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Sample records for annua glandular trichome

  1. Promoters of AaGL2 and AaMIXTA-Like1 genes of Artemisia annua direct reporter gene expression in glandular and non-glandular trichomes.

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    Jindal, Sunita; Longchar, Bendangchuchang; Singh, Alka; Gupta, Vikrant

    2015-01-01

    Herein, we report cloning and analysis of promoters of GLABRA2 (AaGL2) homolog and a MIXTA-Like (AaMIXTA-Like1) gene from Artemisia annua. The upstream regulatory regions of AaGL2 and AaMIXTA-Like1 showed the presence of several crucial cis-acting elements. Arabidopsis and A. annua seedlings were transiently transfected with the promoter-GUS constructs using a robust agro-infiltration method. Both AaGL2 and AaMIXTA-Like1 promoters showed GUS expression preferentially in Arabidopsis single-celled trichomes and glandular as well as T-shaped trichomes of A. annua. Transgenic Arabidopsis harboring constructs in which AaGL2 or AaMIXTA-Like1 promoters would control GFP expression, showed fluorescence emanating specifically from trichome cells. Our study provides a fast and efficient method to study trichome-specific expression, and 2 promoters that have potential for targeted metabolic engineering in plants.

  2. Si-Accumulation In Artemisia annua Glandular Trichomes Increases Artemisinin Concentration, but Does Not Interfere In the Impairment of Toxoplasma gondii Growth

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    Rostkowska, Cristina; Mota, Caroline M.; Oliveira, Taísa C.; Santiago, Fernanda M.; Oliveira, Lilian A.; Korndörfer, Gaspar H.; Lana, Regina M. Q.; Rossi, Monica L.; Nogueira, Neusa L.; Simonnet, Xavier; Mineo, Tiago W. P.; Silva, Deise A.O.; Mineo, José R.

    2016-01-01

    Artemisia annua is used as a source of artemisinin, a potent therapeutic agent used for the treatment of infectious diseases, chiefly malaria. However, the low concentration (from 0.01 to 1.4% of dried leaf matter) of artemisinin in the plant obtained with the traditional cropping system makes it a relatively expensive drug, especially in developing countries. Considering that artemisinin and silicon (Si) are both stored in A. annua glandular trichomes, and that Si accumulation has never been investigated, this study aimed to look into Si effects on A. annua trichome artemisinin concentration, and whether leaf infusion from Si-treated A. annua plants is able to control Toxoplasma gondii growth. T. gondii is the etiologic agent of toxoplasmosis, a zoonotic parasitic disease whose traditional treatment shows significant side effects. The experimental design consisted of A. annua seedlings randomly planted in soil treated with different doses of calcium/magnesium silicate (0, 200, 400, 800, and 1600 kg ha-1). Analysis of foliar macronutrients showed significant increases of nitrogen content only at the highest dose of silicate. Foliar micronutrients, Si concentrations, and plant height were not affected by any of the silicate doses. However, the dose of 400 kg ha-1 of silicate increased the trichome size, which in turn raised artemisinin concentration in leaves and the infusion. In contrast, the 800 and 1600 kg ha-1 doses dramatically decreased artemisinin concentration. HeLa cell treatment with the infusion of A. annua grown in soil treated with 400 kg ha-1 of silicate decreased parasite proliferation in a dose-dependent manner when the treatment was carried out after or along with T. gondii infection. However, this effect was similar to A. annua grown in soil without silicate treatment. Thus, it can be concluded that, even though Si applied to the soil at 400 kg ha-1 has a positive effect on the A. annua glandular trichome size and the artemisinin concentration

  3. Morphological differentiation and distribution of non-glandular and glandular trichomes on Dracocephalum moldavicum L. shoots

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    Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The structure, micromorphology and distribution of trichomes on Dracocephalum moldavicum L. shots were investigated using light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. There were distinguished 3 types of non-glandular trichomes, 3 types of glandular trichomes and papillae of the osmophore in the epidermis of the corolla. The highest density of non-glandular and glandular trichomes was found on the abaxial surface of the calyx, on bracts and in the upper part of the stem. Structural variations in the head and stalk of long glandular trichomes were demonstrated. The dimensions of particular types of trichomes are given in the present paper. Differences in the structure of the trichomes of this species are presented, compared to literature data. The micromorphology of particular trichome types is documented in numerous photographs showing the rich ornamentation of the cuticle of non-glandular trichomes.

  4. Glandular Trichomes and Essential Oil of Thymus quinquecostatus

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    Ping Jia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution and types of glandular trichomes and essential oil chemistry of Thymus quinquecostatus were studied. The glandular trichomes are distributed on the surface of stem, leaf, rachis, calyx and corolla, except petiole, pistil and stamen. Three morphologically distinct types of glandular trichomes are described. Peltate trichomes, consisting of a basal cell, a stalk cell and a 12-celled head, are distributed on the stem, leaf, corolla and outer side of calyx. Capitate trichomes, consisting of a unicellular base, a 1–2-celled stalk and a unicellular head, are distributed more diffusely than peltate ones, existing on stem, leaf, rachis and calyx. Digitiform trichomes are just distributed on the outer side of corolla, consisting of 1 basal cell, 3 stalk cells and 1 head cell. All three types of glandular trichomes can secrete essential oil, and in small capitate trichomes of rachis, all peltate trichomes and digitiform trichomes, essential oil is stored in a large subcuticular space, released by cuticle rupture, whereas, in other capitate trichomes, essential oil crosses the thin cuticle. The essential oil of T. quinquecostatus is yellow, and its content is highest in the growth period. 68 constituents were identified in the essential oils. The main constituent is linalool.

  5. Morphological differentiation of non-glandular and glandular trichomes on Marrubium vulgare L.

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    Marta Dmitruk

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Marrubium vulgare L., commonly known as a white horehound or common horehound, belongs to the plant family Lamiaceae. It is a perennial aromatic herb which grows naturally in Europe, Asia, and America. Since ancient Egypt, this species has been known as a remedy for upper respiratory tract ailments. Nowadays, horehound is used in herbal medicine for treatment of liver diseases, biliary tract disorders, and for increasing the appetite and supporting the function of the stomach. The main biologically active substances in M. vulgare organs are: marrubiin, tannins, essential oils, and ursolic acid. The paper presents micromorphological analyses of non-glandular and glandular trichomes of M. vulgare. The research material was sampled from the plant collection in the Botanical Garden of the Maria Curie-Sklodowska University in Lublin (51°14′ N, 22°34′ E. The above-ground parts of horehound were collected during the flowering period in July 2013. Using light microscopy (LM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, the types and sizes of trichomes from the stem, leaf, calyx, and corolla were investigated. The results of the microscopic observations show that the surfaces of M. vulgare vegetative and reproductive organs are densely clothed with glandular and non-glandular trichomes. The glandular trichomes are of two main types: peltate and capitate. Peltate trichomes consist of a short stalk cell and a large head with secretory cells arranged in a circle. The height of a mature trichome is about 31.33 μm and the diameter of the head is 31.47 μm. The substance produced by secretory cells passes through the apical walls and accumulates within a space between the cuticle and the cell wall layer. Capitate long trichomes with a basal cell, long stalk, neck cell, and a unicellular head are 36.65 μm long and the diameter of the head is about 15.6 μm. There are two types of short capitate trichomes: with a bicellular head and a unicellular stalk and with

  6. Structure and distribution of glandular and non-glandular trichomes on above-ground organs in Inula helenium L. (Asteraceae

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    Aneta Sulborska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Micromorphology and distribution of glandular and non-glandular trichomes on the above-ground organs of Inula helenium L. were investigated using light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Two types of biseriate glandular trichomes, i.e. sessile and stalk hairs, and non-glandular trichomes were recorded. Sessile glandular trichomes were found on all examined I. helenium organs (with their highest density on the abaxial surface of leaves and disk florets, and on stems, whereas stalk glandular trichomes were found on leaves and stems. Sessile trichomes were characterised by a slightly lower height (58–103 μm and width (32–35 μm than the stalk trichomes (62–111 μm x 31–36 μm. Glandular hairs were composed of 5–7 (sessile trichomes or 6–9 (stalk trichomes cell tiers. Apical trichome cell tiers exhibited features of secretory cells. Secretion was accumulated in subcuticular space, which expanded and ruptured at the top, and released its content. Histochemical assays showed the presence of lipids and polyphenols, whereas no starch was detected. Non-glandular trichomes were seen on involucral bracts, leaves and stems (more frequently on involucral bracts. Their structure comprised 2–9 cells; basal cells (1–6 were smaller and linearly arranged, while apical cells had a prozenchymatous shape. The apical cell was the longest and sharply pointed. Applied histochemical tests revealed orange-red (presence of lipids and brow colour (presence of polyphenols in the apical cells of the trichomes. This may suggest that beside their protective role, the trichomes may participate in secretion of secondary metabolites.

  7. Morphology and histochemistry of glandular trichomes of Orobanche alba Stephan ex Willd

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    Aneta Sulborska

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Orobanche alba Stephan ex Willd is an achlorophyllous root parasite rare in Poland. It prefers dry and sunny slopes, xerothermic grasslands and pastures, mountain pastures, light scrubs, and rock fissures and ledges. The hosts of O. alba include Thymus polytrichus A. ern. ex Borbás, Clinopodium vulgare L. and Origanum vulgare L. The tick and fleshy 10-70 cm high stem in this species bears an inflorescence composed of zygomorphic, white or yellow “spotted” flowers covered by purple glandular trichomes. Glandular trichomes of this type are also borne on other parts of the plant, i.e. on the stem, scaly leaves, sepals, filaments, and the style. The secondary metabolites secreted by the glandular trichomes are related to defense of plants against the attack of herbivores and pathogens or act as attractants to pollinators or for fruit dispersal. The micromorphology and histochemistry of the glandular trichomes in O. alba were examined using scanning electron and light microscopes. In order to determine the type of secondary metabolites produced by the trichomes, the flowing histochemical assays were used: Sudan III and neutral red for detection of lipophilic compounds, IKI for detection of starch, and FeCl3 for detection of phenolic compounds. The peltate glandular trichomes of O. alba were characterised by a varied length (0.15‑0.48 mm and different activity phases. The trichome was composed of one larger basal epidermal cell, 1-3 hyaline stalk cells with a striated cuticle, a neck cell with a smooth cuticle on the surface, and a globose head formed of 8-18 secretory cells arranged in a circle. Many stalk cells of the trichomes, particularly those located on the corolla, contained anthocyanins, which give the trichomes dark carmine colour. In turn, the colour of the heads was dependent on trichome age: the heads were brown in older trichomes and yellow in younger hairs. Secretion was produced by both young and older trichomes. It penetrated

  8. Comparison of polyphenol oxidase expression in glandular trichomes of solanum and lycopersicon species.

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    Yu, H; Kowalski, S P; Steffens, J C

    1992-12-01

    Tetralobulate glandular trichomes are present on the foliage of many solanaceous species. Resistance of many of these species to insects is conditioned by the ability of trichomes to rupture upon contact and to rapidly polymerize their contents, resulting in entrapment of insects in hardened trichome exudate. In the wild potato, Solanum berthaultii, polymerization of trichome exudate is initiated by a soluble M(r) 59,000 polyphenol oxidase (PPO), which is a dominant protein constituent of the organ. PPOs, although ubiquitous in angiosperms, typically display great heterogeneity in molecular weight and are found at low levels in plant cells. Because of the unusually high accumulation and tissue-specific expression of the M(r) 59,000 PPO in S. berthaultii glandular trichomes, we analyzed trichome proteins of a number of Lycopersicon and Solanum species to assess the extent to which possession of the M(r) 59,000 PPO is conserved. Trichomes were collected manually and examined for PPO activity, immuno-cross-reactivity with S. berthaultiiM(r) 59,000 PPO, and protein content. In addition, N-terminal amino acid sequences were obtained for five trichome PPOs. All species analyzed possessed trichome PPOs similar in structure and level of expression to that of S. berthaultii. The relationship between sequences and structures of these conserved PPOs and the variable PPOs of leaf is discussed.

  9. Higher glandular trichome density in tomato leaflets and repellence to spider mites

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    Maluf, Wilson Roberto; Inoue, Irene Fumi; Ferreira, Raphael de Paula Duarte; Gomes, Luiz Antonio Augusto [Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Agricultura]. E-mail: wrmaluf@ufla.br; fuminoue@yahoo.com.br; raphaelufla@yahoo.com.br; laagomes@ufla.br; Castro, Evaristo Mauro de [Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia]. E-mail: emcastro@ufla.br; Cardoso, Maria das Gracas [Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: mcardoso@ufla.br

    2007-09-15

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the feasibility of selection for higher glandular trichome densities, as an indirect criterion of selection for increasing repellence to spider mites Tetranychus urticae, in tomato populations derived from an interspecific cross between Lycopersicon esculentum x L. hirsutum var. glabratum PI 134417. Trichome densities were evaluated in 19 genotypes, including 12 from advanced backcross populations, derived from the original cross L. esculentum x L. hirsutum var. glabratum PI 134417. Counts were made both on the adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces, and trichomes were classified into glandular types IV and VI, other glandular types (types I+VII), and nonglandular types. Mite repellence was measured by distances walked by mites onto the tomato leaf surface after 20, 40 and 60 min. Spider mite repellence biotests indicated that higher densities of glandular trichomes (especially type VI) decreased the distances walked by the mites onto the tomato leaf surface. Selection of plants with higher densities of glandular trichomes can be an efficient criterion to obtain tomato genotypes with higher resistance (repellence) to spider mites. (author)

  10. Peltate glandular trichomes of Colquhounia seguinii harbor new defensive clerodane diterpenoids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-Huan Li; Yan Liu; Juan Hua; Shi-Hong Luo; Sheng-Hong Li

    2014-01-01

    Glandular trichomes produce a wide variety of secondary metabolites that are considered as major defen-sive chemicals against herbivore attack. The morphology and secondary metabolites of the peltate glandular trichomes of a lianoid Labiatae, Colquhounia seguinii Vaniot, were investigated. Three new clerodane diterpenoids, seguiniilac-tones A-C (1-3), were identified through precise trichome collection with laser microdissection, metabolic analysis with ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometer, target compound isolation with classical phytochemical techniques, structure elucidation with spec-troscopic methods. All compounds showed significant antifeedant activity against a generalist plant-feeding insect Spodoptera exigua. Seguiniilactone A (1) was approxi-mately 17-fold more potent than the commercial neem oil. a-Substituted a,b-unsaturated g-lactone functionality was found to be crucial for strong antifeedant activity of this class of compounds. Quantitative results indicated that the levels of these compounds in the peltate glandular trichomes and leaves were sufficiently high to deter the feeding by generalist insects. Moderate antifungal activity was ob-served for seguiniilactone C (3) against six predominant fungal species isolated from the diseased leaves of C. seguinii, while seguiniilactones A and B were generally inactive. These findings suggested that seguiniilactones A-C might be specialized secondary metabolites in peltate glandular trichomes for the plant defense against insect herbivores and pathogens.

  11. Phenylpropanoid biosynthesis in leaves and glandular trichomes of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.).

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    Deschamps, Cícero; Simon, James E

    2010-01-01

    Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) essential oil phenylpropenes are synthesized and accumulate in peltate glandular trichomes and their content and composition depend on plant developmental stage. Studies on gene expression and enzymatic activity indicate that the phenylpropene biosynthetic genes are developmentally regulated. In this study, the methylchavicol accumulation in basil leaves and the enzyme activities and gene expression of both chavicol O-methyltransferase (CVOMT) and eugenol O-methyltransferase (EOMT) were investigated in all leaves at four plant developmental stages. Methylchavicol accumulation decreased over time as leaves matured. There was a significant correlation between methylchavicol accumulation and CVOMT (r(2) = 0.88) enzyme activity, suggesting that the levels of biosynthetic enzymes control the essential oil content. CVOMT and EOMT transcript expression levels, which decreased with leaf age, followed the same pattern in both whole leaves and isolated glandular trichomes, providing evidence that CVOMT transcript levels are developmentally regulated in basil glandular trichomes themselves and that differences in CVOMT expression observed in whole leaves are not solely the result of differences in glandular trichome density.

  12. Biological activity of acyl glucose esters from Datura wrightii glandular trichomes against three native insect herbivores.

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    Hare, J Daniel

    2005-07-01

    Datura wrightii is dimorphic for leaf trichome type in southern California. "Sticky" plants produce glandular trichomes that secrete acylsugars, whereas velvety plants produce nonglandular trichomes. Glandular trichomes confer resistance to some potential insect herbivores and are associated with reduced feeding in the field by two native coleopteran herbivores: the tobacco flea beetle, Epitrix hirtipennis, and a weevil, Trichobaris compacta. In contrast, another native beetle, Lema daturaphila, damages sticky and velvety plants similarly in the field. A series of choice and no-choice "ester removal" and "ester addition" feeding experiments were performed in the laboratory to evaluate the role of acylsugars in feeding by all three insect species. Consumption of sticky leaves after their esters were removed by washing was compared to consumption of unwashed sticky leaves and velvety leaves in ester removal experiments. Consumption of velvety leaves was measured after acylsugars were applied to those leaves in controlled amounts in the ester addition experiments. Consumption by E. hirtipennis was reduced by acylsugars in all experiments. Consumption by T. compacta was reduced by acylsugars in the ester removal experiments, but not in the ester addition experiments. The location of the acylsugars at the tip of a long trichome, rather than simply on the leaf surface, may be an important component of the biological activity of acylsugars against T. compacta in nature. Consumption by L. daturaphila was not significantly reduced by acylsugars in any experiment. The acylsugars caused no significant mortality of any of the three insect species.

  13. Glandular trichomes and essential oil composition of Thymus pannonicus All. (Lamiaceae

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    Irina BOZ

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Glandular trichomes of Lamiaceae are among the most investigated secretory structures. Micromorphological and anatomical analyses of the glandular trichomes of Th. pannonicus L. were carried out using SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy. Our research results show that, the secretory structures are always multicellular, consisting in a basal cell, a unicellular pedicel and a gland which bears 1, 2, 8 or 12 cells. Aerial parts of Th. pannonicus L. were subjected to hydrodistillation to yield volatile oil which were subsequently analysed by GC/MS (gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The main compounds identified in Th. pannonicus L. volatil oil were a-terpinyl acetate (48.83%, germacrene D (12.12%, cariophyllene oxide (6.35% and mircene (4.73%.

  14. Localization of Salvinorin A and Related Compounds in Glandular Trichomes of the Psychoactive Sage, Salvia divinorum

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    SIEBERT, DANIEL J.

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims Salvia divinorum produces several closely related neoclerodane diterpenes. The most abundant of these, salvinorin A, is responsible for the psychoactive properties of the plant. To determine where these compounds occur in the plant, various organs, tissues and glandular secretions were chemically analysed. A microscopic survey of the S. divinorum plant was performed to examine the various types of trichomes present and to determine their distribution.

  15. Identification, functional characterization and developmental regulation of sesquiterpene synthases from sunflower capitate glandular trichomes

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    Ro Dae-Kyun

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sesquiterpene lactones are characteristic metabolites of Asteraceae (or Compositae which often display potent bioactivities and are sequestered in specialized organs such as laticifers, resin ducts, and trichomes. For characterization of sunflower sesquiterpene synthases we employed a simple method to isolate pure trichomes from anther appendages which facilitated the identification of these genes and investigation of their enzymatic functions and expression patterns during trichome development. Results Glandular trichomes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. were isolated, and their RNA was extracted to investigate the initial steps of sesquiterpene lactone biosynthesis. Reverse transcription-PCR experiments led to the identification of three sesquiterpene synthases. By combination of in vitro and in vivo characterization of sesquiterpene synthase gene products in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, respectively, two enzymes were identified as germacrene A synthases, the key enzymes of sesquiterpene lactone biosynthesis. Due to the very low in vitro activity, the third enzyme was expressed in vivo in yeast as a thioredoxin-fusion protein for functional characterization. In in vivo assays, it was identified as a multiproduct enzyme with the volatile sesquiterpene hydrocarbon δ-cadinene as one of the two main products with α-muuorlene, β-caryophyllene, α-humulene and α-copaene as minor products. The second main compound remained unidentified. For expression studies, glandular trichomes from the anther appendages of sunflower florets were isolated in particular developmental stages from the pre- to the post-secretory phase. All three sesquiterpene synthases were solely upregulated during the biosynthetically active stages of the trichomes. Expression in different aerial plant parts coincided with occurrence and maturity of trichomes. Young roots with root hairs showed expression of the sesquiterpene synthase genes

  16. Autofluorescence as a Signal to Sort Developing Glandular Trichomes by Flow Cytometry

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    Bergau, Nick; Navarette Santos, Alexander; Henning, Anja; Balcke, Gerd U.; Tissier, Alain

    2016-01-01

    The industrial relevance of a number of metabolites produced in plant glandular trichomes (GTs) has spurred research on these specialized organs for a number of years. Most of the research, however, has focused on the elucidation of secondary metabolite pathways and comparatively little has been undertaken on the development and differentiation of GTs. One way to gain insight into these developmental processes is to generate stage-specific transcriptome and metabolome data. The difficulty for this resides in the isolation of early stages of development of the GTs. Here we describe a method for the separation and isolation of intact young and mature type VI trichomes from the wild tomato species Solanum habrochaites. The final and key step of the method uses cell sorting based on distinct autofluorescence signals of the young and mature trichomes. We demonstrate that sorting by flow cytometry allows recovering pure fractions of young and mature trichomes. Furthermore, we show that the sorted trichomes can be used for transcript and metabolite analyses. Because many plant tissues or cells have distinct autofluorescence components, the principles of this method can be generally applicable for the isolation of specific cell types without prior labeling. PMID:27446176

  17. The Key Role of Peltate Glandular Trichomes in Symbiota Comprising Clavicipitaceous Fungi of the Genus Periglandula and Their Host Plants

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    Ulrike Steiner

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Clavicipitaceous fungi producing ergot alkaloids were recently discovered to be epibiotically associated with peltate glandular trichomes of Ipomoea asarifolia and Turbina corymbosa, dicotyledonous plants of the family Convolvulaceae. Mediators of the close association between fungi and trichomes may be sesquiterpenes, main components in the volatile oil of different convolvulaceous plants. Molecular biological studies and microscopic investigations led to the observation that the trichomes do not only secrete sesquiterpenes and palmitic acid but also seem to absorb ergot alkaloids from the epibiotic fungal species of the genus Periglandula. Thus, the trichomes are likely to have a dual and key function in a metabolic dialogue between fungus and host plant.

  18. The key role of peltate glandular trichomes in symbiota comprising clavicipitaceous fungi of the genus periglandula and their host plants.

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    Steiner, Ulrike; Kucht, Sabine Hellwig neé; Ahimsa-Müller, Mahalia A; Grundmann, Nicola; Li, Shu-Ming; Drewke, Christel; Leistner, Eckhard

    2015-04-16

    Clavicipitaceous fungi producing ergot alkaloids were recently discovered to be epibiotically associated with peltate glandular trichomes of Ipomoea asarifolia and Turbina corymbosa, dicotyledonous plants of the family Convolvulaceae. Mediators of the close association between fungi and trichomes may be sesquiterpenes, main components in the volatile oil of different convolvulaceous plants. Molecular biological studies and microscopic investigations led to the observation that the trichomes do not only secrete sesquiterpenes and palmitic acid but also seem to absorb ergot alkaloids from the epibiotic fungal species of the genus Periglandula. Thus, the trichomes are likely to have a dual and key function in a metabolic dialogue between fungus and host plant.

  19. Characterization of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases isolated from trichome enriched fraction of Artemisia annua L. leaf.

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    Misra, Amita; Chanotiya, Chandan S; Gupta, Madan M; Dwivedi, Upendra N; Shasany, Ajit K

    2012-12-01

    CYPs have major role in the biosynthesis and modification of secondary metabolites. Predicting the possible involvement of CYPs in secondary metabolism, 20 partial sequences were amplified from the cDNA of trichome enriched tissue of Artemisia annua. Seven CYPs were converted to full length and assigned to different families based on sequence homology. These were co-expressed with CPR in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and microsome fractions were assayed for conversion of sesquiterpenes, phenols and fatty acid substrates. CIM_CYP02(c73) and CIM_CYP05(c81) converted trans-cinnamic acid to p-coumaric acid; and capric acid, lauric acid to their hydroxylated products, respectively. Higher expression of CIM_CYP71AV1, CIM_CYP03(c72a), CIM_CYP06(c72b), CIM_CYP02(c73) and CIM_CYP04(c83) was observed in the mature leaf, whereas expression of CIM_CYP05(c81) was more in the seedling. CIM_CYP71AV1, CIM_CYP02(c73) and CIM_CYP04(c83) expressed more in the flower bud compared to the leaf, with minor expression in stem. All CYPs' expression increased progressively with time after wounding except for CIM_CYP07(c92). These results relate involvement of CIM_CYP02(c73) to phenyl-propanoid metabolism in the leaf and CIM_CYP05(c81) to fatty acid metabolism in the seedling. Expression of CIM_CYP71AV1 and CIM_CYP02(c73) significantly increased when sprayed with trans-cinnamic acid indicating a relationship between phenylpropanoid and artemisinic acid pathways.

  20. Opposing Roles of Foliar and Glandular Trichome Volatile Components in Cultivated Nightshade Interaction with a Specialist Herbivore

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    Murungi, Lucy Kananu; Kirwa, Hillary; Salifu, Daisy; Torto, Baldwyn

    2016-01-01

    Plant chemistry is an important contributor to the interaction with herbivores. Here, we report on a previously unknown role for foliar and glandular trichome volatiles in their interaction with the specialist herbivore of solanaceous plants, the tomato red spider mite Tetranychus evansi. We used various bioassays and chemical analyses including coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-QToF-MS) to investigate this interaction between cultivated African nightshades and T. evansi. We show that, whereas morphologically different cultivated African nightshade species released similar foliar volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that attracted T. evansi, VOCs released from exudates of ruptured glandular trichomes of one nightshade species influenced local defense on the leaf surface. VOCs from ruptured glandular trichomes comprising mainly saturated and unsaturated fatty acids deterred T. evansi oviposition. Of the fatty acids, the unsaturated fatty acids accounted for >40% of the oviposition deterrent activity. Our findings point to a defense strategy in a plant, based on opposing roles for volatiles released by foliar and glandular trichomes in response to attack by a specialist herbivore. PMID:27556560

  1. Caracterização e ontogenia dos tricomas glandulares de Ocimum selloi Benth. - Lamiaceae Characterization and ontogeny of the glandular trichomes of Ocimum selloi Benth. (Lamiaceae

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    Letícia de Almeida Gonçalves

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Ocimum selloi Benth. (Lamiaceae é uma espécie nativa da América do Sul e na medicina popular tem sido usada devido suas propriedades analgésica, anti-inflamatória e antiespasmódica. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi identificar os tipos de tricomas glandulares que ocorrem nos órgãos vegetativos e reprodutivos de O. selloi e determinar a ontogenia desses tricomas. Ramos laterais em início de formação, folhas totalmente expandidas, flores em diferentes estádios de diferenciação, amostras de caule e do eixo das inflorescências foram analisados em microscopias de luz e eletrônica de varredura. Tricomas glandulares do tipo peltado e capitado subséssil foram observados no caule, nas folhas, no eixo da inflorescência e na superfície adaxial das sépalas. Nas sépalas foi encontrado, além dos tricomas secretores peltados e capitados subsésseis, o tricoma glandular capitado pedunculado. A ontogenia inicia-se com a expansão de uma célula protodérmica que, de acordo com a seqüência de divisões periclinais e anticlinais (ora simétricas, ora assimétricas, dá origem aos tricomas. A diferenciação dos tricomas glandulares peltados e capitados não é sincrônica e ocorre muito cedo no desenvolvimento da folha, do caule e do eixo floral.Ocimum selloi Benth. (Lamiaceae is native to South America and in traditional medicine has been used due to its analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antispasmodic properties. The aim of this study was to identify the types of glandular trichomes that occur on the vegetative and reproductive organs of O. selloi and to determine trichome ontogeny. Lateral branches at the initial formation phase, fully opened leaves, flowers at different differentiation stages, and stem and inflorescence axes were analyzed under light and scanning electron microscopy. Glandular trichomes of the peltate and subsessile capitate types were observed on the stem, leaves, inflorescence axis and the adaxial surface of the

  2. Papel dos tricomas glandulares da folha do tomateiro na oviposição de Tuta absoluta Role of tomato leaf glandular trichomes on oviposition of Tuta absoluta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Gilardón

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Os tricomas glandulares presentes nas folhas e ramos das plantas do gênero Lycopersicon são responsáveis pela secreção de metabólitos de diferentes naturezas. A presença de alguns desses compostos tem sido associada à resistência do tomate a diferentes insetos. A traça-do-tomateiro, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, é uma das pragas mais nocivas da América do Sul. O adulto oviposita sobre as folhas do tomate e suas larvas abrem galerias no mesófilo das folhas, ramos, flores e frutos. As espécies silvestres do tomate conservam a capacidade de biossintetizar compostos químicos que lhes conferem resistência a esta praga. No presente trabalho, foi avaliada a preferência para oviposição desse inseto sobre folhas com e sem tricomas glandulares de L. esculentum (Mill. cv. Uco Plata, suscetível, e de L. hirsutum f. glabratum (Mull. PI 134417, espécie silvestre afim ao tomate, e resistente à traça. Os resultados sugerem que as fêmeas ovipositam indistintamente sobre as folhas de ambas espécies, independentemente da presença, ou não, dos tricomas glandulares. E a presença destes e de seus exsudatos não têm efeito inibidor na oviposição do inseto.In the genus Lycopersicon, different metabolites are secreted by the glandular trichomes of leaves and stems. These compounds have been associated to different tomato pests resistance. The South American tomato pinworm, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, is one of the most harmful pests in South America. The females oviposit on tomato leaves and the larvae mine the leaf mesophyl, stems, flowers and fruits. Some wild accessions of Lycopersicon keep their capacity to synthesize allelochemicals that protect them from the pest. In this paper a comparison was made between the tomato pinworm oviposition on leaves with and without trichomes of L. esculentum (Mill. cv. Uco Plata, a susceptible cultivar, and L. hirsutum f. glabratum (Mull. PI 134417, a resistant wild accession. Results suggest that the female

  3. EST analysis of hop glandular trichomes identifies an O-methyltransferase that catalyzes the biosynthesis of xanthohumol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Jana; Culley, Lana K; Lu, Yuping; Liu, Enwu; Matthews, Paul D; Stevens, Jan F; Page, Jonathan E

    2008-01-01

    The glandular trichomes (lupulin glands) of hop (Humulus lupulus) synthesize essential oils and terpenophenolic resins, including the bioactive prenylflavonoid xanthohumol. To dissect the biosynthetic processes occurring in lupulin glands, we sequenced 10,581 ESTs from four trichome-derived cDNA libraries. ESTs representing enzymes of terpenoid biosynthesis, including all of the steps of the methyl 4-erythritol phosphate pathway, were abundant in the EST data set, as were ESTs for the known type III polyketide synthases of bitter acid and xanthohumol biosynthesis. The xanthohumol biosynthetic pathway involves a key O-methylation step. Four S-adenosyl-l-methionine-dependent O-methyltransferases (OMTs) with similarity to known flavonoid-methylating enzymes were present in the EST data set. OMT1, which was the most highly expressed OMT based on EST abundance and RT-PCR analysis, performs the final reaction in xanthohumol biosynthesis by methylating desmethylxanthohumol to form xanthohumol. OMT2 accepted a broad range of substrates, including desmethylxanthohumol, but did not form xanthohumol. Mass spectrometry and proton nuclear magnetic resonance analysis showed it methylated xanthohumol to 4-O-methylxanthohumol, which is not known from hop. OMT3 was inactive with all substrates tested. The lupulin gland-specific EST data set expands the genomic resources for H. lupulus and provides further insight into the metabolic specialization of glandular trichomes.

  4. Identification and characterization of two bisabolene synthases from linear glandular trichomes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschenbrenner, Anna-Katharina; Kwon, Moonhyuk; Conrad, Jürgen; Ro, Dae-Kyun; Spring, Otmar

    2016-04-01

    Sunflower is known to produce a variety of bisabolene-type sesquiterpenes and accumulates these substances in trichomes of leaves, stems and flowering parts. A bioinformatics approach was used to identify the enzyme responsible for the initial step in the biosynthesis of these compounds from its precursor farnesyl pyrophosphate. Based on sequence similarity with a known bisabolene synthases from Arabidopsis thaliana AtTPS12, candidate genes of Helianthus were searched in EST-database and used to design specific primers. PCR experiments identified two candidates in the RNA pool of linear glandular trichomes of sunflower. Their sequences contained the typical motifs of sesquiterpene synthases and their expression in yeast functionally characterized them as bisabolene synthases. Spectroscopic analysis identified the stereochemistry of the product of both enzymes as (Z)-γ-bisabolene. The origin of the two sunflower bisabolene synthase genes from the transcripts of linear trichomes indicates that they may be involved in the synthesis of sesquiterpenes produced in these trichomes. Comparison of the amino acid sequences of the sunflower bisabolene synthases showed high similarity with sesquiterpene synthases from other Asteracean species and indicated putative evolutionary origin from a β-farnesene synthase.

  5. Fatty acid derivatives and dammarane triterpenes from the glandular trichome exudates of Ibicella lutea and Proboscidea louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Teigo; Hara, Noriyuki; Fujimoto, Yoshinori

    2010-06-01

    Ibicellalutea and Proboscidea louisiana, both of the Martyniaceae family, are known for rich glandular trichomes on their leaves and stems. Chemical investigations of the glandular trichome exudates on leaves of the two plants furnished three types of secondary metabolites, glycosylated fatty acids, glycerides (2-O-(3,6-diacetyloxyfattyacyl)glycerols and 2-O-(3-acetyloxyfattyacyl)glycerols) and dammarane triterpenes. The glycosylated fatty acids from I. lutea were determined to be 6(S)-(6-O-acetyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-octadecanoic acid (1A), -eicosanoic acid (1B) and -docosanoic acid (1C), as well as their respective deacetyl congeners (2A, 2B and 2C), whereas P. louisiana furnished 8(S)-(6-O-acetyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-eicosanoic acid (3A) and -docosanoic acid (3B) and their respective deacetyl congeners (4A and 4B), together with 2B. Both plants contained 12 identical 2-O-[(3R,6S)-3,6-diacetyloxyfattyacyl]glycerols (5A-L), in which the fatty acyl moieties contained between 17 and 21 carbon atoms. The corresponding mono-acetyloxy compounds, 2-O-[(3R)-3-acetyloxyfattyacyl]glycerols (6A-L) were detected in both plants. Among these glycerides, ten compounds (5A, 5C, 5F, 5H, 5K, 6A, 6C, 6F, 6H and 6K) had iso-fattyacyl structures and four (5E, 5J, 6E and 6J) had anteiso-fattyacyl structures. A previously unknown dammarane triterpene, betulatriterpene C 3-acetate (7), was isolated together with three known dammarane triterpenes, 24-epi-polacandrin 1,3-diacetate (8), betulatriterpene C (9) and 24-epi-polacandrin 3-acetate (10) from I. lutea, whereas 12 dammarane triterpenes, named probosciderols A-L (12-23), and the known compound betulafolienetriol (11) were isolated from P. louisiana. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis including 2D-NMR techniques and chemical transformations. The 6-O-acetylglucosyloxy-fatty acids 1A-C (42%) and the dammarane triterpenes 7-10 (31%) were the two most abundant constituents in the

  6. Glandular trichome density and essential oil composition in leaves and inflorescences of Lippia origanoides Kunth (Verbenaceae) in the Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozin, Luiz R S; Marques, Marcia O M; Rodrigues, Tatiane M

    2015-01-01

    The essential oils from leaves and inflorescences of Lippia origanoides Kunth present aromatic and medicinal potential and have been used to treat several diseases, including melanoma. In Brazil, L. origanoides is commonly found in campo cerrado and cerrado stricto sensu, physiognomies featured mainly by the differential light conditions to which short and medium-sized plants are subjected. Our aim was to investigate the glandular trichome density and the yield and chemical composition of the essential oils in leaves and inflorescences of L. origanoides from campo cerrado and cerrado stricto sensu. For glandular density analysis, leaves and inflorescences were processed according to conventional techniques for scanning electron microscopy. The essential oils of leaves and inflorescences were obtained by hydrodistillation and identified with gas chromatography. Bracts and sepals showed the highest glandular density, followed by petals and leaves. The glandular density in the abaxial leaf surface was higher in individuals from the campo cerrado. In both populations the essential oil yield was higher in inflorescences than in leaves. The chemical composition of the essential oils varied among individuals from different areas and inside a same population. Our results demonstrated the chemical plasticity of L. origanoides suggesting the importance of monitoring its popular use.

  7. Glandular trichome density and essential oil composition in leaves and inflorescences of Lippia origanoides Kunth (Verbenaceae in the Brazilian Cerrado

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    Luiz R.S. Tozin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils from leaves and inflorescences of Lippia origanoides Kunth present aromatic and medicinal potential and have been used to treat several diseases, including melanoma. In Brazil, L. origanoides is commonly found in campo cerrado and cerrado stricto sensu, physiognomies featured mainly by the differential light conditions to which short and medium-sized plants are subjected. Our aim was to investigate the glandular trichome density and the yield and chemical composition of the essential oils in leaves and inflorescences of L. origanoides from campo cerrado and cerrado stricto sensu. For glandular density analysis, leaves and inflorescences were processed according to conventional techniques for scanning electron microscopy. The essential oils of leaves and inflorescences were obtained by hydrodistillation and identified with gas chromatography. Bracts and sepals showed the highest glandular density, followed by petals and leaves. The glandular density in the abaxial leaf surface was higher in individuals from the campo cerrado. In both populations the essential oil yield was higher in inflorescences than in leaves. The chemical composition of the essential oils varied among individuals from different areas and inside a same population. Our results demonstrated the chemical plasticity of L. origanoides suggesting the importance of monitoring its popular use.

  8. Higher glandular trichome density in tomato leaflets and repellence to spider mites Alta densidade de tricomas glandulares em tomateiro e aumento da repelência a ácaros rajados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Roberto Maluf

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the feasibility of selection for higher glandular trichome densities, as an indirect criterion of selection for increasing repellence to spider mites Tetranychus urticae, in tomato populations derived from an interspecific cross between Lycopersicon esculentum x L. hirsutum var. glabratum PI 134417. Trichome densities were evaluated in 19 genotypes, including 12 from advanced backcross populations, derived from the original cross L. esculentum x L. hirsutum var. glabratum PI 134417. Counts were made both on the adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces, and trichomes were classified into glandular types IV and VI, other glandular types (types I+VII, and nonglandular types. Mite repellence was measured by distances walked by mites onto the tomato leaf surface after 20, 40 and 60 min. Spider mite repellence biotests indicated that higher densities of glandular trichomes (especially type VI decreased the distances walked by the mites onto the tomato leaf surface. Selection of plants with higher densities of glandular trichomes can be an efficient criterion to obtain tomato genotypes with higher resistance (repellence to spider mites.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência da seleção para maior densidade de tricomas glandulares na resistência (repelência ao ácaro Tetranychus urticae, em populações de tomate derivadas do cruzamento interespecífico Lycopersicon esculentum x L. hirsutum var. glabratum PI 134417. Foram avaliados 19 genótipos quanto à densidade de tricomas, que incluíram 12 derivados de populações avançadas de retrocruzamentos, obtidos a partir do cruzamento original L. esculentum x L. hirsutum var. glabratum PI 134417. Nas faces abaxial e adaxial dos folíolos, realizaram-se as contagens e os tricomas foram classificados em glandulares tipo IV e VI, outros glandulares (tipo I e VII e não glandulares. A repelência aos ácaros foi medida pela distância média, percorrida pelo

  9. Characterization of two genes for the biosynthesis of abietane-type diterpenes in rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) glandular trichomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brückner, Kathleen; Božić, Dragana; Manzano, David

    2014-01-01

    the biosynthesis of these diterpenes. Here we show that the biosynthesis of phenolic diterpenes in rosemary predominantly takes place in the glandular trichomes of young leaves, and used this feature to identify the first committed steps. Thus, a copalyl diphosphate synthase (RoCPS1) and two kaurene synthase...

  10. Effects of Plant Density on the Number of Glandular Trichomes and on Yield and Quality of Essential Oils from Oregano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttolomondo, Teresa; La Bella, Salvatore; Leto, Claudio; Bonsangue, Giuseppe; Leone, Raffaele; Gennaro, Maria Cristina; Virga, Giuseppe; Inguanta, Rosalinda; Licata, Mario

    2016-06-01

    Plants yields are influenced by agronomic techniques. Plant density is a complex issue and extremely important when maximizing both crop quality, and biomass and essential oil yields. Plants belonging to the Origanum vulgare subspecies hirtum (Link) Ietswaart were grown adopting four types of plant density and were characterized in biometric and chemical terms. The samples were analyzed using the ANOVA (Principal Component Analysis) statistical method regarding biometric aspects, EO yield and peltate hair density. Essential oil (EO) was extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed using GC-FID and GC-MS. GC-FID and GC-MS analysis led to the identification of 45 compounds from the EO. Plant density affected production both in terms of biomass and EO. However, it was not found to have affected peltate glandular trichome density or EO quality.

  11. Chitosan oligosaccharide and salicylic acid up-regulate gene expression differently in relation to the biosynthesis of artemisinin in Artemisia annua L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Heng; Kjær, Anders; Fretté, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    Artemisia annua L. is a traditional Chinese medicinal plant used for treating fevers and malaria. The primary anti-malarial component is the sesquiterpene lactone peroxide artemisinin, which is accumulated in glandular trichomes. This study investigated the effect of treating plants with chitosan...

  12. Structure and Development of Glandular Trichomes in Pelargonium fragrans%肉豆蔻天竺葵腺毛结构及其发育的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李大红; 姚雷

    2005-01-01

    肉豆蔻天竺葵是一种含有精油的植物,其精油被广泛应用于香料与化妆品.然而其精油的产生部位腺毛的结构与发育过程尚未有研究,本文应用光学显微镜、扫描电子显微镜、透视电子显微镜对肉豆蔻天竺葵腺毛结构及其发育过程进行了研究.结果表明:在肉豆蔻天竺葵叶的表皮上具有腺体毛和非腺体毛两种结构形态.在研究中发现,肉豆蔻天竺葵只有头状腺毛(由头细胞、柄细胞和基细胞三个部分组成),其头状腺毛可以分为两种类型:类型Ⅰ和类型Ⅱ.肉豆蔻天竺葵腺毛是由表皮细胞发育而来.%Pelargoniumfragrans is cultivated as a source of essential oil as well as used for food flavouring or cosmetics. However, the structure and development of the organ that produce essential oil, glandular hair, in Pelargonium fragrans is still unknown. In this study, the structure and development of the glandular trichomes in the epidermis of Pelargonium fragrans were studied by light microscopy as well as scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The surfaces of young leaves were only covered by small number of non-glandular trichomes. As the leaf fully expanding, the amount of the non-glandular trichomes increased. The glandular trichomes are cspitate ones and two morphological types could be distinguished, type Ⅰ and Ⅱ. Development of the glandular trichome started with an outgrowth of an epidermal cell.

  13. Methylerythritol and mevalonate pathway contributions to biosynthesis of mono-, sesqui-, and diterpenes in glandular trichomes and leaves of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wölwer-Rieck, Ursula; May, Bianca; Lankes, Christa; Wüst, Matthias

    2014-03-19

    The biosynthesis of the diterpenoid steviol glycosides rebaudioside A and stevioside in nonrooted cuttings of Stevia rebaudiana was investigated by feeding experiments using the labeled key precursors [5,5-(2)H2]-mevalonic acid lactone (d2-MVL) and [5,5-(2)H2]-1-deoxy-d-xylulose (d2-DOX). Labeled glycosides were extracted from the leaves and stems and were directly analyzed by LC-(-ESI)-MS/MS and by GC-MS after hydrolysis and derivatization of the resulting isosteviol to the corresponding TMS-ester. Additionally, the incorporation of the proffered d2-MVL and d2-DOX into volatile monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and diterpenes in glandular trichomes on leaves and stems was investigated by headspace-solid phase microextraction-GC-MS (HS-SPME-GC-MS). Incorporation of the labeled precursors indicated that diterpenes in leaves and monoterpenes and diterpenes in glandular trichomes are predominately biosynthesized via the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway, whereas both the MEP and mevalonate (MVA) pathways contribute to the biosynthesis of sesquiterpenes at equal rates in glandular trichomes. These findings give evidence for a transport of MEP pathway derived farnesyl diphosphate precursors from plastids to the cytosol. Contrarily, the transport of MVA pathway derived geranyl diphosphate and geranylgeranyl diphosphate precursors from the cytosol to the plastid is limited.

  14. Characterization of two genes for the biosynthesis of abietane-type diterpenes in rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) glandular trichomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brückner, Kathleen; Božić, Dragana; Manzano, David; Papaefthimiou, Dimitra; Pateraki, Irini; Scheler, Ulschan; Ferrer, Albert; de Vos, Ric C H; Kanellis, Angelos K; Tissier, Alain

    2014-05-01

    Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) produces the phenolic diterpenes carnosic acid and carnosol, which, in addition to their general antioxidant activities, have recently been suggested as potential ingredients for the prevention and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Little is known about the biosynthesis of these diterpenes. Here we show that the biosynthesis of phenolic diterpenes in rosemary predominantly takes place in the glandular trichomes of young leaves, and used this feature to identify the first committed steps. Thus, a copalyl diphosphate synthase (RoCPS1) and two kaurene synthase-like (RoKSL1 and RoKSL2) encoding genes were identified and characterized. Expression in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and Nicotiana benthamiana demonstrate that RoCPS1 converts geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGDP) to copalyl diphosphate (CDP) of normal stereochemistry and that both RoKSL1 and RoKSL2 use normal CDP to produce an abietane diterpene. Comparison to the already characterized diterpene synthase from Salvia miltiorrhiza (SmKSL) demonstrates that the product of RoKSL1 and RoKSL2 is miltiradiene. Expression analysis supports a major contributing role for RoKSL2. Like SmKSL and the sclareol synthase from Salvia sclarea, RoKSL1/2 are diterpene synthases of the TPS-e group which have lost the internal gamma-domain. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis indicates that RoKSL1 and RoKSL2 belong to a distinct group of KSL enzymes involved in specialized metabolism which most likely emerged before the dicot-monocot split.

  15. Effects of arbuscular mycorrhiza and phosphorus application on artemisinin concentration in Artemisia annua L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Rupam; Chaudhary, Vidhi; Bhatnagar, A K

    2007-10-01

    Annual wormwood (Artemisia annua L.) produces an array of complex terpenoids including artemisinin, a compound of current interest in the treatment of drug-resistant malaria. However, this promising antimalarial compound remains expensive and is hardly available on the global scale. Synthesis of artemisinin has not been proved to be feasible commercially. Therefore, increase in yield of naturally occurring artemisinin is an important area of investigation. The effects of inoculation by two arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, Glomus macrocarpum and Glomus fasciculatum, either alone or supplemented with P-fertilizer, on artemisinin concentration in A. annua were studied. The concentration of artemisinin was determined by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. The two fungi significantly increased concentration of artemisinin in the herb. Although there was significant increase in concentration of artemisinin in nonmycorrhizal P-fertilized plants as compared to control, the extent of the increase was less compared to mycorrhizal plants grown with or without P-fertilization. This suggests that the increase in artemisinin concentration may not be entirely attributed to enhanced P-nutrition and improved growth. A strong positive linear correlation was observed between glandular trichome density on leaves and artemisinin concentration. Mycorrhizal plants possessed higher foliar glandular trichome (site for artemisinin biosynthesis and sequestration) density compared to nonmycorrhizal plants. Glandular trichome density was not influenced by P-fertilizer application. The study suggests a potential role of AM fungi in improving the concentration of artemisinin in A. annua.

  16. A Geranylfarnesyl Diphosphate Synthase Provides the Precursor for Sesterterpenoid (C25) Formation in the Glandular Trichomes of the Mint Species Leucosceptrum canum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Luo, Shi-Hong; Schmidt, Axel; Wang, Guo-Dong; Sun, Gui-Ling; Grant, Marcus; Kuang, Ce; Yang, Min-Jie; Jing, Shu-Xi; Li, Chun-Huan; Schneider, Bernd; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Li, Sheng-Hong

    2016-03-01

    Plant sesterterpenoids, an important class of terpenoids, are widely distributed in various plants, including food crops. However, little is known about their biosynthesis. Here, we cloned and functionally characterized a plant geranylfarnesyl diphosphate synthase (Lc-GFDPS), the enzyme producing the C25 prenyl diphosphate precursor to all sesterterpenoids, from the glandular trichomes of the woody plant Leucosceptrum canum. GFDPS catalyzed the formation of GFDP after expression in Escherichia coli. Overexpressing GFDPS in Arabidopsis thaliana also gave an extract catalyzing GFDP formation. GFDPS was strongly expressed in glandular trichomes, and its transcript profile was completely in accordance with the sesterterpenoid accumulation pattern. GFDPS is localized to the plastids, and inhibitor studies indicated its use of isoprenyl diphosphate substrates supplied by the 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate pathway. Application of a jasmonate defense hormone induced GFDPS transcript and sesterterpenoid accumulation, while reducing feeding and growth of the generalist insect Spodoptera exigua, suggesting that these C25 terpenoids play a defensive role. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that GFDPS probably evolved from plant geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase under the influence of positive selection. The isolation of GFDPS provides a model for investigating sesterterpenoid formation in other species and a tool for manipulating the formation of this group in plants and other organisms.

  17. Micromorphology and histochemistry of leaf trichomes of Salvia aegyptiaca (Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janošević Dušica

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We performed a comprehensive study of trichomes considering the medicinal importance of the essential oils produced in glandular trichomes of Salvia aegyptiaca L. and lack of data about leaf trichome characteristics. Micromorphological and histochemical analyses of the trichomes of S. aegyptiaca were carried out using light and scanning electron microscopy. We report that the leaves contained abundant non-glandular unbranched trichomes and two types of glandular trichomes, peltate and capitate, on both leaf surfaces. The abaxial leaf side was covered with numerous peltate and capitate trichomes, while capitate trichomes were more abundant on the adaxial leaf side, where peltate trichomes were rarely observed. The non-glandular trichomes were unicellular papillae and multicellular, uniseriate, two-to-six-celled, erect or slightly leaning toward the epidermis. Peltate trichomes were composed of a basal cell, a short cylindrical stalk cell and a broad head of eight secretory cells arranged in a single circle. Capitate trichomes consisted of a one-celled glandular head, subtended by a stalk of variable length, and classified into two types: capitate trichomes type I (or short-stalked glandular trichomes and capitate trichomes type II (or long-stalked glandular trichomes. Histochemical tests showed that the secreted material in all types of S. aegyptiaca glandular trichomes was of a complex nature. Positive reactions to lipids for both types of glandular trichomes were obtained, with especially abundant secretion observed in peltate and capitate trichomes type II. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173015 i br. 173029

  18. Micromorphology of trichomes of Thymus malyi (Lamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, M; Koko, V; Duletić-Lausević, S; Marin, P D

    2008-12-01

    Micromorphological, ultrastructural and morphometric investigations of the trichomes of Thymus malyi were carried out using a light microscope, a scanning electron microscope and a transmission electron microscope. Unbranched non-glandular trichomes, peltate and capitate glandular trichomes were described. The leaves of Thymus malyi bear non-glandular and glandular trichomes on both sides. Estimates of the volume density (i.e. their volume fraction per unit volume) of non-glandular trichomes were higher as compared to volume density of peltate and capitate glandular trichomes. Estimates of the number of these trichomes per area on sections showed that the capitate trichomes were the most abundant. Ultrastructural analyses of cell inner structure have shown numerous mitochondria, big nuclei and plastids with lipid globules and starch grains.

  19. Study on structure and function of apricot leaf glandular trichomes%杏叶腺毛的结构和功能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘林

    2012-01-01

    植物腺毛通常分化出柄部和头部,为了解杏叶腺毛柄部和头部的结构与功能,对杏叶腺毛做半薄和超薄切片,用光学与透射电子显微镜观察。结果表明,杏叶腺毛柄部和头部都是多细胞结构,在超微结构水平上柄部与头部有三方面显著区别:(1)柄部质体分化成具发达类囊体和基粒的叶绿体,积累淀粉,而头部质体不分化,为原质体,含大量管状内膜结构,不积累淀粉或其他贮藏物质;(2)柄部液泡少而体积大,液泡内没有可见物质积累,相反,头部液泡多而体积小,液泡内积累电子染色深的酚类物质;(3)与柄部相比,头部具更多内质网。显然,杏叶腺毛柄部和头部有不同的超微结构和生化功能,包括柄部进行光合作用,头部负责酚类物质的合成与积累。%Glandular trichomes of plants usually consist of a stalk and a head. In order to understand the structural and functional features of the two parts, glandular triehomes of apricot leaves were investigated by means of both light and transmission electron microscopy. It was demonstrated that both the stem and the head of the glandular triehome were multieellular and eontained rieh organelles. Comparisons revealed differences between the two parts in three aspects: (1) the plastids differentiated into chloroplasts in the stem, whereas remained as proplastids in the head, the chloroplasts contained rieh thylakoids, grana and starch grains, while the proplastids contained numerous tubules without any visual storage; (2) vaeuoles were less in number but larger in size in the stem than in the head, vaeuoles in the stem did not accumulate electron-dense substances, while electron-dense phenolic aceumulation oecurred in vaeuoles in the head; (3) endoplasmic reticula were much rieher in the head than in the stem. It is coneluded that the ultrastruetures of the stem and head are distinct and the

  20. Morphology, structure and ontogeny of trichomes of the grape genus (Vitis, Vitaceae

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    Zhi-Yao eMa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Trichomes are widely distributed on surfaces of different organs in the grape genus Vitis and are of taxonomic utility. To explore the morphology, structure and ontogeny of Vitis trichomes, we investigated the diversity and distribution of trichomes in 34 species of Vitis. Two main types of trichomes in Vitis are documented: non-glandular and glandular. Within non-glandular trichomes, ribbon and simple trichomes are found on different vegetative plant organs. The morphology and ontogeny of these types of trichomes are further examined with light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The ultrastructure of the glandular trichomes is explored with transmission electron microscopy. The ribbon trichomes are twisted, greatly elongated and unicellular, and this trichome type may be a morphological synapomorphy of Vitis and its closest tropical relative Ampelocissus and Pterisanthes in Vitaceae. The simple trichomes are documented in most species sampled in the genus. The glandular trichomes are multicellular, non-vascularized and composed of both epidermis and subjacent layers. We show that prickles occurring along the stems and petioles of Vitis davidii are modified glandular trichomes. In our observation, the glandular trichomes of V. romanetii can secret mucilage and send out volatile substance so that many insects are often glued to glands. Transmission electron microscopy indicates that metabolic products accumulate in vacuoles, the cytoplasm and intercellular spaces. We infer that glandular trichomes and young prickles are involved in the secretion of these metabolic products and the intercellular spaces may be the places of temporary storage of these secretions.

  1. Morphological and chemical diversity in the Type IV glandular trichomes of Solananeae (S. sisymbrifolium and N. glauca) as germplasm resources for agricultural and food uses

    OpenAIRE

    Cesio, Verónica; Dutra,Carmelo; Moyna,Patrick; Heinzen, Horacio

    2006-01-01

    Morphological variation in type IV trichomes in Ss and Ng was studied through SEM. The differences can be related to chemical differences in the excreted sugar esters. Ng trichomes exude two fractions, one of glucose tri-esters and the other one of sucrose tetra-esters, in a 3:7 ratio. The main acid found forming these esthers, is 3-methylvalerianic acid, in consonance to those secreted by other Solanaceae. Esters from Ss are novel structures, which can also be separated into three fractions,...

  2. Micromorphology and ultrastructure of trichomes of Libyan Salvia fruticosa Mill.

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    Al Sheef Beleed Najat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Micromorphological and ultrastructural analyses of the leaf trichomes of Salvia fruticosa Mill. were performed by light and electron microscopy. The leaves bear numerous non-glandular unbranched trichomes, and peltate, capitate and digitiform glandular trichomes. Very elongated flagelliform non-glandular trichomes densely covered the leaf surfaces, with especially abundance on the leaf margins. Peltate trichomes consist of a basal epidermal cell, a very short stalk cell and a large round head of eight secretory cells arranged in a circle. Capitate trichomes can be divided into two main types, short-stalked and long-stalked, and further into five subtypes according to the number of stalk cells, morphology and number of glandular head cells. Digitiform trichomes consist of one basal cell, one or two stalk cells and one apical secretory cell, which are of similar diameter and approximately equal length. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173029 i br. 173015

  3. Studies on the expression of linalool synthase using a promoter-β-glucuronidase fusion in transgenic Artemisia annua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongzhen; Kanagarajan, Selvaraju; Han, Junli; Hao, Mengshu; Yang, Yiyi; Lundgren, Anneli; Brodelius, Peter E

    2014-01-15

    Artemisinin, an antimalarial endoperoxide sesquiterpene, is synthesized in glandular trichomes of Artemisia annua L. A number of other enzymes of terpene metabolism utilize intermediates of artemisinin biosynthesis, such as isopentenyl and farnesyl diphosphate, and may thereby influence the yield of artemisinin. In order to study the expression of such enzymes, we have cloned the promoter regions of some enzymes and fused them to β-glucuronidase (GUS). In this study, we have investigated the expression of the monoterpene synthase linalool synthase (LIS) using transgenic A. annua carrying the GUS gene under the control of the LIS promoter. The 652bp promoter region was cloned by the genome walker method. A number of putative cis-acting elements were predicted indicating that the LIS is driven by a complex regulation mechanism. Transgenic plants carrying the promoter-GUS fusion showed specific expression of GUS in T-shaped trichomes (TSTs) but not in glandular secretory trichomes, which is the site for artemisinin biosynthesis. GUS expression was observed at late stage of flower development in styles of florets and in TSTs and guard cells of basal bracts. GUS expression after wounding showed that LIS is involved in plant responsiveness to wounding. Furthermore, the LIS promoter responded to methyl jasmonate (MeJA). These results indicate that the promoter carries a number of cis-acting regulatory elements involved in the tissue-specific expression of LIS and in the response of the plant to wounding and MeJA treatment. Southern blot analysis indicated that the GUS gene was integrated in the A. annua genome as single or multi copies in different transgenic lines. Promoter activity analysis by qPCR showed that both the wild-type and the recombinant promoter are active in the aerial parts of the plant while only the recombinant promoter was active in roots. Due to the expression in TSTs but not in glandular trichomes, it may be concluded that LIS expression will most

  4. Isolation and identification of novel genes involved in artemisinin production from flowers of Artemisia annua using suppression subtractive hybridization and metabolite analysis.

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    Liu, Shuoqian; Tian, Na; Li, Juan; Huang, Jianan; Liu, Zhonghua

    2009-11-01

    Malaria is a global health problem that threatens 300-500 million people and kills more than one million people annually. Artemisinin is highly effective against multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum and it has been widely used as part of the artemisinin-based combination therapies against malaria. To elucidate the biosynthetic pathway of artemisinin and to clone related genes in Artemisia annua, differentially expressed genes between blooming flowers and flower buds were isolated and characterized by a combined approach of suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) and metabolite analysis. A total of 350 cDNA clones from a subtractive cDNA library were randomly picked, sequenced and analyzed and 253 high-quality sequences were obtained. BLASTX comparisons indicated that about 9.9 % of the clones encoded enzymes involved in isoprenoid (including artemisinin) biosynthesis. The expression of 4 gene transcripts involved in artemisinin biosynthesis was examined by RT-PCR and the results confirmed the higher expression of these transcripts in blooming flowers than in flower buds. In addition, 2 putative transcript factors transparenta testa glabra 1 (TTG1) and ENHANCER OF GLABRA3 (GL3), which promote trichome initiation, were presented in the library. Finally, this study demonstrated that the increase of expression level of the putative TTG1 gene correlated with the improvement of glandular trichome density and artemisinin production in A. annua leaves. The subtractive cDNA library described in the present study provides important candidate genes for future research in order to increase the artemisinin content in A. annua.

  5. Phytochemical Analysis, Biological Activity, and Secretory Structures of Stachys annua (L.) L. subsp. annua (Lamiaceae) from Central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venditti, Alessandro; Bianco, Armandodoriano; Quassinti, Luana; Bramucci, Massimo; Lupidi, Giulio; Damiano, Silvia; Papa, Fabrizio; Vittori, Sauro; Maleci Bini, Laura; Giuliani, Claudia; Lucarini, Domenico; Maggi, Filippo

    2015-08-01

    Stachys annua subsp. annua, well-known in central Italy as 'stregona annuale', is an annual, small, slightly-scented herb, commonly found in fields and uncultivated areas in almost all regions of Italy. In folk medicine, its aerial parts were used as anti-catarrhal, febrifuge, tonic, and vulnerary. In the present work, the chemical composition of the flowering aerial parts was studied. The hydrodistilled volatile oil, analysed by GC/MS, showed sesquiterpenoids as the major fraction (42.5%); phytol (9.8%), germacrene D (9.2%), and spathulenol (8.5%) were the most abundant constituents. The volatile oil was assayed for antioxidant and cytotoxic activity by DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, and MTT methods. The cytotoxicity results against HCT116, A375, and MDA-MB 231 human tumor cell lines were significant, with IC50 values of 23.5, 37.2, and 41.5 μg/ml, respectively, whereas the antioxidant power was negligible. The EtOH extract was composed mainly of three glycosidic flavonoids, namely 7-{[2-O-(6-O-acetyl-β-D-allopyranosyl)-β-D-glucopyranosyl]oxy}-5,8-dihydroxy-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one (1), 7-{[6-O-acetyl-2-O-(6-O-acetyl-β-D-allopyranosyl)-β-D-glucopyranosyl]oxy}-2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-5,8-dihydroxy-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one (2), and 7-{[6-O-acetyl-2-O-(β-D-allopyranosyl)-β-D-glucopyranosyl]oxy}-2-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-5,8-dihydroxy-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one (3). On the contrary, iridoids, considered chemotaxonomic markers of the genus Stachys, were absent in this species. Finally, the morphological and histochemical survey showed that glandular trichomes were composed of two main types, i.e. peltate type A and capitate types B and C giving positive response for both lipids and polyphenols.

  6. Arbuscular mycorrhiza increase artemisinin accumulation in Artemisia annua by higher expression of key biosynthesis genes via enhanced jasmonic acid levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Shantanu; Upadhyay, Shivangi; Wajid, Saima; Ram, Mauji; Jain, Dharam Chand; Singh, Ved Pal; Abdin, Malik Zainul; Kapoor, Rupam

    2015-07-01

    It is becoming increasingly evident that the formation of arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) enhances secondary metabolite production in shoots. Despite mounting evidence, relatively little is known about the underlying mechanisms. This study suggests that increase in artemisinin concentration in Artemisia annua colonized by Rhizophagus intraradices is due to altered trichome density as well as transcriptional patterns that are mediated via enhanced jasmonic acid (JA) levels. Mycorrhizal (M) plants had higher JA levels in leaf tissue that may be due to induction of an allene oxidase synthase gene (AOS), encoding one of the key enzymes for JA production. Non-mycorrhizal (NM) plants were exogenously supplied with a range of methyl jasmonic acid concentrations. When leaves of NM and M plants with similar levels of endogenous JA were compared, these matched closely in terms of shoot trichome density, artemisinin concentration, and transcript profile of artemisinin biosynthesis genes. Mycorrhization increased artemisinin levels by increasing glandular trichome density and transcriptional activation of artemisinin biosynthesis genes. Transcriptional analysis of some rate-limiting enzymes of mevalonate and methyl erythritol phosphate (MEP) pathways revealed that AM increases isoprenoids by induction of the MEP pathway. A decline in artemisinin concentration in shoots of NM and M plants treated with ibuprofen (an inhibitor of JA biosynthesis) further confirmed the implication of JA in the mechanism of artemisinin production.

  7. Isolation and characterization of three new monoterpene synthases from Artemisia annua

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    Ju-Xin eRuan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia annua, an annual herb used in traditional Chinese medicine, produces a wealth of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, including the well-known sesquiterpene lactone artemisinin, an active ingredient in the treatment for malaria. Here we report three new monoterpene synthases of A. annua. From a glandular trichome cDNA library, monoterpene synthases of AaTPS2, AaTPS5 and AaTPS6, were isolated and characterized. The recombinant proteins of AaTPS5 and AaTPS6 produced multiple products with camphene and 1,8-cineole as major products, respectively, and AaTPS2 produced a single product, β-myrcene. Although both Mg2+ and Mn2+ were able to support their catalytic activities, altered product spectrum was observed in the presence of Mn2+ for AaTPS2 and AaTPS5. Analysis of extracts of aerial tissues and root of A. annua with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS detected more than 20 monoterpenes, of which the three enzymes constituted more than 1/3 of the total. Mechanical wounding induced the expression of all three monoterpene synthase genes, and transcript levels of AaTPS5 and AaTPS6 were also elevated after treatments with phytohormones of methyl jasmonate (MeJA, salicylic acid (SA and gibberellin (GA, suggesting a role of these monoterpene synthases in plant-environment interactions. The three new monoterpene synthases reported here further our understanding of molecular basis of monoterpene biosynthesis and regulation in plant.

  8. Trichoderma species form endophytic associations within Theobroma cacao trichomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Bryan A; Strem, Mary D; Wood, Delilah

    2009-12-01

    Trichoderma species are usually considered soil organisms that colonize plant roots, sometimes forming a symbiotic relationship. Recent studies demonstrate that Trichoderma species are also capable of colonizing the above ground tissues of Theobroma cacao (cacao) in what has been characterized as an endophytic relationship. Trichoderma species can be re-isolated from surface sterilized cacao stem tissue, including the bark and xylem, the apical meristem, and to a lesser degree from leaves. SEM analysis of cacao stems colonized by strains of four Trichoderma species (Trichoderma ovalisporum-DIS 70a, Trichoderma hamatum-DIS 219b, Trichoderma koningiopsis-DIS 172ai, or Trichoderma harzianum-DIS 219f) showed a preference for surface colonization of glandular trichomes versus non-glandular trichomes. The Trichoderma strains colonized the glandular trichome tips and formed swellings resembling appresoria. Hyphae were observed emerging from the glandular trichomes on surface sterilized stems from cacao seedlings that had been inoculated with each of the four Trichoderma strains. Fungal hyphae were observed under the microscope emerging from the trichomes as soon as 6h after their isolation from surface sterilized cacao seedling stems. Hyphae were also observed, in some cases, emerging from stalk cells opposite the trichome head. Repeated single trichome/hyphae isolations verified that the emerging hyphae were the Trichoderma strains with which the cacao seedlings had been inoculated. Strains of four Trichoderma species were able to enter glandular trichomes during the colonization of cacao stems where they survived surface sterilization and could be re-isolated. The penetration of cacao trichomes may provide the entry point for Trichoderma species into the cacao stem allowing systemic colonization of this tissue.

  9. Subcellular compartmentalization in protoplasts from Artemisia annua cell cultures: engineering attempts using a modified SNARE protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Sansebastiano, Gian Pietro; Rizzello, Francesca; Durante, Miriana; Caretto, Sofia; Nisi, Rossella; De Paolis, Angelo; Faraco, Marianna; Montefusco, Anna; Piro, Gabriella; Mita, Giovanni

    2015-05-20

    Plants are ideal bioreactors for the production of macromolecules but transport mechanisms are not fully understood and cannot be easily manipulated. Several attempts to overproduce recombinant proteins or secondary metabolites failed. Because of an independent regulation of the storage compartment, the product may be rapidly degraded or cause self-intoxication. The case of the anti-malarial compound artemisinin produced by Artemisia annua plants is emblematic. The accumulation of artemisinin naturally occurs in the apoplast of glandular trichomes probably involving autophagy and unconventional secretion thus its production by undifferentiated tissues such as cell suspension cultures can be challenging. Here we characterize the subcellular compartmentalization of several known fluorescent markers in protoplasts derived from Artemisia suspension cultures and explore the possibility to modify compartmentalization using a modified SNARE protein as molecular tool to be used in future biotechnological applications. We focused on the observation of the vacuolar organization in vivo and the truncated form of AtSYP51, 51H3, was used to induce a compartment generated by the contribution of membrane from endocytosis and from endoplasmic reticulum to vacuole trafficking. The artificial compartment crossing exocytosis and endocytosis may trap artemisinin stabilizing it until extraction; indeed, it is able to increase total enzymatic activity of a vacuolar marker (RGUSChi), probably increasing its stability. Exploring the 51H3-induced compartment we gained new insights on the function of the SNARE SYP51, recently shown to be an interfering-SNARE, and new hints to engineer eukaryote endomembranes for future biotechnological applications.

  10. Trichomes of Cannabis sativa as viewed with scanning electron microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledbetter, M.C.; Krikorian, A.D.

    1975-06-01

    Direct examination of fresh, unfixed and uncoated specimens from vegetative and floral parts of Cannabis sativa with the scanning electron microscope enables one to obtain a faithful representation of their surface morphology. The presence of two major types of trichomes has been confirmed: a glandular type comprising or terminating in a globoid structure, and a conically-shaped nonglandular type. Moreover, three or possibly four distinct glandular types can be distinguished: sessile globoid, small-stalked and large-stalked globoid, and a peltate type. The nonglandular trichomes can be distinguished by the nature of their surfaces: those with a warty surface, and those which are relatively smooth. The range of size and distribution, and the special features of all these types of trichomes are also provided.

  11. Analysis of cannabinoids in laser-microdissected trichomes of medicinal Cannabis sativa using LCMS and cryogenic NMR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Happyana, Nizar; Agnolet, Sara; Muntendam, Remco; Van Dam, Annie; Schneider, Bernd; Kayser, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Trichomes, especially the capitate-stalked glandular hairs, are well known as the main sites of cannabinoid and essential oil production of Cannabis sativa. In this study the distribution and density of various types of Cannabis sativa L trichomes, have been investigated by scanning electron microsc

  12. Molecular Farming in Artemisia annua, a sustainable approach to improve anti-malarial drug production

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    Giuseppe ePulice

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is a parasite infection affecting millions of people worldwide. Even though progresses in prevention and treatment have been developed, 198 million cases of malaria occurred in 2013, resulting in 584000 estimated deaths. 90% of all malaria deaths occurred in Africa, mostly among children under the age of five. This article aims to review malaria’s history, epidemiology and current treatments, with a particular focus on the potential of molecular farming that use metabolic engineering in plants as effective anti-malarial solution. Malaria indeed represents an example of how a health problem on one hand, may eventually influence the proper development of a country due to the burden of the disease, and on the other hand, constitutes an opportunity for lucrative business of diverse stakeholders. In contrast, plant biofarming is here proposed as a sustainable alternative for the production not only of natural herbal repellents used for malaria prevention but also for the production of sustainable anti-malarial drugs like artemisinin used for primary parasite infection treatments.Artemisinin, a sesquiterpene lactone, is a natural anti-malarial compound that can be found in Artemisia annua plant. However, the low concentration of artemisinin in plant makes this molecule relatively expensive and difficult to meet the worldwide demand of Artemisinin Combination Therapies, especially for economically disadvantaged people in developing countries. The biosynthetic pathway of artemisinin, a process that only takes place in glandular secretory trichomes of A. annua, is relatively well elucidated, and significant efforts using plant genetic engineering have been made to increase the production of this compound. These include studies on diverse transcription factors, which all have been shown to regulate artemisinin genetic pathway and other biological processes. Therefore, genetic manipulation of these genes may be used as a cost-effective potential

  13. Structural features of flower trichomes in drug eyebright (Euphrasia stricta D. Wolff EX J. F. Lehm.

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    Weronika Haratym

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Euphrasia stricta D. Wolff ex J. F. Lehm. (Orobanchaceae is a representative of plants that are widely used in folk medicine, phytomedicine, and homeopathy. The medicinal raw material derived from the drug eyebright is applied primarily in treatment of ophthalmic diseases. The investigations of trichomes in drug eyebright (Euphrasia stricta D. Wolff ex J. F. Lehm were conducted in 2010–2011. Using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, their location and morphological and anatomical features were identified. Three types of non-glandular trichomes were found: short unicellular, long 1–2 celled, and long 2-celled with wall ornamentation. Additionally, 7 types of glandular trichomes were found; these included: unicellular clavate, 2–3-celled clavate, capitate with a unicellular head and a 3-cel- led stalk, capitate with a unicellular head and a 2-celled stalk, capitate with a 2-celled head, conical papillae, and ribbon-like trichomes with wall thickening.

  14. An investigation of the anatomy, palynology and trichome types of Phlomis olivieri (Lamiaceae

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    Hossein Yousefi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The anatomy, palynology and trichome types of Phlomis olivieri were studied in order to understand the usefulness of these characteristics for systematic purposes. Results showed that vascular bundles were next to each other in the stem, the mesophyll was composed of 1-layered palisade and 3-4 layered spongy parenchyma. There were two collateral vascular bundles in the centre and two small subsidary bundles in the corners of petiole and there were 4 small vascular bundles in the bracteole. Five main types of trichomes (peltate, capitate glandular, stellate, unicellular simple and dendroid trichomes were observed. The capitate trichomes were subdivided into three groups: type 1 (short stalk, type 2 (medium or tri-cellular stalk and type 3 (long or four-cellular stalk. Stellate trichomes were subdivided into two groups: group 1, sessile or short stalked trichomes and group 2, long stalked trichomes. The dendritic trichomes also were reported for the first time in this species. The pollen grains were tricolpate, relatively large, ovate and the exine ornamentation was reticulate and perforate.

  15. Micromorphology of glandular structures in Echium vulgare L. flowers

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    Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The micromorphology of selected elements of Echium vulgare L. flowers was investigated, with special attention to the structure of the nectaries and the stigma of the pistil as well as types of trichomes occurring on the surface of the calyx. The nectary had the shape of an uneven disc located around the lower region of the four-parted ovary of the pistil. The glandular cells formed a tier with a height of 330 μm and a radial width of 144 μm. Nectar was secreted onto the nectary surface through anomocytic stomata located at the level of other epidermal cells. Most of the stomata were open, with a different dimension of the pore. Their largest number was observed at the base of the nectary, and 462 stomata were noted on the whole surface of the nectary. The cuticle on the surface of the guard cells formed fine, circular striae. The subsidiary cells formed striated cuticular ornamentation, with the striae arranged radially in the direction of the stoma, whereas on the surface of other epidermal cells the striae formed an arrangement with different directions. The epidermis on the surface of the stigma formed regularly arranged papillae with a fan-shaped, expanded upper part which had corrugated outer walls, whereas the base of the cell formed a widened small column. The epidermis of the abaxial part of the calyx was covered by numerous non-glandular trichomes of different length which were made up of one or several cells. The glandular trichomes in the epidermis of the calyx grew with smaller density compared to the protective trichomes, and they were composed of a 1-2-celled stalk and a glandular head.

  16. Does Trichomes on the Plant Epidermic Surface Disturb Ants Locomotion?

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    Danon C. Cardoso

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: Many morphological characteristics, both physical and chemical, are used in the defense against herbivores on plants. Trichomes are structures used by plants as physics defense and when associated with glands combine physics and chemistry defense. Many species of ants are herbivores and use leaves and seeds, others ants use Extra Floral Nectars as a food resource, and the majority of the species are predators of other ants and other insects, and use plants as foraging substrate in search of prey. Likewise, on the assumption that ants feed preferentially in plants free of trichomes, we tested the hypothesis that trichomes plants clouded locomotion of ants. Approach: Experiments were carried out in the field using cotton to mimic the plants surface. Thirty traps for the treatment were assembled with cotton as well as other 30 experiments for the control (treatment without cotton. Each trap consisted of Petri dishes of 14,5 cm diameter with bait (sardine and honey in a disc (3 cm diameter in the center of the plate. Around the bait, 10 grams of cotton prepared uniformly were placed. Furthermore, morphometric analysis on the length of body and legs of ants was performed. Results: The number of ants which accessed baits in the center of Petri dishes in treatment with cotton was not statistically different of the number of accesses in the control treatment without cotton. The trichomes do not cloud locomotion of ants and that leg length is equal to or greater than body length. Conclusions/Recommendations: Data revealed that the trichomes do not cloud locomotion of ants; this allows the free walking of ants on the plants surface. However, glandular trichomes that combine physics and chemistry defense with release toxic and adhesives compounds when mechanically stressed may be more efficient in the defense against these insects.

