G ) values were derived from the incident air kerma (K i ) measurements and tabulated conversion coefficients. K i values were obtained through an ionization chamber positioned in a Hologic Selenia Dimensions system using appropriate exposure parameters. This work contributes to determine the reliable radiation dose received by the patients and compare D G values provided by this DBT system images. - Highlights: • Studies are needed to determine the dose of tomosynthesis (DBT) procedures. • Mean glandular dose (D G ) results derived from the incident air kerma (K i ). • K i values were obtained through an ionization chamber. • A DBT system was used with appropriate exposure parameters. • This work contributes to compare D G values provided by this DBT system images

  8. Calculation of air kerma to average glandular tissue dose conversion factors for mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoetelief, J.; Jansen, J.T.M.

    1995-01-01

    Among the quantities used for dose specification in mammography the average absorbed dose in glandular tissue is most appropriate for risk assessments. Generally, average absorbed dose in glandular tissue is derived from measurement of air kerma free-in-air combined with conversion factors obtained from radiation transport calculations in mathematical breast models. Air kerma to glandular tissue dose conversion factors are published by various authors as a function of half-value layer (HVL) for simple breast phantoms. Calculations by different authors differ in radiation transport codes, photon interaction data, photon spectra, composition and thickness of superficial layer (representing skin and subcutaneous adipose tissue), presence of compression plate, and are not performed with the tissue compositions recommended by the ICRU. Protocols for dosimetry in mammography in different European countries (UK, Netherlands, Sweden) use results from different authors. To study the influence of the parameters indicated, air kerma to glandular tissue dose conversion factors, g, are calculated using the MCNP radiation transport code. Use of different spectra can cause differences in g values up to about 7%. The use of a compression plate results in a 4.5 ± 1.5% smaller g value for the same HVL. The use of MCPLIB cross sections results in 10% higher g values compared to the use of XCOM data. The influence of the backscatter material (composition and thickness) on the g value is marginal (< 1%). The different superficial layers used result in differences in g values of up to 19%. When the breast thickness is changed from 2 cm to 8 cm, g values decrease by a factor of about 4. Employing Hammerstein's tissue compositions compared to those from the ICRU results in differences in g values up to about 14%. (Author)

  9. Chemoprevention of glandular stomach carcinogenesis through duodenogastric reflux in rats by a COX-2 inhibitor.

    OpenAIRE

    Oba, Masaru; Miwa, Koichi; Fujimura, Takashi; Harada, Shin-ichi; Sasaki, Shozo; Hattori, Takanori

    2008-01-01

    Duodenogastric reflux (DGR) causes glandular stomach carcinogenesis in rats without carcinogens. We aimed to investigate how this carcinogenesis might be prevented by a selective COX-2 inhibitor, meloxicam. A series of 188 Fisher 344 rats underwent a surgical DGR procedure and were divided into 2 groups. One group was given commercial chow (control group), and the other an experimental chow containing meloxicam [0.3 mg/kg bw/day] (meloxicam group). The animals were sequentially sacrificed at ...

  10. Thymomas with prominent glandular differentiation: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 12 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissferdt, Annikka; Moran, Cesar A

    2013-08-01

    Twelve cases of thymomas with prominent glandular differentiation are presented. The patients were 7 men and 5 women aged between 45 and 68 years (average, 56.5 years). Clinically, the patients presented with nonspecific symptoms of chest pain, cough, and fatigue. None of the patients had a history of myasthenia gravis or other autoimmune syndrome. Thymectomy was performed in all patients. The tumor size ranged from 4 to 7 cm in greatest diameter. Macroscopically, the tumors were described as firm and light tan without areas of necrosis, hemorrhage, or cystic change. Histologically, 7 tumors were classified as spindle cell (World Health Organization type A), 2 as mixed spindle cell and conventional (A+B1), 2 as conventional (B1), and 1 as atypical thymoma (B3). In 4 cases, the tumors showed invasion into periadipose thymic tissue. All cases showed the typical growth patterns of their particular subtypes. In addition, a distinct glandular component was present in all cases showing mucinous differentiation in 4 of them. Immunohistochemical studies showed tumor cells positive for CAM5.2, cytokeratin 5/6, and Pax8 and negative for carcinoembryonic antigen, thyroid transcription factor 1, and epithelial membrane antigen. Calretinin showed focal weak staining in the nonmucinous glandular components in 3 cases. Follow-up information obtained in 8 patients showed that all were alive and well in a period ranging from 2 to 5 years. The possibility of a glandular component in thymomas should be kept in mind in the assessment of mediastinoscopic biopsies to avoid misdiagnosis for other neoplasms that may require different treatment modalities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of average glandular dose in mammography services in 10 cities of Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alejo-Martinez, H.; Salazar-Hurtado, E.; Puerto-Jimenez, D.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to conduct an assessment of dose in 60 mammography services that have screening programs for breast cancer in 10 cities of Colombia. The third quartile of the average glandular dose was 2,29 mGy, range between 1,0 and 5,6 mGy, for the phantom equivalent to a standard breast. This study included mammography units with conventional and digital technology. (author)

  12. Antibacterial, modulatory activity of antibiotics and toxicity from Rhinella jimi (Stevaux, 2002) (Anura: Bufonidae) glandular secretions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Débora Lima; Morais-Braga, Maria Flaviana Bezerra; Santos, Antonia Thassya Lucas Dos; Machado, Antonio Judson Targino; Araujo Filho, João Antonio de; Dias, Diógenes de Queiroz; Cunha, Francisco Assis Bezerra da; Saraiva, Rogério de Aquino; Menezes, Irwin Rose Alencar de; Coutinho, Henrique Douglas Melo; Costa, José Galberto Martins; Ferreira, Felipe Silva; Alves, Rômulo Romeu da Nóbrega; Almeida, Waltécio de Oliveira

    2017-08-01

    The increase in microorganisms with resistance to medications has caused a strong preoccupation within the medical and scientific community. Animal toxins studies, such as parotoid glandular secretions from amphibians, possesses a great potential in the development of drugs, such as antimicrobials, as these possess bioactive compounds. It was evaluated Rhinella jimi (Stevaux, 2002) glandular secretions against standard and multi-resistant bacterial strains; the effect of secretions combined with drugs; and determined the toxicity using two biologic in vivo models, and a in vitro model with mice livers. Standard strains were used for the determination of the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC), while for the modulatory activity of antibiotics, the clinical isolates Escherichia coli 06, Pseudomonas aeruginosa 03 and Staphylococcus aureus 10 were used. Modulatory activity was evaluated by the broth microdilution method with aminoglycosides and β-lactams as target antibiotics. The secretions in association with the antibiotics have a significant reduction in MIC, both the aminoglycosides and β-lactams. The toxicity and cytotoxicity results were lower than the values used in the modulation. R. jimi glandular secretions demonstrated clinically relevant results regarding the modulation of the tested antimicrobials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. CT measurement of breast glandular tissue and its association with testicular cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klang, Eyal [Tel Aviv University, Department of Radiology, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Aviv (Israel); The Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer (Israel); Rozendorn, Noa; Raskin, Steve; Portnoy, Orith; Sklair, Miri; Marom, Edith M.; Konen, Eli; Amitai, Michal M. [Tel Aviv University, Department of Radiology, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Aviv (Israel)

    2017-02-15

    To evaluate the associations between breast glandular tissues diameters as determined by CT and b-hCG levels, histological types, tumour spread and prognosis in patients with testicular germ cell tumour. Ninety-four patients with pre-treatment CT scan and markers (b-hCG, AFP, LDH) were retrospectively collected. A radiologist measured diameters in all CT examinations and correlation between diameters and log (b-hCG) was assessed (Pearson's coefficient). The ability of measured diameters to predict lymphatic and distant haematogenous metastatic spread was evaluated (ROC curves). The associations between measured diameter cut-off values of 20 and 25 mm and International Germ Cell Cancer Collaborative Group (IGCCCG) classification, lymphatic and distant haematogenous metastatic spread and histological subtypes were evaluated (chi squared test). Breast glandular diameters correlated to log(b-hCG) (r = 0.579) and predicted distant haematogenous metastatic spread (AUC = 0.78). Worse prognosis (intermediate or poor IGCCCG) was shown for 20 mm (27.3 vs. 4.2 %, p = 0.005) and 25 mm (33.3 vs. 6.1 %, p = 0.014). A diameter of 25 mm was associated with non-seminoma (91.7 vs. 48.8 %, p = 0.005). Breast glandular tissue diameters correlated with log(b-hCG) and predicted distant haematogenous metastases. Twenty and 25 mm were associated with worse prognosis and 25 mm was able to distinguish between seminoma and non-seminoma. (orig.)

  14. Examination of equine glandular stomach lesions for bacteria, including Helicobacter spp by fluorescence in situ hybridisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olsen Susanne N

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The equine glandular stomach is commonly affected by erosion and ulceration. The aim of this study was to assess whether bacteria, including Helicobacter, could be involved in the aetiology of gastric glandular lesions seen in horses. Results Stomach lesions, as well as normal appearing mucosa were obtained from horses slaughtered for human consumption. All samples were tested for urease activity using the Pyloritek® assay, while mucosal bacterial content was evaluated using Fluorescence In Situ Hybridisation. In selected sub samples, bacteria characterisation was pursued further by cloning and sequencing. Mucosal lesions were found in 36/63 stomachs and included hyperplastic rugae, polypoid structures and focal erosions. None of the samples were tested positive for urease activity or for FISH using the Helicobacter genus specific probe. In samples of lesions, as well as normal samples, clones with 99% similarities to Lactobacillus salivarius and Sarcina ventriculi were found. Escherichia like bacterium clones and Enterococcus clones were demonstrated in one focal erosion. Based on a phylogenetic tree these clones had 100% similarity to Escherichia fergusonii and Enterococcus faecium. The Enterococcus were found colonising the mucosal surface, while E. fergusonii organisms were also demonstrated intraepithelial. Conclusion Gastric Helicobacter spp. could not be verified as being involved in lesions of the glandular stomach of the horse. Since E. fergusonii has been described as an emerging pathogen in both humans and animals, the finding of this bacterium in gastric erosion warrants further clarification to whether gastric infection with this type bacterium is important for horses.

  15. Trichomes of tobacco excrete zinc as zinc-substituted calcium carbonate and other zinc-containing compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarret, G.; Harada, E.; Choi, Y-E.; Isaure, M.-P.; Geoffroy, N.; Fakra, S.; Marcus, M.A.; Birschwilks, M.; Clemens, S.; Manceau, A.

    2006-01-01

    Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv Xanthi) plants were exposed to toxic levels of zinc (Zn). Zn exposure resulted in toxicity signs in plants, and these damages were partly reduced by a calcium (Ca) supplement. Confocal imaging of intracellular Zn using Zinquin showed that Zn was preferentially accumulated in trichomes. Exposure to Zn and Zn + Ca increased the trichome density and induced the production of Ca/Zn mineral grains on the head cells of trichomes. These grains were aggregates of submicrometer-sized crystals and poorly crystalline material and contained Ca as major element, along with subordinate amounts of Zn, manganese, potassium, chlorine, phosphorus, silicon, and magnesium. Micro x-ray diffraction revealed that the large majority of the grains were composed essentially of metal-substituted calcite (CaCO3). CaCO3 polymorphs (aragonite and vaterite) and CaC2O4 (Ca oxalate) mono- and dihydrate also were identified, either as an admixture to calcite or in separate grains. Some grains did not diffract, although they contained Ca, suggesting the presence of amorphous form of Ca. The presence of Zn-substituted calcite was confirmed by Zn K-edge micro-extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy. Zn bound to organic compounds and Zn-containing silica and phosphate were also identified by this technique. The proportion of Zn-substituted calcite relative to the other species increased with Ca exposure. The production of Zn-containing biogenic calcite and other Zn compounds through the trichomes is a novel mechanism involved in Zn detoxification. This study illustrates the potential of laterally resolved x-ray synchrotron radiation techniques to study biomineralization and metal homeostasis processes in plants

  16. Flavonoids from Artemisia annua L. as Antioxidants and Their Potential Synergism with Artemisinin against Malaria and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge F.S. Ferreira

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia annua is currently the only commercial source of the sesquiterpene lactone artemisinin.Since artemisinin was discovered as the active component of A. annua in early 1970s, hundreds of papers have focused on the anti-parasitic effects of artemisinin and its semi-synthetic analogs dihydroartemisinin, artemether, arteether, and artesunate. Artemisinin per se has not been used in mainstream clinical practice due to its poor bioavailability when compared to its analogs. In the past decade, the work with artemisinin-based compounds has expanded to their anti-cancer properties. Although artemisinin is a major bioactive component present in the traditional Chinese herbal preparations (tea, leaf flavonoids, also present in the tea, have shown a variety of biological activities and may synergize the effects of artemisinin against malaria and cancer. However, only a few studies have focused on the potential synergistic effects between flavonoids and artemisinin. The resurgent idea that multi-component drug therapy might be better than monotherapy is illustrated by the recent resolution of the World Health Organization to support artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACT, instead of the previously used monotherapy with artemisinins. In this critical review we will discuss the possibility that artemisinin and its semi-synthetic analogs might become more effective to treat parasitic diseases (such as malaria and cancer if simultaneously delivered with flavonoids. The flavonoids present in A. annua leaves have been linked to suppression of CYP450 enzymes responsible for altering the absorption and metabolism of artemisinin in the body, but also have been linked to a beneficial immunomodulatory activity in subjects afflicted with parasitic and chronic diseases.

  17. Clothianidin and Imidacloprid Residues in Poa annua (Poales: Poaceae) and Their Effects on Listronotus maculicollis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavet, Christopher; Requintina, Matthew; Hampton, Emily; Cowles, Richard S; Byrne, Frank J; Alm, Steven R

    2014-12-01

    Competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to quantify the amounts of the neonicotinoids clothianidin and imidacloprid in Poa annua L. clippings from treated golf course fairways. Average clothianidin residues 7 d after application ranged from 674 to 1,550 ng/g tissue in 2012 and 455-2,220 ng/g tissue in 2013. Average clothianidin residues the day of application ranged from 17,100-38,800 ng/g tissue in 2014. Average imidacloprid residues 7 d after treatment ranged from 1,950-3,030 ng/g tissue in 2012 and 7,780-9,230 ng/g tissue in 2013. Average imidacloprid residues the day of application ranged from 31,500-40,400 ng/g tissue in 2014. Neonicotinoid or bifenthrin-neonicotinoid combination products applied in field plots in 2012 did not significantly reduce the numbers of larvae relative to the untreated control. However, in 2013, statistically significant reductions in the numbers of larvae recovered from treated field plots were associated with the presence of bifenthrin alone or when used in combination with neonicotinoid active ingredients. Listronotus maculicollis (Kirby) adults caged on neonicotinoid-, bifenthrin-, and bifenthrin-neonicotinoid-treated P. annua turf plugs fed on P. annua leaves, but mortality was only highly significantly different between treated and untreated foliage when weevils were placed on treated foliage the day after treatment and allowed to feed for 7 d. The modest degree of population suppression with bifenthrin in these experiments may not be adequate to justify the continued use of these products due to the increased risk of insecticide resistance and disruption of biological control. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

  18. Simulated Digestion of Dried Leaves of Artemisia annua Consumed as a Treatment (pACT) for Malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weathers, Pamela J.; Jordan, Nikole; Lasin, Praphapan; Towler, Melissa J.

    2014-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological Relevance Artemisinin (AN) is produced by Artemisia annua, a medicinal herb long used as a tea infusion in traditional Chinese medicine to treat fever; it is also the key ingredient in current artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) effective in treating malaria. Recently we showed that dried leaves from the whole plant A. annua that produces artemisinin and contains artemisinin-synergistic flavonoids seems to be more effective and less costly than ACT oral malaria therapy; however little is known about how digestion affects release of artemisinin and flavonoids from dried leaves. Material and Methods In the current study we used a simulated digestion system to determine how artemisinin and flavonoids are released prior to absorption into the bloodstream. Various delivery methods and staple foods were combined with dried leaves for digestion in order to investigate their impact on the bioavailability of artemisinin and flavonoids. Digestate was recovered at the end of the oral, gastric, and intestinal stages, separated into solid and liquid fractions, and extracted for measurement of artemisinin and total flavonoids. Results Compared to unencapsulated digested dried leaves, addition of sucrose, various cooking oils, and rice did not reduce the amount of artemisinin released in the intestinal liquid fraction, but the amount of released flavonoids nearly doubled. When dried leaves were encapsulated into either hydroxymethylcellulose or gelatin capsules, there was >50% decrease in released artemisinin but no change in released flavonoids. In the presence of millet or corn meal, the amount of released artemisinin declined, but there was no change in released flavonoids. Use of a mutant A. annua lacking artemisinin showed that the plant matrix is critical in determining how artemisinin is affected during the digestion process. Conclusions This study provides evidence showing how both artemisinin and flavonoids are affected by digestion and

  19. Characterization of fibrillar collagens and extracellular matrix of glandular benign prostatic hyperplasia nodules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler M Bauman

    Full Text Available Recent studies have associated lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS in men with prostatic fibrosis, but a definitive link between collagen deposition and LUTS has yet to be demonstrated. The objective of this study was to evaluate ECM and collagen content within normal glandular prostate tissue and glandular BPH, and to evaluate the association of clinical parameters of LUTS with collagen content.Fibrillar collagen and ECM content was assessed in normal prostate (48 patients and glandular BPH nodules (24 patients using Masson's trichrome stain and Picrosirius red stain. Second harmonic generation (SHG imaging was used to evaluate collagen content. Additional BPH tissues (n = 47 were stained with Picrosirius red and the association between clinical parameters of BPH/LUTS and collagen content was assessed.ECM was similar in normal prostate and BPH (p = 0.44. Total collagen content between normal prostate and glandular BPH was similar (p = 0.27, but a significant increase in thicker collagen bundles was observed in BPH (p = 0.045. Using SHG imaging, collagen content in BPH (mean intensity = 62.52; SEM = 2.74 was significantly higher than in normal prostate (51.77±3.49; p = 0.02. Total collagen content was not associated with treatment with finasteride (p = 0.47 or α-blockers (p = 0.52, pre-TURP AUA symptom index (p = 0.90, prostate-specific antigen (p = 0.86, post-void residual (PVR; p = 0.32, prostate size (p = 0.21, or post-TURP PVR (p = 0.51. Collagen content was not associated with patient age in patients with BPH, however as men aged normal prostatic tissue had a decreased proportion of thick collagen bundles.The proportion of larger bundles of collagen, but not total collagen, is increased in BPH nodules, suggesting that these large fibers may play a role in BPH/LUTS. Total collagen content is independent of clinical parameters of BPH and LUTS. If fibrosis and overall ECM deposition are

  20. Inhibitory Action of Artemisia annua Extracts and Artemisinin on the Corrosion of Mild Steel in H2SO4 Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. C. Okafor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The action of ethanol (EEAA, acid (AEAA, and toluene (TEAA extracts from Artemisia annua and Artemisinin (ATS on mild steel corrosion in H2SO4 solutions was investigated using gravimetric and gasometric techniques. The extracts and ATS functioned as good inhibitors, and their inhibition efficiencies (%IE followed the trend: EEAA > AEAA > TEAA > ATS. %IE increased with increase in inhibitors concentration and decreased with increase in temperature. The enhanced %IE values of the extracts were attributed to synergistic effect of the components of the plant extracts with ATS. The adsorption of the inhibitors was consistent with Langmuir isotherm. Physisorption is proposed as the mechanism of inhibition.

  1. Monte Carlo generated conversion factors for the estimation of average glandular dose in contact and magnification mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutalonis, M.; Delis, H.; Spyrou, G.; Costaridou, L.; Tzanakos, G.; Panayiotakis, G.

    2006-11-01

    Magnification mammography is a special technique used in the cases where breast complaints are noted by a woman or when an abnormality is found in a screening mammogram. The carcinogenic risk in mammography is related to the dose deposited in the glandular tissue of the breast rather than the adipose, and average glandular dose (AGD) is the quantity taken into consideration during a mammographic examination. Direct measurement of the AGD is not feasible during clinical practice and thus, the incident air KERMA on the breast surface is used to estimate the glandular dose, with the help of proper conversion factors. Additional conversion factors adapted for magnification and tube voltage are calculated, using Monte Carlo simulation. The effect of magnification degree, tube voltage, various anode/filter material combinations and glandularity on AGD is also studied, considering partial breast irradiation. Results demonstrate that the estimation of AGD utilizing conversion factors depends on these parameters, while the omission of correction factors for magnification and tube voltage can lead to significant underestimation or overestimation of AGD. AGD was found to increase with filter material's k-absorption edge, anode material's k-emission edge, tube voltage and magnification. Decrease of the glandularity of the breast leads to higher AGD due to the increased penetrating ability of the photon beam in thick breasts with low glandularity.

  2. Monte Carlo generated conversion factors for the estimation of average glandular dose in contact and magnification mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koutalonis, M [Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine, University of Patras, 265 00 Patras (Greece); Delis, H [Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine, University of Patras, 265 00 Patras (Greece); Spyrou, G [Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine, University of Patras, 265 00 Patras (Greece); Costaridou, L [Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine, University of Patras, 265 00 Patras (Greece); Tzanakos, G [Department of Physics, Div. Nucl. and Particle Physics, University of Athens, 157 71 Athens (Greece); Panayiotakis, G [Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine, University of Patras, 265 00 Patras (Greece)

    2006-11-07

    Magnification mammography is a special technique used in the cases where breast complaints are noted by a woman or when an abnormality is found in a screening mammogram. The carcinogenic risk in mammography is related to the dose deposited in the glandular tissue of the breast rather than the adipose, and average glandular dose (AGD) is the quantity taken into consideration during a mammographic examination. Direct measurement of the AGD is not feasible during clinical practice and thus, the incident air KERMA on the breast surface is used to estimate the glandular dose, with the help of proper conversion factors. Additional conversion factors adapted for magnification and tube voltage are calculated, using Monte Carlo simulation. The effect of magnification degree, tube voltage, various anode/filter material combinations and glandularity on AGD is also studied, considering partial breast irradiation. Results demonstrate that the estimation of AGD utilizing conversion factors depends on these parameters, while the omission of correction factors for magnification and tube voltage can lead to significant underestimation or overestimation of AGD. AGD was found to increase with filter material's k-absorption edge, anode material's k-emission edge, tube voltage and magnification. Decrease of the glandularity of the breast leads to higher AGD due to the increased penetrating ability of the photon beam in thick breasts with low glandularity.

  3. Fatty acid profiles and their chemotaxonomy in planktonic species of Anabaena (Cyanobacteria) with straight trichomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, R; Watanabe, M M

    2001-07-01

    Twenty-four axenic strains of planktonic Anabaena with straight trichomes, assigned to 7 species, were investigated by analyzing the pattern and content of their fatty acid composition and comparing their fatty acid composition with their morphological properties. In general, the fatty acids in planktonic Anabaena contained 14:0, 16:0, 16:1(cis-), 18:0, 18:1, 18:2, and 18:3(alpha) as their major components, and were classified as Type 2 according to the Kenyon-Murata system. These strains were further divided into 2 subtypes: 18 strains belonging to Type 2A, which contains 16:2 and 16:3, and 6 strains to Type 2B, which lacks 16:2 and 16:3. Fatty acid compositions of strains of A. solitaria, A. smithii, and A. kisseleviana closely corresponded to morphological properties; however, 10 strains of A. planctonica were divided into 4 clusters, and 3 strains of A. affinis into 2 clusters. These clusters should be taxonomically evaluated based on other aspects such as genetic characteristics.

  4. Leishmanicidal activities of Artemisia annua leaf essential oil against Visceral Leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islamuddin, Mohammad; Chouhan, Garima; Tyagi, Maujiram; Abdin, Malik Z; Sahal, Dinkar; Afrin, Farhat

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), the second-most dreaded parasitic disease after malaria, is currently endemic in 88 countries. Dramatic increases in the rates of infection, drug resistance, and non-availability of safe vaccines have highlighted the need for identification of novel and inexpensive anti-leishmanial agents from natural sources. In this study, we showed the leishmanicidal effect of essential oil from Artemisia annua leaves (AALEO) against Leishmania donovani in vitro and in vivo. AALEO was extracted by hydrodistillation and characterized by GC-MS, the most abundant compounds were found to be camphor (52.06 %) followed by β-caryophyllene (10.95 %). AALEO exhibited significant leishmanicidal activity against L. donovani, with 50 % inhibitory concentration of 14.63 ± 1.49 μg ml(-1) and 7.3 ± 1.85 μg ml(-1), respectively, against the promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes. The effect was mediated through programmed cell death as confirmed by externalization of phosphatidylserine, DNA nicking by TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling assay, dyskinetoplastidy, cell cycle arrest at sub-G0-G1 phase, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and reactive oxygen species generation in promastigotes and nitric oxide generation in ex vivo model. AALEO presented no cytotoxic effects against mammalian macrophages even at 200 μg ml(-1). Intra-peritoneal administration of AALEO (200 mg/ kg.b.w.) to infected BALB/c mice reduced the parasite burden by almost 90% in the liver and spleen with significant reduction in weight. There was no hepato- or nephro-toxicity as demonstrated by normal levels of serum enzymes. The promising antileishmanial activity shown by camphor-rich AALEO may provide a new lead in the treatment of VL.

  5. Leishmanicidal activities of Artemisia annua leaf essential oil against Visceral Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad eIslamuddin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis (VL, the second-most dreaded parasitic disease after malaria, is currently endemic in 88 countries. Dramatic increases in the rates of infection, drug resistance and non-availability of safe vaccines have highlighted the need for identification of novel and inexpensive anti-leishmanial agents from natural sources. In this study, we showed the leishmanicidal effect of essential oil from Artemisia annua leaves (AALEO against Leishmania donovani in vitro and in vivo. AALEO was extracted by hydrodistillation and characterized by GC-MS, the most abundant compounds were found to be camphor (52.06 % followed by β-caryophyllene (10.95 %. AALEO exhibited significant leishmanicidal activity against L. donovani, with 50 % inhibitory concentration of 14.63 ± 1.49 µg ml-1 and 7.3 ± 1.85 µg ml─1, respectively, against the promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes. The effect was mediated through programmed cell death as confirmed by externalization of phosphatidylserine, DNA nicking by TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labelling (TUNEL assay, dyskinetoplastidy, cell cycle arrest at sub-G0–G1 phase, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and reactive oxygen species (ROS generation in promastigotes and nitric oxide (NO generation in ex vivo model. AALEO presented no cytotoxic effects against mammalian macrophages even at 200 µg ml─1. Intra-peritoneal administration of AALEO (200 mg/ kg.b.w. to infected BALB/c mice reduced the parasite burden by almost 90 % in the liver and spleen with significant reduction in weight. There was no hepato- or nephro-toxicity as demonstrated by normal levels of serum enzymes. The promising antileishmanial activity shown by camphor-rich AALEO may provide a new lead in the treatment of VL.

  6. Expression, purification, and characterization of recombinant amorpha-4,11-diene synthase from Artemisia annua L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picaud, Sarah; Olofsson, Linda; Brodelius, Maria; Brodelius, Peter E

    2005-04-15

    A cDNA clone encoding amorpha-4,11-diene synthase from Artemisia annua was subcloned into a bacterial expression vector in frame with a His6-tag. Recombinant amorpha-4,11-diene synthase was produced in Escherichia coli and purified to apparent homogeneity. The enzyme showed pH optimum at pH 6.5, and a minimum at pH 7.5. Substantial activity was observed in the presence of Mg2+, Mn2+ or Co2+ as cofactor. The enzyme exhibits a low activity in the presence of Ni2+ and essentially no activity with Cu2+ or Zn2+. The sesquiterpenoids produced from farnesyl diphosphate in the presence of Mg2+ were analyzed by GC-MS. In addition to amorpha-4,11-diene, 15 sesquiterpenoids were produced. Only small quantitative differences in product pattern were observed at pH 6.5, 7.5, or 9.5. Amorpha-4,11-diene synthase showed significant increased product selectivity in the presence of Mn2+ or Co2+. Km for farnesyl diphosphate was 3.3, 8.0, and 0.7 microM in the presence of Mg2+, Mn2+ or Co2+, respectively. The corresponding kcat-values were 6.8, 15.0, and 1.3 x 10(-3) s(-1), respectively. Km and kcat for geranyl diphosphate were 16.9 microM and 7.0 x 10(-4) s(-1), respectively, at pH 6.5, in the presence of Mn2+.

  7. The effects of combining Artemisia annua and Curcuma longa ethanolic extracts in broilers challenged with infective oocysts of Eimeria acervulina and E. maxima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to an increasing demand for natural products to control coccidiosis in broilers we investigated the effects of supplementing a combination of ethanolic extracts of Artemisia annua and Curcuma longa in drinking water. Three different dosages of this herbal mixture were compared with a negative co...

  8. Artemisia annua dried leaf tablets treated malaria resistant to ACT and i.v. artesunate: Case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daddy, Nsengiyumva Bati; Kalisya, Luc Malemo; Bagire, Pascal Gisenya; Watt, Robert L; Towler, Melissa J; Weathers, Pamela J

    2017-08-15

    Dried leaf Artemisia annua (DLA) has shown efficacy against Plasmodium sp. in rodent studies and in small clinical trials. Rodent malaria also showed resiliency against the evolution of artemisinin drug resistance. This is a case report of a last resort treatment of patients with severe malaria who were responding neither to artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) nor i.v. artesunate. Of many patients treated with ACTs and i.v. artesunate during the 6 mon study period, 18 did not respond and were subsequently treated with DLA Artemisia annua. Patients were given a dose of 0.5g DLA per os, twice daily for 5d. Total adult delivered dose of artemisinin was 55mg. Dose was reduced for body weight under 30kg. Clinical symptoms, e.g. fever, coma etc., and parasite levels in thick blood smears were tracked. Patients were declared cured and released from hospital when parasites were microscopically undetectable and clinical symptoms fully subsided. All patients were previously treated with Coartem® provided through Santé Rurale (SANRU) and following the regimen prescribed by WHO. Of 18 ACT-resistant severe malaria cases compassionately treated with DLA, all fully recovered. Of the 18, this report details two pediatric cases. Successful treatment of all 18 ACT-resistant cases suggests that DLA should be rapidly incorporated into the antimalarial regimen for Africa and possibly wherever else ACT resistance has emerged. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  9. Inhibition of phenylpropanoid biosynthesis in Artemisia annua L.: a novel approach to reduce oxidative browning in plant tissue culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Maxwell Phineas Jones

    Full Text Available Oxidative browning is a common and often severe problem in plant tissue culture systems caused by the accumulation and oxidation of phenolic compounds. The current study was conducted to investigate a novel preventative approach to address this problem by inhibiting the activity of the phenylalanine ammonia lyase enzyme (PAL, thereby reducing the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds. This was accomplished by incorporating 2-aminoindane-2-phosphonic acid (AIP, a competitive PAL inhibitor, into culture media of Artemisia annua as a model system. Addition of AIP into culture media resulted in significant reductions in visual tissue browning, a reduction in total phenol content, as well as absorbance and autoflourescence of tissue extracts. Reduced tissue browning was accompanied with a significant increase in growth on cytokinin based medium. Microscopic observations demonstrated that phenolic compounds accumulated in discrete cells and that these cells were more prevalent in brown tissue. These cells were highly plasmolyzed and often ruptured during examination, demonstrating a mechanism in which phenolics are released into media in this system. These data indicate that inhibiting phenylpropanoid biosynthesis with AIP is an effective approach to reduce tissue browning in A. annua. Additional experiments with Ulmus americana and Acer saccharum indicate this approach is effective in many species and it could have a wide application in systems where oxidative browning restricts the development of biotechnologies.

  10. Transient production of artemisinin in Nicotiana benthamiana is boosted by a specific lipid transfer protein from A. annua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Kashkooli, Arman Beyraghdar; Sallets, Adrienne; Ting, Hieng-Ming; de Ruijter, Norbert C A; Olofsson, Linda; Brodelius, Peter; Pottier, Mathieu; Boutry, Marc; Bouwmeester, Harro; van der Krol, Alexander R

    2016-11-01

    Our lack of full understanding of transport and sequestration of the heterologous products currently limit metabolic engineering in plants for the production of high value terpenes. For instance, although all genes of the artemisinin/arteannuin B (AN/AB) biosynthesis pathway (AN-PW) from Artemisia annua have been identified, ectopic expression of these genes in Nicotiana benthamiana yielded mostly glycosylated pathway intermediates and only very little free (dihydro)artemisinic acid [(DH)AA]. Here we demonstrate that Lipid Transfer Protein 3 (AaLTP3) and the transporter Pleiotropic Drug Resistance 2 (AaPDR2) from A. annua enhance accumulation of (DH)AA in the apoplast of N. benthamiana leaves. Analysis of apoplast and cell content and apoplast exclusion assays show that AaLTP3 and AaPDR2 prevent reflux of (DH)AA from the apoplast back into the cells and enhances overall flux through the pathway. Moreover, AaLTP3 is stabilized in the presence of AN-PW activity and co-expression of AN-PW+AaLTP3+AaPDR2 genes yielded AN and AB in necrotic N. benthamiana leaves at 13 days post-agroinfiltration. This newly discovered function of LTPs opens up new possibilities for the engineering of biosynthesis pathways of high value terpenes in heterologous expression systems. Copyright © 2016 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Enhanced Production of Bioactive Isoprenoid Compounds from Cell Suspension Cultures of Artemisia annua L. Using β-Cyclodextrins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzello, Francesca; De Paolis, Angelo; Durante, Miriana; Blando, Federica; Mita, Giovanni; Caretto, Sofia

    2014-01-01

    Plant cell cultures as valuable tools for the production of specific metabolites can be greatly improved by the application of elicitors including cyclodextrins (CDs) for enhancing the yields of the desired plant compounds. Here the effects of 2,6-dimethyl-β-cyclodextrins (DIMEB) on the production of carotenoids and quinones from Artemisia annua L. cell suspension cultures were investigated. The addition of 50 mM DIMEB induced an early increase of intracellular carotenoid and quinone contents, which could be observed to a higher extent for lutein (10-fold), Q9 (3-fold) and Q10 (2.5-fold). Real Time PCR analysis revealed that the expression of 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR) gene in DIMEB treated cell cultures after three days was 2.5-fold higher than in untreated samples, thus suggesting that the DIMEB induced increase of carotenoids and quinones could be due to the induction of the plastidial isoprenoid biosynthetic route. In addition, the DIMEB treatment induced an enhanced release of carotenoids and quinones into the culture medium of A. annua cell suspension cultures possibly due to the ability of CDs to form inclusion complexes with hydrophobic molecules. PMID:25338048

  12. Inhibition of phenylpropanoid biosynthesis in Artemisia annua L.: a novel approach to reduce oxidative browning in plant tissue culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Andrew Maxwell Phineas; Saxena, Praveen Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative browning is a common and often severe problem in plant tissue culture systems caused by the accumulation and oxidation of phenolic compounds. The current study was conducted to investigate a novel preventative approach to address this problem by inhibiting the activity of the phenylalanine ammonia lyase enzyme (PAL), thereby reducing the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds. This was accomplished by incorporating 2-aminoindane-2-phosphonic acid (AIP), a competitive PAL inhibitor, into culture media of Artemisia annua as a model system. Addition of AIP into culture media resulted in significant reductions in visual tissue browning, a reduction in total phenol content, as well as absorbance and autoflourescence of tissue extracts. Reduced tissue browning was accompanied with a significant increase in growth on cytokinin based medium. Microscopic observations demonstrated that phenolic compounds accumulated in discrete cells and that these cells were more prevalent in brown tissue. These cells were highly plasmolyzed and often ruptured during examination, demonstrating a mechanism in which phenolics are released into media in this system. These data indicate that inhibiting phenylpropanoid biosynthesis with AIP is an effective approach to reduce tissue browning in A. annua. Additional experiments with Ulmus americana and Acer saccharum indicate this approach is effective in many species and it could have a wide application in systems where oxidative browning restricts the development of biotechnologies.

  13. Preliminary results of the average glandular dose to the breast with TLDS measure is computed as the conversion factors; Resultados preliminares da dose glandular media na mama medida com TLDS e calculada atraves de fatores de conversao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sardo, Luiz T.L.; Almeida, Claudio D.; Coutinho, Celia M.C., E-mail: ltsardo@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: claudio@ird.gov.br, E-mail: celia@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    At mammography exams there is a risk of a breast cancer induced from the absorbed dose by the glandular tissue. According to the National Institute of Cancer, INCA, breast cancer is the second type most frequent in the world and the most common among women, therefore the necessity of monitoring the mean glandular dose, D{sub G}. Measuring methods of D{sub G} were established by some authors. Among the established methods the method of Dance is one of the most known. In this study was utilized a measurement method realized with TL dosimeters inserted in a breast tissue equivalent phantom, BTE, with 46% of glandularity and exposed using Mo/Mo and Mo/Rh target/filter combination and 28kV. To ensure this measurement method the results were compared with a calculation method, used by Dance, of D{sub G} from the measurement of incident air kerma, K{sub i}, and conversion factors to consider mainly the beam quality, the compressed thickness and the glandularity of the breast. The results of the comparison of the D{sub G} measurement with the obtained dose by the method of Dance demonstrated that for the thickness of 4.0 and 6.0 cm the doses were consistent. For the thickness of 5.0 cm the difference was higher, indicating that the glandularity may influence, suggesting further investigation. (author)

  14. Estimate of average glandular dose (AGD) in national clinics of mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora, Patricia; Segura, Helena

    2004-01-01

    The breast cancer represents the second cause of death by cancer in the femme population of our country. The specialized equipment for the obtaining of the mammographic images is higher every day and its use increases daily. The quality of the radiographic study is linked to the dose that this tissue intrinsically sensible receives to the ionizing radiations. The present work makes the first national study to quantify the average glandular doses and to connect them with the diagnostic quality and the recommendations to international scale. (Author) [es

  15. Characterization and comparison of transgenic Artemisia annua GYR and wild-type NON-GYR plants in an environmental release trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H; Wu, G G; Wang, J B; Wu, X; Bai, L; Jiang, W; Lv, B B; Pan, A H; Jia, J W; Li, P; Zhao, K; Jiang, L X; Tang, X M

    2016-08-26

    The anti-malarial drug, artemisinin, is quite expensive as a result of its slow content in Artemisia annua. Recent investigations have suggested that genetic engineering of A. annua is a promising approach to improve the yield of artemisinin. In this study, the transgenic A. annua strain GYR, which has high artemisinin content, was evaluated in an environmental release trial. First, GYR plants were compared with the wild-type variety NON-GYR, with regard to phenotypic characters (plant height, crown width, stem diameter, germination rate, leaf dry weight, 1000-seed weight, leave shape). Second, stress resistance in the two varieties (salt, drought, herbicide, and cold resistance) was evaluated under different experimental conditions. Finally, gene flow was estimated. The results indicated that there were significant differences in several agronomic traits (plant height, stem diameter, and leave dry weight) between the transgenic GYR and NON-GYR plants. Salt stress in transgenic and control plants was similar, except under high NaCl concentrations (1.6%, w/w). Leaf water, proline, and MDA content (increased significantly) were significantly different. Transgenic A. annua GYR plants did not grow better than NON-GYR plants with respect to drought and herbicide resistance. The two varieties maintained vitality through the winter. Third, gene flow was studied in an environmental risk trial for transgenic GYR. The maximum gene flow frequency was 2.5%, while the maximum gene flow distance was 24.4 m; gene flow was not detected at 29.2 m at any direction. Our findings may provide an opportunity for risk assessment in future commercialization of transgenic A. annua varieties.

