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Sample records for annua glandular trichome

  1. Plant Glandular Trichomes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    landing on the plant. Glandular trichomes in catmint (Nepeta sp.) produce nepetalactone, closely related to the aphid sex pheromone, nepetalactol. Nepetalactone can be reduced to the corresponding nepetalactol. ... Plant glandular trichomes function either as repositories or releasing sites of various chemicals. Interest in ...

  2. Structure and histochemistry of the glandular trichomes on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The glandular trichomes were classified into two subpopulations, namely the peltate and capitate glandular trichomes. The former was characterized by a short stalk and a large four-celled secretory head, while the latter was further subdivided into two groups; one has a short unicellular stalk and two-cellular head (type I), ...

  3. Glandular Trichomes and Essential Oil of Thymus quinquecostatus

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    Ping Jia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution and types of glandular trichomes and essential oil chemistry of Thymus quinquecostatus were studied. The glandular trichomes are distributed on the surface of stem, leaf, rachis, calyx and corolla, except petiole, pistil and stamen. Three morphologically distinct types of glandular trichomes are described. Peltate trichomes, consisting of a basal cell, a stalk cell and a 12-celled head, are distributed on the stem, leaf, corolla and outer side of calyx. Capitate trichomes, consisting of a unicellular base, a 1–2-celled stalk and a unicellular head, are distributed more diffusely than peltate ones, existing on stem, leaf, rachis and calyx. Digitiform trichomes are just distributed on the outer side of corolla, consisting of 1 basal cell, 3 stalk cells and 1 head cell. All three types of glandular trichomes can secrete essential oil, and in small capitate trichomes of rachis, all peltate trichomes and digitiform trichomes, essential oil is stored in a large subcuticular space, released by cuticle rupture, whereas, in other capitate trichomes, essential oil crosses the thin cuticle. The essential oil of T. quinquecostatus is yellow, and its content is highest in the growth period. 68 constituents were identified in the essential oils. The main constituent is linalool.

  4. Genetic architecture of capitate glandular trichome density in florets of domesticated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitate glandular trichomes (CGT), one type of glandular trichomes, are most common in Asteraceae species. Capitate glandular trichomes can produce various secondary metabolites such as sesquiterpene lactones (STLs) and provide durable resistance to insect pests. In sunflower, CGT-based host resist...

  5. Morphological differentiation of non-glandular and glandular trichomes on Marrubium vulgare L.

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    Marta Dmitruk

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Marrubium vulgare L., commonly known as a white horehound or common horehound, belongs to the plant family Lamiaceae. It is a perennial aromatic herb which grows naturally in Europe, Asia, and America. Since ancient Egypt, this species has been known as a remedy for upper respiratory tract ailments. Nowadays, horehound is used in herbal medicine for treatment of liver diseases, biliary tract disorders, and for increasing the appetite and supporting the function of the stomach. The main biologically active substances in M. vulgare organs are: marrubiin, tannins, essential oils, and ursolic acid. The paper presents micromorphological analyses of non-glandular and glandular trichomes of M. vulgare. The research material was sampled from the plant collection in the Botanical Garden of the Maria Curie-Sklodowska University in Lublin (51°14′ N, 22°34′ E. The above-ground parts of horehound were collected during the flowering period in July 2013. Using light microscopy (LM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, the types and sizes of trichomes from the stem, leaf, calyx, and corolla were investigated. The results of the microscopic observations show that the surfaces of M. vulgare vegetative and reproductive organs are densely clothed with glandular and non-glandular trichomes. The glandular trichomes are of two main types: peltate and capitate. Peltate trichomes consist of a short stalk cell and a large head with secretory cells arranged in a circle. The height of a mature trichome is about 31.33 μm and the diameter of the head is 31.47 μm. The substance produced by secretory cells passes through the apical walls and accumulates within a space between the cuticle and the cell wall layer. Capitate long trichomes with a basal cell, long stalk, neck cell, and a unicellular head are 36.65 μm long and the diameter of the head is about 15.6 μm. There are two types of short capitate trichomes: with a bicellular head and a unicellular stalk and with

  6. Structure and distribution of glandular and non-glandular trichomes on above-ground organs in Inula helenium L. (Asteraceae

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    Aneta Sulborska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Micromorphology and distribution of glandular and non-glandular trichomes on the above-ground organs of Inula helenium L. were investigated using light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Two types of biseriate glandular trichomes, i.e. sessile and stalk hairs, and non-glandular trichomes were recorded. Sessile glandular trichomes were found on all examined I. helenium organs (with their highest density on the abaxial surface of leaves and disk florets, and on stems, whereas stalk glandular trichomes were found on leaves and stems. Sessile trichomes were characterised by a slightly lower height (58–103 μm and width (32–35 μm than the stalk trichomes (62–111 μm x 31–36 μm. Glandular hairs were composed of 5–7 (sessile trichomes or 6–9 (stalk trichomes cell tiers. Apical trichome cell tiers exhibited features of secretory cells. Secretion was accumulated in subcuticular space, which expanded and ruptured at the top, and released its content. Histochemical assays showed the presence of lipids and polyphenols, whereas no starch was detected. Non-glandular trichomes were seen on involucral bracts, leaves and stems (more frequently on involucral bracts. Their structure comprised 2–9 cells; basal cells (1–6 were smaller and linearly arranged, while apical cells had a prozenchymatous shape. The apical cell was the longest and sharply pointed. Applied histochemical tests revealed orange-red (presence of lipids and brow colour (presence of polyphenols in the apical cells of the trichomes. This may suggest that beside their protective role, the trichomes may participate in secretion of secondary metabolites.

  7. Expression of β-glucosidase increases trichome density and artemisinin content in transgenic Artemisia annua plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nameirakpam Dolendro; Kumar, Shashi; Daniell, Henry

    2016-03-01

    Artemisinin is highly effective against multidrug-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum, the aetiological agent of the most severe form of malaria. However, a low level of accumulation of artemisinin in Artemisia annua is a major limitation for its production and delivery to malaria endemic areas of the world. While several strategies to enhance artemisinin have been extensively explored, enhancing storage capacity in trichome has not yet been considered. Therefore, trichome density was increased with the expression of β-glucosidase (bgl1) gene in A. annua through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Transgene (bgl1) integration and transcript were confirmed by molecular analysis. Trichome density increased up to 20% in leaves and 66% in flowers of BGL1 transgenic plants than Artemisia control plants. High-performance liquid chromatography, time of flight mass spectrometer data showed that artemisinin content increased up to 1.4% in leaf and 2.56% in flowers (per g DW), similar to the highest yields achieved so far through metabolic engineering. Artemisinin was enhanced up to five-fold in BGL1 transgenic flowers. This study opens the possibility of increasing artemisinin content by manipulating trichomes' density, which is a major reservoir of artemisinin. Combining biosynthetic pathway engineering with enhancing trichome density may further increase artemisinin yield in A. annua. Because oral feeding of Artemisia plant cells reduced parasitemia more efficiently than the purified drug, reduced drug resistance and cost of prohibitively expensive purification process, enhanced expression should play a key role in making this valuable drug affordable to treat malaria in a large global population that disproportionally impacts low-socioeconomic areas and underprivileged children. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Expression of Beta-glucosidase increases trichome density and artemisinin content in transgenic Artemisia annua plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nameirakpam Dolendro; Kumar, Shashi; Daniell, Henry

    2015-01-01

    Artemisinin is highly effective against multidrug-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum, the etiological agent of the most severe form of malaria. However, a low level of accumulation of artemisinin in Artemisia annua is a major limitation for its production and delivery to malaria endemic areas of the world. While several strategies to enhance artemisinin have been extensively explored, enhancing storage capacity in trichome has not yet been considered. Therefore, trichome density was increased with the expression of β glucosidase (bgl1) gene in A. annua through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Transgene (bgl1) integration and transcript was confirmed by molecular analysis. Trichome density increased up to 20% in leaves and 66% in flowers of BGL1 transgenic plants than Artemisia control plants. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, MS-TOF) data showed that artemisinin content increased up to 1.4% in leaf and 2.56% in flowers (g-1DW), similar to the highest yields achieved so far through metabolic engineering. Artemisinin was enhanced up to 5-fold in BGL1 transgenic flowers. The present study opens the possibility of increasing artemisinin content by manipulating trichomes density, which is a major reservoir of artemisinin. Combining biosynthetic pathway engineering with enhancing trichome density may further increase artemisinin yield in A. annua. Because oral feeding of Artemisia plant cells reduced parasitemia more efficiently than the purified drug, reduced drug resistance and cost of prohibitively expensive purification process, enhanced expression should play a key role in making this valuable drug affordable to treat malaria in a large global population that disproportionally impacts low-socioeconomic areas and underprivileged children. PMID:26360801

  9. Morphology and histochemistry of glandular trichomes of Orobanche alba Stephan ex Willd

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    Aneta Sulborska

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Orobanche alba Stephan ex Willd is an achlorophyllous root parasite rare in Poland. It prefers dry and sunny slopes, xerothermic grasslands and pastures, mountain pastures, light scrubs, and rock fissures and ledges. The hosts of O. alba include Thymus polytrichus A. ern. ex Borbás, Clinopodium vulgare L. and Origanum vulgare L. The tick and fleshy 10-70 cm high stem in this species bears an inflorescence composed of zygomorphic, white or yellow “spotted” flowers covered by purple glandular trichomes. Glandular trichomes of this type are also borne on other parts of the plant, i.e. on the stem, scaly leaves, sepals, filaments, and the style. The secondary metabolites secreted by the glandular trichomes are related to defense of plants against the attack of herbivores and pathogens or act as attractants to pollinators or for fruit dispersal. The micromorphology and histochemistry of the glandular trichomes in O. alba were examined using scanning electron and light microscopes. In order to determine the type of secondary metabolites produced by the trichomes, the flowing histochemical assays were used: Sudan III and neutral red for detection of lipophilic compounds, IKI for detection of starch, and FeCl3 for detection of phenolic compounds. The peltate glandular trichomes of O. alba were characterised by a varied length (0.15‑0.48 mm and different activity phases. The trichome was composed of one larger basal epidermal cell, 1-3 hyaline stalk cells with a striated cuticle, a neck cell with a smooth cuticle on the surface, and a globose head formed of 8-18 secretory cells arranged in a circle. Many stalk cells of the trichomes, particularly those located on the corolla, contained anthocyanins, which give the trichomes dark carmine colour. In turn, the colour of the heads was dependent on trichome age: the heads were brown in older trichomes and yellow in younger hairs. Secretion was produced by both young and older trichomes. It penetrated

  10. Higher glandular trichome density in tomato leaflets and repellence to spider mites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maluf, Wilson Roberto; Inoue, Irene Fumi; Ferreira, Raphael de Paula Duarte; Gomes, Luiz Antonio Augusto; Castro, Evaristo Mauro de; Cardoso, Maria das Gracas

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the feasibility of selection for higher glandular trichome densities, as an indirect criterion of selection for increasing repellence to spider mites Tetranychus urticae, in tomato populations derived from an interspecific cross between Lycopersicon esculentum x L. hirsutum var. glabratum PI 134417. Trichome densities were evaluated in 19 genotypes, including 12 from advanced backcross populations, derived from the original cross L. esculentum x L. hirsutum var. glabratum PI 134417. Counts were made both on the adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces, and trichomes were classified into glandular types IV and VI, other glandular types (types I+VII), and nonglandular types. Mite repellence was measured by distances walked by mites onto the tomato leaf surface after 20, 40 and 60 min. Spider mite repellence biotests indicated that higher densities of glandular trichomes (especially type VI) decreased the distances walked by the mites onto the tomato leaf surface. Selection of plants with higher densities of glandular trichomes can be an efficient criterion to obtain tomato genotypes with higher resistance (repellence) to spider mites. (author)

  11. Cadmium induced changes in subcellular glutathione contents within glandular trichomes of Cucurbita pepo L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Dagmar; Müller, Maria; Zellnig, Günther; Zechmann, Bernd

    2010-07-01

    Plants cope with cadmium (Cd) stress by complexation with phytochelatins (Pc), metallothioneins and glutathione and sequestration within vacuoles. Especially glutathione was found to play a major role in Cd detoxification as Cd shows a high binding affinity towards thiols and as glutathione is a precursor for Pc synthesis. In the present study, we have used an immunohistochemical approach combined with computer-supported transmission electron microscopy in order to measure changes in the subcellular distribution of glutathione during Cd-stress in mesophyll cells and cells of different glandular trichomes (long and short stalked) of Cucurbita pepo L. subsp. pepo var. styriaca GREB: . Even though no ultrastructural alterations were observed in leaf and glandular trichome cells after the treatment of plants with 50 microM cadmium chloride (CdCl(2)) for 48 h, all cells showed a large decrease in glutathione contents. The strongest decrease was found in nuclei and the cytosol (up to 76%) in glandular trichomes which are considered as a major side of Cd accumulation in leaves. The ratio of glutathione between the cytosol and nuclei and the other cell compartments was strongly decreased only in glandular trichomes (more than 50%) indicating that glutathione in these two cell compartments is especially important for the detoxification of Cd in glandular trichomes. Additionally, these data indicate that large amounts of Cd are withdrawn from nuclei during Cd exposure. The present study gives a detailed insight into the compartment-specific importance of glutathione during Cd exposure in mesophyll cells and glandular trichomes of C. pepo L. plants.

  12. Phenylpropanoid biosynthesis in leaves and glandular trichomes of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschamps, Cícero; Simon, James E

    2010-01-01

    Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) essential oil phenylpropenes are synthesized and accumulate in peltate glandular trichomes and their content and composition depend on plant developmental stage. Studies on gene expression and enzymatic activity indicate that the phenylpropene biosynthetic genes are developmentally regulated. In this study, the methylchavicol accumulation in basil leaves and the enzyme activities and gene expression of both chavicol O-methyltransferase (CVOMT) and eugenol O-methyltransferase (EOMT) were investigated in all leaves at four plant developmental stages. Methylchavicol accumulation decreased over time as leaves matured. There was a significant correlation between methylchavicol accumulation and CVOMT (r(2) = 0.88) enzyme activity, suggesting that the levels of biosynthetic enzymes control the essential oil content. CVOMT and EOMT transcript expression levels, which decreased with leaf age, followed the same pattern in both whole leaves and isolated glandular trichomes, providing evidence that CVOMT transcript levels are developmentally regulated in basil glandular trichomes themselves and that differences in CVOMT expression observed in whole leaves are not solely the result of differences in glandular trichome density.

  13. Capitate glandular trichomes in Aldama discolor (Heliantheae - Asteraceae): morphology, metabolite profile and sesquiterpene biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombo, A B; Appezzato-da-Glória, B; Aschenbrenner, A-K; Spring, O

    2016-05-01

    The capitate glandular trichome is the most common type described in Asteraceae species. It is known for its ability to produce various plant metabolites of ecological and economic importance, among which sesquiterpene lactones are predominant. In this paper, we applied microscopy, phytochemical and molecular genetics techniques to characterise the capitate glandular trichome in Aldama discolor, a native Brazilian species of Asteraceae, with pharmacological potential. It was found that formation of trichomes on leaf primordia of germinating seeds starts between 24 h and 48 h after radicle growth indicates germination. The start of metabolic activity of trichomes was indicated by separation of the cuticle from the cell wall of secretory cells at the trichome tip after 72 h. This coincided with the accumulation of budlein A, the major sesquiterpene lactone of A. discolor capitate glandular trichomes, in extracts of leaf primordia after 96 h. In the same timeframe of 72-96 h post-germination, gene expression studies showed up-regulation of the putative germacrene A synthase (pGAS2) and putative germacrene A oxidase (pGAO) of A. discolor in the transcriptome of these samples, indicating the start of sesquiterpene lactone biosynthesis. Sequencing of the two genes revealed high similarity to HaGAS and HaGAO from sunflower, which shows that key steps of this pathway are highly conserved. The processes of trichome differentiation, metabolic activity and genetic regulation in A. discolor and in sunflower appear to be typical for other species of the subtribe Helianthinae. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  14. Localization of a defensive volatile 4-hydroxy-4-methylpentan-2-one in the capitate glandular trichomes of Oenothera glazioviana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanyun Tan; Desen Li; Juan Hua; Shihong Luo; Yan Liu; Shenghong Li

    2017-01-01

    Glandular trichomes of plants produce a wide variety of secondary metabolites which are considered as major defensive chemicals. The capitate glandular trichomes of Oenothera glazioviana (Onagraceae) were collected with laser microdissection and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The volatile compound 4-hydroxy-4-methylpentan-2-one (1) was identified. We found that compound 1 displays antimicrobial, insecticidal, and phytotoxic activities. These results suggest that compound 1 might function as a defensive compound in the capitate glandular trichomes of O. glazioviana against pathogens, insect herbivores, and presumably competitive plants as well.

  15. Localization of a defensive volatile 4-hydroxy-4-methylpentan-2-one in the capitate glandular trichomes of Oenothera glazioviana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyun Tan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Glandular trichomes of plants produce a wide variety of secondary metabolites which are considered as major defensive chemicals. The capitate glandular trichomes of Oenothera glazioviana (Onagraceae were collected with laser microdissection and analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. The volatile compound 4-hydroxy-4-methylpentan-2-one (1 was identified. We found that compound 1 displays antimicrobial, insecticidal, and phytotoxic activities. These results suggest that compound 1 might function as a defensive compound in the capitate glandular trichomes of O. glazioviana against pathogens, insect herbivores, and presumably competitive plants as well.

  16. Genetic Architecture of Capitate Glandular Trichome Density in Florets of Domesticated Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qing-Ming; Kane, Nolan C; Hulke, Brent S; Reinert, Stephan; Pogoda, Cloe S; Tittes, Silas; Prasifka, Jarrad R

    2017-01-01

    Capitate glandular trichomes (CGT), one type of glandular trichomes, are most common in Asteraceae species. CGT can produce various secondary metabolites such as sesquiterpene lactones (STLs) and provide durable resistance to insect pests. In sunflower, CGT-based host resistance is effective to combat the specialist pest, sunflower moth. However, the genetic basis of CGT density is not well understood in sunflower. In this study, we identified two major QTL controlling CGT density in sunflower florets by using a F 4 mapping population derived from the cross HA 300 × RHA 464 with a genetic linkage map constructed from genotyping-by-sequencing data and composed of 2121 SNP markers. One major QTL is located on chromosome 5, which explained 11.61% of the observed phenotypic variation, and the second QTL is located on chromosome 6, which explained 14.06% of the observed phenotypic variation. The QTL effects and the association between CGT density and QTL support interval were confirmed in a validation population which included 39 sunflower inbred lines with diverse genetic backgrounds. We also identified two strong candidate genes in the QTL support intervals, and the functions of their orthologs in other plant species suggested their potential roles in regulating capitate glandular trichome density in sunflower. Our results provide valuable information to sunflower breeding community for developing host resistance to sunflower insect pests.

  17. Identification, functional characterization and developmental regulation of sesquiterpene synthases from sunflower capitate glandular trichomes

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    Ro Dae-Kyun

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sesquiterpene lactones are characteristic metabolites of Asteraceae (or Compositae which often display potent bioactivities and are sequestered in specialized organs such as laticifers, resin ducts, and trichomes. For characterization of sunflower sesquiterpene synthases we employed a simple method to isolate pure trichomes from anther appendages which facilitated the identification of these genes and investigation of their enzymatic functions and expression patterns during trichome development. Results Glandular trichomes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. were isolated, and their RNA was extracted to investigate the initial steps of sesquiterpene lactone biosynthesis. Reverse transcription-PCR experiments led to the identification of three sesquiterpene synthases. By combination of in vitro and in vivo characterization of sesquiterpene synthase gene products in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, respectively, two enzymes were identified as germacrene A synthases, the key enzymes of sesquiterpene lactone biosynthesis. Due to the very low in vitro activity, the third enzyme was expressed in vivo in yeast as a thioredoxin-fusion protein for functional characterization. In in vivo assays, it was identified as a multiproduct enzyme with the volatile sesquiterpene hydrocarbon δ-cadinene as one of the two main products with α-muuorlene, β-caryophyllene, α-humulene and α-copaene as minor products. The second main compound remained unidentified. For expression studies, glandular trichomes from the anther appendages of sunflower florets were isolated in particular developmental stages from the pre- to the post-secretory phase. All three sesquiterpene synthases were solely upregulated during the biosynthetically active stages of the trichomes. Expression in different aerial plant parts coincided with occurrence and maturity of trichomes. Young roots with root hairs showed expression of the sesquiterpene synthase genes

  18. The key role of peltate glandular trichomes in symbiota comprising clavicipitaceous fungi of the genus periglandula and their host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Ulrike; Kucht, Sabine Hellwig neé; Ahimsa-Müller, Mahalia A; Grundmann, Nicola; Li, Shu-Ming; Drewke, Christel; Leistner, Eckhard

    2015-04-16

    Clavicipitaceous fungi producing ergot alkaloids were recently discovered to be epibiotically associated with peltate glandular trichomes of Ipomoea asarifolia and Turbina corymbosa, dicotyledonous plants of the family Convolvulaceae. Mediators of the close association between fungi and trichomes may be sesquiterpenes, main components in the volatile oil of different convolvulaceous plants. Molecular biological studies and microscopic investigations led to the observation that the trichomes do not only secrete sesquiterpenes and palmitic acid but also seem to absorb ergot alkaloids from the epibiotic fungal species of the genus Periglandula. Thus, the trichomes are likely to have a dual and key function in a metabolic dialogue between fungus and host plant.

  19. Development and Structure of Internal Glands and External Glandular Trichomes in Pogostemon cablin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jiansheng; Yuan, Yongming; Liu, Zhixue; Zhu, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Pogostemon cablin possesses two morphologically and ontogenetically different types of glandular trichomes, one type of bristle hair on the surfaces of leaves and stems and one type of internal gland inside the leaves and stems. The internal gland originates from elementary meristem and is associated with the biosynthesis of oils present inside the leaves and stems. However, there is little information on mechanism for the oil biosynthesis and secretion inside the leaves and stems. In this study, we identified three kinds of glandular trichome types and two kinds of internal gland in the Pogostemon cablin. The oil secretions from internal glands of stems and leaves contained lipids, flavones and terpenes. Our results indicated that endoplasmic reticulum and plastids and vacuoles are likely involved in the biosynthesis of oils in the internal glands and the synthesized oils are transported from endoplasmic reticulum to the cell wall via connecting endoplasmic reticulum membranes to the plasma membrane. And the comparative analysis of the development, distribution, histochemistry and ultrastructures of the internal and external glands in Pogostemon cablin leads us to propose that the internal gland may be a novel secretory structure which is different from external glands. PMID:24205002

  20. Cloning of a sesquiterpene synthase from Lavandula x intermedia glandular trichomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarker, Lukman S; Demissie, Zerihun A; Mahmoud, Soheil S

    2013-11-01

    The essential oil (EO) of Lavandula is dominated by monoterpenes, but can also contain small amounts of sesquiterpenes, depending on species and environmental conditions. For example, the sesquiterpene 9-epi-caryophyllene can make up to 8 % of the EO in a few species, including those commercially propagated for EO production. Here, we report the cloning and functional characterization of 9-epi-caryophyllene synthase (LiCPS) from the glandular trichomes of Lavandula x intermedia, cv. Grosso. The 1,617 bp open reading frame of LiCPS, which did not encode a transit peptide, was expressed in Escherichia coli and the recombinant protein purified by Ni-NTA agarose affinity chromatography. The ca. 60 kDa recombinant protein specifically converted farnesyl diphosphate to 9-epi-caryophyllene. LiCPS also produced a few monoterpenes when assayed with the monoterpene precursor geranyl diphosphate (GPP), but--unlike most monoterpene synthases--was not able to derive detectable amounts of any products from the cis isomer of GPP, neryl diphosphate. The LiCPS transcripts accumulated in developing L. x intermedia flowers and were highly enriched in glandular trichomes, but were not detected in leaves suggesting that the transcriptional expression of this gene is spatially and developmentally regulated.

  1. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of borneol dehydrogenase from the glandular trichomes of Lavandula x intermedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarker, Lukman S; Galata, Mariana; Demissie, Zerihun A; Mahmoud, Soheil S

    2012-12-15

    Several varieties of Lavandula x intermedia (lavandins) are cultivated for their essential oils (EOs) for use in cosmetic, hygiene and personal care products. These EOs are mainly constituted of monoterpenes including camphor, which contributes an off odor reducing the olfactory appeal of the oil. We have recently constructed a cDNA library from the glandular trichomes (the sites of EO synthesis) of L. x intermedia plants. Here, we describe the cloning of a borneol dehydrogenase cDNA (LiBDH) from this library. The 780 bp open reading frame of the cDNA encoded a 259 amino acid short chain alcohol dehydrogenase with a predicted molecular mass of ca. 27.5 kDa. The recombinant LiBDH was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified by Ni-NTA agarose affinity chromatography, and functionally characterized in vitro. The bacterially produced enzyme specifically converted borneol to camphor as the only product with K(m) and k(cat) values of 53 μM and 4.0 × 10(-4) s(-1), respectively. The LiBDH transcripts were specifically expressed in glandular trichomes of mature flowers indicating that like other Lavandula monoterpene synthases the expression of this gene is regulated in a tissue-specific manner. The cloning of LiBDH has far reaching implications in improving the quality of Lavandula EOs through metabolic engineering. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Identifying three ecological chemotypes of Xanthium strumarium glandular trichomes using a combined NMR and LC-MS method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fangfang; Hao, Fuhua; Li, Changfu; Gou, Junbo; Lu, Dayan; Gong, Fujun; Tang, Huiru; Zhang, Yansheng

    2013-01-01

    Xanthanolides, as the sesquiterpene lactones, are reportedly the major components for the pharmacological properties of X. strumarium L. species. Phytochemical studies indicated that the glandular structures on the surface of plant tissues would form the primary sites for the accumulation of this class of the compounds. As the interface between plants and their natural enemies, glandular trichomes may vary with respect to which of their chemicals are sequestered against different herbivores in different ecologies. However, to date, no data are available on the chemical characterisation of X. strumarium glandular cells. In this study, the trichome secretions of the X. strumarium species originating from nineteen unique areas across eleven provinces in China, were analysed by HPLC, LC-ESI-MS and NMR. For the first time three distinct chemotypes of X. strumarium glandular trichomes were discovered along with the qualitative and quantitative evaluations of their presence of xanthanolides; these were designated glandular cell Types I, II, and III, respectively. The main xanthanolides in Type I cells were 8-epi-xanthatin and xanthumin while no xanthatin was detected. Xanthatin, 8-epi-xanthatin, and xanthumin dominated in Type II cells with comparable levels of each being present. For Type III cells, significantly higher concentrations of 8-epi-xanthatin or xanthinosin (relative to xanthatin) were detected with xanthinosin only being observed in this type. Further research will focus on understanding the ecological and molecular mechanism causing these chemotype differences in X. strumarium glandular structures.

  3. Identifying three ecological chemotypes of Xanthium strumarium glandular trichomes using a combined NMR and LC-MS method.

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    Fangfang Chen

    Full Text Available Xanthanolides, as the sesquiterpene lactones, are reportedly the major components for the pharmacological properties of X. strumarium L. species. Phytochemical studies indicated that the glandular structures on the surface of plant tissues would form the primary sites for the accumulation of this class of the compounds. As the interface between plants and their natural enemies, glandular trichomes may vary with respect to which of their chemicals are sequestered against different herbivores in different ecologies. However, to date, no data are available on the chemical characterisation of X. strumarium glandular cells. In this study, the trichome secretions of the X. strumarium species originating from nineteen unique areas across eleven provinces in China, were analysed by HPLC, LC-ESI-MS and NMR. For the first time three distinct chemotypes of X. strumarium glandular trichomes were discovered along with the qualitative and quantitative evaluations of their presence of xanthanolides; these were designated glandular cell Types I, II, and III, respectively. The main xanthanolides in Type I cells were 8-epi-xanthatin and xanthumin while no xanthatin was detected. Xanthatin, 8-epi-xanthatin, and xanthumin dominated in Type II cells with comparable levels of each being present. For Type III cells, significantly higher concentrations of 8-epi-xanthatin or xanthinosin (relative to xanthatin were detected with xanthinosin only being observed in this type. Further research will focus on understanding the ecological and molecular mechanism causing these chemotype differences in X. strumarium glandular structures.

  4. Glandular trichomes in Connarus suberosus (Connaraceae: distribution, structural organization and probable functions

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    João Donizete Denardi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Connarus suberosus is a typical species of the Brazilian Cerrado biome, and its inflorescences and young vegetative branches are densely covered by dendritic trichomes. The objective of this study was to report the occurrence of a previously undescribed glandular trichome of this species. The localization, origin and structure of these trichomes were investigated under light, transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Collections were made throughout the year, from five adult specimens of Connarus suberosus near Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil, including vegetative and reproductive apices, leaves and fruits in different developmental stages, as well as floral buds and flowers at anthesis. Glandular trichomes (GTs occurred on vegetative and reproductive organs during their juvenile stages. The GTs consisted of a uniseriate, multicellular peduncle, whose cells contain phenolic compounds, as well as a multicellular glandular portion that accumulates lipids. The glandular cell has thin wall, dense cytoplasm (with many mitochondria, plastids and dictyosomes, and a large nucleus with a visible nucleolus. The starch present in the plastids was hydrolyzed during the synthesis phase, reducing the density of the plastid stroma. Some plastids were fused to vacuoles, and some evidence suggested the conversion of plastids into vacuoles. During the final activity stages of the GTs, a darkening of the protoplasm was observed in some of the glandular cells, as a programmed cell death; afterwards, became caducous. The GTs in C. suberosus had a temporal restriction, being limited to the juvenile phase of the organs. Their presence on the exposed surfaces of developing organs and the chemical nature of the reserve products, suggest that these structures are food bodies. Field observations and detailed studies of plant-environment interactions, as well as chemical analysis of the reserve compounds, are still necessary to confirm the role of these GTs as feeding

  5. Caracterização e ontogenia dos tricomas glandulares de Ocimum selloi Benth. - Lamiaceae Characterization and ontogeny of the glandular trichomes of Ocimum selloi Benth. (Lamiaceae

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    Letícia de Almeida Gonçalves

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Ocimum selloi Benth. (Lamiaceae é uma espécie nativa da América do Sul e na medicina popular tem sido usada devido suas propriedades analgésica, anti-inflamatória e antiespasmódica. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi identificar os tipos de tricomas glandulares que ocorrem nos órgãos vegetativos e reprodutivos de O. selloi e determinar a ontogenia desses tricomas. Ramos laterais em início de formação, folhas totalmente expandidas, flores em diferentes estádios de diferenciação, amostras de caule e do eixo das inflorescências foram analisados em microscopias de luz e eletrônica de varredura. Tricomas glandulares do tipo peltado e capitado subséssil foram observados no caule, nas folhas, no eixo da inflorescência e na superfície adaxial das sépalas. Nas sépalas foi encontrado, além dos tricomas secretores peltados e capitados subsésseis, o tricoma glandular capitado pedunculado. A ontogenia inicia-se com a expansão de uma célula protodérmica que, de acordo com a seqüência de divisões periclinais e anticlinais (ora simétricas, ora assimétricas, dá origem aos tricomas. A diferenciação dos tricomas glandulares peltados e capitados não é sincrônica e ocorre muito cedo no desenvolvimento da folha, do caule e do eixo floral.Ocimum selloi Benth. (Lamiaceae is native to South America and in traditional medicine has been used due to its analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antispasmodic properties. The aim of this study was to identify the types of glandular trichomes that occur on the vegetative and reproductive organs of O. selloi and to determine trichome ontogeny. Lateral branches at the initial formation phase, fully opened leaves, flowers at different differentiation stages, and stem and inflorescence axes were analyzed under light and scanning electron microscopy. Glandular trichomes of the peltate and subsessile capitate types were observed on the stem, leaves, inflorescence axis and the adaxial surface of the

  6. Negative ion 'chip-based' nanospray tandem mass spectrometry for the analysis of flavonoids in glandular trichomes of Lychnophora ericoides Mart. (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobbo-Neto, Leonardo; Gates, Paul J; Lopes, Norberto P

    2008-12-01

    This paper reports a method for the analysis of secondary metabolites stored in glandular trichomes, employing negative ion 'chip-based' nanospray tandem mass spectrometry. The analyses of glandular trichomes from Lychnophora ericoides, a plant endemic to the Brazilian 'cerrado' and used in traditional medicine as an anti-inflammatory and analgesic agent, led to the identification of five flavonoids (chrysin, pinocembrin, pinostrobin, pinobanksin and 3-O-acetylpinobanksin) by direct infusion of the extracts of glandular trichomes into the nanospray ionisation source. All the flavonoids have no oxidation at ring B, which resulted in a modification of the fragmentation pathways compared with that of the oxidised 3,4-dihydroflavonoids already described in the literature. The absence of the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant di-C-glucosylflavone vicenin-2, or any other flavonoid glycosides, in the glandular trichomes was also demonstrated. The use of the 'chip-based' nanospray QqTOF apparatus is a new fast and useful tool for the identification of secondary metabolites stored in the glandular trichomes, which can be useful for chemotaxonomic studies based on metabolites from glandular trichomes.

  7. Papel dos tricomas glandulares da folha do tomateiro na oviposição de Tuta absoluta Role of tomato leaf glandular trichomes on oviposition of Tuta absoluta

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    Elsa Gilardón

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Os tricomas glandulares presentes nas folhas e ramos das plantas do gênero Lycopersicon são responsáveis pela secreção de metabólitos de diferentes naturezas. A presença de alguns desses compostos tem sido associada à resistência do tomate a diferentes insetos. A traça-do-tomateiro, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, é uma das pragas mais nocivas da América do Sul. O adulto oviposita sobre as folhas do tomate e suas larvas abrem galerias no mesófilo das folhas, ramos, flores e frutos. As espécies silvestres do tomate conservam a capacidade de biossintetizar compostos químicos que lhes conferem resistência a esta praga. No presente trabalho, foi avaliada a preferência para oviposição desse inseto sobre folhas com e sem tricomas glandulares de L. esculentum (Mill. cv. Uco Plata, suscetível, e de L. hirsutum f. glabratum (Mull. PI 134417, espécie silvestre afim ao tomate, e resistente à traça. Os resultados sugerem que as fêmeas ovipositam indistintamente sobre as folhas de ambas espécies, independentemente da presença, ou não, dos tricomas glandulares. E a presença destes e de seus exsudatos não têm efeito inibidor na oviposição do inseto.In the genus Lycopersicon, different metabolites are secreted by the glandular trichomes of leaves and stems. These compounds have been associated to different tomato pests resistance. The South American tomato pinworm, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, is one of the most harmful pests in South America. The females oviposit on tomato leaves and the larvae mine the leaf mesophyl, stems, flowers and fruits. Some wild accessions of Lycopersicon keep their capacity to synthesize allelochemicals that protect them from the pest. In this paper a comparison was made between the tomato pinworm oviposition on leaves with and without trichomes of L. esculentum (Mill. cv. Uco Plata, a susceptible cultivar, and L. hirsutum f. glabratum (Mull. PI 134417, a resistant wild accession. Results suggest that the female

  8. Volatiles and Nonvolatiles in Flourensia campestris Griseb. (Asteraceae), How Much Do Capitate Glandular Trichomes Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Leonardo A; López, Daniela; Silva, Mariana P; López Rivilli, Marisa J; Tourn, Mónica G; Cantero, Juan J; Scopel, Ana L

    2018-03-01

    The distribution and ultrastructure of capitate glandular trichomes (GTs) in Flourensia species (Asteraceae) have been recently elucidated, but their metabolic activity and potential biological function remain unexplored. Selective nonvolatile metabolites from isolated GTs were strikingly similar to those found on leaf surfaces. The phytotoxic allelochemical sesquiterpene (-)-hamanasic acid A ((-)-HAA) was the major constituent (ca. 40%) in GTs. Although GTs are quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs)-accumulating species, glycine betaine was not found in GTs; it was only present in the leaf mesophyll. Two (-)-HAA accompanying surface secreted products: compounds 4-hydroxyacetophenone (piceol; 1) and 2-hydroxy-5-methoxyacetophenone (2), which were isolated and fully characterized (GC/MS, NMR), were present in the volatiles found in GTs. The essential oils of fresh leaves revealed ca. 33% monoterpenes, 26% hydrocarbon- and 30% oxygenated sesquiterpenes, most of them related to cadinene and bisabolene derivatives. Present results suggest a main role of GTs in determining the volatile and nonvolatile composition of F. campestris leaves. Based on the known activities of the compounds identified, it can be suggested that GTs in F. campestris would play key ecological functions in plant-pathogen and plant-plant interactions. In addition, the strikingly high contribution of compounds derived from cadinene and bisabolene pathways, highlights the potential of this species as a source of high-valued bioproducts. © 2018 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  9. Identification and characterization of two bisabolene synthases from linear glandular trichomes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschenbrenner, Anna-Katharina; Kwon, Moonhyuk; Conrad, Jürgen; Ro, Dae-Kyun; Spring, Otmar

    2016-04-01

    Sunflower is known to produce a variety of bisabolene-type sesquiterpenes and accumulates these substances in trichomes of leaves, stems and flowering parts. A bioinformatics approach was used to identify the enzyme responsible for the initial step in the biosynthesis of these compounds from its precursor farnesyl pyrophosphate. Based on sequence similarity with a known bisabolene synthases from Arabidopsis thaliana AtTPS12, candidate genes of Helianthus were searched in EST-database and used to design specific primers. PCR experiments identified two candidates in the RNA pool of linear glandular trichomes of sunflower. Their sequences contained the typical motifs of sesquiterpene synthases and their expression in yeast functionally characterized them as bisabolene synthases. Spectroscopic analysis identified the stereochemistry of the product of both enzymes as (Z)-γ-bisabolene. The origin of the two sunflower bisabolene synthase genes from the transcripts of linear trichomes indicates that they may be involved in the synthesis of sesquiterpenes produced in these trichomes. Comparison of the amino acid sequences of the sunflower bisabolene synthases showed high similarity with sesquiterpene synthases from other Asteracean species and indicated putative evolutionary origin from a β-farnesene synthase. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Brassica villosa, a system for studying non-glandular trichomes and genes in the Brassicas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayidu, Naghabushana K; Tan, Yifang; Taheri, Ali; Li, Xiang; Bjorndahl, Trent C; Nowak, Jacek; Wishart, David S; Hegedus, Dwayne; Gruber, Margaret Y

    2014-07-01

    Brassica villosa is a wild Brassica C genome species with very dense trichome coverage and strong resistance to many insect pests of Brassica oilseeds and vegetables. Transcriptome analysis of hairy B. villosa leaves indicated higher expression of several important trichome initiation genes compared with glabrous B. napus leaves and consistent with the Arabidopsis model of trichome development. However, transcripts of the TRY inhibitory gene in hairy B. villosa were surprisingly high relative to B. napus and relative transcript levels of SAD2, EGL3, and several XIX genes were low, suggesting potential ancillary or less important trichome-related roles for these genes in Brassica species compared with Arabidopsis. Several antioxidant, calcium, non-calcium metal and secondary metabolite genes also showed differential expression between these two species. These coincided with accumulation of two alkaloid-like compounds, high levels of calcium, and other metals in B. villosa trichomes that are correlated with the known tolerance of B. villosa to high salt and the calcium-rich natural habitat of this wild species. This first time report on the isolation of large amounts of pure B. villosa trichomes, on trichome content, and on relative gene expression differences in an exceptionally hairy Brassica species compared with a glabrous species opens doors for the scientific community to understand trichome gene function in the Brassicas and highlights the potential of B. villosa as a trichome research platform.

  11. Glandular trichome density and essential oil composition in leaves and inflorescences of Lippia origanoides Kunth (Verbenaceae in the Brazilian Cerrado

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    Luiz R.S. Tozin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils from leaves and inflorescences of Lippia origanoides Kunth present aromatic and medicinal potential and have been used to treat several diseases, including melanoma. In Brazil, L. origanoides is commonly found in campo cerrado and cerrado stricto sensu, physiognomies featured mainly by the differential light conditions to which short and medium-sized plants are subjected. Our aim was to investigate the glandular trichome density and the yield and chemical composition of the essential oils in leaves and inflorescences of L. origanoides from campo cerrado and cerrado stricto sensu. For glandular density analysis, leaves and inflorescences were processed according to conventional techniques for scanning electron microscopy. The essential oils of leaves and inflorescences were obtained by hydrodistillation and identified with gas chromatography. Bracts and sepals showed the highest glandular density, followed by petals and leaves. The glandular density in the abaxial leaf surface was higher in individuals from the campo cerrado. In both populations the essential oil yield was higher in inflorescences than in leaves. The chemical composition of the essential oils varied among individuals from different areas and inside a same population. Our results demonstrated the chemical plasticity of L. origanoides suggesting the importance of monitoring its popular use.

  12. Glandular trichome density and essential oil composition in leaves and inflorescences of Lippia origanoides Kunth (Verbenaceae) in the Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozin, Luiz R S; Marques, Marcia O M; Rodrigues, Tatiane M

    2015-01-01

    The essential oils from leaves and inflorescences of Lippia origanoides Kunth present aromatic and medicinal potential and have been used to treat several diseases, including melanoma. In Brazil, L. origanoides is commonly found in campo cerrado and cerrado stricto sensu, physiognomies featured mainly by the differential light conditions to which short and medium-sized plants are subjected. Our aim was to investigate the glandular trichome density and the yield and chemical composition of the essential oils in leaves and inflorescences of L. origanoides from campo cerrado and cerrado stricto sensu. For glandular density analysis, leaves and inflorescences were processed according to conventional techniques for scanning electron microscopy. The essential oils of leaves and inflorescences were obtained by hydrodistillation and identified with gas chromatography. Bracts and sepals showed the highest glandular density, followed by petals and leaves. The glandular density in the abaxial leaf surface was higher in individuals from the campo cerrado. In both populations the essential oil yield was higher in inflorescences than in leaves. The chemical composition of the essential oils varied among individuals from different areas and inside a same population. Our results demonstrated the chemical plasticity of L. origanoides suggesting the importance of monitoring its popular use.

  13. Higher glandular trichome density in tomato leaflets and repellence to spider mites Alta densidade de tricomas glandulares em tomateiro e aumento da repelência a ácaros rajados

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    Wilson Roberto Maluf

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the feasibility of selection for higher glandular trichome densities, as an indirect criterion of selection for increasing repellence to spider mites Tetranychus urticae, in tomato populations derived from an interspecific cross between Lycopersicon esculentum x L. hirsutum var. glabratum PI 134417. Trichome densities were evaluated in 19 genotypes, including 12 from advanced backcross populations, derived from the original cross L. esculentum x L. hirsutum var. glabratum PI 134417. Counts were made both on the adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces, and trichomes were classified into glandular types IV and VI, other glandular types (types I+VII, and nonglandular types. Mite repellence was measured by distances walked by mites onto the tomato leaf surface after 20, 40 and 60 min. Spider mite repellence biotests indicated that higher densities of glandular trichomes (especially type VI decreased the distances walked by the mites onto the tomato leaf surface. Selection of plants with higher densities of glandular trichomes can be an efficient criterion to obtain tomato genotypes with higher resistance (repellence to spider mites.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência da seleção para maior densidade de tricomas glandulares na resistência (repelência ao ácaro Tetranychus urticae, em populações de tomate derivadas do cruzamento interespecífico Lycopersicon esculentum x L. hirsutum var. glabratum PI 134417. Foram avaliados 19 genótipos quanto à densidade de tricomas, que incluíram 12 derivados de populações avançadas de retrocruzamentos, obtidos a partir do cruzamento original L. esculentum x L. hirsutum var. glabratum PI 134417. Nas faces abaxial e adaxial dos folíolos, realizaram-se as contagens e os tricomas foram classificados em glandulares tipo IV e VI, outros glandulares (tipo I e VII e não glandulares. A repelência aos ácaros foi medida pela distância média, percorrida pelo

  14. Effect of heat shock on ultrastructure and calcium distribution in Lavandula pinnata L. glandular trichomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, S S; Kirchoff, B K; Liao, J P

    2013-02-01

    The effects of heat shock (HS) on the ultrastructure and calcium distribution of Lavandula pinnata secretory trichomes are examined using transmission electron microscopy and potassium antimonate precipitation. After 48-h HS at 40°C, plastids become distorted and lack stroma and osmiophilic deposits, the cristae of the mitochondria become indistinct, the endoplasmic reticulum acquires a chain-like appearance with ribosomes prominently attached to the lamellae, and the plasma and organelle membranes become distorted. Heat shock is associated with a decrease in calcium precipitates in the trichomes, while the number of precipitates increases in the mesophyll cells. Prolonged exposure to elevated calcium levels may be toxic to the mesophyll cells, while the lack of calcium in the glands cell may deprive them of the normal protective advantages of elevated calcium levels. The inequality in calcium distribution may result not only from uptake from the transpiration stream, but also from redistribution of calcium from the trichomes to the mesophyll cells.

  15. Differential microRNA Analysis of Glandular Trichomes and Young Leaves in Xanthium strumarium L. Reveals Their Putative Roles in Regulating Terpenoid Biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Rongyan; Li, Yuanjun; Li, Changfu; Zhang, Yansheng

    2015-01-01

    The medicinal plant Xanthium strumarium L. (X. strumarium) is covered with glandular trichomes, which are the sites for synthesizing pharmacologically active terpenoids such as xanthatin. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of 21-24 nucleotide (nt) non-coding RNAs, most of which are identified as regulators of plant growth development. Identification of miRNAs involved in the biosynthesis of plant secondary metabolites remains limited. In this study, high-throughput Illumina sequencing, combined with target gene prediction, was performed to discover novel and conserved miRNAs with potential roles in regulating terpenoid biosynthesis in X. strumarium glandular trichomes. Two small RNA libraries from leaves and glandular trichomes of X. strumarium were established. In total, 1,185 conserved miRNAs and 37 novel miRNAs were identified, with 494 conserved miRNAs and 18 novel miRNAs being differentially expressed between the two tissue sources. Based on the X. strumarium transcriptome data that we recently constructed, 3,307 annotated mRNA transcripts were identified as putative targets of the differentially expressed miRNAs. KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathway analysis suggested that some of the differentially expressed miRNAs, including miR6435, miR5021 and miR1134, might be involved in terpenoid biosynthesis in the X. strumarium glandular trichomes. This study provides the first comprehensive analysis of miRNAs in X. strumarium, which forms the basis for further understanding of miRNA-based regulation on terpenoid biosynthesis.

  16. Differential microRNA Analysis of Glandular Trichomes and Young Leaves in Xanthium strumarium L. Reveals Their Putative Roles in Regulating Terpenoid Biosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Rongyan; Li, Yuanjun; Li, Changfu; Zhang, Yansheng

    2015-01-01

    The medicinal plant Xanthium strumarium L. (X. strumarium) is covered with glandular trichomes, which are the sites for synthesizing pharmacologically active terpenoids such as xanthatin. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of 21-24 nucleotide (nt) non-coding RNAs, most of which are identified as regulators of plant growth development. Identification of miRNAs involved in the biosynthesis of plant secondary metabolites remains limited. In this study, high-throughput Illumina sequencing, combined w...

  17. Differential microRNA Analysis of Glandular Trichomes and Young Leaves in Xanthium strumarium L. Reveals Their Putative Roles in Regulating Terpenoid Biosynthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongyan Fan

    Full Text Available The medicinal plant Xanthium strumarium L. (X. strumarium is covered with glandular trichomes, which are the sites for synthesizing pharmacologically active terpenoids such as xanthatin. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of 21-24 nucleotide (nt non-coding RNAs, most of which are identified as regulators of plant growth development. Identification of miRNAs involved in the biosynthesis of plant secondary metabolites remains limited. In this study, high-throughput Illumina sequencing, combined with target gene prediction, was performed to discover novel and conserved miRNAs with potential roles in regulating terpenoid biosynthesis in X. strumarium glandular trichomes. Two small RNA libraries from leaves and glandular trichomes of X. strumarium were established. In total, 1,185 conserved miRNAs and 37 novel miRNAs were identified, with 494 conserved miRNAs and 18 novel miRNAs being differentially expressed between the two tissue sources. Based on the X. strumarium transcriptome data that we recently constructed, 3,307 annotated mRNA transcripts were identified as putative targets of the differentially expressed miRNAs. KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis suggested that some of the differentially expressed miRNAs, including miR6435, miR5021 and miR1134, might be involved in terpenoid biosynthesis in the X. strumarium glandular trichomes. This study provides the first comprehensive analysis of miRNAs in X. strumarium, which forms the basis for further understanding of miRNA-based regulation on terpenoid biosynthesis.

  18. Monoterpenes in the glandular trichomes of tomato are synthesized from a neryl diphosphate precursor rather than geranyl diphosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilmiller, Anthony L; Schauvinhold, Ines; Larson, Matthew; Xu, Richard; Charbonneau, Amanda L; Schmidt, Adam; Wilkerson, Curtis; Last, Robert L; Pichersky, Eran

    2009-06-30

    We identified a cis-prenyltransferase gene, neryl diphosphate synthase 1 (NDPS1), that is expressed in cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) cultivar M82 type VI glandular trichomes and encodes an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of neryl diphosphate from isopentenyl diphosphate and dimethylallyl diphosphate. mRNA for a terpene synthase gene, phellandrene synthase 1 (PHS1), was also identified in these glands. It encodes an enzyme that uses neryl diphosphate to produce beta-phellandrene as the major product as well as a variety of other monoterpenes. The profile of monoterpenes produced by PHS1 is identical with the monoterpenes found in type VI glands. PHS1 and NDPS1 map to chromosome 8, and the presence of a segment of chromosome 8 derived from Solanum pennellii LA0716 causes conversion from the M82 gland monoterpene pattern to that characteristic of LA0716 plants. The data indicate that, contrary to the textbook view of geranyl diphosphate as the "universal" substrate of monoterpene synthases, in tomato glands neryl diphosphate serves as a precursor for the synthesis of monoterpenes.

  19. Comparative glandular trichome transcriptome-based gene characterization reveals reasons for differential (-)-menthol biosynthesis in Mentha species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Md Qussen; Qamar, Nida; Yadav, Pallavi; Kulkarni, Pallavi; Kumar, Ajay; Shasany, Ajit Kumar

    2017-06-01

    The genes involved in menthol biosynthesis are reported earlier in Mentha × piperita. But the information on these genes is not available in Mentha arvensis. To bridge the gap in knowledge on differential biosynthesis of monoterpenes leading to compositional variation in the essential oil of these species, a comparative transcriptome analysis of the glandular trichome (GT) was carried out. In addition to the mevalonic acid (MVA) and methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway genes, about 210 and 196 different terpene synthases (TPSs) transcripts were identified from annotation in M. arvensis and M. × piperita, respectively, and correlated to several monoterpenes present in the essential oil. Six isoforms of (-)-menthol dehydrogenases (MD), the last enzyme of the menthol biosynthetic pathway, were identified, cloned and characterized from the transcriptome data (three from each species). Varied expression levels and differential enzyme kinetics of these isoforms indicated the nature and composition of the product, as these isoforms generate both (-)-menthol and (+)-neomenthol from (-)-menthone and converts (-)-menthol to (-)-menthone in the reverse reaction, and hence together determine the quantity of (-)-menthol in the essential oil in these two species. Several genes for high value minor monoterpenes could also be identified from the transcriptome data. © 2017 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  20. Isolation and characterization of three new monoterpene synthases from Artemisia annua

    OpenAIRE

    Ju-Xin eRuan; Jian-Xu eLi; Xin eFang; Ling-Jian eWang; Wen-Li eHu; Xiao-Ya eChen; Changqing eYang

    2016-01-01

    Artemisia annua, an annual herb used in traditional Chinese medicine, produces a wealth of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, including the well-known sesquiterpene lactone artemisinin, an active ingredient in the treatment for malaria. Here we report three new monoterpene synthases of A. annua. From a glandular trichome cDNA library, monoterpene synthases of AaTPS2, AaTPS5 and AaTPS6, were isolated and characterized. The recombinant proteins of AaTPS5 and AaTPS6 produced multiple products with...

  1. Papel da 2-tridecanona e dos tricomas glandulares tipo VI na resistência do tomateiro a Tuta absoluta Role of 2-tridecanone and type VI glandular trichome on tomato resistance to Tuta absoluta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Gilardón

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available O metabólito secundário 2-tridecanona, secretado pelos tricomas glandulares tipo VI das folhas de tomateiro silvestre, Lycopersicon hirsutum L., confere-lhe resistência a uma grande variedade de insetos, inclusive a traça-do-tomateiro, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a concentração de 2- tridecanona, a densidade de tricomas glandulares tipo VI e o grau de infestação da traça-do-tomateiro na cultivar suscetível 'Uco Plata' (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., na linhagem resistente PI 134417 (L. hirsutum f. glabratum e em suas progênies F1 e F2. Foram avaliadas ainda as possíveis associações entre a concentração de 2-tridecanona, a densidade de tricomas glandulares tipo VI e o grau de infestação da traça-do-tomateiro. O grau médio de infestação da traça-do-tomateiro em 'Uco Plata' foi significativamente superior ao obtido em PI 134417. Ainda que a concentração de 2-tridecanona tenha sido significativamente superior no parental resistente, a presença deste metabólito somente explicaria parcialmente a resistência (R² = 8,17%. Não se detectaram diferenças significativas na densidade de tricomas tipo VI entre o parental suscetível e o resistente. Este comportamento ocorreu independentemente do conteúdo de 2-tridecanona e do grau de infestação da traça-do-tomateiro.The secondary metabolite 2-tridecanone, secreted by the type VI glandular trichomes present in the leaves of Lycopersicon hirsutum L., make it resistant to a great variety of insects, including the tomato pinworm, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick. The 2-tridecanone concentration, the type VI glandular trichome densities and the pinworm infestation degree were evaluated on the Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. susceptible cultivar 'Uco Plata', on the Lycopersicon hirsutum f. glabratum resistant accession PI 134417 and on their F1 and F2. The mean infestation degree with pinworm larvae was significantly higher in 'Uco Plata' than in PI 134417. The 2

  2. Leaf Trichomes Morphology of Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit. (LAMIACEAE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatri, M.; Baktiar, A.; Mansyurdin, M.; Periadnadi, P.

    2018-04-01

    Hyptis suaveolens L. Poit is one of the plants from family Lamiaceae and is an aromatic plant. The aroma contained in plants is usually secreted by certain structures in plants, such as glandular trichomes. At this plant has been carried out observations about the type and distribution of trichomes by using light microscopy and SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy). The results showed that the leaves of this plant are non-glandular trichomes types and glandular, either on the surface abaxial and adaxial and on the veins. Non-glandular trichomes consist of the monoselular and multicellular trichomes. While the glandular trichomes consist of peltate type, capitate type I and type II.

  3. Morphology, structure and ontogeny of trichomes of the grape genus (Vitis, Vitaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Yao eMa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Trichomes are widely distributed on surfaces of different organs in the grape genus Vitis and are of taxonomic utility. To explore the morphology, structure and ontogeny of Vitis trichomes, we investigated the diversity and distribution of trichomes in 34 species of Vitis. Two main types of trichomes in Vitis are documented: non-glandular and glandular. Within non-glandular trichomes, ribbon and simple trichomes are found on different vegetative plant organs. The morphology and ontogeny of these types of trichomes are further examined with light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The ultrastructure of the glandular trichomes is explored with transmission electron microscopy. The ribbon trichomes are twisted, greatly elongated and unicellular, and this trichome type may be a morphological synapomorphy of Vitis and its closest tropical relative Ampelocissus and Pterisanthes in Vitaceae. The simple trichomes are documented in most species sampled in the genus. The glandular trichomes are multicellular, non-vascularized and composed of both epidermis and subjacent layers. We show that prickles occurring along the stems and petioles of Vitis davidii are modified glandular trichomes. In our observation, the glandular trichomes of V. romanetii can secret mucilage and send out volatile substance so that many insects are often glued to glands. Transmission electron microscopy indicates that metabolic products accumulate in vacuoles, the cytoplasm and intercellular spaces. We infer that glandular trichomes and young prickles are involved in the secretion of these metabolic products and the intercellular spaces may be the places of temporary storage of these secretions.

  4. Isolation and Characterization of Three New Monoterpene Synthases from Artemisia annua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Ju-Xin; Li, Jian-Xu; Fang, Xin; Wang, Ling-Jian; Hu, Wen-Li; Chen, Xiao-Ya; Yang, Chang-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Artemisia annua, an annual herb used in traditional Chinese medicine, produces a wealth of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, including the well-known sesquiterpene lactone artemisinin, an active ingredient in the treatment for malaria. Here we report three new monoterpene synthases of A. annua. From a glandular trichome cDNA library, monoterpene synthases of AaTPS2, AaTPS5, and AaTPS6, were isolated and characterized. The recombinant proteins of AaTPS5 and AaTPS6 produced multiple products with camphene and 1,8-cineole as major products, respectively, and AaTPS2 produced a single product, β-myrcene. Although both Mg2+ and Mn2+ were able to support their catalytic activities, altered product spectrum was observed in the presence of Mn2+ for AaTPS2 and AaTPS5. Analysis of extracts of aerial tissues and root of A. annua with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry detected more than 20 monoterpenes, of which the three enzymes constituted more than 1/3 of the total. Mechanical wounding induced the expression of all three monoterpene synthase genes, and transcript levels of AaTPS5 and AaTPS6 were also elevated after treatments with phytohormones of methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid, and gibberellin, suggesting a role of these monoterpene synthases in plant–environment interactions. The three new monoterpene synthases reported here further our understanding of molecular basis of monoterpene biosynthesis and regulation in plant. PMID:27242840

  5. Trichomes morphology as a taxonomic marker in the subfamily heliotropioideae (boraginaceae from Pakistan and Kashmir)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parveen, A.

    2009-01-01

    Trichomes morphology of the subfamily heliotropioideae (Boraginaceae representing by 18 spectes has been examined by light and scanning microscope. Within the subfamily Heliotropoideae trichomes are generally eglandular rarely glandular as in Heliotropium ohioglossum Boiss. Within the subfamily Heliotropoideae 1-celled unicellular and two celled uniseriate trichomes are observed. Shape of the trichomes usually comical with pointed tims and distinct trichomes base. However few species have indistinct trichome base. The data is significantly useful at specific and generic level within the subfamily Heliotropioideae. (author)

  6. The foliar trichomes of Hypoestes aristata (Vahl) Sol. ex Roem. & Schult var aristata (Acanthaceae) a widespread medicinal plant species in tropical sub-Saharan Africa: with comments on its possible phylogenetic significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, A; Naidoo, Y; Nicholas, A

    2010-01-01

    The micromorphology of foliar trichomes of Hypoestes aristata var. aristata was studied using stereo, light and scanning microscopy (SEM). This genus belongs to the advanced angiosperm family Acanthaceae, for which few micromorphological leaf studies exist. Results revealed both glandular and non-glandular trichomes, the latter being more abundant on leaf veins, particularly on the abaxial surface of very young leaves. With leaf maturity, the density of non-glandular trichomes decreased. Glandular trichomes were rare and of two types: long-stalked capitate and globose-like peltate trichomes. Capitate trichomes were observed only on the abaxial leaf surface, while peltate trichomes were distributed on both adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces.

  7. Isolation and characterization of three new monoterpene synthases from Artemisia annua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Xin eRuan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia annua, an annual herb used in traditional Chinese medicine, produces a wealth of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, including the well-known sesquiterpene lactone artemisinin, an active ingredient in the treatment for malaria. Here we report three new monoterpene synthases of A. annua. From a glandular trichome cDNA library, monoterpene synthases of AaTPS2, AaTPS5 and AaTPS6, were isolated and characterized. The recombinant proteins of AaTPS5 and AaTPS6 produced multiple products with camphene and 1,8-cineole as major products, respectively, and AaTPS2 produced a single product, β-myrcene. Although both Mg2+ and Mn2+ were able to support their catalytic activities, altered product spectrum was observed in the presence of Mn2+ for AaTPS2 and AaTPS5. Analysis of extracts of aerial tissues and root of A. annua with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS detected more than 20 monoterpenes, of which the three enzymes constituted more than 1/3 of the total. Mechanical wounding induced the expression of all three monoterpene synthase genes, and transcript levels of AaTPS5 and AaTPS6 were also elevated after treatments with phytohormones of methyl jasmonate (MeJA, salicylic acid (SA and gibberellin (GA, suggesting a role of these monoterpene synthases in plant-environment interactions. The three new monoterpene synthases reported here further our understanding of molecular basis of monoterpene biosynthesis and regulation in plant.

  8. Trichomes morphology in petals of some Acanthaceae species.

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    Muhammad Amirul Aiman Ahmad Juhari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary taxonomic study was carried out on seven Acanthaceae species namely as Andrographis paniculata, Pseuderanthemum graciliflorum, P. carruthersii,  Asystasia gangetica ssp. micrantha, Ruellia repens, Justicia comata and J. betonica. The study was undertaken to    investigate the morphology of trichomes present on the surfaces of flower petal. The variations found in this study are in their types and density. Based on observation, two forms of trichomes are present in all species studies which are glandular and non-glandular trichomes. There are seven types of trichomes found in this study. Trichomes types are shown to have systematic significance that can be used to differentiate and identify certain Acanthaceae species studied. 

  9. Selection and Clonal Propagation of High Artemisinin Genotypes of Artemisia annua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzstein, Hazel Y.; Porter, Justin A.; Janick, Jules; Ferreira, Jorge F. S.; Mutui, Theophilus M.

    2018-01-01

    Artemisinin, produced in the glandular trichomes of Artemisia annua L. is a vital antimalarial drug effective against Plasmodium falciparum resistant to quinine-derived medicines. Although work has progressed on the semi-synthetic production of artemisinin, field production of A. annua remains the principal commercial source of the compound. Crop production of artemisia must be increased to meet the growing worldwide demand for artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) to treat malaria. Grower artemisinin yields rely on plants generated from seeds from open-pollinated parents. Although selection has considerably increased plant artemisinin concentration in the past 15 years, seed-generated plants have highly variable artemisinin content that lowers artemisinin yield per hectare. Breeding efforts to produce improved F1 hybrids have been hampered by the inability to produce inbred lines due to self-incompatibility. An approach combining conventional hybridization and selection with clonal propagation of superior genotypes is proposed as a means to enhance crop yield and artemisinin production. Typical seed-propagated artemisia plants produce less than 1% (dry weight) artemisinin with yields below 25 kg/ha. Genotypes were identified producing high artemisinin levels of over 2% and possessing improved agronomic characteristics such as high leaf area and shoot biomass production. Field studies of clonally-propagated high-artemisinin plants verified enhanced plant uniformity and an estimated gross primary productivity of up to 70 kg/ha artemisinin, with a crop density of one plant m-2. Tissue culture and cutting protocols for the mass clonal propagation of A. annua were developed for shoot regeneration, rooting, acclimatization, and field cultivation. Proof of concept studies showed that both tissue culture-regenerated plants and rooted cutting performed better than plants derived from seed in terms of uniformity, yield, and consistently high artemisinin content. Use of

  10. RNA sequencing on Solanum lycopersicum trichomes identifies transcription factors that activate terpene synthase promoters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spyropoulou, E.A.; Haring, M.A.; Schuurink, R.C.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Glandular trichomes are production and storage organs of specialized metabolites such as terpenes, which play a role in the plant's defense system. The present study aimed to shed light on the regulation of terpene biosynthesis in Solanum lycopersicum trichomes by identification of

  11. The foliar trichomes of Hypoestes aristata (Vahl Sol. ex Roem. & Schult var aristata (Acanthaceae a widespread medicinal plant species in tropical sub-Saharan Africa: with comments on its possible phylogenetic significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Bhatt

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The micromorphology of foliar trichomes of Hypoestes aristata var. aristata was studied using stereo, light and scanning microscopy (SEM. This genus belongs to the advanced angiosperm family Acanthaceae, for which few micromorphological leaf studies exist. Results revealed both glandular and non-glandular trichomes, the latter being more abundant on leaf veins, particularly on the abaxial surface of very young leaves. With leaf maturity, the density of non-glandular trichomes decreased. Glandular trichomes were rare and of two types: long-stalked capitate and globose-like peltate trichomes. Capitate trichomes were observed only on the abaxial leaf surface, while peltate trichomes were distributed on both adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces.

  12. Trichomes of Cannabis sativa as viewed with scanning electron microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledbetter, M C; Krikorian, A D

    1975-06-01

    Direct examination of fresh, unfixed and uncoated specimens from vegetative and floral parts of Cannabis sativa with the scanning electron microscope enables one to obtain a faithful representation of their surface morphology. The presence of two major types of trichomes has been confirmed: a glandular type comprising or terminating in a globoid structure, and a conically-shaped nonglandular type. Moreover, three or possibly four distinct glandular types can be distinguished: sessile globoid, small-stalked and large-stalked globoid, and a peltate type. The nonglandular trichomes can be distinguished by the nature of their surfaces: those with a warty surface, and those which are relatively smooth. The range of size and distribution, and the special features of all these types of trichomes are also provided.

  13. Analysis of cannabinoids in laser-microdissected trichomes of medicinal Cannabis sativa using LCMS and cryogenic NMR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Happyana, Nizar; Agnolet, Sara; Muntendam, Remco; Van Dam, Annie; Schneider, Bernd; Kayser, Oliver

    Trichomes, especially the capitate-stalked glandular hairs, are well known as the main sites of cannabinoid and essential oil production of Cannabis sativa. In this study the distribution and density of various types of Cannabis sativa L trichomes, have been investigated by scanning electron

  14. Structural features of flower trichomes in drug eyebright (Euphrasia stricta D. Wolff EX J. F. Lehm.

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    Weronika Haratym

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Euphrasia stricta D. Wolff ex J. F. Lehm. (Orobanchaceae is a representative of plants that are widely used in folk medicine, phytomedicine, and homeopathy. The medicinal raw material derived from the drug eyebright is applied primarily in treatment of ophthalmic diseases. The investigations of trichomes in drug eyebright (Euphrasia stricta D. Wolff ex J. F. Lehm were conducted in 2010–2011. Using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, their location and morphological and anatomical features were identified. Three types of non-glandular trichomes were found: short unicellular, long 1–2 celled, and long 2-celled with wall ornamentation. Additionally, 7 types of glandular trichomes were found; these included: unicellular clavate, 2–3-celled clavate, capitate with a unicellular head and a 3-cel- led stalk, capitate with a unicellular head and a 2-celled stalk, capitate with a 2-celled head, conical papillae, and ribbon-like trichomes with wall thickening.

  15. Direct Analyses of Secondary Metabolites by Mass Spectrometry Imaging (MSI) from Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) Trichomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brentan Silva, Denise; Aschenbrenner, Anna-Katharina; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; Spring, Otmar

    2017-05-10

    Helianthus annuus (sunflower) displays non-glandular trichomes (NGT), capitate glandular trichomes (CGT), and linear glandular trichomes (LGT), which reveal different chemical compositions and locations in different plant tissues. With matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) and laser desorption/ionization (LDI) mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) techniques, efficient methods were developed to analyze the tissue distribution of secondary metabolites (flavonoids and sesquiterpenes) and proteins inside of trichomes. Herein, we analyzed sesquiterpene lactones, present in CGT, from leaf transversal sections using the matrix 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB) and α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA) (mixture 1:1) with sodium ions added to increase the ionization in positive ion mode. The results observed for sesquiterpenes and polymethoxylated flavones from LGT were similar. However, upon desiccation, LGT changed their shape in the ionization source, complicating analyses by MSI mainly after matrix application. An alternative method could be applied to LGT regions by employing LDI (without matrix) in negative ion mode. The polymethoxylated flavones were easily ionized by LDI, producing images with higher resolution, but the sesquiterpenes were not observed in spectra. Thus, the application and viability of MALDI imaging for the analyses of protein and secondary metabolites inside trichomes were confirmed, highlighting the importance of optimization parameters.

  16. Micromorphology of glandular structures in Echium vulgare L. flowers

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    Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The micromorphology of selected elements of Echium vulgare L. flowers was investigated, with special attention to the structure of the nectaries and the stigma of the pistil as well as types of trichomes occurring on the surface of the calyx. The nectary had the shape of an uneven disc located around the lower region of the four-parted ovary of the pistil. The glandular cells formed a tier with a height of 330 μm and a radial width of 144 μm. Nectar was secreted onto the nectary surface through anomocytic stomata located at the level of other epidermal cells. Most of the stomata were open, with a different dimension of the pore. Their largest number was observed at the base of the nectary, and 462 stomata were noted on the whole surface of the nectary. The cuticle on the surface of the guard cells formed fine, circular striae. The subsidiary cells formed striated cuticular ornamentation, with the striae arranged radially in the direction of the stoma, whereas on the surface of other epidermal cells the striae formed an arrangement with different directions. The epidermis on the surface of the stigma formed regularly arranged papillae with a fan-shaped, expanded upper part which had corrugated outer walls, whereas the base of the cell formed a widened small column. The epidermis of the abaxial part of the calyx was covered by numerous non-glandular trichomes of different length which were made up of one or several cells. The glandular trichomes in the epidermis of the calyx grew with smaller density compared to the protective trichomes, and they were composed of a 1-2-celled stalk and a glandular head.

  17. Trichomes and chemical composition of the volatile oil of Trichogonia cinerea (Gardner) R. M. King & H. Rob. (Eupatorieae, Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Yanne S; Trindade, Luma M P; Rezende, Maria Helena; Paula, José R; Gonçalves, Letícia A

    2016-03-01

    Trichogonia cinerea is endemic to Brazil and occurs in areas of cerrado and campo rupestre. In this study, we characterized the glandular and non-glandular trichomes on the aerial parts of this species, determined the principal events in the development of the former, and identified the main constituents of the volatile oil produced in its aerial organs. Fully expanded leaves, internodes, florets, involucral bracts, and stem apices were used for the characterization of trichomes. Leaves, internodes, florets, and involucral bracts were examined by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, whereas stem apices were examined only by light microscopy. Branches in the reproductive phase were used for the extraction and determination of the composition of the volatile oil. The species has three types of glandular trichomes, biseriate vesicular, biseriate pedunculate, and multicellular uniseriate, which secrete volatile oils and phenolic compounds. The major components identified in the volatile oil were 3,5-muuroladiene (39.56%) and butylated hydroxytoluene (13.07%).

  18. Analysis of cannabinoids in laser-microdissected trichomes of medicinal Cannabis sativa using LCMS and cryogenic NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happyana, Nizar; Agnolet, Sara; Muntendam, Remco; Van Dam, Annie; Schneider, Bernd; Kayser, Oliver

    2013-03-01

    Trichomes, especially the capitate-stalked glandular hairs, are well known as the main sites of cannabinoid and essential oil production of Cannabis sativa. In this study the distribution and density of various types of Cannabis sativa L. trichomes, have been investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Furthermore, glandular trichomes were isolated over the flowering period (8 weeks) by laser microdissection (LMD) and the cannabinoid profile analyzed by LCMS. Cannabinoids were detected in extracts of 25-143 collected cells of capitate-sessile and capitate stalked trichomes and separately in the gland (head) and the stem of the latter. Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid [THCA (1)], cannabidiolic acid [CBDA (2)], and cannabigerolic acid [CBGA (3)] were identified as most-abundant compounds in all analyzed samples while their decarboxylated derivatives, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol [THC (4)], cannabidiol [CBD (5)], and cannabigerol [CBG (6)], co-detected in all samples, were present at significantly lower levels. Cannabichromene [CBC (8)] along with cannabinol (CBN (9)) were identified as minor compounds only in the samples of intact capitate-stalked trichomes and their heads harvested from 8-week old plants. Cryogenic nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) was used to confirm the occurrence of major cannabinoids, THCA (1) and CBDA (2), in capitate-stalked and capitate-sessile trichomes. Cryogenic NMR enabled the additional identification of cannabichromenic acid [CBCA (7)] in the dissected trichomes, which was not possible by LCMS as standard was not available. The hereby documented detection of metabolites in the stems of capitate-stalked trichomes indicates a complex biosynthesis and localization over the trichome cells forming the glandular secretion unit. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Within and between generation phenotypic plasticity in trichome density of Mimulus guttatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holeski, L M

    2007-11-01

    Mimulus guttatus (yellow monkeyflower) frequently produce glandular trichomes, a trait that may resist herbivory. Constitutive production of trichomes is variable both within and among populations of M. guttatus and most of this variation is genetic. This study demonstrates that damage on early leaves can induce increased trichome production on later leaves, a plastic response that is likely adaptive. Moreover, this study shows that this induction can be maternally transmitted, increasing trichome density in progeny before they experience herbivory. This transgenerational response must involve a yet undescribed epigenetic mechanism. These experiments also show genetic variation among plants in the capacity for both within and between plant generation induction. Despite the clear evolutionary importance of variation in constitutive and induced herbivory-resistance traits, few other studies have noted genetic variation in both within a plant species.