  17. Analysis of cannabinoids in laser-microdissected trichomes of medicinal Cannabis sativa using LCMS and cryogenic NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happyana, Nizar; Agnolet, Sara; Muntendam, Remco; Van Dam, Annie; Schneider, Bernd; Kayser, Oliver

    2013-03-01

    Trichomes, especially the capitate-stalked glandular hairs, are well known as the main sites of cannabinoid and essential oil production of Cannabis sativa. In this study the distribution and density of various types of Cannabis sativa L. trichomes, have been investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Furthermore, glandular trichomes were isolated over the flowering period (8 weeks) by laser microdissection (LMD) and the cannabinoid profile analyzed by LCMS. Cannabinoids were detected in extracts of 25-143 collected cells of capitate-sessile and capitate stalked trichomes and separately in the gland (head) and the stem of the latter. Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid [THCA (1)], cannabidiolic acid [CBDA (2)], and cannabigerolic acid [CBGA (3)] were identified as most-abundant compounds in all analyzed samples while their decarboxylated derivatives, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol [THC (4)], cannabidiol [CBD (5)], and cannabigerol [CBG (6)], co-detected in all samples, were present at significantly lower levels. Cannabichromene [CBC (8)] along with cannabinol (CBN (9)) were identified as minor compounds only in the samples of intact capitate-stalked trichomes and their heads harvested from 8-week old plants. Cryogenic nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) was used to confirm the occurrence of major cannabinoids, THCA (1) and CBDA (2), in capitate-stalked and capitate-sessile trichomes. Cryogenic NMR enabled the additional identification of cannabichromenic acid [CBCA (7)] in the dissected trichomes, which was not possible by LCMS as standard was not available. The hereby documented detection of metabolites in the stems of capitate-stalked trichomes indicates a complex biosynthesis and localization over the trichome cells forming the glandular secretion unit.

  18. Relative expression of genes of terpene metabolism in different tissues of Artemisia annua L

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    Lundgren Anneli

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, Artemisia annua L. (annual or sweet wormwood has received increasing attention due to the fact that the plant produces the sesquiterpenoid endoperoxide artemisinin, which today is widely used for treatment of malaria. The plant produces relatively small amounts of artemisinin and a worldwide shortage of the drug has led to intense research in order to increase the yield of artemisinin. In order to improve our understanding of terpene metabolism in the plant and to evaluate the competition for precursors, which may influence the yield of artemisinin, we have used qPCR to estimate the expression of 14 genes of terpene metabolism in different tissues. Results The four genes of the artemisinin biosynthetic pathway (amorpha-4,11-diene synthase, amorphadiene-12-hydroxylase, artemisinic aldehyde ∆11(13 reductase and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 showed remarkably higher expression (between ~40- to ~500-fold in flower buds and young leaves compared to other tissues (old leaves, stems, roots, hairy root cultures. Further, dihydroartemisinic aldehyde reductase showed a very high expression only in hairy root cultures. Germacrene A and caryophyllene synthase were mostly expressed in young leaves and flower buds while epi-cedrol synthase was highly expressed in old leaves. 3-Hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A reductase exhibited lower expression in old leaves compared to other tissues. Farnesyldiphosphate synthase, squalene synthase, and 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase showed only modest variation in expression in the different tissues, while expression of 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase was 7-8-fold higher in flower buds and young leaves compared to old leaves. Conclusions Four genes of artemisinin biosynthesis were highly expressed in flower buds and young leaves (tissues showing a high density of glandular trichomes. The expression of dihydroartemisinic aldehyde reductase has been suggested to have a

  19. Artemisinin production and precursor ratio in full grown Artemisia annua L. plants subjected to external stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Anders; Verstappen, Francel; Bouwmeester, Harro

    2013-01-01

    was examined on the concentrations of AN and its immediate precursors in leaves, and these concentrations were related to densities and sizes of the glandular trichomes (GT). Plants were stress treated weekly five times by sandblasting or spraying with salicylic acid, chitosan oligosaccharide, H2O2, and Na...

  20. A cold-tolerant evergreen interspecific hybrid of Ocimum kilimandscharicum and Ocimum basilicum: analyzing trichomes and molecular variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhawan, Sunita Singh; Shukla, Preeti; Gupta, Pankhuri; Lal, R K

    2016-05-01

    Ocimum (Lamiaceae) is an important source of essential oils and aroma chemicals especially eugenol, methyl eugenol, linalool, methyl chavicol etc. An elite evergreen hybrid has been developed from Ocimum kilimandscharicum and Ocimum basilicum, which demonstrated adaptive behavior towards cold stress. A comparative molecular analysis has been done through RAPD, AFLP, and ISSR among O. basilicum and O. kilimandscharicum and their evergreen cold-tolerant hybrid. The RAPD and AFLP analyses demonstrated similar results, i.e., the hybrid of O. basilicum and O. kilimandscharicum shares the same cluster with O. kilimandscharicum, while O. basilicum behaves as an outgroup, whereas in ISSR analysis, the hybrid genotype grouped in the same cluster with O. basilicum. Ocimum genotypes were analyzed and compared for their trichome density. There were distinct differences on morphology, distribution, and structure between the two kinds of trichomes, i.e., glandular and non-glandular. Glandular trichomes contain essential oils, polyphenols, flavonoids, and acid polysaccharides. Hair-like trichomes, i.e., non-glandular trichomes, help in keeping the frost away from the living surface cells. O. basilicum showed less number of non-glandular trichomes on leaves compared to O. kilimandscharicum and the evergreen cold-tolerant hybrid. Trichomes were analyzed in O. kilimandscharicum, O. basilicum, and their hybrid. An increased proline content at the biochemical level represents a higher potential to survive in a stress condition like cold stress. In our analysis, the proline content is quite higher in tolerant variety O. kilimandscharicum, low in susceptible variety O. basilicum, and intermediate in the hybrid. Gene expression analysis was done in O. basilicum, O. kilimandscharicum and their hybrid for TTG1, GTL1, and STICHEL gene locus which regulates trichome development and its formation and transcription factors WRKY and MPS involved in the regulation of plant responses to freezing

  1. Transcriptome profiling reveals roles of meristem regulators and polarity genes during fruit trichome development in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chunhua; Liu, Meiling; Jiang, Li; Liu, Xiaofeng; Zhao, Jianyu; Yan, Shuangshuang; Yang, Sen; Ren, Huazhong; Liu, Renyi; Zhang, Xiaolan

    2014-09-01

    Trichomes are epidermal hair-like structures that function in plant defence against biotic and abiotic stresses. Extensive studies have been performed on foliar trichomes development in Arabidopsis and tomato, but the molecular mechanism of fruit trichome formation remains elusive. Cucumber fruit is covered with trichomes (spines) that directly affect the appearance and quality of cucumber products. Here, we characterized the fruit spine development in wild-type (WT) cucumber and a spontaneous mutant, tiny branched hair (tbh). Our data showed that the cucumber trichome was multicellular and non-glandular, with malformed organelles and no endoreduplication. Fruit spine development was generally homogenous and marked by a rapid base expansion stage. Trichomes in the tbh mutant were tiny and branched, with increased density and aberrant cell shape. Transcriptome profiling indicated that meristem-related genes were highly enriched in the upregulated genes in the tbh versus the WT, as well as in WT spines after versus before base expansion, and that polarity regulators were greatly induced during spine base expansion. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR and in situ hybridization confirmed the differential expression of CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON3 (CUC3) and SHOOT MERISTEMLESS (STM) during spine development. Therefore, cucumber trichomes are morphologically different from those of Arabidopsis and tomato, and their development may be regulated by a distinct pathway involving meristem genes and polarity regulators.

  2. Relação entre zingibereno, tricomas foliares e repelência de tomateiros a Tetranychus evansi Relationship between zingiberene, foliar trichomes and repellence of tomato plant to Tetranychus evansi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Donizete Gonçalves

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi quantificar os teores de zingibereno em populações segregantes (F2 do segundo retrocruzamento para Lycopersicon esculentum a partir da espécie selvagem L. hirsutum var. hirsutum, e verificar a relação entre estes teores e a densidade de tricomas glandulares e a repelência a Tetranychus evansi. Na quantificação do zingibereno, utilizou-se um método espectrofotométrico; os tricomas foram contados a partir de cortes paradérmicos e a resistência a ácaros foi avaliada por um bioteste de repelência. A seleção indireta quanto ao teor de zingibereno promoveu aumentos correlacionados no número de tricomas glandulares e na repelência ao ácaro, e o zingibereno nos tricomas glandulares participou efetivamente na resistência aos ácaros. A densidade de tricomas glandulares influencia de maneira determinante os teores de zingibereno, sendo que o tricoma tipo VI destacou-se por apresentar alta correlação com este aleloquímico. Os teores de zingibereno e a sua relação com tricomas glandulares e com a resistência a artrópodos-pragas se mantiveram ao longo dos retrocruzamentos, evidenciando a possibilidade de obtenção de plantas resistentes via seleção indireta para alto teor de zingibereno nos folíolos.The objective of this work was to quantify zingiberene contents in a segregating population (F2 of the second backcross generation to Lycopersicon esculentum after the initial cross with the wild species L. hirsutum var. hirsutum, and to analyse the relationship between zingiberene and both glandular trichome density on tomato leaves and levels of repellence to spider mites Tetranychus evansi. A spectrophotometric assay was used to quantify zingiberene in leaf disks. Trichome counting was made in paradermic preparations of leaf and mite repellence was accessed by a quick thumbtack assay. Indirect selection for high zingiberene contents increased both glandular trichome density and the level of mite

  3. A comparative analysis of stomata and leaf trichome characteristics in Quercus robur L. genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Nataša P.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine genotype variability of leaf trichome and stoma characteristics. Leaves were sampled from seventeen pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L genotypes originating from clonal seed orchard Banov Brod (Srem, the Vojvodina Province. The pedunculate oak has hypostomatal leaves. Statistically significant differences were found for the dimensions and density of stomata. Genotype variability of stomatal dimensions was less pronounced in comparison with their density (CV = 8.88%. Stomata number ranged from 530 to 791 per mm2 of leaf area; genotypes 18 and 25 could be distinguished from the others for the highest stomata number per leaf unit area, genotype 35 for the lowest number. In all genotypes, only solitary eglandular trichomes were observed on the adaxial leaf surface while both solitary eglandular and uniseriate glandular hairs were present on the abaxial surface. Single glandular trichomes were observed in all genotypes, while some of them were characterized by the presence of two (genotypes 4, 5, 6, 16, 22, 25, 28, 29, 30, 35, 38, 40, and 85 or three (genotypes 16, 25, 35 hairs joined by their basal cells.

  4. The tomato odorless-2 mutant is defective in trichome-based production of diverse specialized metabolites and broad-spectrum resistance to insect herbivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jin-Ho; Liu, Guanghui; Shi, Feng; Jones, A Daniel; Beaudry, Randolph M; Howe, Gregg A

    2010-09-01

    Glandular secreting trichomes of cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) produce a wide array of volatile and nonvolatile specialized metabolites. Many of these compounds contribute to the characteristic aroma of tomato foliage and constitute a key part of the language by which plants communicate with other organisms in natural environments. Here, we describe a novel recessive mutation called odorless-2 (od-2) that was identified on the basis of an altered leaf-aroma phenotype. od-2 plants exhibit pleiotrophic phenotypes, including alterations in the morphology, density, and chemical composition of glandular trichomes. Type VI glandular trichomes isolated from od-2 leaves accumulate only trace levels of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and flavonoids. Other foliar defensive compounds, including acyl sugars, glycoalkaloids, and jasmonate-regulated proteinase inhibitors, are produced in od-2 leaves. Growth of od-2 plants under natural field conditions showed that the mutant is highly susceptible to attack by an indigenous flea beetle, Epitrix cucumeris, and the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata. The increased susceptibility of od-2 plants to Colorado potato beetle larvae and to the solanaceous specialist Manduca sexta was verified in no-choice bioassays. These findings indicate that Od-2 is essential for the synthesis of diverse trichome-borne compounds and further suggest that these compounds influence host plant selection and herbivore community composition under natural conditions.

  5. The Tomato odorless-2 Mutant Is Defective in Trichome-Based Production of Diverse Specialized Metabolites and Broad-Spectrum Resistance to Insect Herbivores1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jin-Ho; Liu, Guanghui; Shi, Feng; Jones, A. Daniel; Beaudry, Randolph M.; Howe, Gregg A.

    2010-01-01

    Glandular secreting trichomes of cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) produce a wide array of volatile and nonvolatile specialized metabolites. Many of these compounds contribute to the characteristic aroma of tomato foliage and constitute a key part of the language by which plants communicate with other organisms in natural environments. Here, we describe a novel recessive mutation called odorless-2 (od-2) that was identified on the basis of an altered leaf-aroma phenotype. od-2 plants exhibit pleiotrophic phenotypes, including alterations in the morphology, density, and chemical composition of glandular trichomes. Type VI glandular trichomes isolated from od-2 leaves accumulate only trace levels of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and flavonoids. Other foliar defensive compounds, including acyl sugars, glycoalkaloids, and jasmonate-regulated proteinase inhibitors, are produced in od-2 leaves. Growth of od-2 plants under natural field conditions showed that the mutant is highly susceptible to attack by an indigenous flea beetle, Epitrix cucumeris, and the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata. The increased susceptibility of od-2 plants to Colorado potato beetle larvae and to the solanaceous specialist Manduca sexta was verified in no-choice bioassays. These findings indicate that Od-2 is essential for the synthesis of diverse trichome-borne compounds and further suggest that these compounds influence host plant selection and herbivore community composition under natural conditions. PMID:20668059

  6. Are leaf glandular trichomes of oregano hospitable habitats for bacterial growth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamanoli, K; Thalassinos, G; Karpouzas, D; Bosabalidis, A M; Vokou, D; Constantinidou, H-I

    2012-05-01

    Phyllospheric bacteria were isolated from microsites around essential-oil-containing glands of two oregano (Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum) lines. These bacteria, 20 isolates in total, were subjected to bioassays to examine their growth potential in the presence of essential oils at different concentrations. Although there were qualitative and quantitative differences in the essential oil composition between the two oregano lines, no differences were recorded in their antibacterial activity. In disk diffusion bioassays, four of the isolated strains could grow almost unrestrained in the presence of oregano oil, another five proved very sensitive, and the remaining 11 showed intermediate sensitivity. The strain least inhibited by oregano essential oil was further identified by complete16s rRNA gene sequencing as Pseudomonas putida. It was capable of forming biofilms even in the presence of oregano oil at high concentrations. Resistance of P. putida to oregano oil was further elaborated by microwell dilution bioassays, and its topology on oregano leaves was studied by electron microscopy. When inoculated on intact oregano plants, P. putida was able not only to colonize sites adjacent to essential oil-containing glands, but even to grow intracellularly. This is the first time that such prolific bacterial growth inside the glands has been visually observed. Results of this study further revealed that several bacteria can be established on oregano leaves, suggesting that these bacteria have attributes that allow them to tolerate or benefit from oregano secondary metabolites.

  7. Transcriptome profiling of trichome-less reveals genes associated with multicellular trichome development in Cucumis sativus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jun-Long; Wang, Yun-Li; Yao, Dan-Qing; Zhu, Wen-Ying; Chen, Long; He, Huan-Le; Pan, Jun-Song; Cai, Run

    2015-10-01

    Trichomes on plants, similar to fine hairs on animal and human bodies, play important roles in plant survival and development. They also represent a useful model for the study of cell differentiation. Although the regulatory gene network of unicellular trichome development in Arabidopsis thaliana has been well studied, the genes that regulate multicellular trichome development remain unclear. We confirmed that Cucumis sativus (cucumber) trichomes are multicellular and unbranched, but identified a spontaneous mutant, trichome-less (tril), which presented a completely glabrous phenotype. We compared the transcriptome profilings of the tril mutant and wild type using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing technology. A total of 991 genes exhibited differential expression: 518 were up-regulated and 473 were down-regulated. We further identified 62 differentially expressed genes that encoded crucial transcription factors and were subdivided into seven categories: homeodomain, MADS, MYB, and WRKY domains, ethylene-responsive, zinc finger, and other transcription factor genes. We further analyzed the tissue-expression profiles of two candidate genes, GLABRA2-like and ATHB51-like, using qRT-PCR and found that these two genes were specifically expressed in the epidermis and trichomes, respectively. These results and the tril mutant provide useful tools to study the molecular networks associated with multicellular trichome development.

  8. Quantification of variability in trichome patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina eGreese

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available While pattern formation is studied in various areas of biology, little is known about the intrinsic noise leading to variations between individual realizations of the pattern. One prominent example for de novo pattern formation in plants is the patterning of trichomes on Arabidopsis leaves, which involves genetic regulation and cell-to-cell communication. These processes are potentially variable due to , e.g., the abundance of cell components or environmental conditions. To elevate the understanding of the regulatory processes underlying the pattern formation it is crucial to quantitatively analyze the variability in naturally occurring patterns. Here, we review recent approaches towards characterization of noise on trichome initiation. We present methods for the quantification of spatial patterns, which are the basis for data-driven mathematical modeling and enable the analysis of noise from different sources. Besides the insight gained on trichome formation, the examination of observed trichome patterns also shows that highly regulated biological processes can be substantially affected by variability.

  9. Taxonomic significance of trichomes micromorphology in cucurbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohammad Ajmal; Al-Hemaid, Fahad M A

    2011-01-01

    Studies on trichomes micromorphology using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) were undertaken in 23 species with one variety under 13 genera of the family Cucurbitaceae (viz., Benincasa hispida (Thunb.) Cogn., Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai, Cucumis melo var. agrestis Naudin, Cucumis sativus L., Diplocyclos palmatus (L.) C. Jeffrey, Edgaria dargeelingensis C.B. Clarke, Gynostemma burmanicum King ex Chakr., Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino, Gynostemma pubescens (Gagnep.) C.Y. Wu, Hemsleya dipterygia Kuang & A.M. Lu, Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl., Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb., Luffa cylindrica M. Roem., Luffa echinata Roxb., Melothria heterophylla (Lour.) Cogn., Melothria leucocarpa (Blume) Cogn., Melothria maderspatana (L.) Cogn., Sechium edule (Jacq.) Sw., Thladiantha cordifolia (Blume) Cogn., Trichosanthes cucumerina L., T. cucumerina var. anguina (L.) Haines, Trichosanthes dioica Roxb., Trichosanthes lepiniana (Naudin) Cogn. and T. tricuspidata Lour.). The trichomes in the family Cucurbitaceae vary from unicellular to multicellular, conical to elongated, smooth to ridges, with or without flattened disk at base and cyctolithic appendages, thin to thick walled, curved at apices to blunt. Trichomes micromorphology in the family Cucurbitaceae was found significant taxonomically.

  10. Proteomic snapshot of spearmint (Mentha spicata L.) leaf trichomes: a genuine terpenoid factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, Antoine; Boutry, Marc

    2013-11-01

    Peltate glandular trichomes from Mentha spicata were purified on a Percoll gradient and soluble and membrane proteins were trypsinized and the peptides were separated by nano-LC fractionation and analyzed by MALDI-MS/MS. The vast majority of the 1666 proteins identified were housekeeping proteins or involved in the primary metabolism. However, 57 were predicted to be involved in the secondary metabolism. Of these, 21 were involved in the synthesis of phenylpropanoids and phenolics and 32 in terpenoid synthesis. Of the 14 membrane transporters identified, the 11 ATP-binding cassette transporters provide good material for assessing whether active transport is required for the transfer of monoterpenoid intermediates between cellular compartments and for the secretion of the final products into the subcuticular storage cavity. In conclusion, this proteome analysis of M. spicata peltate trichomes has identified several candidate proteins that might be involved in terpenoid synthesis and transport. The data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000352 (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD000352).

  11. Morphogenesis and Developmental Law of Glandular Hairs of Elsholtzia stauntoni Benth%木香薷腺毛形态结构发生发育规律的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱广龙; 赵挺; 康冬冬; 魏学智

    2011-01-01

    采用常规石蜡切片法及扫描电镜技术对木香薷(Elsholtzia stauntoni Benth)腺毛发生发育及其规律进行了研究.结果表明:木香薷表皮上主要有两种表皮毛:无分泌细胞的表皮毛与有分泌细胞的腺毛.前者包括单细胞乳头状毛、2~3细胞管状毛、分枝状毛及多细胞管状毛;后者包括头状腺毛与盾状腺毛.成熟头状腺毛头部由1、2或4个分泌细胞构成,头部呈圆球形或半圆球形;成熟盾状腺毛头部由8~12个分泌细胞构成,分泌细胞横向扩展形成盾状头部.木香薷腺毛主要在茎端幼叶处大量发生,从茎端第一对幼叶处开始产生;从幼叶期到成熟期均有腺毛发生,大部分腺毛在幼叶期发生发育,只有极少部分在叶的成熟期进行发生发育.%The paraffin sectionning and scanning electron microscopy ( SEM ) were used to study the morphogenesis and law of development of Elsholtzia stauntoni Benth. The results showed that glandular hairs of E. Stauntoni Benth has two main types of trichomes: trichomes without secreting cells and trichomes with secreting cells. The former include: single-cell mastoid trichomes ,2-3 cells tubular trichomes ,2-3 cells ramose trichomes and multicellular tubular trichomes. The latter include peltate and capitate hairs. The mature capitate glandular hairs comprise one, two or four secretory cells and its head is spherical or half spherical. The head of mature peltate glandular hairs comprises eight to twelve secretory cells and the secretory cells expand to a shield-shaped head. The glandular hairs of E. Stauntoni Benth mainly occur gready on younger leaves and start to generate from the first pair of younger leaves of stem apex. The morphogenesis of new glandular hairs can be observed to occur from young leaves stage to mature stage, however, only a relatively small amount occurs in maturation stage.

  12. Micro-trichome as a class I homeodomain-leucine zipper gene regulates multicellular trichome development in Cucumis sativus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jun-Long; Pan, Jun-Song; Guan, Yuan; Zhang, Wei-Wei; Bie, Bei-Bei; Wang, Yun-Li; He, Huan-Le; Lian, Hong-Li; Cai, Run

    2015-11-01

    Plant trichomes serve as a highly suitable model for investigating cell differentiation at the single-cell level. The regulatory genes involved in unicellular trichome development in Arabidopsis thaliana have been intensively studied, but genes regulating multicellular trichome development in plants remain unclear. Here, we characterized Cucumis sativus (cucumber) trichomes as representative multicellular and unbranched structures, and identified Micro-trichome (Mict), using map-based cloning in an F2 segregating population of 7,936 individuals generated from a spontaneous mict mutant. In mict plants, trichomes in both leaves and fruits, are small, poorly developed, and denser than in the wild type. Sequence analysis revealed that a 2,649-bp genomic deletion, spanning the first and second exons, occurred in a plant-specific class I homeodomain-leucine zipper gene. Tissue-specific expression analysis indicated that Mict is strongly expressed in the trichome cells. Transcriptome profiling identified potential targets of Mict including putative homologs of genes known in other systems to regulate trichome development, meristem determinacy, and hormone responsiveness. Phylogenic analysis charted the relationships among putative homologs in angiosperms. Our paper represents initial steps toward understanding the development of multicellular trichomes.

  13. Sexual Dimorphism in the Response of Mercurialis annua to Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezra M. Orlofsky

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The research presented stemmed from the observations that female plants of the annual dioecious Mercurialis annua outlive male plants. This led to the hypothesis that female plants of M. annua would be more tolerant to stress than male plants. This hypothesis was addressed in a comprehensive way, by comparing morphological, biochemical and metabolomics changes in female and male plants during their development and under salinity. There were practically no differences between the genders in vegetative development and physiological parameters. However, under salinity conditions, female plants produced significantly more new reproductive nodes. Gender-linked differences in peroxidase (POD and glutathione transferases (GSTs were involved in anti-oxidation, detoxification and developmental processes in M. annua. 1H NMR metabolite profiling of female and male M. annua plants showed that under salinity the activity of the TCA cycle increased. There was also an increase in betaine in both genders, which may be explainable by its osmo-compatible function under salinity. The concentration of ten metabolites changed in both genders, while ‘Female-only-response’ to salinity was detected for five metabolites. In conclusion, dimorphic responses of M. annua plant genders to stress may be attributed to female plants’ capacity to survive and complete the reproductive life cycle.

  14. Hydrophobic trichome layers and epicuticular wax powders in Bromeliaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, S; Maxwell, K; Griffiths, H; Winter, K

    2001-08-01

    The distinctive foliar trichome of Bromeliaceae has promoted the evolution of an epiphytic habit in certain taxa by allowing the shoot to assume a significant role in the uptake of water and mineral nutrients. Despite the profound ecophysiological and taxonomic importance of this epidermal structure, the functions of nonabsorbent trichomes in remaining Bromeliaceae are not fully understood. The hypothesis that light reflection from these trichome layers provides photoprotection was not supported by spectroradiometry and fluorimetry in the present study; the mean reflectance of visible light from trichome layers did not exceed 6.4% on the adaxial surfaces of species representing a range of ecophysiological types nor was significant photoprotection provided by their presence. Several reports suggesting water repellency in some terrestrial Bromeliaceae were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and a new technique-fluorographic dimensional imaging (FDI)-were used to assess the interaction between aqueous droplets and the leaf surfaces of 86 species from 25 genera. In the majority of cases a dense layer of overlapping, stellate or peltate trichomes held water off the leaf epidermis proper. In the case of hydrophobic tank-forming tillandsioideae, a powdery epicuticular wax layer provided water repellency. The irregular architecture of these indumenta resulted in relatively little contact with water droplets. Most mesic terrestrial Pitcairnioideae examined either possessed glabrous leaf blades or hydrophobic layers of confluent trichomes on the abaxial surface. Thus, the present study indicates that an important ancestral function of the foliar trichome in Bromeliaceae was water repellency. The ecophysiological consequences of hydrophobia are discussed.

  15. Role of trichome of Pteris vittata L. in arsenic hyperaccumulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wenxue; CHEN Tongbin; CHEN Yang; LEI Mei

    2005-01-01

    Environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) fitted with an energy dispersive X-ray microanalyzer (EDX) was used to investigate the surface micromorphology and arsenic (As) micro-distribution in Chinese brake (Pteris vittata L.). It was found that amounts of trichome, which possessed multicellular structure with the average length of 160 (m and with an average diameter of 28 (m, existed in the frond of P. vittata, and the density of trichome on the pinnate axial surface was higher than that on the petiole. Visible X-ray peak of As was recorded in the epidermal cell and trichome. The relative weight of As in the pinnate trichome, which contained the highest concentration of As among all tissues of the plant, was 2.4 and 3.9 times as much as that in the epidermal and mesophyllous cells, respectively. The As concentrations in the basal and stalk cells of the same trichome were higher than that in its cap cell. This is the first time to report that the trichome of P. vittata plays an important role in arsenic hyperaccumulation. The finding from the present study implies that much attention should be paid to the role of the trichome in understanding the hyperaccumulation and detoxicity of As in the hyperaccumulator and improving the ability of As accumulation.

  16. Glandular prediction: the pride and the prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, C

    2004-08-01

    For the cytologist and clinician alike, glandular lesions pose possibly the greatest challenge in cervical screening. Worldwide, with increasing confidence in cytological prediction, terminology is evolving. In the UK, with the adoption of liquid based methods, the technical aspects of cervical cytology are being addressed, it is now time to standardise our terminology in glandular reporting. Consideration of the cytological complexity, clinical needs and international protocols is essential in this endeavour.

  17. Transcriptome Analysis of Arabidopsis Wild-Type and g13-sst sim Trichomes Identifies Four Additional Genes Required for Trichome Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.David Marks; Jonathan R Wenger; Edward Gilding; Ross Jilk; Richard A.Dixon

    2009-01-01

    Transcriptome analyses have been performed on mature trichomes isolated from wild-type Arabidopsis leaves and on leaf trichomes isolated from the g13-sst sire double mutant,which exhibit many attributes of immature trichomes.The mature trichome profile contained many highly expressed genes involved in cell wall synthesis,protein turnover,and abiotic stress response.The most highly expressed genes in the g13-sst sim profile encoded ribosomal proteins and other proteins involved in translation.Comparative analyses showed that all but one of the genes encoding transcription factors previously found to be important for trichome formation,and many other trichome-important genes,were preferentially expressed in g13-sstsim trichomes.The analysis of genes preferentially expressed in g13-sstsim led to the identification of four additional genes required for normal trichome development.One of these was the HDG2 gene,which is a member of the HD-ZIP IV transcription factor gene family.Mutations in this gene did not alter trichome expansion,but did alter mature trichome cell walls.Mutations in BLT resulted in a loss of trichome branch formation.The relationship between bit and the phenotypically identical mutant,sti,was explored.Mutations in PEL3,which was previously shown to be required for development of the leaf cuticle,resulted in the occasional tangling of expanding trichomes.Mutations in another gene encoding a protein with an unknown function altered trichome branch formation.

  18. Artemisinin concentration and antioxidant capacity of Artemisia annua distillation byproduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemisia annua is mostly known as the source of artemisinin, the raw material for the production of artemisinin-based combination therapy, used against drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum where malaria is endemic. Artemisinin drugs are also effective against helminthic and protozoan parasites tha...

  19. Antioxidant Properties of Artemisia annua Extracts in Model Food Emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Skowyra

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia annua is currently the only commercial source of the sesquiterpene lactone artemisinin. Although artemisinin is a major bioactive component present in this Chinese herb, leaf flavonoids have shown a variety of biological activities. The polyphenolic profile of extract from leaves of A. annua was assessed as a source of natural antioxidants. Total phenolic content and total flavonoid content were established and three assays were used to measure the antioxidant capacity of the plant extract. The measurement of scavenging capacity against the 2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS radical cation, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP were 314.99 µM Trolox equivalents (TE/g DW, 736.26 µM TE/g DW and 212.18 µM TE/g DW, respectively. A. annua extracts also showed good antioxidant properties in 10% sunflower oil-in-water emulsions during prolonged storage (45 days at 32 °C. Artemisia extract at 2 g/L was as effective as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA at 0.02 g/L in slowing down the formation of hydroperoxides as measured by peroxide value and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. The results of this study indicate that extract of A. annua may be suitable for use in the food matrix as substitutes for synthetic antioxidants.

  20. Antioxidant Properties of Artemisia annua Extracts in Model Food Emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skowyra, Monika; Gallego, Maria Gabriela; Segovia, Francisco; Almajano, Maria Pilar

    2014-03-03

    Artemisia annua is currently the only commercial source of the sesquiterpene lactone artemisinin. Although artemisinin is a major bioactive component present in this Chinese herb, leaf flavonoids have shown a variety of biological activities. The polyphenolic profile of extract from leaves of A. annua was assessed as a source of natural antioxidants. Total phenolic content and total flavonoid content were established and three assays were used to measure the antioxidant capacity of the plant extract. The measurement of scavenging capacity against the 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) radical cation, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were 314.99 µM Trolox equivalents (TE)/g DW, 736.26 µM TE/g DW and 212.18 µM TE/g DW, respectively. A. annua extracts also showed good antioxidant properties in 10% sunflower oil-in-water emulsions during prolonged storage (45 days) at 32 °C. Artemisia extract at 2 g/L was as effective as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) at 0.02 g/L in slowing down the formation of hydroperoxides as measured by peroxide value and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. The results of this study indicate that extract of A. annua may be suitable for use in the food matrix as substitutes for synthetic antioxidants.

  1. Pseudomonas fluorescens strains selectively suppress annual bluegrass (Poa annua L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annual bluegrass (Poa annua L.) is a cool-season annual grass that is a major weed species in turf, turfgrass-seed production, sod production, and golf courses of the western United States. There are few selective herbicides available for the management of annual bluegrass. While the life cycles o...

  2. Role of TRIPTYCHON in trichome patterning in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hülskamp Martin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trichome patterning in Arabidopsis thaliana is governed by three types of activators, R2R3MYB, bHLH and WD40 proteins, and six R3MYB inhibitors. Among the inhibitors TRIPTYCHON (TRY seems to fulfill a special function. Its corresponding mutants produce trichome clusters whereas all other inhibitors are involved in trichome density regulation. Results To better understand the role of TRY in trichome patterning we analyzed its transcriptional regulation. A promoter analysis identified the relevant regulatory region for trichome patterning. This essential region contains a fragment required for a double negative feedback loop such that it mediates the repression of TRY/CPC auto-repression. By transforming single cells of pTRY:GUS lines with p35S:GL1, p35S:GL3 and p35S:TTG1 in the presence or absence of p35S:TRY or p35S:CPC we demonstrate that TRY and CPC can suppress the TRY expression without the transcriptional down regulation of the activators. We further show by promoter/CDS swapping experiments for the R3MYB inhibitors TRY and CPC that the TRY protein has specific properties relevant in the context of both, cluster formation and trichome density. Conclusions Our identification of a TRY promoter fragment mediating a double negative feedback loop reveals new insight in the regulatory network of the trichome patterning machinery. In addition we show that the auto-repression by TRY can occur without a transcriptional down regulation of the activators, suggesting that the differential complex formation model has a biological significance. Finally we show that the unique role of TRY among the inhibitors is a property of the TRY protein.

  3. Characterization of two genes for the biosynthesis of abietane-type diterpenes in rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) glandular trichomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brückner, K.; Bozic, D.; Manzano, D.; Papaefthimiou, D.; Pateraki, I.; Scheler, U.; Ferrer, A.; Vos, de R.C.H.; Kanellis, A.K.; Tissier, A.

    2014-01-01

    Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) produces the phenolic diterpenes carnosic acid and carnosol, which, in addition to their general antioxidant activities, have recently been suggested as potential ingredients for the prevention and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Little is known about the b

  4. Effects of Artemisia annua extracts on sporulation of Eimeria oocysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatemi, Ahmadreza; Razavi, Seyyed Mostafa; Asasi, Keramat; Goudarzi, Majid Torabi

    2015-03-01

    The present study aimed to compare the effect of different Artemisia annua extracts on sporulation rate of mixed oocysts of Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria necatrix, and Eimeria tenella. Three types of A. annua extracts including petroleum ether (PE), ethanol 96° (E), and water (W) extracts were prepared. Artemisinin, a sesquiterpene lactone endoperoxide derived from the A. annua analysis of each extract was done by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV). Fresh fecal samples containing three Eimeria species were floated and counted, and the oocysts were transferred into 50 tubes, each containing 10(5) oocysts per milliliter. Five tubes were control. Each of the other 45 tubes contained one of three doses (1 part per thousand (ppt), 2 ppt, and 5 ppt) and one of three extracts (PE, E, and W extracts) with five replications. The tubes were incubated for 48 h at 25-29 °C and aerated. Sporulation inhibition assay was used to evaluate the activity of extracts. The results showed that the E and PE extracts inhibit sporulation in 2 and 5 ppt concentrations, but the W extract stimulates it in all concentrations. The proportions of oocyst inhibition relative to control were 31 % (5 ppt) and 29 % (2 ppt) for PE and 34 % (5 ppt) and 46 % (2 ppt) for E extract. Furthermore, many oocysts in PE and E groups were wrinkled and contained abnormal sporocysts. The proportions of sporulation stimulation relative to control were 22 % (5 ppt), 24 % (2 ppt), and 27 % (1 ppt) in W extract. Our study is the first to demonstrate that all types of A. annua extracts do not necessarily have a similar activity, and the interaction of all contents and their relative concentrations is an important factor for sporulation stimulation or inhibition. It seems, some parts of unmetabolized excreted PE and E extracts could inhibit oocyst sporulation and eventually affect infection transmission.

  5. Assessment of Poa annua resistance to clethodim in Costa Rica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Rodríguez-Ruiz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to check for the presence of resistance to clethodim in Poa annua populations observed in onion fields in the highlands of Cartago, Costa Rica. Two experiments were conducted; the first one was carried out, in 2007, in a greenhouse at the Fabio Baudrit Moreno Agricultural Experiment Station (EEAFBM, in Spanish, with seeds of plants from a farm where clethodim exercised good control (S population, and from another farm where clethodim showed a deficient control (R population. Both S and R populations were treated with different doses of clethodim (0.5X, 1.0X, 1.5X and 2.0X, being X the recommended commercial dose. In this experiment, control of the R population was 44% and 17% at doses of 1.5X and 2.0X, respectively, whereas control of the S population was 100% at either of those doses. The second experiment was carried out in 2009, seeds of two other P. annua populations were collected in a similar way: one population from an area where weed control was satisfactory (S, and the other population from an area of the farm where control was deficient (R. Seeds were sown, depending on the type, in plastic pots and sprayed with clethodim at doses of: 0. 1X, 2X, 4X, 8X, and 16X. There were significant differences in the reactions to clethodim of both P. annua populations The S population showed a higher percentage of control and less surviving plants than the R population. Several plants of the R population resisted up to 16X commercial doses of clethodim. Results of both experiments suggest the presence of P. annua populations resistant to clethodim.

  6. Malignant glandular lesions and glandular differentiation in invasive/noninvasive urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzatoğlu, Kemal

    2011-12-01

    Although the lumen of the urinary bladder is covered with only urothelial epithelium, malign glandular lesions (eg, nonurachal adenocarcinoma) and benign lesions (eg, cystitis cystica and cystitis glandularis) can also rarely occur in this site due to its characteristic embryologic development. Glandular differentiation is uncommon in urothelial carcinomas and is even less common in noninvasive urothelial cancers. In addition, in situ urothelial carcinomas are more likely to progress in the presence of glandular differentiation toward high-grade urothelial carcinomas and/or aggressive urothelial carcinomas. Pure nonurachal adenocarcinomas and mixed carcinomas (urothelial carcinoma and adenocarcinoma) are very rare, and their pathogenesis is not clear. Most of the nonurachal adenocarcinomas are thought to arise on the grounds of cystitis glandularus with intestinal metaplasia. Here, I present 2 cases with noninvasive urothelial carcinoma with substantial glandular differentiation showing progression to signet ring cell carcinoma and invasive urothelial carcinoma, one case with mixed carcinoma (urothelial carcinoma and adenocarcinoma) and another case with pure adenocarcinoma developing from cystitis glandularis with intestinal metaplasia, and discuss malign glandular lesions in the bladder and invasive/noninvasive urothelial carcinomas with glandular differentiation.

  7. One, two, three...models for trichome patterning in Arabidopsis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesch, Marina; Hülskamp, Martin

    2009-10-01

    Trichome patterning in Arabidopsis rosette leaves serves as a model system to study how individual cells are determined in a regular spacing pattern from initially equivalent cells. A conserved gene cassette regulates this spacing pattern. bHLH, MYB, and WD40 factors are positive regulators of trichome development that are inhibited by R3 single-repeat MYB proteins. One positive regulator, the WD40-protein, and the negative regulators are mobile and are transported in opposite directions: the WD40 factor moves to the negative regulators away from trichome initials. This movement behavior and the genetic and molecular interactions between the contributing genes and proteins make it very difficult to derive the mechanistic core behind pattern formation. Attempts to develop mathematical models toward this end are critically discussed.

  8. Micromorphology of glandular hairs, biological activity and composition of the essential oil of Tanacetum fisherae (Asteraceae-Anthemideae) from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaei, Peyman; Nejadsattari, Taher; Maassoumi, Ali Asghar; Mozaffarian, Valiollah; Sonboli, Ali

    2011-02-01

    The essential oil was obtained from the aerial flowering parts of Tanacetum fisherae, a new record from Iran, by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC and GC-MS. Eleven components representing 99.9% of the total oil were identified. 1,8-Cineole (79.9%) was characterized as the principal compound. The essential oil and its main component were tested against nine microbial strains. The result of the bioassays revealed that the oil possess potent antimicrobial property. This may be associated due to the presence of 1,8-cineole in the oil which tested individually and its high activity was observed. Micromorphological studies of hairs by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) exhibited the presence of abundant sessile capitate glandular and medifixed T-shaped eglandular trichomes on the leaves, flowers and achene, giving useful diagnostic characters for identification of this medicinal plant.

  9. ISOLASI DAN IDENTIFIKASI ARTEMISININ DARI HERBA Artemisia annua L .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukmayati Alegantina

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Malaria is still a major problem in Indonesia, because mortality in patients with severe malaria remains high. Many cases are occurs in endemic areas (e.g. Papua,Kalimantan, Bali and Sulawesi. Chloroquin is the most common antimalarial drug which is widely used since 1934. Plasmodium falciparum resistant to chloroquine was reported in some countries (e.g. Thailand, Vietnam, Indonesia, and Bangladesh. To delay the development of resistance, WHO recommended antimalarial combination therapy. Artemisinin and its derivatives (artesunate, artemether, dihydroartemisin produce rapid clearance of parasitemia and rapid resolution of symptoms compare with chloroquine. Artemisinin is obtained from Artemisia annua L. Even though there are some research produced a chemical synthetic of artemisinin, but it is not efficient and notstable. Our purposes are to conduct a preliminary research to obtain a method of isolation and identification of artemisinin which is the first step to develop a raw material of artemisinin as antimalarial drug in Indonesia.The first step of isolation is extraction from herb Artemisia annua L with n-hexane thatproduced n-hexane extract, this process is well-known as soxhletation. The second step isidentification of chemical substances from n-hexane extract. The third step is to obtain isolate from n-hexane extract by fractionation with acetonitril and separation with column chromatography. The last step is chemical and physical identification of isolateby TLC (Thin Layer (Chromatography and FT-IR.The result from n-hexane extract measurement is 4.33 % and from acetonitril fraction is2. 40 %. Chemical identification of n-hexan extract found there are terpenoid, phenol, flavonoid, fatty acid, atsiri oil and saponin. Organoleptic identification of isolate is white crystal, monosubstrate, odorless and bitter. Identification of isolate with TLC and FT-IR confirmed that the isolate is artemisinin.Keywords: artemisinin, Artemisia

  10. Assessing the importance of human activities for the establishment of the invasive Poa annua in Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A. Molina-Montenegro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Because of its harsh environmental conditions and remoteness, Antarctica is often considered to be at low risk of plant invasion. However, an increasing number of reports have shown the presence and spread of non-native plants in Antarctica; it is therefore important to study which factors control the invasion process in this ecosystem. Here, we assessed the role of different human activities on the presence and abundance of the invasive Poa annua. In addition, we performed a reciprocal transplant experiment in the field, and a manipulative experiment of germination with P. annua and the natives Colobanthus quitensis and Deschampsia antarctica, in order to unravel the effects of physical soil disturbance on the establishment and survival of P. annua. We found a positive correlation between abundance of P. annua and level of soil disturbance, and that survival of P. annua was 33% higher in sites with disturbed soil than non-disturbed. Finally, we found that disturbance conditions increased germination for P. annua, whereas for native species germination in experimentally disturbed soil was either unchanged or reduced compared to undisturbed soil. Our results indicate that human activities that modify abiotic soil characteristics could play an important role in the abundance of this invasive species. If the current patterns of human activities are maintained in Antarctica, the establishment success and spread of P. annua could increase, negatively affecting native flora.

  11. Control of plant trichome development by a cotton fiber MYB gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shui; Wang, Jia-Wei; Yu, Nan; Li, Chun-Hong; Luo, Bin; Gou, Jin-Ying; Wang, Ling-Jian; Chen, Xiao-Ya

    2004-09-01

    Cotton (Gossypium spp) plants produce seed trichomes (cotton fibers) that are an important commodity worldwide; however, genes controlling cotton fiber development have not been characterized. In Arabidopsis thaliana the MYB gene GLABRA1 (GL1) is a central regulator of trichome development. Here, we show that promoter of a cotton fiber gene, RD22-like1 (RDL1), contains a homeodomain binding L1 box and a MYB binding motif that confer trichome-specific expression in Arabidopsis. A cotton MYB protein GaMYB2/Fiber Factor 1 transactivated the RDL1 promoter both in yeast and in planta. Real-time PCR and in situ analysis showed that GaMYB2 is predominantly expressed early in developing cotton fibers. After transferring into Arabidopsis, GL1::GaMYB2 rescued trichome formation of a gl1 mutant, and interestingly, 35S::GaMYB2 induced seed-trichome production. We further demonstrate that the first intron of both GL1 and GaMYB2 plays a role in patterning trichomes: it acts as an enhancer in trichome and a repressor in nontrichome cells, generating a trichome-specific pattern of MYB gene expression. Disruption of a MYB motif conserved in intron 1 of GL1, WEREWOLF, and GaMYB2 genes affected trichome production. These results suggest that cotton and Arabidopsis use similar transcription factors for regulating trichomes and that GaMYB2 may be a key regulator of cotton fiber development.

  12. Low Reynolds number flow near tiny leaves, stems, and trichomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Christopher; Pasour, Virginia; Miller, Laura

    2016-11-01

    In terrestrial and aquatic environments such as forest canopies, grass fields, and seagrass beds, the density and shape of trunks, branches, stems, leaves and trichomes (the hairs or fine outgrowths on plants) can drastically alter both the average wind speed and profile through these environments and near each plant. While many studies of flow in these environments have focused on bulk properties of the flow at scales on the order of meters, the low Reynolds number flow close to vegetative structures is especially complex and relevant to nutrient exchange. Using three-dimensional immersed boundary simulations, we resolve the flow around trichomes and small leaves and quantify velocities, shear stresses, and mixing while varying the height and density of idealized structures. National Science Foundation Grant DMS-1127914 to the Statistical and Applied Mathematical Sciences Institute, and the Army Research Office.

  13. Does Trichomes on the Plant Epidermic Surface Disturb Ants Locomotion?

    OpenAIRE

    Danon C. Cardoso; Maykon P Cristiano; Lenise C. M. Vilela; Tiago D. A. Martins

    2009-01-01

    Problem Statement: Many morphological characteristics, both physical and chemical, are used in the defense against herbivores on plants. Trichomes are structures used by plants as physics defense and when associated with glands combine physics and chemistry defense. Many species of ants are herbivores and use leaves and seeds, others ants use Extra Floral Nectars as a food resource, and the majority of the species are predators of other ants and other insects, &#...

  14. Effects of Overexpression of the Endogenous Farnesyl Diphosphate Synthase on the Artemisinin Content in Artemisia annua L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Artemisinin Is a novel effective antimalarial drug extracted from the medicinal plant Artemisia annua L. Owing to the tight market and low yield of artemislnin, there is great interest in enhancing the production of artemisinin.In the present study, farnesyl dlphosphate synthase (FPS) was overexpressed in high-yield A. annua to increase the artemislnin content. The FPS activity in transgenic A. annua was two- to threefold greater than that in non-transgenic A. annua. The highest artemisinin content in transgenic A. annua was approximately 0.9% (dry weight), which was 34.4% higher than that in non-transgenic A. annua. The results demonstrate the regulatory role of FPS in artemisinin biosynthesis.

  15. Effect of gibberellic acid and calliterpenone on plant growth attributes, trichomes, essential oil biosynthesis and pathway gene expression in differential manner in Mentha arvensis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Subir K; Yadav, Ritesh Kumar; Mishra, Smrati; Sangwan, Rajender S; Singh, A K; Mishra, B; Srivastava, A K; Sangwan, Neelam S

    2013-05-01

    Extensive research is going on throughout the world to find out new molecules from natural sources to be used as plant growth promoter. Mentha arvensis L. is the main source of menthol rich essential oil used commercially in various food, pharmaceutical and other preparations. Experiments were conducted on field grown plants for understanding the effect of calliterpenone (CA), a stereo-isomer of abbeokutone, in comparison to gibberellic acid (GA3) on growth attributes, trichomes, essential oil biosynthesis and expression of some oil biosynthetic pathway genes. The exogenous application of CA (1 μM, 10 μM and 100 μM) was found to be better in improving plant biomass and stolon yield, leaf area, branching and leaf stem ratio than with counterpart GA3 at the same concentrations. CA treated plants showed higher glandular trichome number, density and diameter and also correlated with enhanced oil biogenetic capacity as revealed by feeding labeled (14)C-sucrose for 72 h to excised shoots. Semi-quantitative PCR analysis of key pathway genes revealed differential up regulation under CA treatments. Transcript level of menthol dehydrogenase/menthone reductase was found highly up regulated in CA treated plants with increased content of menthone and menthol in oil. These findings demonstrate that CA positively regulated the yields by enhanced branching and higher density of trichomes resulting into higher accumulation of essential oil. The results suggest CA as a novel plant derived diterpenoid with growth promoting action and opens up new possibilities for improving the crop yields and essential oil biosynthesis in qualitative and quantitative manner.

  16. Variation in vegetative growth and trichomes in Cannabis sativa L. (Marihuana) in response to enviromental pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, G.K.; Mann, S.K.

    1984-07-01

    Four populations of Cannabis sativa L. (marihuana) growing in their native habitat and exposed to different levels of environmental pollution were studied for several leaf morphology and leaf trichome features. Leaf length, petiole length, length and width of central leaflet, and the number of teeth on leaf margin decreased with increase in pollution. Trichome length and trichome density values were found to be higher in populations exposed to higher levels of environmental pollution.

  17. Glandular odontogenic cyst: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tambawaia, Shahnaz S.; Karjodkar, Freny R.; Yadav, Archana; Sansare, Kaustubh; Sontakke, Subodh [Nair Hospital Dental College, Mumbai (India)

    2014-03-15

    Glandular odontogenic cysts (GOCs) are rare intrabony solitary or multiloculated cysts of odontogenic origin. The importance of GOCs lies in the fact that they exhibit a propensity for recurrence similar to keratocystic odontogenic tumors and that they may be confused microscopically with central mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Thus, the oral and maxillofacial radiologists play an important role in definitive diagnosis of GOC based on distinctive cases; though they are rare. In large part, this is due to the GOC's complex and frequently non-specific histopathology. This report describes a case of GOC occurrence in the posterior mandibular ramus region in a 17-year-old female, which is a rare combination of site, age, and gender for occurrence.

  18. GLABROUS INFLORESCENCE STEMS regulates trichome branching by genetically interacting with SIM in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-li SUN; Zhong-jing ZHOU; Li-jun AN; Yan AN; Yong-qin ZHAO; Xiao-fang MENG; Clare STEELE-KING

    2013-01-01

    Arabidopsis trichomes are large branched single cells that protrude from the epidermis.The first morphological indication of trichome development is an increase in nuclear content resulting from an initial cycle of endoreduplication.Our previous study has shown that the C2H2 zinc finger protein GLABROUS INFLORESCENCE STEMS (GIS) is required for trichome initiation in the inflorescence organ and for trichome branching in response to gibberellic acid signaling,although GIS gene does not play a direct role in regulating trichome cell division.Here,we describe a novel role of GIS,controlling trichome cell division indirectly by interacting genetically with a key endoreduplication regulator SIAMESE (SIM).Our molecular and genetic studies have shown that GIS might indireclty control cell division and trichome branching by acting downstream of SIM.A loss of function mutation of SIM signficantly reduced the expression of GIS.Futhermore,the overexpression of GIS rescued the trichome cluster cell phenotypes of sim mutant.The gain or loss of function of GIS had no significant effect on the expression of SIM.These results suggest that GIS may play an indirect role in regulating trichome cell division by genetically interacting with SIM.

  19. Media glandular dose in mammography;Dosis glandular media en mamografia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran M, H. A.; Hernandez O, M.; Pinedo S, A.; Guerra M, J. A.; Gonzalez G, R.; Salas L, M. A.; Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Calle Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico); Rivera M, T. [IPN, Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada en Tecnologia Avanzada, Av. Legaria 694, 11500 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Azorin N, J., E-mail: hduran20_1@hotmail.co [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, 09340 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2009-10-15

    The objective of this work was to determine the media glandular dose of the patients group who most frequently are exposed at mammographic studies in the General Hospital of Zone No. 1 of IMSS in Zacatecas, later to compare this dose with the value that establishes the Mexican Official Standard and to know risk-benefit that a patient is exposed when it is realized studies of this nature. This with the purpose of to know if the patients who are realized this type of studies are exhibited to irradiations of unnecessary way. In order to obtain the media glandular dose, first it was choose the age group of feminine population that is predominant to this suffering. Of the classification of the age group it was determine the frequency of each thickness of mamma, and on the basis of the thickness of the compressed mamma the conditions were registered with it radiates the patient. When having the age and compressed mamma thickness of patient and the voltage, current, anode/filter that uses the mammography equipment for to radiate it was calculated the media glandular dose. The media glandular dose was calculated using two algorithms proposed in literature and thermoluminescent dosemeters. For the case of the thermoluminescent dosemeters were used two phantoms. In this study was detected that the limits, with that they radiate the patients who are exposed at mammographic studies it is by underneath of 3 mGy. Finally, it was detected that the Mexican Official Standard lacks of elements to offer radiological limits for the mammography area, because in this standard they are excluded the radiological limits for anode and filter of Mo/Rh and Rh/Rh. To know the dose applying these anodes and filters is of extreme importance because 85% of the population that is exposed to this studies type was radiated with anode and filter of Mo/Rh and Rh/Rh. (Author)

  20. Purification of artemisinin excerpt from Artemisia annua L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chemat-Djenni Z.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The active pharmaceutical substance artemisinin found in Artemisia annua L. remains the most effective remedy against malaria. The objective of this work is the purification of the active ingredient through a natural matrix composed of clay sandwiched by aluminum. The purification process is carried by adsorption of the extracts on sodium type and bridged clay type. The XRD characterization of this material shows an increase in the basal distance of 10 Å to 17 Å. This shows the success of the intercalation of aluminum polycation. We find a better purification of the extract when using aluminum bridged clay compared to sodium clay. The best performance of 80.64% adsorption is obtained at 40 ° C for the clay matrix bridged with aluminum complex.

  1. Antibacterial and antiprotozoal effect of Artemisia annua extracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivarsen, E.; Fretté, X. C.; Engberg, R. M.;

    2012-01-01

    be banned in the EU. Extracts of aerial parts of Artemisia annua (AA) showed antimicrobial activity in overnight cultures of CP strains isolated from diseased broilers. The hexane extract (HEX) gave the strongest inhibition (MIC=185ppm) while the dichloromethane extract (DCM) gave a weaker inhibition (MIC......=270ppm). The dietary incorporation of HEX reduced the population of CP and the severity of the associated small intestinal lesions (P>0.05) in broilers when applying a NE disease model. The antibacterial compounds from HEX and DCM, chrysosplenol and ponticaepoxide, were isolated. This is the first...... report of activity against CP for these compounds. HEX, DCM and artemisinin were also tested against HM. The two latter showed highest antiprotozoal effect in vitro (MLC=1.0mg/ml and IC50=1.3mg/ml respectively), and were tested in vivo in infected poultry. However, no effect against HM at the given...

  2. An overview of the gene regulatory network controlling trichome development in the model plant, Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitakanta ePattanaik

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Trichomes are specialized epidermal cells located on aerial parts of plants and are associated with a wide array of biological processes. Trichomes protect plants from adverse conditions including UV light and herbivore attack and are also an important source of a number of phytochemicals. The simple unicellular trichomes of Arabidopsis serve as an excellent model to study molecular mechanism of cell differentiation and pattern formation in plants. The emerging picture suggests that the developmental process is controlled by a transcriptional network involving three major groups of transcription factors: the R2R3 MYB, basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH and WD40 repeat (WDR protein. These regulatory proteins form a trimeric activator complex that positively regulates trichome development. The single repeat R3 MYBs act as negative regulators of trichome development. They compete with the R2R3 MYBs to bind the bHLH factor and form a repressor complex. In addition to activator-repressor mechanism, a depletion mechanism may operate in parallel during trichome development. In this mechanism, the bHLH factor traps the WDR protein which results in depletion of WDR protein in neighboring cells. Consequently, the cells with high levels of bHLH and WDR proteins are developed into trichomes. A group of C2H2 zinc finger TFs has also been implicated in trichome development. Phytohormones, including gibberellins and jasmonic acid, play significant roles in this developmental process. Recently, microRNAs have been shown to be involved in trichome development. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that the activities of the key regulatory proteins involved in trichome development are controlled by the 26S/ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS, highlighting the complexity of the regulatory network controlling this developmental process. To complement several excellent recent relevant reviews, this review focuses on the transcriptional network and hormonal interplay

  3. Studies on Acaricidal Bioactivities of Artemisia annua L. Extracts Against Tetranychus cinnabarinus Bois. (Acari: Tetranychidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yong-qiang; DING Wei; ZHAO Zhi-mo; WU Jing; FAN Yu-hu

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the best extraction technique, the most suitable solvent, the optimal plant parts,and the acaricidal activities of Artemisia annua L. The petroleum ether (30-60℃), petroleum ether (60-90℃), ethanol,acetone, and water parallel and sequenced extracts were obtained from the leaves, stems and roots of different period of A. annua L. in April, May, June, July and September respectively. And then the acaricidal bioactivities against Tetranychus cinnabarinus of all extracts were determined by the slide-capillary method in the laboratory. The results indicated that the acaricidal bioactivities elevated as the development of A. annua plant at the concentration of 5 mg mL-1. The general tendency exhibited the sequence of July > June > May > April, but September decreased comparing to July. However, the most effective extracts in five months were all acetone parallel extract of A. annua leaf, and the corrected mortalities treated after 48 h ranged from 74 to 100%. The median lethal concentrations (LC50) against T. cinnabarinus of acetone parallel extracts of A. annua leaves in September, July, June, May and April were 0.5986, 0.4341, 0.8376, 0.9443 and 1.3817 mg mL-1, respectively, treated after 48 h. The 13 groups were isolated from acetone extracts of A. annua leaves in July by column chromatography, both the 11th and 12th groups exhibited strong bioactivities. The median lethal concentrations of the 11th and 12th groups against T. cinnabarinus were 0.3683 and 0.1586 mg mL-1, respectively. The acetone parallel extract of A. annua leaf in July was the most toxic to T. cinnabarinus and the corrected mortality was 100% after 48 h. The acetone parallel extract of the 11th and 12th groupswere the most active components, acted as the emphases in further study.

  4. Correlated evolution of leaf shape and trichomes in Begonia dregei (Begoniaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLellan, Tracy

    2005-10-01

    Structural features of leaves, including size, shape, and surfaces, vary greatly throughout the plant kingdom. In both functional and phylogenetic analyses of leaves, the various morphological aspects are often considered independently of each other, although it is likely that many combinations of features do not occur at random due to either functional constraint or genetic correlation. The distribution of variation in leaf morphology in the highly variable Begonia dregei species complex was examined in natural populations and in F(2) offspring from a cross between plants from two populations. Leaf shape was quantified using several morphometric measures, and trichomes on leaves were counted and measured. Correlations between leaf shape and the numbers and size of trichomes were examined. There were significant correlations between the shapes of leaves and the presence, number, and size of trichomes among populations and in hybrid plants. Deeply incised leaves had larger numbers of longer trichomes at the sinuses. Higher numbers of trichomes on upper leaf surfaces occurred together with trichomes at the petiole and on the abaxial surface. The potential for independent evolution of leaf shape and trichomes in this group is limited. Hypotheses to explain the correlated development of leaf shape and trichomes are discussed.

  5. The Effect of Different Doses of Composite Artemisia annua Extract on Ruminal Fermentation of Dairy Goats in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li-fang; LU De-xun; DING Guo-he; MA Yan-fen

    2011-01-01

    An in vitro study was conducted to determine the effect of different doses of Composite Artemisia annua extract(CAE) on rumen microbial fermentation.CAE was a crude extract from the stem and leaves of Composite Artemisia annua extracted with ethanol.The doses of CAE supplementation with frozen-dry form were:control(no addition)

  6. The effects of dried leaves of Manihot esculenta and Artemisia annua on coccidiosis in organically reared pullets in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of Manihot esculenta and Artemisia annua as natural coccidiostats were investigated as compared to a vaccinated group. The inclusion of Artemisia annua showed poorer performance compared to the vaccinated group whereas dried leaves of M. esculenta presented similar results of a commercia...

  7. Comparison of Artemisia annua bioactivities between traditional medicine and chemical extracts

    KAUST Repository

    Nageeb, Ahmed

    2014-04-04

    The present work investigates the efficacy of using Artemisia annua in traditional medicine in comparison with chemical extracts of its bioactive molecules. In addition, the effects of location (Egypt and Jericho) on the bioactivities of the plant were investigated. The results showed that water extracts of Artemisia annua from Jericho have stronger antibacterial activities than organic solvent extracts. In contrast, water and organic solvent extracts of the Artemisia annua from Egypt do not have anti-bacterial activity. Furthermore, while the methanol extract of EA displayed high anticancer affects, the water extract of Egypt and the extracts of Jericho did not show significant anticancer activity. Finally, the results showed that the methanol and water extracts of Jericho had the highest antioxidant activity, while the extracts of Egypt had none. The current results validate the scientific bases for the use of Artemisia annua in traditional medicine. In addition, our results suggest that the collection location of the Artemisia annua has an effect on its chemical composition and bioactivities. - See more at: http://www.eurekaselect.com/121416/article#sthash.2c2j9AoL.dpuf

  8. A huge glandular odontogenic cyst occurring at posterior mandible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Gi Chung; Han, Won Jeong; Kim, Eun Kyung [Dankook University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-12-15

    The glandular odontogenic cyst is a rare lesion described in 1987. It generally occurs at anterior region of mandible in adults over the age of 40 and has a slight tendency to recur. Histopathologically, a cystic cavity lined by a nonkeratinized, stratified squamous, or cuboidal epithelium varying in thickness is found including a superficial layer with glandular or pseudoglandular structures. A 21-year-old male visited Dankook University Dental Hospital with a chief complaint of swelling of the left posterior mandible. Radiographically, a huge multilocular radiolucent lesion involving impacted 3rd molar at the posterior mandible was observed. Buccolingual cortical expansion with partial perforation of buccal cortical bone was also shown. Histopathologically, this lesion was lined by stratified squamous epithelium with glandular structures in areas of plaque-like thickening. The final diagnosis was made as a glandular odontogenic cyst.

  9. Effects of flavonoids from Martynia annua and Tephrosia purpurea on cutaneous wound healing

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    Santram Lodhi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Martynia annua L. (M. annua, (Martyniaccae has been traditionally used in the treatment of epilepsy, sore throat and inflammatory disorders. The leaf paste is used topically on Tuberculosis of the lymphatic glands and wounds of domestic animals. Tephrosia purpurea (T. purpurea, (Fabaceae has been used traditionally as a remedy for asthma, gonorrhea, rheumatism and ulcers. This study aimed to evaluate the potential wound healing effects of different fractions ofethanol extract of M. annua leaves and aerial parts of T. purpurea. Materials and Methods: Methanol fraction of M. annua (MAF-C and ethyl acetate fraction of T. purpurea (TPF-A were evaluated for healing potential in dead-space and burn wound models. An ointment (5% w/w of MAF-C and TPF-A, pongamol (0.2 and 0.5% w/w and luteolin (0.2 and 0.5% w/w was applied topically twice a day. The effects were compared with Povidone Iodine ointment with respect to protein, collagen content, enzymatic assay and histopathological finding of granuloma tissues. Results: Ethanol extracts of M. annua and T. purpureawere exhibited total flavonoid contents of 126.2 ± 4.69 and 171.6 ± 6.38 mg (quercetin equivalent, respectively. HPLC fingerprinting confirmed the presence of luteolin in M. annua and quercetin in T. purpurea. TPF-A and MAF-C ointments (5% w/w significantly increases the hydroxyproline and protein contents. Luteolin and pongamol ointments were also found to be effective in both wound models. Conclusion: Our findings suggested that 5% w/w ointment of TPF-A and MAF-C fractions were more effective than isolated flavonoids in wound healing which may be due to synergistic interactions between the flavonoids and other constituents.

  10. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Artemisia annua L. from Iran

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    M R Verdian-rizi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The composition of the essential oil obtained from the dried flowering aerial parts of Artemisia annua L. (Compositae was analysed by GC and GC/MS. Thirty-two components were identified in the essential oil of A. annua L. with campher (48.00%, 1,8-cineole (9.39%, camphene (6.98% and spathulenol (4.89% as major components. The essential oil was evaluated for antibacterial and antifungal activities . The activity was more pronounced against fungal organisms than against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

  11. GLABROUS INFLORESCENCE STEMS (GIS) is required for trichome branching through gibberellic acid signaling in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Lijun; Zhou, Zhongjing; Su, Sha; Yan, An; Gan, Yinbo

    2012-02-01

    Cell differentiation generally corresponds to the cell cycle, typically forming a non-dividing cell with a unique differentiated morphology, and Arabidopsis trichome is an excellent model system to study all aspects of cell differentiation. Although gibberellic acid is reported to be involved in trichome branching in Arabidopsis, the mechanism for such signaling is unclear. Here, we demonstrated that GLABROUS INFLORESCENCE STEMS (GIS) is required for the control of trichome branching through gibberellic acid signaling. The phenotypes of a loss-of-function gis mutant and an overexpressor showed that GIS acted as a repressor to control trichome branching. Our results also show that GIS is not required for cell endoreduplication, and our molecular and genetic study results have shown that GIS functions downstream of the key regulator of trichome branching, STICHEL (STI), to control trichome branching through the endoreduplication-independent pathway. Furthermore, our results also suggest that GIS controls trichome branching in Arabidopsis through two different pathways and acts either upstream or downstream of the negative regulator of gibbellic acid signaling SPINDLY (SPY).

  12. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of a Broad Substrate Terpenoid Oxidoreductase from Artemisia annua

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ryden, Anna-Margareta; Ruyter-Spira, Carolien; Litjens, Ralph; Takahashi, Shunji; Quax, Wim; Osada, Hiroyuki; Bouwmeester, Harro; Kayser, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    From Artemisia annua L., a new oxidoreductase (Red 1) was cloned, sequenced and functionally characterized. Through bioinformatics, heterologous protein expression and enzyme substrate conversion assays, the elucidation of the enzymatic capacities of Red1 was achieved. Red1 acts on monoterpenoids, a

  13. Molecular cloning and characterization of a broad substrate terpenoid oxidoreductase from Artemisia annua.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ryden, A.M.; Ruyter-Spira, C.P.; Litjens, R.; Takahashi, S.; Quax, W.J.; Osada, H.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Kayser, O.

    2010-01-01

    From Artemisia annua L., a new oxidoreductase (Red 1) was cloned, sequenced and functionally characterized. Through bioinformatics, heterologous protein expression, and enzyme substrate conversion assays, the elucidation of the enzymatic capacities of Red1 was achieved. Red1 acts on monoterpenoids,

  14. Effect of Artemisia annua L. leaves essential oil and ethanol extract on behavioral assays

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    Fabio F. Perazzo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia annua has been used as a traditional plant for the treatment of malaria and fever in China because of the presence of its active compound, artemisinin. The present study evaluated the central activity of the essential oil and the crude ethanol extract of A. annua L. in animals as a part of a psychopharmacological screening of this plant. The extract was prepared in ethanol (AEE and the essential oil (AEO obtained by hydrodistillation, both with fresh leaves. Induced immobility, the forced swimming test (FST and the open-field test (OFT are well-known animal models to study drug-induced depression. The administration of A. annua essential oil or crude ethanol extract increased the immobility time in the FST and decreased other activities (ambulation, exploration, rearing and grooming in the OFT in animals. Both AEO and AEE prolonged pentobarbital-induced sleep as well, but the essential oil had a marked effect. Observing these results, it is possible to suggest that A. annua crude ethanol extract and essential oil could act as depressors on the Central Nervous System (CNS.

  15. ARTEMISININ, RELATED SESQUITERPENES, AND ESSENTIAL OIL IN ARTEMISIA-ANNUA DURING A VEGETATION PERIOD IN VIETNAM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WOERDENBAG, HJ; PRAS, N; CHAN, NG; BANG, BT; BOS, R; VANUDEN, W; Y, PV; BOI, NV; BATTERMAN, S; LUGT, CB

    1994-01-01

    The active principle of Artemisia annua L., artemisinin, is currently being developed to a registered antimalarial drug. For production purposes, plants with a high artemisinin content are required. We followed the development of the artemisinin content and of the biosynthetically related sesquiterp

  16. Boomeranging in structural defense: phytophagous insect uses cycad trichomes to defend against entomophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marler, Thomas E

    2012-11-01

    Plant defensive behaviors that resist arthropod herbivory include trichome-mediated defenses, and variation in plant trichome morphology and abundance provides examples of the mechanistic complexities of insect-plant interactions. Trichomes were removed from Cycas revoluta cataphylls on the island of Guam to reveal Aulacaspis yasumatsui scale infestation, and predation of the newly exposed insects by pre-existing Rhyzobius lophanthae beetles commenced within one day. The quotient of predated/total scale insects was 0.5 by day 4 and stabilized at that found on adjacent glabrous leaves in about one week. The trichome phenotype covering the C. revoluta cataphyll complex offers the invasive A. yasumatsui armored scale effectual enemy-free space in this system. This pest and predator share no known evolutionary history with C. revoluta, therefore, the adaptive significance of this plant behavior in natural habitat is not yet known.

  17. Optimization of genetic transformation of Artemisia annua L. Using Agrobacterium for Artemisinin production

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    Elfahmi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Artemisinin, a sesquiterpene lactone endoperoxide isolated from the medicinal plant Artemisia annua L., is a choice and effective drug for malaria treatment. Due to the low yield of artemisinin in plants, there is a need to enhance the production of artemisinin from A. annua and biotechnological technique may be one of the methods that can be used for the purpose. Aim: To study the transformation efficiency of Agrobacterium tumefaciens in A. annua that could be applied to enhance the production of artemisinin by means of transgenic plants. Setting and Designs: The factors influencing Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of A. annua were explored to optimize the transformation system, which included A. tumefaciens strain and effect of organosilicone surfactants. Three strains of A. tumefaciens, that is, LBA4404, GV1301, and AGL1 harboring the binary vector pCAMBIA 1303 have been used for transformation. The evaluation was based on transient β-glucuronidase (GUS. Materials and Methods: Plant cell cultures were inniatiated from the seeds of A. annua using the germination Murashige and Skoog medium. A. tumefaciens harboring pCAMBIA were tranformed into the leaves of A.annua cultures from 2-week-old-seedling and 2-month-old-seedling for 15 min by vacuum infiltration. Transformation efficiency was determinated by measuring of blue area (GUS expression on the whole leaves explant using ImageJ 1.43 software. Two organosilicon surfactants, that is, Silwet L-77 and Silwet S-408 were used to improve the transformation efficiency. Results: The transformation frequency with AGL1 strain was higher than GV3101 and LBA4404 which were 70.91, 49.25, and 45.45%, respectively. Effect of organosilicone surfactants, that is, Silwet L-77 and Silwet S-408 were tested on A. tumefaciens AGL1 and GV3101 for their level of transient expression, and on A. rhizogenes R1000 for its hairy root induction frequency. For AGL1, Silwet S-408 produced higher level of

  18. Feeding Artemisia annua alters digesta pH and muscle lipid oxidation products in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherian, G; Orr, A; Burke, I C; Pan, W

    2013-04-01

    Because of growing consumer concern about the use of antimicrobials and the ban on most antibiotic feed additives in the European Union, there is increased interest in using alternatives to antimicrobials in poultry diets. Dried leaves of Artemisia annua have been used in Oriental medicine due to their antimicrobial activities. In the current study, the effect of including A. annua in broiler diets on hindgut and ceca pH, lipid oxidation products, and phenolic content of dark and white meat, and bird performance were investigated. A total of 96 broiler chicks were kept in 48 cages. Two cages with 2 birds per each cage are considered as 1 replicate, and there were 8 replications per treatment. The birds were fed corn-soy diets containing 0% (control), 2% (ART2), or 4% (ART4) dried A. annua leaves from d 14 through d 42. Cecal digesta pH was the lowest in birds fed the ART4 diet (P muscle of birds fed ART2 and ART4 diets compared with the control (P abdominal fat pads, or breast or thigh muscle content (P > 0.05). Artemisia annua addition did not affect final BW, weight gain, feed consumption, carcass weight, or feed:gain. No difference was observed in the relative weight of liver, abdominal fat, spleen, or heart tissue. Gastric acidity is protective against intestinal colonization and translocation of pathogenic bacteria. Therefore, gut pH and muscle tissue TBARS reduction in birds fed ART2 and ART4 suggest that A. annua may prove useful as a natural phytogenic feed additive with antioxidant potential that could be incorporated into poultry diets.

  19. AaERF1 positively regulates the resistance to Botrytis cinerea in Artemisia annua.

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    Xu Lu

    Full Text Available Plants are sessile organisms, and they can not move away under abiotic or biotic stresses. Thus plants have evolved a set of genes that response to adverse environment to modulate gene expression. In this study, we characterized and functionally studied an ERF transcription factor from Artemisia annua, AaERF1, which plays an important role in biotic stress responses. The AaERF1 promoter had been cloned and GUS staining results of AaERF1 promoter-GUS transgenic A. annua showed that AaERF1 is expressed ubiquitiously in all organs. Several putative cis-acting elements such as W-box, TGA-box and Py-rich element, which are involved in defense responsiveness, are present in the promoter. The expression of AaERF1 can be induced vigorously by methyl jasmonate as well as by ethephon and wounding, implying that AaERF1 may activate some of the defense genes via the jasmonic acid and ethylene signaling pathways of A. annua. The results of electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA and yeast one-hybrid experiments showed that AaERF1 was able to bind to the GCC box cis-acting element in vitro and in yeast. Ectopic expression of AaERF1 could enhance the expression levels of the defense marker genes PLANT DEFENSIN1.2 (PDF1.2 and BASIC CHITINASE (ChiB, and increase the resistance to Botrytis cinerea in the 35S::AaERF1 transgenic Arabidopsis. The down-regulated expression level of AaERF1 evidently reduced the resistance to B. cinerea in A. annua. The overall results showed that AaERF1 positively regulated the resistance to B. cinerea in A. annua.

  20. Semi-automated 3D leaf reconstruction and analysis of trichome patterning from light microscopic images.

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    Henrik Failmezger

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Trichomes are leaf hairs that are formed by single cells on the leaf surface. They are known to be involved in pathogen resistance. Their patterning is considered to emerge from a field of initially equivalent cells through the action of a gene regulatory network involving trichome fate promoting and inhibiting factors. For a quantitative analysis of single and double mutants or the phenotypic variation of patterns in different ecotypes, it is imperative to statistically evaluate the pattern reliably on a large number of leaves. Here we present a method that enables the analysis of trichome patterns at early developmental leaf stages and the automatic analysis of various spatial parameters. We focus on the most challenging young leaf stages that require the analysis in three dimensions, as the leaves are typically not flat. Our software TrichEratops reconstructs 3D surface models from 2D stacks of conventional light-microscope pictures. It allows the GUI-based annotation of different stages of trichome development, which can be analyzed with respect to their spatial distribution to capture trichome patterning events. We show that 3D modeling removes biases of simpler 2D models and that novel trichome patterning features increase the sensitivity for inter-accession comparisons.

  1. Vestiture and trichome types of the oaks of forests in Western Iran

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    Mohammad Mehrnia

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Quercus is the main genus of the Fagaceae with about 300 to 600 species in the world. Both the vestiture and trichome types are important in the taxonomy of Quercus species and hybrids. Although particular terms have been used for a long time, the terminology for both vestiture and trichome types has not been standardized, glossaries differ in their definitions and illustrations and floristic manuals vary markedly in their descriptions of the species. In this study, the vestiture and trichomes were described and illustrated for seven species of oaks in the Zagros Mountains. The terminology of trichome types was determined based upon Hardin (1976. Samples for SEM studies of each species were collected from fresh material of early spring and mature leaves and specimens which were deposited in the Herbaria. The ten types of trichomes were distinguished for the Zagros oaks as follows: 1 Simple-thin-walled, 2 Rosulate-rosette, 3 Solitary-long, 4 Fasciculate-erect, 5 Multiradiate, 6 Stellate, 7 Fused-stellate, 8 Appressed-Lateral, 9 Atipic stellate, 10 Multinodal stellate. Based on trichome types two major infrageneric groups were recognized for western of Iran: the cerroid and roburoid oaks matched our results based on ITS data.

  2. Modeling filamentous cyanobacteria reveals the advantages of long and fast trichomes for optimizing light exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamulonis, Carlos; Postma, Marten; Kaandorp, Jaap

    2011-01-01

    Cyanobacteria form a very large and diverse phylum of prokaryotes that perform oxygenic photosynthesis. Many species of cyanobacteria live colonially in long trichomes of hundreds to thousands of cells. Of the filamentous species, many are also motile, gliding along their long axis, and display photomovement, by which a trichome modulates its gliding according to the incident light. The latter has been found to play an important role in guiding the trichomes to optimal lighting conditions, which can either inhibit the cells if the incident light is too weak, or damage the cells if too strong. We have developed a computational model for gliding filamentous photophobic cyanobacteria that allows us to perform simulations on the scale of a Petri dish using over 10(5) individual trichomes. Using the model, we quantify the effectiveness of one commonly observed photomovement strategy--photophobic responses--in distributing large populations of trichomes optimally over a light field. The model predicts that the typical observed length and gliding speeds of filamentous cyanobacteria are optimal for the photophobic strategy. Therefore, our results suggest that not just photomovement but also the trichome shape itself improves the ability of the cyanobacteria to optimize their light exposure.