  16. Preliminary results of the average glandular dose to the breast with TLDS measure is computed as the conversion factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sardo, Luiz T.L.; Almeida, Claudio D.; Coutinho, Celia M.C.

    2013-01-01

    At mammography exams there is a risk of a breast cancer induced from the absorbed dose by the glandular tissue. According to the National Institute of Cancer, INCA, breast cancer is the second type most frequent in the world and the most common among women, therefore the necessity of monitoring the mean glandular dose, D G . Measuring methods of D G were established by some authors. Among the established methods the method of Dance is one of the most known. In this study was utilized a measurement method realized with TL dosimeters inserted in a breast tissue equivalent phantom, BTE, with 46% of glandularity and exposed using Mo/Mo and Mo/Rh target/filter combination and 28kV. To ensure this measurement method the results were compared with a calculation method, used by Dance, of D G from the measurement of incident air kerma, K i , and conversion factors to consider mainly the beam quality, the compressed thickness and the glandularity of the breast. The results of the comparison of the D G measurement with the obtained dose by the method of Dance demonstrated that for the thickness of 4.0 and 6.0 cm the doses were consistent. For the thickness of 5.0 cm the difference was higher, indicating that the glandularity may influence, suggesting further investigation. (author)

  17. Feeding by flea beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae; Phyllotreta spp.) is decreased on canola (Brassica napus) seedlings with increased trichome density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soroka, Juliana J; Holowachuk, Jennifer M; Gruber, Margaret Y; Grenkow, Larry F

    2011-02-01

    Laboratory and field studies were undertaken to determine the effects of increased numbers of trichomes on seedling stems, petioles, and first true leaves of Brassica napus L., canola, on the feeding and behavior of the crucifer flea beetle Phyllotreta cruciferae (Goeze) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Seedlings of 'Westar' canola with genes inserted from Arabidopsis thaliana L. for increased trichome production, called Hairyl, were tested against Westar seedlings in no-choice and choice laboratory tests, and against parental plants and other cultivars grown from seed with and without insecticide in field trials at Saskatoon and Lethbridge, Canada. Analyses ofprefeeding and feeding behavior in no-choice tests of first true leaves found that flea beetles interacted with their host while off Hairyl leaves more so than beetles presented with leaves of Westar. Beetles required twice as much time to reach satiation when feeding on leaves with increased pubescence than on Westar leaves. In laboratory choice tests, flea beetles fed more on cotyledons and second true leaves of Westar than on comparable tissues of the transgenic line. In field trials, variations in feeding patterns were seen over time on cotyledons of the line with elevated trichomes. However, all four young true leaves of Hairyl seedlings were fed upon less than were the parental lines. Feeding on Hairyl plants frequently occurred at levels equal to or less than on cultivars grown from insecticide-treated seed. This study highlights the first host plant resistance trait developed in canola, dense pubescence, with a strong potential to deter feeding by crucifer flea beetles.

  18. NTL8 Regulates Trichome Formation in Arabidopsis by Directly Activating R3 MYB Genes TRY and TCL1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hainan; Wang, Xianling; Guo, Hongyan; Cheng, Yuxin; Hou, Chunjiang; Chen, Jin-Gui; Wang, Shucai

    2017-08-01

    The NAM, ATAF1/2, and CUC (NAC) are plant-specific transcription factors that regulate multiple aspects of plant growth and development and plant response to environmental stimuli. We report here the identification of NTM1-LIKE8 (NTL8), a membrane-associated NAC transcription factor, as a novel regulator of trichome formation in Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ). From an activation-tagged Arabidopsis population, we identified a dominant, gain-of-function mutant with glabrous inflorescence stem. By using plasmid rescue and RT-PCR analyses, we found that NTL8 was tagged; thus, the mutant was named ntl8-1 Dominant ( ntl8-1D ). Recapitulation experiment further confirmed that the phenotype observed in the ntl8-1D mutant was caused by elevated expression of NTL8 Quantitative RT-PCR results showed that the expression level of the single-repeat R3 MYB genes TRIPTYCHON ( TRY ) and TRICHOMELESS1 ( TCL1 ) was elevated in the ntl8-1D mutant. Genetic analyses demonstrated that NTL8 acts upstream of TRY and TCL1 in the regulation of trichome formation. When recruited to the promoter region of the reporter gene Gal4:GUS by a fused GAL4 DNA-binding domain, NTL8 activated the expression of the reporter gene. Chromatin immunoprecipitation results indicated that TRY and TCL1 are direct targets of NTL8. However, NTL8 did not interact with SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN LIKE9, another transcription factor that regulates the expression of TRY and TCL1 , in yeast and plant cells. Taken together, our results suggest that NTL8 negatively regulates trichome formation in Arabidopsis by directly activating the expression of TRY and TCL1 . © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Th1-biased immunomodulation and therapeutic potential of Artemisia annua in murine visceral leishmaniasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Islamuddin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the absence of vaccines and limitations of currently available chemotherapy, development of safe and efficacious drugs is urgently needed for visceral leishmaniasis (VL that is fatal, if left untreated. Earlier we reported in vitro apoptotic antileishmanial activity of n-hexane fractions of Artemisia annua leaves (AAL and seeds (AAS against Leishmania donovani. In the present study, we investigated the immunostimulatory and therapeutic efficacy of AAL and AAS.Ten-weeks post infection, BALB/c mice were orally administered AAL and AAS for ten consecutive days. Significant reduction in hepatic (86.67% and 89.12% and splenic (95.45% and 95.84% parasite burden with decrease in spleen weight was observed. AAL and AAS treated mice induced the strongest DTH response, as well as three-fold decrease in IgG1 and two-fold increase in IgG2a levels, as compared to infected controls. Cytometric bead array further affirmed the elicitation of Th1 immune response as indicated by increased levels of IFN-γ, and low levels of Th2 cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10 in serum as well as in culture supernatant of lymphocytes from treated mice. Lymphoproliferative response, IFN-γ producing CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes and nitrite levels were significantly enhanced upon antigen recall in vitro. The co-expression of CD80 and CD86 on macrophages was significantly augmented. CD8+ T cells exhibited CD62Llow and CD44hi phenotype, signifying induction of immunological memory in AAL and AAS treated groups. Serum enzyme markers were in the normal range indicating inertness against nephro- and hepato-toxicity.Our results establish the two-prong antileishmanial efficacy of AAL and AAS for cure against L. donovani that is dependent on both the direct leishmanicidal action as well as switching-on of Th1-biased protective cell-mediated immunity with generation of memory. AAL and AAS could represent adjunct therapies for the treatment of leishmaniasis, either alone or in combination with

  20. Cloning, expression, and characterization of epi-cedrol synthase, a sesquiterpene cyclase from Artemisia annua L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercke, P; Crock, J; Croteau, R; Brodelius, P E

    1999-09-15

    Sesquiterpene cyclases (synthases) catalyze the conversion of the isoprenoid intermediate farnesyl diphosphate to various sesquiterpene structural types. In plants, many sesquiterpenes are produced as defensive chemicals (phytoalexins) or mediators of chemical communication (i.e., pollinator attractants). A number of sesquiterpene synthases are present in Artemisia annua L. (annual wormwood). We have isolated a cDNA clone encoding one of these, epi-cedrol synthase. This clone contains a 1641-bp open reading frame coding for 547 amino acids (63.5 kDa), a 38-bp 5'-untranslated end, and a 272-bp 3'-untranslated sequence. The deduced amino acid sequence was 32 to 43% identical with the sequences of other known sesquiterpene cyclases from angiosperms. When expressed in Escherichia coli, the recombinant enzyme catalyzed the formation of both olefinic (3%) and oxygenated (97%) sesquiterpenes from farnesyl diphosphate. GC-MS analysis identified the olefins as alpha-cedrene (57% of the olefins), beta-cedrene (13%), (E)-beta-farnesene (5%), alpha-acoradiene (1%), (E)-alpha-bisabolene (8%), and three unknown olefins (16%) and the oxygenated sesquiterpenes (97% of total sesquiterpene generated, exclusive of farnesol and nerolidol) as cedrol (4%) and epi-cedrol (96%). epi-Cedrol synthase was not active with geranylgeranyl diphosphate as substrate, whereas geranyl diphosphate was converted to monoterpenes by the recombinant enzyme at a rate of about 15% of that observed with farnesyl diphosphate as substrate. The monoterpene olefin products are limonene (45%), terpinolene (42%), gamma-terpinene (8%), myrcene (5%), and alpha-terpinene (2%); a small amount of the monoterpene alcohol terpinen-4-ol is also produced. The pH optimum for the recombinant enzyme is 8.5-9.0 (with farnesyl diphosphate as substrate) and the K(m) values for farnesyl diphosphate are 0.4 and 1.3 microM at pH 7. 0 and 9.0, respectively. The K(m) for Mg(2+) is 80 microM at pH 7.0 and 9.0.

  1. [Analysis of spatial distribution of artemisinin in Artemisia annua in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Guo, Lan-Ping; Qiu, Zhi-Dong; Qu, Xiao-Bo; Wang, Hui; Jing, Zhi-Xian; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2017-11-01

    Geo-herbals are preferred by long-term clinical application of Chinese medicine, they are produced in a specific area and affected by the specific production and processing methods. Geo-herbals have a high reputation, compared with other regions produced by the same kind of herbs with good quality, efficacy and stable quality characteristics. Geo-herbal is a unique concept that has been formed by the history of Chinese civilization for thousands of years and the history of Chinese medicine. According to the definition of geo-herbal, it can be seen that there are some differences in the quality and efficacy of the same kind of medicinal herbs in different regions, and there is some similarity in the specific area. In this study, the spatial distribution characteristics of artemisinin in Artemisia annua were analyzed by spatial statistical analysis. ①The spatial autocorrelation of artemisinin content was analyzed by "I coefficient". The results showed that the content of artemisinin in each province was significant and positive spatial autocorrelation. The content of artemisinin in each province was not randomly distributed, but with a clear spatial aggregation characteristics. ②The spatial variability of artemisinin content was analyzed by "G statistic". The results showed that the area with high content of artemisinin was distributed in the southwest region, and the content of artemisinin was concentrated in the space, which tends to accumulate at high value. The content of artemisinin in Tianjin and Liaoning province is low, and it tends to accumulate at low value, while the content of artemisinin in other provinces is the transition zone of high and low value. ③Based on the index of artemisinin in each province, the spatial correlation of artemisinin content in each region was analyzed by "moran scatter plot". The results showed that the content of artemisinin in nine provinces such as Guangxi and Chongqing belonged to high value gathering area. ④Based on

  2. Air kerma calculation in Monte Carlo simulations for deriving normalized glandular dose coefficients in mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarno, Antonio; Mettivier, Giovanni; Russo, Paolo

    2017-07-01

    The estimation of the mean glandular dose in mammography using Monte Carlo simulations requires the calculation of the incident air kerma evaluated on the breast surface. In such a calculation, caution should be applied in considering explicitly the presence of the top compression paddle, since Compton scattering in this slab may produce a large spread of the incidence angles of x-ray photons on the scoring surface. Then, the calculation of the incident air kerma should contain the ‘effective’ area of the scoring surface, which takes into account the angle of incidence of photons on such a surface. Using Geant4 Monte Carlo simulations with a code previously validated according to the Task Group 195 of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine, we show that for typical x-ray spectra and energy range adopted in mammography, the resulting discrepancy in the calculation of the incident air kerma may lead to an overestimation from a minimum of 10% up to 12% of normalized dose coefficients and, hence, of the corresponding mean glandular dose if this contribution is not considered.

  3. Evaluation of average glandular dose in digital and conventional systems of the mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xavier, Aline C.S.; Barros, Vinicius S.M.; Khoury, Hellen J.

    2014-01-01

    Mammography is currently the most effective method of diagnosis and detection of breast pathologies. The main interest in this kid of exam comes from the high incidence rate of breast cancer and necessity of high quality images for accurate diagnosis. Digital mammography systems have several advantages compared to conventional systems, however the use of digital imaging systems is not always integrated to an image acquisition protocol. Therefore, it is questionable if digital systems truly reduce the dose received by the patient, because many times is introduced in the clinics without optimization of the image acquisition protocols. The aim of this study is to estimate the value of incident air Kerma and average glandular dose (AGD) in patients undergoing conventional and digital mammography systems in Recife. This study was conducted with 650 patients in three hospitals. The value of incident air Kerma was estimated from the measurement of the yield of equipment and irradiation parameters used for each patient. From these results and using the methodology proposed by Dance et al. the value of the average glandular dose was calculated. The results obtained show that the lowest value of AGD was found with conventional screen-film system, indicating that the parameters for image acquisition with digital systems are not optimized. It was also observed that the institutions with digital systems use lower breast compression values than the conventional. (author)

  4. A study on the image quality of mammography and the average glandular dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, In Ja; Kim, Hak Sung; Kim, Sung Soo; Huh, Joon

    2002-01-01

    We came to the following conclusion as the results of experiment on the image quality of mammography and the average glandular dose using 4 apparatuses at 3 hospital in Seoul. Whereas the measurement of half value layer showed no differences among the apparatuses, the measurement by an attenuation curve method showed some differences by 5.9%. There were 9.1% differences in the measurement by aluminum conversion method. The basic density of an automatic exposure control unit must be D = 1.40, but there was no automatic exposure unit adjusted precisely at any hospital. The unit at the B hospital exceeded the allowable limit by ± 0.15. In the photographing using an automatic exposure control unit and the management of an automatic film processor using a sensitometer, most automatic film processors were well kept. But in some cases the mean value of a fluctuation coefficient exceeded the allowable limit. There is a need for more cautious management. The image quality of breast phantom photography was affected by the screen/film system among the hospital. The average glandular dose at a breast of 4.2 cm thickness depended on the tube voltage, In the case of Mo/Mo, it was measured 0.26 ∼ 1.39 mGy less than ACR standard 3.0 mGy

  5. PTEN controls glandular morphogenesis through a juxtamembrane β-Arrestin1/ARHGAP21 scaffolding complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evergren, Emma; Blondel-Tepaz, Elodie; Baillie, George S; Scott, Mark GH

    2017-01-01

    PTEN controls three-dimensional (3D) glandular morphogenesis by coupling juxtamembrane signaling to mitotic spindle machinery. While molecular mechanisms remain unclear, PTEN interacts through its C2 membrane-binding domain with the scaffold protein β-Arrestin1. Because β-Arrestin1 binds and suppresses the Cdc42 GTPase-activating protein ARHGAP21, we hypothesize that PTEN controls Cdc42 -dependent morphogenic processes through a β-Arrestin1-ARHGAP21 complex. Here, we show that PTEN knockdown (KD) impairs β-Arrestin1 membrane localization, β-Arrestin1-ARHGAP21 interactions, Cdc42 activation, mitotic spindle orientation and 3D glandular morphogenesis. Effects of PTEN deficiency were phenocopied by β-Arrestin1 KD or inhibition of β-Arrestin1-ARHGAP21 interactions. Conversely, silencing of ARHGAP21 enhanced Cdc42 activation and rescued aberrant morphogenic processes of PTEN-deficient cultures. Expression of the PTEN C2 domain mimicked effects of full-length PTEN but a membrane-binding defective mutant of the C2 domain abrogated these properties. Our results show that PTEN controls multicellular assembly through a membrane-associated regulatory protein complex composed of β-Arrestin1, ARHGAP21 and Cdc42. PMID:28749339

  6. Unexpected roles for ancient proteins: flavone 8-hydroxylase in sweet basil trichomes is a Rieske-type, PAO-family oxygenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berim, Anna; Park, Jeong-Jin; Gang, David R

    2014-11-01

    Most elucidated hydroxylations in plant secondary metabolism are catalyzed by oxoglutarate- or cytochrome P450-dependent oxygenases. Numerous hydroxylations still evade clarification, suggesting that they might be performed by alternative enzyme types. Here, we report the identification of the flavone 8-hydroxylase (F8H) in sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) trichomes as a Rieske-type oxygenase. Several features of the F8H activity in trichome protein extracts helped to differentiate it from a cytochrome P450-catalyzed reaction and identify candidate genes in the basil trichome EST database. The encoded ObF8H proteins share approximately 50% identity with Rieske-type protochlorophyllide a oxygenases (PTC52) from higher plants. Homology cloning and DNA blotting revealed the presence of several PTC52-like genes in the basil genome. The transcripts of the candidate gene designated ObF8H-1 are strongly enriched in trichomes compared to whole young leaves, indicating trichome-specific expression. The full-length ObF8H-1 protein possesses a predicted N-terminal transit peptide, which directs green fluorescent protein at least in part to chloroplasts. The F8H activity in crude trichome protein extracts correlates well with the abundance of ObF8H peptides. The purified recombinant ObF8H-1 displays high affinity for salvigenin and is inactive with other tested flavones except cirsimaritin, which is 8-hydroxylated with less than 0.2% relative activity. The efficiency of in vivo 8-hydroxylation by engineered yeast was improved by manipulation of protein subcellular targeting. blast searches showed that occurrence of several PTC52-like genes is rather common in sequenced plant genomes. The discovery of ObF8H suggests that Rieske-type oxygenases may represent overlooked candidate catalysts for oxygenations in specialized plant metabolism. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Estimation of average glandular dose depending on the thickness of the breast; Estimativa da dose glandular media em funcao da espessura da mama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Real, Jessica V.; Luz, Renata M. da, E-mail: jessica.real@pucrs.br, E-mail: renata.luz@pucrs.br [Hospital Sao Lucas (HSL/PUCRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Fröhlich, Bruna D.; Pertile, Alessandra S.; Silva, Ana Maria Marques da, E-mail: bruna.frohlich@acad.pucrs.br, E-mail: lessandra.pertile@acad.pucrs.br, E-mail: ana.marques@pucrs.br [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women worldwide. Mammography is, to date, the most efficient method for detecting an abnormality in the patient's breast. It is a technique of imaging diagnostic that requires special care because radiographs without adequate quality may lead to a false diagnosis and lead to the need for a repeat examination, increasing the dose of radiation in the patient. This study aimed to evaluate the average glandular dose (AGD), depending on the breast thickness in patients undergoing routine tests, with a digital computer radiography processing system. Analyzed 30 exhibitions in patients aged (65 ± 12) years, in the right and left caudal skull projections, for breasts with thicknesses between 45 mm and 50 mm. The calculated value of the AGD for this track thickness was (1.600 ± 0.009) mGy. The performance of mammography quality control tests was satisfactory and the AGD values obtained for the chosen thickness range is acceptable, since the threshold achievable is 1.6 mGy and the acceptable is 2 mGy. In Brazil, it is only required the input dose calculation in skin for 45 mm breasts. However, the calculation of AGD is required for different thicknesses of the breast, to identify the best mammographic pattern aiming at better image quality at the lowest dose provided the patient.

  8. TU-F-18C-05: Evaluation of a Method to Calculate Patient-Oriented MGD Coefficients Using Estimates of Glandular Tissue Distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porras-Chaverri, M [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI (United States); University of Costa Rica, San Jose (Costa Rica); Galavis, P [NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Bakic, P [University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Vetter, J [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Evaluate mammographic mean glandular dose (MGD) coefficients for particular known tissue distributions using a novel formalism that incorporates the effect of the heterogeneous glandular tissue distribution, by comparing them with MGD coefficients derived from the corresponding anthropomorphic computer breast phantom. Methods: MGD coefficients were obtained using MCNP5 simulations with the currently used homogeneous assumption and the heterogeneously-layered breast (HLB) geometry and compared against those from the computer phantom (ground truth). The tissue distribution for the HLB geometry was estimated using glandularity map image pairs corrected for the presence of non-glandular fibrous tissue. Heterogeneity of tissue distribution was quantified using the glandular tissue distribution index, Idist. The phantom had 5 cm compressed breast thickness (MLO and CC views) and 29% whole breast glandular percentage. Results: Differences as high as 116% were found between the MGD coefficients with the homogeneous breast core assumption and those from the corresponding ground truth. Higher differences were found for cases with more heterogeneous distribution of glandular tissue. The Idist for all cases was in the [−0.8{sup −}+0.3] range. The use of the methods presented in this work results in better agreement with ground truth with an improvement as high as 105 pp. The decrease in difference across all phantom cases was in the [9{sup −}105] pp range, dependent on the distribution of glandular tissue and was larger for the cases with the highest Idist values. Conclusion: Our results suggest that the use of corrected glandularity image pairs, as well as the HLB geometry, improves the estimates of MGD conversion coefficients by accounting for the distribution of glandular tissue within the breast. The accuracy of this approach with respect to ground truth is highly dependent on the particular glandular tissue distribution studied. Predrag Bakic discloses

  9. TU-F-18C-05: Evaluation of a Method to Calculate Patient-Oriented MGD Coefficients Using Estimates of Glandular Tissue Distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porras-Chaverri, M; Galavis, P; Bakic, P; Vetter, J

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Evaluate mammographic mean glandular dose (MGD) coefficients for particular known tissue distributions using a novel formalism that incorporates the effect of the heterogeneous glandular tissue distribution, by comparing them with MGD coefficients derived from the corresponding anthropomorphic computer breast phantom. Methods: MGD coefficients were obtained using MCNP5 simulations with the currently used homogeneous assumption and the heterogeneously-layered breast (HLB) geometry and compared against those from the computer phantom (ground truth). The tissue distribution for the HLB geometry was estimated using glandularity map image pairs corrected for the presence of non-glandular fibrous tissue. Heterogeneity of tissue distribution was quantified using the glandular tissue distribution index, Idist. The phantom had 5 cm compressed breast thickness (MLO and CC views) and 29% whole breast glandular percentage. Results: Differences as high as 116% were found between the MGD coefficients with the homogeneous breast core assumption and those from the corresponding ground truth. Higher differences were found for cases with more heterogeneous distribution of glandular tissue. The Idist for all cases was in the [−0.8 − +0.3] range. The use of the methods presented in this work results in better agreement with ground truth with an improvement as high as 105 pp. The decrease in difference across all phantom cases was in the [9 − 105] pp range, dependent on the distribution of glandular tissue and was larger for the cases with the highest Idist values. Conclusion: Our results suggest that the use of corrected glandularity image pairs, as well as the HLB geometry, improves the estimates of MGD conversion coefficients by accounting for the distribution of glandular tissue within the breast. The accuracy of this approach with respect to ground truth is highly dependent on the particular glandular tissue distribution studied. Predrag Bakic discloses current

  10. Two flavonols from Artemisa annua which potentiate the activity of berberine and norfloxacin against a resistant strain of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stermitz, Frank R; Scriven, Lacey N; Tegos, George; Lewis, Kim

    2002-12-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of an extract of Artemisia annua L. (Asteraceae) was conducted in order to assess the possible presence in the plant material of inhibitors of bacterial multidrug resistance pumps. Fractions were tested for Staphylococcus aureus growth inhibition in the presence of a subinhibitory dose of the weak antibacterial alkaloid berberine. Active fractions yielded the flavones chrysosplenol-D and chrysoplenetin, which themselves had very weak growth inhibitory action, but which made a potent combination with berberine. In comparison with work on other flavonols, it is likely that potentiation is due to the inhibition of an S. aureus multidrug resistance (MDR) pump. These same two flavonols were earlier reported to potentiate the activity of artemisinin against Plasmodium falciparum.

  11. Development of a greenhouse-based inoculation protocol for the fungus Colletotrichum cereale pathogenic to annual bluegrass (Poa annua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa A. Beirn

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The fungus Colletotrichum cereale incites anthracnose disease on Poa annua (annual bluegrass turfgrass. Anthracnose disease is geographically widespread throughout the world and highly destructive to cool-season turfgrasses, with infections by C. cereale resulting in extensive turf loss. Comprehensive research aimed at controlling turfgrass anthracnose has been performed in the field, but knowledge of the causal organism and its basic biology is still needed. In particular, the lack of a reliable greenhouse-based inoculation protocol performed under controlled environmental conditions is an obstacle to the study of C. cereale and anthracnose disease. Our objective was to develop a consistent and reproducible inoculation protocol for the two major genetic lineages of C. cereale. By adapting previously successful field-based protocols and combining with components of existing inoculation procedures, the method we developed consistently produced C. cereale infection on two susceptible P. annua biotypes. Approximately 7 to 10 days post-inoculation, plants exhibited chlorosis and thinning consistent with anthracnose disease symptomology. Morphological inspection of inoculated plants revealed visual signs of the fungus (appressoria and acervuli, although acervuli were not always present. After stringent surface sterilization of inoculated host tissue, C. cereale was consistently re-isolated from symptomatic tissue. Real-time PCR detection analysis based on the Apn2 marker confirmed the presence of the pathogen in host tissue, with both lineages of C. cereale detected from all inoculated plants. When a humidifier was not used, no infection developed for any biotypes or fungal isolates tested. The inoculation protocol described here marks significant progress for in planta studies of C. cereale, and will enable scientifically reproducible investigations of the biology, infectivity and lifestyle of this important grass pathogen.

  12. A Quality Assurance programme in mammography and an evaluation of the mean glandular dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milano, F.

    1996-01-01

    The use of X-ray in medicine for diagnosis represents the largest man-made sources of public exposure to ionizing radiation. Therefore a reduction of medical exposure is desired without reduction of the diagnostic capability. Dose and image quality are essential component of a Quality Assurance (QA) programme in mammography where the characteristic of diagnostic signs, represented by microcalcifications and low contrast structures, and the radiosensitivity of the glandular tissue of the breast stress the need of QA programme. The paper describes QA procedures in mammography and reports the results obtained in more than 120 periodic tests, performed on 63 mammographic units of 41 centers. Moreover individual evaluation of entrance exposure are presented for 340 patients. The experimental data permits to evaluate the mean grandular absorbed dose in the single exams using different procedures based on Monte Carlo simulations. (author)

  13. Mean glandular dose measurement on various breast phantom using mammography machine in MINT Medical Physics Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Hazlinda Ismail; Asmaliza Hashim; Abd Aziz Mhd Ramli

    2005-01-01

    Until recently, mammography have been the primary means of detecting early breast cancer. Although there is a risk of radiation- induced carcinogenesis associated with the x-ray examination of the female breast, but this risk is small compared to its benefits with modern equipment and technique. Therefore, it is important to determine the dose of the tissue at risk from radiation exposure by measuring the mean glandular dose (MGD). This can help minimize the risk to the patient. This paper describe the MGD measurement done on various types and thickness of breast phantom using a Bennett mammography machine model DMF-150 in the Medical Physics laboratory at the Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT). Results of this study are discussed in this paper. (Author)

  14. Evaluation of mean glandular dose in a full-field digital mammography unit in Tabriz (IR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riabi, H. A.; Mehnati, P.; Mesbahi, A.

    2010-01-01

    This study was aimed at evaluating the mean glandular dose (MGD) and affecting factors during mammography examinations by a full-field digital mammography unit. An extensive quality control program was performed to assure that the unit is properly working. Required information including compressed breast thickness (CBT), breast parenchymal pattern and technical factors used for imaging were recorded. An entrance skin exposure measurement was also performed using slabs of polymethylmethacrylate with 2-8 cm thickness. On the basis of recorded information and measured data, the MGD was estimated for 1145 mammography examinations obtained from 298 patients. Mean CBTs of 4.9 and 5.8 cm and MGDs of 2 and 2.4 mGy were observed for cranio-caudal and medio-lateral oblique views, respectively. Significant correlation was seen between MGD and CBT, breast parenchymal pattern and applied kVp and mAs. (authors)

  15. Relationship of Compressed Breast Thickness and Average Glandular Dose According to Focus/Filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, In Ja

    2009-01-01

    The study examined the relationship between the compressed breast thickness and Average Glandular Dose (AGD) among 1,969 outpatients who went through breast X-ray in a university hospital for 10 months from July 1st, 2007 to April 30th, 2008. Then it analyzed the result acquired from 3,900 cases of Cranio-Caudal (CC) view, especially, when the breasts were compressed (13-15daN). The following is the conclusion driven from the relationship analysis. 1. The subjects aged in 40s and 50s were 2,679 out of 3,900 cases and this figure was 68.69% in all. 2. In terms of distribution depending on focus/filter, 41.0% was Mo/Mo, 34.8% was Mo/Rh, and 24.2% was Rh/Rh. 3. In terms of compressed breast thickness depending on focus/filter, the average thickness was 26.91 mm at Mo/Mo, 38.84 mm at Mo/Rh, and 48.80 mm at Rh/Rh. The average thickness of the entire cases was shown to be 36.27 mm. 4. AGD depending on focus/filter was 1.27 mGy at Mo/Mo, 1.55 mGy at Mo/Rh, and 1.42 mGy at Rh/Rh. The average glandular dose of the entire cases was shown to be 1.43 mGy. 5. The relationship of AGD depending on compressed breast thickness at Mo/Mo was y=0.0318x + 0.470 while it was y=0.0206x + 0.709 at Mo/Rh and y=0.0248x + 0.335 at Mo/Rh. It was highly influenced by the compressed breast thickness, however, more variation was detected at Mo/Mo depending on breast thickness.

  16. Estimation of mean glandular dose for patients who undergo mammography and studying the factors affecting it

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzanje, Sana L. N. H.; Harki, Edrees M. Tahir Nury

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine mean glandular dose (MGD) during diagnostic mammography. This study was done in two hospitals in Hawler city in Kurdistan -region /Iraq, the exposure parameters kVp and mAs was recorded for 40 patients under go mammography. The MGD estimated by multiplied ESD with normalized glandular dose (Dn). The ESD measured indirectly by measuring output radiation mGy/mAs by using PalmRAD 907 as a suitable detector (Gigger detector).the results; shown that the mean and its standard deviation of MGD for Screen Film Mammography and Digital Mammography are (0.95±0.18)mGy and (0.99±0.26)mGy, respectively. And there is a significant difference between MGD for Screen Film Mammography and Digital Mammography views (p≤0. 05). Also the mean value and its standard deviation of MGD for screen film mammography is (0.96±0.21) for CC projection and (1.03±0.3) mGy for MLO projection, but mean value and its standard deviation evaluated of MGD for digital mammography is (0.92±0.17) mGy for CC projection and (0.98±0.2) mGy for MLO projection. As well as, the effect of kVp and mAs in MGD were studied, shows that in general as kVp and mAs increased the MGD increased accordingly in both of mammography systems.

  17. Increased adrenocortical response to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in sport horses with equine glandular gastric disease (EGGD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidegger, M D; Gerber, V; Bruckmaier, R M; van der Kolk, J H; Burger, D; Ramseyer, A

    2017-10-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that adrenocortical function would be altered in horses with equine gastric ulcer syndrome (EGUS). Twenty-six sport horses competing at national or international levels in eventing (n=15) or endurance (n=11) were subjected to a gastroscopic examination and an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation test. Salivary cortisol concentrations were measured before (baseline) and after (30, 60, 90, 120 and 150min) IV ACTH injection (1μg/kg bodyweight). Within EGUS, two distinct diseases, equine squamous gastric disease (ESGD) and equine glandular gastric disease (EGGD), can be distinguished. ESGD was diagnosed in 8/11 (73%; 95% confidence intervals [95%CI], 43-92%) endurance horses and 5/15 (33%; 95% CI, 14-58%) eventing horses. EGGD was observed in 9/11 (82%; 95% CI, 53-96%) endurance horses and 9/15 (60%; 95% CI, 35-81%) eventing horses. The presence or severity of ESGD was unrelated to the presence or severity of EGGD. ACTH stimulation induced a larger increase in cortisol concentration in horses with moderate EGGD than in horses with mild EGGD. Cortisol concentration during the entire sampling period (total increase in cortisol concentration during the entire sampling period [dAUC], 31.1±6.4ng/mL) and the highest measured concentration at a single time point (maximal increase in cortisol concentration [dMAX], 10.3±2.3ng/mL) were increased (P=0.005 and P=0.038, respectively), indicating that horses with glandular gastric disease exhibited increased adrenocortical responses to ACTH stimulation. These results suggest that EGGD might be associated with an enhanced adrenocortical sensitivity. Further investigations are warranted to confirm the association between adrenocortical sensitivity and EGGD and to elucidate the pathophysiological mechanisms involved. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Determination of mean glandular dose on patients and phantom in X-ray mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avramova-Cholakova, S.; Vassileva, J.

    2008-01-01

    The statistics of breast cancer rate in Bulgaria show a tendency towards increase of the morbidity from this disease. Last years campaigns against breast cancer are organized yearly. This leads to an increased number of screening and diagnostic mammograms that are made in the country. The dose associated with the examination is very low but not slightingly small. The glandular tissue in the breast is considered to be the most sensitive in relation to the radiation exposure. Several publications propose different methods, measurement set up or conversion coefficients for the calculation of the mean glandular dose (MGD) delivered to the breast during the X-ray examination. The question about the standardization of the measurement procedures arises since the differences in the results obtained using different methodologies may be quite big. The aim of this work is to develop a standard procedure for the measurement of MGD based on the recommendations mentioned in the European protocol on dosimetry in mammography, the European protocol for the quality control of the physical and technical aspects of mammography screening and the Code of practice: TRS 457 of the IAEA. Five contemporary film-screen mammography units were included in this study. Attention should be paid to the measurement set up. The reference point is chosen 6 cm from the chest wall edge laterally centered. If an ionization chamber is used for dose measurements the compression plate should be placed in close contact with it. If solid state detectors are used the compression plate should be put away from the detector and the output recalculated like if the plate is near the detector. The conversion coefficients for age dependence are not used in this study as not appropriate for the population included in it. PMMA measurements for the determination of diagnostic reference levels could be used but more correct results would be obtained with patient measurements

  19. Localization of MIWC and GLIP water channel homologs in neuromuscular, epithelial and glandular tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigeri, A; Gropper, M A; Umenishi, F; Kawashima, M; Brown, D; Verkman, A S

    1995-09-01

    It was shown recently that water channel homologs MIWC (mercurial insensitive water channel) and GLIP (glycerol intrinsic protein) colocalized in basolateral membranes of kidney collecting duct, tracheal and colonic epithelia, and in brain pia mater. We report here an extensive immunolocalization study of MIWC and GLIP in non-epithelial and glandular epithelial tissues in rat. Immunogold electron microscopy confirmed colocalization of MIWC and GLIP in basolateral membrane of principal cells in kidney collecting duct. However, in other epithelia, MIWC but not GLIP was expressed in basolateral membrane of parietal cells in stomach, and in excretory tubules of salivary and lacrimal glands; GLIP but not MIWC was expressed in transitional epithelium of urinary bladder and skin epidermis. In the central nervous system, MIWC was strongly expressed in the ependymal layer lining the aqueductal system, and in astrocytes throughout the spinal cord and in selected regions of brain. MIWC was also expressed in a plasma membrane pattern in skeletal, but not smooth or cardiac muscle. Neither protein was expressed in small intestine, testis, liver, spleen and nerve. The tissue-specific expression of MIWC suggests a role in fluid transport and/or cell volume regulation in stomach and glandular epithelia. The functional role of MIWC expression in the neuromuscular system and of GLIP expression in skin and urinary bladder is uncertain. The specific cellular sites of MIWC expression (astrocytes, trachea, sarcolemma, gastric parietal cells and kidney principal cells) correspond exactly to sites where orthogonal arrays of particles (OAPs) have been visualized by freeze-fracture electron microscopy, suggesting that MIWC may be the OAP protein.

  20. PTEN phosphatase-independent maintenance of glandular morphology in a predictive colorectal cancer model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagan, Ishaan C; Deevi, Ravi K; Fatehullah, Aliya; Topley, Rebecca; Eves, Joshua; Stevenson, Michael; Loughrey, Maurice; Arthur, Kenneth; Campbell, Frederick Charles

    2013-11-01

    Organotypic models may provide mechanistic insight into colorectal cancer (CRC) morphology. Three-dimensional (3D) colorectal gland formation is regulated by phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) coupling of cell division cycle 42 (cdc42) to atypical protein kinase C (aPKC). This study investigated PTEN phosphatase-dependent and phosphatase-independent morphogenic functions in 3D models and assessed translational relevance in human studies. Isogenic PTEN-expressing or PTEN-deficient 3D colorectal cultures were used. In translational studies, apical aPKC activity readout was assessed against apical membrane (AM) orientation and gland morphology in 3D models and human CRC. We found that catalytically active or inactive PTEN constructs containing an intact C2 domain enhanced cdc42 activity, whereas mutants of the C2 domain calcium binding region 3 membrane-binding loop (M-CBR3) were ineffective. The isolated PTEN C2 domain (C2) accumulated in membrane fractions, but C2 M-CBR3 remained in cytosol. Transfection of C2 but not C2 M-CBR3 rescued defective AM orientation and 3D morphogenesis of PTEN-deficient Caco-2 cultures. The signal intensity of apical phospho-aPKC correlated with that of Na(+)/H(+) exchanger regulatory factor-1 (NHERF-1) in the 3D model. Apical NHERF-1 intensity thus provided readout of apical aPKC activity and associated with glandular morphology in the model system and human colon. Low apical NHERF-1 intensity in CRC associated with disruption of glandular architecture, high cancer grade, and metastatic dissemination. We conclude that the membrane-binding function of the catalytically inert PTEN C2 domain influences cdc42/aPKC-dependent AM dynamics and gland formation in a highly relevant 3D CRC morphogenesis model system.

  1. PTEN Phosphatase-Independent Maintenance of Glandular Morphology in a Predictive Colorectal Cancer Model System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishaan C. Jagan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Organotypic models may provide mechanistic insight into colorectal cancer (CRC morphology. Three-dimensional (3D colorectal gland formation is regulated by phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN coupling of cell division cycle 42 (cdc42 to atypical protein kinase C (aPKC. This study investigated PTEN phosphatase-dependent and phosphatase-independent morphogenic functions in 3D models and assessed translational relevance in human studies. Isogenic PTEN-expressing or PTEN-deficient 3D colorectal cultures were used. In translational studies, apical aPKC activity readout was assessed against apical membrane (AM orientation and gland morphology in 3D models and human CRC. We found that catalytically active or inactive PTEN constructs containing an intact C2 domain enhanced cdc42 activity, whereas mutants of the C2 domain calcium binding region 3 membrane-binding loop (M-CBR3 were ineffective. The isolated PTEN C2 domain (C2 accumulated in membrane fractions, but C2 M-CBR3 remained in cytosol. Transfection of C2 but not C2 M-CBR3 rescued defective AM orientation and 3D morphogenesis of PTEN-deficient Caco-2 cultures. The signal intensity of apical phospho-aPKC correlated with that of Na+/H+ exchanger regulatory factor-1 (NHERF-1 in the 3D model. Apical NHERF-1 intensity thus provided readout of apical aPKC activity and associated with glandular morphology in the model system and human colon. Low apical NHERF-1 intensity in CRC associated with disruption of glandular architecture, high cancer grade, and metastatic dissemination. We conclude that the membrane-binding function of the catalytically inert PTEN C2 domain influences cdc42/aPKC-dependent AM dynamics and gland formation in a highly relevant 3D CRC morphogenesis model system.