  20. Are trichomes involved in the biomechanical systems of Cucurbita leaf petioles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajączkowska, Urszula; Kucharski, Stanisław; Guzek, Dominika

    2015-12-01

    Trichomes are involved in petiole movement and likely function as a part of the plant biomechanical system serving as an additional reservoir of hydrostatic pressure. The large, non-glandular trichomes on Cucurbita petioles occur across collenchyma strands. Time-lapse imaging was used to study the leaf reorientation of Cucurbita maxima 'Bambino' plants placed in horizontal position. The experiment comprised four variants of the large non-glandular petiole trichomes: (1) intact, (2) mechanically removed, (3) dehydrated, and (4) intact but with longitudinally injured petioles. Isolated strands of collenchyma with intact epidermis or epidermis mechanically removed from the abaxial and adaxial sides of the petiole were subjected to breaking test. The stiffness of the non-isolated tissue with intact epidermis was measured using the micro-indentation method. Petioles without trichomes did not exhibit tropic response, and the dehydration of trichomes slowed and prevented complete leaf reorientation. Isolated strands of collenchyma showed no correlation between strength values and position on the petiole. However, strands of collenchyma with epidermis exhibited a significantly greater strength regardless of their position on the petiole. The indentation test showed that non-isolated collenchyma is stiffer on the abaxial side of the petiole. Trichomes from the abaxial side of the petiole were larger at their base. The application of the 'tensile triangles method' revealed that these trichomes had a biomechanically optimized shape in comparison to the adaxial side. We conclude that trichomes can be involved in plant biomechanical system and serve as an additional reservoir of hydrostatic pressure that is necessary for maintaining petioles in the prestressed state.

  1. Artemisinin production and precursor ratio in full grown Artemisia annua L. plants subjected to external stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Anders; Verstappen, Francel; Bouwmeester, Harro

    2013-01-01

    was examined on the concentrations of AN and its immediate precursors in leaves, and these concentrations were related to densities and sizes of the glandular trichomes (GT). Plants were stress treated weekly five times by sandblasting or spraying with salicylic acid, chitosan oligosaccharide, H2O2, and Na...

  2. Petunia hybrida PDR2 is involved in herbivore defense by controlling steroidal contents in trichomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasse, Joëlle; Schlegel, Markus; Borghi, Lorenzo; Ullrich, Friederike; Lee, Miyoung; Liu, Guo-Wei; Giner, José-Luis; Kayser, Oliver; Bigler, Laurent; Martinoia, Enrico; Kretzschmar, Tobias

    2016-12-01

    As a first line of defense against insect herbivores many plants store high concentrations of toxic and deterrent secondary metabolites in glandular trichomes. Plant Pleiotropic Drug Resistance (PDR)-type ABC transporters are known secondary metabolite transporters, and several have been implicated in pathogen or herbivore defense. Here, we report on Petunia hybrida PhPDR2 as a major contributor to trichome-related chemical defense. PhPDR2 was found to localize to the plasma membrane and be predominantly expressed in multicellular glandular trichomes of leaves and stems. Down-regulation of PhPDR2 via RNA interference (pdr2) resulted in a markedly higher susceptibility of the transgenic plants to the generalist foliage feeder Spodoptera littoralis. Untargeted screening of pdr2 trichome metabolite contents showed a significant decrease in petuniasterone and petuniolide content, compounds, which had previously been shown to act as potent toxins against various insects. Our findings suggest that PhPDR2 plays a leading role in controlling petuniasterone levels in leaves and trichomes of petunia, thus contributing to herbivory resistance. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Influence of growth regulators on distribution of trichomes and the production of volatiles in micropropagated plants of Plectranthus ornatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helna C. Passinho-Soares

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The profile of volatile organic compounds, the glandular and non-glandular trichomes of Plectranthus ornatus, obtained by in vitro cultivation, was evaluated in plants grown in Murashide and Skoog medium supplemented with benylaminopurine at 4.5, 9.0, and 18.0 µM + naphthaleneacetic acid at 5.37 µM, kinetin at 4.7, 9.3 and 18.5 µM + naphthaleneacetic acid (5.37 µM or Murashide and Skoog 0 medium (as a control. Scanning Electron Microscopy was performed on samples of the third leaf node of the 90 days old plants obtained from treatment with 4.5 or 9.0 µM benylaminopurine, and 4.7 or 9.3 µM kinetin. Headspace Solid Phase Micro-Extraction of the 30, 60 and 90 days old in vitro plants permitted to determinate by GC/MS the composition comprised of 62 compounds. The data were analyzed using Principal Component Analysis and Hierarchical Clustering Analysis and, the major constituents of these oils after treatment and aging were monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. Morphoanatomical analysis of trichomes, by Scanning Electron Microscopy, enabled the identification of non-glandular trichomes and four types of glandular trichomes, which comprised capitate and peltate glandular trichomes that were distributed on both sides of the leaf. We observed that the regulators influenced qualitative and quantitative profiles of the volatile organic compounds and the number and distribution of hairs on the leaf surface.

  4. Estimating average glandular dose by measuring glandular rate in mammograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Sachiko; Azuma, Yoshiharu; Sumimoto, Tetsuhiro; Eiho, Shigeru

    2003-01-01

    The glandular rate of the breast was objectively measured in order to calculate individual patient exposure dose (average glandular dose) in mammography. By employing image processing techniques and breast-equivalent phantoms with various glandular rate values, a conversion curve for pixel value to glandular rate can be determined by a neural network. Accordingly, the pixel values in clinical mammograms can be converted to the glandular rate value for each pixel. The individual average glandular dose can therefore be calculated using the individual glandular rates on the basis of the dosimetry method employed for quality control in mammography. In the present study, a data set of 100 craniocaudal mammograms from 50 patients was used to evaluate our method. The average glandular rate and average glandular dose of the data set were 41.2% and 1.79 mGy, respectively. The error in calculating the individual glandular rate can be estimated to be less than ±3%. When the calculation error of the glandular rate is taken into consideration, the error in the individual average glandular dose can be estimated to be 13% or less. We feel that our method for determining the glandular rate from mammograms is useful for minimizing subjectivity in the evaluation of patient breast composition. (author)

  5. Evolution of oil-producing trichomes in Sisyrinchium (Iridaceae): insights from the first comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the genus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauveau, Olivier; Eggers, Lilian; Raquin, Christian; Silvério, Adriano; Brown, Spencer; Couloux, Arnaud; Cruaud, Corine; Kaltchuk-Santos, Eliane; Yockteng, Roxana; Souza-Chies, Tatiana T.; Nadot, Sophie

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Sisyrinchium (Iridaceae: Iridoideae: Sisyrinchieae) is one of the largest, most widespread and most taxonomically complex genera in Iridaceae, with all species except one native to the American continent. Phylogenetic relationships within the genus were investigated and the evolution of oil-producing structures related to specialized oil-bee pollination examined. Methods Phylogenetic analyses based on eight molecular markers obtained from 101 Sisyrinchium accessions representing 85 species were conducted in the first extensive phylogenetic analysis of the genus. Total evidence analyses confirmed the monophyly of the genus and retrieved nine major clades weakly connected to the subdivisions previously recognized. The resulting phylogenetic hypothesis was used to reconstruct biogeographical patterns, and to trace the evolutionary origin of glandular trichomes present in the flowers of several species. Key Results and Conclusions Glandular trichomes evolved three times independently in the genus. In two cases, these glandular trichomes are oil-secreting, suggesting that the corresponding flowers might be pollinated by oil-bees. Biogeographical patterns indicate expansions from Central America and the northern Andes to the subandean ranges between Chile and Argentina and to the extended area of the Paraná river basin. The distribution of oil-flower species across the phylogenetic trees suggests that oil-producing trichomes may have played a key role in the diversification of the genus, a hypothesis that requires future testing. PMID:21527419

  6. Trichome morphology in Teucrium L. (Labiatae. A taxonomic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navarro, Teresa

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The micromorphology of trichomes of 56 Teucrium L. species belonging to the 9 sections of the genus in the Mediterranean área was surveyed by scanning electrón microscopy (SEM of leaves, calyx, corolla and nutlets. 25 trichome types are described, 12 of them are new. Thin walled hairs are the exclusive type found in the corolla and are the most widespread type on the abaxial side of the leaves. Subsessile glandular hairs, 2-4-celled, are found on the nutlet and leaves of the semi-shrubby and paleoendemic species. The presence of short or elongated, generally adpressed simple thick-walled slighüy conical hairs provides an additional character to clarify the boundaries between sect. Chamedrys (Mill. Schreb, and sect. Polium (Mill. Schreb. Branched non-glandular hairs are confined to sect. Polium subsect Polium, except for the rare branched hair conical and thick-walled type found in Teucrium barbarum Jahand. & Maire (sect. Chamaedrys and T. heterophyllum L`Hér. from sect. Teucrium. This last section is well defined by the absence of simple slighüy conical thick-walled hairs and the glandular hairs in the corolla. Sect. Teucriopsis Benth, is of particular interest for the exclusive presence of branched and peltate glandular hairs on the nutlets surface. Sect. Chamedrys is a homogeneous group, distinguished from the other sections by an indumentum formed only by trichomes types evolved from the simple slighüy conical thick-walled hairs. This section overlaps, in the presence of glandular sub-sessile hair on the nutlets surface, with sects. Isotriodon Boiss, and sect. Polium subsect. Rotundifolia Cohén ex Valdés Berm. & Sánchez Crespo. The trichomes type of the calyx teeth, abaxial side of the leaf and latero-posterior corolla lobes can be used as a distinctive taxonomic character at specific and infra-specific level. This study supports Bentham's delimitaüon of sections with the addiüons subequently made by Boissier.La micromorfología de

  7. Trichomes and chemical composition of the volatile oil of Trichogonia cinerea (Gardner R. M. King & H. Rob. (Eupatorieae, Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANNE S. FERNANDES

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Trichogonia cinerea is endemic to Brazil and occurs in areas of cerrado and campo rupestre. In this study, we characterized the glandular and non-glandular trichomes on the aerial parts of this species, determined the principal events in the development of the former, and identified the main constituents of the volatile oil produced in its aerial organs. Fully expanded leaves, internodes, florets, involucral bracts, and stem apices were used for the characterization of trichomes. Leaves, internodes, florets, and involucral bracts were examined by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, whereas stem apices were examined only by light microscopy. Branches in the reproductive phase were used for the extraction and determination of the composition of the volatile oil. The species has three types of glandular trichomes, biseriate vesicular, biseriate pedunculate, and multicellular uniseriate, which secrete volatile oils and phenolic compounds. The major components identified in the volatile oil were 3,5-muuroladiene (39.56% and butylated hydroxytoluene (13.07%.

  8. Light affects Varronia curassavica essential oil yield by increasing trichomes frequency

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    Emily V.R. da S. Feijó

    Full Text Available Light can act on essential oil yield directly on synthesis of secondary metabolites, or indirectly on plant growth. Varronia curassavica Jacq., Boraginaceae, is a native medicinal species from Brazil known as “erva-baleeira”, with anti-inflammatory activity related to its essential oil. Despite pharmacological evidences of this species and its economic importance for herbal medicine production, little is known about the effect of light on growth and essential oil production. This study aimed to analyze the influence of different irradiances on growth, frequency of trichomes, essential oil yield and composition of V. curassavica. The irradiance affected plant growth, but no significant alteration on leaf biomass was detected. The increase in essential oil content under higher irradiance reflected on essential oil yield, and is associated with higher frequency of glandular, globular trichomes. The essential oil composition, rich in caryophyllene derivatives was affected by irradiance, but α-humulene, the constituent of pharmaceutical interest, remained unchanged.

  9. Litterae annuae Provinciae Bohemiae (1623-1755)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bobková, Kateřina

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 1 (2010), s. 23-49 ISSN 0231-7494 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA800150902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80150510 Keywords : church history * litterae annuae * Jesuits Subject RIV: AB - History

  10. Seed trichome variation in Hibiscus section Furcaria in East Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The micromorphology of the seed trichomes in Hibiscus section Furcaria in Tropical East Africa was surveyed. The structure of the trichomes was found to be unique for each species examined, where such trichomes are present. Seed trichomes of specimens of H. altissimus Horny from the Kenya and Tanzania coasts were ...

  11. Artemesia annua extract prevents glyoxal-induced cell injury in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, treatment of HRECs with Artemesia annua extract ... Artemesia annua can potentially be used for the development of a new drug for the prevention ..... species down regulate glucose transport system in ... hypoxic conditions and its effects on the blood-retinal ... brain beta-amyloid precursor protein in a rat model of.

  12. Artemesia annua extract prevents glyoxal-induced cell injury in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of Artemesia annua extract on glyoxal-induced injury in retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRECs). Methods: HRECs were cultured in a medium containing 500 μM glyoxal or glyoxal plus 50μM Artemesia annua extract, or in the medium alone for 24 h. Apoptosis was analysed by flow ...

  13. The hexanoyl-CoA precursor for cannabinoid biosynthesis is formed by an acyl-activating enzyme in Cannabis sativa trichomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Jake M; Boubakir, Zakia; Ambrose, Stephen J; Purves, Randy W; Page, Jonathan E

    2012-08-01

    The psychoactive and analgesic cannabinoids (e.g. Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)) in Cannabis sativa are formed from the short-chain fatty acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) precursor hexanoyl-CoA. Cannabinoids are synthesized in glandular trichomes present mainly on female flowers. We quantified hexanoyl-CoA using LC-MS/MS and found levels of 15.5 pmol g(-1) fresh weight in female hemp flowers with lower amounts in leaves, stems and roots. This pattern parallels the accumulation of the end-product cannabinoid, cannabidiolic acid (CBDA). To search for the acyl-activating enzyme (AAE) that synthesizes hexanoyl-CoA from hexanoate, we analyzed the transcriptome of isolated glandular trichomes. We identified 11 unigenes that encoded putative AAEs including CsAAE1, which shows high transcript abundance in glandular trichomes. In vitro assays showed that recombinant CsAAE1 activates hexanoate and other short- and medium-chained fatty acids. This activity and the trichome-specific expression of CsAAE1 suggest that it is the hexanoyl-CoA synthetase that supplies the cannabinoid pathway. CsAAE3 encodes a peroxisomal enzyme that activates a variety of fatty acid substrates including hexanoate. Although phylogenetic analysis showed that CsAAE1 groups with peroxisomal AAEs, it lacked a peroxisome targeting sequence 1 (PTS1) and localized to the cytoplasm. We suggest that CsAAE1 may have been recruited to the cannabinoid pathway through the loss of its PTS1, thereby redirecting it to the cytoplasm. To probe the origin of hexanoate, we analyzed the trichome expressed sequence tag (EST) dataset for enzymes of fatty acid metabolism. The high abundance of transcripts that encode desaturases and a lipoxygenase suggests that hexanoate may be formed through a pathway that involves the oxygenation and breakdown of unsaturated fatty acids. © 2012 National Research Council of Canada. The Plant Journal © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Are leaf glandular trichomes of oregano hospitable habitats for bacterial growth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamanoli, K; Thalassinos, G; Karpouzas, D; Bosabalidis, A M; Vokou, D; Constantinidou, H-I

    2012-05-01

    Phyllospheric bacteria were isolated from microsites around essential-oil-containing glands of two oregano (Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum) lines. These bacteria, 20 isolates in total, were subjected to bioassays to examine their growth potential in the presence of essential oils at different concentrations. Although there were qualitative and quantitative differences in the essential oil composition between the two oregano lines, no differences were recorded in their antibacterial activity. In disk diffusion bioassays, four of the isolated strains could grow almost unrestrained in the presence of oregano oil, another five proved very sensitive, and the remaining 11 showed intermediate sensitivity. The strain least inhibited by oregano essential oil was further identified by complete16s rRNA gene sequencing as Pseudomonas putida. It was capable of forming biofilms even in the presence of oregano oil at high concentrations. Resistance of P. putida to oregano oil was further elaborated by microwell dilution bioassays, and its topology on oregano leaves was studied by electron microscopy. When inoculated on intact oregano plants, P. putida was able not only to colonize sites adjacent to essential oil-containing glands, but even to grow intracellularly. This is the first time that such prolific bacterial growth inside the glands has been visually observed. Results of this study further revealed that several bacteria can be established on oregano leaves, suggesting that these bacteria have attributes that allow them to tolerate or benefit from oregano secondary metabolites.

  15. Monitoring Metabolite Profiles of Cannabis sativa L. Trichomes during Flowering Period Using 1H NMR-Based Metabolomics and Real-Time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happyana, Nizar; Kayser, Oliver

    2016-08-01

    Cannabis sativa trichomes are glandular structures predominantly responsible for the biosynthesis of cannabinoids, the biologically active compounds unique to this plant. To the best of our knowledge, most metabolomic works on C. sativa that have been reported previously focused their investigations on the flowers and leaves of this plant. In this study, (1)H NMR-based metabolomics and real-time PCR analysis were applied for monitoring the metabolite profiles of C. sativa trichomes, variety Bediol, during the last 4 weeks of the flowering period. Partial least squares discriminant analysis models successfully classified metabolites of the trichomes based on the harvest time. Δ (9)-Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (1) and cannabidiolic acid (2) constituted the vital differential components of the organic preparations, while asparagine, glutamine, fructose, and glucose proved to be their water-extracted counterparts. According to RT-PCR analysis, gene expression levels of olivetol synthase and olivetolic acid cyclase influenced the accumulation of cannabinoids in the Cannabis trichomes during the monitoring time. Moreover, quantitative (1)H NMR and RT-PCR analysis of the Cannabis trichomes suggested that the gene regulation of cannabinoid biosynthesis in the C. sativa variety Bediol is unique when compared with other C. sativa varieties. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Characterization of element and mineral content in Artemisia annua ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterization of element and mineral content in Artemisia annua and Camellia sinensis leaves by handheld X-ray fluorescence. Traore Alassane, Diallo Mouhamadou, Gueye Papa El Hadji Omar, Wague Ahmadou, Lutgen Pierre, Sarr Ousmane, Mboup Souleymane ...

  17. Flower morphology and floral sequence in Artemisia annua (Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premise of the study: Artemisia annua produces phytochemicals possessing antimalarial, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, and anthelmintic activities. The main active ingredient, artemisinin, is extremely effective against malaria. Breeding to develop cultivars producing high levels of artemisinin can he...

  18. Quantification of variability in trichome patterns

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    Bettina eGreese

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available While pattern formation is studied in various areas of biology, little is known about the intrinsic noise leading to variations between individual realizations of the pattern. One prominent example for de novo pattern formation in plants is the patterning of trichomes on Arabidopsis leaves, which involves genetic regulation and cell-to-cell communication. These processes are potentially variable due to , e.g., the abundance of cell components or environmental conditions. To elevate the understanding of the regulatory processes underlying the pattern formation it is crucial to quantitatively analyze the variability in naturally occurring patterns. Here, we review recent approaches towards characterization of noise on trichome initiation. We present methods for the quantification of spatial patterns, which are the basis for data-driven mathematical modeling and enable the analysis of noise from different sources. Besides the insight gained on trichome formation, the examination of observed trichome patterns also shows that highly regulated biological processes can be substantially affected by variability.

  19. BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE COMPOUNDS OF ARTEMISIA ANNUA. SESQUITERPENE LACTONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Konovalov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia annua is an herblike annual plant which has been used in Chinese folk medicine for more than 2,000 years. In 1970-s sesquiterpene lactones of artemisinin was isolated from the aboveground part of this plant. Today it is the most efficient known natural and synthetic compound for malaria treatment.The purpose of the study was the review of the information from the open sources about the study for sesquiterpene lactones of Artemisia annua referring to its pharmacological activity.Methods. The study was carried out using informational and search engines (PubMed, ScholarGoogle, library databases (eLibrary, Cyberleninca, and the results of our own researches.Results. It was established that apart from the essential oil and phenolic compounds, aboveground part of Artemisia annua, it contains a significant amount of sesquiterpene lactones. Qualitative content and quantitative composition of sesquiterpene lactones varies depending on the ecological and geographic factors, plants growing phase, cultivation technology, drying methods etc. Well-known pharmacological studies of the extracts from Artemisia annua herb with sesquiterpene lactones, as well as individual compounds of this group characterize this type of raw materials as a perspective source for more profound research.Conclusion. Our analysis of the open materials on the sesquiterpene lactones of Artemisia annua, including phytochemical and pharmacological ones, allows characterization of the Artemisia annua herb as a perspective source for new drugs working out.

  20. Evolution of a flipped pathway creates metabolic innovation in tomato trichomes through BAHD enzyme promiscuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Pengxiang; Miller, Abigail M; Liu, Xiaoxiao; Jones, A Daniel; Last, Robert L

    2017-12-12

    Plants produce hundreds of thousands of structurally diverse specialized metabolites via multistep biosynthetic networks, including compounds of ecological and therapeutic importance. These pathways are restricted to specific plant groups, and are excellent systems for understanding metabolic evolution. Tomato and other plants in the nightshade family synthesize protective acylated sugars in the tip cells of glandular trichomes on stems and leaves. We describe a metabolic innovation in wild tomato species that contributes to acylsucrose structural diversity. A small number of amino acid changes in two acylsucrose acyltransferases alter their acyl acceptor preferences, resulting in reversal of their order of reaction and increased product diversity. This study demonstrates how small numbers of amino acid changes in multiple pathway enzymes can lead to diversification of specialized metabolites in plants. It also highlights the power of a combined genetic, genomic and in vitro biochemical approach to identify the evolutionary mechanisms leading to metabolic novelty.

  1. BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE COMPOUNDS OF ARTEMISIA ANNUA. ESSENTIAL OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Konovalov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia annua is a herblike annual plant which has been used in Chinese folk medicine for more than 2,000 years. In 1970-s sesquiterpenic lactone of artemisinin was isolated from the above-ground part of this plant. Today it is the most efficient known natural and synthetic compound for malaria treatment. The purpose of the study was to review the data from the open sources about a component composition of Artemisia annua essential oil in the spectrum of its pharmacological activity. Methods. The study was carried out using information and searching sources (PubMed, ScholarGoogle, library data bases (eLibrary, Cyberleninca, as well as the results of our studies. Results. We have established that aboveground part of Artemisia annua have a significant amount  of essential oil apart from the sesquiterpene lactones. Essential oil contains more than 120 components, which belong to different classes of natural compounds. The study for dynamics of the essential oil accumulation in the Artemisia annua herb showed that the amount of oil in the herb rises significantly during budding, reaching maximum value in blossom. Qualitative composition and quantitative content of certain components varies depending on ecological and  geographical factors,  plant growing phase, cultivation technology, drying methods etc. Well-known pharmacological studies of essential oil of the Artemisia annua characterize it as a prospective source for the development of new antimicrobial medicinal drugs. Besides, as the studies shown, it can be related to the 6 class according to K. Sidorov’s classification – “relatively non-hazardous substances”. Conclusion. The analysis of the open sources on the study of essential oil of Artemisia annua made by us, as well as the results of our own studies, including phytochemical studies allow characterizing the essential oil of Artemisia annua as a prospective source for the working out of new antimicrobial drugs.

  2. Trichomes: different regulatory networks lead to convergent structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serna, Laura; Martin, Cathie

    2006-06-01

    Sometimes, proteins, biological structures or even organisms have similar functions and appearances but have evolved through widely divergent pathways. There is experimental evidence to suggest that different developmental pathways have converged to produce similar outgrowths of the aerial plant epidermis, referred to as trichomes. The emerging picture suggests that trichomes in Arabidopsis thaliana and, perhaps, in cotton develop through a transcriptional regulatory network that differs from those regulating trichome formation in Antirrhinum and Solanaceous species. Several lines of evidence suggest that the duplication of a gene controlling anthocyanin production and subsequent divergence might be the major force driving trichome formation in Arabidopsis, whereas the multicellular trichomes of Antirrhinum and Solanaceous species appear to have a different regulatory origin.

  3. Pseudomonas fluorescens strains selectively suppress annual bluegrass (Poa annua L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annual bluegrass (Poa annua L.) is a cool-season annual grass that is a major weed species in turf, turfgrass-seed production, sod production, and golf courses of the western United States. There are few selective herbicides available for the management of annual bluegrass. While the life cycles o...

  4. Assessment of the effect of Artemisia annua leave extract infusion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2013-02-27

    Feb 27, 2013 ... infusion pH under dark conditions on Staphylococcus ... Methodology and Results: A. annua leaves were collected in ... bacteria were isolated from the surface water (lotic hydrosystems) in .... Its climate is tropical and humid and ... used in this study. ... were first homogenized and then l 100 was taken and.

  5. Virulence of Xanthomonas translucens pv. poae Isolated from Poa annua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arielle Chaves

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial wilt is a vascular wilt disease caused by Xanthomonas translucens pv. poae that infects Poa annua, a grass that is commonly found on golf course greens throughout the world. Bacterial wilt causes symptoms of etiolation, wilting, and foliar necrosis. The damage is most prevalent during the summer and the pathogen can kill turf under conditions optimal for disease development. Fifteen isolates of X. translucens pv. poae were collected from northern regions in the United States and tested for virulence against P. annua. All 15 isolates were pathogenic on P. annua, but demonstrated variable levels of virulence when inoculated onto P. annua under greenhouse conditions. The isolates were divided into two virulence groups. The first group containing four isolates generally resulted in less than 40% mortality following inoculation. The second group, containing the other eleven isolates, produced between 90 and 100% mortality following inoculation. These results suggest that differences in the virulence of bacterial populations present on a golf course may result in more or less severe amounts of observed disease.

  6. Stimulation of artemisinin biosynthesis in Artemisia annua hairy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-06-07

    Jun 7, 2010 ... Ben Zhang1, Ting Zou1, Yan Hua Lu2 and Jian Wen Wang1, 2*. 1School of ... application of large-scale cultures of A. annua hairy root is still be ... high performance liquid chromatography; FTIR, fourier ... the ratio between the direct reducing sugar and total reducing sugar ... dissolved in 2 ml ethanol.

  7. Potential ecological roles of artemisinin produced by Artemisia annua L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsmark Jessing, Karina; Duke, Stephen O; Cedergreeen, Nina

    2014-02-01

    Artemisia annua L. (annual wormwood, Asteraceae) and its secondary metabolite artemisinin, a unique sesquiterpene lactone with an endoperoxide bridge, has gained much attention due to its antimalarial properties. Artemisinin has a complex structure that requires a significant amount of energy for the plant to synthesize. So, what are the benefits to A. annua of producing this unique compound, and what is the ecological role of artemisinin? This review addresses these questions, discussing evidence of the potential utility of artemisinin in protecting the plant from insects and other herbivores, as well as pathogens and competing plant species. Abiotic factors affecting the artemisinin production, as well as mechanisms of artemisinin release to the surroundings also are discussed, and new data are provided on the toxicity of artemisinin towards soil and aquatic organisms. The antifungal and antibacterial effects reported are not very pronounced. Several studies have reported that extracts of A. annua have insecticidal effects, though few studies have proven that artemisinin could be the single compound responsible for the observed effects. However, the pathogen(s) or insect(s) that may have provided the selection pressure for the evolution of artemisinin synthesis may not have been represented in the research thus far conducted. The relatively high level of phytotoxicity of artemisinin in soil indicates that plant/plant allelopathy could be a beneficial function of artemisinin to the producing plant. The release routes of artemisinin (movement from roots and wash off from leaf surfaces) from A. annua to the soil support the rationale for allelopathy.

  8. Immunohistochemical characterization of glandular elements in glandular cardiac myxoma: Study of six cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devajit Nath

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Back ground: Glandular cardiac myxoma has varying clinical presentation with uncertain histogenesis and debatable immunohistochemical profile. Glandular epithelial differentiations are rare phenomenon known to be present as an intrinsic component of the tumor. The origin of the glands has been attributed to epithelial differentiation of a totipotent cardiomyogenic precursor cells or the entrapped foregut rests in the tumor. Materials and Methods: Retrospective study includes six cases of glandular cardiac myxoma collected over a perior of 4 years. Sections were examined to define the histogenesis, histological and immunohistochemical profile of the glandular elements. Results: Incidence of glandular cardiac myxoma was 6.6% with a male to female ratio of 1:2.Mean age was 49.9 years. Left atrium was the commonest site. Five were sporadic and one was familial. Chest pain and dyspnea were the commonest clinical symptoms. Histologically all myxoma showed well formed glandular structures with typical myxomatous area. No atypia, mitosis or necrosis was identified in the glandular elements. Markers in six cases of glandular cardiac myxoma were immunopositive for CK7, CK 19, EMA, CEA, focally for E-cadherin while immunonegative for CK20, Chromogranin, Synaptophysin, calretenin, vimentin, B-catenin, TTF-1 and GCDFP-15 favoring enteric differentiation. Conclusion: Glandular cardiac myxoma is a rare entity which shows characteristics similar to those of classical cardiac myxoma with benign glandular elements showing enteric differentiation. Complete surgical excision is the treatment of choice with good prognosis. It is important to recognize this entity to avoid an erroneous diagnosis of metastatic adenocarcinoma.

  9. Effects of Artemisia annua extracts on sporulation of Eimeria oocysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatemi, Ahmadreza; Razavi, Seyyed Mostafa; Asasi, Keramat; Goudarzi, Majid Torabi

    2015-03-01

    The present study aimed to compare the effect of different Artemisia annua extracts on sporulation rate of mixed oocysts of Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria necatrix, and Eimeria tenella. Three types of A. annua extracts including petroleum ether (PE), ethanol 96° (E), and water (W) extracts were prepared. Artemisinin, a sesquiterpene lactone endoperoxide derived from the A. annua analysis of each extract was done by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV). Fresh fecal samples containing three Eimeria species were floated and counted, and the oocysts were transferred into 50 tubes, each containing 10(5) oocysts per milliliter. Five tubes were control. Each of the other 45 tubes contained one of three doses (1 part per thousand (ppt), 2 ppt, and 5 ppt) and one of three extracts (PE, E, and W extracts) with five replications. The tubes were incubated for 48 h at 25-29 °C and aerated. Sporulation inhibition assay was used to evaluate the activity of extracts. The results showed that the E and PE extracts inhibit sporulation in 2 and 5 ppt concentrations, but the W extract stimulates it in all concentrations. The proportions of oocyst inhibition relative to control were 31 % (5 ppt) and 29 % (2 ppt) for PE and 34 % (5 ppt) and 46 % (2 ppt) for E extract. Furthermore, many oocysts in PE and E groups were wrinkled and contained abnormal sporocysts. The proportions of sporulation stimulation relative to control were 22 % (5 ppt), 24 % (2 ppt), and 27 % (1 ppt) in W extract. Our study is the first to demonstrate that all types of A. annua extracts do not necessarily have a similar activity, and the interaction of all contents and their relative concentrations is an important factor for sporulation stimulation or inhibition. It seems, some parts of unmetabolized excreted PE and E extracts could inhibit oocyst sporulation and eventually affect infection transmission.

  10. Assessment of Poa annua resistance to clethodim in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Ruiz, Ana Maria; Herrera-Murillo, Franklin; Chaves-Barrantes, Nestor; Hernandez-Diaz, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The presence of resistance to clethodim in Poa annua populations was observed in onion fields in the highlands of Cartago, Costa Rica. Two experiments were conducted; the first one was carried out, in 2007, in a greenhouse at the Fabio Baudrit Moreno Agricultural Experiment Station (EEAFBM, in Spanish), with seeds of plants from a farm where clethodim has exercised good control (S population), and from another farm where clethodim has showed a deficient control (R population). Both S and R populations were treated with different doses of clethodim (0,5X, 1,0X, 1,5X and 2,0X), being X the recommended commercial dose. In this experiment, control of the R population was 44% and 17% at doses of 1.5X and 2.0X, respectively, whereas control of the S population was 100% at either of those doses. The second experiment was carried out in 2009, seeds of two other P. annua populations were collected in a similar way: one population from an area where weed control has been satisfactory (S), and the other population from an area of the farm where control was deficient (R). Seeds were sown, depending on the type, in plastic pots and sprayed with clethodim at doses of: 0. 1X, 2X, 4X, 8X, and 16X. There were significant differences in the reactions to clethodim of both P. annua populations The S population showed a higher percentage of control and less surviving plants than the R population. Several plants of the R population resisted up to 16X commercial doses of clethodim. Results of both experiments suggest the presence of P. annua populations resistant to clethodim. (author) [es

  11. Assessment of Poa annua resistance to clethodim in Costa Rica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Rodríguez-Ruiz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to check for the presence of resistance to clethodim in Poa annua populations observed in onion fields in the highlands of Cartago, Costa Rica. Two experiments were conducted; the first one was carried out, in 2007, in a greenhouse at the Fabio Baudrit Moreno Agricultural Experiment Station (EEAFBM, in Spanish, with seeds of plants from a farm where clethodim exercised good control (S population, and from another farm where clethodim showed a deficient control (R population. Both S and R populations were treated with different doses of clethodim (0.5X, 1.0X, 1.5X and 2.0X, being X the recommended commercial dose. In this experiment, control of the R population was 44% and 17% at doses of 1.5X and 2.0X, respectively, whereas control of the S population was 100% at either of those doses. The second experiment was carried out in 2009, seeds of two other P. annua populations were collected in a similar way: one population from an area where weed control was satisfactory (S, and the other population from an area of the farm where control was deficient (R. Seeds were sown, depending on the type, in plastic pots and sprayed with clethodim at doses of: 0. 1X, 2X, 4X, 8X, and 16X. There were significant differences in the reactions to clethodim of both P. annua populations The S population showed a higher percentage of control and less surviving plants than the R population. Several plants of the R population resisted up to 16X commercial doses of clethodim. Results of both experiments suggest the presence of P. annua populations resistant to clethodim.

  12. Polyploid response of Artemisia annua L. to colchicine treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, A.; Parjanto; Samanhudi; Hikam, M. P.; Widyastuti, Y.

    2018-03-01

    Artemisia (Artemisia annua) is a a medicinal herb originated from Asia, its contains Artemisinin for malaria (caused by Plasmodium falciparum) treatment. Artemisinin content in A. annua are relatively low, ranging from 0.01% -0.5%. In order to increase the Artemisinin content, polyploid induction could be one effort to be done. For that, this experiment aims to examine the effect of colchicine on morphological characteristics and the induction of polyploidization in Artemisia plants. Polyploid induction on Artemisia annua L. seeds was performed by soaking the Artemisia seeds in colchicine (0%, 0,05%, 0,1% and 0,2%; concentration based) for 2 hours. The experimental design was Completely Randomized Design, one factor, 4 colchicine treatments and in each treatment 7 replicate. The results showed that polyploid occur in plants treated with 0.05% colchicine concentration and its morphological characteristic are 89.4 cm height, 30 branches, 15.9 CCI chlorophyll content, 0.78 cm stem diameter, and chromosome number 2n = 27. In the stomata density of polyploid plants (treated by 0.05% colchicine) was 130 number/mm2 with stomata diameter of 22.8 μm.

  13. Loss of artemisinin produced by Artemisia annua L. to the soil environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemisia annua L. synthesizes and accumulates the secondary metabolite artemisinin, a compound with antimalarial properties. As cultivation of the plant is still the only cost effective source of artemisinin, the production takes place in monocultures of A. annua. Artemisinin is known to have inse...

  14. Characterization of two genes for the biosynthesis of abietane-type diterpenes in rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) glandular trichomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brückner, K.; Bozic, D.; Manzano, D.; Papaefthimiou, D.; Pateraki, I.; Scheler, U.; Ferrer, A.; Vos, de R.C.H.; Kanellis, A.K.; Tissier, A.

    2014-01-01

    Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) produces the phenolic diterpenes carnosic acid and carnosol, which, in addition to their general antioxidant activities, have recently been suggested as potential ingredients for the prevention and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Little is known about the

  15. ISOLASI DAN IDENTIFIKASI ARTEMISININ DARI HERBA Artemisia annua L .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukmayati Alegantina

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Malaria is still a major problem in Indonesia, because mortality in patients with severe malaria remains high. Many cases are occurs in endemic areas (e.g. Papua,Kalimantan, Bali and Sulawesi. Chloroquin is the most common antimalarial drug which is widely used since 1934. Plasmodium falciparum resistant to chloroquine was reported in some countries (e.g. Thailand, Vietnam, Indonesia, and Bangladesh. To delay the development of resistance, WHO recommended antimalarial combination therapy. Artemisinin and its derivatives (artesunate, artemether, dihydroartemisin produce rapid clearance of parasitemia and rapid resolution of symptoms compare with chloroquine. Artemisinin is obtained from Artemisia annua L. Even though there are some research produced a chemical synthetic of artemisinin, but it is not efficient and notstable. Our purposes are to conduct a preliminary research to obtain a method of isolation and identification of artemisinin which is the first step to develop a raw material of artemisinin as antimalarial drug in Indonesia.The first step of isolation is extraction from herb Artemisia annua L with n-hexane thatproduced n-hexane extract, this process is well-known as soxhletation. The second step isidentification of chemical substances from n-hexane extract. The third step is to obtain isolate from n-hexane extract by fractionation with acetonitril and separation with column chromatography. The last step is chemical and physical identification of isolateby TLC (Thin Layer (Chromatography and FT-IR.The result from n-hexane extract measurement is 4.33 % and from acetonitril fraction is2. 40 %. Chemical identification of n-hexan extract found there are terpenoid, phenol, flavonoid, fatty acid, atsiri oil and saponin. Organoleptic identification of isolate is white crystal, monosubstrate, odorless and bitter. Identification of isolate with TLC and FT-IR confirmed that the isolate is artemisinin.Keywords: artemisinin, Artemisia

  16. Assessing the importance of human activities for the establishment of the invasive Poa annua in Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A. Molina-Montenegro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Because of its harsh environmental conditions and remoteness, Antarctica is often considered to be at low risk of plant invasion. However, an increasing number of reports have shown the presence and spread of non-native plants in Antarctica; it is therefore important to study which factors control the invasion process in this ecosystem. Here, we assessed the role of different human activities on the presence and abundance of the invasive Poa annua. In addition, we performed a reciprocal transplant experiment in the field, and a manipulative experiment of germination with P. annua and the natives Colobanthus quitensis and Deschampsia antarctica, in order to unravel the effects of physical soil disturbance on the establishment and survival of P. annua. We found a positive correlation between abundance of P. annua and level of soil disturbance, and that survival of P. annua was 33% higher in sites with disturbed soil than non-disturbed. Finally, we found that disturbance conditions increased germination for P. annua, whereas for native species germination in experimentally disturbed soil was either unchanged or reduced compared to undisturbed soil. Our results indicate that human activities that modify abiotic soil characteristics could play an important role in the abundance of this invasive species. If the current patterns of human activities are maintained in Antarctica, the establishment success and spread of P. annua could increase, negatively affecting native flora.

  17. Flavonoids casticin and chrysosplenol D from Artemisia annua L. inhibit inflammation in vitro and in vivo

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Li, Y.J.; Guo, Y.; Yang, Q.; Weng, X. G.; Yang, L.; Wang, Y.J.; Chen, Y.; Zhang, D.; Li, Q.; Liu, X.C.; Kan, X.X.; Chen, X.; Zhu, X.X.; Kmoníčková, E.; Zídek, Zdeněk

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 286, č. 3 (2015), s. 151-158 ISSN 0041-008X Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : Artemisia annua L. * Flavonoids * Casticin * Chrysosplenol D * Inflammation Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 3.847, year: 2015

  18. PRODUCTION OF THE NEW ANTIMALARIAL DRUG ARTEMISININ IN SHOOT CULTURES OF ARTEMISIA-ANNUA L

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WOERDENBAG, HJ; LUERS, JFJ; VANUDEN, W; PRAS, N; MALINGRE, TM; ALFERMANN, AW

    From aseptically grown Artemisia annua plantlets, shoot cultures were initiated. Using different concentrations of auxine, cytokinine and sucrose, a suitable culture medium was developed, with respect to the growth of the shoots and their artemisinin accumulation. Nitrate concentration and

  19. Characterization of Trichome-Expressed BAHD Acyltransferases in Petunia axillaris Reveals Distinct Acylsugar Assembly Mechanisms within the Solanaceae1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uebler, Joseph B.; Liu, Xiaoxiao

    2017-01-01

    Acylsugars are synthesized in the glandular trichomes of the Solanaceae family and are implicated in protection against abiotic and biotic stress. Acylsugars are composed of either sucrose or glucose esterified with varying numbers of acyl chains of differing length. In tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), acylsugar assembly requires four acylsugar acyltransferases (ASATs) of the BAHD superfamily. Tomato ASATs catalyze the sequential esterification of acyl-coenzyme A thioesters to the R4, R3, R3ʹ, and R2 positions of sucrose, yielding a tetra-acylsucrose. Petunia spp. synthesize acylsugars that are structurally distinct from those of tomato. To explore the mechanisms underlying this chemical diversity, a Petunia axillaris transcriptome was mined for trichome preferentially expressed BAHDs. A combination of phylogenetic analyses, gene silencing, and biochemical analyses coupled with structural elucidation of metabolites revealed that acylsugar assembly is not conserved between tomato and petunia. In P. axillaris, tetra-acylsucrose assembly occurs through the action of four ASATs, which catalyze sequential addition of acyl groups to the R2, R4, R3, and R6 positions. Notably, in P. axillaris, PaxASAT1 and PaxASAT4 catalyze the acylation of the R2 and R6 positions of sucrose, respectively, and no clear orthologs exist in tomato. Similarly, petunia acylsugars lack an acyl group at the R3ʹ position, and congruently, an ortholog of SlASAT3, which catalyzes acylation at the R3ʹ position in tomato, is absent in P. axillaris. Furthermore, where putative orthologous relationships of ASATs are predicted between tomato and petunia, these are not supported by biochemical assays. Overall, these data demonstrate the considerable evolutionary plasticity of acylsugar biosynthesis. PMID:28701351

  20. Characterization of Trichome-Expressed BAHD Acyltransferases in Petunia axillaris Reveals Distinct Acylsugar Assembly Mechanisms within the Solanaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadakuduti, Satya Swathi; Uebler, Joseph B; Liu, Xiaoxiao; Jones, A Daniel; Barry, Cornelius S

    2017-09-01

    Acylsugars are synthesized in the glandular trichomes of the Solanaceae family and are implicated in protection against abiotic and biotic stress. Acylsugars are composed of either sucrose or glucose esterified with varying numbers of acyl chains of differing length. In tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum ), acylsugar assembly requires four acylsugar acyltransferases (ASATs) of the BAHD superfamily. Tomato ASATs catalyze the sequential esterification of acyl-coenzyme A thioesters to the R4, R3, R3', and R2 positions of sucrose, yielding a tetra-acylsucrose. Petunia spp. synthesize acylsugars that are structurally distinct from those of tomato. To explore the mechanisms underlying this chemical diversity, a Petunia axillaris transcriptome was mined for trichome preferentially expressed BAHDs. A combination of phylogenetic analyses, gene silencing, and biochemical analyses coupled with structural elucidation of metabolites revealed that acylsugar assembly is not conserved between tomato and petunia. In P. axillaris , tetra-acylsucrose assembly occurs through the action of four ASATs, which catalyze sequential addition of acyl groups to the R2, R4, R3, and R6 positions. Notably, in P. axillaris , PaxASAT1 and PaxASAT4 catalyze the acylation of the R2 and R6 positions of sucrose, respectively, and no clear orthologs exist in tomato. Similarly, petunia acylsugars lack an acyl group at the R3' position, and congruently, an ortholog of SlASAT3, which catalyzes acylation at the R3' position in tomato, is absent in P. axillaris Furthermore, where putative orthologous relationships of ASATs are predicted between tomato and petunia, these are not supported by biochemical assays. Overall, these data demonstrate the considerable evolutionary plasticity of acylsugar biosynthesis. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Antibacterial and antiprotozoal effect of Artemisia annua extracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivarsen, E.; Fretté, X. C.; Engberg, R. M.

    2012-01-01

    be banned in the EU. Extracts of aerial parts of Artemisia annua (AA) showed antimicrobial activity in overnight cultures of CP strains isolated from diseased broilers. The hexane extract (HEX) gave the strongest inhibition (MIC=185ppm) while the dichloromethane extract (DCM) gave a weaker inhibition (MIC......=270ppm). The dietary incorporation of HEX reduced the population of CP and the severity of the associated small intestinal lesions (P>0.05) in broilers when applying a NE disease model. The antibacterial compounds from HEX and DCM, chrysosplenol and ponticaepoxide, were isolated. This is the first...... report of activity against CP for these compounds. HEX, DCM and artemisinin were also tested against HM. The two latter showed highest antiprotozoal effect in vitro (MLC=1.0mg/ml and IC50=1.3mg/ml respectively), and were tested in vivo in infected poultry. However, no effect against HM at the given...

  2. Foliar trichomes, boundary layers, and gas exchange in 12 species of epiphytic Tillandsia (Bromeliaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benz, Brett W; Martin, Craig E

    2006-04-01

    We examined the relationships between H2O and CO2 gas exchange parameters and leaf trichome cover in 12 species of Tillandsia that exhibit a wide range in trichome size and trichome cover. Previous investigations have hypothesized that trichomes function to enhance boundary layers around Tillandsioid leaves thereby buffering the evaporative demand of the atmosphere and retarding transpirational water loss. Data presented herein suggest that trichome-enhanced boundary layers have negligible effects on Tillandsia gas exchange, as indicated by the lack of statistically significant relationships in regression analyses of gas exchange parameters and trichome cover. We calculated trichome and leaf boundary layer components, and their associated effects on H2O and CO2 gas exchange. The results further indicate trichome-enhanced boundary layers do not significantly reduce transpirational water loss. We conclude that although the trichomes undoubtedly increase the thickness of the boundary layer, the increase due to Tillandsioid trichomes is inconsequential in terms of whole leaf boundary layers, and any associated reduction in transpirational water loss is also negligible within the whole plant gas exchange pathway.

  3. Elimination of salmonella from animal glandular products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Fiebre, C W; Burck, K T; Feldman, D

    1969-03-01

    Methods for the elimination of salmonellae from selected powdered pharmaceuticals of animal glandular origin were studied. Terminal heat treatment under carefully controlled conditions was effective for pancreatin-a powder containing proteolytic, amylolytic, and lipolytic enzymes prepared from hog pancreas glands. Use of this method resulted in a significant reduction in the number of salmonella-positive batches and also reduced the testing procedures required to confirm the absence of viable salmonellae among the majority of samples tested. Powders such as stomach substance and thyroid, in which the biological activity is not enzyme in nature, were treated successfully with acidified organic solvents. Other methods were investigated but were not suitable because of a deleterious effect on the biological activity or physical properties of the product or an inability to effect salmonella elimination.

  4. Elimination of Salmonellae from Animal Glandular Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Fiebre, Conrad W.; Burck, Kenneth T.; Feldman, David

    1969-01-01

    Methods for the elimination of salmonellae from selected powdered pharmaceuticals of animal glandular origin were studied. Terminal heat treatment under carefully controlled conditions was effective for pancreatin—a powder containing proteolytic, amylolytic, and lipolytic enzymes prepared from hog pancreas glands. Use of this method resulted in a significant reduction in the number of salmonella-positive batches and also reduced the testing procedures required to confirm the absence of viable salmonellae among the majority of samples tested. Powders such as stomach substance and thyroid, in which the biological activity is not enzyme in nature, were treated successfully with acidified organic solvents. Other methods were investigated but were not suitable because of a deleterious effect on the biological activity or physical properties of the product or an inability to effect salmonella elimination. PMID:5780395

  5. Glandular odontogenic cyst: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tambawaia, Shahnaz S.; Karjodkar, Freny R.; Yadav, Archana; Sansare, Kaustubh; Sontakke, Subodh

    2014-01-01

    Glandular odontogenic cysts (GOCs) are rare intrabony solitary or multiloculated cysts of odontogenic origin. The importance of GOCs lies in the fact that they exhibit a propensity for recurrence similar to keratocystic odontogenic tumors and that they may be confused microscopically with central mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Thus, the oral and maxillofacial radiologists play an important role in definitive diagnosis of GOC based on distinctive cases; though they are rare. In large part, this is due to the GOC's complex and frequently non-specific histopathology. This report describes a case of GOC occurrence in the posterior mandibular ramus region in a 17-year-old female, which is a rare combination of site, age, and gender for occurrence.

  6. Glandular odontogenic cyst: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tambawaia, Shahnaz S.; Karjodkar, Freny R.; Yadav, Archana; Sansare, Kaustubh; Sontakke, Subodh [Nair Hospital Dental College, Mumbai (India)

    2014-03-15

    Glandular odontogenic cysts (GOCs) are rare intrabony solitary or multiloculated cysts of odontogenic origin. The importance of GOCs lies in the fact that they exhibit a propensity for recurrence similar to keratocystic odontogenic tumors and that they may be confused microscopically with central mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Thus, the oral and maxillofacial radiologists play an important role in definitive diagnosis of GOC based on distinctive cases; though they are rare. In large part, this is due to the GOC's complex and frequently non-specific histopathology. This report describes a case of GOC occurrence in the posterior mandibular ramus region in a 17-year-old female, which is a rare combination of site, age, and gender for occurrence.

  7. Control of trichome branching by Chromatin Assembly Factor-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hennig Lars

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chromatin dynamics and stability are both required to control normal development of multicellular organisms. Chromatin assembly factor CAF-1 is a histone chaperone that facilitates chromatin formation and the maintenance of specific chromatin states. In plants and animals CAF-1 is essential for normal development, but it is poorly understood which developmental pathways require CAF-1 function. Results Mutations in all three CAF-1 subunits affect Arabidopsis trichome morphology and lack of CAF-1 function results in formation of trichomes with supernumerary branches. This phenotype can be partially alleviated by external sucrose. In contrast, other aspects of the CAF-1 mutant phenotype, such as defective meristem function and organ formation, are aggravated by external sucrose. Double mutant analyses revealed epistatic interactions between CAF-1 mutants and stichel, but non-epistatic interactions between CAF-1 mutants and glabra3 and kaktus. In addition, mutations in CAF-1 could partly suppress the strong overbranching and polyploidization phenotype of kaktus mutants. Conclusion CAF-1 is required for cell differentiation and regulates trichome development together with STICHEL in an endoreduplication-independent pathway. This function of CAF-1 can be partially substituted by application of exogenous sucrose. Finally, CAF-1 is also needed for the high degree of endoreduplication in kaktus mutants and thus for the realization of kaktus' extreme overbranching phenotype.

  8. Variation in vegetative growth and trichomes in Cannabis sativa L. (Marihuana) in response to enviromental pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, G.K.; Mann, S.K.

    1984-07-01

    Four populations of Cannabis sativa L. (marihuana) growing in their native habitat and exposed to different levels of environmental pollution were studied for several leaf morphology and leaf trichome features. Leaf length, petiole length, length and width of central leaflet, and the number of teeth on leaf margin decreased with increase in pollution. Trichome length and trichome density values were found to be higher in populations exposed to higher levels of environmental pollution.

  9. Comparison of Artemisia annua bioactivities between traditional medicine and chemical extracts

    KAUST Repository

    Nageeb, Ahmed; Altawashi, Azza; Emwas, Abdul-Hamid M.; Al-Talla, Zeyad; Al Rifai, Nahla

    2014-01-01

    The present work investigates the efficacy of using Artemisia annua in traditional medicine in comparison with chemical extracts of its bioactive molecules. In addition, the effects of location (Egypt and Jericho) on the bioactivities of the plant were investigated. The results showed that water extracts of Artemisia annua from Jericho have stronger antibacterial activities than organic solvent extracts. In contrast, water and organic solvent extracts of the Artemisia annua from Egypt do not have anti-bacterial activity. Furthermore, while the methanol extract of EA displayed high anticancer affects, the water extract of Egypt and the extracts of Jericho did not show significant anticancer activity. Finally, the results showed that the methanol and water extracts of Jericho had the highest antioxidant activity, while the extracts of Egypt had none. The current results validate the scientific bases for the use of Artemisia annua in traditional medicine. In addition, our results suggest that the collection location of the Artemisia annua has an effect on its chemical composition and bioactivities. - See more at: http://www.eurekaselect.com/121416/article#sthash.2c2j9AoL.dpuf

  10. Comparison of Artemisia annua bioactivities between traditional medicine and chemical extracts

    KAUST Repository

    Nageeb, Ahmed

    2014-04-04

    The present work investigates the efficacy of using Artemisia annua in traditional medicine in comparison with chemical extracts of its bioactive molecules. In addition, the effects of location (Egypt and Jericho) on the bioactivities of the plant were investigated. The results showed that water extracts of Artemisia annua from Jericho have stronger antibacterial activities than organic solvent extracts. In contrast, water and organic solvent extracts of the Artemisia annua from Egypt do not have anti-bacterial activity. Furthermore, while the methanol extract of EA displayed high anticancer affects, the water extract of Egypt and the extracts of Jericho did not show significant anticancer activity. Finally, the results showed that the methanol and water extracts of Jericho had the highest antioxidant activity, while the extracts of Egypt had none. The current results validate the scientific bases for the use of Artemisia annua in traditional medicine. In addition, our results suggest that the collection location of the Artemisia annua has an effect on its chemical composition and bioactivities. - See more at: http://www.eurekaselect.com/121416/article#sthash.2c2j9AoL.dpuf

  11. An overview of the gene regulatory network controlling trichome development in the model plant, Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitakanta ePattanaik

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Trichomes are specialized epidermal cells located on aerial parts of plants and are associated with a wide array of biological processes. Trichomes protect plants from adverse conditions including UV light and herbivore attack and are also an important source of a number of phytochemicals. The simple unicellular trichomes of Arabidopsis serve as an excellent model to study molecular mechanism of cell differentiation and pattern formation in plants. The emerging picture suggests that the developmental process is controlled by a transcriptional network involving three major groups of transcription factors: the R2R3 MYB, basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH and WD40 repeat (WDR protein. These regulatory proteins form a trimeric activator complex that positively regulates trichome development. The single repeat R3 MYBs act as negative regulators of trichome development. They compete with the R2R3 MYBs to bind the bHLH factor and form a repressor complex. In addition to activator-repressor mechanism, a depletion mechanism may operate in parallel during trichome development. In this mechanism, the bHLH factor traps the WDR protein which results in depletion of WDR protein in neighboring cells. Consequently, the cells with high levels of bHLH and WDR proteins are developed into trichomes. A group of C2H2 zinc finger TFs has also been implicated in trichome development. Phytohormones, including gibberellins and jasmonic acid, play significant roles in this developmental process. Recently, microRNAs have been shown to be involved in trichome development. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that the activities of the key regulatory proteins involved in trichome development are controlled by the 26S/ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS, highlighting the complexity of the regulatory network controlling this developmental process. To complement several excellent recent relevant reviews, this review focuses on the transcriptional network and hormonal interplay

  12. Size and Density of Artemisia annua Stomata Soaked in Water Extract of Gloriosa superba Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Indah Rahmawati

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia annua is a herbaceous plant that produces artemisinin as a malaria drug, haemorrhoids therapy, aromatherapy, antiviral, anticancer and antibacterial. Gloriosa superba is a plant that contains high colchicine compounds, especially on the seeds. Gloriosa superba extracts of tubers, stems, seeds, and leaves were used as biomutagen for many plants. Colchicine contains of these plants as antimitotic have been studied and proven by the mitotic index plants. Water extracts of Gloriosa superba seeds was used as a mutagen for Artemisia annua. The aim of this study was to determine the size and density of Artemisia annua stomata soaked in water extract of Gloriosa superba seeds as a mutagen. Extraction of Gloriosa superba seeds obtained naturally on Krakal Beach, Gunung Kidul by using a maceration method with water solvent (1:1. Artemisia annua sprouts were obtained from B2P2TOOT Tawangmangu. Variables treatment on sprouts using water extract concentration of Gloriosa superba seeds and soaking time of Artemisia annua sprouts. Measurements of stomatal length, width and density were conducted in epidermis of Artemisia annua leaf. Observation and measurements of the stomata were conducted by using a light microscope. The results showed that the length and width of stomata were 0.025 mm and 0.017 mm respectively. The stomatal density of the control leaf (174.69 amount/mm2 was lower than the other treated plants. Stomatal size and density has increased with the increasing concentration extracts on treated plants. Water extracts of Gloriosa superba seeds proved the effects on stomatal size and density of treated plants.  

  13. RNAi down-regulation of cinnamate-4-hydroxylase increases artemisinin biosynthesis in Artemisia annua

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Ritesh; Vashisth, Divya; Misra, Amita; Akhtar, Md Qussen; Jalil, Syed Uzma; Shanker, Karuna; Gupta, Madan Mohan; Rout, Prashant Kumar; Gupta, Anil Kumar; Shasany, Ajit Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Cinnamate-4-hydroxylase (C4H) converts trans-cinnamic acid (CA) to p-coumaric acid (COA) in the phenylpropanoid/lignin biosynthesis pathway. Earlier we reported increased expression of AaCYP71AV1 (an important gene of artemisinin biosynthesis pathway) caused by CA treatment in Artemisia annua. Hence, AaC4H gene was identified, cloned, characterized and silenced in A. annua with the assumption that the elevated internal CA due to knock down may increase the artemisinin yield. Accumulation of t...

  14. Genetic evidence suggests that GIS functions downstream of TCL1 to regulate trichome formation in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Na; Yang, Li; Luo, Sha; Wang, Xutong; Wang, Wei; Cheng, Yuxin; Tian, Hainan; Zheng, Kaijie; Cai, Ling; Wang, Shucai

    2018-04-13

    Trichome formation in Arabidopsis is regulated by a MBW complex formed by MYB, bHLH and WD40 transcriptional factors, which can activate GLABRA2 (GL2) and the R3 MYB transcription factor genes. GL2 promotes trichome formation, whereas R3 MYBs are able to block the formation of the MBW complex. It has been reported that the C2H2 transcription factor GIS (GLABROUS INFLORESCENCE STEMS) functions upstream of the MBW activator complex to regulate trichome formation, and that the expression of TCL1 is not regulated by the MBW complex. However, gis and the R3 MYB gene mutant tcl1 (trichomeless 1) have opposite inflorescence trichome phenotypes, but their relationship in regulating trichome formation remained unknown. By generating and characterization of the gis tcl1 double mutant, we found that trichome formation in the gis tcl1double and the tcl1 single mutants were largely indistinguishable, but the trichome formation in the 35S:TCL1/gis transgenic plant was similar to that in the gis mutant. By using quantitative RT-PCR analysis, we showed that expression level of GIS was increased in the triple mutant tcl1 try cpc, but the expression level of TCL1 was not affected in the gis mutant. On the other hand, trichome morphology in both gis tcl1 and 35S:TCL1/gis plants was similar to that in the gis mutant. In summary, our results indicate that GIS may work downstream of TCL1 to regulate trichome formation, and GIS has a dominant role in controlling trichome morphology.

  15. Effect of Artemisia annua L. leaves essential oil and ethanol extract on behavioral assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio F. Perazzo

    Full Text Available Artemisia annua has been used as a traditional plant for the treatment of malaria and fever in China because of the presence of its active compound, artemisinin. The present study evaluated the central activity of the essential oil and the crude ethanol extract of A. annua L. in animals as a part of a psychopharmacological screening of this plant. The extract was prepared in ethanol (AEE and the essential oil (AEO obtained by hydrodistillation, both with fresh leaves. Induced immobility, the forced swimming test (FST and the open-field test (OFT are well-known animal models to study drug-induced depression. The administration of A. annua essential oil or crude ethanol extract increased the immobility time in the FST and decreased other activities (ambulation, exploration, rearing and grooming in the OFT in animals. Both AEO and AEE prolonged pentobarbital-induced sleep as well, but the essential oil had a marked effect. Observing these results, it is possible to suggest that A. annua crude ethanol extract and essential oil could act as depressors on the Central Nervous System (CNS.

  16. Effect aquadest-extracted Gloriosa superba seed as mutagen on morphology of Artemisia annua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmawati, S. I.; Susilowati, A.; Yunus, A.; Widyastuti, Y.

    2018-03-01

    Gloriosa superba is a plant that contains colchicine in all parts of organs, especially in the seeds. Its extract is as a mutagen to produce plants with polyploid cells. Artemisia annua is a plant that produces active ingredients artemisinin as malarial drugs, hemorrhoids therapy, aromatherapy, antiviral, anticancer, and anti-bacterial. The aims of this research was to determine the effect aquadest-extracted Gloriosa superba seed as a mutagen to Artemisia annua morphology. Extraction of Gloriosa superba seeds obtained from Sukoharjo using maceration method with aquadest solvent (1: 1). The extracts were diluted (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100%) for Artemisia annua sprinkling with different times (0, 30, 60 and 90 minutes). Observations of morphology Artemisia annua included height, stem circumference, number of branches, number of leaves, leaf width and leaf length. The treatments did not affect plant morphology observation included height, stem circumference, number of branches, number of leaves, leaf width, and leaf length. The EB treatment (100%, 30 minutes) was higher (120 cm) than other. In all treatments stem circumference about 2.5 cm, number of branches ranged between 40-50, leaves width ranged 9-16c m, and leaf length ranged 8-15 cm.

  17. Artemisinin and sesquiterpene precursors in dead and green leaves of Artemisia annua L. crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lommen, W.J.M.; Elzinga, S.; Verstappen, F.W.A.; Bouwmeester, H.J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses the accumulation and concentrations of the antimalarial artemisinin in green and dead leaves of Artemisia annua crops in two field experiments. Concentration differences were analysed as being determined by (a) the total production of artemisinin plus its upstream precursors

  18. Insecticidal activity of Artemisia annua L. (CBGE/CHNA/09/ LTNGS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSN

    ... annua L. were separately extracted with 2 litres of ethanol for a period of 48 hrs at room temperature (25oC). ... the bite a small amount of infected blood is taken which contains ... by completely prohibiting adult Aedes aegypti emergence.

  19. Artemisinin, related sesquiterpenes, and essential oil in artemisia-annua during a vegetation period in vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdenbag, HJ; Pras, N; CHAN, NG; BANG, BT; Bos, R; van Uden, W; Y, PV; BOI, NV; Batterman, S; LUGT, CB

    The active principle of Artemisia annua L., artemisinin, is currently being developed to a registered antimalarial drug. For production purposes, plants with a high artemisinin content are required. We followed the development of the artemisinin content and of the biosynthetically related

  20. The growth response of Artemisia annua L. to organic fertilizer type in lowland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyo, L.; Widyastuti, Y.; Yunus, A.; Samanhudi

    2018-03-01

    Artemisia annua L. is a medicinal plant known in long period of time. Artemisia annua has a drug content therein, the compound is artemisinin, these compounds are useful as anti-malarial compounds. Growth of Artemisia annua L. in normal conditions is on the plateau. Planting can be done in lowland, but there is a risk that must be faced. This study was conducted to evaluate the response of the growth of the plant Artemisia annua conducted in lowland. This research was conducted at the Laboratory Jumantono of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Sebelas Maret Surakarta. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance and if there is a significant difference continued with Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT) level of 5%. The results showed that the application of goat manure has a positive effect on plant height by 201.9 cm, the number of branches by 57, 30.67 ml root volume and root length of 25 cm, and weight 12.4 grams interest.

  1. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of a Broad Substrate Terpenoid Oxidoreductase from Artemisia annua

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ryden, Anna-Margareta; Ruyter-Spira, Carolien; Litjens, Ralph; Takahashi, Shunji; Quax, Wim; Osada, Hiroyuki; Bouwmeester, Harro; Kayser, Oliver

    From Artemisia annua L., a new oxidoreductase (Red 1) was cloned, sequenced and functionally characterized. Through bioinformatics, heterologous protein expression and enzyme substrate conversion assays, the elucidation of the enzymatic capacities of Red1 was achieved. Red1 acts on monoterpenoids,

  2. Molecular cloning and characterization of a broad substrate terpenoid oxidoreductase from Artemisia annua.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ryden, A.M.; Ruyter-Spira, C.P.; Litjens, R.; Takahashi, S.; Quax, W.J.; Osada, H.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Kayser, O.

    2010-01-01

    From Artemisia annua L., a new oxidoreductase (Red 1) was cloned, sequenced and functionally characterized. Through bioinformatics, heterologous protein expression, and enzyme substrate conversion assays, the elucidation of the enzymatic capacities of Red1 was achieved. Red1 acts on monoterpenoids,

  3. Evaluation of exposure in mammography: limitations of average glandular dose and proposal of a new quantity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geeraert, N.; Bosmans, H.; Klausz, R.; Muller, S.; Bloch, I.

    2015-01-01

    The radiation risk in mammography is traditionally evaluated using the average glandular dose. This quantity for the average breast has proven to be useful for population statistics and to compare exposure techniques and systems. However it is not indicating the individual radiation risk based on the individual glandular amount and distribution. Simulations of exposures were performed for six appropriate virtual phantoms with varying glandular amount and distribution. The individualised average glandular dose (iAGD), i.e. the individual glandular absorbed energy divided by the mass of the gland, and the glandular imparted energy (GIE), i.e. the glandular absorbed energy, were computed. Both quantities were evaluated for their capability to take into account the glandular amount and distribution. As expected, the results have demonstrated that iAGD reflects only the distribution, while GIE reflects both the glandular amount and distribution. Therefore GIE is a good candidate for individual radiation risk assessment. (authors)

  4. GLABROUS INFLORESCENCE STEMS (GIS) is required for trichome branching through gibberellic acid signaling in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Lijun; Zhou, Zhongjing; Su, Sha; Yan, An; Gan, Yinbo

    2012-02-01

    Cell differentiation generally corresponds to the cell cycle, typically forming a non-dividing cell with a unique differentiated morphology, and Arabidopsis trichome is an excellent model system to study all aspects of cell differentiation. Although gibberellic acid is reported to be involved in trichome branching in Arabidopsis, the mechanism for such signaling is unclear. Here, we demonstrated that GLABROUS INFLORESCENCE STEMS (GIS) is required for the control of trichome branching through gibberellic acid signaling. The phenotypes of a loss-of-function gis mutant and an overexpressor showed that GIS acted as a repressor to control trichome branching. Our results also show that GIS is not required for cell endoreduplication, and our molecular and genetic study results have shown that GIS functions downstream of the key regulator of trichome branching, STICHEL (STI), to control trichome branching through the endoreduplication-independent pathway. Furthermore, our results also suggest that GIS controls trichome branching in Arabidopsis through two different pathways and acts either upstream or downstream of the negative regulator of gibbellic acid signaling SPINDLY (SPY).

  5. Interactive Effects of Jasmonic Acid, Salicylic Acid, and Gibberellin on Induction of Trichomes in Arabidopsis1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traw, M. Brian; Bergelson, Joy

    2003-01-01

    Leaf trichomes protect plants from attack by insect herbivores and are often induced following damage. Hormonal regulation of this plant induction response has not been previously studied. In a series of experiments, we addressed the effects of artificial damage, jasmonic acid, salicylic acid, and gibberellin on induction of trichomes in Arabidopsis. Artificial damage and jasmonic acid caused significant increases in trichome production of leaves. The jar1-1 mutant exhibited normal trichome induction following treatment with jasmonic acid, suggesting that adenylation of jasmonic acid is not necessary. Salicylic acid had a negative effect on trichome production and consistently reduced the effect of jasmonic acid, suggesting negative cross-talk between the jasmonate and salicylate-dependent defense pathways. Interestingly, the effect of salicylic acid persisted in the nim1-1 mutant, suggesting that the Npr1/Nim1 gene is not downstream of salicylic acid in the negative regulation of trichome production. Last, we found that gibberellin and jasmonic acid had a synergistic effect on the induction of trichomes, suggesting important interactions between these two compounds. PMID:14551332

  6. AaERF1 positively regulates the resistance to Botrytis cinerea in Artemisia annua.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Lu

    Full Text Available Plants are sessile organisms, and they can not move away under abiotic or biotic stresses. Thus plants have evolved a set of genes that response to adverse environment to modulate gene expression. In this study, we characterized and functionally studied an ERF transcription factor from Artemisia annua, AaERF1, which plays an important role in biotic stress responses. The AaERF1 promoter had been cloned and GUS staining results of AaERF1 promoter-GUS transgenic A. annua showed that AaERF1 is expressed ubiquitiously in all organs. Several putative cis-acting elements such as W-box, TGA-box and Py-rich element, which are involved in defense responsiveness, are present in the promoter. The expression of AaERF1 can be induced vigorously by methyl jasmonate as well as by ethephon and wounding, implying that AaERF1 may activate some of the defense genes via the jasmonic acid and ethylene signaling pathways of A. annua. The results of electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA and yeast one-hybrid experiments showed that AaERF1 was able to bind to the GCC box cis-acting element in vitro and in yeast. Ectopic expression of AaERF1 could enhance the expression levels of the defense marker genes PLANT DEFENSIN1.2 (PDF1.2 and BASIC CHITINASE (ChiB, and increase the resistance to Botrytis cinerea in the 35S::AaERF1 transgenic Arabidopsis. The down-regulated expression level of AaERF1 evidently reduced the resistance to B. cinerea in A. annua. The overall results showed that AaERF1 positively regulated the resistance to B. cinerea in A. annua.

  7. Papillae formation on trichome cell walls requires the function of the mediator complex subunit Med25.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornero, Christy; Suo, Bangxia; Zahde, Mais; Juveland, Katelyn; Kirik, Viktor

    2017-11-01

    Glassy Hair 1 (GLH1) gene that promotes papillae formation on trichome cell walls was identified as a subunit of the transcriptional mediator complex MED25. The MED25 gene is shown to be expressed in trichomes. The expression of the trichome development marker genes GLABRA2 (GL2) and Ethylene Receptor2 (ETR2) is not affected in the glh1 mutant. Presented data suggest that Arabidopsis MED25 mediator component is likely involved in the transcription of genes promoting papillae deposition in trichomes. The plant cell wall plays an important role in communication, defense, organization and support. The importance of each of these functions varies by cell type. Specialized cells, such as Arabidopsis trichomes, exhibit distinct cell wall characteristics including papillae. To better understand the molecular processes important for papillae deposition on the cell wall surface, we identified the GLASSY HAIR 1 (GLH1) gene, which is necessary for papillae formation. We found that a splice-site mutation in the component of the transcriptional mediator complex MED25 gene is responsible for the near papillae-less phenotype of the glh1 mutant. The MED25 gene is expressed in trichomes. Reporters for trichome developmental marker genes GLABRA2 (GL2) and Ethylene Receptor2 (ETR2) were not affected in the glh1 mutant. Collectively, the presented results show that MED25 is necessary for papillae formation on the cell wall surface of leaf trichomes and suggest that the Arabidopsis MED25 mediator component is likely involved in the transcription of a subset of genes that promote papillae deposition in trichomes.

  8. Development of a greenhouse-based inoculation protocol for the fungus Colletotrichum cereale pathogenic to annual bluegrass (Poa annua)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fungus Colletotrichum cereale incites anthracnose disease on Poa annua (annual bluegrass) turfgrass. Anthracnose disease is geographically widespread highly destructive, with infections by C. cereale resulting in extensive turfgrass loss. Comprehensive research aimed at controlling turfgrass a...

  9. Average glandular dose in patients submitted to mammographic examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogueira, M.S.; Silva, T.A. da; Oliveira, M. de; Joana, G.S.; Oliveira, A.L.K.

    2008-01-01

    Doses in mammography should be maintained as low as possible without reducing the high image quality needed to the early detection of the breast cancer. As the breast is composed of tissues with very soft composition and densities, it increases the difficulty to detect small changes in the normal anatomical structures that may be associated with breast cancer. To achieve the standards of resolution and contrast for mammography, the quality and intensity of the X-ray beam, the breast positioning and compression, the film screen system, and the film processing must be in optimal operational conditions. This study intended to evaluate the mean glandular dose of patients undergoing routine exams in one mammography unit. Patient image analyses were done by a radiologist doctor who took into account 10 evaluation criteria for each CC and MLO incidences. For estimating each patient glandular dose the radiographic technique parameters (kV and mAs) and the thickness of the compressed breast were recorded. European image quality criteria were adopted by the radiologist doctor to accept the image for diagnostic purpose. For breast densities of 50% adipose and 50% glandular tissues the incident air-kerma was measured and the glandular dose calculated considering the x-ray output during the exam. In the study of 50 patients the mean glandular dose varied from 0.90 to 3.27 mGy with a mean value of 1.98 mGy for CC incidences. For MLO incidences the mean glandular doses ranged from 0.97 to 3.98 mGy and a mean value of 2.60 mGy. (author)

  10. Evaluation of glandular dose in conventional and digital mammography systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutinho, Celia Maria Campos

    2009-01-01

    A survey was conducted to estimate the average glandular dose (D g ) for patients undergoing mammography and to report the distribution of incident air kerma (K i ), patient age, compressed breast thickness and glandular tissue content. From 1183 cranio caudal mammograms clinical data were collected and doses were measured. The survey data included mammograms from six mammography equipment: two screen/film units (SFM), two computed radiography units (CR) and two full-field digital (DR). Mean value for patient age and compressed breast thickness were 57 +-12 y and 5.4 +-1.4 cm, respectively. To investigate the importance of technical characteristics of three different mammography systems and breast glandularity, K i and D g were measured for individual breast of 392 patients from the original sample with compressed breast thickness in the range of 5.5 cm to 6.5 cm using tissue-equivalent phantoms of different glandularities manufactured in this study to mimic both the attenuation and the density of breast tissues. Mean K i value was 10.0 +-3.6 mGy for SFM systems, 12.0 +-3.6 mGy for CR systems and 4.9 +-1.3 mGy for DR systems. Mean D g value was 1.4 +-0.5 mGy for S/F systems, 1.7 +-0.5 mGy for CR systems and 0.9 +-0.2 mGy for D R systems. Statistical analysis for differences in mean values of K i and D g between mammography systems showed significant effect of their technical characteristics (p i and D g , it was observed statistically significant differences between the group of patients with 0 to 50% glandularity and the group of patients with 50 to 100% glandularity. (author)

  11. IDENTIFIKASI DAN PENETAPAN KADAR SENYAWA KUMARIN DALAM EKSTRAK METANOL Artemisia Annua L. SECARA KROMATOGRAFI LAPIS TIPIS - DENSITOMETRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukmayati Alegantina

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Artemisia annua L. contain the active compounds include: terpenoids, flavonoids, kumarin, artemisinin acid, artennuin B, phenols, saponins, and fat. Kumarin and its derivatives have biological activity that can stimulate skin pigment, blood anticoagulation and can inhibit the effects of carcinogens. With this biological activity of kumarin, the research is done to ensure there is kumarin by identification and measure kumarin level which is contained in the Artemisia annua L. herb. The analysis methods include the extraction and fractionation. Identification and determination of level with Thin-Layer Chromatography (TLC using a Densitometer CS-9301 PC. From the result of TLC identification of kumarin standard known that Artemisia annua L extract contain kumarin compound which marked by a blue spot flouresense on standards and methanol extract of artemisia annua L. seeing under UV light at a wavelength of 366 nm with Rf value of standard and sample is 0.31, the measurement of kumarin spot with Densitometer known that kumarin concentration in the extract of Artemisia annua L. is 10.5 ul/ ml with 105% RecoveryKeywords: Artemisia annua L, kumarin, TLC-Densitometry

  12. Boomeranging in structural defense: phytophagous insect uses cycad trichomes to defend against entomophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marler, Thomas E

    2012-11-01

    Plant defensive behaviors that resist arthropod herbivory include trichome-mediated defenses, and variation in plant trichome morphology and abundance provides examples of the mechanistic complexities of insect-plant interactions. Trichomes were removed from Cycas revoluta cataphylls on the island of Guam to reveal Aulacaspis yasumatsui scale infestation, and predation of the newly exposed insects by pre-existing Rhyzobius lophanthae beetles commenced within one day. The quotient of predated/total scale insects was 0.5 by day 4 and stabilized at that found on adjacent glabrous leaves in about one week. The trichome phenotype covering the C. revoluta cataphyll complex offers the invasive A. yasumatsui armored scale effectual enemy-free space in this system. This pest and predator share no known evolutionary history with C. revoluta, therefore, the adaptive significance of this plant behavior in natural habitat is not yet known.