  3. Modeling filamentous cyanobacteria reveals the advantages of long and fast trichomes for optimizing light exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Tamulonis

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria form a very large and diverse phylum of prokaryotes that perform oxygenic photosynthesis. Many species of cyanobacteria live colonially in long trichomes of hundreds to thousands of cells. Of the filamentous species, many are also motile, gliding along their long axis, and display photomovement, by which a trichome modulates its gliding according to the incident light. The latter has been found to play an important role in guiding the trichomes to optimal lighting conditions, which can either inhibit the cells if the incident light is too weak, or damage the cells if too strong. We have developed a computational model for gliding filamentous photophobic cyanobacteria that allows us to perform simulations on the scale of a Petri dish using over 10(5 individual trichomes. Using the model, we quantify the effectiveness of one commonly observed photomovement strategy--photophobic responses--in distributing large populations of trichomes optimally over a light field. The model predicts that the typical observed length and gliding speeds of filamentous cyanobacteria are optimal for the photophobic strategy. Therefore, our results suggest that not just photomovement but also the trichome shape itself improves the ability of the cyanobacteria to optimize their light exposure.

  4. Anti-Giardial Activity of Chloroformic Extract of Tanacetum parthenium and Artemisia annua in vitro

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    Shirzad Gholami

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Giardiasis is a one of the most prevalent intestinal parasitic diseases in human, treatment of this disease through medicinal plants is very important since parasite resistance to chemical drugs exists. Thus, in this study, the in vitro anti-giardial activity of chloroformic extract of Tanacetum parthenium and Artemisia annua on cyst and trophozoite of Giardia lamblia were separately investigated.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study chloroformic extracts of Artemisia annua and Tanacetum parthenium on cyst and trophozoite of G. lamblia in vitro were prepared in 1, 10, 50 and 100 mg∕ml concentrations for 5, 10, 30, 60 and 180 min. Purified cysts were used for encystations and culture in TYI-S-33 medium. Then, 2 ml of each solution was placed in test tubes, to which 10,000 washed cysts and trophozoites were added. The contents of the tubes were gently mixed and incubated. The percentages of dead parasites were determined by counting 500 cysts. Non treated parasites were considered a control group in each experiment and the viability of the parasites checked with Eeosin staining and statistical analysis were done. Results: The results showed that chloroformic extracts of A. annua at 100 mg/ml concentration affected on Gardia cyst 86% and 100% trophozoite after 1 hour. T. parthenium at 50mg/ml concentration killed cysts (83% and trophozite (100% after 1 hour, respectively. T. parthenium chloroformic extract had a better effect on cyst and trophozoite of Giardia at 50 mg/ml after 1 hour exposure than A. annua extract. Conclusion: According to this study, A. annua and T. parthenium chlorofomic extracts could be considered as a more effective anti-giardial agent. Chloroformic extract of T. parthenium was also shown the anti-giardial activity compared with A. annua and control groups at all exposure times. Therefore, in the future research using these plants are recommended against Giardia in low concentration in the in vivo

  5. Maxilary glandular odontogenic cyst: case report = Cisto odontogênico glandular em maxila: relato de caso

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    Cardoso, Juliana Andrade

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: O presente trabalho objetiva relatar um caso clínico de cisto odontogênico glandular (COG em maxila, cisto de desenvolvimento raro que pode apresentar comportamento agressivo e recidivante, dando ênfase no tratamento e proservação desta doença. Relato de Caso: Paciente faioderma, gênero feminino, 36 anos, foi encaminhada pelo Ortodontista por apresentar aumento de volume em maxila com abaulamento e crepitação. Foram realizadas radiografias e punção aspirativa. Uma vez observado o conteúdo da lesão, foi realizada a biópsia incisional e iniciada a descompressão com colocação de dreno rígido. Tendo a confirmação do diagnóstico para COG, a paciente foi submetida à cirurgia para remoção do cisto maxilar, através da enucleação cirúrgica, curetagem e osteotomia periférica. Conclusões: O COG é uma patologia incomum, recentemente reconhecida, cujo comportamento biológico pouco ainda se sabe. Sugere-se, portanto, a realização de investigações futuras sobre critérios para classificação de variáveis comumente utilizadas em estudos epidemiológicos, na tentativa de padronizar e possibilitar comparação entre estudos, todavia, para auxiliar em um diagnóstico bem sucedido

  6. Transcriptome analysis in Cucumis sativus identifies genes involved in multicellular trichome development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jun-Long; Pan, Jun-Song; Guan, Yuan; Nie, Jing-Tao; Yang, Jun-Jun; Qu, Mei-Ling; He, Huan-Le; Cai, Run

    2015-05-01

    The regulatory gene network of unicellular trichome development in Arabidopsis thaliana has been studied intensively, but that of multicellular remains unclear. In the present study, we characterized cucumber trichomes as representative multicellular and unbranched structures, but in a spontaneous mutant, mict (micro-trichome), all trichomes showed a micro-size and stunted morphologies. We revealed the transcriptome profile using Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing technology, and determined that a total of 1391 genes exhibited differential expression. We further validated the accuracy of the transcriptome data by RT-qPCR and found that 43 genes encoding critical transcription factors were likely involved in multicellular trichome development. These 43 candidate genes were subdivided into seven groups: homeodomain, MYB-domain, WRKY-domain, bHLH-domain, ethylene-responsive, zinc finger and other transcription factor genes. Our findings also serve as a powerful tool to further study the relevant molecular networks, and provide a new perspective for investigating this complex and species-specific developmental process.

  7. The Biosynthesis of Artemisinin (Qinghaosu and the Phytochemistry of Artemisia annua L. (Qinghao

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    Geoffrey D. Brown

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese medicinal plant Artemisia annua L. (Qinghao is the only known source of the sesquiterpene artemisinin (Qinghaosu, which is used in the treatment of malaria. Artemisinin is a highly oxygenated sesquiterpene, containing a unique 1,2,4-trioxane ring structure, which is responsible for the antimalarial activity of this natural product. The phytochemistry of A. annua is dominated by both sesquiterpenoids and flavonoids, as is the case for many other plants in the Asteraceae family. However, A. annua is distinguished from the other members of the family both by the very large number of natural products which have been characterised to date (almost six hundred in total, including around fifty amorphane and cadinane sesquiterpenes, and by the highly oxygenated nature of many of the terpenoidal secondary metabolites. In addition, this species also contains an unusually large number of terpene allylic hydroperoxides and endoperoxides. This observation forms the basis of a proposal that the biogenesis of many of the highly oxygenated terpene metabolites from A. annua – including artemisinin itself – may proceed by spontaneous oxidation reactions of terpene precursors, which involve these highly reactive allyllic hydroperoxides as intermediates. Although several studies of the biosynthesis of artemisinin have been reported in the literature from the 1980s and early 1990s, the collective results from these studies were rather confusing because they implied that an unfeasibly large number of different sesquiterpenes could all function as direct precursors to artemisinin (and some of the experiments also appeared to contradict one another. As a result, the complete biosynthetic pathway to artemisinin could not be stated conclusively at the time. Fortunately, studies which have been published in the last decade are now providing a clearer picture of the biosynthetic pathways in A. annua. By synthesising some of the sesquiterpene natural products

  8. Artemisia annua L.: Polyploidy and NIRS, two tools to improve breeding efficiency

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    Quennoz, Mélanie

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Breeding a new cultivar needs 5 to 15 years according to the species and the breeding objectives from bioprospection up to cultivar registration. This is a very long time for companies developing and trading plant based products. To react more quickly to the requirements of the stakeholders, methods to accelerate the breeding procedures have to be taken into account. Among different possibilities, polyploidy induction and rapid methods to measure target traits with near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS were tested on Artemisia annua L. Tetraploid progenies were compared to the cultivar Apollon. These tests showed no significant differences between the tetraploid plants and the cultivar Apollon for the artemisinin content, as well for the leaf and the artemisin yield. The determination of artemisinin in powder of Artemisia annua using a hand-held NIRS device showed accurate results in predicting artemininin contents. Root mean square error values of cross-validation and prediction of 0.1 % were calculated, in both cases.

  9. Glandular Odontogenic Cyst: The Value of Intraepithelial Hemosiderin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbdullGaffar, Badr; Koilelat, Mohamed

    2017-05-01

    Glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC) is a relatively rare but well-described clinicopathologic entity. Its rarity and unpredictable clinical behavior are challenging to managing clinicians. Its variable and overlapping histomorphologic features are also diagnostically challenging for pathologists. Other odontogenic cysts and oral cystic neoplasms can simulate GOC. There are specific histologic criteria that help distinguish GOC from other mimickers. To our knowledge, the phenomenon of hemosiderin pigments deposition within the lining glandular epithelium of GOC has not been covered in detail or specifically reported so far in the literature. We report a case of nontraumatized anterior mandibular GOC in a middle-aged male, which histologically showed hemosiderin pigments within the lining epithelium without stromal siderophages. This finding might reflect a nonspecific spontaneous intraluminal hemorrhage. However, intraepithelial hemosiderin in GOC may be an additional helpful diagnostic clue of GOC in challenging cases since this phenomenon has not been reported in other mimicker cystic lesions.

  10. Mean glandular dose in a breast screening programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvan, H. A.; Perez-Badillo, M. P.; Villasenor, Y. [Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Av. San Fernando No. 22, Col Seccion XVI, Mexico, D. F., C. P. 14080 (Mexico)

    2012-10-23

    Breast density has an important role in early detection of breast cancer, because has been reported the strong association between breast density and invasive breast cancer risk. Mammography is the gold standard to early detection of breast cancer, despite of this require ionizing radiation that may increase radio-induced cancer risk. This maybe limited with a quality control programme of mammographic units, with the main goal of achieving high quality images with low radiation dose. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) published in 2011 the {sup Q}uality assurance programme for digital mammography{sup ,} where glandular tissue quantity is an important parameter to compute mean glandular dose (MGD), which is necessary to reduce its associated risk. In this work we show the first results in our country applying this protocol and studying breast density in a small group. MGD complies with national and IAEA dose limits.

  11. Larvicidal, oviposition, and ovicidal effects of Artemisia annua (Asterales: Asteraceae) against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles sinensis, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Shao-Xiong; Tay, Jia-Wei; Chan, Lai-Keng; Jaal, Zairi

    2013-09-01

    This study focuses on the larvicidal, oviposition, and ovicidal effects of a crude extract of Artemisia annua against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles sinensis, and Culex quinquefasciatus. Dried cells of Artemisia annua from cell suspension cultures were extracted using hexane. The extract showed moderate larvicidal effects against mosquitoes. At 24-h post treatment, the LC50 values for Anopheles sinensis, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus were recorded as 244.55, 276.14, and 374.99 ppm, respectively. The percentage mortality of larvae was directly proportional to the tested concentration. Anopheles sinensis was found to be the most susceptible species, whereas Culex quinquefasciatus was the most tolerant to the Artemisia annua extract. The results indicated that the Artemisia annua extract showed concentration-dependent oviposition deterrent activity and had a strong deterrent effect. At 500 ppm, the percentage effective repellency was more than 85% compared with the control group for all the species, with oviposition activity index values of -0.94, -0.95, and -0.78 for Aedes aegypti, Anopheles sinensis, and Culex quinquefasciatus, respectively. In the ovicidal assay, the percentage hatchability of eggs after treatment with 500 ppm of Artemisia annua extract was significantly lower than the control, with values of 48.84 ± 4.08, 38.42 ± 3.67, and 79.35 ± 2.09% for Aedes aegypti, Anopheles sinensis, and Culex quinquefasciatus, respectively. Artemisia annua was found to be more effective against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles sinensis compared with Culex quinquefasciatus. This study indicated that crude extract of A. annua could be a potential alternative for use in vector management programs.

  12. Microwave-Assisted Extraction Studies of Target Analyte Artemisinin from Dried Leaves of Artemisia annua L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Misra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia annua L. (Asteraceae is an annual herb native of Asia. This plant has been used for many centuries in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of fever and malaria. Conventional methods for the extraction of artemisinin from A. annua including solvent extraction, Soxhlet extraction, and heat reflux extraction are characterized by long extraction times and the consumption of large volume of solvents. A simple, rapid, and precise microwave-assisted extraction process was optimized for fast sample preparation for the faster quantitative determination of artemisinin, potential new generation antimalarial drug, from dried leaves of Artemisia annua L. A simple experiment was designed for the optimization of the appropriate solvent under same extraction conditions. The selected appropriate solvent was then standardized for various different extraction variables. The major parameters studied showed effects on extraction efficiency including processing time, strength of microwave, moisture content, volume and nature of the solvent. The most favorable conditions were obtained by using plant material of 25 mesh (particle size extracted with acetone for 120 seconds at 160 W (i.e., 20% of total power. Quantitative analysis was performed using thin-layer chromatography coupled with a densitometer (TLC densitometry. The results showed that MAE can be used as an efficient and rapid method for the extraction of the active components from plants.

  13. Preliminary pharmacological evaluation of Martynia annua Linn leaves for wound healing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Santram Lodhi; Singhai AK

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the wound healing potential of fractions from ethanol extract of Martyniaannua (M. annua) Linn leaves. Methods: Ethanol extract of M. annua Linn leaves was fractionate into three different fractions (MAF-A, MAF-B and MAF-C) which were screened for wound healing potential using two models: excision and incision on rats. The thin layer chromatography (TLC) profile of all fractions were analyzed and TLC of luteolin was also done. The Povidone-Iodine Ointment was used as reference for comparision. Excision and incision wounds were created on dorsal portion of rats for study. Wound contraction, biochemical parameters (protein level and hydroxyproline level) and histopathological study were performed in excision wound model whereas incision model was used for determination of tensile strength. Results: The wound contraction and tensile strength of skin tissues were observed significantly greater in MAF-C fraction treated group than other two fractions (P<0.01). In excision wound method (on day 18) protein content and hydroxyproline were found significantly higher in MAF-C group than control group (P<0.01). Histopathological study also showed better angiogenesis, matured collagen fibres and fibroblast cells as compared with the control group. Conclusions: In conclusion, our findings suggest that fraction MAF-C from ethanol extract of M. annua leaves is found most effective in wound healing.

  14. In vitro antibacterial activity of Artemisia annua Linn. growing in India

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    Gupta Prakash

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The crude extracts obtained from the aerial parts of Artemisia annua Linn. (Asteraceae were investigated for their antibacterial activity by using agar well diffusion assays against five Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus cereus, and Micrococcus luteus and three Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Of the various extracts, the methanol extract showed the strongest activity against most bacteria used in this study. The most sensitive organism to the extracts was M. luteus. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values were determined by the tube dilution method. The results showed that S. aureus required ~0.25 mg/mL of the methanol extract for inhibition. The HPTLC fingerprint of the methanol extract after derivatization with anisaldehyde sulphuric acid reagent showed a maximum number of separated components. TLC bioautography of the methanol extract showed that the area of inhibition around compounds differentiated at R f = 0.32, R f = 0.42, R f = 0.46, R f = 0.77, and R f = 0.87 against S. aureus. This is the first report of the antibacterial activity of A. annua against food-borne bacteria. The results indicated that aerial parts of A. annua might be potential sources of new antibacterial agents.

  15. Protective capacity of Artemisia annua as a potent antioxidant remedy against free radical damage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter Nkachukwu Chukwurah; Ebiamadon Andi Brisibe; Aniefiok Ndubuisi Osuagwu; Tebekeme Okoko

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant capacity of four leaf-derived solvent extracts of Artemisiaannua Methods: A. annua leaves were extracted with four solvents (absolute ethanol, absolute methanol, 70% ethanol and 70% methanol), and extracts obtained studied by five complementaryin vitro antioxidant test systems using ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and rutin as standard references. Results: The extracts remarkably inhibited lipid peroxidation (79.81%-86.70%), and erythrocyte haemolysis (40.02%-49.91%). Their IC50 values for hydroxyl, nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging activities ranged from 2.39-3.81 mg/mL (superior to the standards), 107.24-144.49 µg/mL and 28.53-53.20 µg/mL, respectively. 70% alcohol extracts generally showed better antioxidant activity than absolute alcohol extracts. (A. annua), a medicinal plant widely touted for its vast phyto-therapeutic potential. Conclusions: The results indicate that A. annua leaf extracts have potent antioxidant activities that would have beneficial effect on human health, and aqueous organic solvents are superior to the absolute counterparts in yielding extracts with better antioxidant potential.

  16. Chemical Composition and Antipathogenic Activity of Artemisia annua Essential Oil from Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinas, Ioana C; Oprea, Eliza; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen; Badea, Irinel Adriana; Buleandra, Mihaela; Lazar, Veronica

    2015-10-01

    The essential oil extracted by hydrodistillation from Romanian Artemisia annua aerial parts was characterized by GC/MS analysis, which allowed the identification of 94.64% of the total oil composition. The main components were camphor (17.74%), α-pinene (9.66%), germacrene D (7.55%), 1,8-cineole (7.24%), trans-β-caryophyllene (7.02%), and artemisia ketone (6.26%). The antimicrobial activity of this essential oil was evaluated by determining the following parameters: minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC), minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC), and minimal biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC). Moreover, the soluble virulence factors were quantified with different biochemical substrates incorporated in the culture media. The reference and resistant, clinical strains proved to be susceptible to the A. annua oil, with MICs ranging from 0.51 to 16.33 mg/ml. The tested essential oil also showed good antibiofilm activity, inhibiting both the initial stage of the microbial cell adhesion to the inert substratum and the preformed mature biofilm. When used at subinhibitory concentrations, the essential oil proved to inhibit the phenotypic expression of five soluble virulence factors (hemolysins, gelatinase, DNase, lipases, and lecithinases). Briefly, the present results showed that the A. annua essential oil contained antimicrobial compounds with selective activity on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains as well as on yeast strains and which also interfere with the expression of cell-associated and soluble virulence factors.

  17. Bone metastasis of glandular cardiac myxoma mimicking a metastatic carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppin, Shantveer G; Jambhekar, Nirmala; Puri, Ajay; Kumar, Rajiv; Agarwal, Manish; Sanghvi, Darshana

    2011-01-01

    Skeletal metastasis from a cardiac myxoma is rare. We describe an extremely unusual case of a cardiac myxoma metastasing to the femur in a 46-year-old female presenting with pain in the right hip. Radiographs showed an expansile lytic lesion with pathological fracture involving the neck and proximal shaft of the right femur. Histology revealed features of cardiac myxoma with heterologous glandular elements, which was initially mistaken for a metastatic mucin-secreting adenocarcinoma.

  18. Pseudoneoplastic glandular lesions of the uterine cervix: a selective review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nucci, Marisa R

    2014-07-01

    Pseudoneoplastic glandular lesions of the cervix continue to be diagnostically challenging for the surgical pathologist. This review covers a select number of these lesions that may be misinterpreted as premalignant or malignant, with an emphasis on those about which Dr Scully has advanced our knowledge. The topics covered include microglandular hyperplasia, mesonephric hyperplasia, diffuse laminar endocervical glandular hyperplasia, lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia, and endocervical adenomyoma. The first listed entity has a greater diversity of morphology than the name might imply including, but not limited to solid growth and prominent hyaline stroma. The second entity may be remarkably diffuse within the cervical wall and reasonably result in consideration of diagnoses such as minimal deviation adenocarcinoma (adenoma malignum), but has nonmucinous epithelium and bland cytology. The third entity, one of the least common of those considered, represents a peculiar form of reactive hyperplasia of the endocervical epithelium. The fourth entity is the one about which knowledge is still fast advancing. In pure form with no atypia it is almost certainly a clinically benign process, but a subset of cases show cytologic atypia and an occasional association with adenocarcinoma is seen. Finally, adenomyomas of the uterus in general have received much attention in recent years, mostly in the corpus, but the less common endocervical variant may be particularly problematic because mucinous epithelium in abundant myogenic stroma may be potentially confused with an infiltrating differentiated mucinous adenocarcinoma. Although immunohistochemistry may play a role on occasion in evaluating benign endocervical glandular proliferations the mainstay of their interpretation remains conventional morphologic analysis of routinely stained slides.

  19. Detecting uterine glandular lesions: Role of cervical cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baneet Bansal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The sensitivity of cervical cytology for detection of glandular lesions is reported to be low. We conducted this study to assess the diagnostic accuracy of cervical Papanicolaou (Pap smears for uterine glandular lesions and to compare the diagnostic utility of conventional and liquid-based cytology (LBC smears for glandular lesions. Materials and Methods: Archived histopathology records of all cases reported as endocervical and endometrial adenocarcinoma in the study period were identified and the available corresponding Pap smears (in preceding 1 year were retrieved. In addition, the Pap smears reported as glandular cell abnormalities (GCA during the same study period were retrieved. The overall prevalence of GCA, sensitivity, and specificity of Pap smears for the detection of GCA was calculated. The diagnostic accuracy of conventional and LBC smears for the diagnosis of GCA was also compared. Results: The prevalence of GCA in our study was 0.32%. The overall specificity of Pap smears for the diagnosis of GCA was 60.8%, this was not significantly different between conventional and LBC smears (P = 0.4. The overall sensitivity of Pap smears for the detection of GCA was 41.8%; LBC smears had significantly better sensitivity as compared to conventional smears for the detection of endometrial as compared to endocervical adenocarcinoma (P < 0.05. Conclusions: The prevalence of GCA in Pap smears is low. The specificity of Pap smears, for diagnosis of GCA, was found to be moderate. However, the overall sensitivity of Pap smears for the detection of GCA was low, though better for LBC as compared to conventional smears.

  20. The glandular odontogenic jaw cyst: report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, N W; Joseph, B K; Monsour, P A; Young, W G

    1996-11-01

    A case of a rare odontogenic cyst arising in the lateral periodontal membrane in the mandible in a 14 year old girl is reported. This lesion appeared to be a new entity and has been named glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC) or sialo-odontogenic cyst. Histologically the lesion was lined by mucous producing cuboidal epithelium containing several areas of thickening and numerous duct-like structures. The cyst recurred with the same histology two years postoperatively.

  1. Adhesion and splash dispersal of Salmonella enterica Typhimurium on tomato leaflets: effects of rdar morphotype and trichome density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevallos-Cevallos, Juan M; Gu, Ganyu; Danyluk, Michelle D; van Bruggen, Ariena H C

    2012-11-01

    Salmonella enterica strains with rdar (red dry and rough) and saw (smooth and white) morphotypes have previously been associated with tomato outbreaks but the dispersal mechanisms of these morphotypes are still poorly understood. In this study, Salmonella adhesion was distinguished from attachment by comparing different contact periods. Initial adhesion of rdar and saw morphotypes of Salmonella was compared in relation to tomato plants with different leaf trichome densities. Trichome densities were increased or reduced by treatment with jasmonic or salicylic acid, respectively. The overall effect of Salmonella morphotype and trichome density on splash dispersal was assessed in a rain simulator and correlated to cell hydrophobicity and initial adhesion. The presence of the rdar morphotype increased initial adhesion at high trichome densities but not at low trichome densities. Attachment of the rdar strain occurred after 30s contact time regardless of trichome density. Splash dispersal was slightly further for the saw morphotype than the rdar morphotype of S. enterica at all trichome densities. Salmonella cells of both morphotypes survived significantly better on the surface of high trichome density leaflets.

  2. Comparison of five major trichome regulatory genes in Brassica villosa with orthologues within the Brassicaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naghabushana K Nayidu

    Full Text Available Coding sequences for major trichome regulatory genes, including the positive regulators GLABRA 1(GL1, GLABRA 2 (GL2, ENHANCER OF GLABRA 3 (EGL3, and TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA 1 (TTG1 and the negative regulator TRIPTYCHON (TRY, were cloned from wild Brassica villosa, which is characterized by dense trichome coverage over most of the plant. Transcript (FPKM levels from RNA sequencing indicated much higher expression of the GL2 and TTG1 regulatory genes in B. villosa leaves compared with expression levels of GL1 and EGL3 genes in either B. villosa or the reference genome species, glabrous B. oleracea; however, cotyledon TTG1 expression was high in both species. RNA sequencing and Q-PCR also revealed an unusual expression pattern for the negative regulators TRY and CPC, which were much more highly expressed in trichome-rich B. villosa leaves than in glabrous B. oleracea leaves and in glabrous cotyledons from both species. The B. villosa TRY expression pattern also contrasted with TRY expression patterns in two diploid Brassica species, and with the Arabidopsis model for expression of negative regulators of trichome development. Further unique sequence polymorphisms, protein characteristics, and gene evolution studies highlighted specific amino acids in GL1 and GL2 coding sequences that distinguished glabrous species from hairy species and several variants that were specific for each B. villosa gene. Positive selection was observed for GL1 between hairy and non-hairy plants, and as expected the origin of the four expressed positive trichome regulatory genes in B. villosa was predicted to be from B. oleracea. In particular the unpredicted expression patterns for TRY and CPC in B. villosa suggest additional characterization is needed to determine the function of the expanded families of trichome regulatory genes in more complex polyploid species within the Brassicaceae.

  3. Engineering Isoprenoid Biosynthesis in Artemisia annua L. for the Production of Taxadiene: A Key Intermediate of Taxol

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    Meiya Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Taxadiene is the first committed precursor to paclitaxel, marketed as Taxol, arguably the most important anticancer agent against ovarian and breast cancer. In Taxus, taxadiene is directly synthesized from geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP that is the common precursor for diterpenoids and is found in most plants and microbes. In this study, Artemisia annua L., a Chinese medicinal herb that grows fast and is rich in terpenoids, was used as a genetic engineering host to produce taxadiene. The TXS (taxadiene synthase gene, cloned from Taxus and inserted into pCAMBIA1304, was transformed into Artemisia annua L. using the Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated method. Thirty independent transgenic plants were obtained, and GC-MS analysis was used to confirm that taxadiene was produced and accumulated up to 129.7 μg/g dry mass. However, the high expression of TXS did not affect plant growth or photosynthesis in transgenic Artemisia annua L. It is notable that artemisinin is produced and stored in leaves and most taxadiene accumulated in the stem of transgenic Artemisia annua L., suggesting a new way to produce two important compounds in one transgenic plant: leaves for artemisinin and stem for taxadiene. Overall, this study demonstrates that genetic engineering of the taxane biosynthetic pathway in Artemisia annua L. for the production of taxadiene is feasible.

  4. Modeling filamentous cyanobacteria reveals the advantages of long and fast trichomes for optimizing light exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Tamulonis; M. Postma; J. Kaandorp

    2011-01-01

    Cyanobacteria form a very large and diverse phylum of prokaryotes that perform oxygenic photosynthesis. Many species of cyanobacteria live colonially in long trichomes of hundreds to thousands of cells. Of the filamentous species, many are also motile, gliding along their long axis, and display phot

  5. Botulinum toxin for treatment of glandular hypersecretory disorders.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Laing, T A

    2012-02-03

    SUMMARY: The use of botulinum toxin to treat disorders of the salivary glands is increasing in popularity in recent years. Recent reports of the use of botulinum toxin in glandular hypersecretion suggest overall favourable results with minimal side-effects. However, few randomised clinical trials means that data are limited with respect to candidate suitability, treatment dosages, frequency and duration of treatment. We report a selection of such cases from our own department managed with botulinum toxin and review the current data on use of the toxin to treat salivary gland disorders such as Frey\\'s syndrome, excessive salivation (sialorrhoea), focal and general hyperhidrosis, excessive lacrimation and chronic rhinitis.

  6. Mixed Squamous Cell and Glandular Papilloma of the Lung in a 64-Year-Old Woman

    OpenAIRE

    Yun, Ju Sik; Kim, Do Wan; Choi, Yoo Duk; Na, Kook Joo; Song, Sang Yun

    2014-01-01

    Mixed squamous cell and glandular papilloma of the lung is an extremely rare benign epithelial tumor showing a mixture of squamous and glandular epithelium. Here, we report a case of mixed squamous cell and glandular papilloma that presented as a solitary nodule in the left lower lobe of a 64-year-old woman. Chest computed tomography demonstrated a lobulated mass in the basal segment of the left lower lobe. The patient underwent a lobectomy under the suspicion of lung malignancy. The histopat...

  7. The Effect of Different Doses of Composite Artemisia annua Extract on Ruminal Fermentation of Dairy Goats in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li-fang; LU De-xun; DING Guo-he; MA Yan-fen

    2011-01-01

    An in vitro study was conducted to determine the effect of different doses of Composite Artemisia annua extract (CAE) on rumen microbial fermentation.CAE was a crude extract from the stem and leaves of Composite Artemisia annua extracted with ethanol.The doses of CAE supplementation with frozen-dry form were:control (no addition),3,30,300 and 3 000 mg/L mixed culture fluid,respectively.Rumen fluid was taken from 3ruminally fistulated dairy goats fed a 50% forage to 50% mixed concentrate ratio diet.The rumen contents were thoroughly mixed and strained through 4 layers of cheese-cloth.

  8. Mixed squamous cell and glandular papilloma of the lung in a 64-year-old woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Ju Sik; Kim, Do Wan; Choi, Yoo Duk; Na, Kook Joo; Song, Sang Yun

    2014-02-01

    Mixed squamous cell and glandular papilloma of the lung is an extremely rare benign epithelial tumor showing a mixture of squamous and glandular epithelium. Here, we report a case of mixed squamous cell and glandular papilloma that presented as a solitary nodule in the left lower lobe of a 64-year-old woman. Chest computed tomography demonstrated a lobulated mass in the basal segment of the left lower lobe. The patient underwent a lobectomy under the suspicion of lung malignancy. The histopathological diagnosis was mixed squamous cell and glandular papilloma.

  9. New method for generating breast models featuring glandular tissue spatial distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paixão, L.; Oliveira, B. B.; Oliveira, M. A.; Teixeira, M. H. A.; Fonseca, T. C. F.; Nogueira, M. S.

    2016-02-01

    Mammography is the main radiographic technique used for breast imaging. A major concern with mammographic imaging is the risk of radiation-induced breast cancer due to the high sensitivity of breast tissue. The mean glandular dose (DG) is the dosimetric quantity widely accepted to characterize the risk of radiation induced cancer. Previous studies have concluded that DG depends not only on the breast glandular content but also on the spatial distribution of glandular tissue within the breast. In this work, a new method for generating computational breast models featuring skin composition and glandular tissue distribution from patients undergoing digital mammography is proposed. Such models allow a more accurate way of calculating individualized breast glandular doses taking into consideration the glandular tissue fraction. Sixteen breast models of four patients with different glandularity breasts were simulated and the results were compared with those obtained from recommended DG conversion factors. The results show that the internationally recommended conversion factors may be overestimating the mean glandular dose to less dense breasts and underestimating the mean glandular dose for denser breasts. The methodology described in this work constitutes a powerful tool for breast dosimetry, especially for risk studies.

  10. In vitro activity of Artemisia annua L (Asteraceae extracts against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus Atividade in vitro de extratos de Artemisia annua L (Asteraceae sobre Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina de Souza Chagas

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The activity of plant extracts on parasites may indicate groups of substances that are potentially useful for controlling Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus. The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro action of Artemisia annua extracts on this tick. The concentrations of the sesquiterpene lactones artemisinin and deoxyartemisinin present in plant extracts were quantified via high-performance liquid chromatography. Four extracts produced from the concentrated crude extract (CCE were evaluated on larvae using the impregnated paper method, with readings after 24 hours of incubation. The engorged females were immersed in the CCE and in its four derived extracts for five minutes, with incubation for subsequent analysis of biological parameters. The extracts were not effective on the larvae at the concentrations tested (3.1 to 50 mg.mL-1. The CCE showed greater efficacy on engorged females (EC50 of 130.6 mg.mL-1 and EC90 of 302.9 mg.mL-1 than did the derived extracts. These results tend to confirm that the action of artemisinin on engorged females of R.(B. microplus is conditional to their blood intake. In this case, in vitro methods would be inadequate for effective evaluation of the action of A. annua on R. (B. microplus.A atividade de extratos vegetais sobre parasitas pode indicar grupos de substâncias de uso potencial no controle de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus. O objetivo do presente estudo foi investigar a ação in vitro de extratos de Artemisia annua sobre esta espécie. A concentração das lactonas sesquiterpênicas artemisinina e deoxiartemisinina presentes nos extratos vegetais, foi quantificada via cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência. Quatro extratos produzidos a partir do extrato bruto concentrado (EBC foram avaliados sobre larvas pela metodologia do papel impregnado, com leitura após 24 horas de incubação. As fêmeas ingurgitadas foram imersas por cinco minutos no EBC e nos seus quatro extratos

  11. Glandular dose in breast tomosynthesis examinations: Preliminary study with a sample of patients; Dosis glandular en examenes de tomosintesis de mama: estudio preliminar con una muestra de pacientes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo, M.; Chevalier, M.; Calzado, A.; Valverde, J.

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the mean glandular dose administered to a group of patients with a tomography system (Selenia Dimensions) service installed on a large hospital in which routine tests are done and screening. (Author)

  12. Average glandular dose in digital mammography and breast tomosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olgar, T. [Ankara Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Engineering Physics; Universitaetsklinikum Leipzig AoeR (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Kahn, T.; Gosch, D. [Universitaetsklinikum Leipzig AoeR (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: To determine the average glandular dose (AGD) in digital full-field mammography (2 D imaging mode) and in breast tomosynthesis (3 D imaging mode). Materials and Methods: Using the method described by Boone, the AGD was calculated from the exposure parameters of 2247 conventional 2 D mammograms and 984 mammograms in 3 D imaging mode of 641 patients examined with the digital mammographic system Hologic Selenia Dimensions. The breast glandular tissue content was estimated by the Hologic R2 Quantra automated volumetric breast density measurement tool for each patient from right craniocaudal (RCC) and left craniocaudal (LCC) images in 2 D imaging mode. Results: The mean compressed breast thickness (CBT) was 52.7 mm for craniocaudal (CC) and 56.0 mm for mediolateral oblique (MLO) views. The mean percentage of breast glandular tissue content was 18.0 % and 17.4 % for RCC and LCC projections, respectively. The mean AGD values in 2 D imaging mode per exposure for the standard breast were 1.57 mGy and 1.66 mGy, while the mean AGD values after correction for real breast composition were 1.82 mGy and 1.94 mGy for CC and MLO views, respectively. The mean AGD values in 3 D imaging mode per exposure for the standard breast were 2.19 mGy and 2.29 mGy, while the mean AGD values after correction for the real breast composition were 2.53 mGy and 2.63 mGy for CC and MLO views, respectively. No significant relationship was found between the AGD and CBT in 2 D imaging mode and a good correlation coefficient of 0.98 in 3 D imaging mode. Conclusion: In this study the mean calculated AGD per exposure in 3 D imaging mode was on average 34 % higher than for 2 D imaging mode for patients examined with the same CBT.

  13. ANALYSIS OF ARTEMISININ AND RELATED SESQUITERPENOIDS FROM ARTEMISIA-ANNUA L BY COMBINED GAS-CHROMATOGRAPHY MASS-SPECTROMETRY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WOERDENBAG, HJ; PRAS, N; BOS, R; VISSER, JF; HENDRIKS, H; MALINGRE, TM

    1991-01-01

    The sesquiterpenoid artemisinin (3) and its biosynthetic precursors arteannuic acid (1), arteannuin B (2) and artemisitene (4) can be separated and identified by combined gas chromatography/mass spectrometry both as a mixture of reference standards as well as in extracts of Artemisia annua L. From t

  14. Preparation of Au and Ag nanoparticles using Artemisia annua and their in vitro antibacterial and tyrosinase inhibitory activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basavegowda, Nagaraj; Idhayadhulla, Akber; Lee, Yong Rok, E-mail: yrlee@yu.ac.kr

    2014-10-01

    This work describes a plant-mediated approach to the preparation of metal nanoparticles using leaf extract of Artemisia annua (A. annua), an ethno-medicinal plant widely found in Asia, which was used as reducing and stabilizing agent. A. annua is used in traditional Chinese medicine to alleviate fever. Au and Ag nanoparticles were prepared using a one-step aqueous method at room temperature without any toxic chemicals. The formation of Au and Ag nanoparticles was monitored by UV–vis spectroscopy. Synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). TEM analysis of Au nanoparticles showed that they had triangular and spherical shapes with sizes ranging from 15 to 40 nm. The silver nanoparticles were predominantly spherical and uniformly sized (30–50 nm). The Au and Ag nanoparticles produced showed significant tyrosinase inhibitory and antibacterial effects. These results suggest that the synthesized nanoparticles provide good alternatives in varied medical and industrial applications. - Highlights: • Au and Ag nanoparticles were synthesized using Artemisia annua leaf aqueous extract. • Nanoparticles were characterized by UV–vis spectroscopy, FT-IR, TEM, EDX, XRD, and TGA. • Au and Ag nanoparticles were of size 25 and 30 nm respectively, in spherical forms. • Nanoparticles showed significant tyrosinase inhibitory and antibacterial activities.

  15. Insect feeding deterrent and growth inhibitory activities of scopoletin isolated from Artemisia annua against Spilarctia obliqua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arun Kumar Tripathi; Rajendra Singh Bhakuni; Shikha Upadhyay; Rashmi Gaur

    2011-01-01

    Artemisia annua (Asteraceae) is well known for its antimalarial activities due to presence of the compound artemisinin. We isolated a methoxy coumarin from the stem part of A. annua and confirmed its identity as scopoletin through mass spectral data.The structure was established from 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), 13C-NMR.The compound scopoletin was evaluated for its feeding deterrence and growth inhibitory potential against a noxious lepidopteran insect, Spilartctia obliqua Walker. Scopoletin gave FD50 (feeding deterrence of 50%) value of 96.7 μg/g diet when mixed into artificial diet. S. obliqua larvae (12-day-old) exposed to the highest concentration (250 μg/g diet)of scopoletin showed 77.1% feeding-deterrence. In a growth inhibitory assay, scopoletin provided 116.9% growth inhibition at the highest dose of 250 μg/g diet with a GI50 (growth inhibition of 50%) value of 20.9μg/g diet. Statistical analysis showed a concentrationdependent dose response relationship toward both feeding deterrent and growth inhibitory activities. Artemisinin is found mainly in the leaves of A. annua and not in the stems,which are typically discarded as waste. Therefore identification of scopoletin in stems of A. annua may be important as a source of this material for pest control.

  16. Urbanization and the incidence of abnormalities of squamous and glandular epithelium of the cervix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, ME; Claasen, HHV; van Westering, RP; Kok, LP

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND. The large data bases of the Dutch cervical screening program can be exploited to establish the relation between urbanization and the incidence of abnormalities of the squamous and glandular epithelium, including mild or greater changes of the squamous and glandular epithelium of the cerv

  17. GLANDULAR HAIRS, NON-GLANDULAR HAIRS, AND ESSENTIAL OILS IN THE WINTER AND SUMMER LEAVES OF THE SEASONALLY DIMORPHIC THYMUS SIBTHORPII (LAMIACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOSABALIDIS ARTEMIOS Michael

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The structure and function of the glandular and non-glandular hairs, and also the yield and chemical composition of the essential oils in the winter and summer leaves of the seasonally dimorphic plant Thymus sibthorpii were studied. Glandular hairs comprise peltate hairs only (capitate hairs are missing. Peltate hairs are the sites of essential oil biosynthesis. They are more numerous in the winter leaves than in the summer leaves and consist of a 12-celled secretory head, a unicellular stalk, and an also unicellular epidermal foot. The essential oil of the winter leaves is mainly composed of linalool (42.4%, thymol (7.0%, p-cymene (5.8%, β-caryophyllene (5.7%, borneol (5.6%, and terpinen-4-ol (4.8%. The oil of the summer leaves is principally constituted of p-cymene (25.0%, linalool (19.1%, terpinen-4-ol (8.5% and borneol (8.3%. Non-glandular hairs proliferate in the summer leaves. They are conical in shape and consist of one basal epidermal cell and one apical pointed cell. Glandular and non-glandular hairs are implicated in the chemical and mechanical defense of the plant, respectively.

  18. Effects of traffic pollution on the genetic structure of Poa annua L.populations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ning; CHEN Xiao-yong; SHEN Lang; LI Yuan-yuan; CAI Yue-wei

    2004-01-01

    The genetic composition of Poa annua L. populations with a series of traffic pollution was studied by starch electrophoresis. Five enzyme systems were stained. The results showed that: (1) Traffic pollution can dramatically change genotypic frequencies at some loci of P. annua populations. Significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were observed on loci Fe-1 and Me due to the excess of heterozygote in some populations. (2) The effective number of alleles per locus, and the observed and expected heterozygosity were higher in the pollution series than in the clear control site(Botanic Park population), but the increase was not related with the pollution extent. (3) Most genetic variation was found within populations, and only 6.21% was among populations of the polluted series. Slightly higher differentiation(FST=7.98%) was observed when the control population was included. (4) The calculated gene flow(Nm) is 2.8841 per generation. The mean of genetic identity is 0.9864 and the genetic distance average to 0.0138.

  19. Variation in the volatile constituents of Artemisia annua var. CIM-Arogya during plant ontogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padalia, Rajendra C; Verma, Ram S; Chauhan, Amit; Chanotiya, Chandan S; Yadav, Anju

    2011-02-01

    The essential oils yield and composition of the aerial parts of A. annua var. CIM-Arogya grown in Uttarakhand, India were analyzed and compared by capillary GC and GC-MS at different stages of development. The analysis led to the identification of 81 constituents forming 91.0%-97.1% of the essential oils compositions. The essential oil content of the aerial parts was found to vary from 0.3% to 0.7% at different stages of growth. A. annua crop harvested at full flowering and seed setting stage gave higher yield of essential oil (0.6%, 0.7%) than that harvested at pre flowering (0.5%), late vegetative (0.4%, 0.5%), mid vegetative (0.4%, 0.4%) and early vegetative stages (0.3%, 0.3%). The essential oils at different stages of growth showed monoterpenoids (38.5%-72.0%) and sesquiterpenoids (22.2%-48.2%) as major grouped constituents. The major constituents identified were camphor (22.8%-42.6%), 1,8-cineole (3.7%-8.4%), linalool (<0.1%-11.9%), beta-caryophyllene (2.0%-9.2%), (E)-beta-farnesene (1.3%-8.5%), germacrene D (0.5%-7.3%) and 1-epi-cubenol (0.7%-5.2%) in essential oil samples collected at different crop stages.

  20. Identification and purification of novel chlorogenic acids in Artemisia annua L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenwen Zhao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Present work has been carried out to study the identification and purification of chlorogenic acids in Artemisia annua L. Thirty-six chlorogenic acids were identified from this plant. Among these fifteen viz. two monocaffeoylquinic acids (Mr354, five dicaffeoylquinic acids (Mr516, one feruloylquinic acid (Mr368, three caffeoylferuloylquinic acids (Mr530, two ferulylquinic acids (Mr544, one dimethoxy-cinnamoylquinic acid (Mr382 and one p-coumaroylquinic acid (Mr338 were reported first time in present study by LC/MSn . Cis-isomers of these chlorogenic acids were also identified. Furthermore, column chromatography was used for the separation and purification of these chlorogenic acid; by the use of petroleum ether and ethyl acetate decolorization methods as mentioned in the literature, thus separation and purification process carried out at the same time. Polyamide and dextran were also used to purify Dicaffeoylquinic acid and purity level reached 85.7% with a yield of 53.4% after the secondary purification by Sephadex LH-20. Result of study revealed that A. annua can not only used for the production of artemisinin, but also yielding different kinds of chlorogenic acids, thus making comprehensive utilization of this plant.

  1. Herbivore handling of a plant's trichome: the case of Heliconius charithonia (L.) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) and Passiflora lobata (Killip) Hutch. (Passifloraceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Marcio Z. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Centro de Biociencias. Dept. de Botanica, Ecologia e Zoologia]. E-mail: mzc@cb.ufrn.br

    2008-05-15

    Trichomes reduce herbivore attack on plants by physically and/or chemically inhibiting movement or other activities. Despite evidence that herbivores are negatively affected by trichomes there also reports of insect counter-adaptations that circumvent the plant's defense. This paper reports on a study that investigated the likely mechanisms employed by larvae of the nymphalid butterfly, Heliconius charithonia (L.), that allow it to feed on a host that is presumably protected by hooked trichomes (Passiflora lobata (Killip) Hutch). Evidence were gathered using data from direct observations of larval movement and behavior, faeces analysis, scanning electron microscopy of plant surface and experimental analysis of larval movement on plants with and without trichomes (manually removed). The latter involved a comparison with a non specialist congener, Heliconius pachinus Salvin. Observations showed that H. charithonia larvae are capable of freeing themselves from entrapment on trichome tips by physical force. Moreover, wandering larvae lay silk mats on the trichomes and remove their tips by biting. In fact, trichome tips were found in the faeces. Experimental removal of trichomes aided in the movement of the non specialist but had no noticeable effect on the specialist larvae. These results support the suggestion that trichomes are capable of deterring a non specialist herbivore (H. pachinus). The precise mechanisms that allow the success of H. charithonia are not known, but I suggest that a blend of behavioral as well as physical resistance mechanisms is involved. Future studies should ascertain whether larval integument provides physical resistance to trichomes. (author)

  2. TCS1, a Microtubule-Binding Protein, Interacts with KCBP/ZWICHEL to Regulate Trichome Cell Shape in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangliang Chen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available How cell shape is controlled is a fundamental question in developmental biology, but the genetic and molecular mechanisms that determine cell shape are largely unknown. Arabidopsis trichomes have been used as a good model system to investigate cell shape at the single-cell level. Here we describe the trichome cell shape 1 (tcs1 mutants with the reduced trichome branch number in Arabidopsis. TCS1 encodes a coiled-coil domain-containing protein. Pharmacological analyses and observations of microtubule dynamics show that TCS1 influences the stability of microtubules. Biochemical analyses and live-cell imaging indicate that TCS1 binds to microtubules and promotes the assembly of microtubules. Further results reveal that TCS1 physically associates with KCBP/ZWICHEL, a microtubule motor involved in the regulation of trichome branch number. Genetic analyses indicate that kcbp/zwi is epistatic to tcs1 with respect to trichome branch number. Thus, our findings define a novel genetic and molecular mechanism by which TCS1 interacts with KCBP to regulate trichome cell shape by influencing the stability of microtubules.

  3. Resistance of tomato strains to the moth Tuta absoluta imparted by allelochemicals and trichome density Resistência de linhagens de tomateiro à traça Tuta absoluta, relacionada a aleloquímicos e à densidade de tricomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Mattes de Oliveira

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We examined the resistance of improved tomato strains rich in 2-tridecanone (2-TD, zingiberene (ZGB and acyl sugars (AA to the tomato moth, Tuta absoluta. We also studied whether selection for strains with higher densities of glandular trichomes, and thus presumably strains with higher concentrations of 2-tridecanone, was effective in promoting greater resistance to the moth. The TOM-584 and TOM-679 strains were used as susceptible controls, which have normal concentrations of the three allelochemicals. The improved strain TOM-687, which has a high AA content, has a widely documented resistance and was used as a standard resistant strain. The wild strain PI134417, which is resistant by means of its high 2-TD content, was also used as a standard resistant strain. The experiment was installed in a greenhouse with a completely randomized design. The wild strain PI 134417 was confirmed as being highly resistant. TOM-622 (rich in 2-TD, ZGB-703 (rich in ZGB, and TOM-687 (rich in AA showed significant reductions in the oviposition rate of the tomato moth, damage to the plants, injury to the leaflets, and the percentage of leaflets attacked in comparison with the control strains (TOM-584 and TOM-679. The levels of resistance to the moth for the TOM-622, ZGB-703, and TOM-687 strains were similar. In general, the genotypes with higher densities of glandular trichomes had greater resistance than the susceptible controls, with the strain BPX-367D-238-02 being particularly notable in its resistance.Comparou-se a efetividade de linhagens melhoradas de tomateiro, ricas em 2-tridecanona (2-TD, zingibereno (ZGB e acilaçúcares (AA, em relação aos níveis de resistência à traça-do-tomateiro Tuta absoluta. Verificaram-se, também, se linhagens selecionadas para maiores densidades de tricomas glandulares, presumivelmente com maiores níveis de 2-tridecanona, são efetivas em promover maior resistência à traça. Como testemunhas suscetíveis foram utilizadas

  4. Flavonoids casticin and chrysosplenol D from Artemisia annua L. inhibit inflammation in vitro and in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yu-Jie; Guo, Yan; Yang, Qing; Weng, Xiao-Gang; Yang, Lan; Wang, Ya-Jie; Chen, Ying; Zhang, Dong; Li, Qi; Liu, Xu-Cen; Kan, Xiao-Xi; Chen, Xi [Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing 100700 (China); Zhu, Xiao-Xin, E-mail: zhuxx59@163.com [Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing 100700 (China); Kmoníèková, Eva [Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine in Pilsen, Charles University, Pilsen (Czech Republic); Zídek, Zdenìk [Institute of Experimental Medicine, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Vídeòská 1083, 142 20 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2015-08-01

    Background: The aim of our experiments was to investigate the anti-inflammatory properties of casticin and chrysosplenol D, two flavonoids present in Artemisia annua L. Methods: Topical inflammation was induced in ICR mice using croton oil. Mice were then treated with casticin or chrysosplenol D. Cutaneous histological changes and edema were assessed. ICR mice were intragastrically administrated with casticin or chrysosplenol D followed by intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Mouse Raw264.7 macrophage cells were incubated with casticin or chrysosplenol D. Intracellular phosphorylation was detected, and migration was assessed by trans-well assay. HT-29/NFκB-luc cells were incubated with casticin or chrysosplenol D in the presence or absence of LPS, and NF-κB activation was quantified. Results: In mice, administration of casticin (0.5, 1 and 1.5 μmol/cm{sup 2}) and chrysosplenol D (1 and 1.5 μmol/cm{sup 2}) inhibited croton oil-induced ear edema (casticin: 29.39–64.95%; chrysosplenol D: 37.76–65.89%, all P < 0.05) in a manner similar to indomethacin (0.5, 1 and 1.5 μmol/cm{sup 2}; 55.63–84.58%). Casticin (0.07, 0.13 and 0.27 mmol/kg) and chrysosplenol D (0.07, 0.14 and 0.28 mmol/kg) protected against LPS-induced systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) in mice (all P < 0.05), in a manner similar to dexamethasone (0.03 mmol/kg). Casticin and chrysosplenol D suppressed LPS-induced release of IL-1 beta, IL-6 and MCP-1, inhibited cell migration, and reduced LPS-induced IκB and c-JUN phosphorylation in Raw264.7 cells. JNK inhibitor SP600125 blocked the inhibitory effect of chrysosplenol D on cytokine release. Conclusions: The flavonoids casticin and chrysosplenol D from A. annua L. inhibited inflammation in vitro and in vivo. - Highlights: • We report a new activity of the flavonoids present in Artemisia annua L. • These flavonoids inhibit croton oil-induced ear edema in mice. • These flavonoids protect against LPS-induced SIRS in

  5. Glandular odontogenic cyst of the maxilla: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Nigel Roque; Dinkar, Ajit Dattatray; Khorate, Manisha Maruti

    2016-01-01

    Glandular Odontogenic Cyst is a relatively rare cyst of odontogenic origin, which shows glandular or salivary features that are thought to indicate the pluripotentiality of odontogenic epithelium. It is seen in middle-aged adults, and commonly involves the anterior region of the jaws, especially the mandible. It shows non-specific clinico-radiographic findings which may resemble other lesions, but has characteristic histopathologic features which help in its diagnosis. This paper reports an unusual presentation of a glandular odontogenic cyst which was diagnosed in a 64-year old female in the posterior maxilla, along with a literature review of this cyst, especially the cases reported in India in the past.

  6. Breast dose in mammography is about 30% lower when realistic heterogeneous glandular distributions are considered

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, Andrew M., E-mail: amhern@ucdavis.edu [Biomedical Engineering Graduate Group, University of California Davis, Sacramento, California 95817 (United States); Seibert, J. Anthony; Boone, John M. [Departments of Radiology and Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Engineering Graduate Group, University of California Davis, Sacramento, California 95817 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: Current dosimetry methods in mammography assume that the breast is comprised of a homogeneous mixture of glandular and adipose tissues. Three-dimensional (3D) dedicated breast CT (bCT) data sets were used previously to assess the complex anatomical structure within the breast, characterizing the statistical distribution of glandular tissue in the breast. The purpose of this work was to investigate the effect of bCT-derived heterogeneous glandular distributions on dosimetry in mammography. Methods: bCT-derived breast diameters, volumes, and 3D fibroglandular distributions were used to design realistic compressed breast models comprised of heterogeneous distributions of glandular tissue. The bCT-derived glandular distributions were fit to biGaussian functions and used as probability density maps to assign the density distributions within compressed breast models. The MCNPX 2.6.0 Monte Carlo code was used to estimate monoenergetic normalized mean glandular dose “DgN(E)” values in mammography geometry. The DgN(E) values were then weighted by typical mammography x-ray spectra to determine polyenergetic DgN (pDgN) coefficients for heterogeneous (pDgN{sub hetero}) and homogeneous (pDgN{sub homo}) cases. The dependence of estimated pDgN values on phantom size, volumetric glandular fraction (VGF), x-ray technique factors, and location of the heterogeneous glandular distributions was investigated. Results: The pDgN{sub hetero} coefficients were on average 35.3% (SD, 4.1) and 24.2% (SD, 3.0) lower than the pDgN{sub homo} coefficients for the Mo–Mo and W–Rh x-ray spectra, respectively, across all phantom sizes and VGFs when the glandular distributions were centered within the breast phantom in the coronal plane. At constant breast size, increasing VGF from 7.3% to 19.1% lead to a reduction in pDgN{sub hetero} relative to pDgN{sub homo} of 23.6%–27.4% for a W–Rh spectrum. Displacement of the glandular distribution, at a distance equal to 10% of the

  7. PHENOLIC CONTENT OF ARTEMISIA ANNUA L. FROM NATURAL HABITATS IN REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia Paula STEFANACHE

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to assess the phenolic compounds content and profile of A. annua samples harvested from natural habitats in R. Moldova. The samples, consisting in leaves, were harvested in August 2014 (before flowering from different growing sites in north, centre and south regions. Phenolic extracts were obtained by methanol extraction of the residual plant material resulted from artemisinin separation. The phenolic compounds were identified and quantified by TLC and HPLC-DAD analyses, respectively. In all samples, four phenolic acids (caffeic, p-coumaric and chlorogenic acids, cynarin and two flavonoids (isoquercitrin and luteolin-7-glucoside were identified and quantified, cynarin being the major compound. The variations in phenolic composition between samples harvested from the same growing site and also for the samples from different growing areas (south, centre, north, were mostly quantitative. Similar phenolic profiles were obtained for all samples, regardless of the growing site. Phenolic acids were the dominant components in the phenolic extracts.

  8. Evaluation of antimicrobial activities of extracts of endophytic fungi from Artemisia annua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huawei Zhang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The endophytic extracts of 11 fungi associated with asympomatic Artemisia annua Linn., were evaluated for antimicrobial activity against three human pathogenic microbes, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Trichophyton rubrum, and two plant pathogens, Rhizoctonia cerealis and Magnaporthe grisea. The results showed that these endophytic extracts had different inhibitory effects on microbial pathogens at 100 mg/mL. Among these fungal endophytes, three strains Aspergillus spp. SPS-02, SPS-04 and SPS-01 respectively showed the strongest antimicrobial activities against E. coli, S. aureu, T. rubrum. An endophytic Mucor sp. SPS-11 had the most pronounced effect on R. cerealis. Two strains Aspergillus sp. SPS-02 and Cephalosporium sp. SPS-08 exhibited the strongest antimicrobial activities against M. grisea. These anti-pathogenic endophytes could be applied as new sources of antibiotics in agriculture and pharmaceutical industry.

  9. Nitric Oxide Potentiates Oligosaccharide-induced Artemisinin Production in Artemisia annua Hairy Roots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to characterize the generation of nitric oxide (NO) in Artemisia annua roots induced by an oligosaccharide elicitor (OE) from Fusarium oxysporum mycelium and the potentiation role of NO in the elicitation of artemisinin accumulation. The OE (0.3 mg total sugar/mL) induced a rapid production of NO in cultures, which exhibited a biphasic time course, reaching the first plateau within 1.5 h and the second within 8 h of OE treatment. Artemisinin content in 20-day-old hairy roots was increased from 0.7 mg/g dry wt to 1.3 mg/g dry wt by using the OE treatment for 4d. In the absence of OE, the NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) at 10, 50 μM and 100 μM enhanced the growth of hairy roots, but had no effect on artemisinin synthesis. The combination of SNP with OE increased artemisinin content from 1.2 mg/g dry wt to 2.2 mg/g dry wt, whereas the maximum production of artemisinin in cultures was 28.5 mg/L, a twofold increase over the OE treatment alone. The effects of SNP on the OE-induced artemisinin were suppressed strongly by the NO scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (cPTIO). The results suggest that NO can strongly potentiate elicitor-induced artemisinin synthesis in A. annua hairy roots.

  10. Nationwide survey of glandular tissue doses for the establishment of a breast cancer screening system using mammography. Analysis of technical parameters affecting the glandular tissue dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higashida, Yoshiharu [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). School of Health Sciences; Hagiwara, Akira; Asahara, Masaki [and others

    2000-09-01

    The effects of technical parameters, such as screen-film combinations, antiscatter grids, processing conditions and X-ray beam qualities, on the average glandular tissue dose of radiation were analyzed under two exposure conditions: The standard radiographic condition for an RMI 156 phantom at each facility (Standard Radiographic Condition). The radiographic condition needed to obtain a radiographic density of 1.20 to 1.40 with an RMI 156 phantom (Canonical Radiographic Condition). The analysis included 208 dose measurements at 104 facilities. The results showed that the average glandular tissue dose depends strongly on the grid types and screen-film combinations used. There were also significant differences in radiographic density between the Standard Radiographic Condition and the Canonical Radiographic Condition. This analysis of the technical parameters affecting the glandular tissue dose will be useful in establishing a standardized mammographic breast cancer screening system. (author)

  11. Glandular breast tissue volume by magnetic resonance imaging in 100 healthy peripubertal girls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fugl, Louise; Hagen, Casper P; Mieritz, Mikkel G;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Appearance of glandular breast tissue may be difficult to distinguish from fat tissue by palpation, especially in obese girls. To our knowledge, validation of the clinical assessment of pubertal breast stages by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has never been performed. Our objective...... was to report normative data of glandular breast tissue volume and validate the clinical evaluation of pubertal breast staging by MRI of breast tissue and to evaluate circulating reproductive hormone levels and estrogen-dependent transabdominal ultrasound (TAUS) parameters as markers of glandular breast tissue....... METHODS: Glandular breast tissue volume quantified by MRI and breast stage evaluation was performed in 100 healthy peripubertal girls. Circulating levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), inhibin B, and estradiol were measured by immunoassays. Ovarian volume, uterine volume...

  12. Pulmonary mixed squamous cell and glandular papilloma mimicking adenocarcinoma: a case study and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Dongliang; Jiang, Yanxia; Wang, Jigang; Ding, Li; Xin, Fangjie; Zhao, Han; Li, Yujun

    2013-08-01

    Mixed squamous cell and glandular papilloma of the lung is an extremely rare benign neoplasm. Here we present another case of mixed squamous cell and glandular papilloma in a 64-year-old female nonsmoker. Histologically, the tumor was composed of mainly papillary structures covered with squamous, glandular and transitional epithelium. Some glandular structures extending into adjacent bronchiolar and alveolar spaces with mucus were similar to adenocarcinoma. Immunohistochemical analysis showed the different kinds of epithelia had similar immunophenotype. The different components were positive for cytokeratin (CK)7, CK19, CAM5.2, CK5/6, CK34βE12, and TTF-1, but negative for CK20. The transitional morphology and immunohistochemistry indicate the different components likely come from a same kind of progenitor in the bronchiolar wall.

  13. Diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma associated with atypical glandular cells on liquid-based cervical cytology.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chummun, K

    2012-12-01

    In 2008, the management of women in Ireland with atypical glandular cells changed to immediate referral to colposcopy. The optimal management of these women is unclear. A balance between the detection of occult disease and overtreatment is required.

  14. Chemical composition of Artemisia annua L. leaves and antioxidant potential of extracts as a function of extraction solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Shahid; Younas, Umer; Chan, Kim Wei; Zia-Ul-Haq, Muhammad; Ismail, Maznah

    2012-05-21

    This study was conducted to investigate the chemical and nutritional composition of Artemisia annua leaves in addition to determination of antioxidant potential of their extracts prepared in different solvents. Chemical composition was determined by quantifying fat, protein, carbohydrate, fiber, tocopherol, phytate, and tannin contents. Extraction of A. annua leaves, for antioxidant potential evaluation, was carried out using five solvents of different polarities, i.e., hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and water. Antioxidant potential was evaluated by estimating total phenolic (TPC), flavonoid (TFC) contents, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), DPPH radical scavenging activity and lipid peroxidation. Efficiency of different solvents was compared for the yield of antioxidant extracts from leaf samples and a clear variation was observed. The highest TPC, TFC, TEAC, DPPH radical scavenging and lowest lipid peroxidation were observed in MeOH extracts, whereas aqueous extract exhibited high ferric reducing antioxidant power; suggesting MeOH to be the most favorable extractant.

  15. Glandular Dysplasia of the Uterine Endocervix A Morphological and Immunohistochemical Study

    OpenAIRE

    中西, 慶喜

    1991-01-01

    The endocervical mucosa was evaluated morphologically and immunohistochemically in 935 cases (441 non-cancerous, 347 squamous cell carcinoma, 109 mixed type of adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma and 38 adenocarcinoma of the cervix) to indicate the relationship between glandular dysplasia and endocervical adenocarcinoma. The following results were obtained. (1) Glandular dysplasia occurred in 35.9% of the cases with endocervical adenocarcinoma including co-existence with squamous c...

  16. Cervical glandular atypia associated with squamous intraepithelial neoplasia: a premalignant lesion?

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, L J; Wells, M

    1986-01-01

    Recent studies have described premalignant changes in the endocervical epithelium, but morphological criteria for the diagnosis of cervical glandular atypia of lesser severity than adenocarcinoma in situ have not been established. Adenocarcinoma in situ is often associated with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). The endocervical mucosa in 105 cases of CIN grade III was evaluated and compared with that of 100 controls. Sixteen cases of cervical glandular atypia and one case of adenocarc...

  17. Control of trichome formation in Arabidopsis by poplar single-repeat R3 MYB transcription factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limei eZhou

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In Arabidopsis, trichome formation is regulated by the interplay of R3 MYBs and several others transcription factors including the WD40-repeat protein TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1 (TTG1, the R2R3 MYB transcription factor GLABRA1 (GL1, the bHLH transcription factor GLABRA3 (GL3 or ENHANCER OF GLABRA3 (EGL3, and the homeodomain protein GLABRA2 (GL2. R3 MYBs including TRICHOMELESS1 (TCL1, TRYPTICHON (TRY, CAPRICE (CPC, ENHANCER OF TRY AND CPC1 (ETC1, ETC2 and ETC3 negatively regulate trichome formation by competing with GL1 for binding GL3 or EGL3, thus blocking the formation of TTG1-GL3/EGL3-GL1, an activator complex required for the activation of the trichome positive regulator gene GL2. However, it is largely unknown if R3 MYBs in other plant species especially woody plants have similar functions. By BLASTing the Populus trichocarpa protein database using the entire amino acid sequence of TCL1, an Arabidopsis R3 MYB transcription factor, we identified a total of eight R3 MYB transcription factor genes in poplar, namely Populus trichocarpa TRICHOMELESS1through 8 (PtrTCL1-PtrTCL8. The amino acid signature required for interacting with bHLH transcription factors and the amino acids required for cell-to-cell movement of R3 MYBs are not fully conserved in all PtrTCLs. When tested in Arabidopsis protoplasts, however, all PtrTCL interacted with GL3. Expressing each of the eight PtrTCLs genes in Arabidopsis resulted in either glabrous phenotypes or plants with reduced trichome numbers, and expression levels of GL2 in all transgenic plants tested were greatly reduced. Expression of PtrTCL1 under the control of TCL1 native promoter almost completely complemented the mutant phenotype of tcl. In contrast, expression of PtrTCL1 under the control of TRY native promoter in the try mutant, or under the control of CPC native promoter in the cpc mutant resulted in glabrous phenotypes, suggesting that PtrTCL1 functions similarly to TCL1, but not TRY and CPC.

  18. The use of combining ability analysis to identify elite parents for Artemisia annua F1 hybrid production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Townsend

    Full Text Available Artemisia annua is an important medicinal crop used for the production of the anti-malarial compound artemisinin. In order to assist in the production of affordable high quality artemisinin we have carried out an A. annua breeding programme aimed at improving artemisinin concentration and biomass. Here we report on a combining ability analysis of a diallel cross to identify robust parental lines for hybrid breeding. The parental lines were selected based on a range of phenotypic traits to encourage heterosis. The general combining ability (GCA values for the diallel parental lines correlated to the positive alleles of quantitative trait loci (QTL in the same parents indicating the presence of beneficial alleles that contribute to parental performance. Hybrids generated from crossing specific parental lines with good GCA were identified as having an increase in both artemisinin concentration and biomass when grown either in glasshouse or experimental field trials and compared to controls. This study demonstrates that combining ability as determined by a diallel cross can be used to identify elite parents for the production of improved A. annua hybrids. Furthermore, the selection of material for breeding using this approach was found to be consistent with our QTL-based molecular breeding approach.

  19. Preparation of Au and Ag nanoparticles using Artemisia annua and their in vitro antibacterial and tyrosinase inhibitory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basavegowda, Nagaraj; Idhayadhulla, Akber; Lee, Yong Rok

    2014-10-01

    This work describes a plant-mediated approach to the preparation of metal nanoparticles using leaf extract of Artemisia annua (A. annua), an ethno-medicinal plant widely found in Asia, which was used as reducing and stabilizing agent. A. annua is used in traditional Chinese medicine to alleviate fever. Au and Ag nanoparticles were prepared using a one-step aqueous method at room temperature without any toxic chemicals. The formation of Au and Ag nanoparticles was monitored by UV-vis spectroscopy. Synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). TEM analysis of Au nanoparticles showed that they had triangular and spherical shapes with sizes ranging from 15 to 40 nm. The silver nanoparticles were predominantly spherical and uniformly sized (30-50 nm). The Au and Ag nanoparticles produced showed significant tyrosinase inhibitory and antibacterial effects. These results suggest that the synthesized nanoparticles provide good alternatives in varied medical and industrial applications.

  20. Population dynamics of the species Plantago major L. and Poa annua L. in a replacement series experiment

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    Mijović A.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Population dynamics of the species Plantago major L. and Poa annua L., typical representatives of ruderal vegetation, was analyzed in a replacement series experiment. The analyzed species were sown in an area with meadow vegetation, where the vegetation present had been previously removed by a total herbicide and additionally by hoeing. The objective of the experiment was to monitor growth dynamics and the effect of intra- and inter-specific interaction of the species Plantago major and Poa annua in conditions of different sowing densities and proportions. The effects of intra- and inter-specific interference and the density-dependent responses were assessed on the basis of several parameters (natality, mortality, age structure, and measures of ontogenetic changes. Based on the study results, it can be concluded that the responses of the species in the experiment were different, which is explained by different adaptive mechanisms, i.e., strategies, in the specific environmental conditions. An effect of the density dependent response was present in both species in the replacement series experiment. The response was amplified by water deficit caused by intensive evapora­tion of the bare soil. No effect of inter-specific interference was observed at the given densities of the study species on the sample plots. An effect of intra-specific interference of the species Plantago major and Poa annua was observed in the guise of a density-negative response of the rate of ontogenetic changes and fecundity.

  1. Glandular epithelial AR inactivation enhances PTEN deletion-induced uterine pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jaesung Peter; Zheng, Yu; Handelsman, David J; Simanainen, Ulla

    2016-05-01

    Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) deletion induces uterine pathology, whereas androgen actions via androgen receptor (AR) support uterine growth and therefore may modify uterine cancer risk. We hypothesized that the androgen actions mediated via uterine glandular epithelial AR could modify PTEN deletion-induced uterine pathology. To test our hypothesis, we developed uterine glandular epithelium-specific PTEN and/or AR knockout mouse models comparing the uterine pathology among wild-type (WT), glandular epithelium-specific AR inactivation (ugeARKO), PTEN deletion (ugePTENKO), and the combined PTEN and AR knockout (ugePTENARKO) female mice. The double knockout restricted to glandular epithelium showed that AR inactivation enhanced PTEN deletion-induced uterine pathology with development of intraepithelial neoplasia by 20 weeks of age. In ugePTENARKO, 6/10 (60%) developed intraepithelial neoplasia, whereas 3/10 (30%) developed only glandular hyperplasia in ugePTENKO uterus. No uterine pathology was observed in WT (n=8) and ugeARKO (n=7) uteri. Uterine weight was significantly (P=0.002) increased in ugePTENARKO (374±97 mg (mean±s.e.)) compared with WT (97±6 mg), ugeARKO (94±12 mg), and ugePTENKO (205±33 mg). Estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and P-AKT expression was modified by uterine pathology but did not differ between ugePTENKO and ugePTENARKO, suggesting that its expressions are not directly affected by androgens. However, progesterone receptor (PR) expression was reduced in ugePTENARKO compared to ugePTENKO uterus, suggesting that PR expression could be regulated by glandular epithelial AR inactivation. In conclusion, glandular epithelial AR inactivation (with persistent stromal AR action) enhanced PTEN deletion-induced uterine pathology possibly by downregulating PR expression in the uterus.

  2. Aquaporins are upregulated in glandular epithelium at the time of implantation in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Laura A; Murphy, Christopher R

    2007-03-01

    Regulation of luminal fluid is essential for blastocyst implantation. While it has been known for quite some time that there is a reduction in the amount of luminal fluid at the time of implantation, the mechanisms regulating this process are only just emerging. Previous studies have shown an upregulation of aquaporin (AQP) 5 channels in luminal epithelial cells at the time of implantation providing a mechanism for fluid reabsorption across the surface epithelium. However to date the contribution of fluid reabsorption by glandular epithelial cells has not been established. This study using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction demonstrates the presence of several AQP isoforms in the rat uterus at the time of implantation while immunofluorescence data demonstrates an apical distribution of AQPs5 and 9 in the glandular epithelium at the time of implantation. The presence of AQPs5 and 9 in the apical plasma membrane of the glandular epithelium seen in this study provides a mechanism for transcellular fluid transport across these glandular epithelial cells similar to that seen in luminal epithelial cells. The reabsorption of glandular fluid via AQP channels may also regulate luminal fluid volume and be involved in the reduction in luminal fluid seen at the time of implantation.

  3. Establishing epithelial glandular polarity: interlinked roles for ARF6, Rac1, and the matrix microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteleon, Christine L; Sedgwick, Alanna; Hartsell, Alyssa; Dai, Michael; Whittington, Catherine; Voytik-Harbin, Sherry; D'Souza-Schorey, Crislyn

    2012-12-01

    Epithelial cysts comprise the structural units of the glandular epithelium. Although glandular inversion in epithelial tumors is thought to be a potential mechanism for the establishment of metastatic disease, little is known about the morphogenic cues and signaling pathways that govern glandular polarity and organization. Using organotypic cultures of Madin-Darby canine kidney cells in reconstituted basement membrane, we show that cellular depletion of the small GTP-binding protein ARF6 promotes the formation of inverted cysts, wherein the apical cell membrane faces the cyst exterior, and the basal domain faces the central lumen, while individual cell polarity is maintained. These cysts are also defective in interactions with laminin at the cyst-matrix interface. This inversion of glandular orientation is accompanied by Rac1 inactivation during early cystogenesis, and temporal activation of Rac1 is sufficient to recover the normal cyst phenotype. In an unnatural collagen I microenvironment, ARF6-depleted, inverted epithelial cysts exhibit some loss of cell polarity, a marked increase in Rho activation and Rac1 inactivation, and striking rearrangement of the surrounding collagen I matrix. These studies demonstrate the importance of ARF6 as a critical determinant of glandular orientation and the matrix environment in dictating structural organization of epithelial cysts.

  4. A New Glabrous Gene (csgl3) Identified in Trichome Development in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jin-Ying; Miao, Han; Ding, Li-Hong; Wehner, Todd C; Liu, Pan-Na; Wang, Ye; Zhang, Sheng-Ping; Gu, Xing-Fang

    2016-01-01

    Spines or trichomes on the fruit of cucumbers enhance their commercial value in China. In addition, glabrous mutants exhibit resistance to aphids and therefore their use by growers can reduce pesticide residues. Previous studies have reported two glabrous mutant plants containing the genes, csgl1 and csgl2. In the present study, a new glabrous mutant, NCG157, was identified showing a gene interaction effect with csgl1 and csgl2. This mutant showed the glabrous character on stems, leaves, tendrils, receptacles and ovaries, and there were no spines or tumors on the fruit surface. Inheritance analysis showed that a single recessive gene, named csgl3, determined the glabrous trait. An F2 population derived from the cross of two inbred lines 9930 (a fresh market type from Northern China that exhibits trichomes) and NCG157 (an American processing type with glabrous surfaces) was used for genetic mapping of the csgl3 gene. By combining bulked segregant analysis (BAS) with molecular markers, 18 markers, including two simple sequence repeats (SSR), nine insertion deletions (InDel) and seven derived cleaved amplified polymorphism sequences (dCAPs), were identified to link to the csgl3 gene. All of the linked markers were used as anchor loci to locate the csgl3 gene on cucumber chromosome 6. The csgl3 gene was mapped between the dCAPs markers dCAPs-21 and dCAPs-19, at genetic distances of 0.05 cM and 0.15 cM, respectively. The physical distance of this region was 19.6 kb. Three markers, InDel-19, dCAPs-2 and dCAPs-11, co-segregated with csgl3. There were two candidate genes in the region, Csa6M514860 and Csa6M514870. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that the expression of Csa6M514870 was higher in the tissues of 9930 than that of NCG157, and this was consistent with their phenotypic characters. Csa6M514870 is therefore postulated to be the candidate gene for the development of trichomes in cucumber. This study will facilitate marker-assisted selection (MAS) of the smooth

  5. Enhancing the growth, photosynthetic capacity and artemisinin content in Artemisia annua L. by irradiated sodium alginate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aftab, Tariq, E-mail: tarik.alig@gmail.co [Plant Physiology Section, Department of Botany, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002 (India); Khan, M. Masroor A.; Idrees, M.; Naeem, M.; Moinuddin,; Hashmi, Nadeem [Plant Physiology Section, Department of Botany, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002 (India); Varshney, Lalit [ISOMED, Radiation Technology Development Section, Radio-Chemistry and Isotope Group, BARC, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2011-07-15

    Degrading the natural bioactive agents by ionizing radiation and then using them as growth promoting substances is a novel emerging technology to exploit the genetic potential of crops in terms of growth, yield and quality. Polysaccharides, such as sodium alginate, have proven to be wonderful growth promoting substances in their depolymerized form for various plants. The effect of depolymerized form of sodium alginate, produced by irradiating the latter by {sup 60}Co gamma rays, was studied on Artemisia annua L. with regard to growth attributes, physiological and biochemical parameters and artemisinin content. The study revealed that the irradiated sodium alginate (ISA), applied as leaf-sprays at a concentration of 20-120 mg L{sup -1}, improved the growth attributes, photosynthetic capability, enzyme activities and artemisinin content of the plant significantly. Application of ISA at 80 mg L{sup -1} increased the values of the attributes studied to the maximum extent. The enhancement of leaf-artemisinin content was ascribed to the ISA-enhanced H{sub 2}O{sub 2} content in the leaves. -- Highlights: {yields} Application of ionizing radiation to degrade natural bioactive agents is a novel emerging technology. {yields} Sodium alginate has been used as the growth promoting substance in its depolymerized form for various plants. {yields} The study revealed that irradiated sodium algiante at 20-120 ppm concentration improved the plant growth. {yields} The enhancement of artemisinin content was ascribed to the ISA-enhanced H{sub 2}O{sub 2} content in leaves.