  2. Monte Carlo simulation studies for the determination of microcalcification thickness and glandular ratio through dual-energy mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Lama, L. S.; Godeli, J.; Poletti, M. E.

    2017-08-01

    The majority of breast carcinomas can be associated to the presence of calcifications before the development of a mass. However, the overlapping tissues can obscure the visualization of microcalcification clusters due to the reduced contrast-noise ratio (CNR). In order to overcome this complication, one potential solution is the use of the dual-energy (DE) technique, in which two different images are acquired at low (LE) and high (HE) energies or kVp to highlight specific lesions or cancel out tissue background. In this work, the DE features were computationally studied considering simulated acquisitions from a modified PENELOPE Monte Carlo code. The employed irradiation geometry considered typical distances used in digital mammography, a CsI detection system and an updated breast model composed of skin, microcalcifications and glandular and adipose tissues. The breast thickness ranged from 2 to 6 cm with glandularities of 25%, 50% and 75%, where microcalcifications with dimensions from 100 up to 600 μm were positioned. In general, results pointed an efficiency index better than 87% for the microcalcification thicknesses and better than 95% for the glandular ratio. The simulations evaluated in this work can be used to optimize the elements from the DE imaging chain, in order to become a complementary tool for the conventional single-exposure images, especially for the visualization and estimation of calcification thicknesses and glandular ratios.

  3. Dual-energy digital mammography: calibration and inverse-mapping techniques to estimate calcification thickness and glandular-tissue ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappadath, S Cheenu; Shaw, Chris C

    2003-06-01

    Breast cancer may manifest as microcalcifications in x-ray mammography. Small microcalcifications, essential to the early detection of breast cancer, are often obscured by overlapping tissue structures. Dual-energy imaging, where separate low- and high-energy images are acquired and synthesized to cancel the tissue structures, may improve the ability to detect and visualize microcalcifications. Transmission measurements at two different kVp values were made on breast-tissue-equivalent materials under narrow-beam geometry using an indirect flat-panel mammographic imager. The imaging scenario consisted of variable aluminum thickness (to simulate calcifications) and variable glandular ratio (defined as the ratio of the glandular-tissue thickness to the total tissue thickness) for a fixed total tissue thickness--the clinical situation of microcalcification imaging with varying tissue composition under breast compression. The coefficients of the inverse-mapping functions used to determine material composition from dual-energy measurements were calculated by a least-squares analysis. The linear function poorly modeled both the aluminum thickness and the glandular ratio. The inverse-mapping functions were found to vary as analytic functions of second (conic) or third (cubic) order. By comparing the model predictions with the calibration values, the root-mean-square residuals for both the cubic and the conic functions were approximately 50 microm for the aluminum thickness and approximately 0.05 for the glandular ratio.

  4. Abnormal ion content, hydration and granule expansion of the secretory granules from cystic fibrosis airway glandular cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baconnais, S.; Delavoie, F.; Zahm, J.M.; Milliot, M.; Terryn, C.; Castillon, N.; Banchet, V.; Michel, J.; Danos, O.; Merten, M.; Chinet, T.; Zierold, K.; Bonnet, N.; Puchelle, E.; Balossier, G.

    2005-01-01

    The absence or decreased expression of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) induces increased Na + absorption and hyperabsorption of the airway surface liquid (ASL) resulting in a dehydrated and hyperviscous ASL. Although the implication of abnormal airway submucosal gland function has been suggested, the ion and water content in the Cystic Fibrosis (CF) glandular secretory granules, before exocytosis, is unknown. We analyzed, in non-CF and CF human airway glandular cell lines (MM-39 and KM4, respectively), the ion content in the secretory granules by electron probe X-ray microanalysis and the water content by quantitative dark field imaging on freeze-dried cryosections. We demonstrated that the ion content (Na + , Mg 2+ , P, S and Cl - ) is significantly higher and the water content significantly lower in secretory granules from the CF cell line compared to the non-CF cell line. Using videomicroscopy, we observed that the secretory granule expansion was deficient in CF glandular cells. Transfection of CF cells with CFTR cDNA or inhibition of non-CF cells with CFTR inh -172, respectively restored or decreased the water content and granule expansion, in parallel with changes in ion content. We hypothesize that the decreased water and increased ion content in glandular secretory granules may contribute to the dehydration and increased viscosity of the ASL in CF

  5. Effects of induced water stress on leaf trichome density and foliar nutrients of three elm (Ulmus) species: implications for resistance to the elm leaf beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosu, Paul P; Wagner, Michael R

    2007-06-01

    Seedlings of three elm species with variable susceptibility to the elm leaf beetle (Pyrrhalta luteola Müller) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) were subjected to three water stress treatments (no stress, low stress, and high stress) in a greenhouse experiment. The species tested were Ulmus pumila L. (Siberian elm = highly susceptible), U. parvifolia Jacq. (Chinese elm = resistant), and U. americana L. (American elm = intermediate). The seedlings were analyzed for changes in the levels of selected host traits (trichome density, foliar concentration of nitrogen [N], phosphorus [P], potassium [K], calcium [Ca], magnesium [Mg], iron [Fe], and manganese [Mn]), some of which had previously been implicated in resistance to the elm leaf beetle. Density of leaf abaxial surface trichomes (simple, bulbous, and total trichomes) and foliar Fe and Mg concentrations increased significantly in the highly susceptible Siberian elms under water stress. In contrast, stress reduced trichome density in the moderately susceptible American elms, but it had no effect on levels of foliar mineral nutrients. The stress treatments had no influence on host traits in the resistant Chinese elms. The results suggest that environmental stress can alter plant traits that are likely involved in determining resistance of elms to the elm leaf beetle.

  6. Estimation of glandular content rate and statistical analysis of the influence of age group and compressed breast thickness on the estimated value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohmori, Naoki; Ashida, Kenji; Fujita, Osamu

    2003-01-01

    Because the glandular content rate is an important factor in evaluating breast cancer detection and average glandular dose, it is important in mammography research to estimate and analyze this rate. The purpose of this study was to obtain a formula for statistical estimation of the glandular content rate, to clarify statistically the influence of age group and compressed breast thickness (CBT) on estimating the glandular content rate, and to show statistically the general relation between glandular content rate and the factors of age and CBT. The subjects were 740 Japanese women aged 20-91 years (mean±SD: 48.3±12.8 years) who had undergone mammography. In our study, the glandular content rate was statistically estimated from age group, mAs-value, and CBT when subjects underwent mammography, from a phantom simulation, and from MR images of the breast. In addition, multivariate analysis was carried to examine statistically the influence of age group and CBT on glandular content rate. The mean glandular content rate as estimated by age group was as follows: 35.6% for those in their 20s, 33.4% in the 30s, 27.5% in the 40s, 23.8% in the 50s, and 21.8% in those 60 and over. The rate for the subjects as a whole was 27.1%. This study indicated that overestimation occurred if the estimated value of the glandular content rate was not corrected in the 3D-measurement by MRI. In addition, this study showed that the statistical influence on glandular content rate was significantly larger for CBT than age. (author)

  7. The effects of combining Artemisia annua and Curcuma longa ethanolic extracts in broilers challenged with infective oocysts of Eimeria acervulina and E. maxima

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almeida, Gustavo Fonseca; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Madeira, Alda M.B.N

    2014-01-01

    Due to an increasing demand for natural products to control coccidiosis in broilers, we investigated the effects of supplementing a combination of ethanolic extracts of Artemisia annua and Curcuma longa in drinking water. Three different dosages of this herbal mixture were compared with a negative...... control (uninfected), a positive control (infected and untreated), chemical coccidiostats (nicarbazin+narazin and, later, salinomycin), vaccination, and a product based on oregano. Differences in performance (weight gain, feed intake, and feed conversion rate), mortality, gross intestinal lesions...

  8. Methyl jasmonate counteracts boron toxicity by preventing oxidative stress and regulating antioxidant enzyme activities and artemisinin biosynthesis in Artemisia annua L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aftab, Tariq; Khan, M Masroor A; Idrees, Mohd; Naeem, M; Moinuddin; Hashmi, Nadeem

    2011-07-01

    Boron is an essential plant micronutrient, but it is phytotoxic if present in excessive amounts in soil for certain plants such as Artemisia annua L. that contains artemisinin (an important antimalarial drug) in its areal parts. Artemisinin is a sesquiterpene lactone with an endoperoxide bridge. It is quite expensive compound because the only commercial source available is A. annua and the compound present in the plant is in very low concentration. Since A. annua is a major source of the antimalarial drug and B stress is a deadly threat to its cultivation, the present research was conducted to determine whether the exogenous application of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) could combat the ill effects of excessive B present in the soil. According to the results obtained, the B toxicity induced oxidative stress and reduced the stem height as well as fresh and dry masses of the plant remarkably. The excessive amounts of soil B also lowered the net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, internal CO(2) concentration and total chlorophyll content in the leaves. In contrast, the foliar application of MeJA enhanced the growth and photosynthetic efficiency both in the stressed and non-stressed plants. The excessive B levels also increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. Endogenous H(2)O(2) and O(2)(-) levels were also high in the stressed plants. However, the MeJA application to the stressed plants reduced the amount of lipid peroxidation and stimulated the synthesis of antioxidant enzymes, enhancing the content and yield of artemisinin as well. Thus, it was concluded that MeJA might be utilized in mitigating the B toxicity and improving the content and yield of artemisinin in A. annua plant.

  9. Cervical squamous and glandular intraepithelial neoplasia: identification and current management approaches Neoplasia intraepitelial cervical escamosa y glandular: identificación y estrategias de manejo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Cecil Wright

    2003-01-01

    realiza mediante la biopsia de cono, y el espécimen debe tener márgenes negativos para enfermedad. La histerectomía es un tratamiento probable, a menos que la fertilidad esté siendo buscada. La escisión, particularmente por electrocirugía (loop, puede interferir con la interpretación histológica en algunos casos o de ambos, particularmente en enfermedades escamosas y adenocarcinoma in situ. En este artículo se describe ampliamente el manejo de la neoplasia intraepitelial escamosa y glandular.

  10. Differentiating between endocervical glandular neoplasia and high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions in endocervical crypts: cytological features in ThinPrep and SurePath cervical cytology samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiryayi, Sakinah A; Marshall, Janet; Rana, Durgesh N

    2009-05-01

    A recent audit at our institution revealed a higher number of cases diagnosed as endocervical glandular neoplasia on ThinPrep (TP) cervical cytology samples (9 cases) as opposed to SurePath (SP) (1 case), which on histology showed only high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) with endocervical crypt involvement (CI). We attempted to ascertain the reasons for this finding by reviewing the available slides of these cases, as well as slides of cases diagnosed as glandular neoplasia on cytology and histology; cases diagnosed as high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) on cytology which had CIN with CI on histology and cases with mixed glandular and squamous abnormalities diagnosed both cytologically and histologically. Single neoplastic glandular cells and short pseudostratified strips were more prevalent in SP than TP with the cell clusters in glandular neoplasia 3-4 cells thick, in contrast to the dense crowded centre of cell groups in HSIL with CI. The cells at the periphery of groups can be misleading. Cases with HSIL and glandular neoplasia have a combination of the features of each entity in isolation. The diagnosis of glandular neoplasia remains challenging and conversion from conventional to liquid based cervical cytology requires a period of learning and adaptation, which can be facilitated by local audit and review of the cytology slides in cases with a cytology-histology mismatch. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Assessment of mean glandular dose for patients in mammography in some Hospitals in Khartoum state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu Elmola, Alaa Mahdi

    2016-12-01

    A mammography examination facilitates the early detection of breast cancer. However, the potential risk of radiation- induced carcinogenesis is also increased with such a procedure. Thus assessment of the breast dose is important. The objective of this study was to determine the mean glandular dose (MGD) resulting from cranio caudal(CC) and mediolateral oblique (MLO) views in one breast and the total dose per woman in Sudan, and to identify the factors affecting it. Measurements were performed to estimate mean glandular doses for 60 patients who underwent mammography examination in two clinics in Khartoum, Sudan.Doses were studied in RCH and NDC, centers which were using computed radiography(CR)devices. The piranha system was used for determining the MGD in this work. The characteristics of the radiographic equipment and the exposure data of each patient were recorded using designed format. The MGD was calculated from the measured incident Air kerma using appropriate conversion coefficients. The range of CBT was (1-7)cm for two projections. The respective averages for the CC and MLO projections were (4.55±1.38)mGy and (4.15±1.33) mGy, respectively. The average MGD per image was (4.3±1.35)mGy. The MGD per women was (8.6±1.35)mGy. The mean±SD MGD per image in the present study was lower than most of similar reports. The average MGD values recorded in this study were above the limiting value of the Institute of Physical Sciences in Medicine(2.0 mGy) and American College of Radiology (3.0 mGy recommendation. This suggests that mammography x-ray generators in this case are not capable of achieving acceptable dose levels for patients safety. Therefore, with consideration of all other factors, quality control program tests must be carried out periodically and frequently of the mammography equipment.(Author)

  12. Glandular dose and image quality control in mammography facilities with computerized radiography systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dantas, Marcelino Vicente de Almeida

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women, and early detection is critical to its diagnosis and treatment. To date, the most effective method for early detection of breast cancer has been x-ray mammography for which the screen/film (SF) technique has been the gold standard. However, even though SF combinations have been improved and optimized over the years for breast imaging, there are some critical limitations, including a narrow exposure range, image artifacts, film processing problems, and inflexibility in image processing and film management. In recent years, digital mammography has been introduced in cancer screening programmes with the screen/film techniques gradually being phased out. Computed radiography (CR), also commonly known as photostimulable phosphor (PSP) imaging or storage phosphor, employs reusable imaging plates and associated hardware and software to acquire and to display digital projection radiographs. In this work, a protocol model was tested for performing image quality control and average glandular dose (AGD) evaluation in 19 institutions with computed radiography systems for mammography. The protocol was validated through tests at the Laboratorio de Radioprotecao Aplicada a Mamografia (LARAM) from the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN). The image quality visual evaluation of CDMAM phantom showed that 53% of the facilities were able to produce images of excellent quality. Furthermore, the automated evaluation of image quality, using the analyze software cdcom.exe, showed that 57% of the images were considered to be of good quality. The detector linearity test showed that the CR response is very linear, where 95% of facilities evaluated were considered to be compliant. For the image noise was found that only 20% of facilities are in agreement with the parameters established for this test. The average glandular doses, which patients may be getting to perform an examination, were below the action levels

  13. Functional expression and characterization of sesquiterpene synthases from Artemisia annua L. using transient expression system in Nicotiana benthamiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanagarajan, Selvaraju; Muthusamy, Saraladevi; Gliszczyńska, Anna; Lundgren, Anneli; Brodelius, Peter E

    2012-07-01

    Artemisia annua L. produces a number of sesquiterpene synthases, which catalyze the conversion of farnesyl diphosphate to various sesquiterpenes. The cDNAs encoding amorpha-4,11-diene synthase (ADS), a key enzyme in the artemisinin biosynthesis, and epi-cedrol synthase (ECS), a complex sesquiterpene cyclization synthase, were cloned into Cowpea mosaic virus-based viral vector (pEAQ-HT) with Kozak consensus motif and C-terminal histidine tag. The plasmids were transformed into Agrobacterium LBA4404 and, agroinfiltrated into Nicotiana benthamiana leaves along with vector (pJL3:p19) containing Tomato bushy stunt virus post-transcriptional gene silencing suppressor. Quantitative PCR was carried out to measure the transcript levels at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 days post-infiltration (dpi). The highest relative expression was observed at 9 dpi for both genes. Transiently expressed recombinant proteins of ADS and ECS were confirmed by SDS-PAGE and western blot. Recombinant proteins were extracted from 9 dpi leaves and purified by immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography using histidine tag, which produced yields of 90 and 96 mg kg⁻¹ fresh weight of leaves for ADS and ECS, respectively. Activities of the purified enzymes were assayed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for product identification and quantification using valencene as internal standard. The recombinant ADS and ECS converted farnesyl diphosphate into amorpha-4,11-diene (97 %) and epi-cedrol (96 %) as the major products, respectively. The purified enzymes exhibited the specific activity of 0.002 and 0.01 μmol min⁻¹ mg⁻¹ protein for ADS and ECS, respectively. The apparent k(cat) values were 2.1 × 10⁻³ s⁻¹ and 11 × 10⁻³ s⁻¹ for ADS and ECS, respectively. Agroinfiltration of leaves of Nicotiana bentamiana can be used to produce recombinant biosynthetic enzymes as exemplified by two sesquiterpene synthases from Artemisia annua in relatively high yields.

  14. The Cytotoxic, Antibacterial and Free Radical Scavenging Activities of Crude Extracts of Matricaria chamomilla, Salvadora persica and Artemisia annua

    KAUST Repository

    Seddek, Ahmed

    2011-12-01

    The discovery of drugs from natural sources has been a rapidly growing science in this era. Plants used for medicinal purposes have been usually studied as rich sources of bioactive chemical compounds that can be used as medications. Several plant-derived drugs have been approved so far. Cancer and infectious diseases have been common targets for the science of drug discovery, due to the high mortality rates caused by these diseases all over the world. Several plant-derived compounds are being marketed now as anti-cancer agents. However, finding novel antimicrobial and anti-cancer compounds has become an important goal to overcome the problems of existing anti-cancer and antimicrobial agents, such as resistance and non-selectivity. In this thesis project, an attempt to find out useful biological activities of the crude extracts of some plants used traditionally for medicinal purposes in Saudi Arabia has been made. Matricaria chamomilla, Salvadora persica and Artemisia annua have been selected for study, based on the literature review performed. These plants were screened for three biological activities; anti-cancer, anti-bacterial and free radical scavenging activities. The experimental part of the study consisted of some common in-vitro techniques, such as cytotoxicity and cell viability assays, disk diffusion assay and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl assay. In addition, the crude extract of Matricaria chamomilla has undergone chemical fractionation and four solvent fractions were obtained using column chromatography. The crude extract of Matricaria chamomilla showed a promising anti-bacterial activity against Escherichia coli and a very promising free radical scavenging activity that was comparable to ascorbic acid, an important anti-oxidant. The four solvent fractions obtained from that extract showed that these activities were produced by more than one compound belonging to different solvent fractions. In addition, the crude extract of Artemisia annua showed

  15. ONCOPLASTIC RESECTION OF MAMMAR Y GLAND WITH SIMULTANEOUS RECONSTRUCTION WITH LOCA TISSUES (USAGE OF LOWER GLANDULAR – TYPE SPAIR BY D. HAMMOND AND ST-INVERSE METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Zikiryakhodzhayev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents oncoplastic resection with the usage of the lower glandular stems. The article described a radical resection of the breast, to restore the lost volume gland they mobilize the lower glandular stem, including deepithelized glandular-adipose flap with nipple-areola complex. They described the indications and contraindications to this surgery. They give two clinical examples with a description of the options of transactions. Also they perform surgery on conntralateral breast to achieve good cosmetic results and symmetry.

  16. Estudos histológicos nas células glandulares do insetos peçonhentos: III. parte: sôbre as áreas glandulares da largata de Sibine nesea (Stoll-Cramer, 1781 (Lepidoptera, Eucleidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Barth

    1954-12-01

    Full Text Available a Foram estudados os dois pares de áreas glandulares da largata de Sibine nesea. O primeiro par se localisa no 7° segmento abdominal enquanto o segundo está no 9° segmento abdominal. Estas áreas glandulares são semelhantes entre si em forma e função. São cobertas por espinhos que ficam em posição erecta e representam o aparelho inoculador. b A cerda, pequena, se localisa na ponta do espinho com uma inserção modificada, de modo que sua base se afunila e ela se apoia firmemente sôbre a extremidade do espinho. c O espinho representa uma evaginação da parede do corpo. É longo e apresenta em tôda a sua superfície escaminhas dirigidas para baixo e que aumentam de tamanho caminhando-se da extremidade para a base do espinho. d A hipoderme que desce do espinho forma dentro da parede do corpo uma grande célula glandular que apresenta na extremidade apical uma zona radiada condutora da secreção dentro da célula. e A hipoderme que desce do espinho é que vai formar o canal condutor da secreção que, saindo da célula glandular, vai ser conduzida e encher tôda a cavidade da mesmo e da cerda. f O núcleo é fortemente polimorfo. g A peçonha inoculada ocasiona irritações, queimaduras e mesmo flictenas na epiderme do homem.

  17. Parotid sialosis: morphometrical analysis of the glandular parenchyme and stroma among diabetic and alcoholic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlo, Carolina; Bohl, Luciana; Carda, Carmen; Gómez de Ferraris, María Elsa; Carranza, Miriam

    2010-01-01

    Among the agents that cause parotid sialosis, diabetes mellitus type 2 and chronic alcoholism are included. In this study, the morphometrical modifications in the diabetic parotid sialosis were determined to compare them with the histopathological characteristics of alcoholic parotid sialosis. Five parotid biopsy samples obtained from patients with diabetic sialosis, 12 samples from patients with alcoholic sialosis and seven from individuals without these pathologies (control group) were analyzed. A morphometrical study of parotid parenchyme and stroma, using a digital image analyzer attached to an optical microscope, was carried out. Dimensions of serous acini and striated ducts, the area occupied by the fatty tissue, and the number of ducts were recorded. Mean values were compared using the Mann-Whitney U-test (P glandular hypertrophy in the diabetic parotid sialosis is not directly associated with the ductal and acinar size, amount of fatty tissue and ductal hyperplasy. Nevertheless, these findings show that the ductal dimensions and the proportion of adipose tissue are variables that allow us to establish histopathological differences between diabetic and alcoholic sialosis.

  18. Glandular odontogenic cyst mimicking ameloblastoma in a 78 year old female: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byung Do; Lee, Wan; Kwon, Kyung Hwan; Choi, Moon Ki; Choi, Eun Joo; Yoon, Jung Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC) is a rare, potentially aggressive jaw lesion. The common radiographic features include a well-defined radiolucency with distinct borders, presenting a uni- or multilocular appearance. A cystic lesion in the posterior mandible of a 78-year-old female was incidentally found. Radiographs showed a unilocular lesion with a scalloped margin, external root resorption of the adjacent tooth, and cortical perforation. This lesion had changed from a small ovoid shape to a more expanded lesion in a period of four years. The small lesion showed unilocularity with a smooth margin and a well-defined border, but the expanded lesion produced cortical perforation and a lobulated margin. The provisional diagnosis was an ameloblastoma, whereas the histopathological examination revealed a GOC. This was a quite rare case, given that this radiographic change was observed in the posterior mandible of an elderly female. This case showed that a GOC can grow even in people in their seventies, changing from the unilocular form to an expanded, lobulated lesion. Here, we report a case of GOC with characteristic radiographic features.

  19. Glandular odontogenic cyst mimicking ameloblastoma in a 78 year old female: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Do; Lee, Wan; Kwon, Kyung Hwan; Choi, Moon Ki; Choi, Eun Joo [College of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Jung Hoon [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, College of Dentistry, Daejeon Dental Hospital, Wonkwang University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    Glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC) is a rare, potentially aggressive jaw lesion. The common radiographic features include a well-defined radiolucency with distinct borders, presenting a uni- or multilocular appearance. A cystic lesion in the posterior mandible of a 78-year-old female was incidentally found. Radiographs showed a unilocular lesion with a scalloped margin, external root resorption of the adjacent tooth, and cortical perforation. This lesion had changed from a small ovoid shape to a more expanded lesion in a period of four years. The small lesion showed unilocularity with a smooth margin and a well-defined border, but the expanded lesion produced cortical perforation and a lobulated margin. The provisional diagnosis was an ameloblastoma, whereas the histopathological examination revealed a GOC. This was a quite rare case, given that this radiographic change was observed in the posterior mandible of an elderly female. This case showed that a GOC can grow even in people in their seventies, changing from the unilocular form to an expanded, lobulated lesion. Here, we report a case of GOC with characteristic radiographic features.

  20. Estimation of average glandular dose depending on the thickness of the breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Real, Jessica V.; Luz, Renata M. da; Fröhlich, Bruna D.; Pertile, Alessandra S.; Silva, Ana Maria Marques da

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women worldwide. Mammography is, to date, the most efficient method for detecting an abnormality in the patient's breast. It is a technique of imaging diagnostic that requires special care because radiographs without adequate quality may lead to a false diagnosis and lead to the need for a repeat examination, increasing the dose of radiation in the patient. This study aimed to evaluate the average glandular dose (AGD), depending on the breast thickness in patients undergoing routine tests, with a digital computer radiography processing system. Analyzed 30 exhibitions in patients aged (65 ± 12) years, in the right and left caudal skull projections, for breasts with thicknesses between 45 mm and 50 mm. The calculated value of the AGD for this track thickness was (1.600 ± 0.009) mGy. The performance of mammography quality control tests was satisfactory and the AGD values obtained for the chosen thickness range is acceptable, since the threshold achievable is 1.6 mGy and the acceptable is 2 mGy. In Brazil, it is only required the input dose calculation in skin for 45 mm breasts. However, the calculation of AGD is required for different thicknesses of the breast, to identify the best mammographic pattern aiming at better image quality at the lowest dose provided the patient

  1. Weeding atypical glandular cell look-alikes from the true atypical lesions in liquid-based Pap tests: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Moira D; Horst, Julie A; Bibbo, Marluce

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to identify features that separate atypical glandular cells (AGC) associated with glandular neoplasia from its mimickers, both benign and neoplastic. We reviewed cases of AGC diagnosed on liquid-based Pap tests (LBP) for which corresponding histological follow-up was available. A review of the literature for similar studies in LBP tests was also conducted. We find that certain benign mimics can be reliably separated from AGC, but recommend caution in attempting to increase specificity at the risk of losing sensitivity. Although accounting for only a small percentage of diagnoses AGC require a thorough clinical evaluation, including colposcopy. Most cases are ultimately found to be benign. When evaluating smears suspicious for AGC, it is important to examine the subtle features which make truly atypical cells discernible from their numerous benign mimickers.

  2. Glandular sources of pheromones used to control host workers (Apis mellifera scutellata) by socially parasitic workers of Apis mellifera capensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okosun, Olabimpe O; Pirk, Christian W W; Crewe, Robin M; Yusuf, Abdullahi A

    2017-10-01

    Pheromonal control by the honey bee queen is achieved through the use of secretions from diverse glandular sources, but the use of pheromones from a variety of glandular sources by reproductively dominant workers, has not previously been explored. Using the social parasite, Apis mellifera capensis clonal worker we studied the diversity of glandular sources used for pheromonal control of reproductively subordinate A. m. scutellata workers. To determine whether pheromones from different glandular sources are used by reproductively active workers to achieve dominance and evaluate the degree of pheromonal competition between workers of the two sub-species, we housed groups of workers of the two sub-species together in cages and analysed mandibular and tergal gland secretions as well as, ovarian activation status of each worker after 21days. The results showed that A. m. capensis invasive clones used both mandibular and tergal gland secretions to achieve reproductive dominance and suppress ovarian activation in their A. m. scutellata host workers. The reproductively dominant workers (false queens) produced more queen-like pheromones and inhibited ovarian activation in subordinate A. m. scutellata workers. These results show that tergal gland pheromones working in synergy with pheromones from other glands allow individual workers (false queens) to establish reproductive dominance within these social groups and to act in a manner similar to that of queens. Thus suggesting that, the evolution of reproductively dominant individuals (queens or false queens) and subordinate individuals (workers) in social insects like the honey bee is the result of a complex interplay of pheromonal signals from different exocrine glands. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Fibroblast Growth Factor 10-Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 2b Mediated Signaling Is Not Required for Adult Glandular Stomach Homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Frederic G.; Ford, Henri R.; Bellusci, Saverio; Grikscheit, Tracy C.

    2012-01-01

    The signaling pathways that are essential for gastric organogenesis have been studied in some detail; however, those that regulate the maintenance of the gastric epithelium during adult homeostasis remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of Fibroblast growth factor 10 (FGF10) and its main receptor, Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2b (FGFR2b), in adult glandular stomach homeostasis. We first showed that mouse adult glandular stomach expressed Fgf10, its receptors, Fgfr1b and Fgfr2b, and most of the other FGFR2b ligands (Fgf1, Fgf7, Fgf22) except for Fgf3 and Fgf20. Fgf10 expression was mesenchymal whereas FGFR1 and FGFR2 expression were mostly epithelial. Studying double transgenic mice that allow inducible overexpression of Fgf10 in adult mice, we showed that Fgf10 overexpression in normal adult glandular stomach increased epithelial proliferation, drove mucous neck cell differentiation, and reduced parietal and chief cell differentiation. Although a similar phenotype can be associated with the development of metaplasia, we found that Fgf10 overexpression for a short duration does not cause metaplasia. Finally, investigating double transgenic mice that allow the expression of a soluble form of Fgfr2b, FGF10's main receptor, which acts as a dominant negative, we found no significant changes in gastric epithelial proliferation or differentiation in the mutants. Our work provides evidence, for the first time, that the FGF10-FGFR2b signaling pathway is not required for epithelial proliferation and differentiation during adult glandular stomach homeostasis. PMID:23133671

  4. Fibroblast growth factor 10-fibroblast growth factor receptor 2b mediated signaling is not required for adult glandular stomach homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison L Speer

    Full Text Available The signaling pathways that are essential for gastric organogenesis have been studied in some detail; however, those that regulate the maintenance of the gastric epithelium during adult homeostasis remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of Fibroblast growth factor 10 (FGF10 and its main receptor, Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2b (FGFR2b, in adult glandular stomach homeostasis. We first showed that mouse adult glandular stomach expressed Fgf10, its receptors, Fgfr1b and Fgfr2b, and most of the other FGFR2b ligands (Fgf1, Fgf7, Fgf22 except for Fgf3 and Fgf20. Fgf10 expression was mesenchymal whereas FGFR1 and FGFR2 expression were mostly epithelial. Studying double transgenic mice that allow inducible overexpression of Fgf10 in adult mice, we showed that Fgf10 overexpression in normal adult glandular stomach increased epithelial proliferation, drove mucous neck cell differentiation, and reduced parietal and chief cell differentiation. Although a similar phenotype can be associated with the development of metaplasia, we found that Fgf10 overexpression for a short duration does not cause metaplasia. Finally, investigating double transgenic mice that allow the expression of a soluble form of Fgfr2b, FGF10's main receptor, which acts as a dominant negative, we found no significant changes in gastric epithelial proliferation or differentiation in the mutants. Our work provides evidence, for the first time, that the FGF10-FGFR2b signaling pathway is not required for epithelial proliferation and differentiation during adult glandular stomach homeostasis.

  5. Effect of drying temperature on essential oil content and composition of sweet wormwood (Artemisia annua) growing wild in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khangholil, Shahpour; Rezaeinodehi, Ayatollah

    2008-03-15

    Studies were conducted to show the effect of different temperatures in the drying process on the amount and quality of essential oils of sweet wormwood (Artemisia annua L.). The sweet wormwood aerial parts were harvested in full blooming time from an area around the Siahkal city in north of Iran in September 2005. In order to complete drying, the aerial parts were placed at shade (room temperature) and in oven at 35, 45, 55 and 65 degrees C temperatures. The aerial parts essential oil was extracted by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger apparatus and analyzed by GC/MS. Results showed that higher drying temperatures decreased the essential oil content, from 1.12% (room temperature) 0.88% (35 degrees C), 0.55% (45 degrees C) to 0.50% (55 degrees C) and 0.37% (65 degrees C). Thirty-five components were determined in essential oils, which were mostly monoterpenes. The drying temperatures had a significant effect on the essential oils composition and proportion of the various components, as when the temperature increased, the monoterpenes content gradually decreased and vice versa for sesquiterpenes. The major components were artemisia ketone and 1, 8 cineol for room and 45 degrees C; artemisia ketone, 1, 8 cineol and camphor for 35 and 55 degrees C and beta-caryophyllene and germacrene D for 65 degrees C temperatures.

  6. Isolation and identification of an anti-algal compound from Artemisia annua and mechanisms of inhibitory effect on algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Lixiao; Acharya, Kumud; Hao, Xiangyang; Li, Shiyin

    2012-08-01

    The goals of this work were to isolate and identify an anti-algal compound from extracts of Artemisia annua and study its mode of action on Microcystis aeruginosa. The anti-algal compound was isolated from the extracts using column chromatography and activity-guided fractionation methods. Artemisinin with strong anti-algal activity was identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and (1)H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. The EC(50) of artemisinin on M. aeruginosa was 3.2mg L(-1). Artemisinin decreased the soluble protein content and increased the superoxide dismutase activity and ascorbic acid content of M. aeruginosa, but exerted no effect on soluble sugar content. The results suggested the mode of action of artemisinin on algae may primarily be the increasing level of reactive oxygen species in algae cells. The results of our research could aid in the development of new anti-algal substances and lead to further study of mechanisms of inhibitory effect on algae. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. CINtec PLUS immunocytochemistry as a tool for the cytologic diagnosis of glandular lesions of the cervix uteri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravarino, Alberto; Nemolato, Sonia; Macciocu, Elena; Fraschini, Matteo; Senes, Giancarlo; Faa, Gavino; Negri, Giovanni

    2012-11-01

    Cytologic findings of glandular lesions of the cervix uteri are often difficult to evaluate. We studied the usefulness of CINtec PLUS p16/Ki-67 double stain (mtm laboratories, Heidelberg, Germany) for the diagnosis of glandular lesions. The study included 47 abnormal results on liquid-based cytologic tests with a subsequent histologic diagnosis of adenocarcinoma in situ or with early invasion, and 16 samples with negative results on follow-up. All samples were stained with CINtec PLUS p16/Ki-67 double stain. Of the neoplastic samples, 7 were excluded because of insufficient residual cellularity or loss of neoplastic cells. Of the samples that were adequate, 92.5% were stained with CINtec PLUS, whereas 7.5% were judged inconclusive. All inconclusive cases were at least 3 years old. Of the 16 negative samples, 15 (93.8%) stained negative and only 1 (6.2%) showed several positive clusters of cells. Our study shows that CINtec PLUS is a robust and useful tool for the diagnosis of glandular lesions of the cervix uteri.

  8. [Markers of stromal invasion during background and precancerous changes of the glandular epithelium and in adenocarcinoma of the cervix uteri].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilova, N V; Andreeva, Iu Iu; Zavalishina, L É; Mal'kov, P G

    2012-01-01

    It is very difficult to identify stromal invasion when the glandular epithelium of the cervix uteri is involved. It is necessary to draw a clear distinction between its glandular structures and adenocarcinoma in situ, involving the preexisting crypts and invasive glands. An attempt was made to assess the possibilities of using as markers of invasion the following stromal proteins and adhesion molecules: CD44, E-cadherin, beta-catenin, tenascin, and laminin. Fifty-three cases of benign glandular changes, 66 cases of dysplasias and adenocarcinomas in situ, and 47 cases of invasive adenocarcinoma were examined. An immunohistochemical study was performed according to the standard protocol using the antibodies to CD44, laminin, tenascin, E-cadherin, and beta-catenin and a semiquantitative assessment of results was made. CD44 was found to be redistributed from the cells to the tumor stroma. CD44 was not detected in the stroma surrounding the intact glands, so were benign epithelial changes. In the tumor environment, there was, on the contrary, a reaction with CD44 in 74.5% of invasive adenocarcinomas cases (p 0.05). CD44 and tenascin are of great diagnostic value in examining invasive and microinvasive adenocarcinomas of the cervix uteri. E-cadherin and beta-catenin are of no diagnostic value in the study groups of pathological processes. Laminin is a potential marker of stromal invasion; however, its expression calls for further investigation.

  9. Can glandular hair density be a breeding marker for Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum with high essential oil content?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Krisztina; Sárosi, Szilvia; Cserháti, Beatrix; Ferenczy, Antal

    2010-09-01

    Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum (Link) Ietswaart is an essential oil rich plant traditionally used as oregano. Based on the interest of the essential oil producing sector, in 2000 we have started a breeding program of O. vulgare subsp. hirtum. Plant material for our breeding work consists of 6 progeny. Individual evaluation of the plant material was carried out in 2008-2009 with the primary aim of finding mother plants with appropriate morphological features, high essential oil content (> 7%) and with carvacrol as the main essential oil component. Among the survey of morphological characteristics special attention was given to glandular hair density in order to test the usability of it as a morphological marker for screening progeny for high essential oil content. The characteristics of the progeny can be described with high variability ensuring the possibility of a good selection base. Evaluating the morphology, essential oil content and constitution of the individuals, 20 plants were selected on the grounds of their high (7-8.6%) essential oil content, high ratio (70-93%) of carvacrol in the essential oil and typical morphological features of O. vulgare subsp. hirtum. From the results of glandular hair density it can be stated that the correlation between glandular hair density of the upper, middle and lower leaves either on vegetative or generative shoots and essential oil content was never strong enough (correlation coefficient < or = 0.5) to use it exclusively as a morphological marker for individual selection.

  10. The Jasmonate-ZIM-domain proteins interact with the WD-Repeat/bHLH/MYB complexes to regulate Jasmonate-mediated anthocyanin accumulation and trichome initiation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Tiancong; Song, Susheng; Ren, Qingcuo; Wu, Dewei; Huang, Huang; Chen, Yan; Fan, Meng; Peng, Wen; Ren, Chunmei; Xie, Daoxin

    2011-05-01

    Jasmonates (JAs) mediate plant responses to insect attack, wounding, pathogen infection, stress, and UV damage and regulate plant fertility, anthocyanin accumulation, trichome formation, and many other plant developmental processes. Arabidopsis thaliana Jasmonate ZIM-domain (JAZ) proteins, substrates of the CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 (COI1)-based SCF(COI1) complex, negatively regulate these plant responses. Little is known about the molecular mechanism for JA regulation of anthocyanin accumulation and trichome initiation. In this study, we revealed that JAZ proteins interact with bHLH (Transparent Testa8, Glabra3 [GL3], and Enhancer of Glabra3 [EGL3]) and R2R3 MYB transcription factors (MYB75 and Glabra1), essential components of WD-repeat/bHLH/MYB transcriptional complexes, to repress JA-regulated anthocyanin accumulation and trichome initiation. Genetic and physiological evidence showed that JA regulates WD-repeat/bHLH/MYB complex-mediated anthocyanin accumulation and trichome initiation in a COI1-dependent manner. Overexpression of the MYB transcription factor MYB75 and bHLH factors (GL3 and EGL3) restored anthocyanin accumulation and trichome initiation in the coi1 mutant, respectively. We speculate that the JA-induced degradation of JAZ proteins abolishes the interactions of JAZ proteins with bHLH and MYB factors, allowing the transcriptional function of WD-repeat/bHLH/MYB complexes, which subsequently activate respective downstream signal cascades to modulate anthocyanin accumulation and trichome initiation.