  13. Biosynthesis of a new tobacco alkaloid, hydroxy-N-acylnornicotine in the trichomes of Nicotiana stocktonii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zador, E.; Jones, D.

    1986-01-01

    A new tobacco alkaloid from section Repandae is highly toxic to an insect (Manduca sexta) unsusceptible to previously described nicotine alkaloids (1). They have localized the alkaloid, HO-N-acylnornicotine (HO-NAN) nearly entirely to the exudate secreted by the epidermal trichomes of N. stocktonii. Only the nicotine and nornicotine were found in abundance inside the trichomes, while primarily nicotine was present inside the aerial vegetative parts and root. These results suggest that the HO-NAN is synthesized by the trichomes. When unlabelled nicotine was fed to isolated leaves there was an increase in internal nicotine, nornicotine and secretion of HO-NAN. Feeding leaves with 2'-C 14 nicotine resulted in labelling of both nornicotine and HO-NAN. These data strongly suggest synthesis of HO-NAN from nicotine via nornicotine in the trichomes, followed by rapid secretion. The possible evolutionary significance of this pathway of synthesis and secretion is discussed

  14. Trichomes that secrete substances of a mixed nature in the vegetative and reproductive organs of some species of Moraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Noce Schnetzler

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to obtain new information about the distribution, morphology and content of secretory trichomes present in the vegetative and reproductive organs of four species of Moraceae: Artocarpus heterophyllus, Dorstenia cayapia, Maclura tinctoria and Sorocea bonplandii. Stem, leaf, flower and inflorescence samples were processed for scanning electron and light microscopy. The species have secretory trichomes on the leaf blade, petiole and stem and also on the inflorescence and flowers of D. cayapia and S. bonplandii and on the peduncle of the inflorescence in A. heterophyllus. These trichomes are of the capitate type in all species, but A. heterophyllus also possess peltate secretory trichomes. Both trichome types exhibit a multicellular head and a unicellular peduncle. Peduncle size and head cell number varies according to species. Peltate trichomes located in depressions were found only in species of Artocarpus, and so should be of diagnostic value for the genus. In all species the trichomes secrete polysaccharides, alkaloids and lipids; phenolic compounds occur in A. heterophyllus and M. tinctoria trichomes. These trichomes probably act in the protection against herbivores, pathogens, desiccation and/ or UV radiation. Moreover, the trichomes found in the inflorescence of D. cayapia may exert a function in pollen grain adhesion.

  15. Herbivore handling of a plant's trichome: the case of Heliconius charithonia (L.) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) and Passiflora lobata (Killip) Hutch. (Passifloraceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, Marcio Z.

    2008-01-01

    Trichomes reduce herbivore attack on plants by physically and/or chemically inhibiting movement or other activities. Despite evidence that herbivores are negatively affected by trichomes there also reports of insect counter-adaptations that circumvent the plant's defense. This paper reports on a study that investigated the likely mechanisms employed by larvae of the nymphalid butterfly, Heliconius charithonia (L.), that allow it to feed on a host that is presumably protected by hooked trichomes (Passiflora lobata (Killip) Hutch). Evidence were gathered using data from direct observations of larval movement and behavior, faeces analysis, scanning electron microscopy of plant surface and experimental analysis of larval movement on plants with and without trichomes (manually removed). The latter involved a comparison with a non specialist congener, Heliconius pachinus Salvin. Observations showed that H. charithonia larvae are capable of freeing themselves from entrapment on trichome tips by physical force. Moreover, wandering larvae lay silk mats on the trichomes and remove their tips by biting. In fact, trichome tips were found in the faeces. Experimental removal of trichomes aided in the movement of the non specialist but had no noticeable effect on the specialist larvae. These results support the suggestion that trichomes are capable of deterring a non specialist herbivore (H. pachinus). The precise mechanisms that allow the success of H. charithonia are not known, but I suggest that a blend of behavioral as well as physical resistance mechanisms is involved. Future studies should ascertain whether larval integument provides physical resistance to trichomes. (author)

  16. Characterization of two genes for the biosynthesis of abietane-type diterpenes in rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) glandular trichomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brückner, Kathleen; Božić, Dragana; Manzano, David

    2014-01-01

    normal CDP to produce an abietane diterpene. Comparison to the already characterized diterpene synthase from Salvia miltiorrhiza (SmKSL) demonstrates that the product of RoKSL1 and RoKSL2 is miltiradiene. Expression analysis supports a major contributing role for RoKSL2. Like SmKSL and the sclareol...... synthase from Salvia sclarea, RoKSL1/2 are diterpene synthases of the TPS-e group which have lost the internal gamma-domain. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis indicates that RoKSL1 and RoKSL2 belong to a distinct group of KSL enzymes involved in specialized metabolism which most likely emerged before...

  17. Maxilary glandular odontogenic cyst: case report = Cisto odontogênico glandular em maxila: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cardoso, Juliana Andrade

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: O presente trabalho objetiva relatar um caso clínico de cisto odontogênico glandular (COG em maxila, cisto de desenvolvimento raro que pode apresentar comportamento agressivo e recidivante, dando ênfase no tratamento e proservação desta doença. Relato de Caso: Paciente faioderma, gênero feminino, 36 anos, foi encaminhada pelo Ortodontista por apresentar aumento de volume em maxila com abaulamento e crepitação. Foram realizadas radiografias e punção aspirativa. Uma vez observado o conteúdo da lesão, foi realizada a biópsia incisional e iniciada a descompressão com colocação de dreno rígido. Tendo a confirmação do diagnóstico para COG, a paciente foi submetida à cirurgia para remoção do cisto maxilar, através da enucleação cirúrgica, curetagem e osteotomia periférica. Conclusões: O COG é uma patologia incomum, recentemente reconhecida, cujo comportamento biológico pouco ainda se sabe. Sugere-se, portanto, a realização de investigações futuras sobre critérios para classificação de variáveis comumente utilizadas em estudos epidemiológicos, na tentativa de padronizar e possibilitar comparação entre estudos, todavia, para auxiliar em um diagnóstico bem sucedido

  18. Overexpression of allene oxide cyclase improves the biosynthesis of artemisinin in Artemisia annua L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Lu

    Full Text Available Jasmonates (JAs are important signaling molecules in plants and play crucial roles in stress responses, secondary metabolites' regulation, plant growth and development. In this study, the promoter of AaAOC, which was the key gene of jasmonate biosynthetic pathway, had been cloned. GUS staining showed that AaAOC was expressed ubiquitiously in A. annua. AaAOC gene was overexpressed under control of 35S promoter. RT-Q-PCR showed that the expression levels of AaAOC were increased from 1.6- to 5.2-fold in AaAOC-overexpression transgenic A. annua. The results of GC-MS showed that the content of endogenous jasmonic acid (JA was 2- to 4.7-fold of the control level in AaAOC-overexpression plants. HPLC showed that the contents of artemisinin, dihydroartemisinic acid and artemisinic acid were increased significantly in AaAOC-overexpression plants. RT-Q-PCR showed that the expression levels of FPS (farnesyl diphosphate synthase, CYP71AV1 (cytochrome P450 dependent hydroxylase and DBR2 (double bond reductase 2 were increased significantly in AaAOC-overexpression plants. All data demonstrated that increased endogenous JA could significantly promote the biosynthesis of artemisinin in AaAOC-overexpression transgenic A. annua.

  19. Engineering Isoprenoid Biosynthesis in Artemisia annua L. for the Production of Taxadiene: A Key Intermediate of Taxol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiya Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Taxadiene is the first committed precursor to paclitaxel, marketed as Taxol, arguably the most important anticancer agent against ovarian and breast cancer. In Taxus, taxadiene is directly synthesized from geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP that is the common precursor for diterpenoids and is found in most plants and microbes. In this study, Artemisia annua L., a Chinese medicinal herb that grows fast and is rich in terpenoids, was used as a genetic engineering host to produce taxadiene. The TXS (taxadiene synthase gene, cloned from Taxus and inserted into pCAMBIA1304, was transformed into Artemisia annua L. using the Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated method. Thirty independent transgenic plants were obtained, and GC-MS analysis was used to confirm that taxadiene was produced and accumulated up to 129.7 μg/g dry mass. However, the high expression of TXS did not affect plant growth or photosynthesis in transgenic Artemisia annua L. It is notable that artemisinin is produced and stored in leaves and most taxadiene accumulated in the stem of transgenic Artemisia annua L., suggesting a new way to produce two important compounds in one transgenic plant: leaves for artemisinin and stem for taxadiene. Overall, this study demonstrates that genetic engineering of the taxane biosynthetic pathway in Artemisia annua L. for the production of taxadiene is feasible.

  20. Development of an excel spreadsheet formean glandular dose in mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagoshi, Kazuyo; Fujisaki, Tatsuya

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an Excel spreadsheet to calculate mean glandular dose (D g ) in mammography using clinical exposure data. D g can be calculated as the product of incident air kerma (K a ) and D gN (i.e., D g =K a x D gN ). According to the method of Klein et al (Phys Med Biol 1997; 42: 651-671), K a was measured at the entrance surface with an ionization dosimeter. Normalized glandular dose (D gN ) coefficients, taking into account breast glandularity, were computed using Boone's method (Med Phys 2002; 29: 869-875). D gN coefficients can be calculated for any arbitrary X-ray spectrum. These calculation procedures were input into a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet. The resulting Excel spreadsheet is easy to use and is always applicable in the field of mammography. The exposure conditions concerning D g in clinical practice were also investigated in 22 women. Four exposure conditions (target/filter combination and tube voltage) were automatically selected in this study. This investigation found that average D g for each exposure was 1.9 mGy. Because it is recommended that quality control of radiation dose management in mammography is done using an American College of Radiology (ACR) phantom, information about patient dose is not obtained in many facilities. The present Excel spreadsheet was accordingly considered useful for optimization of exposure conditions and explanation of mammography to patients. (author)

  1. The study of mean glandular dose in mammography in Yazd and the factors affecting it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouzarjomehri, F.; Mostaar, A.; Ghasemi, A.; Ehramposh, M. H.; Khosravi, H.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the mean glandular dose resulting from mammography examinations in Yazd, southeastern Iran and to identify the factors affecting it. Patients and Methods: This survey was conducted during May to December 2005 to estimate the mean glandular dose for women undergoing mammography and to report the distribution of dose. compressed breast thickness, glandular tissue content, and mammography technique used. The clinical data were collected from 946 mammograms taken from 246 women who were referred to four mammography centers. The mammography instruments in these centers were four modern units with a molybdenum anode and either molybdenum or rhodium filter. The exposure conditions of each mammogram were recorded. The breast glandular content of each mammogram was estimated by a radiologist. The mean glandular dose was calculated based on measuring the normalized entrance skin dose in air. half value layer, kVp, mAs, breast thickness and glandular content. Half value layer, kVp and entrance skin dose were measured by a solid-state detector. The analytical method of Sobol et al. was used for calculation of mean glandular dose . Results: The mean±SD mean glandular dose per film was.2±0.6 mGy for cranio caudal and 1.63±O.9 mGy for mediolateral oblique views. The mean±SD mean glandular dose per woman was 5.5 3.1.mGy. A positive correlation was found between the beam Half value layer with mean glandular dose (r=O.38) and the breast thickness with mean glandular dose (r=O.5). Conclusion: The mean±SD mean glandular dose per film of 1.42±0.8 mGy in present study was lower than most of similar reports. However, the mean mean glandular dose per woman was higher than that in other studies

  2. A new quantitative classification of ecological types in the bromeliad genus Tillandsia (Bromeliaceae) based on trichomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefano, Mosti; Papini, Alessio; Brighigna, Luigi

    2008-03-01

    Using collection specimens, we measured the density and wing area of trichomes in 37 species of the bromeliad genus Tillandsia, specifically the abaxial proximal, abaxial distal, adaxial proximal and adaxial distal parts of the leaf. The product of the trichome "wing" area by the number of trichomes (means) produced a pure number (T) that was correlated to ecological features. The correlation was positive with respect to arid environments (xeric Tillands) and negative with respect to humid environments (mesic Tillands). Bulbous, and particularly myrmecophytic species and species with tanks, represented particular categories. Other intermediate types were identified based on the T number, totalling five ecological types. In comparison with other systems of ecological typification for Tillands and other Bromeliaceae, the present system offers measurable data whose analysis is reproducible.

  3. Analyzing trichomes and spatio-temporal expression of a cysteine protease gene Mucunain in Mucuna pruriens L. (DC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Susheel Kumar; Dhawan, Sunita Singh

    2018-03-01

    Mucuna pruriens is a well-known legume for the itching attributes of the trichome and a valuable medicinal herb that is used for the treatment of Parkinson's disease, sexual debilities, etc. Its cultivation was deprived due to its itching behavior. The wild genotype of M. pruriens have the largest trichome length (2015 ± 29 μm) compared to other genotype and mutants. The white-seeded variety of M. pruriens was found to be the most suitable for large-scale cultivation due to the small trichome size and less trichome density on the pod. The external surface trichomes have protuberance with unknown function. The unicellular trichomes of Mucuna show the flowing fluid or cytoplasm inside the trichome. The unigenes regulating the differentiation and development of the trichome such as GLABRA-1, GLABRA-2, and cpr-5 have been identified in M. pruriens transcriptome of the leaf. The Mucunain shows a higher transcript abundance in the flower and pod cover compared to the seeds. The Mucunain was found in every stage of plant growth, but it was highly expressed during maturity (about 170 days) with a high fragment per kilobase per million value.

  4. Comparison of Five Major Trichome Regulatory Genes in Brassica villosa with Orthologues within the Brassicaceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayidu, Naghabushana K.; Kagale, Sateesh; Taheri, Ali; Withana-Gamage, Thushan S.; Parkin, Isobel A. P.; Sharpe, Andrew G.; Gruber, Margaret Y.

    2014-01-01

    Coding sequences for major trichome regulatory genes, including the positive regulators GLABRA 1(GL1), GLABRA 2 (GL2), ENHANCER OF GLABRA 3 (EGL3), and TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA 1 (TTG1) and the negative regulator TRIPTYCHON (TRY), were cloned from wild Brassica villosa, which is characterized by dense trichome coverage over most of the plant. Transcript (FPKM) levels from RNA sequencing indicated much higher expression of the GL2 and TTG1 regulatory genes in B. villosa leaves compared with expression levels of GL1 and EGL3 genes in either B. villosa or the reference genome species, glabrous B. oleracea; however, cotyledon TTG1 expression was high in both species. RNA sequencing and Q-PCR also revealed an unusual expression pattern for the negative regulators TRY and CPC, which were much more highly expressed in trichome-rich B. villosa leaves than in glabrous B. oleracea leaves and in glabrous cotyledons from both species. The B. villosa TRY expression pattern also contrasted with TRY expression patterns in two diploid Brassica species, and with the Arabidopsis model for expression of negative regulators of trichome development. Further unique sequence polymorphisms, protein characteristics, and gene evolution studies highlighted specific amino acids in GL1 and GL2 coding sequences that distinguished glabrous species from hairy species and several variants that were specific for each B. villosa gene. Positive selection was observed for GL1 between hairy and non-hairy plants, and as expected the origin of the four expressed positive trichome regulatory genes in B. villosa was predicted to be from B. oleracea. In particular the unpredicted expression patterns for TRY and CPC in B. villosa suggest additional characterization is needed to determine the function of the expanded families of trichome regulatory genes in more complex polyploid species within the Brassicaceae. PMID:24755905

  5. Type 2C Phosphatase 1 of Artemisia annua L. Is a Negative Regulator of ABA Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangyuan Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA plays an important role in plant development and environmental stress response. Additionally, ABA also regulates secondary metabolism such as artemisinin in the medicinal plant Artemisia annua L. Although an earlier study showed that ABA receptor, AaPYL9, plays a positive role in ABA-induced artemisinin content improvement, many components in the ABA signaling pathway remain to be elucidated in Artemisia annua L. To get insight of the function of AaPYL9, we isolated and characterized an AaPYL9-interacting partner, AaPP2C1. The coding sequence of AaPP2C1 encodes a deduced protein of 464 amino acids, with all the features of plant type clade A PP2C. Transcriptional analysis showed that the expression level of AaPP2C1 is increased after ABA, salt, and drought treatments. Yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays (BiFC showed that AaPYL9 interacted with AaPP2C1. The P89S, H116A substitution in AaPYL9 as well as G199D substitution or deletion of the third phosphorylation site-like motif in AaPP2C1 abolished this interaction. Furthermore, constitutive expression of AaPP2C1 conferred ABA insensitivity compared with the wild type. In summary, our data reveals that AaPP2C1 is an AaPYL9-interacting partner and involved in the negative modulation of the ABA signaling pathway in A. annua L.

  6. Genetic structure along a gaseous organic pollution gradient: a case study with Poa annua L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiaoyong; Li Ning; Shen Lang; Li Yuanyuan

    2003-01-01

    Genetic composition of Poa annua populations showed clinal change along an organic pollution gradient. - The population genetic composition of Poa annua L. was studied by starch electrophoresis along a transect running NE from an organic reagents factory at Shanghai, China. Five enzyme systems were stained. We have reached the following preliminary conclusions: (1) Organic pollution has dramatically changed genotypic frequencies at some loci of Poa annua populations. At polluted sites, significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were observed on loci Sod-1 and Me due to the excess of heterozygote. Especially in the two nearest sites to pollution source, all the individuals were heterozygous at locus Sod-1. The data suggests that heterozygotes were more tolerant to organic pollution than homozygotes, indicating the fitness superiority of heterozygotes. (2) A tendency towards clinal changes of allele frequencies was found at some polymorphic loci. Frequencies of the common alleles at loci Sod-1, Me and Fe-1 increased as the distance to the pollution source increased. (3) The effective number of alleles per locus, and the observed and expected heterozygosity were much higher in the pollution series than in the clear control site (Botanic Park population), but genetic multiplicity (number of alleles per locus) was lower than for the control. (4) Most genetic variability was found within populations, and only 2.56% were among populations of the polluted series. However, 9.48% of the total genetic variation occurred among populations when including the Botanic Park population. The genetic identity between populations of the pollution series (0.9869-1.0000, mean 0.9941) was higher than those between the pollution series and the Botanic Park population. UPGMA divided the five populations into two groups. One contained the four polluted populations, and the other only contained the Botanic Park population

  7. Genetic structure along a gaseous organic pollution gradient: a case study with Poa annua L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiaoyong, Chen; Ning, Li; Lang, Shen; Yuanyuan, Li

    2003-08-01

    Genetic composition of Poa annua populations showed clinal change along an organic pollution gradient. - The population genetic composition of Poa annua L. was studied by starch electrophoresis along a transect running NE from an organic reagents factory at Shanghai, China. Five enzyme systems were stained. We have reached the following preliminary conclusions: (1) Organic pollution has dramatically changed genotypic frequencies at some loci of Poa annua populations. At polluted sites, significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were observed on loci Sod-1 and Me due to the excess of heterozygote. Especially in the two nearest sites to pollution source, all the individuals were heterozygous at locus Sod-1. The data suggests that heterozygotes were more tolerant to organic pollution than homozygotes, indicating the fitness superiority of heterozygotes. (2) A tendency towards clinal changes of allele frequencies was found at some polymorphic loci. Frequencies of the common alleles at loci Sod-1, Me and Fe-1 increased as the distance to the pollution source increased. (3) The effective number of alleles per locus, and the observed and expected heterozygosity were much higher in the pollution series than in the clear control site (Botanic Park population), but genetic multiplicity (number of alleles per locus) was lower than for the control. (4) Most genetic variability was found within populations, and only 2.56% were among populations of the polluted series. However, 9.48% of the total genetic variation occurred among populations when including the Botanic Park population. The genetic identity between populations of the pollution series (0.9869-1.0000, mean 0.9941) was higher than those between the pollution series and the Botanic Park population. UPGMA divided the five populations into two groups. One contained the four polluted populations, and the other only contained the Botanic Park population.

  8. Botulinum toxin for treatment of glandular hypersecretory disorders.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Laing, T A

    2012-02-03

    SUMMARY: The use of botulinum toxin to treat disorders of the salivary glands is increasing in popularity in recent years. Recent reports of the use of botulinum toxin in glandular hypersecretion suggest overall favourable results with minimal side-effects. However, few randomised clinical trials means that data are limited with respect to candidate suitability, treatment dosages, frequency and duration of treatment. We report a selection of such cases from our own department managed with botulinum toxin and review the current data on use of the toxin to treat salivary gland disorders such as Frey\\'s syndrome, excessive salivation (sialorrhoea), focal and general hyperhidrosis, excessive lacrimation and chronic rhinitis.

  9. Method for determination of the mean fraction of glandular tissue in individual female breasts using mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, J T M; Veldkamp, W J H; Thijssen, M A O; Woudenberg, S van; Zoetelief, J

    2005-01-01

    The nationwide breast cancer screening programme using mammography has been in full operation in the Netherlands since 1997. Quality control of the screening programme has been assigned to the National Expert and Training Centre for Breast Cancer Screening. Limits are set to the mean glandular dose and the centre monitors these for all facilities engaged in the screening programme. This procedure is restricted to the determination of the entrance dose on a 5 cm thick polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) phantom. The mean glandular dose for a compressed breast is estimated from these data. Individual breasts may deviate largely from this 5 cm PMMA breast model. Not only may the compressed breast size vary from 2 to 10 cm, but breast composition varies also. The mean glandular dose is dependent on the fraction of glandular tissue (glandularity) of the breast. To estimate the risk related to individual mammograms requires the development of a method for determination of the glandularity of individual breasts. A method has been developed to derive the glandularity using the attenuation of mammography x-rays in the breast. The method was applied to a series of mammograms at a screening unit. The results, i.e., a glandularity of 93% within the range of 0 to 1, were comparable with data in the literature. The glandularity as a function of compressed breast thickness is similar to results from other investigators using differing methods

  10. Comparative genetic analysis of trichome-less and normal pod genotypes of Mucuna pruriens (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhawan, S S; Rai, G K; Darokar, M P; Lal, R K; Misra, H O; Khanuja, S P S

    2011-09-15

    Velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens) seeds contain the catecholic amino acid L-DoPA (L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine), which is a neurotransmitter precursor and used for the treatment of Parkinson's disease and mental disorders. The great demand for L-DoPA is largely met by the pharmaceutical industry through extraction of the compound from wild populations of this plant; commercial exploitation of this compound is hampered because of its limited availability. The trichomes present on the pods can cause severe itching, blisters and dermatitis, discouraging cultivation. We screened genetic stocks of velvet bean for the trichome-less trait, along with high seed yield and L-DoPA content. The highest yielding trichome-less elite strain was selected and indentified on the basis of a PCR-based DNA fingerprinting method (RAPD), using deca-nucleotide primers. A genetic similarity index matrix was obtained through multivariant analysis using Nei and Li's coefficient. The similarity coefficients were used to generate a tree for cluster analysis using the UPGMA method. Analysis of amplification spectra of 408 bands obtained with 56 primers allowed us to distinguish a trichome-less elite strain of M. pruriens.

  11. Lima bean – lady beetle interactions: hooked trichomes affect survival of Stethorus punctillum larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    We tested the hypothesis that Lima bean Phaseolus lunatus L. (Henderson cultivar) trichome density affects the survival of the acariphagous lady beetle Stethorus punctillum Weise. When isolated throughout larval development, 10% or less of S. punctillum larvae reared on two-spotted spider mite Tetr...

  12. Preparation of Au and Ag nanoparticles using Artemisia annua and their in vitro antibacterial and tyrosinase inhibitory activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basavegowda, Nagaraj; Idhayadhulla, Akber; Lee, Yong Rok, E-mail: yrlee@yu.ac.kr

    2014-10-01

    This work describes a plant-mediated approach to the preparation of metal nanoparticles using leaf extract of Artemisia annua (A. annua), an ethno-medicinal plant widely found in Asia, which was used as reducing and stabilizing agent. A. annua is used in traditional Chinese medicine to alleviate fever. Au and Ag nanoparticles were prepared using a one-step aqueous method at room temperature without any toxic chemicals. The formation of Au and Ag nanoparticles was monitored by UV–vis spectroscopy. Synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). TEM analysis of Au nanoparticles showed that they had triangular and spherical shapes with sizes ranging from 15 to 40 nm. The silver nanoparticles were predominantly spherical and uniformly sized (30–50 nm). The Au and Ag nanoparticles produced showed significant tyrosinase inhibitory and antibacterial effects. These results suggest that the synthesized nanoparticles provide good alternatives in varied medical and industrial applications. - Highlights: • Au and Ag nanoparticles were synthesized using Artemisia annua leaf aqueous extract. • Nanoparticles were characterized by UV–vis spectroscopy, FT-IR, TEM, EDX, XRD, and TGA. • Au and Ag nanoparticles were of size 25 and 30 nm respectively, in spherical forms. • Nanoparticles showed significant tyrosinase inhibitory and antibacterial activities.

  13. ANALYSIS OF ARTEMISININ AND RELATED SESQUITERPENOIDS FROM ARTEMISIA-ANNUA L BY COMBINED GAS-CHROMATOGRAPHY MASS-SPECTROMETRY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WOERDENBAG, HJ; PRAS, N; BOS, R; VISSER, JF; HENDRIKS, H; MALINGRE, TM

    1991-01-01

    The sesquiterpenoid artemisinin (3) and its biosynthetic precursors arteannuic acid (1), arteannuin B (2) and artemisitene (4) can be separated and identified by combined gas chromatography/mass spectrometry both as a mixture of reference standards as well as in extracts of Artemisia annua L. From

  14. The effects of CO2 and nutrient enrichment on photosynthesis and growth of Poa annua in two consecutive generations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezemer, T.M.; Jones, T.H.

    2012-01-01

    We studied short- and long-term growth responses of Poa annua L. (Gramineae) at ambient and elevated (ambient +200 lmol mol 1) atmospheric CO2. In experiment 1 we compared plant growth during the early, vegetative and final, reproductive growth phases. Plant growth in elevated CO2 was significantly

  15. Preparation of Au and Ag nanoparticles using Artemisia annua and their in vitro antibacterial and tyrosinase inhibitory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basavegowda, Nagaraj; Idhayadhulla, Akber; Lee, Yong Rok

    2014-01-01

    This work describes a plant-mediated approach to the preparation of metal nanoparticles using leaf extract of Artemisia annua (A. annua), an ethno-medicinal plant widely found in Asia, which was used as reducing and stabilizing agent. A. annua is used in traditional Chinese medicine to alleviate fever. Au and Ag nanoparticles were prepared using a one-step aqueous method at room temperature without any toxic chemicals. The formation of Au and Ag nanoparticles was monitored by UV–vis spectroscopy. Synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). TEM analysis of Au nanoparticles showed that they had triangular and spherical shapes with sizes ranging from 15 to 40 nm. The silver nanoparticles were predominantly spherical and uniformly sized (30–50 nm). The Au and Ag nanoparticles produced showed significant tyrosinase inhibitory and antibacterial effects. These results suggest that the synthesized nanoparticles provide good alternatives in varied medical and industrial applications. - Highlights: • Au and Ag nanoparticles were synthesized using Artemisia annua leaf aqueous extract. • Nanoparticles were characterized by UV–vis spectroscopy, FT-IR, TEM, EDX, XRD, and TGA. • Au and Ag nanoparticles were of size 25 and 30 nm respectively, in spherical forms. • Nanoparticles showed significant tyrosinase inhibitory and antibacterial activities

  16. Growth and artemisinin content of artemisia Annua L. As a result of gamma irradiation on shoot culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tri Muji Ermayanti; Erwin Al Hafiizh; Andri Fadillah Martin; Arthur A Lelono; Wiguna Rahman

    2016-01-01

    Artemisinin is the main compound produced by Artemisia annua is used as antimalarial drug. Many research have been conducted in order to increase artemisinin content in A. annua so that it can be produced economically. In several plants, mutation can be induced by Gamma irradiation to increase their secondary metabolite production. The aim of this research was to investigate the growth and artemisinin content of A. annua after Gamma irradiation. Irradiation was conducted using in vitro shoot tips with 5-50 Gy. Survival rate, growth of shoot culture, ploidy level confirmation, acclimatization, growth of plants in the field and artemisinin content were recorded. The results showed that LD_5_0 of A. annua was 37 Gy, therefore, shoots only grew in the control environment in the laboratory, their growth in the field was inhibited. Irradiation with 50 Gy, shoots only grew for 8 weeks, and died afterwards. Irradiation dose affected on growth of plants in the field as well as their artemisinin content. (author)

  17. Laboratory evaluation of Artemisia annua L. extract and artemisinin activity against Epilachna paenulata and Spodoptera eridania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggi, María E; Mangeaud, Arnaldo; Carpinella, María C; Ferrayoli, Carlos G; Valladares, Graciela R; Palacios, Sara M

    2005-07-01

    Ethanolic extract of aerial parts of Artemisia annua L. and artemisinin were evaluated as anti-insect products. In a feeding deterrence assay on Epilachna paenulata Germ (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) larvae, complete feeding rejection was observed at an extract concentration of 1.5 mg/cm2 on pumpkin leaf tissue. The same concentration produced a feeding inhibition of 87% in Spodoptera eridania (Cramer) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). In a no-choice assay, both species ate less and gained less weight when fed on leaves treated with the extract. Complete mortality in E. paenulata and 50% mortality in S. eridania were observed with extract at 1.5 mg/cm2. Artemisinin exhibited a moderate antifeedant effect on E. paenulata and S. eridania at 0.03-0.375 mg/cm2. However, a strong effect on survival and body weight was observed when E. paenulata larvae were forced to feed on leaves treated at 0.03 and 0.075 mg/cm2. Artemisia annua ethanolic extract of aerial parts at 1.5 mg/cm2 showed no phytotoxic effect on pumpkin seedlings.

  18. Exogenous nitric oxide donor protects Artemisia annua from oxidative stress generated by boron and aluminium toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aftab, Tariq; Khan, M Masroor A; Naeem, M; Idrees, Mohd; Moinuddin; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Ram, M

    2012-06-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important signal molecule modulating the response of plants to environmental stress. Here we report the effects of boron (B) and aluminium (Al) contamination in soil, carried out with or without application of exogenous SNP (NO donor), on various plant processes in Artemisia annua, including changes in artemisinin content. The addition of B or Al to soil medium significantly reduced the yield and growth of plants and lowered the values of net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, internal CO(2) concentration and total chlorophyll content. The follow-up treatment of NO donor favoured growth and improved the photosynthetic efficiency in stressed as well as non-stressed plants. Artemisinin content was enhanced by 24.6% and 43.8% at 1mmole of soil-applied B or Al. When SNP was applied at 2mmole concentration together with either 1mmole of B and/or Al, it further stimulated artemisinin biosynthesis compared to the control. Application of B+Al+SNP proved to be the best treatment combination for the artemisinin content in Artemisia annua leaves. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Artemisia annua L.: agro-techniques for semi-arid environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Scarcella

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia annua L. is an aromatic annual plant native in Asia, probably in China, and is widespread in all temperate regions. Aerial parts contain aromatic volatile oils and non-volatile sesquiterpenes used in pharmacopoeia. The most important sesquiterpene is artemisinin and its derivatives, which are used as a remedy against malaria. In the Mediterranean region, interest in cultivating Artemisia resulted in emerging industrial activities demanding local biomass with high content of artemisinin to start new production chains. The goal of this paper was to find out appropriate agro-techniques for semi-arid climate regions to be followed by local growers in order to get convenient yield in terms of biomass and artemisinin content. The specific research objectives were to test germplasm and to develop a pilot model for A. annua, including the main agro-techniques (plant density, nitrogen supply and irrigation requirements. Results were obtained after a two-year field study carried out in an area of Salento region. The effects of the season and of the tested cultivars were not significant. The highest biomass production (36 t ha-1 of dry biomass, associated with a high percentage of artemisinin (0.97 % on dry weight, was achieved by using 7.3 plant m-2, and by supplying 60 Kg N ha-1 and 150 mm of irrigation water.

  20. RNAi down-regulation of cinnamate-4-hydroxylase increases artemisinin biosynthesis in Artemisia annua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ritesh; Vashisth, Divya; Misra, Amita; Akhtar, Md Qussen; Jalil, Syed Uzma; Shanker, Karuna; Gupta, Madan Mohan; Rout, Prashant Kumar; Gupta, Anil Kumar; Shasany, Ajit Kumar

    2016-05-25

    Cinnamate-4-hydroxylase (C4H) converts trans-cinnamic acid (CA) to p-coumaric acid (COA) in the phenylpropanoid/lignin biosynthesis pathway. Earlier we reported increased expression of AaCYP71AV1 (an important gene of artemisinin biosynthesis pathway) caused by CA treatment in Artemisia annua. Hence, AaC4H gene was identified, cloned, characterized and silenced in A. annua with the assumption that the elevated internal CA due to knock down may increase the artemisinin yield. Accumulation of trans-cinnamic acid in the plant due to AaC4H knockdown was accompanied with the reduction of p-coumaric acid, total phenolics, anthocyanin, cinnamate-4-hydroxylase (C4H) and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activities but increase in salicylic acid (SA) and artemisinin. Interestingly, feeding trans-cinnamic acid to the RNAi line increased the level of artemisinin along with benzoic (BA) and SA with no effect on the downstream metabolites p-coumaric acid, coniferylaldehyde and sinapaldehyde, whereas p-coumaric acid feeding increased the content of downstream coniferylaldehyde and sinapaldehyde with no effect on BA, SA, trans-cinnamic acid or artemisinin. SA is reported earlier to be inducing the artemisinin yield. This report demonstrates the link between the phenylpropanoid/lignin pathway with artemisinin pathway through SA, triggered by accumulation of trans-cinnamic acid because of the blockage at C4H.

  1. Glandular dose in breast tomosynthesis examinations: Preliminary study with a sample of patients; Dosis glandular en examenes de tomosintesis de mama: estudio preliminar con una muestra de pacientes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo, M.; Chevalier, M.; Calzado, A.; Valverde, J.

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the mean glandular dose administered to a group of patients with a tomography system (Selenia Dimensions) service installed on a large hospital in which routine tests are done and screening. (Author)

  2. Average glandular dose in digital mammography and breast tomosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olgar, T. [Ankara Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Engineering Physics; Universitaetsklinikum Leipzig AoeR (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Kahn, T.; Gosch, D. [Universitaetsklinikum Leipzig AoeR (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: To determine the average glandular dose (AGD) in digital full-field mammography (2 D imaging mode) and in breast tomosynthesis (3 D imaging mode). Materials and Methods: Using the method described by Boone, the AGD was calculated from the exposure parameters of 2247 conventional 2 D mammograms and 984 mammograms in 3 D imaging mode of 641 patients examined with the digital mammographic system Hologic Selenia Dimensions. The breast glandular tissue content was estimated by the Hologic R2 Quantra automated volumetric breast density measurement tool for each patient from right craniocaudal (RCC) and left craniocaudal (LCC) images in 2 D imaging mode. Results: The mean compressed breast thickness (CBT) was 52.7 mm for craniocaudal (CC) and 56.0 mm for mediolateral oblique (MLO) views. The mean percentage of breast glandular tissue content was 18.0 % and 17.4 % for RCC and LCC projections, respectively. The mean AGD values in 2 D imaging mode per exposure for the standard breast were 1.57 mGy and 1.66 mGy, while the mean AGD values after correction for real breast composition were 1.82 mGy and 1.94 mGy for CC and MLO views, respectively. The mean AGD values in 3 D imaging mode per exposure for the standard breast were 2.19 mGy and 2.29 mGy, while the mean AGD values after correction for the real breast composition were 2.53 mGy and 2.63 mGy for CC and MLO views, respectively. No significant relationship was found between the AGD and CBT in 2 D imaging mode and a good correlation coefficient of 0.98 in 3 D imaging mode. Conclusion: In this study the mean calculated AGD per exposure in 3 D imaging mode was on average 34 % higher than for 2 D imaging mode for patients examined with the same CBT.

  3. Average glandular dose in digital mammography and breast tomosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olgar, T.; Universitaetsklinikum Leipzig AoeR; Kahn, T.; Gosch, D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the average glandular dose (AGD) in digital full-field mammography (2 D imaging mode) and in breast tomosynthesis (3 D imaging mode). Materials and Methods: Using the method described by Boone, the AGD was calculated from the exposure parameters of 2247 conventional 2 D mammograms and 984 mammograms in 3 D imaging mode of 641 patients examined with the digital mammographic system Hologic Selenia Dimensions. The breast glandular tissue content was estimated by the Hologic R2 Quantra automated volumetric breast density measurement tool for each patient from right craniocaudal (RCC) and left craniocaudal (LCC) images in 2 D imaging mode. Results: The mean compressed breast thickness (CBT) was 52.7 mm for craniocaudal (CC) and 56.0 mm for mediolateral oblique (MLO) views. The mean percentage of breast glandular tissue content was 18.0 % and 17.4 % for RCC and LCC projections, respectively. The mean AGD values in 2 D imaging mode per exposure for the standard breast were 1.57 mGy and 1.66 mGy, while the mean AGD values after correction for real breast composition were 1.82 mGy and 1.94 mGy for CC and MLO views, respectively. The mean AGD values in 3 D imaging mode per exposure for the standard breast were 2.19 mGy and 2.29 mGy, while the mean AGD values after correction for the real breast composition were 2.53 mGy and 2.63 mGy for CC and MLO views, respectively. No significant relationship was found between the AGD and CBT in 2 D imaging mode and a good correlation coefficient of 0.98 in 3 D imaging mode. Conclusion: In this study the mean calculated AGD per exposure in 3 D imaging mode was on average 34 % higher than for 2 D imaging mode for patients examined with the same CBT.

  4. Enhancement of lymphocyte proliferation by mouse glandular kallikrein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Z Q; Murakami, K; Ikigai, H; Shimamura, T

    1992-03-01

    Mouse glandular kallikrein (mGK) strongly enhanced the spontaneous and mitogen-induced proliferation of lymphocytes. Both blast formation and 3H-TdR incorporation were dose-dependently enhanced at the same time many cells were killed. The enhancing activity was independent of EGF, because EGF-binding proteins (mGK-9 in mGK-6,9 mixture and mGK-13), renal kallikrein (mGK-6) and human kallikrein all displayed the same enhancement. A serine proteinase inhibitor, diisopropyl fluorophosphate, could block the enhancement by mGK. The new function suggests that mGK is important in the immune system as a regulatory molecule.

  5. Flavonoids casticin and chrysosplenol D from Artemisia annua L. inhibit inflammation in vitro and in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yu-Jie; Guo, Yan; Yang, Qing; Weng, Xiao-Gang; Yang, Lan; Wang, Ya-Jie; Chen, Ying; Zhang, Dong; Li, Qi; Liu, Xu-Cen; Kan, Xiao-Xi; Chen, Xi [Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing 100700 (China); Zhu, Xiao-Xin, E-mail: zhuxx59@163.com [Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing 100700 (China); Kmoníèková, Eva [Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine in Pilsen, Charles University, Pilsen (Czech Republic); Zídek, Zdenìk [Institute of Experimental Medicine, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Vídeòská 1083, 142 20 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2015-08-01

    Background: The aim of our experiments was to investigate the anti-inflammatory properties of casticin and chrysosplenol D, two flavonoids present in Artemisia annua L. Methods: Topical inflammation was induced in ICR mice using croton oil. Mice were then treated with casticin or chrysosplenol D. Cutaneous histological changes and edema were assessed. ICR mice were intragastrically administrated with casticin or chrysosplenol D followed by intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Mouse Raw264.7 macrophage cells were incubated with casticin or chrysosplenol D. Intracellular phosphorylation was detected, and migration was assessed by trans-well assay. HT-29/NFκB-luc cells were incubated with casticin or chrysosplenol D in the presence or absence of LPS, and NF-κB activation was quantified. Results: In mice, administration of casticin (0.5, 1 and 1.5 μmol/cm{sup 2}) and chrysosplenol D (1 and 1.5 μmol/cm{sup 2}) inhibited croton oil-induced ear edema (casticin: 29.39–64.95%; chrysosplenol D: 37.76–65.89%, all P < 0.05) in a manner similar to indomethacin (0.5, 1 and 1.5 μmol/cm{sup 2}; 55.63–84.58%). Casticin (0.07, 0.13 and 0.27 mmol/kg) and chrysosplenol D (0.07, 0.14 and 0.28 mmol/kg) protected against LPS-induced systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) in mice (all P < 0.05), in a manner similar to dexamethasone (0.03 mmol/kg). Casticin and chrysosplenol D suppressed LPS-induced release of IL-1 beta, IL-6 and MCP-1, inhibited cell migration, and reduced LPS-induced IκB and c-JUN phosphorylation in Raw264.7 cells. JNK inhibitor SP600125 blocked the inhibitory effect of chrysosplenol D on cytokine release. Conclusions: The flavonoids casticin and chrysosplenol D from A. annua L. inhibited inflammation in vitro and in vivo. - Highlights: • We report a new activity of the flavonoids present in Artemisia annua L. • These flavonoids inhibit croton oil-induced ear edema in mice. • These flavonoids protect against LPS-induced SIRS in

  6. Herbivore handling of a plant's trichome: the case of Heliconius charithonia (L.) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) and Passiflora lobata (Killip) Hutch. (Passifloraceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Marcio Z. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Centro de Biociencias. Dept. de Botanica, Ecologia e Zoologia]. E-mail: mzc@cb.ufrn.br

    2008-05-15

    Trichomes reduce herbivore attack on plants by physically and/or chemically inhibiting movement or other activities. Despite evidence that herbivores are negatively affected by trichomes there also reports of insect counter-adaptations that circumvent the plant's defense. This paper reports on a study that investigated the likely mechanisms employed by larvae of the nymphalid butterfly, Heliconius charithonia (L.), that allow it to feed on a host that is presumably protected by hooked trichomes (Passiflora lobata (Killip) Hutch). Evidence were gathered using data from direct observations of larval movement and behavior, faeces analysis, scanning electron microscopy of plant surface and experimental analysis of larval movement on plants with and without trichomes (manually removed). The latter involved a comparison with a non specialist congener, Heliconius pachinus Salvin. Observations showed that H. charithonia larvae are capable of freeing themselves from entrapment on trichome tips by physical force. Moreover, wandering larvae lay silk mats on the trichomes and remove their tips by biting. In fact, trichome tips were found in the faeces. Experimental removal of trichomes aided in the movement of the non specialist but had no noticeable effect on the specialist larvae. These results support the suggestion that trichomes are capable of deterring a non specialist herbivore (H. pachinus). The precise mechanisms that allow the success of H. charithonia are not known, but I suggest that a blend of behavioral as well as physical resistance mechanisms is involved. Future studies should ascertain whether larval integument provides physical resistance to trichomes. (author)

  7. Efficiency of Trichome-Based Plant Defense in Phaseolus vulgaris Depends on Insect Behavior, Plant Ontogeny, and Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenlong Xing

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Plant trichomes often function as physical barriers in preventing arthropod feeding and oviposition. Even though insects are frequently reported being entrapped and killed by trichome traps, the actual trapping behavior has not yet been described in detail. Capture experiments showed that capture efficiency during the plant's vegetative stage was considerably higher than in the fruiting and cotyledon stages. The ventral surface of the leaf was more effective in trapping flies than other parts of the plant. Capture-events monitoring showed that the mouthparts, legs, and ovipositor of Liriomyza trifolii adults are the body parts involved in entrapment by surface trichomes on Phaseolus vulgaris plants, and subsequently, deter their ability to feed, walk, and oviposit. Of the three main body parts normally affected, mouthparts was found to be the body part most susceptible to the trichomes. Entrapments were most often caused by landing, followed by puncturing or feeding, and occasionally by walking or fighting. Using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and optical microscopy, we determined the susceptible positions of each body part and found that the flies were all trapped by hooked trichomes. This study revealed the process by which leafminer flies are entrapped by surface trichomes of the host plant and evaluated the capture efficiency. The results will contribute to our understanding of physical defenses against herbivores.

  8. TCS1, a Microtubule-Binding Protein, Interacts with KCBP/ZWICHEL to Regulate Trichome Cell Shape in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangliang Chen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available How cell shape is controlled is a fundamental question in developmental biology, but the genetic and molecular mechanisms that determine cell shape are largely unknown. Arabidopsis trichomes have been used as a good model system to investigate cell shape at the single-cell level. Here we describe the trichome cell shape 1 (tcs1 mutants with the reduced trichome branch number in Arabidopsis. TCS1 encodes a coiled-coil domain-containing protein. Pharmacological analyses and observations of microtubule dynamics show that TCS1 influences the stability of microtubules. Biochemical analyses and live-cell imaging indicate that TCS1 binds to microtubules and promotes the assembly of microtubules. Further results reveal that TCS1 physically associates with KCBP/ZWICHEL, a microtubule motor involved in the regulation of trichome branch number. Genetic analyses indicate that kcbp/zwi is epistatic to tcs1 with respect to trichome branch number. Thus, our findings define a novel genetic and molecular mechanism by which TCS1 interacts with KCBP to regulate trichome cell shape by influencing the stability of microtubules.

  9. Drying affects artemisinin, dihydroartemisinic acid, artemisinic acid, and the antioxidant capacity of Artemisia annua L. leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Jorge F S; Luthria, Devanand L

    2010-02-10

    There is limited information on how postharvest drying of Artemisia annua affects artemisinin (ART) biosynthesis and A. annua antioxidant capacity. Antioxidants may boost the bioactivity of ART and the crop commercial value. We evaluated the effect of freeze, oven, shade, and sun drying, time of drying, and light intensity on the leaf concentration of ART, dihydroartemisinic acid (DHAA), artemisinic acid (AA), and on the leaf antioxidant capacity. Freeze-dried samples had the lowest ART concentrations as compared to the other drying methods. However, the ferric reducing antioxidant power assay showed that freeze- and oven-dried samples had similarly high antioxidant activities, which declined significantly after plants were shade- and sun-dried. Shade drying for 1, 2, and 3 weeks, under ambient or low light, did not change the ART content but significantly decreased the leaf antioxidant activity, mainly if sun-dried. A significant decrease (82% average) in DHAA was observed for all drying procedures as compared to freeze drying, with a simultaneous, significant increase in ART (33% average). The average bioconversion of DHAA to ART was 43% for oven- and shade-dried plants and 94% for sun-dried plants, reiterating the hypothesis that DHAA, not AA, is the main biosynthetic precursor of ART and suggesting that sun drying improves the bioconversion from DHAA to ART. Data also indicate that oven drying for 24 h at 45 degrees C can provide good levels of both ART and antioxidants in leaves. These findings are valuable for the commercial production of ART and of bioactive antioxidants that might synergize with the antimalarial and anticancer effects of ART when combined in traditional preparations to improve human and animal health.

  10. Breast Glandularity in Malaysian Women from a Full-Field Digital Mammography System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noriah Jamal; Humairah Samad Cheung; Siti Selina Abdul Hamid; Juliana Mahamad Napiah

    2014-01-01

    This study is undertaken to estimate breast glandularity in Malaysian women from a Full-Field Digital mammography System. This study involved 223 women (Malay=100;Chinese=101 and Indian=22) underwent voluntary screening mammography at Breast Centre, International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM Breast Centre) for the first quarter of year 2009. Those are women aged between 31 to 69 years old (median age, 49 years). Data on miliampere-seconds, kilo voltage and compressed breast thickness for each cranio caudal view are used to estimate breast glandularity for an individual breast. Breast glandularity is calculated using the fitted equation reported earlier. The difference in breast glandularity among ethnic groups was tested for significance using the nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test. The average breast glandularity estimated in our study, using FFDM system is 52.94±27.63 %. No significant difference was seen in breast glandularity among the ethnic groups (p>0.05, Kruskan Wallis test). Breast glandularity decrease as age increases, up to 60 years old. (author)

  11. Is nectar reabsorption restricted by the stalk cells of floral and extrafloral nectary trichomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso-Gustavson, P; Davis, A R

    2015-01-01

    Reabsorption is a phase of nectar dynamics that occurs concurrently with secretion; it has been described in floral nectaries that exude nectar through stomata or unicellular trichomes, but has not yet been recorded in extrafloral glands. Apparently, nectar reabsorption does not occur in multicellular secretory trichomes (MST) due to the presence of lipophilic impregnations - which resemble Casparian strips - in the anticlinal walls of the stalk cells. It has been assumed that these impregnations restrict solute movement within MST to occur unidirectionally and exclusively by the symplast, thereby preventing nectar reflux toward the underlying nectary tissues. We hypothesised that reabsorption is absent in nectaries possessing MST. The fluorochrome lucifer yellow (LYCH) was applied to standing nectar of two floral and extrafloral glands of distantly related species, and then emission spectra from nectary sections were systematically analysed using confocal microscopy. Passive uptake of LYCH via the stalk cells to the nectary tissues occurred in all MST examined. Moreover, we present evidence of nectar reabsorption in extrafloral nectaries, demonstrating that LYCH passed the stalk cells of MST, although it did not reach the deepest nectary tissues. Identical (control) experiments performed with neutral red (NR) demonstrated no uptake of this stain by actively secreting MST, whereas diffusion of NR did occur in plasmolysed MST of floral nectaries at the post-secretory phase, indicating that nectar reabsorption by MST is governed by stalk cell physiology. Interestingly, non-secretory trichomes failed to reabsorb nectar. The role of various nectary components is discussed in relation to the control of nectar reabsorption by secretory trichomes. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  12. Telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter mutations in glandular lesions of the urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vail, Eric; Zheng, Xiaoyong; Zhou, Ming; Yang, Ximing; Fallon, John T; Epstein, Jonathan I; Zhong, Minghao

    2015-10-01

    Glandular lesions of the urinary bladder include a broad spectrum of entities ranging from completely benign to primary and secondary malignancies. The accurate diagnosis of these lesions is both important and challenging. Recently, studies suggest that telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter mutations could be a biomarker for urothelial carcinoma (UC). We hypothesized that these mutations can distinguish UC with glandular differentiation from nephrogenic adenoma, primary adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder (PAUB), or secondary malignancies. Twenty-five cases of benign glandular lesions (including nephrogenic adenoma); 29 cases of UC with glandular differentiation; 10 cases of PAUB; and 10 cases each of metastatic colon cancer, prostatic carcinoma, and carcinoma from Mullerian origin were collected. Slides were reviewed and selected to make sure the lesion was at least 10% to 20% of all tissue. Macrodissection was performed in some of cases, and genomic DNA was extracted from the tissue. Telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter mutations were determined by standard polymerase chain reaction sequencing. Twenty-one cases (72%) of UC with glandular differentiation were positive for TERT promoter mutations. However, none of the remaining cases (total 65 cases of benign lesions, PAUB, and metastatic carcinomas) was positive for TERT promoter mutation. Telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter mutations were highly associated with UC including UC with glandular differentiation but not other glandular lesions of bladder. Therefore, in conjunction with morphologic features, Immunohistochemistry stain profile, and clinical information, TERT promoter mutations could distinguish UC with glandular differentiation from other bladder glandular lesions. In addition, lack of TERT promoter mutations in primary adenocarcinoma of bladder suggests that this entity may have different origin or carcinogenesis from those of UC. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. FORTRAN Code for Glandular Dose Calculation in Mammography Using Sobol-Wu Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mowlavi A A

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Accurate computation of the radiation dose to the breast is essential to mammography. Various the thicknesses of breast, the composition of the breast tissue and other variables affect the optimal breast dose. Furthermore, the glandular fraction, which refers to the composition of the breasts, as partitioned between radiation-sensitive glandular tissue and the adipose tissue, also has an effect on this calculation. Fatty or fibrous breasts would have a lower value for the glandular fraction than dense breasts. Breast tissue composed of half glandular and half adipose tissue would have a glandular fraction in between that of fatty and dense breasts. Therefore, the use of a computational code for average glandular dose calculation in mammography is a more effective means of estimating the dose of radiation, and is accurate and fast. Methods: In the present work, the Sobol-Wu beam quality parameters are used to write a FORTRAN code for glandular dose calculation in molybdenum anode-molybdenum filter (Mo-Mo, molybdenum anode-rhodium filter (Mo-Rh and rhodium anode-rhodium filter (Rh-Rh target-filter combinations in mammograms. The input parameters of code are: tube voltage in kV, half-value layer (HVL of the incident x-ray spectrum in mm, breast thickness in cm (d, and glandular tissue fraction (g. Results: The average glandular dose (AGD variation against the voltage of the mammogram X-ray tube for d = 4 cm, HVL = 0.34 mm Al and g=0.5 for the three filter-target combinations, as well as its variation against the glandular fraction of breast tissue for kV=25, HVL=0.34, and d=4 cm has been calculated. The results related to the average glandular absorbed dose variation against HVL for kV = 28, d=4 cm and g= 0.6 are also presented. The results of this code are in good agreement with those previously reported in the literature. Conclusion: The code developed in this study calculates the glandular dose quickly, and it is complete and

  14. Breast dose in mammography is about 30% lower when realistic heterogeneous glandular distributions are considered

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, Andrew M., E-mail: amhern@ucdavis.edu [Biomedical Engineering Graduate Group, University of California Davis, Sacramento, California 95817 (United States); Seibert, J. Anthony; Boone, John M. [Departments of Radiology and Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Engineering Graduate Group, University of California Davis, Sacramento, California 95817 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: Current dosimetry methods in mammography assume that the breast is comprised of a homogeneous mixture of glandular and adipose tissues. Three-dimensional (3D) dedicated breast CT (bCT) data sets were used previously to assess the complex anatomical structure within the breast, characterizing the statistical distribution of glandular tissue in the breast. The purpose of this work was to investigate the effect of bCT-derived heterogeneous glandular distributions on dosimetry in mammography. Methods: bCT-derived breast diameters, volumes, and 3D fibroglandular distributions were used to design realistic compressed breast models comprised of heterogeneous distributions of glandular tissue. The bCT-derived glandular distributions were fit to biGaussian functions and used as probability density maps to assign the density distributions within compressed breast models. The MCNPX 2.6.0 Monte Carlo code was used to estimate monoenergetic normalized mean glandular dose “DgN(E)” values in mammography geometry. The DgN(E) values were then weighted by typical mammography x-ray spectra to determine polyenergetic DgN (pDgN) coefficients for heterogeneous (pDgN{sub hetero}) and homogeneous (pDgN{sub homo}) cases. The dependence of estimated pDgN values on phantom size, volumetric glandular fraction (VGF), x-ray technique factors, and location of the heterogeneous glandular distributions was investigated. Results: The pDgN{sub hetero} coefficients were on average 35.3% (SD, 4.1) and 24.2% (SD, 3.0) lower than the pDgN{sub homo} coefficients for the Mo–Mo and W–Rh x-ray spectra, respectively, across all phantom sizes and VGFs when the glandular distributions were centered within the breast phantom in the coronal plane. At constant breast size, increasing VGF from 7.3% to 19.1% lead to a reduction in pDgN{sub hetero} relative to pDgN{sub homo} of 23.6%–27.4% for a W–Rh spectrum. Displacement of the glandular distribution, at a distance equal to 10% of the

  15. Population dynamics of the species Plantago major L. and Poa annua L. in a replacement series experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijović A.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Population dynamics of the species Plantago major L. and Poa annua L., typical representatives of ruderal vegetation, was analyzed in a replacement series experiment. The analyzed species were sown in an area with meadow vegetation, where the vegetation present had been previously removed by a total herbicide and additionally by hoeing. The objective of the experiment was to monitor growth dynamics and the effect of intra- and inter-specific interaction of the species Plantago major and Poa annua in conditions of different sowing densities and proportions. The effects of intra- and inter-specific interference and the density-dependent responses were assessed on the basis of several parameters (natality, mortality, age structure, and measures of ontogenetic changes. Based on the study results, it can be concluded that the responses of the species in the experiment were different, which is explained by different adaptive mechanisms, i.e., strategies, in the specific environmental conditions. An effect of the density dependent response was present in both species in the replacement series experiment. The response was amplified by water deficit caused by intensive evapora­tion of the bare soil. No effect of inter-specific interference was observed at the given densities of the study species on the sample plots. An effect of intra-specific interference of the species Plantago major and Poa annua was observed in the guise of a density-negative response of the rate of ontogenetic changes and fecundity.

  16. Glandular dose in breast tomosynthesis examinations: Preliminary study with a sample of patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillo, M.; Chevalier, M.; Calzado, A.; Valverde, J.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the mean glandular dose administered to a group of patients with a tomography system (Selenia Dimensions) service installed on a large hospital in which routine tests are done and screening. (Author)

  17. Diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma associated with atypical glandular cells on liquid-based cervical cytology.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chummun, K

    2012-12-01

    In 2008, the management of women in Ireland with atypical glandular cells changed to immediate referral to colposcopy. The optimal management of these women is unclear. A balance between the detection of occult disease and overtreatment is required.

  18. Glandularity estimation in Japanese women by using a breast model made from mammographic findings of European women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawaguchi, Ai; Matsunaga, Yuta; Chida, Koichi; Asada, Yasuki; Suzuki, Shoichi

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate breast glandularity in Japanese women using patient exposure conditions and tissue-equivalent materials by a conventional method. Typical glandularities in Japanese women were compared with those in European women to verify the validity of the average glandular dose estimation manual based on the EUREF protocol. Glandularity was estimated from the data of 600 patients and the model breast of the tissue-equivalent materials which had various amounts of glandular contents and thicknesses. The model breasts were measured to examine the relationships between the thickness of the glandular contents and tube loading by using an automatic exposure control system. Then, equations were established to determine glandularity from patient data. The mean glandularity in the highest compressed breast thickness (CBT) group of 36–45 mm was 72%. The mean CBT of the 184 (31%) patients with glandularities exceeding 100% was 31 mm. Glandularities in patients with CBT of 30–70 mm in the present study were higher compared to those in European women by approximately 10–20%. The results suggest that the model breast of European women might not be a suitable reference standard for more than 30% of Japanese women, who have breasts with lower CBT. (author)

  19. Mineral nutrient uptake from prey and glandular phosphatase activity as dual test of carnivory in semidesert plants with glandular leaves suspected of carnivory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Plachno, B.J.; Adamec, Lubomír; Huet, H.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 104, č. 4 (2009), s. 649-654 ISSN 0305-7364 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : mineral nutrient uptake * phosphatases * glandular leaves Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.501, year: 2009

  20. A calibration approach to glandular tissue composition estimation in digital mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufhold, J.; Thomas, J.A.; Eberhard, J.W.; Galbo, C.E.; Trotter, D.E. Gonzalez

    2002-01-01

    The healthy breast is almost entirely composed of a mixture of fatty, epithelial, and stromal tissues which can be grouped into two distinctly attenuating tissue types: fatty and glandular. Further, the amount of glandular tissue is linked to breast cancer risk, so an objective quantitative analysis of glandular tissue can aid in risk estimation. Highnam and Brady have measured glandular tissue composition objectively. However, they argue that their work should only be used for 'relative' tissue measurements unless a careful calibration has been performed. In this work, we perform such a 'careful calibration' on a digital mammography system and use it to estimate breast tissue composition of patient breasts. We imaged 0%, 50%, and 100% glandular-equivalent phantoms of varying thicknesses for a number of clinically relevant x-ray techniques on a digital mammography system. From these images, we extracted mean signal and noise levels and computed calibration curves that can be used for quantitative tissue composition estimation. In this way, we calculate the percent glandular composition of a patient breast on a pixelwise basis. This tissue composition estimation method was applied to 23 digital mammograms. We estimated the quantitative impact of different error sources on the estimates of tissue composition. These error sources include compressed breast height estimation error, residual scattered radiation, quantum noise, and beam hardening. Errors in the compressed breast height estimate contribute the most error in tissue composition--on the order of ±7% for a 4 cm compressed breast height. The spatially varying scattered radiation will contribute quantitatively less error overall, but may be significant in regions near the skinline. It is calculated that for a 4 cm compressed breast height, a residual scatter signal error is mitigated by approximately sixfold in the composition estimate. The error in composition due to the quantum noise, which is the limiting

  1. Investigation of mean glandular dose versus compressed breast thickness relationship for mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bor, D.; Tukel, S.; Olgar, T.; Toklu, T.; Aydin, E.; Akyol, O.

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between the mean glandular dose (MGD) and the compressed breast thickness (CBT) is commonly used for the presentation of mammographic dose survey results and could also be useful for the assessment of individual breast doses retrospectively in case of lack of necessary dosimetric instrumentation. The high data scattering from the best fit reduces the reliability of this technique. The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy of this relationship using the data collected from a patient survey and phantom experiment. Patients were divided into three different groups according to their breast glandularities, which were predicted from the inspection of previous mammograms. X-ray beam qualities that will be used in patient examinations were determined according to breast thickness and predicted glandularities. The MGD versus CBT relationship for all the examined patients resulted in a poor correlation (R 2 = 0.28). This relationship was separately obtained for each glandularity group and also for sub-groups of specific beam qualities. The best correlation (R 2 = 0.73) was obtained for the fatty breast group and Mo/Mo combination. A low correlation (R 2 = 0.34) was observed in the mid-glandularity group due to inclusion of a wide range of glandularities in this group. In the case of the dense breast group, although the glandularity range was narrow, there were e still high data scattering (R 2 = 0.25). This was probably due to the use of Mo/Rh and Mo/Mo combinations. This is validated by obtaining the MGD-CBT relationship specific to Mo/Mo combination (R 2 = 0.61). (authors)

  2. Computation of the glandular radiation dose in digital tomosynthesis of the breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sechopoulos, Ioannis; Suryanarayanan, Sankararaman; Vedantham, Srinivasan; D'Orsi, Carl; Karellas, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Tomosynthesis of the breast is currently a topic of intense interest as a logical next step in the evolution of digital mammography. This study reports on the computation of glandular radiation dose in digital tomosynthesis of the breast. Previously, glandular dose estimations in tomosynthesis have been performed using data from studies of radiation dose in conventional planar mammography. This study evaluates, using Monte Carlo methods, the normalized glandular dose (D g N) to the breast during a tomosynthesis study, and characterizes its dependence on breast size, tissue composition, and x-ray spectrum. The conditions during digital tomosynthesis imaging of the breast were simulated using a computer program based on the Geant4 toolkit. With the use of simulated breasts of varying size, thickness and tissue composition, the D g N to the breast tissue was computed for varying x-ray spectra and tomosynthesis projection angle. Tomosynthesis projections centered about both the cranio-caudal (CC) and medio-lateral oblique (MLO) views were simulated. For each projection angle, the ratio of the glandular dose for that projection to the glandular dose for the zero degree projection was computed. This ratio was denoted the relative glandular dose (RGD) coefficient, and its variation under different imaging parameters was analyzed. Within mammographic energies, the RGD was found to have a weak dependence on glandular fraction and x-ray spectrum for both views. A substantial dependence on breast size and thickness was found for the MLO view, and to a lesser extent for the CC view. Although RGD values deviate substantially from unity as a function of projection angle, the RGD averaged over all projections in a complete tomosynthesis study varies from 0.91 to 1.01. The RGD results were fit to mathematical functions and the resulting equations are provided

  3. Normalized glandular dose (DgN) coefficients for flat-panel CT breast imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thacker, Samta C; Glick, Stephen J

    2004-01-01

    The development of new digital mammography techniques such as dual-energy imaging, tomosynthesis and CT breast imaging will require investigation of optimal camera design parameters and optimal imaging acquisition parameters. In optimizing these acquisition protocols and imaging systems it is important to have knowledge of the radiation dose to the breast. This study presents a methodology for estimating the normalized glandular dose to the uncompressed breast using the geometry proposed for flat-panel CT breast imaging. The simulation uses the GEANT 3 Monte Carlo code to model x-ray transport and absorption within the breast phantom. The Monte Carlo software was validated for breast dosimetry by comparing results of the normalized glandular dose (DgN) values of the compressed breast to those reported in the literature. The normalized glandular dose was then estimated for a range of breast diameters from 10 cm to 18 cm using an uncompressed breast model with a homogeneous composition of adipose and glandular tissue, and for monoenergetic x-rays from 10 keV to 120 keV. These data were fit providing expressions for the normalized glandular dose. Using these expressions for the DgN coefficients and input variables such as the diameter, height and composition of the breast phantom, the mean glandular dose for any spectra can be estimated. A computer program to provide normalized glandular dose values has been made available online. In addition, figures displaying energy deposition maps are presented to better understand the spatial distribution of dose in CT breast imaging

  4. Genome-wide identification of GLABRA3 downstream genes for anthocyanin biosynthesis and trichome formation in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chenhao; Li, Dong; Jin, Changyu; Duan, Shaowei; Qi, Shuanghui; Liu, Kaige; Wang, Hanchen; Ma, Haoli; Hai, Jiangbo; Chen, Mingxun

    2017-04-01

    GLABRA3 (GL3), a bHLH transcription factor, has previously proved to be involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis and trichome formation in Arabidopsis, however, its downstream targeted genes are still largely unknown. Here, we found that GL3 was widely present in Arabidopsis vegetative and reproductive organs. New downstream targeted genes of GL3 for anthocyanin biosynthesis and trichome formation were identified in young shoots and expanding true leaves by RNA sequencing. GL3-mediated gene expression was tissue specific in the two biological processes. This study provides new clues to further understand the GL3-mediated regulatory network of anthocyanin biosynthesis and trichome formation in Arabidopsis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Quantitative expression analysis of selected transcription factors in pavement, basal and trichome cells of mature leaves from Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schliep, Martin; Ebert, Berit; Simon-Rosin, Ulrike; Zoeller, Daniela; Fisahn, Joachim

    2010-05-01

    Gene expression levels of several transcription factors from Arabidopsis thaliana that were described previously to be involved in leaf development and trichome formation were analysed in trichome, basal and pavement cells of mature leaves. Single cell samples of these three cells types were collected by glass micro-capillaries. Real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR was used to analyse expression patterns of the following transcription factors: MYB23, MYB55, AtHB1, FILAMENTOUS FLOWER (FIL)/YABBY1 (YAB1), TRIPTYCHON (TRY) and CAPRICE (CPC). A difference in the expression patterns of TRY and CPC was revealed. Contrary to the CPC expression pattern, no transcripts of TRY could be detected in pavement cells. FIL/YAB1 was exclusively expressed in trichome cells. AtHB1 was highly expressed throughout all three cell types. MYB55 was higher expressed in basal cells than in trichome and pavement cells. MYB23 showed a pattern of low expression in pavement cells, medium in basal cells and high expression in trichomes. Expression patterns obtained by single cell sampling and real-time RT-PCR were compared to promoter GUS fusions of the selected transcription factors. Therefore, we regenerated two transgenic Arabidopsis lines that expressed the GUS reporter gene under control of the promoters of MYB55 and YAB1. In conclusion, despite their function in leaf morphogenesis, all six transcription factors were detected in mature leaves. Furthermore, single cell sampling and promoter GUS staining patterns demonstrated the predominant presence of MYB55 in basal cells as compared to pavement cells and trichomes.

  6. The application of biotic elicitor on Artemisia annua L. to increase artemisinin content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwati, I.; Manohara, D.; Rohimatun; Nurhayati, H.

    2018-01-01

    Artemisinin-based Combination Therapy (ACT) has been recommended by WHO as an alternative to treat malaria overcoming drug resistance. The secondary metabolic products in plants, including artemisinin, can be increased by utilizing biotic elicitor from fungi. The research was conducted in Gunung Putri Research Installation, Cipanas, West Java from 2010 to 2011. Phytophthora sp. from eggplant and Colletotrichum sp. from Artemisia annua were applied as biotic elicitor. The types of biotic elicitor applied to the plants were 1) the medium of potato dextrose broth were inoculated with fungi and harvested after 10 days (filtrate), 2) powdery mycelium of both fungi. There were 16 treatments: control negative, control positive (uninoculated medium) 1%, 2%, 3% (v/v)], Phytophthora sp. filtrate [1, 2% and 3% (v/v)], Colletotrichum sp. filtrate [1, 2% and 3% (v/v)], Phytophthora sp. mycelium [1%, 2% and 3% (w/v)], Colletotrichum sp mycelium [1%, 2% and 3% (w/v)]. The elicitor application increased plant production by 26.21% and artemisinin yield by 72% compared to control. Furthermore, the artemisinin production of the plants treated with medium inoculated with 2% filtrate of Phytophthora sp (FP2) (25.19 kg/ha) and 1% powdery mycelium of Colletotrichum sp (MC1) (26.42 kg/ha) were higher than control (K) (11.17 kg/ha).

  7. Evaluation and Selection of Mutative Artemisia (Artemisia annua L. According to the Altitude Variants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ENDANG GATI LESTARI

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Induction of genetic variant of Artemisia annua L. was conducted through the application of gamma ray irradiation in 2007-2008. The aim was to obtain a plant with high artemisine content ≥ 0.5% and late flowering period of about ≥ 7 month after planting. Tweleve selected genotypes were subsequently examined to gain genetic stability on altitude of 1500, 950, and 540 m asl. The results showed that the plants had shorter flowering age in Cicurug (540 m asl than that of in Pacet (950 m asl and Gunung Putri (1540 m asl. Genotype 8 had the latest age of flowering in the three locations than the other genotypes, however, the growth and biomass were the lowest. Vegetative growth of Artemisia in Pacet and Gunung Putri was better than those in Cicurug. Genotype of 15 in Cicurug and 5A genotype in Gunung Putri and Pacet had higher wet and dry weight than that of two other associates. Based on plant biomass, 5 genotypes from Gunung Putri and Pacet i.e. 1D, 3, 5A, 14, and 15 genotypes were selected, as well as 5 genotypes i.e. 1D, 3, 4, 5A, and 15 genotypes from Cicurug. Analisys on artemisin content successfully obtained 5 selected somaclone lines i.e. 1B, 2, 4, 14, and 3 somaclones.

  8. Artemisia annua respon to various types of organic fertilizer and dose in lowland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, A.; Samanhudi; Brahmanto, N.; Widyastuti, Y.

    2018-03-01

    Artemisia annua belongs to asteraceae genus which has many benefits in the medical field. Artemisia contains artemisinin which is used to cure malaria disease. The obstacle of artemisia development in Indonesia is low artemisinin content and the fact that artemisia only able to grow well in the highland area. For that this experiment aimed to increase the artemisinin content through enhancing artemisia biomass in the lowland using the application of organic fertilizer. Experiment was conducted in GreenhouseLab, Faculty of Agriculture, Sebelas Maret University, Surakarta from October 2015 to January 2016. Two factor of treatment and three replications was performed during experiment. The first factor is the organic fertilizer type and the second is the application dose. Result showed that Rabbit manure at 40% application dose give best influence on the plant height (172,62 cm), number of branches (68,3 branch), flowering time (102,67 day after planted), fresh weight (56,47 g) and dry weight (43,15 g), moreover Rabbit manure at 80% dose give the best influence on the root length (27,33 cm).