  6. Poder pastoral, acomodo y terrtitorialidad en las Cartas Annuas jesuitas de Quito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Espinosa

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza las Cartas Annuas jesuitas entre 1586 y 1660 que hacen referencia a la Audiencia de Quito. Esta fuente poco consultada se utiliza para sondear las estrategias jesuitas de evangelización y el régimen de administración de sacramentos de la orden en Quito. El artículo propone que las estrategias de evangelización jesuita dieron un giro al pasar de un encuentro con la religión nativa que incluyó un interés en mitos prehispánicos y extirpación de idolatría a un enfoque tabula rasa que se centraba en la administración de sacramentos. El artículo atribuye este giro a la transferencia del Colegio jesuita de Quito de la provincia jesuita de Perú a la provincia del Nuevo Reino (Nueva Granada. El artículo contextualiza el encuentro jesuita con la cultura nativa y la operación del régimen sacramental con referencia al concepto de las dos evangelizaciones de Juan Carlos Estenssoro, la noción de poder pastoral de Michel Foucault y la idea de la confesionalización perteneciente a la historiografía de la modernidad temprana europea.

  7. Isolation and identification of a new flavonoid glycoside from Carrichtera annua L. seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelaaty A Shahat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Flavonoids are a major group of constituents and are assumed to be among the beneficial components. Recently, they have also received considerable interest as components of foodstuffs and nutraceuticals because of their antioxidant and anticancer properties. Materials and Methods: About 500 g of air-dried powdered seeds of C. annua were defatted seeds and extracted with 70% methanol. The combined methanol extract was partitioned with chloroform and n-butanol. The butanol extract was concentrated and subjected to column chromatography on polyamide. Results: The fraction eluted with aqueous methanol (40% and 50% was found to contain three main flavonoids (1, 2, and 3. Repeated column chromatography on polyamide and Sephadex LH-20 gave compound 1. Compounds 2 and 3 were further purified using preparative paper chromatography with 20% HOAc and Sephadex LH-20 column. Conclusions: Reinvestigation of the flavonoidal constituents of the butanol fraction of the aqueous methanolic extract of Carrichteraannua seeds led to isolation and identification of a new flavonoidal glycosidenamed as quercetin 3-O-[(6-sinapoyl-b-glucopyranosyl-(1;2-b-arabinopyranosyl]-7-O-b-glucopyranoside 1, in addition to, quarecetin-3-O-glucoside 2, isorhamnetin-3-O-b-runtinoside3, and isorhamnetin4.Structures of the isolated compounds were established by UV, MS, and 1 H and 13 C NMR.

  8. Examination of equine glandular stomach lesions for bacteria, including Helicobacter spp by fluorescence in situ hybridisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    husted, Louise; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Olsen, Susanne N.;

    2010-01-01

    Background: The equine glandular stomach is commonly affected by erosion and ulceration. The aim of this study was to assess whether bacteria, including Helicobacter, could be involved in the aetiology of gastric glandular lesions seen in horses. Results: Stomach lesions, as well as normal...... by cloning and sequencing. Mucosal lesions were found in 36/63 stomachs and included hyperplastic rugae, polypoid structures and focal erosions. None of the samples were tested positive for urease activity or for FISH using the Helicobacter genus specific probe. In samples of lesions, as well as normal...... faecium. The Enterococcus were found colonising the mucosal surface, while E. fergusonii organisms were also demonstrated intraepithelial. Conclusion: Gastric Helicobacter spp. could not be verified as being involved in lesions of the glandular stomach of the horse. Since E. fergusonii has been described...

  9. Evaluation of average glandular dose in mammography services in 10 cities of Colombia; Avaliacao de dose glandular media em servicos de mamografia de 10 cidades de Colombia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alejo-Martinez, H.; Salazar-Hurtado, E.; Puerto-Jimenez, D. [Grupo de Prevencion Temprana Del Cancer, Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Bogota D.C. (Colombia)

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to conduct an assessment of dose in 60 mammography services that have screening programs for breast cancer in 10 cities of Colombia. The third quartile of the average glandular dose was 2,29 mGy, range between 1,0 and 5,6 mGy, for the phantom equivalent to a standard breast. This study included mammography units with conventional and digital technology. (author)

  10. Simulated Digestion of Dried Leaves of Artemisia annua Consumed as a Treatment (pACT) for Malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weathers, Pamela J.; Jordan, Nikole; Lasin, Praphapan; Towler, Melissa J.

    2014-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological Relevance Artemisinin (AN) is produced by Artemisia annua, a medicinal herb long used as a tea infusion in traditional Chinese medicine to treat fever; it is also the key ingredient in current artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) effective in treating malaria. Recently we showed that dried leaves from the whole plant A. annua that produces artemisinin and contains artemisinin-synergistic flavonoids seems to be more effective and less costly than ACT oral malaria therapy; however little is known about how digestion affects release of artemisinin and flavonoids from dried leaves. Material and Methods In the current study we used a simulated digestion system to determine how artemisinin and flavonoids are released prior to absorption into the bloodstream. Various delivery methods and staple foods were combined with dried leaves for digestion in order to investigate their impact on the bioavailability of artemisinin and flavonoids. Digestate was recovered at the end of the oral, gastric, and intestinal stages, separated into solid and liquid fractions, and extracted for measurement of artemisinin and total flavonoids. Results Compared to unencapsulated digested dried leaves, addition of sucrose, various cooking oils, and rice did not reduce the amount of artemisinin released in the intestinal liquid fraction, but the amount of released flavonoids nearly doubled. When dried leaves were encapsulated into either hydroxymethylcellulose or gelatin capsules, there was >50% decrease in released artemisinin but no change in released flavonoids. In the presence of millet or corn meal, the amount of released artemisinin declined, but there was no change in released flavonoids. Use of a mutant A. annua lacking artemisinin showed that the plant matrix is critical in determining how artemisinin is affected during the digestion process. Conclusions This study provides evidence showing how both artemisinin and flavonoids are affected by digestion and

  11. Flavonoids from Artemisia annua L. as Antioxidants and Their Potential Synergism with Artemisinin against Malaria and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge F.S. Ferreira

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia annua is currently the only commercial source of the sesquiterpene lactone artemisinin.Since artemisinin was discovered as the active component of A. annua in early 1970s, hundreds of papers have focused on the anti-parasitic effects of artemisinin and its semi-synthetic analogs dihydroartemisinin, artemether, arteether, and artesunate. Artemisinin per se has not been used in mainstream clinical practice due to its poor bioavailability when compared to its analogs. In the past decade, the work with artemisinin-based compounds has expanded to their anti-cancer properties. Although artemisinin is a major bioactive component present in the traditional Chinese herbal preparations (tea, leaf flavonoids, also present in the tea, have shown a variety of biological activities and may synergize the effects of artemisinin against malaria and cancer. However, only a few studies have focused on the potential synergistic effects between flavonoids and artemisinin. The resurgent idea that multi-component drug therapy might be better than monotherapy is illustrated by the recent resolution of the World Health Organization to support artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACT, instead of the previously used monotherapy with artemisinins. In this critical review we will discuss the possibility that artemisinin and its semi-synthetic analogs might become more effective to treat parasitic diseases (such as malaria and cancer if simultaneously delivered with flavonoids. The flavonoids present in A. annua leaves have been linked to suppression of CYP450 enzymes responsible for altering the absorption and metabolism of artemisinin in the body, but also have been linked to a beneficial immunomodulatory activity in subjects afflicted with parasitic and chronic diseases.

  12. Inhibitory Action of Artemisia annua Extracts and Artemisinin on the Corrosion of Mild Steel in H2SO4 Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. C. Okafor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The action of ethanol (EEAA, acid (AEAA, and toluene (TEAA extracts from Artemisia annua and Artemisinin (ATS on mild steel corrosion in H2SO4 solutions was investigated using gravimetric and gasometric techniques. The extracts and ATS functioned as good inhibitors, and their inhibition efficiencies (%IE followed the trend: EEAA > AEAA > TEAA > ATS. %IE increased with increase in inhibitors concentration and decreased with increase in temperature. The enhanced %IE values of the extracts were attributed to synergistic effect of the components of the plant extracts with ATS. The adsorption of the inhibitors was consistent with Langmuir isotherm. Physisorption is proposed as the mechanism of inhibition.

  13. Caracterização morfológica dos tricomas foliares e caulinares de duas espécies de Lamiaceae conhecidas popularmente como “falsoboldo” = Morphological characterization of the trichomes on the leaves and stem of two Lamiaceae species known popularly as “false-boldus”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariza Barion Romagnolo

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available As descrições morfoanatômicas das espécies vegetais, com finalidademedicamentosa, são necessárias para embasar as análises de controle de qualidade nos laboratórios de farmacognosia, tendo este estudo o objetivo de analisar duas espécies de Lamiaceae conhecidas como “falso-boldo”: Plectranthus barbatus e P. grandis, que caracterizame quantificam os tricomas presentes em suas folhas e caule. Para as análises morfoanatômicas foram preparadas seções transversais do limbo, pecíolo e entrenós do caule, utilizando-se de técnicas usuais de morfologia e anatomia vegetal para a preparação de laminário semipermanente, tendo como corantes o azul de astra e a safranina. As análises revelaram que as folhas de ambas as espécies são morfologicamente semelhantes, mas diferindo quanto às dimensões do limbo. Os tipos de tricomas glandulares encontrados foram: peltado, captado-longo e captado-curto; e tectores: simples unisseriados com duas ou mais células na base. Com algumas exceções, todos os cinco tipos de tricomas foram observados no limbo, pecíolo e entrenós do caule, tendo P. grandis números médios significativamente superiores aos encontradas nos órgãos de P. barbatus, com exceção do tricoma tector simples, mais abundante no caule da segunda espécie.The morphoanatomical description of vegetable species, for medical purpose, is necessary to foreground the analyses of quality control in the pharmacognostic laboratories. The objective of this study was to analyze two Lamiaceae species known as “false-boldus” (Plectranthus barbatus and P. grandis, characterizing and quantifying the trichomes present in their leaves and stems. For the morphoanatomical analyses transverse sections of the leaves,petiole, and stem were prepared, using common techniques of plant morphology and anatomy for the preparation of semi-permanent slides, stained with astra blue and safranin. Analyses revealed that the leaves of both species are

  14. Leishmanicidal activities of Artemisia annua leaf essential oil against Visceral Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad eIslamuddin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis (VL, the second-most dreaded parasitic disease after malaria, is currently endemic in 88 countries. Dramatic increases in the rates of infection, drug resistance and non-availability of safe vaccines have highlighted the need for identification of novel and inexpensive anti-leishmanial agents from natural sources. In this study, we showed the leishmanicidal effect of essential oil from Artemisia annua leaves (AALEO against Leishmania donovani in vitro and in vivo. AALEO was extracted by hydrodistillation and characterized by GC-MS, the most abundant compounds were found to be camphor (52.06 % followed by β-caryophyllene (10.95 %. AALEO exhibited significant leishmanicidal activity against L. donovani, with 50 % inhibitory concentration of 14.63 ± 1.49 µg ml-1 and 7.3 ± 1.85 µg ml─1, respectively, against the promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes. The effect was mediated through programmed cell death as confirmed by externalization of phosphatidylserine, DNA nicking by TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labelling (TUNEL assay, dyskinetoplastidy, cell cycle arrest at sub-G0–G1 phase, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and reactive oxygen species (ROS generation in promastigotes and nitric oxide (NO generation in ex vivo model. AALEO presented no cytotoxic effects against mammalian macrophages even at 200 µg ml─1. Intra-peritoneal administration of AALEO (200 mg/ kg.b.w. to infected BALB/c mice reduced the parasite burden by almost 90 % in the liver and spleen with significant reduction in weight. There was no hepato- or nephro-toxicity as demonstrated by normal levels of serum enzymes. The promising antileishmanial activity shown by camphor-rich AALEO may provide a new lead in the treatment of VL.

  15. Honey bee males and queens use glandular secretions to enhance sperm viability before and after storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Den Boer, Susanne Petronella A; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan; Baer, Boris

    2009-01-01

    Internal fertilization requires live sperm to be transferred from male to female before egg fertilization. Both males and females assist the insemination process by providing sperm with glandular secretions, which have been inferred to contain subsets of proteins that maintain sperm viability. He...

  16. Expression of nucleophosmin in glandular epithelium of non-pregnant human endometrium during the menstrual cycle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KUANG Ye; XU Peng; WEN Hai-xia; KONG Xian-chao; GUAN Li-li; LI Pei-ling

    2011-01-01

    Background Nucleophosmin plays a critical role in embryonic development. This study aimed to examine the expression pattern of nucleophosmin in glandular epithelium of human endometrium during the menstrual cycle.Methods Endometrial tissues used for this study were obtained from 46 non-pregnant patients who underwent hysterectomy which had been performed to treat benign diseases. Nucleophosmin expression was assessed by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry.Results At the early-, mid- and late-proliferative phase, nucleophosmin mRNA was highly expressed in glandular epithelium of human endometrium. At the secretory phase, the expression of nucleophosmin mRNA was reduced in glandular epithelium in early-secretory phase, and the expression in mid- and late-secretory phases was not detected.Similarly, nucleophosmin protein was strongly expressed in endometrial glands throughout the proliferative phase, but was gradually reduced during secretory phase.Conclusion Nucleophosmin mRNA and protein are expressed in glandular epithelium of human endometrium throughout the menstrual cycle.

  17. Severe cervical glandular cell lesions and severe cervical combined lesions - Predictive value of the Papanicolaou smear

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, AJMV; Smedts, FMM; Vooijs, GP

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND. The purpose of the current study was to determine the accuracy of routinely screened cervical smears to predict a glandular cell lesion in histologically confirmed cases of cervical adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS), invasive adenocarcinoma (ADCA), adenosquamous carcinoma (ADSQCA), and severe

  18. The effects of combining Artemisia annua and Curcuma longa ethanolic extracts in broilers challenged with infective oocysts of Eimeria acervulina and E. maxima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to an increasing demand for natural products to control coccidiosis in broilers we investigated the effects of supplementing a combination of ethanolic extracts of Artemisia annua and Curcuma longa in drinking water. Three different dosages of this herbal mixture were compared with a negative co...

  19. SAD2 in Arabidopsis Functions in Trichome Initiation through Mediating GL3 Function and Regulating GL1,TTG1 and GL2 Expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Gao; Ximing Gong; Wanhong Cao; Jinfeng Zhao; Liqin Fu; Xuechen Wang; Karen S. Schumaker; Yan Guo

    2008-01-01

    Most genes identified that control Arabidopsls trichome initiation and formation are transcription factors or regulatory components in transcriptional networks and include GLABROUS1 (GL1), GLABRA2 (GL2), GLABRA3 (GL3) and TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1 (TTG1). Herein, we report that an importin β-like protein, SENSITIVE TO ABA AND DROUGHT2 (SAD2),is required for trichome initiation. Mutations in SAD2 disrupted trichome initiation resulting in reduced trichome number,but had no effect on trichome development or root hair number and development. Expression levels of GL1, MYB23, GL2 and TTG1 were reduced in shoots of sad2 mutants while expression levels of GL3 and ENHANCER OF GLABRA3 (EGL3)were enhanced. Overexpression of GL3 increased trichome numbers in wild type but not in sad2 mutants, indicating that the function of the GL3 protein is altered in the sad2 mutants. In contrast, overexpression of GFP-GL1 decreased trichome number in both wild type and sad2. Double mutant analysis of gl1 sad2 and gl3 sad2 indicated that SAD2 functions genetically, at least in part, in the same pathway with these two genes. Co-immunoprecipitation indicated that the sad2 mutation does not disrupt formation of the TTG1-GL3-GL1 complex. Analysis of GFP fusions of GL1, GL2, GL3 and TTG1 suggested that these proteins are most likely not direct cargo of SAD2. Our data suggest that SAD2 is involved in trichome initiation by regulating these nuclear genes.

  20. Effect of cadmium on photosynthetic pigments, lipid peroxidation,antioxidants, and artemisinin in hydroponically grown Artemisia annua

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuan Li; Manxi Zhao; Lanping Guo; Luqi Huang

    2012-01-01

    The effects of different cadmium(Cd)concentrations(0,20,60,and 100 μmol/L)on hydroponically grown Artemisia annua L.were investigated.Cd treatments applied for 0,4,12,24,72,144,216,and 336 hr were assessed by measuring the changes in photosynthetic pigments,electrolyte leakage,malondialdehyde(MDA)and antioxidants(ascorbic acid and glutathione),while the artemisinin content was tested after 0,12,144,216,and 336 hr.A significant decrease was observed in photosynthetic pigment levels over time with increasing Cd concentration.Chlorophyll b levels were more affected by Cd than were chlorophyll a or carotenoid levels.The cell membrane was sensitive to Cd stress,as MDA content in all treatment groups showed insignificant differences from the control group,except at 12 hr treatment time.Ascorbic acid(AsA)content changed slightly over time,while glutathione(GSH)content took less time to reach a maximum as Cd concentration increased.Cd was found to promote synthesis and accumulation of artemisinin,especially at concentrations of 20 and 100 μmol/L.In conclusion,Cd stress can damage to photosynthetic pigments,and vigorously growing A.annua showed a strong tolerance for Cd stress.Appropriate amounts of added Cd aided synthesis and accumulation of artemisinin.

  1. Inhibition of phenylpropanoid biosynthesis in Artemisia annua L.: a novel approach to reduce oxidative browning in plant tissue culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Andrew Maxwell Phineas; Saxena, Praveen Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative browning is a common and often severe problem in plant tissue culture systems caused by the accumulation and oxidation of phenolic compounds. The current study was conducted to investigate a novel preventative approach to address this problem by inhibiting the activity of the phenylalanine ammonia lyase enzyme (PAL), thereby reducing the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds. This was accomplished by incorporating 2-aminoindane-2-phosphonic acid (AIP), a competitive PAL inhibitor, into culture media of Artemisia annua as a model system. Addition of AIP into culture media resulted in significant reductions in visual tissue browning, a reduction in total phenol content, as well as absorbance and autoflourescence of tissue extracts. Reduced tissue browning was accompanied with a significant increase in growth on cytokinin based medium. Microscopic observations demonstrated that phenolic compounds accumulated in discrete cells and that these cells were more prevalent in brown tissue. These cells were highly plasmolyzed and often ruptured during examination, demonstrating a mechanism in which phenolics are released into media in this system. These data indicate that inhibiting phenylpropanoid biosynthesis with AIP is an effective approach to reduce tissue browning in A. annua. Additional experiments with Ulmus americana and Acer saccharum indicate this approach is effective in many species and it could have a wide application in systems where oxidative browning restricts the development of biotechnologies.

  2. Wound healing effect of flavonoid rich fraction and luteolin isolated from Martynia annua Linn. on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Santram Lodhi; Abhay K Singhai

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate wound healing potential of flavonoid fractions of Martynia annua (M. annua) Linn. leaves in diabetic rats on the basis of folkloric information and preliminary study. Methods: The flavonoid compound luteolin and apigenin were isolated from dried leaves of plant by column chromatography. The two concentrations (0.2% and 0.5% w/w) of luteolin and flavonoid fraction were selected for topically applied as ointment on diabetic wound. The Povidone Iodine Ointment USP was used as a reference. On 18th days, protein content, hydroxyproline and antioxidants (SOD, CAT and GSH) level in granuloma tissues were determined.Results:The results showed that, percent wound contraction were observed significantly (P<0.01) greater in MAF fraction and 0.5% w/w of luteolin treatment groups. Presence of matured collagen fibres and fibroblasts with better angiogenesis were observed in histopathological studies.Conclusions:In conclusion, our findings suggest that flavonoid fraction (MAF) and luteolin (0.5%w/w) may have potential benefit in enhancing wound healing in diabetic condition, possibly due to free-radical scavenging activity of plant.

  3. Estimation of the average glandular dose on a team of tomosynthesis; Estimacion de la dosis glandular media en un equipo de tomosintesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunez Martinez, L. M. R.; Sanchez Jimenez, J.; Pizarro trigo, F.

    2013-07-01

    Seeking to improve the information that gives us an image of mammography the manufacturers have implemented tomosynthesis. With this method of acquisition and reconstruction of image we went from having a 2D to a 3D image image, in such a way that it reduces or eliminates the effect of overlap of tissues. The estimate of the dose, which is always a fundamental parameter in the control of quality of radiology equipment, is more in the case of mammography by the radiosensitivity of this body and the frequency of their use. The objective of this work is the determination of the mean in a team glandular dose of with tomosynthesis mammography. (Author)

  4. Poder pastoral, acomodo y territorialidad en las Cartas Annuas jesuitas de Quito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Espinosa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza las Cartas Annuas jesuitas entre 1586 y 1660 que hacen refe-rencia a la Audiencia de Quito. Esta fuente poco consultada se utiliza para son-dear las estrategias jesuitas de evangelización y el régimen de administración de sacramentos de la orden en Quito. El artículo propone que las estrategias de evangelización jesuita dieron un giro al pasar de un encuentro con la religión nativa que incluyó un interés en mitos prehispánicos y extirpación de idolatría a un enfoque tabula rasa que se centraba en la administración de sacramentos. El artículo atribuye este giro a la transferencia del Colegio jesuita de Quito de la provincia jesuita de Perú a la provincia del Nuevo Reino (Nueva Granada. El artículo contextualiza el encuentro jesuita con la cultura nativa y la operación del régimen sacramental con referencia al concepto de las dos evangelizaciones de Juan Carlos Estenssoro, la noción de poder pastoral de Michel Foucault y la idea de la confesionalización perteneciente a la historiografía de la modernidad temprana europea. The article looks at the Jesuit Annual Letters concerning the Audiencia of Quito between 1586 and 1660. This virtually unexplored source is employed to analyze the conversion strategies and sacramental regime of the Jesuits in Quito. The article contends that the Jesuit conversion strategies shifted from an early enga-gement with native religion that included an interest in native myths, and ex-tirpation of idolatry to a tabula rasa approach centered on the administration of sacraments. The article attributes this shift to the transfer of the Colegio de Quito from the Jesuit province of Peru to that of the New Kingdom (New Granada. The article contextualizes the Jesuit engagement with native culture in Quito and the operation of the administration of sacraments with reference to Juan Carlos Estenssoro’s notion of the two conversions as well as with reference to Michel Foucault

  5. Pharmacokinetics of artemisinin delivered by oral consumption of Artemisia annua dried leaves in healthy vs. Plasmodium chabaudi-infected mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weathers, Pamela J.; Elfawal, Mostafa A.; Towler, Melissa J.; Acquaah-Mensah, George K.; Rich, Stephen M.

    2014-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological Relevance The Chinese have used Artemisia annua as a tea infusion to treat fever for > 2,000 yrs. The active component is artemisinin. Previously we showed that when compared to mice fed an equal amount of pure artemisinin, a single oral dose of dried leaves of Artemisia annua (pACT) delivered to Plasmodium chabaudi-infected mice reduced parasitemia at least fivefold. Dried leaves also delivered >40 times more artemisinin in the blood with no toxicity. The pharmacokinetics (PK) of artemisinin delivered from dried plant material has not been adequately studied. Material and Methods Healthy and P. chabaudi-infected mice were oral gavaged with pACT to deliver a 100 mg kg−1 body weight dose of artemisinin. Concentrations of serum artemisinin and one of its liver metabolites, deoxyartemisinin, were measured over two hours by GCMS. Results The first order elimination rate constant for artemisinin in pACT-treated healthy mice was estimated to be 0.80 hr−1 with an elimination half-life (T½) of 51.6 min. The first order absorption rate constant was estimated at 1.39 hr−1. Cmax and Tmax were 4.33 mg L−1 and 60 min, respectively. The area under the curve (AUC) was 299.5 mg·min L−1. In contrast, the AUC for pACT-treated infected mice was significantly greater at 435.6 mg·min L−1. Metabolism of artemisinin to deoxyartemisinin was suppressed in infected mice over the period of observation. Serum levels of artemisinin in the infected mice continued to rise over the 120 min of the study period, and as a result, the elimination T½ was not determined; the Cmax and Tmax were estimated at ≥ 6.64 mg L−1 and ≥ 120 min, respectively. Groups of healthy mice were also fed either artemisinin or artemisinin mixed in mouse chow. When compared at 60 min, artemisinin was undetectable in the serum of mice fed 100 mg AN kg−1 body weight. When plant material was present either as mouse chow or A. annua pACT, artemisinin levels in the serum rose to 2

  6. Evaluation of average glandular dose in digital and conventional systems of the mammography; Avaliacao da dose glandular media em sistemas digitais e convencionais de mamografia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xavier, Aline C.S.; Barros, Vinicius S.M.; Khoury, Hellen J., E-mail: alinecx90@gmail.com, E-mail: vsmdbarros@gmail.com, E-mail: hjkhoury@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear; Mello, Francisca A. de, E-mail: francissamello@yahoo.com.br [Hospital das Clinicas do Recife (HCR/UFPE), PE (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Mammography is currently the most effective method of diagnosis and detection of breast pathologies. The main interest in this kid of exam comes from the high incidence rate of breast cancer and necessity of high quality images for accurate diagnosis. Digital mammography systems have several advantages compared to conventional systems, however the use of digital imaging systems is not always integrated to an image acquisition protocol. Therefore, it is questionable if digital systems truly reduce the dose received by the patient, because many times is introduced in the clinics without optimization of the image acquisition protocols. The aim of this study is to estimate the value of incident air Kerma and average glandular dose (AGD) in patients undergoing conventional and digital mammography systems in Recife. This study was conducted with 650 patients in three hospitals. The value of incident air Kerma was estimated from the measurement of the yield of equipment and irradiation parameters used for each patient. From these results and using the methodology proposed by Dance et al. the value of the average glandular dose was calculated. The results obtained show that the lowest value of AGD was found with conventional screen-film system, indicating that the parameters for image acquisition with digital systems are not optimized. It was also observed that the institutions with digital systems use lower breast compression values than the conventional. (author)

  7. Monte Carlo simulation of glandular dose in a dedicated breast CT system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Xiao; WEI Long; ZHAO Wei; WANG Yan-Fang; SHU Hang; SUN Cui-Li; WEI Cun-Feng; CAO Da-Quan; QUE Jie-Min; SHI Rong-Jian

    2012-01-01

    A dedicated breast CT system (DBCT) is a new method for breast cancer detection proposed in recent years.In this paper,the glandular dose in the DBCT is simulated using the Monte Carlo method.The phantom shape is half ellipsoid,and a series of phantoms with different sizes,shapes and compositions were constructed. In order to optimize the spectra,monoenergy X-ray beams of 5-80 keV were used in simulation.The dose distribution of a breast phantom was studied:a higher energy beam generated more uniform distribution,and the outer parts got more dose than the inner parts.For polyenergtic spectra,four spectra of Al filters with different thicknesses were simulated,and the polyenergtic glandular dose was calculated as a spectral weighted combination of the monoenergetic dose.

  8. Histological Correlation of Glandular Abnormalities in Cervical Liquid-Based Cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosuke Kawakami

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional Papanicolaou smear method is still commonly used for cervical cancer screening in Japan, despite the liquid-based cytology (LBC that has become a global tendency in the world recently. One of the obstacles in the way of popularization of this method seems to be the confusion as to diagnosis upon cervical glandular lesions. We performed comparison study between LBC and conventional Papanicolaou smear about cytological diagnosis using split-sample method in 4522 patients. In 13 cases analyses, which were reported with either AGC or adenocarcinoma by either method, LBC tends to be milder than that by conventional smear, however, the credibility of LBC is considered to be near to that of conventional smear with regard to screening for glandular abnormalities. These results indicate that cervical cancer screening should shift to LBC under the enough experience and appropriate dealing with the cytological diagnosis.

  9. Biotechnology for breeding industrial rape: Characterisation and isolation of fatty acid elongases from Lunaria annua. Final report; Biotechnologie fuer die Zuechtung von Industrieraps: Charakterisierung und Isolierung von Fettsaeure-Elongasen aus Lunaria annua. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoepker, H.; Fehling, E.; Mukherjee, K.D.

    1995-05-01

    The present part-project of the BMFT (Federal Ministry of Research and Technology) integrated project `Industrial Rape Biotechnology` was aimed at isolating and characterising the constituent enzymes of fatty acid elongase (acyl-CoA-elongase) that catalyse the biosynthesis of extra-long-chain fatty acids (erucic and nervonic acid). This was in preparation of cloning and transferring the responsible elongase genes to rape. The constituent enzymes of acyl-CoA elongase from lunaria annua were isolated using insights gained in preceding studies of the integrated project. The ripencing seeds of this singular crucifer synthesise erucic acid and an unusually high proportion of nervonic acid. These examinations provide the basis to studies for cloning the elongase genes and transferring them to rape. The ultimate aim is to create an industrial rape rich in erucic and nervonic acid, a reproductive raw material that would be of great interest to the chemico-technical sector. (EF) [Deutsch] Im Rahmen des BMFT-Verbundprojektes `Industrieraps-Biotechnologie` sollten im vorliegenden Teilvorhaben die konstituierenden Enzyme der Fettsaeure-Elongase (Acyl-CoA-Elongase), die die Biosynthese sehr langkettiger Fettsaeuren (Erucasaeure und Nervonsaeure) katalysieren, isoliert und charakterisiert werden, um die entsprechenden Elongase-Gene zu klonieren und auf Raps zu uebertragen. Mit Hilfe der in vorausgegangenen Arbeiten dieses Verbundprojektes gewonnenen Erkenntnisse sollten die konstituierenden Enzyme der Acyl-CoA-Elongase aus Silberblatt (Lunaria annua) isoliert werden - eine einzigartige crucifere Pflanze, in deren reifenden Samen neben Erucasaeure ungewoehnlich hohe Anteile von Nervonsaeure synthetisiert werden. Diese Untersuchungen bilden die Voraussetzungen fuer die Arbeiten zur Klonierung der Elongase-Gene sowie deren Uebertragung auf Raps. Auf diese Weise soll Industrieraps mit einem hohen Anteil an Erucasaeure und Nervonsaeure, die als nachwachsende Industrierohstoffe fuer

  10. Adhesion protein VSIG1 is required for the proper differentiation of glandular gastric epithelia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odgerel Oidovsambuu

    Full Text Available VSIG1, a cell adhesion protein of the immunoglobulin superfamily, is preferentially expressed in stomach, testis, and certain gastric, esophageal and ovarian cancers. Here, we describe the expression patterns of three alternatively spliced isoforms of mouse Vsig1 during pre- and postnatal development of stomach and potential function of Vsig1 in differentiation of gastric epithelia. We show that isoforms Vsig1A and Vsig1B, which differ in the 3'untranslated region, are expressed in the early stages of stomach development. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that VSIG1 is restricted to the adherens junction of the glandular epithelium. The shorter transcript Vsig1C is restricted to the testis, encodes an N-terminal truncated protein and is presumably regulated by an internal promoter, which is located upstream of exon 1b. To determine whether the 5' flanking region of exon 1a specifically targets the expression of Vsig1 to stomach epithelia, we generated and analyzed transgenic mice. The 4.8-kb fragment located upstream of exon 1a was sufficient to direct the expression of the reporter gene to the glandular epithelia of transgenic stomach. To determine the role of VSIG1 during the development of stomach epithelia, an X-linked Vsig1 was inactivated in embryonic stem cells (ESCs. Although Vsig1(-/Y ESCs were only able to generate low coat color chimeric mice, no male chimeras transmitted the targeted allele to their progeny suggesting that the high contribution of Vsig1(-/Y cells leads to the lethality of chimeric embryos. Analysis of chimeric stomachs revealed the differentiation of VSIG1-null cells into squamous epithelia inside the glandular region. These results suggest that VSIG1 is required for the establishment of glandular versus squamous epithelia in the stomach.

  11. Adhesion protein VSIG1 is required for the proper differentiation of glandular gastric epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oidovsambuu, Odgerel; Nyamsuren, Gunsmaa; Liu, Shuai; Göring, Wolfgang; Engel, Wolfgang; Adham, Ibrahim M

    2011-01-01

    VSIG1, a cell adhesion protein of the immunoglobulin superfamily, is preferentially expressed in stomach, testis, and certain gastric, esophageal and ovarian cancers. Here, we describe the expression patterns of three alternatively spliced isoforms of mouse Vsig1 during pre- and postnatal development of stomach and potential function of Vsig1 in differentiation of gastric epithelia. We show that isoforms Vsig1A and Vsig1B, which differ in the 3'untranslated region, are expressed in the early stages of stomach development. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that VSIG1 is restricted to the adherens junction of the glandular epithelium. The shorter transcript Vsig1C is restricted to the testis, encodes an N-terminal truncated protein and is presumably regulated by an internal promoter, which is located upstream of exon 1b. To determine whether the 5' flanking region of exon 1a specifically targets the expression of Vsig1 to stomach epithelia, we generated and analyzed transgenic mice. The 4.8-kb fragment located upstream of exon 1a was sufficient to direct the expression of the reporter gene to the glandular epithelia of transgenic stomach. To determine the role of VSIG1 during the development of stomach epithelia, an X-linked Vsig1 was inactivated in embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Although Vsig1(-/Y) ESCs were only able to generate low coat color chimeric mice, no male chimeras transmitted the targeted allele to their progeny suggesting that the high contribution of Vsig1(-/Y) cells leads to the lethality of chimeric embryos. Analysis of chimeric stomachs revealed the differentiation of VSIG1-null cells into squamous epithelia inside the glandular region. These results suggest that VSIG1 is required for the establishment of glandular versus squamous epithelia in the stomach.

  12. Histological analysis of the distribution pattern of glandular tissue in normal inferior nasal turbinates

    OpenAIRE

    Millas, Ieda; Liquidato, Bianca Maria; Dolci,José Eduardo Lutaif; Fregnani, José Humberto Tavares Guerreiro; Macéa,José Rafael

    2009-01-01

    Nasal turbinates play an important role in nasal physiology. These functions include the important function of particle filtration by the mucocilliary system. Many nasal mucosal diseases, such as rhinitis and rhinosinusitis, are directly related with structural alterations of the mucosal lining of the turbinates. AIM: To study the distribution pattern of the glandular epithelium of the lamina propria in the normal lower nasal turbinate mucosa of the anterior, medium and posterior portions. MA...

  13. Long acting β2-agonist and corticosteroid restore airway glandular cell function altered by bacterial supernatant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawrocki-Raby Béatrice

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Staphylococcus aureus releases virulence factors (VF that may impair the innate protective functions of airway cells. The aim of this study was to determine whether a long-acting β2 adrenergic receptor agonist (salmeterol hydroxynaphthoate, Sal combined with a corticosteroid (fluticasone propionate, FP was able to regulate ion content and cytokine expression by airway glandular cells after exposure to S. aureus supernatant. Methods A human airway glandular cell line was incubated with S. aureus supernatant for 1 h and then treated with the combination Sal/FP for 4 h. The expression of actin and CFTR proteins was analyzed by immunofluorescence. Videomicroscopy was used to evaluate chloride secretion and X-ray microanalysis to measure the intracellular ion and water content. The pro-inflammatory cytokine expression was assessed by RT-PCR and ELISA. Results When the cells were incubated with S. aureus supernatant and then with Sal/FP, the cellular localisation of CFTR was apical compared to the cytoplasmic localisation in cells incubated with S. aureus supernatant alone. The incubation of airway epithelial cells with S. aureus supernatant reduced by 66% the chloride efflux that was fully restored by Sal/FP treatment. We also observed that Sal/FP treatment induced the restoration of ion (Cl and S and water content within the intracellular secretory granules of airway glandular cells and reduced the bacterial supernatant-dependent increase of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL8 and TNFα. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that treatment with the combination of a corticosteroid and a long-acting β2 adrenergic receptor agonist after bacterial infection restores the airway glandular cell function. Abnormal mucus induced by defective ion transport during pulmonary infection could benefit from treatment with a combination of β2 adrenergic receptor agonist and glucocorticoid.

  14. Effect of the glandular composition on digital breast tomosynthesis image quality and dose optimisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, T; Ribeiro, A; Di Maria, S; Belchior, A; Cardoso, J; Matela, N; Oliveira, N; Janeiro, L; Almeida, P; Vaz, P

    2015-07-01

    In the image quality assessment for digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT), a breast phantom with an average percentage of 50 % glandular tissue is seldom used, which may not be representative of the breast tissue composition of the women undergoing such examination. This work aims at studying the effect of the glandular composition of the breast on the image quality taking into consideration different sizes of lesions. Monte Carlo simulations were performed using the state-of-the-art computer program PENELOPE to validate the image acquisition system of the DBT equipment as well as to calculate the mean glandular dose for each projection image and for different breast compositions. The integrated PENELOPE imaging tool (PenEasy) was used to calculate, in mammography, for each clinical detection task the X-ray energy that maximises the figure of merit. All the 2D cranial-caudal projections for DBT were simulated and then underwent the reconstruction process applying the Simultaneous Algebraic Reconstruction Technique. Finally, through signal-to-noise ratio analysis, the image quality in DBT was assessed.

  15. Examination of equine glandular stomach lesions for bacteria, including Helicobacter spp by fluorescence in situ hybridisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olsen Susanne N

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The equine glandular stomach is commonly affected by erosion and ulceration. The aim of this study was to assess whether bacteria, including Helicobacter, could be involved in the aetiology of gastric glandular lesions seen in horses. Results Stomach lesions, as well as normal appearing mucosa were obtained from horses slaughtered for human consumption. All samples were tested for urease activity using the Pyloritek® assay, while mucosal bacterial content was evaluated using Fluorescence In Situ Hybridisation. In selected sub samples, bacteria characterisation was pursued further by cloning and sequencing. Mucosal lesions were found in 36/63 stomachs and included hyperplastic rugae, polypoid structures and focal erosions. None of the samples were tested positive for urease activity or for FISH using the Helicobacter genus specific probe. In samples of lesions, as well as normal samples, clones with 99% similarities to Lactobacillus salivarius and Sarcina ventriculi were found. Escherichia like bacterium clones and Enterococcus clones were demonstrated in one focal erosion. Based on a phylogenetic tree these clones had 100% similarity to Escherichia fergusonii and Enterococcus faecium. The Enterococcus were found colonising the mucosal surface, while E. fergusonii organisms were also demonstrated intraepithelial. Conclusion Gastric Helicobacter spp. could not be verified as being involved in lesions of the glandular stomach of the horse. Since E. fergusonii has been described as an emerging pathogen in both humans and animals, the finding of this bacterium in gastric erosion warrants further clarification to whether gastric infection with this type bacterium is important for horses.

  16. Benign müllerian glandular inclusions in men undergoing pelvic lymph node dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallan, Alexander J; Antic, Tatjana

    2016-11-01

    Benign müllerian-type glandular inclusions in lymph nodes are commonly seen in women, but to our knowledge, there have only been 4 reported cases in men. Distinction of these glandular structures from metastatic adenocarcinoma is crucial for proper staging, prognosis, and treatment of the patient. We report 3 cases of benign müllerian-type glandular inclusions in men undergoing either prostatectomy or cystoprostatectomy with lymph node dissection for treatment of prostatic adenocarcinoma and/or urothelial carcinoma. None of the patients were receiving hormonal therapy. All 3 cases showed benign glands with ciliated cuboidal to columnar cells and rare secretory cells, morphologically comparable with endosalpingiosis in women. These glands were diffusely positive for PAX-8, WT-1, estrogen receptor, and progesteron receptor consistent with müllerian origin. Our study is the first to confirm müllerian origin of these glands by PAX-8 and WT-1 positivity. This finding of müllerian glands in men identical to endosalpingiosis in women supports the theory that this entity can result from müllerian metaplasia of the peritoneal mesothelium rather than displacement of tubal-type epithelium. Pathologists should also be aware that müllerian-type glands can rarely occur in men to prevent the incorrect diagnosis of metastatic adenocarcinoma involving a lymph node.

  17. Dietary supplementation of Artemisia annua to free range broilers and its effects on gastro-intestinal parasite infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almeida, Gustavo Fonseca; Horsted, Klaus; Thamsborg, Stig Milan

    2012-01-01

    of the 12 groups (n=120) were monitored twice a week for excretion of coccidia oocysts (OPG) and gastrointestinal nematode eggs (EPG). At the end of the trial, when broilers were 74 days of age, 5 broilers per plot (n=60) were necropsied and their intestines opened for coccidia speciation and to account...... for the presence of gastrointestinal nematodes. In general, broilers from both genotypes coped well with coccidia infections as no deaths were reported. Broilers supplemented with A. annua showed a reduced number of excreted oocysts (67% less; p... of oocysts than males (45% more; pgastrointestinal nematodes were observed during routine EPG. However, during necropsy, juvenile larvae of Ascaridia galli were found in 73% of the broilers with no differences in respect...

  18. Cloning and enzymology analysis of farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase gene from a superior strain of Artemisia annua L

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A cDNA(af1) encoding farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase AaFPS1 (FPS, EC2.5.1.1/EC2.5.1.10) from a high yield Artemisia annua strain 025 has been cloned from its cDNA library. Sequence analysis showed that the cDNA encoded a protein of 343 amino acid (aa) residues with molecular weight of 39 kD. Deduced aa sequence of the cDNA was similar to FPS from other plants, yeast and mammals, containing 5 conserved domains found in both prenyl transferase and polyprenyl synthase. The expression of the cDNA in Escherichia coli showed measurable specific activity of FPS in vitro. The enzyme was purified by ion exchange chromatography and its kinetics was measured. These results would further promote the molecular regulation of artemisinin biosynthesis.

  19. Atividade ovicida e larvicida do extrato hidroalcoólico de Artemisia annua sobre parasitas gastrintestinais de bovinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.K. Sprenger

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Os parasitas gastrintestinais causam enorme prejuízo econômico na bovinocultura, tanto nacional como mundial, ocasionado principalmente por Bunostumom sp., Cooperia sp. e Trichostrongylus sp. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a eficácia in vitro do extrato hidroalcoólico de Artemisia annua (H.7 frente a esses endoparasitas. O H.7 foi produzido com sete dias de percolação a 4ºC e posteriormente liofilizado. Com esse fitoterápico, realizaram-se testes de eclodibilidade de ovos (TEO e de migração larvar em ágar (TMLA, com seis repetições, com concentrações crescentes (0,78 a 50mg/mL. Para analisar a composição química do fitoterápico, procedeu-se à marcha fitoquímica completa. No TEO, a eficácia variou de 94,08±2,58% na maior concentração a 15,67±0,97% na menor concentração. Já no TMLA os valores encontrados variaram de 90,05±0,55% a 4,12±0,46%. Nas análises fitoquímicas, foram encontrados diversos compostos com propriedades de combater os nematódeos, tanto direta como indiretamente. Os resultados obtidos nos testes in vitro evidenciam que o extrato produzido possui potencial de combater nematódeos gastrintestinais de bovinos. Novos estudos devem ser realizados buscando maximizar a eficácia do H.7 e de outras extrações obtidas a partir de A. annua, uma vez que foram demonstrados excelentes resultados em ambos os experimentos.

  20. Cloning and functional characterization of a beta-pinene synthase from Artemisia annua that shows a circadian pattern of expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shan; Xu, Ran; Jia, Jun-Wei; Pang, Jihai; Matsuda, Seiichi P T; Chen, Xiao-Ya

    2002-09-01

    Artemisia annua plants produce a broad range of volatile compounds, including monoterpenes, which contribute to the characteristic fragrance of this medicinal species. A cDNA clone, QH6, contained an open reading frame encoding a 582-amino acid protein that showed high sequence identity to plant monoterpene synthases. The prokaryotically expressed QH6 fusion protein converted geranyl diphosphate to (-)-beta-pinene and (-)-alpha-pinene in a 94:6 ratio. QH6 was predominantly expressed in juvenile leaves 2 weeks postsprouting. QH6 transcript levels were transiently reduced following mechanical wounding or fungal elicitor treatment, suggesting that this gene is not directly involved in defense reaction induced by either of these treatments. Under a photoperiod of 12 h/12 h (light/dark), the abundance of QH6 transcripts fluctuated in a diurnal pattern that ebbed around 3 h before daybreak (9th h in the dark phase) and peaked after 9 h in light (9th h in the light phase). The contents of (-)-beta-pinene in juvenile leaves and in emitted volatiles also varied in a diurnal rhythm, correlating strongly with mRNA accumulation. When A. annua was entrained by constant light or constant dark conditions, QH6 transcript accumulation continued to fluctuate with circadian rhythms. Under constant light, advanced cycles of fluctuation of QH6 transcript levels were observed, and under constant dark, the cycle was delayed. However, the original diurnal pattern could be regained when the plants were returned to the normal light/dark (12 h/12 h) photoperiod. This is the first report that monoterpene biosynthesis is transcriptionally regulated in a circadian pattern.

  1. Plasticity in sex allocation in the plant Mercurialis annua is greater for hermaphrodites sampled from dimorphic than from monomorphic populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Vilas, J; Pannell, J R

    2014-09-01

    Plants are notoriously variable in gender, ranging in sex allocation from purely male through hermaphrodite to purely female. This variation can have both a genetic and an adaptive plastic component. In gynodioecious species, where females co-occur with hermaphrodites, hermaphrodites tend to shift their allocation towards greater maleness when growing under low-resource conditions, either as a result of hermaphrodites shifting away from an expensive female function, or because of enhanced siring advantages in the presence of females. Similarly, in the androdioecious plant Mercurialis annua, where hermaphrodites co-exist with males, hermaphrodites also tend to enhance their relative male allocation under low-resource conditions. Here, we ask whether this response differs between hermaphrodites that have been evolving in the presence of males, in a situation analogous to that supposed for gynodioecious populations, vs. those that have been evolving in their absence. We grew hermaphrodites of M. annua from populations in which males were either present or absent under different levels of nutrient availability and compared their reaction norms. We found that, overall, hermaphrodites from populations with males tended to be more female than those from populations lacking males. Importantly, hermaphrodites' investment in pollen and seed production was more plastic when they came from populations with males than without them, reducing their pollen production at low resource availability and increasing their seed production at high resource availability. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that plasticity in sex allocation is enhanced in hermaphrodites that have likely been exposed to variation in mating opportunities due to fluctuations in the frequency of co-occurring males.

  2. Is lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia a cancerous precursor of minimal deviation adenocarcinoma?: a comparative molecular-genetic and immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawauchi, Shigeto; Kusuda, Tomoko; Liu, Xu-Ping; Suehiro, Yutaka; Kaku, Tsunehisa; Mikami, Yoshiki; Takeshita, Morishige; Nakao, Motonao; Chochi, Yasuyo; Sasaki, Kohsuke

    2008-12-01

    Although lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia (LEGH) was originally described as a distinct hyperplastic glandular lesion of the uterine cervix, recent studies have raised a question that LEGH may be a cancerous precursor of minimal deviation adenocarcinoma (MDA) and other mucinous adenocarcinomas (MACs) of the uterine cervix. In the present study, we studied LEGH, MDA, and MAC by using molecular-genetic and immunohistochemical methods for chromosomal imbalance, microsatellite instability, human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, and gastric pyloric-type mucin secretion to clarify their relationship. Comparative genomic hybridization revealed recurrent chromosomal imbalances, that is, gains of chromosome 3q and a loss of 1p, which were common to MDA and MAC, in 3 of 14 LEGHs analyzed (21%). LEGHs with chromosomal imbalances showed a degree of cellular atypia in the hyperplastic glandular epithelium. Dual-color fluorescence in situ hybridization confirmed a gain of chromosome 3 fragment in these cervical glandular lesions. HPV in situ hybridization revealed that high-risk HPV (types 16 and 18) was positive in over 80% of MACs, but negative in all LEGHs and MDAs examined. Microsatellite instability was rarely detected in these cervical glandular lesions. Our present study results demonstrated a molecular-genetic link between LEGH and cervical mucinous glandular malignancies including MDA and MAC, and are thought to support the hypothesis that a proportion of LEGHs are cancerous precursors of MDA and/or MAC.

  3. Characterization of fibrillar collagens and extracellular matrix of glandular benign prostatic hyperplasia nodules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler M Bauman

    Full Text Available Recent studies have associated lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS in men with prostatic fibrosis, but a definitive link between collagen deposition and LUTS has yet to be demonstrated. The objective of this study was to evaluate ECM and collagen content within normal glandular prostate tissue and glandular BPH, and to evaluate the association of clinical parameters of LUTS with collagen content.Fibrillar collagen and ECM content was assessed in normal prostate (48 patients and glandular BPH nodules (24 patients using Masson's trichrome stain and Picrosirius red stain. Second harmonic generation (SHG imaging was used to evaluate collagen content. Additional BPH tissues (n = 47 were stained with Picrosirius red and the association between clinical parameters of BPH/LUTS and collagen content was assessed.ECM was similar in normal prostate and BPH (p = 0.44. Total collagen content between normal prostate and glandular BPH was similar (p = 0.27, but a significant increase in thicker collagen bundles was observed in BPH (p = 0.045. Using SHG imaging, collagen content in BPH (mean intensity = 62.52; SEM = 2.74 was significantly higher than in normal prostate (51.77±3.49; p = 0.02. Total collagen content was not associated with treatment with finasteride (p = 0.47 or α-blockers (p = 0.52, pre-TURP AUA symptom index (p = 0.90, prostate-specific antigen (p = 0.86, post-void residual (PVR; p = 0.32, prostate size (p = 0.21, or post-TURP PVR (p = 0.51. Collagen content was not associated with patient age in patients with BPH, however as men aged normal prostatic tissue had a decreased proportion of thick collagen bundles.The proportion of larger bundles of collagen, but not total collagen, is increased in BPH nodules, suggesting that these large fibers may play a role in BPH/LUTS. Total collagen content is independent of clinical parameters of BPH and LUTS. If fibrosis and overall ECM deposition are

  4. Two-dimensional patterning by a trapping/depletion mechanism: the role of TTG1 and GL3 in Arabidopsis trichome formation.

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    Daniel Bouyer

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Trichome patterning in Arabidopsis serves as a model system to study how single cells are selected within a field of initially equivalent cells. Current models explain this pattern by an activator-inhibitor feedback loop. Here, we report that also a newly discovered mechanism is involved by which patterning is governed by the removal of the trichome-promoting factor TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1 (TTG1 from non-trichome cells. We demonstrate by clonal analysis and misexpression studies that Arabidopsis TTG1 can act non-cell-autonomously and by microinjection experiments that TTG1 protein moves between cells. While TTG1 is expressed ubiquitously, TTG1-YFP protein accumulates in trichomes and is depleted in the surrounding cells. TTG1-YFP depletion depends on GLABRA3 (GL3, suggesting that the depletion is governed by a trapping mechanism. To study the potential of the observed trapping/depletion mechanism, we formulated a mathematical model enabling us to evaluate the relevance of each parameter and to identify parameters explaining the paradoxical genetic finding that strong ttg1 alleles are glabrous, while weak alleles exhibit trichome clusters.

  5. Caracterização morfológica dos tricomas foliares e caulinares de duas espécies de Lamiaceae conhecidas popularmente como “falso-boldo” - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i2.445 Morphological characterization of the trichomes on the leaves and stem of two Lamiaceae species known popularly as “false-boldus” - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i2.445

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Santos Capel

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available As descrições morfoanatômicas das espécies vegetais, com finalidade medicamentosa, são necessárias para embasar as análises de controle de qualidade nos laboratórios de farmacognosia, tendo este estudo o objetivo de analisar duas espécies de Lamiaceae conhecidas como “falso-boldo”: Plectranthus barbatus e P. grandis, que caracterizam e quantificam os tricomas presentes em suas folhas e caule. Para as análises morfoanatômicas foram preparadas seções transversais do limbo, pecíolo e entrenós do caule, utilizando-se de técnicas usuais de morfologia e anatomia vegetal para a preparação de laminário semipermanente, tendo como corantes o azul de astra e a safranina. As análises revelaram que as folhas de ambas as espécies são morfologicamente semelhantes, mas diferindo quanto às dimensões do limbo. Os tipos de tricomas glandulares encontrados foram: peltado, captado-longo e captado-curto; e tectores: simples unisseriados com duas ou mais células na base. Com algumas exceções, todos os cinco tipos de tricomas foram observados no limbo, pecíolo e entrenós do caule, tendo P. grandis números médios significativamente superiores aos encontradas nos órgãos de P. barbatus, com exceção do tricoma tector simples, mais abundante no caule da segunda espécie.The morphoanatomical description of vegetable species, for medical purpose, is necessary to foreground the analyses of quality control in the pharmacognostic laboratories. The objective of this study was to analyze two Lamiaceae species known as “false-boldus” (Plectranthus barbatus and P. grandis, characterizing and quantifying the trichomes present in their leaves and stems. For the morphoanatomical analyses transverse sections of the leaves, petiole, and stem were prepared, using common techniques of plant morphology and anatomy for the preparation of semi-permanent slides, stained with astra blue and safranin. Analyses revealed that the leaves of both species

  6. Feeding by flea beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae; Phyllotreta spp.) is decreased on canola (Brassica napus) seedlings with increased trichome density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soroka, Juliana J; Holowachuk, Jennifer M; Gruber, Margaret Y; Grenkow, Larry F

    2011-02-01

    Laboratory and field studies were undertaken to determine the effects of increased numbers of trichomes on seedling stems, petioles, and first true leaves of Brassica napus L., canola, on the feeding and behavior of the crucifer flea beetle Phyllotreta cruciferae (Goeze) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Seedlings of 'Westar' canola with genes inserted from Arabidopsis thaliana L. for increased trichome production, called Hairyl, were tested against Westar seedlings in no-choice and choice laboratory tests, and against parental plants and other cultivars grown from seed with and without insecticide in field trials at Saskatoon and Lethbridge, Canada. Analyses ofprefeeding and feeding behavior in no-choice tests of first true leaves found that flea beetles interacted with their host while off Hairyl leaves more so than beetles presented with leaves of Westar. Beetles required twice as much time to reach satiation when feeding on leaves with increased pubescence than on Westar leaves. In laboratory choice tests, flea beetles fed more on cotyledons and second true leaves of Westar than on comparable tissues of the transgenic line. In field trials, variations in feeding patterns were seen over time on cotyledons of the line with elevated trichomes. However, all four young true leaves of Hairyl seedlings were fed upon less than were the parental lines. Feeding on Hairyl plants frequently occurred at levels equal to or less than on cultivars grown from insecticide-treated seed. This study highlights the first host plant resistance trait developed in canola, dense pubescence, with a strong potential to deter feeding by crucifer flea beetles.

  7. Use of Artemisia annua as a natural coccidiostat in free-range broilers and its effects on infection dynamics and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Gustavo F; Horsted, Klaus; Thamsborg, Stig M; Kyvsgaard, Niels C; Ferreira, Jorge F S; Hermansen, John E

    2012-05-25

    This work investigated the preventive effect of Artemisia annua L. dried leaves supplied as a botanical coccidiostat to two broiler genotypes reared in a Danish free-range system in a factorial experiment (two genotypes and ± supplement of dried A. annua leaves). The genotypes White Bresse L40, a pure slow-growing line, and Kosmos 8 Ross, a hybrid genotype with medium growing characteristics, were used. Broilers were raised indoor until 29-days-old and kept free of parasites. Twelve groups of 30 randomly selected broilers were placed in the range forming three replicates for each treatment combination. The paddocks were cultivated with a mix of grass and clover. A separate group of broilers was naturally infected with Eimeria spp. oocysts and five animals nominated as "seeders" were introduced to the above mentioned 12 groups, 10 days after its formation, with each group consisting of 35 animals per plot. This infection strategy was meant to imitate the transmission pathway observed at farm level. Ten individual birds from each of the 12 groups, in total 120 animals of mixed sex, were monitored twice weekly for 30 days for oocysts excretion. PCR of pooled faecal samples, oocyst morphology and localization upon necropsy were used to identify the Eimeria species involved in the infection. In general, broilers from both genotypes in the range coped well with a coccidia infection caused by Eimeria acervulina and Eimeria maxima as no clinical symptoms, or deaths, were reported during the experiment. In general, broilers supplemented with A. annua dried leaves showed a significantly (ptreatment - accounted mainly for the fact that Kosmos females responded positively to the Artemisia treatment while Kosmos males responded negatively, and only minor differences were found between sexes for the White Bresse genotype. In conclusion, supply of A. annua dried leaves as a botanical coccidiostat significantly reduced oocyst output in free ranged broilers and thus may form part

  8. Preliminary results of the average glandular dose to the breast with TLDS measure is computed as the conversion factors; Resultados preliminares da dose glandular media na mama medida com TLDS e calculada atraves de fatores de conversao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sardo, Luiz T.L.; Almeida, Claudio D.; Coutinho, Celia M.C., E-mail: ltsardo@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: claudio@ird.gov.br, E-mail: celia@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    At mammography exams there is a risk of a breast cancer induced from the absorbed dose by the glandular tissue. According to the National Institute of Cancer, INCA, breast cancer is the second type most frequent in the world and the most common among women, therefore the necessity of monitoring the mean glandular dose, D{sub G}. Measuring methods of D{sub G} were established by some authors. Among the established methods the method of Dance is one of the most known. In this study was utilized a measurement method realized with TL dosimeters inserted in a breast tissue equivalent phantom, BTE, with 46% of glandularity and exposed using Mo/Mo and Mo/Rh target/filter combination and 28kV. To ensure this measurement method the results were compared with a calculation method, used by Dance, of D{sub G} from the measurement of incident air kerma, K{sub i}, and conversion factors to consider mainly the beam quality, the compressed thickness and the glandularity of the breast. The results of the comparison of the D{sub G} measurement with the obtained dose by the method of Dance demonstrated that for the thickness of 4.0 and 6.0 cm the doses were consistent. For the thickness of 5.0 cm the difference was higher, indicating that the glandularity may influence, suggesting further investigation. (author)

  9. Computer-aided identification of prostatic adenocarcinoma: Segmentation of glandular structures

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    Yahui Peng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Identification of individual prostatic glandular structures is an important prerequisite to quantitative histological analysis of prostate cancer with the aid of a computer. We have developed a computer method to segment individual glandular units and to extract quantitative image features, for computer identification of prostatic adenocarcinoma. Methods: Two sets of digital histology images were used: database I (n = 57 for developing and testing the computer technique, and database II (n = 116 for independent validation. The segmentation technique was based on a k-means clustering and a region-growing method. Computer segmentation results were evaluated subjectively and also compared quantitatively against manual gland outlines, using the Jaccard similarity measure. Quantitative features that were extracted from the computer segmentation results include average gland size, spatial gland density, and average gland circularity. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA was used to combine quantitative image features. Classification performance was evaluated with receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis and the area under the ROC curve (AUC. Results: Jaccard similarity coefficients between computer segmentation and manual outlines of individual glands were between 0.63 and 0.72 for non-cancer and between 0.48 and 0.54 for malignant glands, respectively, similar to an interobserver agreement of 0.79 for non-cancer and 0.75 for malignant glands, respectively. The AUC value for the features of average gland size and gland density combined via LDA was 0.91 for database I and 0.96 for database II. Conclusions: Using a computer, we are able to delineate individual prostatic glands automatically and identify prostatic adenocarcinoma accurately, based on the quantitative image features extracted from computer-segmented glandular structures.

  10. Rescue of glandular dysmorphogenesis in PTEN-deficient colorectal cancer epithelium by PPARγ-targeted therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagan, I; Fatehullah, A; Deevi, R K; Bingham, V; Campbell, F C

    2013-03-07

    Disruption of glandular architecture associates with poor clinical outcome in high-grade colorectal cancer (CRC). Phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN) regulates morphogenic growth of benign MDCK (Madin Darby Canine Kidney) cells through effects on the Rho-like GTPase cdc42 (cell division cycle 42). This study investigates PTEN-dependent morphogenesis in a CRC model. Stable short hairpin RNA knockdown of PTEN in Caco-2 cells influenced expression or localization of cdc42 guanine nucleotide exchange factors and inhibited cdc42 activation. Parental Caco-2 cells formed regular hollow gland-like structures (glands) with a single central lumen, in three-dimensional (3D) cultures. Conversely, PTEN-deficient Caco-2 ShPTEN cells formed irregular glands with multiple abnormal lumens as well as intra- and/or intercellular vacuoles evocative of the high-grade CRC phenotype. Effects of targeted treatment were investigated. Phosphatidinylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) modulating treatment did not affect gland morphogenesis but did influence gland number, gland size and/or cell size within glands. As PTEN may be regulated by the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), cultures were treated with the PPARγ ligand rosiglitazone. This treatment enhanced PTEN expression, cdc42 activation and rescued dysmorphogenesis by restoring single lumen formation in Caco-2 ShPTEN glands. Rosiglitazone effects on cdc42 activation and Caco-2 ShPTEN gland development were attenuated by cotreatment with GW9662, a PPARγ antagonist. Taken together, these studies show PTEN-cdc42 regulation of lumen formation in a 3D model of human CRC glandular morphogenesis. Treatment by the PPARγ ligand rosiglitazone, but not PI3K modulators, rescued colorectal glandular dysmorphogenesis of PTEN deficiency.

  11. Epithelial cell proliferation and glandular atrophy in lymphocytic gastritis: Effect of H pylori treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Johanna M. Makinen; Seppo Niemela; Tuomo Kerola; Juhani Lehtola; Tuomo J. Karttunen

    2003-01-01

    AIM: Lymphocytic gastritis is commonly ass ociated with Helicobacter pylori infection. The presence of glandular atrophy and foveolar hyperplasia in lymphocytic gastritis suggests abnormalities in cell proliferation and differentiation,forming a potential link with the suspected association with gastric cancer. Our aim was to compare epithelial cell proliferation and morphology in H pylori associated lymphocytic gastritis and H pylori gastritis without features of lymphocytic gastritis,and to evaluate the effect of H pylori treatment.METHODS: We studied 14 lymphocytic gastritis patients with H pylori infection. For controls, we selected 14 matched dyspeptic patients participating in another treatment trial whose H pylori infection had successfully been eradicated.Both groups were treated with a triple therapy and followed up with biopsies for 6-18 months (patients) or 3 months (controls). Blinded evaluation for histopathological features was carried out. To determine the cell proliferation index,the sections were labeled with Ki-67 antibody.RESULTS: Before treatment, lymphocytic gastritis was characterized by foveolar hyperplasia (P=0.001) and glandular atrophy in the body (P=0.008), and increased proliferation in both the body (P=0.001) and antrum (P=0.002). Proliferation correlated with foveolar hyperplasia and inflammation activity. After eradication therapy, the number of intraepithelial lymphocytes decreased in the body (P=0.004)and antrum (P=0.065), remaining higher than in controls (P<0.001). Simultaneously, the proliferation index decreased in the body from 0.38 to 0.15 (P=0.043), and in the antrum from 0.34 to 0.20 (P=0.069), the antral index still being higher in lymphocytic gastritis than in controls (P=0.010).Foveolar hyperplasia and glandular atrophy in the body improved (P=0.021), reaching the non-LG level.CONCLUSION: In lymphocytic gastritis, excessive epithelial cell proliferation is predominantly present in the body, where it associates with

  12. Effect of Rol Genes on Polyphenols Biosynthesis in Artemisia annua and Their Effect on Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Potential of the Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilshad, Erum; Zafar, Sara; Ismail, Hammad; Waheed, Mohammad Tahir; Cusido, Rosa Maria; Palazon, Javier; Mirza, Bushra

    2016-08-01

    Flavonoids are famous for their antioxidant capacity and redox potential. They can combat with cell aging, lipid peroxidation, and cancer. In the present study, Artemisia annua hybrid (Hyb8001r) was subjected to qualitative and quantitative analysis of flavonoids through HPLC. Rol genes transgenics of A. annua were also evaluated for an increase in their flavonoid content along with an increase in antioxidant and cytotoxic potential. This was also correlated with the expression level of flavonoids biosynthetic pathway genes as determined by real-time qPCR. Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and chalcone synthase genes were found to be significantly more highly expressed in rol B (four to sixfold) and rol C transgenics (3.8-5.5-fold) than the wild-type plant. Flavonoids detected in the wild-type A. annua through HPLC include rutin (0.31 mg/g DW), quercetin (0.01 mg/g DW), isoquercetin (0.107 mg/g DW) and caffeic acid (0.03 mg/g DW). Transgenics of the rol B gene showed up to threefold increase in rutin and caffeic acid, sixfold increase in isoquercetin, and fourfold increase in quercetin. Whereas, in the case of transgenics of rol C gene, threefold increase in rutin and quercetin, 5 fold increase in isoquercetin, and 2.6-fold increase in caffeic acid was followed. Total phenolics and flavonoids content was also found to be increased in rol B (1.5-fold) and rol C (1.4-fold) transgenics as compared to the wild-type plant along with increased free radical scavenging activity. Similarly, the cytotoxic potential of rol gene transgenics against MCF7, HeLA, and HePG2 cancer cell lines was found to be significantly enhanced than the wild-type plant of A. annua. Current findings support the fact that rol genes can alter the secondary metabolism and phytochemical level of the plant. They increased the flavonoids content of A. annua by altering the expression level of flavonoids biosynthetic pathway genes. Increased flavonoid content also enhanced the antioxidant and cytotoxic

  13. Validation, transfer and measurement uncertainty estimation of an HPLC-UV method for the quantification of artemisinin in hydro alcoholic extracts of Artemisia annua L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diawara, Hermine Zime; Gbaguidi, Fernand; Evrard, Brigitte; Leclercq, Joëlle Quetin; Moudachirou, Mansourou; Debrus, Benjamin; Hubert, Philippe; Rozet, Eric

    2011-08-25

    Malaria is the world's most important parasitic infection with 500 millions cases annually and almost 2 millions death per year. This disease is more present in Sub-Saharan Africa where 90% of the infections are found. Artemisinin and its semi synthetic derivatives (artemether, artesunate) have actually the most powerful activity on malaria, even in its complicated forms and resistance cases. Various methods have been proposed for detection and quantification of artemisinin in Artemisia annua L. by HPLC-UV, but the plant extracts used for this quantification were extracts obtained with organic solvents (toluene, petroleum ether, hexane). To be able to use crude A. annua extracts prepared at low cost to formulate antipaludic drugs, we chose the use of a mixture of water and ethanol as solvent of extraction, but no adequate analytical method for this kind of extracts is published. The main objectives of this work were first to develop an analytical method for artemisinin quantification in hydro alcoholic extracts of A. annua. Second, this method had to be thoroughly validated by the research and development laboratory and, third, the transfer of this method to the routine laboratory had to be demonstrated. The final aim was to compare the estimation of measurement uncertainty obtained during the method validation with validation standards to measurement uncertainty estimates obtained during the method transfer study with real samples. The method was validated following the accuracy profile methodology and was found to be accurate in the concentration range of 10.0-54.0 μg/ml with CVmeasurement uncertainty of the method was estimated from the validation experiments as well as from the transfer study with authentic unspiked samples of A. annua. The comparison of these measurement uncertainty estimations showed that they were coherent. It confirmed thus that the estimation of measurement uncertainty from validation experiments predicts well the measurement uncertainty

  14. The Cytotoxic, Antibacterial and Free Radical Scavenging Activities of Crude Extracts of Matricaria chamomilla, Salvadora persica and Artemisia annua

    KAUST Repository

    Seddek, Ahmed

    2011-12-01

    The discovery of drugs from natural sources has been a rapidly growing science in this era. Plants used for medicinal purposes have been usually studied as rich sources of bioactive chemical compounds that can be used as medications. Several plant-derived drugs have been approved so far. Cancer and infectious diseases have been common targets for the science of drug discovery, due to the high mortality rates caused by these diseases all over the world. Several plant-derived compounds are being marketed now as anti-cancer agents. However, finding novel antimicrobial and anti-cancer compounds has become an important goal to overcome the problems of existing anti-cancer and antimicrobial agents, such as resistance and non-selectivity. In this thesis project, an attempt to find out useful biological activities of the crude extracts of some plants used traditionally for medicinal purposes in Saudi Arabia has been made. Matricaria chamomilla, Salvadora persica and Artemisia annua have been selected for study, based on the literature review performed. These plants were screened for three biological activities; anti-cancer, anti-bacterial and free radical scavenging activities. The experimental part of the study consisted of some common in-vitro techniques, such as cytotoxicity and cell viability assays, disk diffusion assay and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl assay. In addition, the crude extract of Matricaria chamomilla has undergone chemical fractionation and four solvent fractions were obtained using column chromatography. The crude extract of Matricaria chamomilla showed a promising anti-bacterial activity against Escherichia coli and a very promising free radical scavenging activity that was comparable to ascorbic acid, an important anti-oxidant. The four solvent fractions obtained from that extract showed that these activities were produced by more than one compound belonging to different solvent fractions. In addition, the crude extract of Artemisia annua showed

  15. Toad Glandular Secretions and Skin Extractions as Anti-Inflammatory and Anticancer Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Qi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Toad glandular secretions and skin extractions contain many natural agents which may provide a unique resource for novel drug development. The dried secretion from the auricular and skin glands of Chinese toad (Bufo bufo gargarizans is named Chansu, which has been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM for treating infection and inflammation for hundreds of years. The sterilized hot water extraction of dried toad skin is named Huachansu (Cinobufacini which was developed for treating hepatitis B virus (HBV and several types of cancers. However, the mechanisms of action of Chansu, Huachansu, and their constituents within are not well reported. Existing studies have suggested that their anti-inflammation and anticancer potential were via targeting Nuclear Factor (NF-κB and its signalling pathways which are crucial hallmarks of inflammation and cancer in various experimental models. Here, we review some current studies of Chansu, Huachansu, and their compounds in terms of their use as both anti-inflammatory and anticancer agents. We also explored the potential use of toad glandular secretions and skin extractions as alternate resources for treating human cancers in combinational therapies.

  16. INDUCTION OF GASTRIC INTRAEPITHELIAL NEOPLASIA OF GLANDULAR STOMACH OF MONGOLIAN GERBILS BY ELICOBACTER PYLORI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Pin; GU Lian-kun; ZHOU Jing; WANG Ru-ming; ZHAO Zi-hou; DENG Da-jun

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To setup an animal model of gastric carcinogenesis by Helicobacter pylori (Hp) for basic, prevention and therapeutic research of Hp-related diseases. Methods: 22 young male Mongolian gerbils were administrated with suspension of Hp strain TN2 by intragastric gavage for 5 consecutive times (4×108 CFU/time, 1 time/4 days). 10 male gerbils were used as negative control. Two infected gerbils were killed at 10, 20, and 30 weeks, respectively, after inoculation to monitor the development of gastric lesions. Other animals were killed at 40 experimental weeks.Pathological changes of glandular stomach were examined histologically. Results: Gastric intraepithelial neoplasias (GIN) and low-grade dysplasias were observed only in the pyloric antrum of Hp-treated gerbils (3 and 2 ones,respectively), but not in control group (5/13 vs. 0/10, P<0.04). High incidence of chronic active gastritis and chronic atrophic gastritis were observed in Hp-treated animals (10/13, 76.9%). Low incidence of chronic atrophic gastritis was also detected in negative control gerbils (3/10, 30%; P<0.04). Conclusion: Hp inoculation could induce chronic inflammation and malignant lesions of the glandular stomach of Mongolian gerbils conveniently.

  17. A polynomial hyperelastic model for the mixture of fat and glandular tissue in female breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-Gallego, Jose L; Martínez-Reina, Javier; Domínguez, Jaime

    2015-09-01

    In the breast of adult women, glandular and fat tissues are intermingled and cannot be clearly distinguished. This work studies if this mixture can be treated as a homogenized tissue. A mechanical model is proposed for the mixture of tissues as a function of the fat content. Different distributions of individual tissues and geometries have been tried to verify the validity of the mixture model. A multiscale modelling approach was applied in a finite element model of a representative volume element (RVE) of tissue, formed by randomly assigning fat or glandular elements to the mesh. Both types of tissues have been assumed as isotropic, quasi-incompressible hyperelastic materials, modelled with a polynomial strain energy function, like the homogenized model. The RVE was subjected to several load cases from which the constants of the polynomial function of the homogenized tissue were fitted in the least squares sense. The results confirm that the fat volume ratio is a key factor in determining the properties of the homogenized tissue, but the spatial distribution of fat is not so important. Finally, a simplified model of a breast was developed to check the validity of the homogenized model in a geometry similar to the actual one.

  18. Glandular epithelium as a possible source of a fertility signal in Ectatomma tuberculatum (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) queens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Hora, Riviane Rodigues; Delabie, Jacques Hubert Charles; dos Santos, Carolina Gonçalves; Serrão, José Eduardo

    2010-04-19

    The wax layer covering the insect's cuticle plays an important protective role, as for example, uncontrolled water loss. In social insects, wax production is well-known in some bees that use it for nest building. Curiously, mated-fertile queens of the ant Ectatomma tuberculatum produce an uncommon extra-wax coat and, consequently queens (mated-fertile females) are matte due to such extra cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) coat that covers the cuticle and masks the brightness of the queens' cuticle while gynes (virgin-infertile queens) are shiny. In this study, histological analysis showed differences in the epidermis between fertile (i.e., queens or gynes with highly ovarian activity) and infertile females (gynes or workers with non developed ovaries). In fertile females the epidermis is a single layer of cubic cells found in all body segments whereas in infertile females it is a thin layer of flattened cells. Ultrastructural features showed active secretory tissue from fertile females similar to the glandular epithelium of wax-producing bees (type I gland). Different hypotheses related to the functions of the glandular epithelium exclusive to the E. tuberculatum fertile queens are discussed.

  19. Cancerous versus noncancerous breasts. A comparative morphological analysis of the entire glandular tree of the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarnelli, R; Squartini, F

    1989-01-01

    Cancerous and clinically normal autopsy obtained breasts were collected in order to compare the physiopathological profile of both types of glandular tree. Each breast was visualized by whole thin sections and observed under a stereomicroscope with removal of the more interesting changes for histology. The comparison was made between 67 atrophic cancerous breasts and 88 atrophic control breasts. The results were as follows: 25% of the cancerous breasts versus 47% of control breasts showed no changes, atypical lobules, microfoci of "in situ" and/or infiltrating cancer were present in 46% of cancerous breasts and in 16% of control breasts, showing a significant correlation with clinical cancer. All other types of functional and proliferative changes, variously associated each other, were found in 29% of cancerous and in 37% of control breasts. Our morphological data agree completely with the statements in follow-up studies carried out on benign breast biopsies. The significant differences in the physiopathological profile of the glandular tree between "normal" and cancerous breasts, confirms that some changes are causally related to clinical cancer.

  20. Nationwide survey of glandular tissue dose for establishment of breast cancer screening using mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katoh, Tsuguhisa; Matsumoto, Mitsuomi [Tokyo Metropolitan Univ. of Health Sciences (Japan); Higashida, Yoshiharu [and others

    1999-06-01

    A nationwide survey was performed in an attempt to investigate the distribution of average glandular doses caused by mammography for breast cancer mass screening, and to utilize the data to determine the national guidance level for mammography. A phantom equivalent to a breast with a compressed thickness of 42 mm, and glass radio-photo luminescence dosimeters were sent to 104 institutions and facilities. The dosimeters were exposed using a method based on the protocols described in the Mammography Quality Control Manual. The returned dosimeters were then analyzed, and the beam qualities and the entrance surface exposure were determined. Using these values, the average glandular doses were estimated with an accuracy of {+-}8%. The doses ranged from 0.5 to 3.7 mGy. The mean dose and the standard deviation were 1.48 mGy and 0.52 mGy, respectively. In 91 facilities, the doses were less than 2 mGy. Regarding the technical factors for facilities which presented doses of 2 mGy or over, it seemed that the doses could be easily reduced to less than 2 mGy if the settings of the auto exposure controller (AEC), anti-scatter grid and/or the film-screen system were optimized. (author)

  1. The field study of the mammography in Fukuoka prefecture. Second report. Investigation of glandular tissue dose and image quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akashi, Kaoru; Nakahara, Hiroko [Social Insurance Kurume Daiichi Hospital, Fukuoka (Japan); Tanaka, Isamu [Hakuaikai Hospital, Fukuoka (Japan)] [and others

    2003-02-01

    The research of the glandular tissue dose and image quality of the mammography in Fukuoka prefecture was performed from April to October 2000 at 50 mammography sites. Effects of the technical parameters, such as screen-film combinations, antiscatter grids, processing conditions, x-ray beam qualities, on the average glandular tissue dose and image quality were analyzed under two exposure conditions: The standard radiographic condition for a RMI156 phantom in each facility (Standard Radiographic Condition). The radiographic condition for obtaining the radiographic density of 1.40{+-}0.15 with RMI156 phantom (Canonical Radiographic Condition). In the investigation in Fukuoka prefecture, facilities of 3 mGy or less at the average mammary gland dosage were 98%. In the meantime, image quality of 54% facilities was insufficient. Analysis of technical parameters affecting the glandular tissue dose and image quality will be useful for the establishment of breast cancer screening system using mammography. (author)

  2. Endocervical glandular involvement, multicentricity, and extent of the disease are features of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güdücü, Nilgün; Sidar, Güliz; Başsüllü, Nuray; Türkmen, Ilknur; Dünder, Ilkkan

    2013-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the rate of endocervical glandular involvement, positive surgical margins, multicentricity, and disease extent between low-grade and high-grade cervical intraepithelial lesions after loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP). Pathology medical records of patients who underwent LEEP were reviewed retrospectively. Patients with negative LEEP results were excluded. Loop electrosurgical excision procedure reports of patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 1, 2, and 3 were compared. There was no statistically significant difference between patients with CIN 1 (n=24), CIN 2 (n=27), and CIN 3 (n=64) when age and surgical margin positivity were considered. Endocervical glandular involvement, multicentricity, and disease extent were higher in patients with CIN 3 (P=.001, P=.002, and P=.001, respectively). In conclusion, we recommend that patients with endocervical glandular involvement, lesions involving more than two-thirds of the LEEP specimen, and multicentricity be followed up more closely.