  11. The Jasmonate-ZIM-Domain Proteins Interact with the WD-Repeat/bHLH/MYB Complexes to Regulate Jasmonate-Mediated Anthocyanin Accumulation and Trichome Initiation in Arabidopsis thaliana[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Tiancong; Song, Susheng; Ren, Qingcuo; Wu, Dewei; Huang, Huang; Chen, Yan; Fan, Meng; Peng, Wen; Ren, Chunmei; Xie, Daoxin

    2011-01-01

    Jasmonates (JAs) mediate plant responses to insect attack, wounding, pathogen infection, stress, and UV damage and regulate plant fertility, anthocyanin accumulation, trichome formation, and many other plant developmental processes. Arabidopsis thaliana Jasmonate ZIM-domain (JAZ) proteins, substrates of the CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 (COI1)–based SCFCOI1 complex, negatively regulate these plant responses. Little is known about the molecular mechanism for JA regulation of anthocyanin accumulation and trichome initiation. In this study, we revealed that JAZ proteins interact with bHLH (Transparent Testa8, Glabra3 [GL3], and Enhancer of Glabra3 [EGL3]) and R2R3 MYB transcription factors (MYB75 and Glabra1), essential components of WD-repeat/bHLH/MYB transcriptional complexes, to repress JA-regulated anthocyanin accumulation and trichome initiation. Genetic and physiological evidence showed that JA regulates WD-repeat/bHLH/MYB complex-mediated anthocyanin accumulation and trichome initiation in a COI1-dependent manner. Overexpression of the MYB transcription factor MYB75 and bHLH factors (GL3 and EGL3) restored anthocyanin accumulation and trichome initiation in the coi1 mutant, respectively. We speculate that the JA-induced degradation of JAZ proteins abolishes the interactions of JAZ proteins with bHLH and MYB factors, allowing the transcriptional function of WD-repeat/bHLH/MYB complexes, which subsequently activate respective downstream signal cascades to modulate anthocyanin accumulation and trichome initiation. PMID:21551388

  12. Brassica napusGLABRA3-1 promotes anthocyanin biosynthesis and trichome formation in true leaves when expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, C; Guo, Y; Wang, J; Li, D; Liu, K; Qi, S; Jin, C; Duan, S; Gong, J; Li, Z; Chen, M

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that GLABRA3 (AtGL3), a bHLH transcription factor, plays essential roles in anthocyanin biosynthesis and trichome formation in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, there have been no such studies of a homologue, BnGL3, from the closely related crop, Brassica napus. Here, we analysed the BnGL3-1 coding domain sequence from the B. napus cultivar QINYOU Seven, identified conserved protein domains and performed a phylogenetic analysis to elucidate its relationship with homologues form a range of plant species. When expressed in tobacco leaves as a fusion protein with green fluorescent protein, BnGL3-1 accumulated in the nucleus, consistent with its predicted function as a transcription factor. Ectopic expression of the BnGL3-1 gene in the A. thaliana gl3-3 mutant resulted in levels of anthocyanins and numbers of trichomes in true leaves that were higher than in wild-type plants. Moreover, overexpression of BnGL3-1 in gl3-3 compensated for the promotion and repression of genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis and trichome formation, respectively, that has been reported in gl3-3 young shoots and expanding true leaves. This study provides new insights into GL3 function in anthocyanin biosynthesis and trichome formation in crucifers, and represents a promising target for genetic manipulation of B. napus. © 2017 German Society for Plant Sciences and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  13. Evaluation of Progesterone and Ovulation-stimulating Drugs on the Glandular Epithelium and Angiogenesis in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahman Rashidi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human endometrium is a dynamic tissue during the menstrual cycle can be influenced by ovarian hormones. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the endometrium angiogenesis under the influence of human menopausal gonadotropin and human chorionic gonadotropin (HMG and HCG that stimulate ovulation and progesterone. Materials and Methods: In this study, thirty adult female mice were randomly divided into three groups as: control, gonadotropin and gonadotropin + progesterone. The mice in the other two groups except the control group received 7.5 IU HMG and later HCG. Subsequently, the mice were placed in a cage for mating. Gonadotropin + progesterone group was administered, 1 mg/mouse progesterone in 24, 48, and 72 h interval, after HMG injection. Ninety-six hours after HMG injection, animals were sacrificed, and their uterine specimens were prepared by immunohistochemistry technique for light microscopic studies, and statistical analysis was carried out. Results: Endometrium angiogenesis in control group showed that mean ± standard deviation was 24.15 ± 11.15, gonadotropin group was 62.50 ± 24.16, and gonadotropin + progesterone group was 41.85 ± 19.54. Significant difference between the control group and gonadotropin group and between the control group and gonadotropin + progesterone was observed. Statistically significant differences were observed in all groups in the endometrial angiogenesis (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Ovarian induction with gonadotropins and gonadotropins + progesterone could not change the morphometrically index of endometrial glandular epithelium in mice. Ovarian stimulation followed by progesterone injection could modify the angiogenesis of mice endometrium.

  14. Predominant Glandular Cholinergic Dysautonomia in Patients With Primary Sjögren's Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imrich, Richard; Alevizos, Ilias; Bebris, Lolita; Goldstein, David S; Holmes, Courtney S; Illei, Gabor G; Nikolov, Nikolay P

    2015-05-01

    The autonomic nervous system (ANS) modulates exocrine gland function. Available data show poor correlation between the degree of function and destruction of the exocrine glands in primary Sjögren's syndrome (SS), suggesting that other mechanisms, such as autonomic dysfunction, may be important in these patients. The aim of this study was to perform a comprehensive analysis of sympathoneural and sympathetic cholinergic function in well-characterized patients with primary SS. Twenty-one patients with primary SS (mean ± SEM age 44.2 ± 2.8 years) and 13 healthy control subjects (mean ± SEM age 50.8 ± 1.9 years) were assessed during orthostasis and intravenous injection of edrophonium (10 mg). The postganglionic sympathetic cholinergic system was evaluated by assessing sweat production by means of the Quantitative Sudomotor Axon Reflex Test (QSART). Tests of gastric emptying were used to assess the gastrointestinal ANS in primary SS patients. The velocity index and the acceleration index were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in patients with primary SS as compared to controls, both before and during the orthostatic and edrophonium tests. Findings of other hemodynamic and neurochemical parameters did not differ between primary SS patients and controls during the orthostasis and edrophonium test; however, the edrophonium-induced saliva increment was lower in primary SS patients (P = 0.002). Abnormally low sweat production was found in 4 primary SS patients but in none of the controls, as determined by the QSART. Gastric empting was delayed in 53% of primary SS patients. We observed subtle differences in several ANS domains, including the gastrointestinal and sympathocholinergic systems, suggesting the presence of a complex ANS dysfunction in primary SS. The impact was greatest on the exocrine glands, with subtle differences in the cardiac parasympathetic function that were independent of glandular inflammation and atrophy, suggesting an alternative mechanism

  15. Predominant Glandular Cholinergic Dysautonomia in Patients with Primary Sjögren’s Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imrich, Richard; Alevizos, Ilias; Bebris, Lolita; Goldstein, David S.; Holmes, Courtney S.; Illei, Gabor G.; Nikolov, Nikolay P.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The autonomic nervous system (ANS) modulates exocrine gland function. Available data show poor correlation between the degree of exocrine gland function and destruction in primary Sjögren’s syndrome (pSS) suggesting other mechanisms, such as autonomic dysfunction may be important in these patients. We performed a comprehensive analysis of sympathoneural and sympathetic cholinergic function in well-characterized patients with pSS. Methods 21 pSS patients (mean±SE age 44±3 years) and in 13 healthy controls (51±2 years) were assessed during orthostasis and intravenous injection of edrophonium (10 mg). The postganglionic sympathetic cholinergic system was evaluated by assessing sweat production by the quantitative sudomotor axon reflex test (QSART). Gastric empting testing assessed the gastro-intestinal ANS in pSS patients. Results Velocity index and acceleration index were significantly higher (p<0.05) in pSS compared to controls before and during the orthostatic and edrophonium tests. Other hemodynamic and neurochemical parameters did not differ between pSS patients and controls during the orthostasis and edrophonium test, however, edrophonium-induced saliva increment was lower in pSS (p=0.002). Abnormally low sweat production was found in four (N=4) pSS patients but in none of the controls in the QSART. Gastric empting was delayed in 53 % of pSS patients. Conclusion We observed subtle differences in several ANS domains, including gastrointestinal and sympathocholinergic system suggesting a complex ANS dysfunction in pSS. The impact was the largest on the exocrine glands with subtle differences in the cardiac parasympathetic function independent of glandular inflammation and atrophy, suggesting an alternative pathogenesis mechanism of the disease in pSS. PMID:25622919

  16. SU-E-I-04: A Mammography Phantom to Measure Mean Glandular Dose and Image Quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Pineda, E; Ruiz-Trejo, C; E, Brandan M [Instituto de Fisica UNAM, Mexico City, DF (Mexico)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate mean glandular dose (MGD) and image quality in a selection of mammography systems using a novel phantom based on thermoluminescent dosemeters and the ACR wax insert. Methods: The phantom consists of two acrylic, 19 cm diameter, 4.5 cm thick, semicircular modules, used in sequence. The image quality module contains the ACR insert and is used to obtain a quality control image under automatic exposure conditions. The dosimetric module carries 15 TLD-100 chips, some under Al foils, to determine air kerma and half-value-layer. TL readings take place at our laboratory under controlled conditions. Calibration was performed using an ionization chamber and a Senographe 2000D unit for a variety of beam qualities, from 24 to 40 kV, Mo and Rh anodes and filters. Phantom MGD values agree, on the average, within 3% with ionization chamber data, and their precision is better than 10% (k=1). Results: MGD and image quality have been evaluated in a selection of mammography units currently used in Mexican health services. The sample includes analogic (screen/film), flexible digital (CR), and full-field digital image receptors. The highest MDG are associated to the CR technology. The most common image quality failure is due to artifacts (dust, intensifying screen scratches, and processor marks for film/screen, laser reader defects for CR). Conclusion: The developed phantom permits the MGD measurement without the need of a calibrated ionization chamber at the mammography site and can be used by a technician without the presence of a medical physicist. The results indicate the urgent need to establish quality control programs for mammography.

  17. Efeito anticoccidiano de extrato hidroalcoólico de Artemisia annua em camas de aves contaminadas com Eimeria sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lew Kan Sprenger

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a eficácia do extrato hidroalcoólico de Artemisia annua frente a oocistos de Eimeria sp. em camas contaminadas. O extrato foi produzido com 7 dias de percolação a 4°C, sendo posteriormente realizada a marcha fitoquímica; dosagem de fenóis totais, quantificação de artemisinina, ensaio antioxidante e teste de toxicidade. Para testar a atividade anticoccidiana, camas de aves compostas de cepilho de árvores foram contaminadas com 5000 oocistos. Foram formados quatro tratamentos, em triplicata, nos quais foram usadas diferentes concentrações, sendo G1: 12mg/mL, G2: 8mg/mL, G3: 4mg/mL e C-: água. Após a contaminação, foram aspergidos, 800 mL dos extratos nas diferentes concentrações sobre as camas e coletadas, em triplicatas, 10 cm2 de cada local, aleatoriamente, nos tempos: 0, 3, 6, 24, 48, e 72 horas após a aplicação. Nas análises fitoquímicas, foram evidenciados diversos compostos com propriedades antiparasitárias, como flavonoides e taninos. O fitoterápico continha 59,409±1,47μg/dL de artemisinina. O produto na concentração de 12mg.mL-1 apresentou eficácia entre 45,5 e 42,1%. Os resultados dos testes bioquímicos, juntamente com os encontrados no teste anticoccidiano, evidenciaram que o extrato produzido possui alto potencial para combater Eimeria sp.

  18. Multiple phenotypes of prostatic glandular cells in castrated dogs after individual or combined treatment with androgen and estrogen. Morphometric, ultrastructural, and cytochemical distinctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merk, F B; Warhol, M J; Kwan, P W; Leav, I; Alroy, J; Ofner, P; Pinkus, G S

    1986-04-01

    To demonstrate a potential for multidirectional differentiation in mature prostatic epithelium, 17 beta-estradiol 17-cyclopentylpropionate (ECP) and 5 alpha-androstane-3 alpha, 17 beta-diol dipropionate (3 alpha-diol DP) were administered individually and in combination to castrated dogs. Quantitative ultrastructural and cytochemical methods were used to distinguish phenotypes of glandular cells in the various hormonal environments. Castration-induced glandular cell regression was accompanied by an increased nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio; by enhanced keratin positivity, expressed as dispersed immunolabeled tonofilaments; and by an absence of peanut agglutinin (PNA) binding sites on luminal membranes. Administration of ECP resulted in squamous metaplasia as well as hypertrophy of the glandular epithelium. The hypertrophied estrogen-modified glandular (EMG) cells were characterized by a new population of small (0.29 micron in diameter) secretory granules, bundles of tonofilaments, and PNA-positive luminal membranes. Treatment of castrated dogs with 3 alpha-diol DP produced a greater epithelial hypertrophy than ECP. These cells were characterized by larger (0.49 micron in diameter) secretory granules, dispersed tonofilaments, and no detectable PNA receptors. Joint administration of ECP and 3 alpha-diol DP caused a florid response including squamous metaplasia and hypertrophy of the glandular epithelium which was associated with the emergence of a novel phenotype in androgen-estrogen modified glandular (A-EMG) cells. In A-EMG cells, secretory granules were similar in size to those found in 3 alpha-diol DP-dominated epithelium whereas tonofilaments often appeared in bundles and luminal membranes were PNA positive, i.e., features found in EMG cells. Our results indicate that atrophic canine prostatic glandular cells possess pluripotentiality of response to sex hormones.

  19. Validation of mean glandular dose values provided by a digital breast tomosynthesis system in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beraldo O, B.; Paixao, L.; Donato da S, S. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear / CNEN, Post-graduation in Sciences and Technology of Radiations Minerals and Materials, Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Araujo T, M. H. [Dr Maria Helena Araujo Teixeira Clinic, Guajajaras 40, 30180-100 Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Nogueira, M. S., E-mail: bbo@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear / CNEN, Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is an emerging imaging modality that provides quasi-three-dimensional structural information of the breast and has strong promise to improve the differentiation of normal tissue and suspicious masses reducing the tissue overlaps. DBT images are reconstructed from a sequence of low-dose X-ray projections of the breast acquired at a small number of angles over a limited angular range. The Ho logic Selen ia Dimensions system is equipped with an amorphous Selenium (a-Se) detector layer of 250 μm thickness and a 70 μm pixel pitch. Studies are needed to determine the radiation dose of patients that are undergoing this emerging procedure to compare with the results obtained in DBT images. The mean glandular dose (D{sub G}) is the dosimetric quantity used in quality control of the mammographic systems. The aim of this work is to validate D{sub G} values for different breast thicknesses provided by a Ho logic Selen ia Dimensions system using a DBT mode in comparison with the same results obtained by a calibrated 90 X 5-6M-model Radcal ionization chamber. D{sub G} values were derived from the incident air kerma (K{sub i}) measurements and tabulated conversion coefficients that are dependent on the half value layer (HVL) of the X-ray spectrum. Voltage and tube loading values were recorded in irradiations using W/Al anode/filter combination, automatic exposure control mode and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) slabs which simulate different breast thicknesses. For K{sub i} measurements, the ionization chamber was positioned at 655 mm from the focus and the same radiographic technique values were selected with the manual mode. D{sub G} values for a complete procedure ranged from 0.9 ± 0.1 to 3.7 ± 0.4 mGy. The results for different breast thicknesses are in accordance with values obtained by DBT images and with acceptable levels established by the Commission of the European Communities (Cec) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA

  20. Validation of mean glandular dose values provided by a digital breast tomosynthesis system in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beraldo O, B.; Paixao, L.; Donato da S, S.; Araujo T, M. H.; Nogueira, M. S.

    2014-08-01

    Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is an emerging imaging modality that provides quasi-three-dimensional structural information of the breast and has strong promise to improve the differentiation of normal tissue and suspicious masses reducing the tissue overlaps. DBT images are reconstructed from a sequence of low-dose X-ray projections of the breast acquired at a small number of angles over a limited angular range. The Ho logic Selen ia Dimensions system is equipped with an amorphous Selenium (a-Se) detector layer of 250 μm thickness and a 70 μm pixel pitch. Studies are needed to determine the radiation dose of patients that are undergoing this emerging procedure to compare with the results obtained in DBT images. The mean glandular dose (D G ) is the dosimetric quantity used in quality control of the mammographic systems. The aim of this work is to validate D G values for different breast thicknesses provided by a Ho logic Selen ia Dimensions system using a DBT mode in comparison with the same results obtained by a calibrated 90 X 5-6M-model Radcal ionization chamber. D G values were derived from the incident air kerma (K i ) measurements and tabulated conversion coefficients that are dependent on the half value layer (HVL) of the X-ray spectrum. Voltage and tube loading values were recorded in irradiations using W/Al anode/filter combination, automatic exposure control mode and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) slabs which simulate different breast thicknesses. For K i measurements, the ionization chamber was positioned at 655 mm from the focus and the same radiographic technique values were selected with the manual mode. D G values for a complete procedure ranged from 0.9 ± 0.1 to 3.7 ± 0.4 mGy. The results for different breast thicknesses are in accordance with values obtained by DBT images and with acceptable levels established by the Commission of the European Communities (Cec) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). This work contributes to

  1. Image quality, threshold contrast and mean glandular dose in CR mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakubiak, R R; Gamba, H R; Neves, E B; Peixoto, J E

    2013-01-01

    In many countries, computed radiography (CR) systems represent the majority of equipment used in digital mammography. This study presents a method for optimizing image quality and dose in CR mammography of patients with breast thicknesses between 45 and 75 mm. Initially, clinical images of 67 patients (group 1) were analyzed by three experienced radiologists, reporting about anatomical structures, noise and contrast in low and high pixel value areas, and image sharpness and contrast. Exposure parameters (kV, mAs and target/filter combination) used in the examinations of these patients were reproduced to determine the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and mean glandular dose (MGD). The parameters were also used to radiograph a CDMAM (version 3.4) phantom (Artinis Medical Systems, The Netherlands) for image threshold contrast evaluation. After that, different breast thicknesses were simulated with polymethylmethacrylate layers and various sets of exposure parameters were used in order to determine optimal radiographic parameters. For each simulated breast thickness, optimal beam quality was defined as giving a target CNR to reach the threshold contrast of CDMAM images for acceptable MGD. These results were used for adjustments in the automatic exposure control (AEC) by the maintenance team. Using optimized exposure parameters, clinical images of 63 patients (group 2) were evaluated as described above. Threshold contrast, CNR and MGD for such exposure parameters were also determined. Results showed that the proposed optimization method was effective for all breast thicknesses studied in phantoms. The best result was found for breasts of 75 mm. While in group 1 there was no detection of the 0.1 mm critical diameter detail with threshold contrast below 23%, after the optimization, detection occurred in 47.6% of the images. There was also an average MGD reduction of 7.5%. The clinical image quality criteria were attended in 91.7% for all breast thicknesses evaluated in both

  2. Effect of 935-MHz phone-simulating electromagnetic radiation on endometrial glandular cells during mouse embryo implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenhui; Zheng, Xinmin; Qu, Zaiqing; Zhang, Ming; Zhou, Chun; Ma, Ling; Zhang, Yuanzhen

    2012-10-01

    This study examined the impact of 935MHz phone-simulating electromagnetic radiation on embryo implantation of pregnant mice. Each 7-week-old Kunming (KM) female white mouse was set up with a KM male mouse in a single cage for mating overnight after induction of ovulation. In the first three days of pregnancy, the pregnant mice was exposed to electromagnetic radiation at low-intensity (150 μW/cm(2), ranging from 130 to 200 μW/cm(2), for 2- or 4-h exposure every day), mid-intensity (570 μW/cm(2), ranging from 400 to 700 μW/cm(2), for 2- or 4-h exposure every day) or high-intensity (1400 μW/cm(2), ranging from 1200 to 1500 μW/cm(2), for 2- or 4-h exposure every day), respectively. On the day 4 after gestation (known as the window of murine embryo implantation), the endometrium was collected and the suspension of endometrial glandular cells was made. Laser scanning microscopy was employed to detect the mitochondrial membrane potential and intracellular calcium ion concentration. In high-intensity, 2- and 4-h groups, mitochondrial membrane potential of endometrial glandular cells was significantly lower than that in the normal control group (Pelectromagnetic radiation and longer length of the radiation are required to inflict a remarkable functional and structural damage to mitochondrial membrane. Our data demonstrated that electromagnetic radiation with a 935-MHz phone for 4 h conspicuously decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and lowered the calcium ion concentration of endometrial glandular cells. It is suggested that high-intensity electromagnetic radiation is very likely to induce the death of embryonic cells and decrease the chance of their implantation, thereby posing a high risk to pregnancy.

  3. Chemical Composition of Artemisia annua L. Leaves and Antioxidant Potential of Extracts as a Function of Extraction Solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maznah Ismail

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the chemical and nutritional composition of Artemisia annua leaves in addition to determination of antioxidant potential of their extracts prepared in different solvents. Chemical composition was determined by quantifying fat, protein, carbohydrate, fiber, tocopherol, phytate, and tannin contents. Extraction of A. annua leaves, for antioxidant potential evaluation, was carried out using five solvents of different polarities, i.e., hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and water. Antioxidant potential was evaluated by estimating total phenolic (TPC, flavonoid (TFC contents, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC, DPPH radical scavenging activity and lipid peroxidation. Efficiency of different solvents was compared for the yield of antioxidant extracts from leaf samples and a clear variation was observed. The highest TPC, TFC, TEAC, DPPH radical scavenging and lowest lipid peroxidation were observed in MeOH extracts, whereas aqueous extract exhibited high ferric reducing antioxidant power; suggesting MeOH to be the most favorable extractant.

  4. SU-F-I-01: Normalized Mean Glandular Dose Values for Dedicated Breast CT Using Realistic Breast-Shaped Phantoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, A [Department of Radiology, Biomedical Engineering Graduate Group, University of California Davis, Sacramento, CA (United States); Boone, J [Departments of Radiology and Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Engeering Graduate Group, University of California Davis, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To estimate normalized mean glandular dose values for dedicated breast CT (DgN-CT) using breast CT-derived phantoms and compare to estimations using cylindrical phantoms. Methods: Segmented breast CT (bCT) volume data sets (N=219) were used to measure effective diameter profiles and were grouped into quintiles by volume. The profiles were averaged within each quintile to represent the range of breast sizes found clinically. These profiles were then used to generate five voxelized computational phantoms (V1, V2, V3, V4, V5 for the small to large phantom sizes, respectively), and loaded into the MCNP6 lattice geometry to simulate normalized mean glandular dose coefficients (DgN-CT) using the system specifications of the Doheny-prototype bCT scanner in our laboratory. The DgN-CT coefficients derived from the bCT-derived breast-shaped phantoms were compared to those generated using a simpler cylindrical phantom using a constant volume, and the following constraints: (1) Length=1.5*radius; (2) radius determined at chest wall (Rcw), and (3) radius determined at the phantom center-of-mass (Rcm). Results: The change in Dg-NCT coefficients averaged across all phantom sizes, was - 0.5%, 19.8%, and 1.3%, for constraints 1–3, respectively. This suggests that the cylindrical assumption is a good approximation if the radius is taken at the breast center-of-mass, but using the radius at the chest wall results in an underestimation of the glandular dose. Conclusion: The DgN-CT coefficients for bCT-derived phantoms were compared against the assumption of a cylindrical phantom and proved to be essentially equivalent when the cylinder radius was set to r=1.5/L or Rcm. While this suggests that for dosimetry applications a patient’s breast can be approximated as a cylinder (if the correct radius is applied), this assumes a homogenous composition of breast tissue and the results may be different if the realistic heterogeneous distribution of glandular tissue is considered

  5. [Effect of dietary selenium and germanium on the precancerous lesion in rat glandular stomach induced by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, X; Yin, H; Zhu, Z

    1996-04-01

    N-Methyl-N'-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) was administered (100 mg/L) in drinking water in 100 Wistar rats for 24 weeks to induce the precancerous lesion in glandular stomach. 77 rats with the precancerous lesion in glandular stomach were divided into 3 groups randomly at the 25 thweek. Yeast selenium (Yse, 4 mg/L) and carboxyethyl germanium sesquioxide (Ge-132, 600 mg/L) in drinking water were administered respectively in the corresponding treatment groups: 100 ml/MNNG in drinking water was administered in the treatment group, and 100 ml/MNN in drinking water was administered in the treatment group and control group for another 5 weeks. The experiment ended at the end of the 37th week. The results showed that the incidence of glandular stomach cancer in the Yse group was significantly lower than that in the control group; the infiltrating depth of glandular stomach cancer in the Yse group and the Ge-132 group was remarkably shallower than that in the control group. These findings suggest that Yse and Ge-132 have some preventive effect on the precancerous lesion in rat glandular stomach induced by MNNG.

  6. Overexpression of a Novel NAC Domain-Containing Transcription Factor Gene (AaNAC1) Enhances the Content of Artemisinin and Increases Tolerance to Drought and Botrytis cinerea in Artemisia annua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Zongyou; Wang, Shu; Zhang, Fangyuan; Chen, Lingxian; Hao, Xiaolong; Pan, Qifang; Fu, Xueqing; Li, Ling; Sun, Xiaofen; Tang, Kexuan

    2016-09-01

    The NAC (NAM, ATAF and CUC) superfamily is one of the largest plant-specific transcription factor families. NAC transcription factors always play important roles in response to various abiotic stresses. A NAC transcription factor gene AaNAC1 containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) of 864 bp was cloned from Artemisia annua. The expression of AaNAC1 could be induced by dehydration, cold, salicylic acid (SA) and methyl jasmonate (MJ), suggesting that it might be a key regulator of stress signaling pathways in A. annua. AaNAC1 was shown to be localized to the nuclei by transforming tobacco leaf epidermal cells. When AaNAC1 was overexpressed in A. annua, the content of artemisinin and dihydroartemisinic acid was increased by 79% and 150%, respectively. The expression levels of artemisinin biosynthetic pathway genes, i.e. amorpha-4,11-diene synthase (ADS), artemisinic aldehyde Δ11(13) reductase (DBR2) and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1), were increased. Dual luciferase (dual-LUC) assays showed that AaNAC1 could activate the transcription of ADS in vivo. The transgenic A. annua exhibited increased tolerance to drought and resistance to Botrytis cinerea. When AaNAC1 was overexpressed in Arabidopsis, the transgenic Arabidopsis were markedly more tolerant to drought. The transgenic Arabidopsis showed increased resistance to B. cinerea. These results indicate that AaNAC1 can potentially be used in transgenic breeding for improving the content of artemisinin and drought tolerance in A. annua. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Comparative evaluation of average glandular dose and image of digital mammography and film mammography in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogueira, M.; Leyton, F.; Rodrigue, L. L.C.; Oliveira, M.A.; Joana, G.S.; Silva, S.D.

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women, and early detection is critical to its diagnosis and treatment. Mammography is the best method for breast-cancer screening and is capable of reducing mortality rates To date, the most effective method for early detection of breast cancer has been x-ray mammography for which the screen/film (SF) technique has been the gold standard. Digital mammography has been proposed as a substitute for film mammography given the benefits inherent to digital technology. The purpose of our study was to compare the technical performance of digital mammographic and screen-film mammography. A PMMA phantom with objects to simulate breast structures. For the screen/film (SF) technique the results showed that 54% mammography units did not achieve the minimum acceptable performance as far the image quality. Besides, 67% services showed inadequate performance in their processing systems, which had significant influence on the image quality. At the mean glandular dose only 44% of digital systems evaluated were compliant in all thicknesses of PMMA. The average glandular dose AGD was 90 % higher than in screen/film systems. (authors)

  8. Automated Breast Density Computation in Digital Mammography and Digital Breast Tomosynthesis: Influence on Mean Glandular Dose and BIRADS Density Categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-García, Maria; Chevalier, Margarita; Garayoa, Julia; Rodriguez-Ruiz, Alejandro; García-Pinto, Diego; Valverde, Julio

    2017-07-01

    The study aimed to compare the breast density estimates from two algorithms on full-field digital mammography (FFDM) and digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) and to analyze the clinical implications. We selected 561 FFDM and DBT examinations from patients without breast pathologies. Two versions of a commercial software (Quantra 2D and Quantra 3D) calculated the volumetric breast density automatically in FFDM and DBT, respectively. Other parameters such as area breast density and total breast volume were evaluated. We compared the results from both algorithms using the Mann-Whitney U non-parametric test and the Spearman's rank coefficient for data correlation analysis. Mean glandular dose (MGD) was calculated following the methodology proposed by Dance et al. Measurements with both algorithms are well correlated (r ≥ 0.77). However, there are statistically significant differences between the medians (P BIRADS (Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System) b and c categories, respectively. There are no significant differences between the MGD calculated using the breast density from each algorithm. DBT delivers higher MGD than FFDM, with a lower difference (5%) for breasts in the BIRADS d category. MGD is, on average, 6% higher than values obtained with the breast glandularity proposed by Dance et al. Breast density measurements from both algorithms lead to equivalent BIRADS classification and MGD values, hence showing no difference in clinical outcomes. The median MGD values of FFDM and DBT examinations are similar for dense breasts (BIRADS d category). Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Salivary gland acinar cells regenerate functional glandular structures in modified hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Swati

    Xerostomia, a condition resulting from irradiation of the head and neck, affects over 40,000 cancer patients each year in the United States. Direct radiation damage of the acinar cells that secrete fluid and protein results in salivary gland hypofunction. Present medical management for xerostomia for patients treated for upper respiratory cancer is largely ineffective. Patients who have survived their terminal diagnosis are often left with a diminished quality of life and are unable to enjoy the simple pleasures of eating and drinking. This project aims to ultimately reduce human suffering by developing a functional implantable artificial salivary gland. The goal was to create an extracellular matrix (ECM) modified hyaluronic acid (HA) based hydrogel culture system that allows for the growth and differentiation of salivary acinar cells into functional acini-like structures capable of secreting large amounts of protein and fluid unidirectionally and to ultimately engineer a functional artificial salivary gland that can be implanted into an animal model. A tissue collection protocol was established and salivary gland tissue was obtained from patients undergoing head and neck surgery. The tissue specimen was assessed by histology and immunohistochemistry to establish the phenotype of normal salivary gland cells including the native basement membranes. Hematoxylin and eosin staining confirmed normal glandular tissue structures including intercalated ducts, striated ducts and acini. alpha-Amylase and periodic acid schiff stain, used for structures with a high proportion of carbohydrate macromolecules, preferentially stained acinar cells in the tissue. Intercalated and striated duct structures were identified using cytokeratins 19 and 7 staining. Myoepithelial cells positive for cytokeratin 14 were found wrapped around the serous and mucous acini. Tight junction components including ZO-1 and E-cadherin were present between both ductal and acinar cells. Ductal and acinar

  10. Dietary enzymatically treated Artemisia annua L. supplementation alleviates liver oxidative injury of broilers reared under high ambient temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xiaoli; Zhang, Jingfei; He, Jintian; Bai, Kaiwen; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Tian

    2017-09-01

    Heat stress induced by high ambient temperature is a major concern in commercial broiler production. To evaluate the effects of dietary enzymatically treated Artemisia annua L. (EA) supplementation on growth performance and liver oxidative injury of broilers reared under heat stress, a total of 320 22-day-old male broilers were randomly allotted into five groups with eight replicates of eight birds each. Broilers in the control group were housed at 22 ± 1 °C and fed the basal diet. Broilers in the HS, HS-EA1, HS-EA2, and HS-EA3 groups were fed basal diet supplemented with 0, 0.75, 1.00, and 1.25 g/kg EA, respectively, and reared under cyclic high temperature (34 ± 1 °C for 8 h/day and 22 ± 1 °C for 16 h/day). Broilers fed EA diets had higher final body weight, average daily body weight gain, and average daily feed intake, as well as liver concentration of reduced glutathione, activities of antioxidant enzymes, abilities to inhibit hydroxyl radical and superoxide radical (HS-EA2 and HS-EA3), and lower liver concentrations of reactive oxygen metabolites, malondialdehyde, and protein carbonyl (HS-EA1, HS-EA2, and HS-EA3) than HS group ( P < 0.05). EA treatment downregulated the mRNA levels of heat shock proteins 70 and 90, upregulated the mRNA levels of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (HS-EA1, HS-EA2, and HS-EA3) and heme oxygenase 1 (HS-EA2 and HS-EA3) in liver of heat-treated broilers ( P < 0.05). In conclusion, EA alleviated heat stress-induced growth depression and liver oxidative injury in broilers, possibly through improving the antioxidant capacity and regulating the pertinent mRNA expression. The appropriate inclusion level of EA in broiler diet is 1.00-1.25 g/kg.

  11. Modulations of physiological responses and possible involvement of defense-related secondary metabolites in acclimation of Artemisia annua L. against short-term UV-B radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Neha; Pandey-Rai, Shashi

    2014-09-01

    UV - B radiation exposure for upto 3 h did not cause direct damage to physiology, but adjusted secondary metabolism and metabolites accumulation as an effective acclimation mechanism to mitigate the adverse effects of radiation. Artemisia annua L. plants were irradiated with UV-B radiation (280-315 nm; 2.8 Wm(-2)) for different short-term (1, 2, 3 and 4 h) durations. UV-B irradiation of 3 h reduced the photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate. However, F v/F m, a sensitive indicator of photosynthetic inhibition, remained stable (0.78) upto 3 h, thereafter it declined sharply (0.72). Interestingly, transcript level of LHCB1, PSBA and PSBO genes related to photosystem II (PSII) were induced under UV-B exposure. In addition, genes coding for Rubisco small (RBCS1B) and large (RBCL) subunits were also upregulated upto 3 h. To mitigate the adverse effects of UV-B radiation, plants tremendously induced defense-related secondary metabolites such as antioxidative phenolics, UV-B absorbing flavonoids, anthocyanins and protective terpenes. The GC-MS analysis of essential oils revealed relatively higher production of monoterpenes over sesquiterpenes as well as 1.2-folds higher total oil yield under UV-B radiation. Owing to its diverse biological activities, the altered quantity and quality of essential oil of A. annua may contribute towards improving its therapeutic properties. The results suggest that UV-B irradiation upto 3 h reduced photosynthesis, probably due to stomatal limitations rather than any direct injury to photosynthetic apparatus as evident from stable F v/F m value, upregulated genes and greater accumulation of their corresponding proteins which gauge PSII health, elevated UV-B absorbing compounds and other protective metabolites. Correlation analysis indicates a significant positive correlation of photosynthetic rate with stomatal conductance while a negative correlation with anthocyanin and monoterpene contents under UV-B radiation

  12. False positive reaction due to endogenous biotin activity in glandular epithelium of decidua Reação falso positiva em epitélio glandular da decídua devido a atividade endógena de biotina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Cruz Spano

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Biotin-labeled probe was used in an in situ hybridisation assay to localize virus infection in formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded tissues taken from eleven abortion cases. Probes for human cytomegalovirus (HCMV, human Parvovirus B19 (B19 and human adenovirus type 2 (HAd2, were labeled with biotin-11-dUTP by nick-translation reaction. Streptavidin-alkaline-phosphatase (SAP was used to detect biotin, followed by 4-nitroblue tetrazolium/5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl phosphate (NBT/BCIP solution. Positive reaction was observed in nucleus of glandular ephitelium cells of decidua either in positive or in negative control at first and second gestational trimester. The reaction was not inhibited with blocking solution for alkaline phosphatase endogenous activity and it persisted even with probes omission. The use of adequate negative control permitted to reveal the presence of nuclear biotin in glandular epithelium of decidua, responsible for false positivity in detection systems involving streptavidin biotin system (StrepABC. The stained cells resembled to cytophatic effect due to herpesvirus, which could induce further misinterpretation. The results obtained in this study strongly recommend that DNA detection by in situ hybridisation reaction in gestational endometrium should be done without using StrepABC system.Sondas marcadas com biotina foram utilizadas neste trabalho para detecção de infecção viral por hibridização in situ em tecidos fixados com formalina e embebidos em parafina de 11 casos obtidos de abortamento. Sondas para citomegalovírus humano (HCMV, parvovírus B19 humano (B19 e adenovírus humano tipo 2 (HAd2, foram marcadas com biotina-11-dUTP através da reação de nick-translation. Estreptavidina conjugada com fosfatase alcalina (SAP seguida por solução de 4-nitro-azul de tetrazolio/5-bromo-4-cloro-3-indolil fosfato (NBT/BCIP foram utilizadas para detecção da biotina após a reação de hibridização. Reação positiva foi

  13. Bio-raffinage de plantes aromatiques et médicinales appliqué à l'Hibiscus sabdariffa L. et à l'Artemisia annua

    OpenAIRE

    Endrias, Abraham

    2006-01-01

    L'objectif de l'étude était d'évaluer les potentialités aromatiques et médicinales de deux plantes (Hibiscus sabdariffa et Artemisia annua). Les performances et rendement de plusieurs méthodes d'extraction et de solvants sur des calices et des graines d'hibiscus, issus de trois pays (Vietnam, Sénégal et Mexique) ont été comparés. Les profils en composés volatifs diffèrent selon les extraits. La teneur en acide gras, stérols et tocophérols des huiles des graines d'hibiscus est comparable à cel...

  14. Effects of artemisinin and Artemisia annua extracts on xenic bacteria isolated from clonal cultures of Histomonas meleagridis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøfner, I.C.N.; Hess, C.; Liebhart, D.

    Infection with the protozoa Histomonas meleagridis in poultry has re-emerged since the ban of effective drugs. Consequently efforts are set to find alternatives to chemotherapeutics to combat histomonosis. At present histomonads need accompanying bacteria when cultured in vitro, probably serving...... nutrient supply due to their appearance in parasitic food vacuoles. However, the relationship of the parasite and the bacteria is not fully clear. Six previously established clonal cultures of H. meleagridis were used to evaluate the effect of five Artemisia annua derived materials (i.e. dry leaves...... with the antibacterial tests, it is reasonable to assume that the observed inhibitory effect of the tested materials is attributed to a direct effect on the protozoa. However, the potential of these materials on histomonosis has been tested in vivo in chickens and in turkeys without success....

  15. Antihistomonal effects of artemisinin and Artemisia annua extracts in vitro could not be confirmed by in vivo experiments in turkeys and chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøfner, I.C.N.; Liebhart, D.; Hess, M.