  9. Clothianidin and Imidacloprid Residues in Poa annua (Poales: Poaceae) and Their Effects on Listronotus maculicollis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavet, Christopher; Requintina, Matthew; Hampton, Emily; Cowles, Richard S; Byrne, Frank J; Alm, Steven R

    2014-12-01

    Competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to quantify the amounts of the neonicotinoids clothianidin and imidacloprid in Poa annua L. clippings from treated golf course fairways. Average clothianidin residues 7 d after application ranged from 674 to 1,550 ng/g tissue in 2012 and 455-2,220 ng/g tissue in 2013. Average clothianidin residues the day of application ranged from 17,100-38,800 ng/g tissue in 2014. Average imidacloprid residues 7 d after treatment ranged from 1,950-3,030 ng/g tissue in 2012 and 7,780-9,230 ng/g tissue in 2013. Average imidacloprid residues the day of application ranged from 31,500-40,400 ng/g tissue in 2014. Neonicotinoid or bifenthrin-neonicotinoid combination products applied in field plots in 2012 did not significantly reduce the numbers of larvae relative to the untreated control. However, in 2013, statistically significant reductions in the numbers of larvae recovered from treated field plots were associated with the presence of bifenthrin alone or when used in combination with neonicotinoid active ingredients. Listronotus maculicollis (Kirby) adults caged on neonicotinoid-, bifenthrin-, and bifenthrin-neonicotinoid-treated P. annua turf plugs fed on P. annua leaves, but mortality was only highly significantly different between treated and untreated foliage when weevils were placed on treated foliage the day after treatment and allowed to feed for 7 d. The modest degree of population suppression with bifenthrin in these experiments may not be adequate to justify the continued use of these products due to the increased risk of insecticide resistance and disruption of biological control. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

  10. Simulated Digestion of Dried Leaves of Artemisia annua Consumed as a Treatment (pACT) for Malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weathers, Pamela J.; Jordan, Nikole; Lasin, Praphapan; Towler, Melissa J.

    2014-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological Relevance Artemisinin (AN) is produced by Artemisia annua, a medicinal herb long used as a tea infusion in traditional Chinese medicine to treat fever; it is also the key ingredient in current artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) effective in treating malaria. Recently we showed that dried leaves from the whole plant A. annua that produces artemisinin and contains artemisinin-synergistic flavonoids seems to be more effective and less costly than ACT oral malaria therapy; however little is known about how digestion affects release of artemisinin and flavonoids from dried leaves. Material and Methods In the current study we used a simulated digestion system to determine how artemisinin and flavonoids are released prior to absorption into the bloodstream. Various delivery methods and staple foods were combined with dried leaves for digestion in order to investigate their impact on the bioavailability of artemisinin and flavonoids. Digestate was recovered at the end of the oral, gastric, and intestinal stages, separated into solid and liquid fractions, and extracted for measurement of artemisinin and total flavonoids. Results Compared to unencapsulated digested dried leaves, addition of sucrose, various cooking oils, and rice did not reduce the amount of artemisinin released in the intestinal liquid fraction, but the amount of released flavonoids nearly doubled. When dried leaves were encapsulated into either hydroxymethylcellulose or gelatin capsules, there was >50% decrease in released artemisinin but no change in released flavonoids. In the presence of millet or corn meal, the amount of released artemisinin declined, but there was no change in released flavonoids. Use of a mutant A. annua lacking artemisinin showed that the plant matrix is critical in determining how artemisinin is affected during the digestion process. Conclusions This study provides evidence showing how both artemisinin and flavonoids are affected by digestion and

  11. Flavonoids from Artemisia annua L. as Antioxidants and Their Potential Synergism with Artemisinin against Malaria and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge F.S. Ferreira

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia annua is currently the only commercial source of the sesquiterpene lactone artemisinin.Since artemisinin was discovered as the active component of A. annua in early 1970s, hundreds of papers have focused on the anti-parasitic effects of artemisinin and its semi-synthetic analogs dihydroartemisinin, artemether, arteether, and artesunate. Artemisinin per se has not been used in mainstream clinical practice due to its poor bioavailability when compared to its analogs. In the past decade, the work with artemisinin-based compounds has expanded to their anti-cancer properties. Although artemisinin is a major bioactive component present in the traditional Chinese herbal preparations (tea, leaf flavonoids, also present in the tea, have shown a variety of biological activities and may synergize the effects of artemisinin against malaria and cancer. However, only a few studies have focused on the potential synergistic effects between flavonoids and artemisinin. The resurgent idea that multi-component drug therapy might be better than monotherapy is illustrated by the recent resolution of the World Health Organization to support artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACT, instead of the previously used monotherapy with artemisinins. In this critical review we will discuss the possibility that artemisinin and its semi-synthetic analogs might become more effective to treat parasitic diseases (such as malaria and cancer if simultaneously delivered with flavonoids. The flavonoids present in A. annua leaves have been linked to suppression of CYP450 enzymes responsible for altering the absorption and metabolism of artemisinin in the body, but also have been linked to a beneficial immunomodulatory activity in subjects afflicted with parasitic and chronic diseases.

  12. Evaluation of average glandular dose in mammography services in 10 cities of Colombia; Avaliacao de dose glandular media em servicos de mamografia de 10 cidades de Colombia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alejo-Martinez, H.; Salazar-Hurtado, E.; Puerto-Jimenez, D. [Grupo de Prevencion Temprana Del Cancer, Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Bogota D.C. (Colombia)

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to conduct an assessment of dose in 60 mammography services that have screening programs for breast cancer in 10 cities of Colombia. The third quartile of the average glandular dose was 2,29 mGy, range between 1,0 and 5,6 mGy, for the phantom equivalent to a standard breast. This study included mammography units with conventional and digital technology. (author)

  13. Evaluation of subject contrast and normalized average glandular dose by semi-analytical models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomal, A.; Poletti, M.E.; Caldas, L.V.E.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, two semi-analytical models are described to evaluate the subject contrast of nodules and the normalized average glandular dose in mammography. Both models were used to study the influence of some parameters, such as breast characteristics (thickness and composition) and incident spectra (kVp and target-filter combination) on the subject contrast of a nodule and on the normalized average glandular dose. From the subject contrast results, detection limits of nodules were also determined. Our results are in good agreement with those reported by other authors, who had used Monte Carlo simulation, showing the robustness of our semi-analytical method.

  14. The European wool-carder bee (Anthidium manicatum) eavesdrops on plant volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during trichome collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Kelsey K; Brown, Steve; Clarke, Stephanie; Röse, Ursula S R; Starks, Philip T

    2017-11-01

    The plant-pollinator relationship is generally considered mutualistic. This relationship is less clear, however, when pollinators also cause tissue damage. Some Megachilidae bees collect plant material for nests from the plants they pollinate. In this study, we examined the relationship between Anthidium manicatum, the European wool-carder bee, and the source of its preferred nesting material - Stachys byzantina, lamb's ear. Female A. manicatum use their mandibles to trim trichomes from plants for nesting material (a behaviour dubbed "carding"). Using volatile organic compound (VOC) headspace analysis and behavioural observations, we explored (a) how carding effects S. byzantina and (b) how A. manicatum may choose specific S. byzantina plants. We found that removal of trichomes leads to a dissimilar VOC bouquet compared to intact leaves, with a significant increase in VOC detection following damage. A. manicatum also visit S. byzantina plants with trichomes removed at a greater frequency compared to plants with trichomes intact. Our data suggest that A. manicatum eavesdrop on VOCs produced by damaged plants, leading to more carding damage for individual plants due to increased detectability by A. manicatum. Accordingly, visitation by A. manicatum to S. byzantina may incur both a benefit (pollination) and cost (tissue damage) to the plant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Epifluorescence and stereomicroscopy of trichomes associated with resistant and susceptible host plant genotypes of the Asian citrus psyllid (Hemiptera: Liviidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epifluorescence, light and stereo-microscopy were used to characterize foliar trichomes associated with young flush leaves and stems of six plant genotypes that are hosts of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, vector of the economically important citrus greening disease. These genotypes incl...

  16. Leishmanicidal activities of Artemisia annua leaf essential oil against Visceral Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad eIslamuddin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis (VL, the second-most dreaded parasitic disease after malaria, is currently endemic in 88 countries. Dramatic increases in the rates of infection, drug resistance and non-availability of safe vaccines have highlighted the need for identification of novel and inexpensive anti-leishmanial agents from natural sources. In this study, we showed the leishmanicidal effect of essential oil from Artemisia annua leaves (AALEO against Leishmania donovani in vitro and in vivo. AALEO was extracted by hydrodistillation and characterized by GC-MS, the most abundant compounds were found to be camphor (52.06 % followed by β-caryophyllene (10.95 %. AALEO exhibited significant leishmanicidal activity against L. donovani, with 50 % inhibitory concentration of 14.63 ± 1.49 µg ml-1 and 7.3 ± 1.85 µg ml─1, respectively, against the promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes. The effect was mediated through programmed cell death as confirmed by externalization of phosphatidylserine, DNA nicking by TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labelling (TUNEL assay, dyskinetoplastidy, cell cycle arrest at sub-G0–G1 phase, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and reactive oxygen species (ROS generation in promastigotes and nitric oxide (NO generation in ex vivo model. AALEO presented no cytotoxic effects against mammalian macrophages even at 200 µg ml─1. Intra-peritoneal administration of AALEO (200 mg/ kg.b.w. to infected BALB/c mice reduced the parasite burden by almost 90 % in the liver and spleen with significant reduction in weight. There was no hepato- or nephro-toxicity as demonstrated by normal levels of serum enzymes. The promising antileishmanial activity shown by camphor-rich AALEO may provide a new lead in the treatment of VL.

  17. A new quantitative classification of ecological types in the bromeliad genus Tillandsia (Bromeliaceae based on trichomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosti Stefano

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Using collection specimens, we measured the density and wing area of trichomes in 37 species of the bromeliad genus Tillandsia, specifically the abaxial proximal, abaxial distal, adaxial proximal and adaxial distal parts of the leaf. The product of the trichome "wing" area by the number of trichomes (means produced a pure number (T that was correlated to ecological features. The correlation was positive with respect to arid environments (xeric Tillands and negative with respect to humid environments (mesic Tillands. Bulbous, and particularly myrmecophytic species and species with tanks, represented particular categories. Other intermediate types were identified based on the T number, totalling five ecological types. In comparison with other systems of ecological typification for Tillands and other Bromeliaceae, the present system offers measurable data whose analysis is reproducible. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (1: 191-203. Epub 2008 March 31.Medimos el número por milímetro cuadrado y el área del "ala" (parte móvil de los tricomas en las partes adaxial próxima y distal, y adaxial próxima y distal, de la hoja de 37 especies de bromelias del género Tillandsia. El producto del área del ala para el número de los tricomas (promedio produjo un número puro (T. Hallamos que T se correlaciona con las características ecológicas de las tilandsias investigadas. La correlación es positiva con respecto a ambientes áridos (especies xéricas y negativa con respecto a los ambientes húmedos (especies mésicas. Las especies con bulbo, y particularmente las asociadas con hormigas y especies con de tanque representan categorías particulares. Identificamos otros tipos intermedios, agradando así cinco tipos ecológicos. En comparación con otros sistemas de tipificación ecológica, este sistema ofrece la ventaja de ser reproducible y cuantitativo.

  18. The effects of combining Artemisia annua and Curcuma longa ethanolic extracts in broilers challenged with infective oocysts of Eimeria acervulina and E. maxima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to an increasing demand for natural products to control coccidiosis in broilers we investigated the effects of supplementing a combination of ethanolic extracts of Artemisia annua and Curcuma longa in drinking water. Three different dosages of this herbal mixture were compared with a negative co...

  19. Artemisia annua dried leaf tablets treated malaria resistant to ACT and i.v. artesunate: Case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daddy, Nsengiyumva Bati; Kalisya, Luc Malemo; Bagire, Pascal Gisenya; Watt, Robert L; Towler, Melissa J; Weathers, Pamela J

    2017-08-15

    Dried leaf Artemisia annua (DLA) has shown efficacy against Plasmodium sp. in rodent studies and in small clinical trials. Rodent malaria also showed resiliency against the evolution of artemisinin drug resistance. This is a case report of a last resort treatment of patients with severe malaria who were responding neither to artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) nor i.v. artesunate. Of many patients treated with ACTs and i.v. artesunate during the 6 mon study period, 18 did not respond and were subsequently treated with DLA Artemisia annua. Patients were given a dose of 0.5g DLA per os, twice daily for 5d. Total adult delivered dose of artemisinin was 55mg. Dose was reduced for body weight under 30kg. Clinical symptoms, e.g. fever, coma etc., and parasite levels in thick blood smears were tracked. Patients were declared cured and released from hospital when parasites were microscopically undetectable and clinical symptoms fully subsided. All patients were previously treated with Coartem® provided through Santé Rurale (SANRU) and following the regimen prescribed by WHO. Of 18 ACT-resistant severe malaria cases compassionately treated with DLA, all fully recovered. Of the 18, this report details two pediatric cases. Successful treatment of all 18 ACT-resistant cases suggests that DLA should be rapidly incorporated into the antimalarial regimen for Africa and possibly wherever else ACT resistance has emerged. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  20. Wound healing effect of flavonoid rich fraction and luteolin isolated from Martynia annua Linn. on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Santram Lodhi; Abhay K Singhai

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate wound healing potential of flavonoid fractions of Martynia annua (M. annua) Linn. leaves in diabetic rats on the basis of folkloric information and preliminary study. Methods: The flavonoid compound luteolin and apigenin were isolated from dried leaves of plant by column chromatography. The two concentrations (0.2% and 0.5% w/w) of luteolin and flavonoid fraction were selected for topically applied as ointment on diabetic wound. The Povidone Iodine Ointment USP was used as a reference. On 18th days, protein content, hydroxyproline and antioxidants (SOD, CAT and GSH) level in granuloma tissues were determined.Results:The results showed that, percent wound contraction were observed significantly (P<0.01) greater in MAF fraction and 0.5% w/w of luteolin treatment groups. Presence of matured collagen fibres and fibroblasts with better angiogenesis were observed in histopathological studies.Conclusions:In conclusion, our findings suggest that flavonoid fraction (MAF) and luteolin (0.5%w/w) may have potential benefit in enhancing wound healing in diabetic condition, possibly due to free-radical scavenging activity of plant.

  1. Method for the evaluation of a average glandular dose in mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okunade, Akintunde Akangbe

    2006-01-01

    This paper concerns a method for accurate evaluation of average glandular dose (AGD) in mammography. At different energies, the interactions of photons with tissue are not uniform. Thus, optimal accuracy in the estimation of AGD is achievable when the evaluation is carried out using the normalized glandular dose values, g(x,E), that are determined for each (monoenergetic) x-ray photon energy, E, compressed breast thickness (CBT), x, breast glandular composition, and data on photon energy distribution of the exact x-ray beam used in breast imaging. A generalized model for the values of g(x,E) that is for any arbitrary CBT ranging from 2 to 9 cm (with values that are not whole numbers inclusive, say, 4.2 cm) was developed. Along with other dosimetry formulations, this was integrated into a computer software program, GDOSE.FOR, that was developed for the evaluation of AGD received from any x-ray tube/equipment (irrespective of target-filter combination) of up to 50 kVp. Results are presented which show that the implementation of GDOSE.FOR yields values of normalized glandular dose that are in good agreement with values obtained from methodologies reported earlier in the literature. With the availability of a portable device for real-time acquisition of spectra, the model and computer software reported in this work provide for the routine evaluation of AGD received by a specific woman of known age and CBT

  2. Honey bee males and queens use glandular secretions to enhance sperm viability before and after storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Den Boer, Susanne Petronella A; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan; Baer, Boris

    2009-01-01

    Internal fertilization requires live sperm to be transferred from male to female before egg fertilization. Both males and females assist the insemination process by providing sperm with glandular secretions, which have been inferred to contain subsets of proteins that maintain sperm viability. He...

  3. Average glandular dose in digital mammography and digital breast tomosynthesis: comparison of phantom and patient data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, R. W.; van Engen, R. E.; Young, K. C.; den Heeten, G. J.; Broeders, M. J. M.; Schopphoven, S.; Jeukens, C. R. L. P. N.; Veldkamp, W. J. H.; Dance, D. R.

    2015-01-01

    For the evaluation of the average glandular dose (AGD) in digital mammography (DM) and digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) phantoms simulating standard model breasts are used. These phantoms consist of slabs of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) or a combination of PMMA and polyethylene (PE). In the last

  4. Severe glandular tularemia in a patient treated with anti-tumour necrosis factor for psoriatic arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruxandra Calin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A case of severe glandular tularemia in a patient receiving anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF therapy is reported here. The patient required prolonged treatment with doxycycline–ciprofloxacin due to early relapse after ciprofloxacin was stopped. Tularemia may have a more severe course in patients receiving anti-TNF. This may thus be an indication for more aggressive treatment.

  5. A Stochastic Polygons Model for Glandular Structures in Colon Histology Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirinukunwattana, Korsuk; Snead, David R J; Rajpoot, Nasir M

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we present a stochastic model for glandular structures in histology images of tissue slides stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin, choosing colon tissue as an example. The proposed Random Polygons Model (RPM) treats each glandular structure in an image as a polygon made of a random number of vertices, where the vertices represent approximate locations of epithelial nuclei. We formulate the RPM as a Bayesian inference problem by defining a prior for spatial connectivity and arrangement of neighboring epithelial nuclei and a likelihood for the presence of a glandular structure. The inference is made via a Reversible-Jump Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation. To the best of our knowledge, all existing published algorithms for gland segmentation are designed to mainly work on healthy samples, adenomas, and low grade adenocarcinomas. One of them has been demonstrated to work on intermediate grade adenocarcinomas at its best. Our experimental results show that the RPM yields favorable results, both quantitatively and qualitatively, for extraction of glandular structures in histology images of normal human colon tissues as well as benign and cancerous tissues, excluding undifferentiated carcinomas.

  6. Characterization and comparison of transgenic Artemisia annua GYR and wild-type NON-GYR plants in an environmental release trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H; Wu, G G; Wang, J B; Wu, X; Bai, L; Jiang, W; Lv, B B; Pan, A H; Jia, J W; Li, P; Zhao, K; Jiang, L X; Tang, X M

    2016-08-26

    The anti-malarial drug, artemisinin, is quite expensive as a result of its slow content in Artemisia annua. Recent investigations have suggested that genetic engineering of A. annua is a promising approach to improve the yield of artemisinin. In this study, the transgenic A. annua strain GYR, which has high artemisinin content, was evaluated in an environmental release trial. First, GYR plants were compared with the wild-type variety NON-GYR, with regard to phenotypic characters (plant height, crown width, stem diameter, germination rate, leaf dry weight, 1000-seed weight, leave shape). Second, stress resistance in the two varieties (salt, drought, herbicide, and cold resistance) was evaluated under different experimental conditions. Finally, gene flow was estimated. The results indicated that there were significant differences in several agronomic traits (plant height, stem diameter, and leave dry weight) between the transgenic GYR and NON-GYR plants. Salt stress in transgenic and control plants was similar, except under high NaCl concentrations (1.6%, w/w). Leaf water, proline, and MDA content (increased significantly) were significantly different. Transgenic A. annua GYR plants did not grow better than NON-GYR plants with respect to drought and herbicide resistance. The two varieties maintained vitality through the winter. Third, gene flow was studied in an environmental risk trial for transgenic GYR. The maximum gene flow frequency was 2.5%, while the maximum gene flow distance was 24.4 m; gene flow was not detected at 29.2 m at any direction. Our findings may provide an opportunity for risk assessment in future commercialization of transgenic A. annua varieties.

  7. Poder pastoral, acomodo y territorialidad en las Cartas Annuas jesuitas de Quito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Espinosa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza las Cartas Annuas jesuitas entre 1586 y 1660 que hacen refe-rencia a la Audiencia de Quito. Esta fuente poco consultada se utiliza para son-dear las estrategias jesuitas de evangelización y el régimen de administración de sacramentos de la orden en Quito. El artículo propone que las estrategias de evangelización jesuita dieron un giro al pasar de un encuentro con la religión nativa que incluyó un interés en mitos prehispánicos y extirpación de idolatría a un enfoque tabula rasa que se centraba en la administración de sacramentos. El artículo atribuye este giro a la transferencia del Colegio jesuita de Quito de la provincia jesuita de Perú a la provincia del Nuevo Reino (Nueva Granada. El artículo contextualiza el encuentro jesuita con la cultura nativa y la operación del régimen sacramental con referencia al concepto de las dos evangelizaciones de Juan Carlos Estenssoro, la noción de poder pastoral de Michel Foucault y la idea de la confesionalización perteneciente a la historiografía de la modernidad temprana europea. The article looks at the Jesuit Annual Letters concerning the Audiencia of Quito between 1586 and 1660. This virtually unexplored source is employed to analyze the conversion strategies and sacramental regime of the Jesuits in Quito. The article contends that the Jesuit conversion strategies shifted from an early enga-gement with native religion that included an interest in native myths, and ex-tirpation of idolatry to a tabula rasa approach centered on the administration of sacraments. The article attributes this shift to the transfer of the Colegio de Quito from the Jesuit province of Peru to that of the New Kingdom (New Granada. The article contextualizes the Jesuit engagement with native culture in Quito and the operation of the administration of sacraments with reference to Juan Carlos Estenssoro’s notion of the two conversions as well as with reference to Michel Foucault

  8. Estimation of the average glandular dose on a team of tomosynthesis; Estimacion de la dosis glandular media en un equipo de tomosintesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunez Martinez, L. M. R.; Sanchez Jimenez, J.; Pizarro trigo, F.

    2013-07-01

    Seeking to improve the information that gives us an image of mammography the manufacturers have implemented tomosynthesis. With this method of acquisition and reconstruction of image we went from having a 2D to a 3D image image, in such a way that it reduces or eliminates the effect of overlap of tissues. The estimate of the dose, which is always a fundamental parameter in the control of quality of radiology equipment, is more in the case of mammography by the radiosensitivity of this body and the frequency of their use. The objective of this work is the determination of the mean in a team glandular dose of with tomosynthesis mammography. (Author)

  9. Regulation of trichome development in tobacco by JcZFP8, a C2H2 zinc finger protein gene from Jatropha curcas L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiaodong; Gu, Yuxi; Dai, Tingwei; Wu, Yang; Wu, Peng; Xu, Ying; Chen, Fang

    2018-06-05

    Trichomes are epidermal outgrowths of plant tissues that can secrete or store large quantities of secondary metabolites, which contribute to plant defense responses against stress. The use of bioengineering methods for regulating the development of trichomes and metabolism is a widely researched topic. In the present study, we demonstrate that JcZFP8, a C2H2 zinc finger protein gene from Jatropha curcas L., can regulate trichome development in transgenic tobacco. To understand the underlying mechanisms, we performed transcriptome profiling of overexpression JcZFP8 transgenic plants and wild-type tobacco. Based on the analysis of differentially expressed genes, we determined that genes of the plant hormone signal transduction pathway was significantly enriched, suggesting that these pathways were modulated in the transgenic plants. In addition, the transcript levels of the known trichome-related genes in Arabidopsis were not significantly changed, whereas CycB2 and MYB genes were differentially expressed in the transgenic plants. Despite tobacco and Arabidopsis have different types of trichomes, all the pathways were associated with C2H2 zinc finger protein genes. Our findings help us to understand the regulation of multicellular trichome formation and suggest a new metabolic engineering method for the improvement of plants. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The effect of aluminium added filter on mean glandular dose using mammography machine in MINT Medical Physics Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asmaliza Hashim; Wan Hazlinda Ismail; Abd Aziz Mhd Ramli

    2005-01-01

    The effect of various thickness of aluminium added filter on mean glandular dose in mammography is investigated for a standard breast phantom, 4.2 cm Perspex. A mammography machine in Medical Physics Laboratory MINT, Bennett Model DMF-150 is used to provide radiation in various kV range under clinical condition. The mean glandular dose on the phantom were measured based on technique recommended by AAPM protocol (1990) report no 29. The mean glandular dose was found reducing with increasing thickness of added filter. A more detail results of this study is presented in this paper. (Author)

  11. Monte Carlo simulation for the estimation of the glandular breast dose for a digital breast tomosynthesis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Leonardo; Braz, Delson; Goncalves Magalhaes, Luis Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is a screening and diagnostic modality that acquires images of the breast at multiple angles during a short scan. The Selenia Dimensions (Hologic, Bedford, Mass) DBT system can perform both full-field digital mammography and DBT. The system acquires 15 projections over a 15 deg. angular range (from -7.5 deg. to +7.5 deg.). An important factor in determining the optimal imaging technique for breast tomosynthesis is the radiation dose. In breast imaging, the radiation dose of concern is that deposited in the glandular tissue of the breast because this is the tissue that has a risk of developing cancer. The concept of the normalised mean glandular dose (DgN) has been introduced as the metric for the dose in breast imaging. The DgN is difficult to measure. The Monte Carlo techniques offer an alternative method for a realistic estimation of the radiation dose. The purpose of this work was to use the Monte Carlo code MCNPX technique to generate monoenergetic glandular dose data for estimating the breast tissue dose in tomosynthesis for arbitrary spectra as well as to observe the deposited radiation dose by projection on the glandular portion of the breast in a Selenia Dimensions DBT system. A Monte Carlo simulation of the system was developed to compute the DgN in a craniocaudal view. Monoenergetic X-ray beams from 10 to 49 keV in 1-keV increments were used. The simulation utilised the assumption of a homogeneous breast composition and three compositions (0 % glandular, 50 % glandular and 100 % glandular). The glandular and adipose tissue compositions were specified according ICRU Report 44. A skin layer of 4 mm was assumed to encapsulate the breast on all surfaces. The breast size was varied using the chest wall-to-nipple distance (CND) and compressed breast thickness (t). In this work, the authors assumed a CND of 5 cm and the thicknesses ranged from 2 to 8 cm, in steps of 2 cm. The fractional energy absorption increases (up to 44

  12. Trichomes of tobacco excrete zinc as zinc-substituted calcium carbonate and other zinc-containing compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarret, G.; Harada, E.; Choi, Y-E.; Isaure, M.-P.; Geoffroy, N.; Fakra, S.; Marcus, M.A.; Birschwilks, M.; Clemens, S.; Manceau, A.

    2006-01-01

    Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv Xanthi) plants were exposed to toxic levels of zinc (Zn). Zn exposure resulted in toxicity signs in plants, and these damages were partly reduced by a calcium (Ca) supplement. Confocal imaging of intracellular Zn using Zinquin showed that Zn was preferentially accumulated in trichomes. Exposure to Zn and Zn + Ca increased the trichome density and induced the production of Ca/Zn mineral grains on the head cells of trichomes. These grains were aggregates of submicrometer-sized crystals and poorly crystalline material and contained Ca as major element, along with subordinate amounts of Zn, manganese, potassium, chlorine, phosphorus, silicon, and magnesium. Micro x-ray diffraction revealed that the large majority of the grains were composed essentially of metal-substituted calcite (CaCO3). CaCO3 polymorphs (aragonite and vaterite) and CaC2O4 (Ca oxalate) mono- and dihydrate also were identified, either as an admixture to calcite or in separate grains. Some grains did not diffract, although they contained Ca, suggesting the presence of amorphous form of Ca. The presence of Zn-substituted calcite was confirmed by Zn K-edge micro-extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy. Zn bound to organic compounds and Zn-containing silica and phosphate were also identified by this technique. The proportion of Zn-substituted calcite relative to the other species increased with Ca exposure. The production of Zn-containing biogenic calcite and other Zn compounds through the trichomes is a novel mechanism involved in Zn detoxification. This study illustrates the potential of laterally resolved x-ray synchrotron radiation techniques to study biomineralization and metal homeostasis processes in plants

  13. Trichome density and its UV-B protective potential are affected by shading and leaf position on the canopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liakoura, V.; Stefanou, M.; Manetas, Y.; Cholevas, C.; Karabourniotis, G.

    1997-01-01

    In Olea europaea trichome density and UV-B absorbing compounds of leaf hairs and the lamina proper of leaves located in south-facing, north-facing and the internal of the canopy were positively correlated to the UV-B midday instant irradiance measured in September at these three different positions of the canopy. The correlation between these three parameters and the receiving photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), however, was weaker. In Quercus ilex, trichome density and its UV-B absorbing capacity were considerably higher in the exposed, south-facing leaves, compared to the deeply shaded ones; the UV-B absorbing capacity of the de-haired lamina, however, was the same. In the broad-leaved, alpine rosette of Verbascum speciosum, one could distinguish two areas on the leaves, one exposed and one shaded by the superimposed lamina. Although trichome density and the UV-B absorbing compounds of the de-haired leaf were the same in the two areas, the UV-B absorbing capacity of hairs was considerably increased in the exposed region. In V. speciosum, exposure induced also qualitative changes in the UV-B absorbance profile, apparently due to the formation of new flavonoid compounds absorbing maximally at 345–350 nm. In all other cases, the differences were mainly quantitative. The results support the postulate of a function of leaf hairs as a UV-B radiation screen and suggest that trichome density and/or its UV-B absorbing capacity may depend on irradiance during leaf development

  14. Evaluation of average glandular dose in digital and conventional systems of the mammography; Avaliacao da dose glandular media em sistemas digitais e convencionais de mamografia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xavier, Aline C.S.; Barros, Vinicius S.M.; Khoury, Hellen J., E-mail: alinecx90@gmail.com, E-mail: vsmdbarros@gmail.com, E-mail: hjkhoury@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear; Mello, Francisca A. de, E-mail: francissamello@yahoo.com.br [Hospital das Clinicas do Recife (HCR/UFPE), PE (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Mammography is currently the most effective method of diagnosis and detection of breast pathologies. The main interest in this kid of exam comes from the high incidence rate of breast cancer and necessity of high quality images for accurate diagnosis. Digital mammography systems have several advantages compared to conventional systems, however the use of digital imaging systems is not always integrated to an image acquisition protocol. Therefore, it is questionable if digital systems truly reduce the dose received by the patient, because many times is introduced in the clinics without optimization of the image acquisition protocols. The aim of this study is to estimate the value of incident air Kerma and average glandular dose (AGD) in patients undergoing conventional and digital mammography systems in Recife. This study was conducted with 650 patients in three hospitals. The value of incident air Kerma was estimated from the measurement of the yield of equipment and irradiation parameters used for each patient. From these results and using the methodology proposed by Dance et al. the value of the average glandular dose was calculated. The results obtained show that the lowest value of AGD was found with conventional screen-film system, indicating that the parameters for image acquisition with digital systems are not optimized. It was also observed that the institutions with digital systems use lower breast compression values than the conventional. (author)

  15. Computer Vision for High-Throughput Quantitative Phenotyping: A Case Study of Grapevine Downy Mildew Sporulation and Leaf Trichomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divilov, Konstantin; Wiesner-Hanks, Tyr; Barba, Paola; Cadle-Davidson, Lance; Reisch, Bruce I

    2017-12-01

    Quantitative phenotyping of downy mildew sporulation is frequently used in plant breeding and genetic studies, as well as in studies focused on pathogen biology such as chemical efficacy trials. In these scenarios, phenotyping a large number of genotypes or treatments can be advantageous but is often limited by time and cost. We present a novel computational pipeline dedicated to estimating the percent area of downy mildew sporulation from images of inoculated grapevine leaf discs in a manner that is time and cost efficient. The pipeline was tested on images from leaf disc assay experiments involving two F 1 grapevine families, one that had glabrous leaves (Vitis rupestris B38 × 'Horizon' [RH]) and another that had leaf trichomes (Horizon × V. cinerea B9 [HC]). Correlations between computer vision and manual visual ratings reached 0.89 in the RH family and 0.43 in the HC family. Additionally, we were able to use the computer vision system prior to sporulation to measure the percent leaf trichome area. We estimate that an experienced rater scoring sporulation would spend at least 90% less time using the computer vision system compared with the manual visual method. This will allow more treatments to be phenotyped in order to better understand the genetic architecture of downy mildew resistance and of leaf trichome density. We anticipate that this computer vision system will find applications in other pathosystems or traits where responses can be imaged with sufficient contrast from the background.

  16. Development of a greenhouse-based inoculation protocol for the fungus Colletotrichum cereale pathogenic to annual bluegrass (Poa annua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa A. Beirn

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The fungus Colletotrichum cereale incites anthracnose disease on Poa annua (annual bluegrass turfgrass. Anthracnose disease is geographically widespread throughout the world and highly destructive to cool-season turfgrasses, with infections by C. cereale resulting in extensive turf loss. Comprehensive research aimed at controlling turfgrass anthracnose has been performed in the field, but knowledge of the causal organism and its basic biology is still needed. In particular, the lack of a reliable greenhouse-based inoculation protocol performed under controlled environmental conditions is an obstacle to the study of C. cereale and anthracnose disease. Our objective was to develop a consistent and reproducible inoculation protocol for the two major genetic lineages of C. cereale. By adapting previously successful field-based protocols and combining with components of existing inoculation procedures, the method we developed consistently produced C. cereale infection on two susceptible P. annua biotypes. Approximately 7 to 10 days post-inoculation, plants exhibited chlorosis and thinning consistent with anthracnose disease symptomology. Morphological inspection of inoculated plants revealed visual signs of the fungus (appressoria and acervuli, although acervuli were not always present. After stringent surface sterilization of inoculated host tissue, C. cereale was consistently re-isolated from symptomatic tissue. Real-time PCR detection analysis based on the Apn2 marker confirmed the presence of the pathogen in host tissue, with both lineages of C. cereale detected from all inoculated plants. When a humidifier was not used, no infection developed for any biotypes or fungal isolates tested. The inoculation protocol described here marks significant progress for in planta studies of C. cereale, and will enable scientifically reproducible investigations of the biology, infectivity and lifestyle of this important grass pathogen.

  17. Second-harmonic generation as a DNA malignancy indicator of prostate glandular epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng-Fei, Zhuang; Han-Ping, Liu; Zhou-Yi, Guo; Xiao-Yuan, Deng; Shuang-Mu, Zhuo; Bi-Ying, Yu

    2010-01-01

    This paper first demonstrates second-harmonic generation (SHG) in the intact cell nucleus, which acts as an optical indicator of DNA malignancy in prostate glandular epithelial cells. Within a scanning region of 2.7 μm×2.7 μm in cell nuclei, SHG signals produced from benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate carcinoma (PC) tissues (mouse model C57BL/6) have been investigated. Statistical analyses (t test) of a total of 405 measurements (204 nuclei from BPH and 201 nuclei from PC) show that SHG signals from BPH and PC have a distinct difference (p < 0.05), suggesting a potential optical method of revealing very early malignancy in prostate glandular epithelial cells based upon induced biochemical and/or biophysical modifications in DNA. (geophysics, astronomy and astrophysics)

  18. Ultrastructure of the apical glandular region of the scolex of Proteocephalus torulosus (Cestoda: Proteocephalidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žďárská, Zdeňka; Scholz, Tomáš; Nebesářová, Jana

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 4 (2004), s. 333-338 ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/04/0342; GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909 Keywords : Cestoda * Proteocephalus torulosus * apical glandular region Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 0.837, year: 2004

  19. Evaluation of average glandular dose in mammography services in 10 cities of Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alejo-Martinez, H.; Salazar-Hurtado, E.; Puerto-Jimenez, D.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to conduct an assessment of dose in 60 mammography services that have screening programs for breast cancer in 10 cities of Colombia. The third quartile of the average glandular dose was 2,29 mGy, range between 1,0 and 5,6 mGy, for the phantom equivalent to a standard breast. This study included mammography units with conventional and digital technology. (author)

  20. Severe glandular tularemia in a patient treated with anti-tumour necrosis factor for psoriatic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calin, Ruxandra; Caumes, Eric; Reibel, Florence; Ali Mohamed, Anzime; Brossier, Florence; Foltz, Violaine; Boussouar, Samia; Fautrel, Bruno; Maurin, Max; Katlama, Christine; Pourcher, Valérie

    2017-07-01

    A case of severe glandular tularemia in a patient receiving anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) therapy is reported here. The patient required prolonged treatment with doxycycline-ciprofloxacin due to early relapse after ciprofloxacin was stopped. Tularemia may have a more severe course in patients receiving anti-TNF. This may thus be an indication for more aggressive treatment. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. MORPHOLOGIC CONSIDERATIONS ABOUT THE WALL OF THE GLANDULAR STOMACH OF YOUNG RABBITS (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    OpenAIRE

    de Oliveira, Larissa Renata; Molinari, Sonia Lucy; Natali, Maria Raquel Marçal; Michelan, Andrea Cristiane; Scapinello, Claúdio

    2001-01-01

    The morphology of the stomach may vary between species as a function of feeding habits, differences on the cellular composition of the mucosa of the stomach wall and the different functions it carries out. Morphofunctional variations of the stomach of several animals along phylogeny led us to investigate the morphology of the wall of the glandular stomach of rabbits. We used the stomachs of 32 young rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) from the White New Zealand strain, coming from the Experimenta...

  2. Long acting β2-agonist and corticosteroid restore airway glandular cell function altered by bacterial supernatant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawrocki-Raby Béatrice

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Staphylococcus aureus releases virulence factors (VF that may impair the innate protective functions of airway cells. The aim of this study was to determine whether a long-acting β2 adrenergic receptor agonist (salmeterol hydroxynaphthoate, Sal combined with a corticosteroid (fluticasone propionate, FP was able to regulate ion content and cytokine expression by airway glandular cells after exposure to S. aureus supernatant. Methods A human airway glandular cell line was incubated with S. aureus supernatant for 1 h and then treated with the combination Sal/FP for 4 h. The expression of actin and CFTR proteins was analyzed by immunofluorescence. Videomicroscopy was used to evaluate chloride secretion and X-ray microanalysis to measure the intracellular ion and water content. The pro-inflammatory cytokine expression was assessed by RT-PCR and ELISA. Results When the cells were incubated with S. aureus supernatant and then with Sal/FP, the cellular localisation of CFTR was apical compared to the cytoplasmic localisation in cells incubated with S. aureus supernatant alone. The incubation of airway epithelial cells with S. aureus supernatant reduced by 66% the chloride efflux that was fully restored by Sal/FP treatment. We also observed that Sal/FP treatment induced the restoration of ion (Cl and S and water content within the intracellular secretory granules of airway glandular cells and reduced the bacterial supernatant-dependent increase of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL8 and TNFα. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that treatment with the combination of a corticosteroid and a long-acting β2 adrenergic receptor agonist after bacterial infection restores the airway glandular cell function. Abnormal mucus induced by defective ion transport during pulmonary infection could benefit from treatment with a combination of β2 adrenergic receptor agonist and glucocorticoid.

  3. Effect of the glandular composition on digital breast tomosynthesis image quality and dose optimisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, T.; Di Maria, S.; Vaz, P.; Ribeiro, A.; Belchior, A.; Cardoso, J.; Matela, N.; Oliveira, N.; Almeida, P.; Janeiro, L.

    2015-01-01

    In the image quality assessment for digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT), a breast phantom with an average percentage of 50 % glandular tissue is seldom used, which may not be representative of the breast tissue composition of the women undergoing such examination. This work aims at studying the effect of the glandular composition of the breast on the image quality taking into consideration different sizes of lesions. Monte Carlo simulations were performed using the state-of-the-art computer program PENELOPE to validate the image acquisition system of the DBT equipment as well as to calculate the mean glandular dose for each projection image and for different breast compositions. The integrated PENELOPE imaging tool (PenEasy) was used to calculate, in mammography, for each clinical detection task the X-ray energy that maximises the figure of merit. All the 2D cranial-caudal projections for DBT were simulated and then underwent the reconstruction process applying the Simultaneous Algebraic Reconstruction Technique. Finally, through signal-to-noise ratio analysis, the image quality in DBT was assessed. (authors)

  4. Atypical squamous and glandular cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS and AGUS) of the uterine cervix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenci, M; Vecchione, A

    2000-01-01

    ASCUS (Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance) and AGUS (Atypical Glandular Cells of Undetermined Significance), or AGCUS, are two acronyms introduced in 1988 by The Bethesda System (TBS) for reporting borderline cytological changes in cervical cytology. ASCUS and AGUS categories should be subclassified. Five ASCUS subgroups were proposed: 1) ASCUS due to processing defects, 2) with "mature" cytoplasm, 3) in post-menopausal women (a--in the setting of atrophy and b--with estrogen stimulation), 4) atypical metaplasia, and 5) ASCUS with keratinized cytoplasm. AGUS subgroups may be subcategorized in endometrial or endocervical on the basis of origin. Endocervical AGUS should be further qualified, but the analysis of atypical glandular cells may be really difficult and the conclusive diagnosis is frequently "AGUS not otherwise specified". The subclassification of ASCUS and AGUS is useful for an appropriate clinical management, but pertinent patient information (such as age, date of last menstrual period, mechanical therapies, tamoxifen therapy, and others) is needed to avoid an overdiagnosis and consequently an overtreatment. In fact various subgroups require different clinical management. Therefore, an effective communication between cytopathologists and referring physicians is essential in the analysis of squamous and glandular atypias.

  5. CT measurement of breast glandular tissue and its association with testicular cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klang, Eyal [Tel Aviv University, Department of Radiology, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Aviv (Israel); The Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer (Israel); Rozendorn, Noa; Raskin, Steve; Portnoy, Orith; Sklair, Miri; Marom, Edith M.; Konen, Eli; Amitai, Michal M. [Tel Aviv University, Department of Radiology, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Aviv (Israel)

    2017-02-15

    To evaluate the associations between breast glandular tissues diameters as determined by CT and b-hCG levels, histological types, tumour spread and prognosis in patients with testicular germ cell tumour. Ninety-four patients with pre-treatment CT scan and markers (b-hCG, AFP, LDH) were retrospectively collected. A radiologist measured diameters in all CT examinations and correlation between diameters and log (b-hCG) was assessed (Pearson's coefficient). The ability of measured diameters to predict lymphatic and distant haematogenous metastatic spread was evaluated (ROC curves). The associations between measured diameter cut-off values of 20 and 25 mm and International Germ Cell Cancer Collaborative Group (IGCCCG) classification, lymphatic and distant haematogenous metastatic spread and histological subtypes were evaluated (chi squared test). Breast glandular diameters correlated to log(b-hCG) (r = 0.579) and predicted distant haematogenous metastatic spread (AUC = 0.78). Worse prognosis (intermediate or poor IGCCCG) was shown for 20 mm (27.3 vs. 4.2 %, p = 0.005) and 25 mm (33.3 vs. 6.1 %, p = 0.014). A diameter of 25 mm was associated with non-seminoma (91.7 vs. 48.8 %, p = 0.005). Breast glandular tissue diameters correlated with log(b-hCG) and predicted distant haematogenous metastases. Twenty and 25 mm were associated with worse prognosis and 25 mm was able to distinguish between seminoma and non-seminoma. (orig.)

  6. Antibacterial, modulatory activity of antibiotics and toxicity from Rhinella jimi (Stevaux, 2002) (Anura: Bufonidae) glandular secretions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Débora Lima; Morais-Braga, Maria Flaviana Bezerra; Santos, Antonia Thassya Lucas Dos; Machado, Antonio Judson Targino; Araujo Filho, João Antonio de; Dias, Diógenes de Queiroz; Cunha, Francisco Assis Bezerra da; Saraiva, Rogério de Aquino; Menezes, Irwin Rose Alencar de; Coutinho, Henrique Douglas Melo; Costa, José Galberto Martins; Ferreira, Felipe Silva; Alves, Rômulo Romeu da Nóbrega; Almeida, Waltécio de Oliveira

    2017-08-01

    The increase in microorganisms with resistance to medications has caused a strong preoccupation within the medical and scientific community. Animal toxins studies, such as parotoid glandular secretions from amphibians, possesses a great potential in the development of drugs, such as antimicrobials, as these possess bioactive compounds. It was evaluated Rhinella jimi (Stevaux, 2002) glandular secretions against standard and multi-resistant bacterial strains; the effect of secretions combined with drugs; and determined the toxicity using two biologic in vivo models, and a in vitro model with mice livers. Standard strains were used for the determination of the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC), while for the modulatory activity of antibiotics, the clinical isolates Escherichia coli 06, Pseudomonas aeruginosa 03 and Staphylococcus aureus 10 were used. Modulatory activity was evaluated by the broth microdilution method with aminoglycosides and β-lactams as target antibiotics. The secretions in association with the antibiotics have a significant reduction in MIC, both the aminoglycosides and β-lactams. The toxicity and cytotoxicity results were lower than the values used in the modulation. R. jimi glandular secretions demonstrated clinically relevant results regarding the modulation of the tested antimicrobials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Radioimmunoassay of glandular kallikrein in human plasma after partial purification by immunoaffinity column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Kazutaka; Inoue, Yoshikazu; Kokubu, Tatsuo

    1987-01-01

    Glandular kallikrein in human plasma was partially purified by immunoaffinity column and was measured by a radioimmunoassay (RIA). Plasma was diluted with an equal volume of 10 mmol/l sodium phosphate buffer, pH 7.4, containing 0.9% NaCl (PBS) and was applied to an immunoaffinity column from which glandular kallikrein was eluted with 3 mol/l NaSCN (20 ml). The enzymic fraction was concentrated with an Amicon PM 10 filter and dialyzed against PBS. The final recovery of the enzyme was 51.6 ± 1.6%, determined by using [ 125 I]kallikrein. The usable range of the standard curve covered 2.5-100 ng/tube. The coefficient of variation within the series was 5.9%, and the coefficient of variation between the series was 7.6%. In healthy controls, the plasma content of glandular kallikrein was 1.36 ± 0.39 ng/ml. In patients with acute pancreatitis, the plasma concentration was 8.02 ± 6.15 ng/ml, significantly different from the control group. (Auth.)

  8. Impact of digitalization of mammographic units on average glandular doses in the Flemish Breast Cancer Screening Program

    OpenAIRE

    De Hauwere, An; Thierens, Hubert

    2012-01-01

    The impact of digitalization on the average glandular doses in 49 mammographic units participating in the Flemish Breast Cancer Screening Program was studied. Screen-film was changed to direct digital radiography and computed radiography in 25 and 24 departments respectively. Average glandular doses were calculated before and after digitalization for different PMMA-phantom thicknesses and for groups of 50 successive patients. For the transition from screen-film to computed radiography both ph...

  9. Antioxidant properties of extracts from selected plant materials (Caesalpinia spinosa, Perilla frutescens, Artemisia annua and Viola wittrockiana) in vitro and in model food systems

    OpenAIRE

    Skowyra, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Phenolic compounds, ubiquitous in plants, are of considerable interest and are increasingly becoming a subject of intensive research due to their bioactive properties such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-mutagenic, anti-viral and anti-inflammatory activity. The objective of this research was to determine the antioxidant activity of extracts from selected plant materials, namely Caesalpinia spinosa, Perilla frutescens, Artemisia annua and Viola wittrockiana Gams. Plant material extracts we...

  10. Methyl jasmonate counteracts boron toxicity by preventing oxidative stress and regulating antioxidant enzyme activities and artemisinin biosynthesis in Artemisia annua L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aftab, Tariq; Khan, M Masroor A; Idrees, Mohd; Naeem, M; Moinuddin; Hashmi, Nadeem

    2011-07-01

    Boron is an essential plant micronutrient, but it is phytotoxic if present in excessive amounts in soil for certain plants such as Artemisia annua L. that contains artemisinin (an important antimalarial drug) in its areal parts. Artemisinin is a sesquiterpene lactone with an endoperoxide bridge. It is quite expensive compound because the only commercial source available is A. annua and the compound present in the plant is in very low concentration. Since A. annua is a major source of the antimalarial drug and B stress is a deadly threat to its cultivation, the present research was conducted to determine whether the exogenous application of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) could combat the ill effects of excessive B present in the soil. According to the results obtained, the B toxicity induced oxidative stress and reduced the stem height as well as fresh and dry masses of the plant remarkably. The excessive amounts of soil B also lowered the net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, internal CO(2) concentration and total chlorophyll content in the leaves. In contrast, the foliar application of MeJA enhanced the growth and photosynthetic efficiency both in the stressed and non-stressed plants. The excessive B levels also increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. Endogenous H(2)O(2) and O(2)(-) levels were also high in the stressed plants. However, the MeJA application to the stressed plants reduced the amount of lipid peroxidation and stimulated the synthesis of antioxidant enzymes, enhancing the content and yield of artemisinin as well. Thus, it was concluded that MeJA might be utilized in mitigating the B toxicity and improving the content and yield of artemisinin in A. annua plant.

  11. Characterization of fibrillar collagens and extracellular matrix of glandular benign prostatic hyperplasia nodules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler M Bauman

    Full Text Available Recent studies have associated lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS in men with prostatic fibrosis, but a definitive link between collagen deposition and LUTS has yet to be demonstrated. The objective of this study was to evaluate ECM and collagen content within normal glandular prostate tissue and glandular BPH, and to evaluate the association of clinical parameters of LUTS with collagen content.Fibrillar collagen and ECM content was assessed in normal prostate (48 patients and glandular BPH nodules (24 patients using Masson's trichrome stain and Picrosirius red stain. Second harmonic generation (SHG imaging was used to evaluate collagen content. Additional BPH tissues (n = 47 were stained with Picrosirius red and the association between clinical parameters of BPH/LUTS and collagen content was assessed.ECM was similar in normal prostate and BPH (p = 0.44. Total collagen content between normal prostate and glandular BPH was similar (p = 0.27, but a significant increase in thicker collagen bundles was observed in BPH (p = 0.045. Using SHG imaging, collagen content in BPH (mean intensity = 62.52; SEM = 2.74 was significantly higher than in normal prostate (51.77±3.49; p = 0.02. Total collagen content was not associated with treatment with finasteride (p = 0.47 or α-blockers (p = 0.52, pre-TURP AUA symptom index (p = 0.90, prostate-specific antigen (p = 0.86, post-void residual (PVR; p = 0.32, prostate size (p = 0.21, or post-TURP PVR (p = 0.51. Collagen content was not associated with patient age in patients with BPH, however as men aged normal prostatic tissue had a decreased proportion of thick collagen bundles.The proportion of larger bundles of collagen, but not total collagen, is increased in BPH nodules, suggesting that these large fibers may play a role in BPH/LUTS. Total collagen content is independent of clinical parameters of BPH and LUTS. If fibrosis and overall ECM deposition are

  12. Calculation of Absorbed Glandular Dose using a FORTRAN Program Based on Monte Carlo X-ray Spectra in Mammography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Asghar Mowlavi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Average glandular dose calculation in mammography with Mo-Rh target-filter and dose calculation for different situations is accurate and fast. Material and Methods: In this research, first of all, x-ray spectra of a Mo target bombarded by a 28 keV electron beam with and without a Rh filter were calculated using the MCNP code. Then, we used the Sobol-Wu parameters to write a FORTRAN code to calculate average glandular dose. Results: Average glandular dose variation was calculated against the voltage of the mammographic x-ray tube for d = 5 cm, HVL= 0.35 mm Al, and different value of g. Also, the results related to average glandular absorbed dose variation per unit roentgen radiation against the glandular fraction of breast tissue for kV = 28 and HVL = 0.400 mmAl and different values of d are presented. Finally, average glandular dose against d for g = 60% and three values of kV (23, 27, 35 kV with corresponding HVLs have been calculated. Discussion and Conclusion: The absorbed dose computational program is accurate, complete, fast and user friendly. This program can be used for optimization of exposure dose in mammography. Also, the results of this research are in good agreement with the computational results of others.

  13. The effect of Artemisia annua on broiler performance, on intestinal microbiota and on the course of a Clostridium perfringens infection applying a necrotic enteritis disease model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Ricarda M; Grevsen, Kai; Ivarsen, Elise

    2012-01-01

    The aerial parts of the plant Artemisia annua contain essential oils having antimicrobial properties against Clostridium perfringens Type A, the causal agent for necrotic enteritis in broilers. In two experiments, the influence of increasing dietary concentrations of dried A. annua leaves (0, 5, 10...... and 20 g/kg) and n-hexane extract from fresh A. annua leaves (0, 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg) on broiler performance was investigated. Dried plant material decreased feed intake and body weight in a dose-dependent manner, and 10 and 20 g/kg diet tended to improve the feed conversion ratio. The n...... the effect of the dietary addition of dried A. annua leaves (10 g/kg on top) or n-hexane extract of A. annua (250 mg/kg) on the severity of the disease in broilers. The addition of n-hexane extract reduced the intestinal C. perfringens numbers and the severity of the disease-related small intestinal lesions...

  14. Preliminary results of the average glandular dose to the breast with TLDS measure is computed as the conversion factors; Resultados preliminares da dose glandular media na mama medida com TLDS e calculada atraves de fatores de conversao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sardo, Luiz T.L.; Almeida, Claudio D.; Coutinho, Celia M.C., E-mail: ltsardo@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: claudio@ird.gov.br, E-mail: celia@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    At mammography exams there is a risk of a breast cancer induced from the absorbed dose by the glandular tissue. According to the National Institute of Cancer, INCA, breast cancer is the second type most frequent in the world and the most common among women, therefore the necessity of monitoring the mean glandular dose, D{sub G}. Measuring methods of D{sub G} were established by some authors. Among the established methods the method of Dance is one of the most known. In this study was utilized a measurement method realized with TL dosimeters inserted in a breast tissue equivalent phantom, BTE, with 46% of glandularity and exposed using Mo/Mo and Mo/Rh target/filter combination and 28kV. To ensure this measurement method the results were compared with a calculation method, used by Dance, of D{sub G} from the measurement of incident air kerma, K{sub i}, and conversion factors to consider mainly the beam quality, the compressed thickness and the glandularity of the breast. The results of the comparison of the D{sub G} measurement with the obtained dose by the method of Dance demonstrated that for the thickness of 4.0 and 6.0 cm the doses were consistent. For the thickness of 5.0 cm the difference was higher, indicating that the glandularity may influence, suggesting further investigation. (author)

  15. Assessment of mean glandular dose to patients from digital mammography systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pwamang, Caroline K.

    2016-07-01

    Mean glandular dose assessment of patients undergoing digital mammography examination has been done. A total of 297 patient data was used for the study. Basic Quality Control tests were done to ascertain the performance of the equipment used. The results of Quality Control tests indicated that the three Mammography units used for this study were functioning within the internationally acceptable performance criteria. Patients with a breast thickness of 30 mm within the two age groups of 40-49 yrs and 50-64 yrs received doses slightly higher than the acceptable dose levels. A patient in the category 40-49 yrs with breast thickness of 30 mm received 1.83 mGy as calculated Mean Glandular Dose, 2.10 mGy was the recorded dose and 1.58 mGy was recorded under the age group 50-64 yrs. These values have deviated by -22%, -40%, and -5.33% respectively from 1.5 mGy which is the recommended dose for a breast thickness of 30 mm. Also patients with breast thickness of 70 mm under the age group 40–49 yrs had a recorded dose of 6.58 mGy, which deviated by -1.21% from the recommended value of 6.5 mGy for that breast thickness. Aside these values, all the other values were within the recommended dose values. The percentage deviation between the recommended values and the calculated values was within ±25% which was a working limit that was set for this work. Doses delivered by the Full-field Digital mammography equipment were higher than doses delivered by the Computered Radiography equipment. The calculated Mean Glandular Doses for the three facilities were within recommended dose values. (author)

  16. NTL8 Regulates Trichome Formation in Arabidopsis by Directly Activating R3 MYB Genes TRY and TCL1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hainan; Wang, Xianling; Guo, Hongyan; Cheng, Yuxin; Hou, Chunjiang; Chen, Jin-Gui; Wang, Shucai

    2017-08-01

    The NAM, ATAF1/2, and CUC (NAC) are plant-specific transcription factors that regulate multiple aspects of plant growth and development and plant response to environmental stimuli. We report here the identification of NTM1-LIKE8 (NTL8), a membrane-associated NAC transcription factor, as a novel regulator of trichome formation in Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ). From an activation-tagged Arabidopsis population, we identified a dominant, gain-of-function mutant with glabrous inflorescence stem. By using plasmid rescue and RT-PCR analyses, we found that NTL8 was tagged; thus, the mutant was named ntl8-1 Dominant ( ntl8-1D ). Recapitulation experiment further confirmed that the phenotype observed in the ntl8-1D mutant was caused by elevated expression of NTL8 Quantitative RT-PCR results showed that the expression level of the single-repeat R3 MYB genes TRIPTYCHON ( TRY ) and TRICHOMELESS1 ( TCL1 ) was elevated in the ntl8-1D mutant. Genetic analyses demonstrated that NTL8 acts upstream of TRY and TCL1 in the regulation of trichome formation. When recruited to the promoter region of the reporter gene Gal4:GUS by a fused GAL4 DNA-binding domain, NTL8 activated the expression of the reporter gene. Chromatin immunoprecipitation results indicated that TRY and TCL1 are direct targets of NTL8. However, NTL8 did not interact with SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN LIKE9, another transcription factor that regulates the expression of TRY and TCL1 , in yeast and plant cells. Taken together, our results suggest that NTL8 negatively regulates trichome formation in Arabidopsis by directly activating the expression of TRY and TCL1 . © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Foliar trichome- and aquaporin-aided water uptake in a drought-resistant epiphyte Tillandsia ionantha Planchon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohrui, T; Nobira, H; Sakata, Y; Taji, T; Yamamoto, C; Nishida, K; Yamakawa, T; Sasuga, Y; Yaguchi, Y; Takenaga, H; Tanaka, Shigeo

    2007-12-01

    The atmospheric epiphyte Tillandsia ionantha is capable of surviving drought stress for 6 months or more without any exogenous water supply via an as of yet to be determined mechanism. When plants were soaked in water for 3 h, leaves absorbed a remarkably large amount of water (30-40% on the basis of fresh weight), exhibiting a bimodal absorption pattern. Radiolabeled water was taken up by the leaves by capillary action of the epidermal trichomes within 1 min (phase 1) and then transported intracellularly to leaf tissues over 3 h (phase 2). The removal of epidermal trichome wings from leaves as well as rinsing leaves with water significantly lowered the extracellular accumulation of water on leaf surfaces. The intracellular transport of water was inhibited by mercuric chloride, implicating the involvement of a water channel aquaporin in second-phase water absorption. Four cDNA clones (TiPIP1a, TiPIP1b, TiPIP1c, and TiPIP2a) homologous to PIP family aquaporins were isolated from the leaves, and RT-PCR showed that soaking plants in water stimulated the expression of TiPIP2a mRNA, suggesting the reinforcement in ability to rapidly absorb a large amount of water. The expression of TiPIP2a complementary RNA in Xenopus oocytes enhanced permeability, and treatment with inhibitors suggested that the water channel activity of TiPIP2a protein was regulated by phosphorylation. Thus, the high water uptake capability of T. ionantha leaves surviving drought is attributable to a bimodal trichome- and aquaporin-aided water uptake system based on rapid physical collection of water and subsequent, sustained chemical absorption.

  18. The Cytotoxic, Antibacterial and Free Radical Scavenging Activities of Crude Extracts of Matricaria chamomilla, Salvadora persica and Artemisia annua

    KAUST Repository

    Seddek, Ahmed

    2011-12-01

    The discovery of drugs from natural sources has been a rapidly growing science in this era. Plants used for medicinal purposes have been usually studied as rich sources of bioactive chemical compounds that can be used as medications. Several plant-derived drugs have been approved so far. Cancer and infectious diseases have been common targets for the science of drug discovery, due to the high mortality rates caused by these diseases all over the world. Several plant-derived compounds are being marketed now as anti-cancer agents. However, finding novel antimicrobial and anti-cancer compounds has become an important goal to overcome the problems of existing anti-cancer and antimicrobial agents, such as resistance and non-selectivity. In this thesis project, an attempt to find out useful biological activities of the crude extracts of some plants used traditionally for medicinal purposes in Saudi Arabia has been made. Matricaria chamomilla, Salvadora persica and Artemisia annua have been selected for study, based on the literature review performed. These plants were screened for three biological activities; anti-cancer, anti-bacterial and free radical scavenging activities. The experimental part of the study consisted of some common in-vitro techniques, such as cytotoxicity and cell viability assays, disk diffusion assay and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl assay. In addition, the crude extract of Matricaria chamomilla has undergone chemical fractionation and four solvent fractions were obtained using column chromatography. The crude extract of Matricaria chamomilla showed a promising anti-bacterial activity against Escherichia coli and a very promising free radical scavenging activity that was comparable to ascorbic acid, an important anti-oxidant. The four solvent fractions obtained from that extract showed that these activities were produced by more than one compound belonging to different solvent fractions. In addition, the crude extract of Artemisia annua showed

  19. Estimation of the average glandular dose on a team of tomosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunez Martinez, L. M. R.; Sanchez Jimenez, J.; Pizarro trigo, F.

    2013-01-01

    Seeking to improve the information that gives us an image of mammography the manufacturers have implemented tomosynthesis. With this method of acquisition and reconstruction of image we went from having a 2D to a 3D image image, in such a way that it reduces or eliminates the effect of overlap of tissues. The estimate of the dose, which is always a fundamental parameter in the control of quality of radiology equipment, is more in the case of mammography by the radiosensitivity of this body and the frequency of their use. The objective of this work is the determination of the mean in a team glandular dose of with tomosynthesis mammography. (Author)

  20. Estimate of average glandular dose (AGD) in national clinics of mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora, Patricia; Segura, Helena

    2004-01-01

    The breast cancer represents the second cause of death by cancer in the femme population of our country. The specialized equipment for the obtaining of the mammographic images is higher every day and its use increases daily. The quality of the radiographic study is linked to the dose that this tissue intrinsically sensible receives to the ionizing radiations. The present work makes the first national study to quantify the average glandular doses and to connect them with the diagnostic quality and the recommendations to international scale. (Author) [es

  1. Preliminary results of the average glandular dose to the breast with TLDS measure is computed as the conversion factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sardo, Luiz T.L.; Almeida, Claudio D.; Coutinho, Celia M.C.

    2013-01-01

    At mammography exams there is a risk of a breast cancer induced from the absorbed dose by the glandular tissue. According to the National Institute of Cancer, INCA, breast cancer is the second type most frequent in the world and the most common among women, therefore the necessity of monitoring the mean glandular dose, D G . Measuring methods of D G were established by some authors. Among the established methods the method of Dance is one of the most known. In this study was utilized a measurement method realized with TL dosimeters inserted in a breast tissue equivalent phantom, BTE, with 46% of glandularity and exposed using Mo/Mo and Mo/Rh target/filter combination and 28kV. To ensure this measurement method the results were compared with a calculation method, used by Dance, of D G from the measurement of incident air kerma, K i , and conversion factors to consider mainly the beam quality, the compressed thickness and the glandularity of the breast. The results of the comparison of the D G measurement with the obtained dose by the method of Dance demonstrated that for the thickness of 4.0 and 6.0 cm the doses were consistent. For the thickness of 5.0 cm the difference was higher, indicating that the glandularity may influence, suggesting further investigation. (author)

  2. Penetration of UV-A, UV-B and blue light through the leaf trichome layers of two xeromorphic plants, olive and oak, measured by optical fibre microprobes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karabourniotis, G.; Bornman, J.F.

    1999-01-01

    Quartz fibre-optic microprobes were used to monitor the light microenvironment beneath trichome layers of the xeromorphic leaves of two Mediterranean evergreen sclerophylls, Olea europaea and Quercus ilex. Young developing leaves of both plants were densely pubescent on both surfaces of the lamina, whereas the mature leaves were pubescent only on the abaxial side. Trichome layers of young as well as of mature leaves of both plants attenuated almost all incident ultraviolet (UV)-B (310 nm) and UV-A (360 nm) radiation and a considerable portion of blue light (430 nm). Abaxial trichome layers of young leaves were more effective in screening out the incident radiation compared to the adaxial ones of the same leaves and also compared to the abaxial layer of the mature leaves. The abaxial epidermis of dehaired mature leaves of O. europaea was ineffective in absorbing most of the incident UV-B and UV-A radiation. UV and visible spectra beneath trichome layers of O. europaea in mature leaves confirmed that the light microenvironment on the epidermis was deprived in the UV-B, UV-A and partly in the blue spectral regions. It is proposed that the occurrence of a dense trichome layer, especially in young leaves, may play a protective role against not only UV-B radiation damage, but also against high visible irradiance. This function is performed irrespective of the differing anatomy of individual hairs of both plants. The protection provided by the trichomes could afford advantages under stress conditions, especially during leaf development. (author)

  3. Functional characterization of TRICHOMELESS2, a new single-repeat R3 MYB transcription factor in the regulation of trichome patterning in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gan Lijun

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single-repeat R3 MYB transcription factors (single-repeat MYBs play important roles in controlling trichome patterning in Arabidopsis. It was proposed that single-repeat MYBs negatively regulate trichome formation by competing with GLABRA1 (GL1 for binding GLABRA3/ENHANCER OF GLABRA3 (GL3/EGL3, thus inhibiting the formation of activator complex TTG1(TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1-GL3/EGL3-GL1 that is required for the activation of GLABRA2 (GL2, whose product is a positive regulator of trichome formation. Previously we identified a novel single-repeat MYB transcription factor, TRICHOMELESS1 (TCL1, which negatively regulates trichome formation on the inflorescence stems and pedicels by directly suppressing the expression of GL1. Results We analyzed here the role of TRICHOMELESS2 (TCL2, a previously-uncharacterized single-repeat MYB transcription factor in trichome patterning in Arabidopsis. We showed that TCL2 is closely related to TCL1, and like TCL1 and other single-repeat MYBs, TCL2 interacts with GL3. Overexpression of TCL2 conferred glabrous phenotype while knockdown of TCL2 via RNAi induced ectopic trichome formation on the inflorescence stems and pedicels, a phenotype that was previously observed in tcl1 mutants. These results suggested that TCL2 may have overlapping function with TCL1 in controlling trichome formation on inflorescences. On the other hand, although the transcription of TCL2, like TCL1, is not controlled by the activator complex formed by GL1 and GL3, and TCL2 and TCL1 proteins are more than 80% identical at the amino acid level, the expression of TCL2 under the control of TCL1 promoter only partially recovered the mutant phenotype of tcl1, implying that TCL2 and TCL1 are not fully functional equivalent. Conclusions TCL2 function redundantly with TCL1 in controlling trichome formation on inflorescences, but they are not fully functional equivalent. Transcription of TCL2 is not controlled by activator complex

  4. Optimization of artemisinin extraction from artemisia annua l. With supercritical carbon dioxide + ethanol using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciftci, Ozan Nazim; Cahyadi, Jessica; Guigard, Selma E; Saldaña, Marleny D A

    2018-05-13

    Malaria is a high priority life-threatening public health concern in developing countries, and therefore there is a growing interest to obtain artemisinin for the production of artemisinin-based combination therapy products. In this study, artemisinin was extracted from the Artemisia annua L. plant using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO 2 ) modified with ethanol. Response surface methodology (RSM) based on central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was employed to investigate and optimize the extraction conditions of pressure (9.9-30 MPa), temperature (33-67°C), and co-solvent (ethanol, 0-12.6 wt.%). Optimum SC-CO 2 extraction conditions were found to be 30 MPa and 33°C. Under optimized conditions, the predicted artemisinin yield was 1.09% whereas the experimental value was 0.71±0.07%. Soxhlet extraction with hexane resulted in higher artemisinin yields and there was no significant difference in the purity of the extracts obtained with SC-CO 2 and Soxhlet extractions. Results indicated that SC-CO 2 and SC-CO 2 +ethanol extraction is a promising alternative for the extraction of artemisinin to eliminate the use of organic solvents, such as hexane and produce extracts that can be used for the production of antimalarial products. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Glandular differentiation in dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma: molecular evidence of a rare phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jour, George; Liu, Yajuan; Ricciotti, Robert; Pritchard, Colin; Hoch, Benjamin L

    2015-09-01

    Epithelial glandular differentiation in dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma has not been described. Our patient was a 64-year-old man with a history of prostate cancer status post-radiation and hormonal therapy. On screening bone scan, he was found to have increased uptake in his right femoral shaft. Biopsy revealed intermediate-grade conventional chondrosarcoma. Subsequent femoral resection was remarkable for an intermediate-grade chondrosarcomatous component juxtaposed to an area composed of anastomosing nests and cords of malignant epithelial cells showing nuclear atypia and increased mitotic activity. A fibroblastic-appearing spindle cell population was intimately associated with the epithelial cells. The epithelial cells labeled with 34bE12, AE1/AE3, EMA, and Vimentin (both spindled and epithelial components) while being negative for prostate-specific antigen, prostate specific acid phosphatase, cytokeratin 20, thyroid transcription factor-1, and CDX2. The patient developed local recurrence 9 months after the initial resection but has had no metastatic disease and consistently undetectable prostate-specific antigen levels. Deep parallel sequencing of the dedifferentiated component showed a nonsynonymous mutation at exon 4 of IDH1 gene at codon R132 leading to a substitution of arginine, with serine confirming glandular differentiation in dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of average glandular dose in digital and conventional systems of the mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xavier, Aline C.S.; Barros, Vinicius S.M.; Khoury, Hellen J.

    2014-01-01

    Mammography is currently the most effective method of diagnosis and detection of breast pathologies. The main interest in this kid of exam comes from the high incidence rate of breast cancer and necessity of high quality images for accurate diagnosis. Digital mammography systems have several advantages compared to conventional systems, however the use of digital imaging systems is not always integrated to an image acquisition protocol. Therefore, it is questionable if digital systems truly reduce the dose received by the patient, because many times is introduced in the clinics without optimization of the image acquisition protocols. The aim of this study is to estimate the value of incident air Kerma and average glandular dose (AGD) in patients undergoing conventional and digital mammography systems in Recife. This study was conducted with 650 patients in three hospitals. The value of incident air Kerma was estimated from the measurement of the yield of equipment and irradiation parameters used for each patient. From these results and using the methodology proposed by Dance et al. the value of the average glandular dose was calculated. The results obtained show that the lowest value of AGD was found with conventional screen-film system, indicating that the parameters for image acquisition with digital systems are not optimized. It was also observed that the institutions with digital systems use lower breast compression values than the conventional. (author)

  7. Average glandular dose in routine mammography screening using a Sectra Microdose Mammography unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemdal, B.; Herrnsdorf, L.; Andersson, I.; Bengtsson, G.; Heddson, B.; Olsson, M.

    2005-01-01

    The Sectra MicroDose Mammography system is based on direct photon counting (with a solid-state detector), and a substantially lower dose to the breast than when using conventional system can be expected. In this work absorbed dose measurements have been performed for the first unit used in routine mammography screening (at the Hospitals of Helsingborg (Sweden)). Two European protocols on dosimetry in mammography have been followed. Measurement of half value layer (HVL) cannot be performed as prescribed, but this study has demonstrated than non-invasive measurements of HVL can be performed accurately with a sensitive and well collimated solid-state detector with simultaneous correction for the energy dependence. The average glandular dose for a 50 mm standard breast with 50% glandularity, simulated by 45 mm polymethylmethacrylate, was found to be 0.21 and 0.28 mGy in March and December 2004, respectively. These values are much lower than for any other mammography system on the market today. It has to be stressed that the measurement were made using the current clinical settings and that no systematic optimisation of the relationship between absorbed dose and diagnostic image quality has been performed within the present study. In order to further increase the accuracy of absorbed dose measurements for this unit, the existing dose protocols should be revised to account also for the tungsten/aluminium anode/filter combination, the multi-slit pre-collimator device and the occurrence of a dose profile in the scanning direction. (authors)

  8. Gynecomastia: glandular-liposculpture through a single transaxillary one hole incision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yung Ki; Lee, Jun Hee; Kang, Sang Yoon

    2018-04-01

    Gynecomastia is characterized by the benign proliferation of breast tissue in men. Herein, we present a new method for the treatment of gynecomastia, using ultrasound-assisted liposuction with both conventional and reverse-cutting edge tip cannulas in combination with a pull-through lipectomy technique with pituitary forceps through a single transaxillary incision. Thirty patients were treated with this technique at the author's institution from January 2010 to January 2015. Ten patients were treated with conventional surgical excision of the glandular/fibrous breast tissue combined with liposuction through a periareolar incision before January 2010. Medical records, clinical photographs and linear analog scale scores were analyzed to compare the surgical results and complications. The patients were required to rate their cosmetic outcomes based on the linear analog scale with which they rated their own surgical results; the mean overall average score indicated a good or high level of satisfaction. There were no incidences of skin necrosis, hematoma, infection and scar contracture; however, one case each of seroma and nipple inversion did occur. Operative time was reduced overall using the new technique since it is relatively simple and straightforward. According to the evaluation by the four independent researchers, the patients treated with this new technique showed statistically significant improvements in scar and nipple-areolar complex (NAC) deformity compared to those who were treated using the conventional method. Glandular liposculpture through a single transaxillary incision is an efficient and safe technique that can provide aesthetically satisfying and consistent results.