  3. Structural differentiation of human uterine luminal and glandular epithelium during early pregnancy: an ultrastructural and immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, R; Kayisli, U A; Celik-Ozenci, C; Korgun, E T; Demir-Weusten, A Y; Arici, A

    2002-01-01

    The differentiation of human endometrial epithelium is a dynamic event that occurs throughout the menstrual cycle and early pregnancy. The structural transformation and differentiation of human uterine luminal and glandular epithelium of early human pregnancy (n=14) was investigated ultrastructurally and immunohistochemically using antibodies against cytokeratin (CT), endothelial marker CD31, Fas, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Ultrastructurally, luminal epithelial cells showed distinctive euchromatic nuclei with prominent nucleoli and relatively loose cell membranes in all poles (apical to basal). Subcellular components were easily recognized in luminal epithelium except in degenerating cells. Mainly two cell types, dark and clear cells, formed the glandular epithelium. In the early gestation period, microvilli were abundant on the apical and apico-lateral poles of these cells. Only a few cytoplasmic projections were observed in dark cells. Numerous cilia were observed on the apical pole of some clear cells, located at the adluminal segment. In contrast, dark cells lacked cilia, nuclear channels, or giant mitochondrial profiles. Glycogen synthesis and apocrine secretion were recognizable for several days during early gestation. The apocrine secretory activity differed among dark cells of the glandular epithelium. The immunoreactivity of PCNA and Fas, and ultrastructural observations in the glandular epithelium suggest that, even in different segments of the same gland, epithelial cells do not regress during early gestation, but proliferate, perhaps representing a resistance against trophoblastic invasion. These morphological and molecular changes suggest that both luminal and glandular epithelium may play an important role in cellular defense and limitation for trophoblastic invasion during early pregnancy since plasma membrane alterations of the surface epithelium take place at the apical, basal and lateral poles compared to early secretory phase

  4. Estimation of average glandular dose depending on the thickness of the breast; Estimativa da dose glandular media em funcao da espessura da mama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Real, Jessica V.; Luz, Renata M. da, E-mail: jessica.real@pucrs.br, E-mail: renata.luz@pucrs.br [Hospital Sao Lucas (HSL/PUCRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Fröhlich, Bruna D.; Pertile, Alessandra S.; Silva, Ana Maria Marques da, E-mail: bruna.frohlich@acad.pucrs.br, E-mail: lessandra.pertile@acad.pucrs.br, E-mail: ana.marques@pucrs.br [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women worldwide. Mammography is, to date, the most efficient method for detecting an abnormality in the patient's breast. It is a technique of imaging diagnostic that requires special care because radiographs without adequate quality may lead to a false diagnosis and lead to the need for a repeat examination, increasing the dose of radiation in the patient. This study aimed to evaluate the average glandular dose (AGD), depending on the breast thickness in patients undergoing routine tests, with a digital computer radiography processing system. Analyzed 30 exhibitions in patients aged (65 ± 12) years, in the right and left caudal skull projections, for breasts with thicknesses between 45 mm and 50 mm. The calculated value of the AGD for this track thickness was (1.600 ± 0.009) mGy. The performance of mammography quality control tests was satisfactory and the AGD values obtained for the chosen thickness range is acceptable, since the threshold achievable is 1.6 mGy and the acceptable is 2 mGy. In Brazil, it is only required the input dose calculation in skin for 45 mm breasts. However, the calculation of AGD is required for different thicknesses of the breast, to identify the best mammographic pattern aiming at better image quality at the lowest dose provided the patient.

  5. The effect of Artemisia annua on broiler performance, on intestinal microbiota and on the course of a Clostridium perfringens infection applying a necrotic enteritis disease model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Ricarda M; Grevsen, Kai; Ivarsen, Elise;

    2012-01-01

    The aerial parts of the plant Artemisia annua contain essential oils having antimicrobial properties against Clostridium perfringens Type A, the causal agent for necrotic enteritis in broilers. In two experiments, the influence of increasing dietary concentrations of dried A. annua leaves (0, 5, 10...... and 20 g/kg) and n-hexane extract from fresh A. annua leaves (0, 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg) on broiler performance was investigated. Dried plant material decreased feed intake and body weight in a dose-dependent manner, and 10 and 20 g/kg diet tended to improve the feed conversion ratio. The n......-hexane extract also reduced feed intake, but broiler weight tended to decrease only at the highest dietary concentration. The feed conversion ratio tended to improve when birds received 250 and 500 mg/kg n-hexane extract. In a third experiment, a necrotic enteritis disease model was applied to investigate...

  6. Research Progress on the Essential Oil of Artemisia Annua L.%青蒿挥发油研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李燕; 胡浩斌; 郑旭东; 王春林

    2011-01-01

    From the aspects of extraction method, harvesting time, storage time, producing area, collection position and planting season, the influence factors of essential oil yield of Artenisia annua L. were analyzed, and essential oil components were collected from different places.The results showed that there was great difference in the chemical composition of essential oils, and the major chemical composition of essential oil are sesquiterpene and monoterpene, such as camphor, 1,8-cineole, artemisia ketone, caryophyllene oside, caryophyllene, seltnene, camphene, pinene and germacrene D.%从提取方法、采收期、贮存期、产地、采集部位和种植季节6个方面分析青蒿挥发油收率的影响因素.并收集整理了不同产些的挥发油组分,总结出青蒿挥发油化学成分差异较大,以倍半萜和单萜为主,主要成分是樟脑(Camphor)、1,8-按叶素(1,8-cineole)、蒿酮(Artemisia ketone)、石竹烯氧化物(Caryophyllene oside)、石竹烯(Caryophyllene)、芹予烯(Seltnene)、莰烯(Camphene)、蒎烯(Pinene)和大根香叶烯D(Germacrene D)等化合物.

  7. The genetics of extreme microgeographic adaptation: an integrated approach identifies a major gene underlying leaf trichome divergence in Yellowstone Mimulus guttatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrick, Margaret F; Finseth, Findley R; Mathiasson, Minna E; Palmer, Kristen A; Broder, Emma M; Breigenzer, Peter; Fishman, Lila

    2016-11-01

    Microgeographic adaptation provides a particularly interesting context for understanding the genetic basis of phenotypic divergence and may also present unique empirical challenges. In particular, plant adaptation to extreme soil mosaics may generate barriers to gene flow or shifts in mating system that confound simple genomic scans for adaptive loci. Here, we combine three approaches - quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping of candidate intervals in controlled crosses, population resequencing (PoolSeq) and analyses of wild recombinant individuals - to investigate one trait associated with Mimulus guttatus (yellow monkeyflower) adaptation to geothermal soils in Yellowstone National Park. We mapped a major QTL causing dense leaf trichomes in thermally adapted plants to a <50-kb region of linkage Group 14 (Tr14) previously implicated in trichome divergence between independent M. guttatus populations. A PoolSeq scan of Tr14 region revealed a cluster of six genes, coincident with the inferred QTL peak, with high allele frequency differences sufficient to explain observed phenotypic differentiation. One of these, the R2R3 MYB transcription factor Migut.N02661, is a plausible functional candidate and was also strongly associated (r(2)  = 0.27) with trichome phenotype in analyses of wild-collected admixed individuals. Although functional analyses will be necessary to definitively link molecular variants in Tr14 with trichome divergence, our analyses are a major step in that direction. They point to a simple, and parallel, genetic basis for one axis of Mimulus guttatus adaptation to an extreme habitat, suggest a broadly conserved genetic basis for trichome variation across flowering plants and pave the way for further investigations of this challenging case of microgeographic incipient speciation.

  8. UV-B and UV-C pre-treatments induce physiological changes and artemisinin biosynthesis in Artemisia annua L. - an antimalarial plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Rashmi; Meena, Ram Prasad; Smita, Shachi Shuchi; Shukla, Aparna; Rai, Sanjay Kumar; Pandey-Rai, Shashi

    2011-12-02

    Present study was undertaken to investigate if short-term UV-B (4.2 kJ m(-2) day(-1)) and UV-C (5.7 kJ m(-2) day(-1)), pre-treatments can induce artemisinin biosynthesis in Artemisia annua. Twenty-one day old Artemisia seedlings were subjected to short-term (14 days) UV pre-treatment in an environmentally controlled growth chamber and then transplanted to the field under natural conditions. Treatment of A. annua with artificial UV-B and UV-C radiation not only altered the growth responses, biomass, pigment content and antioxidant enzyme activity but enhanced the secondary metabolites (artemisinin and flavonoid) content at all developmental stages as compared to non-irradiated plants. The extent of oxidative damage was measured in terms of the activities of enzymes such as catalase, superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase. Reinforcement in the antioxidative defense system seems to be a positive response of plants in ameliorating the negative effects of UV-B and UV-C radiations. While the carotenoid content was elevated, the chlorophyll content decreased under UV-B and UV-C pre-treatments. The reverse transcription PCR analysis of the genes associated in artemisinin/isoprenoid biosynthesis like 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGR), cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (CPR) and amorpha-4,11-diene synthase (ADS) genes at different growth stages revealed UV induced significant over-expression of the above protein genes. UV-B and UV-C pre-treatments, led to an increase in the concentrations of artemisinin at full bloom stage by 10.5% and 15.7% than that of the control respectively. Thus, the result of our study suggests that short term UV-B pre-treatment of seedlings in greenhouse prior to transplantation into the field enhances artemisinin production with lesser yield related damages as compared to UV-C radiation in A. annua.

  9. Mammography equipment performance, image quality and mean glandular dose in Malta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, M; Badr, I; Royle, G J

    2013-09-01

    In this first Maltese national mammography survey, the effectiveness of direct digital (DR) mammography in breast cancer screening has been confirmed. Patient data were made available from three clinics out of the participating nine. A dose survey of mean glandular dose (MGD) calculated for 759 patients examined in the state-owned mammography facilities was performed. An MGD national diagnostic reference level was set at 1.87 mGy for patients with breast compression thicknesses (BCT) between 5.0 and 7.0 cm. This range was selected since patient data were retrieved from three clinics only and the results showed that other international BCT reference levels may be unsuitable for the Maltese population. In fact, the overall average BCT was 5.75 ± 1.4 cm. The survey results have shown that the technical standard of mammographic equipment in the Malta National Breast Screening Programme is on a par with other countries, including its Western European counterparts.

  10. Chemistry of fruit flies: Glandular secretion ofBactrocera (Polistomimetes) visenda (Hardy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krohn, S; Fletcher, M T; Kitching, W; Moore, C J; Drew, R A; Francke, W

    1992-12-01

    The major component (>90% of volatiles) of the male rectal glandular extract of the nonpest speciesBactrocera visenda (Hardy) is 3-methyl2-butenyl acetate, with minor components being the isomeric 3-methyl-3-butenyl acetate, the homologous esters, 3-methyl-2-butenyl propanoate and 3-methyl-2-butenyl formate, along with 3-methyl-2-buten-1-ol, 3-methyl-2-butenal, and 3-methylbutyl acetate. None of these compounds has been identified previously from aBactrocera species, supporting the view thatBactrocera visenda is taxonomically distant from otherBactrocera species identified from the Australian mainland. This collection of compounds adds to the known types utilized by dipteran species and emphasizes their extensive biosynthetic capability.

  11. Endometrial stromal sarcoma with smooth muscle and glandular differentiation of the feline uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, T; Maeda, H; Suzuki, A; Shibuya, H; Sakata, A; Shirai, W

    2007-05-01

    The intra-abdominal tumor developing in the uterus and lung of a domestic Shorthair cat was examined histopathologically and immunohistochemically. The tumor showed a proliferation of both endometrial stromal and smooth muscle cells accompanied by prominent vasculature. There were well-differentiated endometrial glands, and tubuli made up a monolayer of eosinophilic cuboidal epithelium. Immunohistochemically, the spindle-shaped cells and half of the stromal-like cells reacted to caldesmon and desmin antibodies. The neoplastic epithelium expressed AE1/AE3 cytokeratin. Feline endometrial stromal tumor has, to the best of our knowledge, not been reported previously and has smooth muscle and glandular components that are a unique variant to the human counterpart.

  12. Honey bee males and queens use glandular secretions to enhance sperm viability before and after storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Den Boer, Susanne Petronella A; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan; Baer, Boris

    2009-01-01

    Internal fertilization requires live sperm to be transferred from male to female before egg fertilization. Both males and females assist the insemination process by providing sperm with glandular secretions, which have been inferred to contain subsets of proteins that maintain sperm viability. Here...... we show that in the honeybee (Apis mellifera) secretions of the male accessory glands, the major contributors towards seminal fluid, enhance sperm survival. We further demonstrate that the protein fraction of the male accessory gland secretion is indeed important for achieving the maximal effect...... on sperm survival. After sperm storage, the queens also provide sperm with secretions from spermathecal glands and we show that these secretions have a comparable positive effect on sperm viability. SDS gels show that the proteomic profiles of accessory gland secretion and spermathecal fluid secretion...

  13. An integrin-ILK-microtubule network orients cell polarity and lumen formation in glandular epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Nasreen; Streuli, Charles H

    2013-01-01

    The extracellular matrix has a crucial role in determining the spatial orientation of epithelial polarity and the formation of lumens in glandular tissues; however, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. By using Cre–Lox deletion we show that β1 integrins are required for normal mammary gland morphogenesis and lumen formation, both in vivo and in a three-dimensional primary culture model in which epithelial cells directly contact a basement membrane. Downstream of basement membrane β1 integrins, Rac1 is not involved; however, ILK is needed to polarize microtubule plus ends at the basolateral membrane and disrupting each of these components prevents lumen formation. The integrin–microtubule axis is necessary for the endocytic removal of apical proteins from the basement-membrane–cell interface and for internal Golgi positioning. We propose that this integrin signalling network controls the delivery of apical components to the correct surface and thereby governs the orientation of polarity and development of lumens.

  14. Human papillomavirus prevalence and type-distribution in cervical glandular neoplasias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holl, Katsiaryna; Nowakowski, Andrzej M; Powell, Ned

    2015-01-01

    : 0%). The most common HPV types were restricted to HPV16/18/45, accounting for 98.3% of all HPV-positive ADC. There were variations in HPV prevalence and ADC type-distribution by country. Age at diagnosis differed by ADC subtype, with usual-type diagnosed in younger women (median: 43 years) compared...... to rarer subtypes (medians between 57 and 66 years). Moreover, HPV-positive ADC cases were younger than HPV-negative ADC. The six years difference in median age for women with AIS compared to those with usual-type ADC suggests that cytological screening for AIS may be suboptimal. Since the great majority......Cervical glandular neoplasias (CGN) present a challenge for cervical cancer prevention due to their complex histopathology and difficulties in detecting preinvasive stages with current screening practices. Reports of human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence and type-distribution in CGN vary, providing...

  15. PTEN phosphatase-independent maintenance of glandular morphology in a predictive colorectal cancer model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagan, Ishaan C; Deevi, Ravi K; Fatehullah, Aliya; Topley, Rebecca; Eves, Joshua; Stevenson, Michael; Loughrey, Maurice; Arthur, Kenneth; Campbell, Frederick Charles

    2013-11-01

    Organotypic models may provide mechanistic insight into colorectal cancer (CRC) morphology. Three-dimensional (3D) colorectal gland formation is regulated by phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) coupling of cell division cycle 42 (cdc42) to atypical protein kinase C (aPKC). This study investigated PTEN phosphatase-dependent and phosphatase-independent morphogenic functions in 3D models and assessed translational relevance in human studies. Isogenic PTEN-expressing or PTEN-deficient 3D colorectal cultures were used. In translational studies, apical aPKC activity readout was assessed against apical membrane (AM) orientation and gland morphology in 3D models and human CRC. We found that catalytically active or inactive PTEN constructs containing an intact C2 domain enhanced cdc42 activity, whereas mutants of the C2 domain calcium binding region 3 membrane-binding loop (M-CBR3) were ineffective. The isolated PTEN C2 domain (C2) accumulated in membrane fractions, but C2 M-CBR3 remained in cytosol. Transfection of C2 but not C2 M-CBR3 rescued defective AM orientation and 3D morphogenesis of PTEN-deficient Caco-2 cultures. The signal intensity of apical phospho-aPKC correlated with that of Na(+)/H(+) exchanger regulatory factor-1 (NHERF-1) in the 3D model. Apical NHERF-1 intensity thus provided readout of apical aPKC activity and associated with glandular morphology in the model system and human colon. Low apical NHERF-1 intensity in CRC associated with disruption of glandular architecture, high cancer grade, and metastatic dissemination. We conclude that the membrane-binding function of the catalytically inert PTEN C2 domain influences cdc42/aPKC-dependent AM dynamics and gland formation in a highly relevant 3D CRC morphogenesis model system.

  16. PTEN Phosphatase-Independent Maintenance of Glandular Morphology in a Predictive Colorectal Cancer Model System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishaan C. Jagan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Organotypic models may provide mechanistic insight into colorectal cancer (CRC morphology. Three-dimensional (3D colorectal gland formation is regulated by phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN coupling of cell division cycle 42 (cdc42 to atypical protein kinase C (aPKC. This study investigated PTEN phosphatase-dependent and phosphatase-independent morphogenic functions in 3D models and assessed translational relevance in human studies. Isogenic PTEN-expressing or PTEN-deficient 3D colorectal cultures were used. In translational studies, apical aPKC activity readout was assessed against apical membrane (AM orientation and gland morphology in 3D models and human CRC. We found that catalytically active or inactive PTEN constructs containing an intact C2 domain enhanced cdc42 activity, whereas mutants of the C2 domain calcium binding region 3 membrane-binding loop (M-CBR3 were ineffective. The isolated PTEN C2 domain (C2 accumulated in membrane fractions, but C2 M-CBR3 remained in cytosol. Transfection of C2 but not C2 M-CBR3 rescued defective AM orientation and 3D morphogenesis of PTEN-deficient Caco-2 cultures. The signal intensity of apical phospho-aPKC correlated with that of Na+/H+ exchanger regulatory factor-1 (NHERF-1 in the 3D model. Apical NHERF-1 intensity thus provided readout of apical aPKC activity and associated with glandular morphology in the model system and human colon. Low apical NHERF-1 intensity in CRC associated with disruption of glandular architecture, high cancer grade, and metastatic dissemination. We conclude that the membrane-binding function of the catalytically inert PTEN C2 domain influences cdc42/aPKC-dependent AM dynamics and gland formation in a highly relevant 3D CRC morphogenesis model system.

  17. Antihistomonal effects of artemisinin and Artemisia annua extracts in vitro could not be confirmed by in vivo experiments in turkeys and chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøfner, I.C.N.; Liebhart, D.; Hess, M.;

    2012-01-01

    Five different Artemisia annua-derived materials (i.e. dry leaves, pure artemisinin, and hexane, dichloromethane or methanol extracts of leaves) were screened for their in vitro activities against six clonal cultures of Histomonas meleagridis. Except for the methanol extract, all tested materials....... The dichloromethane extract of dry leaves (Ext-DCM) (minimal lethal concentration1.0 mg/ml) and artemisinin (half-maximal inhibitory concentration1.295 mg/ml) had the most promising antihistomonal properties and were therefore subsequently tested in a standardized experimental infection model in both turkeys...

  18. The effects of combining Artemisia annua and Curcuma longa ethanolic extracts in broilers challenged with infective oocysts of Eimeria acervulina and E. maxima

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almeida, Gustavo Fonseca; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Madeira, Alda M.B.N

    2014-01-01

    Due to an increasing demand for natural products to control coccidiosis in broilers, we investigated the effects of supplementing a combination of ethanolic extracts of Artemisia annua and Curcuma longa in drinking water. Three different dosages of this herbal mixture were compared with a negative...... and oocyst excretion were investigated. Broilers given chemical coccidiostats performed better than all other groups. Broilers given the two highest dosages of the herbal mixture had intermediate lesion scores caused by Eimeria acervulina, which was higher than in broilers given coccidiostats, but less than...

  19. Células glandulares atípicas em esfregaços cervicovaginais: significância e aspectos atuais Atypical glandular cells in cervical smears: significance and current aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Bittencourt Campaner

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Células glandulares atípicas (AGC em esfregaços cervicovaginais são achados citológicos raros, porém de significado representativo. Sua incidência varia, na literatura, de 0,08% a 0,81%. O sistema Bethesda de 2001 classifica estas lesões glandulares como AGCs sem outras especificações, AGCs provavelmente neoplásicas, adenocarcinoma cervical in situ (AIS e adenocarcinoma invasivo. Das mulheres portadoras de AGC, grande parte não apresentará qualquer tipo de alteração histológica em avaliação subseqüente. Entretanto, em 17,4% a 62,2% dos casos serão encontradas lesões histológicas significativas, como neoplasias intra-epiteliais cervicais, AIS, neoplasias escamosas e glandulares, cervicais e endometriais, bem como neoplasias de outras localizações. O risco de doença significativa está relacionado à subdivisão de AGC encontrada. Em virtude da elevada probabilidade de anormalidades histológicas significativas em casos de AGC, a simples repetição citológica é insuficiente para o seguimento dessa condição. Esta atualização descreve a epidemiologia, a avaliação e a conduta das pacientes portadoras dessa anormalidade citológica.Atypical glandular cells (AGC on cervical smears are unusual but important cytologic diagnosis. The incidence of AGC ranges from 0.08% to 0.81 % of all cervical smears tests. The 2001 Bethesda System nomenclature classifies these glandular lesions as AGC not otherwise specified, AGC favor neoplasia, endocervical adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS and invasive adenocarcinoma. Of women with AGC smears, a great number will have no histologic abnormalities on further evaluation. However, 17.4% to 62.2% are found to have significant histologic lesions such as cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, AIS, squamous and glandular cancers from sites farther the cervix and endometrium. The risk of significant disease is related to the AGC subclassification that was found. Because of the high likelihood that AGC

  20. Cervical squamous and glandular intraepithelial neoplasia: identification and current management approaches Neoplasia intraepitelial cervical escamosa y glandular: identificación y estrategias de manejo

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    V Cecil Wright

    2003-01-01

    realiza mediante la biopsia de cono, y el espécimen debe tener márgenes negativos para enfermedad. La histerectomía es un tratamiento probable, a menos que la fertilidad esté siendo buscada. La escisión, particularmente por electrocirugía (loop, puede interferir con la interpretación histológica en algunos casos o de ambos, particularmente en enfermedades escamosas y adenocarcinoma in situ. En este artículo se describe ampliamente el manejo de la neoplasia intraepitelial escamosa y glandular.

  1. Differentiating between endocervical glandular neoplasia and high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions in endocervical crypts: cytological features in ThinPrep and SurePath cervical cytology samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiryayi, Sakinah A; Marshall, Janet; Rana, Durgesh N

    2009-05-01

    A recent audit at our institution revealed a higher number of cases diagnosed as endocervical glandular neoplasia on ThinPrep (TP) cervical cytology samples (9 cases) as opposed to SurePath (SP) (1 case), which on histology showed only high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) with endocervical crypt involvement (CI). We attempted to ascertain the reasons for this finding by reviewing the available slides of these cases, as well as slides of cases diagnosed as glandular neoplasia on cytology and histology; cases diagnosed as high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) on cytology which had CIN with CI on histology and cases with mixed glandular and squamous abnormalities diagnosed both cytologically and histologically. Single neoplastic glandular cells and short pseudostratified strips were more prevalent in SP than TP with the cell clusters in glandular neoplasia 3-4 cells thick, in contrast to the dense crowded centre of cell groups in HSIL with CI. The cells at the periphery of groups can be misleading. Cases with HSIL and glandular neoplasia have a combination of the features of each entity in isolation. The diagnosis of glandular neoplasia remains challenging and conversion from conventional to liquid based cervical cytology requires a period of learning and adaptation, which can be facilitated by local audit and review of the cytology slides in cases with a cytology-histology mismatch.

  2. Overexpression and Suppression of Artemisia annua 4-Hydroxy-3-Methylbut-2-enyl Diphosphate Reductase 1 Gene (AaHDR1) Differentially Regulate Artemisinin and Terpenoid Biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Dongming; Li, Gui; Zhu, Yue; Xie, De-Yu

    2017-01-01

    4-Hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-enyl diphosphate reductase (HDR) catalyzes the last step of the 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4- phosphate (MEP) pathway to synthesize isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP). To date, little is known regarding effects of an increase or a decrease of a HDR expression on terpenoid and other metabolite profiles in plants. In our study, an Artemisia annua HDR cDNA (namely AaHDR1) was cloned from leaves. Expression profiling showed that it was highly expressed in leaves, roots, stems, and flowers with different levels. Green florescence protein fusion and confocal microscope analyses showed that AaHDR1 was localized in chloroplasts. The overexpression of AaHDR1 increased contents of artemisinin, arteannuin B and other sesquiterpenes, and multiple monoterpenes. By contrast, the suppression of AaHDR1 by anti-sense led to opposite results. In addition, an untargeted metabolic profiling showed that the overexpression and suppression altered non-polar metabolite profiles. In conclusion, the overexpression and suppression of AaHDR1 protein level in plastids differentially affect artemisinin and other terpenoid biosynthesis, and alter non-polar metabolite profiles of A. annua. Particularly, its overexpression leading to the increase of artemisinin production is informative to future metabolic engineering of this antimalarial medicine. PMID:28197158

  3. Chemical Composition of Artemisia annua L. Leaves and Antioxidant Potential of Extracts as a Function of Extraction Solvents

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    Maznah Ismail

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the chemical and nutritional composition of Artemisia annua leaves in addition to determination of antioxidant potential of their extracts prepared in different solvents. Chemical composition was determined by quantifying fat, protein, carbohydrate, fiber, tocopherol, phytate, and tannin contents. Extraction of A. annua leaves, for antioxidant potential evaluation, was carried out using five solvents of different polarities, i.e., hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and water. Antioxidant potential was evaluated by estimating total phenolic (TPC, flavonoid (TFC contents, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC, DPPH radical scavenging activity and lipid peroxidation. Efficiency of different solvents was compared for the yield of antioxidant extracts from leaf samples and a clear variation was observed. The highest TPC, TFC, TEAC, DPPH radical scavenging and lowest lipid peroxidation were observed in MeOH extracts, whereas aqueous extract exhibited high ferric reducing antioxidant power; suggesting MeOH to be the most favorable extractant.

  4. Cloning, E. coli Expression and Molecular Analysis of Amorpha-4,11-Diene Synthase from a High-Yield Strain of Artemisia annua L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen-Qiu Li; Yan Liu; Ben-Ye Liu; Hong Wang; He-Chun Ye; Guo-Feng Li

    2006-01-01

    Increasing demand of artemisinin in the treatment of malaria has placed substantial stress on the total artemisinin supplies world-wide, so more attention has been paid to increasing the content of artemisinin in the Artemisia annua L. plant. In this study, amorpha-4, 11-diene synthase (ADS) cDNA (ads1) and genomics gene (gads1) were cloned from a high-yield A. annua strain 001. The activity of ADS1 was confirmed by heterogeneous overexpression of ads1 and in vitro enzymatic incubation. Reverse transcript-polymerase chain reaction results demonstrated that ads1 expressed in leaves, flowers and young stems, but not in roots. This organ-specific expression pattern of ads1 is consistent with that of artemisinin accumulation in the plant. The gads1 has a complex organization including seven exons and six introns, and belongs to class Ⅲ terpene synthase. DNA gel blotting revealed that the ADS gene has at least four copies in the genome of strain 001. The higher copy numbers might be one of the reasons for its high artemisinin content.

  5. Use of Model-Based Nutrient Feeding for Improved Production of Artemisinin by Hairy Roots of Artemisia Annua in a Modified Stirred Tank Bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Nivedita; Srivastava, Ashok K

    2015-09-01

    Artemisinin has been indicated to be a potent drug for the cure of malaria. Batch growth and artemisinin production kinetics of hairy root cultures of Artemisia annua were studied under shake flask conditions which resulted in accumulation of 12.49 g/L biomass and 0.27 mg/g artemisinin. Using the kinetic data, a mathematical model was identified to understand and optimize the system behavior. The developed model was then extrapolated to design nutrient feeding strategies during fed-batch cultivation for enhanced production of artemisinin. In one of the fed-batch cultivation, sucrose (37 g/L) feeding was done at a constant feed rate of 0.1 L/day during 10-15 days, which led to improved artemisinin accumulation of 0.77 mg/g. The second strategy of fed-batch hairy root cultivation involved maintenance of pseudo-steady state sucrose concentration (20.8 g/L) during 10-15 days which resulted in artemisinin accumulation of 0.99 mg/g. Fed-batch cultivation (with the maintenance of pseudo-steady state of substrate) of Artemisia annua hairy roots was, thereafter, implemented in bioreactor cultivation, which featured artemisinin accumulation of 1.0 mg/g artemisinin in 16 days of cultivation. This is the highest reported artemisinin yield by hairy root cultivation in a bioreactor.

  6. Molecular cloning and promoter analysis of the specific salicylic acid biosynthetic pathway gene phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (AaPAL1) from Artemisia annua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Fu, Xueqing; Hao, Xiaolong; Zhang, Lida; Wang, Luyao; Qian, Hongmei; Zhao, Jingya

    2016-07-01

    Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) is the key enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of salicylic acid (SA). In this study, a full-length cDNA of PAL gene (named as AaPAL1) was cloned from Artemisia annua. The gene contains an open reading frame of 2,151 bps encoding 716 amino acids. Comparative and bioinformatics analysis revealed that the polypeptide protein of AaPAL1 was highly homologous to PALs from other plant species. Southern blot analysis revealed that it belonged to a gene family with three members. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of various tissues of A. annua showed that AaPAL1 transcript levels were highest in the young leaves. A 1160-bp promoter region was also isolated resulting in identification of distinct cis-regulatory elements including W-box, TGACG-motif, and TC-rich repeats. Quantitative RT-PCR indicated that AaPAL1 was upregulated by salinity, drought, wounding, and SA stresses, which were corroborated positively with the identified cis-elements within the promoter region. AaPAL1 was successfully expressed in Escherichia. coli and the enzyme activity of the purified AaPAL1 was approximately 287.2 U/mg. These results substantiated the involvement of AaPAL1 in the phenylalanine pathway.

  7. Weeding atypical glandular cell look-alikes from the true atypical lesions in liquid-based Pap tests: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Moira D; Horst, Julie A; Bibbo, Marluce

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to identify features that separate atypical glandular cells (AGC) associated with glandular neoplasia from its mimickers, both benign and neoplastic. We reviewed cases of AGC diagnosed on liquid-based Pap tests (LBP) for which corresponding histological follow-up was available. A review of the literature for similar studies in LBP tests was also conducted. We find that certain benign mimics can be reliably separated from AGC, but recommend caution in attempting to increase specificity at the risk of losing sensitivity. Although accounting for only a small percentage of diagnoses AGC require a thorough clinical evaluation, including colposcopy. Most cases are ultimately found to be benign. When evaluating smears suspicious for AGC, it is important to examine the subtle features which make truly atypical cells discernible from their numerous benign mimickers.

  8. Glandular Characteristics of the Stigma During the Development of Cucumis sativus Female Flowers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENGYi-Ben; BAIShu-Nong; XUZhi-Hong; LIYi-Qin

    2004-01-01

    The stigma initiation and development of Cucumis sativus L female flower was studied usingelectron microscopy. The differentiation of stigmatic cells could be recognized when the floral bud wasabout 1 mm in length. After the pinnate structure of the stigma appeared, three regions indicating thepapillae, the transmitting tissue and the secretory tissue were observed. The pinnate stigma wascharacterized as a partition structure for naming immature and mature stigma in the following investigation.The ultrastructure of various tissue cells of the stigma during the development was observed usingtransmission electron microscopy. Throughout the whole developmental process the cytoplasm of papillaeand secretory tissue cells was filled with many endoplasmic reticula (ER). Most of the ER was tube-like andrough with enlarged cisterna from which many vesicles were produced. |n the mature stigma, numbers ofplasmodesmata were found between the secretory and the transmitting tissue cells. The papillae andsecretory tissue cells are highly vacuolated and the plasmalemma was invaginated or exvaginated. Thenuclear envelope of secretory tissue cells was enlarged, which led to the formation of plurivalvis nucleusduring stigma development, Apparently, nuclear envelope became more strongly lamellate at mature stage.In different tissue cells of mature stigma, ATPase activity was localized along the plasmalemma andvacuole membrane. The PM-H*-ATPase specific activity increased during stigma deve{opment. Ourresults revealed the glandular characteristics of the developing stigma of cucumber female flowers.

  9. Glandular odontogenic cyst: review of literature and report of a new case with cytokeratin-19 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascitti, Marco; Santarelli, Andrea; Sabatucci, Antonio; Procaccini, Maurizio; Lo Muzio, Lorenzo; Zizzi, Antonio; Rubini, Corrado

    2014-01-01

    The glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC) was a rare jawbone cyst described in 1988 as a distinct entity. This lesion can involve either jaw, and the anterior region of the mandible was the most commonly affected area. Clinical and radiographic findings were not specific, and the diagnosis of GOC can be extremely difficult due to the rarity of this lesion. The cyst presented a wall constituted by fibrous connective tissue and was lined by a non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium of variable thickness. Large areas of the lining epithelium presented cylinder cells, sometimes ciliated. A variable amount of mucina was occasionally noted. Due to the strong similarities, this cyst can be easily misdiag-nosed as a central mucoepidermoid carcinoma (CMEC). Immunohistochemistry may be an aid in diagnosis; in fact has been demonstrated that there were differences in the expression of cytokeratins (CK) in GOC and CMEC. In this study, we reported a new case of GOC in a 38 year female patient. In addition, we carried out a review of 110 previous cases reported in literature.

  10. Bladder drainage and glandular epithelial morphometry of the prostate in benign prostatic hyperplasia with severe symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Cury

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Morphometrically analyze the cells nuclei of the basal layer of the prostatic glandular epithelium in 20 patients aged between 57 and 85 years presenting benign prostatic hyperplasia with severe symptoms, catheterized or not. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with score of severe prostatic symptoms (with indication for transurethral resection of the prostate were distributed according to the presence or absence of bladder drainage previous to the surgery, in the treated group (n = 10, catheter during 3 months and in the control group (n = 10, without catheter. After obtaining prostate fragments through transurethral resection and the use of morphometric techniques, 100 nuclei of prostatic glands epithelium cells were studied (as to size and form, and compared to 500 nuclei from patients submitted to catheter drainage and 500 nuclei of non-catheterized patients. RESULTS: Significantly reduced values of the major, medium and minor nuclear diameters, volume, area and perimeter, contour index and nuclear volume-nuclear area ratio were observed in the treated group in relation to the control group. As to the form, eccentricity and coefficient of nuclear form, there were significant differences between treated and control groups. CONCLUSION: Long-term catheter bladder drainage in patients presenting benign prostatic hyperplasia with severe symptoms is associated to the reduction of morphometric parameters of the nuclei of prostatic glands’ epithelial cells, suggesting a likely decompressive duct effect.

  11. Development and Characterization of Uterine Glandular Epithelium Specific Androgen Receptor Knockout Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jaesung Peter; Zheng, Yu; Skulte, Katherine A; Handelsman, David J; Simanainen, Ulla

    2015-11-01

    While estrogen action is the major driver of uterine development, androgens acting via the androgen receptor (AR) may also promote uterine growth as suggested by uterine phenotypes in global AR knockout (ARKO) female mice. Because AR is expressed in uterine endometrial glands, we generated (Cre/loxP) uterine gland epithelium-specific ARKO (ugeARKO) to determine the role of endometrial gland-specific androgen actions. However, AR in uterine gland epithelium may not be required for normal uterine development and function because ugeARKO females had normal uterine development and fertility. To determine if exogenous androgens acting via AR can fully support uterine growth in the absence of estrogens, the ARKO and ugeARKO females were ovariectomized and treated with supraphysiological doses of testosterone or dihydrotestosterone (nonaromatizable androgen). Both dihydrotestosterone and testosterone supported full uterine regrowth in wild-type females while ARKO females had no regrowth (comparable to ovariectomized only). These findings suggest that androgens acting via AR can promote full uterine regrowth in the absence of estrogens. The ugeARKO had 50% regrowth when compared to intact uterine glands, and histomorphologically, both the endometrial and myometrial areas were significantly (P glandular epithelial AR located in the endometrium may indirectly modify myometrial development. Additionally, to confirm Cre function in endometrial glands, we generated uge-specific PTEN knockout mouse model. The ugePTEN knockout females developed severe endometrial hyperplasia and therefore present a novel model for future research.

  12. A solitary mixed squamous cell and glandular papilloma of the lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozu, Yoshiki; Maniwa, Tomohiro; Ohde, Yasuhisa; Nakajima, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Mixed squamous cell and glandular papilloma (mixed papilloma) of the lung is exceedingly rare, with only 18 cases reported in the literature. Herein, we report a case of mixed papilloma and its associated immunohistochemical and positron emission tomographic (PET) findings. A 60-year-old Japanese male with a smoking history of 40 pack-years presented with a smooth-edged pulmonary lesion in the right S5 segment on computed tomography (CT). F18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET revealed abnormally increased FDG uptake in the mass (maximum standardized uptake value, 3.4). We performed right middle lobectomy and combined partial resection of the S8 segment. The 1.8-cm tumor that filled the enlarged lumen of the B5b was histologically diagnosed as mixed papilloma. Immunohistochemically, the pseudostratified columnar epithelium was positive for cytokeratin (CK) 5/6 and CK7. p40 positivity was predominant in the basal and squamous cells. Thyroid transcription factor-1 and carcinoembryonic antigen were negative on immunostaining. Malignant features were absent. The postoperative course has been uneventful for 3 months after the surgery. No recurrences were reported after the surgical resection of the mixed papilloma. Therefore, surgical resection may be considered the mainstay of curative treatment.

  13. Glandular odontogenic cyst mimicking ameloblastoma in a 78 year old female: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Do; Lee, Wan; Kwon, Kyung Hwan; Choi, Moon Ki; Choi, Eun Joo [College of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Jung Hoon [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, College of Dentistry, Daejeon Dental Hospital, Wonkwang University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    Glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC) is a rare, potentially aggressive jaw lesion. The common radiographic features include a well-defined radiolucency with distinct borders, presenting a uni- or multilocular appearance. A cystic lesion in the posterior mandible of a 78-year-old female was incidentally found. Radiographs showed a unilocular lesion with a scalloped margin, external root resorption of the adjacent tooth, and cortical perforation. This lesion had changed from a small ovoid shape to a more expanded lesion in a period of four years. The small lesion showed unilocularity with a smooth margin and a well-defined border, but the expanded lesion produced cortical perforation and a lobulated margin. The provisional diagnosis was an ameloblastoma, whereas the histopathological examination revealed a GOC. This was a quite rare case, given that this radiographic change was observed in the posterior mandible of an elderly female. This case showed that a GOC can grow even in people in their seventies, changing from the unilocular form to an expanded, lobulated lesion. Here, we report a case of GOC with characteristic radiographic features.

  14. Cistitis quística glandular presentada como cistopatía quística

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Orlich-Castelán

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de una mujer de 73 años, con historia de hematuria macroscópica de aparición reciente, con presencia de quistes en toda la extensión de la mucosa vesical, y con diagnóstico por biopsias de vejiga, de una cistitis glandular. Se habla de cistopatía quística cuando los quistes se encuentran difusamente en la vejiga, y frecuentemente coexiste con lipomatosis pélvica en pacientes obesas, como la que reportada aquí. Es considerada una lesión premaligna y por eso es importante un seguimiento cuidadoso con cistoscopias periódicas. La cistitis quística se presenta más frecuentemente en hombres y en personas de mayor edad. Macroscópicamente, se manifiesta con nódulos submucosos únicos o múltiples, y los hallazgos histológicos son la presencia de nidos uroteliales redondeados, con dilatación quística dentro de la lámina propia, y paralelos a la superficie urotelial.

  15. The Characterization of SaPIN2b, a Plant Trichome-Localized Proteinase Inhibitor from Solanum americanum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng-Fu Xu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Proteinase inhibitors play an important role in plant resistance of insects and pathogens. In this study, we characterized the serine proteinase inhibitor SaPIN2b, which is constitutively expressed in Solanum americanum trichomes and contains two conserved motifs of the proteinase inhibitor II (PIN2 family. The recombinant SaPIN2b (rSaPIN2b, which was expressed in Escherichia coli, was demonstrated to be a potent proteinase inhibitor against a panel of serine proteinases, including subtilisin A, chymotrypsin and trypsin. Moreover, rSaPIN2b also effectively inhibited the proteinase activities of midgut trypsin-like proteinases that were extracted from the devastating pest Helicoverpa armigera. Furthermore, the overexpression of SaPIN2b in transgenic tobacco plants resulted in enhanced resistance against H. armigera. Taken together, our results demonstrated that SaPIN2b is a potent serine proteinase inhibitor that may act as a protective protein in plant defense against insect attacks.

  16. The characterization of SaPIN2b, a plant trichome-localized proteinase inhibitor from Solanum americanum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ming; Ding, Ling-Wen; Ge, Zhi-Juan; Wang, Zhen-Yu; Hu, Bo-Lun; Yang, Xiao-Bei; Sun, Qiao-Yang; Xu, Zeng-Fu

    2012-11-16

    Proteinase inhibitors play an important role in plant resistance of insects and pathogens. In this study, we characterized the serine proteinase inhibitor SaPIN2b, which is constitutively expressed in Solanum americanum trichomes and contains two conserved motifs of the proteinase inhibitor II (PIN2) family. The recombinant SaPIN2b (rSaPIN2b), which was expressed in Escherichia coli, was demonstrated to be a potent proteinase inhibitor against a panel of serine proteinases, including subtilisin A, chymotrypsin and trypsin. Moreover, rSaPIN2b also effectively inhibited the proteinase activities of midgut trypsin-like proteinases that were extracted from the devastating pest Helicoverpa armigera. Furthermore, the overexpression of SaPIN2b in transgenic tobacco plants resulted in enhanced resistance against H. armigera. Taken together, our results demonstrated that SaPIN2b is a potent serine proteinase inhibitor that may act as a protective protein in plant defense against insect attacks.

  17. Activity of alkaline and acidic phosphatase in glandular cells of uterine endometrium of puerperal ewes after exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls

    OpenAIRE

    Valocky I.; Krajničakova Maria; Legath J.; Lenhardt L.; Ostro A.; Danko J.; Tkačikova L`udmila; Mojžišova Jana; Fialkovičova Maria; Mardzinova Silvia

    2005-01-01

    The study is focused on the observation of alkaline and acidic phosphatase activity in the glandular cells of uterine endometrium in puerperal ewes after exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls. Ewes of Slovak merino breed (n=25) divided into 2 groups were included in the experiment. The animals in the experimental group (n=14) and control group (n=11) were euthanised on day 17, 25 and 34 postpartum. The ewes in the experimental group were given per os capsules of the chemical preparation Delor...

  18. Fibroblast growth factor 10-fibroblast growth factor receptor 2b mediated signaling is not required for adult glandular stomach homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison L Speer

    Full Text Available The signaling pathways that are essential for gastric organogenesis have been studied in some detail; however, those that regulate the maintenance of the gastric epithelium during adult homeostasis remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of Fibroblast growth factor 10 (FGF10 and its main receptor, Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2b (FGFR2b, in adult glandular stomach homeostasis. We first showed that mouse adult glandular stomach expressed Fgf10, its receptors, Fgfr1b and Fgfr2b, and most of the other FGFR2b ligands (Fgf1, Fgf7, Fgf22 except for Fgf3 and Fgf20. Fgf10 expression was mesenchymal whereas FGFR1 and FGFR2 expression were mostly epithelial. Studying double transgenic mice that allow inducible overexpression of Fgf10 in adult mice, we showed that Fgf10 overexpression in normal adult glandular stomach increased epithelial proliferation, drove mucous neck cell differentiation, and reduced parietal and chief cell differentiation. Although a similar phenotype can be associated with the development of metaplasia, we found that Fgf10 overexpression for a short duration does not cause metaplasia. Finally, investigating double transgenic mice that allow the expression of a soluble form of Fgfr2b, FGF10's main receptor, which acts as a dominant negative, we found no significant changes in gastric epithelial proliferation or differentiation in the mutants. Our work provides evidence, for the first time, that the FGF10-FGFR2b signaling pathway is not required for epithelial proliferation and differentiation during adult glandular stomach homeostasis.

  19. Fibroblast growth factor 10-fibroblast growth factor receptor 2b mediated signaling is not required for adult glandular stomach homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speer, Allison L; Al Alam, Denise; Sala, Frederic G; Ford, Henri R; Bellusci, Saverio; Grikscheit, Tracy C

    2012-01-01

    The signaling pathways that are essential for gastric organogenesis have been studied in some detail; however, those that regulate the maintenance of the gastric epithelium during adult homeostasis remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of Fibroblast growth factor 10 (FGF10) and its main receptor, Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2b (FGFR2b), in adult glandular stomach homeostasis. We first showed that mouse adult glandular stomach expressed Fgf10, its receptors, Fgfr1b and Fgfr2b, and most of the other FGFR2b ligands (Fgf1, Fgf7, Fgf22) except for Fgf3 and Fgf20. Fgf10 expression was mesenchymal whereas FGFR1 and FGFR2 expression were mostly epithelial. Studying double transgenic mice that allow inducible overexpression of Fgf10 in adult mice, we showed that Fgf10 overexpression in normal adult glandular stomach increased epithelial proliferation, drove mucous neck cell differentiation, and reduced parietal and chief cell differentiation. Although a similar phenotype can be associated with the development of metaplasia, we found that Fgf10 overexpression for a short duration does not cause metaplasia. Finally, investigating double transgenic mice that allow the expression of a soluble form of Fgfr2b, FGF10's main receptor, which acts as a dominant negative, we found no significant changes in gastric epithelial proliferation or differentiation in the mutants. Our work provides evidence, for the first time, that the FGF10-FGFR2b signaling pathway is not required for epithelial proliferation and differentiation during adult glandular stomach homeostasis.

  20. Endometrial Glandular Dysplasia (EmGD): morphologically and biologically distinctive putative precursor lesions of Type II endometrial cancers

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng Wenxin; Fadare Oluwole

    2008-01-01

    Abstract In this article, the authors briefly review the historical evolution of the various putative precursor lesions for Type II endometrial cancers, with an emphasis on the newly defined "Endometrial Glandular Dysplasia (EmGD)". The evidentiary basis for delineating serous EmGD as the most probable precursor lesions to endometrial serous carcinoma is reviewed in detail. An argument is advanced for the discontinuation of the term serous "endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma (EIC)" as a de...

  1. Biomass Production of Hairy Roots of Artemisia annua and Arachis hypogaea in a Scaled-Up Mist Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, Ganapathy; Liu, Chunzhao; Towler, Melissa J.

    2014-01-01

    Hairy roots have the potential to produce a variety of valuable small and large molecules. The mist reactor is a gas phase bioreactor that has shown promise for low-cost culture of hairy roots. Using a newer, disposable culture bag, mist reactor performance was studied with two species, Artemisia annua L. and Arachis hypogaea (peanut), at scales from 1 to 20 L. Both species of hairy roots when grown at 1 L in the mist reactor showed growth rates that surpassed that in shake flasks. From the information gleaned at 1 L, Arachis was scaled further to 4 and then 20 L. Misting duty cycle, culture medium flow rate, and timing of when flow rate was increased were varied. In a mist reactor increasing the misting cycle or increasing the medium flow rate are the two alternatives for increased delivery of liquid nutrients to the root bed. Longer misting cycles beyond 2–3 min were generally deemed detrimental to growth. On the other hand, increasing the medium flow rate to the sonic nozzle especially during the exponential phase of root growth (weeks 2–3) was the most important factor for increasing growth rates and biomass yields in the 20 L reactors. A. hypogaea growth in 1 L reactors was μ = 0.173 day−1 with biomass yield of 12.75 g DWL−1. This exceeded that in shake flasks at μ = 0.166 day−1 and 11.10 g DWL−1. Best growth rate and biomass yield at 20 L was μ = 0.147 and 7.77 g DWL−1, which was mainly achieved when medium flow rate delivery was increased. The mist deposition model was further evaluated using this newer reactor design and when the apparent thickness of roots (+hairs) was taken into account, the empirical data correlated with model predictions. Together these results establish the most important conditions to explore for future optimization of the mist bioreactor for culture of hairy roots. PMID:20687140

  2. Notch signaling functions as a binary switch for the determination of glandular and luminal fates of endodermal epithelium during chicken stomach development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Yoshimasa; Wakamatsu, Yoshio; Kohyama, Jun; Okano, Hideyuki; Fukuda, Kimiko; Yasugi, Sadao

    2005-06-01

    During development of the chicken proventriculus (glandular stomach), gut endoderm differentiates into glandular and luminal epithelium. We found that Delta1-expressing cells, undifferentiated cells and Notch-activated cells colocalize within the endodermal epithelium during early gland formation. Inhibition of Notch signaling using Numb or dominant-negative form of Su(H) resulted in a luminal differentiation, while forced activation of Notch signaling promoted the specification of immature glandular cells, but prevented the subsequent differentiation and the invagination of the glands. These results suggest that Delta1-mediated Notch signaling among endodermal cells functions as a binary switch for determination of glandular and luminal fates, and regulates patterned differentiation of glands in the chicken proventriculus.

  3. Genetics and biochemistry of collagen binding-triggered glandular differentiation in a human colon carcinoma cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pignatelli, M.; Bodmer, W.F. (Imperial Cancer Research Fund, London (England))

    1988-08-01

    The authors have examined the interaction between collagen binding and epithelial differentiation by using a human colon carcinoma cell line (SW1222) that can differentiate structurally when grown in a three-dimensional collagen gel to form glandular structures. As much as 66% inhibition of glandular differentiation can be achieved by addition to the culture of a synthetic peptide containing the Arg-Gly-Asp-Thr (RGDT) sequence, which is a cell recognition site found in collagen. Arg-Gly-Asp-Thr also inhibited the cell attachment to collagen-coated plates. Chromosome 15 was found in all human-mouse hybrid clones that could differentiate in the collagen gel and bind collagen. Both binding to collagen and glandular differentiation of the hybrid cells were also inhibited by Arg-Gly-Asp-Thr as for the parent cell line SW1222. The ability of SW1222 cells to express the differentiated phenotype appears, therefore, to be determined by an Arg-Gly-Asp-directed collagen receptor on the cell surface that is controlled by a gene on chromosome 15.

  4. Otimização do processo de extração e isolamento do antimalárico artemisinina a partir de Artemisia annua L. Optimization of the extraction and isolation of the antimalarial drug artemisinin from Artemisia annua L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney Alexandre Ferreira Rodrigues

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is still one of the major diseases in the world, causing physical and economic problems in tropical regions. Artemisinin (Qinghaosu, a natural compound identified in Artemisia annua L. , is an effective drug mainly against cerebral malaria. The action of this drug is immediate and parasitaemia in the treatment of drug-resistant malaria is rapidily reduced, justifying the industrial production of artemisinin. This article focuses on the industrial production of this potent antimalarial drug, including strategies for enhancing yield using inexpensive and easy steps.

  5. Risk of invasive cervical cancer after atypical glandular cells in cervical screening: nationwide cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrae, Bengt; Sundström, Karin; Ström, Peter; Ploner, Alexander; Elfström, K Miriam; Arnheim-Dahlström, Lisen; Dillner, Joakim; Sparén, Pär

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the risks of invasive cervical cancer after detection of atypical glandular cells (AGC) during cervical screening. Design Nationwide population based cohort study. Setting Cancer and population registries in Sweden. Participants 3 054 328 women living in Sweden at any time between 1 January 1980 and 1 July 2011 who had any record of cervical cytological testing at ages 23-59. Of these, 2 899 968 women had normal cytology results at the first screening record. The first recorded abnormal result was atypical glandular cells (AGC) in 14 625, high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) in 65 633, and low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) in 244 168. Main outcome measures Cumulative incidence of invasive cervical cancer over 15.5 years; proportion of invasive cervical cancer within six months of abnormality (prevalence); crude incidence rates for invasive cervical cancer over 0.5-15.5 years of follow-up; incidence rate ratios compared with women with normal cytology, estimated with Poisson regression adjusted for age and stratified by histopathology of cancer; distribution of clinical assessment within six months after the abnormality. Results The prevalence of cervical cancer was 1.4% for women with AGC, which was lower than for women with HSIL (2.5%) but higher than for women with LSIL (0.2%); adenocarcinoma accounted for 73.2% of the prevalent cases associated with AGC. The incidence rate of invasive cervical cancer after AGC was significantly higher than for women with normal results on cytology for up to 15.5 years and higher than HSIL and LSIL for up to 6.5 years. The incidence rate of adenocarcinoma was 61 times higher than for women with normal results on cytology in the first screening round after AGC, and remained nine times higher for up to 15.5 years. Incidence and prevalence of invasive cervical cancer was highest when AGC was found at ages 30-39. Only 54% of women with AGC underwent histology assessment

  6. Normalized mean glandular dose computation from mammography using GATE: a validation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myronakis, Marios E.; Zvelebil, Marketa; Darambara, Dimitra G.

    2013-04-01

    Mean glandular dose (MGD) is the figure of merit to assess breast dose after a mammographic acquisition. The use of normalized MGD obtained from Monte Carlo computations with measured incident air kerma determines the MGD delivered to patients. The Geant4 Application for Tomographic Emission (GATE) toolkit is a modern Monte Carlo application specifically designed for medical imaging systems modelling. Although there is an increasing number of publications using GATE worldwide for a wide range of medical imaging and therapeutic applications, there is currently no means to obtain normalized MGD. In this work, the GATE toolkit is extended, through the development of two new modules, to provide normalized MGD information for compressed breast phantoms based on simple geometries. The normalized MGD values were validated against published work and provided results at half value layers lower than 0.3 and greater than 0.6 mmAl. In addition, the skin thickness and composition were considered. Normalized MGD was computed after substitution of the adipose layer surrounding the standard breast phantom with skin tissue and the relative difference is reported. Spectrum generation was facilitated by further development of previously published work by other authors. Validation of the new GATE extension showed good agreement with published data and can be used to assess breast dose from mammographic as well as more complex x-ray imaging techniques. Changing skin thickness and composition revealed substantial changes in normalized MGD specifically for compressed breast thickness different than 5 cm and a possible revision of the structure of the standard breast model may be necessary.

  7. Predominant Glandular Cholinergic Dysautonomia in Patients with Primary Sjögren’s Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imrich, Richard; Alevizos, Ilias; Bebris, Lolita; Goldstein, David S.; Holmes, Courtney S.; Illei, Gabor G.; Nikolov, Nikolay P.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The autonomic nervous system (ANS) modulates exocrine gland function. Available data show poor correlation between the degree of exocrine gland function and destruction in primary Sjögren’s syndrome (pSS) suggesting other mechanisms, such as autonomic dysfunction may be important in these patients. We performed a comprehensive analysis of sympathoneural and sympathetic cholinergic function in well-characterized patients with pSS. Methods 21 pSS patients (mean±SE age 44±3 years) and in 13 healthy controls (51±2 years) were assessed during orthostasis and intravenous injection of edrophonium (10 mg). The postganglionic sympathetic cholinergic system was evaluated by assessing sweat production by the quantitative sudomotor axon reflex test (QSART). Gastric empting testing assessed the gastro-intestinal ANS in pSS patients. Results Velocity index and acceleration index were significantly higher (p<0.05) in pSS compared to controls before and during the orthostatic and edrophonium tests. Other hemodynamic and neurochemical parameters did not differ between pSS patients and controls during the orthostasis and edrophonium test, however, edrophonium-induced saliva increment was lower in pSS (p=0.002). Abnormally low sweat production was found in four (N=4) pSS patients but in none of the controls in the QSART. Gastric empting was delayed in 53 % of pSS patients. Conclusion We observed subtle differences in several ANS domains, including gastrointestinal and sympathocholinergic system suggesting a complex ANS dysfunction in pSS. The impact was the largest on the exocrine glands with subtle differences in the cardiac parasympathetic function independent of glandular inflammation and atrophy, suggesting an alternative pathogenesis mechanism of the disease in pSS. PMID:25622919

  8. SU-E-I-04: A Mammography Phantom to Measure Mean Glandular Dose and Image Quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Pineda, E; Ruiz-Trejo, C; E, Brandan M [Instituto de Fisica UNAM, Mexico City, DF (Mexico)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate mean glandular dose (MGD) and image quality in a selection of mammography systems using a novel phantom based on thermoluminescent dosemeters and the ACR wax insert. Methods: The phantom consists of two acrylic, 19 cm diameter, 4.5 cm thick, semicircular modules, used in sequence. The image quality module contains the ACR insert and is used to obtain a quality control image under automatic exposure conditions. The dosimetric module carries 15 TLD-100 chips, some under Al foils, to determine air kerma and half-value-layer. TL readings take place at our laboratory under controlled conditions. Calibration was performed using an ionization chamber and a Senographe 2000D unit for a variety of beam qualities, from 24 to 40 kV, Mo and Rh anodes and filters. Phantom MGD values agree, on the average, within 3% with ionization chamber data, and their precision is better than 10% (k=1). Results: MGD and image quality have been evaluated in a selection of mammography units currently used in Mexican health services. The sample includes analogic (screen/film), flexible digital (CR), and full-field digital image receptors. The highest MDG are associated to the CR technology. The most common image quality failure is due to artifacts (dust, intensifying screen scratches, and processor marks for film/screen, laser reader defects for CR). Conclusion: The developed phantom permits the MGD measurement without the need of a calibrated ionization chamber at the mammography site and can be used by a technician without the presence of a medical physicist. The results indicate the urgent need to establish quality control programs for mammography.

  9. Co-Relationships between Glandular Salivary Flow Rates and Dental Caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Guillory, Carolina Diaz; Schoolfield, John D; Johnson, Dorthea; Yeh, Chih-Ko; Chen, Shuo; Cappelli, David P; Bober-Moken, Irene G; Dang, Howard

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study was designed to evaluate the relationship of age, gender, ethnicity and salivary flow rates on dental caries in an adult population using data collected from the Oral Health San Antonio Longitudinal Study of Aging (OH:SALSA). Background Saliva is essential to maintain a healthy oral environment and diminished output can result in dental caries. Although gender and age play a role in the quantity of saliva, little is known about the interaction of age, gender and ethnicity on dental caries and salivary flow rates. Materials and Methods Data from the 1,147 participants in the OH: SALSA was analyzed. The dependent variables were the number of teeth with untreated coronal caries, number of teeth with root caries, and the number of coronal and root surfaces with untreated caries. The independent variables were stimulated and unstimulated glandular salivary flow rates along with the age, sex, and ethnicity (e.g. European or Mexican ancestry) of the participants. Results Coronal caries experience was greater in younger participants while root surface caries experience was greater in the older participants. Coronal caries was lower in the older age groups while the root caries experience increased. Men had a statistically significant (p<0.02) higher experience of root caries than women. Values for unstimulated and stimulated parotid salivary flow rates showed no age difference and remained constant with age, whereas the age differences in the unstimulated and stimulated submandibular/sublingual salivary flow rates were significant. The mean number of teeth with coronal and root caries was higher in Mexican-Americans than in European-Americans. Conclusions Over one-fourth of the adults between the ages of 60 and 79 have untreated root caries over one-third having untreated coronal caries. Lower salivary flow rates play a significant role in the both the number of teeth and the number of surfaces developing caries in these adults. Women and individuals

  10. Glandular odontogenic cyst – Literature review and report of a paediatric case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faisal, Mohammad; Ahmad, Syed Ansar; Ansari, Uzma

    2015-01-01

    Glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC) is an extremely rare lesion occurring in the jawbones. The present paper is a review of 181 cases of GOCs reported in English literature, since it was first reported by Padayache and Van Wyk in 1987. Mandible was involved in 130 cases and maxilla in 51 cases. Anterior mandible was the most common area of involvement. Radiographic appearance was that of a unilocular radiolucency in 98 of 176 reported cases. Rest presented as multilocular radiolucency. Cortical expansion was observed in 136 of the 180 reported cases while cortex breach or perforation was seen in 81 cases. The treatment of choice was that of minor procedures that included enucleation with or without curettage, peripheral ostectomy, cryotherapy, etc. in 157 of the total 177 reported cases. Marginal jaw resection, segmental mandibulectomy etc. was reported in 20 cases. Although minor surgical procedures were the treatment of choice in most studies, two major studies of Kaplan et al. and Fowler et al. involving 111 and 46 cases, recorded a recurrence rate of 35.9 and 19.6%, respectively. The age range was between 11 and 82 years. The respective mean age of patients in the above mentioned studies was 45.7 for Kaplan's and 51 years for Fowler's whereas in our study, the mean age was 45.9 years. Very rarely does GOC presents itself in a paediatric patient. The paper also reports a case of an 11-year-old child whose histopathogy came out to be a case of a GOC. PMID:26587384

  11. Effects of Artemisia annua Extracts on Ruminal Fermentation Parameters in vivo,Concentration of Conjugated Linoleic Acid in the Rumen and Milk in Dairy Goats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li-fang; MA Yan-fen; GAO Min; LU De-xun

    2011-01-01

    IntroductionIt has been well established that plant oil or fish oil could enhance cis-9 trans-11CLA content in the ruminant food products.However, it is generally accepted that adding unsaturated fatty acid to ruminant diets may exert negative effects on fiber degradation and rumen microbe populations.For this reason,there is growing interest in evaluating the potential measures of increasing cis-9 trans-11CLA content in the ruminant food products.Recently some researches showed that some plants or plant extracts could increase cis-9 trans-11CLA content in milk.The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of Artemisia annua Extracts (AAE) on ruminal fermentation parameters in vivo,the proportions of cis-9 trans11CLA and trans-11 C18∶1 in the ruminal fluid and in dairy goats milk.

  12. Progress of the Study about Essential Oil of the Artemisia annua L%青蒿精油研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康振国

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviewed the worldwide research progress of Essential Oil of the Artemisia annua L both on phytochemi-cal and pharmacology work in the past fifteen years. The main constitutes of this Essential Oil are proved to be tepenoids. Pharmaco-logical investigations revealed that the oil possess significant bioactivities on antitumor, antibacterial, antivirus, antioxidant activities, insecticidal activity, poison activity to mosquito and a strong depressant activity on the CNS. This review afforded the comprehensive description of the active components as to provide useful references to elucidate their historical clinical application on anticonvulsant drugs, heat-clearing and detoxifying, anti-inflammation and heat-stroke-lifting. At the same time, this paper also provided references for the further studied about Artemisia annua L oil.%本文对近十五年来国内外关于蒿属药用植物青蒿中精油的研究现状进行了综述。青蒿精油的主要成分是萜类化合物;药理试验表明其具有抗癌,抗菌,抗病毒,抗氧化,杀虫,驱蚊和对中枢神经系统的镇静作用等多种生物活性。本文有助于阐明青蒿精油作为抗惊厥,清热,解毒,抗炎,消暑等临床应用的物质基础,对青蒿精油的深度研发也具有一定的参考价值。

  13. Validation of mean glandular dose values provided by a digital breast tomosynthesis system in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beraldo O, B.; Paixao, L.; Donato da S, S. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear / CNEN, Post-graduation in Sciences and Technology of Radiations Minerals and Materials, Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Araujo T, M. H. [Dr Maria Helena Araujo Teixeira Clinic, Guajajaras 40, 30180-100 Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Nogueira, M. S., E-mail: bbo@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear / CNEN, Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is an emerging imaging modality that provides quasi-three-dimensional structural information of the breast and has strong promise to improve the differentiation of normal tissue and suspicious masses reducing the tissue overlaps. DBT images are reconstructed from a sequence of low-dose X-ray projections of the breast acquired at a small number of angles over a limited angular range. The Ho logic Selen ia Dimensions system is equipped with an amorphous Selenium (a-Se) detector layer of 250 μm thickness and a 70 μm pixel pitch. Studies are needed to determine the radiation dose of patients that are undergoing this emerging procedure to compare with the results obtained in DBT images. The mean glandular dose (D{sub G}) is the dosimetric quantity used in quality control of the mammographic systems. The aim of this work is to validate D{sub G} values for different breast thicknesses provided by a Ho logic Selen ia Dimensions system using a DBT mode in comparison with the same results obtained by a calibrated 90 X 5-6M-model Radcal ionization chamber. D{sub G} values were derived from the incident air kerma (K{sub i}) measurements and tabulated conversion coefficients that are dependent on the half value layer (HVL) of the X-ray spectrum. Voltage and tube loading values were recorded in irradiations using W/Al anode/filter combination, automatic exposure control mode and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) slabs which simulate different breast thicknesses. For K{sub i} measurements, the ionization chamber was positioned at 655 mm from the focus and the same radiographic technique values were selected with the manual mode. D{sub G} values for a complete procedure ranged from 0.9 ± 0.1 to 3.7 ± 0.4 mGy. The results for different breast thicknesses are in accordance with values obtained by DBT images and with acceptable levels established by the Commission of the European Communities (Cec) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA

  14. Effect of 935-MHz phone-simulating electromagnetic radiation on endometrial glandular cells during mouse embryo implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenhui; Zheng, Xinmin; Qu, Zaiqing; Zhang, Ming; Zhou, Chun; Ma, Ling; Zhang, Yuanzhen

    2012-10-01

    This study examined the impact of 935MHz phone-simulating electromagnetic radiation on embryo implantation of pregnant mice. Each 7-week-old Kunming (KM) female white mouse was set up with a KM male mouse in a single cage for mating overnight after induction of ovulation. In the first three days of pregnancy, the pregnant mice was exposed to electromagnetic radiation at low-intensity (150 μW/cm(2), ranging from 130 to 200 μW/cm(2), for 2- or 4-h exposure every day), mid-intensity (570 μW/cm(2), ranging from 400 to 700 μW/cm(2), for 2- or 4-h exposure every day) or high-intensity (1400 μW/cm(2), ranging from 1200 to 1500 μW/cm(2), for 2- or 4-h exposure every day), respectively. On the day 4 after gestation (known as the window of murine embryo implantation), the endometrium was collected and the suspension of endometrial glandular cells was made. Laser scanning microscopy was employed to detect the mitochondrial membrane potential and intracellular calcium ion concentration. In high-intensity, 2- and 4-h groups, mitochondrial membrane potential of endometrial glandular cells was significantly lower than that in the normal control group (Pelectromagnetic radiation and longer length of the radiation are required to inflict a remarkable functional and structural damage to mitochondrial membrane. Our data demonstrated that electromagnetic radiation with a 935-MHz phone for 4 h conspicuously decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and lowered the calcium ion concentration of endometrial glandular cells. It is suggested that high-intensity electromagnetic radiation is very likely to induce the death of embryonic cells and decrease the chance of their implantation, thereby posing a high risk to pregnancy.

  15. Gastric tumor development in Smad3-deficient mice initiates from forestomach/glandular transition zone along the lesser curvature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Ki Taek; O'Neal, Ryan; Lee, Yeo Song; Lee, Yong Chan; Coffey, Robert J; Goldenring, James R

    2012-06-01

    SMAD proteins are downstream effectors of the TGF-β signaling pathway. Smad3-null mice develop colorectal cancer by 6 months of age. In this study, we have examined whether the loss of Smad3 promotes gastric neoplasia in mice. The stomachs of Smad3⁻/⁻ mice were compared with age-matched Smad3 heterozygous and wild-type mice. E-cadherin, Ki-67, phosphoSTAT3, and TFF2/SP expression was analyzed by immunohistochemisty. The short hairpin RNA (ShRNA)-mediated knockdown of Smad3 in AGS and MKN28 cells was also performed. In addition, we examined alterations in DCLK1-expressing cells. Smad3⁻/⁻ mouse stomachs at 6 months of age revealed the presence of exophytic growths along the lesser curvature in the proximal fundus. Six-month-old Smad3⁻/⁻ mouse stomachs showed metaplastic columnar glands initiating from the transition zone junction between the forestomach and the glandular epithelium along the lesser curvature. Ten-month-old Smad3⁻/⁻ mice all exhibited invasive gastric neoplastic changes with increased Ki-67, phosphoSTAT3 expression, and aberrant cytosolic E-cadherin staining in papillary glands within the invading submucosal gland. The shRNA-mediated knockdown of Smad3 in AGS and MKN28 cells promoted the expression of phosphoSTAT3. DCLK1-expressing cells, which also stained for the tuft cell marker acetylated-α-tubulin, were observed in 10-month-old Smad3⁻/⁻ mice within tumors and in fundic invasive lesions. In conclusion, Smad3-null mice develop gastric tumors in the fundus, which arise from the junction between the forestomach and the glandular epithelium and progress to prominent invasive tumors over time. Smad3-null mice represent a novel model of fundic gastric tumor initiated from forestomach/glandular transition zone along the lesser curvature.

  16. Research on the effects of mycorrhizal fungi on the growth condition of artemisia annua l%菌根真菌对青蒿生长状况影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦艺; 赵君; 韩颂; 赵敏

    2014-01-01

    目的:青蒿又名黄花蒿(Artemisia annua L),是一年生菊科草本植物。从中提取的有效成分青蒿素,对抗氯喹的恶性疟及脑内虐有特效,其作用机理与传统的奎宁类抗疟药物不同。菌根是自然界中一种普遍存在的植物共生现象。它是土壤中的菌根真菌与高等植物营养根系形成的一种互惠共生体。作为自然界中的一种普遍现象,菌根真菌的存在对青蒿的生长状况必然有一定的影响。%Objective:Artemisia annua L is a kind of herbaceous compositae which grows in one year. Artemisinin ,the effective constituent extract from the Artemisia annua L , have an special effect to fight against the chloroquine of malignant malaria and the malaria in the cerebrum .Its mechanism of action is different from the traditional of the quinine medicine.Mycorrhiza is a kind of widespread phenomenon of plants mutualism.It is a kind of To be a widespread phenomenon in the nature, The existence of mycorrhizal fungi have a significant effection on the grown condition of the Artemisia annua L.

  17. Morphology of a novel glandular epithelium lining the infrabuccal cavity in the ant Monomorium pharaonis (Hymenoptera, Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eelen, Dieter; Børgesen, Lisbeth W; Billen, Johan

    2004-10-01

    A novel glandular epithelium lining the infrabuccal cavity and anterior pharynx is described in both workers and queens of the pharaoh's ant Monomorium pharaonis. The infrabuccal cavity, connected with the buccal tube, forms a ventral outgrowth of the anterior pharynx, and as such displays the tegumental lining with a cuticle and an epithelial layer. In its dorsal region, the cavity's epithelium reaches a thickness of approx. 11-12mum in both workers and queens, which is considerably thicker than the epithelium lining the rest of the infrabuccal cavity. Also the possible role of the infrabuccal gland is discussed.

  18. Endometrial Glandular Dysplasia (EmGD): morphologically and biologically distinctive putative precursor lesions of Type II endometrial cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadare, Oluwole; Zheng, Wenxin

    2008-02-08

    In this article, the authors briefly review the historical evolution of the various putative precursor lesions for Type II endometrial cancers, with an emphasis on the newly defined "Endometrial Glandular Dysplasia (EmGD)". The evidentiary basis for delineating serous EmGD as the most probable precursor lesions to endometrial serous carcinoma is reviewed in detail. An argument is advanced for the discontinuation of the term serous "endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma (EIC)" as a descriptor for a supposedly intraepithelial, precancerous lesion. Preliminary evidence is also presented that suggests that there is a morphologically recognizable "clear cell EmGD" that probably represents a precancerous lesion to endometrial clear cell carcinomas.

  19. Sôbre o órgão abdominal glandular de Arilus carinatus (Forster, 1771: (Heteroptera, Reduviidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Barth

    1961-04-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se um órgão glandular, encontrado na fêmea de Arilus carinatus, de um tipo ainda desocnhecido em insetos. Localiza-se, em forma de um saco membranoso, nos dois lados da linha ventral, entre os 8º e 9º segmentos abdominais. O órgão é expulso por um aumento da pressão interna da cavidade abdominal e volta ao estado de repouso, no interior do corpo, por meio de contração muscular. A vesícula retal volumosa forma, em direção distal, um amplo divertículo, do qual partem dois "tubos retais" que penetram nas vesículas membranosas, tendo na superfície destas uma abertura em forma de fenda. A hipoderme do divertículo, bem como a de uma região da vesícula retal e da parte basal dos tubos retais é glandular. A secreção possui um cheiro intenso e ardido que lembra o gás de acetileno. Trata-se, provàvelmente, de uma glândula repugnatória. Não se sabe nada sôbra a ocorrência do aparelho no macho e em outras espécies de Reduviídeos.

  20. Proteomics of the human endometrial glandular epithelium and stroma from the proliferative and secretory phases of the menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Brian L; Liu, Baoquan; Alkhas, Addie; Shoji, Yutaka; Challa, Rusheeswar; Wang, Guisong; Ferguson, Susan; Oliver, Julie; Mitchell, Dave; Bateman, Nicholas W; Zahn, Christopher M; Hamilton, Chad A; Payson, Mark; Lessey, Bruce; Fazleabas, Asgerally T; Maxwell, G Larry; Conrads, Thomas P; Risinger, John I

    2015-04-01

    Despite its importance in reproductive biology and women's health, a detailed molecular-level understanding of the human endometrium is lacking. Indeed, no comprehensive studies have been undertaken to elucidate the important protein expression differences between the endometrial glandular epithelium and surrounding stroma during the proliferative and midsecretory phases of the menstrual cycle. We utilized laser microdissection to harvest epithelial cells and stromal compartments from proliferative and secretory premenopausal endometrial tissue and performed a global, quantitative mass spectrometry-based proteomics analysis. This analysis identified 1224 total proteins from epithelial cells, among which 318 were differentially abundant between the proliferative and secretory phases (q glandular cells in the secretory phase, was confirmed to be elevated in midsecretory-phase baboon uterine lavage samples and also observed to have an N-linked glycosylated form that was not observed in the proliferative phase. This study provides a detailed view into the global proteomic alterations of the epithelial cells and stromal compartments of the cycling premenopausal endometrium. These proteomic alterations during endometrial remodeling provide a basis for numerous follow-up investigations on the function of these differentially regulated proteins and their role in reproductive biology and endometrial pathologies.

  1. Evidence for estrogen-dependent uterine serpin (SERPINA14) expression during estrus in the bovine endometrial glandular epithelium and lumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbrich, Susanne E; Frohlich, Thomas; Schulke, Katy; Englberger, Eva; Waldschmitt, Nadine; Arnold, Georg J; Reichenbach, Horst-Dieter; Reichenbach, Myriam; Wolf, Eckhard; Meyer, Heinrich H D; Bauersachs, Stefan

    2009-10-01

    Uterine secretions have a dominant impact on the environment in which embryo development takes place. The uterine serpins (SERPINA14, previously known as UTMP) are found most abundantly during pregnancy in the uterus of ruminants. Although progesterone is currently assumed to be the major regulator of SERPINA14 expression, our recent study of transcriptome changes in bovine endometrium during the estrous cycle unexpectedly detected a marked upregulation of SERPINA14 mRNA levels at estrus. The present study describes the full-length mRNA sequence, genomic organization, and putative promoter elements of the SERPINA14 gene. The SERPINA14 mRNA abundance was quantified by real-time RT-PCR in intercaruncular endometrium at several time points during the estrous cycle and early pregnancy. Highest levels were found at estrus, followed by a dramatic decrease and a moderate expression during the luteal phase. Transcript levels were higher in pregnant endometrium compared with controls at Day 18. At estrus, immunoreactive protein was localized in deep glandular epithelium, and Western blotting concomitantly showed the 52-kDa form in uterine flushings. SERPINA14 mRNA was significantly upregulated in glandular endometrial cells in vitro after stimulation with estradiol-17beta and progesterone, but not after interferon-tau treatment. Our results clearly demonstrate that SERPINA14 appears distinctly in bovine endometrium during the estrus phase. A supporting role toward providing a well-prepared endometrial environment for passing gametes, especially sperm, is assumed.