    2012-01-01

    Five different Artemisia annua-derived materials (i.e. dry leaves, pure artemisinin, and hexane, dichloromethane or methanol extracts of leaves) were screened for their in vitro activities against six clonal cultures of Histomonas meleagridis. Except for the methanol extract, all tested materials....... The dichloromethane extract of dry leaves (Ext-DCM) (minimal lethal concentration1.0 mg/ml) and artemisinin (half-maximal inhibitory concentration1.295 mg/ml) had the most promising antihistomonal properties and were therefore subsequently tested in a standardized experimental infection model in both turkeys...... displayed in vitro activity against all tested protozoal clones. Neither the dry plant material, extracts nor artemisinin showed any antibacterial activity against the xenic bacteria accompanying the six H. meleagridis clones at concentration levels identical to the antihistomonal setting...

  16. Flower and floral trichome morphology of species of Dyckia Schult. f. (Bromeliaceae, Pitcairnioideae, and their importance to species characterization and genus taxonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordano Dorval Tavares de Carvalho

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This paper presents a morphological analysis of the flower and floral trichomes of three rare species of Dyckia: Dyckia ibicuiensis, D. polyclada and D. racinae. Flowers at anthesis were collected from natural populations and subjected to morphometric and microscopic analysis. Among the most representative features for Dyckia are: morphometrics of individual floral parts; the general configuration of the androecium and gynoecium; the degree of fusion of the stigmatic lobes; the morphology of the ovules, especially in relation to the chalazal appendix; and the presence and constitution of peltate trichomes in the perianth, which exhibited a polymorphism not previously reported for Dyckia. The characters were effective at describing each species, proposing phylogenetic inferences and recognizing infrageneric groupings. We propose two species groups, which are consistent with previous hypotheses about the relationships among the species of the genus. The objective of this study was to provide floral morphological data useful for characterizing these three rare species, delimiting the genus and forming phylogenetic hypotheses.

  17. The activity of the artemisinic aldehyde Δ11(13) reductase promoter is important for artemisinin yield in different chemotypes of Artemisia annua L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ke; Monfared, Sajad Rashidi; Monafared, Rashidi Sajad; Wang, Hongzhen; Lundgren, Anneli; Brodelius, Peter E

    2015-07-01

    The artemisinic aldehyde double bond reductase (DBR2) plays an important role in the biosynthesis of the antimalarial artemisinin in Artemisia annua. Artemisinic aldehyde is reduced into dihydroartemisinic aldehyde by DBR2. Artemisinic aldehyde can also be oxidized by amorpha-4,11-diene 12-hydroxylase and/or aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 to artemisinic acid, a precursor of arteannuin B. In order to better understand the effects of DBR2 expression on the flow of artemisinic aldehyde into either artemisinin or arteannuin B, we determined the content of dihydroartemisinic aldehyde, artemisinin, artemisinic acid and arteannuin B content of A. annua varieties sorted into two chemotypes. The high artemisinin producers (HAPs), which includes the '2/39', 'Chongqing' and 'Anamed' varieties, produce more artemisinin than arteannuin B; the low artemisinin producers (LAPs), which include the 'Meise', 'Iran#8', 'Iran#14', 'Iran#24' and 'Iran#47' varieties, produce more arteannuin B than artemisinin. Quantitative PCR showed that the relative expression of DBR2 was significantly higher in the HAP varieties. We cloned and sequenced the promoter of the DBR2 gene from varieties of both the LAP and the HAP groups. There were deletions/insertions in the region just upstream of the ATG start codon in the LAP varities, which might be the reason for the different promoter activities of the HAP and LAP varieties. The relevance of promoter variation, DBR2 expression levels and artemisinin biosynthesis capabilities are discussed and a selection method for HAP varieties with a DNA marker is suggested. Furthermore, putative cis-acting regulatory elements differ between the HAP and LAP varieties.

  18. Redescription of Proteocephalus glanduligerus (Cestoda: Proteocephalidea), a parasite of clariid catfishes in Africa with a unique glandular apical organ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Tomás; de Chambrier, Alain; Beletew, Moges; Mahmoud, Zuheir N

    2009-04-01

    The tapeworm Proteocephalus glanduligerus (Janicki, 1928) Fuhrmann, 1933 (Cestoda: Proteocephalidea), a parasite of clariid catfishes (Clarias spp.) in Africa, is redescribed on the basis of an evaluation of voucher material and newly collected specimens from Clarias gariepinus and C. cf. anguillaris from the Sudan, Ethiopia, and South Africa. The most typical characteristic of P. glanduligerus (previously misspelled as P. glanduligera or P. glanduliger) is the presence of an extremely large glandular apical organ, the size of which is 1.6-3.5 times larger than that of the suckers. In addition, other morphological characteristics unreported in previous accounts are provided, such as an unusual position of osmoregulatory canals (situated close to each other, with the dorsal canal latero-ventral to testes), the presence of a vaginal sphincter, several (usually 3-5) uterine pores, and eggs with paired lateral auricular swellings (extensions) of the outer envelope.

  19. Digital breast tomosynthesis and digital mammography: A comparison of figures of merit for various average glandular doses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ye-seul; Park, Hye-Suk; Park, SuJin; Kim, Hee-Joung; Choi, Jae-Gu; Choi, Young-Wook; Park, Jun-Ho; Lee, Jae-Jun

    2013-05-01

    Previous studies on the application of tomosynthesis to breast imaging have demonstrated the potential of digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT). DBT can improve the specificity of digital mammography (DM) through improved marginal visibility of lesions and early breast cancer detection for women with dense breasts. To investigate possible improvements in the accuracy of lesion detection with DBT systems as compared to DM, we conducted a quantitative evaluation by using simulated lesions embedded in a breast phantom. A prototype DBT and dedicated DM system were used in this study. For the DBT system, the average glandular dose (AGD) was calculated using a formalism that was a simple extension of mammography dosimetry. The DBT and the DM images were acquired with average glandular doses (AGDs) ranging from 1 to 4 mGy. To analyze the results objectively, we calculated metrics for in-plane lesion visibility in the form of the contrast-to-noise ratio for the in-focus plane from the DBT reconstruction image and from the craniocaudal (CC) image from the DM system. The imaging performance of DBT was quantitatively compared with that of DM in terms of the figure of merit. Although the DM showed better results in terms of the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of the mass due to the reduced overlapping of tissue and lesion, an increase in breast thickness of over 3 cm increased the CNR of the mass with the DBT system. For microcalcification detection, the DBT system showed significantly higher CNR than the DM system and gave better predictions of the microcalcification size. We compared the performances of the DM and the DBT systems for various AGDs and breast thicknesses. In conclusion, the results indicate that the DBT systems can play an important role in the detection of masses or microcalcifications without severe compression.

  20. Histochemical evidence of β-chitin in parapodial glandular organs and tubes of Spiophanes (Annelida, Sedentaria: Spionidae), and first studies on selected Annelida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guggolz, Theresa; Henne, Stephan; Politi, Yael; Schütz, Roman; Mašić, Admir; Müller, Carsten H G; Meißner, Karin

    2015-12-01

    A generic character of the genus Spiophanes (Annelida, Sedentaria: Spionidae) is the presence of parapodial glandular organs. Parapodial glandular organs in Spiophanes species include secretory cells with cup-shaped microvilli, similar to those present in deep-sea inhabiting vestimentiferans and frenulate Siboglinidae. These cells are supposed to secrete β-chitin for tube-building. In this study, transverse histological and/or ultrathin sections of parapodial glandular organs and tubes of Spiophanes spp. as well as of Glandulospio orestes (Spionidae) and Owenia fusiformis (Oweniidae) were examined. Fluorescent markers together with confocal laser scanning microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy were used to detect chitin in the parapodial glandular organs of Spiophanes and/or in the glands of Owenia and Glandulospio. Tubes of these taxa were tested for chitin to elucidate the use of it for tube-building. The examinations revealed a distinct labelling of the gland contents. Raman spectroscopy documented the presence of β-chitin in both gland types of Spiophanes. The tubes of Spiophanes were found to have a grid-like structure that seems to be built with this β-chitin. Tests of tubes of Dipolydora quadrilobata (Spionidae) for chitin were negative. However, the results of our study provide strong evidence that Spiophanes species, O. fusiformis and probably also G. orestes produce chitin and supposedly use it for tube-building. This implies that the production of chitin and its use as a constituent part of tube-building is more widespread among polychaetes as yet known. The histochemical data presented in this study support previous assumptions inferring homology of parapodial glandular organs of Spionidae and Siboglinidae based on ultrastructure. Furthermore, transmission electron microscopy-based evidence of secretory cells with nail-headed microvilli in O. fusiformis suggests homology of parapodial grandular organs across annelids including Sipuncula. © 2015 Wiley

  1. Efeito de aleloquímicos em tricomas foliares de tomateiro na repelência a ácaro (Tetranychus urticae Koch. em genótipos com teores contrastantes de 2-tridecanona Effect of allelochemicals in tomato leaf trichomes on mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch. repellency in genotypes with different levels of 2-tridecanone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Aragão

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a ação de repelência a ácaro Tetranychus urticae Koch. em folíolos de tomateiro com altos teores do aleloquímico 2-tridecanona (2-TD associado a tricomas glandulares, utilizaram-se linhagens avançadas 'TOM 600' e 'TOM 601' (altos teores de 2-TD 'TOM 584' (padrão com baixo teor de 2-TD e seus parentais 'PI 134417' Lycopersicon hirsutum Dunal var. glabratum Mill. (alto teor de 2-TD e 'TOM 556' Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. (baixo teor de 2-TD. O experimento foi realizado em câmara com temperatura de 16 ºC e 68% de umidade. A metodologia usada consistiu em se colocar um folíolo de cada genótipo sobre uma folha de papel tipo ofício, a qual foi fixada sobre uma folha de isopor. O folíolo foi fixado com uma tachinha metálica no centro do mesmo, sendo então colocados 10 ácaros fêmeas sobre a tachinha para que fossem medidas as distâncias percorridas pelos artrópodes em tempos diferenciados. De maneira geral, a distância percorrida pelos ácaros aumentou de acordo com maiores tempos de ensaio. Obteve-se em 'PI 134417', juntamente com 'TOM 600' e 'TOM 601', menores médias de distâncias percorridas pelos ácaros nos tempos avaliados em comparação ao 'TOM 556' e 'TOM 584' em razão da repelência exercida que se associa a maiores teores de 2-tridecanona.For the evaluation of the mites (Tetranychus urticae Koch. repellency in tomato leaflets with high levels of 2-tridecanone (2-TD associated to glandular trichomes, we used the advanced lines, 'TOM 600' and 'TOM 601' (high 2-TD levels 'TOM 584' (control, low 2-TD levels and the parents 'PI 134417' Lycopersicon hirsutum Dunal var. glabratum (high 2-TD levels and 'TOM 556' Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. (low 2-TD levels. The experiment was carried out at 16ºC and 68% relative moisture. Leaflets of each genotype were placed on a sheet of paper, set on a Styrofoam sheet. Ten female mites were placed on a metallic thumbtack at the center of the leaflets, and the

  2. Dosagem de artemisinina em Artemisia annua L. por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência com detecção por índice de refração

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lúcia Garcia Rehder

    Full Text Available Artemisinin is a sesquiterpene lactone used in treatment of chloroquine-resistant malaria. This paper presents high-performance liquid chromatographic assay for artemisinin in leaves of A. annua using differential refractometer detector and a single step of clean-up in a silica cartridge. The average of recoveries were 95% and the limit of quantification was 0,21% p/p using 200 mg of the leaves. This method was found to be simple, robust and relatively rapid.

  3. Vztahy variant literae annuae domu třetí probace v Telči v letech 1656–1660. Analýza a komparace kopií

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ramešová, Michaela; Valecký, Štěpán

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 1 (2016), s. 87-106 ISSN 0231-7494 R&D Projects: GA MK(CZ) DG16P02M043 Keywords : annual reports * Jesuits * Telč * Literae Annuae * comparison of texts Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage http://www.hiu.cas.cz/cs/download/periodika/2016/fhb-1-2016-obsah.pdf

  4. The effect of Artemisia annua on broiler performance, on intestinal microbiota and on the course of a Clostridium perfringens infection applying a necrotic enteritis disease model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Ricarda; Grevsen, Kai; Ivarsen, Elise

    2012-01-01

    and 20 g/kg) and n-hexane extract from fresh A. annua leaves (0, 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg) on broiler performance was investigated. Dried plant material decreased feed intake and body weight in a dose-dependent manner, and 10 and 20 g/kg diet tended to improve the feed conversion ratio. The n-hexane...... extract also reduced feed intake, but broiler weight tended to decrease only at the highest dietary concentration. The feed conversion ratio tended to improve when birds received 250 and 500 mg/kg n-hexane extract. In a third experiment, a necrotic enteritis disease model was applied to investigate...... the effect of the dietary addition of dried A. annua leaves (10 g/kg on top) or n-hexane extract of A. annua (250 mg/kg) on the severity of the disease in broilers. The addition of n-hexane extract reduced the intestinal C. perfringens numbers and the severity of the disease-related small intestinal lesions...

  5. A single amino acid substitution in IIIf subfamily of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor AtMYC1 leads to trichome and root hair patterning defects by abolishing its interaction with partner proteins in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongtao; Wang, Xiaoxue; Zhu, Dandan; Cui, Sujuan; Li, Xia; Cao, Ying; Ma, Ligeng

    2012-04-20

    Plant trichomes and root hairs are powerful models for the study of cell fate determination. In Arabidopsis thaliana, trichome and root hair initiation requires a combination of three groups of proteins, including the WD40 repeat protein transparent TESTA GLABRA1 (TTG1), R2R3 repeat MYB protein GLABRA1 (GL1), or werewolf (WER) and the IIIf subfamily of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) protein GLABRA3 (GL3) or enhancer of GLABRA3 (EGL3). The bHLH component acts as a docking site for TTG1 and MYB proteins. Here, we isolated a mutant showing defects in trichome and root hair patterning that carried a point mutation (R173H) in AtMYC1 that encodes the fourth member of IIIf bHLH family protein. Genetic analysis revealed partial redundant yet distinct function between AtMYC1 and GL3/EGL3. GLABRA2 (GL2), an important transcription factor involved in trichome and root hair control, was down-regulated in Atmyc1 plants, suggesting the requirement of AtMYC1 for appropriate GL2 transcription. Like its homologs, AtMYC1 formed a complex with TTG1 and MYB proteins but did not dimerized. In addition, the interaction of AtMYC1 with MYB proteins and TTG1 was abrogated by the R173H substitution in Atmyc1-1. We found that this amino acid (Arg) is conserved in the AtMYC1 homologs GL3/EGL3 and that it is essential for their interaction with MYB proteins and for their proper functions. Our findings indicate that AtMYC1 is an important regulator of trichome and root hair initiation, and they reveal a novel amino acid necessary for protein-protein interactions and gene function in IIIf subfamily bHLH transcription factors.

  6. A Single Amino Acid Substitution in IIIf Subfamily of Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factor AtMYC1 Leads to Trichome and Root Hair Patterning Defects by Abolishing Its Interaction with Partner Proteins in Arabidopsis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongtao; Wang, Xiaoxue; Zhu, Dandan; Cui, Sujuan; Li, Xia; Cao, Ying; Ma, Ligeng

    2012-01-01

    Plant trichomes and root hairs are powerful models for the study of cell fate determination. In Arabidopsis thaliana, trichome and root hair initiation requires a combination of three groups of proteins, including the WD40 repeat protein TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1 (TTG1), R2R3 repeat MYB protein GLABRA1 (GL1), or WEREWOLF (WER) and the IIIf subfamily of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) protein GLABRA3 (GL3) or ENHANCER OF GLABRA3 (EGL3). The bHLH component acts as a docking site for TTG1 and MYB proteins. Here, we isolated a mutant showing defects in trichome and root hair patterning that carried a point mutation (R173H) in AtMYC1 that encodes the fourth member of IIIf bHLH family protein. Genetic analysis revealed partial redundant yet distinct function between AtMYC1 and GL3/EGL3. GLABRA2 (GL2), an important transcription factor involved in trichome and root hair control, was down-regulated in Atmyc1 plants, suggesting the requirement of AtMYC1 for appropriate GL2 transcription. Like its homologs, AtMYC1 formed a complex with TTG1 and MYB proteins but did not dimerized. In addition, the interaction of AtMYC1 with MYB proteins and TTG1 was abrogated by the R173H substitution in Atmyc1-1. We found that this amino acid (Arg) is conserved in the AtMYC1 homologs GL3/EGL3 and that it is essential for their interaction with MYB proteins and for their proper functions. Our findings indicate that AtMYC1 is an important regulator of trichome and root hair initiation, and they reveal a novel amino acid necessary for protein-protein interactions and gene function in IIIf subfamily bHLH transcription factors. PMID:22334670

  7. Structure and properties of the glandular surface in the digestive zone of the pitcher in the carnivorous plant Nepenthes ventrata and its role in insect trapping and retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorb, Elena; Kastner, Victoria; Peressadko, Andrei; Arzt, Eduard; Gaume, Laurence; Rowe, Nick; Gorb, Stanislav

    2004-08-01

    Carnivorous plants of the genus Nepenthes grow in nutrient-poor habitats and have evolved specialised trapping organs, known as pitchers. These are composed of different surface zones serving the functions of attraction, capture and digestion of insects, which represent a main source of nitrogen. To investigate the role of the glandular digestive zone in the trapping mechanism of the pitcher, structural, mechanical and physico-chemical studies were applied to N. ventrata and combined with insect behavioural experiments. It was found that the glandular surface is microscopically rough since it is regularly structured with multicellular glands situated in epidermal depressions. The presence of downward-directed 'hoods' over the upper part of glands and sloped depressions in the proximal direction of the pitcher causes a marked anisotropy of the surface. The glandular zone surface is composed of relatively stiff material (Young's modulus, 637.19+/-213.44 kPa). It is not homogeneous, in terms of adhesive properties, and contains numerous areas without adhesion as well as adhesive areas differing greatly in tenacity values (range, 1.39-28.24 kPa). The surface is readily wettable with water (contact angle, 31.9-36.0 degrees C) and has a high surface free energy (56.84-61.93 mN m(-1)) with a relatively high polar component (33.09-52.70 mN m(-1)). To examine the effect of the glandular secretion on attachment systems of insects having hairy and smooth adhesive pads, forces generated on different surfaces by Calliphora vicina flies and Pyrrhocoris apterus bugs, respectively, were measured. Flies attached equally well to both fresh and air-dried glandular surfaces whereas bugs generated a significantly lower force on the fresh glandular surface compared with the air-dried one. It is assumed that the contribution of the glandular surface to insect retention, due to its effect on insect attachment, differs depending on insect weight and the type of insect attachment system

  8. Evaluation of the influence of parameters that determine the mean glandular dose in mammography using different detectors; Evaluacion de la influencia de los parametros que determinan la dosis glandular media en Mamografia utilizando diferentes detectores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, K.; Nogueira, M. S., E-mail: katicostabh@gmail.com [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear, Pos-graduacao em Ciencias e Tecnologia das Radiacoes, Minerais e Materiais / CNEN, Av. Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: Mammography is a test used for early detection of breast cancer. The mean glandular dose (MGD) is dosimetric greatness accepted as indicative of carcinogenic risk induced by ionizing radiation in the breasts of women undergoing mammography exams. MGD value is estimated from the incident air kerma (k i), associated with conversion factors which depend on the half-value layer (HVL), the breast composition and thickness compressed breast. This study aims to evaluate the influence of the parameters used to determine the MGD using different measurement detectors. Measurements were performed on a Siemens Mammomat Model 300 Nova mammography equipment; this has the combinations Anode/Filter of Mo/Mo, Mo/Rh and W/Rh. Detectors used were the ionization chamber Model 10X6-6M manufactured by Radcal Co., two solid-state detectors, one Model AGMS-M manufactured by Radcal Co. and other Model Xi Mammo manufactured by UNFORS. The detectors measures were compared and the MGD value was estimated; differences between measurements and the reference values were higher in HVL and k i parameters. The results are displayed according to other published works. (Author)

  9. Histochemical analyses of anti-microbial substances in canine perianal skin with special reference to glandular structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nara, T; Yasui, T; Fujimori, O; Meyer, W; Tsukise, A

    2013-04-01

    Circumanal glands are prominent features of the canine perianal skin, which are often located near to the sebaceous glands and apocrine glands. As the functional relevance of circumanal glands is yet unknown, we studied the localisation of sialic acids and anti-microbial substances (lysozyme, immunoglobulin A, lactoferrin, β-defensin) in these glandular structures by lectin histochemistry and immunohistochemistry. The glands exhibited a number of sialic acids that were linked to α2-6Gal/GalNAc and α2-3Galβ1-4GlcNAc. Additionally, lysozyme, lactoferrin and β-defensin could be demonstrated in the three types of skin glands, whereas IgA was only detectable in the apocrine glands. The results of the study suggest the specific significance of the circumanal glands. Independent of a certain endocrine role, their products may mainly function as protective agents to preserve the integrity of the anal region, considering that sialic acids and anti-microbial substances are important in defence mechanisms. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Obesity and the Endometrium: Adipocyte-Secreted Proinflammatory TNFα Cytokine Enhances the Proliferation of Human Endometrial Glandular Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta Nair

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity, a state of chronic inflammation, is associated with poor fertility and low implantation rates and is a well-documented risk factor for endometrial cancer. Adipokines, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha, play an important role in initiation of endometrial cancer. The aim of this study is to evaluate in vitro effects of human adipocyte cells (SW872 on growth of endometrial glandular epithelial cells (EGE. Methods. We measured cell proliferation and expression of cell-growth proteins—proliferating cell nuclear antigen, cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinase-1, and apoptotic markers (BCL-2 and BAK in human EGE cells cocultured with SW872 cells. EGE cells were also evaluated in SW872-conditioned media neutralized with anti-TNFα antibody. Results. A significant increase in EGE cell proliferation was observed in both SW872-conditioned media and in coculture (P<0.05. We observed an upregulation of proliferation markers PCNA, cyclin D1, CDK-1, and BCL-2 and decrease in BAK (P<0.05. Neutralization of SW872-conditioned media using anti-TNFα antibodies reversed EGE cell proliferation as indicated by BCL-2 expression. Conclusions. Adipocytes have potent proliferative paracrine effect on EGE cells which may be, in part, mediated via TNFα. Further understanding of the role of obesity in endometrial carcinogenesis should lead to better preventative and therapeutic strategies.

  11. Allele-specific recognition by LILRB3 and LILRA6 of a cytokeratin 8 - associated ligand on necrotic glandular epithelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Des C.; Hewitt, Colin R.A.; L?pez-?lvarez, Mar?a R.; Jahnke, Martin; Russell, Alasdair I.; Radjabova, Valeria; Trowsdale, Alice R.Z.; Trowsdale, John

    2016-01-01

    The LILRs are a family of receptors that regulate the activities of myelomonocytic cells. We found that specific allelic variants of two related members of the LILR family, LILRB3 and LILRA6, interact with a ligand exposed on necrotic glandular epithelial cells. The extracellular domains of LILRB3 and LILRA6 are very similar and their genes are highly polymorphic. A commonly occurring allele, LILRB3*12, displayed particularly strong binding of these necrotic cells and further screening of the...

  12. Entomology contribution in animal immunity: Determination of the crude thoraxial glandular protein extract of Stomoxys calcitrans as an antibody production enhancer in young horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Rumokoy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to evaluate the level of antigens protein contained in the crude thoraxial glandular protein (TGP extract of Stomoxys calcitrans which function as immunity enhancer in young horses. The detection of protein content of the thoraxial glandular samples was performed by using a spectrophotometer Nano Drop-1000. This result showed that the lowest level of antigen protein was 0.54 mg/mL, the highest was 72 mg/mL, and the average was 0.675 mg/mL. Six foals were used and divided into two groups. The first group was treated with a solution of 100 μg of TGP by subcutaneous injection, the other group acted as control. The TGP extract was injected on the first day of the experiment. Three ml of blood were sampled from the jugular vein on the 14th day after TGP injection. The blood sampled was centrifuged and its serum placed in micro-tubes to observe the IgG level. The injection of TGP had a significant effect on the IgG level of the experiment animals (P<0.05. This experiment emphasized an important relation between entomology and animal husbandry; health improvement in the young animals was observed after the injection of the insect antigen, so it can be concluded that crude thoraxial glandular proteins of S. calcitrans can be used to improve the immunoglobulin-G circulation in foals.

  13. SIALOGRAFIA DE PARÓTIDAS CLINICAMENTE NORMAIS: CLASSIFICAÇÃO ANATÔMICA E CORRELAÇÃO COM A FUNÇÃO GLANDULAR SIALOGRAPHY OF CLINICALLY NORMAL PAROTID GLANDS: ANATOMICAL CLASSIFICATION AND CORRELATION WITH GLANDULAR FUNCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo DI HIPÓLITO JUNIOR

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve por finalidade analisar e correlacionar as características anatômicas e a atividade funcional de glândulas parótidas saudáveis, empregando técnica sialográfica. O estudo anatômico foi realizado em 55 indivíduos, dos quais 37 participaram do exame funcional, que consistiu na verificação da eliminação da substância de contraste Lipiodol UF,, em glândulas estimuladas e não estimuladas. Os resultados demonstraram que a análise das imagens sialográficas pela observação do sistema de ductos glandulares permitiu a constituição de 5 grupos anatômicos distintos. Na avaliação funcional, as glândulas estimuladas levaram períodos de tempo mais uniformes e curtos para a eliminação do Lipiodol UF em relação às não estimuladas. A correlação dos achados anatômicos e funcionais mostrou que a média do tempo de eliminação da substância de contraste em glândulas estimuladas no Grupo I foi significantemente maior que as médias dos Grupos II e III; o tempo máximo para o esvaziamento de glândulas estimuladas foi de 5 minutos em todos os Grupos, enquanto que as glândulas não estimuladas não apresentaram diferença estatística entre os Grupos. Ao final, concluiu-se que a avaliação conjunta do modelo anatômico e da função excretora de glândulas deve ser realizada com a utilização de estímulo.The aim of the present study was to analyze and correlate anatomical features and the functional activity of healthy parotid glands using a sialographic technic. The anatomical study was performed in 55 subjects, from which 37 took part in the functional exam, which was to verify the elimination of the contrast substance, Lipiodol UF, in stimulated and non-stimulated glands. The results showed that the analysis of the sialographic image by the observation of the glandular duct system allowed the formation of 5 distinct anatomical groups. In the functional evaluation, stimulated glands presented more

  14. Rice Cakes Containing Dietary Fiber Supplemented with or without Artemisia Annua and Gynura Procumbens Merr. Alleviated the Risk Factors of Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Na Rae; Yoon, Sun; Lee, Seung-Min

    2016-04-01

    We investigated whether the consumption of Korean rice cakes enriched with dietary fiber with or without polyphenol rich plants might decrease the risk factors of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Rice cakes were manufactured using fructooligosaccharides, resistant starch, and psyllium as sources of dietary fibers with and without polyphenol rich Artemisia annua and Gynura procumbens Merr. (RC+FP and RC+F, respectively), and prepared in three forms (songpyeon, seolgidduk, and chaldduk). Ninety subjects with at least one MetS risk factor were recruited for 6 weeks of dietary intervention. Sixty subjects were finally included for the analysis. Compared to the initial values, RC+FP group had decreased levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG), HOMA-IR and blood pressure after 6 weeks, whereas RC+F group didn't have significant changes in them. Regarding the improvement of individual MetS risk factors, RC+FP group showed significant reduction in FBG and blood pressures but RC+F group only had reduction in systolic blood pressure. After the intervention, a reduction in the number of MetS risk factors was greatert in the RC+FP group than in the RC+F group. In conclusion, Dietary fiber enriched rice cakes with or without polyphenols decreased the number and/or the levels of MetS risk factors. Polyphenol rich plant components may provide additional health benefits in controlling FBG and blood pressure.

  15. Metabolic analysis of the increased adventitious rooting mutant of Artemisia annua reveals a role for the plant monoterpene borneol in adventitious root formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Na; Liu, Shuoqian; Li, Juan; Xu, Wenwen; Yuan, Lin; Huang, Jianan; Liu, Zhonghua

    2014-08-01

    Adventitious root (AR) formation is a critical process for plant clonal propagation. The role of plant secondary metabolites in AR formation is still poorly understood. Chemical and physical mutagenesis in combination with somatic variation were performed on Artemisia annua in order to obtain a mutant with changes in adventitious rooting and composition of plant secondary metabolites. Metabolic and morphological analyses of the iar (increased adventitious rooting) mutant coupled with in vitro assays were used to elucidate the relationship between plant secondary metabolites and AR formation. The only detected differences between the iar mutant and wild-type were rooting capacity and borneol/camphor content. Consistent with this, treatment with borneol in vitro promoted adventitious rooting in wild-type. The enhanced rooting did not continue upon removal of borneol. The iar mutant displayed no significant differences in AR formation upon treatment with camphor. Together, our results suggest that borneol promotes adventitious rooting whereas camphor has no effect on AR formation. © 2013 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  16. Detectability comparison between a high energy x-ray phase sensitive and mammography systems in imaging phantoms with varying glandular-adipose ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghani, Muhammad U.; Wong, Molly D.; Wu, Di; Zheng, Bin; Fajardo, Laurie L.; Yan, Aimin; Fuh, Janis; Wu, Xizeng; Liu, Hong

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate the potential benefits of using high energy x-rays in comparison with the conventional mammography imaging systems for phase sensitive imaging of breast tissues with varying glandular-adipose ratios. This study employed two modular phantoms simulating the glandular (G) and adipose (A) breast tissue composition in 50 G-50 A and 70 G-30 A percentage densities. Each phantom had a thickness of 5 cm with a contrast detail test pattern embedded in the middle. For both phantoms, the phase contrast images were acquired using a micro-focus x-ray source operated at 120 kVp and 4.5 mAs, with a magnification factor (M) of 2.5 and a detector with a 50 µm pixel pitch. The mean glandular dose delivered to the 50 G-50 A and 70 G-30 A phantom sets were 1.33 and 1.3 mGy, respectively. A phase retrieval algorithm based on the phase attenuation duality that required only a single phase contrast image was applied. Conventional low energy mammography images were acquired using GE Senographe DS and Hologic Selenia systems utilizing their automatic exposure control (AEC) settings. In addition, the automatic contrast mode (CNT) was also used for the acquisition with the GE system. The AEC mode applied higher dose settings for the 70 G-30 A phantom set. As compared to the phase contrast images, the dose levels for the AEC mode acquired images were similar while the dose levels for the CNT mode were almost double. The observer study, contrast-to-noise ratio and figure of merit comparisons indicated a large improvement with the phase retrieved images in comparison to the AEC mode images acquired with the clinical systems for both density levels. As the glandular composition increased, the detectability of smaller discs decreased with the clinical systems, particularly with the GE system, even at higher dose settings. As compared to the CNT mode (double dose) images, the observer study also indicated that the phase retrieved images provided

  17. Detectability comparison between a high energy x-ray phase sensitive and mammography systems in imaging phantoms with varying glandular-adipose ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghani, Muhammad U; Wong, Molly D; Wu, Di; Zheng, Bin; Fajardo, Laurie L; Yan, Aimin; Fuh, Janis; Wu, Xizeng; Liu, Hong

    2017-05-07

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate the potential benefits of using high energy x-rays in comparison with the conventional mammography imaging systems for phase sensitive imaging of breast tissues with varying glandular-adipose ratios. This study employed two modular phantoms simulating the glandular (G) and adipose (A) breast tissue composition in 50 G-50 A and 70 G-30 A percentage densities. Each phantom had a thickness of 5 cm with a contrast detail test pattern embedded in the middle. For both phantoms, the phase contrast images were acquired using a micro-focus x-ray source operated at 120 kVp and 4.5 mAs, with a magnification factor (M) of 2.5 and a detector with a 50 µm pixel pitch. The mean glandular dose delivered to the 50 G-50 A and 70 G-30 A phantom sets were 1.33 and 1.3 mGy, respectively. A phase retrieval algorithm based on the phase attenuation duality that required only a single phase contrast image was applied. Conventional low energy mammography images were acquired using GE Senographe DS and Hologic Selenia systems utilizing their automatic exposure control (AEC) settings. In addition, the automatic contrast mode (CNT) was also used for the acquisition with the GE system. The AEC mode applied higher dose settings for the 70 G-30 A phantom set. As compared to the phase contrast images, the dose levels for the AEC mode acquired images were similar while the dose levels for the CNT mode were almost double. The observer study, contrast-to-noise ratio and figure of merit comparisons indicated a large improvement with the phase retrieved images in comparison to the AEC mode images acquired with the clinical systems for both density levels. As the glandular composition increased, the detectability of smaller discs decreased with the clinical systems, particularly with the GE system, even at higher dose settings. As compared to the CNT mode (double dose) images, the observer study also indicated that the phase retrieved images provided

  18. Delayed diagnoses of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cancer after negative evaluation for atypical glandular cell pap smear: does age matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdini, Anthony F; Augart, Carolyn L; Olivieri, Michelle

    2013-10-01

    At initial evaluation, 1 in 6 women with atypical glandular cells (AGCs) on Pap smear has cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) or cancer. Years later, a greater-than-expected incidence of "significant delayed diagnoses" has been reported in women who had negative initial evaluation results. This study aimed to test the premise that AGC represents a lesser future risk for CIN 2/CIN 3/carcinoma in situ (CIS) and cancer after negative evaluation results in a population diagnosed at a young age (Pap smears (1997-2010); 213 were diagnosed with AGC, and 117 met inclusion criteria. Completed evaluation was consistent with American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology guidelines without finding CIN 2/CIN 3/CIS or cancer. Follow-up lasted for longer than 1 year. Categorical data were evaluated with χ. During the follow-up period that averaged for 85.3 months, the cohort had 4.5 mean Pap smears and reported 46 cytological diagnoses of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, 3 diagnoses of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, and 10 repeated diagnoses of AGCs. Two CIN 2/CIN 3/CIS lesions, 1 cervical cancer, and 1 endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia were confirmed on biopsy. Average age of patients at index Pap smear was 34.2 years (range = 15-64 years). Compared with a published report where the average age at index Pap smear was 41.5 years, our cohort developed a total of 4.3% significant delayed diagnoses versus 10.8% (significant difference, p = .046). During a 7-year follow-up, this cohort of 117 women with AGC and negative initial evaluation findings developed fewer significant delayed diagnoses than expected when compared with an older reported group and had no new extragynecological cancers. Age seems to be a risk factor for delayed diagnoses in patients with AGC.

  19. Human papillomavirus prevalence and type-distribution in cervical glandular neoplasias: Results from a European multinational epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holl, Katsiaryna; Nowakowski, Andrzej M; Powell, Ned; McCluggage, W Glenn; Pirog, Edyta C; Collas De Souza, Sabrina; Tjalma, Wiebren A; Rosenlund, Mats; Fiander, Alison; Castro Sánchez, Maria; Damaskou, Vasileia; Joura, Elmar A; Kirschner, Benny; Koiss, Robert; O'Leary, John; Quint, Wim; Reich, Olaf; Torné, Aureli; Wells, Michael; Rob, Lukas; Kolomiets, Larisa; Molijn, Anco; Savicheva, Alevtina; Shipitsyna, Elena; Rosillon, Dominique; Jenkins, David

    2015-12-15

    Cervical glandular neoplasias (CGN) present a challenge for cervical cancer prevention due to their complex histopathology and difficulties in detecting preinvasive stages with current screening practices. Reports of human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence and type-distribution in CGN vary, providing uncertain evidence to support prophylactic vaccination and HPV screening. This study [108288/108290] assessed HPV prevalence and type-distribution in women diagnosed with cervical adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS, N = 49), adenosquamous carcinoma (ASC, N = 104), and various adenocarcinoma subtypes (ADC, N = 461) from 17 European countries, using centralised pathology review and sensitive HPV testing. The highest HPV-positivity rates were observed in AIS (93.9%), ASC (85.6%), and usual-type ADC (90.4%), with much lower rates in rarer ADC subtypes (clear-cell: 27.6%; serous: 30.4%; endometrioid: 12.9%; gastric-type: 0%). The most common HPV types were restricted to HPV16/18/45, accounting for 98.3% of all HPV-positive ADC. There were variations in HPV prevalence and ADC type-distribution by country. Age at diagnosis differed by ADC subtype, with usual-type diagnosed in younger women (median: 43 years) compared to rarer subtypes (medians between 57 and 66 years). Moreover, HPV-positive ADC cases were younger than HPV-negative ADC. The six years difference in median age for women with AIS compared to those with usual-type ADC suggests that cytological screening for AIS may be suboptimal. Since the great majority of CGN are HPV16/18/45-positive, the incorporation of prophylactic vaccination and HPV testing in cervical cancer screening are important prevention strategies. Our results suggest that special attention should be given to certain rarer ADC subtypes as most appear to be unrelated to HPV. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of UICC.

  20. Mammography radiation dose: Initial results from Serbia based on mean glandular dose assessment for phantoms and patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciraj-Bjelac, O.; Beciric, S.; Arandjic, D.; Kosutic, D.; Kovacevic, M.

    2010-01-01

    The primary objective of this study is to investigate the actual mammography dose levels in Serbia and establish a baseline dose database for the future screening programme. The mean glandular dose (MGD) was assessed for standard size breast substituted by 45 mm polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) phantom and imaged under typical clinical conditions at 30 screen film mammography facilities. Average MGD was (1.9 ± 1.0) mGy, with a range of 0.12-5.2 mGy. These results were used for the calculation of the initial diagnostic reference levels in mammography in Serbia, which was set to 2.1 mGy for a standard breast. At some facilities, high doses were observed and the assessed MGD was supplemented by a patient dose survey. MGD was measured for 53 women having a diagnostic mammography in cranio-caudal (CC) and medio-lateral oblique (MLO) projections at the largest mammography facilities in Serbia. The parameters recorded were: age, compressed breast thickness, tube potential (in kV), tube loading (in mAs) and the MLO projection angle. The average MGD per image was 2.8 mGy for the CC projection and 4.3 mGy for the MLO projection. Dose to breast was compared with dose for PMMA phantoms of various sizes, assessed at the same facilities. The results have indicated that phantom dose values can assist in setting optimisation activities in mammography. Both phantom and patient dose values indicated unnecessary high doses in facilities with an extremely high mammography workload. For these facilities, urgent dose-reduction measures and follow-up actions were recommended. (authors)

  1. Caracterização anatômica e histoquímica dos órgãos vegetativos de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Renato Campos

    usual plant anatomy and histochemical techniques. The leaves are anfihipoestomática with anomocytic stomata; have tector and glandular trichomes that store essential oils. The stem has collateral-type vascular bundles arranged in a eustele structure; it also has glandular and tector trichomes. The root has brachysclereids ...