  9. A study on the image quality of mammography and the average glandular dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, In Ja; Kim, Hak Sung; Kim, Sung Soo; Huh, Joon

    2002-01-01

    We came to the following conclusion as the results of experiment on the image quality of mammography and the average glandular dose using 4 apparatuses at 3 hospital in Seoul. Whereas the measurement of half value layer showed no differences among the apparatuses, the measurement by an attenuation curve method showed some differences by 5.9%. There were 9.1% differences in the measurement by aluminum conversion method. The basic density of an automatic exposure control unit must be D = 1.40, but there was no automatic exposure unit adjusted precisely at any hospital. The unit at the B hospital exceeded the allowable limit by ± 0.15. In the photographing using an automatic exposure control unit and the management of an automatic film processor using a sensitometer, most automatic film processors were well kept. But in some cases the mean value of a fluctuation coefficient exceeded the allowable limit. There is a need for more cautious management. The image quality of breast phantom photography was affected by the screen/film system among the hospital. The average glandular dose at a breast of 4.2 cm thickness depended on the tube voltage, In the case of Mo/Mo, it was measured 0.26 ∼ 1.39 mGy less than ACR standard 3.0 mGy

  10. Estimation of average glandular dose depending on the thickness of the breast; Estimativa da dose glandular media em funcao da espessura da mama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Real, Jessica V.; Luz, Renata M. da, E-mail: jessica.real@pucrs.br, E-mail: renata.luz@pucrs.br [Hospital Sao Lucas (HSL/PUCRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Fröhlich, Bruna D.; Pertile, Alessandra S.; Silva, Ana Maria Marques da, E-mail: bruna.frohlich@acad.pucrs.br, E-mail: lessandra.pertile@acad.pucrs.br, E-mail: ana.marques@pucrs.br [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women worldwide. Mammography is, to date, the most efficient method for detecting an abnormality in the patient's breast. It is a technique of imaging diagnostic that requires special care because radiographs without adequate quality may lead to a false diagnosis and lead to the need for a repeat examination, increasing the dose of radiation in the patient. This study aimed to evaluate the average glandular dose (AGD), depending on the breast thickness in patients undergoing routine tests, with a digital computer radiography processing system. Analyzed 30 exhibitions in patients aged (65 ± 12) years, in the right and left caudal skull projections, for breasts with thicknesses between 45 mm and 50 mm. The calculated value of the AGD for this track thickness was (1.600 ± 0.009) mGy. The performance of mammography quality control tests was satisfactory and the AGD values obtained for the chosen thickness range is acceptable, since the threshold achievable is 1.6 mGy and the acceptable is 2 mGy. In Brazil, it is only required the input dose calculation in skin for 45 mm breasts. However, the calculation of AGD is required for different thicknesses of the breast, to identify the best mammographic pattern aiming at better image quality at the lowest dose provided the patient.

  11. TU-F-18C-05: Evaluation of a Method to Calculate Patient-Oriented MGD Coefficients Using Estimates of Glandular Tissue Distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porras-Chaverri, M; Galavis, P; Bakic, P; Vetter, J

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Evaluate mammographic mean glandular dose (MGD) coefficients for particular known tissue distributions using a novel formalism that incorporates the effect of the heterogeneous glandular tissue distribution, by comparing them with MGD coefficients derived from the corresponding anthropomorphic computer breast phantom. Methods: MGD coefficients were obtained using MCNP5 simulations with the currently used homogeneous assumption and the heterogeneously-layered breast (HLB) geometry and compared against those from the computer phantom (ground truth). The tissue distribution for the HLB geometry was estimated using glandularity map image pairs corrected for the presence of non-glandular fibrous tissue. Heterogeneity of tissue distribution was quantified using the glandular tissue distribution index, Idist. The phantom had 5 cm compressed breast thickness (MLO and CC views) and 29% whole breast glandular percentage. Results: Differences as high as 116% were found between the MGD coefficients with the homogeneous breast core assumption and those from the corresponding ground truth. Higher differences were found for cases with more heterogeneous distribution of glandular tissue. The Idist for all cases was in the [−0.8 − +0.3] range. The use of the methods presented in this work results in better agreement with ground truth with an improvement as high as 105 pp. The decrease in difference across all phantom cases was in the [9 − 105] pp range, dependent on the distribution of glandular tissue and was larger for the cases with the highest Idist values. Conclusion: Our results suggest that the use of corrected glandularity image pairs, as well as the HLB geometry, improves the estimates of MGD conversion coefficients by accounting for the distribution of glandular tissue within the breast. The accuracy of this approach with respect to ground truth is highly dependent on the particular glandular tissue distribution studied. Predrag Bakic discloses current

  12. Arabidopsis ketoacyl-CoA synthase 16 (KCS16) forms C36 /C38 acyl precursors for leaf trichome and pavement surface wax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegebarth, Daniela; Buschhaus, Christopher; Joubès, Jérôme; Thoraval, Didier; Bird, David; Jetter, Reinhard

    2017-09-01

    The aliphatic waxes sealing plant surfaces against environmental stress are generated by fatty acid elongase complexes, each containing a β-ketoacyl-CoA synthase (KCS) enzyme that catalyses a crucial condensation forming a new C─C bond to extend the carbon backbone. The relatively high abundance of C 35 and C 37 alkanes derived from C 36 and C 38 acyl-CoAs in Arabidopsis leaf trichomes (relative to other epidermis cells) suggests differences in the elongation machineries of different epidermis cell types, possibly involving KCS16, a condensing enzyme expressed preferentially in trichomes. Here, KCS16 was found expressed primarily in Arabidopsis rosette leaves, flowers and siliques, and the corresponding protein was localized to the endoplasmic reticulum. The cuticular waxes on young leaves and isolated leaf trichomes of ksc16 loss-of-function mutants were depleted of C 35 and C 37 alkanes and alkenes, whereas expression of Arabidopsis KCS16 in yeast and ectopic overexpression in Arabidopsis resulted in accumulation of C 36 and C 38 fatty acid products. Taken together, our results show that KCS16 is the sole enzyme catalysing the elongation of C 34 to C 38 acyl-CoAs in Arabidopsis leaf trichomes and that it contributes to the formation of extra-long compounds in adjacent pavement cells. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Evaluation of mean glandular dose in a full-field digital mammography unit in Tabriz (IR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riabi, H. A.; Mehnati, P.; Mesbahi, A.

    2010-01-01

    This study was aimed at evaluating the mean glandular dose (MGD) and affecting factors during mammography examinations by a full-field digital mammography unit. An extensive quality control program was performed to assure that the unit is properly working. Required information including compressed breast thickness (CBT), breast parenchymal pattern and technical factors used for imaging were recorded. An entrance skin exposure measurement was also performed using slabs of polymethylmethacrylate with 2-8 cm thickness. On the basis of recorded information and measured data, the MGD was estimated for 1145 mammography examinations obtained from 298 patients. Mean CBTs of 4.9 and 5.8 cm and MGDs of 2 and 2.4 mGy were observed for cranio-caudal and medio-lateral oblique views, respectively. Significant correlation was seen between MGD and CBT, breast parenchymal pattern and applied kVp and mAs. (authors)

  14. Mean glandular dose measurement on various breast phantom using mammography machine in MINT Medical Physics Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Hazlinda Ismail; Asmaliza Hashim; Abd Aziz Mhd Ramli

    2005-01-01

    Until recently, mammography have been the primary means of detecting early breast cancer. Although there is a risk of radiation- induced carcinogenesis associated with the x-ray examination of the female breast, but this risk is small compared to its benefits with modern equipment and technique. Therefore, it is important to determine the dose of the tissue at risk from radiation exposure by measuring the mean glandular dose (MGD). This can help minimize the risk to the patient. This paper describe the MGD measurement done on various types and thickness of breast phantom using a Bennett mammography machine model DMF-150 in the Medical Physics laboratory at the Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT). Results of this study are discussed in this paper. (Author)

  15. Human papillomavirus prevalence and type-distribution in cervical glandular neoplasias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holl, Katsiaryna; Nowakowski, Andrzej M; Powell, Ned

    2015-01-01

    Cervical glandular neoplasias (CGN) present a challenge for cervical cancer prevention due to their complex histopathology and difficulties in detecting preinvasive stages with current screening practices. Reports of human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence and type-distribution in CGN vary, providing...... uncertain evidence to support prophylactic vaccination and HPV screening. This study [108288/108290] assessed HPV prevalence and type-distribution in women diagnosed with cervical adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS, N = 49), adenosquamous carcinoma (ASC, N = 104), and various adenocarcinoma subtypes (ADC, N = 461...... of CGN are HPV16/18/45-positive, the incorporation of prophylactic vaccination and HPV testing in cervical cancer screening are important prevention strategies. Our results suggest that special attention should be given to certain rarer ADC subtypes as most appear to be unrelated to HPV....

  16. Relationship of Compressed Breast Thickness and Average Glandular Dose According to Focus/Filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, In Ja

    2009-01-01

    The study examined the relationship between the compressed breast thickness and Average Glandular Dose (AGD) among 1,969 outpatients who went through breast X-ray in a university hospital for 10 months from July 1st, 2007 to April 30th, 2008. Then it analyzed the result acquired from 3,900 cases of Cranio-Caudal (CC) view, especially, when the breasts were compressed (13-15daN). The following is the conclusion driven from the relationship analysis. 1. The subjects aged in 40s and 50s were 2,679 out of 3,900 cases and this figure was 68.69% in all. 2. In terms of distribution depending on focus/filter, 41.0% was Mo/Mo, 34.8% was Mo/Rh, and 24.2% was Rh/Rh. 3. In terms of compressed breast thickness depending on focus/filter, the average thickness was 26.91 mm at Mo/Mo, 38.84 mm at Mo/Rh, and 48.80 mm at Rh/Rh. The average thickness of the entire cases was shown to be 36.27 mm. 4. AGD depending on focus/filter was 1.27 mGy at Mo/Mo, 1.55 mGy at Mo/Rh, and 1.42 mGy at Rh/Rh. The average glandular dose of the entire cases was shown to be 1.43 mGy. 5. The relationship of AGD depending on compressed breast thickness at Mo/Mo was y=0.0318x + 0.470 while it was y=0.0206x + 0.709 at Mo/Rh and y=0.0248x + 0.335 at Mo/Rh. It was highly influenced by the compressed breast thickness, however, more variation was detected at Mo/Mo depending on breast thickness.

  17. Determination of mean glandular dose on patients and phantom in X-ray mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avramova-Cholakova, S.; Vassileva, J.

    2008-01-01

    The statistics of breast cancer rate in Bulgaria show a tendency towards increase of the morbidity from this disease. Last years campaigns against breast cancer are organized yearly. This leads to an increased number of screening and diagnostic mammograms that are made in the country. The dose associated with the examination is very low but not slightingly small. The glandular tissue in the breast is considered to be the most sensitive in relation to the radiation exposure. Several publications propose different methods, measurement set up or conversion coefficients for the calculation of the mean glandular dose (MGD) delivered to the breast during the X-ray examination. The question about the standardization of the measurement procedures arises since the differences in the results obtained using different methodologies may be quite big. The aim of this work is to develop a standard procedure for the measurement of MGD based on the recommendations mentioned in the European protocol on dosimetry in mammography, the European protocol for the quality control of the physical and technical aspects of mammography screening and the Code of practice: TRS 457 of the IAEA. Five contemporary film-screen mammography units were included in this study. Attention should be paid to the measurement set up. The reference point is chosen 6 cm from the chest wall edge laterally centered. If an ionization chamber is used for dose measurements the compression plate should be placed in close contact with it. If solid state detectors are used the compression plate should be put away from the detector and the output recalculated like if the plate is near the detector. The conversion coefficients for age dependence are not used in this study as not appropriate for the population included in it. PMMA measurements for the determination of diagnostic reference levels could be used but more correct results would be obtained with patient measurements

  18. Increased adrenocortical response to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in sport horses with equine glandular gastric disease (EGGD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidegger, M D; Gerber, V; Bruckmaier, R M; van der Kolk, J H; Burger, D; Ramseyer, A

    2017-10-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that adrenocortical function would be altered in horses with equine gastric ulcer syndrome (EGUS). Twenty-six sport horses competing at national or international levels in eventing (n=15) or endurance (n=11) were subjected to a gastroscopic examination and an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation test. Salivary cortisol concentrations were measured before (baseline) and after (30, 60, 90, 120 and 150min) IV ACTH injection (1μg/kg bodyweight). Within EGUS, two distinct diseases, equine squamous gastric disease (ESGD) and equine glandular gastric disease (EGGD), can be distinguished. ESGD was diagnosed in 8/11 (73%; 95% confidence intervals [95%CI], 43-92%) endurance horses and 5/15 (33%; 95% CI, 14-58%) eventing horses. EGGD was observed in 9/11 (82%; 95% CI, 53-96%) endurance horses and 9/15 (60%; 95% CI, 35-81%) eventing horses. The presence or severity of ESGD was unrelated to the presence or severity of EGGD. ACTH stimulation induced a larger increase in cortisol concentration in horses with moderate EGGD than in horses with mild EGGD. Cortisol concentration during the entire sampling period (total increase in cortisol concentration during the entire sampling period [dAUC], 31.1±6.4ng/mL) and the highest measured concentration at a single time point (maximal increase in cortisol concentration [dMAX], 10.3±2.3ng/mL) were increased (P=0.005 and P=0.038, respectively), indicating that horses with glandular gastric disease exhibited increased adrenocortical responses to ACTH stimulation. These results suggest that EGGD might be associated with an enhanced adrenocortical sensitivity. Further investigations are warranted to confirm the association between adrenocortical sensitivity and EGGD and to elucidate the pathophysiological mechanisms involved. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Estimation of mean glandular dose for patients who undergo mammography and studying the factors affecting it

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzanje, Sana L. N. H.; Harki, Edrees M. Tahir Nury

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine mean glandular dose (MGD) during diagnostic mammography. This study was done in two hospitals in Hawler city in Kurdistan -region /Iraq, the exposure parameters kVp and mAs was recorded for 40 patients under go mammography. The MGD estimated by multiplied ESD with normalized glandular dose (Dn). The ESD measured indirectly by measuring output radiation mGy/mAs by using PalmRAD 907 as a suitable detector (Gigger detector).the results; shown that the mean and its standard deviation of MGD for Screen Film Mammography and Digital Mammography are (0.95±0.18)mGy and (0.99±0.26)mGy, respectively. And there is a significant difference between MGD for Screen Film Mammography and Digital Mammography views (p≤0. 05). Also the mean value and its standard deviation of MGD for screen film mammography is (0.96±0.21) for CC projection and (1.03±0.3) mGy for MLO projection, but mean value and its standard deviation evaluated of MGD for digital mammography is (0.92±0.17) mGy for CC projection and (0.98±0.2) mGy for MLO projection. As well as, the effect of kVp and mAs in MGD were studied, shows that in general as kVp and mAs increased the MGD increased accordingly in both of mammography systems.

  20. PTEN phosphatase-independent maintenance of glandular morphology in a predictive colorectal cancer model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagan, Ishaan C; Deevi, Ravi K; Fatehullah, Aliya; Topley, Rebecca; Eves, Joshua; Stevenson, Michael; Loughrey, Maurice; Arthur, Kenneth; Campbell, Frederick Charles

    2013-11-01

    Organotypic models may provide mechanistic insight into colorectal cancer (CRC) morphology. Three-dimensional (3D) colorectal gland formation is regulated by phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) coupling of cell division cycle 42 (cdc42) to atypical protein kinase C (aPKC). This study investigated PTEN phosphatase-dependent and phosphatase-independent morphogenic functions in 3D models and assessed translational relevance in human studies. Isogenic PTEN-expressing or PTEN-deficient 3D colorectal cultures were used. In translational studies, apical aPKC activity readout was assessed against apical membrane (AM) orientation and gland morphology in 3D models and human CRC. We found that catalytically active or inactive PTEN constructs containing an intact C2 domain enhanced cdc42 activity, whereas mutants of the C2 domain calcium binding region 3 membrane-binding loop (M-CBR3) were ineffective. The isolated PTEN C2 domain (C2) accumulated in membrane fractions, but C2 M-CBR3 remained in cytosol. Transfection of C2 but not C2 M-CBR3 rescued defective AM orientation and 3D morphogenesis of PTEN-deficient Caco-2 cultures. The signal intensity of apical phospho-aPKC correlated with that of Na(+)/H(+) exchanger regulatory factor-1 (NHERF-1) in the 3D model. Apical NHERF-1 intensity thus provided readout of apical aPKC activity and associated with glandular morphology in the model system and human colon. Low apical NHERF-1 intensity in CRC associated with disruption of glandular architecture, high cancer grade, and metastatic dissemination. We conclude that the membrane-binding function of the catalytically inert PTEN C2 domain influences cdc42/aPKC-dependent AM dynamics and gland formation in a highly relevant 3D CRC morphogenesis model system.

  1. PTEN Phosphatase-Independent Maintenance of Glandular Morphology in a Predictive Colorectal Cancer Model System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishaan C. Jagan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Organotypic models may provide mechanistic insight into colorectal cancer (CRC morphology. Three-dimensional (3D colorectal gland formation is regulated by phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN coupling of cell division cycle 42 (cdc42 to atypical protein kinase C (aPKC. This study investigated PTEN phosphatase-dependent and phosphatase-independent morphogenic functions in 3D models and assessed translational relevance in human studies. Isogenic PTEN-expressing or PTEN-deficient 3D colorectal cultures were used. In translational studies, apical aPKC activity readout was assessed against apical membrane (AM orientation and gland morphology in 3D models and human CRC. We found that catalytically active or inactive PTEN constructs containing an intact C2 domain enhanced cdc42 activity, whereas mutants of the C2 domain calcium binding region 3 membrane-binding loop (M-CBR3 were ineffective. The isolated PTEN C2 domain (C2 accumulated in membrane fractions, but C2 M-CBR3 remained in cytosol. Transfection of C2 but not C2 M-CBR3 rescued defective AM orientation and 3D morphogenesis of PTEN-deficient Caco-2 cultures. The signal intensity of apical phospho-aPKC correlated with that of Na+/H+ exchanger regulatory factor-1 (NHERF-1 in the 3D model. Apical NHERF-1 intensity thus provided readout of apical aPKC activity and associated with glandular morphology in the model system and human colon. Low apical NHERF-1 intensity in CRC associated with disruption of glandular architecture, high cancer grade, and metastatic dissemination. We conclude that the membrane-binding function of the catalytically inert PTEN C2 domain influences cdc42/aPKC-dependent AM dynamics and gland formation in a highly relevant 3D CRC morphogenesis model system.

  2. Dual-energy digital mammography: Calibration and inverse-mapping techniques to estimate calcification thickness and glandular-tissue ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kappadath, S. Cheenu; Shaw, Chris C.

    2003-01-01

    Breast cancer may manifest as microcalcifications in x-ray mammography. Small microcalcifications, essential to the early detection of breast cancer, are often obscured by overlapping tissue structures. Dual-energy imaging, where separate low- and high-energy images are acquired and synthesized to cancel the tissue structures, may improve the ability to detect and visualize microcalcifications. Transmission measurements at two different kVp values were made on breast-tissue-equivalent materials under narrow-beam geometry using an indirect flat-panel mammographic imager. The imaging scenario consisted of variable aluminum thickness (to simulate calcifications) and variable glandular ratio (defined as the ratio of the glandular-tissue thickness to the total tissue thickness) for a fixed total tissue thickness--the clinical situation of microcalcification imaging with varying tissue composition under breast compression. The coefficients of the inverse-mapping functions used to determine material composition from dual-energy measurements were calculated by a least-squares analysis. The linear function poorly modeled both the aluminum thickness and the glandular ratio. The inverse-mapping functions were found to vary as analytic functions of second (conic) or third (cubic) order. By comparing the model predictions with the calibration values, the root-mean-square residuals for both the cubic and the conic functions were ∼50 μm for the aluminum thickness and ∼0.05 for the glandular ratio

  3. Detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in women with atypical squamous or glandular cells of undetermined significance cytology: a prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wensveen, Celesta; Kagie, Marjolein; Veldhuizen, Roel; de Groot, Christianne; Denny, Lynette; Zwinderman, Koos; Trimbos, Baptist

    2003-01-01

    (1) To assess the prevalence of histologically confirmed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in patients with cervical smears diagnosed as atypical squamous or glandular cells of undetermined significance. (2) To evaluate the role of colposcopy and the presence of human papillomavirus in detecting

  4. Estimates of Average Glandular Dose with Auto-modes of X-ray Exposures in Digital Breast Tomosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izdihar Kamal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this research was to examine the average glandular dose (AGD of radiation among different breast compositions of glandular and adipose tissue with auto-modes of exposure factor selection in digital breast tomosynthesis. Methods: This experimental study was carried out in the National Cancer Society, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, between February 2012 and February 2013 using a tomosynthesis digital mammography X-ray machine. The entrance surface air kerma and the half-value layer were determined using a 100H thermoluminescent dosimeter on 50% glandular and 50% adipose tissue (50/50 and 20% glandular and 80% adipose tissue (20/80 commercially available breast phantoms (Computerized Imaging Reference Systems, Inc., Norfolk, Virginia, USA with auto-time, auto-filter and auto-kilovolt modes. Results: The lowest AGD for the 20/80 phantom with auto-time was 2.28 milliGray (mGy for two dimension (2D and 2.48 mGy for three dimensional (3D images. The lowest AGD for the 50/50 phantom with auto-time was 0.97 mGy for 2D and 1.0 mGy for 3D. Conclusion: The AGD values for both phantoms were lower against a high kilovolt peak and the use of auto-filter mode was more practical for quick acquisition while limiting the probability of operator error.

  5. Monte Carlo simulation studies for the determination of microcalcification thickness and glandular ratio through dual-energy mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Lama, L. S.; Godeli, J.; Poletti, M. E.

    2017-08-01

    The majority of breast carcinomas can be associated to the presence of calcifications before the development of a mass. However, the overlapping tissues can obscure the visualization of microcalcification clusters due to the reduced contrast-noise ratio (CNR). In order to overcome this complication, one potential solution is the use of the dual-energy (DE) technique, in which two different images are acquired at low (LE) and high (HE) energies or kVp to highlight specific lesions or cancel out tissue background. In this work, the DE features were computationally studied considering simulated acquisitions from a modified PENELOPE Monte Carlo code. The employed irradiation geometry considered typical distances used in digital mammography, a CsI detection system and an updated breast model composed of skin, microcalcifications and glandular and adipose tissues. The breast thickness ranged from 2 to 6 cm with glandularities of 25%, 50% and 75%, where microcalcifications with dimensions from 100 up to 600 μm were positioned. In general, results pointed an efficiency index better than 87% for the microcalcification thicknesses and better than 95% for the glandular ratio. The simulations evaluated in this work can be used to optimize the elements from the DE imaging chain, in order to become a complementary tool for the conventional single-exposure images, especially for the visualization and estimation of calcification thicknesses and glandular ratios.

  6. Abnormal ion content, hydration and granule expansion of the secretory granules from cystic fibrosis airway glandular cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baconnais, S.; Delavoie, F.; Zahm, J.M.; Milliot, M.; Terryn, C.; Castillon, N.; Banchet, V.; Michel, J.; Danos, O.; Merten, M.; Chinet, T.; Zierold, K.; Bonnet, N.; Puchelle, E.; Balossier, G.

    2005-01-01

    The absence or decreased expression of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) induces increased Na + absorption and hyperabsorption of the airway surface liquid (ASL) resulting in a dehydrated and hyperviscous ASL. Although the implication of abnormal airway submucosal gland function has been suggested, the ion and water content in the Cystic Fibrosis (CF) glandular secretory granules, before exocytosis, is unknown. We analyzed, in non-CF and CF human airway glandular cell lines (MM-39 and KM4, respectively), the ion content in the secretory granules by electron probe X-ray microanalysis and the water content by quantitative dark field imaging on freeze-dried cryosections. We demonstrated that the ion content (Na + , Mg 2+ , P, S and Cl - ) is significantly higher and the water content significantly lower in secretory granules from the CF cell line compared to the non-CF cell line. Using videomicroscopy, we observed that the secretory granule expansion was deficient in CF glandular cells. Transfection of CF cells with CFTR cDNA or inhibition of non-CF cells with CFTR inh -172, respectively restored or decreased the water content and granule expansion, in parallel with changes in ion content. We hypothesize that the decreased water and increased ion content in glandular secretory granules may contribute to the dehydration and increased viscosity of the ASL in CF

  7. Dietary enzymatically treated Artemisia annua L. supplementation alleviates liver oxidative injury of broilers reared under high ambient temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xiaoli; Zhang, Jingfei; He, Jintian; Bai, Kaiwen; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Tian

    2017-09-01

    Heat stress induced by high ambient temperature is a major concern in commercial broiler production. To evaluate the effects of dietary enzymatically treated Artemisia annua L. (EA) supplementation on growth performance and liver oxidative injury of broilers reared under heat stress, a total of 320 22-day-old male broilers were randomly allotted into five groups with eight replicates of eight birds each. Broilers in the control group were housed at 22 ± 1 °C and fed the basal diet. Broilers in the HS, HS-EA1, HS-EA2, and HS-EA3 groups were fed basal diet supplemented with 0, 0.75, 1.00, and 1.25 g/kg EA, respectively, and reared under cyclic high temperature (34 ± 1 °C for 8 h/day and 22 ± 1 °C for 16 h/day). Broilers fed EA diets had higher final body weight, average daily body weight gain, and average daily feed intake, as well as liver concentration of reduced glutathione, activities of antioxidant enzymes, abilities to inhibit hydroxyl radical and superoxide radical (HS-EA2 and HS-EA3), and lower liver concentrations of reactive oxygen metabolites, malondialdehyde, and protein carbonyl (HS-EA1, HS-EA2, and HS-EA3) than HS group ( P proteins 70 and 90, upregulated the mRNA levels of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (HS-EA1, HS-EA2, and HS-EA3) and heme oxygenase 1 (HS-EA2 and HS-EA3) in liver of heat-treated broilers ( P diet is 1.00-1.25 g/kg.

  8. Estimation of glandular content rate and statistical analysis of the influence of age group and compressed breast thickness on the estimated value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohmori, Naoki; Ashida, Kenji; Fujita, Osamu

    2003-01-01

    Because the glandular content rate is an important factor in evaluating breast cancer detection and average glandular dose, it is important in mammography research to estimate and analyze this rate. The purpose of this study was to obtain a formula for statistical estimation of the glandular content rate, to clarify statistically the influence of age group and compressed breast thickness (CBT) on estimating the glandular content rate, and to show statistically the general relation between glandular content rate and the factors of age and CBT. The subjects were 740 Japanese women aged 20-91 years (mean±SD: 48.3±12.8 years) who had undergone mammography. In our study, the glandular content rate was statistically estimated from age group, mAs-value, and CBT when subjects underwent mammography, from a phantom simulation, and from MR images of the breast. In addition, multivariate analysis was carried to examine statistically the influence of age group and CBT on glandular content rate. The mean glandular content rate as estimated by age group was as follows: 35.6% for those in their 20s, 33.4% in the 30s, 27.5% in the 40s, 23.8% in the 50s, and 21.8% in those 60 and over. The rate for the subjects as a whole was 27.1%. This study indicated that overestimation occurred if the estimated value of the glandular content rate was not corrected in the 3D-measurement by MRI. In addition, this study showed that the statistical influence on glandular content rate was significantly larger for CBT than age. (author)

  9. Cervical squamous and glandular intraepithelial neoplasia: identification and current management approaches Neoplasia intraepitelial cervical escamosa y glandular: identificación y estrategias de manejo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Cecil Wright

    2003-01-01

    realiza mediante la biopsia de cono, y el espécimen debe tener márgenes negativos para enfermedad. La histerectomía es un tratamiento probable, a menos que la fertilidad esté siendo buscada. La escisión, particularmente por electrocirugía (loop, puede interferir con la interpretación histológica en algunos casos o de ambos, particularmente en enfermedades escamosas y adenocarcinoma in situ. En este artículo se describe ampliamente el manejo de la neoplasia intraepitelial escamosa y glandular.

  10. Células glandulares atípicas em esfregaços cervicovaginais: significância e aspectos atuais Atypical glandular cells in cervical smears: significance and current aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Bittencourt Campaner

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Células glandulares atípicas (AGC em esfregaços cervicovaginais são achados citológicos raros, porém de significado representativo. Sua incidência varia, na literatura, de 0,08% a 0,81%. O sistema Bethesda de 2001 classifica estas lesões glandulares como AGCs sem outras especificações, AGCs provavelmente neoplásicas, adenocarcinoma cervical in situ (AIS e adenocarcinoma invasivo. Das mulheres portadoras de AGC, grande parte não apresentará qualquer tipo de alteração histológica em avaliação subseqüente. Entretanto, em 17,4% a 62,2% dos casos serão encontradas lesões histológicas significativas, como neoplasias intra-epiteliais cervicais, AIS, neoplasias escamosas e glandulares, cervicais e endometriais, bem como neoplasias de outras localizações. O risco de doença significativa está relacionado à subdivisão de AGC encontrada. Em virtude da elevada probabilidade de anormalidades histológicas significativas em casos de AGC, a simples repetição citológica é insuficiente para o seguimento dessa condição. Esta atualização descreve a epidemiologia, a avaliação e a conduta das pacientes portadoras dessa anormalidade citológica.Atypical glandular cells (AGC on cervical smears are unusual but important cytologic diagnosis. The incidence of AGC ranges from 0.08% to 0.81 % of all cervical smears tests. The 2001 Bethesda System nomenclature classifies these glandular lesions as AGC not otherwise specified, AGC favor neoplasia, endocervical adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS and invasive adenocarcinoma. Of women with AGC smears, a great number will have no histologic abnormalities on further evaluation. However, 17.4% to 62.2% are found to have significant histologic lesions such as cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, AIS, squamous and glandular cancers from sites farther the cervix and endometrium. The risk of significant disease is related to the AGC subclassification that was found. Because of the high likelihood that AGC

  11. Differentiating between endocervical glandular neoplasia and high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions in endocervical crypts: cytological features in ThinPrep and SurePath cervical cytology samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiryayi, Sakinah A; Marshall, Janet; Rana, Durgesh N

    2009-05-01

    A recent audit at our institution revealed a higher number of cases diagnosed as endocervical glandular neoplasia on ThinPrep (TP) cervical cytology samples (9 cases) as opposed to SurePath (SP) (1 case), which on histology showed only high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) with endocervical crypt involvement (CI). We attempted to ascertain the reasons for this finding by reviewing the available slides of these cases, as well as slides of cases diagnosed as glandular neoplasia on cytology and histology; cases diagnosed as high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) on cytology which had CIN with CI on histology and cases with mixed glandular and squamous abnormalities diagnosed both cytologically and histologically. Single neoplastic glandular cells and short pseudostratified strips were more prevalent in SP than TP with the cell clusters in glandular neoplasia 3-4 cells thick, in contrast to the dense crowded centre of cell groups in HSIL with CI. The cells at the periphery of groups can be misleading. Cases with HSIL and glandular neoplasia have a combination of the features of each entity in isolation. The diagnosis of glandular neoplasia remains challenging and conversion from conventional to liquid based cervical cytology requires a period of learning and adaptation, which can be facilitated by local audit and review of the cytology slides in cases with a cytology-histology mismatch. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Assessment of Mean Glandular Dose in Mammography System with Different Anode-Filter Combinations Using MCNP Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholamkar, Lida; Mowlavi, Ali Asghar; Sadeghi, Mahdi; Athari, Mitra

    2016-10-01

    X-ray mammography is one of the general methods for early detection of breast cancer. Since glandular tissue in the breast is sensitive to radiation and it increases the risk of cancer, the given dose to the patient is very important in mammography. The aim of this study was to determine the average absorbed dose of X-ray radiation in the glandular tissue of the breast during mammography examinations as well as investigating factors that influence the mean glandular dose (MGD). One of the precise methods for determination of MGD absorbed by the breast is Monte Carlo simulation method which is widely used to assess the dose. We studied some different X-ray sources and exposure factors that affect the MGD. "Midi-future" digital mammography system with amorphous-selenium detector was simulated using the Monte Carlo N-particle extended (MCNPX) code. Different anode/filter combinations such as tungsten/silver (W/Ag), tungsten/rhodium (W/Rh), and rhodium/aluminium (Rh/Al) were simulated in this study. The voltage of X-ray tube ranged from 24 kV to 32 kV with 2 kV intervals and the breast phantom thickness ranged from 3 to 8 cm, and glandular fraction g varied from 10% to 100%. MGD was measured for different anode/filter combinations and the effects of changing tube voltage, phantom thickness, combination and glandular breast tissue on MGD were studied. As glandular g and X-ray tube voltage increased, the breast dose increased too, and the increase of breast phantom thickness led to the decrease of MGD. The obtained results for MGD were consistent with the result of Boone et al. that was previously reported. By comparing the results, we saw that W/Rh anode/filter combination is the best choice in breast mammography imaging because of the lowest delivered dose in comparison with W/Ag and Rh/Al. Moreover, breast thickness and g value have significant effects on MGD.

  13. Assessment of mean glandular dose for patients in mammography in some Hospitals in Khartoum state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu Elmola, Alaa Mahdi

    2016-12-01

    A mammography examination facilitates the early detection of breast cancer. However, the potential risk of radiation- induced carcinogenesis is also increased with such a procedure. Thus assessment of the breast dose is important. The objective of this study was to determine the mean glandular dose (MGD) resulting from cranio caudal(CC) and mediolateral oblique (MLO) views in one breast and the total dose per woman in Sudan, and to identify the factors affecting it. Measurements were performed to estimate mean glandular doses for 60 patients who underwent mammography examination in two clinics in Khartoum, Sudan.Doses were studied in RCH and NDC, centers which were using computed radiography(CR)devices. The piranha system was used for determining the MGD in this work. The characteristics of the radiographic equipment and the exposure data of each patient were recorded using designed format. The MGD was calculated from the measured incident Air kerma using appropriate conversion coefficients. The range of CBT was (1-7)cm for two projections. The respective averages for the CC and MLO projections were (4.55±1.38)mGy and (4.15±1.33) mGy, respectively. The average MGD per image was (4.3±1.35)mGy. The MGD per women was (8.6±1.35)mGy. The mean±SD MGD per image in the present study was lower than most of similar reports. The average MGD values recorded in this study were above the limiting value of the Institute of Physical Sciences in Medicine(2.0 mGy) and American College of Radiology (3.0 mGy recommendation. This suggests that mammography x-ray generators in this case are not capable of achieving acceptable dose levels for patients safety. Therefore, with consideration of all other factors, quality control program tests must be carried out periodically and frequently of the mammography equipment.(Author)

  14. A Monte Carlo model for mean glandular dose evaluation in spot compression mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarno, Antonio; Dance, David R; van Engen, Ruben E; Young, Kenneth C; Russo, Paolo; Di Lillo, Francesca; Mettivier, Giovanni; Bliznakova, Kristina; Fei, Baowei; Sechopoulos, Ioannis

    2017-07-01

    To characterize the dependence of normalized glandular dose (DgN) on various breast model and image acquisition parameters during spot compression mammography and other partial breast irradiation conditions, and evaluate alternative previously proposed dose-related metrics for this breast imaging modality. Using Monte Carlo simulations with both simple homogeneous breast models and patient-specific breasts, three different dose-related metrics for spot compression mammography were compared: the standard DgN, the normalized glandular dose to only the directly irradiated portion of the breast (DgNv), and the DgN obtained by the product of the DgN for full field irradiation and the ratio of the mid-height area of the irradiated breast to the entire breast area (DgN M ). How these metrics vary with field-of-view size, spot area thickness, x-ray energy, spot area and position, breast shape and size, and system geometry was characterized for the simple breast model and a comparison of the simple model results to those with patient-specific breasts was also performed. The DgN in spot compression mammography can vary considerably with breast area. However, the difference in breast thickness between the spot compressed area and the uncompressed area does not introduce a variation in DgN. As long as the spot compressed area is completely within the breast area and only the compressed breast portion is directly irradiated, its position and size does not introduce a variation in DgN for the homogeneous breast model. As expected, DgN is lower than DgNv for all partial breast irradiation areas, especially when considering spot compression areas within the clinically used range. DgN M underestimates DgN by 6.7% for a W/Rh spectrum at 28 kVp and for a 9 × 9 cm 2 compression paddle. As part of the development of a new breast dosimetry model, a task undertaken by the American Association of Physicists in Medicine and the European Federation of Organizations of Medical Physics

  15. Glandular dose and image quality control in mammography facilities with computerized radiography systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dantas, Marcelino Vicente de Almeida

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women, and early detection is critical to its diagnosis and treatment. To date, the most effective method for early detection of breast cancer has been x-ray mammography for which the screen/film (SF) technique has been the gold standard. However, even though SF combinations have been improved and optimized over the years for breast imaging, there are some critical limitations, including a narrow exposure range, image artifacts, film processing problems, and inflexibility in image processing and film management. In recent years, digital mammography has been introduced in cancer screening programmes with the screen/film techniques gradually being phased out. Computed radiography (CR), also commonly known as photostimulable phosphor (PSP) imaging or storage phosphor, employs reusable imaging plates and associated hardware and software to acquire and to display digital projection radiographs. In this work, a protocol model was tested for performing image quality control and average glandular dose (AGD) evaluation in 19 institutions with computed radiography systems for mammography. The protocol was validated through tests at the Laboratorio de Radioprotecao Aplicada a Mamografia (LARAM) from the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN). The image quality visual evaluation of CDMAM phantom showed that 53% of the facilities were able to produce images of excellent quality. Furthermore, the automated evaluation of image quality, using the analyze software cdcom.exe, showed that 57% of the images were considered to be of good quality. The detector linearity test showed that the CR response is very linear, where 95% of facilities evaluated were considered to be compliant. For the image noise was found that only 20% of facilities are in agreement with the parameters established for this test. The average glandular doses, which patients may be getting to perform an examination, were below the action levels

  16. Células glandulares atípicas e câncer de colo uterino: revisão sistemática Atypical glandular cells and cervical cancer: systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Pedrosa de Holanda Marques

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Atipias de células glandulares em esfregaços cervicovaginais é um achado citológico na rotina de rastreamento do câncer cervical, que aumentou nas últimas décadas. Sua constatação é importante clinicamente, pois é alta a percentagem de casos associados com doença cervical e endometrial de alto grau e câncer. Este trabalho avaliou, por meio de uma revisão sistemática, estudos que investigaram o perfil das lesões de colo uterino em avaliações histológicas de seguimento de pacientes já diagnosticadas com células glandulares atípicas. Foram excluídos os estudos cuja investigação diagnóstica não incluísse o diagnóstico histopatológico. Realizou-se uma busca abrangente de publicações no período de 1966 a 2009, nas bases do LILACS, SciELO, PubMed/Medline e Old Medline. Os artigos omitidos na busca eletrônica também foram incluídos. Estavam de acordo com os critérios de inclusão 19 artigos, que foram selecionados. Este estudo tem como objetivo avaliar se a atipia celular glandular observada inicialmente na citologia relacionava-se histologicamente com a presença de lesões benignas, pré-neoplásicas ou neoplásicas. Dos 19 estudos selecionados, 11 mostraram maior correlação entre atipia glandular com patologias benignas e seis com lesões escamosas pré-malignas.Atypical glandular cells are a common finding in cervical cytology in cervical cancer screening and its occurrence has increased in the last decades. The identification of these cells is clinically very important due to its association with cervical and endometrial dysplasic lesions and cancer. Using a systematic approach, this article reviewed studies investigating cervical lesions that are characteristic in patients previously diagnosed as having atypical glandular cells. Studies in which diagnostic investigation did not include histopathological diagnosis were excluded. A comprehensive search for available material in LILACS, SciELO, PubMed/ Medline

  17. Estimation of average glandular dose depending on the thickness of the breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Real, Jessica V.; Luz, Renata M. da; Fröhlich, Bruna D.; Pertile, Alessandra S.; Silva, Ana Maria Marques da

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women worldwide. Mammography is, to date, the most efficient method for detecting an abnormality in the patient's breast. It is a technique of imaging diagnostic that requires special care because radiographs without adequate quality may lead to a false diagnosis and lead to the need for a repeat examination, increasing the dose of radiation in the patient. This study aimed to evaluate the average glandular dose (AGD), depending on the breast thickness in patients undergoing routine tests, with a digital computer radiography processing system. Analyzed 30 exhibitions in patients aged (65 ± 12) years, in the right and left caudal skull projections, for breasts with thicknesses between 45 mm and 50 mm. The calculated value of the AGD for this track thickness was (1.600 ± 0.009) mGy. The performance of mammography quality control tests was satisfactory and the AGD values obtained for the chosen thickness range is acceptable, since the threshold achievable is 1.6 mGy and the acceptable is 2 mGy. In Brazil, it is only required the input dose calculation in skin for 45 mm breasts. However, the calculation of AGD is required for different thicknesses of the breast, to identify the best mammographic pattern aiming at better image quality at the lowest dose provided the patient

  18. 20-year Follow-up of Recurrent Glandular Odontogenic Cyst Mimicking a Periapical Lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas Silva, Brunno Santos; Yamamoto-Silva, Fernanda Paula; Sena-Filho, Marcondes; Silva Sant'Ana, Simone Sousa; Mariano-Júnior, Wilson José; de Almeida, Oslei Paes; Estrela, Carlos

    2017-11-01

    Periapical lesions usually are caused by root canal infection; nevertheless, other pathologies may eventually involve the tooth apex, making the correct diagnosis more difficult. Glandular odontogenic cysts (GOCs) are uncommon and, despite their cystic nature, may present an aggressive behavior and a high recurrence rate. This report describes a recurrent GOC mimicking a periapical lesion that was followed up for 20 years. A 45-year-old woman described tooth discomfort for several years in the anterior region of the mandible that was not exacerbated during eating or occlusion. Clinical examination revealed no signs of swelling, redness, or inflammation in the gingival or surrounding soft tissue. Nevertheless, periapical radiography showed a well-defined large radiolucent lesion in the periapical region of teeth #22, #23, #24, and #25. The pulp test confirmed that all these teeth were vital. An incisional biopsy was performed, and with the histopathological diagnosis of an odontogenic cyst, the lesion was enucleated surgically. After recurrence, the extensive periapical multilocular lesions were again surgically removed. Based on the microscopic findings, the final diagnosis was GOC. One year later, there were no signs of recurrence. GOCs associated with the root apex may mimic periapical inflammatory diseases. Clinical, radiographic, and histopathological findings are essential for the diagnosis of inconclusive radiolucent findings in the periapical region. Biopsy specimens should be sent to a specialized oral pathology laboratory. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Glandular odontogenic cyst mimicking ameloblastoma in a 78 year old female: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byung Do; Lee, Wan; Kwon, Kyung Hwan; Choi, Moon Ki; Choi, Eun Joo; Yoon, Jung Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC) is a rare, potentially aggressive jaw lesion. The common radiographic features include a well-defined radiolucency with distinct borders, presenting a uni- or multilocular appearance. A cystic lesion in the posterior mandible of a 78-year-old female was incidentally found. Radiographs showed a unilocular lesion with a scalloped margin, external root resorption of the adjacent tooth, and cortical perforation. This lesion had changed from a small ovoid shape to a more expanded lesion in a period of four years. The small lesion showed unilocularity with a smooth margin and a well-defined border, but the expanded lesion produced cortical perforation and a lobulated margin. The provisional diagnosis was an ameloblastoma, whereas the histopathological examination revealed a GOC. This was a quite rare case, given that this radiographic change was observed in the posterior mandible of an elderly female. This case showed that a GOC can grow even in people in their seventies, changing from the unilocular form to an expanded, lobulated lesion. Here, we report a case of GOC with characteristic radiographic features.

  20. Comparison of anode/filter combinations in digital mammography with respect to the average glandular dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhlenbrock, D.F.; Mertelmeier, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the average glandular dose (AGD) applied for clinical digital mammograms acquired with the anode/filter combinations molybdenum/molybdenum (Mo/Mo), molybdenum/rhodium (Mo/Rh), and tungsten/rhodium (W/Rh). Using the method of Dance, the AGD was evaluated from the exposure data of 4867 digital mammograms at two sites equipped with a full-field digital mammography (FFDM) system based on an amorphous selenium detector. 1793 images were acquired and analyzed with Mo/Mo, 643 with Mo/Rh, and 2431 with W/Rh. In the Mo/Mo cases the mean compressed breast thickness was 46 ± 10 mm with an average AGD of 2.29 ± 1.31 mGy. For the Mo/Rh cases with a mean compressed thickness of 64 ± 9 mm, we obtained 2.76 ± 1.31 mGy. The W/Rh cases with a mean compressed thickness of 52 ± 13 mm resulted in 1.26 ± 0.44 mGy. The image quality was assessed as normal and adequate for diagnostic purposes in all cases. (orig.)

  1. Glandular odontogenic cyst mimicking ameloblastoma in a 78 year old female: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Do; Lee, Wan; Kwon, Kyung Hwan; Choi, Moon Ki; Choi, Eun Joo [College of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Jung Hoon [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, College of Dentistry, Daejeon Dental Hospital, Wonkwang University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    Glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC) is a rare, potentially aggressive jaw lesion. The common radiographic features include a well-defined radiolucency with distinct borders, presenting a uni- or multilocular appearance. A cystic lesion in the posterior mandible of a 78-year-old female was incidentally found. Radiographs showed a unilocular lesion with a scalloped margin, external root resorption of the adjacent tooth, and cortical perforation. This lesion had changed from a small ovoid shape to a more expanded lesion in a period of four years. The small lesion showed unilocularity with a smooth margin and a well-defined border, but the expanded lesion produced cortical perforation and a lobulated margin. The provisional diagnosis was an ameloblastoma, whereas the histopathological examination revealed a GOC. This was a quite rare case, given that this radiographic change was observed in the posterior mandible of an elderly female. This case showed that a GOC can grow even in people in their seventies, changing from the unilocular form to an expanded, lobulated lesion. Here, we report a case of GOC with characteristic radiographic features.

  2. The Jasmonate-ZIM-domain proteins interact with the WD-Repeat/bHLH/MYB complexes to regulate Jasmonate-mediated anthocyanin accumulation and trichome initiation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Tiancong; Song, Susheng; Ren, Qingcuo; Wu, Dewei; Huang, Huang; Chen, Yan; Fan, Meng; Peng, Wen; Ren, Chunmei; Xie, Daoxin

    2011-05-01

    Jasmonates (JAs) mediate plant responses to insect attack, wounding, pathogen infection, stress, and UV damage and regulate plant fertility, anthocyanin accumulation, trichome formation, and many other plant developmental processes. Arabidopsis thaliana Jasmonate ZIM-domain (JAZ) proteins, substrates of the CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 (COI1)-based SCF(COI1) complex, negatively regulate these plant responses. Little is known about the molecular mechanism for JA regulation of anthocyanin accumulation and trichome initiation. In this study, we revealed that JAZ proteins interact with bHLH (Transparent Testa8, Glabra3 [GL3], and Enhancer of Glabra3 [EGL3]) and R2R3 MYB transcription factors (MYB75 and Glabra1), essential components of WD-repeat/bHLH/MYB transcriptional complexes, to repress JA-regulated anthocyanin accumulation and trichome initiation. Genetic and physiological evidence showed that JA regulates WD-repeat/bHLH/MYB complex-mediated anthocyanin accumulation and trichome initiation in a COI1-dependent manner. Overexpression of the MYB transcription factor MYB75 and bHLH factors (GL3 and EGL3) restored anthocyanin accumulation and trichome initiation in the coi1 mutant, respectively. We speculate that the JA-induced degradation of JAZ proteins abolishes the interactions of JAZ proteins with bHLH and MYB factors, allowing the transcriptional function of WD-repeat/bHLH/MYB complexes, which subsequently activate respective downstream signal cascades to modulate anthocyanin accumulation and trichome initiation.

  3. The Jasmonate-ZIM-Domain Proteins Interact with the WD-Repeat/bHLH/MYB Complexes to Regulate Jasmonate-Mediated Anthocyanin Accumulation and Trichome Initiation in Arabidopsis thaliana[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Tiancong; Song, Susheng; Ren, Qingcuo; Wu, Dewei; Huang, Huang; Chen, Yan; Fan, Meng; Peng, Wen; Ren, Chunmei; Xie, Daoxin

    2011-01-01

    Jasmonates (JAs) mediate plant responses to insect attack, wounding, pathogen infection, stress, and UV damage and regulate plant fertility, anthocyanin accumulation, trichome formation, and many other plant developmental processes. Arabidopsis thaliana Jasmonate ZIM-domain (JAZ) proteins, substrates of the CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 (COI1)–based SCFCOI1 complex, negatively regulate these plant responses. Little is known about the molecular mechanism for JA regulation of anthocyanin accumulation and trichome initiation. In this study, we revealed that JAZ proteins interact with bHLH (Transparent Testa8, Glabra3 [GL3], and Enhancer of Glabra3 [EGL3]) and R2R3 MYB transcription factors (MYB75 and Glabra1), essential components of WD-repeat/bHLH/MYB transcriptional complexes, to repress JA-regulated anthocyanin accumulation and trichome initiation. Genetic and physiological evidence showed that JA regulates WD-repeat/bHLH/MYB complex-mediated anthocyanin accumulation and trichome initiation in a COI1-dependent manner. Overexpression of the MYB transcription factor MYB75 and bHLH factors (GL3 and EGL3) restored anthocyanin accumulation and trichome initiation in the coi1 mutant, respectively. We speculate that the JA-induced degradation of JAZ proteins abolishes the interactions of JAZ proteins with bHLH and MYB factors, allowing the transcriptional function of WD-repeat/bHLH/MYB complexes, which subsequently activate respective downstream signal cascades to modulate anthocyanin accumulation and trichome initiation. PMID:21551388

  4. [Treatment of gynecomastia by a combined method of liposuction and semicircular periareolar incision glandular organ partial resection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Su; Kuang, Ruixia; Chen, Zhenyu; Li, Huichao; Zhang, Weina; Wang, Zhiguo; Miao, Yuanxin; Chen, Lu

    2008-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of the combined method of liposuction and semicircular periareolar incision glandular organ partial resection in the treatment of gynecomastia. From June 2004 to June 2006, 40 patients, aged 11-41 years old, were treated, with no-nodule (n = 10), nodule (n = 22) and female-breast-like with nodules (n = 8). Three patients were unilateral and 37 ones were bilateral. The levels of serum prolactin, luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, estradiol, testosterone and cortisol were normal in 38 patients, while in the other 2 patients, the levels of serum prolactin, luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone and estradiol were higher than normal, and the testosterone level was lower. Liposuction alone was performed in 10 no-nodule patients (lipo-type), and combined liposuction and semicircular periareolar incision glandular organ partial resection were conducted in the other 30 patients (lipo-glandular type). RESULTS; Except for 2 cases in which hematoma and a small amount of effusion were found on the first and second day postoperatively and then obtained healing by first intention right after hematoma removal in time, all the other patients incisions obtained healing by first intention. Nipple numbness occurred in 3 cases on the first day postoperatively and no special treatment was conducted. There was still nipple hypesthesia in these 3 cases after 6-month follow-up. There were no complications such as hematoma, effusion, nipple and mammary areola necrosis, and nipple hypesthesia in other patients. All the 40 patients were followed up for 6-24 months (13 months on average). They were satisfied with their chest figures and no recurrence was observed. The combined method of liposuction and semicircular periareolar incision glandular organ partial resection in the treatment of gynecomastia has many advantages, such as safe, micro-scars, natural and beautiflhl male breast figures as well as high patients' satisfaction.

  5. Comparison of average glandular dose in screen-film and digital mammography using breast tissue-equivalent phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Gwi Soon; Kim, Jung Min; Kim, You Hyun; Choi, Jong Hak; Kim, Chang Kyun

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, mammography system is changed rapidly from conventional screen-film system to digital system for application to screening and diagnosis. Digital mammography system provides several advantages over screen-film mammography system. According to the information provided by the manufacturer, digital mammography system offers radiation dose reduction in comparison with screen-film mammography system, because of digital detector, particularly direct digital detector has higher x-ray absorption efficiency than screen-film combination or imaging plate (IP). We measured average glandular doses (ADG) in screen-film mammography (SFM) system with slow screen-film combination, computed mammography (CM) system, indirect digital mammography (IDM) system and direct digital mammography (DDM) system using breast tissue-equivalent phantom (glandularity 30%, 50% and 70%). The results were shown as follows: AGD values for DDM system were highest than those for other systems. Although automatic exposure control (AEC) mode was selected, the curve of the AGD values against thickness or glandularity increased significantly for the SFM system with the uniform target/filter (Mo/Mo) combination. Therefore, the AGD values for the high energy examinations were highest in the SFM system, and those for the low energy examinations were highest in the DDM system. But the curve of the AGD values against thickness and glandularity increased gently for CM system with the automatic selection of the target/filter combination (from Mo/Mo to Mo/Rh or from Mo/Rh to Rh/Rh), and the AGD values were lowest. Consequently, the parameters in mammography for each exposure besides detection efficiency play an important role in order to estimate a patient radiation dose

  6. Fibroblast growth factor 10-fibroblast growth factor receptor 2b mediated signaling is not required for adult glandular stomach homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison L Speer

    Full Text Available The signaling pathways that are essential for gastric organogenesis have been studied in some detail; however, those that regulate the maintenance of the gastric epithelium during adult homeostasis remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of Fibroblast growth factor 10 (FGF10 and its main receptor, Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2b (FGFR2b, in adult glandular stomach homeostasis. We first showed that mouse adult glandular stomach expressed Fgf10, its receptors, Fgfr1b and Fgfr2b, and most of the other FGFR2b ligands (Fgf1, Fgf7, Fgf22 except for Fgf3 and Fgf20. Fgf10 expression was mesenchymal whereas FGFR1 and FGFR2 expression were mostly epithelial. Studying double transgenic mice that allow inducible overexpression of Fgf10 in adult mice, we showed that Fgf10 overexpression in normal adult glandular stomach increased epithelial proliferation, drove mucous neck cell differentiation, and reduced parietal and chief cell differentiation. Although a similar phenotype can be associated with the development of metaplasia, we found that Fgf10 overexpression for a short duration does not cause metaplasia. Finally, investigating double transgenic mice that allow the expression of a soluble form of Fgfr2b, FGF10's main receptor, which acts as a dominant negative, we found no significant changes in gastric epithelial proliferation or differentiation in the mutants. Our work provides evidence, for the first time, that the FGF10-FGFR2b signaling pathway is not required for epithelial proliferation and differentiation during adult glandular stomach homeostasis.

  7. Brassica napusGLABRA3-1 promotes anthocyanin biosynthesis and trichome formation in true leaves when expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, C; Guo, Y; Wang, J; Li, D; Liu, K; Qi, S; Jin, C; Duan, S; Gong, J; Li, Z; Chen, M

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that GLABRA3 (AtGL3), a bHLH transcription factor, plays essential roles in anthocyanin biosynthesis and trichome formation in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, there have been no such studies of a homologue, BnGL3, from the closely related crop, Brassica napus. Here, we analysed the BnGL3-1 coding domain sequence from the B. napus cultivar QINYOU Seven, identified conserved protein domains and performed a phylogenetic analysis to elucidate its relationship with homologues form a range of plant species. When expressed in tobacco leaves as a fusion protein with green fluorescent protein, BnGL3-1 accumulated in the nucleus, consistent with its predicted function as a transcription factor. Ectopic expression of the BnGL3-1 gene in the A. thaliana gl3-3 mutant resulted in levels of anthocyanins and numbers of trichomes in true leaves that were higher than in wild-type plants. Moreover, overexpression of BnGL3-1 in gl3-3 compensated for the promotion and repression of genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis and trichome formation, respectively, that has been reported in gl3-3 young shoots and expanding true leaves. This study provides new insights into GL3 function in anthocyanin biosynthesis and trichome formation in crucifers, and represents a promising target for genetic manipulation of B. napus. © 2017 German Society for Plant Sciences and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  8. CINtec PLUS immunocytochemistry as a tool for the cytologic diagnosis of glandular lesions of the cervix uteri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravarino, Alberto; Nemolato, Sonia; Macciocu, Elena; Fraschini, Matteo; Senes, Giancarlo; Faa, Gavino; Negri, Giovanni

    2012-11-01

    Cytologic findings of glandular lesions of the cervix uteri are often difficult to evaluate. We studied the usefulness of CINtec PLUS p16/Ki-67 double stain (mtm laboratories, Heidelberg, Germany) for the diagnosis of glandular lesions. The study included 47 abnormal results on liquid-based cytologic tests with a subsequent histologic diagnosis of adenocarcinoma in situ or with early invasion, and 16 samples with negative results on follow-up. All samples were stained with CINtec PLUS p16/Ki-67 double stain. Of the neoplastic samples, 7 were excluded because of insufficient residual cellularity or loss of neoplastic cells. Of the samples that were adequate, 92.5% were stained with CINtec PLUS, whereas 7.5% were judged inconclusive. All inconclusive cases were at least 3 years old. Of the 16 negative samples, 15 (93.8%) stained negative and only 1 (6.2%) showed several positive clusters of cells. Our study shows that CINtec PLUS is a robust and useful tool for the diagnosis of glandular lesions of the cervix uteri.

  9. [Markers of stromal invasion during background and precancerous changes of the glandular epithelium and in adenocarcinoma of the cervix uteri].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilova, N V; Andreeva, Iu Iu; Zavalishina, L É; Mal'kov, P G

    2012-01-01

    It is very difficult to identify stromal invasion when the glandular epithelium of the cervix uteri is involved. It is necessary to draw a clear distinction between its glandular structures and adenocarcinoma in situ, involving the preexisting crypts and invasive glands. An attempt was made to assess the possibilities of using as markers of invasion the following stromal proteins and adhesion molecules: CD44, E-cadherin, beta-catenin, tenascin, and laminin. Fifty-three cases of benign glandular changes, 66 cases of dysplasias and adenocarcinomas in situ, and 47 cases of invasive adenocarcinoma were examined. An immunohistochemical study was performed according to the standard protocol using the antibodies to CD44, laminin, tenascin, E-cadherin, and beta-catenin and a semiquantitative assessment of results was made. CD44 was found to be redistributed from the cells to the tumor stroma. CD44 was not detected in the stroma surrounding the intact glands, so were benign epithelial changes. In the tumor environment, there was, on the contrary, a reaction with CD44 in 74.5% of invasive adenocarcinomas cases (p 0.05). CD44 and tenascin are of great diagnostic value in examining invasive and microinvasive adenocarcinomas of the cervix uteri. E-cadherin and beta-catenin are of no diagnostic value in the study groups of pathological processes. Laminin is a potential marker of stromal invasion; however, its expression calls for further investigation.

  10. Genetics and biochemistry of collagen binding-triggered glandular differentiation in a human colon carcinoma cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pignatelli, M.; Bodmer, W.F.

    1988-01-01

    The authors have examined the interaction between collagen binding and epithelial differentiation by using a human colon carcinoma cell line (SW1222) that can differentiate structurally when grown in a three-dimensional collagen gel to form glandular structures. As much as 66% inhibition of glandular differentiation can be achieved by addition to the culture of a synthetic peptide containing the Arg-Gly-Asp-Thr (RGDT) sequence, which is a cell recognition site found in collagen. Arg-Gly-Asp-Thr also inhibited the cell attachment to collagen-coated plates. Chromosome 15 was found in all human-mouse hybrid clones that could differentiate in the collagen gel and bind collagen. Both binding to collagen and glandular differentiation of the hybrid cells were also inhibited by Arg-Gly-Asp-Thr as for the parent cell line SW1222. The ability of SW1222 cells to express the differentiated phenotype appears, therefore, to be determined by an Arg-Gly-Asp-directed collagen receptor on the cell surface that is controlled by a gene on chromosome 15

  11. Effects of artemisinin and Artemisia annua extracts on xenic bacteria isolated from clonal cultures of Histomonas meleagridis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøfner, I.C.N.; Hess, C.; Liebhart, D.

    Infection with the protozoa Histomonas meleagridis in poultry has re-emerged since the ban of effective drugs. Consequently efforts are set to find alternatives to chemotherapeutics to combat histomonosis. At present histomonads need accompanying bacteria when cultured in vitro, probably serving...... nutrient supply due to their appearance in parasitic food vacuoles. However, the relationship of the parasite and the bacteria is not fully clear. Six previously established clonal cultures of H. meleagridis were used to evaluate the effect of five Artemisia annua derived materials (i.e. dry leaves...... with the antibacterial tests, it is reasonable to assume that the observed inhibitory effect of the tested materials is attributed to a direct effect on the protozoa. However, the potential of these materials on histomonosis has been tested in vivo in chickens and in turkeys without success....

  12. Oncoplastic Resection of Retroareolar Breast Cancer: Central Quadrantectomy and Reconstruction by Local Skin-Glandular Flap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naguib, S.F.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Patients with central breast neoplasms account for 5 to 20% of breast cancer cases and, for a long time, they have been denied Breast Conservation Surgery (BCS) and conventionally treated with mastectomy. The high incidence of Nipple-Areola-Complex (NAC) involvement usually associated with these tumors necessitates nipple and areolar resection together with an adequate safety margin around the tumor, which yields an unacceptable cosmetic result. With the help of Oncoplastic Surgical Techniques, BCS can be offered to these patients. In this study central quadrantectomy and breast reconstruction by an infero-Iaterally based pedicled flap were evaluated. Patients and Methods: This study comprised 23 women with central breast tumors treated at the National Cancer Institute (NC]), Cairo University and at the Aswan Cancer Center, Egyptian Ministry of Health. Their ages ranged from 31 to 62 years (mean: 48.4±10.2 years). Twenty-two had a palpable mass, while only I had Paget's disease of the nipple without mass. The size of their tumors ranged from 4 to 33mm (mean: 16.9±8.6mm). Only 9 women showed clinical suspicion of NAC involvement in the form of nipple retraction. Seventeen cases had their tumors strictly in the retro-areolar region, while 5 had tumors extending for a maximum of I.5Cm beyond the areolar edge. All patients underwent central quadrantec-tomy with NAC resection removing a cylinder of breast tissue reaching down to the pectoral muscle together with axillary dissection. Advancement of an infero-Iaterally based skin-glandular flap was then carried out. All patients received adjuvant radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy or hormonal therapy. Results: Fourteen patients showed pathological evidence of nipple infiltration (60.8%). The free safety margin (SM) ranged from 9 to 13mm (mean: 10. 0.9mm). This could be accomplished from the first attempt in 18 patients; however, in 5 patients a second wider excision was needed to obtain an adequate

  13. Results of a 2011 national questionnaire for investigation of mean glandular dose from mammography in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asada, Y; Suzuki, S; Minami, K; Shirakawa, S

    2014-03-01

    Diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) for mammography have yet to be created in Japan. A national questionnaire investigation into radiographic conditions in Japan was carried out for the purpose of creating DRLs. Items investigated included the following: tube voltage; tube current; current-time product; source-image distance; craniocaudal view; automatic exposure control (AEC) settings; name of mammography unit; image receptor system (computed radiography (CR), flat panel detector (FPD), or film/screen (F/S)); and supported or unsupported monitor diagnosis (including monitor resolution). Estimation of the mean glandular dose (MGD) for mammography was performed and compared with previous investigations. The MGD was 1.58(0.48) mGy, which did not significantly differ from a 2007 investigation. In relation to image receptors, although no difference in average MGD values was observed between CR and FPD systems, F/S systems had a significantly decreased value compared to both CR and FPDs. Concerning digital systems (FPDs), the MGD value of the direct conversion system was significantly higher than the indirect conversion system. No significant difference in MGD value was evident concerning type of monitor diagnosis for either the CR or the FPD digital systems; however, hard copies were used more often in CR. No significant difference in the MGD value was found in relation to monitor resolution. This report suggests ways to lower the doses patients undergoing mammography receive in Japan, and serves as reference data for 4.2 cm compressed breast tissue of 50% composition DRLs. Furthermore, our findings suggest that further optimisation of FPD settings can promote a reduction in the MGD value.

  14. Average glandular dose in digital mammography and digital breast tomosynthesis: comparison of phantom and patient data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouwman, R W; Van Engen, R E; Den Heeten, G J; Broeders, M J M; Veldkamp, W J H; Young, K C; Dance, D R; Schopphoven, S; Jeukens, C R L P N

    2015-01-01

    For the evaluation of the average glandular dose (AGD) in digital mammography (DM) and digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) phantoms simulating standard model breasts are used. These phantoms consist of slabs of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) or a combination of PMMA and polyethylene (PE). In the last decades the automatic exposure control (AEC) increased in complexity and became more sensitive to (local) differences in breast composition. The question is how well the AGD estimated using these simple dosimetry phantoms agrees with the average patient AGD. In this study the AGDs for both dosimetry phantoms and for patients have been evaluated for 5 different x-ray systems in DM and DBT modes. It was found that the ratios between patient and phantom AGD did not differ considerably using both dosimetry phantoms. These ratios averaged over all breast thicknesses were 1.14 and 1.15 for the PMMA and PMMA-PE dosimetry phantoms respectively in DM mode and 1.00 and 1.02 in the DBT mode. These ratios were deemed to be sufficiently close to unity to be suitable for dosimetry evaluation in quality control procedures. However care should be taken when comparing systems for DM and DBT since depending on the AEC operation, ratios for particular breast thicknesses may differ substantially (0.83–1.96). Although the predictions of both phantoms are similar we advise the use of PMMA  +  PE slabs for both DM and DBT to harmonize dosimetry protocols and avoid any potential issues with the use of spacers with the PMMA phantoms. (paper)

  15. Dosagem de artemisinina em Artemisia annua L. por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência com detecção por índice de refração

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lúcia Garcia Rehder

    Full Text Available Artemisinin is a sesquiterpene lactone used in treatment of chloroquine-resistant malaria. This paper presents high-performance liquid chromatographic assay for artemisinin in leaves of A. annua using differential refractometer detector and a single step of clean-up in a silica cartridge. The average of recoveries were 95% and the limit of quantification was 0,21% p/p using 200 mg of the leaves. This method was found to be simple, robust and relatively rapid.

  16. Vztahy variant literae annuae domu třetí probace v Telči v letech 1656–1660. Analýza a komparace kopií

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ramešová, Michaela; Valecký, Štěpán

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 1 (2016), s. 87-106 ISSN 0231-7494 R&D Projects: GA MK(CZ) DG16P02M043 Keywords : annual reports * Jesuits * Telč * Literae Annuae * comparison of texts Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage http://www.hiu.cas.cz/cs/download/periodika/2016/fhb-1-2016-obsah.pdf

  17. Image quality, threshold contrast and mean glandular dose in CR mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakubiak, R R; Gamba, H R; Neves, E B; Peixoto, J E

    2013-01-01

    In many countries, computed radiography (CR) systems represent the majority of equipment used in digital mammography. This study presents a method for optimizing image quality and dose in CR mammography of patients with breast thicknesses between 45 and 75 mm. Initially, clinical images of 67 patients (group 1) were analyzed by three experienced radiologists, reporting about anatomical structures, noise and contrast in low and high pixel value areas, and image sharpness and contrast. Exposure parameters (kV, mAs and target/filter combination) used in the examinations of these patients were reproduced to determine the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and mean glandular dose (MGD). The parameters were also used to radiograph a CDMAM (version 3.4) phantom (Artinis Medical Systems, The Netherlands) for image threshold contrast evaluation. After that, different breast thicknesses were simulated with polymethylmethacrylate layers and various sets of exposure parameters were used in order to determine optimal radiographic parameters. For each simulated breast thickness, optimal beam quality was defined as giving a target CNR to reach the threshold contrast of CDMAM images for acceptable MGD. These results were used for adjustments in the automatic exposure control (AEC) by the maintenance team. Using optimized exposure parameters, clinical images of 63 patients (group 2) were evaluated as described above. Threshold contrast, CNR and MGD for such exposure parameters were also determined. Results showed that the proposed optimization method was effective for all breast thicknesses studied in phantoms. The best result was found for breasts of 75 mm. While in group 1 there was no detection of the 0.1 mm critical diameter detail with threshold contrast below 23%, after the optimization, detection occurred in 47.6% of the images. There was also an average MGD reduction of 7.5%. The clinical image quality criteria were attended in 91.7% for all breast thicknesses evaluated in both

  18. Validation of mean glandular dose values provided by a digital breast tomosynthesis system in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beraldo O, B.; Paixao, L.; Donato da S, S.; Araujo T, M. H.; Nogueira, M. S.

    2014-08-01

    Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is an emerging imaging modality that provides quasi-three-dimensional structural information of the breast and has strong promise to improve the differentiation of normal tissue and suspicious masses reducing the tissue overlaps. DBT images are reconstructed from a sequence of low-dose X-ray projections of the breast acquired at a small number of angles over a limited angular range. The Ho logic Selen ia Dimensions system is equipped with an amorphous Selenium (a-Se) detector layer of 250 μm thickness and a 70 μm pixel pitch. Studies are needed to determine the radiation dose of patients that are undergoing this emerging procedure to compare with the results obtained in DBT images. The mean glandular dose (D G ) is the dosimetric quantity used in quality control of the mammographic systems. The aim of this work is to validate D G values for different breast thicknesses provided by a Ho logic Selen ia Dimensions system using a DBT mode in comparison with the same results obtained by a calibrated 90 X 5-6M-model Radcal ionization chamber. D G values were derived from the incident air kerma (K i ) measurements and tabulated conversion coefficients that are dependent on the half value layer (HVL) of the X-ray spectrum. Voltage and tube loading values were recorded in irradiations using W/Al anode/filter combination, automatic exposure control mode and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) slabs which simulate different breast thicknesses. For K i measurements, the ionization chamber was positioned at 655 mm from the focus and the same radiographic technique values were selected with the manual mode. D G values for a complete procedure ranged from 0.9 ± 0.1 to 3.7 ± 0.4 mGy. The results for different breast thicknesses are in accordance with values obtained by DBT images and with acceptable levels established by the Commission of the European Communities (Cec) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). This work contributes to

  19. Validation of mean glandular dose values provided by a digital breast tomosynthesis system in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beraldo O, B.; Paixao, L.; Donato da S, S. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear / CNEN, Post-graduation in Sciences and Technology of Radiations Minerals and Materials, Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Araujo T, M. H. [Dr Maria Helena Araujo Teixeira Clinic, Guajajaras 40, 30180-100 Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Nogueira, M. S., E-mail: bbo@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear / CNEN, Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is an emerging imaging modality that provides quasi-three-dimensional structural information of the breast and has strong promise to improve the differentiation of normal tissue and suspicious masses reducing the tissue overlaps. DBT images are reconstructed from a sequence of low-dose X-ray projections of the breast acquired at a small number of angles over a limited angular range. The Ho logic Selen ia Dimensions system is equipped with an amorphous Selenium (a-Se) detector layer of 250 μm thickness and a 70 μm pixel pitch. Studies are needed to determine the radiation dose of patients that are undergoing this emerging procedure to compare with the results obtained in DBT images. The mean glandular dose (D{sub G}) is the dosimetric quantity used in quality control of the mammographic systems. The aim of this work is to validate D{sub G} values for different breast thicknesses provided by a Ho logic Selen ia Dimensions system using a DBT mode in comparison with the same results obtained by a calibrated 90 X 5-6M-model Radcal ionization chamber. D{sub G} values were derived from the incident air kerma (K{sub i}) measurements and tabulated conversion coefficients that are dependent on the half value layer (HVL) of the X-ray spectrum. Voltage and tube loading values were recorded in irradiations using W/Al anode/filter combination, automatic exposure control mode and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) slabs which simulate different breast thicknesses. For K{sub i} measurements, the ionization chamber was positioned at 655 mm from the focus and the same radiographic technique values were selected with the manual mode. D{sub G} values for a complete procedure ranged from 0.9 ± 0.1 to 3.7 ± 0.4 mGy. The results for different breast thicknesses are in accordance with values obtained by DBT images and with acceptable levels established by the Commission of the European Communities (Cec) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA

  20. Effect of 935-MHz phone-simulating electromagnetic radiation on endometrial glandular cells during mouse embryo implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenhui; Zheng, Xinmin; Qu, Zaiqing; Zhang, Ming; Zhou, Chun; Ma, Ling; Zhang, Yuanzhen

    2012-10-01

    This study examined the impact of 935MHz phone-simulating electromagnetic radiation on embryo implantation of pregnant mice. Each 7-week-old Kunming (KM) female white mouse was set up with a KM male mouse in a single cage for mating overnight after induction of ovulation. In the first three days of pregnancy, the pregnant mice was exposed to electromagnetic radiation at low-intensity (150 μW/cm(2), ranging from 130 to 200 μW/cm(2), for 2- or 4-h exposure every day), mid-intensity (570 μW/cm(2), ranging from 400 to 700 μW/cm(2), for 2- or 4-h exposure every day) or high-intensity (1400 μW/cm(2), ranging from 1200 to 1500 μW/cm(2), for 2- or 4-h exposure every day), respectively. On the day 4 after gestation (known as the window of murine embryo implantation), the endometrium was collected and the suspension of endometrial glandular cells was made. Laser scanning microscopy was employed to detect the mitochondrial membrane potential and intracellular calcium ion concentration. In high-intensity, 2- and 4-h groups, mitochondrial membrane potential of endometrial glandular cells was significantly lower than that in the normal control group (Pelectromagnetic radiation and longer length of the radiation are required to inflict a remarkable functional and structural damage to mitochondrial membrane. Our data demonstrated that electromagnetic radiation with a 935-MHz phone for 4 h conspicuously decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and lowered the calcium ion concentration of endometrial glandular cells. It is suggested that high-intensity electromagnetic radiation is very likely to induce the death of embryonic cells and decrease the chance of their implantation, thereby posing a high risk to pregnancy.