  2. Ablation of beta1 integrin in mammary epithelium reveals a key role for integrin in glandular morphogenesis and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, Matthew J; Li, Na; Cheung, Julia; Lowe, Emma T; Lambert, Elise; Marlow, Rebecca; Wang, Pengbo; Schatzmann, Franziska; Wintermantel, Timothy; Schüetz, Günther; Clarke, Alan R; Mueller, Ulrich; Hynes, Nancy E; Streuli, Charles H

    2005-11-21

    Integrin-mediated adhesion regulates the development and function of a range of tissues; however, little is known about its role in glandular epithelium. To assess the contribution of beta1 integrin, we conditionally deleted its gene in luminal epithelia during different stages of mouse mammary gland development and in cultured primary mammary epithelia. Loss of beta1 integrin in vivo resulted in impaired alveologenesis and lactation. Cultured beta1 integrin-null cells displayed abnormal focal adhesion function and signal transduction and could not form or maintain polarized acini. In vivo, epithelial cells became detached from the extracellular matrix but remained associated with each other and did not undergo overt apoptosis. beta1 integrin-null mammary epithelial cells did not differentiate in response to prolactin stimulation because of defective Stat5 activation. In mice where beta1 integrin was deleted after the initiation of differentiation, fewer defects in alveolar morphology occurred, yet major deficiencies were also observed in milk protein and milk fat production and Stat5 activation, indicating a permissive role for beta1 integrins in prolactin signaling. This study demonstrates that beta1 integrin is critical for the alveolar morphogenesis of a glandular epithelium and for maintenance of its differentiated function. Moreover, it provides genetic evidence for the cooperation between integrin and cytokine signaling pathways.

  3. Trans-nipple removal of fibro-glandular tissue in gynaecomastia surgery without additional scars: An innovative approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R K Mishra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The established techniques that have been used to treat gynaecomastia are said to have relatively less patient satisfaction rate as they leave some visible scars or mild elevation over the nipple areola complex, resulting in aesthetically unsatisfactory results. Even the slightest elevation or smallest scar over nipple areola complex leave patients extremely self conscious and in a dilemma of having a second intervention to get rid of that blemish. Aims: The aim of the study is to achieve - A flat chest without adding a scar and with no chances of re-occurrence of the condition. This article suggests an innovative approach to address the problem. Materials and Methods: The author presents trans-nipple incision approach for the delivery of fibro-glandular tissue component following liposuction for maximum patient satisfaction. This method consists of a unique small criss-cross incision right on the nipple itself for retrieving any volume of tough fibro-glandular tissues. Between the duration of January 2012 to October 2013, 28 male patients of different ages were operated with this technique. Results: The surgery resulted in well-shaped, symmetric chest contour without any visible elevation or additional scars on nipple areola complex. No complications were noticed in any of the patients. Conclusions: The presented technique is proved to have a high patient satisfaction rate and to be promising method to achieve good aesthetic results in gynaecomastia surgery.

  4. Integration of co-localized glandular morphometry and protein biomarker expression in immunofluorescent images for prostate cancer prognosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Richard; Khan, Faisal M.; Zeineh, Jack; Donovan, Michael; Fernandez, Gerardo

    2015-03-01

    Immunofluorescent (IF) image analysis of tissue pathology has proven to be extremely valuable and robust in developing prognostic assessments of disease, particularly in prostate cancer. There have been significant advances in the literature in quantitative biomarker expression as well as characterization of glandular architectures in discrete gland rings. However, while biomarker and glandular morphometric features have been combined as separate predictors in multivariate models, there is a lack of integrative features for biomarkers co-localized within specific morphological sub-types; for example the evaluation of androgen receptor (AR) expression within Gleason 3 glands only. In this work we propose a novel framework employing multiple techniques to generate integrated metrics of morphology and biomarker expression. We demonstrate the utility of the approaches in predicting clinical disease progression in images from 326 prostate biopsies and 373 prostatectomies. Our proposed integrative approaches yield significant improvements over existing IF image feature metrics. This work presents some of the first algorithms for generating innovative characteristics in tissue diagnostics that integrate co-localized morphometry and protein biomarker expression.

  5. A Monte Carlo study of monoenergetic and polyenergetic normalized glandular dose (DgN) coefficients in mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarno, Antonio; Mettivier, Giovanni; Di Lillo, Francesca; Russo, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the influence of model assumptions in GEANT4 Monte Carlo (MC) simulations for the calculation of monoenergetic and polyenergetic normalized glandular dose coefficients (DgN) in mammography, focussing on the effect of the skin thickness and composition, of the role of compression paddles and of the bremsstrahlung processes. We showed that selecting a skin thickness of 4 mm instead of 1.45 mm produced DgN values with deviations from 9% to 32% for x-ray spectra routinely adopted in mammography. Consideration of the bremsstrahlung radiation had a weak influence on monoenergetic DgN. Simulations (in the range 8-40 kVp) which included consideration of bremsstrahlung radiation, a skin thickness of 1.45 mm and a 2 mm thick compression paddles produced polyenergetic DgN coefficients up to 19% higher than corresponding literature data. Adding a 2 mm thick adipose layer between the skin layer and the radiosensitive portion of the breast produces polyenergetic DgN values up to 15% higher than those routinely adopted. These findings provide a quantitative estimate of the influence of model parameters on the calculation of the mean glandular dose in mammography.

  6. Cloning and function analyses of HDS gene from Artemisia annua%黄花蒿HDS基因的克隆与功能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张祖荣; 廖志华; 彭梅芳

    2012-01-01

    目的 克隆获得黄花蒿MEP途径中必需关键酶——羟甲基丁烯基-4-磷酸合成酶基因(HDS),并进行生物信息学分析和功能互补分析研究.方法 对已知的其他种子植物HDS基因的核苷酸序列进行多重序列比对,选取保守区域设计简并引物,利用同源扩增和cDNA末端快速扩增技术从黄花蒿中获得目的基因;利用BLAST进行序列比对,ORF Finder寻找开放阅读框,并用MEGA3.0中的临位相联法构建进化树.结果 得到1条长2324 bp的HDS cDNA序列,其ORF 框长1854 bp,编码617个氨基酸残基的蛋白;生物信息学分析显示,黄花蒿HDS基因AaHDS与其他种子植物来源的HDS高度同源;功能互补分析表明,AaHDS能互补突变菌株Escherichia coli MG1655 ara<> HDS中缺失的HDS功能,使突变菌株恢复生长,证明AaHDS具有典型的HDS基因功能.结论 首次克隆获得黄花蒿HDS基因,为青蒿素的代谢工程研究提供相应的基础.%Objective To obtain the indispensable key enzyme-hydroxide methyl enylamino 4-cyclodiphosphate synthase (HDS) gene involved in the MEP pathway cloned from Artemisia annua and conduct bioinformatic and functional complementation analysis. Methods To perform multiple sequence alignment for the nucleotide acid sequence of the other reported seed plants' HDS gene, to select conservative areas for designing degenerate primers, and to gain the aim gene from A. Annua through homologous expanding and cDNA bottom speedily expanding technique. To perform sequence alignment using BLAST, to identify open reading frame (ORF) using ORF Finder, and to construct phylogenetic tree using neighbor joining (NJ) ways in MEGA3.0. Results The obtained HDS cDNA sequence was 2 324 bp containing a 1 854 bp ORF and encoding a 617-amino acid protein. Bioinformatic analysis showed that AaHDS was homologous with HDS derived from other seed plant species. Functional complementation analysis indicated that AaHDS could make up the short HDS

  7. Extraction of Artemisinin, an Active Antimalarial Phytopharmaceutical from Dried Leaves of Artemisia annua L., Using Microwaves and a Validated HPTLC-Visible Method for Its Quantitative Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Misra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple, rapid, precise, and accurate high-performance thin-layer chromatographic method coupled with visible densitometric detection of artemisinin is developed and validated. Samples of the dried Artemisia annua leaves were extracted via microwaves using different solvents. This method shows the advantage of shorter extraction time of artemisinin from leaves under the influence of electromagnetic radiations. Results obtained from microwave-assisted extraction (MAE were compared with hot soxhlet extraction. Chromatographic separation of artemisinin from plant extract was performed over silica gel 60 F254 HPTLC plate using n-hexane : ethyl acetate as mobile phase in the ratio of 75 : 25, v/v. The plate was developed at room temperature 25 ± 2.0°C. Artemisinin separation over thin-layer plate was visualized after postchromatographic derivatization with anisaldehyde-sulphuric acid reagent. HPTLC plate was scanned in a CAMAG’s TLC scanner 3 at 540 nm. Artemisinin responses were found to be linear over a range of 400–2800 ng spot−1 with a correlation coefficient 0.99754. Limits of detection and quantification were 40 and 80 ng spot−1, respectively. The HPTLC method was validated in terms of system suitability, precision, accuracy, sensitivity (LOD and LOQ, and robustness. Additionally, calculation of plate efficiency and flow constant were included as components of validation. Extracts prepared from different parts of the plant (leaves, branches, main stem, and roots were analyzed for artemisinin content, in which, artemisinin content was found higher in the leaf extract with respect to branches and main stem extracts; however, no artemisinin was detected in root extract. The developed HPTLC-visible method of artemisinin determination will be very useful for pharmaceutical industries, which are involved in monitoring of artemisinin content during different growth stages (in vitro and in vivo of A. annua for qualitative

  8. Efeito de aleloquímicos em tricomas foliares de tomateiro na repelência a ácaro (Tetranychus urticae Koch. em genótipos com teores contrastantes de 2-tridecanona Effect of allelochemicals in tomato leaf trichomes on mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch. repellency in genotypes with different levels of 2-tridecanone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Aragão

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a ação de repelência a ácaro Tetranychus urticae Koch. em folíolos de tomateiro com altos teores do aleloquímico 2-tridecanona (2-TD associado a tricomas glandulares, utilizaram-se linhagens avançadas 'TOM 600' e 'TOM 601' (altos teores de 2-TD 'TOM 584' (padrão com baixo teor de 2-TD e seus parentais 'PI 134417' Lycopersicon hirsutum Dunal var. glabratum Mill. (alto teor de 2-TD e 'TOM 556' Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. (baixo teor de 2-TD. O experimento foi realizado em câmara com temperatura de 16 ºC e 68% de umidade. A metodologia usada consistiu em se colocar um folíolo de cada genótipo sobre uma folha de papel tipo ofício, a qual foi fixada sobre uma folha de isopor. O folíolo foi fixado com uma tachinha metálica no centro do mesmo, sendo então colocados 10 ácaros fêmeas sobre a tachinha para que fossem medidas as distâncias percorridas pelos artrópodes em tempos diferenciados. De maneira geral, a distância percorrida pelos ácaros aumentou de acordo com maiores tempos de ensaio. Obteve-se em 'PI 134417', juntamente com 'TOM 600' e 'TOM 601', menores médias de distâncias percorridas pelos ácaros nos tempos avaliados em comparação ao 'TOM 556' e 'TOM 584' em razão da repelência exercida que se associa a maiores teores de 2-tridecanona.For the evaluation of the mites (Tetranychus urticae Koch. repellency in tomato leaflets with high levels of 2-tridecanone (2-TD associated to glandular trichomes, we used the advanced lines, 'TOM 600' and 'TOM 601' (high 2-TD levels 'TOM 584' (control, low 2-TD levels and the parents 'PI 134417' Lycopersicon hirsutum Dunal var. glabratum (high 2-TD levels and 'TOM 556' Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. (low 2-TD levels. The experiment was carried out at 16ºC and 68% relative moisture. Leaflets of each genotype were placed on a sheet of paper, set on a Styrofoam sheet. Ten female mites were placed on a metallic thumbtack at the center of the leaflets, and the

  9. False positive reaction due to endogenous biotin activity in glandular epithelium of decidua Reação falso positiva em epitélio glandular da decídua devido a atividade endógena de biotina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Cruz Spano

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Biotin-labeled probe was used in an in situ hybridisation assay to localize virus infection in formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded tissues taken from eleven abortion cases. Probes for human cytomegalovirus (HCMV, human Parvovirus B19 (B19 and human adenovirus type 2 (HAd2, were labeled with biotin-11-dUTP by nick-translation reaction. Streptavidin-alkaline-phosphatase (SAP was used to detect biotin, followed by 4-nitroblue tetrazolium/5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl phosphate (NBT/BCIP solution. Positive reaction was observed in nucleus of glandular ephitelium cells of decidua either in positive or in negative control at first and second gestational trimester. The reaction was not inhibited with blocking solution for alkaline phosphatase endogenous activity and it persisted even with probes omission. The use of adequate negative control permitted to reveal the presence of nuclear biotin in glandular epithelium of decidua, responsible for false positivity in detection systems involving streptavidin biotin system (StrepABC. The stained cells resembled to cytophatic effect due to herpesvirus, which could induce further misinterpretation. The results obtained in this study strongly recommend that DNA detection by in situ hybridisation reaction in gestational endometrium should be done without using StrepABC system.Sondas marcadas com biotina foram utilizadas neste trabalho para detecção de infecção viral por hibridização in situ em tecidos fixados com formalina e embebidos em parafina de 11 casos obtidos de abortamento. Sondas para citomegalovírus humano (HCMV, parvovírus B19 humano (B19 e adenovírus humano tipo 2 (HAd2, foram marcadas com biotina-11-dUTP através da reação de nick-translation. Estreptavidina conjugada com fosfatase alcalina (SAP seguida por solução de 4-nitro-azul de tetrazolio/5-bromo-4-cloro-3-indolil fosfato (NBT/BCIP foram utilizadas para detecção da biotina após a reação de hibridização. Reação positiva foi

  10. Mean Glandular dose coefficients (DgN) for x-ray spectra used in contemporary breast imaging systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosratieh, Anita; Hernandez, Andrew; Shen, Sam Z.; Yaffe, Martin J.; Seibert, J. Anthony; Boone, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To develop tables of normalized glandular dose coefficients DgN for a range of anode–filter combinations and tube voltages used in contemporary breast imaging systems. Methods Previously published mono-energetic DgN values were used with various spectra to mathematically compute DgN coefficients. The tungsten anode spectra from TASMICS were used; Molybdenum and Rhodium anode-spectra were generated using MCNPx Monte Carlo code. The spectra were filtered with various thicknesses of Al, Rh, Mo or Cu. An initial HVL calculation was made using the anode and filter material. A range of the HVL values was produced with the addition of small thicknesses of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) as a surrogate for the breast compression paddle, to produce a range of HVL values at each tube voltage. Using a spectral weighting method, DgN coefficients for the generated spectra were calculated for breast glandular densities of 0%, 12.5%, 25%, 37.5%, 50% and 100% for a range of compressed breast thicknesses from 3 to 8 cm. Results Eleven tables of normalized glandular dose (DgN) coefficients were produced for the following anode/filter combinations: W + 50 μm Ag, W + 500 μm Al, W + 700 μm Al, W + 200 μm Cu, W + 300 μm Cu, W + 50 μm Rh, Mo + 400 μm Cu, Mo + 30 μm Mo, Mo + 25 μm Rh, Rh + 400 μm Cu and Rh + 25 μm Rh. Where possible, these results were compared to previously published DgN values and were found to be on average less than 2% different than previously reported values. Conclusion Over 200-pages of DgN coefficients were computed for modeled x-ray system spectra that are used in a number of new breast imaging applications. The reported values were found to be in excellent agreement when compared to published values. PMID:26348995

  11. Mean glandular dose coefficients (D(g)N) for x-ray spectra used in contemporary breast imaging systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosratieh, Anita; Hernandez, Andrew; Shen, Sam Z; Yaffe, Martin J; Seibert, J Anthony; Boone, John M

    2015-09-21

    To develop tables of normalized glandular dose coefficients D(g)N for a range of anode-filter combinations and tube voltages used in contemporary breast imaging systems. Previously published mono-energetic D(g)N values were used with various spectra to mathematically compute D(g)N coefficients. The tungsten anode spectra from TASMICS were used; molybdenum and rhodium anode-spectra were generated using MCNPX Monte Carlo code. The spectra were filtered with various thicknesses of Al, Rh, Mo or Cu. An initial half value layer (HVL) calculation was made using the anode and filter material. A range of the HVL values was produced with the addition of small thicknesses of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) as a surrogate for the breast compression paddle, to produce a range of HVL values at each tube voltage. Using a spectral weighting method, D(g)N coefficients for the generated spectra were calculated for breast glandular densities of 0%, 12.5%, 25%, 37.5%, 50% and 100% for a range of compressed breast thicknesses from 3 to 8 cm. Eleven tables of normalized glandular dose (D(g)N) coefficients were produced for the following anode/filter combinations: W + 50 μm Ag, W + 500 μm Al, W + 700 μm Al, W + 200 μm Cu, W + 300 μm Cu, W + 50 μm Rh, Mo + 400 μm Cu, Mo + 30 μm Mo, Mo + 25 μm Rh, Rh + 400 μm Cu and Rh + 25 μm Rh. Where possible, these results were compared to previously published D(g)N values and were found to be on average less than 2% different than previously reported values.Over 200 pages of D(g)N coefficients were computed for modeled x-ray system spectra that are used in a number of new breast imaging applications. The reported values were found to be in excellent agreement when compared to published values.

  12. Efeito alelopático de Artemisia annua L. na germinação e desenvolvimento inicial de plântulas de alface (Lactuca sativa L. e leiteiro (Euphorbia heterophylla L. Allelopathic effect of Artemisia annua L. on the germination and initial development of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. and wild poinsettia (Euphorbia heterophylla L. seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.C. Magiero

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi caracterizar o efeito alelopático do extrato aquoso de folhas de A. annua sobre a germinação de sementes e o desenvolvimento de plântulas de alface (Lactuca sativa L. e leiteiro (Euphorbia heterophylla L.. O extrato aquoso bruto foi preparado a partir de 250 g folhas frescas extraídas em 1 L de água destilada. Este primeiro extrato foi filtrado e centrifugado, sendo utilizado o sobrenadante. Foram utilizadas as seguintes concentrações de 100% (extrato filtrado e centrifugado; 75%, 50% e 25% (diluições do extrato 100%; e 0% (água destilada. As sementes das espécies testadas foram distribuídas em placas de petri e acondicionadas em câmara de germinação. Foram analisadas as variáveis: germinabilidade (G, velocidade média de germinação (V, tempo médio de germinação (t, comprimento da radícula (CR e massa seca das plântulas. A elevação da concentração do extrato aquoso de A. annua provocou redução na germinabilidade de alface e, a partir da concentração de 50%, a germinação foi completamente inibida. Para o leiteiro, a germinação foi totalmente inibida a partir da concentração de 75%. Observou-se também redução significativa na velocidade média de germinação de alface com a elevação da concentração do extrato, efeito que não foi observado para o leiteiro. O comprimento radicular do leiteiro foi significativamente reduzido nas concentrações de 25 e 50%, e totalmente inibido em 75 e 100%. Para alface, a concentração de 25% reduziu significativamente o comprimento radicular, e as concentrações de 50, 75 e 100% inibiram completamente a formação de raízes, mostrando ser esta espécie mais sensível que o leiteiro. Extratos aquosos de A. annua apresentaram ação alelopática inibitória sobre a germinação de sementes e o desenvolvimento de plântulas de alface e leiteiro.The aim of this work was to study the allelopathic effect of leaf aqueous extract of A

  13. Salivary gland acinar cells regenerate functional glandular structures in modified hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Swati

    Xerostomia, a condition resulting from irradiation of the head and neck, affects over 40,000 cancer patients each year in the United States. Direct radiation damage of the acinar cells that secrete fluid and protein results in salivary gland hypofunction. Present medical management for xerostomia for patients treated for upper respiratory cancer is largely ineffective. Patients who have survived their terminal diagnosis are often left with a diminished quality of life and are unable to enjoy the simple pleasures of eating and drinking. This project aims to ultimately reduce human suffering by developing a functional implantable artificial salivary gland. The goal was to create an extracellular matrix (ECM) modified hyaluronic acid (HA) based hydrogel culture system that allows for the growth and differentiation of salivary acinar cells into functional acini-like structures capable of secreting large amounts of protein and fluid unidirectionally and to ultimately engineer a functional artificial salivary gland that can be implanted into an animal model. A tissue collection protocol was established and salivary gland tissue was obtained from patients undergoing head and neck surgery. The tissue specimen was assessed by histology and immunohistochemistry to establish the phenotype of normal salivary gland cells including the native basement membranes. Hematoxylin and eosin staining confirmed normal glandular tissue structures including intercalated ducts, striated ducts and acini. alpha-Amylase and periodic acid schiff stain, used for structures with a high proportion of carbohydrate macromolecules, preferentially stained acinar cells in the tissue. Intercalated and striated duct structures were identified using cytokeratins 19 and 7 staining. Myoepithelial cells positive for cytokeratin 14 were found wrapped around the serous and mucous acini. Tight junction components including ZO-1 and E-cadherin were present between both ductal and acinar cells. Ductal and acinar

  14. 土壤微生物对黄花蒿凋落物或青蒿素的响应%Responses of soil microorganisms to Artemisia annua leaf litter or artemisinin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李倩; 袁玲; 杨水平; 黄建国

    2015-01-01

    Artemisia annua releases many kinds of allelochemicals into soils via dead plant residues,either by rain leaching or root exudation.Dead leaves of A.annua contribute more than 80% of the total artemisinin that enters soils during the growth period of A.annua.Allelochemicals released by the dead leaves reduce the growth and yields of succeeding and adjacent crops.Soil microbes play roles in nutrient transformation,organic matter recycling,toxicant decomposition,and hormone efflux,and thus,are important for plant growth and development.However,little is known about the effects of these allelochemicals on soil microorganisms.In these experiments,artemisinin and A.annua leaf litter were each added to soil and changes in microbial bio-mass and community structure were evaluated.The growth and reproduction of culturable microorganisms in soils showed wide variations in response to A.annua leaf litter or artemisinin.For example,the number of fungi increased but the numbers of actinomycetes,azotobacteria,nitrobacteria,and nitrite bacteria significantly decreased in soils containing A.annua leaf litter or artemisinin.The results suggested that both leaf litter or artemisinin inhibited organic matter mineralization,nitrogen bio-fixation,mobilization of phosphorus and po-tassium,and nitrification.The soil microbial quotient decreased,while the metabolic quotient increased,after A.annua and artemisinin were added to soils.This result indicated that artemisinin and other allelochemicals in the leaf litter interfered with the metabolism of soil microorganisms.The types and total contents of signa-ture phospholipid fatty acids of microbes such as actinomycetes and protozoa decreased in soils containing leaf litter or artemisinin.The diversity and evenness indices of the microbial community also decreased,suggesting that the soil microbial ecosystem deteriorated as the densities of various microbial groups decreased.Therefore, artemisinin and allelopathic chemicals released from A.annua

  15. A single amino acid substitution in IIIf subfamily of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor AtMYC1 leads to trichome and root hair patterning defects by abolishing its interaction with partner proteins in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongtao; Wang, Xiaoxue; Zhu, Dandan; Cui, Sujuan; Li, Xia; Cao, Ying; Ma, Ligeng

    2012-04-20

    Plant trichomes and root hairs are powerful models for the study of cell fate determination. In Arabidopsis thaliana, trichome and root hair initiation requires a combination of three groups of proteins, including the WD40 repeat protein transparent TESTA GLABRA1 (TTG1), R2R3 repeat MYB protein GLABRA1 (GL1), or werewolf (WER) and the IIIf subfamily of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) protein GLABRA3 (GL3) or enhancer of GLABRA3 (EGL3). The bHLH component acts as a docking site for TTG1 and MYB proteins. Here, we isolated a mutant showing defects in trichome and root hair patterning that carried a point mutation (R173H) in AtMYC1 that encodes the fourth member of IIIf bHLH family protein. Genetic analysis revealed partial redundant yet distinct function between AtMYC1 and GL3/EGL3. GLABRA2 (GL2), an important transcription factor involved in trichome and root hair control, was down-regulated in Atmyc1 plants, suggesting the requirement of AtMYC1 for appropriate GL2 transcription. Like its homologs, AtMYC1 formed a complex with TTG1 and MYB proteins but did not dimerized. In addition, the interaction of AtMYC1 with MYB proteins and TTG1 was abrogated by the R173H substitution in Atmyc1-1. We found that this amino acid (Arg) is conserved in the AtMYC1 homologs GL3/EGL3 and that it is essential for their interaction with MYB proteins and for their proper functions. Our findings indicate that AtMYC1 is an important regulator of trichome and root hair initiation, and they reveal a novel amino acid necessary for protein-protein interactions and gene function in IIIf subfamily bHLH transcription factors.

  16. Inducing Effect of Dihydroartemisinic Acid in the Biosynthesis of Artemisinins with Cultured Cells of Artemisia annua by Enhancing the Expression of Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Artemisinin has been used in the production of “artemisinin combination therapies” for the treatment of malaria. Feeding of precursors has been proven to be one of the most effective methods to enhance artemisinin production in plant cultured cells. At the current paper, the biosynthesis of artemisinin (ART and its four analogs from dihydroartemisinic acid (DHAA in suspension-cultured cells of Artemisia annua were investigated. ARTs were detected by HPLC/GC-MS and isolated by various chromatography methods. The structures of four DHAA metabolites, namely, dihydro-epi-deoxyarteannuin B, arteannuin I, arteannuin K, and 3-β-hydroxy-dihydro-epi-deoxyarteannuin B, were elucidated by physicochemical and spectroscopic analyses. The correlation between gene expression and ART content was investigated. The results of RT-PCR showed that DHAA could up-regulate expression of amorpha-4,11-diene synthase gene (ADS, amorpha-4,11-diene C-12 oxidase gene (CYP71AV1, and farnesyl diphosphate synthase gene (FPS (3.19-, 7.21-, and 2.04-fold higher than those of control group, resp., which indicated that biosynthesis processes from DHAA to ART were enzyme-mediated.

  17. Antiviral effect of artemisinin from Artemisia annua against a model member of the Flaviviridae family, the bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Marta R; Serrano, Maria A; Vallejo, Marta; Efferth, Thomas; Alvarez, Marcelino; Marin, Jose J G

    2006-10-01

    The antiviral activity versus flaviviruses of artemisinin, a safe drug obtained from Artemisia annua and commonly used to treat malaria, has been investigated using as an IN VITRO model bovine epithelial cells from embryonic trachea (EBTr) infected with the cytopathic strain Oregon C24V, of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV), which is a member of the Flaviviridae family. Antiviral activity was estimated by the degree of protection against the cytopathic effect of BVDV on host cells and by the reduction in BVDV-RNA release to the culture medium. To induce an intermediate cytopathic effect in non-treated cells, EBTr cells were first exposed to BVDV for 48 h and then incubated with virus-free medium for 72 h. Ribavirin and artemisinin (up to 100 microM) induced no toxicity in host cells, whereas a slight degree of toxicity was observed for IFN-alpha at concentrations above 10 U/mL up to 100 U/mL. Treatment of infected cells with IFN-alpha, ribavirin and artemisinin markedly reduced BVDV-induced cell death. A combination of these drugs resulted in an additive protective effect. These drugs induced a significant reduction in the production/release of BVDV virions by infected EBTr cells; there was also an additive effect when combinations of them were assayed. These results suggest a potential usefulness of artemisinin in combination with current pharmacological therapy for the treatment of human and veterinary infections by flaviviruses.

  18. Intracellular Propionibacterium acnes infection in glandular epithelium and stromal macrophages of the prostate with or without cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Bae

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent reports on Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes suggest that this bacterium is prevalent in the prostate, is associated with acute and chronic prostatic inflammation, and might have a role in prostate carcinogenesis. METHODS: To evaluate the pathogenic role of this indigenous bacterium, we screened for the bacterium in radical prostatectomy specimens using enzyme immunohistochemistry with a novel P. acnes-specific monoclonal antibody (PAL antibody, together with an anti-nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB antibody. We examined formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue sections of radical prostatectomy specimens from 28 patients with prostate cancer and 18 age-matched control patients with bladder cancer, but without prostate cancer. RESULTS: Immunohistochemistry with the PAL antibody revealed small round bodies within some non-cancerous glandular epithelium and stromal macrophages in most prostate samples. Prostate cancer samples had higher frequencies of either cytoplasmic P. acnes or nuclear NF-κB expression of glandular epithelium and higher numbers of stromal macrophages with P. acnes than control samples. These parameters were also higher in the peripheral zone than in the transitional zone of the prostate, especially in prostate cancer samples. Nuclear NF-κB expression was more frequent in glands with P. acnes than in glands without P. acnes. The number of stromal macrophages with the bacterium correlated with the grade of chronic inflammation in both the PZ and TZ areas and with the grade of acute inflammation in the TZ area. CONCLUSIONS: Immunohistochemical analysis with a novel monoclonal antibody for detecting P. acnes in the prostate suggested that intraepithelial P. acnes infection in non-cancerous prostate glands and inflammation caused by the bacterium may contribute to the development of prostate cancer.

  19. An audit of cervicovaginal cytology in a teaching hospital: Are atypical glandular cells under-recognised on cytological screening?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crasta Julian

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical cytology screening for carcinoma of the cervix in India is mainly opportunistic in nature and is practiced mainly in urban centres. The effectiveness of cervical cytology screening depends on various factors. The quality of cervicovaginal cytology service is assessed by various quality indices and by cyto-histology correlation, which is the most important quality assurance measure. Aims: To describe the cervical cytology diagnoses, estimate the quality indices, and evaluate the discrepant cases on cytohistological correlation. Settings and Design: Retrospective observational study from a tertiary care centre in South India. Materials and Methods: Using a database search, all the cervicovaginal cytology reported during the period of 2002-2006 was retrieved and various diagnoses were described. The data was analysed to assess the quality indices. The cytohistologically discrepant cases were reviewed. Results: A total of 10,787 cases were retrieved, of which 98.14% were labeled negative and 1.36% were unsatisfactory for evaluation. A few (0.81% of the cases were labeled as squamous intraepithelial lesions and 0.38% as atypical squamous cells. The ASCUS: SIL ratio was 0.5. Cytohistological correlation revealed a total of ten cases with significant discrepancy. The majority of these were carcinomas that were misdiagnosed as atypical glandular cells. These cytology smears and the subsequent biopsies were reviewed to elucidate the reasons for the discrepancies. Conclusions: The cervical cytology service at our centre is well within the accepted standards. An increased awareness of cytological features, especially of glandular lesions, a good clinician-laboratory communication and a regular cytohistological review would further improve the diagnostic standards.

  20. Pollen Viability and Stigma Receptivity of A rtemisia annua L%青蒿花粉活力及柱头可授性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王卫; 杨水平; 崔广林; 张雪; 刘芸; 陈阳

    2015-01-01

    以野生青蒿中形态差异较为明显的绿秆(品系Y03)和紫红秆(品系Y07)为材料,分别以碘碘化钾染色法、T TC染色法、联苯胺甲萘酚染色法和离体萌发法测定其花粉活力,并从中选取较适宜的检测方法研究其贮藏特性,采用联苯胺过氧化氢法测定其柱头的可授性.结果表明,碘碘化钾和 TTC染色法不适宜青蒿的花粉活力检测,联苯胺甲萘酚染色法可以用于快速测定青蒿花粉活力,但测定值偏高,离体萌发法能准确可靠地反应花粉活力;两个品系的新鲜花粉在室温条件下只能贮藏2d,4℃,-19℃条件下可以贮藏3d,干燥处理显著加快了花粉活力的丧失;联苯胺过氧化氢法测得两个品系青蒿柱头可授期为8~10 d ,边缘雌花可授性比中央两性花的强,且其可授期比中央两性花长1~2d.%The pollen viability of two accessions of wild A rtemisia annua L. ,Y03 with green stem stem and Y07 with purple‐red ,was tested with the methods of I2‐KI (iodine‐potassium iodide dyeing method) , TTC (triphenyl tetrazolium chloride staining) ,benzidine‐α‐naphthol coloring and pollen germination in vitro ,respectively ,and suitable detection methods were selected from them for determining the storage characteristics of pollen .Then stigma receptivity of the species was evaluated with the benzidine‐H2 O2 method .The results indicated that I2‐KI and TTC were unsuitable for the test of pollen viability of A. an‐nua ;benzidine‐α‐naphthol coloring could be used to measure pollen viability ,but the measured value was a bit too high ;the method of germination in vitro proved to be most desirable ,and it could accurately and reliably reflect pollen viability .The appropriate storage time of the pollen was 2 days at room temperature , and 3 days at 4 ℃ or at -19 ℃ .Drying treatment significantly accelerated the loss of pollen vitality .De‐termined with the

  1. Effect of glandular kallikrein on distal bicarbonate transport. Role of basolateral Cl-/HCO3- exchanger and vacuolar H(+)-ATPase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manucha, W; Vallés, P

    1999-12-01

    The luminal membrane of collecting duct cells, specially the intercalated cells, is normally exposed to active kallikrein. This is due to the specific localization of renal kallikrein in the connecting tubule cells. We have previously reported inhibition of distal bicarbonate secretion by renal kallikrein. The present study was performed to evaluate the participation of basolateral Cl-/HCO3- exchanger and luminal H(+)-ATPase activity of cortical collecting duct segments (CCD) in the mechanism involved in the inhibition of bicarbonate secretion induced by the enzyme. The effect of orthograde injections of 1 microgram/ml (250 U/6.3 mg) pig pancreatic kallikrein, in the absence and presence of 1 mM DIDS (stilbene-disulfonic acid) in the renal tubule system, was evaluated. Urine fractions were collected after two-minutes stop-flow. Changes in the urine fraction (Fr) related to those in free-flow urine samples (Ff) were related to the respective polyfructosan (Inutest) ratio. Renal kallikrein activity (Fr:Ff kallikrein/Fr:Ff polyfructosan) increased significantly in the first 120 microliters urine fraction collected after glandular 1 microgram/ml kallikrein, P Bicarbonate secretion rate (Fr:Ff HCO3-/Fr:Ff polyfructosan) of collecting ducts was significantly reduced in the first 120 microliters urine fraction collected, related to control, during the first and second stop-flow periods. No difference was shown in bicarbonate excretion between the first 120 microliters urine fractions collected after administration of glandular kallikrein and glandular kallikrein plus DIDS. To measure H(+)-ATPase activity, rat microdissected cortical collector tubules (CCD) were incubated in the presence of increasing glandular kallikrein doses (A: 93, B: 187 and C: 375 mU/200 microL) in the presence of ouabain (4 microM) and omeprazole (100 microM) to inhibit Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and H(+)-K(+)-ATPase, respectively. In CCD, bafilomycin-sensitive H(+)-ATPase activity (pmol/mm/min) after

  2. Extraction mechanism of ultrasound assisted extraction and its effect on higher yielding and purity of artemisinin crystals from Artemisia annua L. leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemat, Smain; Aissa, Abdallah; Boumechhour, Abdenour; Arous, Omar; Ait-Amar, Hamid

    2017-01-01

    This study proposes an ultrasound-horn system for the extraction of a natural active compound "artemisinin" from Artemisia annua L. leaves as an alternative to hot maceration technique. Ultrasound leaching improves artemisinin recovery at all temperatures where only ten minutes is required to recover 70% (4.42mgg(-1)) compared to 60min of conventional hot leaching for the same yield. For instance, ultrasound treatment at 30°C produced a higher yield than the one obtained by conventional maceration at 40°C. Kinetic study suggests that the extraction pattern can be assimilated, during the first ten minutes, to a first order steady state, from which activation energy calculations revealed that each gram of artemisinin required 7.38kJ in ultrasound versus 10.3kJ in the conventional system. Modeling results indicate the presence of two extraction stages, a faster stage with a diffusion coefficient of 19×10(-5)cm(2)min(-1) for ultrasound technique at 40°C, seven times higher than the conventional one; and a second deceleration stage similar for both techniques with diffusion coefficient ranging from 1.7 to 3.1×10(-5)cm(2)min(-1). It is noted that the efficient ultrasound extraction potential implies extraction of higher amount of co-metabolites so low artemisinin crystal purity is engendered but a combination with a purification step using activated charcoal and celite adsorbents produced crystals with comparable purity for conventional and ultrasound samples.

  3. Evaluation of the influence of parameters that determine the mean glandular dose in mammography using different detectors; Evaluacion de la influencia de los parametros que determinan la dosis glandular media en Mamografia utilizando diferentes detectores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, K.; Nogueira, M. S., E-mail: katicostabh@gmail.com [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear, Pos-graduacao em Ciencias e Tecnologia das Radiacoes, Minerais e Materiais / CNEN, Av. Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: Mammography is a test used for early detection of breast cancer. The mean glandular dose (MGD) is dosimetric greatness accepted as indicative of carcinogenic risk induced by ionizing radiation in the breasts of women undergoing mammography exams. MGD value is estimated from the incident air kerma (k i), associated with conversion factors which depend on the half-value layer (HVL), the breast composition and thickness compressed breast. This study aims to evaluate the influence of the parameters used to determine the MGD using different measurement detectors. Measurements were performed on a Siemens Mammomat Model 300 Nova mammography equipment; this has the combinations Anode/Filter of Mo/Mo, Mo/Rh and W/Rh. Detectors used were the ionization chamber Model 10X6-6M manufactured by Radcal Co., two solid-state detectors, one Model AGMS-M manufactured by Radcal Co. and other Model Xi Mammo manufactured by UNFORS. The detectors measures were compared and the MGD value was estimated; differences between measurements and the reference values were higher in HVL and k i parameters. The results are displayed according to other published works. (Author)

  4. 青蒿种子萌发过程中生理生化变化的研究%Study on the Change of Physiology and Biochemistry During Process of Artemisia annua Seed Germination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张青; 李隆云; 孙年喜

    2011-01-01

    Studied the dynamic changes of physiological index of Artemisia annua seed during germination. The result showed that in the seed budding of Artemisia annua,the content of soluble sugar increased rapidly at the beginning, forty hours later, it decreased step by step. The content of starch fell down at first, then rose, interrelated with the change of soluble sugar. The content of MDA rose at first, then fell down. The content of soluble protein, dissociated amino acid, SOD, POD and CAT all increased.%以青蒿种子为材料,研究了青蒿种子萌发过程中营养物质的动态变化.结果表明:种子萌发期间,可溶性糖含量从第24小时开始迅速升高,第72小时达到最高值,此后缓慢降低;淀粉含量先降低后升高,与可溶性糖含量变化相对应;可溶性蛋白质、游离氨基酸总量呈上升趋势;MDA含量开始小幅上升后逐渐降低;SOD、POD、CAT均呈上升趋势.

  5. Loss of vitamin D receptor signaling from the mammary epithelium or adipose tissue alters pubertal glandular development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Abby L; Zinser, Glendon M; Waltz, Susan E

    2014-10-15

    Vitamin D₃ receptor (VDR) signaling within the mammary gland regulates various postnatal stages of glandular development, including puberty, pregnancy, involution, and tumorigenesis. Previous studies have shown that vitamin D₃ treatment induces cell-autonomous growth inhibition and differentiation of mammary epithelial cells in culture. Furthermore, mammary adipose tissue serves as a depot for vitamin D₃ storage, and both epithelial cells and adipocytes are capable of bioactivating vitamin D₃. Despite the pervasiveness of VDR in mammary tissue, individual contributions of epithelial cells and adipocytes, as well as the VDR-regulated cross-talk between these two cell types during pubertal mammary development, have yet to be investigated. To assess the cell-type specific effect of VDR signaling during pubertal mammary development, novel mouse models with mammary epithelial- or adipocyte-specific loss of VDR were generated. Interestingly, loss of VDR in either cellular compartment accelerated ductal morphogenesis with increased epithelial cell proliferation and decreased apoptosis within terminal end buds. Conversely, VDR signaling specifically in the mammary epithelium modulated hormone-induced alveolar growth, as ablation of VDR in this cell type resulted in precocious alveolar development. In examining cellular cross-talk ex vivo, we show that ligand-dependent VDR signaling in adipocytes significantly inhibits mammary epithelial cell growth in part through the vitamin D₃-dependent production of the cytokine IL-6. Collectively, these studies delineate independent roles for vitamin D₃-dependent VDR signaling in mammary adipocytes and epithelial cells in controlling pubertal mammary gland development.

  6. Mining the mouse transcriptome of receptive endometrium reveals distinct molecular signatures for the luminal and glandular epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niklaus, Andrea L; Pollard, Jeffrey W

    2006-07-01

    Epithelia coat most tissues where they sense and respond to the environment and participate in innate immune responses. In the adult mouse uterus, columnar epithelium lines the central lumen and the glands that penetrate the underlying stroma. A nidatory surge of estrogen causes differentiation of the luminal epithelium to the receptive state that permits blastocyst attachment and allows subsequent implantation. Here, using laser-capture microdissection to isolate the luminal and glandular epithelia separately, we have profiled gene expression 2 h before embryo attachment to determine whether there are unique roles for these two epithelial structures in this process. Although most genes were expressed in both compartments, there was greater expression of 153 and 118 genes in the lumen and glands, respectively. In the luminal epithelium, there is enrichment in lipid, metal-ion binding, and carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes, whereas in the glands, immune response genes are emphasized. In situ hybridization to uterine sections obtained from mice during the preimplantation period validated these data and indicated an array of previously undocumented genes expressed with unique patterns in these epithelia. The data show that each epithelial compartment has a distinct molecular signature and that they act differentially and synergistically to permit blastocyst implantation.

  7. The identification of Cucumis sativus Glabrous 1 (CsGL1) required for the formation of trichomes uncovers a novel function for the homeodomain-leucine zipper I gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Cao, Chenxing; Zhang, Cunjia; Zheng, Shuangshuang; Wang, Zenghui; Wang, Lina; Ren, Zhonghai

    2015-05-01

    The spines and bloom of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) fruit are two important quality traits related to fruit market value. However, until now, none of the genes involved in the formation of cucumber fruit spines and bloom trichomes has been identified. Here, the characterization of trichome development in wild-type (WT) cucumber and a spontaneous mutant, glabrous 1 (csgl1) controlled by a single recessive nuclear gene, with glabrous aerial organs, is reported. Via map-based cloning, CsGL1 was isolated and it was found that it encoded a member of the homeodomain-leucine zipper I (HD-Zip I) proteins previously identified to function mainly in the abiotic stress responses of plants. Tissue-specific expression analysis indicated that CsGL1 was strongly expressed in trichomes and fruit spines. In addition, CsGL1 was a nuclear protein with weak transcriptional activation activity in yeast. A comparative analysis of the digital gene expression (DGE) profile between csgl1 and WT leaves revealed that CsGL1 had a significant influence on the gene expression profile in cucumber, especially on genes related to cellular process, which is consistent with the phenotypic difference between csgl1 and the WT. Moreover, two genes, CsMYB6 and CsGA20ox1, possibly involved in the formation of cucumber trichomes and fruit spines, were characterized. Overall, the findings reveal a new function for the HD-Zip I gene subfamily, and provide some candidate genes for genetic engineering approaches to improve cucumber fruit external quality.

  8. Polyploidization in the trophoblast and uterine glandular epithelium of the endotheliochorial placenta of silver fox (Vulpes fulvus Desm.), as revealed by the DNA content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zybina, T G; Zybina, E V; Kiknadze, I I; Zhelezova, A I

    2001-05-01

    Dynamics of genome multiplication during establishment of interrelations between trophoblast and glandular epithelium of the endometrium has been studied in the course of formation of placenta in the silver fox. During formation of the placenta, penetration of the trophoblast into the zone of the endometrial glandular epithelium and of endometrial blood vessels into the zone of expanding trophoblast occurs. The trophoblast, which gradually replaces epithelium and a part of the stroma of the endometrium, closely adjoins endometrial vessels but does not disrupt them, thereby the endotheliochorial placenta is formed. Cytophotometric measurements of the DNA content in trophoblast nuclei have shown that most of them are polyploid: predominantly 4-64c, occasionally 128c and 256c. Polyploidy of the trophoblast may be a consequence of various types of polyploidizing mitoses. Cytophotometric measurements of the DNA content in mitotic figures have revealed the presence of mitoses of diploid cells, i.e. with the DNA amount of 4c (2n), and polyploid cells, i.e. 8c (4n), and 16c (8n), therefore trophoblast cells in the silver fox placenta are able to enter mitosis up to the octaploid level. Higher degrees of polyploidy in the trophoblast cells seem to be achieved by endoreduplication. Polyploidization of the uterine glandular epithelial cells during placentation in the silver fox occurs until the level of 8c. Thus, the tissue-specific response of the uterus to the implanting embryo consists of active proliferation and polyploidization of the glandular epithelium, which may compensate formation of prominent population of decidual cells (i.e., connective tissue cells). In the endotheliochorial placenta of the silver fox the regularity is confirmed that cells of both maternal and fetal origin are, as a rule, polyploid in sites of their contact in placenta, which may be of protective significance in the contact of allogenic organisms.

  9. Inhibition of regrowth of prostatic glandular cells by epristeride%爱普列特抑制大鼠前列腺细胞的再生长

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱立晖; 王晓麟; 屠曾宏

    2001-01-01

    目的:评价爱普列特抑制前列腺细胞重新生长的能力.方法:正常大鼠去势后注射丙酸睾丸酮刺激前列腺重新生长.HE染色进行形态学观察.测量前列腺上皮细胞高度及腺腔面积.免疫组化测定DHT浓度.结果:大鼠口服爱普列特10 mg/kg前列腺上皮高度和腺腔面积分别仅为对照组的48%和55%.免疫组化表明,大鼠口服爱普列特30天后,DHT浓度显著下降.结论:爱普列特通过降低DHT浓度来抑制前列腺细胞的重新生长.%AIM: To evaluate the ability of epristeride to inhibit the prostatic glandular regrowth. METHODS: Normal rots were castrated. Testosterone was injected to induce the regrowth of glandular cells. HE staining was performed.The height of the glandular epithelium and the acinar luminal areas were determined, and dihydrotestosterone ( DHT ) was detected by immunohistochemistry.RESULTS: Both the height and the acinar luminal areas were reduced by 48 % and 55 % in epristeride-treated group compared with control group respectively. The staining of DHT was comparatively strong in the control group. After 30-d of treatment, it turned much weaker.CONCLUSION: The regrowth of glandular cells was inhibited by epristeride via declining of the DHT concentration in the rat prostate.

  10. Ultrastructural changes in the uterine luminal and glandular epithelium during the oestrous cycle of the marsupial Monodelphis domestica (grey short-tailed opossum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wick, Regula; Kress, Annetrudi

    2002-01-01

    Ultrastructural changes in the endometrium associated with the oestrous cycle were studied in the South American marsupial Monodelphis domestica. The most conspicuous changes include the height and the differentiation of the uterine luminal and glandular epithelium, which consists of ciliated and non-ciliated cells. The glandular epithelium attains its maximum development during oestrus, the luminal epithelium at postoestrus. A distinct increase in the number of ciliated cells can be observed during pro-oestrus, reaching a maximum number at oestrus; this is followed by a process of deciliation. The presence of solitary cilia on the apices of non-ciliated cells is very conspicuous during all oestrous stages and can best be seen on the luminal epithelium. These findings differ from the observations in eutherian mammals, where solitary cilia are only found in the immature uterus or after ovariectomy. The secretory activity of non-ciliated cells of the luminal epithelium is hardly noticeable along the apical membrane and stains only very faintly with Alcian blue. The glandular epithelium cells are filled apically with exocytotic vesicles at oestrus and early postoestrus. However, in contrast to the cervical gland cells, they hardly stain with Alcian blue, indicating that mucins of a different type must be present. Mechanisms for the remodelling of the luminal and glandular epithelium are especially conspicuous at metoestrus and early pro-oestrus and include the presence of autolysosomes, residual bodies and apoptotic bodies. In the endometrial stroma, around the uterine glands, macrophages accumulate and attain a typical oestrous stage-dependent appearance during their phagocytotic activities.

  11. Human glandular organoid formation in murine engineering chambers after collagenase digestion and flow cytometry isolation of normal human breast tissue single cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Cecilia W; Huang, Dexing; Chew, Grace L; Hill, Prue; Vohora, Ambika; Ingman, Wendy V; Glynn, Danielle J; Godde, Nathan; Henderson, Michael A; Thompson, Erik W; Britt, Kara L

    2016-11-01

    Women with high mammographic density (MD) are at increased risk of breast cancer (BC) after adjustment for age and body mass index. We have developed a murine biochamber model in which both high MD (HMD) and low MD (LMD) tissue can be propagated. Here, we tested whether cells isolated by collagenase digestion and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) from normal breast can be reconstituted in our biochamber model, which would allow cell-specific manipulations to be tested. Fresh breast tissue was collected from women (n = 7) undergoing prophylactic mastectomy. The tissue underwent collagenase digestion overnight and, in some cases, additional FACS enrichment to obtain mature epithelial, luminal progenitor, mammary stem, and stromal cells. Cells were then transferred bilaterally into biochambers in SCID mice (n = 5-7) and incubated for 6 weeks, before harvesting for histological analyses, and immunohistochemical staining for cytokeratins (CK), vimentin, Ki-67, murine macrophages, and Cleaved Caspase-3. Biochambers inoculated with single cells after collagenase digestion or with flow cytometry contained glandular structures of human origin (human vimentin-positive), which expressed CK-14 and pan-CK, and were proliferating (Ki-67-positive). Glandular structures from the digested tissues were smaller than those in chambers seeded with finely chopped intact mammary tissue. Mouse macrophage infiltration was higher in the chambers arising from digested tissues. Pooled single cells and FACS fractionated cells were viable in the murine biochambers and formed proliferating glandular organoids of human origin. This is among the first report to demonstrate the success of formed human glandular organoids from isolated primary mammary cells in the murine biochamber model.

  12. Evidence of progenitor cells of glandular and myoepithelial cell lineages in the human adult female breast epithelium: a new progenitor (adult stem) cell concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boecker, Werner; Buerger, Horst

    2003-10-01

    Although experimental data clearly confirm the existence of self-renewing mammary stem cells, the characteristics of such progenitor cells have never been satisfactorily defined. Using a double immunofluorescence technique for simultaneous detection of the basal cytokeratin 5, the glandular cytokeratins 8/18 and the myoepithelial differentiation marker smooth muscle actin (SMA), we were able to demonstrate the presence of CK5+ cells in human adult breast epithelium. These cells have the potential to differentiate to either glandular (CK8/18+) or myoepithelial cells (SMA+) through intermediary cells (CK5+ and CK8/18+ or SMA+). We therefore proceeded on the assumption that the CK5+ cells are phenotypically and behaviourally progenitor (committed adult stem) cells of human breast epithelium. Furthermore, we furnish evidence that most of these progenitor cells are located in the luminal epithelium of the ductal lobular tree. Based on data obtained in extensive analyses of proliferative breast disease lesions, we have come to regard usual ductal hyperplasia as a progenitor cell-derived lesion, whereas most breast cancers seem to evolve from differentiated glandular cells. Double immunofluorescence experiments provide a new tool to characterize phenotypically progenitor (adult stem) cells and their progenies. This model has been shown to be of great value for a better understanding not only of normal tissue regeneration but also of proliferative breast disease. Furthermore, this model provides a new tool for unravelling further the regulatory mechanisms that govern normal and pathological cell growth.

  13. Dicty_cDB: SHG142 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ', mRNA sequence. 48 0.40 1 CO517131 |CO517131.1 s13dSG29G1200100_468808 Glandular trichomes... Medicago sativa cDNA, mRNA sequence. 46 1.6 1 CO512157 |CO512157.1 s13dSG34F0100011_108634 Glandular trichomes

  14. crinkle, a novel symbiotic mutant that affects the infection thread growth and alters the root hair, trichome, and seed development in Lotus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansengco, Myra L; Hayashi, Makoto; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi; Imaizumi-Anraku, Haruko; Murooka, Yoshikatsu

    2003-03-01

    To elucidate the mechanisms involved in Rhizobium-legume symbiosis, we examined a novel symbiotic mutant, crinkle (Ljsym79), from the model legume Lotus japonicus. On nitrogen-starved medium, crinkle mutants inoculated with the symbiont bacterium Mesorhizobium loti MAFF 303099 showed severe nitrogen deficiency symptoms. This mutant was characterized by the production of many bumps and small, white, uninfected nodule-like structures. Few nodules were pale-pink and irregularly shaped with nitrogen-fixing bacteroids and expressing leghemoglobin mRNA. Morphological analysis of infected roots showed that nodulation in crinkle mutants is blocked at the stage of the infection process. Confocal microscopy and histological examination of crinkle nodules revealed that infection threads were arrested upon penetrating the epidermal cells. Starch accumulation in uninfected cells and undeveloped vascular bundles were also noted in crinkle nodules. Results suggest that the Crinkle gene controls the infection process that is crucial during the early stage of nodule organogenesis. Aside from the symbiotic phenotypes, crinkle mutants also developed morphological alterations, such as crinkly or wavy trichomes, short seedpods with aborted embryos, and swollen root hairs. crinkle is therefore required for symbiotic nodule development and for other aspects of plant development.

  15. Ectopic expression of Capsicum-specific cell wall protein Capsicum annuum senescence-delaying 1 (CaSD1) delays senescence and induces trichome formation in Nicotiana benthamiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Eunyoung; Yeom, Seon-In; Jo, Sunghwan; Jeong, Heejin; Kang, Byoung-Cheorl; Choi, Doil

    2012-04-01

    Secreted proteins are known to have multiple roles in plant development, metabolism, and stress response. In a previous study to understand the roles of secreted proteins, Capsicum annuum secreted proteins (CaS) were isolated by yeast secretion trap. Among the secreted proteins, we further characterized Capsicum annuum senescence-delaying 1 (CaSD1), a gene encoding a novel secreted protein that is present only in the genus Capsicum. The deduced CaSD1 contains multiple repeats of the amino acid sequence KPPIHNHKPTDYDRS. Interestingly, the number of repeats varied among cultivars and species in the Capsicum genus. CaSD1 is constitutively expressed in roots, and Agrobacterium-mediated transient overexpression of CaSD1 in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves resulted in delayed senescence with a dramatically increased number of trichomes and enlarged epidermal cells. Furthermore, senescence- and cell division-related genes were differentially regulated by CaSD1-overexpressing plants. These observations imply that the pepper-specific cell wall protein CaSD1 plays roles in plant growth and development by regulating cell division and differentiation.

  16. CYTO - HISTO CORRELATION OF ATYPICAL GLANDULAR CELLS OF ENDOMETRIAL ORIGIN ON CERVICAL CYTOLOGY IN ABNORMAL UTERINE BLEEDING CASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopa Mudra

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An association has been reported with presence of endometrial cells on cervical smears and clinically significant uterine lesions. Hence for early detection of endometrial pathology , t he 2001 Bethesda system has suggested the mandatory reporting of presence of any atypical endometrial cells regardless of age and menstrual status and out of phase normal looking endometrial cells in women aged 40 years or more. OBJECTIVES: To assess the association between atypical glandular cells of endometrial origin in cervical cytology and histopathological findings in abnormal uterine bleeding cases . SETTINGS AND DESIGN : The study was conducted at JSS hospital , Mysore in the department of pathology. This was a descriptive type of study. The sample was collected fro m patients attending the gynecology OPD with the complaints of abnormal uterine bleeding in JSS hospital . MATERIALS AND METHODS : Smears for cervical cytology are collected using either pap smear or manual liquid based smear from 82 patients in the age grou p of 20 - 75 years with complaints of abnormal bleeding history. The results of cervical cytology were compared and confirmed with the endometrial pathology. RESULTS : Out of 82 abnormal uterine bleeding cases 14 showed atypical endometrial cells. On follow u p of these cases , the results indicated an association between atypical endometrial cells in cervical cytology with endometrial carcinoma in 8 cases (60% , 1 case with complex hyperplasia with atypia (10% . CONCLUSION : Presence of atypical endometrial cell s in all women with abnormal uterine bleeding has considerable clinical implications & further diagnostic evaluation by endometrial sampling is of utmost importance.

  17. 东北桤木叶表皮盾状腺毛的形态及其变化过程%The Morphology and Process Changes of Peltate Glandular hairs in Alnus mandshurica Leaf Epidermis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱俊义; 刘秀岩; 梁宇

    2009-01-01

    Using scanning electron microscopy techniques to observe the leaves surface of Alnus mandshurica and find it far axial epidermis with peltate glandular hairs. It made up of two-cells, four stem cells and 20~25 head-cells, with the accumulation of secretion material, cells rupture, finally disappear. Theree is no peltate glandu-lar hairs far axial epidermis, in young leawes only has stoma distribution. The cross section of A. mandshurica leaves showed it belongs to bifacial leaf, cells of far axial epidermis with peltate glandular hairs connect with leaf vein vascular tissue, the author consider this peltate glandular hairs shoule belong to " Peltate glandular hairs" , and suggest that the nouns of " Glandular scales" , " Peltate gland" , " Peltate scale" , " Peltate glandular hairs" should be normalized. The process of shields-glandular in A. mandshurica leaf epidermis and the component of se-cretion material need to be further studied.%利用电镜扫描技术,观察东北桤木叶片表面,发现其远轴面表皮上具有盾状腺毛.其由2个基细胞、4个柄细胞和20~25个头部细胞组成,随着分泌物质的积累,细胞逐渐破裂.幼叶远轴面表皮无盾状腺毛,仅有气孔分布.观察东北桤木叶片横切面,发现其为异面叶,远轴面表皮上的盾状腺毛细胞与叶脉维管组织相连.外文资料显示用于表述桤木属表皮上的盾状腺毛的名词较多,该毛状体应为"Peltate glandular hairs".同时建议对"Glan-dular scales"、"Peltate gland"、"Peltate scale"、"Peltate glandular hairs"等名词进行规范统一.另外有关东北桤木叶表皮上毛状体从原表皮细胞的发生过程及其分泌物的成份,需进一步研究.

  18. Evolución de la agregación y separación de sexos: ¿Qué hemos aprendido de las poblaciones ibéricas de Mercurialis annua?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Pannell

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La mayoría de las especies de plantas son hermafroditas, en las que las funciones reproductivas tanto femenina como masculina son llevadas a cabo por los mismos individuos. Sin embargo, la separación de los sexos en diferentes individuos (dioecia ha evolucionado independientemente en numerosas ocasiones, probablemente en respuesta a la selección para evitar la depresión por endogamia o porque es beneficioso para los individuos especializarse en uno de los dos sexos. Aunque la evolución de la dioecia a partir del hermafroditismo tiende a ser considerada en este único sentido, la dioecia ha revertido en varias ocasiones para dar lugar a hermafroditismo. Uno de esos casos lo encontramos en el género Mercurialis (Euphorbiaceae, el cual es principalmente dioico. En el complejo de especies M. annua, las poblaciones diploides son dioicas, pero las poliploides pueden ser monoicas o androdioicas (coexistencia de machos junto con hermafroditas funcionales. Este complejo de especies ofrece múltiples posibilidades a la hora de abordar cuestiones relativas a la evolución y la ecología de la agregación frente a la separación de los sexos; la evolución del dimorfismo sexual secundario, que probablemente contribuye a la estabilización de la dioecia en el género; y la evolución y la genética de la determinación sexual y los cromosomas sexuales. M. annua también se presenta como una valiosa herramienta docente para tratar temas que van desde la selección en ratios de sexo hasta la competencia entre sexos.

  19. Treatment with eCG decreases the vascular density and increases the glandular density of the bovine uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mona e Pinto, J; Pavanelo, V; Alves de Fátima, L; Medeiros de Carvalho Sousa, L M; Pacheco Mendes, G; Machado Ferreira, R; Ayres, H; Sampaio Baruselli, P; Palma Rennó, F; de Carvallo Papa, P

    2014-06-01

    The uterus plays an essential role in mammalian reproduction and is a target of several hormonal protocols used to improve fertility in cattle. Many studies highlighted the importance of eCG treatment following fixed-time artificial insemination in improving follicular growth, ovulation and pregnancy rates in cattle. Moreover, eCG has been implicated in angiogenesis, leading to important changes in uterine blood flow and vascularisation. However, there is still a lack of information regarding the specific alterations induced by eCG upon glandular and vascular characteristics of bovine uterus. To investigate the influence of eCG on: uterine thickness and area; uterine artery diameter and area; uterine vascular and gland density; and the expression of the VEGFA-system, the uteri of crossbred beef cows were collected. All cows were submitted to follicular wave emergence synchronization. On day four of protocol, cows submitted to superovulation (n = 6) received 2000 IU eCG, on day eight, after expected follicular deviation, cows submitted to stimulatory treatment (n = 5) received 400 IU eCG. Control cows (n = 5) did not receive eCG. On day five po cows were subjected to ultrassonographic evaluation and slaughtered for uterine tissue sampling on day six po. Uterine vessels and glands were quantified by the counting point stereological method. The VEGFA-system was localized in different cellular types, showing no qualitative or quantitative differences in the site of expression or the intensity of the positive signal among the groups. Vascular density was decreased in the endometrium of stimulated and myometrium of superovulated cows compared with the control ones, which showed higher vascular density in the myometrium and endometrium of the ipsilateral uterine horn. The uterine gland density was higher in superovulated compared with stimulated and control cows. Thus, we can infer that stimulatory or superovulatory treatments with eCG influence the vascular

  20. Antibodies against Escherichia coli O24 and O56 O-Specific Polysaccharides Recognize Epitopes in Human Glandular Epithelium and Nervous Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniowska-Kowal, Agnieszka; Kochman, Agata; Gamian, Elżbieta; Lis-Nawara, Anna; Lipiński, Tomasz; Seweryn, Ewa; Ziółkowski, Piotr; Gamian, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the major component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, contains the O-polysaccharide, which is important to classify bacteria into different O-serological types within species. The O-polysaccharides of serotypes O24 and O56 of E. coli contain sialic acid in their structures, already established in our previous studies. Here, we report the isolation of specific antibodies with affinity chromatography using immobilized lipopolysaccharides. Next, we evaluated the reactivity of anti-O24 and anti-O56 antibody on human tissues histologically. The study was conducted under the assumption that the sialic acid based molecular identity of bacterial and tissue structures provides not only an understanding of the mimicry-based bacterial pathogenicity. Cross-reacting antibodies could be used to recognize specific human tissues depending on their histogenesis and differentiation, which might be useful for diagnostic purposes. The results indicate that various human tissues are recognized by anti-O24 and anti-O56 antibodies. Interestingly, only a single specific reactivity could be found in the anti-O56 antibody preparation. Several tissues studied were not reactive with either antibody, thus proving that the presence of cross-reactive antigens was tissue specific. In general, O56 antibody performed better than O24 in staining epithelial and nervous tissues. Positive staining was observed for both normal (ganglia) and tumor tissue (ganglioneuroma). Epithelial tissue showed positive staining, but an epitope recognized by O56 antibody should be considered as a marker of glandular epithelium. The reason is that malignant glandular tumor and its metastasis are stained, and also epithelium of renal tubules and glandular structures of the thyroid gland are stained. Stratified epithelium such as that of skin is definitely not stained. Therefore, the most relevant observation is that the epitope recognized by anti-O56 antibodies is a new marker

  1. Antibodies against Escherichia coli O24 and O56 O-Specific Polysaccharides Recognize Epitopes in Human Glandular Epithelium and Nervous Tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Korzeniowska-Kowal

    Full Text Available Lipopolysaccharide (LPS, the major component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, contains the O-polysaccharide, which is important to classify bacteria into different O-serological types within species. The O-polysaccharides of serotypes O24 and O56 of E. coli contain sialic acid in their structures, already established in our previous studies. Here, we report the isolation of specific antibodies with affinity chromatography using immobilized lipopolysaccharides. Next, we evaluated the reactivity of anti-O24 and anti-O56 antibody on human tissues histologically. The study was conducted under the assumption that the sialic acid based molecular identity of bacterial and tissue structures provides not only an understanding of the mimicry-based bacterial pathogenicity. Cross-reacting antibodies could be used to recognize specific human tissues depending on their histogenesis and differentiation, which might be useful for diagnostic purposes. The results indicate that various human tissues are recognized by anti-O24 and anti-O56 antibodies. Interestingly, only a single specific reactivity could be found in the anti-O56 antibody preparation. Several tissues studied were not reactive with either antibody, thus proving that the presence of cross-reactive antigens was tissue specific. In general, O56 antibody performed better than O24 in staining epithelial and nervous tissues. Positive staining was observed for both normal (ganglia and tumor tissue (ganglioneuroma. Epithelial tissue showed positive staining, but an epitope recognized by O56 antibody should be considered as a marker of glandular epithelium. The reason is that malignant glandular tumor and its metastasis are stained, and also epithelium of renal tubules and glandular structures of the thyroid gland are stained. Stratified epithelium such as that of skin is definitely not stained. Therefore, the most relevant observation is that the epitope recognized by anti-O56 antibodies is

  2. Changes of tobacco leaf trichome exudates during curing under different curing regimes%不同烘烤方式烘烤过程中烟叶表面腺毛分泌物变化的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李章海; 潘文杰; 朱晓兰; 赵会纳; 高芸; 谢已书; 杨俊; 朱显灵

    2011-01-01

    Content of trichome exudates in cured leaves from four different curing barns, I. E. , traditional rod-hanging barn, rod-hanging bulk-curing barn, loose-leaf bulk curing barn, and basket-holding bulk curing barn, were analyzed by GC-MS and GC-FID method to study effect of different curing regimes on changes of tobacco leaf trichome exudates. Results showed that total content of trichome exudates in cured leaves from rod-hanging bulk-curing and loose-leaf bulk-curing barns were roughly 50% and 60% of those from traditional rod-hanging curing barn. The loss was mainly occurred during stem-drying stage. Content of trichome exudates from basket-holding bulk curing barn leaf was almost e-qual to that of traditional rod-handing curing barn leaf. It seemed that basket-holding bulk curing was one of the effective measures to reduce aroma loss caused by rod-hang bulk curing.%为研究不同烘烤方式对烘烤过程中烟叶表面腺毛分泌物含量变化与损失的影响,选择了传统普通烤房、挂竿密集烤房、散叶密集烤房和框装密集烤房等4种烤房类型,采用GC-MS定性,GC-FID定量的方法,分析烟叶表面腺毛分泌物含量.结果表明,挂竿密集烤房和散叶密集烤房烤后烟叶腺毛分泌物总量分别约为传统普通烤房的50%和60%,并且损失主要发生在于筋期.框装密集烤房烤后烟叶腺毛分泌物总量与传统普通烤房相当.因此,框装密集烤房是解决目前挂竿密集烤房烟叶香气量损失较大的有效措施之一.

  3. Helicobacter pylori infection, glandular atrophy and intestinal metaplasia in superficial gastritis, gastric erosion, erosive gastritis, gastric ulcer and early gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuan Zhang; Nobutaka Yamada; Yun-Lin Wu; Min Wen; Takeshi Matsuhisa; Norio Matsukura

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the histological features of gastric mucosa, including Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with early gastric cancer and endoscopically found superficial gastritis, gastric erosion, erosive gastritis,gastric ulcer.METHODS: The biopsy specimens were taken from the antrum, corpus and upper angulus of all the patients.Giemsa staining, improved toluidine-blue staining, and H pylori-specific antibody immune staining were performed as appropriate for the histological diagnosis of H pylori infection. Hematoxylin-eosin staining was used for the histological diagnosis of gastric mucosa inflammation, gastric glandular atrophy and intestinal metaplasia and scored into four grades according to the Updated Sydney System.RESULTS: The overall prevalence of H pylori infection in superficial gastritis was 28.7%, in erosive gastritis 57.7%,in gastric erosion 63.3%, in gastric ulcer 80.8%, in early gastric cancer 52.4%. There was significant difference (P<0.05), except for the difference between early gastric cancer and erosive gastritis. H pylori infection rate in antrum, corpus, angulus of patients with superficial gastritis was 25.9%, 26.2%, 25.2%, respectively; in patients with erosive gastritis 46.9%, 53.5%, 49.0%,respectively; in patients with gastric erosion 52.4%, 61.5%,52.4%, respectively; in patients with gastric ulcer 52.4%,61.5%, 52.4%, respectively; in patients with early gastric cancer 35.0%, 50.7%, 34.6%, respectively. No significant difference was found among the different site biopsies in superficial gastritis, but in the other diseases the detected rates were higher in corpus biopsy (P<0.05). The grades of mononuclear cell infiltration and polymorphonuclear cell infiltration, in early gastric cancer patients, were significantly higher than that in superficial gastritis patients, lower than that in gastric erosion and gastric ulcer patients (P<0.01);however, there was no significant difference compared with erosive gastritis. The grades

  4. Apoptotic depletion of infiltrating mucosal lymphocytes associated with Fas ligand expression by Helicobacter pylori-infected gastric mucosal epithelium: human glandular stomach as a site of immune privilege.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, S

    2000-04-01

    H. pylori infection almost invariably results in chronic gastritis, but only a proportion of patients develops severe destruction of epithelial glandular structure or peptic ulcer. To confirm the recent data obtained in testis and eye, showing that Fas ligand is involved in the phenomenon of "immune privilege," expression of Fas receptor and its ligand of the stomach was investigated in a panel of gastric biopsies obtained from patients H. pylori-positive (N = 42) and with H. pylori-negative (N = 18) by two-color flow cytometry. The results show that membrane-bound Fas ligand protein is constitutively expressed on freshly isolated human gastric mucosal epithelium coupled with infiltrating lymphocytes. There was significant overexpression of Fas receptor and its ligand, and a higher frequency of apoptotic cell death detected by TUNEL in epithelium and infiltrating lymphocytes in H. pylori-infected patients. These findings suggest that involvement of Fas receptor and its ligand system contributes to some extent to mucosal damage in H. pylori-associated gastritis. However, the more specific findings are apoptotic depletion of invading mucosal lymphocytes associated with Fas ligand expression by gastric epithelium. These provide the first direct quantitative evidence to support Fas receptor counterattack and/or paracrine fratricide as a mechanism of immune privilege in vivo in the H. pylori-infected glandular stomach.

  5. 黄花蒿提取物生产工艺条件及其对乳中共轭亚油酸(CLA)生成的调控作用%Processing Condition of Artemisia annua L. Extracts and Its Regulative Effect on Production of Conjugated Linoleic Acid(CLA)in Milk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽芳; 姚一萍

    2016-01-01

    Ethanol extracts of Artemisia annua L. contains many kinds of nutritional and biologically active components, including terpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, aromatics, fatty acids, steroids, flavonoids, alkaloids, etc. Supplementation of ethanol extracts of Artemisia annua L. in ruminant diet is able to increase the CLA content in their milk. Here, we reviewed the nutritional and biologically active components, extraction conditions, detection methods and proper supplementation level in animal diet of ethanol extracts of Artemisia annua L, so as to provide references for the large scale production of CLA-enriched milk.%黄花蒿乙醇提取物含有多种营养活性物质,主要包括萜类、倍半萜类、芳香族类、脂肪酸类、甾体类、黄酮类、生物碱类等化合物。反刍动物日粮中添加黄花蒿乙醇提取物能够增加其乳中共轭亚油酸(CLA)含量。综述了黄花蒿乙醇提取物的主要营养活性物质、提取工艺条件、营养活性物质的检测方法及黄花蒿提取物在动物日粮中的适宜添加量,旨在为生产CLA乳提供参考。

  6. Discussion of Detection Method for Cervical Glandular Intraepithelial Neoplasia%宫颈腺上皮瘤样病变检测方法的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周红荣; 马成斌; 王忠英

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨宫颈涂片、宫颈活检等的筛选方法在宫颈腺上皮瘤样病变术前检测中的作用。方法对2007.1~2013.6在我院做过宫颈锥切和全子宫切除诊断为宫颈腺上皮瘤样病变(CGIN)的患者进行鉴别。收集宫颈锥切和子宫切除前来自宫颈涂片、宫颈组织活检、颈管搔刮的结果。 Fisher确切概率法用于统计分析。结果经宫颈组织病理证实的67例CGIN患者宫颈细胞学涂片中,23例有细胞病变,未见上皮内瘤样病变44例。宫颈涂片腺体病变检出灵敏度34.3%。23例涂片异常结果中异型的腺上皮有8例(11.9%),高度鳞状上皮内瘤样病变1例(1.5%),低度鳞状上皮瘤样病变的5例(7.5%),不典型鳞状上皮9例(13.4%),。腺上皮异常组与鳞状上皮异常组对单纯性CGIN的检出率无统计学差异(P=0.379)。结论在CGIN锥切前,宫颈涂片检测腺体病变异常的敏感度较低,但加上宫颈组织活检和宫颈管搔刮则明显提高,宫颈疾病的术前精确预测对怀疑有宫颈腺体病变患者治疗计划的制定具有重要意义。%Objective Discuss the role of screening method for cervical smear, cervical biopsy and etc in preoperative detecting of cervical glandular intraepithelial neoplasia (CGIN). Methods: Patients with a cervical biopsy or hysterectomy diagnosis of CGIN from 2007.1 to 2013.6 at our institution were identified. Results from Papanicolaou smears or TCT、cervical biopsies and endocervical curet age (ECC) preceding the cone excision or hysterectomy were col ected from medical records. Fisher exact test was used for statistical analysis. Results: The pathology confirmed of 67, found a total of 23 cases had untypical cells, negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy (NILM) 44 patients (65.7%). Positive predictive value of cervical smear for glandular lesion is 34.3%. Atypical glandular epithelium has 8 cases (11.9%), high-grade squamous intraepithelial

  7. In vivo rat glandular stomach and colon micronucleus tests: Kinetics of micronucleated cells, apoptosis, and cell proliferation in the target tissues after a single oral administration of stomach- or colon-carcinogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohyama, Wakako; Okada, Emiko; Fujiishi, Yohei; Narumi, Kazunori; Yasutake, Nobuyoshi

    2013-08-15

    We have developed in vivo micronucleus (MN) tests by using an epithelial cell suspension isolated from the glandular stomach and colon of rodents. In the present study, our aim was to demonstrate the characteristics of the glandular stomach and colon MN tests by analyzing time-related changes in MN frequencies, apoptosis and cell proliferation in the target tissues of male CD (SD) rats that were orally administered a single dose of a stomach- or colon-targeted carcinogen, i.e., N-nitroso-N-methylurea (MNU) or N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) for the stomach and 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH) for the colon. After treatment, the MN frequencies significantly increased in the respective target tissues, peaking at 48-96h and decreasing afterwards. The time-response pattern could be explained by the epithelial cell turnover confirmed with a labeling experiment using the thymidine analog, 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU). In the study with MNU and DMH, we also prepared paraffin sections of the respective target tissues for the immunohistochemical evaluation of apoptosis and cell proliferation. The incidence of apoptosis increased in the early phase (6 and/or 24h) after treatment, and then decreased. Cell proliferation was depressed when a high incidence of apoptosis was observed, and then it recovered until 72h. MN frequencies increased with the recovery of cell proliferation occurring later than the peak apoptosis response. These results indicated that micronuclei were induced in the glandular stomach and colon epithelial cells by administration of the model chemicals. On the other hand, MNU induced significant increases of MNed cells in both the glandular stomach and bone marrow in the same rats, while MNNG did only in the glandular stomach when administered orally up to 1/4 of the LD50. These results suggest that the glandular stomach- and colon-MN tests would be useful for evaluating the genotoxicity of agents in the gastrointestinal tract.

  8. Plasminogen-independent initiation of the pro-urokinase activation cascade in vivo. Activation of pro-urokinase by glandular kallikrein (mGK-6) in plasminogen-deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    List, K; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard; Bugge, T H;

    2000-01-01

    kallikrein). The pro-uPA converting activity of the mGK-6 enzyme, as well as its ability to cleave a synthetic substrate for glandular kallikrein, was inhibited by the serine proteinase inhibitor leupeptin but not by other serine proteinase inhibitors such as aprotinin, antithrombin III, or alpha(1...... the cascade by activating pro-uPA. The urine from Plg -/- mice contained active two-chain uPA as well as a proteinase capable of activating exogenously added pro-uPA. The active component was purified and identified by mass spectrometry-based peptide mapping as mouse glandular kallikrein mGK-6 (true tissue...