  2. A GLABRA1 ortholog on LG A9 controls trichome number in the Japanese leafy vegetables Mizuna and Mibuna (Brassica rapa L. subsp. nipposinica L. H. Bailey): evidence from QTL analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakatsu, Yaichi; Nakayama, Hokuto; Kaminoyama, Kaori; Igarashi, Kaori; Yasugi, Masaki; Kudoh, Hiroshi; Nagano, Atsushi J; Yano, Kentaro; Kubo, Nakao; Kimura, Seisuke

    2017-05-01

    Brassica rapa show a wide range of morphological variations. In particular, the leaf morphologies of the Japanese traditional leafy vegetables Mizuna and Mibuna (Brassica rapa L. subsp. nipposinica L. H. Bailey) are distinctly different, even though they are closely related cultivars that are easy to cross. In addition to the differences in the gross morphology of leaves, some cultivars of Mibuna (Kyo-nishiki) have many trichomes on its leaves, whereas Mizuna (Kyo-mizore) does not. To identify the genes responsible for the different number of trichomes, we performed a quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis of Mizuna and Mibuna. To construct linkage maps for these cultivars, we used RNA-seq data to develop cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) markers. We also performed a restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) analysis to detect single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Two QTL analyses were performed in different years, and both analyses indicated that the largest effect was found on LG A9. Expression analyses showed that a gene homologous to GLABRA1 (GL1), a transcription factor implicated in trichome development in Arabidopsis thaliana, and the sequences 3'-flanking (downstream) of BrGL1, differed considerably between Mizuna (Kyo-mizore) and Mibuna (Kyo-nishiki). These results indicate that BrGL1 on LG A9 is one of the candidate genes responsible for the difference in trichome number between Mizuna and Mibuna. Detecting genes that are responsible for morphological variations allows us to better understand the breeding history of Mizuna and Mibuna.

  3. On-line quantitative monitoring of liquid-liquid extraction of Lonicera japonica and Artemisia annua using near-infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sha; Jin, Ye; Liu, Qian; Liu, Qi-An; Wu, Jianxiong; Bi, Yu-An; Wang, Zhengzhong; Xiao, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Liquid-liquid extraction of Lonicera japonica and Artemisia annua (JQ) plays a significant role in manufacturing Reduning injection. Many process parameters may influence liquid-liquid extraction and cause fluctuations in product quality. To develop a near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy method for on-line monitoring of liquid-liquid extraction of JQ. Eleven batches of JQ extraction solution were obtained, ten for building quantitative models and one for assessing the predictive accuracy of established models. Neochlorogenic acid (NCA), chlorogenic acid (CA), cryptochlorogenic acid (CCA), isochlorogenic acid B (ICAB), isochlorogenic acid A (ICAA), isochlorogenic acid C (ICAC) and soluble solid content (SSC) were selected as quality control indicators, and measured by reference methods. NIR spectra were collected in transmittance mode. After selecting the spectral sub-ranges, optimizing the spectral pretreatment and neglecting outliers, partial least squares regression models were built to predict the content of indicators. The model performance was evaluated by the coefficients of determination (R (2)), the root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) and the relative standard error of prediction (RSEP). For NCA, CA, CCA, ICAB, ICAA, ICAC and SSC, R (2) was 0.9674, 0.9704, 0.9641, 0.9514, 0.9436, 0.9640, 0.9809, RMSEP was 0.0280, 0.2913, 0.0710, 0.0590, 0.0815, 0.1506, 1.167, and RSEP was 2.32%, 4.14%, 3.86%, 5.65%, 7.29%, 6.95% and 4.18%, respectively. This study demonstrated that NIR spectroscopy could provide good predictive ability in monitoring of the content of quality control indicators in liquid-liquid extraction of JQ.

  4. Molecular cloning, expression, and characterization of amorpha-4,11-diene synthase, a key enzyme of artemisinin biosynthesis in Artemisia annua L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercke, P; Bengtsson, M; Bouwmeester, H J; Posthumus, M A; Brodelius, P E

    2000-09-15

    In plants, sesquiterpenes of different structural types are biosynthesized from the isoprenoid intermediate farnesyl diphosphate. The initial reaction of the biosynthesis is catalyzed by sesquiterpene cyclases (synthases). In Artemisia annua L. (annual wormwood), a number of such sesquiterpene cyclases are active. We have isolated a cDNA clone encoding one of these, amorpha-4,11-diene synthase, a putative key enzyme of artemisinin biosynthesis. This clone contains a 1641-bp open reading frame coding for 546 amino acids (63.9 kDa), a 12-bp 5'-untranslated end, and a 427-bp 3'-untranslated sequence. The deduced amino acid sequence is 32 to 51% identical with the sequence of other known sesquiterpene cyclases from angiosperms. When expressed in Escherichia coli, the recombinant enzyme catalyzed the formation of both olefinic (97.5%) and oxygenated (2.5%) sesquiterpenes from farnesyl diphosphate. GC-MS analysis identified the olefins as (E)-beta-farnesene (0.8%), amorpha-4,11diene (91.2%), amorpha-4,7(11)-diene (3.7%), gamma-humulene (1.0%), beta-sesquiphellandrene (0.5%), and an unknown olefin (0.2%) and the oxygenated sesquiterpenes as amorpha-4-en-11-ol (0.2%) (tentatively), amorpha-4-en-7-ol (2.1%), and alpha-bisabolol (0.3%) (tentatively). Using geranyl diphosphate as substrate, amorpha-4,11-diene synthase did not produce any monoterpenes. The recombinant enzyme has a broad pH optimum between 7.5 and 9.0 and the Km values for farnesyl diphosphate, Mg2+, and Mn2+ are 0.9, 70, and 13 microM, respectively, at pH 7.5. A putative reaction mechanism for amorpha-4,11-diene synthase is suggested.

  5. Two new non-spiny Solanum (Solanaceae from the Gran Chaco Americano and a key for the herbaceous glandular-pubescent solanums from the region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiina Sarkinen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Gran Chaco Americano is a major savanna woodland system in South America that harbours great plant and animal diversity. Two new herbaceous species of the Morelloid clade of Solanum (largely corresponding to the traditional Solanum section Solanum are described here from the Bolivian Chaco. Both species are morphologically similar to a group of related species with glandular pubescence and enlarged, foliaceous calyces that includes S. atriplicifolium Gillies ex Nees, S. nitidibaccatum Bitter, S. physalifolium Rusby, S. sarrachoides Sendtn. and S. tweedianum Hook. Solanum woodii Särkinen & S.Knapp, sp. nov. is unusual in the Morelloid clade in having tapering anthers on short filaments, and is superficially similar to the unrelated S. anomalostemon S.Knapp & M.Nee from dry forests in Peru. Solanum michaelis Särkinen & S.Knapp, sp. nov. is distinct in its enlarged calyx with a short tube and long lobes that apparently reflex at fruit maturity. Both new taxa are illustrated, their conservation status assessed, and their distributions mapped. We also provide a key to the glandular-pubescent herbaceous Solanum species of the Chaco vegetation to aid in identification of these taxa.

  6. p40 as a Basal Cell Marker in the Diagnosis of Prostate Glandular Proliferations: A Comparative Immunohistochemical Study with 34betaE12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermann Brustmann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunohistochemistry is important for the accurate diagnosis of basal cells in atypical glandular proliferations of the prostate. p40, an isoform of p63, may be an adjunct to a marker panel in this setting. Biopsies of 68 patients were analyzed by immunohistochemistry using antibodies to 34betaE12 and p40. Basal cell staining was classified as negative, partial (<60%, or diffuse (≥60%; irregular staining was defined as discordant staining patterns. In acinar proliferations (N=41, partial staining for both markers was seen in 42%, and diffuse staining in 46% of reactive cases. An irregular reactivity was noted in one case only (2%. Finally, these lesions were signed out as benign. Acinar proliferations negative for both markers and limited amount of glands (≤4 were termed atypical small acinar proliferations (ASAP. Out of six PIN lesions two cases showed partial, three cases showed diffuse reactivity for both markers, and one case was stained irregular. All cases diagnosed as prostate carcinomas (N=20 had no evidence of basal cell staining for neither of the markers. p40 expression is closely correlated to 34betaE12 with respect to demonstration of basal cells of prostate glands and may provide further information on the dignity of glandular proliferations of the prostate.

  7. Spatially distinct expression of two new cytochrome P450s in leaves of Nepeta racemosa: identification of a trichome-specific isoform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, I M; Forde, B G; Hallahan, D L

    1997-03-01

    Using a PCR-based approach, two novel cytochrome P450 cDNAs were isolated from a catmint (Nepeta racemosa) leaf cDNA library. The cDNAs (pBSK3C7 and pBSK4C3) were 76.9% identical in their nucleotide sequences, indicating that they are the products of two closely-related genes. A comparison of the sequence of these cDNAs with database sequences indicated that they represent new members of the CYP71 gene family of plant cytochrome P450s. Clone pBSK3C7 contains the full-length coding sequence of a cytochrome P450, whilst pBSK4C3 lacks ca. 6 codons at the 5' end. The cytochromes P450 encoded by these clones were designated CYP71A5 and CYP71A6 (pBSK3C7 and pBSK4C3, respectively). Southern blot analysis indicated that the corresponding genes were present as single copies in the genome of N. racemosa. Northern blot analysis showed that a gene homologous with CYP71A5 was expressed in the related species N. cataria, but no homologue of CYP71A6 was detected in this species. Expression of CYP71A5 in N. racemosa was maximal in flowers, tissues within the apical bud, and young expanded leaves. That of CYP71A6 was maximal in older leaves. Expression of CYP71A5 occurred exclusively in trichomes present on the leaf surfaces, in contrast to that of CYP71A6, which occurred predominantly within the leaf blade tissues.

  8. High grade serous ovarian carcinoma with serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma in a case presented with atypical glandular cell favor neoplasm cervical cytology and dermatomyositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Mun-Kun; Lee, Ming-Hsun; Ding, Dah-Ching; Chu, Sung-Chao; Chu, Tang-Yuan

    2015-04-01

    This report describes a case of serous ovarian carcinoma with occult serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (STIC), which presented as atypical glandular cells favor neoplasia (AGC-FN) with Pap cytology and dermatomyositis. A 48-year-old woman presented with symptoms of dermatomyositis. An AGC-FN result from a Pap smear, with an absence of a cervical or endometrial lesion was noted. After cancer surveillance, ovarian high grade serous carcinoma associated with serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma was diagnosed. Two weeks following surgical excision of the carcinoma, dramatic remission of the dermatomyositis symptoms was evident. The patient had serous carcinoma of the ovary with tubal STIC, which presented as dermatomyositis. The AGC-FN identified from a Pap smear hinted at a diagnosis of ovarian carcinoma. These presentations point to an occult malignancy in the genital tract and demand careful diagnostic workup. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Usefulness of p16ink4a, ProEX C, and Ki-67 for the diagnosis of glandular dysplasia and adenocarcinoma of the cervix uteri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negri, Giovanni; Bellisano, Giulia; Carico, Elisabetta; Faa, Gavino; Kasal, Armin; Antoniazzi, Sonia; Egarter-Vigl, Eduard; Piccin, Andrea; Dalla Palma, Paolo; Vittadello, Fabio

    2011-07-01

    Although the diagnostic criteria of in-situ and invasive adenocarcinomas of the cervix uteri are well established, the differentiation from benign mimics may be difficult and the morphologic features of the precursors of endocervical adenocarcinoma are still debated. In this study, we evaluated the usefulness of p16ink4a (p16), ProEX C, and Ki-67 for the diagnosis of endocervical adenocarcinoma and its precursors. Immunohistochemistry with p16, ProEX C, and Ki-67 was performed in 82 glandular lesions including 15 invasive adenocarcinomas, 29 adenocarcinomas in situ (AIS), 22 non-neoplastic samples, and 16 cases of glandular dysplasia (GD), which showed significant nuclear abnormalities but did not meet the diagnostic criteria for AIS. The immunohistochemical expression pattern was scored according to the percentage of the stained cells (0, 1+, 2+, and 3+ when 0% to 5%, 6% to 25%, 26% to 50%, and more than 50% of the cells were stained, respectively) and was evaluated for each antibody. p16 was at least focally expressed (1+ or more) in 14 of 15 invasive adenocarcinomas, in all AIS and in 7 negative samples. ProEX C and Ki-67 both scored 1+ or more in all adenocarcinomas and AIS and in 8 and 6 negative samples, respectively. Of the GD 15, 14, and 15 expressed p16, ProEX C, and Ki-67, respectively. The score differences between neoplastic and non-neoplastic samples were highly significant for each marker (Pcervix uteri and may also improve the diagnostic accuracy of endocervical GD. In particularly problematic cases, the combination of p16 and a proliferation marker can provide additional help for the interpretation of these lesions.

  10. Chemopreventive Activity of MGN-3/Biobran Against Chemical Induction of Glandular Stomach Carcinogenesis in Rats and Its Apoptotic Effect in Gastric Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badr El-Din, Nariman K; Abdel Fattah, Salma M; Pan, Deyu; Tolentino, Lucilene; Ghoneum, Mamdooh

    2016-12-01

    In the current study, we investigated the chemopreventive activity of arabinoxylan rice bran, MGN-3/Biobran, against chemical induction of glandular stomach carcinogenesis in rats. Gastric cancer was induced by carcinogen methylnitronitrosoguanidine (MNNG), and rats received MNNG alone or MNNG plus Biobran (40 mg/kg body weight) for a total of 8 months. Averaged results from 2 separate readings showed that exposure to MNNG plus Biobran caused gastric dysplasia and cancer (adenocarcinoma) in 4.5/12 rats (9/24 readings, 37.5%), with 3.5/12 rats (7/24 readings, 29.2%) showing dysplasia and 1/12 rats (8.3%) developing adenocarcinoma. In contrast, in rats treated with MNNG alone, 8/10 (80%) developed dysplasia and adenocarcinoma, with 6/10 rats (60%) showing dysplasia and 2/10 rats (20%) developing adenocarcinoma. The effect of combining both agents was also associated with significant suppression of the expression of the tumor marker Ki-67 and remarkable induction in the apoptotic gastric cancer cells via mitochondrial-dependent pathway as indicated by the upregulation in p53 expression, Bax expression, downregulation in Bcl-2 expression, an increase in Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, and an activation of caspase-3. In addition, Biobran treatment induced cell-cycle arrest in the subG1 phase, where the hypodiploid cell population was markedly increased. Moreover, Biobran treatment protected rats against MNNG-induced significant decrease in lymphocyte levels. We conclude that Biobran provides protection against chemical induction of glandular stomach carcinogenesis in rats and may be useful for the treatment of human patients with gastric cancer. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Average glandular dose in paired digital mammography and digital breast tomosynthesis acquisitions in a population based screening program: effects of measuring breast density, air kerma and beam quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helge Østerås, Bjørn; Skaane, Per; Gullien, Randi; Catrine Trægde Martinsen, Anne

    2018-02-01

    The main purpose was to compare average glandular dose (AGD) for same-compression digital mammography (DM) and digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) acquisitions in a population based screening program, with and without breast density stratification, as determined by automatically calculated breast density (Quantra™). Secondary, to compare AGD estimates based on measured breast density, air kerma and half value layer (HVL) to DICOM metadata based estimates. AGD was estimated for 3819 women participating in the screening trial. All received craniocaudal and mediolateral oblique views of each breasts with paired DM and DBT acquisitions. Exposure parameters were extracted from DICOM metadata. Air kerma and HVL were measured for all beam qualities used to acquire the mammograms. Volumetric breast density was estimated using Quantra™. AGD was estimated using the Dance model. AGD reported directly from the DICOM metadata was also assessed. Mean AGD was 1.74 and 2.10 mGy for DM and DBT, respectively. Mean DBT/DM AGD ratio was 1.24. For fatty breasts: mean AGD was 1.74 and 2.27 mGy for DM and DBT, respectively. For dense breasts: mean AGD was 1.73 and 1.79 mGy, for DM and DBT, respectively. For breasts of similar thickness, dense breasts had higher AGD for DM and similar AGD for DBT. The DBT/DM dose ratio was substantially lower for dense compared to fatty breasts (1.08 versus 1.33). The average c-factor was 1.16. Using previously published polynomials to estimate glandularity from thickness underestimated the c-factor by 5.9% on average. Mean AGD error between estimates based on measurements (air kerma and HVL) versus DICOM header data was 3.8%, but for one mammography unit as high as 7.9%. Mean error of using the AGD value reported in the DICOM header was 10.7 and 13.3%, respectively. Thus, measurement of breast density, radiation dose and beam quality can substantially affect AGD estimates.

  12. Average glandular dose in paired digital mammography and digital breast tomosynthesis acquisitions in a population based screening program: effects of measuring breast density, air kerma and beam quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østerås, Bjørn Helge; Skaane, Per; Gullien, Randi; Martinsen, Anne Catrine Trægde

    2018-01-25

    The main purpose was to compare average glandular dose (AGD) for same-compression digital mammography (DM) and digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) acquisitions in a population based screening program, with and without breast density stratification, as determined by automatically calculated breast density (Quantra ™ ). Secondary, to compare AGD estimates based on measured breast density, air kerma and half value layer (HVL) to DICOM metadata based estimates. AGD was estimated for 3819 women participating in the screening trial. All received craniocaudal and mediolateral oblique views of each breasts with paired DM and DBT acquisitions. Exposure parameters were extracted from DICOM metadata. Air kerma and HVL were measured for all beam qualities used to acquire the mammograms. Volumetric breast density was estimated using Quantra ™ . AGD was estimated using the Dance model. AGD reported directly from the DICOM metadata was also assessed. Mean AGD was 1.74 and 2.10 mGy for DM and DBT, respectively. Mean DBT/DM AGD ratio was 1.24. For fatty breasts: mean AGD was 1.74 and 2.27 mGy for DM and DBT, respectively. For dense breasts: mean AGD was 1.73 and 1.79 mGy, for DM and DBT, respectively. For breasts of similar thickness, dense breasts had higher AGD for DM and similar AGD for DBT. The DBT/DM dose ratio was substantially lower for dense compared to fatty breasts (1.08 versus 1.33). The average c-factor was 1.16. Using previously published polynomials to estimate glandularity from thickness underestimated the c-factor by 5.9% on average. Mean AGD error between estimates based on measurements (air kerma and HVL) versus DICOM header data was 3.8%, but for one mammography unit as high as 7.9%. Mean error of using the AGD value reported in the DICOM header was 10.7 and 13.3%, respectively. Thus, measurement of breast density, radiation dose and beam quality can substantially affect AGD estimates.

  13. Expression of podoplanin and TGF-beta in glandular odontogenic cyst and its comparison with developmental and inflammatory odontogenic cystic lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaeddini, Mojgan; Eshghyar, Nosratollah; Etemad-Moghadam, Shahroo

    2017-01-01

    The number of studies investigating the immunohistochemical characteristics of glandular odontogenic cysts (GOCs) is limited, due to its rarity. TGF-beta has been suggested to induce podoplanin expression in some lesions. We aimed to evaluate and compare podoplanin and TGF-beta expression in GOC and other odontogenic cystic lesions. A total of 43 samples including five GOCs, 10 dentigerous cysts (DCs), eight unicystic ameloblastoma (UAs), and 20 radicular cysts (RCs) were selected and subjected to immunohistochemical staining using monoclonal antibodies against podoplanin and TGF-beta. Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney U-test were used for statistical analysis along with Bonferroni for adjusting P-values (P < 0.05). Podoplanin immunoreactivity was observed in 80%, 70%, and 100% of DCs, RCs, and UAs, respectively, while none of the GOCs were positive for this marker (P = 0.004). Significant differences were only found in the GOC specimens. TGF-beta positivity occurred in the capsule and epithelium of all GOCs and DCs, while RCs and UAs demonstrated different expression percentages in the capsular and epithelial tissues. Epithelial TGF-beta showed significant differences among the studied lesions (P = 0.007) with the main difference found between DCs with RCs and DCs with UAs. Lack of podoplanin expression might be involved in the characteristic histologic and behavioral features of GOC, which seems to be unrelated to TGF-beta expression. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. A Survey On Mean Glandular Dose From Full-Field Digital Mammography Systems, Operate Using Mo/ Mo And W/Rh Target/ Filter Combinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noriah Jamal; Siti Selina Abdul Hamid; Humairah Samad Cheung; Siti Kamariah Che Mohamed; Ellyda Muhammed Nordin; Radhiana Hassan; Rehir Dahalan

    2013-01-01

    We had conducted a survey on Mean Glandular Dose (MGD) from Full-Field Digital Mammography systems (FFDM) operate using Molybdenum/ Molybdenum (Mo/ Mo) and Tungsten/ Rhodium (W/ Rh) target/ filter combinations. A survey was carried out at two randomly selected mammography centres in Malaysia, namely National Cancer Society and International Islamic University of Malaysia. The first centre operates using a W/ Rh, while the second centre operates using an Mo/ Mo target/ filter combinations. On the basis of recorded information, data on mammographic views, MGD, age and Compressed Breast Thickness (CBT) were recorded for 100 patients, for each mammographic centre respectively. The MGD data were analyzed for variation with age group, with 5 years increment. The MGD data were also analyzed for variation with CBT, with 5 mm increment. We found that for both CC and MLO views, FFDM systems operated using Mo/ Mo and W/ Rh target/ filter combinations present the same trend on MGD. The average MGD decreases as age increases. While average MGD increases with the increasing of CBT. However, FFDM system operates using Mo/ Mo gives higher MGD as compared with FFDM system operates using W/ Rh. (author)

  15. Helicobacter pylori CagA Suppresses Apoptosis through Activation of AKT in a Nontransformed Epithelial Cell Model of Glandular Acini Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Vallejo-Flores

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available H. pylori infection is the most important environmental risk to develop gastric cancer, mainly through its virulence factor CagA. In vitro models of CagA function have demonstrated a phosphoprotein activity targeting multiple cellular signaling pathways, while cagA transgenic mice develop carcinomas of the gastrointestinal tract, supporting oncogenic functions. However, it is still not completely clear how CagA alters cellular processes associated with carcinogenic events. In this study, we evaluated the capacity of H. pylori CagA positive and negative strains to alter nontransformed MCF-10A glandular acini formation. We found that CagA positive strains inhibited lumen formation arguing for an evasion of apoptosis activity of central acini cells. In agreement, CagA positive strains induced a cell survival activity that correlated with phosphorylation of AKT and of proapoptotic proteins BIM and BAD. Anoikis is a specific type of apoptosis characterized by AKT and BIM activation and it is the mechanism responsible for lumen formation of MCF-10A acini in vitro and mammary glands in vivo. Anoikis resistance is also a common mechanism of invading tumor cells. Our data support that CagA positive strains signaling function targets the AKT and BIM signaling pathway and this could contribute to its oncogenic activity through anoikis evasion.

  16. Development of an Expert System as a Diagnostic Support of Cervical Cancer in Atypical Glandular Cells, Based on Fuzzy Logics and Image Interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karem R. Domínguez Hernández

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is the second largest cause of death among women worldwide. Nowadays, this disease is preventable and curable at low cost and low risk when an accurate diagnosis is done in due time, since it is the neoplasm with the highest prevention potential. This work describes the development of an expert system able to provide a diagnosis to cervical neoplasia (CN precursor injuries through the integration of fuzzy logics and image interpretation techniques. The key contribution of this research focuses on atypical cases, specifically on atypical glandular cells (AGC. The expert system consists of 3 phases: (1 risk diagnosis which consists of the interpretation of a patient’s clinical background and the risks for contracting CN according to specialists; (2 cytology images detection which consists of image interpretation (IM and the Bethesda system for cytology interpretation, and (3 determination of cancer precursor injuries which consists of in retrieving the information from the prior phases and integrating the expert system by means of a fuzzy logics (FL model. During the validation stage of the system, 21 already diagnosed cases were tested with a positive correlation in which 100% effectiveness was obtained. The main contribution of this work relies on the reduction of false positives and false negatives by providing a more accurate diagnosis for CN.

  17. Allele-specific recognition by LILRB3 and LILRA6 of a cytokeratin 8-associated ligand on necrotic glandular epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Des C; Hewitt, Colin R A; López-Álvarez, María R; Jahnke, Martin; Russell, Alasdair I; Radjabova, Valeria; Trowsdale, Alice R Z; Trowsdale, John

    2016-03-29

    The LILRs are a family of receptors that regulate the activities of myelomonocytic cells. We found that specific allelic variants of two related members of the LILR family, LILRB3 and LILRA6, interact with a ligand exposed on necrotic glandular epithelial cells. The extracellular domains of LILRB3 and LILRA6 are very similar and their genes are highly polymorphic. A commonly occurring allele, LILRB3*12, displayed particularly strong binding of these necrotic cells and further screening of the products of LILRB3 alleles identified motifs that correlated with binding. Immunoprecipitation of the ligand from epithelial cell lysates using recombinant LILRB3*12, identified cytokeratins 8, 18 and 19. Purified proteins obtained from epithelial cell lysates, using anti-cytokeratin 8 antibodies, were able to activate LILRB3*12 reporter cells. Knock-down of cytokeratin 8 in epithelial cells abrogated expression of the LILRB3 ligand, while staining with recombinant LILRB3*12 showed co-localisation with cytokeratin 8 and 18 in permeabilised breast cancer cells. Necrosis is a common feature of tumours. The finding of a necrosis-associated ligand for these two receptors raises the possibility of a novel interaction that alters immune responses within the tumour microenvironment. Since LILRB3 and LILRA6 genes are highly polymorphic the interaction may influence an individual's immune response to tumours.

  18. Correlação dos aspectos laparoscópicos com as alterações histológicas glandulares das lesões endometrióticas peritoneais Correlation between laparoscopic aspects and glandular hystological findings of peritoneal endometriotic lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Antonio Viscomi

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Correlacionar os aspectos laparoscópicos com os achados histológicos na endometriose peritoneal para facilitar a compreensão da teoria evolutiva da endometriose. MÉTODOS: Foram selecionadas aleatoriamente para o presente estudo prospectivo 67 pacientes submetidas a laparoscopia, com diagnóstico de endometriose peritoneal. A avaliação laparoscópica foi baseada no aspecto visual do implante suspeito de endometriose peritoneal, submetido a estudo anatomopatológico. De acordo com o aspecto laparoscópico, as lesões foram agrupadas em: grupo V - vermelhas, grupo N - negras, grupo B - brancas. A avaliação histológica foi realizada observando-se as características funcionais do epitélio glandular, a presença de debris intraluminais, o número de mitoses e a relação estroma/glândula. RESULTADOS: As características funcionais do epitélio glandular mostraram associação estatisticamente significante entre os grupos, sendo o epitélio com carcterística secretora encontrado em 68,4% das lesões do grupo V, 15,8% do grupo N e B, enquanto que o epitélio incaracterístico foi encontrado em 19,4% das lesões vermelhas, 38,7% das lesões negras e 41,9% das brancas e o epitélio proliferativo foi observado em 50% das pacientes do grupo B e em 25% dos grupos V e N (p=0,011. Em relação à presença de debris intraluminais, também houve diferença significante entre os grupos, estando presentes em 58,4% das lesões negras, 33,3% das lesões brancas e 8,3% das lesões vermelhas (p=0,016. Quanto ao número de mitoses, não houve diferença significante nos três grupos de estudo (p=0,428. O mesmo foi observado na relação estroma/glândula, não havendo diferença significante nos grupos de estudo (p=0,159. CONCLUSÃO: A associação entre atividade funcional nas lesões vermelhas e baixa atividade funcional nas lesões negras e brancas, bem como a presença de debris intraluminais nos diferentes grupos, reforçam a teoria

  19. Establishment of a long-term three-dimensional primary culture of mouse glandular stomach epithelial cells within the stem cell niche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katano, Takahito [Department of Gastroenterology and Metabolism, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Ootani, Akifumi [Department of Gastroenterology and GI Endoscopy Center, Shin-Kokura Hospital, Federation of National Public Service Personnel Mutual Aid Associations, 1-3-1 Kanada, Kokurakita-ku, Kitakyushu 803-0816 (Japan); Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Saga University, 5-1-1 Nabeshima, Saga 849-8501 (Japan); Mizoshita, Tsutomu, E-mail: tmizoshi@med.nagoya-cu.ac.jp [Department of Gastroenterology and Metabolism, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Tanida, Satoshi; Tsukamoto, Hironobu; Ozeki, Keiji; Ebi, Masahide; Mori, Yoshinori; Kataoka, Hiromi; Kamiya, Takeshi [Department of Gastroenterology and Metabolism, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Toda, Shuji [Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Saga University, 5-1-1 Nabeshima, Saga 849-8501 (Japan); Joh, Takashi [Department of Gastroenterology and Metabolism, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan)

    2013-03-22

    Highlights: ► We established a 3D culture system to allow long-term culture of stomach cells. ► In this culture system, gastric epithelial cells grew for about 3 months. ► The cultured cells differentiated into multi-units of the stomach. ► This culture method should be useful for elucidating the cause of gastric diseases. -- Abstract: Compared to the small intestine and colon, little is known about stem cells in the stomach because of a lack of specific stem cell markers and an in vitro system that allows long-term culture. Here we describe a long-term three-dimensional (3D) primary gastric culture system within the stem cell niche. Glandular stomach cells from neonatal mice cultured in collagen gel yielded expanding sphere-like structures for 3 months. The wall of the gastrospheres consisted of a highly polarized epithelial monolayer with an outer lining of myofibroblasts. The epithelial cells showed a tall columnar cell shape, basal round nuclei, and mucus-filled cytoplasm as well as expression of MUC5AC, indicating differentiation into gastric surface mucous cells. These cells demonstrated the features of fully differentiated gastric surface mucous cells such as microvilli, junctional complexes, and glycogen and secretory granules. Fewer than 1% of cultured epithelial cells differentiated into enteroendocrine cells. Active proliferation of the epithelial cells and many apoptotic cells in the inner lumen revealed the rapid cell turnover in gastrospheres in vitro. This method enables us to investigate the role of signaling between cell–cell and epithelial–mesenchymal interactions in an environment that is extremely similar to the in vivo environment.

  20. Establishment of a long-term three-dimensional primary culture of mouse glandular stomach epithelial cells within the stem cell niche

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katano, Takahito; Ootani, Akifumi; Mizoshita, Tsutomu; Tanida, Satoshi; Tsukamoto, Hironobu; Ozeki, Keiji; Ebi, Masahide; Mori, Yoshinori; Kataoka, Hiromi; Kamiya, Takeshi; Toda, Shuji; Joh, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We established a 3D culture system to allow long-term culture of stomach cells. ► In this culture system, gastric epithelial cells grew for about 3 months. ► The cultured cells differentiated into multi-units of the stomach. ► This culture method should be useful for elucidating the cause of gastric diseases. -- Abstract: Compared to the small intestine and colon, little is known about stem cells in the stomach because of a lack of specific stem cell markers and an in vitro system that allows long-term culture. Here we describe a long-term three-dimensional (3D) primary gastric culture system within the stem cell niche. Glandular stomach cells from neonatal mice cultured in collagen gel yielded expanding sphere-like structures for 3 months. The wall of the gastrospheres consisted of a highly polarized epithelial monolayer with an outer lining of myofibroblasts. The epithelial cells showed a tall columnar cell shape, basal round nuclei, and mucus-filled cytoplasm as well as expression of MUC5AC, indicating differentiation into gastric surface mucous cells. These cells demonstrated the features of fully differentiated gastric surface mucous cells such as microvilli, junctional complexes, and glycogen and secretory granules. Fewer than 1% of cultured epithelial cells differentiated into enteroendocrine cells. Active proliferation of the epithelial cells and many apoptotic cells in the inner lumen revealed the rapid cell turnover in gastrospheres in vitro. This method enables us to investigate the role of signaling between cell–cell and epithelial–mesenchymal interactions in an environment that is extremely similar to the in vivo environment

  1. Caracterização morfológica e classificação da superfície foliar de pimentas quanto à presença de tricomas e domácias Morphological characterization and surface classification of chili pepper leaves considering trichomes and domatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Helena C Matos

    2011-06-01

    interactions among plants, herbivores and natural enemies. Variations on such characteristics are determinant on the occurrence, abundance and diversity of organisms that exploit that habitat. The leaf surface of four Capsicum pepper species was characterized, focusing on the presence of trichomes and domatia. The objective is to identify possible mite resistance mechanisms on these plants. The classification key of pepper leaves was based on presence/absence, density and distribution of trichomes. The counting of trichomes was done in an area of 5 cm², from the medium third of each leaf. We assessed the trichomes from the limb, ribs and domatia. The pepper species significantly differed on the density of domatia and trichomes present on the ribs and limbs of their leaves. A significant difference was observed on the total density of trichomes/cm² and on the number of trichomes/domatia. From the five Capsicum species evaluated, only C. baccatum var. pendulum (hot pepper, variety girl finger pepper does not have domatia neither trichomes in any part of its leaves. The highest domatia density was found on C. baccatum var. praetermissum, which has the highest trichome density in all leaf parts and the only one with significant density of limb trichomes. The variation of the presence, distribution and density of trichomes and domatia may be determinant on the occurrence of herbivorous and predatory mites on plants. Such structures can act as a resistance mechanism against herbivore mites or may favor the presence of predatory and fungivorous mites due to provision of shelter sites. We propose here a surface classification scale of chili pepper leaves varying from 1 to 5 taking into account the number and density of observed trichomes and domatia.

  2. Atypical endometrial cells and atypical glandular cells favor endometrial origin in Papanicolaou cervicovaginal tests: Correlation with histologic follow-up and abnormal clinical presentations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longwen Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The 2001 Bethesda system recommends further classifying atypical glandular cells (AGCs as either endocervical or endometrial origin. Numerous studies have investigated the clinical significance of AGC. In this study, we investigated the incidence of clinically significant lesions among women with liquid-based Papanicolaou cervicovaginal (Pap interpretations of atypical endometrial cells (AEMs or AGC favor endometrial origin (AGC-EM. More importantly, we correlated patients of AEM or AGC-EM with their clinical presentations to determine if AEM/AGC-EM combined with abnormal vaginal bleeding is associated with a higher incidence of significant endometrial pathology. All liquid-based Pap tests with an interpretation of AEM and AGC-EM from July, 2004 through June, 2009 were retrieved from the database. Women with an interpretation of atypical endocervical cells, AGC, favor endocervical origin or AGC, favor neoplastic were not included in the study. The most severe subsequent histologic diagnoses were recorded for each patient. During this 5-year period, we accessioned 332,470 Pap tests of which 169 (0.05% were interpreted as either AEM or AGC-EM. Of the 169 patients, 133 had histologic follow-up within the health care system. The patients ranged in age from 21 to 71 years old (mean 49.7. On follow-up histology, 27 (20.3% had neoplastic/preneoplastic uterine lesions. Among them, 20 patients were diagnosed with adenocarcinoma (18 endometrial, 1 endocervical, and 1 metastatic colorectal, 3 with atypical endometrial hyperplasia, and 4 with endometrial hyperplasia without atypia. All patients with significant endometrial pathology, except one, were over 40 years old, and 22 of 25 patients reported abnormal vaginal bleeding at the time of endometrial biopsy or curettage. This study represents a large series of women with liquid-based Pap test interpretations of AEM and AGC-EM with clinical follow-up. Significant preneoplastic or neoplastic endometrial

  3. Response of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) leaf surface defenses to exogenous methyl jasmonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Heather C; Ro, Dae-kyun; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2012-01-01

    Helianthus annuus, the common sunflower, produces a complex array of secondary compounds that are secreted into glandular trichomes, specialized structures found on leaf surfaces and anther appendages of flowers. The primary components of these trichome secretions are sesquiterpene lactones (STL), a diverse class of compounds produced abundantly by the plant family Compositae and believed to contribute to plant defense against herbivory. We treated wild and cultivated H. annuus accessions with exogenous methyl jasmonate, a plant hormone that mediates plant defense against insect herbivores and certain classes of fungal pathogens. The wild sunflower produced a higher density of glandular trichomes on its leaves than the cultivar. Comparison of the profiles of glandular trichome extracts obtained by liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (LC-MS) showed that wild and cultivated H. annuus were qualitatively similar in surface chemistry, although differing in the relative size and proportion of various compounds detected. Despite observing consistent transcriptional responses to methyl jasmonate treatment, we detected no significant effect on glandular trichome density or LC-MS profile in cultivated or wild sunflower, with wild sunflower exhibiting a declining trend in overall STL production and foliar glandular trichome density of jasmonate-treated plants. These results suggest that glandular trichomes and associated compounds may act as constitutive defenses or require greater levels of stimulus for induction than the observed transcriptional responses to exogenous jasmonate. Reduced defense investment in domesticated lines is consistent with predicted tradeoffs caused by selection for increased yield; future research will focus on the development of genetic resources to explicitly test the ecological roles of glandular trichomes and associated effects on plant growth and fitness.

  4. Ultrastructure and elemental analysis of Hypoxis hemerocallidea : A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ultrastructure and crystal deposits of the plant were assessed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive x-ray (EDX). Results: It was observed that the leaves were characterised by multicelullar glandular and non glandular trichomes which are sparsely distributed over the entire surfaces.

  5. Taxonomic significance of leaf epidermal anatomy of selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leaf epidermal anatomy of selected Persicaria Mill. species of the family Polygonaceae revealed variation in size and shape of epidermal cells, stomata, glandular and non glandular trichomes. This study proves to be taxonomically important tool in the delimitation of taxa. Epidermal cell shapes are variable but mostly ...

  6. Comparative leaf morpho-anatomical studies of two South American species of Cardiospermum (Sapindaceae) with special reference to adaxial domatia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Solís, S.M.; Ferrucci, M.S.