  1. SU-F-I-01: Normalized Mean Glandular Dose Values for Dedicated Breast CT Using Realistic Breast-Shaped Phantoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, A [Department of Radiology, Biomedical Engineering Graduate Group, University of California Davis, Sacramento, CA (United States); Boone, J [Departments of Radiology and Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Engeering Graduate Group, University of California Davis, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To estimate normalized mean glandular dose values for dedicated breast CT (DgN-CT) using breast CT-derived phantoms and compare to estimations using cylindrical phantoms. Methods: Segmented breast CT (bCT) volume data sets (N=219) were used to measure effective diameter profiles and were grouped into quintiles by volume. The profiles were averaged within each quintile to represent the range of breast sizes found clinically. These profiles were then used to generate five voxelized computational phantoms (V1, V2, V3, V4, V5 for the small to large phantom sizes, respectively), and loaded into the MCNP6 lattice geometry to simulate normalized mean glandular dose coefficients (DgN-CT) using the system specifications of the Doheny-prototype bCT scanner in our laboratory. The DgN-CT coefficients derived from the bCT-derived breast-shaped phantoms were compared to those generated using a simpler cylindrical phantom using a constant volume, and the following constraints: (1) Length=1.5*radius; (2) radius determined at chest wall (Rcw), and (3) radius determined at the phantom center-of-mass (Rcm). Results: The change in Dg-NCT coefficients averaged across all phantom sizes, was - 0.5%, 19.8%, and 1.3%, for constraints 1–3, respectively. This suggests that the cylindrical assumption is a good approximation if the radius is taken at the breast center-of-mass, but using the radius at the chest wall results in an underestimation of the glandular dose. Conclusion: The DgN-CT coefficients for bCT-derived phantoms were compared against the assumption of a cylindrical phantom and proved to be essentially equivalent when the cylinder radius was set to r=1.5/L or Rcm. While this suggests that for dosimetry applications a patient’s breast can be approximated as a cylinder (if the correct radius is applied), this assumes a homogenous composition of breast tissue and the results may be different if the realistic heterogeneous distribution of glandular tissue is considered

  2. Oladipo and Ayo-Ayinde (7).cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timothy Ademakinwa

    Result also reveals that simple hooked bicellular and unicellular non glandular trichome is diagnostic of Commelinabenghalensisand Aneilema aequinoctialerespectively. Similarities exist in foliar epidermal characters like the trichome and stomata types among other characters between the genera Commelina and ...

  3. Trans-nipple removal of fibro-glandular tissue in gynaecomastia surgery without additional scars: An innovative approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R K Mishra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The established techniques that have been used to treat gynaecomastia are said to have relatively less patient satisfaction rate as they leave some visible scars or mild elevation over the nipple areola complex, resulting in aesthetically unsatisfactory results. Even the slightest elevation or smallest scar over nipple areola complex leave patients extremely self conscious and in a dilemma of having a second intervention to get rid of that blemish. Aims: The aim of the study is to achieve - A flat chest without adding a scar and with no chances of re-occurrence of the condition. This article suggests an innovative approach to address the problem. Materials and Methods: The author presents trans-nipple incision approach for the delivery of fibro-glandular tissue component following liposuction for maximum patient satisfaction. This method consists of a unique small criss-cross incision right on the nipple itself for retrieving any volume of tough fibro-glandular tissues. Between the duration of January 2012 to October 2013, 28 male patients of different ages were operated with this technique. Results: The surgery resulted in well-shaped, symmetric chest contour without any visible elevation or additional scars on nipple areola complex. No complications were noticed in any of the patients. Conclusions: The presented technique is proved to have a high patient satisfaction rate and to be promising method to achieve good aesthetic results in gynaecomastia surgery.

  4. Comparative evaluation of average glandular dose and image of digital mammography and film mammography in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogueira, M.; Leyton, F.; Rodrigue, L. L.C.; Oliveira, M.A.; Joana, G.S.; Silva, S.D.

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women, and early detection is critical to its diagnosis and treatment. Mammography is the best method for breast-cancer screening and is capable of reducing mortality rates To date, the most effective method for early detection of breast cancer has been x-ray mammography for which the screen/film (SF) technique has been the gold standard. Digital mammography has been proposed as a substitute for film mammography given the benefits inherent to digital technology. The purpose of our study was to compare the technical performance of digital mammographic and screen-film mammography. A PMMA phantom with objects to simulate breast structures. For the screen/film (SF) technique the results showed that 54% mammography units did not achieve the minimum acceptable performance as far the image quality. Besides, 67% services showed inadequate performance in their processing systems, which had significant influence on the image quality. At the mean glandular dose only 44% of digital systems evaluated were compliant in all thicknesses of PMMA. The average glandular dose AGD was 90 % higher than in screen/film systems. (authors)

  5. The effect of chrysanthemum leaf trichome density and prey spatial distribution on predation of Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) by Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skirvin, D J; Stavrinides, M C; Skirvin, D J

    2003-08-01

    The effect of plant architecture, in terms of leaf hairiness, and prey spatial arrangement, on predation rate of eggs of the spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, by the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot was examined on cut stems of chrysanthemums. Three levels of leaf hairiness (trichome density) were obtained using two different chrysanthemum cultivars and two ages within one of the cultivars. The number of prey consumed by P. persimilis was inversely related to trichome density. At low prey densities (less than ten eggs per stem), prey consumption did not differ in a biologically meaningful way between treatments. The effect of prey spatial arrangement on the predation rate of P. persimilis was also examined. Predation rates were higher in prey patches on leaves adjacent to the release point of P. persimilis, but significantly greater numbers of prey were consumed in higher density prey patches compared to low density patches. The predators exhibited non-random searching behaviour, spending more time on leaves closest to the release point. The implications of these findings for biological control and predator-prey dynamics are discussed.

  6. Metabolic analysis of the increased adventitious rooting mutant of Artemisia annua reveals a role for the plant monoterpene borneol in adventitious root formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Na; Liu, Shuoqian; Li, Juan; Xu, Wenwen; Yuan, Lin; Huang, Jianan; Liu, Zhonghua

    2014-08-01

    Adventitious root (AR) formation is a critical process for plant clonal propagation. The role of plant secondary metabolites in AR formation is still poorly understood. Chemical and physical mutagenesis in combination with somatic variation were performed on Artemisia annua in order to obtain a mutant with changes in adventitious rooting and composition of plant secondary metabolites. Metabolic and morphological analyses of the iar (increased adventitious rooting) mutant coupled with in vitro assays were used to elucidate the relationship between plant secondary metabolites and AR formation. The only detected differences between the iar mutant and wild-type were rooting capacity and borneol/camphor content. Consistent with this, treatment with borneol in vitro promoted adventitious rooting in wild-type. The enhanced rooting did not continue upon removal of borneol. The iar mutant displayed no significant differences in AR formation upon treatment with camphor. Together, our results suggest that borneol promotes adventitious rooting whereas camphor has no effect on AR formation. © 2013 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  7. False positive reaction due to endogenous biotin activity in glandular epithelium of decidua Reação falso positiva em epitélio glandular da decídua devido a atividade endógena de biotina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Cruz Spano

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Biotin-labeled probe was used in an in situ hybridisation assay to localize virus infection in formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded tissues taken from eleven abortion cases. Probes for human cytomegalovirus (HCMV, human Parvovirus B19 (B19 and human adenovirus type 2 (HAd2, were labeled with biotin-11-dUTP by nick-translation reaction. Streptavidin-alkaline-phosphatase (SAP was used to detect biotin, followed by 4-nitroblue tetrazolium/5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl phosphate (NBT/BCIP solution. Positive reaction was observed in nucleus of glandular ephitelium cells of decidua either in positive or in negative control at first and second gestational trimester. The reaction was not inhibited with blocking solution for alkaline phosphatase endogenous activity and it persisted even with probes omission. The use of adequate negative control permitted to reveal the presence of nuclear biotin in glandular epithelium of decidua, responsible for false positivity in detection systems involving streptavidin biotin system (StrepABC. The stained cells resembled to cytophatic effect due to herpesvirus, which could induce further misinterpretation. The results obtained in this study strongly recommend that DNA detection by in situ hybridisation reaction in gestational endometrium should be done without using StrepABC system.Sondas marcadas com biotina foram utilizadas neste trabalho para detecção de infecção viral por hibridização in situ em tecidos fixados com formalina e embebidos em parafina de 11 casos obtidos de abortamento. Sondas para citomegalovírus humano (HCMV, parvovírus B19 humano (B19 e adenovírus humano tipo 2 (HAd2, foram marcadas com biotina-11-dUTP através da reação de nick-translation. Estreptavidina conjugada com fosfatase alcalina (SAP seguida por solução de 4-nitro-azul de tetrazolio/5-bromo-4-cloro-3-indolil fosfato (NBT/BCIP foram utilizadas para detecção da biotina após a reação de hibridização. Reação positiva foi

  8. Comportamento da dose glandular versus contraste do objeto em mamografia: determinação de formalismo semi-empírico para diferentes combinações alvo-filtro Behavior of subject contrast versus glandular dose in mammography: determination of a semi-empirical formalism for different target-filter combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Hoff

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar o efeito da mudança no contraste do objeto, tempo de exposição e dose de radiação quando diferentes espessuras de filtração de molibdênio (Mo e ródio (Rh são empregadas em mamógrafos. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Realizaram-se medidas da exposição na entrada da pele com uma câmara de ionização para diferentes espessuras para os filtros de Mo e Rh. Para determinar a dose glandular média foi utilizado simulador de BR12 (50% tecido adiposo e 50% tecido glandular de diferentes espessuras (4 cm e 8 cm. Energias na faixa de 24 kVp a 34 kVp foram empregadas e filmes Kodak MinR 2000 foram utilizados. RESULTADOS: Os resultados evidenciaram dados de contraste do objeto, dose glandular e tempo de exposição para diferentes espessuras de filtros adicionais e diferentes tensões. Esses dados indicaram aumento nos valores de contraste do objeto e tempo de exposição, com o aumento da espessura dos filtros. A dose glandular apresentou comportamento com diferentes tendências para cada caso analisado. Equações foram definidas para possibilitar a estimativa do contraste do objeto, dose glandular e tempo de exposição para os casos estudados. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados possibilitaram a estimativa de equações que auxiliam na verificação do comportamento do contraste do objeto e da dose glandular para simuladores com espessura de 4 cm e 8 cm e para os filtros de Rh e Mo. Dessa forma, torna-se possível estimar a figura de mérito (razão entre o contraste do objeto e a dose glandular, podendo auxiliar na análise da relação risco-benefício dos casos estudados.OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to verify the effect of changes in subject contrast, exposure time and radiation dose when different thicknesses of molybdenum (Mo and rhodium (Rh filters are used in mammography equipments. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Entrance skin exposure measurements were performed with an ionization chamber for different thicknesses of Mo and Rh filters

  9. Salivary gland acinar cells regenerate functional glandular structures in modified hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Swati

    Xerostomia, a condition resulting from irradiation of the head and neck, affects over 40,000 cancer patients each year in the United States. Direct radiation damage of the acinar cells that secrete fluid and protein results in salivary gland hypofunction. Present medical management for xerostomia for patients treated for upper respiratory cancer is largely ineffective. Patients who have survived their terminal diagnosis are often left with a diminished quality of life and are unable to enjoy the simple pleasures of eating and drinking. This project aims to ultimately reduce human suffering by developing a functional implantable artificial salivary gland. The goal was to create an extracellular matrix (ECM) modified hyaluronic acid (HA) based hydrogel culture system that allows for the growth and differentiation of salivary acinar cells into functional acini-like structures capable of secreting large amounts of protein and fluid unidirectionally and to ultimately engineer a functional artificial salivary gland that can be implanted into an animal model. A tissue collection protocol was established and salivary gland tissue was obtained from patients undergoing head and neck surgery. The tissue specimen was assessed by histology and immunohistochemistry to establish the phenotype of normal salivary gland cells including the native basement membranes. Hematoxylin and eosin staining confirmed normal glandular tissue structures including intercalated ducts, striated ducts and acini. alpha-Amylase and periodic acid schiff stain, used for structures with a high proportion of carbohydrate macromolecules, preferentially stained acinar cells in the tissue. Intercalated and striated duct structures were identified using cytokeratins 19 and 7 staining. Myoepithelial cells positive for cytokeratin 14 were found wrapped around the serous and mucous acini. Tight junction components including ZO-1 and E-cadherin were present between both ductal and acinar cells. Ductal and acinar

  10. Automated Breast Density Computation in Digital Mammography and Digital Breast Tomosynthesis: Influence on Mean Glandular Dose and BIRADS Density Categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-García, Maria; Chevalier, Margarita; Garayoa, Julia; Rodriguez-Ruiz, Alejandro; García-Pinto, Diego; Valverde, Julio

    2017-07-01

    The study aimed to compare the breast density estimates from two algorithms on full-field digital mammography (FFDM) and digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) and to analyze the clinical implications. We selected 561 FFDM and DBT examinations from patients without breast pathologies. Two versions of a commercial software (Quantra 2D and Quantra 3D) calculated the volumetric breast density automatically in FFDM and DBT, respectively. Other parameters such as area breast density and total breast volume were evaluated. We compared the results from both algorithms using the Mann-Whitney U non-parametric test and the Spearman's rank coefficient for data correlation analysis. Mean glandular dose (MGD) was calculated following the methodology proposed by Dance et al. Measurements with both algorithms are well correlated (r ≥ 0.77). However, there are statistically significant differences between the medians (P density median values from FFDM are, respectively, 8% and 77% higher than DBT estimations. Both algorithms classify 35% and 55% of breasts into BIRADS (Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System) b and c categories, respectively. There are no significant differences between the MGD calculated using the breast density from each algorithm. DBT delivers higher MGD than FFDM, with a lower difference (5%) for breasts in the BIRADS d category. MGD is, on average, 6% higher than values obtained with the breast glandularity proposed by Dance et al. Breast density measurements from both algorithms lead to equivalent BIRADS classification and MGD values, hence showing no difference in clinical outcomes. The median MGD values of FFDM and DBT examinations are similar for dense breasts (BIRADS d category). Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. An audit of cervicovaginal cytology in a teaching hospital: Are atypical glandular cells under-recognised on cytological screening?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crasta Julian

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical cytology screening for carcinoma of the cervix in India is mainly opportunistic in nature and is practiced mainly in urban centres. The effectiveness of cervical cytology screening depends on various factors. The quality of cervicovaginal cytology service is assessed by various quality indices and by cyto-histology correlation, which is the most important quality assurance measure. Aims: To describe the cervical cytology diagnoses, estimate the quality indices, and evaluate the discrepant cases on cytohistological correlation. Settings and Design: Retrospective observational study from a tertiary care centre in South India. Materials and Methods: Using a database search, all the cervicovaginal cytology reported during the period of 2002-2006 was retrieved and various diagnoses were described. The data was analysed to assess the quality indices. The cytohistologically discrepant cases were reviewed. Results: A total of 10,787 cases were retrieved, of which 98.14% were labeled negative and 1.36% were unsatisfactory for evaluation. A few (0.81% of the cases were labeled as squamous intraepithelial lesions and 0.38% as atypical squamous cells. The ASCUS: SIL ratio was 0.5. Cytohistological correlation revealed a total of ten cases with significant discrepancy. The majority of these were carcinomas that were misdiagnosed as atypical glandular cells. These cytology smears and the subsequent biopsies were reviewed to elucidate the reasons for the discrepancies. Conclusions: The cervical cytology service at our centre is well within the accepted standards. An increased awareness of cytological features, especially of glandular lesions, a good clinician-laboratory communication and a regular cytohistological review would further improve the diagnostic standards.

  12. An audit of cervicovaginal cytology in a teaching hospital: Are atypical glandular cells under-recognised on cytological screening?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crasta, Julian A; Chaitra, V; Simi, Cm; Correa, Marjorie

    2009-04-01

    Cervical cytology screening for carcinoma of the cervix in India is mainly opportunistic in nature and is practiced mainly in urban centres. The effectiveness of cervical cytology screening depends on various factors. The quality of cervicovaginal cytology service is assessed by various quality indices and by cyto-histology correlation, which is the most important quality assurance measure. To describe the cervical cytology diagnoses, estimate the quality indices, and evaluate the discrepant cases on cytohistological correlation. Retrospective observational study from a tertiary care centre in South India. Using a database search, all the cervicovaginal cytology reported during the period of 2002-2006 was retrieved and various diagnoses were described. The data was analysed to assess the quality indices. The cytohistologically discrepant cases were reviewed. A total of 10,787 cases were retrieved, of which 98.14% were labeled negative and 1.36% were unsatisfactory for evaluation. A few (0.81%) of the cases were labeled as squamous intraepithelial lesions and 0.38% as atypical squamous cells. The ASCUS: SIL ratio was 0.5. Cytohistological correlation revealed a total of ten cases with significant discrepancy. The majority of these were carcinomas that were misdiagnosed as atypical glandular cells. These cytology smears and the subsequent biopsies were reviewed to elucidate the reasons for the discrepancies. The cervical cytology service at our centre is well within the accepted standards. An increased awareness of cytological features, especially of glandular lesions, a good clinician-laboratory communication and a regular cytohistological review would further improve the diagnostic standards.

  13. Metastatic Urothelial Carcinoma with Glandular Differentiation That Confirmed the Response by Autopsy Specimen to Second-Line mFOLFOX6 (Fluorouracil, Oxaliplatin, and Leucovorin plus Bevacizumab Chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taku Naiki

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The prognostic significance of glandular differentiation in urothelial carcinoma (UC is controversial, and thus far there is no established treatment strategy against metastasis of glandular component. We describe here a case of metastatic UC with glandular differentiation that had histological disappearance of adenocarcinoma components at autopsy after sequential chemotherapy with S-1 and cisplatin (CDDP and with mFOLFOX6 (fluorouracil, oxaliplatin, and leucovorin plus bevacizumab (mFOLFOX6+Bev. A 62-year-old Asian male was diagnosed with invasive UC with glandular differentiation (T2N0M0 by radical cystectomy and ileal conduit, and careful follow-up observation was made. Eight years after radical operation, peritoneal metastases occurred, and a biopsy specimen using colon fiber revealed high-grade adenocarcinomas with an immunohistochemical profile that included positivity for cytokeratin 7 (CK7 and negativity for cytokeratin 20 (CK20 and uroplakin, which was identical to the radical cystectomy specimen. Thus, he received combination chemotherapy consisting of S-1 and CDDP; however, the peritoneal metastasis worsened after 2 cycles. Therefore, second-line mFOLFOX6+Bev chemotherapy was performed for a total of 5 courses. In spite of this, the patient died, and the final diagnosis by autopsy was multiple metastases of infiltrating pure UC to the lung, bone, and peritoneum. Interestingly, there were no pathological findings of adenocarcinoma, and the immunohistochemical profile of the metastatic lesions was identical to that of the previous specimens from the bladder and colon. This suggests that sequential chemotherapy of S-1 and CDDP and second-line mFOLFOX6+Bev might be a feasible option in metastatic UC with glandular differentiation.

  14. Monte Carlo evaluation of glandular dose in cone-beam X-ray computed tomography dedicated to the breast: Homogeneous and heterogeneous breast models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarno, Antonio; Mettivier, Giovanni; Tucciariello, Raffaele M; Bliznakova, Kristina; Boone, John M; Sechopoulos, Ioannis; Di Lillo, Francesca; Russo, Paolo

    2018-06-07

    In cone-beam computed tomography dedicated to the breast (BCT), the mean glandular dose (MGD) is the dose metric of reference, evaluated from the measured air kerma by means of normalized glandular dose coefficients (DgN CT ). This work aimed at computing, for a simple breast model, a set of DgN CT values for monoenergetic and polyenergetic X-ray beams, and at validating the results vs. those for patient specific digital phantoms from BCT scans. We developed a Monte Carlo code for calculation of monoenergetic DgN CT coefficients (energy range 4.25-82.25 keV). The pendant breast was modelled as a cylinder of a homogeneous mixture of adipose and glandular tissue with glandular fractions by mass of 0.1%, 14.3%, 25%, 50% or 100%, enveloped by a 1.45 mm-thick skin layer. The breast diameter ranged between 8 cm and 18 cm. Then, polyenergetic DgN CT coefficients were analytically derived for 49-kVp W-anode spectra (half value layer 1.25-1.50 mm Al), as in a commercial BCT scanner. We compared the homogeneous models to 20 digital phantoms produced from classified 3D breast images. Polyenergetic DgN CT resulted 13% lower than most recent published data. The comparison vs. patient specific breast phantoms showed that the homogeneous cylindrical model leads to a DgN CT percentage difference between -15% and +27%, with an average overestimation of 8%. A dataset of monoenergetic and polyenergetic DgN CT coefficients for BCT was provided. Patient specific breast models showed a different volume distribution of glandular dose and determined a DgN CT 8% lower, on average, than homogeneous breast model. Copyright © 2018 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Glandular dose and image quality control in mammography facilities with computerized radiography systems; Dose glandular e controle de qualidade da imagem em servicos de mamografia com sistema de radiografia computadorizada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dantas, Marcelino Vicente de Almeida

    2010-07-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women, and early detection is critical to its diagnosis and treatment. To date, the most effective method for early detection of breast cancer has been x-ray mammography for which the screen/film (SF) technique has been the gold standard. However, even though SF combinations have been improved and optimized over the years for breast imaging, there are some critical limitations, including a narrow exposure range, image artifacts, film processing problems, and inflexibility in image processing and film management. In recent years, digital mammography has been introduced in cancer screening programmes with the screen/film techniques gradually being phased out. Computed radiography (CR), also commonly known as photostimulable phosphor (PSP) imaging or storage phosphor, employs reusable imaging plates and associated hardware and software to acquire and to display digital projection radiographs. In this work, a protocol model was tested for performing image quality control and average glandular dose (AGD) evaluation in 19 institutions with computed radiography systems for mammography. The protocol was validated through tests at the Laboratorio de Radioprotecao Aplicada a Mamografia (LARAM) from the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN). The image quality visual evaluation of CDMAM phantom showed that 53% of the facilities were able to produce images of excellent quality. Furthermore, the automated evaluation of image quality, using the analyze software cdcom.exe, showed that 57% of the images were considered to be of good quality. The detector linearity test showed that the CR response is very linear, where 95% of facilities evaluated were considered to be compliant. For the image noise was found that only 20% of facilities are in agreement with the parameters established for this test. The average glandular doses, which patients may be getting to perform an examination, were below the action levels

  16. Evaluation of the influence of parameters that determine the mean glandular dose in mammography using different detectors; Evaluacion de la influencia de los parametros que determinan la dosis glandular media en Mamografia utilizando diferentes detectores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, K.; Nogueira, M. S., E-mail: katicostabh@gmail.com [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear, Pos-graduacao em Ciencias e Tecnologia das Radiacoes, Minerais e Materiais / CNEN, Av. Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: Mammography is a test used for early detection of breast cancer. The mean glandular dose (MGD) is dosimetric greatness accepted as indicative of carcinogenic risk induced by ionizing radiation in the breasts of women undergoing mammography exams. MGD value is estimated from the incident air kerma (k i), associated with conversion factors which depend on the half-value layer (HVL), the breast composition and thickness compressed breast. This study aims to evaluate the influence of the parameters used to determine the MGD using different measurement detectors. Measurements were performed on a Siemens Mammomat Model 300 Nova mammography equipment; this has the combinations Anode/Filter of Mo/Mo, Mo/Rh and W/Rh. Detectors used were the ionization chamber Model 10X6-6M manufactured by Radcal Co., two solid-state detectors, one Model AGMS-M manufactured by Radcal Co. and other Model Xi Mammo manufactured by UNFORS. The detectors measures were compared and the MGD value was estimated; differences between measurements and the reference values were higher in HVL and k i parameters. The results are displayed according to other published works. (Author)

  17. Evaluation of the influence of parameters that determine the mean glandular dose in mammography using different detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, K.; Nogueira, M. S.

    2015-10-01

    Full text: Mammography is a test used for early detection of breast cancer. The mean glandular dose (MGD) is dosimetric greatness accepted as indicative of carcinogenic risk induced by ionizing radiation in the breasts of women undergoing mammography exams. MGD value is estimated from the incident air kerma (k i), associated with conversion factors which depend on the half-value layer (HVL), the breast composition and thickness compressed breast. This study aims to evaluate the influence of the parameters used to determine the MGD using different measurement detectors. Measurements were performed on a Siemens Mammomat Model 300 Nova mammography equipment; this has the combinations Anode/Filter of Mo/Mo, Mo/Rh and W/Rh. Detectors used were the ionization chamber Model 10X6-6M manufactured by Radcal Co., two solid-state detectors, one Model AGMS-M manufactured by Radcal Co. and other Model Xi Mammo manufactured by UNFORS. The detectors measures were compared and the MGD value was estimated; differences between measurements and the reference values were higher in HVL and k i parameters. The results are displayed according to other published works. (Author)

  18. Entomology contribution in animal immunity: Determination of the crude thoraxial glandular protein extract of Stomoxys calcitrans as an antibody production enhancer in young horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Rumokoy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to evaluate the level of antigens protein contained in the crude thoraxial glandular protein (TGP extract of Stomoxys calcitrans which function as immunity enhancer in young horses. The detection of protein content of the thoraxial glandular samples was performed by using a spectrophotometer Nano Drop-1000. This result showed that the lowest level of antigen protein was 0.54 mg/mL, the highest was 72 mg/mL, and the average was 0.675 mg/mL. Six foals were used and divided into two groups. The first group was treated with a solution of 100 μg of TGP by subcutaneous injection, the other group acted as control. The TGP extract was injected on the first day of the experiment. Three ml of blood were sampled from the jugular vein on the 14th day after TGP injection. The blood sampled was centrifuged and its serum placed in micro-tubes to observe the IgG level. The injection of TGP had a significant effect on the IgG level of the experiment animals (P<0.05. This experiment emphasized an important relation between entomology and animal husbandry; health improvement in the young animals was observed after the injection of the insect antigen, so it can be concluded that crude thoraxial glandular proteins of S. calcitrans can be used to improve the immunoglobulin-G circulation in foals.

  19. Guideline for determining the mean glandular dose according to DIN 6868-162 and threshold contrast visibility according to the quality assurance guideline for digital mammography systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, A; Schopphoven, S; Land, I; Blaser, D; Sobczak, T

    2014-05-01

    As part of the physico-technical quality assurance of the German breast cancer screening program, the threshold contrast visibility and the average glandular dose of every digital mammography system have to fulfill the requirements of the "European guidelines for quality assurance in breast cancer screening and diagnosis" (4th Edition). To accomplish uniform measurements in all federal states of Germany, the physical board of the reference centers developed a special guideline in 2009. Due to recent changes in the guidelines and standards, a second version of the guideline was developed by the reference centers. This guideline describes the determination of the average glandular dose as well as the CDMAM image acquisition and the CDMAM image evaluation. The determination of the threshold contrast visibility can be performed visually or automatically. The determination of the average glandular dose is based on DIN 6868 - 162 and the threshold contrast visibility test is based on the German "Quality Assurance Guideline". © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Promoting helix pitch and trichome length to improve biomass harvesting efficiency and carbon dioxide fixation rate by Spirulina sp. in 660 m2 raceway ponds under purified carbon dioxide from a coal chemical flue gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jun; Guo, Wangbiao; Ameer Ali, Kubar; Ye, Qing; Jin, Guiyong; Qiao, Zhanshan

    2018-08-01

    The helix pitch and trichome length of Spirulina sp. were promoted to improve the biomass harvesting efficiency and CO 2 fixation rate in 660 m 2 raceway ponds aerated with food-grade CO 2 purified from a coal chemical flue gas. The CO 2 fixation rate was improved with increased trichome length of the Spirulina sp. in a raceway pond with double paddlewheels, baffles, and CO 2 aerators (DBA raceway pond). The trichome length has increased by 33.3 μm, and CO 2 fixation rate has increased by 42.3% and peaked to 51.3 g/m 2 /d in a DBA raceway pond. Biomass harvesting efficiency was increased with increased helix pitch. When the day-average greenhouse temperature was 33 °C and day-average sunlight intensity was 72,100 lu×, the helix pitch of Spirulina sp. was increased to 56.2 μm. Hence the biomass harvesting efficiency was maximized to 75.6% and biomass actual yield was increased to 35.9 kg in a DBA raceway pond. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Cellient automated cell block system is useful in the differential diagnosis of atypical glandular cells in Papanicolaou tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Wei; Hou, April Y; Fischer, Andrew; Owens, Christopher L; Jiang, Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Atypical glandular cells (AGC) is a very important diagnosis in gynecological cytology. In the current study, the authors investigated the usefulness of Cellient cell blocks (CB) for characterizing AGC on Papanicolaou (Pap) tests. A total of 148 patients with an AGC diagnosis based on Pap tests by cytotechnologists and referred to cytopathologists were studied. Among these patients, there were 68 patients with CB preparations and 80 patients with Pap tests only (TP-AGC group). Follow-up results by Pap tests or biopsies were obtained in 117 of 148 patients. The median follow-up was 13 months (range, 1 month-36 months). Of the 68 patients with CBs, 31 (46%) were reclassified as negative for dysplasia or low-grade intraepithelial lesion; 30 patients (44%) retained a diagnosis of AGC (CB-AGC group); and 7 patients (10%) were given specific diagnoses of high-grade intraepithelial lesion (3 patients), endocervical adenocarcinoma in situ (1 patient), and invasive adenocarcinoma (3 patients). On follow-up, the CB-AGC group was found to have a significantly lower rate of negative/low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion diagnoses compared with the TP-AGC group (55% vs 85%; P= .006). The CB-AGC group had a significantly higher rate of endocervical or endometrial adenocarcinoma compared with the TP-AGC group (36% vs 8%; P= .003) at the time of follow-up. The rates of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion were not found to be statistically different between these 2 groups (9% vs 7%; P= .66). The Cellient CB is a useful technique to further categorize a diagnosis of AGC on Pap tests. Using the Cellient CB system, the pathologist has the ability to improve the diagnostic accuracy of AGC so that unnecessary colposcopic evaluation or biopsies can be avoided. © 2013 American Cancer Society.

  2. Morfologia dos tricomas das pétalas de espécies de Pseudobombax Dugand (Malvaceae, Bombacoideae e seu significado taxonômico Morphology of trichomes in petals of Pseudobombax Dugand (Malvaceae, Bombacoideae species and its taxonomic significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Guedes de Carvalho-Sobrinho

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Pseudobombax Dugand apresenta cerca de 30 espécies, é restrito à região Neotropical e apresenta taxonomia complexa, com muitas de suas espécies mal circunscritas. Parte de seus problemas taxonômicos é conseqüência do fato de que suas espécies perdem as folhas na floração e, portanto, a maioria delas é representada apenas por flores nas coleções de herbário. Neste trabalho, investigou-se a morfologia dos tricomas presentes nas pétalas de oito espécies de Pseudobombax. O estudo utilizou microscopia óptica e eletrônica de varredura a partir de amostras obtidas de material de herbário e flores fixadas em etanol a 70%. Em todas as espécies de Pseudobombax analisadas, foram encontrados dois tipos principais de tricomas: (a tricomas 2-4-armados, sésseis, longos, flexíveis e com paredes finas, situados na face adaxial de todas as espécies; (b tricomas tufosos, sésseis, curtos, rígidos, com paredes espessas e lignificadas, situados na face abaxial. Os dados qualitativos e quantitativos obtidos mostraram-se de valor taxonômico para a resolução de problemas de identificação específica em Pseudobombax.Trichome morphology of the petals of Pseudobombax Dugand species was investigated. The eight species selected of Pseudobombax were analyzed using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The study detected the existence of variation, both qualitative and quantitative, in morphology of trichomes in petals of species analyzed. In Pseudobombax petals, two kinds of trichomes were found: (a trichomes 2-4-armed, sessile, long, flexible and with thin walls, situated on the adaxial surface; (b tufted trichomes, sessile, short, rigid, with thick, lignified walls, on the abaxial surface of the petals. The qualitative and quantitative data were of taxonomic value for the resolution of problems of specific identification in the genus.

  3. Ectopic expression of Capsicum-specific cell wall protein Capsicum annuum senescence-delaying 1 (CaSD1) delays senescence and induces trichome formation in Nicotiana benthamiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Eunyoung; Yeom, Seon-In; Jo, Sunghwan; Jeong, Heejin; Kang, Byoung-Cheorl; Choi, Doil

    2012-04-01

    Secreted proteins are known to have multiple roles in plant development, metabolism, and stress response. In a previous study to understand the roles of secreted proteins, Capsicum annuum secreted proteins (CaS) were isolated by yeast secretion trap. Among the secreted proteins, we further characterized Capsicum annuum senescence-delaying 1 (CaSD1), a gene encoding a novel secreted protein that is present only in the genus Capsicum. The deduced CaSD1 contains multiple repeats of the amino acid sequence KPPIHNHKPTDYDRS. Interestingly, the number of repeats varied among cultivars and species in the Capsicum genus. CaSD1 is constitutively expressed in roots, and Agrobacterium-mediated transient overexpression of CaSD1 in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves resulted in delayed senescence with a dramatically increased number of trichomes and enlarged epidermal cells. Furthermore, senescence- and cell division-related genes were differentially regulated by CaSD1-overexpressing plants. These observations imply that the pepper-specific cell wall protein CaSD1 plays roles in plant growth and development by regulating cell division and differentiation.

  4. Antibodies against Escherichia coli O24 and O56 O-Specific Polysaccharides Recognize Epitopes in Human Glandular Epithelium and Nervous Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniowska-Kowal, Agnieszka; Kochman, Agata; Gamian, Elżbieta; Lis-Nawara, Anna; Lipiński, Tomasz; Seweryn, Ewa; Ziółkowski, Piotr; Gamian, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the major component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, contains the O-polysaccharide, which is important to classify bacteria into different O-serological types within species. The O-polysaccharides of serotypes O24 and O56 of E. coli contain sialic acid in their structures, already established in our previous studies. Here, we report the isolation of specific antibodies with affinity chromatography using immobilized lipopolysaccharides. Next, we evaluated the reactivity of anti-O24 and anti-O56 antibody on human tissues histologically. The study was conducted under the assumption that the sialic acid based molecular identity of bacterial and tissue structures provides not only an understanding of the mimicry-based bacterial pathogenicity. Cross-reacting antibodies could be used to recognize specific human tissues depending on their histogenesis and differentiation, which might be useful for diagnostic purposes. The results indicate that various human tissues are recognized by anti-O24 and anti-O56 antibodies. Interestingly, only a single specific reactivity could be found in the anti-O56 antibody preparation. Several tissues studied were not reactive with either antibody, thus proving that the presence of cross-reactive antigens was tissue specific. In general, O56 antibody performed better than O24 in staining epithelial and nervous tissues. Positive staining was observed for both normal (ganglia) and tumor tissue (ganglioneuroma). Epithelial tissue showed positive staining, but an epitope recognized by O56 antibody should be considered as a marker of glandular epithelium. The reason is that malignant glandular tumor and its metastasis are stained, and also epithelium of renal tubules and glandular structures of the thyroid gland are stained. Stratified epithelium such as that of skin is definitely not stained. Therefore, the most relevant observation is that the epitope recognized by anti-O56 antibodies is a new marker

  5. Morfoanatomia, tricomas glandulares e fitoquímica de Lomatozona artemisiifolia Baker (ASTERACEAE - EUPATORIEAE) - uma planta endêmica do Cerrado de Goiás

    OpenAIRE

    Trindade, Luma Mota Palmeira

    2013-01-01

    Morfoanatomia, tricomas glandulares e fitoquímica de Lomatozona artemisiifolia Baker (Asteraceae - Eupatorieae) – Uma planta endêmica do cerrado de Goiás - A família Asteraceae é amplamente distribuída, possuindo 24.000 espécies e 1.600 a 1700 gêneros, constituindo uma das maiores famílias de fanerógamas. No Cerrado, dentre as fanerógamas, é a segunda maior família em quantidade de espécies. Dentre as inúmeras espécies de Asteraceae está presente Lomatozona artemisiifolia Baker, pertence à tr...

  6. A unique case of a huge mixed squamous cell and glandular papilloma of non-endobronchial origin with a peripheral growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kei Yabuki

    Full Text Available We report a case of a huge solitary non-endobronchial pulmonary tumor in a 76-year-old male smoker. The tumor measured 11 × 10 × 8 cm. It was ill-defined, and it was located periphery of the right lower lobe with the subpleural cystic spaces. He underwent right lower lobectomy with mediastinal lymph node dissection and is free from tumor 30 months after surgery. Microscopically, it was composed of a proliferation of squamous and ciliated columnar epithelial cells with a few mucous cells. These cells were arranged in a papillary growth fashion extending along the fibrously thickened alveolar septa together with metaplastic bronchiolar and squamous epithelia displaying an usual interstitial pneumonia-pattern. Although the histologic features of the tumor were that of a mixed squamous cell and glandular papilloma (MSCGP, it was peripherally located and showed a lepidic growth, and it was much larger than previously reported MSCGPs. It is possible that the tumor developed in association with bronchial metaplasia in the periphery of the lung, and then extended along the surface of the reconstructed air spaces, which resulted in its unique histologic appearance. Further investigations of respiratory papilloma are needed to clarify the pathogenesis of these lesions. Keywords: Mixed squamous cell and glandular papilloma, Non-endobronchial, Cytology, Interstitial pneumonia, Pulmonary tumor

  7. Excess antibody immunoassays for rat glandular kallikreins. Measurement of kallikrein from different organs in the presence of cross-reacting antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansen, L.; Oerstavik, T.B.; Holck, M.; Nustad, K.

    1983-01-01

    An immunoradiometric assay has previously been developed for measurement of rat glandular kallikrein. In the present paper, further studies on the specificity and sensitivity of the method are described. Problems of interference of immunologically cross-reacting antigens were overcome by proper preabsorption of the antibody. A method was thus established in which enzymatic activity of the immunoreactive kallikrein could be measured even in the presence of enzymes sharing immunological determinants and substrate specificity with kallikrein. Two variants of the immunoradiometric assay have been evaluated. A simplified version with simultaneous addition of all reagents gave results equal to those obtained in the original assay. A further modification with delayed addition of the solid-phase antibody, gave considerable improvement in assay sensitivity. (Auth.)

  8. Distinct Ezrin Truncations Differentiate Metastases in Sentinel Lymph Nodes from Unaffected Lymph Node Tissues, from Primary Breast Tumors, and from Healthy Glandular Breast Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Röwer

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lymph node metastasis status is a prognostic factor for further lymph node involvement and for patient survival in breast cancer patients. Frozen section analysis of lymph nodes is a reliable method for detection of macro-metastases. However, this method is far less effective in detecting micro-metastases, requesting improved diagnostic procedures. METHODS: We investigated expression and truncation of ezrin in (i sentinel lymph node metastases, (ii unaffected axillary lymph nodes, (iii primary breast tumors, and (iv healthy glandular breast tissues using 2D gel electrophoresis, SDS-PAGE, and mass spectrometry in addition to Western blotting. RESULTS: Full-length ezrin (E1; amino acids 1–586 is present in all four investigated tissues. Two truncated ezrin forms, one missing about the first hundred amino acids (E2a and the other lacking about 150 C-terminal amino acids (E2b were detectable in primary tumor tissues and in sentinel lymph node metastases but not in glandular tissues. Strikingly, an ezrin truncation (E3 which consists approximately of amino acids 238–586 was found strongly expressed in all sentinel lymph node metastases. Moreover, an N-terminal ezrin fragment (E4 that consists approximately of amino acids 1–273 was identified in sentinel lymph node metastases as well. CONCLUSIONS: We show for the first time the existence of tissue-dependent specific ezrin truncations. The distinguished strong Western blot staining of ezrin E3 in sentinel lymph node metastases underlines its capability to substantiate the occurrence of lymph node (micrometastases in breast cancer patients.

  9. Usefulness of p16ink4a, ProEX C, and Ki-67 for the diagnosis of glandular dysplasia and adenocarcinoma of the cervix uteri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negri, Giovanni; Bellisano, Giulia; Carico, Elisabetta; Faa, Gavino; Kasal, Armin; Antoniazzi, Sonia; Egarter-Vigl, Eduard; Piccin, Andrea; Dalla Palma, Paolo; Vittadello, Fabio

    2011-07-01

    Although the diagnostic criteria of in-situ and invasive adenocarcinomas of the cervix uteri are well established, the differentiation from benign mimics may be difficult and the morphologic features of the precursors of endocervical adenocarcinoma are still debated. In this study, we evaluated the usefulness of p16ink4a (p16), ProEX C, and Ki-67 for the diagnosis of endocervical adenocarcinoma and its precursors. Immunohistochemistry with p16, ProEX C, and Ki-67 was performed in 82 glandular lesions including 15 invasive adenocarcinomas, 29 adenocarcinomas in situ (AIS), 22 non-neoplastic samples, and 16 cases of glandular dysplasia (GD), which showed significant nuclear abnormalities but did not meet the diagnostic criteria for AIS. The immunohistochemical expression pattern was scored according to the percentage of the stained cells (0, 1+, 2+, and 3+ when 0% to 5%, 6% to 25%, 26% to 50%, and more than 50% of the cells were stained, respectively) and was evaluated for each antibody. p16 was at least focally expressed (1+ or more) in 14 of 15 invasive adenocarcinomas, in all AIS and in 7 negative samples. ProEX C and Ki-67 both scored 1+ or more in all adenocarcinomas and AIS and in 8 and 6 negative samples, respectively. Of the GD 15, 14, and 15 expressed p16, ProEX C, and Ki-67, respectively. The score differences between neoplastic and non-neoplastic samples were highly significant for each marker (Pcervix uteri and may also improve the diagnostic accuracy of endocervical GD. In particularly problematic cases, the combination of p16 and a proliferation marker can provide additional help for the interpretation of these lesions.

  10. Plasminogen-independent initiation of the pro-urokinase activation cascade in vivo. Activation of pro-urokinase by glandular kallikrein (mGK-6) in plasminogen-deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    List, K; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard; Bugge, T H

    2000-01-01

    )-antitrypsin. We suggest that mouse glandular kallikrein mGK-6 is an activator of pro-uPA in the mouse urinary tract in vivo. Since this kallikrein is expressed in a number of tissues and also occurs in plasma, it can also be considered a candidate for a physiological pro-uPA activator in other locations....

  11. MO-F-CAMPUS-I-02: Accuracy in Converting the Average Breast Dose Into the Mean Glandular Dose (MGD) Using the F-Factor in Cone Beam Breast CT- a Monte Carlo Study Using Homogeneous and Quasi-Homogeneous Phantoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, C; Zhong, Y; Wang, T; Shaw, C [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the accuracy in estimating the mean glandular dose (MGD) for homogeneous breast phantoms by converting from the average breast dose using the F-factor in cone beam breast CT. Methods: EGSnrc-based Monte Carlo codes were used to estimate the MGDs. 13-cm in diameter, 10-cm high hemi-ellipsoids were used to simulate pendant-geometry breasts. Two different types of hemi-ellipsoidal models were employed: voxels in quasi-homogeneous phantoms were designed as either adipose or glandular tissue while voxels in homogeneous phantoms were designed as the mixture of adipose and glandular tissues. Breast compositions of 25% and 50% volume glandular fractions (VGFs), defined as the ratio of glandular tissue voxels to entire breast voxels in the quasi-homogeneous phantoms, were studied. These VGFs were converted into glandular fractions by weight and used to construct the corresponding homogeneous phantoms. 80 kVp x-rays with a mean energy of 47 keV was used in the simulation. A total of 109 photons were used to image the phantoms and the energies deposited in the phantom voxels were tallied. Breast doses in homogeneous phantoms were averaged over all voxels and then used to calculate the MGDs using the F-factors evaluated at the mean energy of the x-rays. The MGDs for quasi-homogeneous phantoms were computed directly by averaging the doses over all glandular tissue voxels. The MGDs estimated for the two types of phantoms were normalized to the free-in-air dose at the iso-center and compared. Results: The normalized MGDs were 0.756 and 0.732 mGy/mGy for the 25% and 50% VGF homogeneous breasts and 0.761 and 0.733 mGy/mGy for the corresponding quasi-homogeneous breasts, respectively. The MGDs estimated for the two types of phantoms were similar within 1% in this study. Conclusion: MGDs for homogeneous breast models may be adequately estimated by converting from the average breast dose using the F-factor.

  12. MO-F-CAMPUS-I-02: Accuracy in Converting the Average Breast Dose Into the Mean Glandular Dose (MGD) Using the F-Factor in Cone Beam Breast CT- a Monte Carlo Study Using Homogeneous and Quasi-Homogeneous Phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, C; Zhong, Y; Wang, T; Shaw, C

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the accuracy in estimating the mean glandular dose (MGD) for homogeneous breast phantoms by converting from the average breast dose using the F-factor in cone beam breast CT. Methods: EGSnrc-based Monte Carlo codes were used to estimate the MGDs. 13-cm in diameter, 10-cm high hemi-ellipsoids were used to simulate pendant-geometry breasts. Two different types of hemi-ellipsoidal models were employed: voxels in quasi-homogeneous phantoms were designed as either adipose or glandular tissue while voxels in homogeneous phantoms were designed as the mixture of adipose and glandular tissues. Breast compositions of 25% and 50% volume glandular fractions (VGFs), defined as the ratio of glandular tissue voxels to entire breast voxels in the quasi-homogeneous phantoms, were studied. These VGFs were converted into glandular fractions by weight and used to construct the corresponding homogeneous phantoms. 80 kVp x-rays with a mean energy of 47 keV was used in the simulation. A total of 109 photons were used to image the phantoms and the energies deposited in the phantom voxels were tallied. Breast doses in homogeneous phantoms were averaged over all voxels and then used to calculate the MGDs using the F-factors evaluated at the mean energy of the x-rays. The MGDs for quasi-homogeneous phantoms were computed directly by averaging the doses over all glandular tissue voxels. The MGDs estimated for the two types of phantoms were normalized to the free-in-air dose at the iso-center and compared. Results: The normalized MGDs were 0.756 and 0.732 mGy/mGy for the 25% and 50% VGF homogeneous breasts and 0.761 and 0.733 mGy/mGy for the corresponding quasi-homogeneous breasts, respectively. The MGDs estimated for the two types of phantoms were similar within 1% in this study. Conclusion: MGDs for homogeneous breast models may be adequately estimated by converting from the average breast dose using the F-factor

  13. Average glandular dose in paired digital mammography and digital breast tomosynthesis acquisitions in a population based screening program: effects of measuring breast density, air kerma and beam quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helge Østerås, Bjørn; Skaane, Per; Gullien, Randi; Catrine Trægde Martinsen, Anne

    2018-02-01

    The main purpose was to compare average glandular dose (AGD) for same-compression digital mammography (DM) and digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) acquisitions in a population based screening program, with and without breast density stratification, as determined by automatically calculated breast density (Quantra™). Secondary, to compare AGD estimates based on measured breast density, air kerma and half value layer (HVL) to DICOM metadata based estimates. AGD was estimated for 3819 women participating in the screening trial. All received craniocaudal and mediolateral oblique views of each breasts with paired DM and DBT acquisitions. Exposure parameters were extracted from DICOM metadata. Air kerma and HVL were measured for all beam qualities used to acquire the mammograms. Volumetric breast density was estimated using Quantra™. AGD was estimated using the Dance model. AGD reported directly from the DICOM metadata was also assessed. Mean AGD was 1.74 and 2.10 mGy for DM and DBT, respectively. Mean DBT/DM AGD ratio was 1.24. For fatty breasts: mean AGD was 1.74 and 2.27 mGy for DM and DBT, respectively. For dense breasts: mean AGD was 1.73 and 1.79 mGy, for DM and DBT, respectively. For breasts of similar thickness, dense breasts had higher AGD for DM and similar AGD for DBT. The DBT/DM dose ratio was substantially lower for dense compared to fatty breasts (1.08 versus 1.33). The average c-factor was 1.16. Using previously published polynomials to estimate glandularity from thickness underestimated the c-factor by 5.9% on average. Mean AGD error between estimates based on measurements (air kerma and HVL) versus DICOM header data was 3.8%, but for one mammography unit as high as 7.9%. Mean error of using the AGD value reported in the DICOM header was 10.7 and 13.3%, respectively. Thus, measurement of breast density, radiation dose and beam quality can substantially affect AGD estimates.

  14. Relative Composition of Fibrous Connective and Fatty/Glandular Tissue in Connective Tissue Grafts Depends on the Harvesting Technique but not the Donor Site of the Hard Palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertl, Kristina; Pifl, Markus; Hirtler, Lena; Rendl, Barbara; Nürnberger, Sylvia; Stavropoulos, Andreas; Ulm, Christian

    2015-12-01

    Whether the composition of palatal connective tissue grafts (CTGs) varies depending on donor site or harvesting technique in terms of relative amounts of fibrous connective tissue (CT) and fatty/glandular tissue (FGT) is currently unknown and is histologically assessed in the present study. In 10 fresh human cadavers, tissue samples were harvested in the anterior and posterior palate and in areas close to (marginal) and distant from (apical) the mucosal margin. Mucosal thickness, lamina propria thickness (defined as the extent of subepithelial portion of the biopsy containing ≤25% or ≤50% FGT), and proportions of CT and FGT were semi-automatically estimated for the entire mucosa and for CTGs virtually harvested by split-flap (SF) preparation minimum 1 mm deep or after deepithelialization (DE). Palatal mucosal thickness, ranging from 2.35 to 6.89 mm, and histologic composition showed high interindividual variability. Lamina propria thickness (P >0.21) and proportions of CT (P = 0.48) and FGT (P = 0.15) did not differ significantly among the donor sites (anterior, posterior, marginal, apical). However, thicker palatal tissue was associated with higher FGT content (P tissue composition in the hard palate, DE-harvested CTG contains much larger amounts of CT and much lower amounts of FGT than SF-harvested CTG, irrespective of the harvesting site.

  15. A Survey On Mean Glandular Dose From Full-Field Digital Mammography Systems, Operate Using Mo/ Mo And W/Rh Target/ Filter Combinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noriah Jamal; Siti Selina Abdul Hamid; Humairah Samad Cheung; Siti Kamariah Che Mohamed; Ellyda Muhammed Nordin; Radhiana Hassan; Rehir Dahalan

    2013-01-01

    We had conducted a survey on Mean Glandular Dose (MGD) from Full-Field Digital Mammography systems (FFDM) operate using Molybdenum/ Molybdenum (Mo/ Mo) and Tungsten/ Rhodium (W/ Rh) target/ filter combinations. A survey was carried out at two randomly selected mammography centres in Malaysia, namely National Cancer Society and International Islamic University of Malaysia. The first centre operates using a W/ Rh, while the second centre operates using an Mo/ Mo target/ filter combinations. On the basis of recorded information, data on mammographic views, MGD, age and Compressed Breast Thickness (CBT) were recorded for 100 patients, for each mammographic centre respectively. The MGD data were analyzed for variation with age group, with 5 years increment. The MGD data were also analyzed for variation with CBT, with 5 mm increment. We found that for both CC and MLO views, FFDM systems operated using Mo/ Mo and W/ Rh target/ filter combinations present the same trend on MGD. The average MGD decreases as age increases. While average MGD increases with the increasing of CBT. However, FFDM system operates using Mo/ Mo gives higher MGD as compared with FFDM system operates using W/ Rh. (author)

  16. Expression of podoplanin and TGF-beta in glandular odontogenic cyst and its comparison with developmental and inflammatory odontogenic cystic lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaeddini, Mojgan; Eshghyar, Nosratollah; Etemad-Moghadam, Shahroo

    2017-01-01

    The number of studies investigating the immunohistochemical characteristics of glandular odontogenic cysts (GOCs) is limited, due to its rarity. TGF-beta has been suggested to induce podoplanin expression in some lesions. We aimed to evaluate and compare podoplanin and TGF-beta expression in GOC and other odontogenic cystic lesions. A total of 43 samples including five GOCs, 10 dentigerous cysts (DCs), eight unicystic ameloblastoma (UAs), and 20 radicular cysts (RCs) were selected and subjected to immunohistochemical staining using monoclonal antibodies against podoplanin and TGF-beta. Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney U-test were used for statistical analysis along with Bonferroni for adjusting P-values (P < 0.05). Podoplanin immunoreactivity was observed in 80%, 70%, and 100% of DCs, RCs, and UAs, respectively, while none of the GOCs were positive for this marker (P = 0.004). Significant differences were only found in the GOC specimens. TGF-beta positivity occurred in the capsule and epithelium of all GOCs and DCs, while RCs and UAs demonstrated different expression percentages in the capsular and epithelial tissues. Epithelial TGF-beta showed significant differences among the studied lesions (P = 0.007) with the main difference found between DCs with RCs and DCs with UAs. Lack of podoplanin expression might be involved in the characteristic histologic and behavioral features of GOC, which seems to be unrelated to TGF-beta expression. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Development of an Expert System as a Diagnostic Support of Cervical Cancer in Atypical Glandular Cells, Based on Fuzzy Logics and Image Interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karem R. Domínguez Hernández

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is the second largest cause of death among women worldwide. Nowadays, this disease is preventable and curable at low cost and low risk when an accurate diagnosis is done in due time, since it is the neoplasm with the highest prevention potential. This work describes the development of an expert system able to provide a diagnosis to cervical neoplasia (CN precursor injuries through the integration of fuzzy logics and image interpretation techniques. The key contribution of this research focuses on atypical cases, specifically on atypical glandular cells (AGC. The expert system consists of 3 phases: (1 risk diagnosis which consists of the interpretation of a patient’s clinical background and the risks for contracting CN according to specialists; (2 cytology images detection which consists of image interpretation (IM and the Bethesda system for cytology interpretation, and (3 determination of cancer precursor injuries which consists of in retrieving the information from the prior phases and integrating the expert system by means of a fuzzy logics (FL model. During the validation stage of the system, 21 already diagnosed cases were tested with a positive correlation in which 100% effectiveness was obtained. The main contribution of this work relies on the reduction of false positives and false negatives by providing a more accurate diagnosis for CN.

  18. A comparison of mean glandular dose diagnostic reference levels within the all-digital irish national breast screening programme and the Irish symptomatic breast services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Leary, D.; Rainford, L.

    2013-01-01

    Data on image quality, compression and radiation dose were collected from symptomatic breast units within the Republic of Ireland. Quantitative and qualitative data were analysed using SPSS. Recommendations of mean glandular dose (MGD) diagnostic reference levels were made at various levels for film-screen and full field digital mammography units to match levels published worldwide. MGDs received by symptomatic breast patients within Ireland are higher than those received in the all-digital Irish Breast Screening service; 55-65 mm breast: 1.75 mGy (screening) vs. 2.4 mGy (symptomatic) at the 95. percentile; various reasons are proposed for the differences. MGDs achieved in the screening service may be lower because of the exacting requirements for radiographer training, characteristics of the patients and equipment quality assurance levels. More precise imaging guidelines, standards and training of symptomatic radiographers performing mammography are suggested to remediate MGDs delivered to the breasts of Irish women attending the symptomatic breast services. (authors)

  19. Alternative Approach to Traumatic Stensen’s Duct Injuries Accompanied by Glandular Involvement: Botulinum Toxin Injection to the Gland in Conjunction with Microsurgical Repair of the Duct in an Acute Setting

    OpenAIRE

    Mert Çalış; Zeynep Öz; Hakan Uzun; Burçe Özgen; Alp Çetin3; Ali Emre Aksu

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term results of a simultaneous application of botulinum toxin to the parotid gland in conjunction with the microsurgical repair of the duct in an acute setting and to encourage using botulinum toxin as a first-line option to prevent future complications associated with glandular involvement. Material and Methods: Three patients who were referred to the Plastic Surgery Clinic by the emergency room of the Hacettepe University Hospita...

  20. Correlação dos aspectos laparoscópicos com as alterações histológicas glandulares das lesões endometrióticas peritoneais Correlation between laparoscopic aspects and glandular hystological findings of peritoneal endometriotic lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Antonio Viscomi

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Correlacionar os aspectos laparoscópicos com os achados histológicos na endometriose peritoneal para facilitar a compreensão da teoria evolutiva da endometriose. MÉTODOS: Foram selecionadas aleatoriamente para o presente estudo prospectivo 67 pacientes submetidas a laparoscopia, com diagnóstico de endometriose peritoneal. A avaliação laparoscópica foi baseada no aspecto visual do implante suspeito de endometriose peritoneal, submetido a estudo anatomopatológico. De acordo com o aspecto laparoscópico, as lesões foram agrupadas em: grupo V - vermelhas, grupo N - negras, grupo B - brancas. A avaliação histológica foi realizada observando-se as características funcionais do epitélio glandular, a presença de debris intraluminais, o número de mitoses e a relação estroma/glândula. RESULTADOS: As características funcionais do epitélio glandular mostraram associação estatisticamente significante entre os grupos, sendo o epitélio com carcterística secretora encontrado em 68,4% das lesões do grupo V, 15,8% do grupo N e B, enquanto que o epitélio incaracterístico foi encontrado em 19,4% das lesões vermelhas, 38,7% das lesões negras e 41,9% das brancas e o epitélio proliferativo foi observado em 50% das pacientes do grupo B e em 25% dos grupos V e N (p=0,011. Em relação à presença de debris intraluminais, também houve diferença significante entre os grupos, estando presentes em 58,4% das lesões negras, 33,3% das lesões brancas e 8,3% das lesões vermelhas (p=0,016. Quanto ao número de mitoses, não houve diferença significante nos três grupos de estudo (p=0,428. O mesmo foi observado na relação estroma/glândula, não havendo diferença significante nos grupos de estudo (p=0,159. CONCLUSÃO: A associação entre atividade funcional nas lesões vermelhas e baixa atividade funcional nas lesões negras e brancas, bem como a presença de debris intraluminais nos diferentes grupos, reforçam a teoria

  1. Establishment of a long-term three-dimensional primary culture of mouse glandular stomach epithelial cells within the stem cell niche

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katano, Takahito; Ootani, Akifumi; Mizoshita, Tsutomu; Tanida, Satoshi; Tsukamoto, Hironobu; Ozeki, Keiji; Ebi, Masahide; Mori, Yoshinori; Kataoka, Hiromi; Kamiya, Takeshi; Toda, Shuji; Joh, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We established a 3D culture system to allow long-term culture of stomach cells. ► In this culture system, gastric epithelial cells grew for about 3 months. ► The cultured cells differentiated into multi-units of the stomach. ► This culture method should be useful for elucidating the cause of gastric diseases. -- Abstract: Compared to the small intestine and colon, little is known about stem cells in the stomach because of a lack of specific stem cell markers and an in vitro system that allows long-term culture. Here we describe a long-term three-dimensional (3D) primary gastric culture system within the stem cell niche. Glandular stomach cells from neonatal mice cultured in collagen gel yielded expanding sphere-like structures for 3 months. The wall of the gastrospheres consisted of a highly polarized epithelial monolayer with an outer lining of myofibroblasts. The epithelial cells showed a tall columnar cell shape, basal round nuclei, and mucus-filled cytoplasm as well as expression of MUC5AC, indicating differentiation into gastric surface mucous cells. These cells demonstrated the features of fully differentiated gastric surface mucous cells such as microvilli, junctional complexes, and glycogen and secretory granules. Fewer than 1% of cultured epithelial cells differentiated into enteroendocrine cells. Active proliferation of the epithelial cells and many apoptotic cells in the inner lumen revealed the rapid cell turnover in gastrospheres in vitro. This method enables us to investigate the role of signaling between cell–cell and epithelial–mesenchymal interactions in an environment that is extremely similar to the in vivo environment

  2. Establishment of a long-term three-dimensional primary culture of mouse glandular stomach epithelial cells within the stem cell niche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katano, Takahito [Department of Gastroenterology and Metabolism, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Ootani, Akifumi [Department of Gastroenterology and GI Endoscopy Center, Shin-Kokura Hospital, Federation of National Public Service Personnel Mutual Aid Associations, 1-3-1 Kanada, Kokurakita-ku, Kitakyushu 803-0816 (Japan); Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Saga University, 5-1-1 Nabeshima, Saga 849-8501 (Japan); Mizoshita, Tsutomu, E-mail: tmizoshi@med.nagoya-cu.ac.jp [Department of Gastroenterology and Metabolism, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Tanida, Satoshi; Tsukamoto, Hironobu; Ozeki, Keiji; Ebi, Masahide; Mori, Yoshinori; Kataoka, Hiromi; Kamiya, Takeshi [Department of Gastroenterology and Metabolism, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Toda, Shuji [Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Saga University, 5-1-1 Nabeshima, Saga 849-8501 (Japan); Joh, Takashi [Department of Gastroenterology and Metabolism, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan)

    2013-03-22

    Highlights: ► We established a 3D culture system to allow long-term culture of stomach cells. ► In this culture system, gastric epithelial cells grew for about 3 months. ► The cultured cells differentiated into multi-units of the stomach. ► This culture method should be useful for elucidating the cause of gastric diseases. -- Abstract: Compared to the small intestine and colon, little is known about stem cells in the stomach because of a lack of specific stem cell markers and an in vitro system that allows long-term culture. Here we describe a long-term three-dimensional (3D) primary gastric culture system within the stem cell niche. Glandular stomach cells from neonatal mice cultured in collagen gel yielded expanding sphere-like structures for 3 months. The wall of the gastrospheres consisted of a highly polarized epithelial monolayer with an outer lining of myofibroblasts. The epithelial cells showed a tall columnar cell shape, basal round nuclei, and mucus-filled cytoplasm as well as expression of MUC5AC, indicating differentiation into gastric surface mucous cells. These cells demonstrated the features of fully differentiated gastric surface mucous cells such as microvilli, junctional complexes, and glycogen and secretory granules. Fewer than 1% of cultured epithelial cells differentiated into enteroendocrine cells. Active proliferation of the epithelial cells and many apoptotic cells in the inner lumen revealed the rapid cell turnover in gastrospheres in vitro. This method enables us to investigate the role of signaling between cell–cell and epithelial–mesenchymal interactions in an environment that is extremely similar to the in vivo environment.

  3. Leaf morphology and anatomy of varieties of Turnera diffusa var ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The leaves of diffusa variety were twice as large as those of the aphrodisiaca variety, whereas papillose glandular trichomes were observed with greater density in the aphrodisiaca variety than those on diffusa leaves where unicellular trichomes were the ones observed in greater density. The leaves of both ...

  4. EFEITO DE TRICOMAS, ALELOQUÍMICOS E NUTRIENTES NA RESISTÊNCIA DE LYCOPERSICON HIRSUTUM À TRAÇA-DO-TOMATEIRO EFFECT OF TRICHOMES, ALELLOCHEMICALS AND MINERALS ON THE RESISTANCE OF LYCOPERSICON HIRSUTUM TO TOMATO LEAF MINER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GERMANO LEÃO DEMOLIN LEITE

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available Estudos foram conduzidos com o objetivo de verificar o efeito de tricomas, aleloquímicos e nutrientes nas folhas de partes do dossel das plantas na resistência de Lycopersicon hirsutum à traça- do-tomateiro, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae. Foram quantificados os teores de 2-tridecanona (2-TD, 2-undecanona (2-UD, N, P, K, Ca e Mg, densidade e tipos de tricomas e tamanho das folhas nos terços apical, mediano e basal do dossel de plantas de L. hirsutum e de L. esculentum e estudaram- se os efeitos destes fatores sobre características biológicas de T. absoluta. Observou-se elevação no teor de 2-TD da base para o ápice do dossel. Não se detectou diferença significativa quanto ao número de ovos de T. absoluta ao longo do dossel de L. hirsutum, constatando-se em L. esculentum maior oviposição nos terços apical e mediano do que no basal. As folhas do terço apical de L. hirsutum apresentaram maior efeito deletério sobre as larvas de traça.The objective of this work was to study the effect of trichomes, alellochemicals and minerals in the leaves of different canopy heights on the resistance of Lycopersicon hirsutum to tomato leaf miner, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae. Effects of 2-tridecanone (2-TD, 2-undecanone (2-UD, N, P, K, Ca and Mg levels, density and types of trichomes and leaf area on apical, medium and basal parts of plant dossel of L. hirsutum and L. esculentum on the oviposition and mines number of T. absoluta was studied. Production of 2-TD increased from the bottom to the top of the canopy. The apical part of plants of L. hirsutum showed more antibiotic effect on the caterpillar. T. absoluta oviposited more on leaves of the apical and medium portion of the plants than in the basal parts of L. esculentum.

  5. Atypical endometrial cells and atypical glandular cells favor endometrial origin in Papanicolaou cervicovaginal tests: Correlation with histologic follow-up and abnormal clinical presentations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longwen Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The 2001 Bethesda system recommends further classifying atypical glandular cells (AGCs as either endocervical or endometrial origin. Numerous studies have investigated the clinical significance of AGC. In this study, we investigated the incidence of clinically significant lesions among women with liquid-based Papanicolaou cervicovaginal (Pap interpretations of atypical endometrial cells (AEMs or AGC favor endometrial origin (AGC-EM. More importantly, we correlated patients of AEM or AGC-EM with their clinical presentations to determine if AEM/AGC-EM combined with abnormal vaginal bleeding is associated with a higher incidence of significant endometrial pathology. All liquid-based Pap tests with an interpretation of AEM and AGC-EM from July, 2004 through June, 2009 were retrieved from the database. Women with an interpretation of atypical endocervical cells, AGC, favor endocervical origin or AGC, favor neoplastic were not included in the study. The most severe subsequent histologic diagnoses were recorded for each patient. During this 5-year period, we accessioned 332,470 Pap tests of which 169 (0.05% were interpreted as either AEM or AGC-EM. Of the 169 patients, 133 had histologic follow-up within the health care system. The patients ranged in age from 21 to 71 years old (mean 49.7. On follow-up histology, 27 (20.3% had neoplastic/preneoplastic uterine lesions. Among them, 20 patients were diagnosed with adenocarcinoma (18 endometrial, 1 endocervical, and 1 metastatic colorectal, 3 with atypical endometrial hyperplasia, and 4 with endometrial hyperplasia without atypia. All patients with significant endometrial pathology, except one, were over 40 years old, and 22 of 25 patients reported abnormal vaginal bleeding at the time of endometrial biopsy or curettage. This study represents a large series of women with liquid-based Pap test interpretations of AEM and AGC-EM with clinical follow-up. Significant preneoplastic or neoplastic endometrial

  6. Response of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) leaf surface defenses to exogenous methyl jasmonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Heather C; Ro, Dae-kyun; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2012-01-01

    Helianthus annuus, the common sunflower, produces a complex array of secondary compounds that are secreted into glandular trichomes, specialized structures found on leaf surfaces and anther appendages of flowers. The primary components of these trichome secretions are sesquiterpene lactones (STL), a diverse class of compounds produced abundantly by the plant family Compositae and believed to contribute to plant defense against herbivory. We treated wild and cultivated H. annuus accessions with exogenous methyl jasmonate, a plant hormone that mediates plant defense against insect herbivores and certain classes of fungal pathogens. The wild sunflower produced a higher density of glandular trichomes on its leaves than the cultivar. Comparison of the profiles of glandular trichome extracts obtained by liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (LC-MS) showed that wild and cultivated H. annuus were qualitatively similar in surface chemistry, although differing in the relative size and proportion of various compounds detected. Despite observing consistent transcriptional responses to methyl jasmonate treatment, we detected no significant effect on glandular trichome density or LC-MS profile in cultivated or wild sunflower, with wild sunflower exhibiting a declining trend in overall STL production and foliar glandular trichome density of jasmonate-treated plants. These results suggest that glandular trichomes and associated compounds may act as constitutive defenses or require greater levels of stimulus for induction than the observed transcriptional responses to exogenous jasmonate. Reduced defense investment in domesticated lines is consistent with predicted tradeoffs caused by selection for increased yield; future research will focus on the development of genetic resources to explicitly test the ecological roles of glandular trichomes and associated effects on plant growth and fitness.

  7. Caracterización de gneises glandulares del alto valle del Lozoya (Sistema Central Español) en base al quimismo de las biotitas y estado estructural del feldespato potásico

    OpenAIRE

    Tornos Arroyo, Fernando; Casquet, César

    1982-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se estudian las litologías gneísicas glandulares que afloran en la ladera este del Macizo de Peñalara (Sistema Central Español), en base a la interpretación del quimismo de las biotitas de glándulas y mesostasia y del estado estructural del feldespato potásico que forma la mayoría de estas glándulas. Se deduce a partir del estudio de las biotitas, que las glándulas se comportan como sistema cerrado para el Ti y abierto para el Al durante el metamorf...

  8. Asowata et al., Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. (2016) 13(2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    According to Werker and Fahn (1981), glandular trichomes limit the transpiration rate and reduce leaf temperature. Withering and falling leaves with intact glandular hairs may .... Glycosidically-bound aroma volatiles in the skin and pulp of 'Kensington Pride' mango fruit at different stages of maturity. Postharvest Biology and ...

  9. Comparative leaf morpho-anatomical studies of two South American species of Cardiospermum (Sapindaceae) with special reference to adaxial domatia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Solís, S.M.; Ferrucci, M.S.

    2006-01-01

    Morphological and anatomical studies of leaves of two closely related Cardiospermum species from South America, C. procumbens and C. pterocarpum, were assayed. Both species have amphistomatic leaves, anomocytic stomata, non-glandular and glandular trichomes, secretory cells present in the epidermis

  10. Optimization of technique factors for a silicon diode array full-field digital mammography system and comparison to screen-film mammography with matched average glandular dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berns, Eric A.; Hendrick, R. Edward; Cutter, Gary R.

    2003-01-01

    Contrast-detail experiments were performed to optimize technique factors for the detection of low-contrast lesions using a silicon diode array full-field digital mammography (FFDM) system under the conditions of a matched average glandular dose (AGD) for different techniques. Optimization was performed for compressed breast thickness from 2 to 8 cm. FFDM results were compared to screen-film mammography (SFM) at each breast thickness. Four contrast-detail (CD) images were acquired on a SFM unit with optimal techniques at 2, 4, 6, and 8 cm breast thicknesses. The AGD for each breast thickness was calculated based on half-value layer (HVL) and entrance exposure measurements on the SFM unit. A computer algorithm was developed and used to determine FFDM beam current (mAs) that matched AGD between FFDM and SFM at each thickness, while varying target, filter, and peak kilovoltage (kVp) across the full range available for the FFDM unit. CD images were then acquired on FFDM for kVp values from 23-35 for a molybdenum-molybdenum (Mo-Mo), 23-40 for a molybdenum-rhodium (Mo-Rh), and 25-49 for a rhodium-rhodium (Rh-Rh) target-filter under the constraint of matching the AGD from screen-film for each breast thickness (2, 4, 6, and 8 cm). CD images were scored independently for SFM and each FFDM technique by six readers. CD scores were analyzed to assess trends as a function of target-filter and kVp and were compared to SFM at each breast thickness. For 2 cm thick breasts, optimal FFDM CD scores occurred at the lowest possible kVp setting for each target-filter, with significant decreases in FFDM CD scores as kVp was increased under the constraint of matched AGD. For 2 cm breasts, optimal FFDM CD scores were not significantly different from SFM CD scores. For 4-8 cm breasts, optimum FFDM CD scores were superior to SFM CD scores. For 4 cm breasts, FFDM CD scores decreased as kVp increased for each target-filter combination. For 6 cm breasts, CD scores decreased slightly as k

  11. MICRO PROPAGATION OF WORMWOOD ( Artemisia annua L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    combination of 0.5µm/l GA3 and 0.5µm/l NAA had the fewer days to ... Analysis of Variance indicated significant difference among the ... use of in vitro facilities using tissue culture technique. (Trigiano and Gray ... MATERIALS AND METHODS.

  12. Alternative Approach to Traumatic Stensen’s Duct Injuries Accompanied by Glandular Involvement: Botulinum Toxin Injection to the Gland in Conjunction with Microsurgical Repair of the Duct in an Acute Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mert Çalış

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term results of a simultaneous application of botulinum toxin to the parotid gland in conjunction with the microsurgical repair of the duct in an acute setting and to encourage using botulinum toxin as a first-line option to prevent future complications associated with glandular involvement. Material and Methods: Three patients who were referred to the Plastic Surgery Clinic by the emergency room of the Hacettepe University Hospital after maxillofacial trauma are reviewed in this study. Exploration of the facial nerve and Stensen’s duct was planned for all patients within the first 72 hours after their injuries. After intraoral catheterization of the Stensen’s duct through the papilla using an epidural catheter, microsurgical end-to-end anastomosis was performed. Concurrently, 100 units of botulinum toxin A was injected at standardized eight points to the parotid gland. Results: Postoperative magnetic resonance (MR sialography revealed patency in all patients at the end of postoperative first year. The mean postoperative parotid volume of the injured and non-injured sides were 19.82±10.55 cm3 and 17.79±10.98 cm3, respectively, and the results were found to be comparable. Fibrillation potentials in the postoperative electromyography recordings and clinical examination demonstrated nerve regeneration. Conclusion: Botulinum toxin A appears to be effective in treating duct injuries accompanied by glandular involvement in an acute setting, as well as in preventing long-term complications.