  9. Cloning and Expression Analysis of ShMYB1 Related to the Trichome Initiation in Tomato (Solanum habrochaites)%番茄茸毛相关基因ShMYB1的克隆与表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王涛涛; Maarten A.Jongsma; 余楚英; 李汉霞; 张俊红; 杨长宪; 叶志彪

    2011-01-01

    番茄茸毛具有多种生物学功能,为了探究番茄中控制茸毛的基因,本研究采用cDNA末端快速扩增技术(rapid amplification ofcDNA ends,RACE)从野生种多毛番茄(Solanum habrochaites)LA1777中,获得了一个与茸毛相关的R2R3 MYB Subgroup 9家族新成员EST241733的全长编码区cDNA序列,命名为ShMYBl.经生物信息学分析,克隆的ShMYBl基因长1 350 bp,编码338个氨基酸.该基因具有保守的R2R3MYB结构域和Subgroup 9特异motif序列.荧光定量PCR结果表明,ShMYBl基因在番茄叶和花中表达量高,在根、茎、果实中没有表达.在不同发育时期的叶片中表达量差异不大,但是在幼花蕾表达量最高,随花蕾的增大,表达量显著降低.在几个番茄茸毛突变体与对应的野生型中,这个基因表达量存在明显差异.推测该基因与番茄表皮茸毛发生和花发育有关.%The trichome has diverse biological functions in tomato, in order to explore the gene functions involved in trichome formation, a novel gene (named as ShMYB1) related trichome initiation was isolated from LA1777, using RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) technology. The full-length sequence of ShMYB1 cDNA was 1 350 bp and encoded a protein of 338 amino acids. The ShMYB1 had a conserved R2R3 MYB domain and a specific subgroup 9 motif. The expression profiles of ShMYB1 were analyzed with Real-time PCR in different tissues and developmental stages, the results showed that the gene was expressed at a high level in leaves and flowers, but no expression was detected in roots, stems or fruits, and no significant differences at different stages of leaf development, but the highest expression occurred in young buds, gradually declined during bud development. Also significant differences of ShMYB1 expression were detected between several trichome mutants and their wild types. These results suggested that the ShMYB1 gene may be involved in the initiation of trichome and the development of flowers.

  10. 黄花篙发根的生长及部分代谢成分的特征研究%Characterization on Growth and Some Secondary Metabolites of Artemisia annua Roots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹婷; 张犇; 陈晶磊; 陈韶华; 王剑文

    2011-01-01

    Objective:The characterization on growth and some secondary metabolites of Artemisia annua hairy roots were investigated. Method: We investigated the effects of plant growth regulators such as NAA and GA3 on the hairy roots and untransformed roots. The main components of some secondary metabolites were tested in the hairy roots. Result: NAA at lower concentration (0.01 -0.05 mg·L-1) could promote formation of lateral and branch roots and had no effect on untransformed roots. High concentrated NAA (0. 1 mg·L-1) inhibited the growth of hairy roots but stimulated the growth of untransformed roots. Artemisinin was not detected in untransformed roots,but at 0. 64 mg· g-1 in hairy roots. To the flavonoids in A. annua, chrysoplenetin was found in both roots, but there was a higher content of arteannuin (0. 76 mg · g-1 ) in hairy roots, 3.5 folds of that in untransformed roots.Conclusion: A. annua hairy roots have a unique characterization on growth and secondary metabolites.%目的:研究黄花篙发根的生长形态和部分次生代谢物特征.方法:比较发根和未转化根的形态差异,测定生长调节剂如萘乙酸(NAA)和赤霉素(GA3)对根生长的影响,分析了发根和未转化根的部分次生代谢物的含量特征.结果:低浓度NAA (0.01~0.05 mg·L-1)能明显促进发根侧根和次侧根的形成,对未转化根则无显著作用,高浓度NAA(0.1 mg·L-1)抑制发根的生长,而对未转化根的生长起促进作用.未转化根中不含有青篙素,而在发根中检测到较高含量的青蒿素(0.64 mg·g-1),未转化根中青蒿乙素含量较高(1.24 mg·g-1 ).在未转化根和发根中,青篙黄酮chrysopleneti.含量相当,而发根中另一种黄酮化合物artemitin含量(0.76 mg·g-1)是未转化根的3.5倍.结论:黄花蒿发根具有较独特的生长和次生代谢特征.

  11. EFFECTS OF SELENIUM ON GLANDULAR STOMACHCARCINOMA AND ITS INFLUENCE ON GLANDULAR STOMACH AND PANCREAS POSITIVE CGRP CELLS IN RATS%硒对大鼠腺胃癌的作用及其对腺胃、胰CGRP阳性细胞的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏衍萍; 唐军民; 唐岩; 朴建华; 夏弈明; 邓大君

    2000-01-01

    目的:探讨硒在机体自然抗肿瘤发生过程中的作用。方法:用MNNG(20 mgkg)灌胃诱导大鼠腺胃粘膜异倍体形成(大鼠腺胃癌模型形成)。用流式细胞仪测定硒对大鼠腺胃幽门粘膜异倍体形成的影响,用免疫组织化学ABC法观察硒在大鼠腺胃粘膜异倍体形成过程中,大鼠腺胃、胰CGRP阳性细胞的变化。并对以上结果进行图像分析及统计学处理。结果:((1)硒能抑制MNNG所致大鼠腺胃粘膜细胞异倍体的形成。(2)在MNNG所致大鼠异倍体的形成过程中,其腺胃、胰CGRP阳性细胞的免疫组织化学反应与正常组大鼠相比较均增强(P<0.05,P<0.01);而在加硒饲料组大鼠腺胃、胰中CGRP阳性细胞的免疫组织化学反应与正常组大鼠相比较无显著性差异,但与实验对照组大鼠相比较则分别减弱(P>0.05)和明显减弱(P<0.01)。结论:硒和CGRP阳性细胞可能参与了预防和抑制MNNG所致胃粘膜细胞异倍体的形成。%Objective: To investigate the role of dietary selenium in natural carcinogenesis-resistanta-nce. Methods: In the experiment, Wistar rats stomach carcinogenesis (formation of aneuploidcells in the glandular stomach mucosa) was induced by MNNG (N-methyl-N-nitroso-guanidine,20 mg/kg) gavage. The inhibitory effect of dietary selenium on incidence of aneuploid cells inmucosal epithelium of gastric antrum was determined by flow cytometry (FCM). Immunohis-tochemical changes of positive CGRP cells in Wistar rats glandular stomach and pancreas were de-tected by immunohistochemical ABC method in the course of selenium preventing gastric carcino-genesis. Image analysis and statistical analysis were carrived out with all results above. Results:(1)Dietary selenium might inhibit the formation of aneuploid cells in Wistar rats glandular stom-ach. (2)The immunohistochemical reaction of Wistar rat glandular stomach and pancreas positiveCGRP cells were both significantly stronger in

  12. Molecular Cloning, Escherichia coli Expression and Genomic Organization of Squalene Synthase Gene from Artemisia annua%青蒿鲨烯合酶基因的克隆、结构分析与大肠杆菌表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘彦; 叶和春; 王红; 李国凤

    2003-01-01

    A 1 539 bp squalene synthase (AaSQS) cDNA was cloned from a high-yield Artemisia annua L. strain 001 by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The amino acid sequence of AaSQS is 70%, 77%, 44% and 39% identical to that of squalene synthases from Arabidopsis thaliana, tobacco, human and yeast, respectively. The AaSQS genomic DNA has a complex organization containing 14 exons and 13 introns. Full-length or C-terminal truncated cDNA was subcloned into prokaryotic expression vector pET30a and the constructed plasmid was introduced to Escherichia coli strain BL21 (DE3) for induced overexpression. No squalene synthase protein with expected molecular mass was observed in E.coli containing the putative full-length squalene synthase cDNA, however, overexpression in E.coli was achieved by truncating 30 amino acids of hydrophobic region at the carboxy terminus.%用RT-PCR方法从青蒿(Artemisia annua L.)中克隆了一个1 539 bp全长鲨烯合酶cDNA.青蒿鲨烯合酶氨基酸序列与拟南芥、烟草、人类、酵母鲨烯合酶的一致性分别为70%、77%、44%和39%.青蒿鲨烯合酶基因组DNA结构很复杂,包括14个外显子和13个内含子.全长的或C末端截短的鲨烯合酶cDNA被克隆进原核表达载体pET30a并在大肠杆菌(Escherichia coli) BL21(DE3)中诱导表达.但在含有全长的鲨烯合酶cDNA的大肠杆菌中并没有观察到预期大小的鲨烯合酶表达,而C末端截短疏水区30个氨基酸的鲨烯合酶可在大肠杆菌中过量表达.

  13. Mean glandular doses in mammography: a comparison of values displayed by a mammography unit with in-house values, both using the method proposed by Dance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasicz, Katarzyna; Fabiszewska, Ewa; Grabska, Iwona; Skrzyński, Witold

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this work is to compare the mean glandular dose (MGD) displayed by the mammography system and the MGD calculated according to the method proposed by Dance for women. This study also attempts to analyse whether the relationship between the calculated and the displayed values is constant and what factors influence this relationship. Material for this study included data from 1200 exposures (i.e. six series; each series consisting of 200 exposures) performed with one full-field digital mammography unit. Based on collected parameters of exposures, values of the MGD for individual mammography examinations were calculated according to the methods proposed by Dance. Obtained values of the MGD were compared with the values displayed by the mammography system. The MGD displayed by the mammography system and the MGD calculated according to the method proposed by Dance for women are significantly different. This result emphasises the importance of verifying MGD values for patient radiation protection, particularly after machine servicing.

  14. [Ultrastructural changes and regeneration of the endocrine apparatus of the human gastric mucosal glandular epithelium in patients with chronic erosive gastritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, V F; Puzyrev, A A; Draĭ, R V

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to study the structure and regeneration of the endocrine apparatus of the human gastric mucosal glandular epithelium. Using electron microscopy, the mucosal biopsy specimens obtained from 14 patients with chronic erosive Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis, were studied. The most pronounced changes were seen both in the numbers and ultrastructure of G- and P-endocrinocytes. The changes were detected in the nucleus structure, endocrine granule and polysome content, and he mitochondrial structure. The regeneration of the endocrine cells took place through the differentiation of the committed precursors via the "agranular" cell stage, transformation of the exocrine cells into the endocrine ones, and as a result of the formation of the epithelial cords on the erosion surfaces that consisted of the cells in diverse differentiation stages (from the undifferentiated to specialized cells of all the endocrine and exocrine types).

  15. Effect of temperature on growth and artemisinin biosynthesis in hairy root cultures of Artemisia annua%温度对青蒿毛状根生长和青蒿素生物合成的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭晨; 刘春朝; 叶和春; 李国风

    2004-01-01

    本实验研究了不同温度(15℃~ 35°C)对青蒿毛状根生长和青蒿素生物合成的影响,发现25°C有利于毛状根生长,30°C促进了青蒿素生物合成.通过温度改变的二步培养技术(培养前20 d温度控制在25°C,后10 d温度提高到30°C),青蒿素的产量得到明显提高,高于在恒温培养时(25°C或30°C)的结果.%Temperature effect on growth and artemisinin biosynthesis in the cultured Artemisia annua L. hairy roots was investigated at a range of 15°C ~ 35°C. Maximum hairy root growth was found at 25°C, however, the highest artemisinin content in the root cultures was observed at 30°C. Based on these results, a step-wise temperature shift strategy was developed in which 25°C was used for cultivation for the first 20 days and 30°C for the remainder of the cultivation period. The artemisinin production obtained by the strategy was higher than those in single temperature-control experiments.

  16. Avaliação da eficácia dos tratamentos com a associação de Sulfadiazina, Pirimetamina e Ácido folínico (SPAF), Azitromicina, infusão de Artemisia annua L. e Espiramicina na prevenção da transmissão vertical da toxoplasmose em Calomys callosus (Rodentia: Cricetidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Idessania Nazareth da

    2009-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a eficácia dos tratamentos com sulfadiazina, pirimetamina e ácido folínico (SPAF) associados, azitromicina, infusão de Artemisia annua e espiramicina na prevenção da transmissão vertical da toxoplasmose em Calomys callosus (Rodentia: Cricetidae). Fêmeas de C. callosus foram oralmente infectadas com 20 cistos de Toxoplasma gondii (cepa ME-49) no dia de detecção da rolha vaginal (primeiro dia de gestação). O tratamento com azitromicina, inf...

  17. Helicobacter pylori CagA Suppresses Apoptosis through Activation of AKT in a Nontransformed Epithelial Cell Model of Glandular Acini Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Vallejo-Flores

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available H. pylori infection is the most important environmental risk to develop gastric cancer, mainly through its virulence factor CagA. In vitro models of CagA function have demonstrated a phosphoprotein activity targeting multiple cellular signaling pathways, while cagA transgenic mice develop carcinomas of the gastrointestinal tract, supporting oncogenic functions. However, it is still not completely clear how CagA alters cellular processes associated with carcinogenic events. In this study, we evaluated the capacity of H. pylori CagA positive and negative strains to alter nontransformed MCF-10A glandular acini formation. We found that CagA positive strains inhibited lumen formation arguing for an evasion of apoptosis activity of central acini cells. In agreement, CagA positive strains induced a cell survival activity that correlated with phosphorylation of AKT and of proapoptotic proteins BIM and BAD. Anoikis is a specific type of apoptosis characterized by AKT and BIM activation and it is the mechanism responsible for lumen formation of MCF-10A acini in vitro and mammary glands in vivo. Anoikis resistance is also a common mechanism of invading tumor cells. Our data support that CagA positive strains signaling function targets the AKT and BIM signaling pathway and this could contribute to its oncogenic activity through anoikis evasion.

  18. Development of an Expert System as a Diagnostic Support of Cervical Cancer in Atypical Glandular Cells, Based on Fuzzy Logics and Image Interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karem R. Domínguez Hernández

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is the second largest cause of death among women worldwide. Nowadays, this disease is preventable and curable at low cost and low risk when an accurate diagnosis is done in due time, since it is the neoplasm with the highest prevention potential. This work describes the development of an expert system able to provide a diagnosis to cervical neoplasia (CN precursor injuries through the integration of fuzzy logics and image interpretation techniques. The key contribution of this research focuses on atypical cases, specifically on atypical glandular cells (AGC. The expert system consists of 3 phases: (1 risk diagnosis which consists of the interpretation of a patient’s clinical background and the risks for contracting CN according to specialists; (2 cytology images detection which consists of image interpretation (IM and the Bethesda system for cytology interpretation, and (3 determination of cancer precursor injuries which consists of in retrieving the information from the prior phases and integrating the expert system by means of a fuzzy logics (FL model. During the validation stage of the system, 21 already diagnosed cases were tested with a positive correlation in which 100% effectiveness was obtained. The main contribution of this work relies on the reduction of false positives and false negatives by providing a more accurate diagnosis for CN.

  19. A Pyloric Gland-Phenotype Ovarian Mucinous Tumor Resembling Lobular Endocervical Glandular Hyperplasia in a Patient with Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Na; Kim, Gu-Hwan; Kim, Jiyoon; Park, In Ah; Shin, Jin Ho; Chai, Yun; Kim, Kyu-Rae

    2017-03-01

    We describe an ovarian mucinous neoplasm that histologically resembles lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia (LEGH) containing pyloric gland type mucin in a patient with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS). Although ovarian mucinous tumors rarely occur in PJS patients, their pyloric gland phenotype has not been clearly determined. The histopathologic features of the ovarian mucinous tumor were reminiscent of LEGH. The cytoplasmic mucin was stained with periodic acid-Schiff reaction after diastase treatment but was negative for Alcian blue pH 2.5, suggesting the presence of neutral mucin. Immunohistochemically, the epithelium expressed various gastric markers, including MUC6, HIK1083, and carbonic anhydrase-IX. Multiple ligation-dependent probe amplification detected a germline heterozygous deletion mutation at exons 1-7 of the STK11 gene (c.1-?_920+?del) in peripheral blood leukocytes and mosaic loss of heterozygosity in ovarian tumor tissue. Considering that LEGH and/or gastric-type cervical adenocarcinoma can be found in patients with PJS carrying germline and/or somatic STK11 mutations, our case indicates that STK11 mutations have an important role in the proliferation of pyloric-phenotype mucinous epithelium at various anatomical locations.

  20. Anogenital Mammary-Like Glands: A Study of Their Normal Histology With Emphasis on Glandular Depth, Presence of Columnar Epithelial Cells, and Distribution of Elastic Fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinova, Anastasia M; Kyrpychova, Liubov; Belousova, Irena E; Spagnolo, Dominic V; Kacerovska, Denisa; Michal, Michal; Kerl, Katrin; Kazakov, Dmitry V

    2016-10-18

    The normal histology of anogenital mammary-like glands (AGMLG) has been studied previously, but some aspects, including glandular depth, presence of columnar epithelium resembling columnar cell change/hyperplasia as defined in mammary pathology, and distribution of elastic fibers, have not been previously investigated. To address these issues, we studied 148 AGMLG identified in 133 paraffin blocks sampled from 64 vulvar wide excision or vulvectomy specimens (64 patients, various indications for surgery). The depth of AGMLG ranged from 0.64 to 3.9 mm. Epithelial columnar cell change was noted in 33.1% of all AGMLG, whereas columnar cell hyperplasia was detected in 10.1%. Occasionally, combinations of cuboidal epithelium and columnar cell change were seen within 1 histological section. Of 22 specimens stained for elastic fibers, in only 6 (27.3%) cases were elastic fibers found around glands. Periductal elastic fibers were demonstrated around 3 of the only 5 ducts, which were available for analysis in slides stained for elastic fibers. The depth of AGMLG should be taken into account when planning topical and surgical therapies for lesions derived or evolving from AGMLG. Alterations identical to columnar cell change may represent a normal variation of AGMLG.

  1. Development of cystic glandular hyperplasia of the endometrium in Mullerian inhibitory substance type II receptor-pituitary tumor transforming gene transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Naggar, Shahenda M; Malik, Mohammad T; Martin, Alvin; Moore, Joseph P; Proctor, Mary; Hamid, Tariq; Kakar, Sham S

    2007-07-01

    The pituitary tumor transforming gene (PTTG)/securin is an oncogene that is involved in cell cycle regulation and sister chromatid separation. PTTG is highly expressed in various tumors including ovarian tumors, suggesting that PTTG may play a role in ovarian tumorigenesis. Overexpression of PTTG resulted in induction of cellular transformation in vitro and tumor formation in nude mice. To ascertain PTTG function in ovarian tumorigenesis, we generated a transgenic mouse model of PTTG by cloning PTTG cDNA downstream of Mullerian inhibitory substance type II receptor gene promoter (MISIIR) in order to target the ovarian surface epithelium. By screening of transgenic animals, we identified five founders (four males and one female). Using the four male founders, we developed four transgenic lines. PTTG expression was increased in ovarian surface epithelium, ovarian granulosa cells, as well as in the pituitary gland. Transgenic females did not develop any visible ovarian tumors at 8-10 months of age; however, there was an overall increase in the corpus luteum mass in transgenic ovary, suggesting increased luteinization. These changes were associated with an increase in serum LH and testosterone levels. In addition, there was a generalized hypertrophy of the myometrium of MISIIR-PTTG transgenic uteri with cystic glandular and hyperplasia of the endometrium. Based on these results, we conclude that the overexpression of PTTG may be required to initiate precancerous conditions but is not sufficient to induce ovarian tumorigenesis and may require another partner to initiate cellular transformation.

  2. Estimation of mean-glandular dose from monitoring breast entrance skin air kerma using a high sensitivity metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) dosimeter system in mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, S L; Chu, T C; Lee, J S; Lan, G Y; Wu, T H; Yeh, Y H; Hwang, J J

    2002-12-01

    Estimation of mean-glandular dose (MGD) has been investigated in recent years due to the potential risks of radiation-induced carcinogenesis associated with the mammographic examination for diagnostic radiology. In this study, a new technique for immediate readout of breast entrance skin air kerma (BESAK) using high sensitivity MOSFET dosimeter after mammographic projection was introduced and a formula for the prediction of tube output with exposure records was developed. A series of appropriate conversion factors was applied to the MGD determination from the BESAK. The study results showed that signal response of the high sensitivity MOSFET exhibited excellent linearity within mammographic dose ranges, and that the energy dependence was less than 3% for each anode/filter combination at the tube potentials 25-30 kV. Good agreement was observed between the BESAK and the tube exposure output measurement for breasts thicker than 30 mm. In addition, the air kerma estimated from our prediction formula provided sufficient accuracy for thinner breasts. The average MGD from 120 Asian females was 1.5 mGy, comparable to other studies. Our results suggest that the high sensitivity MOSFET dosimeter system is a good candidate for immediately readout of BESAK after mammographic procedures.

  3. Helicobacter pylori CagA Suppresses Apoptosis through Activation of AKT in a Nontransformed Epithelial Cell Model of Glandular Acini Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo-Flores, Gabriela; Torres, Javier; Sandoval-Montes, Claudia; Arévalo-Romero, Haruki; Meza, Isaura; Camorlinga-Ponce, Margarita; Torres-Morales, Julián; Chávez-Rueda, Adriana Karina; Legorreta-Haquet, María Victoria; Fuentes-Pananá, Ezequiel M.

    2015-01-01

    H. pylori infection is the most important environmental risk to develop gastric cancer, mainly through its virulence factor CagA. In vitro models of CagA function have demonstrated a phosphoprotein activity targeting multiple cellular signaling pathways, while cagA transgenic mice develop carcinomas of the gastrointestinal tract, supporting oncogenic functions. However, it is still not completely clear how CagA alters cellular processes associated with carcinogenic events. In this study, we evaluated the capacity of H. pylori CagA positive and negative strains to alter nontransformed MCF-10A glandular acini formation. We found that CagA positive strains inhibited lumen formation arguing for an evasion of apoptosis activity of central acini cells. In agreement, CagA positive strains induced a cell survival activity that correlated with phosphorylation of AKT and of proapoptotic proteins BIM and BAD. Anoikis is a specific type of apoptosis characterized by AKT and BIM activation and it is the mechanism responsible for lumen formation of MCF-10A acini in vitro and mammary glands in vivo. Anoikis resistance is also a common mechanism of invading tumor cells. Our data support that CagA positive strains signaling function targets the AKT and BIM signaling pathway and this could contribute to its oncogenic activity through anoikis evasion. PMID:26557697

  4. Correlação dos aspectos laparoscópicos com as alterações histológicas glandulares das lesões endometrióticas peritoneais Correlation between laparoscopic aspects and glandular hystological findings of peritoneal endometriotic lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Antonio Viscomi

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Correlacionar os aspectos laparoscópicos com os achados histológicos na endometriose peritoneal para facilitar a compreensão da teoria evolutiva da endometriose. MÉTODOS: Foram selecionadas aleatoriamente para o presente estudo prospectivo 67 pacientes submetidas a laparoscopia, com diagnóstico de endometriose peritoneal. A avaliação laparoscópica foi baseada no aspecto visual do implante suspeito de endometriose peritoneal, submetido a estudo anatomopatológico. De acordo com o aspecto laparoscópico, as lesões foram agrupadas em: grupo V - vermelhas, grupo N - negras, grupo B - brancas. A avaliação histológica foi realizada observando-se as características funcionais do epitélio glandular, a presença de debris intraluminais, o número de mitoses e a relação estroma/glândula. RESULTADOS: As características funcionais do epitélio glandular mostraram associação estatisticamente significante entre os grupos, sendo o epitélio com carcterística secretora encontrado em 68,4% das lesões do grupo V, 15,8% do grupo N e B, enquanto que o epitélio incaracterístico foi encontrado em 19,4% das lesões vermelhas, 38,7% das lesões negras e 41,9% das brancas e o epitélio proliferativo foi observado em 50% das pacientes do grupo B e em 25% dos grupos V e N (p=0,011. Em relação à presença de debris intraluminais, também houve diferença significante entre os grupos, estando presentes em 58,4% das lesões negras, 33,3% das lesões brancas e 8,3% das lesões vermelhas (p=0,016. Quanto ao número de mitoses, não houve diferença significante nos três grupos de estudo (p=0,428. O mesmo foi observado na relação estroma/glândula, não havendo diferença significante nos grupos de estudo (p=0,159. CONCLUSÃO: A associação entre atividade funcional nas lesões vermelhas e baixa atividade funcional nas lesões negras e brancas, bem como a presença de debris intraluminais nos diferentes grupos, reforçam a teoria

  5. 乳腺组织瓣联合真皮帽悬吊术矫正轻中度乳房下垂%Correction of mild and moderate breast ptosis with glandular flap combined with dermal flap suspension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊凌云; 孙家明; 郭能强; 杨杰

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨乳腺组织瓣旋转联合真皮帽悬吊的垂乳上提技术矫正轻中度乳房下垂的临床效果.方法 根据乳房下垂程度设计形成真皮帽后,分离乳房皮肤和腺体,于乳腺外上方行部分腺体切除或直接纵行切开腺体,并同时形成外侧腺体瓣,掀起腺体瓣向内侧旋转固定,缩小乳房基底,再行真皮帽上提固定和乳房塑形.结果 2006年3月至2010年3月,于临床应用46例,术后效果满意,其中2例出现单侧血肿,无其他严重并发症.对40例患者随访6个月至4年,乳房外形满意,无继发下垂、乳房扁平、乳头乳晕感觉障碍等并发症.结论 乳腺组织瓣旋转联合真皮帽悬吊垂乳上提术可商塑造饱满、坚挺的乳房,术后瘢痕不明显,远期效果满意.%Objective To investigate the therapeutic effect of glandular flap combined with dermal flap suspension for correction of mild and moderate breast ptosis. Methods The dermal flap was formed according to the breast ptosis and dissection was performed between the skin and gland. The superior-lateral gland was partially resected or cutted vertically only to form the lateral glandular flap. Then the glandular flap was rotated medially and fixed to shrink the glandular base area. Then the breast was up-positioned and fixed with dermal flap to remodel the breast shape. Results From Mar. 2006 to Mar. 2010, 46 cases were treated with satisfactory result. There was no severe complication, except for 2 cases of unilateral hematoma. 40 cases were followed up for 6 months to 4 years with good breast shape. No secondary ptosis,breast flatten and NAC sensation disorder was happened. Conclusions Glandular flap combined with dermal flap suspension is a good method for mild and moderate breast ptosis with reliable long-term results.The breasts have busty appearance and good projection with inconspicious scar.

  6. Morphological Comparison on the Leaf Epidermis and Glandular Hairs in 11 Medical Plants from Labiatae%11种唇形科药用植物叶表及腺毛的形态比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡凤莲

    2009-01-01

    [目的]为利用叶表面和腺毛形态特征区分唇形科植物奠定基础.[方法] 选取11种常见的唇形科药用植物,利用扫描电镜观察比较其叶表面及腺毛的形态特征.[结果] 叶表皮细胞表面覆有一层厚度适中的角质层,有不同程度的条状纹理.下表皮细胞小于上表皮细胞.叶表面有气孔、腺毛和非腺毛,且下表面的气孔、腺毛和非腺毛比上表面多.气孔呈圆形至椭圆形,副卫细胞表面的角质层常凸起呈苞片状,气孔周围有条状纹理,且常以气孔为中心呈放射状.非腺毛分枝或不分枝;基部的条状角质纹理呈放射状或纵横交错.腺毛呈盾状或头状,腺毛的形态、大小、密度和头细胞的数目有明显的差别.[结论] 该研究为唇形科药用植物的分类和利用提供了新的依据.%[Objective]The purpose of the study was to lay a foundation for distinguishing labiatae plants on the basis of the morphological characters of leaf epidermis and glandular hairs.[Method] Eleven familiar medial plants from labiatae were selected, their morphological characters of leaf epidermis and glandular hairs were observed by scanning electron microscope and compared.[Result] There was a moderately thick cuticle covering the surface of leaf epidermis cells and it had striped texture to different degrees. The lower epidermis cells were smaller than the upper epidermis cells. There were stomata, glandular hairs and non-glandular hairs on leaf epidermis and that on the lower leaf epidermis were more than that on the upper leaf epidermis. The stomata varied from circular to ellipse, the cuticle covering the surface of subsidiary cell often bulged to be bracteal. There was striped texture around stomata and it was often radial with stomata as center. There were branches on non-glandular hairs or not and the striped cuticle textures on their bases were radial or crossing. The glandular hairs were peltate or capitate and the shape, sizes

  7. The Ultra-structure Observation of Glandular Hairs Secretory Cell of Flue-cured Tobacco%烤烟腺毛分泌细胞的超微结构观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛晓明; 张晶; 于丽杰

    2011-01-01

    为了解和掌握烤烟腺毛分泌细胞中分泌物产生、转运及分泌的过程和规律,通过透射电子显微镜观察了烤烟的长柄腺毛和短柄腺毛分泌细胞的超微结构.结果表明:2种类型腺毛的分泌细胞在超微结构上特性比较相似,但优势细胞器的分布不同,结构完整的发达的叶绿体在长柄腺毛分泌细胞的细胞质内大量存在,可以初步认定叶绿体参与了腺毛分泌产物的生物合成;在2类腺毛中均有大量的内质网、线粒体、液泡和少数的高尔基体,这些细胞器与腺毛的分泌活动有密切的关系.2种腺毛中都观察到细胞间隙和胞质外空间的产生和扩大,以及其中存在的嗜锇物质,2处是分泌产物的临时储藏所,分泌产物在细胞中的分布可得到分泌物的储存和释放途径.%Ultra-structure of the flue-cured tobacco was observed by transmission electron microscope (TEM) to understand and master the process and regulation of generation, transportation and secretion of the secretion from glandular hairs secretory cell of flue-cured tobacco. The results showed that the ultra-structure of the long-stem glandular hairs was very similar to the short-stem glandular hairs, but the distribution of advantageous cell was different and there were plenty of well structured and developed chloroplasts in the long-stem glandular cell. It can be affirmed that chloroplast has been involved in the biosynthesis of glandular secreta. A large amount of endoplasmic, reticulum, mitochondria, vacuole and a few of golgiosome existed in the two kinds of glandular hairs. These organelles were greatly related with the secretory of glandular hairs cell. With the space appearance and expansion of intercellular and cytoplasm external and osmiophilic materials, it was proved that the two places were both temporary storage sites of secreta and the pathway of secreta storage and release can be investigated by observing the secreta's distribution

  8. Interferon regulatory factor-two restricts expression of interferon-stimulated genes to the endometrial stroma and glandular epithelium of the ovine uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Y; Johnson, G A; Burghardt, R C; Berghman, L R; Joyce, M M; Taylor, K M; Stewart, M D; Bazer, F W; Spencer, T E

    2001-10-01

    Interferon tau (IFNtau) is the signal for maternal recognition of pregnancy in ruminants. The positive effects of IFNtau on IFN-stimulated gene (ISG) expression are mediated by ISG factor 3 (ISGF3), which is composed of signal transducer and activator of transcription (Stat) 1, Stat 2, and IFN regulatory factor-9 (IRF-9), and by gamma-activated factor (GAF), which is a Stat 1 homodimer. Induction of ISGs, such as ISG17 and 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase, by IFNtau during pregnancy is limited to the endometrial stroma (S) and glandular epithelium (GE) of the ovine uterus. The IRF-2, a potent transcriptional repressor of ISG expression, is expressed in the luminal epithelium (LE). This study determined effects of the estrous cycle, pregnancy, and IFNtau on expression of Stat 1, Stat 2, IRF-9, IRF-1, and IRF-2 genes in the ovine endometrium. In cyclic ewes, Stat 1, Stat 2, IRF-1, and IRF-9 mRNA and protein were detected at low levels in the S and GE. During pregnancy, expression of these genes increased only in the S and GE. Expression of IRF-2 was detected only in the LE and superficial GE (sGE) of both cyclic and pregnant ewes. In cyclic ewes, intrauterine administration of IFNtau stimulated Stat 1, Stat 2, IRF-9, and IRF-1 expression in the endometrium. Ovine IRF-2 repressed transcriptional activity driven by IFN-stimulated response elements that bind ISGF3, but not by gamma-activation sequences that bind GAF. These results suggest that IRF-2 in the LE and sGE restricts IFNtau induction of ISGs to the S and GE. In the S and GE, IFNtau hyperactivation of ISG expression likely involves formation and actions of the transcription factors ISGF3 and, perhaps, IRF-1.

  9. Effects of long-term progesterone exposure on porcine uterine gene expression: progesterone alone does not induce secreted phosphoprotein 1 (osteopontin) in glandular epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Daniel W; Dunlap, Kathrin A; Erikson, David W; Patel, Atish K; Bazer, Fuller W; Burghardt, Robert C; Johnson, Greg A

    2010-10-01

    Pigs experience significant conceptus loss near mid-gestation, correlating with increasing glandular epithelial (GE) development and secretory activity. Secreted phosphoprotein 1 (SPP1, osteopontin) increases in GE between days 30 and 40 of pregnancy and is expressed in the GE of day 90 pseudopregnant pigs, suggesting that progesterone (P(4)) from corpora lutea is responsible for induction of SPP1 in GE. In this study, pigs were ovariectomized and treated daily with P(4) to assess effects of 40 days of P(4) exposure on SPP1, P(4) receptor (PGR), uteroferrin (ACP5), and fibroblast growth factor 7 (FGF7) expression in porcine endometria. PGR mRNA decreased in pigs injected with P(4) compared with pigs injected with corn oil (CO), and PGRs were downregulated in the luminal epithelium (LE) and GE. ACP5 mRNA increased in pigs injected with P(4) compared with pigs injected with CO, and ACP5 was induced in the GE of P(4)-treated pigs. FGF7 mRNA increased in pigs injected with P(4) compared with pigs injected with CO, and FGF7 was induced in the LE and GE of P(4)-treated pigs. SPP1 mRNA was not different between pigs injected with P(4) compared with pigs injected with CO, and SPP1 was not present in the GE of P(4)-treated pigs. Therefore, long-term P(4), in the absence of ovarian and/or conceptus factors, does not induce SPP1 expression in GE. We hypothesize that a servomechanism involving sequential effects of multiple hormones and cytokines, similar to those for sheep and humans, is required for GE differentiation and function, including the synthesis and secretion of SPP1.

  10. Most multifocal papillary thyroid carcinomas acquire genetic and morphotype diversity through subclonal evolution following the intra-glandular spread of the initial neoplastic clone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanovic, L; Delahunt, B; McIver, B; Eberhardt, N L; Grebe, S K G

    2008-06-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is frequently multifocal (mPTC), with synchronous tumour foci often showing varied morphology. The genetic mechanisms underlying the development of multiple and histologically diverse tumour foci remain uncertain. Different tumour foci might develop either through intrathyroidal dissemination of a single malignant clone, with morphotype differentiation occurring as a result of subclonal progression, or they may stem from independent transformational events involving multiple progenitor clones. To determine the clonal derivation of multiple tumour foci and to map their clonal relationships and genetic progression in mPTC, we evaluated genome-wide allelic imbalances (AI) and BRAF V600E mutation status in 55 synchronous tumour foci from 18 mPTC patients. For apparently monoclonal tumours, we calculated the probabilities of monoclonal derivation and used phylogenetic analysis to model clonal evolution. Genome-wide allelotyping and BRAF mutation analysis showed genetic alterations consistent with monoclonal origin in 83% of cases, mostly with evidence of subclonal evolution. BRAF V600E mutations were early events during clonal evolution of most, but not all cases. MPTC with morphologically diverse tumour foci also arose through monoclonal derivation in 75% of cases, demonstrating that morphotype-determining genetic changes can be acquired during clonal diversification, subsequent to the spread of the original malignant progenitor clone. In 17% of patients, discordant AI or BRAF V600E profiles implied that mPTCs can occasionally develop from distinct transformation events. This study suggests that mPTC originates usually from neoplastic transformation and subsequent intrathyroidal spread of a single malignant progenitor clone. Clonal progression and morphotype differentiation occur through progressive acquisition of genetic alterations subsequent to the initial intra-glandular spread. In monoclonal BRAF V600E-positive mPTCs, BRAF V600E

  11. Triage of Atypical Glandular Cell by SOX1 and POU4F3 Methylation: A Taiwanese Gynecologic Oncology Group (TGOG Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Chang Chang

    Full Text Available Invasive procedures including loop electrosurgical excision, cervical conization, and endometrial sampling are often recommended when atypical glandular cells (AGC are detected on Pap smear with unsatisfactory colposcopy. These invasive procedures may result in patient anxiety, increased medical expense, and increasing the risk of preterm delivery in subsequent pregnancies. This study was performed to assess methylation biomarkers in the triage of AGC on Pap smear for invasive procedures.We conducted a multicenter study in 13 medical centers in Taiwan from May 2012 to May 2014. A total of 55 samples diagnosed "AGC not otherwise specified" (AGC-NOS were included. All patients with AGC underwent colposcopy, cervical biopsy, endometrial sampling, and conization if indicated. Multiplex quantitative methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (QMSPCR was performed. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were calculated for detecting CIN3+ and endometrial complex hyperplasia.In 55 patients with AGC, the sensitivity for methylated (m SOX1m, PAX1 m, ZNF582m,PTPRRm, AJAP1m, HS3ST2m, and POU4F3m for detecting CIN3+ and endometrial complex hyperplasia lesions was 100, 86, 71, 86, 86, 57, and 100%; specificity was 67, 79, 85, 50, 52, 96, and 52%, respectively. Testing for high risk-HPV had a sensitivity of 57% and specificity of 75% for CIN3+ and endometrial complex hyperplasia lesions.Methylated (m SOX1m and POU4F3m could be new methylation biomarkers for detection of CIN3+ and endometrial complex hyperplasia in AGC. Women with AGC and positive SOX1m / POU4F3m, colposcopy, cervical conization or endometrial sampling should be considered.

  12. Genetic Analysis of Trichome Density on the Main Stem and Leaves in a Recombinant Inbred Lines Population Derived from Wild Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)%野生辣椒重组自交系群体主茎和叶片表面茸毛密度的遗传分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓芬; 陈晓慧; 陈斌; 韩华丽; 耿三省

    2013-01-01

    Plant trichomes are attracting more and more attention for their effect on stress resistance. A F9 recombinant inbred lines population derived from the cross of wild hot pepper(Capsicum annuum L.) PM702 bearing trichomes with glabrous sweet pepper(C. annuum L.) FS871, was used for genetic analysis of trichome density on the main stem and leaves, using the mixed major gene plus polygene inheritance model. The results showed that trichome density on the main stem of pepper was controlled by two major genes and some minor polygenes(E-2-3 model). For the two genes, the additive effect was primary. The heritability of major genes for the trichome density on the main stem was 53.00%, while the heritability of polygenes was 25.30%, and the recombination rate was 0.6226. The trichome density on the leaves was controlled by two complementary major genes with additive effect and interaction plus some polygenes(E-1-7 model). The heritability of major genes of trichome density on the leaves was 50.65%, while the heritability of polygenes was 8.86%. This study provides an academic foundation for breeding highly resistant pepper varieties.%植株茎叶茸毛在抗逆性所起的作用正在引起人们越来越多的关注.本研究以多毛辣椒(Capsicum annuum L.)PM702和无毛甜椒(C.annuum L.)FS871为双亲构建的F9代重组自交系(RILs)为实验材料,利用主基因+多基因混合遗传模型,联合双亲对主茎和叶片表面茸毛密度进行了遗传分析.结果显示,辣椒主茎表面茸毛密度分布符合E-2-3模型,即受2对连锁的主基因控制,并有多基因的修饰.2对主基因以加性效应为主.主基因遗传率为53.00%,多基因遗传率为25.30%.两基因座间的重组率r=0.6226.叶片正面茸毛密度分布符合E-1-7遗传模型,即受2对具有互补作用的主基因控制,并有多基因同时起作用.主基因以加性效应为主,并有互作.主基因遗传率50.65%,多基因遗传率8.86%.结果为抗逆甜辣椒

  13. Response of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) leaf surface defenses to exogenous methyl jasmonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Heather C; Ro, Dae-kyun; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2012-01-01

    Helianthus annuus, the common sunflower, produces a complex array of secondary compounds that are secreted into glandular trichomes, specialized structures found on leaf surfaces and anther appendages of flowers. The primary components of these trichome secretions are sesquiterpene lactones (STL), a diverse class of compounds produced abundantly by the plant family Compositae and believed to contribute to plant defense against herbivory. We treated wild and cultivated H. annuus accessions with exogenous methyl jasmonate, a plant hormone that mediates plant defense against insect herbivores and certain classes of fungal pathogens. The wild sunflower produced a higher density of glandular trichomes on its leaves than the cultivar. Comparison of the profiles of glandular trichome extracts obtained by liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (LC-MS) showed that wild and cultivated H. annuus were qualitatively similar in surface chemistry, although differing in the relative size and proportion of various compounds detected. Despite observing consistent transcriptional responses to methyl jasmonate treatment, we detected no significant effect on glandular trichome density or LC-MS profile in cultivated or wild sunflower, with wild sunflower exhibiting a declining trend in overall STL production and foliar glandular trichome density of jasmonate-treated plants. These results suggest that glandular trichomes and associated compounds may act as constitutive defenses or require greater levels of stimulus for induction than the observed transcriptional responses to exogenous jasmonate. Reduced defense investment in domesticated lines is consistent with predicted tradeoffs caused by selection for increased yield; future research will focus on the development of genetic resources to explicitly test the ecological roles of glandular trichomes and associated effects on plant growth and fitness.

  14. Response of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. leaf surface defenses to exogenous methyl jasmonate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather C Rowe

    Full Text Available Helianthus annuus, the common sunflower, produces a complex array of secondary compounds that are secreted into glandular trichomes, specialized structures found on leaf surfaces and anther appendages of flowers. The primary components of these trichome secretions are sesquiterpene lactones (STL, a diverse class of compounds produced abundantly by the plant family Compositae and believed to contribute to plant defense against herbivory. We treated wild and cultivated H. annuus accessions with exogenous methyl jasmonate, a plant hormone that mediates plant defense against insect herbivores and certain classes of fungal pathogens. The wild sunflower produced a higher density of glandular trichomes on its leaves than the cultivar. Comparison of the profiles of glandular trichome extracts obtained by liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (LC-MS showed that wild and cultivated H. annuus were qualitatively similar in surface chemistry, although differing in the relative size and proportion of various compounds detected. Despite observing consistent transcriptional responses to methyl jasmonate treatment, we detected no significant effect on glandular trichome density or LC-MS profile in cultivated or wild sunflower, with wild sunflower exhibiting a declining trend in overall STL production and foliar glandular trichome density of jasmonate-treated plants. These results suggest that glandular trichomes and associated compounds may act as constitutive defenses or require greater levels of stimulus for induction than the observed transcriptional responses to exogenous jasmonate. Reduced defense investment in domesticated lines is consistent with predicted tradeoffs caused by selection for increased yield; future research will focus on the development of genetic resources to explicitly test the ecological roles of glandular trichomes and associated effects on plant growth and fitness.

  15. 内生青霉菌对黄花蒿组培苗生长和青蒿素合成的影响%Effect of Endophytic Penicillium sp.Y2 on Growth and Artemisinin Biosynthesis of Plantlets in Tissue Cultures of Artemisia annua L

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁亚菲; 董婷; 王剑文

    2011-01-01

    17 isolates of endophytic fungi were isolated from the stems of Artemisia annua L. Penicillium sp. Y2 could effectively promote the growth and artemisinin accumulation in the plantlets in tissue cultures of A. annua. After 5 days of broth culture,the fungal mycelium and culture medium were prepared for elicitors,including elicitor A(autoclaved conditioned homogenates of mycelia filtrates and medium) ,elicitor B(autoclaved conditioned medium) and elicitor C(filtrated conditioned medium). The results showed that all of the three fungal elicitors could promote the growth,induce activities of the antioxidant enzyme such as superoxide dismutase( SOD) , catalase( CAT) and peroxidase( POD) , and the accumulation of artemisinin. Elicitor C had the best effect on artemisinin induction among them. The dry weight and the content of soluble sugar of the tissue cultures of A. annua were increased by 44. 44 % and 38. 24% ,respectively. The content of artemisinin reached to 4. 701 mg·g-1 DW,a 58. 86 % increase over the control.%从黄花蒿茎中分离得到了17株内生真菌,其中内生青霉菌(Penicillium sp.Y2)能有效促进黄花蒿组培苗生长及青蒿素合成.内生青霉菌悬浮培养5d后,分别将培养液与菌丝匀浆后经过高压灭菌处理,或将培养液经过高压灭菌、过滤除菌处理获得3种内生菌诱导子(A、B和C).结果表明,3种内生菌诱导子对植株生长、抗氧化酶活性及青蒿素合成都有促进作用,诱导子C青蒿素合成诱导效果最好,可促进黄花蒿组培苗的干重增长44.44%、可溶性糖含量提高38.24%,诱导超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)和过氧化物酶(POD)活性,从而提高青蒿素合成达58.86%,黄花蒿组培苗青蒿素含量达4.701 mg·g-1(干重).

  16. Atypical endometrial cells and atypical glandular cells favor endometrial origin in Papanicolaou cervicovaginal tests: Correlation with histologic follow-up and abnormal clinical presentations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longwen Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The 2001 Bethesda system recommends further classifying atypical glandular cells (AGCs as either endocervical or endometrial origin. Numerous studies have investigated the clinical significance of AGC. In this study, we investigated the incidence of clinically significant lesions among women with liquid-based Papanicolaou cervicovaginal (Pap interpretations of atypical endometrial cells (AEMs or AGC favor endometrial origin (AGC-EM. More importantly, we correlated patients of AEM or AGC-EM with their clinical presentations to determine if AEM/AGC-EM combined with abnormal vaginal bleeding is associated with a higher incidence of significant endometrial pathology. All liquid-based Pap tests with an interpretation of AEM and AGC-EM from July, 2004 through June, 2009 were retrieved from the database. Women with an interpretation of atypical endocervical cells, AGC, favor endocervical origin or AGC, favor neoplastic were not included in the study. The most severe subsequent histologic diagnoses were recorded for each patient. During this 5-year period, we accessioned 332,470 Pap tests of which 169 (0.05% were interpreted as either AEM or AGC-EM. Of the 169 patients, 133 had histologic follow-up within the health care system. The patients ranged in age from 21 to 71 years old (mean 49.7. On follow-up histology, 27 (20.3% had neoplastic/preneoplastic uterine lesions. Among them, 20 patients were diagnosed with adenocarcinoma (18 endometrial, 1 endocervical, and 1 metastatic colorectal, 3 with atypical endometrial hyperplasia, and 4 with endometrial hyperplasia without atypia. All patients with significant endometrial pathology, except one, were over 40 years old, and 22 of 25 patients reported abnormal vaginal bleeding at the time of endometrial biopsy or curettage. This study represents a large series of women with liquid-based Pap test interpretations of AEM and AGC-EM with clinical follow-up. Significant preneoplastic or neoplastic endometrial

  17. Mitomycin Irrigation of Bladder Combined with Bladder Mucosa Electrocautery Treating Glandular Cystitis%丝裂霉素膀胱灌注联合膀胱黏膜电灼术治疗腺性膀胱炎

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳俊敏; 范锐; 张林超

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To observe the curative effects on mitomycin irrigation of bladder combined with bladder mucosa electrocau-tery treating glandular cystitis. Methods:38 patients with glandular cystitis proceeded bladder mucosa electrocautery with spinal-epi-dural anesthesia, 20mg mitomycin or 20ml physiological saline perfused the bladder 7 days later, catheter was removed after kept for 2 hours. Results:32 cases were cured, 6 cases were recurrent, and the curative rate was 84.2%with cystoscoping after 6 months of operation. Conclusion:Therapy of mitomycin bladder perfusion combined with bladder mucosa electrocautery treating glandular cystitis is curative effective of low cost.%  目的:观察丝裂霉素膀胱灌注联合膀胱黏膜电灼术治疗腺性膀胱炎的疗效。方法:38例腺性膀胱炎患者均行腰硬联合麻醉下膀胱黏膜电灼术,术后7天膀胱灌注20mg丝裂霉素/20ml生理盐水,保留2小时后拔除尿管。结果:术后6个月复查膀胱镜,治愈32例,复发6例,治愈率84.2%。结论:丝裂霉素膀胱灌注联合膀胱黏膜电灼术治疗腺性膀胱炎疗效好,费用低廉。

  18. Plasminogen-independent initiation of the pro-urokinase activation cascade in vivo. Activation of pro-urokinase by glandular kallikrein (mGK-6) in plasminogen-deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    List, K; Jensen, O N; Bugge, T H;

    2000-01-01

    , and as for other cascade systems, understanding the physiological initiation mechanism is of central importance. The attempts to identify initiation routes for activation of the proform of the key enzyme urokinase-type plasminogen activator (pro-uPA) in vivo have been hampered by the strong activator potency...... kallikrein). The pro-uPA converting activity of the mGK-6 enzyme, as well as its ability to cleave a synthetic substrate for glandular kallikrein, was inhibited by the serine proteinase inhibitor leupeptin but not by other serine proteinase inhibitors such as aprotinin, antithrombin III, or alpha(1...

  19. Antimicrobial Activity and GC-MS Analysis of the Volatile Oil of Artemisia annua%不同方法提取青蒿挥发油成分分析及抗菌活性比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽勇; 林秀梅; 战月; 崔云虹; 郭子琦; 刘玲绯; 侯春妹

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To obtain the optimum condition for the extract of essential oil from Artemisia annua by different extract methods and analyze the chemical composition of the essential oil by GC-MS and evaluate the antimicrobial properties of the essential oil. Method: The fresh aerial part of A. Annua was extracted by Soxhlet extraction and direct distillation to yield two essential oil samples designated as oil-1 and oil-2, respectively, which were both subjected to antimicrobial activity screening and GC-MS analysis. Result: The optimum condition for Soxhlet extraction was at a solid-liquid ratiol :7. 8 and extraction time of 3 h, while for direct distillation at a solid-liquid ratiol: 7.4 and extraction time of 5 h. Oil-1 displayed inhibitory activity against Aspergillus niger, Mycocentrospora sp. , Penicillium sp. , and Penicillium marneffei with MIC values of 1. 25, 1. 25, 5.0, and 1. 25 mg · L-1 , respectively, while oil-2 showed antibacterial activity toward Corynebacterium pekinense, Bacillus subtilis, tetracoccus, and Proteus vulgaris with MIC values of 0.023 5, 0.023 5, 0.005 9,3.75 mg-L-1, respectively. According to the results from GC-MS analysis, 48 components from 55 peaks in the gas chromatogram of oil-1 and 39 components from 48 peaks in the gas chromatogram of oil-2 were identified. Conclusion: Comparatively, fungi were more sensitive to oil-1 in the antimicrobial test, which may be attributed to the antifungal components comprising 8. 25% of the oil-1, including ketones, ethers, and oganic acids. However, oil-2 showed stronger antibacterial activity than oil-1 due to the higher content of alkenes in oil-2 (65. 42%) than that of in oil-1 (26. 49% ), since alkenes were the major antibacterial components of the essential oil.%目的:采用不同方法对青蒿挥发油进行提取,研究提取过程的优化条件,并对所得青蒿挥发油分别进行抗菌活性研究及GC-MS分析,用于指导制药.方法:采用索氏提取法和直接蒸

  20. 非典型腺细胞在宫颈细胞学筛查中的应用价值%Clinical Diagnostic Value of Atypical Glandular Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈平; 胡正强; 岳新爱; 唐袁婷; 吴秀丽; 江咏梅

    2016-01-01

    目的:通过分析宫颈细胞学筛查试验中非典型腺细胞( AGC)病例的组织学结果,讨论AGC诊断的临床应用价值及管理方法。方法:对我院2015年1—6月宫颈细胞学筛查试验中报告为AGC的病例中实施宫颈多点活组织检查、子宫颈电热圈环切术( loop electrosurgical excision procedure,LEEP)、宫颈锥切、宫颈搔刮、分段诊刮、子宫全切术后等组织学结果进行统计分析。结果:我院2015年1—6月宫颈细胞学筛查试验中诊断为AGC病例共108例,92例有组织学检查结果,16例失访。以组织学检查结果报告为上皮非典型增生及以上病变作为阳性结果进行归纳分类。35例组织学检查结果阴性,其中慢性宫颈炎17例,子宫内膜炎4例,宫颈息肉5例,子宫内膜息肉3例,子宫内膜增生6例。57例组织学检查结果阳性,其中宫颈上皮内瘤样变(cervical intraepithelial neoplasia,CIN)12例(CINⅠ4例,CINⅡ~Ⅲ8例且3例累及腺体),宫颈鳞状细胞癌1例,宫颈腺上皮内瘤样病变( cervical glandular intraepithelial neoplasia,CGIN)7例,子宫内膜癌17例,宫颈腺癌13例,卵巢腺癌5例和输卵管腺癌2例。结论:AGC与多种癌及癌前病变密切相关,有重要的临床诊断价值。提示对于宫颈细胞学筛查报告为AGC的患者进行定期追踪随访和规范的临床诊疗是非常必要的。%Objective: To analyze histological results of atypical glandular cell ( AGC ) diagnosed by cervical cytology screening, and to discuss the clinical diagnostic value of AGC.Methods: AGC cases diagnosed by cervical cytology screening between January 2015 and June 2015 in our hospital received cervical multiple punch biopsy, cervical loop electrosurgical excision procedure( LEEP) , cervical conization, cervical scoraping, fractional curettage and total hysterectomy, etc..The results were analyzed statistically.Results:A total of 108 cases

  1. ANATOMI DAUN PIPERACEAE DARI KAWASAN GUNUNG SLAMET, JAWA TENGAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Fatmawati Tihurua

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Leaf anatomy of Piperaceae from Gunung Slamet, Central Java has made with standard  paraffin and paradermal method. The results showed that Piperaceae has dorsiventral leaf, hypostomatatic or amphistomatatic, tetracytic and cyclocytic stomata type. Hypoderm tissue exist in upper and/or lower part of leaf, mesophyll was arranged by 1-2 layers of palisade and 2-7 layers of sponge tissue. There were 3 types of trichome i.e. glandular trichome which had globose cell with short stalk, bicellular glandular trichome and multicellular & uniseriate non-glandular trichome. The shape of the crystal of Piperaceae from gunung Slamet are sand, needle, drusse or prismatic which distributed in hypodermis, mesophyll and midrib. Piperaceae petiole was arranged by open or sometimes closed circle vascular bundles. These open vascular bundles were crescent shape or resemble to U and V shapes. 

  2. [Effect of the dose of estradiol and long-term administration of the hormone on the proliferative activity of the epithelium of the cavity, glandular epithelium and stroma of the white rat uterus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivasenko, I N; Prianishnikov, V A

    1976-09-01

    The duration of S-sphase of the cell cycle in uterine epithelial and stroma tissues of ovariectomised rats, treated with two doses of estradiol-17 beta for 4 days, was estimated by the double labeling technique using H3 -and C14-thymidine. Estrogen treatment induced cyclical changes of S-phase duration in the uterine cell compartments, with maximal values at 72 and 24 hours for 1mcg and 1 mg of estradiol. resp. The high dose of estradiol induced five-fold reduction of the mitotic and labeling indices in luminal epithelium in contrast to the effect of the low dose. In the rat glandular epithelium and stroma cells mitotic and labeling indices are not influenced by eith of the estrogen dosis.

  3. D-101大孔吸附树脂对黄花蒿黄酮的吸附热力学和动力学研究%ADSORPTION THERMODYNAMICS AND KINETICS OF ARTEMISIA ANNUA FLAVONOIDS ADSORBED ON MACROPOROUS ADSORBENT RESINS D101

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊利芝; 李佳焱; 王家坚; 欧阳文; 朱杰英

    2014-01-01

    通过静态吸附实验,研究了D-101大孔吸附树脂对黄花蒿黄酮的吸附热力学和动力学过程.结果表明,当温度在298~318K和在实验研究浓度范围内,D-101大孔吸附树脂对黄花蒿黄酮的吸附符合Freundlich等温吸附方程;ΔG<0,吸附过程能自发进行;ΔH<0,为放热过程;ΔS<0,D-101大孔吸附树脂吸附黄花蒿黄酮的作用大于水的解吸过程,导致熵减.分别采用准一级动力学方程、准二级动力学方程和粒内扩散动力学模型探讨其吸附特性,研究结果表明,吸附过程符合准二级动力学方程,粒内扩散与膜扩散交互控制黄花蒿黄酮在D-101大孔吸附树脂上的吸附.%The adsorption thermodynamics and kinetics of artemisia annua flavonoids absorbed on macroporous adsorbent resins D101 were studied by static adsorption experiments.The results showed that the adsorption equilibrium data were agreed with Freundlich adsorption isotherm well in the temperature range of 298~318K and concentration range in the experiment.Thermodynamic analysis suggested ΔG<0,ΔH<0 and ΔS<0,which indicated the adsorption procedure was a spontaneously exothermic reaction with entropy decrease.The adsorption of artemisia annua flavonoids on the macroporous adsorbent resins D101 could be described well by Pseudo-second-order rate equation,and the rate-determining step of the adsorption was the combined action of film diffusion and intraparticle diffusion.

  4. Elicitation on Artemisinin Biosynthesis in Artemisia annua Hairy Roots by the Oligosaccharide Extract from the Endophytic Colletotrichum sp. B501%内生真菌Colletotrichum sp. B501的寡糖提取物对黄花蒿发根中青蒿素生物合成的诱导

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王剑文; 夏仲豪; 谭仁祥

    2002-01-01

    The oligosaccharide elicitor from the mycelial wall of an endophytic Colletotrichum sp. B501 promoted the production of artemisinin in Artemisia annua L. hairy root culture. When hairy roots of 22-day-old cultures (later growth phase) were exposed to the elicitor (20 mg/L) for 4 d, the maximum content of artemisinin reached 1.15 mg/g, a 64.29% increment over the control. The electron X-ray microanalysis disclosed the rapid accumulation of Ca2+ in the elicited cortical cells of hairy root. The electronic microscope observation revealed the high electron density area in vacuole of elicited cells. During the first day of elicitation the peroxidase activity of hairy roots was improved sharply. Some cellular morphological changes including cell shrinkage, condensation of cytoplasm and nuclear fragmentation, coincident with the appearance of DNA ladders, were observed after the third day of elicitation. It was suggested that the oligosaccharide elicitor triggered the programmed cell death, which may provide the substance or chemical signal for artemisinin biosynthesis.%在黄花蒿(Artemisia annua L.)发根液体培养中,黄花蒿内生炭疽菌(Colletotrichum sp. B501)细胞壁寡糖提取物可促进发根青蒿素的合成.经寡糖诱导子(20 mg/L)处理4 d后,发根青蒿素含量达1.15 mg/g, 比对照高出64.29%.诱导作用与诱导子浓度、作用时间相关.诱导处理1 d后,X射线能谱分析表明黄花蒿发根细胞中Ca2+积累量显著增高,电镜观察发现液泡内出现高电子致密物,具活性氧清除作用的过氧化物酶表现出高活性(6.5 unit*min-1*g-1 FW).诱导处理第三天,细胞核DNA呈梯度条带降解,部分细胞出现程序化死亡.内生菌细胞壁寡糖提取物引起的生理反应有利于细胞中青蒿素的生物合成.

  5. Study on a Natural Carcinogenesis-Resistant in the Course of Rat Glandular Stomach Carcinogenesis%MNNG所致大鼠腺胃癌形成过程中机体自然抗癌机制的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏衍萍; 李玉林; 齐云飞; 马风梅; 张景华

    2001-01-01

    Objective To investigate the mechanism of a natural carcinogenesis-resistant. Methods In our experiment, Wistar rat stomach carcinogenesis (formation of aneuploid cells in the glandular stomach mucosa) was induced by MNNG 20mg/kg gavaged, once a day for 10 days. At the 25th week,the incidence of aneuploid cells in mucosal epithelium of gastric antrum was determined by flow cytometry (FCM). Changes of Gastrin cell, Somatostatin cell in Wistar rat glandular stomach were detected by ABC immunohistochemical method in the course of selenium preventing formation of aneuploid cells. Situation and quantitative analyses of the results were made by image analysis, and statistical analysis was made by SPSS ware. Results It was significantly increased in immunohistochemical activities of Wistar rat glandular stomach Gastrin cells, somatostatin cells and 5-hydroxytryptamine cells in the course of the rat stomach carcinogenesis(P<0.01,P<0.05). Conclusion This study reveals rat stomach carcinogenesis induced by MNNG might be introduced by endocrine cell of rat stomach. The mechanism of relationship needs to be further explored.%目的探讨机体的自然抗肿瘤作用。方法给断乳雄性Wistar大鼠MNNG灌胃,每天一次,连续10天,以诱导大鼠腺胃粘膜异倍体形成(大鼠腺胃癌模型形成)。第25周时,用流式细胞仪测定大鼠腺胃幽门粘膜异倍体形成的情况,用免疫组织化学ABC法观察了大鼠腺胃粘膜异倍体形成过程中,腺胃胃泌素细胞胃泌素细胞、生长抑素细胞、5-羟色胺细胞的免疫组织化学变化,并对以上结果进行定性、定位、定量分析以及统计学处理。结果在MNNG所致大鼠腺胃癌形成过程中其腺胃胃泌素细胞、生长抑素细胞、5-羟色胺细胞的免疫组织化学阳性强度均明显增强(P<0.01,P<0.05)。结论胃内分泌细胞可能介导了MNNG所致大鼠胃癌的发生和发展;有关机理尚待进一步探讨。

  6. 4种除草剂防除保护性耕作麦田早熟禾效果及其对作物的安全性%Efficacy and Selectivity of Four Herbicides on Poa annua L. in Spring Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玮

    2014-01-01

    The efficacy of formulated pyroxsulam 7.5%WG,mesosulfuron plus idosulfuron 3.6%WG,fenoxaprop 6.9%EW,and clodinafop-propargyl 15%WP to control Poa annua and their selectivity to wheat were studied under field con-ditions.Pyroxsulam 7.5%WG (187.5 g hm2 ) and mesosulfuron plus idosulfuron 3.6% WG (450 g hm2 ) controlled 84%and 85% P.annua,respectively,based on fresh weight determinations.Both herbicide treatments were highly se-lective to spring wheat cv.Tongmai 1 although mesosulfuron plus idosulfuron caused slight crop phytotoxicity.Fenoxaprop and clodinafop-propargyl did not provide adequate control of the grass weed.Given the efficacy,selectivity and long-term control provided by pyroxsulam 7.5%WG at 187.5 g hm2 ,its use can be recommended in the field.%通过田间试验,比较4种除草剂药后不同时期对保护性耕作麦田早熟禾的防效及其增产效果,进而比较7.5%啶磺草胺WG、3.6%甲基二磺隆·甲基碘磺隆钠盐WG、15%炔草酸WP、6.9%精唑禾草灵EW 4种除草剂防除早熟禾效果和对小麦的安全性。采用田间药效试验方法,对麦田早熟禾采用喷雾处理,进行4种除草剂防除麦田早熟禾效果及其对作物的安全性试验。7.5%啶磺草胺WG 187.50 g/hm2和3.6%甲基二磺隆·甲基碘磺隆钠盐WG 450.00 g/hm2对早熟禾鲜质量防效分别为83.58%、84.87%。3.6%甲基二磺隆·甲基碘磺隆钠盐WG对春小麦通麦1号品种有一定的药害,药害程度:甲基二磺隆·甲基碘磺隆钠盐>啶磺草胺。6.9%精唑禾草灵EW、15%炔草酸WP对早熟禾达未到防治要求。187.50 g/hm27.5%啶磺草胺WG,安全性好、防效高、持续期长,可进一步示范推广使用。

  7. The Effect of Concept Mapping on the Learning Levels of Students in Taking the Course of "Nursing Care of Patients With Glandular Diseases Subject" in Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aghakhani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Studies show that traditional teaching methods, such as lecturing, do not lead to in-depth learning. Concept maps have been used for a long time by researchers and teachers to facilitate learning. Objectives The present study aimed to investigate the effect of concept mapping on the learning levels of students in nursing care of patients with glandular diseases subject in Urmia University of Medical Sciences. Materials and Methods In a quasi-experimental study with a pre-test/post-test design, 28 nursing students were selected and divided into two groups: the experimental and the control groups. After administration of pre-test, the students in the experimental group participated in classes on designing concept maps. Next, lessons on glands and nursing were presented to the students in the experimental and control groups through concept maps and lectures, respectively. At the end of the semester, the learning levels of the students in both groups were evaluated by the post-test. Results The means of the scores of the students as determined by results of the pre-test revealed insignificant statistical difference between the two groups. However, the learning level of the students in the experimental group was significantly higher (P < 0.05. As a metacognitive intervention, concept mapping can contribute to in-depth learning of nursing students. Conclusions According to the findings, it is recommended that concept mapping should be used for teaching and evaluation. Further studies are needed to compare the effect of concept mapping with those of other metacognition approaches on different types of learners.

  8. Estudos histológicos das células glandulares dos insetos peçonhentos: I. os órgãos urticantes da largata de Automeris incisa Walker (Lepidoptera, Helmileucidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Barth

    1954-03-01

    Full Text Available São apresentados dados histológicos das glândulas com secreção urtificante da largata de Automeris incisa: 1. A célula glandular é a célula tricogênea da cerda inoculante. 2. O núcleo demonstra o polimorfismo típico para glândulas com células grandes em insetos; êle ramifica-se em forma de tubos chegando até as partes apicais da célula. 3. São apresentadas modificações citológicas durante as fases da secreção. 4. As estruturas da cutícula correspondem diretamente a função do órgão urtificante. 5. A cerda, que dá a picada é uma cerda verdadeira com inserção modificada. Não possui um lugar predestinado para quebrar durante a picada. 6. Uma zona de articulação na base dos ramos laterais froma, junto com uma placa anular perfurada e com uma massa esponjosa de fechamento formada pela endocutícula, uma válvula impedindo um refluxo do líquido do ramo. Por isso, durante a picada a peçonha pode sair da cerda. 7. Além de ramos laterais com cerdas encontram-se outros com pêlos finos. Provávelmente os últimos espalham a peçonha em cima da pele, enquanto que os primeiros inoculam-na no tecido do inimigo.

  9. Aspectos morfo-anatômicos da folha de Baccharis dracunculifolia DC. (Asteraceae visando a identificação da origem botânica da própolis Morphological and anatomical aspects of the leaf of Baccharis dracunculifolia DC. (Asteraceae as regards to the identification of the botanical origin of propolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia del Carmen Oliveira

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a anatomia da folha, em diferentes fases de desenvolvimento, a partir do ápice caulinar, de B. dracunculifolia para caracterizar as estruturas secretoras e tricomas que podem ser utilizados como indicadores na determinação da origem botânica da própolis produzida por Apis mellifera. O material foi coletado no Município de Jaboticatubas, MG, onde estão instaladas colmeias experimentais. A espécie estudada apresenta primórdios foliares densamente recobertos por tricomas glandulares e tectores. Os tricomas glandulares são freqüentes em folhas jovens e raros em folhas adultas. A folha adulta é anfi-estomática. O mesofilo é composto por parênquima paliçádico, escasso parênquima lacunoso e canais secretores associados ao floema. Os fragmentos foliares, estômatos, tricomas glandulares e tricomas tectores encontrados em amostras de própolis são semelhantes aos observados em folhas de B. dracunculifolia.The leaf anatomy of B. dracunculifolia, in different developmental stages, was studied, with the purpose of characterizing the secretory structures that can be used as indicators for determining of the botanical origin of propolis produced by Apis mellifera. The material was collected in the Municipal district of Jaboticatubas, Minas Gerais State, where experimental hives were installed. The studied species are characterized by having the surface of the youngest leaves densely covered by glandular and non-glandular trichomes. The glandular trichomes are abundant in the early stages of leaf growth and uncommon in mature leaves. The mature leaf is amphistomatic. The mesophyll consists of palisade cells, scarce spongy parenchyma and secretory ducts associated to the phloem. The leaf fragments, stomata, glandular trichomes and non-glandular trichomes present in propolis samples are similar to those found in B. dracunculifolia leaves.

  10. Assessment of the mean glandular dose using LiF:Mg,Ti, LiF:Mg,Cu,P, Li2B4O7:Mn and Li2B4O7:Cu TL detectors in mammography radiation fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fartaria, M. J.; Reis, C.; Pereira, J.; Pereira, M. F.; Cardoso, J. V.; Santos, L. M.; Oliveira, C.; Holovey, V.; Pascoal, A.; Alves, J. G.

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this paper is the characterization of four thermoluminescence detectors (TLD), namely, LiF:Mg,Ti, LiF:Mg,Cu,P, Li2B4O7:Mn and Li2B4O7:Cu for the measurement of the entrance surface air kerma (ESAK) and estimation of the mean glandular dose (MGD) in digital mammography examinations at hospitals and clinics. Low-energy x-ray beams in the typical energy ranges of mammography, produced with a tungsten target and additional 60 µm molybdenum filtration were implemented and characterized at the Laboratory of Metrology of Ionizing Radiation at Instituto Superior Técnico. These beams were used for the characterization of the TLDs in terms of sensitivity, linearity, reproducibility, energy dependence and fading at 40 °C. The energy dependence test was further extended using clinical beams produced by mammography units at hospitals and clinics. The method proposed by the International Atomic Energy Agency was used for the measurement of ESAK and assessment of MGD. The combined standard uncertainty for the measurement of ESAK (and MGD) was determined in accordance to the Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement. The x-ray beams generated in the 23-40 kVp range presented HVL values from 0.36 to 0.46 mm Al. The beam produced at 28 kVp (HVL 0.39 mm Al) was considered as reference. The radiation field defined a circle with 84 mm diameter with a maximum variation of the beam intensity of less than 1% at the top flat (plateau) within 4 cm of the central axis. The estimated total uncertainty for the measurement of air kerma was 0.42%. All the TL detectors tested showed good performance except the commercial Li2B4O7:Mn (or TLD-800) which was excluded due to its poor sensitivity in our experimental set up. Both lithium fluorides showed better linearity and reproducibility as well as lower energy dependence and fading when compared to lithium borates. The stable behaviour of LiF:Mg,Ti and LiF:Mg,Cu,P detectors is reflected in the low combined standard

  11. Flavonoids in selected Primula spp.: bridging micromorphology with chemodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhutia, Tshering Doma; Valant-Vetschera, Karin M; Adlassnig, Wolfram; Brecker, Lothar

    2012-11-01

    A combined study was carried out on the micromorphology and chemistry of glandular trichomes with focus on Primula vialii and P. vulgaris, respectively. Epifluorescence microscopy was applied to study the auto-fluorescent properties of flavonoids and their localization in glandular trichomes. Both species differed in the morphology of the glandular trichomes and in the exudate flavonoid composition. Leaf glands from P. vialii and from some species of subgen. Primula exhibited uniform glandular fluorescence, but notable differentiation was observed within a single leaf of P. vulgaris. Our observations indicate that exudate flavonoids are not transported from the tissue to the glandular hairs. Conversely, only the newly isolated glycoside 1 (kaempferol 3-O-(2"'-rhamnosyl)-robinobioside) was obtained from leaf tissue of P. vialii after removal of the exudate. Its structure was confirmed by NMR and mass spectrometry. This glycoside was not detected in tissue extracts of P. vulgaris after similar treatment. The observed chemical diversity is discussed, with focus on possible correlation with glandular structures and tissue differentiation in Primula, and also against other studied species. Aspects of biosynthesis in relation to tissue-specific flavonoid diversification are shortly addressed.

  12. Artemisia dominant species succession relating to the soil moisture decrease in abandoned land of the Loess Plateau (China): comparative study of drought-adaptive characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Yu, Jing; Xia, Pengguo; He, Shaoxuan; Zhou, Ziyun; Han, Ruilian; Liang, Zongsuo

    2016-01-01

    Artemisia scoparia, Artemisia sacrorum and Artemisia giraldii were three dominant Artemisia species which successive grew in the secondary succession on abandoned land of the Loess Plateau. The succession accompanied the soil moisture steady decrease with field age after their abandonment. To elucidate the relationship between the Artemisia species succession and their drought-adaptation, three dominant species and a contrastive species Artemisia annua (mesophyte), were selected to compare their drought-resistant characteristics, including morphological and anatomical traits of leaf and root. Then physiological responses were investigated in mature plants after drought treatment. The results indicated that three dominant species leaf presented drought-adaptive structures, such as bushy trichomes, transitional or isolateral leaf cells, thick cuticles and epidermal cells. However, A. annua had no leaf traits involved in drought-adaptation. In addition, A. sacrorum and A. giraldii contained large root systems, while A. scoparia and A. annua utilized succulent roots. The physiological responses to drought suggested that A. giraldii had strong regulation in water using strategy, growth, as well as superoxide dismutase and catalase activity. A. sacrorum and A. giraldii could maintain high ascorbate peroxidase activity and malondialdehyde content, while A. scoparia and A. giraldii presented higher peroxidase activity, ascorbate and soluble sugar content. A. annua exhibited high proline and carotenoid contents under drought. The drought-resistant of the four Artemisia species presented the order of A. giraldii > A. sacrorum > A. scoparia > A. annua, which was consistent with their succession on abandoned land.

  13. Aspects of tobacco diterpene biosynthesis and accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keene, C.K.

    1985-01-01

    Lamina, midveins, stalks and flowers of most Nicotiana species are covered with trichomes. The exudate which accumulates around glandular trichome heads has been suggested to be responsible for the characteristics flavor and aroma associated with different tobaccos. Many classes of compounds have been identified in cuticular surface washes and exudates of tobacco, in particular diterpenes such as the labdanes and duvanes. It has been assumed that most of the components present in the cuticular surface washes and trichome exudates are synthesized by the trichomes. However, there is little definitive evidence to support this assumption. Utilizing radiolabeled precursors, studies were undertaken to determine the site or sites of 1S- and 1R-4.8, 13-duvatriene-1,3-diol (1S- and 1R-diol) biosynthesis. Experiments using midvein sections of Tobacco Introduction 1068 treated with (2-/sup 14/C)acetate or mevalonic acid indicated that radioactivity was incorporated into surface components, including 1S- and 1R-diol. Subsequent experiments demonstrated that all of the labeled duvatrienediols found were associated with the exudate and surface extracts. Experiments using incubated detached glandular trichome heads unequivocally demonstrated that the glandular heads have the biosynthetic capacity to incorporate (2-/sup 14/C)acetate or mevalonic acid into 1S- and 1R-diol. The influence of nitrogen fertilization, water stress, time of topping and curing conditions on the accumulated levels of 1S- and 1R-diol in field grown Ky 14 was also examined.

  14. Oviposition behavior of the silver leaf whitefly Bemisia tabaci biotype B on tomato; Comportamento de oviposicao da mosca-branca Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) biotipo B em tomateiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vendramim, Jose D. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ). Dept. de Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola]. E-mail: jdvendra@esalq.usp.br; Souza, Antonio P. de [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Dept. de Morfofisiologia. Lab. de Anatomia Humana]. E-mail: apsouza@nin.ufms.br; Ongarelli, Maria das G. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ). Lab. de Fisiologia e Bioquimica Pos-Colheita]. E-mail: mgong@esalq.usp.br

    2009-01-15

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of the leaf surface, the insect geotropic behavior and the type of foliar trichome on Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) biotype B oviposition on tomato leaves. Bemisia tabaci females were confined in acrylic boxes in which tomato leaflets were fixed at the bottom and top part of the boxes to allow insects to access the leaf surface to be tested (adaxial and/or abaxial) in both no-choice and free choice tests. Oviposition was always higher when the leaf was offered at the top of the box and preferably at the abaxial leaf surface. The effects of leaf trichomes (glandular and non glandular) on B. tabaci oviposition was evaluated by offering the abaxial surface of tomato leaflets to females after a 70% ethanol wash to remove glandular exsudates against a control treatment (without a ethanol wash). Oviposition was concentrated mostly near to non glandular trichomes, showing whitefly females can discriminate among the trichomes. (author)

  15. Dicty_cDB: AFN839 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 071.1 ML1365 peppermint glandular trichome Mentha x piperita cDNA, mRNA sequence. 64 2e-06 1 BM315730 |BM315...EIN DISULFIDE ISOMERASE P5 PRECURSOR ;, mRNA sequence. 68 2e-07 1 AW255071 |AW255

  16. Dicty_cDB: AFO363 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available L Q11067 PROBABLE PROTEIN DISULFIDE ISOMERASE P5 PRECURSOR ;, mRNA sequence. 68 2e-07 1 AW255071 |AW255071.1 ML1365 peppermint glandu...lar trichome Mentha x piperita cDNA, mRNA sequence. 64 3e-06 1 BM315730 |BM315730.1

  17. Dicty_cDB: AFO433 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 71.1 ML1365 peppermint glandular trichome Mentha x piperita cDNA, mRNA sequence. 64 2e-06 1 BM315730 |BM3157...IN DISULFIDE ISOMERASE P5 PRECURSOR ;, mRNA sequence. 68 2e-07 1 AW255071 |AW2550

  18. Dicty_cDB: AFN689 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 71.1 ML1365 peppermint glandular trichome Mentha x piperita cDNA, mRNA sequence. 64 3e-06 1 BM315730 |BM3157...CAEEL Q11067 PROBABLE PROTEIN DISULFIDE ISOMERASE P5 PRECURSOR ;, mRNA sequence. 68 2e-07 1 AW255071 |AW2550

  19. Analysis of antioxidant prenylflavonoids in different parts of Macaranga tanarius, the plant origin of Okinawan propolis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shigenori Kumazawa; Masayo Murase; Noboru Momose; Syuichi Fukumoto

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the antioxidant prenylflavonoids in different parts of Macaranga tanarius (M. tanarius) (Euphorbiaceae) including the leaf, petiole, stem, leaflet, flower and fruit (only in female plant), and to evaluate their antioxidant properties. Methods: Methanol extracts of each part of M. tanarius were prepared and five prenylflavonoids in them were quantitatively analyzed using HPLC. The fruits from female plant were further separated into seed, pericarp, and glandular trichome. After the quantitative analyses of prenylflavonoids in each part of M. tanarius, antioxidant activity of the extracts was evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay. Results: The leaf of M. tanarius contained two prenylflavonoids as main components in both male and female plants. Both flowers (male and female) contained five kinds of prenylflavonoids. In the petiole, stem and leaflet of both male and female plants, the prenylflavonoids were not detected or their amounts were very low. Five kinds of prenylflavonoids were detected in the seed, pericarp and glandular trichome of female M. tanarius. In particular, the glandular trichome had the highest level of total prenylflavonoids (235 mg/g of fresh plant). DPPH radical scavenging activity of all parts was more than 30%. Conclusions: We found that different parts of M. tanarius contained antioxidant prenylflavonoids. In particular, not only the glandular trichome but also the leaf contained prenylflavonoids, which indicated that M. tanarius may be developed as a functional plant, because the leaves of this plant can be easily collected.