    2006-01-01

    Morphological and anatomical studies of leaves of two closely related Cardiospermum species from South America, C. procumbens and C. pterocarpum, were assayed. Both species have amphistomatic leaves, anomocytic stomata, non-glandular and glandular trichomes, secretory cells present in the epidermis

  7. Apoptosis-induced effects of extract from Artemisia annua Linné by modulating PTEN/p53/PDK1/Akt/ signal pathways through PTEN/p53-independent manner in HCT116 colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Ji; Kim, Guen Tae; Kim, Bo Min; Lim, Eun Gyeong; Kim, Sang-Yong; Kim, Young Min

    2017-04-28

    The extracts from Artemisia annua Linné (AAE) has been known to possess various functions including anti-bacterial, anti-virus and anti-oxidant effects. However, the mechanism of those effects of AAE is not well known. Pursuantly, we determined the apoptotic effects of extract of AAE in HCT116 cell. In this study, we suggested that AAE may exert cancer cell apoptosis through PTEN/PDK1/Akt/p53signal pathway and mitochondria-mediated apoptotic proteins. We measured 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay, Hoechst 33342 staining, Annexin V-PI staining, Mitopotential assay, immunofluorescence (IF) and Western blotting. Accordingly, our study showed that AAE treatment to HCT116 cells resulted in inhibition of PDK1, Akt, MDM2, Bcl-2, and pro-caspase 3 as well as activation of PTEN, p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA), Bax and Bak expression. Also we measured in vivo assay that xenograft model, H&E assay, TUNEL assay and IHC. AAE induced apoptosis via PTEN/p53/PDK1/Akt signal pathways through PTEN/p53-independent manner. AAE inhibit cell viability and increase LDH release in HCT116 colon cancer cell. Also, AAE increase apoptotic bodies, caspase -3,7 activation and reduces mitochondria membrane potential. AAE regulates cytochrome c translocation to the cytoplasm and Bax translocation to the mitochondrial membrane in an Immunofluorescence staining and increase PTEN and p53 expression in an in vivo tumor xenograft model. To elucidate the role of the PTEN/p53/PDK1/Akt signal pathways in cancer control, we conditionally inactivated PTEN/p53/PDK1/Akt signal pathways. We used inhibitors of PTEN, p53, PDK1, Akt. In consequence, these results indicate that AAE induced apoptosis by means of a mitochondrial event through the regulation of proteins such as Bax, Bak and cytochrome c in PDK1/Akt signaling pathways via PTEM/p53-independent manner. We confirmed the apoptotic effect of extracts of AAE by

  8. Comparative evaluation of average glandular dose and breast cancer detection between single-view digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) plus single-view digital mammography (DM) and two-view DM: correlation with breast thickness and density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Sung Ui; Chang, Jung Min; Bae, Min Sun; Lee, Su Hyun; Cho, Nariya; Seo, Mirinae; Kim, Won Hwa; Moon, Woo Kyung

    2015-01-01

    To compare the average glandular dose (AGD) and diagnostic performance of mediolateral oblique (MLO) digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) plus cranio-caudal (CC) digital mammography (DM) with two-view DM, and to evaluate the correlation of AGD with breast thickness and density. MLO and CC DM and DBT images of both breasts were obtained in 149 subjects. AGDs of DBT and DM per exposure were recorded, and their correlation with breast thickness and density were evaluated. Paired data of MLO DBT plus CC DM and two-view DM were reviewed for presence of malignancy in a jack-knife alternative free-response ROC (JAFROC) method. The AGDs of both DBT and DM, and differences in AGD between DBT and DM (ΔAGD), were correlated with breast thickness and density. The average JAFROC figure of merit (FOM) was significantly higher on the combined technique than two-view DM (P = 0.005). In dense breasts, the FOM and sensitivity of the combined technique was higher than that of two-view DM (P = 0.003) with small ΔAGD. MLO DBT plus CC DM provided higher diagnostic performance than two-view DM in dense breasts with a small increase in AGD. (orig.)

  9. The Effect of Concept Mapping on the Learning Levels of Students in Taking the Course of "Nursing Care of Patients With Glandular Diseases Subject" in Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aghakhani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Studies show that traditional teaching methods, such as lecturing, do not lead to in-depth learning. Concept maps have been used for a long time by researchers and teachers to facilitate learning. Objectives The present study aimed to investigate the effect of concept mapping on the learning levels of students in nursing care of patients with glandular diseases subject in Urmia University of Medical Sciences. Materials and Methods In a quasi-experimental study with a pre-test/post-test design, 28 nursing students were selected and divided into two groups: the experimental and the control groups. After administration of pre-test, the students in the experimental group participated in classes on designing concept maps. Next, lessons on glands and nursing were presented to the students in the experimental and control groups through concept maps and lectures, respectively. At the end of the semester, the learning levels of the students in both groups were evaluated by the post-test. Results The means of the scores of the students as determined by results of the pre-test revealed insignificant statistical difference between the two groups. However, the learning level of the students in the experimental group was significantly higher (P < 0.05. As a metacognitive intervention, concept mapping can contribute to in-depth learning of nursing students. Conclusions According to the findings, it is recommended that concept mapping should be used for teaching and evaluation. Further studies are needed to compare the effect of concept mapping with those of other metacognition approaches on different types of learners.

  10. Is extra-glandular organ damage in primary Sjögren's syndrome related to the presence of systemic auto-antibodies and/or hypergammaglobulinemia? A long-term cohort study with 110 patients from the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter Borg, Evert-Jan; Kelder, Johannes Cornelis

    2017-07-01

    To test the hypothesis that systemic auto-antibodies or hypergammaglobulinemia are related to the prevalence of extra-glandular tissue organ damage (EGOD) in primary Sjögren's syndrome (SS). A real practice-based investigation of a relatively large (n = 110) Dutch cohort of primary SS patients systematically followed up in a large non-academic hospital. After a follow up of mean 8.2 years a significant correlation was found between disease duration and the prevalence of EGOD. We did not observe a relationship between the total number or type of systemic auto-antibodies or hypergammaglobulinemia and the total number of EGOD. However, there was a correlation between the prevalence of polyneuropathy (PNP) and antinuclear antibodies (ANA) as well as anti-Ro/SS-A positivity and there was an inverse relationship between the presence of anti-Ro/SS-A antibodies and primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). All PBC cases were anti-Ro/SS-A and anti-La/SS-B negative but ANA positive. There was a trend for a higher occurrence of pleuro-pulmonary disease in the ANA negative cases. Although we did not find a relationship between the total number or type of systemic auto-antibodies and the total number of EGOD, there were correlations between specific systemic auto-antibodies and specific types of EGOD. The presence of ANA and anti-Ro/SS-A was associated with the occurrence of PNP, as well as was the absence of anti-Ro/SS-A with PBC. © 2017 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  11. gynaecomastia: management with liposuction and glandular excision

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-06-06

    Jun 6, 2011 ... Navura, H. S. and Carlson, H. E. Gynaecomastia,. Endorcrine Metab. Clin. North Am. 2007; 36: 497-. 529. 8. Webster, J. P. Mastectomy for gynaecomastia through a semi circular incision. Ann surg. 1946; 124: 557. 9. Courtiss, E. H. Gynaecomastia:analysis of 159 patients and current recommendations for ...

  12. Gynaecomastia: Management with Liposuction and Glandular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gynaecomastia is caused by an increase in ductal tissue, stroma and fat in the male breast. Frequently it occurs at the time of hormonal changes during infancy, adolescence and old age. Galen, introduced the term gynaecomastia in the second century AD and surgical excision was first described by Pauli of Aegina in the ...

  13. TU-H-CAMPUS-JeP2-01: Inter-Observer Delineation Comparison of Visible Glandular Breast Tissue On Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Computed Tomography (prone and Supine)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pogson, EM [Institute of Medical Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia); University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW (Australia); Liverpool and Macarthur Cancer Therapy Centres, Liverpool, NSW (United Kingdom); Ingham Institute for Applied Medical Research, Liverpool Hospital, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Delaney, G; Yap, M [Liverpool and Macarthur Cancer Therapy Centres, Liverpool, NSW (United Kingdom); Ingham Institute for Applied Medical Research, Liverpool Hospital, Sydney, NSW (Australia); South Western Sydney Clinical School, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia); School of Medicine, University of Western Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Ahern, V [Westmead Hospital, Westmead, NSW (Australia); Boxer, M [Liverpool and Macarthur Cancer Therapy Centres, Liverpool, NSW (United Kingdom); Ingham Institute for Applied Medical Research, Liverpool Hospital, Sydney, NSW (Australia); David, S [Peter MacCallum Cancer Institute,, Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Dimigen, M [Department of Radiology, Liverpool Hospital, NSW (United Kingdom); Harvey, J [University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD (Australia); Princess Alexandra Hospital, QLD (Australia); Koh, E; Batumalai, V [Liverpool and Macarthur Cancer Therapy Centres, Liverpool, NSW (United Kingdom); Ingham Institute for Applied Medical Research, Liverpool Hospital, Sydney, NSW (Australia); South Western Sydney Clinical School, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Lim, K; Papadatos, G [Liverpool and Macarthur Cancer Therapy Centres, Liverpool, NSW (United Kingdom); Metcalfe, P [University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW (Australia); Liverpool and Macarthur Cancer Therapy Centres, Liverpool, NSW (United Kingdom); Ingham Institute for Applied Medical Research, Liverpool Hospital, Sydney, NSW (Australia); and others

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Breast cancers predominantly arise from Glandular Breast Tissue (GBT). If the GBT can be treated effectively post-operatively utilising radiotherapy this may be adequate volumetric coverage for adjuvant breast radiotherapy. Adequate imaging of the GBT is necessary and will be assessed between MRI and CT modalities. GBT visualisation is acknowledged to be qualitatively superior on Magnetic Resonance Image (MRI) compared to Computed Tomography (CT), the current radiotherapy imaging standard, however this has not been quantitatively assessed. For radiotherapy purposes it is important that any treatment volume can be consistently defined between observers. This study investigates the consistency of CT and MRI GBT contours for potential radiotherapy planning. Methods: Ten experts (9 breast radiation oncologists and 1 radiologist) contoured the extent of the visible GBT for 33 patients on MRI and CT (both without contrast), which was performed according to a contouring guideline in supine and prone patient positions. The GBT volume was not a conventional whole breast radiotherapy planning volume, but rather the extent of GBT that was indicated from the CT or MR imaging. Volumes were compared utilizing the dice similarity coefficient (DSC), kappa statistic, and Hausdorff Distances (HDs) to ascertain the modality that was most consistently volumed. Results: The inter-observer concordance was of substantial agreement (kappa above 0.6) for the CT supine, CT prone, MRI supine and MRI prone datasets. The MRI GBT volumes were larger than the CT GBT volumes (p<0.001). Inter-observer conformity was higher for CT than MRI, although the magnitude of this difference was small (VOI<0.04). Conformity between modalities (CT and MRI) was in agreement for both prone and supine, DSC=0.75. Prone GBT volumes were larger than supine for both MRI and CT. Conclusion: MRI improves the extent of GBT delineation. The role of MRI guided, GBT-targeted radiotherapy requires investigation in

  14. TU-H-CAMPUS-JeP2-01: Inter-Observer Delineation Comparison of Visible Glandular Breast Tissue On Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Computed Tomography (prone and Supine)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogson, EM; Delaney, G; Yap, M; Ahern, V; Boxer, M; David, S; Dimigen, M; Harvey, J; Koh, E; Batumalai, V; Lim, K; Papadatos, G; Metcalfe, P

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Breast cancers predominantly arise from Glandular Breast Tissue (GBT). If the GBT can be treated effectively post-operatively utilising radiotherapy this may be adequate volumetric coverage for adjuvant breast radiotherapy. Adequate imaging of the GBT is necessary and will be assessed between MRI and CT modalities. GBT visualisation is acknowledged to be qualitatively superior on Magnetic Resonance Image (MRI) compared to Computed Tomography (CT), the current radiotherapy imaging standard, however this has not been quantitatively assessed. For radiotherapy purposes it is important that any treatment volume can be consistently defined between observers. This study investigates the consistency of CT and MRI GBT contours for potential radiotherapy planning. Methods: Ten experts (9 breast radiation oncologists and 1 radiologist) contoured the extent of the visible GBT for 33 patients on MRI and CT (both without contrast), which was performed according to a contouring guideline in supine and prone patient positions. The GBT volume was not a conventional whole breast radiotherapy planning volume, but rather the extent of GBT that was indicated from the CT or MR imaging. Volumes were compared utilizing the dice similarity coefficient (DSC), kappa statistic, and Hausdorff Distances (HDs) to ascertain the modality that was most consistently volumed. Results: The inter-observer concordance was of substantial agreement (kappa above 0.6) for the CT supine, CT prone, MRI supine and MRI prone datasets. The MRI GBT volumes were larger than the CT GBT volumes (p<0.001). Inter-observer conformity was higher for CT than MRI, although the magnitude of this difference was small (VOI<0.04). Conformity between modalities (CT and MRI) was in agreement for both prone and supine, DSC=0.75. Prone GBT volumes were larger than supine for both MRI and CT. Conclusion: MRI improves the extent of GBT delineation. The role of MRI guided, GBT-targeted radiotherapy requires investigation in

  15. Equine Arteritis Virus Has Specific Tropism for Stromal Cells and CD8+T and CD21+B Lymphocytes but Not for Glandular Epithelium at the Primary Site of Persistent Infection in the Stallion Reproductive Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carossino, Mariano; Loynachan, Alan T; Canisso, Igor F; Cook, R Frank; Campos, Juliana R; Nam, Bora; Go, Yun Young; Squires, Edward L; Troedsson, Mats H T; Swerczek, Thomas; Del Piero, Fabio; Bailey, Ernest; Timoney, Peter J; Balasuriya, Udeni B R

    2017-07-01

    Equine arteritis virus (EAV) has a global impact on the equine industry as the causative agent of equine viral arteritis (EVA), a respiratory, systemic, and reproductive disease of equids. A distinctive feature of EAV infection is that it establishes long-term persistent infection in 10 to 70% of infected stallions (carriers). In these stallions, EAV is detectable only in the reproductive tract, and viral persistence occurs despite the presence of high serum neutralizing antibody titers. Carrier stallions constitute the natural reservoir of the virus as they continuously shed EAV in their semen. Although the accessory sex glands have been implicated as the primary sites of EAV persistence, the viral host cell tropism and whether viral replication in carrier stallions occurs in the presence or absence of host inflammatory responses remain unknown. In this study, dual immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence techniques were employed to unequivocally demonstrate that the ampulla is the main EAV tissue reservoir rather than immunologically privileged tissues (i.e., testes). Furthermore, we demonstrate that EAV has specific tropism for stromal cells (fibrocytes and possibly tissue macrophages) and CD8 + T and CD21 + B lymphocytes but not glandular epithelium. Persistent EAV infection is associated with moderate, multifocal lymphoplasmacytic ampullitis comprising clusters of B (CD21 + ) lymphocytes and significant infiltration of T (CD3 + , CD4 + , CD8 + , and CD25 + ) lymphocytes, tissue macrophages, and dendritic cells (Iba-1 + and CD83 + ), with a small number of tissue macrophages expressing CD163 and CD204 scavenger receptors. This study suggests that EAV employs complex immune evasion mechanisms that warrant further investigation. IMPORTANCE The major challenge for the worldwide control of EAV is that this virus has the distinctive ability to establish persistent infection in the stallion's reproductive tract as a mechanism to ensure its maintenance in equid

  16. Comparative leaf morpho-anatomical studies of two South American species of Cardiospermum (Sapindaceae) with special reference to adaxial domatia

    OpenAIRE

    Solís, S.M.; Ferrucci, M.S.

    2006-01-01

    Morphological and anatomical studies of leaves of two closely related Cardiospermum species from South America, C. procumbens and C. pterocarpum, were assayed. Both species have amphistomatic leaves, anomocytic stomata, non-glandular and glandular trichomes, secretory cells present in the epidermis and mesophyll, bifacial structure, and the cuticle showing concentric striae around the stomata. Tunnel-type domatia were found in C. procumbens, at laminar base at the junction of the three princi...

  17. Foliar epidermal anatomy and its systematic implication within the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Micro morphological investigations of the foliar epidermal anatomy, particularly the diversity and distribution of glandular and eglandular trichomes on leaves of Sida alba L., S. alii S. Abedin var. alii, S. cordata (Burm. F.) Brss, S. mysorensis Wight and Arn, S. ovata Forssk. S. spinosa L and S.yunnanensis S.Y.Hu have been ...

  18. Anatomical and histochemical analysis of vegetative organs of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Samples of V. ferruginea vegetative organs were collected and submitted to the usual plant anatomy and histochemical techniques. The leaves are anfihipoestomática with anomocytic stomata; have tector and glandular trichomes that store essential oils. The stem has collateral-type vascular bundles arranged in a eustele ...

  19. Oviposition behavior of the silver leaf whitefly Bemisia tabaci biotype B on tomato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vendramim, Jose D.; Souza, Antonio P. de; Ongarelli, Maria das G.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of the leaf surface, the insect geotropic behavior and the type of foliar trichome on Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) biotype B oviposition on tomato leaves. Bemisia tabaci females were confined in acrylic boxes in which tomato leaflets were fixed at the bottom and top part of the boxes to allow insects to access the leaf surface to be tested (adaxial and/or abaxial) in both no-choice and free choice tests. Oviposition was always higher when the leaf was offered at the top of the box and preferably at the abaxial leaf surface. The effects of leaf trichomes (glandular and non glandular) on B. tabaci oviposition was evaluated by offering the abaxial surface of tomato leaflets to females after a 70% ethanol wash to remove glandular exsudates against a control treatment (without a ethanol wash). Oviposition was concentrated mostly near to non glandular trichomes, showing whitefly females can discriminate among the trichomes. (author)

  20. Oviposition behavior of the silver leaf whitefly Bemisia tabaci biotype B on tomato; Comportamento de oviposicao da mosca-branca Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) biotipo B em tomateiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vendramim, Jose D. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ). Dept. de Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola]. E-mail: jdvendra@esalq.usp.br; Souza, Antonio P. de [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Dept. de Morfofisiologia. Lab. de Anatomia Humana]. E-mail: apsouza@nin.ufms.br; Ongarelli, Maria das G. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ). Lab. de Fisiologia e Bioquimica Pos-Colheita]. E-mail: mgong@esalq.usp.br

    2009-01-15

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of the leaf surface, the insect geotropic behavior and the type of foliar trichome on Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) biotype B oviposition on tomato leaves. Bemisia tabaci females were confined in acrylic boxes in which tomato leaflets were fixed at the bottom and top part of the boxes to allow insects to access the leaf surface to be tested (adaxial and/or abaxial) in both no-choice and free choice tests. Oviposition was always higher when the leaf was offered at the top of the box and preferably at the abaxial leaf surface. The effects of leaf trichomes (glandular and non glandular) on B. tabaci oviposition was evaluated by offering the abaxial surface of tomato leaflets to females after a 70% ethanol wash to remove glandular exsudates against a control treatment (without a ethanol wash). Oviposition was concentrated mostly near to non glandular trichomes, showing whitefly females can discriminate among the trichomes. (author)

  1. Metals Accumulation and Leaf Surface Anatomy of Murdannia spectabilis Growing in Zn/Cd Contaminated Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladawan Rattanapolsan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Murdannia spectabilis (Kurz Faden was identified as a Zn/Cd hyperaccumulative plant. Leaf surface anatomy of the plant growing in non-contaminated soil (control and Zn/Cd contaminated soil,was studied and compared by a light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy combined with Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy(SEM/EDS. The similarities were reticulate cuticle on epidermises, uniform polygonal cell, stomatal arrangement in six surrounding subsidiary cells, and submarginal sclerenchyma. The dissimilarities were uniserate trichomes spreading on both adaxial and abaxial epidermis of the plants growing in non-contaminated soil, whereas the uniserate trichomes were only on the submarginal-adaxial epidermis of the control plants. The trichomes on leaves of the plants growing in non-contaminated soil were found to have both uniseriate non-glandular and uniseriate glandular trichomes;whereas, leaves of the plants growing in the contaminated soil were merely non-glandular trichomes. The different shape and location of trichomes, the number of stomata and trichome indicated the effect of Zn and Cd on M. spectabilis. The higher percentages of Zn and Cd in the vascular bundle than in the cross section and epidermis areas showed both solutes could move along each route, with diffusion through the symplast and apoplast. The increase of Ca in M. spectabilis growing in Zn/Cd contaminated soil corresponded to the Zn and Cd distributed in the leaves. Zn K-edge and S K-edge XANES spectra proposed that Zn2+ ions were accumulated and/or adsorbed on the epidermis of the tuber, and then absorbed into the root and transport to the xylem. The double peaks of Zn-cysteine in the leaf samples proposed the metal sequestration was by sulphur proteins.

  2. Tissue-specific gene-expression patterns of genes associated with thymol/carvacrol biosynthesis in thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) and their differential changes upon treatment with abiotic elicitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majdi, Mohammad; Malekzadeh-Mashhady, Atefe; Maroufi, Asad; Crocoll, Christoph

    2017-06-01

    Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) is known to produce a variety of phenolic monoterpenes such as thymol and carvacrol. Thymol and carvacrol are health-promoting, biocide and antitoxin compounds and have been considered as the main constituents of essential oils in T. vulgaris. To improve our understanding of the regulation of monoterpene biosynthesis in thyme, the expression of genes related to thymol and carvacrol biosynthesis in different tissues and in response to abiotic elicitors was analyzed. Methyl jasmonate (MeJA), salicylic acid (SA), trans-cinnamic acid (tCA) and UV-C irradiation were applied to T. vulgare leaves and transcript levels of early (DXR) and late (TvTPS1, CYP71D178 and CYP71D180) biosynthetic genes of thymol and carvacrol were measured. The results showed that early step and late step genes in thymol/carvacrol biosynthesis are differentially regulated. DXR was not found to be exclusively expressed in glandular trichomes; in contrast, biosynthetic genes including γ-terpinene synthase (TvTPS1) and two cytochrome P450s, CYP71D178 and CYP71D180, were preferentially expressed in glandular secretory trichomes. The high expression of late biosynthetic genes in glandular trichomes, which also contain the highest concentration of thymol and carvacrol, suggests that glandular trichomes are the structure in which thymol/carvacrol biosynthesis and accumulation occur. Our results indicate that in addition to abiotic elicitors, developmental and spatial factors also play a key role in the biosynthesis of thymol and carvacrol, most likely relating to glandular trichome density and/or activity. Hence optimization of these factors could be considered as a useful strategy to achieve high yield of valuable compounds in T. vulgare or other closely related plant species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Histochemical Investigation and Kinds of Alkaloids in Leaves of Different Developmental Stages in Thymus quinquecostatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Haiting; Liu, Jing; Liu, Hanzhu; Xin, Hua

    2014-01-01

    Thymus quinquecostatus, with more medical value, is a kind of wild plants. In order to exploit and utilize this plant, we studied the species and locations of alkaloids in its leaves. In this paper, histochemical study of leaves at different developing stages was taken to localize the alkaloids. Meanwhile, the kinds and content of alkaloids in leaves were identified using GC-MS technique. It was found that there were two kinds of glandular trichomes, namely, peltate trichomes and capitate trichomes, on the surface of leaves, and their secretory cells could secrete alkaloids. Results showed that trichomes could secrete alkaloids as soon as the first pair of leaves formed, and there were altogether 18 kinds of alkaloids identified by GC-MS. Nearly all of these alkaloids of leaves at different developing stages were distinct from each other, except one, 3-methoxy-a-methyl-benzeneethanamine, persists at different developing stages with high concentration. PMID:25101324

  4. Histochemical Investigation and Kinds of Alkaloids in Leaves of Different Developmental Stages in Thymus quinquecostatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiting Jing

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thymus quinquecostatus, with more medical value, is a kind of wild plants. In order to exploit and utilize this plant, we studied the species and locations of alkaloids in its leaves. In this paper, histochemical study of leaves at different developing stages was taken to localize the alkaloids. Meanwhile, the kinds and content of alkaloids in leaves were identified using GC-MS technique. It was found that there were two kinds of glandular trichomes, namely, peltate trichomes and capitate trichomes, on the surface of leaves, and their secretory cells could secrete alkaloids. Results showed that trichomes could secrete alkaloids as soon as the first pair of leaves formed, and there were altogether 18 kinds of alkaloids identified by GC-MS. Nearly all of these alkaloids of leaves at different developing stages were distinct from each other, except one, 3-methoxy-a-methyl-benzeneethanamine, persists at different developing stages with high concentration.

  5. Estudo comparativo entre marcadores ultra-sonográficos morfológicos preditores de parto pré-termo: sinal do afunilamento do colo e ausência do eco glandular endocervical A comparative study between morphologic ultrasonographic markers for preterm delivery: funneling sign and absence of cervical gland area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Rodrigues Pires

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o risco de parto pré-termo (PPT espontâneo na população geral a partir do estudo comparativo dos marcadores ultra-sonográficos morfológicos do colo uterino, como o sinal do afunilamento e a ausência da área glandular endocervical. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foram arroladas 361 gestantes na população geral, submetidas a exame ultra-sonográfico transvaginal entre a 21ª e 24ª semana, e verificados os resultados perinatais. RESULTADOS: A incidência de PPT espontâneo foi de 5,0%. O sinal do afunilamento foi observado em 4,2% da população estudada e em 22,2% das pacientes que evoluíram para PPT espontâneo. Tal parâmetro mostrou associação significante com PPT (p OBJECTIVE: To verify if different morphological ultrasonographic markers such as the funneling sign and the cervical gland area can be predictors of spontaneous premature delivery in pregnant women between 21 and 24 weeks of gestation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective cross-sectional study in which 361 women with 21 to 24 weeks of gestation were examined by transvaginal ultrasonography. The gestational age at delivery was later checked by telephone or mail. RESULTS: Spontaneous preterm delivery (SPD occurred in 5% of the patients. Cervical funneling occurred in 4.2% of the women and in 22.2% of those who had SPD. This finding was correlated to preterm delivery (p < 0.001; relative risk of 6.68. Absence of a hypoechoic area peripheral to the cervical canal consistent with endocervical epithelium glands, namely endocervical glandular echo (EGE feature, was detected in 2.8% of all patients and in 44.4% of those who developed spontaneous preterm labor. There was a statistically significant association of this feature to SPD (p < 0.001; relative risk of 28.57. Multivariance logistic regression analysis showed that this was the feature with strongest correlation with SPD, when compared to cervical funneling. CONCLUSION: Prediction of SPD through

  6. Features of micromorphological structure of medicinal hyssop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyudmyla A. Kotyuk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Micromorphological peculiarities of the structure of vegetative and generative organs of Hyssopus officinalis were analyzed. The epidermis of H. officinalis reveals diacyctic stomata and external outgrowths: glandular and covering trichomes, as well as peltate essential oil glands. Capitate and bent indumentary (covering trichomes occur on the stem, while on the leaves peltate glands, conical and bent uni- and multicellular trichomes were observed. On the calyx, in the midrib region, there are peltate glands while the ribs are densely covered with indumentary and glandular trichomes. The corolla’s adaxial surface is covered with long indumentary trichomes, with sparse peltate glands occurring on the margins. The highest density of essential oil peltate glands is found on the adaxial surface of the calyx upper lip (15.8±2.54 pcs./mm2 and on the leaf abaxial surface (13.6±2.40 pcs./mm2. Glands with the largest diameter (47.82±2.82 μm are located on the leaf adaxial surface.

  7. Root hairs, trichomes and the evolution of duplicate genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, E A

    2001-12-01

    The MYB-class proteins WEREWOLF and GLABRA1 are functionally interchangeable, even though one is normally expressed solely in roots and the other only in shoots. This shows that their different functions are the result of the modification of cis-regulatory sequences over evolutionary time. The two genes thus provide an example of morphological diversification created by gene duplication and changes in regulation.

  8. Floral vasculature and trichomes of common Indian Scrophulariaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. C. Datta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The floral anatomy of 24 species of Scrophulariaceae was studied. The results show that although, clear anatomical bases to differentiate taxa are absent, the Pennell classification of subfamilies is strongly supported.

  9. Trichomes in the tribe Lactuceae (Asteraceae) - taxonomic implications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krak, Karol; Mráz, P.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 5 (2008), s. 616-630 ISSN 0006-3088 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Compositae * micromorphological characters * systematics Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.406, year: 2008

  10. Variations in antimalarial components of Artemisia annua Linn from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    components were quantified using high performance thin layer chromatography, ultra violet spectrophotometry and gas chromatography respectively. Results: Artemisinin and total flavonoids levels were higher in samples obtained from high land areas (western and south western region) compared to that obtained from ...

  11. Variations in antimalarial components of Artemisia annua Linn from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The levels of artemisinin, total flavonoids and aromatic components were quantified using high performance thin layer chromatography, ultra violet spectrophotometry and gas chromatography respectively. Results: Artemisinin and total flavonoids levels were higher in samples obtained from high land areas (western and ...

  12. Artemesia annua extract prevents glyoxal-induced cell injury in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    caspase-3 proteolysis, as was evident from the reduction in the level of cleaved caspase-3. Up- regulation of ROS production by glyoxal in .... membranes for 2 h. The membranes were blocked by incubation with 0.05 % non-fat milk ... the intensity of fluorescence at absorption and emission wavelengths of 480 and 430 nm,.

  13. on in vitro callus initiation using leaf of artemisia annua

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    insecticidal, anticancerous, antiseptic and febrifuge properties. It's oil has been found to repel fleas, mosquitoes and killed house flies(Morton 1981).In antiquity, plants of the genus Artemisia were also used to control the pangs of childbirth, regulate women's menstrual disorders, and as an abortifacient. In 1969, the Chinese.

  14. Stimulation of artemisinin biosynthesis in Artemisia annua hairy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , the OGA-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) were involved in stimulating the artemisinin biosynthesis in the hairy roots. This is the first report on the stimulation of artemisinin production in hairy roots by an oligogalacturonide elicitor.

  15. Tests de germination et de croissance de Artemisia annua L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    l'espèce (9,1 cm, 2,6 mm, 4,9 cm et 14 respectivement pour la hauteur moyenne des plants, le diamètre moyen au collet, la largeur moyenne des feuilles et le nombre moyen de feuilles par plant à 28 jours). Le sol ferralitique se révèle aussi efficace pour la vitesse de croissance des plants surtout en ce qui concerne le ...

  16. Assessment of the effect of Artemisia annua leave extract infusion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2013-02-27

    Feb 27, 2013 ... (1): University of Yaounde 1, Faculty of Sciences, General Biology Laboratory, Hydrobiology and Environment. Research Unit, P.O. Box 812 Yaounde, Cameroon. (2): University Bangui, Faculty of Sciences, Lavoisier Hydroscience Laboratory, P.O.Box 908 Bangui, Central African. Republic.

  17. Morphological and micromorphological characteristics of Desmodium fruits (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane M. Freitas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Desmodium is represented in Santa Catarina State, Brazil, by 13 species, all with lomentaceous fruits. Shape, size and isthmus margin of loments vary, while the surface is glabrous, or covered by trichomes of different types. Morphological diversity of trichomes becomes particularly relevant to taxonomic description. The trichome types present on the surface of Desmodium fruits provide data for the identification and classification of species in the State. To assess this, three fruits of each species were collected and deposited at two herbaria, HBR and FLOR, in Santa Catarina, Brazil. Some rehydrated samples were examined using light microscopy (LM; and some sections were exposed to the following histochemical reagents: Sudan III for oils and Thionine for mucilage. The structural aspects of trichomes can be classified into uni- or multicel- lular and may still be simple, i.e., nonglandular or glandular. Using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, five types of trichomes were identified and analyzed among the Desmodium species studied: uncinate, uniseriate, globose multicellular, globose unicellular and subulate. Characteristics, such as loment margin and article form, glabrescent or pillous indument, trichome type, with or without papillous epidermal cells and epicuticular striations, showed relevant diagnostic value. An identification key was developed for Desmodium species from Santa Catarina State, Brazil, based on macro and micromorphological characters of the fruit.

  18. Anatomy of Sarcocaulon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. L. Verhoeven

    1983-11-01

    Full Text Available The anatomy of the leaf blade, petiole, stem and root of the genus Sarcocaulon (DC. Sweet is discussed. On the basis of the leaf anatomy, the four sections recognized by Moffett (1979 can be identified: section Denticulati (dorsiventral leaves, section Multifidi (isobilateral leaves and adaxial and abaxial palisade continuous at midvein, section Crenati (isobilateral leaves, short curved trichomes and glandular hairs, section Sarcocaulon (isobilateral leaves and glandular hairs only. The anatomy of the stem is typically that of a herbaceous dicotyledon with a thick periderm. The root structure shows that the function of the root is not food storage.

  19. EPIDERMAL CHARACTERS OF BACCHARIS (ASTERACEAE SPECIES USED IN TRADITIONAL MEDICINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FREIRE SUSANA E.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A morphological study of 38 species of Baccharis used in traditional medicinewas carried out to provide some epidermal characters that will contribute to theknowledge of the genus. The present study revealed: 1 seven different types oftrichomes: conical, aseptate fl agellate, fi liform fl agellate, 1-armed, 2-4-armed,bulbiferous fl agellate, and glandular biseriate; 2 that 28 of the total of 38 specieshave trichomes in tufts; 3 six different types of stomata: anomocytic, anisocytic,cyclocytic, actinocytic, tetracytic, and staurocytic; 4 that some trichome types,such as 2-4-armed (B. dracunculifolia and aseptate fl agellate branched (B. trinervis,show a high diagnostic value; 5 that the stomata types can be used to differentiatespecies with similar trichomes type (e.g. B. trimera and B. articulata.Illustrations of the studied characters are provided.

  20. The histological significance of atypical glandular cells on cervical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    with an increased risk of premalignant and invasive lesions.[2,6,7] To our knowledge, there have been no studies published in the English language literature correlating AGC classification with histological diagnosis in South African (SA) patients. Our study may therefore be relevant in the SA context, given that cervical ...

  1. Identifying sources and estimating glandular output of salivary TIMP-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holten-Andersen, L; Beier Jensen, S; Bardow, A

    2008-01-01

    Objective. Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP-1) has been identified as a potential biomarker in diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. Since TIMP-1 resides in most tissues and bodily fluids, we evaluated the potential of using saliva to obtain reproducible TIMP...

  2. SOX10 immunohistochemistry in sweat ductal/glandular neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassarino, David S; Su, Albert; Robbins, Bruce A; Altree-Tacha, David; Ra, Seong

    2017-06-01

    SOX10 is a newer Schwannian and melanocytic marker that has generated great interest for its relative sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of neural crest-derived tumors. Previous studies with SOX10 have shown positive immunohistochemical expression in cutaneous eccrine glands and negative expression in eccrine ducts, apocrine glands and hair follicles. Thus, we hypothesized that some sweat gland tumors of presumed eccrine origin would be positive for SOX10, whereas apocrine-derived sweat gland tumors would not. A mouse monoclonal anti-SOX10 (clone BC34: Biocare Medical; Concord, California) immunohistochemical antibody was performed on various sweat gland tumors and basal cell carcinoma. SOX10 showed positivity in spiradenomas (13/13), cylindromas (9/10), hidradenoma papilliferum (10/10), syringocystadenoma papilliferum (8/10), apocrine adenomas (8/10), and negativity in poromas (0/12), syringomas (0/10), and basal cell carcinomas (0/13). There was mixed staining of hidradenomas (6/15). SOX10 immunohistochemistry may be of utility in distinguishing some of the varying adnexal tumors from each other, and from basal cell carcinoma (BCC), but given the staining of both apocrine and eccrine tumors, does not seem to provide information as to their origins as either eccrine or apocrine tumors. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Snail mucus - glandular origin and composition in Helix pomatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greistorfer, Sophie; Klepal, Waltraud; Cyran, Norbert; Gugumuck, Andreas; Rudoll, Livia; Suppan, Johannes; von Byern, Janek

    2017-06-01

    Apart from their well-known culinary use, gastropod species such as Helix, which have a hydrogel-like mucus, are increasingly being exploited for cosmetic, bioengineering and medical applications. However, not only are the origin and composition of these "sticky" secretions far from being fully characterized, the number and morphology of the mucus glands involved is also uncertain. This study aims to characterize in detail the cutaneous glands of the Helix pomatia foot on morphological, histochemical and immunohistochemical levels. Hereby the focus is on the gland position and appearance on the foot sole as well as on the chemical nature of the different gland secretions. At least five different gland types can be distinguished by their microanatomy; three are located on the dorsal side and two on the ventral side of the foot sole. Most glands are reactive for acidic proteins and sugars such as mannose and fucose, indicating the presence of acidic glycosaminoglycans. One dorsal gland type shows high reactivity for acidic proteins only. The isolated mucus includes a certain amount of the elements chlorine, potassium and calcium; evidence for lipids was also confirmed in the isolated mucus. The present results for Helix pomatia show a clear difference in the number of glands compared to the related species Helix aspersa (only four mucus glands); histochemically, the glands of both species similarly produce acidic proteins as well as acidic glycosaminoglycans. While calcium ions are known to play a role in mucus formation, the presence and function of other ions such as potassium still need to be clarified. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Identifies Putative Genes Involved in the Biosynthesis of Xanthanolides in Xanthium strumarium L.

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    Yuanjun Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Xanthium strumarium L. is a traditional Chinese herb belonging to the Asteraceae family. The major bioactive components of this plant are sesquiterpene lactones, which include the xanthanolides. To date, the biogenesis of xanthanolides, especiallytheir downstream pathway, remains largely unknown. In X. strumarium, xanthanolides primarily accumulate in its glandular trichomes. To identify putative gene candidates involved in the biosynthesis of xanthanolides, three X. strumarium transcriptomes, which were derived from the young leaves of two different cultivars and the purified glandular trichomes from one of the cultivars, were constructed in this study. In total, 157 million clean reads were generated and assembled into 91,861 unigenes, of which 59,858 unigenes were successfully annotated. All the genes coding for known enzymes in the upstream pathway to the biosynthesis of xanthanolides were present in the X. strumarium transcriptomes. From a comparative analysis of the X. strumarium transcriptomes, this study identified a number of gene candidates that are putatively involved in the downstream pathway to the synthesis of xanthanolides, such as four unigenes encoding CYP71 P450s, 50 unigenes for dehydrogenases, and 27 genes for acetyltransferases. The possible functions of these four CYP71 candidates are extensively discussed. In addition, 116 transcription factors that were highly expressed in X. strumarium glandular trichomes were also identified. Their possible regulatory roles in the biosynthesis of sesquiterpene lactones are discussed. The global transcriptomic data for X. strumarium should provide a valuable resource for further research into the biosynthesis of xanthanolides.

  5. Flower palate ultrastructure of the carnivorous plant Genlisea hispidula Stapf with remarks on the structure and function of the palate in the subgenus Genlisea (Lentibulariaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płachno, Bartosz J; Świątek, Piotr; Stpiczyńska, Małgorzata; Miranda, Vitor Fernandes Oliveira

    2018-02-14

    In the genus Genlisea as well as in its sister genus Utricularia, the palate probably plays a key role in providing the colour, mechanical and olfactory stimuli to attract insect pollinators and to guide them to the generative structures and the nectary spur. However, information about the micro-morphology of the palate of Genlisea is scarce. This study aims to examine the structure of the palate in Genlisea hispidula in detail as well as the palate from other five species from the subgenus Genlisea. In particular, its aim is to ascertain whether these palates function as an area for the osmophores in the flower or whether they produce nectar. We showed that the palate in all of the species that were examined was the glandular type and that it had capitate, glandular trichomes, which had a similar general architecture across the species that were examined. No nectar secretion was observed on the palates. The ultrastructure of the palate trichomes showed that the palate glandular trichomes most probably function as scent glands that produce an olfactory stimulus for flower pollinators.