  13. Comparative evaluation of average glandular dose and breast cancer detection between single-view digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) plus single-view digital mammography (DM) and two-view DM: correlation with breast thickness and density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Sung Ui; Chang, Jung Min; Bae, Min Sun; Lee, Su Hyun; Cho, Nariya; Seo, Mirinae; Kim, Won Hwa; Moon, Woo Kyung [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    To compare the average glandular dose (AGD) and diagnostic performance of mediolateral oblique (MLO) digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) plus cranio-caudal (CC) digital mammography (DM) with two-view DM, and to evaluate the correlation of AGD with breast thickness and density. MLO and CC DM and DBT images of both breasts were obtained in 149 subjects. AGDs of DBT and DM per exposure were recorded, and their correlation with breast thickness and density were evaluated. Paired data of MLO DBT plus CC DM and two-view DM were reviewed for presence of malignancy in a jack-knife alternative free-response ROC (JAFROC) method. The AGDs of both DBT and DM, and differences in AGD between DBT and DM (ΔAGD), were correlated with breast thickness and density. The average JAFROC figure of merit (FOM) was significantly higher on the combined technique than two-view DM (P = 0.005). In dense breasts, the FOM and sensitivity of the combined technique was higher than that of two-view DM (P = 0.003) with small ΔAGD. MLO DBT plus CC DM provided higher diagnostic performance than two-view DM in dense breasts with a small increase in AGD. (orig.)

  14. Comparative evaluation of average glandular dose and breast cancer detection between single-view digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) plus single-view digital mammography (DM) and two-view DM: correlation with breast thickness and density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Sung Ui; Chang, Jung Min; Bae, Min Sun; Lee, Su Hyun; Cho, Nariya; Seo, Mirinae; Kim, Won Hwa; Moon, Woo Kyung

    2015-01-01

    To compare the average glandular dose (AGD) and diagnostic performance of mediolateral oblique (MLO) digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) plus cranio-caudal (CC) digital mammography (DM) with two-view DM, and to evaluate the correlation of AGD with breast thickness and density. MLO and CC DM and DBT images of both breasts were obtained in 149 subjects. AGDs of DBT and DM per exposure were recorded, and their correlation with breast thickness and density were evaluated. Paired data of MLO DBT plus CC DM and two-view DM were reviewed for presence of malignancy in a jack-knife alternative free-response ROC (JAFROC) method. The AGDs of both DBT and DM, and differences in AGD between DBT and DM (ΔAGD), were correlated with breast thickness and density. The average JAFROC figure of merit (FOM) was significantly higher on the combined technique than two-view DM (P = 0.005). In dense breasts, the FOM and sensitivity of the combined technique was higher than that of two-view DM (P = 0.003) with small ΔAGD. MLO DBT plus CC DM provided higher diagnostic performance than two-view DM in dense breasts with a small increase in AGD. (orig.)

  15. Is extra-glandular organ damage in primary Sjögren's syndrome related to the presence of systemic auto-antibodies and/or hypergammaglobulinemia? A long-term cohort study with 110 patients from the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter Borg, Evert-Jan; Kelder, Johannes Cornelis

    2017-07-01

    To test the hypothesis that systemic auto-antibodies or hypergammaglobulinemia are related to the prevalence of extra-glandular tissue organ damage (EGOD) in primary Sjögren's syndrome (SS). A real practice-based investigation of a relatively large (n = 110) Dutch cohort of primary SS patients systematically followed up in a large non-academic hospital. After a follow up of mean 8.2 years a significant correlation was found between disease duration and the prevalence of EGOD. We did not observe a relationship between the total number or type of systemic auto-antibodies or hypergammaglobulinemia and the total number of EGOD. However, there was a correlation between the prevalence of polyneuropathy (PNP) and antinuclear antibodies (ANA) as well as anti-Ro/SS-A positivity and there was an inverse relationship between the presence of anti-Ro/SS-A antibodies and primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). All PBC cases were anti-Ro/SS-A and anti-La/SS-B negative but ANA positive. There was a trend for a higher occurrence of pleuro-pulmonary disease in the ANA negative cases. Although we did not find a relationship between the total number or type of systemic auto-antibodies and the total number of EGOD, there were correlations between specific systemic auto-antibodies and specific types of EGOD. The presence of ANA and anti-Ro/SS-A was associated with the occurrence of PNP, as well as was the absence of anti-Ro/SS-A with PBC. © 2017 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  16. The Effect of Concept Mapping on the Learning Levels of Students in Taking the Course of "Nursing Care of Patients With Glandular Diseases Subject" in Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aghakhani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Studies show that traditional teaching methods, such as lecturing, do not lead to in-depth learning. Concept maps have been used for a long time by researchers and teachers to facilitate learning. Objectives The present study aimed to investigate the effect of concept mapping on the learning levels of students in nursing care of patients with glandular diseases subject in Urmia University of Medical Sciences. Materials and Methods In a quasi-experimental study with a pre-test/post-test design, 28 nursing students were selected and divided into two groups: the experimental and the control groups. After administration of pre-test, the students in the experimental group participated in classes on designing concept maps. Next, lessons on glands and nursing were presented to the students in the experimental and control groups through concept maps and lectures, respectively. At the end of the semester, the learning levels of the students in both groups were evaluated by the post-test. Results The means of the scores of the students as determined by results of the pre-test revealed insignificant statistical difference between the two groups. However, the learning level of the students in the experimental group was significantly higher (P < 0.05. As a metacognitive intervention, concept mapping can contribute to in-depth learning of nursing students. Conclusions According to the findings, it is recommended that concept mapping should be used for teaching and evaluation. Further studies are needed to compare the effect of concept mapping with those of other metacognition approaches on different types of learners.

  17. Os curiosos xenoimplantes glandulares do doutor Voronoff

    OpenAIRE

    Cuperschmid,Ethel Mizrahy; Campos,Tarcisio Passos Ribeiro de

    2007-01-01

    O presente artigo trata da visita do médico Serge Voronoff ao Brasil durante as Jornadas Médicas de 1928 e a subseqüente demonstração de sua técnica de xenotransplante diante da classe médica. Recorreu-se a jornais da época para ilustrar a natureza do imaginário popular em torno da cirurgia controversa e de seus pretensos milagres para a preservação da saúde e a manutenção da vida. A iniciativa de Voronoff abriu espaço para que outros profissionais da medicina relatassem sua prática cirúrgica...

  18. Dr. Voronoff's curious glandular xeno-implants

    OpenAIRE

    Cuperschmid, Ethel Mizrahy; Campos, Tarcisio Passos Ribeiro de

    2007-01-01

    O presente artigo trata da visita do médico Serge Voronoff ao Brasil durante as Jornadas Médicas de 1928 e a subseqüente demonstração de sua técnica de xenotransplante diante da classe médica. Recorreu-se a jornais da época para ilustrar a natureza do imaginário popular em torno da cirurgia controversa e de seus pretensos milagres para a preservação da saúde e a manutenção da vida. A iniciativa de Voronoff abriu espaço para que outros profissionais da medicina relatassem sua prática cirúrgica...

  19. Antiviral agents for infectious mononucleosis (glandular fever).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paor, Muireann; O'Brien, Kirsty; Fahey, Tom; Smith, Susan M

    2016-12-08

    Infectious mononucleosis (IM) is a clinical syndrome, usually caused by the Epstein Barr virus (EPV), characterised by lymphadenopathy, fever and sore throat. Most cases of symptomatic IM occur in older teenagers or young adults. Usually IM is a benign self-limiting illness and requires only symptomatic treatment. However, occasionally the disease course can be complicated or prolonged and lead to decreased productivity in terms of school or work. Antiviral medications have been used to treat IM, but the use of antivirals for IM is controversial. They may be effective by preventing viral replication which helps to keep the virus inactive. However, there are no guidelines for antivirals in IM. To assess the effects of antiviral therapy for infectious mononucleosis (IM). We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, Issue 3, March 2016), which contains the Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI) Group's Specialised Register, MEDLINE (1946 to 15 April 2016), Embase (1974 to 15 April 2016), CINAHL (1981 to 15 April 2016), LILACS (1982 to 15 April 2016) and Web of Science (1955 to 15 April 2016). We searched the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform and ClinicalTrials.gov for completed and ongoing trials. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing antivirals versus placebo or no treatment in IM. We included trials of immunocompetent participants of any age or sex with clinical and laboratory-confirmed diagnosis of IM, who had symptoms for up to 14 days. Our primary outcomes were time to clinical recovery and adverse events and side effects of medication. Secondary outcomes included duration of abnormal clinical examination, complications, viral shedding, health-related quality of life, days missing from school or work and economic outcomes. Two review authors independently assessed studies for inclusion, assessed the included studies' risk of bias and extracted data using a customised data extraction sheet. We used the GRADE criteria to rate the quality of the evidence. We pooled heterogeneous data where possible, and presented the results narratively where we could not statistically combine data. We included seven RCTs with a total of 333 participants in our review. Three trials studied hospitalised patients, two trials were conducted in an outpatient setting, while the trial setting was unclear in two studies. Participants' ages ranged from two years to young adults. The type of antiviral, administration route, and treatment duration varied between the trials. The antivirals in the included studies were acyclovir, valomaciclovir and valacyclovir. Follow-up varied from 20 days to six months. The diagnosis of IM was based on clinical symptoms and laboratory parameters.The risk of bias for all included studies was either unclear or high risk of bias. The quality of evidence was graded as very low for all outcomes and so the results should be interpreted with caution. There were statistically significant improvements in the treatment group for two of the 12 outcomes. These improvements may be of limited clinical significance.There was a mean reduction in 'time to clinical recovery as assessed by physician' of five days in the treatment group but with wide confidence intervals (CIs) (95% CI -8.04 to -1.08; two studies, 87 participants). Prospective studies indicate that clinical signs and symptoms may take one month or more to resolve and that fatigue may be persistent in approximately 10% of patients at six-month follow-up, so this may not be a clinically meaningful result.Trial results for the outcome 'adverse events and side effects of medication' were reported narratively in only five studies. In some reports authors were unsure whether an adverse event was related to medication or complication of disease. These results could not be pooled due to the potential for double counting results but overall, the majority of trials reporting this outcome did not find any significant difference between treatment and control groups.There was a mean reduction in 'duration of lymphadenopathy' of nine days (95% CI -11.75 to -6.14, two studies, 61 participants) in favour of the treatment group.In terms of viral shedding, the overall effect from six studies was that viral shedding was suppressed while on antiviral treatment, but this effect was not sustained when treatment stopped.For all other outcomes there was no statistically significant difference between antiviral treatment and control groups. The effectiveness of antiviral agents (acyclovir, valomaciclovir and valacyclovir) in acute IM is uncertain. The quality of the evidence is very low. The majority of included studies were at unclear or high risk of bias and so questions remain about the effectiveness of this intervention. Although two of the 12 outcomes have results that favour treatment over control, the quality of the evidence of these results is very low and may not be clinically meaningful. Alongside the lack of evidence of effectiveness, decision makers need to consider the potential adverse events and possible associated costs, and antiviral resistance. Further research in this area is warranted.

  20. TU-H-CAMPUS-JeP2-01: Inter-Observer Delineation Comparison of Visible Glandular Breast Tissue On Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Computed Tomography (prone and Supine)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogson, EM; Delaney, G; Yap, M; Ahern, V; Boxer, M; David, S; Dimigen, M; Harvey, J; Koh, E; Batumalai, V; Lim, K; Papadatos, G; Metcalfe, P

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Breast cancers predominantly arise from Glandular Breast Tissue (GBT). If the GBT can be treated effectively post-operatively utilising radiotherapy this may be adequate volumetric coverage for adjuvant breast radiotherapy. Adequate imaging of the GBT is necessary and will be assessed between MRI and CT modalities. GBT visualisation is acknowledged to be qualitatively superior on Magnetic Resonance Image (MRI) compared to Computed Tomography (CT), the current radiotherapy imaging standard, however this has not been quantitatively assessed. For radiotherapy purposes it is important that any treatment volume can be consistently defined between observers. This study investigates the consistency of CT and MRI GBT contours for potential radiotherapy planning. Methods: Ten experts (9 breast radiation oncologists and 1 radiologist) contoured the extent of the visible GBT for 33 patients on MRI and CT (both without contrast), which was performed according to a contouring guideline in supine and prone patient positions. The GBT volume was not a conventional whole breast radiotherapy planning volume, but rather the extent of GBT that was indicated from the CT or MR imaging. Volumes were compared utilizing the dice similarity coefficient (DSC), kappa statistic, and Hausdorff Distances (HDs) to ascertain the modality that was most consistently volumed. Results: The inter-observer concordance was of substantial agreement (kappa above 0.6) for the CT supine, CT prone, MRI supine and MRI prone datasets. The MRI GBT volumes were larger than the CT GBT volumes (p<0.001). Inter-observer conformity was higher for CT than MRI, although the magnitude of this difference was small (VOI<0.04). Conformity between modalities (CT and MRI) was in agreement for both prone and supine, DSC=0.75. Prone GBT volumes were larger than supine for both MRI and CT. Conclusion: MRI improves the extent of GBT delineation. The role of MRI guided, GBT-targeted radiotherapy requires investigation in

  1. TU-H-CAMPUS-JeP2-01: Inter-Observer Delineation Comparison of Visible Glandular Breast Tissue On Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Computed Tomography (prone and Supine)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pogson, EM [Institute of Medical Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia); University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW (Australia); Liverpool and Macarthur Cancer Therapy Centres, Liverpool, NSW (United Kingdom); Ingham Institute for Applied Medical Research, Liverpool Hospital, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Delaney, G; Yap, M [Liverpool and Macarthur Cancer Therapy Centres, Liverpool, NSW (United Kingdom); Ingham Institute for Applied Medical Research, Liverpool Hospital, Sydney, NSW (Australia); South Western Sydney Clinical School, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia); School of Medicine, University of Western Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Ahern, V [Westmead Hospital, Westmead, NSW (Australia); Boxer, M [Liverpool and Macarthur Cancer Therapy Centres, Liverpool, NSW (United Kingdom); Ingham Institute for Applied Medical Research, Liverpool Hospital, Sydney, NSW (Australia); David, S [Peter MacCallum Cancer Institute,, Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Dimigen, M [Department of Radiology, Liverpool Hospital, NSW (United Kingdom); Harvey, J [University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD (Australia); Princess Alexandra Hospital, QLD (Australia); Koh, E; Batumalai, V [Liverpool and Macarthur Cancer Therapy Centres, Liverpool, NSW (United Kingdom); Ingham Institute for Applied Medical Research, Liverpool Hospital, Sydney, NSW (Australia); South Western Sydney Clinical School, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Lim, K; Papadatos, G [Liverpool and Macarthur Cancer Therapy Centres, Liverpool, NSW (United Kingdom); Metcalfe, P [University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW (Australia); Liverpool and Macarthur Cancer Therapy Centres, Liverpool, NSW (United Kingdom); Ingham Institute for Applied Medical Research, Liverpool Hospital, Sydney, NSW (Australia); and others

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Breast cancers predominantly arise from Glandular Breast Tissue (GBT). If the GBT can be treated effectively post-operatively utilising radiotherapy this may be adequate volumetric coverage for adjuvant breast radiotherapy. Adequate imaging of the GBT is necessary and will be assessed between MRI and CT modalities. GBT visualisation is acknowledged to be qualitatively superior on Magnetic Resonance Image (MRI) compared to Computed Tomography (CT), the current radiotherapy imaging standard, however this has not been quantitatively assessed. For radiotherapy purposes it is important that any treatment volume can be consistently defined between observers. This study investigates the consistency of CT and MRI GBT contours for potential radiotherapy planning. Methods: Ten experts (9 breast radiation oncologists and 1 radiologist) contoured the extent of the visible GBT for 33 patients on MRI and CT (both without contrast), which was performed according to a contouring guideline in supine and prone patient positions. The GBT volume was not a conventional whole breast radiotherapy planning volume, but rather the extent of GBT that was indicated from the CT or MR imaging. Volumes were compared utilizing the dice similarity coefficient (DSC), kappa statistic, and Hausdorff Distances (HDs) to ascertain the modality that was most consistently volumed. Results: The inter-observer concordance was of substantial agreement (kappa above 0.6) for the CT supine, CT prone, MRI supine and MRI prone datasets. The MRI GBT volumes were larger than the CT GBT volumes (p<0.001). Inter-observer conformity was higher for CT than MRI, although the magnitude of this difference was small (VOI<0.04). Conformity between modalities (CT and MRI) was in agreement for both prone and supine, DSC=0.75. Prone GBT volumes were larger than supine for both MRI and CT. Conclusion: MRI improves the extent of GBT delineation. The role of MRI guided, GBT-targeted radiotherapy requires investigation in

  2. Comparative epidermal anatomical studies in six taxa of genus Nephrolepis Swart in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Fajuke

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Anatomical studies in six taxa of genus Nephrolepis; N. biserrata, N. cordifolia, N. exaltata (i & (ii, N. biserrata var. furcans and N. undulata were carried out with a view to identify anatomic characters of taxonomic values. Both qualitative and quantitative anatomical studies were carried out. Quantitative data were subjected to descriptive statistical analysis. Anatomical characters studied include venation patterns, trichome types, presence and absence of stomata and values of the stomatal index which are valuable in delimiting the species. The overall results showed overlaps in the quantitative anatomical attributes of the Nephrolepis taxa studied suggesting that they belong to the same genus. Qualitative anatomical attributes that separated the genus into distinct taxa are the presence of simple multicellular glandular trichomes in N. biserrata and simple multicellular non-glandular trichomes in N. exaltata (i and N. exalta (ii while N. biserrata var. furcans and N. undulata have simple unicellular non-glandular trichomes and absence of trichome in N. cordifolia. Presence of anisocytic, diacytic or anomocytic stomata were of diagnostic important in the six taxa.

  3. Pharmacognostic evaluation of the leaves of Sida acuta Burm.F ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cells are wavy, numerous unicellular non-glandular trichomes are present, and there are prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, fragments of lignified fibres and simple starch grains. Chemomicroscopical tests on the powder showed the presence of lignin, starch, calcium oxalate and mucilage. This investigation also reports ...

  4. Pharmacognostic evaluation of the leaves and stem-bark of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The microscopy revealed the dorsiventral nature of the leaf and was observed to be hypostomatic with anomocytic type of stomata, with numerous unicellular covering and glandular trichomes on the abaxial surface. Chemomicroscopic characters present include; lignin, starch, cellulose, tannin, suberin and calcium oxalate ...

  5. Oviposition behavior of the silver leaf whitefly Bemisia tabaci biotype B on tomato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vendramim, Jose D.; Souza, Antonio P. de; Ongarelli, Maria das G.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of the leaf surface, the insect geotropic behavior and the type of foliar trichome on Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) biotype B oviposition on tomato leaves. Bemisia tabaci females were confined in acrylic boxes in which tomato leaflets were fixed at the bottom and top part of the boxes to allow insects to access the leaf surface to be tested (adaxial and/or abaxial) in both no-choice and free choice tests. Oviposition was always higher when the leaf was offered at the top of the box and preferably at the abaxial leaf surface. The effects of leaf trichomes (glandular and non glandular) on B. tabaci oviposition was evaluated by offering the abaxial surface of tomato leaflets to females after a 70% ethanol wash to remove glandular exsudates against a control treatment (without a ethanol wash). Oviposition was concentrated mostly near to non glandular trichomes, showing whitefly females can discriminate among the trichomes. (author)

  6. Anatomical and histochemical analysis of vegetative organs of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Samples of V. ferruginea vegetative organs were collected and submitted to the usual plant anatomy and histochemical techniques. The leaves are anfihipoestomática with anomocytic stomata; have tector and glandular trichomes that store essential oils. The stem has collateral-type vascular bundles arranged in a eustele ...

  7. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Identifies Putative Genes Involved in the Biosynthesis of Xanthanolides in Xanthium strumarium L.

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yuanjun; Gou, Junbo; Chen, Fangfang; Li, Changfu; Zhang, Yansheng

    2016-01-01

    Xanthium strumarium L. is a traditional Chinese herb belonging to the Asteraceae family. The major bioactive components of this plant are sesquiterpene lactones, which include the xanthanolides. To date, the biogenesis of xanthanolides, especiallytheir downstream pathway, remains largely unknown. In X. strumarium, xanthanolides primarily accumulate in its glandular trichomes. To identify putative gene candidates involved in the biosynthesis of xanthanolides, three X. strumarium transcriptomes...

  8. Resonance – Journal of Science Education | Indian Academy of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Thomas G Shanower. Articles written in Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Volume 3 Issue 3 March 1998 pp 41-45 General Article. Plant Glandular Trichomes Chemical Factories with Many Potential Uses · A John Peter Thomas G Shanower.

  9. Oviposition behavior of the silver leaf whitefly Bemisia tabaci biotype B on tomato; Comportamento de oviposicao da mosca-branca Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) biotipo B em tomateiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vendramim, Jose D. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ). Dept. de Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola]. E-mail: jdvendra@esalq.usp.br; Souza, Antonio P. de [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Dept. de Morfofisiologia. Lab. de Anatomia Humana]. E-mail: apsouza@nin.ufms.br; Ongarelli, Maria das G. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ). Lab. de Fisiologia e Bioquimica Pos-Colheita]. E-mail: mgong@esalq.usp.br

    2009-01-15

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of the leaf surface, the insect geotropic behavior and the type of foliar trichome on Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) biotype B oviposition on tomato leaves. Bemisia tabaci females were confined in acrylic boxes in which tomato leaflets were fixed at the bottom and top part of the boxes to allow insects to access the leaf surface to be tested (adaxial and/or abaxial) in both no-choice and free choice tests. Oviposition was always higher when the leaf was offered at the top of the box and preferably at the abaxial leaf surface. The effects of leaf trichomes (glandular and non glandular) on B. tabaci oviposition was evaluated by offering the abaxial surface of tomato leaflets to females after a 70% ethanol wash to remove glandular exsudates against a control treatment (without a ethanol wash). Oviposition was concentrated mostly near to non glandular trichomes, showing whitefly females can discriminate among the trichomes. (author)

  10. Os curiosos xenoimplantes glandulares do doutor Voronoff Dr. Voronoff's curious glandular xeno-implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ethel Mizrahy Cuperschmid

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo trata da visita do médico Serge Voronoff ao Brasil durante as Jornadas Médicas de 1928 e a subseqüente demonstração de sua técnica de xenotransplante diante da classe médica. Recorreu-se a jornais da época para ilustrar a natureza do imaginário popular em torno da cirurgia controversa e de seus pretensos milagres para a preservação da saúde e a manutenção da vida. A iniciativa de Voronoff abriu espaço para que outros profissionais da medicina relatassem sua prática cirúrgica de xenotransplante e também levou à popularização do tema, como o demonstram marchinhas de carnaval e comentários picantes da imprensa, por exemplo. Uma análise baseada em parâmetros científicos atuais é apresentada com a sugestão do possível envolvimento dos xenotransplantes na epidemiologia do HIV.Dr. Serge Voronoff visited Brazil during the Jornadas Médicas of 1928, where he demonstrated his xenotransplantation technique to the local medical community. The present article uses newspaper clippings from that time to illustrate how this controversial surgery and Voronoff's alleged miraculous preservation of good health and longevity was viewed in the popular imagination. Voronoff's initiative paved the way for other health professionals to report on their surgical experiences with xenotransplantation and also popularized the topic, which became the subject of Carnival songs and sardonic jokes in the press. An analysis is offered, based on current scientific parameters, along with a suggestion concerning the possible involvement of xenotransplantation in HIV epidemiology.

  11. Metals Accumulation and Leaf Surface Anatomy of Murdannia spectabilis Growing in Zn/Cd Contaminated Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladawan Rattanapolsan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Murdannia spectabilis (Kurz Faden was identified as a Zn/Cd hyperaccumulative plant. Leaf surface anatomy of the plant growing in non-contaminated soil (control and Zn/Cd contaminated soil,was studied and compared by a light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy combined with Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy(SEM/EDS. The similarities were reticulate cuticle on epidermises, uniform polygonal cell, stomatal arrangement in six surrounding subsidiary cells, and submarginal sclerenchyma. The dissimilarities were uniserate trichomes spreading on both adaxial and abaxial epidermis of the plants growing in non-contaminated soil, whereas the uniserate trichomes were only on the submarginal-adaxial epidermis of the control plants. The trichomes on leaves of the plants growing in non-contaminated soil were found to have both uniseriate non-glandular and uniseriate glandular trichomes;whereas, leaves of the plants growing in the contaminated soil were merely non-glandular trichomes. The different shape and location of trichomes, the number of stomata and trichome indicated the effect of Zn and Cd on M. spectabilis. The higher percentages of Zn and Cd in the vascular bundle than in the cross section and epidermis areas showed both solutes could move along each route, with diffusion through the symplast and apoplast. The increase of Ca in M. spectabilis growing in Zn/Cd contaminated soil corresponded to the Zn and Cd distributed in the leaves. Zn K-edge and S K-edge XANES spectra proposed that Zn2+ ions were accumulated and/or adsorbed on the epidermis of the tuber, and then absorbed into the root and transport to the xylem. The double peaks of Zn-cysteine in the leaf samples proposed the metal sequestration was by sulphur proteins.

  12. Variations in antimalarial components of Artemisia annua Linn from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Medicine, Animal Resources and Biosecurity, Makerere University, P.O.Box 7062 Kam- ... samples were brought to laboratory, authenticated and processed. ... Results: Artemisinin and total flavonoids levels were higher in samples obtained ...

  13. Variations in antimalarial components of Artemisia annua Linn from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The levels of artemisinin, total flavonoids and aromatic components were quantified using high performance thin layer chromatography, ultra violet spectrophotometry and gas chromatography respectively. Results: Artemisinin and total flavonoids levels were higher in samples obtained from high land areas (western and ...

  14. Characterization of element and mineral content in Artemisia annua ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr DIALLO

    2013-06-26

    Jun 26, 2013 ... The mineral elements are present in different kinds of herbal leaves in various proportions .... rare earth elements (Dy, Eu, Gd, Sm, Tb and Yb) were not detected in ..... behaviour of leached aluminum in tea infusions. The Sci.

  15. Characterization of element and mineral content in Artemisia annua ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr DIALLO

    2013-06-26

    Jun 26, 2013 ... white, yellow, green, oolong, black and puerh. The three most popular types of tea (green, oolong ... we pay attention to the overlapping spectra between cad- mium (Cd-L) and potassium (K) lines. For this ... to-noise ratio by reducing the measured continuum. On the other hand, Mo filter is the best choice, ...

  16. Assessment of the effect of Artemisia annua leave extract infusion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bacteria used were S. paratyphi, S. aureus and E. coli. Experiments were carried out in aquatic microcosms under dark conditions. The pH values considered were 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. These values were adjusted using diluted HCl and NaOH. The results showed the temporal changes of cell abundance from one bacteria ...

  17. on in vitro callus initiation using leaf of artemisia annua

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    insecticidal, anticancerous, antiseptic and febrifuge properties. It's oil has been found to repel fleas, mosquitoes and killed house flies(Morton 1981).In antiquity, plants of the genus Artemisia were also used to control the pangs of childbirth, regulate women's menstrual disorders, and as an abortifacient. In 1969, the Chinese.

  18. Dietary inclusion of dried Artemisia annua leaves for management of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-19

    Nov 19, 2008 ... alternative methods for controlling coccidiosis. Lately, various types of .... HPLC using methanol : 0.1 mM phosphate buffer at pH 7.9 (40:60) as mobile phase ... 24 h period, prepared for quantification of coccidial oocysts by mixing with water ..... vitamins, antioxidants and flavonoids (Brisibe et al.,. 2008).

  19. Features of micromorphological structure of medicinal hyssop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyudmyla A. Kotyuk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Micromorphological peculiarities of the structure of vegetative and generative organs of Hyssopus officinalis were analyzed. The epidermis of H. officinalis reveals diacyctic stomata and external outgrowths: glandular and covering trichomes, as well as peltate essential oil glands. Capitate and bent indumentary (covering trichomes occur on the stem, while on the leaves peltate glands, conical and bent uni- and multicellular trichomes were observed. On the calyx, in the midrib region, there are peltate glands while the ribs are densely covered with indumentary and glandular trichomes. The corolla’s adaxial surface is covered with long indumentary trichomes, with sparse peltate glands occurring on the margins. The highest density of essential oil peltate glands is found on the adaxial surface of the calyx upper lip (15.8±2.54 pcs./mm2 and on the leaf abaxial surface (13.6±2.40 pcs./mm2. Glands with the largest diameter (47.82±2.82 μm are located on the leaf adaxial surface.

  20. Floral vasculature and trichomes of common Indian Scrophulariaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. C. Datta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The floral anatomy of 24 species of Scrophulariaceae was studied. The results show that although, clear anatomical bases to differentiate taxa are absent, the Pennell classification of subfamilies is strongly supported.

  1. Trichomes in the tribe Lactuceae (Asteraceae) - taxonomic implications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krak, Karol; Mráz, P.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 5 (2008), s. 616-630 ISSN 0006-3088 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Compositae * micromorphological characters * systematics Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.406, year: 2008

  2. Oil-producing flowers within the Iridoideae (Iridaceae): evolutionary trends in the flowers of the New World genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauveau, Olivier; Eggers, Lilian; Souza-Chies, Tatiana T; Nadot, Sophie

    2012-08-01

    Oil-producing flowers related to oil-bee pollination are a major innovation in Neotropical and Mexican Iridaceae. In this study, phylogenetic relationships were investigated among a wide array of New World genera of the tribes Sisyrinchieae, Trimezieae and Tigridieae (Iridaceae: Iridoideae) and the evolution of floral glandular structures, which are predominantly trichomal elaiophores, was examined in relation to the diversification of New World Iridaceae. Phylogenetic analyses based on seven molecular markers obtained from 97 species were conducted to produce the first extensive phylogeny of the New World tribes of subfamily Iridoideae. The resulting phylogenetic hypothesis was used to trace the evolutionary history of glandular structures present in the flowers of numerous species in each tribe. Hypotheses of differential diversification rates among lineages were also investigated using both topological and Binary-State Speciation and Extinction methods. Floral glandular structures and especially trichomal elaiophores evolved multiple times independently in the American tribes of Iridoideae. The distribution pattern of species displaying glandular trichomes across the phylogeny reveals lability in the pollination system and suggests that these structures may have played a significant role in the diversification of the Iridoideae on the American continent.

  3. Morphological and micromorphological characteristics of Desmodium fruits (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane M. Freitas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Desmodium is represented in Santa Catarina State, Brazil, by 13 species, all with lomentaceous fruits. Shape, size and isthmus margin of loments vary, while the surface is glabrous, or covered by trichomes of different types. Morphological diversity of trichomes becomes particularly relevant to taxonomic description. The trichome types present on the surface of Desmodium fruits provide data for the identification and classification of species in the State. To assess this, three fruits of each species were collected and deposited at two herbaria, HBR and FLOR, in Santa Catarina, Brazil. Some rehydrated samples were examined using light microscopy (LM; and some sections were exposed to the following histochemical reagents: Sudan III for oils and Thionine for mucilage. The structural aspects of trichomes can be classified into uni- or multicel- lular and may still be simple, i.e., nonglandular or glandular. Using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, five types of trichomes were identified and analyzed among the Desmodium species studied: uncinate, uniseriate, globose multicellular, globose unicellular and subulate. Characteristics, such as loment margin and article form, glabrescent or pillous indument, trichome type, with or without papillous epidermal cells and epicuticular striations, showed relevant diagnostic value. An identification key was developed for Desmodium species from Santa Catarina State, Brazil, based on macro and micromorphological characters of the fruit.

  4. Anatomy of Sarcocaulon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. L. Verhoeven

    1983-11-01

    Full Text Available The anatomy of the leaf blade, petiole, stem and root of the genus Sarcocaulon (DC. Sweet is discussed. On the basis of the leaf anatomy, the four sections recognized by Moffett (1979 can be identified: section Denticulati (dorsiventral leaves, section Multifidi (isobilateral leaves and adaxial and abaxial palisade continuous at midvein, section Crenati (isobilateral leaves, short curved trichomes and glandular hairs, section Sarcocaulon (isobilateral leaves and glandular hairs only. The anatomy of the stem is typically that of a herbaceous dicotyledon with a thick periderm. The root structure shows that the function of the root is not food storage.

  5. EPIDERMAL CHARACTERS OF BACCHARIS (ASTERACEAE SPECIES USED IN TRADITIONAL MEDICINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FREIRE SUSANA E.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A morphological study of 38 species of Baccharis used in traditional medicinewas carried out to provide some epidermal characters that will contribute to theknowledge of the genus. The present study revealed: 1 seven different types oftrichomes: conical, aseptate fl agellate, fi liform fl agellate, 1-armed, 2-4-armed,bulbiferous fl agellate, and glandular biseriate; 2 that 28 of the total of 38 specieshave trichomes in tufts; 3 six different types of stomata: anomocytic, anisocytic,cyclocytic, actinocytic, tetracytic, and staurocytic; 4 that some trichome types,such as 2-4-armed (B. dracunculifolia and aseptate fl agellate branched (B. trinervis,show a high diagnostic value; 5 that the stomata types can be used to differentiatespecies with similar trichomes type (e.g. B. trimera and B. articulata.Illustrations of the studied characters are provided.

  6. Insect Repellents: Modulators of Mosquito Odorant Receptor Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Laboratory, Henry A. Wallace Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Plant Sciences Institute, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department...origin. 2-U is a naturally occurring compound produced by the glandular trichomes of wild tomato plants as part of a plant defense mechanism against...antennal OSNs responding to carboxylic acids and monoterpenes [23]. In our study, we investigate the action of 4 insect repellents on the activities of

  7. Anatomy of leaf and stem of Erythrina velutina

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    Márcia M. B. da Silva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Erythrina velutina Willd., Fabaceae, known as "mulungu", is a tree of tropical regions, as northeastern Brazil. Its bark is used in folk medicine as tranquilizer, sedative and insomnia. This study aimed to characterize the stem and leaf anatomy and to provide subsidies to quality control of the plant drug due to its wide use in folk medicine as well as its differentiation from other species with the same popular name. Samples were collected at Cuité, in Paraíba State, Brazil, fixed in FAA50, semipermanent slides were made, following usual procedures in plant anatomy. The stem shows a cylindrical contour, covered by a uniseriate epidermis covered by a thickened cuticle. It shows claviform glandular and branched trichomes with uniseriate stalk. Secretory cavities are into the phloem. The leaf epidermis has branched and glandular trichomes and anisocytic and paracytic stomata, on both sides, with predominance of branched trichomes and stomata on abaxial surface. Secretory cavities in stem and leaf, types of trichomes and stomata, its location and distribution constitute diagnostic characters for this specie. The structural characterization of the stem and leaf allows its distinction from other ones of this genus, ensuring safety for commercial pharmacological uses, allowing certification of the authenticity of raw material.

  8. Anatomy of leaf and stem of Erythrina velutina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia M. B. da Silva

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Erythrina velutina Willd., Fabaceae, known as "mulungu", is a tree of tropical regions, as northeastern Brazil. Its bark is used in folk medicine as tranquilizer, sedative and insomnia. This study aimed to characterize the stem and leaf anatomy and to provide subsidies to quality control of the plant drug due to its wide use in folk medicine as well as its differentiation from other species with the same popular name. Samples were collected at Cuité, in Paraíba State, Brazil, fixed in FAA50, semipermanent slides were made, following usual procedures in plant anatomy. The stem shows a cylindrical contour, covered by a uniseriate epidermis covered by a thickened cuticle. It shows claviform glandular and branched trichomes with uniseriate stalk. Secretory cavities are into the phloem. The leaf epidermis has branched and glandular trichomes and anisocytic and paracytic stomata, on both sides, with predominance of branched trichomes and stomata on abaxial surface. Secretory cavities in stem and leaf, types of trichomes and stomata, its location and distribution constitute diagnostic characters for this specie. The structural characterization of the stem and leaf allows its distinction from other ones of this genus, ensuring safety for commercial pharmacological uses, allowing certification of the authenticity of raw material.

  9. UV‐B is Required for Normal Development of Oil Glands in Ocimum basilicum L. (Sweet Basil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    IOANNIDIS, DAPHNE; BONNER, LYNDA; JOHNSON, CHRISTOPHER B.

    2002-01-01

    Plants of Ocimum basilicum L. grown under glass were exposed to short treatments with supplementary UV‐B. The effect of UV‐B on volatile essential oil content was analysed and compared with morphological effects on the peltate and capitate glandular trichomes. In the absence of UV‐B, both peltate and capitate glands were incompletely developed in both mature and developing leaves, the oil sacs being wrinkled and only partially filled. UV‐B was found to have two main effects on the glandular trichomes. During the first 4 d of treatment, both peltate and capitate glands filled and their morphology reflected their ‘normal’ mature development as reported in the literature. During the following days there was a large increase in the number of broken oil sacs among the peltate glands as the mature glands broke open, releasing volatiles. Neither the number of glands nor the qualitative or quantitative composition of the volatiles was affected by UV‐B. There seems to be a requirement for UV‐B for the filling of the glandular trichomes of basil. PMID:12324268

  10. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Identifies Putative Genes Involved in the Biosynthesis of Xanthanolides in Xanthium strumarium L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanjun; Gou, Junbo; Chen, Fangfang; Li, Changfu; Zhang, Yansheng

    2016-01-01

    Xanthium strumarium L. is a traditional Chinese herb belonging to the Asteraceae family. The major bioactive components of this plant are sesquiterpene lactones (STLs), which include the xanthanolides. To date, the biogenesis of xanthanolides, especially their downstream pathway, remains largely unknown. In X. strumarium, xanthanolides primarily accumulate in its glandular trichomes. To identify putative gene candidates involved in the biosynthesis of xanthanolides, three X. strumarium transcriptomes, which were derived from the young leaves of two different cultivars and the purified glandular trichomes from one of the cultivars, were constructed in this study. In total, 157 million clean reads were generated and assembled into 91,861 unigenes, of which 59,858 unigenes were successfully annotated. All the genes coding for known enzymes in the upstream pathway to the biosynthesis of xanthanolides were present in the X. strumarium transcriptomes. From a comparative analysis of the X. strumarium transcriptomes, this study identified a number of gene candidates that are putatively involved in the downstream pathway to the synthesis of xanthanolides, such as four unigenes encoding CYP71 P450s, 50 unigenes for dehydrogenases, and 27 genes for acetyltransferases. The possible functions of these four CYP71 candidates are extensively discussed. In addition, 116 transcription factors that are highly expressed in X. strumarium glandular trichomes were also identified. Their possible regulatory roles in the biosynthesis of STLs are discussed. The global transcriptomic data for X. strumarium should provide a valuable resource for further research into the biosynthesis of xanthanolides.

  11. GA3 and other signal regulators (MeJA and IAA) improve xanthumin biosynthesis in different manners in Xanthium strumarium L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changfu; Chen, Fangfang; Zhang, Yansheng

    2014-08-25

    Xanthanolides from Xanthium strumarium L. exhibit various pharmacological activities and these compounds are mainly produced in the glandular trichomes of aerial plant parts. The regulation of xanthanolide biosynthesis has never been reported in the literature. In this study, the effects of phytohormonal stimulation on xanthumin (a xanthanolide compound) biosynthesis, glandular trichomes and germacrene A synthase (GAS) gene expression in X. strumarium L. young leaves were investigated. The exogenous applications of methyl jasmonate (MeJA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and gibberrellin A3 (GA3) at appropriate concentrations were all found to improve xanthumin biosynthesis, but in different ways. It was suggested that a higher gland density stimulated by MeJA (400 µM) or IAA (200 µM) treatment caused at least in part an improvement in xanthumin production, whereas GA3 (10 µM) led to an improvement by up-regulating xanthumin biosynthetic genes within gland cells, not by forming more glandular trichomes. Compared to the plants before the flowering stage, plants that had initiated flowering showed enhanced xanthumin biosynthesis, but no higher gland density, an effect was similar to that caused by exogenous GA3 treatment.

  12. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Identifies Putative Genes Involved in the Biosynthesis of Xanthanolides in Xanthium strumarium L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanjun Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Xanthium strumarium L. is a traditional Chinese herb belonging to the Asteraceae family. The major bioactive components of this plant are sesquiterpene lactones, which include the xanthanolides. To date, the biogenesis of xanthanolides, especiallytheir downstream pathway, remains largely unknown. In X. strumarium, xanthanolides primarily accumulate in its glandular trichomes. To identify putative gene candidates involved in the biosynthesis of xanthanolides, three X. strumarium transcriptomes, which were derived from the young leaves of two different cultivars and the purified glandular trichomes from one of the cultivars, were constructed in this study. In total, 157 million clean reads were generated and assembled into 91,861 unigenes, of which 59,858 unigenes were successfully annotated. All the genes coding for known enzymes in the upstream pathway to the biosynthesis of xanthanolides were present in the X. strumarium transcriptomes. From a comparative analysis of the X. strumarium transcriptomes, this study identified a number of gene candidates that are putatively involved in the downstream pathway to the synthesis of xanthanolides, such as four unigenes encoding CYP71 P450s, 50 unigenes for dehydrogenases, and 27 genes for acetyltransferases. The possible functions of these four CYP71 candidates are extensively discussed. In addition, 116 transcription factors that were highly expressed in X. strumarium glandular trichomes were also identified. Their possible regulatory roles in the biosynthesis of sesquiterpene lactones are discussed. The global transcriptomic data for X. strumarium should provide a valuable resource for further research into the biosynthesis of xanthanolides.

  13. GA3 and Other Signal Regulators (MeJA and IAA Improve Xanthumin Biosynthesis in Different Manners in Xanthium strumarium L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changfu Li

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Xanthanolides from Xanthium strumarium L. exhibit various pharmacological activities and these compounds are mainly produced in the glandular trichomes of aerial plant parts. The regulation of xanthanolide biosynthesis has never been reported in the literature. In this study, the effects of phytohormonal stimulation on xanthumin (a xanthanolide compound biosynthesis, glandular trichomes and germacrene A synthase (GAS gene expression in X. strumarium L. young leaves were investigated. The exogenous applications of methyl jasmonate (MeJA, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, and gibberrellin A3 (GA3 at appropriate concentrations were all found to improve xanthumin biosynthesis, but in different ways. It was suggested that a higher gland density stimulated by MeJA (400 µM or IAA (200 µM treatment caused at least in part an improvement in xanthumin production, whereas GA3 (10 µM led to an improvement by up-regulating xanthumin biosynthetic genes within gland cells, not by forming more glandular trichomes. Compared to the plants before the flowering stage, plants that had initiated flowering showed enhanced xanthumin biosynthesis, but no higher gland density, an effect was similar to that caused by exogenous GA3 treatment.

  14. Identifying sources and estimating glandular output of salivary TIMP-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holten-Andersen, Lars; Jensen, Siri Beier; Jensen, Allan Bardow

    2008-01-01

    saliva (267.01 ng/min). Conclusion. This study shows that saliva contains authentic TIMP-1, the concentration of which was found to depend on gland type and salivary flow. Stimulated whole saliva is suggested as a reliable and easily accessible source for TIMP-1 determinations in bodily fluids....

  15. The histological significance of atypical glandular cells on cervical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The 2001 Bethesda System for Reporting Cervical Cytology[1] ... from the laboratory information software, Disa*Lab (Laboratory ... to identify predictors of pathology relevant to the clinical management of women with a cytological diagnosis of.

  16. Parotid radiosensitivity changes: a temporal relation to glandular circadian rhythms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Mofty, S.K.; Hovenga, T.L.; Russell, J.E.; Simmons, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    The radiosensitivity of the rat parotid gland to X-radiation increased considerably towards the end of the daily light span (0800-2000 hours) and to a lesser extent before the onset of that period. The major sensitivity peak occurred at 1600 hours and coincides with a diurnal nadir in the rates of protein and RNA synthesis. The minor peak occurred at 0400 hours and was temporally related to a daily period of maximal secretory activity. It is suggested that suboptimal repair and secretion-linked cellular perturbations might contribute to the pathogenesis of the circadian increases in radiosensitivity of parotid cells. (author)

  17. [Glandular squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovylina, M V; Pushkar', D Iu; Zaĭrat'iants, O V; Rasner, P I

    2006-01-01

    The paper gives a clinical observation of a 52 year-old male with a rare histological urinary bladder tumor primary grandular-squamous-cell carcinoma (pT3N IM0). The tumor is represented by two components large acinic-cell adenocarcinoma and squamous-cell carcinoma with keratinization, which smoothly pass one into another; the tumor has grown through all layers of the urinary bladder wall but it has failed to grow into the peritoneum. A microscopic study has indicated that the urachus is intact. Metastases were found in 3 of 8 lymph nodes: one showed high-grade adenocarcinoma and two others displayed average-grade squamous-cell carcinoma.

  18. Digital mammography screening: average glandular dose and first performance parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weigel, S.; Girnus, R.; Czwoydzinski, J.; Heindel, W.; Decker, T.; Spital, S.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The Radiation Protection Commission demanded structured implementation of digital mammography screening in Germany. The main requirements were the installation of digital reference centers and separate evaluation of the fully digitized screening units. Digital mammography screening must meet the quality standards of the European guidelines and must be compared to analog screening results. We analyzed early surrogate indicators of effective screening and dosage levels for the first German digital screening unit in a routine setting after the first half of the initial screening round. Materials and Methods: We used three digital mammography screening units (one full-field digital scanner [DR] and two computed radiography systems [CR]). Each system has been proven to fulfill the requirements of the National and European guidelines. The radiation exposure levels, the medical workflow and the histological results were documented in a central electronic screening record. Results: In the first year 11,413 women were screened (participation rate 57.5 %). The parenchymal dosages for the three mammographic X-ray systems, averaged for the different breast sizes, were 0.7 (DR), 1.3 (CR), 1.5 (CR) mGy. 7 % of the screened women needed to undergo further examinations. The total number of screen-detected cancers was 129 (detection rate 1.1 %). 21 % of the carcinomas were classified as ductal carcinomas in situ, 40 % of the invasive carcinomas had a histological size ≤ 10 mm and 61 % < 15 mm. The frequency distribution of pT-categories of screen-detected cancer was as follows: pTis 20.9 %, pT1 61.2 %, pT2 14.7 %, pT3 2.3 %, pT4 0.8 %. 73 % of the invasive carcinomas were node-negative. (orig.)

  19. Caracterización del indumento de nueve especies de Loasaceae de Venezuela Indument characterization of nine Loasaceae species from Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Noguera-Savelli

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se caracterizó el indumento observado en diferentes órganos de 9 especies de Loasaceae presentes en Venezuela, precisando su ubicación en la planta a fin de establecer una posible importancia taxonómica. Este estudio se efectuó tanto al microscopio óptico como al microscopio electrónico de barrido. El indumento está constituido por 2 clases de apéndices epidérmicos: tricomas y emergencias. Los tricomas se clasificaron en tricomas eglandulares uni-y multicelulares y tricomas glandulares multicelulares. Los tricomas cónicos y gloquidiados uncinados son comunes en todas las especies estudiadas. Nasa resultó el género con la mayor diversidad de tricomas. Se registra por primera vez la presencia de tricomas dendríticos, exclusivamente en Nasa venezuelensis. Las hojas y ovarios son los órganos que mayor variedad de apéndices mostraron. Gronovia scandens fue la única especie con emergencias, restringidas a los tallos. La morfología del indumento es un carácter de valor diagnóstico a nivel de subfamilia, lo cual se evidencia en la clave.In this work the epidermal indumentum observed in different organs of 9 species of Loasaceae from Venezuela were characterized, emphasizing their type and location on the plant to establish their possible taxonomic significance. The indumentum was studied using optical and scanning electron microscopy. Two classes of indumentum were observed: trichomes and emergences. The trichomes were classified as uni- and multicellular, non-glandular trichomes, and multicellular glandular trichomes. The conical and uncinate glochidiate trichomes were common in all the species studied. Nasa was the genus with the greatest trichomes diversity. The occurrence of dendritic trichomes is reported for the first time, exclusively in Nasa venezuelensis. Leaves and ovaries are the organs with the greatest variety of appendices. Gronovia scandens is the only species with emergences, which are restricted to

  20. The structure of floral elements of Anchusa officinalis L. creating attractants for insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosława Chwil

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study involved the measurement of size and the micromorphology of the floral elements of Anchusa officinalis L. which are attractants for insects. The structure of the epidermis on the surface of the calyx, petals, throat scales, pistil and nectary were analysed using light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. For light microscopy observations, semi-permanent slides were prepared, which were treated with Lugol's iodine solution, Sudan III and fluoroglucine. The dark violet lobes of the corolla of Anchusa officinalis, with a velvety surface, and the throat scales, contrasting with them, belong to the most important optical attractants which lure insects from large distances. The dark pink colouring of the sepals additionally increases the attractiveness of the flowers. The epidermis covering the calyx formed different-sized non-glandular trichomes as well as glandular trichomes. The glandular trichomes were composed of a uni - or bicellular leg and a unicellular head. The colour of the corolla petals was determined by anthocyanins accumulated in the epidermal cells and in the more deeply situated parenchyma. The velvety surface was formed by the conical papillae, densely growing from the adaxial epidermis. The pink-violet throat scales with white hairs, covering the inlet to the tube of the corolla, were found at the inlet to the corolla throat. The longest trichomes on the surface of the scales were located in their lower and middle parts, whereas the shortest ones at their tips. The epidermis of the central part of the throat scales formed small papillae. The trichomes had thin cell walls, large vacuoles, numerous plastids and lipid droplets. The two-parted stigma of the pistil was covered by characteristic expanded outgrowths with wavy edges which performed the functions of structures facilitating the capture of pollen grains. As a result of the present study it was found that the structures affecting the attractiveness of the

  1. A genomics resource for investigating regulation of essential oil production in Lavandula angustifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Alexander; Boecklemann, Astrid; Woronuk, Grant N; Sarker, Lukman; Mahmoud, Soheil S

    2010-03-01

    We are developing Lavandula angustifolia (lavender) as a model system for investigating molecular regulation of essential oil (a mixture of mono- and sesquiterpenes) production in plants. As an initial step toward building the necessary 'genomics toolbox' for this species, we constructed two cDNA libraries from lavender leaves and flowers, and obtained sequence information for 14,213 high-quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Based on homology to sequences present in GenBank, our EST collection contains orthologs for genes involved in the 1-deoxy-D: -xylulose-5-phosphate (DXP) and the mevalonic acid (MVA) pathways of terpenoid biosynthesis, and for known terpene synthases and prenyl transferases. To gain insight into the regulation of terpene metabolism in lavender flowers, we evaluated the transcriptional activity of the genes encoding for 1-deoxy-D: -xylulose-5-phosphate synthase (DXS) and HMG-CoA reductase (HMGR), which represent regulatory steps of the DXP and MVA pathways, respectively, in glandular trichomes (oil glands) by real-time PCR. While HMGR transcripts were barely detectable, DXS was heavily expressed in this tissue, indicating that essential oil constituents are predominantly produced through the DXP pathway in lavender glandular trichomes. As anticipated, the linalool synthase (LinS)-the gene responsible for the production of linalool, a major constituent of lavender essential oil-was also strongly expressed in glands. Surprisingly, the most abundant transcript in floral glandular trichomes corresponded to a sesquiterpene synthase (cadinene synthase, CadS), although sesquiterpenes are minor constituents of lavender essential oils. This result, coupled to the weak activity of the MVA pathway (the main route for sesquiterpene production) in trichomes, indicates that precursor supply may represent a bottleneck in the biosynthesis of sesquiterpenes in lavender flowers.

  2. Caracterização morfoanatômica das folhas de Eremanthus erythropappus (DC. MacLeisch, Asteraceae Leaf morpho-anatomical characterization of Eremanthus erythropappus (DC. MacLeisch, Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael C. Dutra

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Eremanthus erythropappus (DC. MacLeisch (Asteraceae, popularmente conhecida como "candeia-da-serra", é uma espécie utilizada na medicina tradicional como cicatrizante e antimicrobiano. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi comparar o número de tricomas glandulares nas folhas jovens e adultas de E. erythropappus, assim como realizar a caracterização morfoanatômica destas folhas. Secções transversais e paradérmicas das folhas foram submetidas às microtécnicas fotônicas e à microscopia eletrônica de varredura. A quantificação dos tricomas glandulares foi realizada em folhas jovens e adultas com auxílio de câmara clara. As folhas são alternas ou fasciculadas e a lâmina foliar possui epiderme uniestratificada, revestida por cutícula delgada e lisa e mesofilo dorsiventral. Em ambas as faces da epiderme, ocorrem estômatos predominantemente anomocíticos e tricomas glandulares inseridos em depressões. Na face abaxial observam-se numerosos tricomas tectores. O parênquima paliçádico é uniestratificado e o parênquima voltado para a face abaxial é formado por três a cinco camadas de células com disposição compacta. As folhas jovens e adultas apresentam respectivamente 21,78±5,83 e 17,80±6,69 tricomas glandulares na face adaxial. A análise morfoanatômica das folhas de E. erythropappus mostra-se um método rápido e prático para a identificação e controle de qualidade de espécies vegetais utilizadas na terapêutica.Eremanthus erythropappus (DC. MacLeisch (Asteraceae, commonly known as 'candeia-da-serra', is a plant used in folk medicine as wound healing and antimicrobial. The aim of this study was to compare the number of glandular trichomes between the young and the mature leaves, as well as to perform the morpho-anatomical characterization of E. erythropappus leaves. Transverse and paradermal sections of the leaves were prepared according to light and scanning microtechniques for the morpho-anatomical characterization

  3. Avaliação da medida do comprimento do colo e da ausência do eco glandular endocervical para predição do parto pré-termo Evaluation of risk for preterm delivery by measurement of uterine cervix and cervical gland area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Rodrigues Pires

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: verificar a prevalência do sinal eco glandular endocervical (EGE e o comprimento cervical menor ou igual a 20 mm em gestantes entre a 21ª e a 24ª semana e comparar estes sinais ecográficos como fatores indicadores de parto pré-termo espontâneo. MÉTODOS: estudo prospectivo transversal no qual foram incluídas 361 gestantes da população geral, para realização de exame ultra-sonografico em idade gestacional entre a 21ª a 24ª semana. Os critérios de exclusão do estudo foram malformações müllerianas, gestações múltiplas, malformações fetais, óbito fetal, alterações da quantidade de líquido amniótico, placenta com inserção segmentar, antecedentes de cirurgia no colo uterino (conização, amputação, cerclagem e procedimentos cirúrgicos durante a gestação. Após a realização do exame ultra-sonográfico obstétrico morfológico efetuado por via abdominal, seguiu-se o exame ecográfico por via vaginal para observação de uma faixa hipoecóica ou hiperecóica adjacente ao canal endocervical correpondente às glândulas do epitélio endocervical (EGE e mensuração do comprimento cervical. As variáveis qualitativas são representadas por freqüência absoluta e relativa, ao passo que as variáveis quantitativas, por média, desvio-padrão, mediana e valores mínimo e máximo. A associação entre as variáveis qualitativas foi avaliada pelo teste c² ou teste exato de Fisher. Para cada variável estudada, foi calculado o risco relativo seguido do intervalo com 95% de confiança. A técnica de análise de regressão logística univariada foi utilizada para verificar, entre as variáveis estudadas, quais foram indicativas de parto pré-termo espontâneo. O nível de significância adotado foi de 95% (alfa = 5% e descritivos (p iguais ou inferiores a 0,05 foram considerados significantes. RESULTADOS: a incidência do parto pré-termo espontâneo foi de 5,0%. O comprimento do colo uterino revelou-se igual ou

  4. Stem and leaf anatomy of Plectranthus neochilus Schltr., Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia do Rocio Duarte

    Full Text Available Plectranthus neochilus Schltr. is an aromatic herb named " boldo" or " boldo-gambá" and employed for treating hepatic insufficiency and dyspepsia in folk medicine. This paper has investigated its stem and leaf anatomy, in order to contribute for the medicinal plant identification. The botanical material was prepared according to standard microtechniques. The stem has quadrangular transection and, in secondary growth at the level analyzed, shows uniseriate epidermis and numerous trichomes. The glandular ones are capitate and peltate. The former has short unicellular or long multicellular stalk and uni- or bicellular head. The latter presents short stalk and eight-celled ovoid head. The non-glandular trichomes are multicellular, uniseriate and coated with granular cuticle. It is observed angular collenchyma, cambia forming phloem outward and xylem inward, and perivascular fiber caps next to the phloem. The blade has uniseriate epidermis coated with striate cuticle, diacytic stomata on both surfaces, numerous trichomes similar to the stem ones, and homogeneous mesophyll. The midrib shows one or two collateral bundles and the petiole has many of them distributed as an open arc.

  5. Comparative morphology of leaf epidermis in eight populations of Atlas Pistachio (Pistacia atlantica Desf., Anacardiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belhadj, Safia; Derridj, Arezki; Aigouy, Thierry; Gers, Charles; Gauquelin, Thierry; Mevy, Jean-Philippe

    2007-10-01

    A comparative analysis was undertaken to conduct a micromorphological study of Pistacia atlantica leaves by comparing different populations grown under different climatic conditions. Leaf epidermis of eight wild populations was investigated under scanning electron microscope. Micromorphological characteristics (epidermis ornament, stomata type, waxes as well as trichomes) of the adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces were examined. The epidermis ornament varied among populations and leaf surface, the abaxial leaf surface is reticulate with a striate surface. Messaad site shows a smooth uneven surface. The adaxial leaf surface is smooth but several ornamentations can be seen. The leaflet is amphistomatic; the stomata appeared to be slightly sunken. A variety of stomatal types were recorded; actinocytic and anomocytic types are the most frequent. The indumentum consisted of glandular and nonglandular trichomes. Unicellular glandular trichomes are recorded for P. atlantica leaves in this study. Their density is higher in Oued safene site, located at the highest altitude in comparison with the other populations. The wax occurred in all the sites and its pattern varied according to the populations studied, particularly between Berriane and Messaad. The morphological variability exhibited by the eight populations of P. atlantica may be interpreted as relevant to the ecological plasticity and the physiological mechanisms involved are discussed in this report.

  6. Identification of olivetolic acid cyclase from Cannabis sativa reveals a unique catalytic route to plant polyketides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagne, Steve J; Stout, Jake M; Liu, Enwu; Boubakir, Zakia; Clark, Shawn M; Page, Jonathan E

    2012-07-31

    Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and other cannabinoids are responsible for the psychoactive and medicinal properties of Cannabis sativa L. (marijuana). The first intermediate in the cannabinoid biosynthetic pathway is proposed to be olivetolic acid (OA), an alkylresorcinolic acid that forms the polyketide nucleus of the cannabinoids. OA has been postulated to be synthesized by a type III polyketide synthase (PKS) enzyme, but so far type III PKSs from cannabis have been shown to produce catalytic byproducts instead of OA. We analyzed the transcriptome of glandular trichomes from female cannabis flowers, which are the primary site of cannabinoid biosynthesis, and searched for polyketide cyclase-like enzymes that could assist in OA cyclization. Here, we show that a type III PKS (tetraketide synthase) from cannabis trichomes requires the presence of a polyketide cyclase enzyme, olivetolic acid cyclase (OAC), which catalyzes a C2-C7 intramolecular aldol condensation with carboxylate retention to form OA. OAC is a dimeric α+β barrel (DABB) protein that is structurally similar to polyketide cyclases from Streptomyces species. OAC transcript is present at high levels in glandular trichomes, an expression profile that parallels other cannabinoid pathway enzymes. Our identification of OAC both clarifies the cannabinoid pathway and demonstrates unexpected evolutionary parallels between polyketide biosynthesis in plants and bacteria. In addition, the widespread occurrence of DABB proteins in plants suggests that polyketide cyclases may play an overlooked role in generating plant chemical diversity.

  7. Transgenerational plasticity is sex-dependent and persistent in yellow monkeyflower (Mimulus guttatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkerman, Kayla C; Sattarin, Arash; Kelly, John K; Scoville, Alison G

    2016-04-01

    Transgenerational phenotypic plasticity, whereby environmental cues experienced by parents alter the phenotype of their progeny, has now been documented in diverse organisms. Transmission of environmentally determined responses is known to occur through both maternal and paternal gametes, but the underlying mechanisms have rarely been compared. In addition, the persistence of induction over multiple generations appears to vary widely, but has been characterized for relatively few systems. Yellow monkeyflower ( Mimulus guttatus ) is known to exhibit transgenerational induction of increased glandular trichome production in response to simulated insect damage. Here, we test for differences between maternal and paternal transmission of this response and examine its persistence over five generations following damage. Maternal and paternal damage resulted in similar and apparently additive increases in progeny trichome production. Treatment of germinating seeds with the genome-wide demethylating agent 5-azacytidine erased the effect of maternal but not paternal damage. The number of glandular trichomes remained elevated for three generations following damage. These results indicate that transgenerational transmission occurs through both maternal and paternal germ lines, but that they differ in the proximate mechanism of epigenetic inheritance. Our results also indicate that a wounding response can persist for multiple generations in the absence of subsequent damage.

  8. Pharmacobotanical study of the leaf and stem of Mikania lanuginosa for its quality control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Amorin

    Full Text Available Mikania lanuginosa DC, Asteraceae, is popularly known as "cipó-cabeludo" in Brazil due to a remarkable number of trichomes on its leaves and stems. It shows antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis and Bacillus cereus. This species can be confused with M. microlepis Baker and M. hirsutissima DC for substitution and tampering purposes. The aim of this study was to investigate the morpho-anatomy of leaf and stem of M. lanuginosa to obtain pharmacobotanical data that may contribute to its identification and taxonomic definition from other species of Mikania. The leaves and stems were investigated using scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy techniques. Mikania lanuginosa shows a uniseriate epidermis covered by a thin and smooth cuticle. The epidermal cells present sinuous anticlinal walls on both sides and anomocytic stomata were observed. A few glandular trichomes and numerous non-glandular trichomes were identified on both surfaces. The mesophyll is dorsiventral, the midrib has a biconvex contour and the petiole shows a circular shape in a cross-section. The stem has a circular shape. These pharmacobotanical features described for M. lanuginosa support data for its identification and taxonomic delimitation from other Mikania species, and are a contribution for the quality control of herbal drugs.

  9. Mirid (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) specialists of sticky plants: adaptations, interactions, and ecological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Alfred G; Krimmel, Billy A

    2015-01-07

    Sticky plants-those having glandular trichomes (hairs) that produce adhesive, viscous exudates-can impede the movement of, and entrap, generalist insects. Disparate arthropod groups have adapted to these widespread and taxonomically diverse plants, yet their interactions with glandular hosts rarely are incorporated into broad ecological theory. Ecologists and entomologists might be unaware of even well-documented examples of insects that are sticky-plant specialists. The hemipteran family Miridae (more specifically, the omnivorous Dicyphini: Dicyphina) is the best-known group of arthropods that specializes on sticky plants. In the first synthesis of relationships with glandular plants for any insect family, we review mirid interactions with sticky hosts, including their adaptations (behavioral, morphological, and physiological) and mutualisms with carnivorous plants, and the ecological and agricultural implications of mirid-sticky plant systems. We propose that mirid research applies generally to tritrophic interactions on trichome-defended plants, enhances an understanding of insect-plant interactions, and provides information useful in managing crop pests.

  10. The rise to prominence of Artemisia annua L. – the transformation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of a component and extract from the Chinese plant – artemisinin (qinghaosu) – has .... Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFTM) and Tanzania's Ministry of ..... Global Forum for health research, Mexico City, 16-20th November 2004.

  11. The molecular cloning of dihydroartemisinic aldehyde reductase and its implication in artemisinin biosynthesis in Artemisia annua

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ryden, A.M.; Ruyter-Spira, C.P.; Quax, W.J.; Hiroyuki, O.; Toshiya, M.; Kayser, O.; Bouwmeester, H.J.

    2010-01-01

    A key point in the biosynthesis of the antimalarial drug artemisinin is the formation of dihydroartemisinic aldehyde which represents the key difference between chemotype specific pathways. This key intermediate is the substrate for several competing enzymes, some of which increase the metabolic

  12. Response of Artemisia annua L. to shade and manure fertilizer application in lowland altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permana, H. H.; Widyastuti, Y.; Samanhudi; Yunus, A.

    2018-03-01

    Artemisia is a plant producing artemisinin substance which is the main compound in the treatment of malaria. Artemisia comes from China, usually grows wild in native habitats in the plains with an altitude of 1,000-1,500 meters above the sea level. Artemisia development efforts in Indonesia hampered by limited land with the required altitude due to their competition with vegetable crops. Based on this reason, this research is conducted to observe the growth of artemisia planted in lowland with the help of shade and manure. This study aims to determine the level of shade and best manure on the growth of Artemisia. Research conducted at the Laboratory of the Faculty of Agriculture UNS Jumantono using nested design with two factors, shade as main factor and manure fertilizer as sub factor. The data analysis used F test with confidence level of 5%, if significant, then continued with DMRT (Duncan Multiple Range Test). The results showed the treatment of shade gave no difference in growth within 50% shade, 75% shade as well as without shade treatment. Goat manure fertilizer gave the highest result and able to increase plant height, number of branches, flower weight and root volume.

  13. Novelties in secretory structures and anatomy of Rhynchosia (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vargas, Wanderleia; Sartori, Ângela L B; Dias, Edna S

    2015-03-01

    A comparative anatomical study was carried out on the secretory structures of leaflets from taxa belonging to the genus Rhynchosia - taxa difficult to delimit because of uncertain interspecific relations - in order to evaluate the potential diagnostic value of these anatomical traits for taxonomic assignment. A further objective was to establish consensual denomination for these secretory structures. The new anatomical features found in these taxa were sufficiently consistent to separate the species evaluated. The presence and localization of glandular-punctate structures bulbous-based trichomes, the number of layers in the palisade parenchyma and the arrangement of vascular units distinguish the taxa investigated and these characteristics can be extended to other species of Papilionoideae. The trichomes analyzed were described and classified into five types. Depicted in diagrams, photomicrographs, and by scanning electron microscopy, and listed for the first time at the genus and species levels. The information obtained served to effectively distinguish the taxa investigated among species of Papilonoideae.

  14. Plastid and Stromule Morphogenesis in Tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    PYKE, KEVIN A.; HOWELLS, CAROLINE A.

    2002-01-01

    By using green fluorescent protein targeted to the plastid organelle in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), the morphology of plastids and their associated stromules in epidermal cells and trichomes from stems and petioles and in the chromoplasts of pericarp cells in the tomato fruit has been revealed. A novel characteristic of tomato stromules is the presence of extensive bead‐like structures along the stromules that are often observed as free vesicles, distinct from and apparently unconnected to the plastid body. Interconnections between the red pigmented chromoplast bodies are common in fruit pericarp cells suggesting that chromoplasts could form a complex network in this cell type. The potential implications for carotenoid biosynthesis in tomato fruit and for vesicles originating from beaded stromules as a secretory mechanism for plastids in glandular trichomes of tomato is discussed. PMID:12466096

  15. Cell-specific expression of tryptophan decarboxylase and 10-hydroxygeraniol oxidoreductase, key genes involved in camptothecin biosynthesis in Camptotheca acuminata Decne (Nyssaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santamaria Anna

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Camptotheca acuminata is a major natural source of the terpenoid indole alkaloid camptothecin (CPT. At present, little is known about the cellular distribution of the biosynthesis of CPT, which would be useful knowledge for developing new strategies and technologies for improving alkaloid production. Results The pattern of CPT accumulation was compared with the expression pattern of some genes involved in CPT biosynthesis in C. acuminata [i.e., Ca-TDC1 and Ca-TDC2 (encoding for tryptophan decarboxylase and Ca-HGO (encoding for 10-hydroxygeraniol oxidoreductase]. Both CPT accumulation and gene expression were investigated in plants at different degrees of development and in plantlets subjected to drought-stress. In all organs, CPT accumulation was detected in epidermal idioblasts, in some glandular trichomes, and in groups of idioblast cells localized in parenchyma tissues. Drought-stress caused an increase in CPT accumulation and in the number of glandular trichomes containing CPT, whereas no increase in epidermal or parenchymatous idioblasts was observed. In the leaf, Ca-TDC1 expression was detected in some epidermal cells and in groups of mesophyll cells but not in glandular trichomes; in the stem, it was observed in parenchyma cells of the vascular tissue; in the root, no expression was detected. Ca-TDC2 expression was observed exclusively in leaves of plantlets subjected to drought-stress, in the same sites described for Ca-TDC1. In the leaf, Ca-HGO was detected in all chlorenchyma cells; in the stem, it was observed in the same sites described for Ca-TDC1; in the root, no expression was detected. Conclusions The finding that the sites of CPT accumulation are not consistently the same as those in which the studied genes are expressed demonstrates an organ-to-organ and cell-to-cell translocation of CPT or its precursors.

  16. MORPHOLOGICAL AND ANATOMICAL STUDY OF THE GRASS OF VERONICA SPICATA L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Kovalyova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of morphological and anatomical studies of Veronica spicata L. Macro- and microscopic features of the grass of Veronica spicata were described. We have determined the principal diagnostic features of leaves and stems of the plant’s active parts. We have found two types of trichomes in active parts of Veronica spicata L.: simple pluricellular fuzz and cephalated glandular fuzz with monocellular pedicle and monocellular or bicellular sphere-like capitulum, anomcytic stomatal apparatus.

  17. The Function of the Early Trichomes Gene in Arabidopsis and Maize.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Poethig

    2011-12-05

    Lateral organ polarity in Arabidopsis is regulated by antagonistic interactions between genes that promote either adaxial or abaxial identity, but the molecular basis of this interaction is largely unknown. We show that the adaxial regulator ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2 (AS2) is a direct target of the abaxial regulator KANADI1 (KAN1), and that KAN1 represses the transcription of AS2 in abaxial cells. Mutation of a single nucleotide in a KAN1 binding site in the AS2 promoter causes AS2 to be ectopically expressed in abaxial cells, resulting in a dominant, adaxialized phenotype. We also show that the abaxial expression of KAN1 is mediated directly or indirectly by AS2. These results demonstrate that KAN1 acts as a transcriptional repressor and that mutually repressive interactions between KAN1 and AS2 contribute to the establishment of adaxial-abaxial polarity in plants. A screen for mutations that affect the expression of a GFP reporter for KANADI2 produced mutations in two genes, CENTER CITY (CCT) and GRAND CENTRAL (GCT). Mutations in GCT and CCT delay the specification of central and peripheral identity and the globular-to-heart transition, but have little or no effect on the initial growth rate of the embryo. Mutant embryos eventually recover and undergo relatively normal patterning, albeit at an inappropriate size. GCT and CCT were identified as the Arabidopsis orthologs of MED12 and MED13--evolutionarily conserved proteins that act in association with the Mediator complex to negatively regulate transcription. The predicted function of these proteins combined with the effect of gct and cct on embryo development suggests that MED12 and MED13 regulate pattern formation during Arabidopsis embryogenesis by transiently repressing a transcriptional program that interferes with this process. Their mutant phenotype reveals the existence of a previously unknown temporal regulatory mechanism in plant embryogenesis.

  18. Cervical squamous and glandular intraepithelial neoplasia: identification and current management approaches Neoplasia intraepitelial cervical escamosa y glandular: identificación y estrategias de manejo

    OpenAIRE

    V Cecil Wright

    2003-01-01

    Certain types of human papillomaviruses (HPV) are associated with squamous intraepithelial lesions and cancer and these are termed high-risk. HPV type 16 is detected in approximately half of the high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and cancer. Because of the high rate of spontaneous regression of low-grade squamous lesions, follow-up by cytology, colposcopy and possible biopsy appears preferable. Due to the higher rate of progression to malignancy of the high-grade lesions conservative...

  19. Anatomical structure and surface micromorphology of tomatillo leaf and flower (Physalis ixocarpa Brot., Solanaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Dyki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tomatillo (Physalis ixocarpa Brot. is a newly introduced cultivated plant in Poland. Its anatomy was investigated in light and scanning electron microscopes. Tomatillo adult leaf had one layer of palisade parenchyma. The 1-2 cell layers of spongy parenchyma situated just below the palisade parenchyma showed large, tightly packed cells with great druses. The remaining spongy parenchyma was built of cells showing several extensions. Peculiarity of the sepals were the stomata situated on columns or hills formed of many cells. The petals had a very loose mesophyl. Their adaxial epidermis was composed of papillate cells. Such structure of the petal epidermis probably contributes to light dispersion and prevents glittering. There were several types of trichomes on the leaves, sepals and petals, some of them glandular and some simple. The large, very ramified, dendritic trichomes situated on the petals at the entry to the ovary might eventually protect it against excessive drying. The pollen grain was spherical, three-colpate. The style had a hollow channel inside. The stigma was of a wet, pa-pillate type. Sometimes thorny trichomes were found among papillae.

  20. Terpene synthases from Cannabis sativa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith K Booth

    Full Text Available Cannabis (Cannabis sativa plants produce and accumulate a terpene-rich resin in glandular trichomes, which are abundant on the surface of the female inflorescence. Bouquets of different monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes are important components of cannabis resin as they define some of the unique organoleptic properties and may also influence medicinal qualities of different cannabis strains and varieties. Transcriptome analysis of trichomes of the cannabis hemp variety 'Finola' revealed sequences of all stages of terpene biosynthesis. Nine cannabis terpene synthases (CsTPS were identified in subfamilies TPS-a and TPS-b. Functional characterization identified mono- and sesqui-TPS, whose products collectively comprise most of the terpenes of 'Finola' resin, including major compounds such as β-myrcene, (E-β-ocimene, (--limonene, (+-α-pinene, β-caryophyllene, and α-humulene. Transcripts associated with terpene biosynthesis are highly expressed in trichomes compared to non-resin producing tissues. Knowledge of the CsTPS gene family may offer opportunities for selection and improvement of terpene profiles of interest in different cannabis strains and varieties.