  20. Mathematical modeling-guided evaluation of biochemical, developmental, environmental, and genotypic determinants of essential oil composition and yield in peppermint leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios-Estepa, Rigoberto; Lange, Iris; Lee, James M; Lange, B Markus

    2010-04-01

    We have previously reported the use of a combination of computational simulations and targeted experiments to build a first generation mathematical model of peppermint (Menthaxpiperita) essential oil biosynthesis. Here, we report on the expansion of this approach to identify the key factors controlling monoterpenoid essential oil biosynthesis under adverse environmental conditions. We also investigated determinants of essential oil biosynthesis in transgenic peppermint lines with modulated essential oil profiles. A computational perturbation analysis, which was implemented to identify the variables that exert prominent control over the outputs of the model, indicated that the essential oil composition should be highly dependent on certain biosynthetic enzyme concentrations [(+)-pulegone reductase and (+)-menthofuran synthase], whereas oil yield should be particularly sensitive to the density and/or distribution of leaf glandular trichomes, the specialized anatomical structures responsible for the synthesis and storage of essential oils. A microscopic evaluation of leaf surfaces demonstrated that the final mature size of glandular trichomes was the same across all experiments. However, as predicted by the perturbation analysis, differences in the size distribution and the total number of glandular trichomes strongly correlated with differences in monoterpenoid essential oil yield. Building on various experimental data sets, appropriate mathematical functions were selected to approximate the dynamics of glandular trichome distribution/density and enzyme concentrations in our kinetic model. Based on a chi2 statistical analysis, simulated and measured essential oil profiles were in very good agreement, indicating that modeling is a valuable tool for guiding metabolic engineering efforts aimed at improving essential oil quality and quantity.

  1. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U16566-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 84_121986 Glandular trichomes Medic... 96 1e-15 2 ( AF288090 ) Rhodomonas salina mitochondrial DNA, complete...wd CAXX Lottia gigantea from male gonad... 82 1e-15 3 ( CO513030 ) s13dSG09G11000

  2. Pharmacognostical and Phytochemical Investigation on Leaves of Ficus microcarpa Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravichandra V D

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Ficus microcarpa Linn. (Syn: Ficus nitidas; Family: Moraceae grows in Tropical and Subtropical regions of India, used for variety of purpose in traditional medicine. The usefulness of this plant is described in many folk books including Ayurveda and different biologically active phytoconstituents were isolated from plant. But no reports are available on morph anatomy, and phytochemical studies, hence present attempt was undertaken to investigate the microscopically and preliminary phytochemical and Physico-chemical studies on the leaves of Ficus microcarpa. The study reveals the leaves are variable, coriaceous, oblong, elliptic to broadly elliptic or obovate. The transverse section of the leaves shows presence of epidermis, sponge parenchyma, bicollateral vascular bundles, nonglandular, glandular trichome and spiral vessels. The powder microscopy revealed the presence of anomocytic stomata, glandular trichome, covering trichome and prismatic calcium oxalate crystals. Physicochemical parameters like ash value, extractive value and phytochemical screening with different reagents showed the presence of fluorescence compounds, steroids, triterpenoids, phenols, tannins and flavonoids.

  3. Foliar micromorphology of Felicia muricata Thunb., A South African medicinal plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashafa, A O T; Grierson, D S; Afolayan, A J

    2008-07-01

    The foliar micromorphology of Felicia muricata (Thunb.) Nees (Asteraceae) was observed with the JEOL (JSM-6390LV) Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Both the abaxial and adaxial surfaces were characterized by anisocytic stomata which were more prevalent on the abaxial surface than the adaxial surface. The leaves have only one type of multicellular non-glandular trichomes that are long and cylindrical, tapering to a sharp point and running parallel to the leaf surface in the direction of the apices. Crystal deposits were also observed on the surfaces of the leaves near the stomata. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy-SEM shows that Na, Al, Si, and K were the major constituents of the crystal analyzed. Since no glandular trichomes were present on the leaves of this herb, the bioactive components present in this plant may be produced in some other tissues in the leaf other than the trichomes.

  4. Metals Accumulation and Leaf Surface Anatomy of Murdannia spectabilis Growing in Zn/Cd Contaminated Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladawan Rattanapolsan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Murdannia spectabilis (Kurz Faden was identified as a Zn/Cd hyperaccumulative plant. Leaf surface anatomy of the plant growing in non-contaminated soil (control and Zn/Cd contaminated soil,was studied and compared by a light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy combined with Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy(SEM/EDS. The similarities were reticulate cuticle on epidermises, uniform polygonal cell, stomatal arrangement in six surrounding subsidiary cells, and submarginal sclerenchyma. The dissimilarities were uniserate trichomes spreading on both adaxial and abaxial epidermis of the plants growing in non-contaminated soil, whereas the uniserate trichomes were only on the submarginal-adaxial epidermis of the control plants. The trichomes on leaves of the plants growing in non-contaminated soil were found to have both uniseriate non-glandular and uniseriate glandular trichomes;whereas, leaves of the plants growing in the contaminated soil were merely non-glandular trichomes. The different shape and location of trichomes, the number of stomata and trichome indicated the effect of Zn and Cd on M. spectabilis. The higher percentages of Zn and Cd in the vascular bundle than in the cross section and epidermis areas showed both solutes could move along each route, with diffusion through the symplast and apoplast. The increase of Ca in M. spectabilis growing in Zn/Cd contaminated soil corresponded to the Zn and Cd distributed in the leaves. Zn K-edge and S K-edge XANES spectra proposed that Zn2+ ions were accumulated and/or adsorbed on the epidermis of the tuber, and then absorbed into the root and transport to the xylem. The double peaks of Zn-cysteine in the leaf samples proposed the metal sequestration was by sulphur proteins.

  5. Evaluation of natural and engineered resistance mechanisms in potato against Colorado potato beetle in a no-choice field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Susannah G; Douches, David S; Coombs, Joseph J; Grafius, Edward J

    2007-04-01

    The Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say, is the major insect pest of potato, Solanum tuberosum L., in eastern North America and is renowned for resistance development, currently resistant to >40 insecticides worldwide. Host plant resistance may assist in delaying in resistance development to insecticides. We evaluated natural host plant resistance mechanisms (glandular trichomes and Solanum chacoense Bitter-derived resistance) and engineered resistance mechanisms (Bacillus thuringiensis [Bt] Berliner cry3A and cry1Ia1) in a no-choice cage study. Six different potato lines representing four host plant resistance mechanisms were evaluated over 2 yr. Egg masses were placed in each cage (one egg mass per plant). Almost no feeding was observed in the Bt-cry3A lines, and only minor feeding was observed in the Bt-cry1Ia1 lines in either year. On the S. chacoense-derived line, there was significantly less defoliation than on either the susceptible line or the glandular trichome line in 2003. In 2004, there was significantly higher defoliation on the S. chacoense-derived line than on the susceptible line or glandular trichome line. The defoliation of the Solanum chacoense-derived line was largely due to larvae clipping the petioles, rather than consumption of the leaves. Defoliation on the glandular trichome line did not differ significantly from the defoliation of the susceptible line, suggesting glandular trichomes may not be effective in controlling larvae and preventing defoliation. This study suggested that Bt can provide high levels of resistance, but the natural resistance mechanisms tested here are variable for control of Colorado potato beetle larvae in no-choice situations.

  6. Histochemical Investigation and Kinds of Alkaloids in Leaves of Different Developmental Stages in Thymus quinquecostatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiting Jing

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thymus quinquecostatus, with more medical value, is a kind of wild plants. In order to exploit and utilize this plant, we studied the species and locations of alkaloids in its leaves. In this paper, histochemical study of leaves at different developing stages was taken to localize the alkaloids. Meanwhile, the kinds and content of alkaloids in leaves were identified using GC-MS technique. It was found that there were two kinds of glandular trichomes, namely, peltate trichomes and capitate trichomes, on the surface of leaves, and their secretory cells could secrete alkaloids. Results showed that trichomes could secrete alkaloids as soon as the first pair of leaves formed, and there were altogether 18 kinds of alkaloids identified by GC-MS. Nearly all of these alkaloids of leaves at different developing stages were distinct from each other, except one, 3-methoxy-a-methyl-benzeneethanamine, persists at different developing stages with high concentration.

  7. 转染 p53基因对肺腺癌细胞株裸鼠 移植瘤生长的影响%Study on the Role of p53 Gene Transfer on Human Glandular Lung Cancer Cell Growth in Nude Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李萍; 王北宁; 丁振若

    2001-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to explore the significance and the role of wild-type p53 (wt-p53) gene and mutant p53 gene(mt-p53) transfer on human glandular lung cancer cell growth in nude mice. Methods: wt-p53 gene and mt-p53 gene were transfected and lipofectin-mediated into the human glandular lung cancer cell line GLC-82. And the growth of gene-transfected cell lines were observed in vitro and in vivo. Results: The colony number in the colong-forming experiment and the volume and weight in nude mice were greater in the mf-p53 tranfecting cells group than in the control group. The tumor resulting from the cells transfected with the wt-p53 gene grew more slowly and was smaller than that from control GLC-82 cells. In contrast, the tumor from the cells transfected with the mt-p53 gene grew faster than that produced by cells transfeted with the wt-p53 gene and that produced by control GLC-82 cells. Conclusion: The wild-type p53 gene could inhibit the glandular lung cancer cell growth in nude mice and the mutant p53 gene could enhance the glandular lung cancer cell growth in nude mice.%目的:探讨转染野生型 p53( wt-p53)和突变型 p53( mt-p53)基因对人肺腺癌细胞株 GLC-82裸鼠移植瘤生长的影响。方法:采用脂质体介导法,分别将 wt-p53和 mt-p53基因导入人肺腺癌细胞株 GLC-82,在裸鼠体内、体外实验中检测转导细胞的生长状况和裸鼠致瘤性。结果:转染 mt-p53 基因的细胞株 G418筛选的细胞集落数、 3H-TDR掺入实验、软琼脂平皿细胞集落数,以及裸鼠瘤组织重量和体积均高于对照组( P<0.01),而转染 wt p53基因的细胞株均显著低于对照组( P< 0.01),表明导入 wt p53基因的细胞株瘤细胞生长速度明显低于对照组细胞株和导入 mt p53基因的细胞株,即导入 mt p53基因的细胞株瘤细胞生长速度最快,而导入 wt p53基因的细胞株瘤细胞

  8. Root hairs, trichomes and the evolution of duplicate genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, E A

    2001-12-01

    The MYB-class proteins WEREWOLF and GLABRA1 are functionally interchangeable, even though one is normally expressed solely in roots and the other only in shoots. This shows that their different functions are the result of the modification of cis-regulatory sequences over evolutionary time. The two genes thus provide an example of morphological diversification created by gene duplication and changes in regulation.

  9. Estudo comparativo entre marcadores ultra-sonográficos morfológicos preditores de parto pré-termo: sinal do afunilamento do colo e ausência do eco glandular endocervical A comparative study between morphologic ultrasonographic markers for preterm delivery: funneling sign and absence of cervical gland area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Rodrigues Pires

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o risco de parto pré-termo (PPT espontâneo na população geral a partir do estudo comparativo dos marcadores ultra-sonográficos morfológicos do colo uterino, como o sinal do afunilamento e a ausência da área glandular endocervical. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foram arroladas 361 gestantes na população geral, submetidas a exame ultra-sonográfico transvaginal entre a 21ª e 24ª semana, e verificados os resultados perinatais. RESULTADOS: A incidência de PPT espontâneo foi de 5,0%. O sinal do afunilamento foi observado em 4,2% da população estudada e em 22,2% das pacientes que evoluíram para PPT espontâneo. Tal parâmetro mostrou associação significante com PPT (p OBJECTIVE: To verify if different morphological ultrasonographic markers such as the funneling sign and the cervical gland area can be predictors of spontaneous premature delivery in pregnant women between 21 and 24 weeks of gestation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective cross-sectional study in which 361 women with 21 to 24 weeks of gestation were examined by transvaginal ultrasonography. The gestational age at delivery was later checked by telephone or mail. RESULTS: Spontaneous preterm delivery (SPD occurred in 5% of the patients. Cervical funneling occurred in 4.2% of the women and in 22.2% of those who had SPD. This finding was correlated to preterm delivery (p < 0.001; relative risk of 6.68. Absence of a hypoechoic area peripheral to the cervical canal consistent with endocervical epithelium glands, namely endocervical glandular echo (EGE feature, was detected in 2.8% of all patients and in 44.4% of those who developed spontaneous preterm labor. There was a statistically significant association of this feature to SPD (p < 0.001; relative risk of 28.57. Multivariance logistic regression analysis showed that this was the feature with strongest correlation with SPD, when compared to cervical funneling. CONCLUSION: Prediction of SPD through

  10. Survivin和MMP-9在子宫上皮和间质细胞中的表达与子宫内膜异位症间的关系%Expression of Survivin and MMP-9 in endometrium glandular epithelium and interstitial cells and its relationship with endometriosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林红霞; 张弛; 吴庆田; 马淑霞; 杨景云; 罗佳滨

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the expression and effect of Survivin and MMP-9 in glandular epithelium and interstitial cells of eutopic and ectopic endomembrane of solenoma, abdominal ectopic and aberrant ovary, and its relationships with endometriosis. Method The expression of Survivin and MMP-9 in each sample were dectected by immunohistochemical method. Result ( 1 ) In normal endometrium, both Survivin and MMP-9 showed weak expression or no expression. In the three EMS groups, the expressions of Survivin and MMP-9 were up in varying degrees respectively, in either eutopic or ectopic endometrium, with significant differences compared to normal endometrium tissue ( P < 0.05 ). (2) In AM, AWEMS and OEMS groups, higher expression of Survivin and MMP-9 only in the proliferative phase of ectopic membrane epithelial cells with statistically significant differences compared to that in the same cells of eutopic endometrium (P <0.05); the expression in secretion phase was irregular.(3) In AM, AWEMS and OEMS groups, the expression levels of Survivin and MMP-9 in proliferative and secretory phases in tissue with same area and cell type were not significantly different ( P > 0. 05 ) and not periodic. ( 4 ) In AM, AWEMS and OEMS groups, by defining the same physical phase and tissues,the expression of Survivin and MMP-9 were much higher in glandular epithelium cells than in interstitiai cells, with statistically significant differences (P < 0.05 ). (5) In the three EMS groups, upon defining the same physical phase, tissues and cell type, the Survivin expression showed no significant differences between groups ( P > O. 05); the expression of MMP-9 in ectopic endometrial cell during secretion phase was higher in AWEMS epithelial (4.45 ±0. 18) and AM epithelial cells (4. 68 ± 0. 17) than that in the OEMS ectopic endometrial glandular epithelial cells (2. 13 ± 0. 12 ), and the differences were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Conclusion The high expression of Survivin

  11. Morphological and micromorphological characteristics of Desmodium fruits (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Daiane M; Reis, Ademir; Bortoluzzi, Roseli L da Costa; Santos, Marisa

    2014-12-01

    The genus Desmodium is represented in Santa Catarina State, Brazil, by 13 species, all with lomen- taceous fruits. Shape, size and isthmus margin of loments vary, while the surface is glabrous, or covered by trichomes of different types. Morphological diversity of trichomes becomes particularly relevant to taxonomic description. The trichome types present on the surface of Desmodium fruits provide data for the identification and classification of species in the State. To assess this, three fruits of each species were collected and deposited at two herbaria, HBR and FLOR, in Santa Catarina, Brazil. Some rehydrated samples were examined using light microscopy (LM); and some sections were exposed to the following histochemical reagents: Sudan III for oils and Thionine for mucilage. The structural aspects of trichomes can be classified into uni- or multicellular and may still be simple, i.e., nonglandular or glandular. Using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), five types of trichomes were identified and analyzed among the Desmodium species studied: uncinate, uniseriate, globose multicellular, globose unicellular and subulate. Characteristics, such as loment margin and article form, glabrescent or pillous indument, trichome type, with or without papillous epidermal cells and epicuticular striations, showed relevant diagnostic value. An identification key was developed for Desmodium species from Santa Catarina State, Brazil, based on macro and micromorphological characters of the fruit.

  12. Anatomy of Sarcocaulon

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    R. L. Verhoeven

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available The anatomy of the leaf blade, petiole, stem and root of the genus Sarcocaulon (DC. Sweet is discussed. On the basis of the leaf anatomy, the four sections recognized by Moffett (1979 can be identified: section Denticulati (dorsiventral leaves, section Multifidi (isobilateral leaves and adaxial and abaxial palisade continuous at midvein, section Crenati (isobilateral leaves, short curved trichomes and glandular hairs, section Sarcocaulon (isobilateral leaves and glandular hairs only. The anatomy of the stem is typically that of a herbaceous dicotyledon with a thick periderm. The root structure shows that the function of the root is not food storage.

  13. Improved herbivore resistance in cultivated tomato with the sesquiterpene biosynthetic pathway from a wild relative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleeker, Petra M; Mirabella, Rossana; Diergaarde, Paul J; VanDoorn, Arjen; Tissier, Alain; Kant, Merijn R; Prins, Marcel; de Vos, Martin; Haring, Michel A; Schuurink, Robert C

    2012-12-04

    Tomato breeding has been tremendously efficient in increasing fruit quality and quantity but did not focus on improving herbivore resistance. The biosynthetic pathway for the production of 7-epizingiberene in a wild tomato was introduced into a cultivated greenhouse variety with the aim to obtain herbivore resistance. 7-Epizingiberene is a specific sesquiterpene with toxic and repellent properties that is produced and stored in glandular trichomes. We identified 7-epizingiberene synthase (ShZIS) that belongs to a new class of sesquiterpene synthases, exclusively using Z-Z-farnesyl-diphosphate (zFPP) in plastids, probably arisen through neo-functionalization of a common ancestor. Expression of the ShZIS and zFPP synthases in the glandular trichomes of cultivated tomato resulted in the production of 7-epizingiberene. These tomatoes gained resistance to several herbivores that are pests of tomato. Hence, introduction of this sesquiterpene biosynthetic pathway into cultivated tomatoes resulted in improved herbivore resistance.

  14. 前列腺癌组织中人腺体激肽释放酶2基因表达值与Gleason评分的相关性分析%Correlation of Gleason grading with human glandular kallikrein 2 gene expression value in prostate cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕学成; 何慧婵; 戴奇山; 邹钧; 韩兆冬; 梁宇翔; 叶永康; 曾国华; 钟惟德

    2008-01-01

    目的探讨人腺体激肽释放酶(hK)2基因表达值与前列腺癌的Gleason评分的相关性及临床意义.方法运用实时荧光定量(FQ)PCR方法检测40例已知Gleason评分前列腺癌病理组织中hK2的基因表达值.结果前列腺癌组织中hK2基因表达值在不同的Gleason评分中有差异,随Gleason评分值升高而升高.结论前列腺癌组织中hK2基因表达值与Gleason评分呈正相关;hK2有望成为前列腺癌早期诊断,恶性程度评估以及预后判断的重要指标.%Objective To investigate the correlation of human glandular kallikrein (hK)2 gene expression value with Gleason histologic grading and its clinical significance in prostate cancer. Methods hK2 gene expression of the cancer tissue was measured in 40 cases of prostate cancer. The Gleason histologic grading was based on histopathologic examination. Results The prostatic cancer hK2 gene expression values variated in different Gleason score. The hK2 gene expression values increased with the enhancement of Gleason scores. Conclusions The hK2 expression value is positively correlated with Gleason scores. The hK2 expression value may be an important indicator of the diagnosis, degree of malignancy and prognosis in prostate cancer.

  15. Changes of rat's benign hyperplasia prostate glandular epithelium cells after interfering cholinergic innervations by drug%脱特罗定持续干扰胆碱能神经支配时大鼠良性增生前列腺腺上皮细胞的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡建良; 姚炜敏; 苑学礼; 夏溟; 那彦群

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the changes of rats' benign hyperplasia prostate glandular epithelium cells after continuing blockade the cholinergic innervation by drug.Methods All 42 male spontaneous hypertension rats (SHR,a spontaneous BPH animal model,29 weeks old) were divided into experiment group (EG),control group (CG) and normal control (NC).EG were intragastric administered with Tolterodine (3.5 mg/kg,bid),CG were intragastric administered with equivalent physiological saline.Rats were sacrificed in batches every 12 weeks,the changes of the prostate gross morphology,ratio of ventral prostate lobe wet weight and body weight (wet/body),ratio of ventral prostate lobe dry weight and wet weight (wet/dry),histology,ultra-structure and LC3-Ⅱ & LC3-Ⅰ expression were observed.Results The gross morphological changes and the increase of wet/body ratio of EG rats' prostate were similar to CG in every stage.The wet/body ratio of two group increased with rats' age,but EG were significantly smaller than CG after 41 weeks.The proliferation of prostate glandular epithelium cell in EG were stopped while in CG were continuing.The number of autophagosome was increased with age in CG glandular cell cytoplasm,while in EG,the number of autophagosome was decreased with age.The immunohistrochemistry staining of LC3-Ⅰ progressively attenuated and LC3-Ⅱ staining progressively reinforced with the rat' s age in CG,but in EG,the situation were conversed.All these index between CG and NC,had no statistical difference.Conclusion The benign hyperplasia of rats' prostate glandular epithelium cells have been reversed after blockade the cholinergic innervation by drug,the significantly inactivation of autophagy may play an important role.%目的 观察脱特罗定持续干扰胆碱能神经支配对大鼠良性增生前列腺腺上皮的影响.方法 将29周龄雄性自发性高血压(SHR)大鼠42只,分为实验组18只,对照组18只,正常对照组6只.实验组每天2次脱特罗定(3

  16. Pharmacognostic Standardization Parameters of Roylea elegans Wall (Aerial Parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeru

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the pharmacognostical study of Roylea elegans (aerial parts. The qualitative and quantitative microscopy, physicochemical evaluation, phytochemical screening and fluorescence analysis of the plant were done by the standard procedure recommended in the WHO guidelines. Macroscopic study shows that leaves were dark green with lemon like odor and bitter taste, 2-8 cm length and 1-8 cm wide, shape: ovate, hairy upper and lower surface, apex: acute and having reticulate veination, Stems: were light green Microscopic evaluation of the leaves powder shows the presence of trichomes (unicellular covering and glandular, upper epidermis, vessels, xylem fibres, wavy trichomes. The transverse section of the leaf shows the presence of epidermis layer followed by cuticle layer, lignified vascular bundles, trichomes, collenchyma, and palisade cells. Various pharmacognostical parameters help to evaluate the identification and standardization of Roylea elegans (aerial part.

  17. Mathematical Modeling-Guided Evaluation of Biochemical, Developmental, Environmental, and Genotypic Determinants of Essential Oil Composition and Yield in Peppermint Leaves1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios-Estepa, Rigoberto; Lange, Iris; Lee, James M.; Lange, B. Markus

    2010-01-01

    We have previously reported the use of a combination of computational simulations and targeted experiments to build a first generation mathematical model of peppermint (Mentha × piperita) essential oil biosynthesis. Here, we report on the expansion of this approach to identify the key factors controlling monoterpenoid essential oil biosynthesis under adverse environmental conditions. We also investigated determinants of essential oil biosynthesis in transgenic peppermint lines with modulated essential oil profiles. A computational perturbation analysis, which was implemented to identify the variables that exert prominent control over the outputs of the model, indicated that the essential oil composition should be highly dependent on certain biosynthetic enzyme concentrations [(+)-pulegone reductase and (+)-menthofuran synthase], whereas oil yield should be particularly sensitive to the density and/or distribution of leaf glandular trichomes, the specialized anatomical structures responsible for the synthesis and storage of essential oils. A microscopic evaluation of leaf surfaces demonstrated that the final mature size of glandular trichomes was the same across all experiments. However, as predicted by the perturbation analysis, differences in the size distribution and the total number of glandular trichomes strongly correlated with differences in monoterpenoid essential oil yield. Building on various experimental data sets, appropriate mathematical functions were selected to approximate the dynamics of glandular trichome distribution/density and enzyme concentrations in our kinetic model. Based on a χ2 statistical analysis, simulated and measured essential oil profiles were in very good agreement, indicating that modeling is a valuable tool for guiding metabolic engineering efforts aimed at improving essential oil quality and quantity. PMID:20147490

  18. Anatomia foliar de Polygonaceae (Angiospermae da planície de inundação do alto rio Paraná Leaf anatomy of Polygonaceae (Angiospermae from the upper Paraná river floodplain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismar Sebastião Moscheta

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available A anatomia foliar de Polygonum acuminatum, P. ferrugineum, P. hydropiperoides, P. meisnerianum, P. punctatum, P. stelligerum, Ruprechtia laxiflora e Triplaris americana foi realizada com o objetivo de fornecer subsídios para a identificação destas espécies encontradas na planície de inundação do alto rio Paraná. Foram comparados a estrutura do limbo, em seção transversal, nervação, estômatos e pêlos da epiderme. Os gêneros Polygonum, Ruprechtia e Triplaris podem facilmente ser distinguidos através das características anatômicas: tipos de estômatos, pêlos glandulares, pêlos tectores das faces e dos bordos, nervura fimbrial e idioblastos epidérmicos. As espécies de Polygonum podem ser distinguidas através dos pêlos tectores, cavidade epidérmica e, mais dificilmente, pelas aréolas e terminações das nervurasLeaf anatomy of the following Polygonaceae Polygonum acuminatum, P. ferrugineum, P. hydropiperoides, P. meisnerianum, P. punctatum, P. stelligerum, Ruprechtia laxiflora and Triplaris Americana was carried out as an aid towards the identification of these species found in the upper Paraná river floodplain. The leaf blade structure in transversal section, veins, stoma and epidermal trichome were compared. The genera Polygonum, Ruprechtia and Triplaris are easily distinguishable through their anatomical features: stomatal types, glandular trichomes, surface and edge non-glandular trichome, fimbria vein and epidermal idioblasts. Polygonum species are distinguishable through non-glandular trichomes, epidermal cavity and, with some difficulty, through areolas and veinlets

  19. Comparing Host Plant Resistance, Engineered Resistance, and Insecticide Treatment for Control of Colorado Potato Beetle and Potato Leafhopper in Potatoes

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    Gerald M. Ghidiu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say Order Coleoptera and the potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae (Harris Order Homoptera, are the major insect pests of potato in eastern North America. In two years of field trials, we compared the effectiveness of three pest management options for the control of Colorado potato beetle and potato leafhopper: natural host plant resistance (glandular trichomes, engineered resistance (Bacillus thuringiensis [Bt] Berliner cry3A gene and a susceptible potato cultivar (Superior with an at-planting application of the insecticide thiamethoxam. Similar and acceptable control of the Colorado potato beetle larvae was obtained with the Bt-cry3A lines and the thiamethoxam treated “Superior” variety. The glandular trichome cultivar had significantly less Colorado potato beetle damage than did the untreated “Superior” in 2004, although damage was significantly greater than in the Bt-cry3A lines and the insecticide-treated potatoes for both years, and was the only treatment that consistently had very little potato leafhopper damage. These data demonstrate that although each type of host plant resistance mechanism (Bt-cry3A or glandular trichomes was as effective as the chemical control against one of the insects, neither provides adequate resistance to both Colorado potato beetle and potato leaf hopper.

  20. Human glandular salivas : Their separate collection and analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veerman, ECI; vandenKeybus, PAM; Vissink, A; Amerongen, AVN

    1996-01-01

    Human saliva is secreted by the three pairs of major salivary glands (parotid, submandibular, and sublingual), and numerous minor ones, e.g. labial, buccal and (glosso)palatine glands. Using individually adapted collection devices, sublingual, submandibular, parotid and palatine secretions of five i

  1. Identifying sources and estimating glandular output of salivary TIMP-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holten-Andersen, Lars; Jensen, Siri Beier; Jensen, Allan Bardow;

    2008-01-01

    /mL in submandibular/sublingual saliva to 173.88 ng/mL in parotid saliva. TIMP-1 concentrations were influenced to a varying degree by fluctuations in flow. We found the lowest output in submandibular/sublingual saliva stimulated with 0.5 % citric acid (3.56 ng/min) and highest output in chewing-stimulated whole...

  2. Caracterización del indumento de nueve especies de Loasaceae de Venezuela Indument characterization of nine Loasaceae species from Venezuela

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    Eliana Noguera-Savelli

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se caracterizó el indumento observado en diferentes órganos de 9 especies de Loasaceae presentes en Venezuela, precisando su ubicación en la planta a fin de establecer una posible importancia taxonómica. Este estudio se efectuó tanto al microscopio óptico como al microscopio electrónico de barrido. El indumento está constituido por 2 clases de apéndices epidérmicos: tricomas y emergencias. Los tricomas se clasificaron en tricomas eglandulares uni-y multicelulares y tricomas glandulares multicelulares. Los tricomas cónicos y gloquidiados uncinados son comunes en todas las especies estudiadas. Nasa resultó el género con la mayor diversidad de tricomas. Se registra por primera vez la presencia de tricomas dendríticos, exclusivamente en Nasa venezuelensis. Las hojas y ovarios son los órganos que mayor variedad de apéndices mostraron. Gronovia scandens fue la única especie con emergencias, restringidas a los tallos. La morfología del indumento es un carácter de valor diagnóstico a nivel de subfamilia, lo cual se evidencia en la clave.In this work the epidermal indumentum observed in different organs of 9 species of Loasaceae from Venezuela were characterized, emphasizing their type and location on the plant to establish their possible taxonomic significance. The indumentum was studied using optical and scanning electron microscopy. Two classes of indumentum were observed: trichomes and emergences. The trichomes were classified as uni- and multicellular, non-glandular trichomes, and multicellular glandular trichomes. The conical and uncinate glochidiate trichomes were common in all the species studied. Nasa was the genus with the greatest trichomes diversity. The occurrence of dendritic trichomes is reported for the first time, exclusively in Nasa venezuelensis. Leaves and ovaries are the organs with the greatest variety of appendices. Gronovia scandens is the only species with emergences, which are restricted to

  3. The structure of floral elements of Anchusa officinalis L. creating attractants for insects

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    Mirosława Chwil

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study involved the measurement of size and the micromorphology of the floral elements of Anchusa officinalis L. which are attractants for insects. The structure of the epidermis on the surface of the calyx, petals, throat scales, pistil and nectary were analysed using light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. For light microscopy observations, semi-permanent slides were prepared, which were treated with Lugol's iodine solution, Sudan III and fluoroglucine. The dark violet lobes of the corolla of Anchusa officinalis, with a velvety surface, and the throat scales, contrasting with them, belong to the most important optical attractants which lure insects from large distances. The dark pink colouring of the sepals additionally increases the attractiveness of the flowers. The epidermis covering the calyx formed different-sized non-glandular trichomes as well as glandular trichomes. The glandular trichomes were composed of a uni - or bicellular leg and a unicellular head. The colour of the corolla petals was determined by anthocyanins accumulated in the epidermal cells and in the more deeply situated parenchyma. The velvety surface was formed by the conical papillae, densely growing from the adaxial epidermis. The pink-violet throat scales with white hairs, covering the inlet to the tube of the corolla, were found at the inlet to the corolla throat. The longest trichomes on the surface of the scales were located in their lower and middle parts, whereas the shortest ones at their tips. The epidermis of the central part of the throat scales formed small papillae. The trichomes had thin cell walls, large vacuoles, numerous plastids and lipid droplets. The two-parted stigma of the pistil was covered by characteristic expanded outgrowths with wavy edges which performed the functions of structures facilitating the capture of pollen grains. As a result of the present study it was found that the structures affecting the attractiveness of the

  4. Comparative leaf morphology and anatomy of three Asteraceae species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Milan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to describe and compare the morphology and anatomy of mature leaves of Mikania glomerata Spreng., Porophyllum ruderale Cass. and Vernonia condensata Baker (Asteraceae species that have different habits emphasizing their secretory structures. Longitudinal and transversal sections of mature leaf blades of the three species were analyzed at the apex, base, and medium third part of the midvein of the leaf blade and of the margin. M. glomerata had uniseriate glandular trichomes and secretory ducts; P. ruderale had hydathodes and secretory cavities; and V. condensata had idioblasts and uni-and biseriate glandular trichomes.Este trabalho teve por objetivo descrever e comparar a morfo-anatomia das folhas adultas de Mikania glomerata Spreng., Porophyllum ruderale Cass. e Vernonia condensata Baker (Asteraceae, que possuem diferentes hábitos, enfatizando suas estruturas secretoras. Secções longitudinais e transversais dos limbos foliares foram analisadas nas regiões do ápice, da base e do terço médio na altura da nervura central, do limbo foliar e da margem. M. glomerata apresentou tricomas glandulares unisseriados e ductos secretores; P. ruderale tinha hidatódios e cavidades secretoras; e V. condensata apresentou idioblastos e tricomas glandulares uni- ou bisseriados.

  5. 箭叶淫羊藿同质园栽培居群非腺毛多样性及其分类学启示%Morphological variation of non-glandular hairs in cultivated Epimedium sagittatum (Berberidaceae) populations and implications for taxonomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐艳琴; 蔡婉珍; 胡生福; 黄小虎; 葛菲; 王瑛

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the morphological variations of non-glandular hairs across 16 cultivated Epime-dium sagittatum (Berberidaceae) populations using digital photomicrography. The main features examined included the total numbers of cells, the full-length and ratio of the first cell, the angle and connection pattern between the first and adjacent cells, the presence of elongated cell(s), and the shape, diameter and cell wall thickness of the first cell. Of these, the shape of the first cell was the most important variable and was associated with such characters as the full length, the presence of elongated cell(s), the ratio of the first cell, and the diameter and cell wall thickness of the first cell. Morphological diversity among populations was significant with two main groups identified, namely as sword-shaped group and a fusiform group. However, variations of the main characters was continuous among individuals and populations, suggesting that E. sagittatum was possibly a polytypic species. Adaptive divergence of key traits between populations caused by natural selection was also possible. The genetic basis of variation was evidenced by morphological differences maintained among populations cultivated in a common garden. Phenotypic divergence between ecologically separated populations could be the result of local adaptation.%淫羊藿是国际上多年来重点研究的药用植物.箭叶淫羊藿(Epimedium sagittatum)是淫羊藿属分布最广,也是形态变异最大的物种,箭叶淫羊藿复合群种分类中存在诸多疑点和争议.为了重建淫羊藿属的系统发育,我们利用数码显微摄影技术对10省16个箭叶淫羊藿同质园栽培居群的叶背非腺毛性状进行了比较研究.结果表明,箭叶淫羊藿非腺毛性状的主要特征包括:细胞数、非腺毛长度、是否存在伸长细胞、顶细胞形态及由此导致的顶细胞直径和壁厚差异.不同居群的非腺毛形态和特征存在巨大差异和丰富的多

  6. A genomics resource for investigating regulation of essential oil production in Lavandula angustifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Alexander; Boecklemann, Astrid; Woronuk, Grant N; Sarker, Lukman; Mahmoud, Soheil S

    2010-03-01

    We are developing Lavandula angustifolia (lavender) as a model system for investigating molecular regulation of essential oil (a mixture of mono- and sesquiterpenes) production in plants. As an initial step toward building the necessary 'genomics toolbox' for this species, we constructed two cDNA libraries from lavender leaves and flowers, and obtained sequence information for 14,213 high-quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Based on homology to sequences present in GenBank, our EST collection contains orthologs for genes involved in the 1-deoxy-D: -xylulose-5-phosphate (DXP) and the mevalonic acid (MVA) pathways of terpenoid biosynthesis, and for known terpene synthases and prenyl transferases. To gain insight into the regulation of terpene metabolism in lavender flowers, we evaluated the transcriptional activity of the genes encoding for 1-deoxy-D: -xylulose-5-phosphate synthase (DXS) and HMG-CoA reductase (HMGR), which represent regulatory steps of the DXP and MVA pathways, respectively, in glandular trichomes (oil glands) by real-time PCR. While HMGR transcripts were barely detectable, DXS was heavily expressed in this tissue, indicating that essential oil constituents are predominantly produced through the DXP pathway in lavender glandular trichomes. As anticipated, the linalool synthase (LinS)-the gene responsible for the production of linalool, a major constituent of lavender essential oil-was also strongly expressed in glands. Surprisingly, the most abundant transcript in floral glandular trichomes corresponded to a sesquiterpene synthase (cadinene synthase, CadS), although sesquiterpenes are minor constituents of lavender essential oils. This result, coupled to the weak activity of the MVA pathway (the main route for sesquiterpene production) in trichomes, indicates that precursor supply may represent a bottleneck in the biosynthesis of sesquiterpenes in lavender flowers.

  7. Allometric analysis of the induced flavonols on the leaf surface of wild tobacco (Nicotiana attenuata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roda, Amy L; Oldham, Neil J; Svatos, Ales; Baldwin, Ian T

    2003-02-01

    Trichomes excrete secondary metabolites that may alter the chemical composition of the leaf surface, reducing damage caused by herbivores, pathogens and abiotic stresses. We examined the surface exudates produced by Nicotiana attenuata Torr. Ex Wats., a plant known to contain and secrete a number of secondary metabolites that are toxic or a deterrent to herbivorous insects. Extractions specific to the leaf surface, the trichomes, and the laminar components demonstrated the localization of particular compounds. Diterpene glycosides occurred exclusively in leaf mesophyll, whereas nicotine was found in both the trichomes and mesophyll. Neither rutin nor nicotine was found on the leaf surface. Quercetin and 7 methylated derivatives were found in the glandular trichomes and appeared to be excreted onto the leaf surface. We examined the elicitation of these flavonols on the leaf surface with a surface-area allometric analysis, which measures changes in metabolites independent of the effects of leaf expansion. The flavonols responded differently to wounding, methyl jasmonate (MeJA), herbivore attack and UV-C radiation, and the response patterns corresponded to their compound-specific allometries. Finding greater amounts of quercetin on younger leaves and reduced amounts after herbivore feeding and MeJA treatment, we hypothesized that quercetin may function as an attractant, helping the insects locate a preferred feeding site. Consistent with this hypothesis, mirids (Tupiocoris notatus) were found more often on mature leaves sprayed with quercetin at a concentration typical of young leaves than on unsupplemented mature leaves. The composition of metabolites on the leaf surface of N. attenuata changes throughout leaf development and in response to herbivore attack or environmental stress, and these changes are mediated in part by responses of the glandular trichomes.

  8. Caracterização morfoanatômica das folhas de Eremanthus erythropappus (DC. MacLeisch, Asteraceae Leaf morpho-anatomical characterization of Eremanthus erythropappus (DC. MacLeisch, Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael C. Dutra

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Eremanthus erythropappus (DC. MacLeisch (Asteraceae, popularmente conhecida como "candeia-da-serra", é uma espécie utilizada na medicina tradicional como cicatrizante e antimicrobiano. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi comparar o número de tricomas glandulares nas folhas jovens e adultas de E. erythropappus, assim como realizar a caracterização morfoanatômica destas folhas. Secções transversais e paradérmicas das folhas foram submetidas às microtécnicas fotônicas e à microscopia eletrônica de varredura. A quantificação dos tricomas glandulares foi realizada em folhas jovens e adultas com auxílio de câmara clara. As folhas são alternas ou fasciculadas e a lâmina foliar possui epiderme uniestratificada, revestida por cutícula delgada e lisa e mesofilo dorsiventral. Em ambas as faces da epiderme, ocorrem estômatos predominantemente anomocíticos e tricomas glandulares inseridos em depressões. Na face abaxial observam-se numerosos tricomas tectores. O parênquima paliçádico é uniestratificado e o parênquima voltado para a face abaxial é formado por três a cinco camadas de células com disposição compacta. As folhas jovens e adultas apresentam respectivamente 21,78±5,83 e 17,80±6,69 tricomas glandulares na face adaxial. A análise morfoanatômica das folhas de E. erythropappus mostra-se um método rápido e prático para a identificação e controle de qualidade de espécies vegetais utilizadas na terapêutica.Eremanthus erythropappus (DC. MacLeisch (Asteraceae, commonly known as 'candeia-da-serra', is a plant used in folk medicine as wound healing and antimicrobial. The aim of this study was to compare the number of glandular trichomes between the young and the mature leaves, as well as to perform the morpho-anatomical characterization of E. erythropappus leaves. Transverse and paradermal sections of the leaves were prepared according to light and scanning microtechniques for the morpho-anatomical characterization

  9. Avaliação da medida do comprimento do colo e da ausência do eco glandular endocervical para predição do parto pré-termo Evaluation of risk for preterm delivery by measurement of uterine cervix and cervical gland area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Rodrigues Pires

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: verificar a prevalência do sinal eco glandular endocervical (EGE e o comprimento cervical menor ou igual a 20 mm em gestantes entre a 21ª e a 24ª semana e comparar estes sinais ecográficos como fatores indicadores de parto pré-termo espontâneo. MÉTODOS: estudo prospectivo transversal no qual foram incluídas 361 gestantes da população geral, para realização de exame ultra-sonografico em idade gestacional entre a 21ª a 24ª semana. Os critérios de exclusão do estudo foram malformações müllerianas, gestações múltiplas, malformações fetais, óbito fetal, alterações da quantidade de líquido amniótico, placenta com inserção segmentar, antecedentes de cirurgia no colo uterino (conização, amputação, cerclagem e procedimentos cirúrgicos durante a gestação. Após a realização do exame ultra-sonográfico obstétrico morfológico efetuado por via abdominal, seguiu-se o exame ecográfico por via vaginal para observação de uma faixa hipoecóica ou hiperecóica adjacente ao canal endocervical correpondente às glândulas do epitélio endocervical (EGE e mensuração do comprimento cervical. As variáveis qualitativas são representadas por freqüência absoluta e relativa, ao passo que as variáveis quantitativas, por média, desvio-padrão, mediana e valores mínimo e máximo. A associação entre as variáveis qualitativas foi avaliada pelo teste c² ou teste exato de Fisher. Para cada variável estudada, foi calculado o risco relativo seguido do intervalo com 95% de confiança. A técnica de análise de regressão logística univariada foi utilizada para verificar, entre as variáveis estudadas, quais foram indicativas de parto pré-termo espontâneo. O nível de significância adotado foi de 95% (alfa = 5% e descritivos (p iguais ou inferiores a 0,05 foram considerados significantes. RESULTADOS: a incidência do parto pré-termo espontâneo foi de 5,0%. O comprimento do colo uterino revelou-se igual ou

  10. Pharmacobotanical study of the leaf and stem of Mikania lanuginosa for its quality control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Amorin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Mikania lanuginosa DC, Asteraceae, is popularly known as "cipó-cabeludo" in Brazil due to a remarkable number of trichomes on its leaves and stems. It shows antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis and Bacillus cereus. This species can be confused with M. microlepis Baker and M. hirsutissima DC for substitution and tampering purposes. The aim of this study was to investigate the morpho-anatomy of leaf and stem of M. lanuginosa to obtain pharmacobotanical data that may contribute to its identification and taxonomic definition from other species of Mikania. The leaves and stems were investigated using scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy techniques. Mikania lanuginosa shows a uniseriate epidermis covered by a thin and smooth cuticle. The epidermal cells present sinuous anticlinal walls on both sides and anomocytic stomata were observed. A few glandular trichomes and numerous non-glandular trichomes were identified on both surfaces. The mesophyll is dorsiventral, the midrib has a biconvex contour and the petiole shows a circular shape in a cross-section. The stem has a circular shape. These pharmacobotanical features described for M. lanuginosa support data for its identification and taxonomic delimitation from other Mikania species, and are a contribution for the quality control of herbal drugs.

  11. Comparative morphology of leaf epidermis in eight populations of Atlas Pistachio (Pistacia atlantica Desf., Anacardiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belhadj, Safia; Derridj, Arezki; Aigouy, Thierry; Gers, Charles; Gauquelin, Thierry; Mevy, Jean-Philippe

    2007-10-01

    A comparative analysis was undertaken to conduct a micromorphological study of Pistacia atlantica leaves by comparing different populations grown under different climatic conditions. Leaf epidermis of eight wild populations was investigated under scanning electron microscope. Micromorphological characteristics (epidermis ornament, stomata type, waxes as well as trichomes) of the adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces were examined. The epidermis ornament varied among populations and leaf surface, the abaxial leaf surface is reticulate with a striate surface. Messaad site shows a smooth uneven surface. The adaxial leaf surface is smooth but several ornamentations can be seen. The leaflet is amphistomatic; the stomata appeared to be slightly sunken. A variety of stomatal types were recorded; actinocytic and anomocytic types are the most frequent. The indumentum consisted of glandular and nonglandular trichomes. Unicellular glandular trichomes are recorded for P. atlantica leaves in this study. Their density is higher in Oued safene site, located at the highest altitude in comparison with the other populations. The wax occurred in all the sites and its pattern varied according to the populations studied, particularly between Berriane and Messaad. The morphological variability exhibited by the eight populations of P. atlantica may be interpreted as relevant to the ecological plasticity and the physiological mechanisms involved are discussed in this report.

  12. Identification of olivetolic acid cyclase from Cannabis sativa reveals a unique catalytic route to plant polyketides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagne, Steve J; Stout, Jake M; Liu, Enwu; Boubakir, Zakia; Clark, Shawn M; Page, Jonathan E

    2012-07-31

    Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and other cannabinoids are responsible for the psychoactive and medicinal properties of Cannabis sativa L. (marijuana). The first intermediate in the cannabinoid biosynthetic pathway is proposed to be olivetolic acid (OA), an alkylresorcinolic acid that forms the polyketide nucleus of the cannabinoids. OA has been postulated to be synthesized by a type III polyketide synthase (PKS) enzyme, but so far type III PKSs from cannabis have been shown to produce catalytic byproducts instead of OA. We analyzed the transcriptome of glandular trichomes from female cannabis flowers, which are the primary site of cannabinoid biosynthesis, and searched for polyketide cyclase-like enzymes that could assist in OA cyclization. Here, we show that a type III PKS (tetraketide synthase) from cannabis trichomes requires the presence of a polyketide cyclase enzyme, olivetolic acid cyclase (OAC), which catalyzes a C2-C7 intramolecular aldol condensation with carboxylate retention to form OA. OAC is a dimeric α+β barrel (DABB) protein that is structurally similar to polyketide cyclases from Streptomyces species. OAC transcript is present at high levels in glandular trichomes, an expression profile that parallels other cannabinoid pathway enzymes. Our identification of OAC both clarifies the cannabinoid pathway and demonstrates unexpected evolutionary parallels between polyketide biosynthesis in plants and bacteria. In addition, the widespread occurrence of DABB proteins in plants suggests that polyketide cyclases may play an overlooked role in generating plant chemical diversity.

  13. Accumulation of furanic labdane diterpenes in Marrubium vulgare and Leonurus cardiaca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knöss, W; Zapp, J

    1998-05-01

    Accumulation of furanic labdane diterpenes has been investigated in different parts of field-grown plants of MARRUBIUM VULGARE (Lamiaceae) and LEONURUS CARDIACA (Lamiaceae). Furanic labdane diterpenes were produced and accumulated only in the aerial parts. Greatest amounts were measured in leaves and flowers. Up to 4 mg furanic labdane diterpenes per g fresh weight were found. Accumulation of furanic labdane diterpenes in plantlets seemingly depends on a developmental programme. No furanic labdane diterpenes were detected in plantlets during the first four to five weeks following germination. At this time the leaves became more differentiated and the number of trichomes on leaves was obviously increasing. Young leaves and buds contained most furanic labdane diterpenes. It was proven that at least a part of the non-volatile furanic labdane diterpenes is stored in peltate glandular trichomes. NMR signals of marrubiin were investigated with correlated spectra. Some (1)H- and (13)C-NMR assignments reported in literature were revised.

  14. Morpho anatomical studies of leaves of Abutilon indicum (linn.) sweet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramadoss Karthikeyan; PannemVenkatesh; Nesepogu Chandrasekhar

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the pharmacognostic parameters of the leaves of Abutilon indicum (Linn.) Sweet which will assist in standardization, quality assurance, purity and sample identification of the species. Methods: The pharmacognostic studies were carried out in terms of organoleptic, microscopic, powder microscopic, leaf constants and fluorescence analysis. Results:Macroscopic study showed that the leaf shape -cordate, Size -2-4 cm long, Colour - Green, Odour -Characteristic, Taste -Characteristic, Surface - Smooth, Apex -Acute to acuminate, Lamina-Simple, Cordate, Reticulate, Dentate, Margin-Crenate-Dentate. The microscopic features of leaves were observed as covering trichomes, glandular trichome, vascular bundles, crystals, stomata ,mucilage secretory cells adaxial epidermis, palisade mesophyll, spongy mesophyll and lateral vein. Further the study was evaluated leaf constants, powder microscopy and fluorescence study of leaf powder. Conclusion: Various pharmacognostic characters observed in this study help in the identification and standardization of Abutilon indicum (Linn.) Sweet.

  15. The study on foliar micromorphology of Hippobromus pauciflorus using scanning electron microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendota, S C; Grierson, D S; Afolayan, A J

    2008-07-15

    Foliar micromorphology of Hippobromus pauciflorus (L.f.) Radlk (Sapindaceae) was investigated by scanning electron microscope examination. The leaves were characterized by anisocytic stomata which were found only on the abaxial surface. The leaves have long unicellular non-glandular trichomes which were distributed over the mid rib and densely populated at the edges of the upper and lower surfaces. Crystal deposits were also observed on the abaxial surface of the leaves. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy SEM of the crystals showed predominant mineral components of Na, Al, Si, K and Ca ions. These micro (Si, Na and Al) and macro (K and Ca) elements are very essential to plant growth. Their presence in the trichomes could contribute to the mechanical stability of the leaf appendages.

  16. Preliminary Phytochemical Screening and Physico-Chemical Parameters of Artemisia absinthium and Artemisia annua.

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    Praveen Kumar Ashok

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The family Asteraceae or compositae known as the ester, daisy or sunflower family is the largest family of flowering plants. Artemisia is a large diverse genus of plants with between 100 to 150 species belonging to the family asteraceae (compositae. It comprises hardy herbs and shrubs known for their volatile oils. They grow in temperate climate of the northern hemisphere and southern hemisphere usually in dry or, semidry habitats. The collected herbs were authenticated, dried and extracted to calculate the percentage of yield. Phytochemical studies of the Hexane and alcoholic extracts showed the presence of various phytoconstituents i.e. carbohydrate, saponins, phytosterol, proteins and amino acid, tannin, phenolic compounds and flavonoids. It was observed that all the extracts show more important chemical constituents for various pharmacological activities. The determination of these characters will aid future investigators in their Pharmacological analysis of this species.

  17. Cell-specific expression of tryptophan decarboxylase and 10-hydroxygeraniol oxidoreductase, key genes involved in camptothecin biosynthesis in Camptotheca acuminata Decne (Nyssaceae

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    Santamaria Anna

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Camptotheca acuminata is a major natural source of the terpenoid indole alkaloid camptothecin (CPT. At present, little is known about the cellular distribution of the biosynthesis of CPT, which would be useful knowledge for developing new strategies and technologies for improving alkaloid production. Results The pattern of CPT accumulation was compared with the expression pattern of some genes involved in CPT biosynthesis in C. acuminata [i.e., Ca-TDC1 and Ca-TDC2 (encoding for tryptophan decarboxylase and Ca-HGO (encoding for 10-hydroxygeraniol oxidoreductase]. Both CPT accumulation and gene expression were investigated in plants at different degrees of development and in plantlets subjected to drought-stress. In all organs, CPT accumulation was detected in epidermal idioblasts, in some glandular trichomes, and in groups of idioblast cells localized in parenchyma tissues. Drought-stress caused an increase in CPT accumulation and in the number of glandular trichomes containing CPT, whereas no increase in epidermal or parenchymatous idioblasts was observed. In the leaf, Ca-TDC1 expression was detected in some epidermal cells and in groups of mesophyll cells but not in glandular trichomes; in the stem, it was observed in parenchyma cells of the vascular tissue; in the root, no expression was detected. Ca-TDC2 expression was observed exclusively in leaves of plantlets subjected to drought-stress, in the same sites described for Ca-TDC1. In the leaf, Ca-HGO was detected in all chlorenchyma cells; in the stem, it was observed in the same sites described for Ca-TDC1; in the root, no expression was detected. Conclusions The finding that the sites of CPT accumulation are not consistently the same as those in which the studied genes are expressed demonstrates an organ-to-organ and cell-to-cell translocation of CPT or its precursors.

  18. Light affects Varronia curassavica essential oil yield by increasing trichomes frequency

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Light can act on essential oil yield directly on synthesis of secondary metabolites, or indirectly on plant growth. Varronia curassavica Jacq., Boraginaceae, is a native medicinal species from Brazil known as “erva-baleeira”, with anti-inflammatory activity related to its essential oil. Despite pharmacological evidences of this species and its economic importance for herbal medicine production, little is known about the effect of light on growth and essential oil production. This ...

  19. The Function of the Early Trichomes Gene in Arabidopsis and Maize.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Poethig

    2011-12-05

    Lateral organ polarity in Arabidopsis is regulated by antagonistic interactions between genes that promote either adaxial or abaxial identity, but the molecular basis of this interaction is largely unknown. We show that the adaxial regulator ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2 (AS2) is a direct target of the abaxial regulator KANADI1 (KAN1), and that KAN1 represses the transcription of AS2 in abaxial cells. Mutation of a single nucleotide in a KAN1 binding site in the AS2 promoter causes AS2 to be ectopically expressed in abaxial cells, resulting in a dominant, adaxialized phenotype. We also show that the abaxial expression of KAN1 is mediated directly or indirectly by AS2. These results demonstrate that KAN1 acts as a transcriptional repressor and that mutually repressive interactions between KAN1 and AS2 contribute to the establishment of adaxial-abaxial polarity in plants. A screen for mutations that affect the expression of a GFP reporter for KANADI2 produced mutations in two genes, CENTER CITY (CCT) and GRAND CENTRAL (GCT). Mutations in GCT and CCT delay the specification of central and peripheral identity and the globular-to-heart transition, but have little or no effect on the initial growth rate of the embryo. Mutant embryos eventually recover and undergo relatively normal patterning, albeit at an inappropriate size. GCT and CCT were identified as the Arabidopsis orthologs of MED12 and MED13--evolutionarily conserved proteins that act in association with the Mediator complex to negatively regulate transcription. The predicted function of these proteins combined with the effect of gct and cct on embryo development suggests that MED12 and MED13 regulate pattern formation during Arabidopsis embryogenesis by transiently repressing a transcriptional program that interferes with this process. Their mutant phenotype reveals the existence of a previously unknown temporal regulatory mechanism in plant embryogenesis.

  20. Estudos de microscopia óptica e de microscopia eletrônica de varredura em folhas de Mentha spicata e de Mentha spicata x suaveolens (Lamiaceae Optical microscopy studies and scanning electron microscopy in leaf the Mentha spicata and Mentha spicata x suaveolens (Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Bernadete Gonçalves Martins

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem como objetivo realizar um estudo de anatomia foliar por meio de microscopia óptica e de microscopia eletrônica de varredura em Mentha spicata L. e Mentha spicata X suaveolens, caracterizando histologicamente a lâmina foliar. Secções transversais e paradérmicas da região mediana do limbo foliar mostraram a presença de epiderme unisseriada, coberta por uma fina camada de cutícula, apresentando tricomas glandulares do tipo capitado e peltado e não glandulares unisseriados multicelulares, não ramificados. O mesofilo de ambas as espécies é dorsiventral, com parênquima paliçádico uniestratificado, com células alongadas e rico em inclusões citoplasmáticas. O parênquima lacunoso é formado por três a quatro camadas de células irregulares. Os tricomas capitados presentes são classificados como do tipo I, e apresentam-se com uma célula basal, uma célula peduncular e uma grande célula apical, cujo formato varia de circular a piriforme. Os tricomas peltados consistem de uma célula basal, uma célula peduncular curta, larga e unicelular, com paredes externas cutinizadas e uma cabeça grande multicelular com 12 células secretoras, distribuídas radialmente em dois círculos concêntricos, o central com 4 células e o externo com 8 células, as quais acumulam o produto da secreção em uma cavidade entre a cutícula e as células secretoras; o pé do tricoma glandular está inserido em 11 células epidérmicas. Há predominância de tricomas capitados em relação aos tricomas peltados em ambas as espécies de Mentha.The objective of the present work is to make a study of leaf anatomy through optic microscopy and eletronic microscopy of scanning in Mentha spicata L. and Mentha spicata X suaveolens, characterizing the leaf blade histology. Cross and paradermic sections of the leaf, showed the presence of uniseriate epidermal cells covered by a fine cuticle layer, presenting gland trichomes of multicellular

  1. Ecological adaptations of Hypocyrta glabra Hook. flowers

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    Mychajło Czernećkyj

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The research on the blooming ecology and the flower morphology of Hypocyrta glabra Hook. (Gesneriaceae cultivated in laboratories and outdoors have been carried out. The life span of flowers and morphological changes in successive phases of the blooming period have been observed. The H. glabra flowers are protandrous and the stamens translocate during the flowering process. The macro- and microstructure of calyx, corolla, androecium, gynoecium and nectaries have been analyzed. The size, shape and viability of pollen grains have been designated and their number per stamen head has been calculated. The location of nectaries in H. glabra flowers has suggested that they stem from the 5th stamen during phylogenesis. It has been proved that the nectaries are provided by numerous vascular bundles and that the nectar is secreted by stomata. The stomatal field comprises 2/5 of nectary height and is situated on the abaxial side of the apix part. The average number of stomata is 63.2 per 1 mm2. The average amount of nectar produced by 10 flowers in their fourth day of life reached 223.7 mg. The sugar concentration was 32.7%. Numerous glandular and non-glandular trichomes have been noticed on the surface of calyx, corolla and gynoecium, which indicate the xeromorphic adaptation of the flower. It has been observed that the numbers of glandular and non-glandular trichomes per unit of the external surface of corolla are similar. Outdoors the secretion produced by calyx and corolla glands was willingly collected by wasps. It seems that such features of H. glabra flowers as position, shape and colour of corolla, the abundance of the nectar and pollen produced are connected with their adaptation to pollination by humming-birds in the species natural environment.

  2. No-choice ovipositional nonpreference of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius B biotype on tomato genotypes Não-preferência para oviposição de Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biótipo B em genótipos de tomateiro em teste sem chance de escolha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Auxiliadora de Godoy Oriani

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is one of the main tomato producers worldwide. Nevertheless, 40 to 70% of the production is lost due to Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius B biotype attacks. Resistant plant germplasm can be an important method for controlling this pest in an integrated pest management program. This research aimed to evaluate the no-choice ovipositional preference of B. tabaci B biotype on 18 tomato genotypes with different densities and types of trichomes testing two screening techniques and to determine the influence of trichomes on whitefly ovipositional preference. Two methods of confinement experiments were used. Leaflets detached from the upper third part of the tomato plants (first experiment and 30-day-old plants (second experiment were infested with whiteflies during 24 h. For the first experiment, simple linear correlation tests between the number of insects and eggs, and number of trichomes in the tomato genotypes were carried out. The first technique was better than the second one, as it was easier to carry out and the evaluation demanded less time and as well as was effective to discriminate the resistance level of the evaluated genotypes. Glandular trichomes had a negative correlation with attracted adults and number of eggs deposited, and a positive correlation with number of trapped insects. Negative correlations were observed between number of nonglandular trichomes and trapped insects, and also between total number of trichomes and attracted and trapped insects. Positive correlations were observed between number of total trichomes and eggs cm-2 and nonglandular trichomes and number of eggs. Both confinement methods efficiently discriminated whitefly oviposition among genotypes, especially the resistant ones. High levels of antixenosis for oviposition related to type IV glandular trichomes were exhibited by genotypes LA716, PI134417 and PI134418. The high level of ovipositional preference by B. tabaci for genotypes LA1963 and NAV1062 was related

  3. Cervical squamous and glandular intraepithelial neoplasia: identification and current management approaches Neoplasia intraepitelial cervical escamosa y glandular: identificación y estrategias de manejo

    OpenAIRE

    V Cecil Wright

    2003-01-01

    Certain types of human papillomaviruses (HPV) are associated with squamous intraepithelial lesions and cancer and these are termed high-risk. HPV type 16 is detected in approximately half of the high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and cancer. Because of the high rate of spontaneous regression of low-grade squamous lesions, follow-up by cytology, colposcopy and possible biopsy appears preferable. Due to the higher rate of progression to malignancy of the high-grade lesions conservative...

  4. Ontogeny of the pericarp of Serjania communis Camb. and Urvillea ulmacea Kunth (Sapindaceae with emphasis on the dispersion apparatus

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    Bruna Mary Matuguma Tanaka

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The pericarp development of Serjania communis Camb. and Urvillea ulmacea Kunth was described to expand the structural knowledge of Sapindaceae fruit. Ovaries and fruits were analyzed with usual techniques in plant anatomy. Ovary is structurally similar and the occurrence of glandular and non-glandular trichomes varies between species. In S. communis, the samaroid schizocarp has proximal wings and distal cavities; in U. ulmacea, the fruit presents septicidal and septifragal passive dehiscence and each seed chamber presents a dorsal wing. The unistratified exocarp has long pluricellular, uniseriate and sparse trichomes in U. ulmacea. The mesocarp is spongy, parenchymatous and in S. communis it presents three distinguished regions. Dorsal, lateral and ventral vascular bundles are more developed in S. communis and fiber caps on the phloem in the lateral bundles have an important role on the mericarp separation. The endocarp derives from the adaxial meristem and its oblique and tangentially elongated cells become lignified. The wings originate from a more active meristem – at the ovarian edges – and by intense divisions of ovarian mesophyll in this region. Fruit of U. ulmacea can represent a transition state between the samaroid schizocarp formed by Serjania and the septifragal capsule produced by Cardiospermum.

  5. Leaf anatomy of Odontonema strictum (Nees O. Kuntze (Acanthaceae

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    Maria Regina T. Boeger

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the leaf anatomy of Odontonema strictum (Nees O. Kuntze (Acanthaceae, with emphasis on cystoliths, which are very abundant in this species. Leaves fully expanded from five mature individuals were collected in the teaching garden of the “Setor de Ciências Biológicas” (UFPR and fixed in FAA 70. The cystoliths were located in the epidermal cells of the adaxial face (litocysths and also among the collenchyma cells of the midrib and petiole. The cystoliths were cylindrical, long, with several small projections. They sometimes occurred in pairs and varied greatly in size, with an average length of 163.4±68.8 µm and a density of 23±9.97 cystoliths.mm-2 (n=10. The foliar lamina presented a uniseriate epidermis, dorsiventral mesophyll, and palisade parenchyma, which was continuous along the lamina. In the midrib, arc-shaped vascular veins were surrounded by fundamental parenchyma. Glandular trichomes occurred on both faces of the leaf, while non-glandular trichomes and diacytic stomata were present only on the abaxial face. The great number and size of the cystoliths observed could be related to defenses against herbivory and to mechanisms of removal of excess calcium absorbed from the soil.

  6. Cannabis: A Treasure Trove or Pandora's Box?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solymosi, Katalin; Köfalvi, Attila

    2016-10-04

    Cannabis is one of the earliest cultivated plants. Cannabis of industrial utility and culinary value is generally termed as hemp. Conversely, cannabis that is bred for medical, spiritual and recreational purposes is called marijuana. The female marijuana plant produces a significant quantity of bio- and psychoactive phytocannabinoids, which regained the spotlight with the discovery of the endocannabinoid system of the animals in the early 90's. Nevertheless, marijuana is surrounded by controversies, debates and misconceptions related to its taxonomic classification, forensic identification, medical potential, legalization and its long-term health consequences. In the first part, we provide an in-depth review of the botany and taxonomy of Cannabis. We then overview the biosynthesis of phytocannabinoids within the glandular trichomes with emphasis on the role of peculiar plastids in the production of the secreted material. We also compile the analytical methods used to determine the phytocannabinoid composition of glandular trichomes. In the second part, we revisit the psychobiology and molecular medicine of marijuana. We summarize our current knowledge on the recreational use of cannabis with respect to the modes of consumption, short-term effects, chronic health consequences and cannabis use disorder. Next, we overview the molecular targets of a dozen major and minor bioactive cannabinoids in the body. This helps us introduce the endocannabinoid system in an unprecedented detail: its up-to-date molecular biology, pharmacology, physiology and medical significance, and beyond. In conclusion, we offer an unbiased survey about cannabis to help better weigh its medical value versus the associated risks.

  7. Anatomia foliar de plantas de alfavaca-cravo cultivadas sob malhas coloridas Leaf anatomy of alfavaca-cravo plants cultivated under colored nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joeferson Reis Martins

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho, foi avaliado o efeito do controle espectral da luz sobre características anatômicas de folhas em Ocimum gratissimum L. As plantas foram cultivadas por quatro meses sob malhas de 50% de sombreamento nas cores preta, vermelha e azul e a pleno sol. Plantas submetidas a pleno sol apresentaram maior espessura foliar, maior densidade estomática e maior densidade de tricomas tectores e glandulares na face adaxial. As plantas cultivadas sob malhas coloridas não exibiram diferenças quanto à espessura e à área foliar. As plantas mantidas sob malha vermelha tiveram a menor densidade estomática na face adaxial, já as plantas mantidas sob malhas azul e vermelha exibiram maior área foliar total. As plantas mantidas sob malha vermelha apresentaram a menor densidade estomática e as menores densidades de tricomas tectores e glandulares na face adaxial. Tais resultados mostram que tanto a intensidade como a qualidade espectral da luz pode ser modulada durante o cultivo de Ocimum gratissimum L. a fim de serem obtidas características anatômicas desejáveis.In the present research, the effect of spectral control of light was evaluated on anatomical characteristics of Ocimum gratissimum L. leaves. The plants were cultivated during four months under black, red and blue nets with 50% of shade, and full sunlight. Plants grown under full sunlight showed higher leaf thickness, higher stomatal density and higher density of no-glandular and glandular trichomes on the adaxial epidermis. Plants cultivated under colored nets did not show differences in leaf thickness or leaf area. Plants maintained under red net had the lowest stomatal density in adaxial epidermis, as the plants cultivated under blue and red nets exhibited the largest leaf area. The plants maintained under red net showed the smallest stomatal density and the smallest non-glandular and glandular trichomes density in the adaxial epidermis. Such results show that the spectral

  8. Anatomical structure and surface micromorphology of tomatillo leaf and flower (Physalis ixocarpa Brot., Solanaceae

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    Barbara Dyki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tomatillo (Physalis ixocarpa Brot. is a newly introduced cultivated plant in Poland. Its anatomy was investigated in light and scanning electron microscopes. Tomatillo adult leaf had one layer of palisade parenchyma. The 1-2 cell layers of spongy parenchyma situated just below the palisade parenchyma showed large, tightly packed cells with great druses. The remaining spongy parenchyma was built of cells showing several extensions. Peculiarity of the sepals were the stomata situated on columns or hills formed of many cells. The petals had a very loose mesophyl. Their adaxial epidermis was composed of papillate cells. Such structure of the petal epidermis probably contributes to light dispersion and prevents glittering. There were several types of trichomes on the leaves, sepals and petals, some of them glandular and some simple. The large, very ramified, dendritic trichomes situated on the petals at the entry to the ovary might eventually protect it against excessive drying. The pollen grain was spherical, three-colpate. The style had a hollow channel inside. The stigma was of a wet, pa-pillate type. Sometimes thorny trichomes were found among papillae.

  9. The biology of flowering and structure of selected elements of Cornus alba L. flowers

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    Agata Konarska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The biology of flowering and the micromorphology of Cornus alba flowers were studied using light and scanning electron microscopy. The flowering of white dogwood in 2008 lasted 35 days, and the lifespan of a single flower was 3 days. The number of flowers per inflorescence was variable (on the average, it was 89. The largest group of insects visiting the flowers of C. alba comprised Hymenoptera (mainly bees and andrenids, then ants, dipterans and beetles. They foraged the dogwood flowers most intensively between 11.00 and 15.00. The inconspicuous four-petalled flowers of C. alba were characterised by the occurrence of T-shaped, two-armed non-glandular trichomes covering the receptacle as well as observed on the petals of the corolla, the style of the pistil and the anthers in a smaller number. The trichomes were covered by a thick cuticle with characteristic outgrowths. They contained a living protoplast, and plastids were observed in the cytoplasm of the trichome cells. In addition, anomocytic stomata were found in the epidermis of the receptacle and in the epidermis of the corolla petals. The stigma of the pistil and the adaxial epidermis of the petals were composed of very numerous conical papillae.

  10. Engineered FGF-2 expression induces glandular epithelial hyperplasia in the murine prostatic dorsal lobe.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takahashi, N.; Takeuchi, T.; Nishimatsu, H.; Kamijo, T.; Tomita, K.; Schalken, J.A.; Teshima, S.; Kitamura, T.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: It is known that androgens and stromal-epithelial interactions are required for the formation and growth of the prostate. FGF-2 is overexpressed in prostatic stromal cells in benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH)/prostate cancer. This supports the paracrine/autocrine growth of prostatic epit

  11. Anti-inflammatory activity of the glandular extracts ofThunnus alalunga

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.K. Azeem; C Dilip; S S Prasanth; V Junise Hanan Shahima; Kumsr Sajeev; C. Naseera

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the anti-inflamattory activity ofThunnus alalunga by bothin vitro and in vivomethods.Methods: Anti-inflammatory activity of the chloroform water extract ofThunnus alalunga was done by both in vitro andin vivo methods.In vitro method was done by human red blood cells membrane stabilization method(HRBC).In vivoevaluation was estimated on Wister albino rats. Acute toxicity studies were done on the extract and no toxicity was reported.Results:The percentage protection exhibited by 300 mg/mL concentration was more when compared to the other ones. The400 mg/mL concentration showed potent activity on comparison with the standard during in vivo evaluation.Conclusions: In both means of estimation the extract ofThunnus alalunga was found to possess significant anti-inflammatory activity.

  12. Reproducibility of current classifications of endometrial endometrioid glandular proliferations : further evidence supporting a simplified classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ordi, Jaume; Bergeron, Christine; Hardisson, David; McCluggage, W. Glenn; Hollema, Harry; Felix, Ana; Soslow, Robert A.; Oliva, Esther; Tavassoli, Fattaneh A.; Alvarado-Cabrero, Isabel; Wells, Michael; Nogales, Francisco F.

    2014-01-01

    AimsTo compare the reproducibility of the current (2003) World Health Organization (WHO), endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia (EIN) and European Working Group (EWG) classifications of endometrial endometrioid proliferations. Methods and resultsNine expert gynaecological pathologists from Europe an

  13. Expression of the apoptotic calcium channel P2X7 in the glandular epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Michael; Danieletto, Suzanne; Barden, Julian A

    2005-03-01

    In the current study, expression of the apoptotic calcium channel receptor P2X(7) and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels were studied in biopsy cores from 174 patients as well as 20 radical prostatectomy cases. In clinical biopsies, we have previously demonstrated that P2X(1 )and P2X(2) calcium channel receptors are absent from normal prostate epithelium that does not progress to prostate cancer within 5 years. In cases that did progress to prostate cancer however, P2X(1 )and P2X(2) labeling was observed in a stage-specific manner first in the nucleus, then the cytoplasm and finally on the apical epithelium, as prostate cancer developed. These markers were present up to 5 years before cancer was detectable by the usual morphological criteria (Gleason grading) as determined by H and E staining. In the current study, the apoptotic calcium channel receptor P2X(7) yielded similar results to that of P2X(1) and P2X(2). Using radical prostatectomy tissue sections as well as biopsies, these changes in calcium channel metabolism were noted throughout the prostate, indicating a field effect. This finding suggests that the presence of a prostate tumor could be detected without the need for direct sampling of tumor tissue, leading to detection of false negative cases missed by H or E stain. The reliability of PSA levels as a prognostic indicator has been questioned in recent years. In the current study, PSA levels were correlated with the P2X(7) labeling results. All patients who exhibited no P2X(7) labeling had a prostatic serum antigen (PSA) level of 2. This finding suggests that increasing PSA may be an accurate indicator of cancer development.

  14. Human SERPINB12 Is an Abundant Intracellular Serpin Expressed in Most Surface and Glandular Epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niehaus, Jason Z; Good, Misty; Jackson, Laura E; Ozolek, John A; Silverman, Gary A; Luke, Cliff J

    2015-11-01

    The intracellular serine protease inhibitors (serpins) are an important family of proteins that protect cells form proteinase-mediated injury. Understanding the tissue and cellular expression pattern of this protein family can provide important insights into their physiologic roles. For example, high expression in epithelial tissues, such as lung, may suggest a biologic function in cellular defense, secretion, or selective absorption. Although the expression pattern of many of the intracellular serpins has been well described, one member of this class, SERPINB12, has not been carefully examined. We generated a mouse monoclonal antibody directed against human SERPINB12 and delineated its specificity and tissue and cell type distribution pattern through immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry, respectively. This monoclonal antibody was human specific and did not cross-react with other human intracellular serpins or mouse Serpinb12. SERPINB12 was found in nearly all the tissues investigated. In addition, this serpin was found in multiple cell types within individual tissues but primarily the epithelium. These data suggest that SERPINB12, like some other intracellular serpins, may play a vital role in barrier function by providing protection of epithelial cells.

  15. Development of the glandular epithelium of the bovine parotid gland during ontogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenbrückner, A; Fink, C; Kressin, M

    2003-06-01

    The development of the parotid gland was examined in 36 bovine embryos and foetuses with a crown-rump-length (CRL) from 28 up to 1000 mm by light, transmission electron microscopical and actin-immunohistochemical methods. The anlage of the parotid gland in an embryo with 28 mm CRL can be found at the lateral angle of the primitive oral cavity as a local thickening of the epithelium. During the second month, the differentiation of primary ducts and endbuds starts and a lumen develops in the primary ducts. At the end of the second month a lumen appears in the terminal endbuds. In the immature endpiece cells first secretory granules can be seen from a CRL of 240 mm. In the third month differentiation between intra- and inter-lobular ducts is possible. Immature myoepithelial cells present as a basal layer of flattened cells between the epithelial cells and the basement membrane at the end of the second month. During further development they increase in number, become more flattened and form long cellular processes. At the end of the fourth month isolated actin filament bundles are formed, which were also detected by an antibody against smooth muscle actin. The actin filaments condense continuously until they fill the cell processes completely at the end of foetal development.

  16. Glandular Epithelium as a Possible Source of a Fertility Signal in Ectatomma tuberculatum (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Queens

    OpenAIRE

    Riviane Rodigues da Hora; Jacques Hubert Charles Delabie; Carolina Gonçalves dos Santos; José Eduardo Serrão

    2010-01-01

    The wax layer covering the insect's cuticle plays an important protective role, as for example, uncontrolled water loss. In social insects, wax production is well-known in some bees that use it for nest building. Curiously, mated-fertile queens of the ant Ectatomma tuberculatum produce an uncommon extra-wax coat and, consequently queens (mated-fertile females) are matte due to such extra cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) coat that covers the cuticle and masks the brightness of the queens' cuticle w...

  17. Cervical squamous and glandular intraepithelial neoplasia: identification and current management approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Wright V Cecil

    2003-01-01

    Certain types of human papillomaviruses (HPV) are associated with squamous intraepithelial lesions and cancer and these are termed high-risk. HPV type 16 is detected in approximately half of the high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and cancer. Because of the high rate of spontaneous regression of low-grade squamous lesions, follow-up by cytology, colposcopy and possible biopsy appears preferable. Due to the higher rate of progression to malignancy of the high-grade lesions conservative...

  18. Cervical squamous and glandular intraepithelial neoplasia: identification and current management approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wright V Cecil

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Certain types of human papillomaviruses (HPV are associated with squamous intraepithelial lesions and cancer and these are termed high-risk. HPV type 16 is detected in approximately half of the high-grade