  6. Micromorphological and chemotaxonomical traits of Micromeria croatica (Pers.) Schott.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Dario; Stabentheiner, Edith; Dunkić, Valerija; Müller, Ivna Dragojević; Vujić, Lovorka; Kosalec, Ivan; Ballian, Dalibor; Bogunić, Faruk; Bezić, Nada

    2012-04-01

    A study on the types and distribution of trichomes, pollen morphology, chemical composition of essential oil (analyzed by GC-FID and GC/MS), and the content of macroelements (Na, K, Ca, and Mg) and trace elements (B, Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Al, Pb, Cr, Cd, Ni, Hg, and As) analyzed by ICP-AES (=inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy) was conducted on Micromeria croatica (Pers.) Schott. Non-glandular trichomes, peltate trichomes (typical hairs of Lamiaceae), small capitate trichomes (composed of one basal epidermal cell and one head cell), and larger capitate trichomes (composed of one basal epidermal cell, two to three stalk cells, and one head cell with subcuticular space) were observed on leaves, stems, the calyx, and corolla. Pollen of M. croatica had six apertures (hexacolpate) which were set in the equatorial pollen belt (zonocolpate) and showed medium reticulate ornamentation (hetrobrochate type). The essential oil contained from 27 to 39 constituents, the most representative of which were caryophyllene oxide and E-caryophyllene. Among the investigated macroelements, the content of K was highest (8730-10080 mg/kg). The content of trace elements ranged from 0.12 mg/kg (Cr) to 78.00 mg/kg (Fe), while the content of Cd, Ni, Hg, and As were lower than the limit of quantification. Copyright © 2012 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  7. The structure of floral elements of Anchusa officinalis L. creating attractants for insects

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    Mirosława Chwil

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study involved the measurement of size and the micromorphology of the floral elements of Anchusa officinalis L. which are attractants for insects. The structure of the epidermis on the surface of the calyx, petals, throat scales, pistil and nectary were analysed using light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. For light microscopy observations, semi-permanent slides were prepared, which were treated with Lugol's iodine solution, Sudan III and fluoroglucine. The dark violet lobes of the corolla of Anchusa officinalis, with a velvety surface, and the throat scales, contrasting with them, belong to the most important optical attractants which lure insects from large distances. The dark pink colouring of the sepals additionally increases the attractiveness of the flowers. The epidermis covering the calyx formed different-sized non-glandular trichomes as well as glandular trichomes. The glandular trichomes were composed of a uni - or bicellular leg and a unicellular head. The colour of the corolla petals was determined by anthocyanins accumulated in the epidermal cells and in the more deeply situated parenchyma. The velvety surface was formed by the conical papillae, densely growing from the adaxial epidermis. The pink-violet throat scales with white hairs, covering the inlet to the tube of the corolla, were found at the inlet to the corolla throat. The longest trichomes on the surface of the scales were located in their lower and middle parts, whereas the shortest ones at their tips. The epidermis of the central part of the throat scales formed small papillae. The trichomes had thin cell walls, large vacuoles, numerous plastids and lipid droplets. The two-parted stigma of the pistil was covered by characteristic expanded outgrowths with wavy edges which performed the functions of structures facilitating the capture of pollen grains. As a result of the present study it was found that the structures affecting the attractiveness of the

  8. Caracterización del indumento de nueve especies de Loasaceae de Venezuela Indument characterization of nine Loasaceae species from Venezuela

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    Eliana Noguera-Savelli

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se caracterizó el indumento observado en diferentes órganos de 9 especies de Loasaceae presentes en Venezuela, precisando su ubicación en la planta a fin de establecer una posible importancia taxonómica. Este estudio se efectuó tanto al microscopio óptico como al microscopio electrónico de barrido. El indumento está constituido por 2 clases de apéndices epidérmicos: tricomas y emergencias. Los tricomas se clasificaron en tricomas eglandulares uni-y multicelulares y tricomas glandulares multicelulares. Los tricomas cónicos y gloquidiados uncinados son comunes en todas las especies estudiadas. Nasa resultó el género con la mayor diversidad de tricomas. Se registra por primera vez la presencia de tricomas dendríticos, exclusivamente en Nasa venezuelensis. Las hojas y ovarios son los órganos que mayor variedad de apéndices mostraron. Gronovia scandens fue la única especie con emergencias, restringidas a los tallos. La morfología del indumento es un carácter de valor diagnóstico a nivel de subfamilia, lo cual se evidencia en la clave.In this work the epidermal indumentum observed in different organs of 9 species of Loasaceae from Venezuela were characterized, emphasizing their type and location on the plant to establish their possible taxonomic significance. The indumentum was studied using optical and scanning electron microscopy. Two classes of indumentum were observed: trichomes and emergences. The trichomes were classified as uni- and multicellular, non-glandular trichomes, and multicellular glandular trichomes. The conical and uncinate glochidiate trichomes were common in all the species studied. Nasa was the genus with the greatest trichomes diversity. The occurrence of dendritic trichomes is reported for the first time, exclusively in Nasa venezuelensis. Leaves and ovaries are the organs with the greatest variety of appendices. Gronovia scandens is the only species with emergences, which are restricted to

  9. Comparative leaf morphology and anatomy of three Asteraceae species

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    Patricia Milan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to describe and compare the morphology and anatomy of mature leaves of Mikania glomerata Spreng., Porophyllum ruderale Cass. and Vernonia condensata Baker (Asteraceae species that have different habits emphasizing their secretory structures. Longitudinal and transversal sections of mature leaf blades of the three species were analyzed at the apex, base, and medium third part of the midvein of the leaf blade and of the margin. M. glomerata had uniseriate glandular trichomes and secretory ducts; P. ruderale had hydathodes and secretory cavities; and V. condensata had idioblasts and uni-and biseriate glandular trichomes.Este trabalho teve por objetivo descrever e comparar a morfo-anatomia das folhas adultas de Mikania glomerata Spreng., Porophyllum ruderale Cass. e Vernonia condensata Baker (Asteraceae, que possuem diferentes hábitos, enfatizando suas estruturas secretoras. Secções longitudinais e transversais dos limbos foliares foram analisadas nas regiões do ápice, da base e do terço médio na altura da nervura central, do limbo foliar e da margem. M. glomerata apresentou tricomas glandulares unisseriados e ductos secretores; P. ruderale tinha hidatódios e cavidades secretoras; e V. condensata apresentou idioblastos e tricomas glandulares uni- ou bisseriados.

  10. Plant Responses to Brief Touching: A Mechanism for Early Neighbour Detection?

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    Dimitrije Markovic

    Full Text Available In natural habitats plants can be exposed to brief and light contact with neighbouring plants. This mechanical stimulus may represent a cue that induces responses to nearby plants. However, little is known about the effect of touching on plant growth and interaction with insect herbivores. To simulate contact between plants, a soft brush was used to apply light and brief mechanical stimuli to terminal leaves of potato Solanum tuberosum L. The number of non-glandular trichomes on the leaf surface was counted on images made by light microscope while glandular trichomes and pavement cells were counted on images made under scanning electronic microscope. Volatile compounds were identified and quantified using coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Treated plants changed their pattern of biomass distribution; they had lower stem mass fraction and higher branch and leaf mass fraction than untouched plants. Size, weight and number of tubers were not significantly affected. Touching did not cause trichome damage nor change their total number on touched terminal leaves. However, on primary leaves the number of glandular trichomes and pavement cells was significantly increased. Touching altered the volatile emission of treated plants; they released higher quantities of the sesquiterpenes (E-β-caryophyllene, germacrene D-4-ol and (E-nerolidol, and lower quantities of the terpenes (E-ocimene and linalool, indicating a systemic effect of the treatment. The odour of touched plants was significantly less preferred by the aphids Macrosiphum euphorbiae and Myzus persicae compared to odour of untouched plants. The results suggest that light contact may have a potential role in the detection of neighbouring plants and may affect plant-insect interactions.

  11. Plant Responses to Brief Touching: A Mechanism for Early Neighbour Detection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovic, Dimitrije; Nikolic, Neda; Glinwood, Robert; Seisenbaeva, Gulaim; Ninkovic, Velemir

    2016-01-01

    In natural habitats plants can be exposed to brief and light contact with neighbouring plants. This mechanical stimulus may represent a cue that induces responses to nearby plants. However, little is known about the effect of touching on plant growth and interaction with insect herbivores. To simulate contact between plants, a soft brush was used to apply light and brief mechanical stimuli to terminal leaves of potato Solanum tuberosum L. The number of non-glandular trichomes on the leaf surface was counted on images made by light microscope while glandular trichomes and pavement cells were counted on images made under scanning electronic microscope. Volatile compounds were identified and quantified using coupled gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Treated plants changed their pattern of biomass distribution; they had lower stem mass fraction and higher branch and leaf mass fraction than untouched plants. Size, weight and number of tubers were not significantly affected. Touching did not cause trichome damage nor change their total number on touched terminal leaves. However, on primary leaves the number of glandular trichomes and pavement cells was significantly increased. Touching altered the volatile emission of treated plants; they released higher quantities of the sesquiterpenes (E)-β-caryophyllene, germacrene D-4-ol and (E)-nerolidol, and lower quantities of the terpenes (E)-ocimene and linalool, indicating a systemic effect of the treatment. The odour of touched plants was significantly less preferred by the aphids Macrosiphum euphorbiae and Myzus persicae compared to odour of untouched plants. The results suggest that light contact may have a potential role in the detection of neighbouring plants and may affect plant-insect interactions. PMID:27828995

  12. Avaliação da medida do comprimento do colo e da ausência do eco glandular endocervical para predição do parto pré-termo Evaluation of risk for preterm delivery by measurement of uterine cervix and cervical gland area

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    Claudio Rodrigues Pires

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: verificar a prevalência do sinal eco glandular endocervical (EGE e o comprimento cervical menor ou igual a 20 mm em gestantes entre a 21ª e a 24ª semana e comparar estes sinais ecográficos como fatores indicadores de parto pré-termo espontâneo. MÉTODOS: estudo prospectivo transversal no qual foram incluídas 361 gestantes da população geral, para realização de exame ultra-sonografico em idade gestacional entre a 21ª a 24ª semana. Os critérios de exclusão do estudo foram malformações müllerianas, gestações múltiplas, malformações fetais, óbito fetal, alterações da quantidade de líquido amniótico, placenta com inserção segmentar, antecedentes de cirurgia no colo uterino (conização, amputação, cerclagem e procedimentos cirúrgicos durante a gestação. Após a realização do exame ultra-sonográfico obstétrico morfológico efetuado por via abdominal, seguiu-se o exame ecográfico por via vaginal para observação de uma faixa hipoecóica ou hiperecóica adjacente ao canal endocervical correpondente às glândulas do epitélio endocervical (EGE e mensuração do comprimento cervical. As variáveis qualitativas são representadas por freqüência absoluta e relativa, ao passo que as variáveis quantitativas, por média, desvio-padrão, mediana e valores mínimo e máximo. A associação entre as variáveis qualitativas foi avaliada pelo teste c² ou teste exato de Fisher. Para cada variável estudada, foi calculado o risco relativo seguido do intervalo com 95% de confiança. A técnica de análise de regressão logística univariada foi utilizada para verificar, entre as variáveis estudadas, quais foram indicativas de parto pré-termo espontâneo. O nível de significância adotado foi de 95% (alfa = 5% e descritivos (p iguais ou inferiores a 0,05 foram considerados significantes. RESULTADOS: a incidência do parto pré-termo espontâneo foi de 5,0%. O comprimento do colo uterino revelou-se igual ou

  13. Caracterização morfoanatômica das folhas de Eremanthus erythropappus (DC. MacLeisch, Asteraceae Leaf morpho-anatomical characterization of Eremanthus erythropappus (DC. MacLeisch, Asteraceae

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    Rafael C. Dutra

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Eremanthus erythropappus (DC. MacLeisch (Asteraceae, popularmente conhecida como "candeia-da-serra", é uma espécie utilizada na medicina tradicional como cicatrizante e antimicrobiano. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi comparar o número de tricomas glandulares nas folhas jovens e adultas de E. erythropappus, assim como realizar a caracterização morfoanatômica destas folhas. Secções transversais e paradérmicas das folhas foram submetidas às microtécnicas fotônicas e à microscopia eletrônica de varredura. A quantificação dos tricomas glandulares foi realizada em folhas jovens e adultas com auxílio de câmara clara. As folhas são alternas ou fasciculadas e a lâmina foliar possui epiderme uniestratificada, revestida por cutícula delgada e lisa e mesofilo dorsiventral. Em ambas as faces da epiderme, ocorrem estômatos predominantemente anomocíticos e tricomas glandulares inseridos em depressões. Na face abaxial observam-se numerosos tricomas tectores. O parênquima paliçádico é uniestratificado e o parênquima voltado para a face abaxial é formado por três a cinco camadas de células com disposição compacta. As folhas jovens e adultas apresentam respectivamente 21,78±5,83 e 17,80±6,69 tricomas glandulares na face adaxial. A análise morfoanatômica das folhas de E. erythropappus mostra-se um método rápido e prático para a identificação e controle de qualidade de espécies vegetais utilizadas na terapêutica.Eremanthus erythropappus (DC. MacLeisch (Asteraceae, commonly known as 'candeia-da-serra', is a plant used in folk medicine as wound healing and antimicrobial. The aim of this study was to compare the number of glandular trichomes between the young and the mature leaves, as well as to perform the morpho-anatomical characterization of E. erythropappus leaves. Transverse and paradermal sections of the leaves were prepared according to light and scanning microtechniques for the morpho-anatomical characterization

  14. Stem and leaf anatomy of Plectranthus neochilus Schltr., Lamiaceae

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    Márcia do Rocio Duarte

    Full Text Available Plectranthus neochilus Schltr. is an aromatic herb named " boldo" or " boldo-gambá" and employed for treating hepatic insufficiency and dyspepsia in folk medicine. This paper has investigated its stem and leaf anatomy, in order to contribute for the medicinal plant identification. The botanical material was prepared according to standard microtechniques. The stem has quadrangular transection and, in secondary growth at the level analyzed, shows uniseriate epidermis and numerous trichomes. The glandular ones are capitate and peltate. The former has short unicellular or long multicellular stalk and uni- or bicellular head. The latter presents short stalk and eight-celled ovoid head. The non-glandular trichomes are multicellular, uniseriate and coated with granular cuticle. It is observed angular collenchyma, cambia forming phloem outward and xylem inward, and perivascular fiber caps next to the phloem. The blade has uniseriate epidermis coated with striate cuticle, diacytic stomata on both surfaces, numerous trichomes similar to the stem ones, and homogeneous mesophyll. The midrib shows one or two collateral bundles and the petiole has many of them distributed as an open arc.

  15. Identification of olivetolic acid cyclase from Cannabis sativa reveals a unique catalytic route to plant polyketides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagne, Steve J; Stout, Jake M; Liu, Enwu; Boubakir, Zakia; Clark, Shawn M; Page, Jonathan E

    2012-07-31

    Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and other cannabinoids are responsible for the psychoactive and medicinal properties of Cannabis sativa L. (marijuana). The first intermediate in the cannabinoid biosynthetic pathway is proposed to be olivetolic acid (OA), an alkylresorcinolic acid that forms the polyketide nucleus of the cannabinoids. OA has been postulated to be synthesized by a type III polyketide synthase (PKS) enzyme, but so far type III PKSs from cannabis have been shown to produce catalytic byproducts instead of OA. We analyzed the transcriptome of glandular trichomes from female cannabis flowers, which are the primary site of cannabinoid biosynthesis, and searched for polyketide cyclase-like enzymes that could assist in OA cyclization. Here, we show that a type III PKS (tetraketide synthase) from cannabis trichomes requires the presence of a polyketide cyclase enzyme, olivetolic acid cyclase (OAC), which catalyzes a C2-C7 intramolecular aldol condensation with carboxylate retention to form OA. OAC is a dimeric α+β barrel (DABB) protein that is structurally similar to polyketide cyclases from Streptomyces species. OAC transcript is present at high levels in glandular trichomes, an expression profile that parallels other cannabinoid pathway enzymes. Our identification of OAC both clarifies the cannabinoid pathway and demonstrates unexpected evolutionary parallels between polyketide biosynthesis in plants and bacteria. In addition, the widespread occurrence of DABB proteins in plants suggests that polyketide cyclases may play an overlooked role in generating plant chemical diversity.

  16. Mirid (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) specialists of sticky plants: adaptations, interactions, and ecological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Alfred G; Krimmel, Billy A

    2015-01-07

    Sticky plants-those having glandular trichomes (hairs) that produce adhesive, viscous exudates-can impede the movement of, and entrap, generalist insects. Disparate arthropod groups have adapted to these widespread and taxonomically diverse plants, yet their interactions with glandular hosts rarely are incorporated into broad ecological theory. Ecologists and entomologists might be unaware of even well-documented examples of insects that are sticky-plant specialists. The hemipteran family Miridae (more specifically, the omnivorous Dicyphini: Dicyphina) is the best-known group of arthropods that specializes on sticky plants. In the first synthesis of relationships with glandular plants for any insect family, we review mirid interactions with sticky hosts, including their adaptations (behavioral, morphological, and physiological) and mutualisms with carnivorous plants, and the ecological and agricultural implications of mirid-sticky plant systems. We propose that mirid research applies generally to tritrophic interactions on trichome-defended plants, enhances an understanding of insect-plant interactions, and provides information useful in managing crop pests.

  17. Accumulation of furanic labdane diterpenes in Marrubium vulgare and Leonurus cardiaca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knöss, W; Zapp, J

    1998-05-01

    Accumulation of furanic labdane diterpenes has been investigated in different parts of field-grown plants of MARRUBIUM VULGARE (Lamiaceae) and LEONURUS CARDIACA (Lamiaceae). Furanic labdane diterpenes were produced and accumulated only in the aerial parts. Greatest amounts were measured in leaves and flowers. Up to 4 mg furanic labdane diterpenes per g fresh weight were found. Accumulation of furanic labdane diterpenes in plantlets seemingly depends on a developmental programme. No furanic labdane diterpenes were detected in plantlets during the first four to five weeks following germination. At this time the leaves became more differentiated and the number of trichomes on leaves was obviously increasing. Young leaves and buds contained most furanic labdane diterpenes. It was proven that at least a part of the non-volatile furanic labdane diterpenes is stored in peltate glandular trichomes. NMR signals of marrubiin were investigated with correlated spectra. Some (1)H- and (13)C-NMR assignments reported in literature were revised.

  18. Cell-specific expression of tryptophan decarboxylase and 10-hydroxygeraniol oxidoreductase, key genes involved in camptothecin biosynthesis in Camptotheca acuminata Decne (Nyssaceae

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    Santamaria Anna

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Camptotheca acuminata is a major natural source of the terpenoid indole alkaloid camptothecin (CPT. At present, little is known about the cellular distribution of the biosynthesis of CPT, which would be useful knowledge for developing new strategies and technologies for improving alkaloid production. Results The pattern of CPT accumulation was compared with the expression pattern of some genes involved in CPT biosynthesis in C. acuminata [i.e., Ca-TDC1 and Ca-TDC2 (encoding for tryptophan decarboxylase and Ca-HGO (encoding for 10-hydroxygeraniol oxidoreductase]. Both CPT accumulation and gene expression were investigated in plants at different degrees of development and in plantlets subjected to drought-stress. In all organs, CPT accumulation was detected in epidermal idioblasts, in some glandular trichomes, and in groups of idioblast cells localized in parenchyma tissues. Drought-stress caused an increase in CPT accumulation and in the number of glandular trichomes containing CPT, whereas no increase in epidermal or parenchymatous idioblasts was observed. In the leaf, Ca-TDC1 expression was detected in some epidermal cells and in groups of mesophyll cells but not in glandular trichomes; in the stem, it was observed in parenchyma cells of the vascular tissue; in the root, no expression was detected. Ca-TDC2 expression was observed exclusively in leaves of plantlets subjected to drought-stress, in the same sites described for Ca-TDC1. In the leaf, Ca-HGO was detected in all chlorenchyma cells; in the stem, it was observed in the same sites described for Ca-TDC1; in the root, no expression was detected. Conclusions The finding that the sites of CPT accumulation are not consistently the same as those in which the studied genes are expressed demonstrates an organ-to-organ and cell-to-cell translocation of CPT or its precursors.

  19. Biosynthesis of sesquiterpene lactones in pyrethrum (Tanacetum cinerariifolium)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramirez, Aldana M; Saillard, Nils; Yang, Ting

    2013-01-01

    The daisy-like flowers of pyrethrum (Tanacetum cinerariifolium) are used to extract pyrethrins, a botanical insecticide with a long history of safe and effective use. Pyrethrum flowers also contain other potential defense compounds, particularly sesquiterpene lactones (STLs), which represent...... problematic allergenic residues in the extracts that are removed by the pyrethrum industry. The STLs are stored in glandular trichomes present on the pyrethrum achenes, and have been shown to be active against herbivores, micro-organisms and in the below-ground competition with other plants. Despite...

  20. MORPHOLOGICAL AND ANATOMICAL STUDY OF THE GRASS OF VERONICA SPICATA L.

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    A. V. Kovalyova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of morphological and anatomical studies of Veronica spicata L. Macro- and microscopic features of the grass of Veronica spicata were described. We have determined the principal diagnostic features of leaves and stems of the plant’s active parts. We have found two types of trichomes in active parts of Veronica spicata L.: simple pluricellular fuzz and cephalated glandular fuzz with monocellular pedicle and monocellular or bicellular sphere-like capitulum, anomcytic stomatal apparatus.

  1. A trichome-specific linoleate lipoxygenase expressed during pyrethrin biosynthesis in pyrethrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramirez, Aldana M; Yang, Ting; Bouwmeester, Harro J

    2013-01-01

    The lipid precursor alcohols of pyrethrins-jasmolone, pyrethrolone and cinerolone-have been proposed as sharing parts of the oxylipin pathway with jasmonic acid. This implies that one of the first committed steps of pyrethrin biosynthesis is catalyzed by a lipoxygenase, catalyzing the hydroperoxi...

  2. A Trichome-Specific Linoleate Lipoxygenase Expressed During Pyrethrin Biosynthesis in Pyrethrum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramirez, A.M.; Yang, T.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Jongsma, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    The lipid precursor alcohols of pyrethrins—jasmolone, pyrethrolone and cinerolone—have been proposed as sharing parts of the oxylipin pathway with jasmonic acid. This implies that one of the first committed steps of pyrethrin biosynthesis is catalyzed by a lipoxygenase, catalyzing the

  3. Filaments in Carbonaceous Meteorites: Mineral Crystals, Modern Bio-Contaminants or Indigenous Microfossils of Trichomic Prokaryotes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Richard B.; Borisyak, A. A.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental (ESEM) and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) investigations have resulted in the detection of a large number of complex filaments in a variety of carbonaceous meteorites. Many of the filaments were observed to be clearly embedded the rock matrix of freshly fractured interior surfaces of the meteorites. The high resolution images obtained combined with tilt and rotation of the stage provide 3-dimensional morphological and morphometric data for the filaments. Calibrated Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) and 2-D elemental X-ray maps have provided information on the chemical compositions of the filaments and the minerals of the associated meteorite rock matrix. These observations are used to evaluate diverse hypotheses regarding the possible abiotic or biogenic nature of the filaments found embedded in these meteorites.

  4. The Function of the Early Trichomes Gene in Arabidopsis and Maize.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Poethig

    2011-12-05

    Lateral organ polarity in Arabidopsis is regulated by antagonistic interactions between genes that promote either adaxial or abaxial identity, but the molecular basis of this interaction is largely unknown. We show that the adaxial regulator ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2 (AS2) is a direct target of the abaxial regulator KANADI1 (KAN1), and that KAN1 represses the transcription of AS2 in abaxial cells. Mutation of a single nucleotide in a KAN1 binding site in the AS2 promoter causes AS2 to be ectopically expressed in abaxial cells, resulting in a dominant, adaxialized phenotype. We also show that the abaxial expression of KAN1 is mediated directly or indirectly by AS2. These results demonstrate that KAN1 acts as a transcriptional repressor and that mutually repressive interactions between KAN1 and AS2 contribute to the establishment of adaxial-abaxial polarity in plants. A screen for mutations that affect the expression of a GFP reporter for KANADI2 produced mutations in two genes, CENTER CITY (CCT) and GRAND CENTRAL (GCT). Mutations in GCT and CCT delay the specification of central and peripheral identity and the globular-to-heart transition, but have little or no effect on the initial growth rate of the embryo. Mutant embryos eventually recover and undergo relatively normal patterning, albeit at an inappropriate size. GCT and CCT were identified as the Arabidopsis orthologs of MED12 and MED13--evolutionarily conserved proteins that act in association with the Mediator complex to negatively regulate transcription. The predicted function of these proteins combined with the effect of gct and cct on embryo development suggests that MED12 and MED13 regulate pattern formation during Arabidopsis embryogenesis by transiently repressing a transcriptional program that interferes with this process. Their mutant phenotype reveals the existence of a previously unknown temporal regulatory mechanism in plant embryogenesis.

  5. The rise to prominence of Artemisia annua L. – the transformation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    National health authorities then considered artemisinin-based remedies as a promising approach for ..... perceived sources of efficacy, they impact peoples' thoughts and actions and influence their life (Van der Geest, ..... vomiting or diarrhea, stomach pain, dark urine, clay-colored stools, jaundice. (yellowing of the skin or ...

  6. Response of Artemisia annua L. to shade and manure fertilizer application in lowland altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permana, H. H.; Widyastuti, Y.; Samanhudi; Yunus, A.

    2018-03-01

    Artemisia is a plant producing artemisinin substance which is the main compound in the treatment of malaria. Artemisia comes from China, usually grows wild in native habitats in the plains with an altitude of 1,000-1,500 meters above the sea level. Artemisia development efforts in Indonesia hampered by limited land with the required altitude due to their competition with vegetable crops. Based on this reason, this research is conducted to observe the growth of artemisia planted in lowland with the help of shade and manure. This study aims to determine the level of shade and best manure on the growth of Artemisia. Research conducted at the Laboratory of the Faculty of Agriculture UNS Jumantono using nested design with two factors, shade as main factor and manure fertilizer as sub factor. The data analysis used F test with confidence level of 5%, if significant, then continued with DMRT (Duncan Multiple Range Test). The results showed the treatment of shade gave no difference in growth within 50% shade, 75% shade as well as without shade treatment. Goat manure fertilizer gave the highest result and able to increase plant height, number of branches, flower weight and root volume.

  7. Insecticidal activity of Artemisia annua L. (CBGE/CHNA/09/ LTNGS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSN

    Eastern European origin. It is widely distributed throughout the ... recently in Europe for its aromatic leaves which are used in flavouring .... electric blender and sieved with the aid of fine- mesh plastic sieve. The processes led to the production of fine powders of the leaves and seeds respectively. A weight of 500g of the leaf ...

  8. The rise to prominence of Artemisia annua L. – the transformation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and insomnia. See: [http://www.zct-berlin.de/neueinfuehrungen/arthemeter. html]; [http://www.rxlist.com/coartem-drug-patient.htmsideeffects]. Accessed: 15.2.2009. 11 Details for demand and supply of ACTs are given by Dalrymple, 2008: 13ff. 12 An extraction facility in Kenya (Athi River) carries out both crude extraction.

  9. The molecular cloning of dihydroartemisinic aldehyde reductase and its implication in artemisinin biosynthesis in Artemisia annua

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ryden, A.M.; Ruyter-Spira, C.P.; Quax, W.J.; Hiroyuki, O.; Toshiya, M.; Kayser, O.; Bouwmeester, H.J.

    2010-01-01

    A key point in the biosynthesis of the antimalarial drug artemisinin is the formation of dihydroartemisinic aldehyde which represents the key difference between chemotype specific pathways. This key intermediate is the substrate for several competing enzymes, some of which increase the metabolic

  10. Insecticidal activity of Artemisia annua L. (CBGE/CHNA/09/ LTNGS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSN

    1Centre for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, University of Jos. 2Department of Zology,. University of Jos, 3Department of ... malaria including cerebral malaria in humans with no apparent adverse reactions or side effects. .... and their inability to resurrect and fly away after the opening of the mosquito cage and.

  11. The Molecular Cloning of Dihydroartemisinic Aldehyde Reductase and its Implication in Artemisinin Biosynthesis in Artemisia annua

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ryden, Anna-Margareta; Ruyter-Spira, Carolien; Quax, Wim J.; Osada, Hiroyuki; Muranaka, Toshiya; Kayser, Oliver; Bouwmeester, Harro

    2010-01-01

    A key point in the biosynthesis of the antimalarial drug artemisinin is the formation of dihydroartemisinic aldehyde which represents the key difference between chemotype specific pathways. This key intermediate is the substrate for several competing enzymes, some of which increase the metabolic

  12. No-choice ovipositional nonpreference of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius B biotype on tomato genotypes Não-preferência para oviposição de Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biótipo B em genótipos de tomateiro em teste sem chance de escolha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Auxiliadora de Godoy Oriani

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is one of the main tomato producers worldwide. Nevertheless, 40 to 70% of the production is lost due to Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius B biotype attacks. Resistant plant germplasm can be an important method for controlling this pest in an integrated pest management program. This research aimed to evaluate the no-choice ovipositional preference of B. tabaci B biotype on 18 tomato genotypes with different densities and types of trichomes testing two screening techniques and to determine the influence of trichomes on whitefly ovipositional preference. Two methods of confinement experiments were used. Leaflets detached from the upper third part of the tomato plants (first experiment and 30-day-old plants (second experiment were infested with whiteflies during 24 h. For the first experiment, simple linear correlation tests between the number of insects and eggs, and number of trichomes in the tomato genotypes were carried out. The first technique was better than the second one, as it was easier to carry out and the evaluation demanded less time and as well as was effective to discriminate the resistance level of the evaluated genotypes. Glandular trichomes had a negative correlation with attracted adults and number of eggs deposited, and a positive correlation with number of trapped insects. Negative correlations were observed between number of nonglandular trichomes and trapped insects, and also between total number of trichomes and attracted and trapped insects. Positive correlations were observed between number of total trichomes and eggs cm-2 and nonglandular trichomes and number of eggs. Both confinement methods efficiently discriminated whitefly oviposition among genotypes, especially the resistant ones. High levels of antixenosis for oviposition related to type IV glandular trichomes were exhibited by genotypes LA716, PI134417 and PI134418. The high level of ovipositional preference by B. tabaci for genotypes LA1963 and NAV1062 was related

  13. Morpho-anatomical analysis of Aspidosperma olivaceum and A. polyneuron, Apocynaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Lisot Krentkowski

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The family Apocynaceae includes many medicinal species, such as Aspidosperma olivaceum Müll. Arg. and A. polyneuron Müll. Arg. The first, popularly known as "peroba-branca", is a source of indole alkaloids that are recognized for their antitumor activity. The second, known as "peroba-rosa", is used by some people for treating malaria. To contribute to the knowledge about Brazilian medicinal plants and potential vegetal drugs, a morpho-anatomical analysis of the leaves and stems of these tree species was carried out. The botanical material was fixed, sectioned and stained using standard techniques. Histochemical tests were performed and the material was also analyzed using a scanning electron microscope. Aspidosperma olivaceum and A. polyneuron are morphologically similar, both presenting alternate, simple, elliptic-lanceolate leaves. The leaves are hypostomatic with anomocytic stomata and have non-glandular trichomes. In the stem, there are peripheral phellogen, lignified fibers and some stone cells in the cortex and pith, as well as numerous gelatinous fibers near the phloem. Prismatic calcium oxalate crystals and laticifers are present in the leaves and stems. Unlike A. olivaceum, A. polyneuron also has cyclocytic stomata, predominantly unicellular non-glandular trichomes and a biconvex midrib with a sharper curve on the adaxial side. In addition, A. olivaceum differs because it has some idioblasts with phenolic content.

  14. Anatomia foliar de plantas de alfavaca-cravo cultivadas sob malhas coloridas Leaf anatomy of alfavaca-cravo plants cultivated under colored nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joeferson Reis Martins

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho, foi avaliado o efeito do controle espectral da luz sobre características anatômicas de folhas em Ocimum gratissimum L. As plantas foram cultivadas por quatro meses sob malhas de 50% de sombreamento nas cores preta, vermelha e azul e a pleno sol. Plantas submetidas a pleno sol apresentaram maior espessura foliar, maior densidade estomática e maior densidade de tricomas tectores e glandulares na face adaxial. As plantas cultivadas sob malhas coloridas não exibiram diferenças quanto à espessura e à área foliar. As plantas mantidas sob malha vermelha tiveram a menor densidade estomática na face adaxial, já as plantas mantidas sob malhas azul e vermelha exibiram maior área foliar total. As plantas mantidas sob malha vermelha apresentaram a menor densidade estomática e as menores densidades de tricomas tectores e glandulares na face adaxial. Tais resultados mostram que tanto a intensidade como a qualidade espectral da luz pode ser modulada durante o cultivo de Ocimum gratissimum L. a fim de serem obtidas características anatômicas desejáveis.In the present research, the effect of spectral control of light was evaluated on anatomical characteristics of Ocimum gratissimum L. leaves. The plants were cultivated during four months under black, red and blue nets with 50% of shade, and full sunlight. Plants grown under full sunlight showed higher leaf thickness, higher stomatal density and higher density of no-glandular and glandular trichomes on the adaxial epidermis. Plants cultivated under colored nets did not show differences in leaf thickness or leaf area. Plants maintained under red net had the lowest stomatal density in adaxial epidermis, as the plants cultivated under blue and red nets exhibited the largest leaf area. The plants maintained under red net showed the smallest stomatal density and the smallest non-glandular and glandular trichomes density in the adaxial epidermis. Such results show that the spectral

  15. Asarum pubitessellatum, sp. nov. (sect. Heterotropa, Aristolochiaceae) from Taiwan based on morphological and palynological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chang-Tse; Chiou, Wen-Liang; Wang, Jenn-Che

    2013-12-01

    Recently, we discovered an unknown Asarum from Taiwan which is closely related to A. crassisepalum S.F. Huang, T.H. Hsieh and T.C. Huang and A. taipingshanianum S.F. Huang, T.H. Hsieh and T.C. Huang by sharing a thick leaf blade, spreading perianth-lobes and a conical to cylindrical perianth-tube. We compared it with other related species and identified this plant as a new species. This new species differs distinctly from the above two related species by having larger plant body, shortened rhizomes and an inner surface of the perianth-tube that is covered with numerous simple trichomes (vs. glandular trichomes). The pollen tectum in this new species is perforate, which differs from the incomplete reticulate with small supratectate granules in A. crassisepalum and the compact rugulate with small supratectate granules in A. taipingshanianum. Furthermore, these three species are geographically separated from one another. Asarum pubitessellatum C.T. Lu & J.C. Wang, a new species is described and illustrated. The trichomes on the inner surface of the perianth-tube and pollen micromorphology were the valuable characters in the low-level classification of Heterotropa species in Taiwan.

  16. Terpene synthases from Cannabis sativa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith K Booth

    Full Text Available Cannabis (Cannabis sativa plants produce and accumulate a terpene-rich resin in glandular trichomes, which are abundant on the surface of the female inflorescence. Bouquets of different monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes are important components of cannabis resin as they define some of the unique organoleptic properties and may also influence medicinal qualities of different cannabis strains and varieties. Transcriptome analysis of trichomes of the cannabis hemp variety 'Finola' revealed sequences of all stages of terpene biosynthesis. Nine cannabis terpene synthases (CsTPS were identified in subfamilies TPS-a and TPS-b. Functional characterization identified mono- and sesqui-TPS, whose products collectively comprise most of the terpenes of 'Finola' resin, including major compounds such as β-myrcene, (E-β-ocimene, (--limonene, (+-α-pinene, β-caryophyllene, and α-humulene. Transcripts associated with terpene biosynthesis are highly expressed in trichomes compared to non-resin producing tissues. Knowledge of the CsTPS gene family may offer opportunities for selection and improvement of terpene profiles of interest in different cannabis strains and varieties.

  17. Anatomical structure and surface micromorphology of tomatillo leaf and flower (Physalis ixocarpa Brot., Solanaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Dyki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tomatillo (Physalis ixocarpa Brot. is a newly introduced cultivated plant in Poland. Its anatomy was investigated in light and scanning electron microscopes. Tomatillo adult leaf had one layer of palisade parenchyma. The 1-2 cell layers of spongy parenchyma situated just below the palisade parenchyma showed large, tightly packed cells with great druses. The remaining spongy parenchyma was built of cells showing several extensions. Peculiarity of the sepals were the stomata situated on columns or hills formed of many cells. The petals had a very loose mesophyl. Their adaxial epidermis was composed of papillate cells. Such structure of the petal epidermis probably contributes to light dispersion and prevents glittering. There were several types of trichomes on the leaves, sepals and petals, some of them glandular and some simple. The large, very ramified, dendritic trichomes situated on the petals at the entry to the ovary might eventually protect it against excessive drying. The pollen grain was spherical, three-colpate. The style had a hollow channel inside. The stigma was of a wet, pa-pillate type. Sometimes thorny trichomes were found among papillae.

  18. Acute sialadenitis in children and adolescents: CT findings and clinical manifestations according to glandular involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, A. Leum; Kim, Young Tong; Han, Jong Kyu; Jou, Sung Shick; Jung, Du Shin

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to compare the CT findings and clinical manifestations in children and adolescents with acute sialadenitis according to the involved salivary glands. The study included fifty children and adolescents (34 boys, 16 girls) with acute sialadenitis that was diagnosed during the past five years. All of the subjects were divided into three groups: group I (parotid gland involvement, n = 16), group II (submandibular gland involvement, n = 20) and group III (involvement of both glands, n 14). We analyzed the presence of an abscess, sialolith, bilaterality, cellulitis and lymphadenopathy on CT scans. The analyzed clinical data were age, sex, lymphadenopathy, pain, swelling, presence of a mass, tonsillitis, treatment period and surgical treatment if it was performed. The presence of an abscess, sialolith, cellulitis, swelling, age, presence of a palpable mass and treatment period were statistically significant factors for the patients in the three groups. An abscess was combined only in group I patients. There was a high rate of sialolith in group II patients and cellulitis in group III patients as seen on CT scans. Swelling in group II patients and group III patients and the presence of a palpable mass in group I patients were identified as clinical manifestations. Age was younger in group I patients (mean age, 5.3 years) than in group II patients (mean age, 12.9 years) and group III patients (mean age, 15.2 years). The treatment period was longer for group I patients. For acute sialadenitis in children and adolescents, age, presence of an abscess, sialolith, cellulitis, swelling, presence of a palpable mass and treatment period were different according to the involved salivary glands

  19. Clinical and histological characterization of hair coat and glandular tissue of Chinese crested dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, Dominique J; Gurtner, Corinne; Panakova, Lucia; Mausberg, Theresa-Bernadette; Müller, Eliane J; Drögemüller, Cord; Leeb, Tosso; Welle, Monika M

    2013-04-01

    Two varieties exist in the Chinese crested dog breed, namely hairless Chinese crested dogs presenting with hypotrichosis and dentition abnormalities, and the coated powderpuffs. Hairless Chinese crested dogs are obligate heterozygotes for a FOXI3 mutation, and this phenotype is classified as a form of canine ectodermal dysplasia. We provide a detailed histological description of hair follicles and their density for the three subphenotypes (true hairless, semi-coated and powderpuffs) of Chinese crested dogs. Apocrine and exocrine glands of the skin and other tissues were compared with findings reported from dogs with X-linked ectodermal dysplasia. Skin biopsies were collected from 22 Chinese crested dogs. Additionally