  1. Terpene synthases from Cannabis sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Judith K; Page, Jonathan E; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2017-01-01

    Cannabis (Cannabis sativa) plants produce and accumulate a terpene-rich resin in glandular trichomes, which are abundant on the surface of the female inflorescence. Bouquets of different monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes are important components of cannabis resin as they define some of the unique organoleptic properties and may also influence medicinal qualities of different cannabis strains and varieties. Transcriptome analysis of trichomes of the cannabis hemp variety 'Finola' revealed sequences of all stages of terpene biosynthesis. Nine cannabis terpene synthases (CsTPS) were identified in subfamilies TPS-a and TPS-b. Functional characterization identified mono- and sesqui-TPS, whose products collectively comprise most of the terpenes of 'Finola' resin, including major compounds such as β-myrcene, (E)-β-ocimene, (-)-limonene, (+)-α-pinene, β-caryophyllene, and α-humulene. Transcripts associated with terpene biosynthesis are highly expressed in trichomes compared to non-resin producing tissues. Knowledge of the CsTPS gene family may offer opportunities for selection and improvement of terpene profiles of interest in different cannabis strains and varieties.

  2. Engineered FGF-2 expression induces glandular epithelial hyperplasia in the murine prostatic dorsal lobe.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takahashi, N.; Takeuchi, T.; Nishimatsu, H.; Kamijo, T.; Tomita, K.; Schalken, J.A.; Teshima, S.; Kitamura, T.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: It is known that androgens and stromal-epithelial interactions are required for the formation and growth of the prostate. FGF-2 is overexpressed in prostatic stromal cells in benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH)/prostate cancer. This supports the paracrine/autocrine growth of prostatic

  3. Forward-scattered radiation from the compression paddle should be considered in glandular dose estimations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemdal, B.

    2011-01-01

    From major protocols on dosimetry in mammography, there is no doubt that the incident air kerma should be evaluated without backscattered radiation to the dosemeter. However, forward-scattered radiation from the compression paddle is neglected. The aim of this work was to analyse the contribution of forward-scattered radiation for typical air kerma measurements. Measurements of forward-scatter were performed with a plane-parallel ionisation chamber on four mammography units. The forward-scatter contribution to the air kerma was 2-10 % and increased with the compression paddle thickness, but also with the half-value layer value. For incident air kerma in mammography, it can be as important to consider forward scattered as backscattered radiation. If an ionisation chamber is used, the compression paddle should be in contact with the chamber; otherwise the air kerma and absorbed dose will be underestimated. If a dosemeter based on semiconductors with much less sensitivity to scattered radiation is used, it is suggested that a forward-scatter factor (FSF) is applied. Based on the results of this work, FSF=1.06 will lead to a maximum error of ∼4 %. (authors)

  4. Examination of equine glandular stomach lesions for bacteria, including Helicobacter spp by fluorescence in situ hybridisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    husted, Louise; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Olsen, Susanne N.

    2010-01-01

    appearing mucosa were obtained from horses slaughtered for human consumption. All samples were tested for urease activity using the Pyloritek® assay, while mucosal bacterial content was evaluated using Fluorescence In Situ Hybridisation. In selected sub samples, bacteria characterisation was pursued further...... by cloning and sequencing. Mucosal lesions were found in 36/63 stomachs and included hyperplastic rugae, polypoid structures and focal erosions. None of the samples were tested positive for urease activity or for FISH using the Helicobacter genus specific probe. In samples of lesions, as well as normal...

  5. [Inflammatory pancreatic disease due to enzyme autodigestion: an exceptional model of glandular crinophagy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Fayos Calabuig, P; Martín Relloso, M Jesús; González Guirado, Agustina; Porres Cubero, Juan Carlos

    2007-01-01

    The exocrine pancreas is a functionally dangerous structure since it is exposed to digestion by its most aggressive enzymes (proteases, etc) despite self-protective measures such as the synthesis of some of these enzymes in the form of inactive zymogens (trypsinogen, etc.). We review inflammatory pancreatic disease by separately analyzing its classical forms of onset: acute and chronic pancreatitis (AP and CP). There is general consensus that the initial pathogenic event in AP is intraacinar activation of trypsinogen into trypsin, followed by that of the remaining proenzymes, giving rise to an unusual model of autophagic inflammation. In contrast, consensus is lacking on the initial pathogenic event in CP (toxic-metabolic lesion, oxidative stress, ductal hypertension, etc.?), although in some cases a sequence due to recurrent episodes of AP seems evident. The pathogenic features shared by both forms of the disease and which justify some recent attempts to formulate an overall explanation of the pathogenesis of pancreatitis are discussed. Such an explanation would place both forms of pancreatitis within the conceptual framework of an pancreatic disease due to enzyme autodigestion>.

  6. Induction of carcinomas in rat glandular stomach by direct X-irradiation of the stomach wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondratenko, A.G.; Bykorez, A.I.

    1980-01-01

    To induce carcinoma in rat stomach the direct irradiation of the organ wall with X-rays in a dose of 16.22 Gy has been used. In the period from the 8-th to the 15-th month after irradiation in mucous membrane of stomach foci of atrophy, sections of regenerating hyperplasia of glands and methaplasia of stomach gland cells in the epithelium of the intestine type have been observed. Highly differentiated adenocarcinomas growing through all the walls of stomach are found in 18.5% rats [ru

  7. Quality control, mean glandular dose estimate and room shielding calculation in mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakotomalala, H.M.

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses in the importance of Radiation Protection in mammography. A good control of the radiological risk depends on the dose optimization, room shielding calculation and the quality of equipment. The work was carried out in the three private medical centers called A, B, and C. Dosimetry estimates were made on the equipment of the three centers. Values has been compared with the Diagnostic Reference Levels established by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Conformity control of the radiological devices has also been done with the Mammographic Quality Control Kit of the INSTN-Madagascar. Verifications of shields of the room containing the mammography equipment were done by theoretical calculations using the method provided by NCRP 147. [fr

  8. Acute sialadenitis in children and adolescents: CT findings and clinical manifestations according to glandular involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, A. Leum; Kim, Young Tong; Han, Jong Kyu; Jou, Sung Shick; Jung, Du Shin

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to compare the CT findings and clinical manifestations in children and adolescents with acute sialadenitis according to the involved salivary glands. The study included fifty children and adolescents (34 boys, 16 girls) with acute sialadenitis that was diagnosed during the past five years. All of the subjects were divided into three groups: group I (parotid gland involvement, n = 16), group II (submandibular gland involvement, n = 20) and group III (involvement of both glands, n 14). We analyzed the presence of an abscess, sialolith, bilaterality, cellulitis and lymphadenopathy on CT scans. The analyzed clinical data were age, sex, lymphadenopathy, pain, swelling, presence of a mass, tonsillitis, treatment period and surgical treatment if it was performed. The presence of an abscess, sialolith, cellulitis, swelling, age, presence of a palpable mass and treatment period were statistically significant factors for the patients in the three groups. An abscess was combined only in group I patients. There was a high rate of sialolith in group II patients and cellulitis in group III patients as seen on CT scans. Swelling in group II patients and group III patients and the presence of a palpable mass in group I patients were identified as clinical manifestations. Age was younger in group I patients (mean age, 5.3 years) than in group II patients (mean age, 12.9 years) and group III patients (mean age, 15.2 years). The treatment period was longer for group I patients. For acute sialadenitis in children and adolescents, age, presence of an abscess, sialolith, cellulitis, swelling, presence of a palpable mass and treatment period were different according to the involved salivary glands

  9. Seasonal variations in general activity, behaviour and cutaneous glandular structures in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Mossing, Torgny

    1980-01-01

    The locomotor activity of the reindeer is separated into a diurnal and a nocturnal phase which, in turn, consists of a  number of short-term activity bursts. The onset and termination  of diurnal and nocturnal activity are largely in synchrony  with sunrise and sunset. Since the diurnal phase is  longer, total activity is dependent on the photoperiod. Total  activity as well as the number of activity bursts is greater  in Jùne with continuous daylight than in December with 6  hours daylight. ...

  10. Reproducibility of current classifications of endometrial endometrioid glandular proliferations : further evidence supporting a simplified classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ordi, Jaume; Bergeron, Christine; Hardisson, David; McCluggage, W. Glenn; Hollema, Harry; Felix, Ana; Soslow, Robert A.; Oliva, Esther; Tavassoli, Fattaneh A.; Alvarado-Cabrero, Isabel; Wells, Michael; Nogales, Francisco F.

    AimsTo compare the reproducibility of the current (2003) World Health Organization (WHO), endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia (EIN) and European Working Group (EWG) classifications of endometrial endometrioid proliferations. Methods and resultsNine expert gynaecological pathologists from Europe

  11. Potential clinical usefulness of new glandular and circulating parathyroid peptides illuminated by sequence specific radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindall, A.W.; Cecchettin, M.

    1981-01-01

    It is now well known that human PTH peptides constitute a heterogeneous population of fragments of the eighty-four amino acid molecules. Over the years, considerable confusion has resulted from measurements made in both clinical and experimental settings with radioimmunoassays of either undefined or partially-defined specificity for a particular region of the intact molecule. The approach of the authors has been to make use of modern technology to synthesize peptide fragments that mimic portions of native molecules, and to use these fragments in RIA. A more detailed description of a portion of this work will appear in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. (Auth.)

  12. Anatomía foliar y caulinar en especies de Stemodia (Scrophulariaceae Foliar and caulinar anatomy in species of Stemodia (Scrophulariaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria De Las Mercedes Sosa

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Se describe la estructura anatómica foliar y caulinar en el género Stemodia. Son consideradas siete especies: S. ericifolia (Kuntze K. Schum., S. hyptoides Cham. & Schltdl., S. lanceolata Benth., S. lobelioides Lehm., S. palustris A. St.-Hil., S. stricta Cham. & Schltdl. y S. verticillata (Mill. Hassl. Se hallaron diferencias en la epidermis foliar, donde hay variación en el tipo de estomas y de tricomas, y en la forma de las papilas epidérmicas; también en la estructura del mesofilo. Se describen e ilustran cuatro tipos de tricomas considerando si son o no glandulares y el número de células que lo conforman. El estudio de la anatomía caulinar mostró diferencias en cuanto a la presencia de aerénquima cortical y de laguna medular, y el porcentaje de espacios en el aerénquima cortical.Comparative anatomical studies of the leaves and stems on the genus Stemodia are presented. Seven species are considered: S. ericifolia (Kuntze K. Schum., S. hyptoides Cham. & Schltdl., S. lanceolata Benth., S. lobelioides Lehm., S. palustris A. St.-Hil., S. stricta Cham. & Schltdl. and S. verticillata (Mill. Hassl. There are variation in the stomatal and trichome types, form of the papillae and mesophyll structure. Four trichome types are described and illustrated considering if they are glandular or non-glandular and the number of cells. The stems present a quite homogeneous anatomical structure. Some differences in the amount and distribution of the aerenchyma and the size of the intercellular spaces are observed.

  13. The Cytotoxic, Antibacterial and Free Radical Scavenging Activities of Crude Extracts of Matricaria chamomilla, Salvadora persica and Artemisia annua

    KAUST Repository

    Seddek, Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    -derived drugs have been approved so far. Cancer and infectious diseases have been common targets for the science of drug discovery, due to the high mortality rates caused by these diseases all over the world. Several plant-derived compounds are being marketed

  14. Effects of sesquiterpene, flavonoid and coumarin types of compounds from Artemisia annua L. on production of mediators of angiogenesis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zhu, X. X.; Yang, L.; Li, Y. J.; Zhang, D.; Chen, Y.; Kostecká, Petra; Kmoníčková, Eva; Zídek, Zdeněk

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 2 (2013), s. 410-420 ISSN 1734-1140 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ME10116 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : sesquiterpenes * flavonoids * immunosuppression Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry Impact factor: 2.165, year: 2013

  15. Microscopic characters of the leaf and stem of Lavandula dentata L. (Lamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Rocio Duarte, Márcia; Carvalho de Souza, Danielle

    2014-08-01

    Lavandula dentata L. is an aromatic plant used in folk medicine for different purposes and, for this reason, phytochemical surveys have been carried out in the search for bioactive substances aiming to support its uses. Since there is little knowledge on the structural aspects of L. dentata, this work has studied the anatomical characters of the leaf and stem using light and scanning electron microscopy, in order to assist the species identification. As a result, there are different types of trichomes: capitate glandular with uni- or bicellular head, peltate glandular with multicellular head, and branched non-glandular. The leaf is hypostomatic showing diacytic stomata. The epidermis is uniseriate and coated with striate cuticle. The mesophyll is dorsiventral and the midrib is concave-convex and traversed by a single collateral vascular bundle. The stem is quadrangular and has alternating strands of collenchyma and cortical parenchyma as well as a typical endodermis in the cortex. The phloem and xylem cylinders are traversed by narrow rays and there is an incomplete sclerenchymatic sheath adjoining the phloem. These results are a novelty for the species and contribute to distinguish it from other lavenders. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Comparative structure of the osmophores in the flowers of Stanhopea graveolens Lindley and Cycnoches chlorochilon Klotzsch (Orchidaceae

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    Mirosława Chwil

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Tradescantia comprises about 70 species. In Poland Tradescantia x andersoniana is basically grown as an ornamental plant that is recommended for borders and to be planted around garden ponds. The present study investigated flowering as well as the micromorphological and anatomical features of some floral elements of Tradescantia x andersoniana W. Ludw. Rohweder 'Karin'. The macro- and micromorphology of the flowers was examined using stereoscopic, light, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Spiderwort produces flowers with a diameter of 4.6-5 cm, which open early in the morning and close at noon. Non-glandular and glandular hairs grow on the abaxial surface of the calyx and on the apical part of the ovary. The glandular hairs develop a several-celled stalk and a unicellular spherical or elongated head. The staminal filaments produce chain-shaped trichomes. Striate cuticular ornamentation is found on their surface and on the epidermis covering the perianth. The striae on the cells of the stamen hairs run to the two poles of the cell. The pistil develops a wet stigma with unfused unicellular papillae. The cuticle on their surface is smooth, whereas on the style near the stigma it forms dense folds.

  17. Análisis comparativo de los caracteres epidérmicos en Flourensia campestris y F. oolepis (Asteraceae Comparative analysis of the epidermal characters in Flourensia campestris and F. oolepis (Asteraceae

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    Natalia Delbón

    Full Text Available En el presente estudio se examinaron y compararon cuantitativamente las epidermis foliares de Flourensia campestris Griseb. y F. oolepis S. F. Blake, especies endémicas que crecen en las sierras de Córdoba, Argentina. Para ello, se seleccionaron cinco variables: número de células epidérmicas propiamente dichas, estomas, tricomas glandulares y eglandulares e índice estomático. Los resultados obtenidos se evaluaron por métodos estadísticos; ellos indican que hay diferencias significativas entre ambas especies en las variables frecuencia de estomas, de células propiamente dichas, de tricomas glandulares e índice estomático. Estos datos podrían ser de interés para su reconocimiento cuando se dispone de muestras pequeñas o fragmentos.This study provides comparative analyses of foliar epidermis in Flourensia campestris Griseb. and F. oolepis S. F. Blake, endemic species that grow in Córdoba, Argentina. Five variables were selected: number of epidermal cells, stomata, glandular and eglandular trichomes and stomatal index. Results were evaluated by statistical methods; they show that there are significant differences between the variables of both species; these data could be of interest for their identification, when only are available small samples and fragments.

  18. Longli is not a hybrid of longan and lychee as revealed by genome size analysis and trichome morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lychee, longan, longli, and rambutan are closely related, commercially important fruit trees in the Sapindaceae family. Longli fruits are morphologically similar to both lychee and longan, displaying a yellow-brown pericarp like longan, and small, sharp protuberances like lychee. These similarities ...

  19. Hawaiian propolis: comparative analysis and botanical origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inui, Saori; Hosoya, Takahiro; Kumazaw, Shigenori

    2014-02-01

    Propolis is a resinous mixture of substances collected and processed from various botanical sources by honeybees (Apis mellifera). We recently obtained Hawaiian propolis, the study of which, to our knowledge, has not been reported. The purpose of this study was to analyze the composition of Hawaiian propolis and to identify its botanical origin. A comparative analysis of Hawaiian and Okinawan propolis and of the glandular trichomes on Macaranga tanarius fruit (the botanical origin of Okinawan propolis) was performed using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with high resolution-electrospray mass spectrometry. Hawaiian propolis contained nine prenylflavonoids that were also isolated from Okinawan propolis. In conclusion, we suggest that the botanical origin of Hawaiian propolis is M. tanarius, the same as that of Okinawan propolis.

  20. Pharmacognostic standardization and physicochemical analysis of the leaves of Barleria montana Wight & Nees

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    Sriram Sridharan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the pharmacognostic features and physiochemical properties of the leaves of Barleria montana Wight & Nees. Methods: The leaf samples were subjected to organoleptic, microscopic and macroscopic analysis. Physiochemical properties and fluorescence analysis of the sample under UV and daylight were studied as per World Health Organization norms. Results: Microscopic analysis showed that the plant possessed dorsiventral leaves, lamina, glandular trichomes, calcium carbonate cystoliths and adaxial epidermis. Physiochemical characters like ash and moisture content, extractive values, foreign matter and fluorescent characteristics of the leaf samples were determined and reported. Conclusions: Results obtained from these studies can be used as reliable markers in the identification and standardization of this plant as a herbal remedy

  1. Macroscopy and Microscopy Study of Scopraia dulcis L.

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    Djoko Santosa

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A morphological diversity analysis of Scoparia dulcis by macroscopy and microscopy has been conducted. The aim of this research is to determine the morphological and anatomical character of S. dulcis which grow in Opak watershed, Special Region of Yogyakarta. Samples were taken from Sleman (Cangkringan, Ngemplak Kalasan, and Prambanan and Bantul (Imogiri and Pundong region. Selection of sampling location is based on altitude difference. The samples are the third leaf order from the tip of the stem. They were measured in length and width. Microscopy analysis was performed by observing the number of glandular trichomes, palisade cells in the epidermis and stomata in the upper and lower epidermis. The data obtained were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA. The results show that based on morphological and anatomical assessment, there were found 3 clusters of S. dulcis, i.e. Cangkringan-Ngemplak-Prambanan, Kalasan, and Imogiri-Pundong cluster.

  2. The evolution of plant secretory structures and emergence of terpenoid chemical diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Bernd Markus

    2015-01-01

    Secretory structures in terrestrial plants appear to have first emerged as intracellular oil bodies in liverworts. In vascular plants, internal secretory structures, such as resin ducts and laticifers, are usually found in conjunction with vascular bundles, whereas subepidermal secretory cavities and epidermal glandular trichomes generally have more complex tissue distribution patterns. The primary function of plant secretory structures is related to defense responses, both constitutive and induced, against herbivores and pathogens. The ability to sequester secondary (or specialized) metabolites and defense proteins in secretory structures was a critical adaptation that shaped plant-herbivore and plant-pathogen interactions. Although this review places particular emphasis on describing the evolution of pathways leading to terpenoids, it also assesses the emergence of other metabolite classes to outline the metabolic capabilities of different plant lineages.

  3. Biological Activities of Essential Oils: From Plant Chemoecology to Traditional Healing Systems

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    Javad Sharifi-Rad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils are complex mixtures of hydrocarbons and their oxygenated derivatives arising from two different isoprenoid pathways. Essential oils are produced by glandular trichomes and other secretory structures, specialized secretory tissues mainly diffused onto the surface of plant organs, particularly flowers and leaves, thus exerting a pivotal ecological role in plant. In addition, essential oils have been used, since ancient times, in many different traditional healing systems all over the world, because of their biological activities. Many preclinical studies have documented antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities of essential oils in a number of cell and animal models, also elucidating their mechanism of action and pharmacological targets, though the paucity of in human studies limits the potential of essential oils as effective and safe phytotherapeutic agents. More well-designed clinical trials are needed in order to ascertain the real efficacy and safety of these plant products.

  4. MORPHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF THE LEAVES OF Anacardium occidentale L.

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    Glenda Quaresma Ramos

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In morphological studies are analyzed various parameters, ranging from macro scale through the micro scale to the nanometer scale, which contribute to the study of taxonomy, pharmacognosy, ecology, among others. Among the structures found in plants, the leaves are most organs analyzed. This study aimed to analyze morphological features of the leaves of the cashew tree, which is a plant of great commercial importance in Brazil. In this work we observed sinuous epidermal cells in the adaxial and abaxial, characterize their stomata in paracytic surrounded subsidiaries cells. On the abaxial surface the presence of glandular trichomes was observed; and cross-sectional analysis showed a single-layered epidermis with compact mesophyll and several layers of parenchyma cells. Keywords: leaf anatomy; cashew tree; optical microscopy.

  5. Anatomy and Micromorphology of Inula helenium subsp. orgyalis and I. ensifolia (Asteraceae from Turkey

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    Tulay AYTAS AKCIN

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Inula helenium L. subsp. orgyalis (Boiss. Grierson and Inula ensifolia L. were investigated anatomically and micromorphologically. The secretory cavities in the leaves and stem of both investigated taxa were located in the neighbourhood of the vascular bundles and in the rhizomes in the secondary cortex. The leaf mesophylls of investigated Inula taxa were homogeneous. Stomata were anomocytic in two species. The distribution and density of the eglandular and glandular trichomes provide information of taxonomical significance. Moreover, the cypselas of I. helenium L. subsp. orgyalis were homomorphic, whereas in I. ensifolia cypselas were heteromorphic. Additionally, the number of ribs, the shape of carpopodium and stylopodium were diagnostic taxonomic characters between the two taxa.

  6. Antimicrobial monomeric and dimeric diterpenes from the leaves of Helichrysum tenax var tenax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewes, Siegfried E; Mudau, K Esther; van Vuuren, Sandy F; Viljoen, Alvaro M

    2006-04-01

    The hexane extract of fresh air-dried leaves of Helichrysum tenax (Asteraceae) afforded ent-beyer-15-en-19-ol (1), its 4-epimer ent-beyer-15-en-18-ol (2), 15beta,16beta-epoxide-ent-beyeran-19-ol (3), as well as (4) consisting of two units of (1) linked as a diester of malonic acid, and (5), a compound. Its constituents are (1) and (3) also linked as a diester of malonic acid. The leaves of the plant are densely covered in fine glandular trichomes. These are extremely sticky and exude a mixture of the above diterpenes. Antimicrobial tests showed that (1), in particular, was highly active (3.1 and 3.6 microg/ml) against Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, respectively.

  7. Leaf and stem morphoanatomy of Petiveria alliacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, M R; Lopes, J F

    2005-12-01

    Petiveria alliacea is a perennial herb native to the Amazonian region and used in traditional medicine for different purposes, such as diuretic, antispasmodic and anti-inflammatory. The morphoanatomical characterization of the leaf and stem was carried out, in order to contribute to the medicinal plant identification. The plant material was fixed, freehand sectioned and stained either with toluidine blue or astra blue and basic fuchsine. Microchemical tests were also applied. The leaf is simple, alternate and elliptic. The blade exhibits paracytic stomata on the abaxial side, non-glandular trichomes and dorsiventral mesophyll. The midrib is biconvex and the petiole is plain-convex, both traversed by collateral vascular bundles adjoined with sclerenchymatic caps. The stem, in incipient secondary growth, presents epidermis, angular collenchyma, starch sheath and collateral vascular organization. Several prisms of calcium oxalate are seen in the leaf and stem.

  8. Cellular localisation of the anti-cancer drug camptothecin in Camptotheca acuminata Decne (Nyssaceae

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    G Pasqua

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In Camptotheca acuminata, we studied the cellular sites of accumulation of the alkaloid camptothecin (CPT, in both plants grown in the field and those grown in a greenhouse, subjecting the latter to stress (i.e., draught, nutritional deficit, and pruning. Fresh sections of the leaf, stem, and root were analysed for the presence of CPT by examining the autofluorescence that the CPT molecule emits when exposed to UV radiation. In the plants grown in the field, CPT was observed only rarely. In the greenhouse plants, CPT had accumulated in crystalline form in the vacuole of specialised cells (i.e., segregator idioblasts, which were not morphologically distinguishable from the cells of the surrounding tissues. In the organs examined, the segregator idioblasts were localised in parenchymatic and epidermal tissues. CPT crystals were also detected in the glandular trichomes on both the stem and leaf.

  9. Cannabis: A Treasure Trove or Pandora's Box?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solymosi, Katalin; Köfalvi, Attila

    2017-01-01

    Cannabis is one of the earliest cultivated plants. Cannabis of industrial utility and culinary value is generally termed as hemp. Conversely, cannabis that is bred for medical, spiritual and recreational purposes is called marijuana. The female marijuana plant produces a significant quantity of bio- and psychoactive phytocannabinoids, which regained the spotlight with the discovery of the endocannabinoid system of the animals in the early 90's. Nevertheless, marijuana is surrounded by controversies, debates and misconceptions related to its taxonomic classification, forensic identification, medical potential, legalization and its long-term health consequences. In the first part, we provide an in-depth review of the botany and taxonomy of Cannabis. We then overview the biosynthesis of phytocannabinoids within the glandular trichomes with emphasis on the role of peculiar plastids in the production of the secreted material. We also compile the analytical methods used to determine the phytocannabinoid composition of glandular trichomes. In the second part, we revisit the psychobiology and molecular medicine of marijuana. We summarize our current knowledge on the recreational use of cannabis with respect to the modes of consumption, short-term effects, chronic health consequences and cannabis use disorder. Next, we overview the molecular targets of a dozen major and minor bioactive cannabinoids in the body. This helps us introduce the endocannabinoid system in an unprecedented detail: its up-todate molecular biology, pharmacology, physiology and medical significance, and beyond. In conclusion, we offer an unbiased survey about cannabis to help better weigh its medical value versus the associated risks. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  10. Pharmacognostical studies of leaves of Combretum albidum G. Don

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    Ashish S Zalke

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Combretum albidum Don belonging to family Combretaceae is an unexplored medicinal plant in the Indian medicinal system. According to ethnobotanical information, the leaves are used in the treatment of peptic ulcer and its fruits are used in diarrhoea and dysentery. Stem bark is used in the treatment of jaundice and skin diseases. The problem encountered in standardisation of this medicinal plant is its identification by source. Materials and Methods: The pharmacognostical studies were carried out in terms of organoleptic, macroscopic, microscopic, physicochemical, florescence and phytochemical analysis. Physicochemical parameters such as total ash, moisture content and extractive values are determined by World Health Organization guidelines. The microscopic features of leaf components are observed with Nikon lab photo device with microscopic units. Results: Macroscopically, the leaves are simple, obovate in shape, acuminate apex, entire margin and smooth surface. Microscopically, the leaves showed a large vascular strand that consists of thick walled xylem elements mixed with xylem fibres and phloem which is present in a thin layer along inner and outer portions of xylem. External to the xylem occur a thin line of sclerenchyma. Powder microscopy revealed glandular trichomes in the adaxial epidermal peelings also shows the non-glandular trichomes fairly common in powder and epidermis with anisocytic stomata. Vessels elements are narrow, long, cylindrical and dense multi-seriate bordered pits. Xylem fibres are thin and long, with thick walls, which are lignified. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of carbohydrate, glycoside, saponin, flavonoid, phytosterols and phenolic compounds. Conclusions: The results of the study can serve as a valuable source of pharmacognostic information as suitable standards for identification of this plant material in future investigations and applications.

  11. Secretory structures on the leaf rachis of Caesalpinieae and Mimosoideae (Leguminosae): implications for the evolution of nectary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascal, L M; Motte-Florac, E F; McKey, D B

    2000-03-01

    Cup- or sometimes slit-shaped nectary glands on the rachis are a widespread trait in the legume subfamily Mimosoideae, especially in derived tribes. Their spotty occurrence in genera that appear to be basal has led to uncertainty about when in the mimosoid radiation this character evolved. Until now, specialized rachis glands were unknown in caesalpinioids thought to be related to ancestral mimosoids. We report here the occurrence of rachis glands in seven of the ten species of the Paleotropical genus Erythrophleum, a member of the Dimorphandra group of caesalpinioids thought to include the sister group(s) of mimosoids. The histological structure and location of Erythrophleum glands suggest homology with those of mimosoids; these glands are simpler structurally than rachis glands of any known mimosoid. The Erythrophleum glands differ from those of most mimosoids in the following respects: (1) they are smaller than glands of mimosoids; (2) the secretory surface is sunken in a pit capped by a small round pore rather than exposed on a broad concave or flat surface; (3) a smaller number of cells are involved in production and secretion of nectar; (4) vascular supply to the nectary is less extensive; and (5) mechanical support tissue (sclerenchyma) is less extensive and less organized. Rachis glands appear to be absent in the nine other genera included in the Dimorphandra group. We also report the occurrence of other secretory structures (patches of glandular trichomes) on the rachis of some Caesalpinieae and Mimoseae that lack specialized nectary glands and suggest that these patches of trichomes are primitive homologues of more organized glands. We discuss the significance of these glands and of the patches of trichomes for understanding relationships among primitive mimosoids and related caesalpinioids, and for understanding the origin of ant-guard defenses typical of many mimosoids.

  12. Release of Hormones from Conjugates: Chloroplast Expression of β-Glucosidase Results in Elevated Phytohormone Levels Associated with Significant Increase in Biomass and Protection from Aphids or Whiteflies Conferred by Sucrose Esters1[C][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Shuangxia; Kanagaraj, Anderson; Verma, Dheeraj; Lange, Theo; Daniell, Henry

    2011-01-01

    Transplastomic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants expressing β-glucosidase (Bgl-1) show modified development. They flower 1 month earlier with an increase in biomass (1.9-fold), height (1.5-fold), and leaf area (1.6-fold) than untransformed plants. Trichome density on the upper and lower leaf surfaces of BGL-1 plants increase by 10- and 7-fold, respectively, harboring 5-fold more glandular trichomes (as determined by rhodamine B staining), suggesting that BGL-1 lines produce more sugar esters than control plants. Gibberellin (GA) levels were investigated because it is a known regulator of flowering time, plant height, and trichome development. Both GA1 and GA4 levels are 2-fold higher in BGL-1 leaves than in untransformed plants but do not increase in other organs. In addition, elevated levels of other plant hormones, including zeatin and indole-3-acetic acid, are observed in BGL-1 lines. Protoplasts from BGL-1 lines divide and form calli without exogenous hormones. Cell division in protoplasts is enhanced 7-fold in the presence of exogenously applied zeatin-O-glucoside conjugate, indicating the release of active hormones from their conjugates. Whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) and aphid (Myzus persicae) populations in control plants are 18 and 15 times higher than in transplastomic lines, respectively. Lethal dose to kill 50% of the test population values of 26.3 and 39.2 μg per whitefly and 23.1 and 35.2 μg per aphid for BGL-1 and untransformed control exudates, respectively, confirm the enhanced toxicity of transplastomic exudates. These data indicate that increase in sugar ester levels in BGL-1 lines might function as an effective biopesticide. This study provides a novel strategy for designing plants for enhanced biomass production and insect control by releasing plant hormones or sugar esters from their conjugates stored within their chloroplasts. PMID:21068365

  13. Release of hormones from conjugates: chloroplast expression of β-glucosidase results in elevated phytohormone levels associated with significant increase in biomass and protection from aphids or whiteflies conferred by sucrose esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Shuangxia; Kanagaraj, Anderson; Verma, Dheeraj; Lange, Theo; Daniell, Henry

    2011-01-01

    Transplastomic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants expressing β-glucosidase (Bgl-1) show modified development. They flower 1 month earlier with an increase in biomass (1.9-fold), height (1.5-fold), and leaf area (1.6-fold) than untransformed plants. Trichome density on the upper and lower leaf surfaces of BGL-1 plants increase by 10- and 7-fold, respectively, harboring 5-fold more glandular trichomes (as determined by rhodamine B staining), suggesting that BGL-1 lines produce more sugar esters than control plants. Gibberellin (GA) levels were investigated because it is a known regulator of flowering time, plant height, and trichome development. Both GA(1) and GA(4) levels are 2-fold higher in BGL-1 leaves than in untransformed plants but do not increase in other organs. In addition, elevated levels of other plant hormones, including zeatin and indole-3-acetic acid, are observed in BGL-1 lines. Protoplasts from BGL-1 lines divide and form calli without exogenous hormones. Cell division in protoplasts is enhanced 7-fold in the presence of exogenously applied zeatin-O-glucoside conjugate, indicating the release of active hormones from their conjugates. Whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) and aphid (Myzus persicae) populations in control plants are 18 and 15 times higher than in transplastomic lines, respectively. Lethal dose to kill 50% of the test population values of 26.3 and 39.2 μg per whitefly and 23.1 and 35.2 μg per aphid for BGL-1 and untransformed control exudates, respectively, confirm the enhanced toxicity of transplastomic exudates. These data indicate that increase in sugar ester levels in BGL-1 lines might function as an effective biopesticide. This study provides a novel strategy for designing plants for enhanced biomass production and insect control by releasing plant hormones or sugar esters from their conjugates stored within their chloroplasts.

  14. Numerical taxonomy of the genus Matthiola (Brassicaceae in Northeast of Iran based on morphological traits

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    Mozhgan Rashid Taranloo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Matthiola R. BR. (Brassicaceae consists of 48 species in the Iranian plateau, of which only seven species are distributed in northeast of Iran. Six species erre collected from the region under study including M. afghanica, M. alyssifolia, M. chenopodiifolia, M. chorassanica, M. dumulosa and M. farinose. Two species, M. flavida and M. revoluta were recorded for the first time in this study. Some specimens of an unknown taxon entitled Matthiola sp. are also collected in the region and included in the present study. In this study, we tried to use a set of morphologically informative characters which could determine species boundaries and also provide appropriate identification key to the genus in the northeast of Iran. 71 morphological features including quantitative and qualitative were examined on 68 herbarium and field-collected accessions followed by statistical analyses. The results of the univariate analysis indicated that "presence/absence of trichome on the stem and leaf" and "presence/absence of glandular trichomes on the sepal and pedicel" did not significantly differentiate the species and they were excluded from the subsequent analysis. The results of multivariate analysis showed that the species under study were grouped within three groups. First group included specimens of the species M. alyssifolia, the species M. afghanica, M. chenopodiifolia, M. dumulosa, M. farinosa, M. flavida and Matthiola sp. were placed in second group and third group included specimens of the two species M. chorassanica and M. revoluta.

  15. Application of Digital (Motic and Scanning electron microscope in histological study of leaf of Tecoma gaudichaudi DC (Bignoniaceae

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    Kedar Kalyani Abhimanyu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Tecoma gaudichaudi DC (Bignoniaceae is a shrub or a small tree found in various regions of Maharashtra. The objective of the study was to develop various standardization parameters for the evaluation of leaves of this plant. Microscopy, powder characteristics and scanning electron microscopy (SEM of leaves were observed and results were recorded. Histological study of leaves shows underlined palisade cells on the upper epidermal surface, anomocytic stomata on the lower epidermis with covering (2–3 cells and glandular trichomes etc. The specific observed characteristics such as types of stomata and trichomes were predominantly observed on the lower epidermal surface of the leaf. Physicochemical analysis such as extractive value includes petroleum ether, ethanol, ethyl acetate and aqueous soluble extractive values of 3.08, 10.50, 8.5, and 13.4% w/w respectively; extracts were analysed by chemical test and showed presence of flavonoids, tannins, steroids and triterpenoids etc. Fluorescence analysis is one of the parameters that help in the analysis of chemical constituents. So these parameters are useful in the authentication of T. gaudichaudi DC and can play a vital role in authentication and standardization of botanicals.

  16. Comparative study of three Marantodes pumilum varieties by microscopy, spectroscopy and chromatography

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    Nor-Ashila Aladdin

    Full Text Available Abstract Marantodes pumilum (Blume Kuntze (synonym: Labisia pumila (Blume Fern.-Vill, Primulaceae, is well known for its traditional use as a post-partum medication among women in Malaysia. Three varieties of M. pumilum, var. alata Scheff., var. pumila and var. lanceolata (Scheff. Mez. are commonly used. Nowadays, M. pumilum powder or extracts are commercially available as herbal supplements and beverages. Authentication of the variety is an important component of product quality control. Thus, the present work was aimed to compare the three varieties using microscopic, spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques. Microscopic anatomical examination and powder microscopy were performed on fresh and dried plant materials, respectively. Fingerprint profiles of the varieties were obtained using attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer, high performance thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography. The microscopic examination showed presence of anisocytic stomata, scale and capitate glandular trichome in all varieties. The type of stomata and trichomes, outline structure of stem and leaf margin, petiole and midrib, organization of vascular system, areolar venation, pattern of anticlinal walls, the distribution of secretory canals and cell inclusion as well as the measurement of selected structures could be used to distinguish and identify each variety of M. pumilum. In addition, spectroscopic and chromatographic fingerprint analyses of the three varieties exhibited distinguishable profiles based on the intensity of certain peaks or bands. The findings from this study will provide systematic identification for these varieties.

  17. Ovary and fruit morphology and anatomy of Amphilophium crucigerum

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    Rosana Casoti

    Full Text Available Abstract Amphilophium crucigerum (L. L.G. Lohmann, known as “pente-de-macaco” is a species of Bignoniaceae native to Brazil, and whose seeds are used in folk medicine. This study aimed to describe morphoanatomical features of this species of fruit to aid in its correct identification and pharmacognostic analysis. Samples of ovary, pericarp and seed were fixed with 3% glutaraldehyde, sectioned on a rotary microtome and analyzed by stereomicroscope. The results are shown in three parts: (1 The ovary presents peltate trichomes, long non-glandular trichomes and emergences in the epidermis; it is 2-carpellate and unilocular with two intruding parietal placenta; ovules are numerous on the placenta; it presents a large quantity of crystals. (2 The pericarp is woody, densely echinate and elliptic shape; it presents a 2-valved capsule and is septicidal; it presents emergences, stomata, lenticels, crystals and a large quantity of clustered stones cells. (3 Seeds are alate, exalbuminate and exotestal; there is a large amount of crystals in the exotestal region; it presents an endothelium and remnant endosperm. Histochemical tests showed the presence of lipophilic substances, polysaccharides, phenolic substances, alkaloids and a small quantity of starch. These pharmacobotanical features described for A. crucigerum are essential for the pharmacognostic analysis of the drug plant.

  18. A reduced, yet functional, nectary disk integrates a complex system of floral nectar secretion in the genus Zeyheria (Bignoniaceae

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    Silvia Rodrigues Machado

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The genus Zeyheria (Bignoniaceae comprises only two species, both of which have been described as possessing a reduced and non-functional nectary disk. Despite the importance of this evolutionary change in the floral nectary, these functional assumptions have been based on disk size and on the distribution, abundance and histochemistry of corolla-borne trichomes. By combining methods on light and electron microscopy, here we investigated the functionality of the reduced nectary disk and describe all of the tissues and structures of the nectar chamber in order to determine the sites of floral nectar secretion in both Zeyheria species. . Our data find the floral nectary traits of both species to be very similar, although differing in their cellular contents. Subcellular evidence in both species indicated that disk, stipe and petal axils were, predominantly, involved in hydrophilic secretion, while capitate glandular trichomes produced lipophilic secretion and papillae produced mixed secretion. Our study shows that in spite of its reduced size, the reduced disk functions in nectar secretion in both species of Zeyheria. This kind of nectary system is a novelty for Bignoniaceae, since it comprises several tissues and structures functioning in an integrated fashion.

  19. Structural Interaction Between GFP-Labeled Diazotrophic Endophytic Bacterium Herbaspirillum seropedicae RAM10 and Pineapple Plantlets ‘VitóRia’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrela Borges Baldotto, Lílian; Lopes Olivares, Fábio; Bressan-Smith, Ricardo

    2011-01-01

    The events involved in the structural interaction between the diazotrophic endophytic bacterium Herbaspirillum seropedicae, strain RAM10, labeled with green fluorescent protein, and pineapple plantlets ‘Vitória’ were evaluated by means of bright-field and fluorescence microscopy, combined with scanning electron microscopy for 28 days after inoculation. After 6 hours of inoculation, H. seropedicae was already adhered to the roots, colonizing mainly root hair surface and bases, followed by epidermal cell wall junctions. Bacteria adherence in the initial periods occurred mainly in the form of solitary cells and small aggregates with pleomorphic cells. Bacteria infection of root tissue occurred through the cavities caused by the disruption of epidermal cells during the emergence of lateral roots and the endophytic establishment by the colonization of intercellular spaces of the cortical parenchyma. Moreover, within 1 day after inoculation the bacteria were colonizing the shoots. In this region, the preferred sites of epiphytic colonization were epidermal cell wall junctions, peltate scutiform trichomes and non-glandular trichomes. Subsequently, the bacteria occupied the outer periclinal walls of epidermal cells and stomata. The penetration into the shoot occurred passively through stoma aperture followed by the endophytic establishment on the substomatal chambers and spread to the intercellular spaces of spongy chlorenchyma. After 21 days of inoculation, bacterial biofilm were seen at the root hair base and on epidermal cell wall surface of root and leaf, also confirming the epiphytic nature of H. seropedicae. PMID:24031612

  20. Structural Interaction Between GFP-Labeled Diazotrophic Endophytic Bacterium Herbaspirillum seropedicae RAM10 and Pineapple Plantlets 'VitóRia'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrela Borges Baldotto, Lílian; Lopes Olivares, Fábio; Bressan-Smith, Ricardo

    2011-01-01

    The events involved in the structural interaction between the diazotrophic endophytic bacterium Herbaspirillum seropedicae, strain RAM10, labeled with green fluorescent protein, and pineapple plantlets 'Vitória' were evaluated by means of bright-field and fluorescence microscopy, combined with scanning electron microscopy for 28 days after inoculation. After 6 hours of inoculation, H. seropedicae was already adhered to the roots, colonizing mainly root hair surface and bases, followed by epidermal cell wall junctions. Bacteria adherence in the initial periods occurred mainly in the form of solitary cells and small aggregates with pleomorphic cells. Bacteria infection of root tissue occurred through the cavities caused by the disruption of epidermal cells during the emergence of lateral roots and the endophytic establishment by the colonization of intercellular spaces of the cortical parenchyma. Moreover, within 1 day after inoculation the bacteria were colonizing the shoots. In this region, the preferred sites of epiphytic colonization were epidermal cell wall junctions, peltate scutiform trichomes and non-glandular trichomes. Subsequently, the bacteria occupied the outer periclinal walls of epidermal cells and stomata. The penetration into the shoot occurred passively through stoma aperture followed by the endophytic establishment on the substomatal chambers and spread to the intercellular spaces of spongy chlorenchyma. After 21 days of inoculation, bacterial biofilm were seen at the root hair base and on epidermal cell wall surface of root and leaf, also confirming the epiphytic nature of H. seropedicae.

  1. Structural interaction between GFP-labeled diazotrophic endophytic bacterium Herbaspirillum seropedicae RAM10 and pineapple plantlets 'Vitória'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lílian Estrela Borges Baldotto

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The events involved in the structural interaction between the diazotrophic endophytic bacterium Herbaspirillum seropedicae, strain RAM10, labeled with green fluorescent protein, and pineapple plantlets 'Vitória' were evaluated by means of bright-field and fluorescence microscopy, combined with scanning electron microscopy for 28 days after inoculation. After 6 hours of inoculation, H. seropedicae was already adhered to the roots, colonizing mainly root hair surface and bases, followed by epidermal cell wall junctions. Bacteria adherence in the initial periods occurred mainly in the form of solitary cells and small aggregates with pleomorphic cells. Bacteria infection of root tissue occurred through the cavities caused by the disruption of epidermal cells during the emergence of lateral roots and the endophytic establishment by the colonization of intercellular spaces of the cortical parenchyma. Moreover, within 1 day after inoculation the bacteria were colonizing the shoots. In this region, the preferred sites of epiphytic colonization were epidermal cell wall junctions, peltate scutiform trichomes and non-glandular trichomes. Subsequently, the bacteria occupied the outer periclinal walls of epidermal cells and stomata. The penetration into the shoot occurred passively through stoma aperture followed by the endophytic establishment on the substomatal chambers and spread to the intercellular spaces of spongy chlorenchyma. After 21 days of inoculation, bacterial biofilm were seen at the root hair base and on epidermal cell wall surface of root and leaf, also confirming the epiphytic nature of H. seropedicae.

  2. Genetic Transformation of Artemisia carvifolia Buch with rol Genes Enhances Artemisinin Accumulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erum Dilshad

    Full Text Available The potent antimalarial drug artemisinin has a high cost, since its only viable source to date is Artemisia annua (0.01-0.8% DW. There is therefore an urgent need to design new strategies to increase its production or to find alternative sources. In the current study, Artemisia carvifolia Buch was selected with the aim of detecting artemisinin and then enhancing the production of the target compound and its derivatives. These metabolites were determined by LC-MS in the shoots of A. carvifolia wild type plants at the following concentrations: artemisinin (8μg/g, artesunate (2.24μg/g, dihydroartemisinin (13.6μg/g and artemether (12.8μg/g. Genetic transformation of A. carvifolia was carried out with Agrobacterium tumefaciens GV3101 harboring the rol B and rol C genes. Artemisinin content increased 3-7-fold in transgenics bearing the rol B gene, and 2.3-6-fold in those with the rol C gene. A similar pattern was observed for artemisinin analogues. The dynamics of artemisinin content in transgenics and wild type A.carvifolia was also correlated with the expression of genes involved in its biosynthesis. Real time qPCR analysis revealed the differential expression of genes involved in artemisinin biosynthesis, i.e. those encoding amorpha-4, 11 diene synthase (ADS, cytochrome P450 (CYP71AV1, and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1, with a relatively higher transcript level found in transgenics than in the wild type plant. Also, the gene related to trichome development and sesquiterpenoid biosynthesis (TFAR1 showed an altered expression in the transgenics compared to wild type A.carvifolia, which was in accordance with the trichome density of the respective plants. The trichome index was significantly higher in the rol B and rol C gene-expressing transgenics with an increased production of artemisinin, thereby demonstrating that the rol genes are effective inducers of plant secondary metabolism.

  3. Sleep Deprivation Alters Rat Ventral Prostate Morphology, Leading to Glandular Atrophy: A Microscopic Study Contrasted with the Hormonal Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P. Venâncio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of 96 h paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD and 21-day sleep restriction (SR on prostate morphology using stereological assays in male rats. After euthanasia, the rat ventral prostate was removed, weighed, and prepared for conventional light microscopy. Microscopic analysis of the prostate reveals that morphology of this gland was altered after 96 h of PSD and 21 days of SR, with the most important alterations occurring in the epithelium and stroma in the course of both procedures compared with the control group. Both 96 h PSD and 21-day SR rats showed lower serum testosterone and higher corticosterone levels than control rats. The significance of our result referring to the sleep deprivation was responsible for deep morphological alterations in ventral prostate tissue, like to castration microscopic modifications. This result is due to the marked alterations in hormonal status caused by PSD and SR.

  4. Parasitic mites of Surinam : XXVII. Demodex marsupiali sp. nov. from Didelphis marsupialis: adaptation to glandular habitat 1)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nutting, W.B.; Lukoschus, F.S.; Desch, C. E.

    1980-01-01

    Demodex marsupiali sp. nov. is described from the pilocerumen-gland complex within the external auditory meatus of Didelphis marsupialis Linné, 1758. Pathogenesis is limited to epithelial cell destruction, minor orifice occlusion, and some keratinization. Mites occasionally penetrate into the

  5. Sleep Deprivation Alters Rat Ventral Prostate Morphology, Leading to Glandular Atrophy: A Microscopic Study Contrasted with the Hormonal Assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venâncio, Daniel P.; Andersen, Monica L.; Vilamaior, Patricia S. L.; Santos, Fernanda C.; Zager, Adriano; Tufik, Sérgio; Taboga, Sebastião R.; De Mello, Marco T.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the effect of 96 h paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) and 21-day sleep restriction (SR) on prostate morphology using stereological assays in male rats. After euthanasia, the rat ventral prostate was removed, weighed, and prepared for conventional light microscopy. Microscopic analysis of the prostate reveals that morphology of this gland was altered after 96 h of PSD and 21 days of SR, with the most important alterations occurring in the epithelium and stroma in the course of both procedures compared with the control group. Both 96 h PSD and 21-day SR rats showed lower serum testosterone and higher corticosterone levels than control rats. The significance of our result referring to the sleep deprivation was responsible for deep morphological alterations in ventral prostate tissue, like to castration microscopic modifications. This result is due to the marked alterations in hormonal status caused by PSD and SR. PMID:22927719

  6. Redescription of Proteocephalus glanduligerus (Cestoda: Proteocephalidea), a parasite of clariid catfishes in Africa with a unique glandular apical organ

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Scholz, Tomáš; de Chambrier, A.; Beletew, M.; Mahmoud, Z. N.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 95, č. 2 (2009), s. 443-449 ISSN 0022-3395 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/04/0342; GA ČR GA524/08/0885; GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Proteocephalidae * Africa * catfishes * apical organ * morphology * redescription Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.195, year: 2009

  7. Anatomy and fructan distribution in vegetative organs of Dimerostemma vestitum (Asteraceae) from the campos rupestres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Taiza M; Vilhalva, Divina A A; Moraes, Moemy G; Figueiredo-Ribeiro, Rita de Cássia L

    2015-01-01

    Among the compounds stored by plants, several functions are assigned to fructans, such as source of energy and protection against drought and extreme temperatures. In the present study we analyzed the anatomy and distribution of fructans in vegetative organs of Dimerostemma vestitum (Asteraceae), an endemic species from the Brazilian campos rupestres. D. vestitumhas amphistomatic and pubescent leaves, with both glandular and non-glandular trichomes. In the basal aerial stem the medulla has two types of parenchyma, which differ from the apical portion. The xylopodium has mixed anatomical origin. Interestingly, although inulin-type fructans with high degree of polymerization were found in all analyzed organs except the leaves, the highest amount and maximum degree of polymerization were detected in the xylopodium. Inulin sphero-crystals were visualized under polarized light in the medulla and in the vascular tissues mainly in the central region of the xylopodium, which has abundant xylem parenchyma. Secretory structures accumulating several compounds but not inulin were identified within all the vegetative organs. The presence of these compounds, in addition to inulin, might be related to the strategies of plants to survive adverse conditions in a semi-arid region, affected seasonally by water restriction and frequently by fire.

  8. Anatomy and fructan distribution in vegetative organs of Dimerostemma vestitum (Asteraceae from the campos rupestres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiza M. Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Among the compounds stored by plants, several functions are assigned to fructans, such as source of energy and protection against drought and extreme temperatures. In the present study we analyzed the anatomy and distribution of fructans in vegetative organs of Dimerostemma vestitum (Asteraceae, an endemic species from the Brazilian campos rupestres. D. vestitum has amphistomatic and pubescent leaves, with both glandular and non-glandular trichomes. In the basal aerial stem the medulla has two types of parenchyma, which differ from the apical portion. The xylopodium has mixed anatomical origin. Interestingly, although inulin-type fructans with high degree of polymerization were found in all analyzed organs except the leaves, the highest amount and maximum degree of polymerization were detected in the xylopodium. Inulin sphero-crystals were visualized under polarized light in the medulla and in the vascular tissues mainly in the central region of the xylopodium, which has abundant xylem parenchyma. Secretory structures accumulating several compounds but not inulin were identified within all the vegetative organs. The presence of these compounds, in addition to inulin, might be related to the strategies of plants to survive adverse conditions in a semi-arid region, affected seasonally by water restriction and frequently by fire.

  9. Micromorphology of flowers and the structure of floral nectaries in Orobanche alsatica Kirschl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Sulborska

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Orobanche alsatica Kirschl. is a very rare perennial plant included in the Polish Red Data Book. The hosts of this European-West Asian parasite are representatives of the family Apiaceae, primarily from the genera Peucedanum and Seseli. The species prefers alkaline substrates and sun-exposed slopes and hills. In Poland, it occurs most frequently in xerothermic grasslands and xerothermic fringe. The morphology of O. alsatica flowers, with special emphasis on the structure of the nectaries, was studied using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The analysed plants originated from the Lublin Upland. The flowers of the species are characterised by the presence of a double perianth. The sepals are richly glandular, free; the outer sepals are dark red and the inner ones are yellow-green. Fused petals (5 form a bilabiate, dirty yellow corolla with dark red secretory trichomes on the abaxial surface. The stamens (4 with long, white S-shaped filaments are attached at the base to the corolla. There are glandular and non-glandular trichomes at the basal part of the filaments. Brown, oval anthers are characterised by the presence of a beak-like apex. The upper pistil is composed of an oval ovary and an arched style with a bipartite, fleshy, yellow stigma bearing numerous papillae. The O. alsatica nectary is formed by the basal part of the ovary at the corolla tube base. The secretory gland is intensively yellow and asymmetrical – on one side of the ovary it is higher and forms different height and size 4-5 protuberances, while on the other side it is very low. Nectar is secreted through modified stomata located primarily in the central part of the nectary. Stomatal cells are surrounded by 6-8 other epidermal cells and are located below these. The stomata are very regularly (linearly arranged forming a ring across the apical part of the protuberances. The stomata function asynchronously, as evidenced by the presence of both open and

  10. Isolation of dihydroatemisinic acid from the artemisia annua l. by-product by combining Ultrasound-assisted extraction with response surface methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaria is one of the world’s most important parasitic diseases, affecting 300-500 million people worldwide and killing more than one million per year. Artemisinin is currently the only raw material for the production of artemisinin combination therapies (ACT), the only medicine that cures drug-resi...

  11. The effects of combining Artemisia annua and Curcuma longa ethanolic extracts in broilers challenged with infective oocysts of Eimeria acervulina and E. maxima

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almeida, Gustavo Fonseca; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Madeira, Alda M.B.N

    2014-01-01

    and oocyst excretion were investigated. Broilers given chemical coccidiostats performed better than all other groups. Broilers given the two highest dosages of the herbal mixture had intermediate lesion scores caused by Eimeria acervulina, which was higher than in broilers given coccidiostats, but less than...

  12. Use of Artemisia annua as a natural coccidiostat in free-range broilers and its effects on infection dynamics and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almeida, Gustavo Fonseca; Horsted, Klaus; Thamsborg, Stig Milan

    2012-01-01

    combination. The paddocks were cultivated with a mix of grass and clover. A separate group of broilers was naturally infected with Eimeria spp. oocysts and five animals nominated as “seeders” were introduced to the above mentioned 12 groups, 10 days after its formation, with each group consisting of 35...... and localization upon necropsy were used to identify the Eimeria species involved in the infection. In general, broilers from both genotypes in the range coped well with a coccidia infection caused by Eimeria acervulina and Eimeria maxima as no clinical symptoms, or deaths, were reported during the experiment...

  13. Antihistomonal effects of artemisinin and Artemisia annua extracts in vitro could not be confirmed by in vivo experiments in turkeys and chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøfner, I.C.N.; Liebhart, D.; Hess, M.

    2012-01-01

    displayed in vitro activity against all tested protozoal clones. Neither the dry plant material, extracts nor artemisinin showed any antibacterial activity against the xenic bacteria accompanying the six H. meleagridis clones at concentration levels identical to the antihistomonal setting...

  14. Chitosan oligosaccharide and salicylic acid up-regulate gene expression differently in relation to the biosynthesis of artemisinin in Artemisia annua L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Heng; Kjær, Anders; Fretté, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    oligosaccharide (COS) and salicylic acid (SA) on both artemisinin production and gene expression related to the biosynthetic pathway of artemisinin. COS up-regulated the transcriptional levels of the genes ADS and TTG1 2.5 fold and 1.8 fold after 48 h individually, whereas SA only up-regulated ADS 2.0 fold after...

  15. Effects of artemisinin and Artemisia annua extracts on xenic bacteria isolated from clonal cultures of Histomonas meleagridis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøfner, I.C.N.; Hess, C.; Liebhart, D.

    ). Streptococcus spp. (5/19) or Proteus spp. (5/19) were isolated from four protozoal cultures. Staphylococcus sp. was isolated once. No antibacterial effect was noticed with compound concentrations identical to the antihistomonal screening. Combining the results of the antiprotozoal screening...

  16. Hydathode trichomes actively secreting water from leaves play a key role in the physiology and evolution of root-parasitic rhinanthoid Orobanchaceae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Světlíková, P.; Hájek, Tomáš; Těšitel, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 116, č. 1 (2015), s. 61-68 ISSN 0305-7364 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : active water transport * parasite * water regime Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.982, year: 2015

  17. Ultrastructure of hydathode trichomes of hemiparasitic Rhinanthus alectorolophus and Odontites vernus: how important is their role in physiology and evolution of parasitism in Orobanchaceae?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Těšitel, J.; Tesařová, Martina

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 1 (2013), s. 119-125 ISSN 1435-8603 Grant - others:JČU(CZ) IAA601410805; JČU(CZ) GD206/08/H044 Program:GD Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Hydathode * Lathraea * leaf * parasitic plant * Rhinanthus * transpiration * xylem Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 2.405, year: 2013

  18. Phenotype abnormality: 351 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 351 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u1ria224u856i increased number of trichome... branch in organ named trichome ... trichome ... present in greater numbers in organism ... trichome branch ...

  19. A review of myrmecophily in ant nest beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Paussinae): linking early observations with recent findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiselhardt, Stefanie F.; Peschke, Klaus; Nagel, Peter

    2007-11-01

    Myrmecophily provides various examples of how social structures can be overcome to exploit vast and well-protected resources. Ant nest beetles (Paussinae) are particularly well suited for ecological and evolutionary considerations in the context of association with ants because life habits within the subfamily range from free-living and predatory in basal taxa to obligatory myrmecophily in derived Paussini. Adult Paussini are accepted in the ant society, although parasitising the colony by preying on ant brood. Host species mainly belong to the ant families Myrmicinae and Formicinae, but at least several paussine genera are not host-specific. Morphological adaptations, such as special glands and associated tufts of hair (trichomes), characterise Paussini as typical myrmecophiles and lead to two different strategical types of body shape: while certain Paussini rely on the protective type with less exposed extremities, other genera access ant colonies using glandular secretions and trichomes (symphile type). We compare these adaptations with other taxonomic groups of insects by joining contemporary research and early sources and discuss the possibility of an attracting or appeasing effect of the secretion. Species that are ignored by their host ants might use chemical mimicry instead. Furthermore, vibrational signals may contribute to ant-beetle communication, and chemical signals have proven to play a role in host finding. The powerful defense chemistry of paussines as “bombardier beetles” is not used in contact with host ants. We attempt to trace the evolution of myrmecophily in paussines by reviewing important aspects of the association between paussine beetles and ants, i.e. morphological and potential chemical adaptations, life cycle, host specificity, alimentation, parasitism and sound production.

  20. Anatomia e histoquímica das folhas de Senna alata Anatomy and histochemistry of Senna alata leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M.C. Rodrigues

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Senna alata é uma espécie daninha frequente em pastagens da região amazônica, cujas folhas apresentam propriedades medicinais. Indivíduos dessa espécie foram cultivados e coletados no Campo Experimental da Embrapa Amazônia Oriental, em Belém-PA, para a realização de análises anatômica e histoquímica das folhas, com a finalidade de fornecer elementos para a taxonomia, identificação microscópica de aleloquímicos e caracterização ecofisiológica da espécie. As folhas apresentaram duas formas de tricomas: tectores e glandulares. Outras características foliares encontradas na espécie foram: lâmina foliar anfiestomática, mesofilo dorsiventral e epiderme abaxial papilosa. Algumas dessas características sugerem um mecanismo de adaptação a ambientes com excesso de calor. As folhas são ricas em cristais de oxalato de cálcio, ao longo de suas nervuras - característica da subfamília Caesalpinioideae. Compostos fenólicos, como flavonoides e antraquinonas, foram encontrados em células epidérmicas, da base de tricomas, e células dispersas no parênquima paliçádico, especialmente nas proximidades da nervura mediana. Este estudo confirmou a presença de conhecidas classes de aleloquímicos em diferentes tipos de células do mesofilo de Senna alata.Senna alata is one of the most frequent weed species in the Amazonian region pastures. Its leaves present medicinal properties. Individuals of this species were cultivated and collected in the Experimental Field of Embrapa Amazônia Oriental, Belém-PA, to carry out anatomical and histochemical analyses to provide taxonomy information, microscopic identification of allelochemicals and ecophysiological characterization of the species. Leaves presented two forms of trichomes: tector and glandular. Other foliar characteristics of the species were: amphistomatic leaf, dorsiventral mesophyll and abaxial epidermis papillose. Some of these suggest an adaptation mechanism to excessive warm

  1. Morfologia do fruto, da semente e morfo-anatomia da plântula de Vitex megapotamica (Spreng. Moldenke (Lamiaceae Fruit and seed morphology and morpho-anatomy of seedlings of Vitex megapotamica (Spreng. Moldenke (Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Luiz Cosmo

    2009-06-01

    first pair of eophylls. The fruits were measured and weighed and the number of seeds per fruit counted. Fruit and seed morphology were described and illustrated, as well as morphoanatomy of the seedling. The fruit is a 4-locular drupe containing only one or two seeds with a thin layer of endosperm and an axial, foliate embryo. The woody endocarp seems to restrict germination in this species. The seedling has epigeal, phanerocotylar development; elliptical paracotyledons with entire margins, and opposite, simple, elliptical eophylls with serrate margins, and simple multicelullar trichomes. Paracotyledons and eophylls have heterogeneous dorsiventral mesophyll, collateral bundle, and anomocytic stomata. The root is polyarc, with parenchymatous cortex; the hypocotyl has glandular and non-glandular trichomes, a distinct collet, and within 20 days it starts secondary growth. Many characteristics of seedlings in V. megapotamica are related to the fact that it is a heliophyte.

  2. La resonancia magnética en el diagnóstico por imagen de la patología glandular salival

    OpenAIRE

    Paz Expósito, J.; Velasco-Ortega, Eugenio; Bullon, Pedro

    1997-01-01

    La resonancia magnética constituye en la actualidad una técnica exploratoria importante en el diagnóstico de la patología médica y quirúrgica. Recientemente, se ha incorporado al campo de la odontoestomatología, contribuyendo de forma decisiva al estudio de la patología de las glándulas salivales, especialmente la glándula parótida, donde puede ser considerada el mejor método de diagnóstico por la imagen. Magnetic resonance is an important exploratory technique in the diagnosis of medical ...

  3. The secretory response of parathyroid hormone to acute hypocalcemia in vivo is independent of parathyroid glandular sodium/potassium-ATPase activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martuseviciene, Giedre; Hofman-Bang, Jacob; Clausen, Torben

    2011-01-01

    increased in response to ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid-induced acute hypocalcemia and to the same extent in both vehicle and ouabain groups. The glands were removed, and inhibition of the ATPase was measured by (86)rubidium uptake, which was found to be significantly decreased in ouabain......-treated parathyroid glands, indicating inhibition of the ATPase. As ouabain induced systemic hyperkalemia, the effect of high potassium on hormone secretion was also examined but was found to have no effect. Thus, inhibition of the parathyroid gland sodium/potassium-ATPase activity in vivo had no effect...... on the secretory response to acute hypocalcemia. Hence, the suggested importance of this ATPase in the regulation of PTH secretion could not be confirmed in this in vivo model....

  4. High grade serous ovarian carcinoma with serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma in a case presented with atypical glandular cell favor neoplasm cervical cytology and dermatomyositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mun-Kun Hong

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: The patient had serous carcinoma of the ovary with tubal STIC, which presented as dermatomyositis. The AGC-FN identified from a Pap smear hinted at a diagnosis of ovarian carcinoma. These presentations point to an occult malignancy in the genital tract and demand careful diagnostic workup.

  5. Helicobacter pylori infection, glandular atrophy and intestinal metaplasia in superficial gastritis, gastric erosion, erosive gastritis, gastric ulcer and early gastric cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Chuan; Yamada, Nobutaka; Wu, Yun-Lin; Wen, Min; Matsuhisa, Takeshi; Matsukura, Norio

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the histological features of gastric mucosa, including Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with early gastric cancer and endoscopically found superficial gastritis, gastric erosion, erosive gastritis, gastric ulcer.

  6. An update on the management of glandular fever (infectious mononucleosis and its sequelae caused by Epstein–Barr virus (HHV-4: new and emerging treatment strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Martin Lerner

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A Martin Lerner1, Safedin H Beqaj2, Ken Gill3, James Edington3, James T Fitzgerald4, Robert G Deeter51Department of Medicine, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI, USA; 2DCL Medical Laboratories, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 3The Dr A Martin Lerner, Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Foundation, Beverly Hills, MI, USA; 4Department of Medical Education, University of Michigan, Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; 5Hematology-Oncology, Global Health Economics, Amgen Inc, Thousand Oaks, CA, USAPurpose: Beginning in 1993 at a single chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS treatment center, we began studies that demonstrate Epstein–Barr virus (EBV nonpermissive replication. In the most recent study performed, EBV nonpermissive replication is the cause of 28.3% of 106 consecutive CFS cases, and is etiologic with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV and/or human herpes virus 6 (HHV-6 as a coinfection in an additional 52.8% of CFS cases. Therefore, EBV is causally involved in 81% of cases of CFS. Further, EBV CFS is effectively treated with long-term valacyclovir. Coinfection HCMV and HHV-6 CFS requires valganciclovir with valacyclovir.Patients and results: The validated Energy Index Point Score® (EIPS® monitors severity of CFS illness and its recovery. A specific CFS diagnostic panel identifies EBV CFS subsets. Four separate EBV CFS therapeutic studies of several hundred CFS patients describe valacyclovir administration and long-term patient recovery. With valacyclovir, serum EBV titers (EBV, early antigen (diffuse; EBV, viral capsid antigen, immunoglobulin M; 24-hour electrocardiography Holter monitors; and cardiac dynamic studies improve.Conclusion: Nonpermissive EBV infection is causal in a significant proportion of CFS cases. EBV CFS is safely and effectively treated with long-term valacyclovir.Keywords: valacyclovir treatment, chronic fatigue syndrome, Epstein–Barr virus, EIPS, Energy Index Point Score

  7. Induction of intestinal metaplasia in the glandular stomach of rats by x-irradiation prior to oral administration of N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, I; Watanabe, H; Terada, Y; Naito, Y; Naito, M [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Nuclear Medicine and Biology

    1980-12-01

    CD/CRJ rats were subjected to localized X-irradiation of the stomach and given N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) in the drinking water. Rats given MNNG alone and non-treated rats were used as controls. Upon sacrifice at 15 months after the initial MNNG administration, intestinal metaplasia was observed; the histology was of complete type and the incidence was 100% in rats treated with X-rays and MNNG, whereas in rats treated with MNNG alone the intestinal metaplasia was of incomplete type and its incidence was 80%. However, the incidence of gastric cancer in rats treated with MNNG alone was 25%.

  8. 7 CFR 201.17 - Noxious-weed seeds in the District of Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...), Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense), field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis), bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon), giant bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon var. aridus), annual bluegrass (Poa annua), and wild garlic or wild...

  9. Spearmint R2R3-MYB transcription factor MsMYB negatively regulates monoterpene production and suppresses the expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase large subunit (MsGPPS.LSU).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Vaishnavi Amarr; Wang, Qian; Dhar, Niha; Kumar, Nadimuthu; Venkatesh, Prasanna Nori; Rajan, Chakravarthy; Panicker, Deepa; Sridhar, Vishweshwaran; Mao, Hui-Zhu; Sarojam, Rajani

    2017-09-01

    Many aromatic plants, such as spearmint, produce valuable essential oils in specialized structures called peltate glandular trichomes (PGTs). Understanding the regulatory mechanisms behind the production of these important secondary metabolites will help design new approaches to engineer them. Here, we identified a PGT-specific R2R3-MYB gene, MsMYB, from comparative RNA-Seq data of spearmint and functionally characterized it. Analysis of MsMYB-RNAi transgenic lines showed increased levels of monoterpenes, and MsMYB-overexpressing lines exhibited decreased levels of monoterpenes. These results suggest that MsMYB is a novel negative regulator of monoterpene biosynthesis. Ectopic expression of MsMYB, in sweet basil and tobacco, perturbed sesquiterpene- and diterpene-derived metabolite production. In addition, we found that MsMYB binds to cis-elements of MsGPPS.LSU and suppresses its expression. Phylogenetic analysis placed MsMYB in subgroup 7 of R2R3-MYBs whose members govern phenylpropanoid pathway and are regulated by miR858. Analysis of transgenic lines showed that MsMYB is more specific to terpene biosynthesis as it did not affect metabolites derived from phenylpropanoid pathway. Further, our results indicate that MsMYB is probably not regulated by miR858, like other members of subgroup 7. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Cacao Phylloplane: The First Battlefield against Moniliophthora perniciosa, Which Causes Witches' Broom Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, D S M; Gramacho, K P; Cardoso, T H S; Micheli, F; Alvim, F C; Pirovani, C P

    2017-07-01

    The phylloplane is the first contact surface between Theobroma cacao and the fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa, which causes witches' broom disease (WBD). We evaluated the index of short glandular trichomes (SGT) in the cacao phylloplane and the effect of irrigation on the disease index of cacao genotypes with or without resistance to WBD, and identified proteins present in the phylloplane. The resistant genotype CCN51 and susceptible Catongo presented a mean index of 1,600 and 700 SGT cm -2 , respectively. The disease index in plants under drip irrigation was reduced by approximately 30% compared with plants under sprinkler irrigation prior to inoculation. Leaf water wash (LWW) of the cacao inhibited the germination of spores by up to 98%. Proteins from the LWW of CCN51 were analyzed by two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by tandem mass spectrometry. The gel showed 71 spots and identified a total of 42 proteins (28 from the plant and 14 from bacteria). Proteins related to defense and synthesis of defense metabolites and involved in nucleic acid metabolism were identified. The results support the hypothesis that the proteins and water-soluble compounds secreted to the cacao phylloplane participate in the defense against pathogens. They also suggest that SGT can contribute to the resistance of cacao.

  11. The biology and in vitro propagation of the ornamental aquatic plant, Aponogeton ulvaceus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kam, Melissa Yit Yee; Chai, Li Chin; Chin, Chiew Foan

    2016-01-01

    Aponogeton ulvaceus Baker (Aponogetonaceae) is a commercially important ornamental aquatic plant species with traditional medicinal uses. Due to the low survival rate of seedlings, propagation by conventional means has been met with many difficulties. In this study, botanical aspects of A. ulvaceus were examined with regards to the morphology, anatomy and physiology of the plant and an efficient protocol for its in vitro propagation using immature tuber explants has been established. The existence of glandular trichomes on the leaves was discovered and the occurrence of circumnutation in A. ulvaceus has been demonstrated. Immature tuber segments with meristems were cultured on MS medium supplemented with various combinations (0, 1, 2, and 3 mg/L) of BAP and NAA for callus induction. The highest percentage of callus production (100 %) was obtained in two different treatments: 1 mg/L BAP and 3 mg/L NAA, and 2 mg/L BAP and 3 mg/L NAA. For shoot and root organogenesis, the combination of 1 mg/L BAP and 1 mg/L NAA was shown to be significant for A. ulvaceus regeneration when compared to control, which yields a mean shoot and root number of 22.50 and 29.50 respectively. The current protocol is the first reported successful establishment of in vitro clonal propagation of A. ulvaceus .

  12. The salt glands of Tamarix usneoides E. Mey. ex Bunge (South African Salt Cedar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Hayden; Mycock, David; Weiersbye, Isabel M

    2017-06-03

    Tamarix usneoides is a halophyte tree endemic to south-western Africa. This species is known to excrete a range of ions from specialized glandular structures on its leaves. To understand the mechanisms involved in the transport, sequestration and excretion of ions by the glands, a study was performed on salt gland distribution and ultrastructure. The glands are vesiculated trichomes, comprised of eight cells viz. two basal collecting cells and six excretory cells, partially bounded by a secondary cell wall that could serve as an impermeable barrier, forcing excess ions to move from the apoplast of the surrounding tissue into the cytoplasm of the basal excretory cells. It was hypothesized that the ions are moved across the excretory cells in endocytotic vesicles that fuse with the plasmalemma or form junctional complexes, allowing ion movement from one excretory cell to the next. In the apical cell, the vesicles fuse with the plasmalemma, releasing the ions into the network of cell wall ingrowths which channel the ions to the outside surface of the cell. This study shows that there are distinct structural adaptations for the processing of ions for excretion, although the mechanism by which ions enter the cells still needs to be determined.

  13. Flower structure and developmental stages of the capitulum of Smallanthus sonchifolius (Asteraceae): reproductive implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibañez, M S; Mercado, M I; Coll Aráoz, M V; Zannier, M L; Grau, A; Ponessa, G I

    2017-03-01

    Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius, Asteraceae) is an ancient andean crop that has numerous dietary and medicinal properties. Morphological and anatomical features and developmental changes of the capitulum were studied. A ray floret is a pistillate, female flower, while a disc floret is a staminate male flower, and the former opens before the latter, being pseudanthium protogynous. The capitulum presents interesting attributes for pollinators such as flower structure, nectaries and pollenkitt. Gynoecial nectaries were found on undeveloped ovary in the disc floret, but not in the ray floret. Glandular trichomes were observed on the abaxial epidermis of corolla in the ray floret, but not in the disc floret. Capitulum development was divided into eight stages. Stigma receptivity varied with these stages. Pollen viability was low (15%). In accordance with low viability, pollen grains exhibit diverse sizes and shapes, reduction in length of spines, and abnormal protoplasm. Examination of ovary devel